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Sample records for adaptation improves temporal

  1. Temporal and structural heterogeneities emerging in adaptive temporal networks

    Aoki, Takaaki; Gross, Thilo

    2015-01-01

    We introduce a model of adaptive temporal networks whose evolution is regulated by an interplay between node activity and dynamic exchange of information through links. We study the model by using a master equation approach. Starting from a homogeneous initial configuration, we show that temporal and structural heterogeneities, characteristic of real-world networks, spontaneously emerge. This theoretically tractable model thus contributes to the understanding of the dynamics of human activity and interaction networks.

  2. Temporal and structural heterogeneities emerging in adaptive temporal networks

    Aoki, Takaaki; Rocha, Luis E. C.; Gross, Thilo

    2016-04-01

    We introduce a model of adaptive temporal networks whose evolution is regulated by an interplay between node activity and dynamic exchange of information through links. We study the model by using a master equation approach. Starting from a homogeneous initial configuration, we show that temporal and structural heterogeneities, characteristic of real-world networks, spontaneously emerge. This theoretically tractable model thus contributes to the understanding of the dynamics of human activity and interaction networks.

  3. Improved Adaptive Fingerprint Binarization

    Bartunek, Josef Ström; Nilsson, Mikael; Nordberg, Jörgen; Claesson, Ingvar

    2008-01-01

    In this paper improvements to a previous work are presented. Removing the redundant artifacts in the fingerprint mask is introduced enhancing the final result. The proposed method is entirely adaptive process adjusting to each fingerprint without any further supervision of the user. Hence, the algorithm is insensitive to the characteristics of the fingerprint sensor and the various physical appearances of the fingerprints. Further, a detailed description of fingerprint mask generation not ful...

  4. Adaptation to speed in macaque middle temporal and medial superior temporal areas.

    Price, Nicholas S C; Born, Richard T

    2013-03-01

    The response of a sensory neuron to an unchanging stimulus typically adapts, showing decreases in response gain that are accompanied by changes in the shape of tuning curves. It remains unclear whether these changes arise purely due to spike rate adaptation within single neurons or whether they are dependent on network interactions between neurons. Further, it is unclear how the timescales of neural and perceptual adaptation are related. To examine this issue, we compared speed tuning of middle temporal (MT) and medial superior temporal neurons in macaque visual cortex after adaptation to two different reference speeds. For 75% of speed-tuned units, adaptation caused significant changes in tuning that could be explained equally well as lateral shifts, vertical gain changes, or both. These tuning changes occurred rapidly, as both neuronal firing rate and Fano factor showed no evidence of changing beyond the first 500 ms after motion onset, and the magnitude of tuning curve changes showed no difference between trials with adaptation durations shorter or longer than 1 s. Importantly, the magnitude of tuning shifts was correlated with the transient-sustained index, which measures a well characterized form of rapid response adaptation in MT, and is likely associated with changes at the level of neuronal networks. Tuning curves changed in a manner that increased neuronal sensitivity around the adapting speed, consistent with improvements in human and macaque psychophysical performance that we observed over the first several hundred ms of adaptation. PMID:23467352

  5. Temporal percolation of a susceptible adaptive network

    Valdez, L D; Braunstein, L A

    2013-01-01

    In the last decades, due to the appearance of many diseases such as SARS and the H1N1 flu strain, many authors studied the impact of the disease spreading in the evolution of the infected individuals using the susceptible-infected-recovered model. However, few authors focused on the temporal behavior of the susceptible individuals. Recently it was found that in an epidemic spreading, the dynamic of the size of the biggest susceptible cluster can be explained by a temporal node void percolation [Valdez et al PLoS ONE 7, e44188 (2012)]. It was shown that the size of the biggest susceptible cluster is the order parameter of this temporal percolation where the control parameter can be related to the number of links between susceptible individuals at a given time. As a consequence, there is a critical time at which the biggest susceptible cluster is destroyed. In this paper, we study the susceptible-infected-recovered model in an adaptive network where an intermittent social distancing strategy is applied. In this...

  6. Simultaneous Spectral Temporal Adaptive Raman Spectrometer - SSTARS

    Blacksberg, Jordana

    2010-01-01

    Raman spectroscopy is a prime candidate for the next generation of planetary instruments, as it addresses the primary goal of mineralogical analysis, which is structure and composition. However, large fluorescence return from many mineral samples under visible light excitation can render Raman spectra unattainable. Using the described approach, Raman and fluorescence, which occur on different time scales, can be simultaneously obtained from mineral samples using a compact instrument in a planetary environment. This new approach is taken based on the use of time-resolved spectroscopy for removing the fluorescence background from Raman spectra in the laboratory. In the SSTARS instrument, a visible excitation source (a green, pulsed laser) is used to generate Raman and fluorescence signals in a mineral sample. A spectral notch filter eliminates the directly reflected beam. A grating then disperses the signal spectrally, and a streak camera provides temporal resolution. The output of the streak camera is imaged on the CCD (charge-coupled device), and the data are read out electronically. By adjusting the sweep speed of the streak camera, anywhere from picoseconds to milliseconds, it is possible to resolve Raman spectra from numerous fluorescence spectra in the same sample. The key features of SSTARS include a compact streak tube capable of picosecond time resolution for collection of simultaneous spectral and temporal information, adaptive streak tube electronics that can rapidly change from one sweep rate to another over ranges of picoseconds to milliseconds, enabling collection of both Raman and fluorescence signatures versus time and wavelength, and Synchroscan integration that allows for a compact, low-power laser without compromising ultimate sensitivity.

  7. Motor Activity Improves Temporal Expectancy

    Fautrelle, Lilian; Mareschal, Denis; French, Robert; Addyman, Caspar; Thomas, Elizabeth

    2015-01-01

    Certain brain areas involved in interval timing are also important in motor activity. This raises the possibility that motor activity might influence interval timing. To test this hypothe- sis, we assessed interval timing in healthy adults following different types of training. The pre- and post-training tasks consisted of a button press in response to the presentation of a rhythmic visual stimulus. Alterations in temporal expectancy were evaluated by measuring response times. Training consis...

  8. Temporal recalibration in vocalization induced by adaptation of delayed auditory feedback.

    Kosuke Yamamoto

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: We ordinarily perceive our voice sound as occurring simultaneously with vocal production, but the sense of simultaneity in vocalization can be easily interrupted by delayed auditory feedback (DAF. DAF causes normal people to have difficulty speaking fluently but helps people with stuttering to improve speech fluency. However, the underlying temporal mechanism for integrating the motor production of voice and the auditory perception of vocal sound remains unclear. In this study, we investigated the temporal tuning mechanism integrating vocal sensory and voice sounds under DAF with an adaptation technique. METHODS AND FINDINGS: Participants produced a single voice sound repeatedly with specific delay times of DAF (0, 66, 133 ms during three minutes to induce 'Lag Adaptation'. They then judged the simultaneity between motor sensation and vocal sound given feedback. We found that lag adaptation induced a shift in simultaneity responses toward the adapted auditory delays. This indicates that the temporal tuning mechanism in vocalization can be temporally recalibrated after prolonged exposure to delayed vocal sounds. Furthermore, we found that the temporal recalibration in vocalization can be affected by averaging delay times in the adaptation phase. CONCLUSIONS: These findings suggest vocalization is finely tuned by the temporal recalibration mechanism, which acutely monitors the integration of temporal delays between motor sensation and vocal sound.

  9. Temporal adaptation enhances efficient contrast gain control on natural images.

    Fabian Sinz

    Full Text Available Divisive normalization in primary visual cortex has been linked to adaptation to natural image statistics in accordance to Barlow's redundancy reduction hypothesis. Using recent advances in natural image modeling, we show that the previously studied static model of divisive normalization is rather inefficient in reducing local contrast correlations, but that a simple temporal contrast adaptation mechanism of the half-saturation constant can substantially increase its efficiency. Our findings reveal the experimentally observed temporal dynamics of divisive normalization to be critical for redundancy reduction.

  10. A comparison between temporal and subband minimum variance adaptive beamforming

    Diamantis, Konstantinos; Voxen, Iben Holfort; Greenaway, Alan H.;

    2014-01-01

    and subband approaches. From a cyst phantom and for 128 emissions, the contrast level is calculated at -54 dB and -63 dB respectively at the same depth, with the initial shape of the cyst being preserved in contrast to conventional beamforming. The difference between the two adaptive beamformers is......This paper compares the performance between temporal and subband Minimum Variance (MV) beamformers for medical ultrasound imaging. Both adaptive methods provide an optimized set of apodization weights but are implemented in the time and frequency domains respectively. Their performance is evaluated...... with simulated synthetic aperture data obtained from Field II and is quantified by the Full-Width-Half-Maximum (FWHM), the Peak-Side-Lobe level (PSL) and the contrast level. From a point phantom, a full sequence of 128 emissions with one transducer element transmitting and all 128 elements receiving...

  11. Spatio-Temporal Video Object Segmentation via Scale-Adaptive 3D Structure Tensor

    Hai-Yun Wang

    2004-06-01

    Full Text Available To address multiple motions and deformable objects' motions encountered in existing region-based approaches, an automatic video object (VO segmentation methodology is proposed in this paper by exploiting the duality of image segmentation and motion estimation such that spatial and temporal information could assist each other to jointly yield much improved segmentation results. The key novelties of our method are (1 scale-adaptive tensor computation, (2 spatial-constrained motion mask generation without invoking dense motion-field computation, (3 rigidity analysis, (4 motion mask generation and selection, and (5 motion-constrained spatial region merging. Experimental results demonstrate that these novelties jointly contribute much more accurate VO segmentation both in spatial and temporal domains.

  12. Improving the privacy of optical steganography with temporal phase masks.

    Wang, Z; Fok, M P; Xu, L; Chang, J; Prucnal, P R

    2010-03-15

    Temporal phase modulation of spread stealth signals is proposed and demonstrated to improve optical steganography transmission privacy. After phase modulation, the temporally spread stealth signal has a more complex spectral-phase-temporal relationship, such that the original temporal profile cannot be restored when only dispersion compensation is applied to the temporally spread stealth signals. Therefore, it increases the difficulty for the eavesdropper to detect and intercept the stealth channel that is hidden under a public transmission, even with a correct dispersion compensation device. The experimental results demonstrate the feasibility of this approach and display insignificant degradation in transmission performance, compared to the conventional stealth transmission without temporal phase modulation. The proposed system can also work without a clock transmission for signal synchronization. Our analysis and simulation results show that it is difficult for the adversary to detect the existence of the stealth transmission, or find the correct phase mask to recover the stealth signals. PMID:20389629

  13. Realigning thunder and lightning: temporal adaptation to spatiotemporally distant events.

    Jordi Navarra

    Full Text Available The brain is able to realign asynchronous signals that approximately coincide in both space and time. Given that many experience-based links between visual and auditory stimuli are established in the absence of spatiotemporal proximity, we investigated whether or not temporal realignment arises in these conditions. Participants received a 3-min exposure to visual and auditory stimuli that were separated by 706 ms and appeared either from the same (Experiment 1 or from different spatial positions (Experiment 2. A simultaneity judgment task (SJ was administered right afterwards. Temporal realignment between vision and audition was observed, in both Experiment 1 and 2, when comparing the participants' SJs after this exposure phase with those obtained after a baseline exposure to audiovisual synchrony. However, this effect was present only when the visual stimuli preceded the auditory stimuli during the exposure to asynchrony. A similar pattern of results (temporal realignment after exposure to visual-leading asynchrony but not after exposure to auditory-leading asynchrony was obtained using temporal order judgments (TOJs instead of SJs (Experiment 3. Taken together, these results suggest that temporal recalibration still occurs for visual and auditory stimuli that fall clearly outside the so-called temporal window for multisensory integration and appear from different spatial positions. This temporal realignment may be modulated by long-term experience with the kind of asynchrony (vision-leading that we most frequently encounter in the outside world (e.g., while perceiving distant events.

  14. Controling contagious processes on temporal networks via adaptive rewiring

    Belik, Vitaly; Hövel, Philipp

    2015-01-01

    We consider recurrent contagious processes on a time-varying network. As a control procedure to mitigate the epidemic, we propose an adaptive rewiring mechanism for temporary isolation of infected nodes upon their detection. As a case study, we investigate the network of pig trade in Germany. Based on extensive numerical simulations for a wide range of parameters, we demonstrate that the adaptation mechanism leads to a significant extension of the parameter range, for which most of the index nodes (origins of the epidemic) lead to vanishing epidemics. We find that diseases with detection times around a week and infectious periods up to 3 months can be effectively controlled. Furthermore the performance of adaptation is very heterogeneous with respect to the index node. We identify index nodes that are most responsive to the adaptation strategy and quantify the success of the proposed adaptation scheme in dependence on the infectious period and detection times.

  15. Improvement of Adaptive Cruise Control Performance

    Nakagami Takashi

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available This paper describes the Adaptive Cruise Control system (ACC, a system which reduces the driving burden on the driver. The ACC system primarily supports four driving modes on the road and controls the acceleration and deceleration of the vehicle in order to maintain a set speed or to avoid a crash. This paper proposes more accurate methods of detecting the preceding vehicle by radar while cornering, with consideration for the vehicle sideslip angle, and also of controlling the distance between vehicles. By making full use of the proposed identification logic for preceding vehicles and path estimation logic, an improvement in driving stability was achieved.

  16. Flicker Adaptation of Low-Level Cortical Visual Neurons Contributes to Temporal Dilation

    Ortega, Laura; Guzman-Martinez, Emmanuel; Grabowecky, Marcia; Suzuki, Satoru

    2012-01-01

    Several seconds of adaptation to a flickered stimulus causes a subsequent brief static stimulus to appear longer in duration. Nonsensory factors, such as increased arousal and attention, have been thought to mediate this flicker-based temporal-dilation aftereffect. In this study, we provide evidence that adaptation of low-level cortical visual…

  17. Safety culture improvement. An adaptive management framework

    After the Chernobyl nuclear accident in 1986, the International Atomic Energy Agency (IAEA) established the safety culture concept as a proactive mean to contribute to safety improvement, starting a worldwide safety culture enhancement program within nuclear organizations mainly focused on nuclear power plants. More recently, the safety culture concept has been extended to non-power applications such as nuclear research reactors and nuclear technological research and development organizations. In 1999, the Nuclear Engineering Institute (IEN), a research and technological development unit of the Brazilian Nuclear Energy Commission (CNEN), started a management change program aiming at improving its performance level of excellence. This change program has been developed assuming the occurrence of complex causal inter-relationships between the organizational culture and the implementation of the management process. A systematic and adaptive management framework comprised of a safety culture improvement practice integrated to a management process based on the Criteria for Excellence of the Brazilian Quality Award Model, has been developed and implemented at IEN. The case study has demonstrated that the developed framework makes possible an effective safety culture improvement and simultaneously facilitates an effective implementation of the management process, thus providing some governance to the change program. (author)

  18. Evolution of spatio-temporal drought characteristics: validation, projections and effect of adaptation scenarios

    J.-P. Vidal

    2012-02-01

    Full Text Available Drought events develop in both space and time and they are therefore best described through summary joint spatio-temporal characteristics, like mean duration, mean affected area and total magnitude. This paper addresses the issue of future projections of such characteristics of drought events over France through three main research questions: (1 are downscaled climate projections able to reproduce spatio-temporal characteristics of meteorological and agricultural droughts in France over a present-day period? (2 How such characteristics will evolve over the 21st century? (3 How to use standardized drought indices to represent theoretical adaptation scenarios? These questions are addressed using the Isba land surface model, downscaled climate projections from the ARPEGE General Circulation Model under three emissions scenarios, as well as results from a previously performed 50-yr multilevel and multiscale drought reanalysis over France. Spatio-temporal characteristics of meteorological and agricultural drought events are computed using the Standardized Precipitation Index and the Standardized Soil Wetness Index, respectively, and for time scales of 3 and 12 months. Results first show that the distributions of joint spatio-temporal characteristics of observed events are well reproduced by the downscaled hydroclimate projections over a present-day period. All spatio-temporal characteristics of drought events are then found to dramatically increase over the 21st century, with stronger changes for agricultural droughts. Two theoretical adaptation scenarios are eventually built based on hypotheses of adaptation to evolving climate and hydrological normals, either retrospective or prospective, and by taking advantage of the statistical properties of the standardized drought indices. The perceived spatio-temporal characteristics of drought events derived from these theoretical adaptation scenarios show much reduced changes, but they call for more

  19. Evolution of spatio-temporal drought characteristics: validation, projections and effect of adaptation scenarios

    J.-P. Vidal

    2012-08-01

    Full Text Available Drought events develop in both space and time and they are therefore best described through summary joint spatio-temporal characteristics, such as mean duration, mean affected area and total magnitude. This paper addresses the issue of future projections of such characteristics of drought events over France through three main research questions: (1 Are downscaled climate projections able to simulate spatio-temporal characteristics of meteorological and agricultural droughts in France over a present-day period? (2 How such characteristics will evolve over the 21st century? (3 How to use standardized drought indices to represent theoretical adaptation scenarios? These questions are addressed using the Isba land surface model, downscaled climate projections from the ARPEGE General Circulation Model under three emissions scenarios, as well as results from a previously performed 50-yr multilevel and multiscale drought reanalysis over France. Spatio-temporal characteristics of meteorological and agricultural drought events are computed using the Standardized Precipitation Index and the Standardized Soil Wetness Index, respectively, and for time scales of 3 and 12 months. Results first show that the distributions of joint spatio-temporal characteristics of observed events are well simulated by the downscaled hydroclimate projections over a present-day period. All spatio-temporal characteristics of drought events are then found to dramatically increase over the 21st century, with stronger changes for agricultural droughts. Two theoretical adaptation scenarios are eventually built based on hypotheses of adaptation to evolving climate and hydrological normals, either retrospective or prospective. The perceived spatio-temporal characteristics of drought events derived from these theoretical adaptation scenarios show much reduced changes, but they call for more realistic scenarios at both the catchment and national scale in order to accurately assess the

  20. Improving information for community-based adaptation

    Huq, Saleemul

    2011-10-15

    Community-based adaptation aims to empower local people to cope with and plan for the impacts of climate change. In a world where knowledge equals power, you could be forgiven for thinking that enabling this type of adaptation boils down to providing local people with information. Conventional approaches to planning adaptation rely on 'expert' advice and credible 'science' from authoritative information providers such as the Intergovernmental Panel on Climate Change. But to truly support the needs of local communities, this information needs to be more site-specific, more user-friendly and more inclusive of traditional knowledge and existing coping practices.

  1. Evolutionary adaptations for the temporal processing of natural sounds by the anuran peripheral auditory system.

    Schrode, Katrina M; Bee, Mark A

    2015-03-01

    Sensory systems function most efficiently when processing natural stimuli, such as vocalizations, and it is thought that this reflects evolutionary adaptation. Among the best-described examples of evolutionary adaptation in the auditory system are the frequent matches between spectral tuning in both the peripheral and central auditory systems of anurans (frogs and toads) and the frequency spectra of conspecific calls. Tuning to the temporal properties of conspecific calls is less well established, and in anurans has so far been documented only in the central auditory system. Using auditory-evoked potentials, we asked whether there are species-specific or sex-specific adaptations of the auditory systems of gray treefrogs (Hyla chrysoscelis) and green treefrogs (H. cinerea) to the temporal modulations present in conspecific calls. Modulation rate transfer functions (MRTFs) constructed from auditory steady-state responses revealed that each species was more sensitive than the other to the modulation rates typical of conspecific advertisement calls. In addition, auditory brainstem responses (ABRs) to paired clicks indicated relatively better temporal resolution in green treefrogs, which could represent an adaptation to the faster modulation rates present in the calls of this species. MRTFs and recovery of ABRs to paired clicks were generally similar between the sexes, and we found no evidence that males were more sensitive than females to the temporal modulation patterns characteristic of the aggressive calls used in male-male competition. Together, our results suggest that efficient processing of the temporal properties of behaviorally relevant sounds begins at potentially very early stages of the anuran auditory system that include the periphery. PMID:25617467

  2. Adaptive Feedback Improving Learningful Conversations at Workplace

    Gaeta, Matteo; Mangione, Giuseppina Rita; Miranda, Sergio; Orciuoli, Francesco

    2013-01-01

    This work proposes the definition of an Adaptive Conversation-based Learning System (ACLS) able to foster computer-mediated tutorial dialogues at the workplace in order to increase the probability to generate meaningful learning during conversations. ACLS provides a virtual assistant selecting the best partner to involve in the conversation and…

  3. Improving foreground detection for adaptive background segmentation

    Huerta, Iván; Rowe, Daniel; Gonzàlez, Jordi; Villanueva, Juan J.

    2006-01-01

    This paper tries to manage with the nonincorporation of erroneous foreground objects to the background model, and the incorporation of those detected objects which cease their movement. These newly motionless foreground objects should be handled in security domains such as video surveillance. This paper uses an adaptive background modelling algorithm for moving object detection. Those detected objects which present no motion are identified and added into the background model, so that they wil...

  4. Video Enhancement Using Adaptive Spatio-Temporal Connective Filter and Piecewise Mapping

    Wang Chao

    2008-01-01

    Full Text Available This paper presents a novel video enhancement system based on an adaptive spatio-temporal connective (ASTC noise filter and an adaptive piecewise mapping function (APMF. For ill-exposed videos or those with much noise, we first introduce a novel local image statistic to identify impulse noise pixels, and then incorporate it into the classical bilateral filter to form ASTC, aiming to reduce the mixture of the most two common types of noises—Gaussian and impulse noises in spatial and temporal directions. After noise removal, we enhance the video contrast with APMF based on the statistical information of frame segmentation results. The experiment results demonstrate that, for diverse low-quality videos corrupted by mixed noise, underexposure, overexposure, or any mixture of the above, the proposed system can automatically produce satisfactory results.

  5. Codifying temporal characteristics of Jewett components to improve Jewett transform

    Jewett Transform is not yet, it is being. First ideas on this metaphor are from 1980 while monitoring cerebral function. It was conceived in contrast with Fourier Transform. Its application is limited to Auditory Brain Stem Responses. It uses a non-orthogonal physiologically rooted basis. Non-orthogonal basis has limited power in front of orthogonal basis: no analytical method exists to evaluate the corresponding transforms and numerical methods are required. In previous works, numerical methods were replaced for by trained artificial neural networks. Jewett transform was applied to increase the training set. Being a physiologically inspired basis, it promises better understanding of analysis of these evoked responses. It is envisioned that diverse new transforms, tailored to different problem specificity are to emerge. Considering the short temporal influence of Jewett components, it is stated that codifying temporal characteristics of Jewett components can be used to improve Jewett Transform. Previously used neural network was modified. Output vector codes are built up by grouping components instead of grouping parameters. This allows synaptic pruning in the artificial neural network. Only a fraction (0.49) of the previous network weights is used. Mean square error in fitting signal to model are acceptable (mean ε<0.3%, n= 600). Memorization is eliminated

  6. Spatial and temporal aspects of chromatic adaptation and their functional significance for colour constancy.

    Werner, Annette

    2014-11-01

    Illumination in natural scenes changes at multiple temporal and spatial scales: slow changes in global illumination occur in the course of a day, and we encounter fast and localised illumination changes when visually exploring the non-uniform light field of three-dimensional scenes; in addition, very long-term chromatic variations may come from the environment, like for example seasonal changes. In this context, I consider the temporal and spatial properties of chromatic adaptation and discuss their functional significance for colour constancy in three-dimensional scenes. A process of fast spatial tuning in chromatic adaptation is proposed as a possible sensory mechanism for linking colour constancy to the spatial structure of a scene. The observed middlewavelength selectivity of this process is particularly suitable for adaptation to the mean chromaticity and the compensation of interreflections in natural scenes. Two types of sensory colour constancy are distinguished, based on the functional differences of their temporal and spatial scales: a slow type, operating at a global scale for the compensation of the ambient illumination; and a fast colour constancy, which is locally restricted and well suited to compensate region-specific variations in the light field of three dimensional scenes. PMID:25449338

  7. An Adaptive Middleware for Improved Computational Performance

    Bonnichsen, Lars Frydendal

    The performance improvements in computer systems over the past 60 years have been fueled by an exponential increase in energy efficiency. In recent years, the phenomenon known as the end of Dennard’s scaling has slowed energy efficiency improvements — but improving computer energy efficiency is m...... which we hope to simplify by analyzing the realities of modern computers, and providing guidelines explaining how to get the most performance out of them....

  8. Adaptive Landing Gear: Optimum Control Strategy and Potential for Improvement

    Grzegorz Mikułowski; Łukasz Jankowski

    2009-01-01

    An adaptive landing gear is a landing gear (LG) capable of active adaptation to particular landing conditions by means of controlled hydraulic force. The objective of the adaptive control is to mitigate the peak force transferred to the aircraft structure during touch-down, and thus to limit the structural fatigue factor. This paper investigates the ultimate limits for improvement due to various strategies of active control. Five strategies are proposed and investigated numerically using a~va...

  9. Temporal learning and list-level proportion congruency: conflict adaptation or learning when to respond?

    Schmidt, James R

    2013-01-01

    The current report presents a temporal learning account as a potential alternative to the conflict adaptation account of list-level proportion congruent effects in the Stroop paradigm. Specifically, retrieval of information about response times on previous trials influences a participant's preparedness to respond at a similar time on following trials. First, an adaptation of the Parallel Episodic Processing (PEP) model is presented, and a list-level effect is produced with a temporal learning mechanism. Next, linear mixed effect model analyses show that temporal learning biases are present in list-level proportion congruent data. A non-conflict experiment is then presented in which a list-level effect is observed with a contrast, rather than congruency, manipulation. Analyses of the experimental and simulated data could not, however, provide a clear picture of whether temporal learning was the sole contributor to the list-level proportion congruent effect. These results do, however, demonstrate that caution is warranted when interpreting list-level proportion congruent effects. PMID:24312413

  10. “Lucky Averaging”: Quality improvement on Adaptive Optics Scanning Laser Ophthalmoscope Images

    Huang, Gang; Zhong, Zhangyi; Zou, Weiyao; Burns, Stephen A.

    2011-01-01

    Adaptive optics(AO) has greatly improved retinal image resolution. However, even with AO, temporal and spatial variations in image quality still occur due to wavefront fluctuations, intra-frame focus shifts and other factors. As a result, aligning and averaging images can produce a mean image that has lower resolution or contrast than the best images within a sequence. To address this, we propose an image post-processing scheme called “lucky averaging”, analogous to lucky imaging (Fried, 1978...

  11. Adaption of the temporal correlation coefficient calculation for temporal networks (applied to a real-world pig trade network).

    Büttner, Kathrin; Salau, Jennifer; Krieter, Joachim

    2016-01-01

    The average topological overlap of two graphs of two consecutive time steps measures the amount of changes in the edge configuration between the two snapshots. This value has to be zero if the edge configuration changes completely and one if the two consecutive graphs are identical. Current methods depend on the number of nodes in the network or on the maximal number of connected nodes in the consecutive time steps. In the first case, this methodology breaks down if there are nodes with no edges. In the second case, it fails if the maximal number of active nodes is larger than the maximal number of connected nodes. In the following, an adaption of the calculation of the temporal correlation coefficient and of the topological overlap of the graph between two consecutive time steps is presented, which shows the expected behaviour mentioned above. The newly proposed adaption uses the maximal number of active nodes, i.e. the number of nodes with at least one edge, for the calculation of the topological overlap. The three methods were compared with the help of vivid example networks to reveal the differences between the proposed notations. Furthermore, these three calculation methods were applied to a real-world network of animal movements in order to detect influences of the network structure on the outcome of the different methods. PMID:27026862

  12. Adaptive Filtering Queueing for Improving Fairness

    Jui-Pin Yang

    2015-06-01

    Full Text Available In this paper, we propose a scalable and efficient Active Queue Management (AQM scheme to provide fair bandwidth sharing when traffic is congested dubbed Adaptive Filtering Queueing (AFQ. First, AFQ identifies the filtering level of an arriving packet by comparing it with a flow label selected at random from the first level to an estimated level in the filtering level table. Based on the accepted traffic estimation and the previous fair filtering level, AFQ updates the fair filtering level. Next, AFQ uses a simple packet-dropping algorithm to determine whether arriving packets are accepted or discarded. To enhance AFQ’s feasibility in high-speed networks, we propose a two-layer mapping mechanism to effectively simplify the packet comparison operations. Simulation results demonstrate that AFQ achieves optimal fairness when compared with Rotating Preference Queues (RPQ, Core-Stateless Fair Queueing (CSFQ, CHOose and Keep for responsive flows, CHOose and Kill for unresponsive flows (CHOKe and First-In First-Out (FIFO schemes under a variety of traffic conditions.

  13. Adaptively measuring the temporal shape of ultrashort single photons for higher-dimensional quantum information processing

    Polycarpou, Constantina; Venturi, Giovanni; Zavatta, Alessandro; Bellini, Marco

    2011-01-01

    A photon is the single excitation of a particular spatiotemporal mode of the electromagnetic field. A precise knowledge of the mode structure is therefore essential for its processing and detection, as well as for applying generic quantum light states to novel technologies. Here we demonstrate an adaptive scheme for reconstructing the arbitrary amplitude and phase spectro-temporal profile of an ultrashort single-photon pulse. The method combines techniques from the fields of ultrafast coherent control and quantum optics to map the mode of a fragile quantum state onto that of an intense coherent field. In addition, we show that the possibility of generating and detecting quantum states in multiple spectro-temporal modes may serve as a basis for encoding qubits (and qudits) into single, broadband, ultrashort, photons. Providing access to a much larger Hilbert space, this scheme may boost the capacity of current quantum information protocols.

  14. Optic flow improves adaptability of spatiotemporal characteristics during split-belt locomotor adaptation with tactile stimulation.

    Eikema, Diderik Jan A; Chien, Jung Hung; Stergiou, Nicholas; Myers, Sara A; Scott-Pandorf, Melissa M; Bloomberg, Jacob J; Mukherjee, Mukul

    2016-02-01

    similar in the two groups, suggesting that temporal parameters are not modified by optic flow. However, whereas the TC group displayed significant stance time asymmetries during the post-treadmill session, such aftereffects were absent in the VRT group. The results indicated that the enhanced transfer resulting from exposure to plantar cutaneous vibration during adaptation was alleviated by optic flow information. The presence of visual self-motion information may have reduced proprioceptive gain during learning. Thus, during overground walking, the learned proprioceptive split-belt pattern is more rapidly overridden by visual input due to its increased relative gain. The results suggest that when visual stimulation is provided during adaptive training, the system acquires the novel movement dynamics while maintaining the ability to flexibly adapt to different environments. PMID:26525712

  15. Temporal Scalability through Adaptive -Band Filter Banks for Robust H.264/MPEG-4 AVC Video Coding

    Pau G

    2006-01-01

    Full Text Available This paper presents different structures that use adaptive -band hierarchical filter banks for temporal scalability. Open-loop and closed-loop configurations are introduced and illustrated using existing video codecs. In particular, it is shown that the H.264/MPEG-4 AVC codec allows us to introduce scalability by frame shuffling operations, thus keeping backward compatibility with the standard. The large set of shuffling patterns introduced here can be exploited to adapt the encoding process to the video content features, as well as to the user equipment and transmission channel characteristics. Furthermore, simulation results show that this scalability is obtained with no degradation in terms of subjective and objective quality in error-free environments, while in error-prone channels the scalable versions provide increased robustness.

  16. Adaptation to Temporally Fluctuating Environments by the Evolution of Maternal Effects.

    Dey, Snigdhadip; Proulx, Stephen R; Teotónio, Henrique

    2016-02-01

    All organisms live in temporally fluctuating environments. Theory predicts that the evolution of deterministic maternal effects (i.e., anticipatory maternal effects or transgenerational phenotypic plasticity) underlies adaptation to environments that fluctuate in a predictably alternating fashion over maternal-offspring generations. In contrast, randomizing maternal effects (i.e., diversifying and conservative bet-hedging), are expected to evolve in response to unpredictably fluctuating environments. Although maternal effects are common, evidence for their adaptive significance is equivocal since they can easily evolve as a correlated response to maternal selection and may or may not increase the future fitness of offspring. Using the hermaphroditic nematode Caenorhabditis elegans, we here show that the experimental evolution of maternal glycogen provisioning underlies adaptation to a fluctuating normoxia-anoxia hatching environment by increasing embryo survival under anoxia. In strictly alternating environments, we found that hermaphrodites evolved the ability to increase embryo glycogen provisioning when they experienced normoxia and to decrease embryo glycogen provisioning when they experienced anoxia. At odds with existing theory, however, populations facing irregularly fluctuating normoxia-anoxia hatching environments failed to evolve randomizing maternal effects. Instead, adaptation in these populations may have occurred through the evolution of fitness effects that percolate over multiple generations, as they maintained considerably high expected growth rates during experimental evolution despite evolving reduced fecundity and reduced embryo survival under one or two generations of anoxia. We develop theoretical models that explain why adaptation to a wide range of patterns of environmental fluctuations hinges on the existence of deterministic maternal effects, and that such deterministic maternal effects are more likely to contribute to adaptation than

  17. Temporal features of postural adaptation strategy to prolonged and repeatable balance perturbation.

    Schmid, Micaela; Sozzi, Stefania

    2016-08-15

    Aim of this study was to get insight into the features of the postural adaptation process, occurring during a continuous 3-min and 0.6Hz horizontal sinusoidal oscillation of the body support base. We hypothesized an ongoing temporal organization of the balancing strategy that gradually becomes fine-tuned and more coordinated with the platform movement. The trial was divided into oscillation cycles and for each cycle: leg muscles activity and temporal relationship between Centre of Mass and Centre of Pressure A-P position were analyzed. The results of each cycle were grouped in time-windows of 10 successive cycles (time windows of 16.6s). Muscle activity was initially prominent and diminished progressively. The major burst of Tibialis Anterior (TA) muscle always occurred at the same time instant of the platform oscillation cycle, in advance with respect to the platform posterior turning point. This burst produced a body forward rotation that was delayed throughout the task. During prolonged and repeatable balance perturbation, an ongoing postural adaptation process occurs. When the effects of the perturbation become predictable, the CNS scales the level of muscle activity to counteracting the destabilizing effects of the perturbations. Furthermore, the CNS tunes the kinematics and the kinetic responses optimally by slightly delaying the onset of the body forward rotation, maintaining unchanged the time-pattern of postural muscle activation. PMID:27291456

  18. Adaptive Landing Gear: Optimum Control Strategy and Potential for Improvement

    Grzegorz Mikułowski

    2009-01-01

    Full Text Available An adaptive landing gear is a landing gear (LG capable of active adaptation to particular landing conditions by means of controlled hydraulic force. The objective of the adaptive control is to mitigate the peak force transferred to the aircraft structure during touch-down, and thus to limit the structural fatigue factor. This paper investigates the ultimate limits for improvement due to various strategies of active control. Five strategies are proposed and investigated numerically using a~validated model of a real, passive landing gear as a reference. Potential for improvement is estimated statistically in terms of the mean and median (significant peak strut forces as well as in terms of the extended safe sinking velocity range. Three control strategies are verified experimentally using a laboratory test stand.

  19. Adaptive data analysis for characterizing the temporal variability of the solar resource

    Bengulescu, Marc; Blanc, Philippe; Wald, Lucien

    2016-04-01

    One of the key challenges associated with the large-scale penetration of solar power is the inherent spatio-temporal variability of the solar radiation impinging on the surface. Particular methods are currently employed to measure, estimate or forecast the extent and availability of the solar resource depending on the effective spatial and temporal scales of interest, such as numerical weather prediction models, satellite-based estimates, sky-imagers or in-situ ground measurements. Here we present a method for characterizing the intrinsic time-scales of the solar resource variability. The study deals with decennial time-series of daily values of the surface solar irradiance (SSI) issued from high-quality BSRN ground measurement stations. Geophysical signals, such as the SSI time-series under scrutiny, are often the result of non-linear interactions of physical processes that are also often under natural or anthropogenic non-stationary forcings. Therefore, an adaptive data analysis technique is employed that makes no beforehand assumptions about the data: neither linearity, nor stationarity of the signal is assumed. The method, called the Hilbert-Huang transform, first extracts all the embedded oscillations that have a similar time-scale, to which it then applies Hilbert spectral analysis. A time-frequency-energy representation of the signal is thus constructed, which reveals the time-varying character of the intrinsic temporal scales of variability (frequency modulation), along with any fluctuations in the intensity of the signal at the corresponding scale (amplitude modulation). In order to test whether the features extracted from the data are the expression of deterministic physical processes, as opposed to being stochastic realizations of various background processes (i.e. noise), a novel, adaptive null-hypothesis based on the statistical properties of noise is employed. It is shown that the data, irrespective of the geographical conditions, shares common time

  20. Improved Step Size Adaptation for the MO-CMA-ES

    Voß, T.; Hansen, N.; Igel, Christian

    elitist, rank-based selection procedure. In contrast, we propose to regard a mutation as successful if the offspring is selected into the next parental population. This criterion is easier to implement and reduces the computational complexity of the MO-CMA-ES, in particular of its steady-state variant...... covariance matrix adaptation evolution strategy (CMA-ES). Step sizes (i.e., mutation strengths) are adapted on individual-level using an improved implementation of the 1/5-th success rule. In the original MO-CMA-ES, a mutation is regarded as successful if the offspring ranks better than its parent in the...

  1. Microgeographical population structure and adaptation in Atlantic cod Gadus morhua: spatio-temporal insights from gene-associated DNA markers

    Poulsen, Nina Aagaard; Hemmer-Hansen, Jakob; Loeschcke, V.; Carvalho, G.R.; Eg Nielsen, Einar

    2011-01-01

    populations, indicating long-term temporal adaptive stability driven by strong local selection. In an environmentally dynamic area, on the other hand, patterns of genetic structuring were more variable. Overall, our results not only suggest separation of populations under both evolutionary and ecological......Recent technical advances have stimulated studies on spatial scales of adaptive genetic variation in marine fishes. However, very few studies have combined spatial and temporal sampling to investigate adaptive genetic structuring at local and microgeographical scales, i.e. scales at which neutral...... stability, we included long- and short-term (i.e. from 24 to 38 and from 8 to 11 yr, ­respectively) temporally replicated samples from a subset of populations. As expected, we found very low levels of neutral genetic population structure (FST = 0.003). Three specific loci, however, showed highly elevated...

  2. À Table! Improving Temporal Navigation in Soccer Ranking Tables

    Perin, Charles; Vuillemot, Romain; Fekete, Jean-Daniel

    2014-01-01

    International audience This article introduces A Table!, an enhanced soccer ranking table providing temporal navigation by combining two novel interaction techniques. Ranking tables order soccer teams represented as rows, according to values of columns containing attributes e.g., accumulated points, or number of scored goals. Because they represent a snapshot of a championship at a time t, tables are regularly updated with new results. Such updates usually change the rows order, which make...

  3. An improved adaptive wavelet shrinkage for ultrasound despeckling

    P Nirmala Devi; R Asokan

    2014-08-01

    Ultrasound imaging is the most widely used medical diagnostic technique for clinical decision making, due to its ability to make real time imaging for moving structures, low cost and safety. However, its usefulness is degraded by the presence of signal dependent speckle noise. Several wavelet-based denoising schemes have been reported in the literature for the removal of speckle noise. This study proposes a new and improved adaptive wavelet shrinkage in the translational invariant domain. It exploits the knowledge of the correlation of the wavelet coefficients within and across the resolution scales. A preliminary coefficient classification representing useful image information and noise is performed with a novel inter-scale dependency measure. The spatial context adaptation of the wavelet coefficients within a subband is achieved by a local spatial adaptivity indicator, determined by using a truncation threshold. A weighted signal variance is estimated based on this measure and used in the determination of a subband adaptive threshold. The proposed thresholding function aims to reduce the fixed bias of the soft thresholding approach. Experiments conducted with the proposed filter are compared with the existing filtering algorithms in terms of Peak-Signal to Noise Ratio (PSNR), Mean Square Error (MSE), Structural Similarity IndexMeasure (SSIM), Equivalent Number of Looks (ENL) and Edge Preservation Index (EPI). A comparison of the results shows that the proposed filter achieves an improvement in terms of quantitative measures and in terms of visual quality of the images.

  4. Adaptive temporal and wavefront aberration correction for ultrafast lasers with a membrane deformable mirror

    Sherman, Leah Bruner

    Two adaptive optic systems for correction of either temporal phase error and wavefront errors for ultrafast pulses are demonstrated. These systems consists of a computer controlled micromachined membrane deformable mirror (MMDM) and a genetic learning algorithm (GA). Nonlinear excitation such as two-photon fluorescence or second harmonic generation are used as feedback to the GA to determine the appropriate correction to apply to the mirror. Two MMDMs are used, a 30 x 8 mm, 39 actuator linear MMDM for pulse-shaping applications and a 15 mm diameter, 37 actuator wavefront MMDM. Linear pre-compensation of self-phase modulation (SPM) was experimentally demonstrated utilizing the linear MMDM in a linear pulse-shaper for ultrafast pulses. The nonlinear nature of SPM makes arbitrary polynomial compensation necessary. Pre-compensation of SPM generated in an optical fiber by a 10 fs pulse reduced the pulse from 30fs to 20fs. We demonstrates adaptive correction with the wavefront MMDM by corrected for coma and astigmatism in a reflective multiphoton scanning microscope. An f1, parabola produces a very tight focus with no aberration when it is perfectly aligned. However, when beam scanning is used for two-dimensional imaging the image is severely aberrated. The MMDM and the GA are able to find the best possible wavefront for aberration correction for each scanning position. The horizontal scanning range was increased from 60 mum without the adaptive correction to 170 mum, ≈3 times the uncorrected scanning range, and the vertical scanning range was increased by a comparable amount. This resulted in an increase in scanning area of 9 times. The wavefront MMDM was also used for adaptive correction of spherical aberration from focusing from air, deep into a water-based sample. This depth-based aberration results from an index of refraction mismatch between the sample and the immersion medium of the objective and occurs regardless of beam scanning or sample scanning. By

  5. Improvement of flight simulator feeling using adaptive fuzzy backlash compensation

    Amara, Zied; Bordeneuve-Guibé, Joël

    2007-01-01

    In this paper we addressed the problem of improving the control of DC motors used for the specific application of a 3 degrees of freedom moving base flight simulator. Indeed the presence of backlash in DC motors gearboxes induces shocks and naturally limits the flight feeling. In this paper, dynamic inversion with Fuzzy Logic is used to design an adaptive backlash compensator. The classification property of fuzzy logic techniques makes them a natural candidate for the rejection of errors indu...

  6. Sensorimotor Adaptability Training Improves Motor and Dual-Task Performance

    Bloomberg, J.J.; Peters, B.T.; Mulavara, A.P.; Brady, R.; Batson, C.; Cohen, H.S.

    2009-01-01

    The overall objective of our project is to develop a sensorimotor adaptability (SA) training program designed to facilitate recovery of functional capabilities when astronauts transition to different gravitational environments. The goal of our current study was to determine if SA training using variation in visual flow and support surface motion produces improved performance in a novel sensory environment and demonstrate the retention characteristics of SA training.

  7. Dynamically Adaptable Improved OLSR (DA-IOLSR Protocol

    P.S.Vinayagam,

    2016-05-01

    Full Text Available Optimized Link State Routing (OLSR protocol is a proactive type of routing protocol that uses Multipoint Relay (MPR set as the virtual backbone structure. The existing literature has identified various issues with respect to its backbone structure and has accordingly proposed improvements. In this paper, the focus is on improving the OLSR protocol by employing a Connected Dominating Set (CDS based virtual backbone structure that is dynamically adaptable to rapid topology changes. A new Dynamically Adaptable Improved Optimized Link State Routing (DA-IOLSR protocol is proposed that uses the local topology information to adapt the virtual backbone to topology changes. This assumes significance especially in networks that experience very high mobility. Changes in the network topology caused by node additions, node deletions and node mobility are taken care of. Simulations are carried out to assess the performance of DA-IOLSR protocol and OLSR protocol. Packet delivery achieved by both the protocols is examined under varying mobility by using various combinations of node speed and pause time values. It is found that DA-IOLSR protocol provides better packet delivery as compared to OLSR protocol, under varying mobility conditions.

  8. Designing Training for Temporal and Adaptive Transfer: A Comparative Evaluation of Three Training Methods for Process Control Tasks

    Kluge, Annette; Sauer, Juergen; Burkolter, Dina; Ritzmann, Sandrina

    2010-01-01

    Training in process control environments requires operators to be prepared for temporal and adaptive transfer of skill. Three training methods were compared with regard to their effectiveness in supporting transfer: Drill & Practice (D&P), Error Training (ET), and procedure-based and error heuristics training (PHT). Communication electronics…

  9. Adaptive myoelectric pattern recognition toward improved multifunctional prosthesis control.

    Liu, Jie

    2015-04-01

    The non-stationary property of electromyography (EMG) signals in real life settings usually hinders the clinical application of the myoelectric pattern recognition for prosthesis control. The classical EMG pattern recognition approach consists of two separate steps: training and testing, without considering the changes between training and testing data induced by electrode shift, fatigue, impedance changes and psychological factors, and often results in performance degradation. The aim of this study was to develop an adaptive myoelectric pattern recognition system, aiming to retrain the classifier online with the testing data without supervision, providing a self-correction mechanism for suppressing misclassifications. This paper presents an adaptive unsupervised classifier based on support vector machine (SVM) to improve the classification performance. Experimental data from 15 healthy subjects were used to evaluate performance. Preliminary study on intra-session and inter-session EMG data was conducted to verify the performance of the unsupervised adaptive SVM classifier. The unsupervised adaptive SVM classifier outperformed the conventional SVM by 3.3% and 8.0% for the combination of time-domain and autoregressive features in the intra-session and inter-session tests, respectively. The proposed approach is capable of incorporating the useful information in testing data to the classification model by taking into account the overtime changes in the testing data with respect to the training data to retrain the original classifier, therefore providing a self-correction mechanism for suppressing misclassifications. PMID:25749182

  10. An Improved Adaptive model for Information Recommending and Spreading

    CHEN Duan-Bing; GAO Hui

    2012-01-01

    People in the Internet era have to cope with information overload and expend great effort on finding what they need.Recent experiments indicate that recommendations based on users' past activities are usually less favored than those based on social relationships,and thus many researchers have proposed adaptive algorithms on social recommendation.However,in those methods,quite a number of users have little chance to recommend information,which might prevent valuable information from spreading.We present an improved algorithm that allows more users to have enough followers to spread information.Experimental results demonstrate that both recommendation precision and spreading effectiveness of our method can be improved significantly.%People in the Internet era have to cope with information overload and expend great effort on finding what they need. Recent experiments indicate that recommendations based on users' past activities are usually less favored than those based on social relationships, and thus many researchers have proposed adaptive algorithms on social recommendation. However, in those methods, quite a number of users have little chance to recommend information, which might prevent valuable information from spreading. We present an improved algorithm that allows more users to have enough followers to spread information. Experimental results demonstrate that both recommendation precision and spreading effectiveness of our method can be improved significantly.

  11. Distributed System for Automatic Improvement of Adaptive Website Navigation

    Željko Eremić

    2012-03-01

    Full Text Available Communication with clients is now largely conducted through websites, whether it comes to business, scientific, or educational activities. Considering that a dynamic website contains a growing amount of information, the issue of efficient navigation through websites allowing quick access to desired content is imperative. Adaptive websites can customize their navigation based on knowledge gained from previous user behaviour. Discovering such knowledge is a process that engages significant resources, and it is convenient to have it organized by the use of one or more servers. This paper describes the architecture of distributed systems for improving navigation through a greater number of adaptive websites. High flexibility, efficiency and reliability of the performance, as well as saving user's time and effort, can be obtained as a result of this system's usage.

  12. Development of adaptive optical system of both spatial and temporal beam shaping for UV-laser pulse

    We have been developing a stable and highly qualified UV-laser pulse as a light source of an rf gun for an injector candidate of future light sources. The CPA (chirped pulse amplification) Ti:Sapphire laser system is operated at a repetition rate of 10 Hz. At the third-harmonic generation (central wavelength: 263 nm), the laser pulse energy after a 45-cm silica rod is up to 850 mJ/pulse. In its present status, the laser's pulse energy stability has been improved down to 0.2-0.3% at the fundamental and 0.7-1.4% (rms; 10pps; 33,818 shots) at the third-harmonic generation, respectively. This stability has been held for one month continuously, 24 hours a day. The improvements we had passively implemented were to stabilize the laser system as well as the environmental conditions. We introduced a humidity-control system kept at 50-60% in a clean room to reduce damage to the optics. In addition, we prepared a deformable mirror for spatial shaping and a spatial light modulator based on fused-silica plates for temporal shaping. We are applying both of the adaptive optics to automatic optimization of the electron beam bunch to produce lower emittance with the feedback routine. After the improvements, we can now freely form any arbitrary laser intensity distribution on the surface of the cathode. A fiber bundle was used to passively shape the laser spatial and temporal profile for the backward cathode illumination. The profile was spatially shaped into a perfectly homogeneous one with a 90-cm long fiber bundle. This shaping technique is based in practice on pulse stacking with 1,300 different optical paths. The 80-fs laser is shaped as a quasi-Gaussian profile with a pulse duration of 16 ps (FWHM). Combining with the computer-aided deformable mirror, the fiber bundle laser homogenizer can realize the ideal ellipsoidal laser profile to suppress emittance growing due to the space charge effect. (author)

  13. Adaptive evolution of synthetic cooperating communities improves growth performance.

    Xiaolin Zhang

    Full Text Available Symbiotic interactions between organisms are important for human health and biotechnological applications. Microbial mutualism is a widespread phenomenon and is important in maintaining natural microbial communities. Although cooperative interactions are prevalent in nature, little is known about the processes that allow their initial establishment, govern population dynamics and affect evolutionary processes. To investigate cooperative interactions between bacteria, we constructed, characterized, and adaptively evolved a synthetic community comprised of leucine and lysine Escherichia coli auxotrophs. The co-culture can grow in glucose minimal medium only if the two auxotrophs exchange essential metabolites - lysine and leucine (or its precursors. Our experiments showed that a viable co-culture using these two auxotrophs could be established and adaptively evolved to increase growth rates (by ∼3 fold and optical densities. While independently evolved co-cultures achieved similar improvements in growth, they took different evolutionary trajectories leading to different community compositions. Experiments with individual isolates from these evolved co-cultures showed that changes in both the leucine and lysine auxotrophs improved growth of the co-culture. Interestingly, while evolved isolates increased growth of co-cultures, they exhibited decreased growth in mono-culture (in the presence of leucine or lysine. A genome-scale metabolic model of the co-culture was also constructed and used to investigate the effects of amino acid (leucine or lysine release and uptake rates on growth and composition of the co-culture. When the metabolic model was constrained by the estimated leucine and lysine release rates, the model predictions agreed well with experimental growth rates and composition measurements. While this study and others have focused on cooperative interactions amongst community members, the adaptive evolution of communities with other

  14. GENOMIC APPROACHES FOR IMPROVEMENT OF DROUGHT ADAPTATION IN WHEAT

    Dénes Dudits

    2008-09-01

    Full Text Available Breeding for yield stability under water limited conditions plays an essential role in the reduction of economic and social consequences of global climate changes. We show that two exotic drought resistant genotypes (Kobomughi and Plainsmann differ in root growth rate, root/shoot ratio, and adaptation to low soil water content. These genotypes exhibit characteristic transcript profiles as shown by barley macroarray studies using 10500 unigenes. Reprogramming of gene expression primarily occurred during the 1-2 weeks of water stress, and 6,1% of tested genes were up-regulated in roots of the more adaptive Plainsmann plants. The time course for expression of gene clusters from Kobomughi genotype revealed a prompt and transient gene activation that can help the survival of plants through function of various defense mechanisms. The aldo-keto reductases (AKRs can detoxify lipid peroxidation products (4-hydroxynon-2-enal and glycolysis-derived reactive aldehydes (metylglyoxal that contribute significantly to cellular damages caused by variety of environmental stresses such as drought, high light intensity, UV-B irradiation, cold. Overproduction of AKRs in transgenic tobacco or wheat plants provides considerable stress tolerance and resistance to methylglyoxal. Several transgenic wheat genotypes have been produced with production of elevated level of AKR enzyme. The drought tolerance of these materials was tested by a complex stress diagnostic system, that integrates imaging of plants and monitoring the leaf temperature and fluorescence induction. Based on these parameters, we can conclude that this transgenic strategy that is based on detoxification of lipid aldehyde can result in improved stress adaptation and reduced yield loss.

  15. AN ADAPTIVE REMOTE DISPLAY FRAMEWORK TO IMPROVE POWER EFFICIENCY

    Dong Hyun, Jo

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available As computing performance and network technology have evolved, mobile device users can enjoy high quality multimedia more easily. Remote Display - the technology which mirrors the screen of one device to another device - allows handheld mobile devices to share their screen contents with larger-sized display devices such as TVs. However, there is general concern about high power consumption caused by complex computation for encoding and continuous data transmission in the mobile devices. In this paper, we present an adaptive remote display framework considering and utilizing the processing capability of display device. By supporting the Content Mirroring Mode, we can skip unnecessary steps and perform core activities to improve power efficiency and extend overall processing capability

  16. ADAPTIVELY IMPROVING LONG DISTANCE NETWORK TRANSFERS WITH LOGISTICS

    LaBissoniere, D.; Roche, K.

    2007-01-01

    Long distance data movement is an essential activity of modern computing. However, the congestion control mechanisms in the Internet’s Transmission Control Protocol (TCP) severely limit the bandwidth achieved by long distance data transfers. The throughput of such transfers can be improved by applying the logistical technique of breaking a single long distance transfer into multiple shorter transfers. This technique can result in signifi cantly improved throughput while still respecting the shared nature of the Internet by not attempting to circumvent the TCP congestion controls. This technique has been incorporated into an algorithm which attempts to dynamically schedule transfers for optimal throughput. The algorithm couples graph techniques with real-time latency and bandwidth measurements to discover the best path and adaptively respond to network dynamics. The algorithm shows improvements in speed and fl exibility over standard data transfer methods such as FTP. Specifi c transfers tests performed between Oak Ridge National Laboratory and a destination in Sunnyvale, CA show throughput increases by a factor of two.

  17. Improving Adaptive Learning Technology through the Use of Response Times

    Mettler, Everett; Massey, Christine M.; Kellman, Philip J.

    2011-01-01

    Adaptive learning techniques have typically scheduled practice using learners' accuracy and item presentation history. We describe an adaptive learning system (Adaptive Response Time Based Sequencing--ARTS) that uses both accuracy and response time (RT) as direct inputs into sequencing. Response times are used to assess learning strength and…

  18. Improved Detection of Time Windows of Brain Responses in Fmri Using Modified Temporal Clustering Analysis

    2002-01-01

    @@ Temporal clustering analysis (TCA) has been proposed recently as a method to detect time windows of brain responses in functional MRI (fMRI) studies when the timing and location of the activation are completely unknown. Modifications to the TCA technique are introduced in this report to further improve the sensitivity in detecting brain activation.

  19. Adaptive data analysis for characterizing the temporal variability of the solar resource

    Bengulescu, Marc; Blanc, Philippe; Wald, Lucien

    2016-01-01

    International audience One of the key challenges associated with the large-scale penetration of solar power is the inherent spatio-temporal variability of the solar radiation impinging on the surface. Particular methods are currently employed to measure, estimate or forecast the extent and availability of the solar resource depending on the effective spatial and temporal scales of interest, such as numerical weather prediction models, satellite-based estimates, sky-imagers or in-situ groun...

  20. An Enhanced Framework for Improving Spatio-Temporal Queries for Global Positioning Systems

    Jalal Atoum

    2013-03-01

    Full Text Available To efficiently process continuous spatio-temporal queries, we need to efficiently and effectively handle large number of moving objects and continuous updates on these queries. In this paper, we propose a framework that employs a new indexing algorithm that is built on top of SQL Server 2008 and avoid the overhead related to R-Tree indexing. To answer range queries, we utilize dynamic materialized view concept to efficiently handle update queries. We propose an adaptive safe region to reduce communication costs between the client and the server and to minimize position update load. Caching of results was utilized to enhance the overall performance of the framework. To handle concurrent spatio-temporal queries, we utilize publish/subscribe paradigm to group similar queries and efficiently process these requests. Experiments show that the overall proposed framework performance was able to outperform R-Tree index and produce promising and satisfactory results

  1. Improving scalable video adaptation in a knowledge-based framework

    Lopez Hernandez, Fernando; Nur, Gokce; Dogan, Safak; Arachchi, Hemantha; Mrak, M.; Martinez, Jose Maria; García Santos, Narciso; Kondoz, Ahmet

    2010-01-01

    In a knowledge-based content adaptation framework, video adaptation can be performed in a series of steps, named conversions. The high-level decision phase in such a framework occasionally encounters several feasible parameter values of a specific conversion. This paper proposes to transfer further decisions to a low-level phase that decides which parameters maximise the quality of the adaptation. Particularly when more than one solution are available, an innovative quality measure is used fo...

  2. Improvement in the performance of solar adaptive optics

    Adaptive optics (AO), which provides diffraction limited imaging over a field-of-view (FOV), is a powerful technique for solar observation. In the tomographic approach, each wavefront sensor (WFS) is looking at a single reference that acts as a guide star. This allows a 3D reconstruction of the distorted wavefront to be made. The correction is applied by one or more deformable mirrors (DMs). This technique benefits from information about atmospheric turbulence at different layers, which can be used to reconstruct the wavefront extremely well. With the assistance of the MAOS software package, we consider the tomography errors and WFS aliasing errors, and focus on how the performance of a solar telescope (pointing toward zenith) is related to atmospheric anisoplanatism. We theoretically quantify the performance of the tomographic solar AO system. The results indicate that the tomographic AO system can improve the average Strehl ratio of a solar telescope in a 10″ – 80″ diameter FOV by only employing one DM conjugated to the telescope pupil. Furthermore, we discuss the effects of DM conjugate altitude on the correction achievable by the AO system by selecting two atmospheric models that differ mainly in terms of atmospheric properties at ground level, and present the optimum DM conjugate altitudes for different observation sites

  3. An Adaptive Organization Method of Geovideo Data for Spatio-Temporal Association Analysis

    Wu, C.; Zhu, Q.; Zhang, Y. T.; Du, Z. Q.; Zhou, Y.; Xie, X.; He, F.

    2015-07-01

    Public security incidents have been increasingly challenging to address with their new features, including large-scale mobility, multi-stage dynamic evolution, spatio-temporal concurrency and uncertainty in the complex urban environment, which require spatio-temporal association analysis among multiple regional video data for global cognition. However, the existing video data organizational methods that view video as a property of the spatial object or position in space dissever the spatio-temporal relationship of scattered video shots captured from multiple video channels, limit the query functions on interactive retrieval between a camera and its video clips and hinder the comprehensive management of event-related scattered video shots. GeoVideo, which maps video frames onto a geographic space, is a new approach to represent the geographic world, promote security monitoring in a spatial perspective and provide a highly feasible solution to this problem. This paper analyzes the large-scale personnel mobility in public safety events and proposes a multi-level, event-related organization method with massive GeoVideo data by spatio-temporal trajectory. This paper designs a unified object identify(ID) structure to implicitly store the spatio-temporal relationship of scattered video clips and support the distributed storage management of massive cases. Finally, the validity and feasibility of this method are demonstrated through suspect tracking experiments.

  4. Temporal perspective and other psychological factors making it difficult to adapt to requirements of treatment in chronic dialysis patients

    Zawadzka, Barbara

    2014-10-01

    Full Text Available Aim. The study analyzed the relationship between temporal perspective, selected personal resources, and unhealthy behavior, manifesting in problems with adherence to fluid intake restrictions, in chronic hemodialyzis patients. The authors tried to answer the question whether there is temporal perspective and other psychological factors increasing the risk of non-adaptive behaviors. Methods. Sixty-one patients, aged 23–81 years (M = 59; SD = 13,9 on chronic hemodialysis at the Department of Nephrology University Hospital were qualified to the study. The study group consisted of 30 patients with poorer fluid regimen adherence and 31 controls, who maintained fluid regimen. The patients were qualified on the bases of the average interdialysis weight gains measured nine times during three weeks. The following research tools were used: P. Zimbardo and J. Boyd ZTPI test; P.T. Costa and R.R. McCrae NEO-FFI Inventory; J. Strelau Temperament Inventory, R. Schwarzer GSES; M. F. Scheier; C. S. Carver and M. W. Bridges LOT-R; M. Watson and S. Greer CECS; BJ. Felton, TA. Revenson, GA. Hinrichsen AIS. Results. Difficulties in adapting to the fluid intake restrictions are significantly associated with temporal orientation towards negative aspects of the present and the past. Non-adaptive health behaviors are typical for patients with temperamental lack of balance between agitation and inhibition processes and are characterized by high agreeableness and low conscientiousness. The association between excessive anger control and the risk of non-adherence medical recommendations. Conclusions. Time perception and other personality factors form mechanisms regulating health behaviors in chronically treatment patients.

  5. Microevolution from shock to adaptation revealed strategies improving ethanol tolerance and production in Thermoanaerobacter

    Lin, Lu; Ji, Yuetong; Tu, Qichao; Huang, Ranran; Teng, Lin; Zeng, Xiaowei; Song, Houhui; Wang, Kun; Zhou, Qian; Li, Yifei; Cui, Qiu; He, Zhili; Zhou, Jizhong; Xu, Jian

    2013-01-01

    Introduction The molecular links between shock-response and adaptation remain poorly understood, particularly for extremophiles. This has hindered rational engineering of solvent tolerance and correlated traits (e.g., productivity) in extremophiles. To untangle such molecular links, here we established a model that tracked the microevolution from shock to adaptation in thermophilic bacteria. Method Temporal dynamics of genomes and transcriptomes was tracked for Thermoanaerobacter sp. X514 whi...

  6. Improvement of the temporal and spatial contrast of high-brightness laser beams

    Szatmári, S.; Dajka, R.; Barna, A.; Gilicze, B.; Földes, I. B.

    2016-07-01

    A novel method is suggested for temporal and spatial cleaning of high-brightness laser pulses, which seems more energy-scalable than that based on crossed polarizers and offers better contrast improvement compared to the plasma mirror technique. The suggested arrangement utilizes nonlinear modulation of the beam in the Fourier-plane leading both to directional and to temporal modulation. By the use of a ‘conjugate’ aperture arrangement before and after the nonlinear spatial selector, intensity dependent transmission is obtained; simultaneous temporal and spatial filtering can be realized both for amplitude and phase modulation. In the case of phase modulation introduced by plasma generation in noble gases the experimental observations are in good agreement with the theory; demonstrating  >103 improvement in the temporal contrast, ~40% throughput, associated with effective spatial filtering. Due to the broad spectral and power durability of the optical arrangement used here, the method is widely applicable for energetic beams even of UV wavelengths, where most of the former techniques have limited throughput.

  7. Advancing of Land Surface Temperature Retrieval Using Extreme Learning Machine and Spatio-Temporal Adaptive Data Fusion Algorithm

    Yang Bai

    2015-04-01

    Full Text Available As a critical variable to characterize the biophysical processes in ecological environment, and as a key indicator in the surface energy balance, evapotranspiration and urban heat islands, Land Surface Temperature (LST retrieved from Thermal Infra-Red (TIR images at both high temporal and spatial resolution is in urgent need. However, due to the limitations of the existing satellite sensors, there is no earth observation which can obtain TIR at detailed spatial- and temporal-resolution simultaneously. Thus, several attempts of image fusion by blending the TIR data from high temporal resolution sensor with data from high spatial resolution sensor have been studied. This paper presents a novel data fusion method by integrating image fusion and spatio-temporal fusion techniques, for deriving LST datasets at 30 m spatial resolution from daily MODIS image and Landsat ETM+ images. The Landsat ETM+ TIR data were firstly enhanced based on extreme learning machine (ELM algorithm using neural network regression model, from 60 m to 30 m resolution. Then, the MODIS LST and enhanced Landsat ETM+ TIR data were fused by Spatio-temporal Adaptive Data Fusion Algorithm for Temperature mapping (SADFAT in order to derive high resolution synthetic data. The synthetic images were evaluated for both testing and simulated satellite images. The average difference (AD and absolute average difference (AAD are smaller than 1.7 K, where the correlation coefficient (CC and root-mean-square error (RMSE are 0.755 and 1.824, respectively, showing that the proposed method enhances the spatial resolution of the predicted LST images and preserves the spectral information at the same time.

  8. Temporal contrast improvement based on the self-diffraction process with a cylinder mirror

    Li, Fangjia; Shen, Xiong; Wang, Peng; Li, Yanyan; Liu, Jun; Wang, Zhanshan; Li, Ruxin

    2016-05-01

    A cylinder reflective mirror was used to increase incident pulse energy to multi-millijoules in the research of temporal contrast enhancement based on a self-diffraction (SD) process. A 170 μJ first-order SD pulse with temporal contrast improved by 4 orders of magnitude was obtained when incident pulse energy was 5.1 mJ. In order to improve energy-conversion efficiency, a 67/33 beam splitter was used to replace the original 50/50 one. A 265 μJ first-order SD signal was achieved without damage of the glass plate at 3.7 mJ input pulse energy with an energy-conversion efficiency of about 7.1%. The generated SD pulse is expected to be used as the seed of high-contrast and high-power laser systems.

  9. Coherent diffractive imaging of time-evolving samples with improved temporal resolution

    Ulvestad, A.; Tripathi, A.; Hruszkewycz, S. O.; Cha, W.; Wild, S. M.; Stephenson, G. B.; Fuoss, P. H.

    2016-05-19

    Bragg coherent x-ray diffractive imaging is a powerful technique for investigating dynamic nanoscale processes in nanoparticles immersed in reactive, realistic environments. Its temporal resolution is limited, however, by the oversampling requirements of three-dimensional phase retrieval. Here, we show that incorporating the entire measurement time series, which is typically a continuous physical process, into phase retrieval allows the oversampling requirement at each time step to be reduced, leading to a subsequent improvement in the temporal resolution by a factor of 2-20 times. The increased time resolution will allow imaging of faster dynamics and of radiation-dose-sensitive samples. This approach, which we call "chrono CDI," may find use in improving the time resolution in other imaging techniques.

  10. Field corn inbreds to improve sweet corn hybrids for early vigor and adaptation to european conditions

    Malvar Pintos, Rosa Ana; Revilla Temiño, Pedro; Cartea González, María Elena; Ordás Pérez, Amando

    1997-01-01

    Sweet corn (Zea mays L.) has a poor adaptation to areas with short growing seasons and cool humid springs, such as the European Atlantic coast. Field corn inbreds adapted to the European Atlantic coast could improve the adaptation of sweet corn to these conditions. Our objectives were to identify field corn inbreds as potentials donors of early vigor and adaptation to the European Atlantic coast, and to provide additional information on the relationships among different estimators of favorabl...

  11. An Improved Adaptive Dynamic Particle Swarm Optimization Algorithm

    Hongbo Zhao; Lina Feng

    2014-01-01

    In order to overcome the weakness that particle swarm optimization algorithm is likely to fall into local minimum when the complex optimization problems are solved, a new adaptive dynamic particle swarm optimization algorithm is proposed. The paper introduces the evaluation index of particle swarm premature convergence to judge the state of particle swarm in the population space, for the sake of investigates the timing of taking effect of influence function. The influence function is adaptive...

  12. Adaptation improves neural coding efficiency despite increasing correlations in variability.

    Adibi, Mehdi; McDonald, James S; Clifford, Colin W G; Arabzadeh, Ehsan

    2013-01-30

    Exposure of cortical cells to sustained sensory stimuli results in changes in the neuronal response function. This phenomenon, known as adaptation, is a common feature across sensory modalities. Here, we quantified the functional effect of adaptation on the ensemble activity of cortical neurons in the rat whisker-barrel system. A multishank array of electrodes was used to allow simultaneous sampling of neuronal activity. We characterized the response of neurons to sinusoidal whisker vibrations of varying amplitude in three states of adaptation. The adaptors produced a systematic rightward shift in the neuronal response function. Consistently, mutual information revealed that peak discrimination performance was not aligned to the adaptor but to test amplitudes 3-9 μm higher. Stimulus presentation reduced single neuron trial-to-trial response variability (captured by Fano factor) and correlations in the population response variability (noise correlation). We found that these two types of variability were inversely proportional to the average firing rate regardless of the adaptation state. Adaptation transferred the neuronal operating regime to lower rates with higher Fano factor and noise correlations. Noise correlations were positive and in the direction of signal, and thus detrimental to coding efficiency. Interestingly, across all population sizes, the net effect of adaptation was to increase the total information despite increasing the noise correlation between neurons. PMID:23365247

  13. Towards Adaptive Educational Assessments: Predicting Student Performance using Temporal Stability and Data Analytics in Learning Management Systems

    Thakur, Gautam [ORNL; Olama, Mohammed M [ORNL; McNair, Wade [ORNL; Sukumar, Sreenivas R [ORNL

    2014-01-01

    Data-driven assessments and adaptive feedback are becoming a cornerstone research in educational data analytics and involve developing methods for exploring the unique types of data that come from the educational context. For example, predicting college student performance is crucial for both the students and educational institutions. It can support timely intervention to prevent students from failing a course, increasing efficacy of advising functions, and improving course completion rate. In this paper, we present our efforts in using data analytics that enable educationists to design novel data-driven assessment and feedback mechanisms. In order to achieve this objective, we investigate temporal stability of students grades and perform predictive analytics on academic data collected from 2009 through 2013 in one of the most commonly used learning management systems, called Moodle. First, we have identified the data features useful for assessments and predicting student outcomes such as students scores in homework assignments, quizzes, exams, in addition to their activities in discussion forums and their total Grade Point Average(GPA) at the same term they enrolled in the course. Second, time series models in both frequency and time domains are applied to characterize the progression as well as overall projections of the grades. In particular, the model analyzed the stability as well as fluctuation of grades among students during the collegiate years (from freshman to senior) and disciplines. Third, Logistic Regression and Neural Network predictive models are used to identify students as early as possible who are in danger of failing the course they are currently enrolled in. These models compute the likelihood of any given student failing (or passing) the current course. The time series analysis indicates that assessments and continuous feedback are critical for freshman and sophomores (even with easy courses) than for seniors, and those assessments may be

  14. Adapting geostatistics to analyze spatial and temporal trends in weed populations

    Geostatistics were originally developed in mining to estimate the location, abundance and quality of ore over large areas from soil samples to optimize future mining efforts. Here, some of these methods were adapted to weeds to account for a limited distribution area (i.e., inside a field), variatio...

  15. Sentence Syntax and Content in the Human Temporal Lobe: An fMRI Adaptation Study in Auditory and Visual Modalities

    Devauchelle, A.D.; Dehaene, S.; Pallier, C. [INSERM, Gif sur Yvette (France); Devauchelle, A.D.; Dehaene, S.; Pallier, C. [CEA, DSV, I2BM, NeuroSpin, F-91191 Gif Sur Yvette (France); Devauchelle, A.D.; Pallier, C. [Univ. Paris 11, Orsay (France); Oppenheim, C. [Univ Paris 05, Ctr Hosp St Anne, Paris (France); Rizzi, L. [Univ Siena, CISCL, I-53100 Siena (Italy); Dehaene, S. [Coll France, F-75231 Paris (France)

    2009-07-01

    Priming effects have been well documented in behavioral psycho-linguistics experiments: The processing of a word or a sentence is typically facilitated when it shares lexico-semantic or syntactic features with a previously encountered stimulus. Here, we used fMRI priming to investigate which brain areas show adaptation to the repetition of a sentence's content or syntax. Participants read or listened to sentences organized in series which could or not share similar syntactic constructions and/or lexico-semantic content. The repetition of lexico-semantic content yielded adaptation in most of the temporal and frontal sentence processing network, both in the visual and the auditory modalities, even when the same lexico-semantic content was expressed using variable syntactic constructions. No fMRI adaptation effect was observed when the same syntactic construction was repeated. Yet behavioral priming was observed at both syntactic and semantic levels in a separate experiment where participants detected sentence endings. We discuss a number of possible explanations for the absence of syntactic priming in the fMRI experiments, including the possibility that the conglomerate of syntactic properties defining 'a construction' is not an actual object assembled during parsing. (authors)

  16. Improving the evidence for ecosystem-based adaptation

    Reid, Hannah

    2011-11-15

    Ecosystem-based approaches to adaptation (EBA) integrate the use of biodiversity and ecosystem services into an overall strategy for helping people adapt to climate change. The body of scientific evidence that indicates how effective they are is in some cases lacking but in other cases is dispersed across a range of related fields, such as natural resource management, disaster risk reduction and agroecology, from which it needs to be synthesised. Without presenting and strengthening this evidence in a consolidated way, EBA cannot secure the policy traction at local, national and international levels that it merits.

  17. Improved proper name recall in aging after electrical stimulation of the anterior temporal lobes

    Lars A Ross

    2011-10-01

    Full Text Available Evidence from neuroimaging and neuropsychology suggests that portions of the anterior temporal lobes play a critical role in proper name retrieval. We previously found that anodal transcranial direct current stimulation (tDCS to the anterior temporal lobes improved retrieval of proper names in young adult. Here we extend that finding to older adults who tend to experience greater proper-naming deficits than young adults. The task was to look at pictures of famous faces or landmarks and verbally recall the associated proper name. Our results show a numerical improvement in face naming after left or right anterior temporal lobe stimulation, but a statistically significant effect only after left-lateralized stimulation. The magnitude of the enhancing effect was similar in older and younger adults but the lateralization of the effect differed depending on age. These results provide evidence that tDCS may be a useful tool for the neurorehabilitation of cognitive function in healthy and pathological cognitive decline.

  18. Improving spatial and temporal resolution in evoked EEG responses using surface Laplacians.

    Law, S K; Rohrbaugh, J W; Adams, C M; Eckardt, M J

    1993-01-01

    Spline generated surface Laplacian temporal wave forms are presented as a method to improve both spatial and temporal resolution of evoked EEG responses. Middle latency and the N1 components of the auditory evoked response were used to compare potential-based methods with surface Laplacian methods in the time domain. Results indicate that surface Laplacians provide better estimates of underlying cortical activity than do potential wave forms. Spatial discrimination among electrode sites was markedly better with surface Laplacian than with potential wave forms. Differences in the number and latencies of peaks, and their topographic distributions, were observed for surface Laplacian, particularly during the time period encompassing the middle latency responses. Focal activities were observed in surface Laplacian wave forms and topographic maps which were in agreement with previous findings from auditory evoked response studies. Methodological issues surrounding the application of spline methods to the time domain are also discussed. Surface Laplacian methods in the time domain appear to provide an improved way for studying evoked EEG responses by increasing temporal and spatial resolution of component characteristics. PMID:7688286

  19. Iterative 4D cardiac micro-CT image reconstruction using an adaptive spatio-temporal sparsity prior

    Ritschl, Ludwig; Sawall, Stefan; Knaup, Michael; Hess, Andreas; Kachelrieß, Marc

    2012-03-01

    Temporal-correlated image reconstruction, also known as 4D CT image reconstruction, is a big challenge in computed tomography. The reasons for incorporating the temporal domain into the reconstruction are motions of the scanned object, which would otherwise lead to motion artifacts. The standard method for 4D CT image reconstruction is extracting single motion phases and reconstructing them separately. These reconstructions can suffer from undersampling artifacts due to the low number of used projections in each phase. There are different iterative methods which try to incorporate some a priori knowledge to compensate for these artifacts. In this paper we want to follow this strategy. The cost function we use is a higher dimensional cost function which accounts for the sparseness of the measured signal in the spatial and temporal directions. This leads to the definition of a higher dimensional total variation. The method is validated using in vivo cardiac micro-CT mouse data. Additionally, we compare the results to phase-correlated reconstructions using the FDK algorithm and a total variation constrained reconstruction, where the total variation term is only defined in the spatial domain. The reconstructed datasets show strong improvements in terms of artifact reduction and low-contrast resolution compared to other methods. Thereby the temporal resolution of the reconstructed signal is not affected.

  20. A phantom study on temporal and subband Minimum Variance adaptive beamforming

    Diamantis, Konstantinos; Voxen, Iben Holfort; Greenaway, Alan H.;

    2014-01-01

    from conventional Delay-and-Sum (DAS) beamformer. FWHM measured at the depth of 46.6 mm, is 0.02 mm (0.09λ) for both adaptive methods while the corresponding values for Hanning and Boxcar weights are 0.64 and 0.44 mm respectively. Between the MV beamformers a -2 dB difference in PSL is noticed in favor...

  1. Improved Gaussian Mixture Models for Adaptive Foreground Segmentation

    Katsarakis, Nikolaos; Pnevmatikakis, Aristodemos; Tan, Zheng-Hua; Prasad, Ramjee

    2016-01-01

    elements to the baseline algorithm: The learning rate can change across space and time, while the Gaussian distributions can be merged together if they become similar due to their adaptation process. We quantify the importance of our enhancements and the effect of parameter tuning using an annotated...

  2. SafeBox: adaptable spatio-temporal generalization for location privacy protection

    Sergio Mascetti

    2014-08-01

    Full Text Available Spatial and temporal generalization emerged in the literature as a common approach to preserve location privacy. However, existing solutions have two main shortcomings. First, spatiotemporal generalization can be used with different objectives: for example, to guarantee anonymity or to decrease the sensitivity of the location information. Hence, the strategy used to compute the generalization can follow different semantics often depending on the privacy threat, while most of the existing solutions are specifically designed for a single semantics. Second, existing techniques prevent the so-called inversion attack by adopting a top-down strategy that needs to acquire a large amount of information. This may not be feasible when this information is dynamic (e.g., position or properties of objects and needs to be acquired from external services (e.g., Google Maps. In this contribution we present a formal model of the problem that is compatible with most of the semantics proposed so far in the literature, and that supports new semantics as well. Our BottomUp algorithm for spatio-temporal generalization is compatible with the use of online services, it supports generalizations based on arbitrary semantics, and it is safe with respect to the inversion attack. By considering two datasets and two examples of semantics, we experimentally compare BottomUp with a more classical top-down algorithm, showing that BottomUp is efficient and guarantees better performance in terms of the average size (space and time of the generalized regions.

  3. Improved Based on "Self-Adaptive Turning Rate" Model Algorithm

    Xiuling He

    2013-06-01

    Full Text Available For tracking the object with tracking nonlinear, high maneuvering target,traditional interactive multiple model self-adaptive filter algorithm was usually adopted.The turning rate estimate was very important. However,the performance of turning rate algorithm was not so satisfactory in the  model.Thus,a new the average value turning rate algorithm based on self-adaptive turning model was proposed.Aiming at additional device for turning rate estimation turning model, the parameters α and β were introduced to adjust the roughness of turning rate.Aiming at target constant turning movement and orthogonal turning rate unequal, estimates, turning rate was used the average value model to reduce the noise and error influence. Simulation results showed that the proposed algorithm was more suitable for the objects with Nonlinear, high maneuvering target tracking and could remarkably reduce the sample,and thus achieve much better tracking performance.

  4. SRAM lifetime improvement by using adaptive proactive reconfiguration

    Pouyan, Peyman; Amat Bertran, Esteve; Rubio Sola, Jose Antonio

    2012-01-01

    Modern generations of CMOS technology nodes are facing critical causes of hardware reliability failures, which were not significant in the past. Such vulnerabilities make it essential to investigate new robust design strategies at the Nanoscale circuit system level. In this paper we have introduced an adaptive proactive reconfiguration technique that considers the inherent process variability (variability-aware) and BTI aging, and effectively enlarges the SRAM lifetime. Peer Reviewed

  5. Adaptive servoventilation improves cardiac function and respiratory stability

    Oldenburg, Olaf; Bitter, Thomas; Lehmann, Roman; Korte, Stefan; Dimitriadis, Zisis; Faber, Lothar; Schmidt, Anke; Westerheide, Nina; Horstkotte, Dieter

    2010-01-01

    Cheyne–Stokes respiration (CSR) in patients with chronic heart failure (CHF) is of major prognostic impact and expresses respiratory instability. Other parameters are daytime pCO2, VE/VCO2-slope during exercise, exertional oscillatory ventilation (EOV), and increased sensitivity of central CO2 receptors. Adaptive servoventilation (ASV) was introduced to specifically treat CSR in CHF. Aim of this study was to investigate ASV effects on CSR, cardiac function, and respiratory stability. A total ...

  6. Development and applications of coherent imaging with improved temporal and spatial resolution

    This work has 2 purposes: the improvement of both temporal and spatial resolution of X-ray tomography. The first part is devoted to the technical aspects of the tomographic technique, particularly at the ESRF (European Synchrotron Radiation Facility) beamline ID19, and the application of the new acquisition scheme to the imaging of liquid foams. We have improved the temporal resolution and field of view of the setup, which allowed to obtain for the first time experimental data with good statistics on three dimensional liquid foams. In the second part of the thesis we have described the Kirkpatrick-Baez focusing system and its first applications. In terms of stability and image quality the developments presented in this part of the thesis provide valuable evidence for the feasibility of phase contrast tomography in magnifying geometry. Since the ultimate goal of this research is to improve the spatial resolution in tomography for applications, four different contributions are important for the characterization of the imaging system: 1) the thermal stability and mechanical imperfections, 2) effects of distortion induced by mirror imperfections, 3) effects of refraction on sample borders, and 4) phase propagation effects with the influence of the magnification. Each of these factors has been studied

  7. Spatial and temporal variation of an ice-adapted predator's feeding ecology in a changing Arctic marine ecosystem.

    Yurkowski, David J; Ferguson, Steven H; Semeniuk, Christina A D; Brown, Tanya M; Muir, Derek C G; Fisk, Aaron T

    2016-03-01

    Spatial and temporal variation can confound interpretations of relationships within and between species in terms of diet composition, niche size, and trophic position (TP). The cause of dietary variation within species is commonly an ontogenetic niche shift, which is a key dynamic influencing community structure. We quantified spatial and temporal variations in ringed seal (Pusa hispida) diet, niche size, and TP during ontogeny across the Arctic-a rapidly changing ecosystem. Stable carbon and nitrogen isotope analysis was performed on 558 liver and 630 muscle samples from ringed seals and on likely prey species from five locations ranging from the High to the Low Arctic. A modest ontogenetic diet shift occurred, with adult ringed seals consuming more forage fish (approximately 80 versus 60 %) and having a higher TP than subadults, which generally decreased with latitude. However, the degree of shift varied spatially, with adults in the High Arctic presenting a more restricted niche size and consuming more Arctic cod (Boreogadus saida) than subadults (87 versus 44 %) and adults at the lowest latitude (29 %). The TPs of adult and subadult ringed seals generally decreased with latitude (4.7-3.3), which was mainly driven by greater complexity in trophic structure within the zooplankton communities. Adult isotopic niche size increased over time, likely due to the recent circumpolar increases in subarctic forage fish distribution and abundance. Given the spatial and temporal variability in ringed seal foraging ecology, ringed seals exhibit dietary plasticity as a species, suggesting adaptability in terms of their diet to climate change. PMID:26210748

  8. Improved adaptive-threshold burst assembly in optical burst switching networks

    Jiuru Yang; Gang Wang; Shilou Jia

    2007-01-01

    An improved adaptive-threshold burst assembly algorithm is proposed to alleviate the limitation of conventional assembly schemes on data loss and delay. The algorithm will adjust the values of assembly factors according to variant traffic regions. And the simulation results show that, by using the adaptive-factor adaptive assembly scheme, the performance of networks is extensively enhanced in terms of burst loss probability and average queuing delay.

  9. Simultaneous expression of regulatory genes associated with specific drought-adaptive traits improves drought adaptation in peanut.

    Ramu, Vemanna S; Swetha, Thavarekere N; Sheela, Shekarappa H; Babitha, Chandrashekar K; Rohini, Sreevathsa; Reddy, Malireddy K; Tuteja, Narendra; Reddy, Chandrashekar P; Prasad, Trichi Ganesh; Udayakumar, Makarla

    2016-03-01

    Adaptation of crops to drought-prone rain-fed conditions can be achieved by improving plant traits such as efficient water mining (by superior root characters) and cellular-level tolerance mechanisms. Pyramiding these drought-adaptive traits by simultaneous expression of genes regulating drought-adaptive mechanisms has phenomenal relevance in improving stress tolerance. In this study, we provide evidence that peanut transgenic plants expressing Alfalfa zinc finger 1 (Alfin1), a root growth-associated transcription factor gene, Pennisetum glaucum heat-shock factor (PgHSF4) and Pea DNA helicase (PDH45) involved in protein turnover and protection showed improved tolerance, higher growth and productivity under drought stress conditions. Stable integration of all the transgenes was noticed in transgenic lines. The transgenic lines showed higher root growth, cooler crop canopy air temperature difference (less CCATD) and higher relative water content (RWC) under drought stress. Low proline levels in transgenic lines substantiate the maintenance of higher water status. The survival and recovery of transgenic lines was significantly higher under gradual moisture stress conditions with higher biomass. Transgenic lines also showed significant tolerance to ethrel-induced senescence and methyl viologen-induced oxidative stress. Several stress-responsive genes such as heat-shock proteins (HSPs), RING box protein-1 (RBX1), Aldose reductase, late embryogenesis abundant-5 (LEA5) and proline-rich protein-2 (PRP2), a gene involved in root growth, showed enhanced expression under stress in transgenic lines. Thus, the simultaneous expression of regulatory genes contributing for drought-adaptive traits can improve crop adaptation and productivity under water-limited conditions. PMID:26383697

  10. SOAR Adaptive Module (SAM): seeing improvement with a UV laser

    Tokovinin, Andrei; Tighe, Roberto; Schurter, Patricio; Martinez, Manuel; Thomas, Sandrine; van der Bliek, Nicole

    2016-01-01

    The adaptive module of the 4.1-m SOAR telescope, SAM, corrects ground-layer turbulence using a UV laser guide star. It has been commissioned in 2013 and it is in regular science operation since 2014. SAM works with the CCD imager covering a 3' field or with the speckle camera. It operates routinely and stably, delivering resolution in the I band equal to the free-atmosphere seeing. This paper describes the SAM system as a whole, providing essential reference for its users and technical information of interest to instrumentalists. Operation of the instrument, its performance, and science projects done with SAM so far are reviewed.

  11. Adaptive optics for improved retinal surgery and diagnostics

    Humayun, M S; Sadda, S R; Thompson, C A; Olivier, S S; Kartz, M W

    2000-08-21

    It is now possible to field a compact adaptive optics (AO) system on a surgical microscope for use in retinal diagnostics and surgery. Recent developments in integrated circuit technology and optical photonics have led to the capability of building an AO system that is compact and significantly less expensive than traditional AO systems. It is foreseen that such an AO system can be integrated into a surgical microscope while maintaining a package size of a lunchbox. A prototype device can be developed in a manner that lends itself well to large-scale manufacturing.

  12. An Improved Adaptive Deconvolution Algorithm for Single Image Deblurring

    Hsin-Che Tsai

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available One of the most common defects in digital photography is motion blur caused by camera shake. Shift-invariant motion blur can be modeled as a convolution of the true latent image and a point spread function (PSF with additive noise. The goal of image deconvolution is to reconstruct a latent image from a degraded image. However, ringing is inevitable artifacts arising in the deconvolution stage. To suppress undesirable artifacts, regularization based methods have been proposed using natural image priors to overcome the ill-posedness of deconvolution problem. When the estimated PSF is erroneous to some extent or the PSF size is large, conventional regularization to reduce ringing would lead to loss of image details. This paper focuses on the nonblind deconvolution by adaptive regularization which preserves image details, while suppressing ringing artifacts. The way is to control the regularization weight adaptively according to the image local characteristics. We adopt elaborated reference maps that indicate the edge strength so that textured and smooth regions can be distinguished. Then we impose an appropriate constraint on the optimization process. The experiments’ results on both synthesized and real images show that our method can restore latent image with much fewer ringing and favors the sharp edges.

  13. Short-term memory trace in rapidly adapting synapses of inferior temporal cortex.

    Yasuko Sugase-Miyamoto

    2008-05-01

    Full Text Available Visual short-term memory tasks depend upon both the inferior temporal cortex (ITC and the prefrontal cortex (PFC. Activity in some neurons persists after the first (sample stimulus is shown. This delay-period activity has been proposed as an important mechanism for working memory. In ITC neurons, intervening (nonmatching stimuli wipe out the delay-period activity; hence, the role of ITC in memory must depend upon a different mechanism. Here, we look for a possible mechanism by contrasting memory effects in two architectonically different parts of ITC: area TE and the perirhinal cortex. We found that a large proportion (80% of stimulus-selective neurons in area TE of macaque ITCs exhibit a memory effect during the stimulus interval. During a sequential delayed matching-to-sample task (DMS, the noise in the neuronal response to the test image was correlated with the noise in the neuronal response to the sample image. Neurons in perirhinal cortex did not show this correlation. These results led us to hypothesize that area TE contributes to short-term memory by acting as a matched filter. When the sample image appears, each TE neuron captures a static copy of its inputs by rapidly adjusting its synaptic weights to match the strength of their individual inputs. Input signals from subsequent images are multiplied by those synaptic weights, thereby computing a measure of the correlation between the past and present inputs. The total activity in area TE is sufficient to quantify the similarity between the two images. This matched filter theory provides an explanation of what is remembered, where the trace is stored, and how comparison is done across time, all without requiring delay period activity. Simulations of a matched filter model match the experimental results, suggesting that area TE neurons store a synaptic memory trace during short-term visual memory.

  14. Improving personality facet scores with multidimensional computer adaptive testing

    Makransky, Guido; Mortensen, Erik Lykke; Glas, Cees A W

    2013-01-01

    Narrowly defined personality facet scores are commonly reported and used for making decisions in clinical and organizational settings. Although these facets are typically related, scoring is usually carried out for a single facet at a time. This method can be ineffective and time consuming when...... personality tests contain many highly correlated facets. This article investigates the possibility of increasing the precision of the NEO PI-R facet scores by scoring items with multidimensional item response theory and by efficiently administering and scoring items with multidimensional computer adaptive...... testing (MCAT). The increase in the precision of personality facet scores is obtained from exploiting the correlations between the facets. Results indicate that the NEO PI-R could be substantially shorter without attenuating precision when the MCAT methodology is used. Furthermore, the study shows...

  15. Improved adaptive fuzzy control for MIMO nonlinear time-delay systems

    2011-01-01

    This paper presents an improved observer-based indirect adaptive fuzzy control scheme for multiinput-multioutput (MIMO) nonlinear time-delay systems.The control scheme synthesizes adaptive fuzzy control with adaptive fuzzy identification.An observer is designed to observe the system state,and an identifier is developed to identify the unknown parts of the system.The update laws for parameters utilize two types of errors in the adaptive time-delay fuzzy logic systems,the observation error and the identificat...

  16. Improving the Stability of the LMF Adaptive Algorithm Using the Median Filteer

    Bysted, Tommy Kristensen; Rusu, Corneliu

    The stability of the LMF (Least Mean Fourth) adaptive algorithm is improved by using the median of the gradient instead of the raw gradient for updating the coefficients of the adaptive filter. This operation has two advantages: first it improves the performance of the LMF in impulse noise...... environments and secondly it enables the use of larger step-size of the adaptive algorithm especially when the signals are corrupted by noise. The disadvantages are a small raise in the computational complexity and slower convergence than the LMF. Two examples are given which illustrates the behavior of the...

  17. Adapting Job Analysis Methodology to Improve Evaluation Practice

    Jenkins, Susan M.; Curtin, Patrick

    2006-01-01

    This article describes how job analysis, a method commonly used in personnel research and organizational psychology, provides a systematic method for documenting program staffing and service delivery that can improve evaluators' knowledge about program operations. Job analysis data can be used to increase evaluators' insight into how staffs…

  18. Improved two-photon imaging of living neurons in brain tissue through temporal gating.

    Gautam, Vini; Drury, Jack; Choy, Julian M C; Stricker, Christian; Bachor, Hans-A; Daria, Vincent R

    2015-10-01

    We optimize two-photon imaging of living neurons in brain tissue by temporally gating an incident laser to reduce the photon flux while optimizing the maximum fluorescence signal from the acquired images. Temporal gating produces a bunch of ~10 femtosecond pulses and the fluorescence signal is improved by increasing the bunch-pulse energy. Gating is achieved using an acousto-optic modulator with a variable gating frequency determined as integral multiples of the imaging sampling frequency. We hypothesize that reducing the photon flux minimizes the photo-damage to the cells. Our results, however, show that despite producing a high fluorescence signal, cell viability is compromised when the gating and sampling frequencies are equal (or effectively one bunch-pulse per pixel). We found an optimum gating frequency range that maintains the viability of the cells while preserving a pre-set fluorescence signal of the acquired two-photon images. The neurons are imaged while under whole-cell patch, and the cell viability is monitored as a change in the membrane's input resistance. PMID:26504651

  19. Temporal Adaptive Changes in Contractility and Fatigability of Diaphragm Muscles from Streptozotocin-Diabetic Rats

    Marco Brotto

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available Diabetes is characterized by ventilatory depression due to decreased diaphragm (DPH function. This study investigated the changes in contractile properties of rat DPH muscles over a time interval encompassing from 4 days to 14 weeks after the onset of streptozotocin-induced diabetes, with and without insulin treatment for 2 weeks. Maximum tetanic force in intact DPH muscle strips and recovery from fatiguing stimulation were measured. An early (4-day depression in contractile function in diabetic DPH was followed by gradual improvement in muscle function and fatigue recovery (8 weeks. DPH contractile function deteriorated again at 14 weeks, a process that was completely reversed by insulin treatment. Maximal contractile force and calcium sensitivity assessed in Triton-skinned DPH fibers showed a similar bimodal pattern and the same beneficial effect of insulin treatment. While an extensive analysis of the isoforms of the contractile and regulatory proteins was not conducted, Western blot analysis of tropomyosin suggests that the changes in diabetic DPH response depended, at least in part, on a switch in fiber type.

  20. Adapting and using quality management methods to improve health promotion.

    Becker, Craig M; Glascoff, Mary A; Felts, William Michael; Kent, Christopher

    2015-01-01

    Although the western world is the most technologically advanced civilization to date, it is also the most addicted, obese, medicated, and in-debt adult population in history. Experts had predicted that the 21st century would be a time of better health and prosperity. Although wealth has increased, our quest to quell health problems using a pathogenic approach without understanding the interconnectedness of everyone and everything has damaged personal and planetary health. While current efforts help identify and eliminate causes of problems, they do not facilitate the creation of health and well-being as would be done with a salutogenic approach. Sociologist Aaron Antonovsky coined the term salutogenesis in 1979. It is derived from salus, which is Latin for health, and genesis, meaning to give birth. Salutogenesis, the study of the origins and creation of health, provides a method to identify an interconnected way to enhance well-being. Salutogenesis provides a framework for a method of practice to improve health promotion efforts. This article illustrates how quality management methods can be used to guide health promotion efforts focused on improving health beyond the absence of disease. PMID:25777291

  1. Improved Efficacy of Temporally Non-Regular Deep Brain Stimulation in Parkinson's Disease

    Brocker, David T.; Swan, Brandon D; Turner, Dennis A.; Gross, Robert E.; Tatter, Stephen B.; Koop, Mandy Miller; Bronte-Stewart, Helen; Grill, Warren M.

    2012-01-01

    High frequency deep brain stimulation is an effective therapy for motor symptoms in Parkinson's disease. However, the relative clinical efficacy of regular versus non-regular temporal patterns of stimulation in Parkinson's disease remains unclear. To determine the temporal characteristics of non-regular temporal patterns of stimulation important for treatment of Parkinson's disease, we compared the efficacy of temporally regular stimulation with four non-regular patterns of stimulation in sub...

  2. Adaptation AC to Improve Wireless Access Network Dependability

    Olfa BEN AHMED

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available According to estimation of increasing mobile application‘s consumers. We are interested in Long TermEvaluation (LTE network. LTE dependability depends on availability and reliability of his evolved NodesBases stations (eNB. One eNB is available when it is able yet to admit a new media and to supportconnection. And it is reliable when it is able to support handover connection. However we consider adependable telecommunication service when the available and reliable system can provide an acceptablequality of service (QoS. There are works that given a higher QoS with lower dependability (availabilityand reliability and works that given higher dependability with lowest QoS. We propose a new AdmissionControl scheme using preemption bandwidth from already connected application. Our preemptionproceeds in a relative utility. Results of this work give improvement of dependability with acceptable QoS.

  3. Adaptive noise estimation and suppression for improving microseismic event detection

    Mousavi, S. Mostafa; Langston, Charles A.

    2016-09-01

    Microseismic data recorded by surface arrays are often strongly contaminated by unwanted noise. This background noise makes the detection of small magnitude events difficult. A noise level estimation and noise reduction algorithm is presented for microseismic data analysis based upon minimally controlled recursive averaging and neighborhood shrinkage estimators. The method might not be compared with more sophisticated and computationally expensive denoising algorithm in terms of preserving detailed features of seismic signal. However, it is fast and data-driven and can be applied in real-time processing of continuous data for event detection purposes. Results from application of this algorithm to synthetic and real seismic data show that it holds a great promise for improving microseismic event detection.

  4. Improve Problem Solving Skills through Adapting Programming Tools

    Shaykhian, Linda H.; Shaykhian, Gholam Ali

    2007-01-01

    There are numerous ways for engineers and students to become better problem-solvers. The use of command line and visual programming tools can help to model a problem and formulate a solution through visualization. The analysis of problem attributes and constraints provide insight into the scope and complexity of the problem. The visualization aspect of the problem-solving approach tends to make students and engineers more systematic in their thought process and help them catch errors before proceeding too far in the wrong direction. The problem-solver identifies and defines important terms, variables, rules, and procedures required for solving a problem. Every step required to construct the problem solution can be defined in program commands that produce intermediate output. This paper advocates improved problem solving skills through using a programming tool. MatLab created by MathWorks, is an interactive numerical computing environment and programming language. It is a matrix-based system that easily lends itself to matrix manipulation, and plotting of functions and data. MatLab can be used as an interactive command line or a sequence of commands that can be saved in a file as a script or named functions. Prior programming experience is not required to use MatLab commands. The GNU Octave, part of the GNU project, a free computer program for performing numerical computations, is comparable to MatLab. MatLab visual and command programming are presented here.

  5. Improving GPU-accelerated Adaptive IDW Interpolation Algorithm Using Fast kNN Search

    Mei, Gang; Xu, Nengxiong; Xu, Liangliang

    2016-01-01

    This paper presents an efficient parallel Adaptive Inverse Distance Weighting (AIDW) interpolation algorithm on modern Graphics Processing Unit (GPU). The presented algorithm is an improvement of our previous GPU-accelerated AIDW algorithm by adopting fast k-Nearest Neighbors (kNN) search. In AIDW, it needs to find several nearest neighboring data points for each interpolated point to adaptively determine the power parameter; and then the desired prediction value of the interpolated point is ...

  6. A self-adaptive step Cuckoo search algorithm based on dimension by dimension improvement

    Ren, Lu; Li, Haiyang; He, Xingshi

    2015-01-01

    The choice of step length plays an important role in convergence speed and precision of Cuckoo search algorithm. In the paper, a self-adaptive step Cuckoo search algorithm based on dimensional improvement is provided. First, since the step in the original self-adaptive step Cuckoo search algorithm is not updated when the current position of the nest is in the optimal position, simple modification of the step is made for the update. Second, evaluation strategy based on dimension by dimension u...

  7. Adaptive shaping system for both spatial and temporal profiles of a highly stabilized UV laser light source for a photocathode RF gun

    We have been developing a stable and highly qualified ultraviolet (UV) laser pulse as a light source of an RF gun for an injector candidate of future light sources. Our gun cavity is a single-cell pillbox, and the copper inner wall is used as a photocathode. The chirped pulse amplification (CPA) Ti:sapphire laser system is operated at a repetition rate of 10 Hz. At the third harmonic generation (central wavelength-263 nm), the laser pulse energy after a 45 cm silica rod is up to 850 μJ/pulse. In its present status, the laser's pulse energy stability has been improved down to 0.2∼0.3% at the fundamental, and 0.7-1.4% (rms; 10 pps; 33,818 shots) at the third harmonic generation, respectively. This stability has been held for 1 month continuously, 24 h a day. The improvements we had passively implemented were to stabilize the laser system as well as the environmental conditions. We introduced a humidity-control system kept at 50-60% in a clean room to reduce damage to the optics. In addition, we prepared a deformable mirror for spatial shaping and a spatial light modulator based on fused-silica plates for temporal shaping. We are applying both the adaptive optics to automatic optimization of the electron beam bunch to produce lower emittance with the feedback routine. Before the improvements, the electron beam produced from a cathode suffered inhomogeneous distribution caused by the quantum efficiency effect, and some pulse distortions caused by its response time. However, we can now freely form any arbitrary electron beam distribution on the surface of the cathode

  8. C-arm cone beam CT perfusion imaging using the SMART-RECON algorithm to improve temporal sampling density and temporal resolution

    Li, Yinsheng; Niu, Kai; Li, Ke; Schafer, Sebastian; Royalty, Kevin; Strother, Charles; Chen, Guang-Hong

    2016-03-01

    In this work, a newly developed reconstruction algorithm, Synchronized MultiArtifact Reduction with Tomographic RECONstruction (SMART-RECON), was applied to C-arm cone beam CT perfusion (CBCTP) imaging. This algorithm contains a special rank regularizer, designed to reduce limited-view artifacts associated with super- short scan reconstructions. As a result, high temporal sampling and temporal resolution image reconstructions were achieved using an interventional C-arm x-ray system. The algorithm was evaluated in terms of the fidelity of the dynamic contrast update curves and the accuracy of perfusion parameters through numerical simulation studies. Results shows that, not only were the dynamic curves accurately recovered (relative root mean square error ∈ [3%, 5%] compared with [13%, 22%] for FBP), but also the noise in the final perfusion maps was dramatically reduced. Compared with filtered backprojection, SMART-RECON generated CBCTP maps with much improved capability in differentiating lesions with perfusion deficits from the surrounding healthy brain tissues.

  9. Utilizing temporal variations in chemotherapeutic response to improve breast cancer treatment efficacy

    Daniel J. McGrail

    2015-09-01

    Full Text Available Though survival rates for women with stage I breast cancer have radically improved, treatment options remain poor for the 40% of women diagnosed with later-stage disease. For these patients, improved chemotherapeutic treatment strategies are critical to eradicate any disseminated tumor cells. Despite many promising new drugs in vitro, most ultimately fail in the clinic. One aspect often lost during testing is in vivo circulation half-lives rarely exceed 24 hours, whereas in vitro studies involve drug exposure for 2-3 days. Here, we show how mimicking these exposure times alters efficacy. Next, using this model we show how drug response is highly time-dependent by extending analysis of cell viability out to two weeks. Variations in response both with feeding and time were dependent on drug mechanism of action. Finally, we show that by implementing this temporal knowledge of drug effects to optimize scheduling of drug administration we are able to regain chemosensitivity in a Carboplatin-resistant cell line.

  10. Long-term effective population sizes, temporal stability of genetic composition and potential for local adaptation in anadromous brown trout ( Salmo trutta ) populations

    Hansen, Michael Møller; Ruzzante, D.E.; Eg Nielsen, Einar; Bekkevold, Dorte; Mensberg, Karen-Lise Dons

    2002-01-01

    We examined the long-term temporal (1910s to 1990s) genetic variation at eight microsatellite DNA loci in brown trout (Salmo trutta L) collected from five anadromous populations in Denmark to assess the long-term stability of genetic composition and to estimate effective population sizes (N...... (3 km) river showed Ne greater than or equal to 300. Assuming a stepping-stone model of gene flow we considered the relative roles of gene flow, random genetic drift and selection to assess the possibilities for local adaptation. The requirements for local adaptation were fulfilled, but only...... adaptations resulting from strong selection were expected to occur at the level of individual populations. Adaptations resulting from weak selection were more likely to occur on a regional basis, i.e. encompassing several populations. N-e appears to have declined recently in at least one of the studied...

  11. Habitat Choice and Temporal Variation Alter the Balance between Adaptation by Genetic Differentiation, a Jack-of-All-Trades Strategy, and Phenotypic Plasticity.

    Scheiner, Samuel M

    2016-05-01

    Confronted with variable environments, species adapt in several ways, including genetic differentiation, a jack-of-all-trades strategy, or phenotypic plasticity. Adaptive habitat choice favors genetic differentiation and local adaptation over a generalist, jack-of-all-trades strategy. Models predict that, absent plasticity costs, variable environments generally favor phenotypic plasticity over genetic differentiation and being a jack-of-all-trades generalist. It is unknown how habitat choice might affect the evolution of plasticity. Using an individual-based simulation model, I explored the interaction of choice and plasticity. With only spatial variation, habitat choice promotes genetic differentiation over a jack-of-all-trades strategy or phenotypic plasticity. In the absence of plasticity, temporal variation favors a jack-of-all-trades strategy over choice-mediated genetic differentiation; when plasticity is an option, it is favored. This occurs because habitat choice creates a feedback between genetic differentiation and dispersal rates. As demes become better adapted to their local environments, the effective dispersal rate decreases, because more individuals have very high fitness and so choose not to disperse, reinforcing local stabilizing selection and negating selection for plasticity. Temporal variation breaks that feedback. These results point to a potential data paradox: systems with habitat choice may have the lowest actual movement rates. The potential for adaptive habitat choice may be very common, but its existence may reduce observed dispersal rates enough that we do not recognize systems where it may be present, warranting further exploration of likely systems. PMID:27104995

  12. Research on Public Traffic Vehicles Dispatch Based on Improved Adaptive Genetic Algorithm

    2010-01-01

    <正>Bus dispatching has been studied,and also the bus dispatching model is set up.Then,Genetic Algorithm is adaptively improved in order to avoid premature problem and the slow convergence,and then the keeping optimal strategy is used to the Genetic Algorithm,so formed the Improved Adaptive Genetic Algorithm,namely IAGA. Finally,the IAGA is used to optimizing the bus dispatching model,and the results of the simulation indicate IAGA has the higher efficiency than simple GA and is one effective way to optimizing the bus dispatching.

  13. Delay Estimator and Improved Proportionate Multi-Delay Adaptive Filtering Algorithm

    E. Verteletskaya

    2012-04-01

    Full Text Available This paper pertains to speech and acoustic signal processing, and particularly to a determination of echo path delay and operation of echo cancellers. To cancel long echoes, the number of weights in a conventional adaptive filter must be large. The length of the adaptive filter will directly affect both the degree of accuracy and the convergence speed of the adaptation process. We present a new adaptive structure which is capable to deal with multiple dispersive echo paths. An adaptive filter according to the present invention includes means for storing an impulse response in a memory, the impulse response being indicative of the characteristics of a transmission line. It also includes a delay estimator for detecting ranges of samples within the impulse response having relatively large distribution of echo energy. These ranges of samples are being indicative of echoes on the transmission line. An adaptive filter has a plurality of weighted taps, each of the weighted taps having an associated tap weight value. A tap allocation/control circuit establishes the tap weight values in response to said detecting means so that only taps within the regions of relatively large distributions of echo energy are turned on. Thus, the convergence speed and the degree of estimation in the adaptation process can be improved.

  14. Long-term effective population sizes, temporal stability of genetic composition and potential for local adaptation in anadromous brown trout ( Salmo trutta ) populations

    Hansen, Michael Møller; Ruzzante, D.E.; Eg Nielsen, Einar;

    2002-01-01

    We examined the long-term temporal (1910s to 1990s) genetic variation at eight microsatellite DNA loci in brown trout (Salmo trutta L) collected from five anadromous populations in Denmark to assess the long-term stability of genetic composition and to estimate effective population sizes (N...... populations, and the documented recent declines of many other anadromous brown trout populations may affect the persistence of local adaptation....

  15. Improving Prediction Accuracy for WSN Data Reduction by Applying Multivariate Spatio-Temporal Correlation

    José Neuman de Souza

    2011-10-01

    Full Text Available This paper proposes a method based on multivariate spatial and temporal correlation to improve prediction accuracy in data reduction for Wireless Sensor Networks (WSN. Prediction of data not sent to the sink node is a technique used to save energy in WSNs by reducing the amount of data traffic. However, it may not be very accurate. Simulations were made involving simple linear regression and multiple linear regression functions to assess the performance of the proposed method. The results show a higher correlation between gathered inputs when compared to time, which is an independent variable widely used for prediction and forecasting. Prediction accuracy is lower when simple linear regression is used, whereas multiple linear regression is the most accurate one. In addition to that, our proposal outperforms some current solutions by about 50% in humidity prediction and 21% in light prediction. To the best of our knowledge, we believe that we are probably the first to address prediction based on multivariate correlation for WSN data reduction.

  16. Plant functional traits improve diversity-based predictions of temporal stability of grassland productivity

    Aboveground net primary productivity (ANPP) varies in response to temporal fluctuations in weather. Temporal stability (mean/standard deviation) of community ANPP may be increased, on average, by increasing plant species richness, but stability also may differ widely at a given richness level imply...

  17. Improving spatio-temporal resolution of infrared images to detect thermal activity of defect at the surface of inorganic glass

    Corvec, Guillaume; Robin, Eric; Le Cam, Jean-Benoît; Sangleboeuf, Jean-Christophe; Lucas, Pierre

    2016-07-01

    This paper proposes a noise suppression methodology to improve the spatio-temporal resolution of infrared images. The methodology is divided in two steps. The first one consists in removing the noise from the temporal signal at each pixel. Three basic temporal filters are considered for this purpose: average filter, cost function minimization (FIT) and short time Fast Fourier Transform approach (STFFT). But while this step effectively reduces the temporal signal noise at each pixel, the infrared images may still appear noisy. This is due to a random distribution of a residual offset value of pixels signal. Hence in the second step, the residual offset is identified by considering thermal images for which no mechanical loading is applied. In this case, the temperature variation field is homogeneous and the value of temperature variation at each pixel is theoretically equal to zero. The method is first tested on synthetic images built from infrared computer-generated images combined with experimental noise. The results demonstrate that this approach permits to keep the spatial resolution of infrared images equal to 1 pixel. The methodology is then applied to characterize thermal activity of a defect at the surface of inorganic glass submitted to cyclic mechanical loading. The three basic temporal filters are quantitatively compared and contrasted. Results obtained demonstrate that, contrarily to a basic spatio-temporal approach, the denoising method proposed is suitable to characterize low thermal activity combined to strong spatial gradients induced by cyclic heterogeneous deformations.

  18. Effects of improved spatial and temporal modeling of on-road vehicle emissions.

    Lindhjem, Christian E; Pollack, Alison K; DenBleyker, Allison; Shaw, Stephanie L

    2012-04-01

    Numerous emission and air quality modeling studies have suggested the need to accurately characterize the spatial and temporal variations in on-road vehicle emissions. The purpose of this study was to quantify the impact that using detailed traffic activity data has on emission estimates used to model air quality impacts. The on-road vehicle emissions are estimated by multiplying the vehicle miles traveled (VMT) by the fleet-average emission factors determined by road link and hour of day. Changes in the fraction of VMT from heavy-duty diesel vehicles (HDDVs) can have a significant impact on estimated fleet-average emissions because the emission factors for HDDV nitrogen oxides (NOx) and particulate matter (PM) are much higher than those for light-duty gas vehicles (LDGVs). Through detailed road link-level on-road vehicle emission modeling, this work investigated two scenarios for better characterizing mobile source emissions: (1) improved spatial and temporal variation of vehicle type fractions, and (2) use of Motor Vehicle Emission Simulator (MOVES2010) instead of MOBILE6 exhaust emission factors. Emissions were estimated for the Detroit and Atlanta metropolitan areas for summer and winter episodes. The VMT mix scenario demonstrated the importance of better characterizing HDDV activity by time of day, day of week, and road type. More HDDV activity occurs on restricted access road types on weekdays and at nonpeak times, compared to light-duty vehicles, resulting in 5-15% higher NOx and PM emission rates during the weekdays and 15-40% lower rates on weekend days. Use of MOVES2010 exhaust emission factors resulted in increases of more than 50% in NOx and PM for both HDDVs and LDGVs, relative to MOBILE6. Because LDGV PM emissions have been shown to increase with lower temperatures, the most dramatic increase from MOBILE6 to MOVES2010 emission rates occurred for PM2.5 from LDGVs that increased 500% during colder wintertime conditions found in Detroit, the northernmost

  19. Adapt

    Bargatze, L. F.

    2015-12-01

    Active Data Archive Product Tracking (ADAPT) is a collection of software routines that permits one to generate XML metadata files to describe and register data products in support of the NASA Heliophysics Virtual Observatory VxO effort. ADAPT is also a philosophy. The ADAPT concept is to use any and all available metadata associated with scientific data to produce XML metadata descriptions in a consistent, uniform, and organized fashion to provide blanket access to the full complement of data stored on a targeted data server. In this poster, we present an application of ADAPT to describe all of the data products that are stored by using the Common Data File (CDF) format served out by the CDAWEB and SPDF data servers hosted at the NASA Goddard Space Flight Center. These data servers are the primary repositories for NASA Heliophysics data. For this purpose, the ADAPT routines have been used to generate data resource descriptions by using an XML schema named Space Physics Archive, Search, and Extract (SPASE). SPASE is the designated standard for documenting Heliophysics data products, as adopted by the Heliophysics Data and Model Consortium. The set of SPASE XML resource descriptions produced by ADAPT includes high-level descriptions of numerical data products, display data products, or catalogs and also includes low-level "Granule" descriptions. A SPASE Granule is effectively a universal access metadata resource; a Granule associates an individual data file (e.g. a CDF file) with a "parent" high-level data resource description, assigns a resource identifier to the file, and lists the corresponding assess URL(s). The CDAWEB and SPDF file systems were queried to provide the input required by the ADAPT software to create an initial set of SPASE metadata resource descriptions. Then, the CDAWEB and SPDF data repositories were queried subsequently on a nightly basis and the CDF file lists were checked for any changes such as the occurrence of new, modified, or deleted

  20. Improving the adaptability of simulated evolutionary swarm robots in dynamically changing environments.

    Yao Yao

    Full Text Available One of the important challenges in the field of evolutionary robotics is the development of systems that can adapt to a changing environment. However, the ability to adapt to unknown and fluctuating environments is not straightforward. Here, we explore the adaptive potential of simulated swarm robots that contain a genomic encoding of a bio-inspired gene regulatory network (GRN. An artificial genome is combined with a flexible agent-based system, representing the activated part of the regulatory network that transduces environmental cues into phenotypic behaviour. Using an artificial life simulation framework that mimics a dynamically changing environment, we show that separating the static from the conditionally active part of the network contributes to a better adaptive behaviour. Furthermore, in contrast with most hitherto developed ANN-based systems that need to re-optimize their complete controller network from scratch each time they are subjected to novel conditions, our system uses its genome to store GRNs whose performance was optimized under a particular environmental condition for a sufficiently long time. When subjected to a new environment, the previous condition-specific GRN might become inactivated, but remains present. This ability to store 'good behaviour' and to disconnect it from the novel rewiring that is essential under a new condition allows faster re-adaptation if any of the previously observed environmental conditions is reencountered. As we show here, applying these evolutionary-based principles leads to accelerated and improved adaptive evolution in a non-stable environment.

  1. An improved Direct Adaptive Fuzzy controller for an uncertain DC Motor Speed Control System

    Chunjie Zhou; Shuang Huang; Quan Yin; Duc Cuong Quach

    2013-01-01

    In this paper, we present an improved Direct Adaptive Fuzzy (IDAF) controller applied to general control DC motor speed system. In particular, an IDAF algorithm is designed to control an uncertain DC motor speed to track a given reference signal. In fact, the quality of the control system depends significantly on the amount of fuzzy rules-fuzzy sets and the updating coefficient of the adaptive rule. This can be observed clearly by the system error when the reference input is constant and out ...

  2. A rate adaptive control method for Improving the imaging speed of atomic force microscopy

    A simple rate adaptive control method is proposed to improve the imaging speed of the atomic force microscope (AFM) in the paper. Conventionally, the probe implemented on the AFM scans the sample surface at a constant rate, resulting in low time efficiency. Numerous attempts have been made to realize high-speed AFMs, while little efforts are put into changing the constant-rate scanning. Here we report a rate adaptive control method based on variable-rate scanning. The method automatically sets the imaging speed for the x scanner through the analysis of the tracking errors in the z direction at each scanning point, thus improving the dynamic tracking performance of the z scanner. The development and functioning of the rate adaptive method are demonstrated, as well as how the approach significantly achieves faster scans and a higher resolution AFM imaging. - Highlights: • A rate adaptive control method is proposed to improve the imaging speed ofAFM. • The new method automatically selects appropriate scanning speed in the x direction through the analysis of the tracking errors in the z direction. • The system identification is carried out to obtain the mathematical model of thevertical feedback system of AFM

  3. Adaptation to climate change in industry: improving resource efficiency through sustainable production applications.

    Alkayal, Emrah; Bogurcu, Merve; Ulutas, Ferda; Demirer, Göksel Niyazi

    2015-01-01

    The objective of this study was to investigate the climate change adaptation opportunities of six companies from different sectors through resource efficiency and sustainable production. A total of 77 sustainable production options were developed for the companies based on the audits conducted. After screening these opportunities with each company's staff, 19 options were selected and implemented. Significant water savings (849,668 m3/year) were achieved as a result of the applications that targeted reduction of water use. In addition to water savings, the energy consumption was reduced by 3,607 MWh, which decreased the CO2 emissions by 904.1 tons/year. Moreover, the consumption of 278.4 tons/year of chemicals (e.g., NaCl, CdO, NaCN) was avoided, thus the corresponding pollution load to the wastewater treatment plant was reduced. Besides the tangible improvements, other gains were achieved, such as improved product quality, improved health and safety conditions, reduced maintenance requirements, and ensured compliance with national and EU regulations. To the best of the authors' knowledge, this study is the first ever activity in Turkey devoted to climate change adaptation in the private sector. This study may serve as a building block in Turkey for the integration of climate change adaptation and mitigation approach in the industry, since water efficiency (adaptation) and carbon reduction (mitigation) are achieved simultaneously. PMID:25630123

  4. Improved Adaptive-Reinforcement Learning Control for morphing unmanned air vehicles.

    Valasek, John; Doebbler, James; Tandale, Monish D; Meade, Andrew J

    2008-08-01

    This paper presents an improved Adaptive-Reinforcement Learning Control methodology for the problem of unmanned air vehicle morphing control. The reinforcement learning morphing control function that learns the optimal shape change policy is integrated with an adaptive dynamic inversion control trajectory tracking function. An episodic unsupervised learning simulation using the Q-learning method is developed to replace an earlier and less accurate Actor-Critic algorithm. Sequential Function Approximation, a Galerkin-based scattered data approximation scheme, replaces a K-Nearest Neighbors (KNN) method and is used to generalize the learning from previously experienced quantized states and actions to the continuous state-action space, all of which may not have been experienced before. The improved method showed smaller errors and improved learning of the optimal shape compared to the KNN. PMID:18632393

  5. Improving exposure assessment in environmental epidemiology: Application of spatio-temporal visualization tools

    Meliker, Jaymie R.; Slotnick, Melissa J.; Avruskin, Gillian A.; Kaufmann, Andrew; Jacquez, Geoffrey M.; Nriagu, Jerome O.

    2005-05-01

    A thorough assessment of human exposure to environmental agents should incorporate mobility patterns and temporal changes in human behaviors and concentrations of contaminants; yet the temporal dimension is often under-emphasized in exposure assessment endeavors, due in part to insufficient tools for visualizing and examining temporal datasets. Spatio-temporal visualization tools are valuable for integrating a temporal component, thus allowing for examination of continuous exposure histories in environmental epidemiologic investigations. An application of these tools to a bladder cancer case-control study in Michigan illustrates continuous exposure life-lines and maps that display smooth, continuous changes over time. Preliminary results suggest increased risk of bladder cancer from combined exposure to arsenic in drinking water (>25 μg/day) and heavy smoking (>30 cigarettes/day) in the 1970s and 1980s, and a possible cancer cluster around automotive, paint, and organic chemical industries in the early 1970s. These tools have broad application for examining spatially- and temporally-specific relationships between exposures to environmental risk factors and disease.

  6. An improved adaptive sampling and experiment design method for aerodynamic optimization

    Huang Jiangtao

    2015-10-01

    Full Text Available Experiment design method is a key to construct a highly reliable surrogate model for numerical optimization in large-scale project. Within the method, the experimental design criterion directly affects the accuracy of the surrogate model and the optimization efficient. According to the shortcomings of the traditional experimental design, an improved adaptive sampling method is proposed in this paper. The surrogate model is firstly constructed by basic sparse samples. Then the supplementary sampling position is detected according to the specified criteria, which introduces the energy function and curvature sampling criteria based on radial basis function (RBF network. Sampling detection criteria considers both the uniformity of sample distribution and the description of hypersurface curvature so as to significantly improve the prediction accuracy of the surrogate model with much less samples. For the surrogate model constructed with sparse samples, the sample uniformity is an important factor to the interpolation accuracy in the initial stage of adaptive sampling and surrogate model training. Along with the improvement of uniformity, the curvature description of objective function surface gradually becomes more important. In consideration of these issues, crowdness enhance function and root mean square error (RMSE feedback function are introduced in C criterion expression. Thus, a new sampling method called RMSE and crowdness enhance (RCE adaptive sampling is established. The validity of RCE adaptive sampling method is studied through typical test function firstly and then the airfoil/wing aerodynamic optimization design problem, which has high-dimensional design space. The results show that RCE adaptive sampling method not only reduces the requirement for the number of samples, but also effectively improves the prediction accuracy of the surrogate model, which has a broad prospects for applications.

  7. An improved adaptive Sage filter with applications in GEO orbit determination and GPS kinematic positioning

    XU TianHe; JIANG Nan; SUN ZhangZhen

    2012-01-01

    The shortcomings of an adaptive Sage filter are analyzed in this paper.An improved adaptive Sage filter is developed by using a weighted average quadratic form of the historical residuals of observations and predicted states to evaluate the covariance matrices of observations and dynamic model errors at the present epoch.The weight function is constructed based on the variances of observational residuals or predicted state residuals and the space distance between the previous and the present epoch.In order to balance the contributions of the measurements and the dynamic model information,an adaptive factor is applied by using a two-segment function and predicted state discrepancy statistics.Two applications,orbit determination of a maneuvered GEO satellite and GPS kinematic positioning,are conducted to verify the performance of the proposed method.

  8. Moving forward with prisms: Sensory-motor adaptation improves gait initiation in Parkinson’s disease.

    Janet Helen Bultitude

    2012-09-01

    Full Text Available It is postulated that the decreased walking speed; small, shuffling steps; and ‘freezing’ shown by patients with Parkinson’s disease could stem from an inability to tilt the body forward enough to provide sufficient forward propulsion. In two repeated-measures studies we examined whether adaptation to upward-shifting prisms, resulting in a downward after-effect, could improve gait initiation in healthy participants and patients with Parkinson’s disease. Faster forward stepping followed a brief (5 min exposure period for patients, and a longer (20 min exposure period for age-matched controls. Backward stepping was unchanged, and adaptation to downward-shifting prisms with control participants showed no effect on forward or backward stepping. These results suggest that adaptation of arm proprioception in the vertical plane may generalise to anterior-posterior postural control, presenting new possibilities for the treatment of gait disturbance in basal ganglia disorders.

  9. A self-adaptive step Cuckoo search algorithm based on dimension by dimension improvement

    Lu REN

    2015-10-01

    Full Text Available The choice of step length plays an important role in convergence speed and precision of Cuckoo search algorithm. In the paper, a self-adaptive step Cuckoo search algorithm based on dimensional improvement is provided. First, since the step in the original self-adaptive step Cuckoo search algorithm is not updated when the current position of the nest is in the optimal position, simple modification of the step is made for the update. Second, evaluation strategy based on dimension by dimension update is introduced to the modified self-adaptive step Cuckoo search algorithm. The experimental results show that the algorithm can balance the contradiction between the global convergence ability and the precision of optimization. Moreover, the proposed algorithm has better convergence speed.

  10. Locomotor Adaptation Improves Balance Control, Multitasking Ability and Reduces the Metabolic Cost of Postural Instability

    Bloomberg, J. J.; Peters, B. T.; Mulavara, A. P.; Brady, R. A.; Batson, C. D.; Miller, C. A.; Ploutz-Snyder, R. J.; Guined, J. R.; Buxton, R. E.; Cohen, H. S.

    2011-01-01

    During exploration-class missions, sensorimotor disturbances may lead to disruption in the ability to ambulate and perform functional tasks during the initial introduction to a novel gravitational environment following a landing on a planetary surface. The overall goal of our current project is to develop a sensorimotor adaptability training program to facilitate rapid adaptation to these environments. We have developed a unique training system comprised of a treadmill placed on a motion-base facing a virtual visual scene. It provides an unstable walking surface combined with incongruent visual flow designed to enhance sensorimotor adaptability. Greater metabolic cost incurred during balance instability means more physical work is required during adaptation to new environments possibly affecting crewmembers? ability to perform mission critical tasks during early surface operations on planetary expeditions. The goal of this study was to characterize adaptation to a discordant sensory challenge across a number of performance modalities including locomotor stability, multi-tasking ability and metabolic cost. METHODS: Subjects (n=15) walked (4.0 km/h) on a treadmill for an 8 -minute baseline walking period followed by 20-minutes of walking (4.0 km/h) with support surface motion (0.3 Hz, sinusoidal lateral motion, peak amplitude 25.4 cm) provided by the treadmill/motion-base system. Stride frequency and auditory reaction time were collected as measures of locomotor stability and multi-tasking ability, respectively. Metabolic data (VO2) were collected via a portable metabolic gas analysis system. RESULTS: At the onset of lateral support surface motion, subj ects walking on our treadmill showed an increase in stride frequency and auditory reaction time indicating initial balance and multi-tasking disturbances. During the 20-minute adaptation period, balance control and multi-tasking performance improved. Similarly, throughout the 20-minute adaptation period, VO2 gradually

  11. Adaptive slab laser beam quality improvement using a weighted least-squares reconstruction algorithm.

    Chen, Shanqiu; Dong, LiZhi; Chen, XiaoJun; Tan, Yi; Liu, Wenjin; Wang, Shuai; Yang, Ping; Xu, Bing; Ye, YuTang

    2016-04-10

    Adaptive optics is an important technology for improving beam quality in solid-state slab lasers. However, there are uncorrectable aberrations in partial areas of the beam. In the criterion of the conventional least-squares reconstruction method, it makes the zones with small aberrations nonsensitive and hinders this zone from being further corrected. In this paper, a weighted least-squares reconstruction method is proposed to improve the relative sensitivity of zones with small aberrations and to further improve beam quality. Relatively small weights are applied to the zones with large residual aberrations. Comparisons of results show that peak intensity in the far field improved from 1242 analog digital units (ADU) to 2248 ADU, and beam quality β improved from 2.5 to 2.0. This indicates the weighted least-squares method has better performance than the least-squares reconstruction method when there are large zonal uncorrectable aberrations in the slab laser system. PMID:27139877

  12. An Improved NMS-Based Adaptive Edge Detection Method and Its FPGA Implementation

    Enzeng Dong

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available For improving the processing speed and accuracy of edge detection, an adaptive edge detection method based on improved NMS (nonmaximum suppression was proposed in this paper. In the method, the gradient image was computed by four directional Sobel operators. Then, the gradient image was processed by using NMS method. By defining a power map function, the elements values of gradient image histogram were mapped into a wider value range. By calculating the maximal between-class variance according to the mapped histogram, the corresponding threshold was obtained as adaptive threshold value in edge detection. Finally, to be convenient for engineering application, the proposed method was realized in FPGA (Field Programmable Gate Array. The experiment results demonstrated that the proposed method was effective in edge detection and suitable for real-time application.

  13. Deeper Into the Folksonomy Graph: FolkRank Adaptations and Extensions for Improved Tag Recommendations

    Landia, Nikolas; Doerfel, Stephan; Jäschke, Robert; Anand, Sarabjot Singh; Hotho, Andreas; Griffiths, Nathan

    2013-01-01

    The information contained in social tagging systems is often modelled as a graph of connections between users, items and tags. Recommendation algorithms such as FolkRank, have the potential to leverage complex relationships in the data, corresponding to multiple hops in the graph. We present an in-depth analysis and evaluation of graph models for social tagging data and propose novel adaptations and extensions of FolkRank to improve tag recommendations. We highlight implicit assumptions made ...

  14. Improved Cerebral Function in Mesial Temporal Lobe Epilepsy after Subtemporal Amygdalohippocampectomy

    Takaya, Shigetoshi; Mikuni, Nobuhiro; Mitsueda, Takahiro; Satow, Takeshi; Taki, Junya; Kinoshita, Masako; Miyamoto, Susumu; Hashimoto, Nobuo; Ikeda, Akio; Fukuyama, Hidenao

    2009-01-01

    The functional changes that occur throughout the human brain after the selective removal of an epileptogenic lesion remain unclear. Subtemporal selective amygdalohippocampectomy (SAH) has been advocated as a minimally invasive surgical procedure for patients with medically intractable mesial temporal lobe epilepsy (MTLE). We evaluated the effects…

  15. Age-related improvements in auditory temporal resolution in reading-impaired children.

    Hautus, Michael J; Setchell, Gregory J; Waldie, Karen E; Kirk, Ian J

    2003-02-01

    Individuals with developmental dyslexia show impairments in processing that require precise timing of sensory events. Here, we show that in a test of auditory temporal acuity (a gap-detection task) children ages 6-9 years with dyslexia exhibited a significant deficit relative to age-matched controls. In contrast, this deficit was not observed in groups of older reading-impaired individuals (ages 10-11 years; 12-13 years) or in adults (ages 23-25 years). It appears, therefore, that early temporal resolution deficits in those with reading impairments may significantly ameliorate over time. However, the occurrence of an early deficit in temporal acuity may be antecedent to other language-related perceptual problems (particularly those related to phonological processing) that persist after the primary deficit has resolved. This result suggests that if remedial interventions targeted at temporal resolution deficits are to be effective, the early detection of the deficit and early application of the remedial programme is especially critical. PMID:12625375

  16. Gait adaptability training improves obstacle avoidance and dynamic stability in patients with cerebellar degeneration.

    Fonteyn, Ella M R; Heeren, Anita; Engels, Jasper-Jan C; Boer, Jasper J Den; van de Warrenburg, Bart P C; Weerdesteyn, Vivian

    2014-01-01

    Balance and gait problems in patients with cerebellar degeneration lead to reduced mobility, loss of independence, and frequent falls. It is currently unclear, however, whether balance and gait capacities can be improved by training in this group of patients. Therefore, the aim of this study was to examine the effects of gait adaptability training on obstacle avoidance and dynamic stability during adaptive gait. Ten patients with degenerative cerebellar ataxia received 10 protocolized gait adaptability training sessions of 1 h each during 5 weeks. Training was performed on a treadmill with visual stepping targets and obstacles projected on the belt's surface. As the primary outcome, we used an obstacle avoidance task while walking on a treadmill. We determined avoidance success rates, as well as dynamic stability during the avoidance manoeuvre. Clinical ratings included the scale for the assessment of ataxia (SARA), 10 m walking test, timed up-and-go test, berg balance scale, and the obstacle subtask of the emory functional ambulation profile (EFAP). Following the intervention, success rates on the obstacle avoidance task had significantly improved compared to pre-intervention. For successful avoidance, participants allowed themselves smaller stability margins in the sagittal plane in the (shortened) pre-crossing step. However, in the subsequent steps they returned to baseline stability values more effectively than before training. SARA scores and the EFAP obstacle subtask improved significantly as well. This pilot study provides preliminary evidence of a beneficial effect of gait adaptability training on obstacle avoidance capacity and dynamic stability in patients with cerebellar degeneration. PMID:24786476

  17. Research on Improved Adaptive Control for Static Synchronous Compensator in Power System

    Chao Zhang

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available This paper deals with the problems of “explosion of term,” uncertain parameter in static synchronous compensator (STATCOM system with nonlinear time-delay. An improved adaptive controller is proposed to enhance the transient stability of system states and reduce computational complexity of STATCOM control system. In contrast to backstepping control scheme in high order systems, the problem of “explosion of term” is avoided by designing dynamic surface controller. The low pass filter is included to allow a design where the model is not differentiated and thus has prevented the mathematical complexities effectively. In addition, unlike the traditional adaptive control schemes, the certainty equivalence principle is not required for estimating the uncertain parameter by system immersion and manifold invariant (I&I adaptive control. A smooth function is added to ensure that the estimation error converges to zero in finite time. The effectiveness of the proposed controller is verified by the simulations. Compared with adaptive backstepping and proportion integration differentiation (PID, the oscillation amplitudes of transient response are reduced by nearly half, and the time of reaching steady state is shortened by at least 11%.

  18. An Improved Variable Structure Adaptive Filter Design and Analysis for Acoustic Echo Cancellation

    A. Kar

    2015-04-01

    Full Text Available In this research an advance variable structure adaptive Multiple Sub-Filters (MSF based algorithm for single channel Acoustic Echo Cancellation (AEC is proposed and analyzed. This work suggests a new and improved direction to find the optimum tap-length of adaptive filter employed for AEC. The structure adaptation, supported by a tap-length based weight update approach helps the designed echo canceller to maintain a trade-off between the Mean Square Error (MSE and time taken to attain the steady state MSE. The work done in this paper focuses on replacing the fixed length sub-filters in existing MSF based AEC algorithms which brings refinements in terms of convergence, steady state error and tracking over the single long filter, different error and common error algorithms. A dynamic structure selective coefficient update approach to reduce the structural and computational cost of adaptive design is discussed in context with the proposed algorithm. Simulated results reveal a comparative performance analysis over proposed variable structure multiple sub-filters designs and existing fixed tap-length sub-filters based acoustic echo cancellers.

  19. Improving Early Adaptation Following Long Duration Spaceflight by Enhancing Vestibular Information

    Mulavara, Ajitkumar; Kofman, Igor; DeDios, Yiri E.; Galvan, Raquel; Miller, Chris; Peters, Brian; Cohen, Helen; Jeevarajan, Jerome; Reschke, Millard; Wood, Scott; Bloomberg, Jacob

    2014-01-01

    Crewmember adapted to the microgravity state may need to egress the vehicle within a few minutes for safety and operational reasons after g-transitions. The transition from one sensorimotor state to another consists of two main mechanisms: strategic and plastic-adaptive and have been demonstrated in astronauts returning after long duration space flight. Strategic modifications represent "early adaptation" -immediate and transitory changes in control that are employed to deal with short-term changes in the environment. If these modifications are prolonged then plastic-adaptive changes are evoked that modify central nervous system function, automating new behavioral responses. More importantly, this longer term adaptive recovery mechanism was significantly associated with their strategic ability to recover on the first day after return to Earth G. We are developing a method based on stochastic resonance (SR) to enhance information transfer by improving the brain's ability to detect vestibular signals especially when combined with balance training exercises for rapid improvement in functional skill, for standing and mobility. The countermeasure to improve post-flight balance and locomotor disturbances is a stimulus delivery system that is wearable/portable providing low imperceptible levels of white noise based binaural bipolar electrical stimulation of the vestibular system (stochastic vestibular stimulation, SVS). The techniques for improving signal detection using SVS may thus provide additional information to improve such strategic abilities and thus help in significantly reducing the number of days required to recover functional performance to preflight levels after long duration space flight. We have conducted a series of studies to document the efficacy of SVS stimulation on balance/locomotion tasks on unstable surfaces and motion tracking tasks during intra-vestibular system conflicts. In an initial study, we showed that SVS improved overall balance

  20. Improvement of the temporal resolution of cardiac CT reconstruction algorithms using an optimized filtering step

    In this paper we study a property of the filtering step of multi-cycle reconstruction algorithm used in the field of cardiac CT. We show that the common filtering step procedure is not optimal in the case of divergent geometry and decrease slightly the temporal resolution. We propose to use the filtering procedure related to the work of Noo at al ( F.Noo, M. Defrise, R. Clakdoyle, and H. Kudo. Image reconstruction from fan-beam projections on less than a short-scan. Phys. Med.Biol., 47:2525-2546, July 2002)and show that this alternative allows to reach the optimal temporal resolution with the same computational effort. (N.C.)

  1. Improvement of the temporal resolution of cardiac CT reconstruction algorithms using an optimized filtering step

    Roux, S. [Universite Joseph Fourier, TIMC-IMAG, In3S, Faculte de Medecine, 38 - Grenoble (France)]|[CEA Grenoble, Lab. d' Electronique et de Technologie de l' Informatique (LETI), 38 (France); Desbat, L. [Universite Joseph Fourier, UMR CNRS 5525, 38 - Grenoble (France); Koenig, A.; Grangeat, P. [CEA Grenoble, Lab. d' Electronique et de Technologie de l' Informatique (LETI), 38 (France)

    2005-07-01

    In this paper we study a property of the filtering step of multi-cycle reconstruction algorithm used in the field of cardiac CT. We show that the common filtering step procedure is not optimal in the case of divergent geometry and decrease slightly the temporal resolution. We propose to use the filtering procedure related to the work of Noo at al ( F.Noo, M. Defrise, R. Clakdoyle, and H. Kudo. Image reconstruction from fan-beam projections on less than a short-scan. Phys. Med.Biol., 47:2525-2546, July 2002)and show that this alternative allows to reach the optimal temporal resolution with the same computational effort. (N.C.)

  2. SU-E-I-38: Improved Metal Artifact Correction Using Adaptive Dual Energy Calibration

    Purpose: The empirical dual energy calibration (EDEC) method corrects for beam-hardening artifacts, but shows limited performance on metal artifact correction. In this work, we propose an adaptive dual energy calibration (ADEC) method to correct for metal artifacts. Methods: The empirical dual energy calibration (EDEC) method corrects for beam-hardening artifacts, but shows limited performance on metal artifact correction. In this work, we propose an adaptive dual energy calibration (ADEC) method to correct for metal artifacts. Results: Highly attenuating copper rods cause severe streaking artifacts on standard CT images. EDEC improves the image quality, but cannot eliminate the streaking artifacts. Compared to EDEC, the proposed ADEC method further reduces the streaking resulting from metallic inserts and beam-hardening effects and obtains material decomposition images with significantly improved accuracy. Conclusion: We propose an adaptive dual energy calibration method to correct for metal artifacts. ADEC is evaluated with the Shepp-Logan phantom, and shows superior metal artifact correction performance. In the future, we will further evaluate the performance of the proposed method with phantom and patient data

  3. SU-E-I-38: Improved Metal Artifact Correction Using Adaptive Dual Energy Calibration

    Dong, X; Elder, E; Roper, J; Dhabaan, A [Winship Cancer Institute of Emory University (United States)

    2015-06-15

    Purpose: The empirical dual energy calibration (EDEC) method corrects for beam-hardening artifacts, but shows limited performance on metal artifact correction. In this work, we propose an adaptive dual energy calibration (ADEC) method to correct for metal artifacts. Methods: The empirical dual energy calibration (EDEC) method corrects for beam-hardening artifacts, but shows limited performance on metal artifact correction. In this work, we propose an adaptive dual energy calibration (ADEC) method to correct for metal artifacts. Results: Highly attenuating copper rods cause severe streaking artifacts on standard CT images. EDEC improves the image quality, but cannot eliminate the streaking artifacts. Compared to EDEC, the proposed ADEC method further reduces the streaking resulting from metallic inserts and beam-hardening effects and obtains material decomposition images with significantly improved accuracy. Conclusion: We propose an adaptive dual energy calibration method to correct for metal artifacts. ADEC is evaluated with the Shepp-Logan phantom, and shows superior metal artifact correction performance. In the future, we will further evaluate the performance of the proposed method with phantom and patient data.

  4. A technique for improved stability of adaptive feedforward controllers without detailed uncertainty measurements

    Model errors in adaptive controllers for the reduction of broadband noise and vibrations may lead to unstable systems or increased error signals. Previous research on active structures with small damping has shown that the addition of a low-authority controller which increases damping in the system may lead to improved performance of an adaptive, high-authority controller. Other researchers have suggested the use of frequency dependent regularization based on measured uncertainties. In this paper an alternative method is presented that avoids the disadvantages of these methods, namely the additional complex hardware and the need to obtain detailed information on the uncertainties. An analysis is made of an adaptive feedforward controller in which a difference exists between the secondary path and the model as used in the controller. The real parts of the eigenvalues that determine the stability of the system are expressed in terms of the amount of uncertainty and the singular values of the secondary path. Modifications of the feedforward control scheme are suggested that aim to improve performance without requiring detailed uncertainty measurements. (paper)

  5. Incorporating temporal variability to improve geostatistical analysis of satellite-observed CO2 in China

    ZENG ZhaoCheng; LEI LiPing; GUO LiJie; ZHANG Li; ZHANG Bing

    2013-01-01

    Observations of atmospheric carbon dioxide (CO2) from satellites offer new data sources to understand global carbon cycling.The correlation structure of satellite-observed CO2 can be analyzed and modeled by geostatistical methods,and CO2 values at unsampled locations can be predicted with a correlation model.Conventional geostatistical analysis only investigates the spatial correlation of CO2,and does not consider temporal variation in the satellite-observed CO2 data.In this paper,a spatiotemporal geostatistical method that incorporates temporal variability is implemented and assessed for analyzing the spatiotemporal correlation structure and prediction of monthly CO2 in China.The spatiotemporal correlation is estimated and modeled by a product-sum variogram model with a global nugget component.The variogram result indicates a significant degree of temporal correlation within satellite-observed CO2 data sets in China.Prediction of monthly CO2 using the spatiotemporal variogram model and spacetime kriging procedure is implemented.The prediction is compared with a spatial-only geostatistical prediction approach using a cross-validation technique.The spatiotemporal approach gives better results,with higher correlation coefficient (r2),and less mean absolute prediction error and root mean square error.Moreover,the monthly mapping result generated from the spatiotemporal approach has less prediction uncertainty and more detailed spatial variation of CO2 than those from the spatial-only approach.

  6. Adaptive Harmonic Detection Control of Grid Interfaced Solar Photovoltaic Energy System with Power Quality Improvement

    Singh, B.; Goel, S.

    2015-03-01

    This paper presents a grid interfaced solar photovoltaic (SPV) energy system with a novel adaptive harmonic detection control for power quality improvement at ac mains under balanced as well as unbalanced and distorted supply conditions. The SPV energy system is capable of compensation of linear and nonlinear loads with the objectives of load balancing, harmonics elimination, power factor correction and terminal voltage regulation. The proposed control increases the utilization of PV infrastructure and brings down its effective cost due to its other benefits. The adaptive harmonic detection control algorithm is used to detect the fundamental active power component of load currents which are subsequently used for reference source currents estimation. An instantaneous symmetrical component theory is used to obtain instantaneous positive sequence point of common coupling (PCC) voltages which are used to derive inphase and quadrature phase voltage templates. The proposed grid interfaced PV energy system is modelled and simulated in MATLAB Simulink and its performance is verified under various operating conditions.

  7. Application and improvement of an adaptive ensemble Kalman filter for soil moisture data assimilation

    2010-01-01

    Accurate assignment of model and observation errors is crucial for the successful application of land surface data assimilation algorithms. Poorly-specified model and observation errors can significantly degrade assimilation results. In 2008, Reichle et al. developed an operational procedure to adaptively tune model and observation errors. In this paper, we modified and applied Reichle’s procedure in the Noah land surface model to assimilate observed surface soil moisture data. Numerical simulations showed that: (1) the best estimate of model and observation errors appears when the empirical factor β equals 1.02; (2) the Reichle procedure can be deployed to adaptively tune errors if their true values change slowly; and (3) convergence of the Reichle procedure was improved using better initial errors achieved by iterative computations.

  8. Genomic Measures to Predict Adaptation to Novel Sensorimotor Environments and Improve Personalization of Countermeasure Design

    Kreutzberg, G. A.; Zanello, S.; Seidler, R. D.; Peters, B.; De Dios, Y. E.; Gadd, N. E.; Bloomberg, J. J.; Mulavara, A. P.

    2016-01-01

    Introduction. Astronauts experience sensorimotor disturbances during their initial exposure to microgravity and during the re-adaptation phase following a return to an Earth-gravitational environment. These alterations may affect crewmembers' ability to perform mission-critical functional tasks. Interestingly, astronauts have shown significant inter-subject variation in adaptive capability during gravitational transitions. The ability to predict the manner and degree to which individual astronauts would be affected would improve the efficacy of personalized countermeasure training programs designed to enhance sensorimotor adaptability. The success of such an approach depends on the development of predictive measures of sensorimotor adaptation, which would ascertain each crewmember's adaptive capacity. The goal of this study is to determine whether specific genetic polymorphisms have significant influence on sensorimotor adaptability, which can help inform the design of personalized training countermeasures. Methods. Subjects (n=15) were tested on their ability to negotiate a complex obstacle course for ten test trials while wearing up-down vision-displacing goggles. This presented a visuomotor challenge while doing a full body task. The first test trial time and the recovery rate over the ten trials were used as adaptability performance metrics. Four single nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs) were selected for their role in neural pathways underlying sensorimotor adaptation and were identified in subjects' DNA extracted from saliva samples: catechol-O-methyl transferase (COMT, rs4680), dopamine receptor D2 (DRD2, rs1076560), brain-derived neurotrophic factor genes (BDNF, rs6265), and the DraI polymorphism of the alpha-2 adrenergic receptor. The relationship between the SNPs and test performance was assessed by assigning subjects a rank score based on their adaptability performance metrics and comparing gene expression between the top half and bottom half performers

  9. Temporal and spatial binning of TCSPC data to improve signal-to-noise ratio and imaging speed

    Walsh, Alex J.; Beier, Hope T.

    2016-03-01

    Time-correlated single photon counting (TCSPC) is the most robust method for fluorescence lifetime imaging using laser scanning microscopes. However, TCSPC is inherently slow making it ineffective to capture rapid events due to the single photon product per laser pulse causing extensive acquisition time limitations and the requirement of low fluorescence emission efficiency to avoid bias of measurement towards short lifetimes. Furthermore, thousands of photons per pixel are required for traditional instrument response deconvolution and fluorescence lifetime exponential decay estimation. Instrument response deconvolution and fluorescence exponential decay estimation can be performed in several ways including iterative least squares minimization and Laguerre deconvolution. This paper compares the limitations and accuracy of these fluorescence decay analysis techniques to accurately estimate double exponential decays across many data characteristics including various lifetime values, lifetime component weights, signal-to-noise ratios, and number of photons detected. Furthermore, techniques to improve data fitting, including binning data temporally and spatially, are evaluated as methods to improve decay fits and reduce image acquisition time. Simulation results demonstrate that binning temporally to 36 or 42 time bins, improves accuracy of fits for low photon count data. Such a technique reduces the required number of photons for accurate component estimation if lifetime values are known, such as for commercial fluorescent dyes and FRET experiments, and improve imaging speed 10-fold.

  10. Improving LIGO calibration accuracy by tracking and compensating for slow temporal variations

    Tuyenbayev, D; Betzwieser, J; Cahillane, C; Goetz, E; Izumi, K; Kandhasamy, S; Kissel, J S; Mendell, G; Wade, M; Weinstein, A J; Savage, R L

    2016-01-01

    Calibration of the second-generation LIGO interferometric gravitational-wave detectors employs a method that uses injected periodic modulations to track and compensate for slow temporal variations in the differential length response of the instruments. These detectors utilize feedback control loops to maintain resonance conditions by suppressing differential arm length variations. We describe how the sensing and actuation functions of these servo loops are parameterized and how the slow variations in these parameters are quantified using the injected modulations. We report the results of applying this method to the LIGO detectors and show that it significantly reduces systematic errors in their calibrated outputs.

  11. Improved semisupervised adaptation for a small training dataset in the brain-computer interface.

    Meng, Jianjun; Sheng, Xinjun; Zhang, Dingguo; Zhu, Xiangyang

    2014-07-01

    One problem in the development of brain-computer interface (BCI) systems is to minimize the amount of subject training on the premise of accurate classification. Hence, the challenge is how to train the BCI system effectively especially in the scenario with small amount of training data. In this paper, we introduce improved semisupervised adaptation based on common spatial pattern (CSP) features. The feature extraction and classification are performed jointly and iteratively. In the iteration step, training data are expanded by part of the testing data with labels which are predicted by a linear discriminant analysis classifier and/or a Bayesian linear discriminant analysis classifier in the previous iteration. Then CSP features are reextracted from the expanded training data, and the classifiers are retrained. Both self-training and cotraining paradigms are proposed for the improved semisupervised adaptation. Throughout the investigation on different number of initial training trials, we find that when a small number of training trials are used, e.g., a training session contains no more than 30 trials, similar classification performance to that of large training data items (40-50 trials) can be achieved. Effectiveness of the algorithms is verified by two competition datasets. Compared with several existing algorithms, the proposed semisupervised algorithms show improvements in classification accuracy for most of the competition datasets especially in the case of small training data. PMID:24122610

  12. Environmental assessment, continual improvement and adaptive management within the AREVA sustainable development framework

    COGEMA Resources Inc. (which is part of the AREVA Group) is a Canadian company with its head office in Saskatoon, Saskatchewan. It owns and operates mining and milling facilities in northern Saskatchewan, which produce uranium concentrate. The McClean Lake Operation commenced production in 1999 and its environmental management system represents an integrated approach to environmental assessment, continual improvement and adaptive management based on operational results. In Canada, sustainable development is promoted through the application of the Canadian Environmental Assessment Act (CEAA). Environmental Assessment (EA) is a planning tool, which incorporates environmental considerations before irrevocable decisions are taken. The basic tenet of the Act is the determination of whether the potential environmental effects of a project are adverse, significant and likely, taking into consideration mitigation measures. Thus, project planning and design entails an iterative process that incorporates mitigation measures to minimize potentially significant adverse effects. As part of the EA process conservative approaches are taken to predict potential effects. Several important elements are generated through the EA process including: a set of environmental effects predictions, a compliance and environmental effects monitoring program, a follow-up program to address uncertainties in the prediction of environmental effects, and the identification of contingency measures that could be implemented should non-conservative assumptions be identified in the original assessment framework. The challenge is to integrate each of these elements into the environmental management framework of the operating facility and develop an iterative mechanism to evaluate operational performance relative to what was originally predicted. In Saskatchewan, a requirement of operational licenses is the periodic evaluation of the 'Status of the Environment' surrounding operational facilities. These

  13. Focal and temporal release of glutamate in the mushroom bodies improves olfactory memory in Apis mellifera.

    Locatelli, Fernando; Bundrock, Gesine; Müller, Uli

    2005-12-14

    In contrast to vertebrates, the role of the neurotransmitter glutamate in learning and memory in insects has hardly been investigated. The reason is that a pharmacological characterization of insect glutamate receptors is still missing; furthermore, it is difficult to locally restrict pharmacological interventions. In this study, we overcome these problems by using locally and temporally defined photo-uncaging of glutamate to study its role in olfactory learning and memory formation in the honeybee, Apis mellifera. Uncaging glutamate in the mushroom bodies immediately after a weak training protocol induced a higher memory rate 2 d after training, mimicking the effect of a strong training protocol. Glutamate release before training does not facilitate memory formation, suggesting that glutamate mediates processes triggered by training and required for memory formation. Uncaging glutamate in the antennal lobes shows no effect on memory formation. These results provide the first direct evidence for a temporally and locally restricted function of glutamate in memory formation in honeybees and insects. PMID:16354919

  14. Gait Adaptability Training Improves Both Postural Stability and Dual-Tasking Ability

    Brady, Rachel A.; Batson, Crystal D.; Peters, Brian T.; Ploutz-Snyder, Robert J.; Mulavara, Ajitkumar P.; Bloomberg, Jacob J.

    2010-01-01

    After spaceflight, the process of readapting to Earth's gravity commonly presents crewmembers with a variety of locomotor challenges. Our recent work has shown that the ability to adapt to a novel discordant sensorimotor environment can be increased through preflight training, so one focus of our laboratory has been the development of a gait training countermeasure to expedite the return of normal locomotor function after spaceflight. We used a training system comprising a treadmill mounted on a motion base facing a virtual visual scene that provided a variety of sensory challenges. As part of their participation in a larger retention study, 10 healthy adults completed 3 training sessions during which they walked on a treadmill at 1.1 m/s while receiving discordant support-surface and visual manipulations. After a single training session, subjects stride frequencies improved, and after 2 training sessions their auditory reaction times improved, where improvement was indicated by a return toward baseline values. Interestingly, improvements in reaction time came after stride frequency improvements plateaued. This finding suggests that postural stability was given a higher priority than a competing cognitive task. Further, it demonstrates that improvement in both postural stability and dual-tasking can be achieved with multiple training exposures. We conclude that, with training, individuals become more proficient at walking in discordant sensorimotor conditions and are able to devote more attention to competing tasks.

  15. An Improved Adaptive Multi-way Principal Component Analysis for Monitoring Streptomycin Fermentation Process

    何宁; 王树青; 谢磊

    2004-01-01

    Multi-way principal component analysis (MPCA) had been successfully applied to monitoring the batch and semi-batch process in most chemical industry. An improved MPCA approach, step-by-step adaptive MPCA (SAMPCA), using the process variable trajectories to monitoring the batch process is presented in this paper. It does not need to estimate or fill in the unknown part of the process variable trajectory deviation from the current time until the end. The approach is based on a MPCA method that processes the data in a sequential and adaptive manner. The adaptive rate is easily controlled through a forgetting factor that controls the weight of past data in a summation. This algorithm is used to evaluate the industrial streptomycin fermentation process data and is compared with the traditional MPCA. The results show that the method is more advantageous than MPCA, especially when monitoring multi-stage batch process where the latent vector structure can change at several points during the batch.

  16. Adaptive Agent Model with Hybrid Routing Selection Strategy for Improving the Road-Network Congestion Problem

    Bin Jiang; Chao Yang; Takao Terano

    2015-01-01

    This paper proposes an adaptive agent model with a hybrid routing selection strategy for studying the road⁃network congestion problem. We focus on improving those severely congested links. Firstly, a multi⁃agent system is built, where each agent stands for a vehicle, and it makes its routing selection by considering the shortest path and the minimum congested degree of the target link simultaneously. The agent⁃based model captures the nonlinear feedback between vehicle routing behaviors and road⁃network congestion status. Secondly, a hybrid routing selection strategy is provided, which guides the vehicle routes adapting to the real⁃time road⁃network congestion status. On this basis, we execute simulation experiments and compare the simulation results of network congestion distribution, by Floyd agent with shortest path strategy and our proposed adaptive agent with hybrid strategy. The simulation results show that our proposed model has reduced the congestion degree of those seriously congested links of road⁃network. Finally, we execute our model on a real road map. The results finds that those seriously congested roads have some common features such as located at the road junction or near the unique road connecting two areas. And, the results also show an effectiveness of our model on reduction of those seriously congested links in this actual road network. Such a bottom⁃up congestion control approach with a hybrid congestion optimization perspective will have its significance for actual traffic congestion control.

  17. Temporal contrast and spatial beam quality improvement techniques in a high intensity Ti:sapphire laser system

    This paper reviews the temporal contrast and spatial beam quality improvement techniques in a high intensity Ti:sapphire laser system that is based on chirped-pulse amplification (CPA). We describe an optical parametric chirped-pulse amplification (OPCPA) preamplifier that is seeded by a cleaned high-energy pulse. It demonstrates a background amplified spontaneous emission (ASE) level of 10-10 relative to the peak main femtosecond pulse on the picosecond timescale. We also report a cryogenically-cooled Ti:sapphire final amplifier which generates focused peak intensity in excess of 1020 W/cm2 at a 10 Hz repetition rate. (author)

  18. High baseline activity in inferior temporal cortex improves neural and behavioral discriminability during visual categorization

    Nazli eEmadi

    2014-11-01

    Full Text Available Spontaneous firing is a ubiquitous property of neural activity in the brain. Recent literature suggests that this baseline activity plays a key role in perception. However, it is not known how the baseline activity contributes to neural coding and behavior. Here, by recording from the single neurons in the inferior temporal cortex of monkeys performing a visual categorization task, we thoroughly explored the relationship between baseline activity, the evoked response, and behavior. Specifically we found that a low-frequency (< 8 Hz oscillation in the spike train, prior and phase-locked to the stimulus onset, was correlated with increased gamma power and neuronal baseline activity. This enhancement of the baseline activity was then followed by an increase in the neural selectivity and the response reliability and eventually a higher behavioral performance.

  19. Improved temporal resolution in process-based modelling of agricultural soil ammonia emissions

    Beuning, J. D.; Pattey, E.; Edwards, G.; Van Heyst, B. J.

    An emerging environmental issue in Canada is how to quantify the contribution of agricultural soil emissions of ammonia (NH 3) to environmental pollution. Emission inventories are essential to predict these emissions and their subsequent atmospheric transportation, transformation, and deposition. Due to the high spatial and temporal variability associated with NH 3 emissions, emission inventories based on measurements become expensive and emission factors lose accuracy. Process-based models are capable of accounting for the complex soil interactions, but current models lack temporal refinement and few models consider NH 3 emissions. This paper presents the development of a one-dimensional (vertical), time-dependent model capable of predicting NH 3 emissions from a slurry applied to a bare soil. The model is based on chemical, physical and biological relationships that govern soil heat, moisture, and nitrogen movement. Processes considered include convection, diffusion, decomposition, nitrification, denitrification, and surface to atmosphere transport. The model is tested with experimental data from Agriculture and Agri-Food Canada which conducted NH 3 measurements following application of dairy cattle slurry to a bare field. An investigation into the sensitivity of emissions to pH and slurry infiltration rate is conducted and model predictions are best fit to measurements based on this investigation. Testing demonstrated the model's ability to predict the large NH 3 emissions immediately following application and subsequent emission trends associated with diurnal patterns that emission factors cannot capture. Results showed that model performance could benefit from a more in depth measurement program and empirical or process models of surface pH. Potential exists for the model to become a useful tool in predicting emissions on local, regional, or national scales.

  20. Luminance and opponent-color contributions to visual detection and adaptation and to temporal and spatial integration.

    King-Smith, P E; Carden, D

    1976-07-01

    We show how the processes of visual detection and of temporal and spatial summation may be analyzed in terms of parallel luminance (achromatic) and opponent-color systems; a test flash is detected if it exceeds the threshold of either system. The spectral sensitivity of the luminance system may be determined by a flicker method, and has a single broad peak near 555 nm; the spectral sensitivity of the opponent-color system corresponds to the color recognition threshold, and has three peaks at about 440, 530, and 600 nm (on a white background). The temporal and spatial integration of the opponent-color system are generally greater than for the luminance system; further, a white background selectively depresses the sensitivity of the luminance system relative to the opponent-color system. Thus relatively large (1 degree) and long (200 msec) spectral test flashes on a white background are detected by the opponent-color system except near 570 nm; the contribution of the luminance system becomes more prominent if the size or duration of the test flash is reduced, or if the white background is extinguished. The present analysis is discussed in relation to Stiles' model of independent eta mechanisms. PMID:978286

  1. Improved Adaptive Position Update for Geographic Routing in Mobile Ad Hoc Networks

    Mr.C.Nallusamy*1

    2014-06-01

    Full Text Available In geographic routing, the nodes ought to maintain up-to-date positions of their immediate neighbors. Periodic broadcasting of beacon packets that contain the geographic location coordinates of the nodes may be a new technique utilized by most geographic routing protocols to keep up neighbor positions. The traditional routing schemes demonstrate that periodic beaconing regardless of the node mobility and traffic patterns in the network are not attractive from both update cost and routing performance point of view. Since the Adaptive Position Update (APU strategy for geographic routing, which energetically regulates the frequency of position updates based on the mobility dynamics of the nodes and the forwarding patterns in the network. Generally in Mobile Ad Hoc Networks, if forwarding nodes have high mobility then it may have many chances to make local topology inaccurate in nature. Hence this new Improved Adaptive Position Update (IAPU technique for Geographic routing mainly enhances the APU with low mobility based forwarding node selection. This overcomes the link failure of the entire network in high mobility routing. Thus the experimental results exemplifies that the proposed approach drastically improves the performance of the existing APU.

  2. An adaptive threshold based image processing technique for improved glaucoma detection and classification.

    Issac, Ashish; Partha Sarathi, M; Dutta, Malay Kishore

    2015-11-01

    Glaucoma is an optic neuropathy which is one of the main causes of permanent blindness worldwide. This paper presents an automatic image processing based method for detection of glaucoma from the digital fundus images. In this proposed work, the discriminatory parameters of glaucoma infection, such as cup to disc ratio (CDR), neuro retinal rim (NRR) area and blood vessels in different regions of the optic disc has been used as features and fed as inputs to learning algorithms for glaucoma diagnosis. These features which have discriminatory changes with the occurrence of glaucoma are strategically used for training the classifiers to improve the accuracy of identification. The segmentation of optic disc and cup based on adaptive threshold of the pixel intensities lying in the optic nerve head region. Unlike existing methods the proposed algorithm is based on an adaptive threshold that uses local features from the fundus image for segmentation of optic cup and optic disc making it invariant to the quality of the image and noise content which may find wider acceptability. The experimental results indicate that such features are more significant in comparison to the statistical or textural features as considered in existing works. The proposed work achieves an accuracy of 94.11% with a sensitivity of 100%. A comparison of the proposed work with the existing methods indicates that the proposed approach has improved accuracy of classification glaucoma from a digital fundus which may be considered clinically significant. PMID:26321351

  3. Improving the Thermal, Radial and Temporal Accuracy of the Analytical Ultracentrifuge through External References

    Ghirlando, Rodolfo; Balbo, Andrea; Piszczek, Grzegorz; Brown, Patrick H.; LEWIS, MARC S.; Brautigam, Chad A; Schuck, Peter; Zhao, Huaying

    2013-01-01

    Sedimentation velocity (SV) is a method based on first-principles that provides a precise hydrodynamic characterization of macromolecules in solution. Due to recent improvements in data analysis, the accuracy of experimental SV data emerges as a limiting factor in its interpretation. Our goal was to unravel the sources of experimental error and develop improved calibration procedures. We implemented the use of a Thermochron iButton® temperature logger to directly measure the temperature of a ...

  4. Improved spectral kurtosis with adaptive redundant multiwavelet packet and its applications for rotating machinery fault detection

    Rotating machinery fault detection is significant to avoid serious accidents and huge economic losses effectively. However, due to the vibration signal with the character of non-stationarity and nonlinearity, the detection and extraction of the fault feature turn into a challenging task. Therefore, a novel method called improved spectral kurtosis (ISK) with adaptive redundant multiwavelet packet (ARMP) is proposed for this task. Spectral kurtosis (SK) has been proved to be a powerful tool to detect and characterize the non-stationary signal. To improve the SK in filter limitation and enhance the resolution of spectral analysis as well as match fault feature optimally, the ARMP is introduced into the SK. Moreover, since kurtosis does not reflect the actual trend of periodic impulses, the SK is improved by incorporating an evaluation index called envelope spectrum entropy as supplement. The proposed method is applied to the rolling element bearing and gear fault detection to validate its reliability and effectiveness. Compared with the conventional frequency spectrum, envelope spectrum, original SK and some single wavelet methods, the results indicate that it could improve the accuracy of frequency-band selection and enhance the ability of rotating machinery fault detection. (paper)

  5. Improving Accuracy and Temporal Resolution of Learning Curve Estimation for within- and across-Session Analysis.

    Deliano, Matthias; Tabelow, Karsten; König, Reinhard; Polzehl, Jörg

    2016-01-01

    Estimation of learning curves is ubiquitously based on proportions of correct responses within moving trial windows. Thereby, it is tacitly assumed that learning performance is constant within the moving windows, which, however, is often not the case. In the present study we demonstrate that violations of this assumption lead to systematic errors in the analysis of learning curves, and we explored the dependency of these errors on window size, different statistical models, and learning phase. To reduce these errors in the analysis of single-subject data as well as on the population level, we propose adequate statistical methods for the estimation of learning curves and the construction of confidence intervals, trial by trial. Applied to data from an avoidance learning experiment with rodents, these methods revealed performance changes occurring at multiple time scales within and across training sessions which were otherwise obscured in the conventional analysis. Our work shows that the proper assessment of the behavioral dynamics of learning at high temporal resolution can shed new light on specific learning processes, and, thus, allows to refine existing learning concepts. It further disambiguates the interpretation of neurophysiological signal changes recorded during training in relation to learning. PMID:27303809

  6. Improving Accuracy and Temporal Resolution of Learning Curve Estimation for within- and across-Session Analysis.

    Matthias Deliano

    Full Text Available Estimation of learning curves is ubiquitously based on proportions of correct responses within moving trial windows. Thereby, it is tacitly assumed that learning performance is constant within the moving windows, which, however, is often not the case. In the present study we demonstrate that violations of this assumption lead to systematic errors in the analysis of learning curves, and we explored the dependency of these errors on window size, different statistical models, and learning phase. To reduce these errors in the analysis of single-subject data as well as on the population level, we propose adequate statistical methods for the estimation of learning curves and the construction of confidence intervals, trial by trial. Applied to data from an avoidance learning experiment with rodents, these methods revealed performance changes occurring at multiple time scales within and across training sessions which were otherwise obscured in the conventional analysis. Our work shows that the proper assessment of the behavioral dynamics of learning at high temporal resolution can shed new light on specific learning processes, and, thus, allows to refine existing learning concepts. It further disambiguates the interpretation of neurophysiological signal changes recorded during training in relation to learning.

  7. Development of Adaptive Feedback Control System of Both Spatial and Temporal Beam Shaping for UV-Laser Light Source for RF Gun

    Tomizawa, H; Dewa, H; Hanaki, H; Kobayashi, T; Mizuno, A; Suzuki, S; Taniuchi, T; Yanagida, K

    2004-01-01

    The ideal spatial and temporal profiles of a shot-by-shot single laser pulse are essential to suppress the emittance growth of the electron beam from a photo-cathode rf gun. We have been developing highly qualified UV-laser pulse as a light source of the rf gun for an injector candidate of future light sources. The gun cavity is a single-cell pillbox, and the copper inner wall is used as a photo cathode. The electron beam was accelerated up to 4.1 MeV at the maximum electric field on the cathode surface of 175 MV/m. For emittance compensation, two solenoid coils were used. As the first test run, with a microlens array as a simple spatial shaper, we obtained a minimum emittance value of 2 π·mm·mrad with a beam energy of 3.1 MeV, holding its charge to 0.1 nC/bunch. In the next test run, we prepared a deformable mirror for spatial shaping, and a spatial light modulator based on fused-silica plates for temporal shaping. We applied the both adaptive optics to automatically shape the bot...

  8. Study on Adaptive Slid Mode Controller for Improving Handling Stability of Motorized Electric Vehicles

    LiQiang Jin

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available An adaptive slid mode controller was established for improving the handling stability of motorized electric vehicle (MEV. First and foremost, the structure and advantages of electric vehicle driven by in-wheel motors will be provided. Then, an ideal cornering model of vehicles will be brought and analyzed, after which a method to estimate side-slip angle was also proposed and three typical sensors were used in the theory. Besides, an idea for the recognition of road adhesion coefficient was derived based on MEV platform, which will be helpful for better control performances. Finally, the scheme of control method was given and some typical tests for observing handling properties were implemented based on Simulink and Carsim software. With the outcomes from the experiments, which vividly showed the merits of the controller, one can come to a conclusion that MEV that equips with the adaptive slid mode controller always enjoys better handling performances than the one without control. Furthermore, the controller researched is friendly to the real-time working conditions, which will hold practical values in the future.

  9. Pairwise adaptive thermostats for improved accuracy and stability in dissipative particle dynamics

    Leimkuhler, Benedict

    2016-01-01

    We examine the formulation and numerical treatment of dissipative particle dynamics (DPD) and momentum-conserving molecular dynamics. We show that it is possible to improve both the accuracy and the stability of DPD by employing a pairwise adaptive Langevin thermostat that precisely matches the dynamical characteristics of DPD simulations (e.g., autocorrelation functions) while automatically correcting thermodynamic averages using a negative feedback loop. In the low friction regime, it is possible to replace DPD by a simpler momentum-conserving variant of the Nos\\'{e}--Hoover--Langevin method based on thermostatting only pairwise interactions; we show that this method has an extra order of accuracy for an important class of observables (a superconvergence result), while also allowing larger timesteps than alternatives. All the methods mentioned in the article are easily implemented. Numerical experiments are performed in both equilibrium and nonequilibrium settings; using Lees--Edwards boundary conditions to...

  10. Improved optimal steering law for SGCMG and adaptive attitude control of flexible spacecraft

    Lu Wang; Yu Guo; Liping Wu; Qingwei Chen

    2015-01-01

    The issue of attitude maneuver of a flexible spacecraft is investigated with single gimbaled control moment gyroscopes (SGCMGs) as an actuator. To solve the inertia uncertainty of the system, an adaptive attitude control algorithm is designed by ap-plying a radial basis function (RBF) neural network. An improved steering law for SGCMGs is proposed to achieve the optimal out-put torque. It enables the SGCMGs not only to avoid singularity, but also to output more precise torque. In addition, global, uniform, ultimate bounded stability of the attitude control system is proved via the Lyapunov technique. Simulation results demonstrate the effectiveness of the new steering law and the algorithm of attitude maneuver of the flexible spacecraft.

  11. Adaptive spatial compounding for improving ultrasound images of the epidural space on human subjects

    Tran, Denis; Hor, King-Wei; Kamani, Allaudin; Lessoway, Vickie; Rohling, Robert N.

    2008-03-01

    Administering epidural anesthesia can be a difficult procedure, especially for inexperienced physicians. The use of ultrasound imaging can help by showing the location of the key surrounding structures: the ligamentum flavum and the lamina of the vertebrae. The anatomical depiction of the interface between ligamentum flavum and epidural space is currently limited by speckle and anisotropic reflection. Previous work on phantoms showed that adaptive spatial compounding with non-rigid registration can improve the depiction of these features. This paper describes the development of an updated compounding algorithm and results from a clinical study. Average-based compounding may obscure anisotropic reflectors that only appear at certain beam angles, so a new median-based compounding technique is developed. In order to reduce the computational cost of the registration process, a linear prediction algorithm is used to reduce the search space for registration. The algorithms are tested on 20 human subjects. Comparisons are made among the reference image plus combinations of different compounding methods, warping and linear prediction. The gradient of the bone surfaces, the Laplacian of the ligamentum flavum, and the SNR and CNR are used to quantitatively assess the visibility of the features in the processed images. The results show a significant improvement in quality when median-based compounding with warping is used to align the set of beam-steered images and combine them. The improvement of the features makes detection of the epidural space easier.

  12. Adapting the iSNOBAL model for improved visualization in a GIS environment

    Johansen, W. J.; Delparte, D.

    2014-12-01

    Snowmelt is a primary means of crucial water resources in much of the western United States. Researchers are developing models that estimate snowmelt to aid in water resource management. One such model is the image snowcover energy and mass balance (iSNOBAL) model. It uses input climate grids to simulate the development and melting of snowpack in mountainous regions. This study looks at applying this model to the Reynolds Creek Experimental Watershed in southwestern Idaho, utilizing novel approaches incorporating geographic information systems (GIS). To improve visualization of the iSNOBAL model, we have adapted it to run in a GIS environment. This type of environment is suited to both the input grid creation and the visualization of results. The data used for input grid creation can be stored locally or on a web-server. Kriging interpolation embedded within Python scripts are used to create air temperature, soil temperature, humidity, and precipitation grids, while built-in GIS and existing tools are used to create solar radiation and wind grids. Additional Python scripting is then used to perform model calculations. The final product is a user-friendly and accessible version of the iSNOBAL model, including the ability to easily visualize and interact with model results, all within a web- or desktop-based GIS environment. This environment allows for interactive manipulation of model parameters and visualization of the resulting input grids for the model calculations. Future work is moving towards adapting the model further for use in a 3D gaming engine for improved visualization and interaction.

  13. Spatio-temporal complexity of chimpanzee food: How cognitive adaptations can counteract the ephemeral nature of ripe fruit.

    Janmaat, Karline R L; Boesch, Christophe; Byrne, Richard; Chapman, Colin A; Goné Bi, Zoro B; Head, Josephine S; Robbins, Martha M; Wrangham, Richard W; Polansky, Leo

    2016-06-01

    Ecological complexity has been proposed to play a crucial role in primate brain-size evolution. However, detailed quantification of ecological complexity is still limited. Here we assess the spatio-temporal distribution of tropical fruits and young leaves, two primary chimpanzee (Pan troglodytes) foods, focusing on the predictability of their availability in individual trees. Using up to 20 years of information on monthly availability of young leaf, unripe and ripe fruit in plant species consumed by chimpanzees from tropical forests in East, Central, and West Africa, we estimated: (1) the forest-wide frequency of occurrence of each food type and (2) the predictability of finding ripe fruit-bearing trees, focusing on the timing, frequency, and amount of ripe fruit present. In all three forests, at least half of all encountered trees belonged to species that chimpanzees were known to feed on. However, the proportion of these trees bearing young leaves and fruit fluctuated widely between months. Ripe fruit was the most ephemeral food source, and trees that had more than half of their crown filled were at least nine times scarcer than other trees. In old growth forests only one large ripe fruit crop was on average encountered per 10 km. High levels of inter-individual variation in the number of months that fruit was present existed, and in some extreme cases individuals bore ripe fruit more than seven times as often as conspecifics. Some species showed substantially less variation in such ripe fruit production frequencies and fruit quantity than others. We hypothesize that chimpanzees employ a suite of cognitive mechanisms, including abilities to: (1) generalize or classify food trees; (2) remember the relative metrics of quantity and frequency of fruit production across years; and (3) flexibly plan return times to feeding trees to optimize high-energy food consumption in individual trees, and efficient travel between them. Am. J. Primatol. 78:626-645, 2016. © 2016

  14. The Effect of Adaptive Gain and Adaptive Momentum in Improving Training Time of Gradient Descent Back Propagation Algorithm on Classification Problems

    Norhamreeza Abdul Hamid

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available The back propagation algorithm has been successfully applied to wide range of practical problems. Since this algorithm uses a gradient descent method, it has some limitations which are slow learning convergence velocity and easy convergence to local minima. The convergence behaviour of the back propagation algorithm depends on the choice of initial weights and biases, network topology, learning rate, momentum, activation function and value for the gain in the activation function. Previous researchers demonstrated that in ‘feed forward’ algorithm, the slope of the activation function is directly influenced by a parameter referred to as ‘gain’. This research proposed an algorithm for improving the performance of the current working back propagation algorithm which is Gradien Descent Method with Adaptive Gain by changing the momentum coefficient adaptively for each node. The influence of the adaptive momentum together with adaptive gain on the learning ability of a neural network is analysed. Multilayer feed forward neural networks have been assessed. Physical interpretation of the relationship between the momentum value, the learning rate and weight values is given. The efficiency of the proposed algorithm is compared with conventional Gradient Descent Method and current Gradient Descent Method with Adaptive Gain was verified by means of simulation on three benchmark problems. In learning the patterns, the simulations result demonstrate that the proposed algorithm converged faster on Wisconsin breast cancer with an improvement ratio of nearly 1.8, 6.6 on Mushroom problem and 36% better on  Soybean data sets. The results clearly show that the proposed algorithm significantly improves the learning speed of the current gradient descent back-propagatin algorithm.

  15. Adaptive Protocols to Improve TCP/IP Performance in an LMDS Network using a Broadband Channel Sounder

    Eshler, Todd Jacob

    2002-01-01

    Virginia Tech researchers have developed a broadband channel sounder that can measure channel quality while a wireless network is in operation. Channel measurements from the broadband sounder hold the promise of improving TCP/IP performance by trigging configuration changes in an adaptive data link layer protocol. We present an adaptive data link layer protocol that can use different levels of forward error correction (FEC) codes and link layer automatic retransmission request ...

  16. Shaping prestimulus neural activity with auditory rhythmic stimulation improves the temporal allocation of attention

    Pincham, Hannah L.; Cristoforetti, Giulia; Facoetti, Andrea; Szűcs, Dénes

    2016-01-01

    Human attention fluctuates across time, and even when stimuli have identical physical characteristics and the task demands are the same, relevant information is sometimes consciously perceived and at other times not. A typical example of this phenomenon is the attentional blink, where participants show a robust deficit in reporting the second of two targets (T2) in a rapid serial visual presentation (RSVP) stream. Previous electroencephalographical (EEG) studies showed that neural correlates of correct T2 report are not limited to the RSVP period, but extend before visual stimulation begins. In particular, reduced oscillatory neural activity in the alpha band (8-12 Hz) before the onset of the RSVP has been linked to lower T2 accuracy. We therefore examined whether auditory rhythmic stimuli presented at a rate of 10 Hz (within the alpha band) could increase oscillatory alpha-band activity and improve T2 performance in the attentional blink time window. Behaviourally, the auditory rhythmic stimulation worked to enhance T2 accuracy. This enhanced perception was associated with increases in the posterior T2-evoked N2 component of the event-related potentials and this effect was observed selectively at lag 3. Frontal and posterior oscillatory alpha-band activity was also enhanced during auditory stimulation in the pre-RSVP period and positively correlated with T2 accuracy. These findings suggest that ongoing fluctuations can be shaped by sensorial events to improve the allocation of attention in time. PMID:26986506

  17. White noise improves learning by modulating activity in dopaminergic midbrain regions and right superior temporal sulcus.

    Rausch, Vanessa H; Bauch, Eva M; Bunzeck, Nico

    2014-07-01

    In neural systems, information processing can be facilitated by adding an optimal level of white noise. Although this phenomenon, the so-called stochastic resonance, has traditionally been linked with perception, recent evidence indicates that white noise may also exert positive effects on cognitive functions, such as learning and memory. The underlying neural mechanisms, however, remain unclear. Here, on the basis of recent theories, we tested the hypothesis that auditory white noise, when presented during the encoding of scene images, enhances subsequent recognition memory performance and modulates activity within the dopaminergic midbrain (i.e., substantia nigra/ventral tegmental area, SN/VTA). Indeed, in a behavioral experiment, we can show in healthy humans that auditory white noise-but not control sounds, such as a sinus tone-slightly improves recognition memory. In an fMRI experiment, white noise selectively enhances stimulus-driven phasic activity in the SN/VTA and auditory cortex. Moreover, it induces stronger connectivity between SN/VTA and right STS, which, in addition, exhibited a positive correlation with subsequent memory improvement by white noise. Our results suggest that the beneficial effects of auditory white noise on learning depend on dopaminergic neuromodulation and enhanced connectivity between midbrain regions and the STS-a key player in attention modulation. Moreover, they indicate that white noise could be particularly useful to facilitate learning in conditions where changes of the mesolimbic system are causally related to memory deficits including healthy and pathological aging. PMID:24345178

  18. Shaping prestimulus neural activity with auditory rhythmic stimulation improves the temporal allocation of attention.

    Ronconi, Luca; Pincham, Hannah L; Cristoforetti, Giulia; Facoetti, Andrea; Szűcs, Dénes

    2016-05-01

    Human attention fluctuates across time, and even when stimuli have identical physical characteristics and the task demands are the same, relevant information is sometimes consciously perceived and at other times not. A typical example of this phenomenon is the attentional blink, where participants show a robust deficit in reporting the second of two targets (T2) in a rapid serial visual presentation (RSVP) stream. Previous electroencephalographical (EEG) studies showed that neural correlates of correct T2 report are not limited to the RSVP period, but extend before visual stimulation begins. In particular, reduced oscillatory neural activity in the alpha band (8-12 Hz) before the onset of the RSVP has been linked to lower T2 accuracy. We therefore examined whether auditory rhythmic stimuli presented at a rate of 10 Hz (within the alpha band) could increase oscillatory alpha-band activity and improve T2 performance in the attentional blink time window. Behaviourally, the auditory rhythmic stimulation worked to enhance T2 accuracy. This enhanced perception was associated with increases in the posterior T2-evoked N2 component of the event-related potentials and this effect was observed selectively at lag 3. Frontal and posterior oscillatory alpha-band activity was also enhanced during auditory stimulation in the pre-RSVP period and positively correlated with T2 accuracy. These findings suggest that ongoing fluctuations can be shaped by sensorial events to improve the allocation of attention in time. PMID:26986506

  19. Improving Temporal Coverage of an Energy-Efficient Data Extraction Algorithm for Environmental Monitoring Using Wireless Sensor Networks

    Supriyo Chatterjea

    2009-06-01

    Full Text Available Collecting raw data from a wireless sensor network for environmental monitoring applications can be a difficult task due to the high energy consumption involved. This is especially difficult when the application requires specialized sensors that have very high energy consumption, e.g. hydrological sensors for monitoring marine environments. This paper introduces a technique for reducing energy consumption by minimizing sensor sampling operations. In addition, we illustrate how a randomized algorithm can be used to improve temporal coverage such that the time between the occurrence of an event and its detection can be minimized. We evaluate our approach using real data collected from a sensor network deployment on the Great Barrier Reef.

  20. Using spatial, temporal and evidence-status data to improve ballistic imaging performance.

    Yang, Yan; Koffman, Avi; Hocherman, Gil; Wein, Lawrence M

    2014-01-01

    Firearms identification imaging systems help solve crimes by comparing newly acquired images of cartridge casings or bullets to a database of images obtained from past crime scenes. We formulate an optimization problem that bases its matching decisions not only on the similarity between pairs of images, but also on the time and spatial location of each new acquisition and each database entry. The objective is to maximize the detection probability subject to a constraint on the false positive rate. We use data on all cartridge casings matches detected in Israel during 2006-2008 to estimate most of the model parameters. We estimate matching accuracy from two different studies and predict that the optimal use of extraneous information would increase the detection probability from 0.931 to 0.987 and from 0.707 to 0.844, respectively. These improvements are achieved by favoring pairs of images that are closer together in space and time. PMID:24400829

  1. Adaptive Wavelet Threshold Denoising Method for Machinery Sound Based on Improved Fruit Fly Optimization Algorithm

    Jing Xu

    2016-07-01

    Full Text Available As the sound signal of a machine contains abundant information and is easy to measure, acoustic-based monitoring or diagnosis systems exhibit obvious superiority, especially in some extreme conditions. However, the sound directly collected from industrial field is always polluted. In order to eliminate noise components from machinery sound, a wavelet threshold denoising method optimized by an improved fruit fly optimization algorithm (WTD-IFOA is proposed in this paper. The sound is firstly decomposed by wavelet transform (WT to obtain coefficients of each level. As the wavelet threshold functions proposed by Donoho were discontinuous, many modified functions with continuous first and second order derivative were presented to realize adaptively denoising. However, the function-based denoising process is time-consuming and it is difficult to find optimal thresholds. To overcome these problems, fruit fly optimization algorithm (FOA was introduced to the process. Moreover, to avoid falling into local extremes, an improved fly distance range obeying normal distribution was proposed on the basis of original FOA. Then, sound signal of a motor was recorded in a soundproof laboratory, and Gauss white noise was added into the signal. The simulation results illustrated the effectiveness and superiority of the proposed approach by a comprehensive comparison among five typical methods. Finally, an industrial application on a shearer in coal mining working face was performed to demonstrate the practical effect.

  2. Improved Adaptive Routing for Multihop IEEE 802.15.6 Wireless Body Area Networks

    Shariar Imtiaz

    2013-11-01

    Full Text Available Wireless Body Area Network has the ability to collect and send data on body measurement to the server through PDA or other device. Nodes (sensors collect vital signs from the body or environmental factor and check them. In IEEE 802.15.6 routing is discussed as a part of the link layer where multihop is not fully considered. Improving network performance, reducing energy consumption, thus extending the network lifetime is the main challenge in BANs. Several studies mention that multihop for BANs helps for achieving network performance, reducing energy consumption and extending network lifetime. One work presents the Adaptive multihop tree-based Routing (AMR protocol that is extensively evaluated in a real testbed deployment. They use fuzzy logic to combine all metrics they use. Another limitation is that they have used Prim's algorithm which is not a realistic approach. So in this work we have improved their multihop tree-based Routing (AMR protocol using Kruskal's algorithm instead of Prim's algorithm. The time complexity of Kruskal's algorithm is way less than prims's algorithm. We have used network simulator 3 (NS3 to simulate and found that our algorithm is better than AMR if many of nodes.

  3. Spatial-temporal distribution of a Noctiluca scintillans population and its adaption to environmental conditions in northern South China Sea

    Yu Wang

    2012-11-01

    Full Text Available Based on the data of a Noctiluca scintillans population in northern South China Sea (107°00′–119°00′E, 16°00′–24°00′N obtained in project “Integrated Investigation and Assessment of China Seas”(coded as 908 project in 2006 and 2008, we described the spatial distribution in wide geographical areas and seasonal variations of a Noctiluca scintillans population using GIS spatial analysis modeling and mapping techniques. The adaption of Noctiluca scintillans to temperature, salinity and nutrients were also discussed. The results showed that abundance of Noctiluca scintillans varied from 0.001×104 cells/m3 to 64.5×104 cells/m3, with an average of (0.56±3.29×104 cells/m3(n = 1,424. Average abundance varied by season, spring > autumn > winter > summer, with highest and lowest abundances of (1.28±4.24×104 cells/m3 (n = 356 and (0.19±0.95×104 cells/m3 (n = 356, respectively. The spatial distribution of Noctiluca scintillans generally decreased from alongshore to offshore areas, in a pattern of discontinuous patches. Abundance assemblage zones laid along the shores of eastern Leizhou peninsula, where it was also the peak abundance region in winter. The zones of low annunal abundance were primarily in the northern South China Sea. Dapeng Bay in eastern Guangdong Province and Pearl River Estuary were not abundance assemblage zones during summer and winter months. We found the shore of southeastern Hainan Island became high abundance zones during summer months. Compared with data of national integrated investigations completed in 1958 and 1959, Noctiluca scintillans abundance increased abruptly with an evident change of abundance assemblage zones. The seasonal variation was obvious. Average Noctiluca scintillans abundance was 27 times higher than recorded in 1959. Noctiluca scintillans populations in South China Sea required a much higher temperature than it did in East, Yellow and Bohai Seas in China. Salinity fluctuations were

  4. TCP- Costco Reno: New Variant by Improving Bandwidth Estimation to adapt over MANETs

    Prakash B. Khelage

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available The Transmission Control Protocol (TCP is traditional, dominant and has been de facto standard protocol, used as transport agent at transport layer of TCP/IP protocol suite. Basically it is designed to provide reliability and assure guaranty to end-to-end delivery of data over unreliable networks. In practice, most TCP deployments have been carefully designed in the context of wired networks. Ignoring the properties of wireless Ad Hoc Networks, therefore it can lead to TCP implementations with poor performance. The problem of TCP and all its existing variations within MANETs resides in its inability to distinguish between different data packet loss causes, whenever the data loss occur traditional TCP congestion control algorithm assumes loss is due to congestion episode and reduces sending parameters value unnecessary. Thus, TCP has not always the optimum behavior in front of packet losses which might cause network performance degradation and resources waste. In order to adapt TCP over mobile Ad hoc environment, improvements have been proposed based on RTT and BW estimation technique in the literature to help TCP to differentiate accurate causes between the different types of losses. But still does not handle all the problems accurately and effectively. In this paper, a proposed TCP-Costco Reno a New Variant, accurately estimates the available bandwidth over Mobile Ad Hoc networks and sets sending rate accordingly to maximize utilization of available resources and hence improves performance of TCP over mobile Ad hoc networks. The results of the simulation indicate an improvement in throughput over interference, link failure and signal loss validation scenarios. Further, it shows highest average of average throughput then those variants which are most successful over MANETs.

  5. Investigation of instabilities affecting detonations: Improving the resolution using block-structured adaptive mesh refinement

    Ravindran, Prashaanth

    The unstable nature of detonation waves is a result of the critical relationship between the hydrodynamic shock and the chemical reactions sustaining the shock. A perturbative analysis of the critical point is quite challenging due to the multiple spatio-temporal scales involved along with the non-linear nature of the shock-reaction mechanism. The author's research attempts to provide detailed resolution of the instabilities at the shock front. Another key aspect of the present research is to develop an understanding of the causality between the non-linear dynamics of the front and the eventual breakdown of the sub-structures. An accurate numerical simulation of detonation waves requires a very efficient solution of the Euler equations in conservation form with detailed, non-equilibrium chemistry. The difference in the flow and reaction length scales results in very stiff source terms, requiring the problem to be solved with adaptive mesh refinement. For this purpose, Berger-Colella's block-structured adaptive mesh refinement (AMR) strategy has been developed and applied to time-explicit finite volume methods. The block-structured technique uses a hierarchy of parent-child sub-grids, integrated recursively over time. One novel approach to partition the problem within a large supercomputer was the use of modified Peano-Hilbert space filling curves. The AMR framework was merged with CLAWPACK, a package providing finite volume numerical methods tailored for wave-propagation problems. The stiffness problem is bypassed by using a 1st order Godunov or a 2nd order Strang splitting technique, where the flow variables and source terms are integrated independently. A linearly explicit fourth-order Runge-Kutta integrator is used for the flow, and an ODE solver was used to overcome the numerical stiffness. Second-order spatial resolution is obtained by using a second-order Roe-HLL scheme with the inclusion of numerical viscosity to stabilize the solution near the discontinuity

  6. In situ adaptive response to climate and habitat quality variation: spatial and temporal variation in European badger (Meles meles) body weight.

    Byrne, Andrew W; Fogarty, Ursula; O'Keeffe, James; Newman, Chris

    2015-09-01

    Variation in climatic and habitat conditions can affect populations through a variety of mechanisms, and these relationships can act at different temporal and spatial scales. Using post-mortem badger body weight records from 15 878 individuals captured across the Republic of Ireland (7224 setts across ca. 15 000 km(2) ; 2009-2012), we employed a hierarchical multilevel mixed model to evaluate the effects of climate (rainfall and temperature) and habitat quality (landscape suitability), while controlling for local abundance (unique badgers caught/sett/year). Body weight was affected strongly by temperature across a number of temporal scales (preceding month or season), with badgers being heavier if preceding temperatures (particularly during winter/spring) were warmer than the long-term seasonal mean. There was less support for rainfall across different temporal scales, although badgers did exhibit heavier weights when greater rainfall occurred one or 2 months prior to capture. Badgers were also heavier in areas with higher landscape habitat quality, modulated by the number of individuals captured per sett, consistent with density-dependent effects reducing weights. Overall, the mean badger body weight of culled individuals rose during the study period (2009-2012), more so for males than for females. With predicted increases in temperature, and rainfall, augmented by ongoing agricultural land conversion in this region, we project heavier individual badger body weights in the future. Increased body weight has been associated with higher fecundity, recruitment and survival rates in badgers, due to improved food availability and energetic budgets. We thus predict that climate change could increase the badger population across the Republic of Ireland. Nevertheless, we emphasize that, locally, populations could still be vulnerable to extreme weather variability coupled with detrimental agricultural practice, including population management. PMID:25846328

  7. Aortic pressure wave reconstruction during exercise is improved by adaptive filtering: a pilot study.

    Stok, Wim J; Westerhof, Berend E; Guelen, Ilja; Karemaker, John M

    2011-08-01

    Reconstruction of central aortic pressure from a peripheral measurement by a generalized transfer function (genTF) works well at rest and mild exercise at lower heart rates, but becomes less accurate during heavy exercise. Particularly, systolic and pulse pressure estimations deteriorate, thereby underestimating central pressure. We tested individualization of the TF (indTF) by adapting its resonance frequency at the various levels of exercise. In seven males (age 44-57) with coronary artery disease, central and peripheral pressures were measured simultaneously. The optimal resonance frequency was predicted from regression formulas using variables derived from the individual's peripheral pressure pulse, including a pulse contour estimation of cardiac output (pcCO). In addition, reconstructed pressures were calibrated to central mean and diastolic pressure at each exercise level. Using a genTF and without calibration, the error in estimated aortic pulse pressure was -7.5 ± 6.4 mmHg, which was reduced to 0.2 ± 5.7 mmHg with the indTFs using pcCO for prediction. Calibration resulted in less scatter at the cost of a small bias (2.7 mmHg). In exercise, the indTFs predict systolic and pulse pressure better than the genTF. This pilot study shows that it is possible to individualize the peripheral to aortic pressure transfer function, thereby improving accuracy in central blood pressure assessment during exercise. PMID:21720842

  8. Improving conservation outcomes with a new paradigm for understanding species’ fundamental and realized adaptive capacity

    Beever, Erik; O’Leary, John; Mengelt, Claudia; West, Jordan M.; Julius, Susan; Green, Nancy; Magness, Dawn; Petes, Laura E.; Stein, Bruce A.; Nicotra, Adrienne B; Hellmann, Jessica J; Robertson, Amanda L; Staudinger, Michelle D.; Rosenberg, Andrew A.; Babij, Eleanora; Brennan, Jean; Schuurman, Gregor W; Hofmann, Gretchen E

    2016-01-01

    Worldwide, many species are responding to ongoing climate change with shifts in distribution, abundance, phenology, or behavior. Consequently, natural-resource managers face increasingly urgent conservation questions related to biodiversity loss, expansion of invasive species, and deteriorating ecosystem services. We argue that our ability to address these questions is hampered by the lack of explicit consideration of species’ adaptive capacity (AC). AC is the ability of a species or population to cope with climatic changes and is characterized by three fundamental components: phenotypic plasticity, dispersal ability, and genetic diversity. However, few studies simultaneously address all elements; often, AC is confused with sensitivity or omitted altogether from climate-change vulnerability assessments. Improved understanding, consistent definition, and comprehensive evaluations of AC are needed. Using classic ecological-niche theory as an analogy, we propose a new paradigm that considers fundamental and realized AC: the former reflects aspects inherent to species, whereas the latter denotes how extrinsic factors constrain AC to what is actually expressed or observed. Through this conceptualization, we identify ecological attributes contributing to AC, outline areas of research necessary to advance understanding of AC, and provide examples demonstrating how the inclusion of AC can better inform conservation and natural-resource management.

  9. An improved adaptive kriging-based importance technique for sampling multiple failure regions of low probability

    The estimation of system failure probabilities may be a difficult task when the values involved are very small, so that sampling-based Monte Carlo methods may become computationally impractical, especially if the computer codes used to model the system response require large computational efforts, both in terms of time and memory. This paper proposes a modification of an algorithm proposed in literature for the efficient estimation of small failure probabilities, which combines FORM to an adaptive kriging-based importance sampling strategy (AK-IS). The modification allows overcoming an important limitation of the original AK-IS in that it provides the algorithm with the flexibility to deal with multiple failure regions characterized by complex, non-linear limit states. The modified algorithm is shown to offer satisfactory results with reference to four case studies of literature, outperforming in general several other alternative methods of literature. - Highlights: • We tackle low failure probability estimation within reliability analysis context. • We improve a kriging-based importance sampling for estimating failure probabilities. • The new algorithm is capable of dealing with multiple-disconnected failure regions. • The performances are better than other methods of literature on 4 test case-studies

  10. Improved characterization of slow-moving landslides by means of adaptive NL-InSAR filtering

    Albiol, David; Iglesias, Rubén.; Sánchez, Francisco; Duro, Javier

    2014-10-01

    Advanced remote sensing techniques based on space-borne Synthetic Aperture Radar (SAR) have been developed during the last decade showing their applicability for the monitoring of surface displacements in landslide areas. This paper presents an advanced Persistent Scatterer Interferometry (PSI) processing based on the Stable Point Network (SPN) technique, developed by the company Altamira-Information, for the monitoring of an active slowmoving landslide in the mountainous environment of El Portalet, Central Spanish Pyrenees. For this purpose, two TerraSAR-X data sets acquired in ascending mode corresponding to the period from April to November 2011, and from August to November 2013, respectively, are employed. The objective of this work is twofold. On the one hand, the benefits of employing Nonlocal Interferomtric SAR (NL-InSAR) adaptive filtering techniques over vegetated scenarios to maximize the chances of detecting natural distributed scatterers, such as bare or rocky areas, and deterministic point-like scatterers, such as man-made structures or poles, is put forward. In this context, the final PSI displacement maps retrieved with the proposed filtering technique are compared in terms of pixels' density and quality with classical PSI, showing a significant improvement. On the other hand, since SAR systems are only sensitive to detect displacements in the line-of-sight (LOS) direction, the importance of projecting the PSI displacement results retrieved along the steepest gradient of the terrain slope is discussed. The improvements presented in this paper are particularly interesting in these type of applications since they clearly allow to better determine the extension and dynamics of complex landslide phenomena.

  11. Stability evaluation and improvement of adaptive optics systems by using the Lyapunov stability approach

    Wang, Liang; Chen, Tao; Liu, Xin-yue; Lin, Xu-dong; Yang, Xiao-xia; Li, Hong-zhuang

    2016-02-01

    In this research, investigations on the closed-loop control stability of adaptive optics systems are conducted by using the Lyapunov approach. As an direct metric of the control stability, the error propagator includes the effects of both the integral gain and the influence matrix and is effective for control-stability evaluation. An experimental 97-element AO system is developed for the control-stability investigation, and the Southwell sensor-actuator configuration rather than the Fried geometry is adopted so as to suppress the potential waffle mode. Because filtering out small singular values of the influence matrix can be used to improve the control stability, the effect of the influence matrix and the effect of the integral gain are considered as a whole by using the error propagator. Then, the control stability of the AO system is evaluated for varying the integral gains and the number of filtered-out singular values. Afterwards, an analysis of the evaluations of the error propagator is made, and a conclusion can be drawn that the control stability can be improved by filtering out more singular values of the influence matrix when the integral gain is high. In other words, the error propagator is useful for trading off the bandwidth error and the fitting error of AO systems in a control-stability approach. Finally, a performance measurement of the experimental AO system is conducted when 13 smaller singular values of the influence matrix are filtered out, and the results show that filtering out a small fraction of the singular values has a minor influence on the performance of this AO system.

  12. IL-15 prevents apoptosis, reverses innate and adaptive immune dysfunction, and improves survival in sepsis.

    Inoue, Shigeaki; Unsinger, Jacqueline; Davis, Christopher G; Muenzer, Jared T; Ferguson, Thomas A; Chang, Katherine; Osborne, Dale F; Clark, Andrew T; Coopersmith, Craig M; McDunn, Jonathan E; Hotchkiss, Richard S

    2010-02-01

    IL-15 is a pluripotent antiapoptotic cytokine that signals to cells of both the innate and adaptive immune system and is regarded as a highly promising immunomodulatory agent in cancer therapy. Sepsis is a lethal condition in which apoptosis-induced depletion of immune cells and subsequent immunosuppression are thought to contribute to morbidity and mortality. This study tested the ability of IL-15 to block apoptosis, prevent immunosuppression, and improve survival in sepsis. Mice were made septic using cecal ligation and puncture or Pseudomonas aeruginosa pneumonia. The experiments comprised a 2 x 2 full factorial design with surgical sepsis versus sham and IL-15 versus vehicle. In addition to survival studies, splenic cellularity, canonical markers of activation and proliferation, intracellular pro- and antiapoptotic Bcl-2 family protein expression, and markers of immune cell apoptosis were evaluated by flow cytometry. Cytokine production was examined both in plasma of treated mice and splenocytes that were stimulated ex vivo. IL-15 blocked sepsis-induced apoptosis of NK cells, dendritic cells, and CD8 T cells. IL-15 also decreased sepsis-induced gut epithelial apoptosis. IL-15 therapy increased the abundance of antiapoptotic Bcl-2 while decreasing proapoptotic Bim and PUMA. IL-15 increased both circulating IFN-gamma, as well as the percentage of NK cells that produced IFN-gamma. Finally, IL-15 increased survival in both cecal ligation and puncture and P. aeruginosa pneumonia. In conclusion, IL-15 prevents two immunopathologic hallmarks of sepsis, namely, apoptosis and immunosuppression, and improves survival in two different models of sepsis. IL-15 represents a potentially novel therapy of this highly lethal disorder. PMID:20026737

  13. IMPROVE THE KINETIC PERFORMANCE OF THE PUMP CONTROLLED CLAMPING UNIT IN PLASTIC INJECTION MOLDING MACHINE WITH ADAPTIVE CONTROL STRATEGY

    2006-01-01

    The kinetic characteristics of the clamping unit of plastic injection molding machine that is controlled by close loop with newly developed double speed variable pump unit are investigated.Considering the wide variation of the cylinder equivalent mass caused by the transmission ratio of clamping unit and the severe instantaneous impact force acted on the cylinder during the mold closing and opening process, an adaptive control principle of parameter and structure is proposed to improve its kinetic performance. The adaptive correlation between the acceleration feedback gain and the variable mass is derived. The pressure differential feedback is introduced to improve the dynamic performance in the case of small inertia and heavy impact load. The adaptation of sum pressure to load is used to reduce the energy loss of the system. The research results are verified by the simulation and experiment. The investigation method and the conclusions are also suitable for the differential cylinder system controlled by the traditional servo pump unit.

  14. Improved Robust Adaptive Control of a Fluidized Bed Combustor for Sewage Sludge

    MENGHong-Xia; JIAYing-Min

    2005-01-01

    This paper presents a robust model reference adaptive control scheme to deal with uncertain time delay in the dynamical model of a fluidized bed combustor for sewage sludge. The theoretical analysis and simulation results show that the proposed scheme can guarantee not only stability and robustness, but also the adaptive decoupling performance of the system.

  15. Combining spatial-temporal and phylogenetic analysis approaches for improved understanding on global H5N1 transmission.

    Lu Liang

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: Since late 2003, the highly pathogenic influenza A H5N1 had initiated several outbreak waves that swept across the Eurasia and Africa continents. Getting prepared for reassortment or mutation of H5N1 viruses has become a global priority. Although the spreading mechanism of H5N1 has been studied from different perspectives, its main transmission agents and spread route problems remain unsolved. METHODOLOGY/PRINCIPAL FINDINGS: Based on a compilation of the time and location of global H5N1 outbreaks from November 2003 to December 2006, we report an interdisciplinary effort that combines the geospatial informatics approach with a bioinformatics approach to form an improved understanding on the transmission mechanisms of H5N1 virus. Through a spherical coordinate based analysis, which is not conventionally done in geographical analyses, we reveal obvious spatial and temporal clusters of global H5N1 cases on different scales, which we consider to be associated with two different transmission modes of H5N1 viruses. Then through an interdisciplinary study of both geographic and phylogenetic analysis, we obtain a H5N1 spreading route map. Our results provide insight on competing hypotheses as to which avian hosts are responsible for the spread of H5N1. CONCLUSIONS/SIGNIFICANCE: We found that although South China and Southeast Asia may be the virus pool of avian flu, East Siberia may be the source of the H5N1 epidemic. The concentration of migratory birds from different places increases the possibility of gene mutation. Special attention should be paid to East Siberia, Middle Siberia and South China for improved surveillance of H5N1 viruses and monitoring of migratory birds.

  16. Adaptive Lockable Units to Improve Data Availability in a Distributed Database System

    Khaled Maabreh

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Distributed database systems have become a phenomenon and have been considered a crucial source of information for numerous users. Users with different jobs are using such systems locally or via the Internet to meet their professional requirements. Distributed database systems consist of a number of sites connected over a computer network. Each site deals with its own database and interacts with other sites as needed. Data replication in these systems is considered a key factor in improving data availability. However, it may affect system performance when most of the transactions that access the data contain write or a mix of read and write operations because of exclusive locks and update propagation. This research proposes a new adaptive approach for increasing the availability of data contained in a distributed database system. The proposed approach suggests a new lockable unit by increasing the database hierarchy tree by one level to include attributes as lockable units instead of the entire row. This technique may allow several transactions to access the database row simultaneously by utilizing some attributes and keeping others available for other transactions. Data in a distributed database system can be accessed locally or remotely by a distributed transaction, with each distributed transaction decomposed into several sub-transactions called participants or agents. These agents access the data at multiple sites and must guarantee that any changes to the data must be committed in order to complete the main transaction. The experimental results show that using attribute-level locking will increase data availability, reliability, and throughput, as well as enhance overall system performance. Moreover, it will increase the overhead of managing such a large number of locks, which will be managed according to the qualification of the query.

  17. An Improved Method for Producing High Spatial-Resolution NDVI Time Series Datasets with Multi-Temporal MODIS NDVI Data and Landsat TM/ETM+ Images

    Yuhan Rao

    2015-06-01

    Full Text Available Due to technical limitations, it is impossible to have high resolution in both spatial and temporal dimensions for current NDVI datasets. Therefore, several methods are developed to produce high resolution (spatial and temporal NDVI time-series datasets, which face some limitations including high computation loads and unreasonable assumptions. In this study, an unmixing-based method, NDVI Linear Mixing Growth Model (NDVI-LMGM, is proposed to achieve the goal of accurately and efficiently blending MODIS NDVI time-series data and multi-temporal Landsat TM/ETM+ images. This method firstly unmixes the NDVI temporal changes in MODIS time-series to different land cover types and then uses unmixed NDVI temporal changes to predict Landsat-like NDVI dataset. The test over a forest site shows high accuracy (average difference: −0.0070; average absolute difference: 0.0228; and average absolute relative difference: 4.02% and computation efficiency of NDVI-LMGM (31 seconds using a personal computer. Experiments over more complex landscape and long-term time-series demonstrated that NDVI-LMGM performs well in each stage of vegetation growing season and is robust in regions with contrasting spatial and spatial variations. Comparisons between NDVI-LMGM and current methods (i.e., Spatial and Temporal Adaptive Reflectance Fusion Model (STARFM, Enhanced STARFM (ESTARFM and Weighted Linear Model (WLM show that NDVI-LMGM is more accurate and efficient than current methods. The proposed method will benefit land surface process research, which requires a dense NDVI time-series dataset with high spatial resolution.

  18. Incorporating Midbrain Adaptation to Mean Sound Level Improves Models of Auditory Cortical Processing

    Harper, NS; Willmore, BDB; Schnupp, JWH; King, AJ; Schoppe, O

    2016-01-01

    Adaptation to stimulus statistics, such as the mean level and contrast of recently- heard sounds, has been demonstrated at various levels of the auditory pathway. It allows the nervous system to operate over the wide range of intensities and contrasts found in the natural world. Yet, current standard models of the response properties of auditory neurons do not incorporate such adaptation. Here, we present a model of neural responses in the ferret auditory cortex (the I...

  19. Assessing the components of adaptive capacity to improve conservation and management efforts under global change

    Nicotra, Adrienne; Beever, Erik; Robertson, Amanda; Hofmann, Gretchen; O’Leary, John

    2015-01-01

    Natural-resource managers and other conservation practitioners are under unprecedented pressure to categorize and quantify the vulnerability of natural systems based on assessment of the exposure, sensitivity, and adaptive capacity of species to climate change. Despite the urgent need for these assessments, neither the theoretical basis of adaptive capacity nor the practical issues underlying its quantification has been articulated in a manner that is directly applicable to natural-resource management. Both are critical for researchers, managers, and other conservation practitioners to develop reliable strategies for assessing adaptive capacity. Drawing from principles of classical and contemporary research and examples from terrestrial, marine, plant, and animal systems, we examined broadly the theory behind the concept of adaptive capacity. We then considered how interdisciplinary, trait- and triage-based approaches encompassing the oft-overlooked interactions among components of adaptive capacity can be used to identify species and populations likely to have higher (or lower) adaptive capacity. We identified the challenges and value of such endeavors and argue for a concerted interdisciplinary research approach that combines ecology, ecological genetics, and eco-physiology to reflect the interacting components of adaptive capacity. We aimed to provide a basis for constructive discussion between natural-resource managers and researchers, discussions urgently needed to identify research directions that will deliver answers to real-world questions facing resource managers, other conservation practitioners, and policy makers. Directing research to both seek general patterns and identify ways to facilitate adaptive capacity of key species and populations within species, will enable conservation ecologists and resource managers to maximize returns on research and management investment and arrive at novel and dynamic management and policy decisions.

  20. Rift Valley fever dynamics in Senegal: a project for pro-active adaptation and improvement of livestock raising management.

    Lafaye, Murielle; Sall, Baba; Ndiaye, Youssou; Vignolles, Cecile; Tourre, Yves M; Borchi, Franc Ois; Soubeyroux, Jean-Michel; Diallo, Mawlouth; Dia, Ibrahima; Ba, Yamar; Faye, Abdoulaye; Ba, Taibou; Ka, Alioune; Ndione, Jacques-André; Gauthier, Hélène; Lacaux, Jean-Pierre

    2013-11-01

    The multi-disciplinary French project "Adaptation à la Fiévre de la Vallée du Rift" (AdaptFVR) has concluded a 10-year constructive interaction between many scientists/partners involved with the Rift Valley fever (RVF) dynamics in Senegal. The three targeted objectives reached were (i) to produce--in near real-time--validated risk maps for parked livestock exposed to RVF mosquitoes/vectors bites; (ii) to assess the impacts on RVF vectors from climate variability at different time-scales including climate change; and (iii) to isolate processes improving local livestock management and animal health. Based on these results, concrete, pro-active adaptive actions were taken on site, which led to the establishment of a RVF early warning system (RVFews). Bulletins were released in a timely fashion during the project, tested and validated in close collaboration with the local populations, i.e. the primary users. Among the strategic, adaptive methods developed, conducted and evaluated in terms of cost/benefit analyses are the larvicide campaigns and the coupled bio-mathematical (hydrological and entomological) model technologies, which are being transferred to the staff of the "Centre de Suivi Ecologique" (CSE) in Dakar during 2013. Based on the results from the AdaptFVR project, other projects with similar conceptual and modelling approaches are currently being implemented, e.g. for urban and rural malaria and dengue in the French Antilles. PMID:24258902

  1. Evaluating spatial-temporal dynamics of net primary productivity of different forest types in northeastern China based on improved FORCCHN.

    Zhao, Junfang; Yan, Xiaodong; Guo, Jianping; Jia, Gensuo

    2012-01-01

    An improved individual-based forest ecosystem carbon budget model for China (FORCCHN) was applied to investigate the spatial-temporal dynamics of net primary productivity of different forest types in northeastern China. In this study, the forests of northeastern China were categorized into four ecological types according to their habitats and generic characteristics (evergreen broadleaf forest, deciduous broadleaf forest, evergreen needleleaf forest and deciduous needleleaf forest). The results showed that distribution and change of forest NPP in northeastern China were related to the different forest types. From 1981 to 2002, among the forest types in northeastern China, per unit area NPP and total NPP of deciduous broadleaf forest were the highest, with the values of 729.4 gC/(m(2)•yr) and 106.0 TgC/yr, respectively, followed by mixed broadleaf- needleleaf forest, deciduous needleleaf forest and evergreen needleleaf forest. From 1981 to 2002, per unit area NPP and total NPP of different forest types in northeastern China exhibited significant trends of interannual increase, and rapid increase was found between the 1980s and 1990s. The contribution of the different forest type's NPP to total NPP in northeastern China was clearly different. The greatest was deciduous broadleaf forest, followed by mixed broadleaf- needleleaf forest and deciduous needleleaf forest. The smallest was evergreen needleleaf forest. Spatial difference in NPP between different forest types was remarkable. High NPP values of deciduous needleleaf forest, mixed broadleaf- needleleaf forest and deciduous broadleaf forest were found in the Daxing'anling region, the southeastern of Xiaoxing'anling and Jilin province, and the Changbai Mountain, respectively. However, no regional differences were found for evergreen needleleaf NPP. This study provided not only an estimation NPP of different forest types in northeastern China but also a useful methodology for estimating forest carbon storage at

  2. Bolstering resilience in the coconut kingdom: Improving adaptive capacity to climate change in Vanuatu

    This communication discusses climate change adaptation efforts underway in Vanuatu. In particular, it uncovers why community-based approaches to adaptation are more likely to bear fruit than ones driven from the top-down at the national level. The authors make this claim based on early evidence that small-scale projects (a) support community ownership over adaptation, (b) provide ongoing technical learning lessons (c) relieve pressure from capacity constraints at national administrative bodies, and (d) expedite implementation by avoiding cumbersome multilateral procedures. The first section discusses its research methods and presents important characteristics of the Vanuatu economy, people and geography. The communication then moves on to discuss Vanuatu’s vulnerability to the effects of climate change. It specifically investigates on-going efforts to adapt to natural climatic hazards in Vanuatu. Early evidence and analysis reveals lessons salient for energy and climate policy. - Highlights: ► The island state of Vanuatu is especially vulnerable to natural climatic hazards and climate change. ► Community-based approaches to climate change adaptation have unique benefits in Vanuatu. ► This note provides lessons salient for energy and climate policy in Vanuatu.

  3. Application of Improved Neural Adaptive PSD Algorithm in Temperature Control of INS

    缪玲娟; 郭振西; 崔燕

    2004-01-01

    A neural adaptive proportion sum differential (PSD) algorithm with errors prediction is researched. It is applied in inertial navigation system(INS) temperature control. The algorithm do not need the process's precise mathematical model and can adapt to the process pareters changing, and can deal with the process with nonlinearity. According to the Smith predictor, author developed a method that takes the predicted process error and error change as neural adaptive PSD algorithm's input. The method is effective to the system with long dead time. The results of compute simulation show that this system has characters of quickly reaction, low overshoot and good stability. It can meet the requirements of temperature control of INS.

  4. Improvement of the Simplified Fast Transversal Filter Type Algorithm for Adaptive Filtering

    Madjid Arezki

    2009-01-01

    Full Text Available Problem statement: In this study, we proposed a new algorithm M-SMFTF for adaptive filtering with fast convergence and low complexity. Approach: It was the result of a simplified FTF type algorithm, where the adaptation gain was obtained only from the forward prediction variables and using a new recursive method to compute the likelihood variable. Results: The computational complexity was reduced from 7L-6L, where L is the finite impulse response filter length. Furthermore, this computational complexity can be significantly reduced to (2L+4P when used with a reduced P-size forward predictor. Conclusion: This algorithm presented a certain interest, for the adaptation of very long filters, like those used in the problems of echo acoustic cancellation, due to its reduced complexity, its numerical stability and its convergence in the presence of the speech signal.

  5. Adaption of the Cytokinesis-Block Micronucleus Cytome Assay for Improved Triage Biodosimetry.

    Beinke, C; Port, M; Riecke, A; Ruf, C G; Abend, M

    2016-05-01

    The purpose of this work was to adapt a more advanced form of the cytokinesis-block micronucleus (CBMN) cytome assay for triage biodosimetry in the event of a mass casualty radiation incident. We modified scoring procedures for the CBMN cytome assay to optimize field deployability, dose range, accuracy, speed, economy, simplicity and stability. Peripheral blood of 20 donors was irradiated in vitro (0-6 Gy X ray, maximum photon energy 240 keV) and processed for CBMN. Initially, we assessed two manual scoring strategies for accuracy: 1. Conventional scoring, comprised of micronucleus (MN) frequency per 1,000 binucleated (BN) cells (MN/1,000 BN cells); and 2. Evaluation of 1,000, 2,000 and 3,000 cells in total and different cellular subsets based on MN formation and proliferation (e.g., BN cells with and without MN, mononucleated cells). We used linear and logistic regression models to identify the cellular subsets related closest to dose with the best discrimination ability among different doses/dose categories. We validated the most promising subsets and their combinations with 16 blind samples covering a dose range of 0-8.3 Gy. Linear dose-response relationships comparable to the conventional CBMN assay (r(2) = 0.86) were found for BN cells with MN (r(2) = 0.84) and BN cells without MN (r(2) = 0.84). Models of combined cell counts (CCC) of BN cells with and without MN (BN(+MN) and BN(-MN)) with mononucleated cells (Mono) improved this relationship (r(2) = 0.92). Conventional CBMN discriminated dose categories up to 3 Gy with a concordance between 0.96-1.0 upon scoring 1,000 total cells. In 1,000 BN cells, concordances were observed for conventional CBMN up to 4 Gy as well as BN(+MN) or BN(-MN) (about 0.85). At doses of 4-6 Gy, the concordance of conventional CBMN, BN(+MN) and BN(-MN) declined (about 0.55). We found about 20% higher concordance and more precise dose estimates of irradiated and blinded samples for CCC (Mono + BN(+MN)) after scoring 1,000 total cells

  6. Managing project complexity: A study into adapting early project phases to improve project performance in large engineering projects

    Bosch-Rekveldt, M.G.C.

    2011-01-01

    Engineering projects become increasingly more complex and project complexity is assumed to be one of the causes for projects being delivered late and over budget. However, what this project complexity actually comprised of was unclear. To improve the overall project performance, this study focuses on identifying the potential causes of complexity in projects. Moreover, it is investigated how the early project phase could be adapted to the complexity of the project. The research is performed w...

  7. Efficiency and reliability improvement in wind turbine converters by grid converter adaptive control

    Trintis, Ionut; Munk-Nielsen, Stig; Abrahamsen, Flemming;

    2013-01-01

    and generator side. Operating in this way, the electrical and thermal stress factors are decreased on the power electronic devices, increasing their lifetime. The simulation results using this method show efficiency increase and devices temperature cycles slightly decreased. Experimental results on a...... wind turbine power stack shows efficiency increase in the high power region.......This paper presents a control method that reduces the losses in wind turbine converters adaptively controlling the grid converter. The dc-link voltage adapts its reference based on the system state and therefore reduces the stored energy, and is therefore kept at the minimum necessary for the grid...

  8. Simulation of Adaptive OFDM and its improved algorithm%自适应OFDM及其改进算法

    郝丽娜; 宋金玲

    2011-01-01

    OFDM 技术是第四代移动通信的核心技术之一,是一种高效的数据传输方式,是一种特殊的多载波传输方案。本文介绍的改进后的自适应调制技术,自适应地根据星座图集所限定的比特数目来进行变步长调整,这样大大减少了计算量。并通过使用Matlab仿真出的结果与Campello算法仿真的结果进行比较,说明改进后的变步长的自适应OFDM算法的优越性。%OFDM technology is one of the core technologies of the fourth generation mobile communication, which is an efficient data transmission and is a special multi-carrier transmission scheme. The improved adaptive modulation technology adjusts the step of computing according to limited bits of constellation atlas, which reduce the computation greatly. Compared the result of the improved adaptive modulation technology with the result of Compello algorithm simulation, we find that the improved adaptive modulation OFDM technology has great advantages.

  9. Forecasting foreign exchange rates with an improved back-propagation learning algorithm with adaptive smoothing momentum terms

    Lean YU; Shouyang WANG; Kin Keung LAI

    2009-01-01

    The slow convergence of back-propagation neu-ral network (BPNN) has become a challenge in data-mining and knowledge discovery applications due to the drawbacks of the gradient descent (GD) optimization method, which is widely adopted in BPNN learning. To solve this problem,some standard Optimization techniques such as conjugate-gradient and Newton method have been proposed to improve the convergence rate of BP learning algorithm. This paper presents a heuristic method that adds an adaptive smooth-ing momentum term to original BP learning algorithm to speedup the convergence. In this improved BP learning al-gorithm, adaptive smoothing technique is used to adjust the momentums of weight updating formula automatically in terms of "3 σ limits theory." Using the adaptive smoothing momentum terms, the improved BP learning algorithm can make the network training and convergence process faster,and the network's generalization performance stronger than the standard BP learning algorithm can do. In order to ver-ify the effectiveness of the proposed BP learning algorithm,three typical foreign exchange rates, British pound (GBP),Euro (EUR), and Japanese yen (JPY), are chosen as the fore-casting targets for illustration purpose. Experimental results from homogeneous algorithm comparisons reveal that the proposed BP learning algorithm outperforms the other com-parable BP algorithms in performance and convergence rate.Furthermore, empirical results from heterogeneous model comparisons also show the effectiveness of the proposed BP learning algorithm.

  10. Identification of robust adaptation gene regulatory network parameters using an improved particle swarm optimization algorithm.

    Huang, X N; Ren, H P

    2016-01-01

    Robust adaptation is a critical ability of gene regulatory network (GRN) to survive in a fluctuating environment, which represents the system responding to an input stimulus rapidly and then returning to its pre-stimulus steady state timely. In this paper, the GRN is modeled using the Michaelis-Menten rate equations, which are highly nonlinear differential equations containing 12 undetermined parameters. The robust adaption is quantitatively described by two conflicting indices. To identify the parameter sets in order to confer the GRNs with robust adaptation is a multi-variable, multi-objective, and multi-peak optimization problem, which is difficult to acquire satisfactory solutions especially high-quality solutions. A new best-neighbor particle swarm optimization algorithm is proposed to implement this task. The proposed algorithm employs a Latin hypercube sampling method to generate the initial population. The particle crossover operation and elitist preservation strategy are also used in the proposed algorithm. The simulation results revealed that the proposed algorithm could identify multiple solutions in one time running. Moreover, it demonstrated a superior performance as compared to the previous methods in the sense of detecting more high-quality solutions within an acceptable time. The proposed methodology, owing to its universality and simplicity, is useful for providing the guidance to design GRN with superior robust adaptation. PMID:27323043

  11. The Contextualized Technology Adaptation Process (CTAP): Optimizing Health Information Technology to Improve Mental Health Systems.

    Lyon, Aaron R; Wasse, Jessica Knaster; Ludwig, Kristy; Zachry, Mark; Bruns, Eric J; Unützer, Jürgen; McCauley, Elizabeth

    2016-05-01

    Health information technologies have become a central fixture in the mental healthcare landscape, but few frameworks exist to guide their adaptation to novel settings. This paper introduces the contextualized technology adaptation process (CTAP) and presents data collected during Phase 1 of its application to measurement feedback system development in school mental health. The CTAP is built on models of human-centered design and implementation science and incorporates repeated mixed methods assessments to guide the design of technologies to ensure high compatibility with a destination setting. CTAP phases include: (1) Contextual evaluation, (2) Evaluation of the unadapted technology, (3) Trialing and evaluation of the adapted technology, (4) Refinement and larger-scale implementation, and (5) Sustainment through ongoing evaluation and system revision. Qualitative findings from school-based practitioner focus groups are presented, which provided information for CTAP Phase 1, contextual evaluation, surrounding education sector clinicians' workflows, types of technologies currently available, and influences on technology use. Discussion focuses on how findings will inform subsequent CTAP phases, as well as their implications for future technology adaptation across content domains and service sectors. PMID:25677251

  12. Building Turnaround Capacity for Urban School Improvement: The Role of Adaptive Leadership and Defined Autonomy

    Conrad, Jill K.

    2013-01-01

    This dissertation examines the levels of and relationships between technical leadership, adaptive leadership, and defined autonomy among Denver school leaders along with their combined effects on school growth gains over time. Thirty principals provided complete responses to an online survey that included existing scales for technical leadership,…

  13. FOG Random Drift Signal Denoising Based on the Improved AR Model and Modified Sage-Husa Adaptive Kalman Filter.

    Sun, Jin; Xu, Xiaosu; Liu, Yiting; Zhang, Tao; Li, Yao

    2016-01-01

    In order to reduce the influence of fiber optic gyroscope (FOG) random drift error on inertial navigation systems, an improved auto regressive (AR) model is put forward in this paper. First, based on real-time observations at each restart of the gyroscope, the model of FOG random drift can be established online. In the improved AR model, the FOG measured signal is employed instead of the zero mean signals. Then, the modified Sage-Husa adaptive Kalman filter (SHAKF) is introduced, which can directly carry out real-time filtering on the FOG signals. Finally, static and dynamic experiments are done to verify the effectiveness. The filtering results are analyzed with Allan variance. The analysis results show that the improved AR model has high fitting accuracy and strong adaptability, and the minimum fitting accuracy of single noise is 93.2%. Based on the improved AR(3) model, the denoising method of SHAKF is more effective than traditional methods, and its effect is better than 30%. The random drift error of FOG is reduced effectively, and the precision of the FOG is improved. PMID:27420062

  14. FOG Random Drift Signal Denoising Based on the Improved AR Model and Modified Sage-Husa Adaptive Kalman Filter

    Sun, Jin; Xu, Xiaosu; Liu, Yiting; Zhang, Tao; Li, Yao

    2016-01-01

    In order to reduce the influence of fiber optic gyroscope (FOG) random drift error on inertial navigation systems, an improved auto regressive (AR) model is put forward in this paper. First, based on real-time observations at each restart of the gyroscope, the model of FOG random drift can be established online. In the improved AR model, the FOG measured signal is employed instead of the zero mean signals. Then, the modified Sage-Husa adaptive Kalman filter (SHAKF) is introduced, which can directly carry out real-time filtering on the FOG signals. Finally, static and dynamic experiments are done to verify the effectiveness. The filtering results are analyzed with Allan variance. The analysis results show that the improved AR model has high fitting accuracy and strong adaptability, and the minimum fitting accuracy of single noise is 93.2%. Based on the improved AR(3) model, the denoising method of SHAKF is more effective than traditional methods, and its effect is better than 30%. The random drift error of FOG is reduced effectively, and the precision of the FOG is improved. PMID:27420062

  15. Single breath-hold real-time cine MR imaging: improved temporal resolution using generalized autocalibrating partially parallel acquisition (GRAPPA) algorithm

    The purpose of this study was to test parallel imaging techniques for improvement of temporal resolution in multislice single breath-hold real-time cine steady-state free precession (SSFP) in comparison with standard segmented single-slice SSFP techniques. Eighteen subjects were examined on a 1.5-T scanner using a multislice real-time cine SSFP technique using the GRAPPA algorithm. Global left ventricular parameters (EDV, ESV, SV, EF) were evaluated and results compared with a standard segmented single-slice SSFP technique. Results for EDV (r=0.93), ESV (r=0.99), SV (r=0.83), and EF (r=0.99) of real-time multislice SSFP imaging showed a high correlation with results of segmented SSFP acquisitions. Systematic differences between both techniques were statistically non-significant. Single breath-hold multislice techniques using GRAPPA allow for improvement of temporal resolution and for accurate assessment of global left ventricular functional parameters. (orig.)

  16. Dual-thread parallel control strategy for ophthalmic adaptive optics

    Yu, Yongxin; Zhang, Yuhua

    2014-01-01

    To improve ophthalmic adaptive optics speed and compensate for ocular wavefront aberration of high temporal frequency, the adaptive optics wavefront correction has been implemented with a control scheme including 2 parallel threads; one is dedicated to wavefront detection and the other conducts wavefront reconstruction and compensation. With a custom Shack-Hartmann wavefront sensor that measures the ocular wave aberration with 193 subapertures across the pupil, adaptive optics has achieved a ...

  17. Improving the performance of link prediction by adaptively exploiting multiple structural features of networks

    Ma, Chuang; Zhang, Hai-Feng

    2016-01-01

    So far, many network-structure-based link prediction methods have been proposed. However, these traditional methods were proposed by highlighting one or two structural features of networks, and then use the methods to implement link prediction in different networks. In many cases, the performance is not ideal since each network has its unique underlying structural features. In this article, by analyzing different real networks, we find that the structural features of different networks are remarkably different. In particular, even in the same networks, their inner structural features are utterly different. Inspired by these facts, an \\emph{adaptive} link prediction method is proposed to incorporate multiple structural features from the perspective of combination optimization. In the model, the weight of each structural feature is \\emph{adaptively } determined by logistic regression but not be artificially given in advance. According to our experimental results, we find that the logistic regression based link ...

  18. Context-based service adaptation platform: Improving the user experience towards mobile location services

    Schou, Saowanee

    Back in 2000 and the, following two or three years, mobile location services gained a great deal of interest and they were considered as one of the few service categories where users would be willing to pay for the usage. Since 2000 countless mobile location services have been launched in different...... parts of the world. However, the mobile location services have obviously not yet met the hyped expectation of mass-market adoption that was expressed in 2000. The lack of adaptability and offerings tailored to different user requirements in specific contexts of use is one of the factors inhibiting the...... take-off of the existing mobile location services both in Asia and Western Europe. Adaptability is envisioned by Wireless World Research Forum (WWRF) as one of the keys to the success of any service beyond year 2010 and one of the service capabilities that should be made available on the next...

  19. Adaptive Representations for Improving Evolvability, Parameter Control, and Parallelization of Gene Expression Programming

    Nigel P. A. Browne

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available Gene Expression Programming (GEP is a genetic algorithm that evolves linear chromosomes encoding nonlinear (tree-like structures. In the original GEP algorithm, the genome size is problem specific and is determined through trial and error. In this work, a method for adaptive control of the genome size is presented. The approach introduces mutation, transposition, and recombination operators that enable a population of heterogeneously structured chromosomes, something the original GEP algorithm does not support. This permits crossbreeding between normally incompatible individuals, speciation within a population, increases the evolvability of the representations, and enhances parallel GEP. To test our approach, an assortment of problems were used, including symbolic regression, classification, and parameter optimization. Our experimental results show that our approach provides a solution for the problem of self-adaptive control of the genome size of GEP's representation.

  20. Improving Inpatient Surveys: Web-Based Computer Adaptive Testing Accessed via Mobile Phone QR Codes

    Chien, Tsair-Wei; Lin, Weir-Sen

    2016-01-01

    Background The National Health Service (NHS) 70-item inpatient questionnaire surveys inpatients on their perceptions of their hospitalization experience. However, it imposes more burden on the patient than other similar surveys. The literature shows that computerized adaptive testing (CAT) based on item response theory can help shorten the item length of a questionnaire without compromising its precision. Objective Our aim was to investigate whether CAT can be (1) efficient with item reductio...

  1. Studying citizen science through adaptive management and learning feedbacks as mechanisms for improving conservation.

    Jordan, Rebecca; Gray, Steven; Sorensen, Amanda; Newman, Greg; Mellor, David; Newman, Greg; Hmelo-Silver, Cindy; LaDeau, Shannon; Biehler, Dawn; Crall, Alycia

    2016-06-01

    Citizen science has generated a growing interest among scientists and community groups, and citizen science programs have been created specifically for conservation. We examined collaborative science, a highly interactive form of citizen science, which we developed within a theoretically informed framework. In this essay, we focused on 2 aspects of our framework: social learning and adaptive management. Social learning, in contrast to individual-based learning, stresses collaborative and generative insight making and is well-suited for adaptive management. Adaptive-management integrates feedback loops that are informed by what is learned and is guided by iterative decision making. Participants engaged in citizen science are able to add to what they are learning through primary data collection, which can result in the real-time information that is often necessary for conservation. Our work is particularly timely because research publications consistently report a lack of established frameworks and evaluation plans to address the extent of conservation outcomes in citizen science. To illustrate how our framework supports conservation through citizen science, we examined how 2 programs enacted our collaborative science framework. Further, we inspected preliminary conservation outcomes of our case-study programs. These programs, despite their recent implementation, are demonstrating promise with regard to positive conservation outcomes. To date, they are independently earning funds to support research, earning buy-in from local partners to engage in experimentation, and, in the absence of leading scientists, are collecting data to test ideas. We argue that this success is due to citizen scientists being organized around local issues and engaging in iterative, collaborative, and adaptive learning. PMID:26585836

  2. Aortic pressure wave reconstruction during exercise is improved by adaptive filtering: a pilot study

    Stok, W.J.; Westerhof, B E; Guelen, I.; Karemaker, J. M.

    2011-01-01

    Reconstruction of central aortic pressure from a peripheral measurement by a generalized transfer function (genTF) works well at rest and mild exercise at lower heart rates, but becomes less accurate during heavy exercise. Particularly, systolic and pulse pressure estimations deteriorate, thereby underestimating central pressure. We tested individualization of the TF (indTF) by adapting its resonance frequency at the various levels of exercise. In seven males (age 44–57) with coronary artery ...

  3. Adaptive protein evolution grants organismal fitness by improving catalysis and flexibility

    Tomatis, Pablo E.; Fabiane, Stella M.; Simona, Fabio; Carloni, Paolo; Sutton, Brian J.; Vila, Alejandro J.

    2008-01-01

    Protein evolution is crucial for organismal adaptation and fitness. This process takes place by shaping a given 3-dimensional fold for its particular biochemical function within the metabolic requirements and constraints of the environment. The complex interplay between sequence, structure, functionality, and stability that gives rise to a particular phenotype has limited the identification of traits acquired through evolution. This is further complicated by the fact that mutations are pleiot...

  4. Adaptive Critic Based Neuro-Fuzzy Tracker for Improving Conversion Efficiency in PV Solar Cells

    Halimeh Rashidi; Saeed Niazi; Jamshid Khorshidi

    2012-01-01

    The output power of photovoltaic systems is directly related to the amount of solar energy collected by the system and it is therefore necessary to track the sun’s position with high accuracy. This study proposes multi-agent adaptive critic based nero fuzzy solar tracking system dedicated to PV panels. The proposed tracker ensures the optimal conversion of solar energy into electricity by properly adjusting the PV panels according to the position of the sun. To evaluate the usefulness of the ...

  5. Adaptive High-Bandwidth Digitally Controlled Buck Converter with Improved Line and Load Transient Response

    Lee, ATL; Sin, JKO; Chan, PCH

    2014-01-01

    Digitally controlled switching converter suffers from bandwidth limitation because of the additional phase delay in the digital feedback control loop. In order to overcome the bandwidth limitation without using a high sampling rate, this paper presents an adaptive third-order digital controller for regulating a voltage-mode buck converter with a modest 2x oversampling ratio. The phase lag due to the ADC conversion time delay is virtually compensated by providing an early estimation of the err...

  6. An Improved QoS Multipath Routing Using Bandwidth Estimation and Rate Adaptation

    S. Suganya

    2014-06-01

    Full Text Available Mobile Adhoc Networks (MANETs are composed of nodes which communicate with one another without network infrastructure. Their advantage being that they can be used in isolation or along with wired infrastructure, usually via a gateway node to ensure traffic relay for both networks. Quality of Service (QoS is harder to ensure in ad hoc networks than in other network types, as wireless bandwidth is shared by adjacent nodes with network topology changing as nodes move. Most QoS protocols are implemented for specific scenarios and consider parameters such as network topologies, bandwidth, mobility, security and so on. This work proposes a novel multipath routing protocol which is an extension of AOMDV by discovering routes based on available bandwidth and rate adaptation. The method with Hello message box is used to calculate available bandwidth for a route. Relative Fairness and Optimized Throughput is an approach for rate adaptation in this paper which is to ensure fairness and allow nodes to adapt transmission rates and contention windows to channel quality. In sequence this is determined by calculating the access probability of a channel for each node in a distributed manner approximating successful and failed transmissions.

  7. Improving traffic flow at a 2-to-1 lane reduction with wirelessly connected, adaptive cruise control vehicles

    Davis, L C

    2015-01-01

    Wirelessly connected vehicles that exchange information about traffic conditions can reduce delays caused by congestion. At a 2-to-1 lane reduction, the improvement in flow past a bottleneck due to traffic with a random mixture of 40% connected vehicles is found to be 52%. Control is based on connected-vehicle-reported velocities near the bottleneck. In response to indications of congestion the connected vehicles, which are also adaptive cruise control vehicles, reduce their speed in slowdown regions. Early lane changes of manually driven vehicles from the terminated lane to the continuous lane are induced by the slowing connected vehicles. Self-organized congestion at the bottleneck is thus delayed or eliminated, depending upon the incoming flow magnitude. For the large majority of vehicles, travel times past the bottleneck are substantially reduced. Control is responsible for delaying the onset of congestion as the incoming flow increases. Adaptive cruise control increases the flow out of the congested stat...

  8. A Novel Clinical Decision Support System Using Improved Adaptive Genetic Algorithm for the Assessment of Fetal Well-Being

    Sindhu Ravindran

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available A novel clinical decision support system is proposed in this paper for evaluating the fetal well-being from the cardiotocogram (CTG dataset through an Improved Adaptive Genetic Algorithm (IAGA and Extreme Learning Machine (ELM. IAGA employs a new scaling technique (called sigma scaling to avoid premature convergence and applies adaptive crossover and mutation techniques with masking concepts to enhance population diversity. Also, this search algorithm utilizes three different fitness functions (two single objective fitness functions and multi-objective fitness function to assess its performance. The classification results unfold that promising classification accuracy of 94% is obtained with an optimal feature subset using IAGA. Also, the classification results are compared with those of other Feature Reduction techniques to substantiate its exhaustive search towards the global optimum. Besides, five other benchmark datasets are used to gauge the strength of the proposed IAGA algorithm.

  9. Checking performance of field corn inbreds as donors of favorable alleles to improve early vigor and adaptation of sweet corn hybrids to european conditions

    Malvar Pintos, Rosa Ana; Revilla Temiño, Pedro; Cartea González, María Elena; Butrón Gómez, Ana María; Ordás Pérez, Amando

    2001-01-01

    Field corn inbreds adapted to the European Atlantic coast are being used to improve early vigor and adaptation of sweet corn. In a previous work, we used the methods of identifying field corn inbred lines for use in improving parents of sweet corn single crosses, and we predicted that EP42 was the best potential donor of favorable alleles for improving early vigor and adaptation of V679 x EP60 and 15125 x EP60, followed by A632, and w64A. Our objective was to compare realized results with pre...

  10. Decentralised nonlinear equilibrium point adaptive control of generator for improving multimachine power system transient stability

    Wu, J.; Yokoyama, A. [Tokyo Univ., Tokyo (Japan); Lu, Q. [TsingHua Univ., Tsinghua (China); Goto, M. [Nagoya Univ., Nagoya (Japan); Konishi, H. [Hitachi Ltd. (Japan)

    2003-11-01

    Decentralised nonlinear control of generator excitation and turbine governor based on the feedback linearization approach is proposed. To make the proposed nonlinear control possess adaptive ability under the changing conditions of power systems, the extended observation decoupled state space in which mechanical power is considered as variable is proposed, and the local stability of the post fault equilibrium point is established rigorously from a mathematical viewpoint. Nonlinear simulations are performed in a three-machine power system and in the ten-machine West Japan power system, and the effectiveness of the proposed nonlinear control and the convergence characteristics of the post fault equilibrium point observer are validated. (Author)

  11. Adaptive Learning and Thinking Style to Improve E-Learning Environment Using Neural Network (ALTENN) Model

    Dagez, Hanan Ettaher; Ambarka, Ali Elghali

    2015-01-01

     In recent years we have witnessed an increasingly heightened awareness of the potential benefits of adaptively in e-learning. This has been mainly driven by the realization that the ideal of individualized learning (i.e., learning tailored to the specific requirements and preferences of the individual) cannot be achieved, especially at a “massive” scale, using traditional approaches. In e-learning when the learning style of the student is not compatible with the teaching style of the teacher...

  12. Context-based service adaptation platform: Improving the user experience towards mobile location services

    Schou, Saowanee

    2008-01-01

    Back in 2000 and the, following two or three years, mobile location services gained a great deal of interest and they were considered as one of the few service categories where users would be willing to pay for the usage. Since 2000 countless mobile location services have been launched in different...... parts of the world. However, the mobile location services have obviously not yet met the hyped expectation of mass-market adoption that was expressed in 2000. The lack of adaptability and offerings tailored to different user requirements in specific contexts of use is one of the factors inhibiting the...

  13. Automated interferometric synthetic aperture microscopy and computational adaptive optics for improved optical coherence tomography.

    Xu, Yang; Liu, Yuan-Zhi; Boppart, Stephen A; Carney, P Scott

    2016-03-10

    In this paper, we introduce an algorithm framework for the automation of interferometric synthetic aperture microscopy (ISAM). Under this framework, common processing steps such as dispersion correction, Fourier domain resampling, and computational adaptive optics aberration correction are carried out as metrics-assisted parameter search problems. We further present the results of this algorithm applied to phantom and biological tissue samples and compare with manually adjusted results. With the automated algorithm, near-optimal ISAM reconstruction can be achieved without manual adjustment. At the same time, the technical barrier for the nonexpert using ISAM imaging is also significantly lowered. PMID:26974799

  14. Adaptive feedforward of estimated ripple improves the closed loop system performance significantly

    The Low Energy Demonstration Accelerator (LEDA) being constructed at Los Alamos National Laboratory will serve as the prototype for the low energy section of Acceleration Production of Tritium (APT) accelerator. This paper addresses the problem of LLRF control system for LEDA. The authors propose an estimator of the ripple and its time derivative and a control law which is based on PID control and adaptive feedforward of estimated ripple. The control law reduces the effect of the deterministic cathode ripple that is due to high voltage power supply and achieves tracking of desired set points

  15. Improve earthquake hypocenter using adaptive simulated annealing inversion in regional tectonic, volcano tectonic, and geothermal observation

    Ry, Rexha Verdhora, E-mail: rexha.vry@gmail.com [Master Program of Geophysical Engineering, Faculty of Mining and Petroleum Engineering, Institut Teknologi Bandung, Jalan Ganesha No.10, Bandung 40132 (Indonesia); Nugraha, Andri Dian, E-mail: nugraha@gf.itb.ac.id [Global Geophysical Research Group, Faculty of Mining and Petroleum Engineering, Institut Teknologi Bandung, Jalan Ganesha No.10, Bandung 40132 (Indonesia)

    2015-04-24

    Observation of earthquakes is routinely used widely in tectonic activity observation, and also in local scale such as volcano tectonic and geothermal activity observation. It is necessary for determining the location of precise hypocenter which the process involves finding a hypocenter location that has minimum error between the observed and the calculated travel times. When solving this nonlinear inverse problem, simulated annealing inversion method can be applied to such global optimization problems, which the convergence of its solution is independent of the initial model. In this study, we developed own program codeby applying adaptive simulated annealing inversion in Matlab environment. We applied this method to determine earthquake hypocenter using several data cases which are regional tectonic, volcano tectonic, and geothermal field. The travel times were calculated using ray tracing shooting method. We then compared its results with the results using Geiger’s method to analyze its reliability. Our results show hypocenter location has smaller RMS error compared to the Geiger’s result that can be statistically associated with better solution. The hypocenter of earthquakes also well correlated with geological structure in the study area. Werecommend using adaptive simulated annealing inversion to relocate hypocenter location in purpose to get precise and accurate earthquake location.

  16. Improve earthquake hypocenter using adaptive simulated annealing inversion in regional tectonic, volcano tectonic, and geothermal observation

    Observation of earthquakes is routinely used widely in tectonic activity observation, and also in local scale such as volcano tectonic and geothermal activity observation. It is necessary for determining the location of precise hypocenter which the process involves finding a hypocenter location that has minimum error between the observed and the calculated travel times. When solving this nonlinear inverse problem, simulated annealing inversion method can be applied to such global optimization problems, which the convergence of its solution is independent of the initial model. In this study, we developed own program codeby applying adaptive simulated annealing inversion in Matlab environment. We applied this method to determine earthquake hypocenter using several data cases which are regional tectonic, volcano tectonic, and geothermal field. The travel times were calculated using ray tracing shooting method. We then compared its results with the results using Geiger’s method to analyze its reliability. Our results show hypocenter location has smaller RMS error compared to the Geiger’s result that can be statistically associated with better solution. The hypocenter of earthquakes also well correlated with geological structure in the study area. Werecommend using adaptive simulated annealing inversion to relocate hypocenter location in purpose to get precise and accurate earthquake location

  17. Spatio-Temporal Population Distribution and Evacuation Modeling for Improving Tsunami Risk Assessment in the Lisbon Metropolitan Area

    Freire, Sergio; Aubrecht, Christoph; Wegscheider, Stephanie

    2011-01-01

    Lisbon, Portugal, is subject to significant risk of tsunami, and was hit by a very destructive earthquake-triggered tsunami during daytime in 1755. The Regional Plan for Territorial Management for the Lisbon Metropolitan Area (PROT), under discussion, includes a tsunami hazard map, showing that significant urbanized areas may be at risk of inundation. In order to consider the time dependence of population exposure to tsunami threats, we map and analyze the spatio-temporal population distri...

  18. Cultural adaptation of an evidence-based nursing intervention to improve medication adherence among people living with HIV/AIDS (PLWHA) in China

    Williams, Ann B.; Wang, Honghong; Burgess, Jane; Li, Xianhong; Danvers, Karina

    2012-01-01

    BACKGROUND Adapting nursing interventions to suit the needs and culture of a new population (cultural adaptation) is an important early step in the process of implementation and dissemination. While the need for cultural adaptation is widely accepted, research-based strategies for doing so are not well articulated. Non-adherence to medications for chronic disease is a global problem and cultural adaptation of existing evidence-based interventions could be useful. OBJECTIVES This paper aims to describe the cultural adaptation of an evidence-based nursing intervention to improve medication adherence among people living with HIV/AIDS and to offer recommendations for adaptation of interventions across cultures and borders. SITE The intervention, which demonstrated efficacy in a randomized controlled trial in North America, was adapted for the cultural and social context of Hunan Province, in south central China. SOURCES OF DATA The adaptation process was undertaken by intervention stakeholders including the original intervention study team, the proposed adaptation team, and members of a Community Advisory Board, including people living with HIV/AIDS, family members, and health care workers at the target clinical sites. PROCEDURES The adaptation process was driven by quantitative and qualitative data describing the new population and context and was guided by principles for cultural adaptation drawn from prevention science research. RESULTS The primary adaptation to the intervention was the inclusion of family members in intervention activities, in response to the cultural and social importance of the family in rural China. In a pilot test of the adapted intervention, self-reported medication adherence improved significantly in the group receiving the intervention compared to the control group (p=0.01). Recommendations for cultural adaptation of nursing interventions include 1) involve stakeholders from the beginning; 2) assess the population, need, and context; 3

  19. Species adaptability, seed availability and prospects for improvement of eucalyptus in Minas Gerais

    Ferrevia, M.; Balloni, E.A.; Pinto, J.E. Jr.; Jacob, W.S.

    1978-01-01

    As part of a continuing study into possible improvement of Eucalyptus spp. in plantations, data are presented from all existing trials and experimental plantings in Minas Gerais, Brazil. Growth, uniformity, form and fruiting are indicated.

  20. Improved MR Brain Image Segmentation Using Adaptive Gabor Filtering Scheme with Fuzzy C-Means Algorithm

    P. Hari Krishnan

    2014-08-01

    Full Text Available Image segmentation is the foremost process in medical image processing. It aids the diagnostic and clinical analysis of MRI (Magnetic Resonance Imaging images that were acquired through the most complex procedures of medical diagnostics. The earliest soft computing techniques in segmenting images were carried out through Fuzzy C-Means (FCM and similar extensions of various clustering algorithms. In this paper, we introduced an innovative method that uses Gabor energy filter with adaptive features to pre-extract the information of various regions of a brain image, obtained either from a MRI or CT scanner. The noise-reduced image with blurred features was then made to undergo modifications by applying unsupervised learning methods such as FCM technique, whose output has efficient exclusion of certain strength of noise elements resulting in better classified pixels.

  1. Adapting diagrams from physics textbooks: improving the autonomy of blind students

    Dickman, Adriana; Martins, Alexandre; Ferreira, Amauri

    2014-03-01

    In this work we elaborate and test a glossary consisting of a set of objects and their symbols. The symbols are designed to represent objects frequently used in mechanics diagrams, such as vectors, ropes, pulleys, blocks and surfaces, and can be used to adapt drawings of physics situations in textbooks for blind high school students. The educational product was tested at a specialized school for the blind. The results indicate that adequate training can help blind students to become familiar with the symbols, and to identify them in a problem without the need of a description. This educational product can help blind students to achieve the same conditions of autonomy as sighted ones, when studying physics. Research supported by CNPq, Capes, Fapemig and FIP/PUC-MG (Brazil).

  2. Adaptive Critic Based Neuro-Fuzzy Tracker for Improving Conversion Efficiency in PV Solar Cells

    Halimeh Rashidi

    2012-08-01

    Full Text Available The output power of photovoltaic systems is directly related to the amount of solar energy collected by the system and it is therefore necessary to track the sun’s position with high accuracy. This study proposes multi-agent adaptive critic based nero fuzzy solar tracking system dedicated to PV panels. The proposed tracker ensures the optimal conversion of solar energy into electricity by properly adjusting the PV panels according to the position of the sun. To evaluate the usefulness of the proposed method, some computer simulations are performed and compared with fuzzy PD controller. Obtained results show the proposed control strategy is very robust, flexible and could be used to get the desired performance levels. The response time is also very fast. Simulation results that have been compared with fuzzy PD controller show that our method has the better control performance than fuzzy PD controller.

  3. Improving traffic flow at a 2-to-1 lane reduction with wirelessly connected, adaptive cruise control vehicles

    Davis, L. C.

    2016-06-01

    Wirelessly connected vehicles that exchange information about traffic conditions can reduce delays caused by congestion. At a 2-to-1 lane reduction, the improvement in flow past a bottleneck due to traffic with a random mixture of 40% connected vehicles is found to be 52%. Control is based on connected-vehicle-reported velocities near the bottleneck. In response to indications of congestion the connected vehicles, which are also adaptive cruise control vehicles, reduce their speed in slowdown regions. Early lane changes of manually driven vehicles from the terminated lane to the continuous lane are induced by the slowing connected vehicles. Self-organized congestion at the bottleneck is thus delayed or eliminated, depending upon the incoming flow magnitude. For the large majority of vehicles, travel times past the bottleneck are substantially reduced. Control is responsible for delaying the onset of congestion as the incoming flow increases. Adaptive cruise control increases the flow out of the congested state at the bottleneck. The nature of the congested state, when it occurs, appears to be similar under a variety of conditions. Typically 80-100 vehicles are approximately equally distributed between the lanes in the 500 m region prior to the end of the terminated lane. Without the adaptive cruise control capability, connected vehicles can delay the onset of congestion but do not increase the asymptotic flow past the bottleneck. Calculations are done using the Kerner-Klenov three-phase theory, stochastic discrete-time model for manual vehicles. The dynamics of the connected vehicles is given by a conventional adaptive cruise control algorithm plus commanded deceleration. Because time in the model for manual vehicles is discrete (one-second intervals), it is assumed that the acceleration of any vehicle immediately in front of a connected vehicle is constant during the time interval, thereby preserving the computational simplicity and speed of a discrete-time model.

  4. Improvement of early vigor and adaptation of sweet corn to the European Atlantic coast with open-pollinated field corn populations

    Cartea González, María Elena; Malvar Pintos, Rosa Ana; Revilla Temiño, Pedro; Ordás Pérez, Amando

    1996-01-01

    Sweet corn lacks early vigor and is poorly adapted to the environmental conditions of the European Atlantic coast. New sources of germplasm for improving early vigor and other agronomic traits would be useful. Environmental conditions in the Northwest of Spain, as in the European Atlantic coast, are characterized by humid cool springs and short growing seasons. The objectives of this study were to evaluate ten field corn populations to improve the adaptability of sweet corn to the environment...

  5. An Improved Character Segmentation Algorithm Based on Local Adaptive Thresholding Technique for Chinese NvShu Documents

    Yangguang Sun

    2014-06-01

    Full Text Available For the structural characteristics of Chinese NvShu character, by combining the basic idea in LLT local threshold algorithm and introducing the maximal between-class variance algorithm into local windows, an improved character segmentation algorithm based on local adaptive thresholding technique for Chinese NvShu documents was presented in this paper. Because of designing the corresponding correction parameters for the threshold and using secondary search mechanism, our proposed method could not only automatically obtain local threshold, but also avoid the loss of the character image information and improve the accuracy of the character image segmentation. Experimental results demonstrated its capability to reduce the effect of background noise, especially for Chinese NvShu character images with uneven illumination and low contrast

  6. An adaptation method to improve secret key rates of time-frequency QKD in atmospheric turbulence channels

    Sun, Xiaole; Djordjevic, Ivan B.; Neifeld, Mark A.

    2016-03-01

    Free-space optical (FSO) channels can be characterized by random power fluctuations due to atmospheric turbulence, which is known as scintillation. Weak coherent source based FSO quantum key distribution (QKD) systems suffer from the scintillation effect because during the deep channel fading the expected detection rate drops, which then gives an eavesdropper opportunity to get additional information about protocol by performing photon number splitting (PNS) attack and blocking single-photon pulses without changing QBER. To overcome this problem, in this paper, we study a large-alphabet QKD protocol, which is achieved by using pulse-position modulation (PPM)-like approach that utilizes the time-frequency uncertainty relation of the weak coherent photon state, called here TF-PPM-QKD protocol. We first complete finite size analysis for TF-PPM-QKD protocol to give practical bounds against non-negligible statistical fluctuation due to finite resources in practical implementations. The impact of scintillation under strong atmospheric turbulence regime is studied then. To overcome the secure key rate performance degradation of TF-PPM-QKD caused by scintillation, we propose an adaptation method for compensating the scintillation impact. By changing source intensity according to the channel state information (CSI), obtained by classical channel, the adaptation method improves the performance of QKD system with respect to the secret key rate. The CSI of a time-varying channel can be predicted using stochastic models, such as autoregressive (AR) models. Based on the channel state predictions, we change the source intensity to the optimal value to achieve a higher secret key rate. We demonstrate that the improvement of the adaptation method is dependent on the prediction accuracy.

  7. Improvement of the Hopfield Neural Network by MC-Adaptation Rule

    ZHOU Zhen; ZHAO Hong

    2006-01-01

    We show that the performance of the Hopfield neural networks, especially the quality of the recall and the capacity of the effective storing, can be greatly improved by making use of a recently presented neural network designing method without altering the whole structure of the network. In the improved neural network, a memory pattern is recalled exactly from initial states having a given degree of similarity with the memory pattern, and thus one can avoids to apply the overlap criterion as carried out in the Hopfield neural networks.

  8. Computerized Adaptive Tutorials to Improve and Assess Problem-Solving Skills

    Nirmalakhandan, N.

    2007-01-01

    Recent research studies have reported on how novices and experts differ in storing, organizing, and retrieving subject matter knowledge and on how they apply their knowledge to solve new problems. These findings have been integrated and implemented in a computer environment to help novices improve their problem-solving skills. An outline of this…

  9. Improved prediction error filters for adaptive feedback cancellation in hearing aids

    Ngo, Kim; van Waterschoot, Toon; Christensen, Mads Græsbøll;

    2013-01-01

    a number of improved PEF designs that are inspired by harmonic sinusoidal modeling and pitch prediction of speech signals. The resulting PEM-based AFC algorithms are evaluated in terms of the maximum stable gain (MSG), filter misadjustment, and computational complexity. Simulation results for a...

  10. Improved adaptive input voltage control of a solar array interfacing current mode controlled boost power stage

    Highlights: • Photovoltaic generator dynamic resistance online estimation method is proposed. • Control method allowing to achieve nominal performance at all time is presented. • The method is suitable for any type of photovoltaic system. - Abstract: Nonlinear characteristics of photovoltaic generators were recently shown to significantly influence the dynamics of interfacing power stages. Moreover, since the dynamic resistance of photovoltaic generators is both operating point and environmental variables dependent, the combined dynamics exhibits these dependencies as well, burdening control challenge. Typically, linear time invariant input voltage loop controllers (e.g. Proportional-Integrative-Derivative) are utilized in photovoltaic applications, designed according to nominal operating conditions. Nevertheless, since actual dynamics is seldom nominal, closed loop performance of such systems varies as well. In this paper, adaptive control method is proposed, allowing to estimate photovoltaic generator resistance online and utilize it to modify the controller parameters such that closed loop performance remains nominal throughout the whole operation range. Unlike previously proposed method, utilizing double-grid-frequency component for estimation purposes and suffering from various drawbacks such as operation point dependence and applicability to single-phase grid connected systems only, the proposed method is based on harmonic current injection and is independent on operating point and system topology

  11. Improvement of two locally adapted cotton cultivars in earliness by induced mutations

    Seeds from two locally adapted cotton cultivars, Eva and Zeta-2, were irradiated by 300 Gy .-irradiation in order to create useful variability for earliness within each cultivar, and then to select for desirable recombinations. Selection for earliness was applied in the M2 generation and the earliest 2% of the mutants selfer for further evaluation. After eliminating the undesirable phenotypes, the remaining material was sown in progeny rows as M3 generation. Selection for earliness based upon morphological and physiological characteristics resulted in five early mutants from cultivar Eva and three early mutants from cultivar Zeta-2. These lines were further evaluated the following year for earliness, yield, fibre and seed quality in three locations across the Greek Cotton Belt, using a RCB experimental design with four replications. Among the five early mutants of cultivar Eva, only one was consistently early at all three locations, while the other four mutants showed significant differences in the first growth stages. From the three early mutants of cultivar Zeta- 2, one was consistently early at all three locations. Plant height, lint yield, length, micronaire, strength, etc. as well as oil %, protein %, and gossypol %, were not significantly different from the untreated checks

  12. A novel adaptive control scheme for dynamic performance improvement of DFIG-Based wind turbines

    A novel adaptive current controller for DFIG-based wind turbines is introduced in this paper. The attractiveness of the proposed strategy results from its ability to actively estimate and actively compensate for the plant dynamics and external disturbances in real time. Thus, the control strategy can successfully drive the rotor current to track the reference value, ensuring that the performance degradation caused by grid disturbances, cross-coupling terms and parameter uncertainties can be successfully suppressed. Besides, the two-parameter tuning feature makes the control strategy practical and easy to implement in commercial wind turbines. To quantify the controller performances, the transfer function description of the controller is derived. General disturbance rejection, robustness against parameter uncertainties, bandwidth and stability are also addressed. Simulation results, together with the time-domain responses, proved the stability and the strong robustness of the control system against parameter uncertainties and grid disturbances. Significant tracking and disturbance rejection performances are achieved. -- Highlights: ► The controller can compensate for plant dynamics and external disturbances. ► Performance degradation caused by disturbance can be successfully suppressed. ► General disturbance rejection of the proposed strategy is addressed. ► The stability and the strong robustness of the control system are proved.

  13. Glucagon-like peptide 2 treatment may improve intestinal adaptation during weaning

    Thymann, Thomas; Le Huërou-Luron, I; Petersen, Y M;

    2014-01-01

    ) were kept in a low-sanitary environment, leading to weaning diarrhea, and injected with saline or short-acting GLP-2 (200 µg/(kg BW·12 h); n = 11). Treatment with GLP-2 increased goblet cell density (P < 0.05) and reduced short chain fatty acid concentration in the colon (P < 0.01) but had limited......Transition from sow’s milk to solid feed is associated with intestinal atrophy and diarrhea. We hypothesized that the intestinotrophic hormone glucagon-like peptide 2 (GLP-2) would induce a dose- and health status-dependent effect on gut adaptation. In Exp. 1, weaned pigs (average BW at weaning 4...... effects on diarrhea. In Exp. 3, weaned pigs (average BW at weaning 6.90 ± 0.32 kg) were kept in a low-sanitary environment and injected with saline or a long-acting acylated GLP-2 analogue (25 µg/(kg BW·12 h); n = 8). In this experiment, GLP-2 increased intestinal weight (+22%; P < 0.01) and activity of...

  14. Alternative Adaptive Filter Structures for Improved Radio Frequency Interference Cancellation in Radio Astronomy

    Mitchell, D A; Sault, R J

    2010-01-01

    In radio astronomy, reference signals from auxiliary antennas that receive only the radio frequency interference (RFI) can be modified to model the RFI environment at the astronomy receivers. The RFI can then be canceled from the astronomy signal paths. However, astronomers typically only require signal statistics. If the RFI statistics are changing slowly, the cancellation can be applied to the signal correlations at a much lower rate than is required for standard adaptive filters. In this paper we describe five canceler setups; precorrelation and postcorrelation cancelers that use one or two reference signals in different ways. The theoretical residual RFI and added noise levels are examined and are demonstrated using microwave television RFI at the Australia Telescope Compact Array. The RFI is attenuated to below the system noise, a reduction of at least 20 dB. While dual-reference cancelers add more reference noise than single-reference cancelers, this noise is zero-mean and only adds to the system noise,...

  15. Strain improvement of Chlorella sp. for phenol biodegradation by adaptive laboratory evolution.

    Wang, Libo; Xue, Chuizhao; Wang, Liang; Zhao, Quanyu; Wei, Wei; Sun, Yuhan

    2016-04-01

    Microalgae are highly efficient photosynthesis cell factories for CO2 capture, biofuel productions and wastewater treatment. Phenol is a typical environmental contaminant. Microalgae normally have a low tolerance for, and a low degradation rate to, high concentration of phenol. Adaptive laboratory evolution was performed for phenolic wastewater treatment by Chlorella sp. The resulting strain was obtained after 31 cycles (about 95d) under 500mg/L phenol as environmental stress. It could grow under 500mg/L and 700mg/L phenol without significant inhibition. The maximal biomass concentrations of the resulting strain at day 8 were 3.40g/L under 500mg/L phenol and 2.70g/L under 700mg/L phenol, respectively. They were more than two times of those of the original strain. In addition, 500mg/L phenol was fully removed by the resulting strain in 7d when the initial cell density was 0.6g/L. PMID:26803904

  16. Improved testing characteristics of austenitic and mixed welds by inverse phase adaptation of phased array signals

    Thin-walled welds (less than 10 mm wall thickness) in austenitic pipes and mixed welds are difficult to test using non-destructive methods. This is true especially for detection of closed cracks, which is impossible by radiographic testing and problematic by ultrasonic testing. Several projects in reactor safety research provided better understanding of the testing characteristics of thes compounds. The resulting rules for writing of test specifications and for qualification of the technology employed also showed the limits of radiographic and ultrasonic testing. One important result was the simulation of the propagation of ultrasonic waves in model descriptions of welded structures as a function of the shape of the product. This allows, in principle, the applicaiton of ultrasonic migration techniques which enable consideration of phase disturbances gy structural anisotropy when the time signals of the ultrasonic sensor elements are summed up. The applicability of this 'inverse phase adaptation' was proved in heterogeneous and anisotropic model test bodies and on test bodies of the reactor safety programme. The contribution outlines the fundamentals of the technology and presents preliminary findings. (orig.)

  17. Speed endurance training is a powerful stimulus for physiological adaptations and performance improvements of athletes

    Iaia, F. M.; Bangsbo, Jens

    2010-01-01

    performance during longer events, e.g. 40 K cycling and 10 K running. Athletes in team sports involving intense exercise actions and endurance aspects can also benefit from performing speed endurance training. These improvements don't appear to depend on changes in maximum oxygen uptake (VO2max), muscle...... oxidative capacity and improve intense short-duration/repeated high-intensity exercise performance lasting 30 s to 4 min, as it occurs in a number of sports. When combined with a basic volume of training including some aerobic high-intensity sessions, speed endurance training is also useful in enhancing......(+) pump activity during exercise may delay fatigue development during intense exercise. In conclusion, athletes from disciplines involving periods of intense exercise can benefit from the inclusion of speed endurance sessions in their training programs....

  18. Improving vehicle adaptability to the operating conditions of «smart» cities in the northern regions

    Anisimov Ilya

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available The paper reviews a relevant problem of providing a higher quality of people’s living in the northern regions by the application of the modern technologies within transport in order to improve its environmental performance and efficiency. The aim of the research is to substantiate methods of increasing the adaptability of vehicles to variable low-temperature operating conditions based on a neural control system of preheating and maintaining the optimum temperature of technological fluids by SHF radiation and improving diesel fuel properties by introducing a multifunctional additive. It has been found that SHF radiation influences the physical and chemical parameters of diesel fuel, as well as the engine output parameters. SHF radiation results in a reduction of fuel consumption to 7%, smoke from the exhaust to 15%, and nitrogen oxide emission to 30%. A conclusion is made that using SHF radiation for technological fuel preheating is essential. An approach has been developed that improves low-temperature properties of diesel fuels and increases engine operation efficiency under severe climatic conditions by introducing a multifunctional additive. The additive will enable a significant decrease in fuel consumption under low-temperature operating conditions and a complex improvement of fuel properties.

  19. An adaptive grid algorithm for 3-D GIS landform optimization based on improved ant algorithm

    Wu, Chenhan; Meng, Lingkui; Deng, Shijun

    2005-07-01

    The key technique of 3-D GIS is to realize quick and high-quality 3-D visualization, in which 3-D roaming system based on landform plays an important role. However how to increase efficiency of 3-D roaming engine and process a large amount of landform data is a key problem in 3-D landform roaming system and improper process of the problem would result in tremendous consumption of system resources. Therefore it has become the key of 3-D roaming system design that how to realize high-speed process of distributed data for landform DEM (Digital Elevation Model) and high-speed distributed modulation of various 3-D landform data resources. In the paper we improved the basic ant algorithm and designed the modulation strategy of 3-D GIS landform resources based on the improved ant algorithm. By initially hypothetic road weights σi , the change of the information factors in the original algorithm would transform from ˜τj to ∆τj+σi and the weights was decided by 3-D computative capacity of various nodes in network environment. So during the course of initial phase of task assignment, increasing the resource information factors of high task-accomplishing rate and decreasing ones of low accomplishing rate would make load accomplishing rate approach the same value as quickly as possible, then in the later process of task assignment, the load balanced ability of the system was further improved. Experimental results show by improving ant algorithm, our system not only decreases many disadvantage of the traditional ant algorithm, but also like ants looking for food effectively distributes the complicated landform algorithm to many computers to process cooperatively and gains a satisfying search result.

  20. Improved Adaptive Droop Control Design for Optimal Power Sharing in VSC-MTDC Integrating Wind Farms

    Xiaohong Ran; Shihong Miao; Yingjie Wu

    2015-01-01

    With the advance of insulated gate bipolar transistor (IGBT) converters, Multi-Terminal DC (MTDC) based on the voltage-source converter (VSC) has developed rapidly in renewable and electric power systems. To reduce the copper loss of large capacity and long distance DC transmission line, an improved droop control design based on optimal power sharing in VSC-MTDC integrating offshore wind farm is proposed. The proposed approach provided a calculation method for power-voltage droop coefficient...

  1. Improved Adaptive Droop Control Design for Optimal Power Sharing in VSC-MTDC Integrating Wind Farms

    Xiaohong Ran; Shihong Miao; Yingjie Wu

    2015-01-01

    With the advance of insulated gate bipolar transistor (IGBT) converters, Multi-Terminal DC (MTDC) based on the voltage-source converter (VSC) has developed rapidly in renewable and electric power systems. To reduce the copper loss of large capacity and long distance DC transmission line, an improved droop control design based on optimal power sharing in VSC-MTDC integrating offshore wind farm is proposed. The proposed approach provided a calculation method for power-voltage droop coefficients...

  2. Scrumban - Adaptive Agile Development Process : Using scrumban to improve software development process

    Khan, Zahoor

    2014-01-01

    This thesis concentrates on improving the existing agile software development process used in the case company in order to overcome the various problems faced during the product development based on the existing Scrum model. The case company, consisting of sixty five employees, turns any online content, images, videos and applications into interactive and viral storefronts by means of non-intrusive and content relevant advertisement products. After describing the research objective, rese...

  3. Proposing an adaptive mutation to improve XCSF performance to classify ADHD and BMD patients

    Sadatnezhad, Khadijeh; Boostani, Reza; Ghanizadeh, Ahmad

    2010-12-01

    There is extensive overlap of clinical symptoms observed among children with bipolar mood disorder (BMD) and those with attention deficit hyperactivity disorder (ADHD). Thus, diagnosis according to clinical symptoms cannot be very accurate. It is therefore desirable to develop quantitative criteria for automatic discrimination between these disorders. This study is aimed at designing an efficient decision maker to accurately classify ADHD and BMD patients by analyzing their electroencephalogram (EEG) signals. In this study, 22 channels of EEGs have been recorded from 21 subjects with ADHD and 22 individuals with BMD. Several informative features, such as fractal dimension, band power and autoregressive coefficients, were extracted from the recorded signals. Considering the multimodal overlapping distribution of the obtained features, linear discriminant analysis (LDA) was used to reduce the input dimension in a more separable space to make it more appropriate for the proposed classifier. A piecewise linear classifier based on the extended classifier system for function approximation (XCSF) was modified by developing an adaptive mutation rate, which was proportional to the genotypic content of best individuals and their fitness in each generation. The proposed operator controlled the trade-off between exploration and exploitation while maintaining the diversity in the classifier's population to avoid premature convergence. To assess the effectiveness of the proposed scheme, the extracted features were applied to support vector machine, LDA, nearest neighbor and XCSF classifiers. To evaluate the method, a noisy environment was simulated with different noise amplitudes. It is shown that the results of the proposed technique are more robust as compared to conventional classifiers. Statistical tests demonstrate that the proposed classifier is a promising method for discriminating between ADHD and BMD patients.

  4. Temporal sensitivity. [time dependent human perception of visual stimuli

    Watson, Andrew B.

    1986-01-01

    Human visual temporal sensitivity is examined. The stimuli used to measure temporal sensitivity are described and the linear systems theory is reviewed in terms of temporal sensitivity. A working model which represents temporal sensitivity is proposed. The visibility of a number of temporal wave forms, sinusoids, rectangular pulses, and pulse pairs, is analyzed. The relation between spatial and temporal effects is studied. Temporal variations induced by image motion and the effects of light adaptation on temporal sensitivity are considered.

  5. Adaptation and implementation of local maternity dashboards in a Zimbabwean hospital to drive clinical improvement

    J Crofts

    2014-02-01

    Full Text Available Problem The Commission on Information and Accountability for Women's and Children's Health of the World Health Organization (WHO reported that national health outcome data were often of questionable quality and “not timely enough for practical use by health planners and administrators”. Delayed reporting of poor-quality data limits the ability of front-line staff to identify problems rapidly and make improvements. Approach Clinical “dashboards” based on locally available data offer a way of providing accurate and timely information. A dashboard is a simple computerized tool that presents a health facility's clinical data graphically using a traffic-light coding system to alert front-line staff about changes in the frequency of clinical outcomes. It provides rapid feedback on local outcomes in an accessible form and enables problems to be detected early. Until now, dashboards have been used only in high-resource settings. Local setting An overview maternity dashboard and a maternal mortality dashboard were designed for, and introduced at, a public hospital in Zimbabwe. A midwife at the hospital was trained to collect and input data monthly. Relevant changes Implementation of the maternity dashboards was feasible and 28 months of clinical outcome data were summarized using common computer software. Presentation of these data to staff led to the rapid identification of adverse trends in outcomes and to suggestions for actions to improve health-care quality. Lessons learnt Implementation of maternity dashboards was feasible in a low-resource setting and resulted in actions that improved health-care quality locally. Active participation of hospital management and midwifery staff was crucial to their success.

  6. Neural-network-based adaptive UPFC for improving transient stability performance of power system.

    Mishra, Sukumar

    2006-03-01

    This paper uses the recently proposed H(infinity)-learning method, for updating the parameter of the radial basis function neural network (RBFNN) used as a control scheme for the unified power flow controller (UPFC) to improve the transient stability performance of a multimachine power system. The RBFNN uses a single neuron architecture whose input is proportional to the difference in error and the updating of its parameters is carried via a proportional value of the error. Also, the coefficients of the difference of error, error, and auxiliary signal used for improving damping performance are depicted by a genetic algorithm. The performance of the newly designed controller is evaluated in a four-machine power system subjected to different types of disturbances. The newly designed single-neuron RBFNN-based UPFC exhibits better damping performance compared to the conventional PID as well as the extended Kalman filter (EKF) updating-based RBFNN scheme, making the unstable cases stable. Its simple architecture reduces the computational burden, thereby making it attractive for real-time implementation. Also, all the machines are being equipped with the conventional power system stabilizer (PSS) to study the coordinated effect of UPFC and PSS in the system. PMID:16566472

  7. Adaptive control schemes for improving dynamic performance of efficiency-optimized induction motor drives.

    Kumar, Navneet; Raj Chelliah, Thanga; Srivastava, S P

    2015-07-01

    Model Based Control (MBC) is one of the energy optimal controllers used in vector-controlled Induction Motor (IM) for controlling the excitation of motor in accordance with torque and speed. MBC offers energy conservation especially at part-load operation, but it creates ripples in torque and speed during load transition, leading to poor dynamic performance of the drive. This study investigates the opportunity for improving dynamic performance of a three-phase IM operating with MBC and proposes three control schemes: (i) MBC with a low pass filter (ii) torque producing current (iqs) injection in the output of speed controller (iii) Variable Structure Speed Controller (VSSC). The pre and post operation of MBC during load transition is also analyzed. The dynamic performance of a 1-hp, three-phase squirrel-cage IM with mine-hoist load diagram is tested. Test results are provided for the conventional field-oriented (constant flux) control and MBC (adjustable excitation) with proposed schemes. The effectiveness of proposed schemes is also illustrated for parametric variations. The test results and subsequent analysis confer that the motor dynamics improves significantly with all three proposed schemes in terms of overshoot/undershoot peak amplitude of torque and DC link power in addition to energy saving during load transitions. PMID:25820090

  8. Assessing the effectiveness and cost effectiveness of adaptive e-Learning to improve dietary behaviour: protocol for a systematic review

    Michie Susan

    2010-04-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background The composition of habitual diets is associated with adverse or protective effects on aspects of health. Consequently, UK public health policy strongly advocates dietary change for the improvement of population health and emphasises the importance of individual empowerment to improve health. A new and evolving area in the promotion of dietary behavioural change is e-Learning, the use of interactive electronic media to facilitate teaching and learning on a range of issues, including diet and health. The aims of this systematic review are to determine the effectiveness and cost-effectiveness of adaptive e-Learning for improving dietary behaviours. Methods/Design The research will consist of a systematic review and a cost-effectiveness analysis. Studies will be considered for the review if they are randomised controlled trials, involving participants aged 13 or over, which evaluate the effectiveness or efficacy of interactive software programmes for improving dietary behaviour. Primary outcome measures will be those related to dietary behaviours, including estimated intakes of energy, nutrients and dietary fibre, or the estimated number of servings per day of foods or food groups. Secondary outcome measures will be objective clinical measures that are likely to respond to changes in dietary behaviours, such as anthropometry or blood biochemistry. Knowledge, self-efficacy, intention and emotion will be examined as mediators of dietary behaviour change in order to explore potential mechanisms of action. Databases will be searched using a comprehensive four-part search strategy, and the results exported to a bibliographic database. Two review authors will independently screen results to identify potentially eligible studies, and will independently extract data from included studies, with any discrepancies at each stage settled by a third author. Standardised forms and criteria will be used. A descriptive analysis of included

  9. Improving the spatial and temporal resolution with quantification of uncertainty and errors in earth observation data sets using Data Interpolating Empirical Orthogonal Functions methodology

    El Serafy, Ghada; Gaytan Aguilar, Sandra; Ziemba, Alexander

    2016-04-01

    There is an increasing use of process-based models in the investigation of ecological systems and scenario predictions. The accuracy and quality of these models are improved when run with high spatial and temporal resolution data sets. However, ecological data can often be difficult to collect which manifests itself through irregularities in the spatial and temporal domain of these data sets. Through the use of Data INterpolating Empirical Orthogonal Functions(DINEOF) methodology, earth observation products can be improved to have full spatial coverage within the desired domain as well as increased temporal resolution to daily and weekly time step, those frequently required by process-based models[1]. The DINEOF methodology results in a degree of error being affixed to the refined data product. In order to determine the degree of error introduced through this process, the suspended particulate matter and chlorophyll-a data from MERIS is used with DINEOF to produce high resolution products for the Wadden Sea. These new data sets are then compared with in-situ and other data sources to determine the error. Also, artificial cloud cover scenarios are conducted in order to substantiate the findings from MERIS data experiments. Secondly, the accuracy of DINEOF is explored to evaluate the variance of the methodology. The degree of accuracy is combined with the overall error produced by the methodology and reported in an assessment of the quality of DINEOF when applied to resolution refinement of chlorophyll-a and suspended particulate matter in the Wadden Sea. References [1] Sirjacobs, D.; Alvera-Azcárate, A.; Barth, A.; Lacroix, G.; Park, Y.; Nechad, B.; Ruddick, K.G.; Beckers, J.-M. (2011). Cloud filling of ocean colour and sea surface temperature remote sensing products over the Southern North Sea by the Data Interpolating Empirical Orthogonal Functions methodology. J. Sea Res. 65(1): 114-130. Dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.seares.2010.08.002

  10. Awareness of temporal lag is necessary for motor–visual temporal recalibration

    Masaki eTsujita

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Consistent exposure to a temporal lag between observers’ voluntary action and its visual feedback induced recalibration of temporal order perception between a motor action and a visual stimulus. It remains unclear what kinds of processing underlie this motor–visual temporal recalibration. This study examined the necessity of motor–visual temporal recalibration for awareness of a temporal lag between a motor action and its visual feedback. In Experiment 1, we allocated observers to either the multiple-step or single-step lag conditions. In the multiple-step lag condition, we first inserted a small temporal lag and subsequently increased it with progress of the adaptation period, to make observers unaware of the temporal lag during the adaptation period. In the single-step lag condition, we instructed observers about the temporal lag before adaptation, and inserted a substantial temporal lag from the beginning of the adaptation period to ensure that they were aware of the temporal lag. We found significant recalibration only in the single-step lag condition. In Experiment 2, we exposed all observers to a substantial temporal lag from the beginning of adaptation period with no instruction about insertion of the temporal lag. We asked observers at the end of the experiment whether they were aware of the temporal lag. We found significant recalibration for only observers who were aware of the lag. These results suggest that awareness of the temporal lag plays a crucial role in motor–visual temporal recalibration.

  11. Resolution improvement of ultrasonic echography methods in non destructive testing by adaptative deconvolution

    The ultrasonic echography has a lot of advantages which make it attractive for nondestructive testing. But the important acoustic energy useful to go through very attenuating materials can be got only with resonant translators, that is a limit for the resolution on measured echograms. This resolution can be improved by deconvolution. But this method is a problem for austenitic steel. Here is developed a method of time deconvolution which allows to take in account the characteristics of the wave. A first step of phase correction and a second step of spectral equalization which gives back the spectral contents of ideal reflectivity. The two steps use fast Kalman filters which reduce the cost of the method

  12. Improvements and adaptive changes to the fuel channel fitness-for-service assessment process

    The first formal Fitness-for-Service (FFS) assessment methodology in the CANDU industry was issued to the AECB in 1991 in the CANDU Pressure Tube Fitness-for-Service Guidelines (FFSG), which were later incorporated into CSA N285.8 in the mid 1990s. While the utilities have continued to benefit greatly from repeated, successful FFS assessments, industry changes since 1991 have conspired to apply mounting pressures on the FFS community, to the potential detriment of the assessment process. This paper identifies inherent challenges, historical challenges, and more recent difficulties encountered by the FFS assessment community and gives recommendations for relieving some of the mounting pressures on the FFS assessors and for improving the FFS assessment process. (author)

  13. [Adaptability of Helianthus annuus seedlings to crude oil pollution in soil and its improvement measures under salinization stress].

    Zhang, Jing-lei; Ci, Hua-cong; He, Xing-dong; Liang, Yu-ting; Zhao, Xuan; Sun, Hui-ting; Xie, Hong-tao

    2015-11-01

    To explore the adaptability of plant under salt stress to crude oil pollution of soil and improvement measures, a pot experiment of Helianthus annuus seedlings was conducted using orthogonal experiment method with crude oil-sodium chloride-desulfurization gypsum and cinder-zeolite-desulfurization gypsum-sawdust. The results showed that, with the increase of soil crude oil concentration, the relative growth rate (RGR) of plant height, RGR of aboveground biomass and root N: P ratios of H. annuus seedlings decreased significantly, while the activity of SOD and CAT increased at first and then decreased significantly. The RGR of plant height and aboveground biomass significantly increased (P oil pollution of soil could decrease the relative growth rate of H. annuus seedling, and sawdust could reduce the influence of crude oil pollution on plant growth under salt stress. PMID:26915209

  14. Adaptable Design Improvements for Electromagnetic Shock Wave Lithotripters and Techniques for Controlling Cavitation

    Smith, Nathan Birchard

    In this dissertation work, the aim was to garner better mechanistic understanding of how shock wave lithotripsy (SWL) breaks stones in order to guide design improvements to modern electromagnetic (EM) shock wave lithotripters. To accomplish this goal, experimental studies were carefully designed to isolate mechanisms of fragmentation, and models for wave propagation, fragmentation, and stone motion were developed. In the initial study, a representative EM lithotripter was characterized and tested for in vitro stone comminution efficiency at a variety of field positions and doses using phantom kidney stones of variable physical properties, and in different fluid mediums to isolate the contribution of cavitation. Through parametric analysis of the acoustic field measurements alongside comminution results, a logarithmic correlation was determined between average peak pressure incident on the stone surface and comminution efficiency. It was also noted that for a given stone type, the correlations converged to an average peak pressure threshold for fragmentation, independent of fluid medium in use. The correlation of average peak pressure to efficacy supports the rationale for the acoustic lens modifications, which were pursued to simultaneously enhance beam width and optimize the pulse profile of the lithotripter shock wave (LSW) via in situ pulse superposition for improved stone fragmentation by stress waves and cavitation, respectively. In parallel, a numerical model for wave propagation was used to investigate the variations of critical parameters with changes in lens geometry. A consensus was reached on a new lens design based on high-speed imaging and stone comminution experiments against the original lens at a fixed acoustic energy setting. The results have demonstrated that the new lens has improved efficacy away from the focus, where stones may move due to respiration, fragmentation, acoustic radiation forces, or voluntary patient movements. Using the

  15. Improved Adaptive Droop Control Design for Optimal Power Sharing in VSC-MTDC Integrating Wind Farms

    Xiaohong Ran

    2015-07-01

    Full Text Available With the advance of insulated gate bipolar transistor (IGBT converters, Multi-Terminal DC (MTDC based on the voltage-source converter (VSC has developed rapidly in renewable and electric power systems. To reduce the copper loss of large capacity and long distance DC transmission line, an improved droop control design based on optimal power sharing in VSC-MTDC integrating offshore wind farm is proposed. The proposed approach provided a calculation method for power-voltage droop coefficients under two different scenarios either considering local load or not. The available headroom of each converter station was considered as a converter outage, to participate in the power adjustment according to their ability. A four-terminal MTDC model system including two large scale wind farms was set up in PSCAD/EMTDC. Then, the proposed control strategy was verified through simulation under the various conditions, including wind speed variation, rectifier outage and inverter outage, and a three-phase short-circuit of the converter.

  16. Self-Adaptive Strategy Based on Fuzzy Control Systems for Improving Performance in Wireless Sensors Networks

    Vicente Hernández Díaz

    2015-09-01

    Full Text Available The solutions to cope with new challenges that societies have to face nowadays involve providing smarter daily systems. To achieve this, technology has to evolve and leverage physical systems automatic interactions, with less human intervention. Technological paradigms like Internet of Things (IoT and Cyber-Physical Systems (CPS are providing reference models, architectures, approaches and tools that are to support cross-domain solutions. Thus, CPS based solutions will be applied in different application domains like e-Health, Smart Grid, Smart Transportation and so on, to assure the expected response from a complex system that relies on the smooth interaction and cooperation of diverse networked physical systems. The Wireless Sensors Networks (WSN are a well-known wireless technology that are part of large CPS. The WSN aims at monitoring a physical system, object, (e.g., the environmental condition of a cargo container, and relaying data to the targeted processing element. The WSN communication reliability, as well as a restrained energy consumption, are expected features in a WSN. This paper shows the results obtained in a real WSN deployment, based on SunSPOT nodes, which carries out a fuzzy based control strategy to improve energy consumption while keeping communication reliability and computational resources usage among boundaries.

  17. A quasi-steady aerodynamic model for flapping flight with improved adaptability.

    Lee, Y J; Lua, K B; Lim, T T; Yeo, K S

    2016-01-01

    An improved quasi-steady aerodynamic model for flapping wings in hover has been developed. The purpose of this model is to yield rapid predictions of lift generation and efficiency during the design phase of flapping wing micro air vehicles. While most existing models are tailored for a specific flow condition, the present model is applicable over a wider range of Reynolds number and Rossby number. The effects of wing aspect ratio and taper ratio are also considered. The model was validated by comparing against numerical simulations and experimental measurements. Wings with different geometries undergoing distinct kinematics at varying flow conditions were tested during validation. Generally, model predictions of mean force coefficients were within 10% of numerical simulation results, while the deviations in power coefficients could be up to 15%. The deviation is partly due to the model not taking into consideration the initial shedding of the leading-edge vortex and wing-wake interaction which are difficult to account under quasi-steady assumption. The accuracy of this model is comparable to other models in literature, which had to be specifically designed or tuned to a narrow range of operation. In contrast, the present model has the advantage of being applicable over a wider range of flow conditions without prior tuning or calibration, which makes it a useful tool for preliminary performance evaluations. PMID:27121547

  18. Self-Adaptive Strategy Based on Fuzzy Control Systems for Improving Performance in Wireless Sensors Networks

    Hernández Díaz, Vicente; Martínez, José-Fernán; Lucas Martínez, Néstor; del Toro, Raúl M.

    2015-01-01

    The solutions to cope with new challenges that societies have to face nowadays involve providing smarter daily systems. To achieve this, technology has to evolve and leverage physical systems automatic interactions, with less human intervention. Technological paradigms like Internet of Things (IoT) and Cyber-Physical Systems (CPS) are providing reference models, architectures, approaches and tools that are to support cross-domain solutions. Thus, CPS based solutions will be applied in different application domains like e-Health, Smart Grid, Smart Transportation and so on, to assure the expected response from a complex system that relies on the smooth interaction and cooperation of diverse networked physical systems. The Wireless Sensors Networks (WSN) are a well-known wireless technology that are part of large CPS. The WSN aims at monitoring a physical system, object, (e.g., the environmental condition of a cargo container), and relaying data to the targeted processing element. The WSN communication reliability, as well as a restrained energy consumption, are expected features in a WSN. This paper shows the results obtained in a real WSN deployment, based on SunSPOT nodes, which carries out a fuzzy based control strategy to improve energy consumption while keeping communication reliability and computational resources usage among boundaries. PMID:26393612

  19. Self-Adaptive Strategy Based on Fuzzy Control Systems for Improving Performance in Wireless Sensors Networks.

    Hernández Díaz, Vicente; Martínez, José-Fernán; Lucas Martínez, Néstor; del Toro, Raúl M

    2015-01-01

    The solutions to cope with new challenges that societies have to face nowadays involve providing smarter daily systems. To achieve this, technology has to evolve and leverage physical systems automatic interactions, with less human intervention. Technological paradigms like Internet of Things (IoT) and Cyber-Physical Systems (CPS) are providing reference models, architectures, approaches and tools that are to support cross-domain solutions. Thus, CPS based solutions will be applied in different application domains like e-Health, Smart Grid, Smart Transportation and so on, to assure the expected response from a complex system that relies on the smooth interaction and cooperation of diverse networked physical systems. The Wireless Sensors Networks (WSN) are a well-known wireless technology that are part of large CPS. The WSN aims at monitoring a physical system, object, (e.g., the environmental condition of a cargo container), and relaying data to the targeted processing element. The WSN communication reliability, as well as a restrained energy consumption, are expected features in a WSN. This paper shows the results obtained in a real WSN deployment, based on SunSPOT nodes, which carries out a fuzzy based control strategy to improve energy consumption while keeping communication reliability and computational resources usage among boundaries. PMID:26393612

  20. Near real-time monitoring systems for adaptive management and improved forest governance

    Musinsky, J.; Tabor, K.; Cano, A.

    2012-12-01

    The destruction and degradation of the world's forests from deforestation, illegal logging and fire has wide-ranging environmental and economic impacts, including biodiversity loss, the degradation of ecosystem services and the emission of greenhouse gases. In an effort to strengthen local capacity to respond to these threats, Conservation International has developed a suite of near real-time satellite monitoring systems generating daily alerts, maps and reports of forest fire, fire risk, deforestation and degradation that are used by national and sub-national government agencies, NGO's, scientists, communities, and the media to respond to and report on threats to forest resources. Currently, the systems support more than 1000 subscribers from 45 countries, focusing on Madagascar, Indonesia, Bolivia and Peru. This presentation will explore the types of innovative applications users have found for these data, challenges they've encountered in data acquisition and accuracy, and feedback they've given on the usefulness of these systems for REDD+ implementation, protected areas management and improved forest governance.;

  1. An adapted purification procedure to improve the quality of {sup 90}Y for clinical use

    Xiques Castillo, A.; Olive, K. Isaac; Casanova Gonzalez, E.; Beckford, D.; Leyva Montana, R.; Olive Alvare, E. [Centro dc Isotopos (CENTIS), La Habana (Cuba); Montero Alvarez, A. [Centro de Aplicaciones Tecnologicas y Desarrollo Nuclear, La Habana (Cuba)

    2009-07-01

    There is an increasing interest for {sup 90}Y for radionuclide therapy. However, radioimmunotherapy, one of the most important applications for {sup 90}Y, demands a very high purity product. Obtaining a high quality {sup 90}Y is difficult not only because of the complex and time consuming production schemes but also because of the quality control which has challenging tasks like the determination of {sup 90}Sr at very low concentrations. The present paper investigates a reported purification procedure for the removal of stable metal trace contaminants from an {sup 90}Y solution, seeking for its potential use in the elimination of the radioactive contaminant {sup 90}Sr and its fast determination. For this purpose a washing step with HNO{sub 3} acid is introduced to elute {sup 90}Sr, the order of each acid solution is rearranged to reduce the potential contaminants present in acids and the size of the column is reduced to further optimize the procedure. As a result, an improved purification method is obtained, which allows the removal of both trace metal contaminants and {sup 90}Sr from an {sup 90}Y solution and the measurement of {sup 90}Sr/{sup 90}Y ratios of the order of 10{sup -7}, which are well below the established pharmacopeia limit of 2 x 10{sup -5}. (orig.)

  2. An adaptive threshold method for improving astrometry of space debris CCD images

    Sun, Rong-yu; Zhao, Chang-yin

    2014-06-01

    Optical survey is a main technique for observing space debris, and precisely measuring the positions of space debris is of great importance. Due to several factors, e.g. the angle object normal to the observer, the shape as well as the attitude of the object, the variations of observed characteristics for low earth orbital space debris are distinct. When we look at optical CCD images of observed objects, the size and brightness are varying, hence it’s difficult to decide the threshold during centroid measurement and precise astrometry. Traditionally the threshold is given empirically and constantly in data reduction, and obviously it’s not suitable for data reduction of space debris. Here we offer a solution to provide the threshold. Our method assumes that the PSF (point spread function) is Gaussian and estimates the signal flux by a directly two-dimensional Gaussian fit, then a cubic spline interpolation is performed to divide each initial pixel into several sub-pixels, at last the threshold is determined by the estimation of signal flux and the sub-pixels above threshold are separated to estimate the centroid. A trail observation of the fast spinning satellite Ajisai is made and the CCD frames are obtained to test our algorithm. The calibration precision of various threshold is obtained through the comparison between the observed equatorial position and the reference one, the latter are obtained from the precise ephemeris of the satellite. The results indicate that our method reduces the total errors of measurements, it works effectively in improving the centering precision of space debris images.

  3. Adaptive spatial compounding for improving ultrasound images of the epidural space

    Tran, Denis; Kamani, Allaudin; Lessoway, Vickie; Rohling, Robert N.

    2007-03-01

    Epidural anesthesia can be a difficult procedure, especially for inexperienced physicians. The use of ultrasound imaging can help by depicting the location of the epidural space to choose the needle trajectory appropriately. Anatomical features in the lower back are not always clearly visible because of speckle poor reflection from structures at certain angles, and shadows from bony surfaces. Spatial compounding has the potential to reduce speckle and emphasize structures by averaging a number of images taken at different isonation angles. However, the beam-steered images are not perfectly aligned due to non-constant speed of sound causing refraction errors. This means compounding can blur features. A non-rigid registration method, called warping, shifts each block of pixels of the beam-steered images in order to find the best alignment to the reference image without beam-steering. By applying warping, the features become sharper after compounding. To emphasize features further, edge detection is also applied to the individual images in order to select the best features for compounding. The warping and edge detection parameters are calculated in real-time for each acquired image. In order to reduce computational complexity, linear prediction of the warping vectors is used. The algorithm is tested on a phantom of the lower back with a linear probe. Qualitative comparisons are made among the original plus combinations of compounding, warping, edge detection and linear prediction. The linear gradient and Laplacian of a Gaussian are used to quantitatively assess the visibility of the bone boundaries and ligamentum flavum on the processed images. The results show a significant improvement in quality.

  4. An ‘innovation-cycle framework’ of integrated agricultural knowledge system and innovation for improving farmers’climate change adaptation and risk mitigation capacities : A case of Bangladesh

    Rahman, Md Zillur

    2015-01-01

    The main objective of this paper is to present a new ‘innovation-cycle’ integrated conceptual framework of ‘TVET-adaptive AKSI’ (TVET: Technical and Vocational Education and Training; AKSI: Agricultural Knowledge System and Innovation). Thus the aim here is to discuss from existing body of literature of how ‘TVET-adaptive AKSI’ can be the ‘Next Frontier of Green Innovation’ and adaptation strategy to improve agricultural-based producers’ understanding of ‘risk perception and mitigation’ (a ca...

  5. The temporal window of ecological adaptation in postglacial lakes: a comparison of head morphology, trophic position and habitat use in Norwegian threespine stickleback populations

    Østbye, Kjartan; Harrod, Chris; Gregersen, Finn; Klepaker, Tom; Schulz, Michael; Schluter, Dolph; Vøllestad, Leif A

    2016-01-01

    Background Studying how trophic traits and niche use are related in natural populations is important in order to understand adaptation and specialization. Here, we describe trophic trait diversity in twenty-five Norwegian freshwater threespine stickleback populations and their putative marine ancestor, and relate trait differences to postglacial lake age. By studying lakes of different ages, depths and distance to the sea we examine key environmental variables that may pred...

  6. The Life History of Flabellula baltica Smirnov (Gymnamoebae, Rhizopoda): Adaptations to a Spatially and Temporally Heterogeneous Environment

    Fenchel, Tom

    2010-01-01

    The polymorphic life history of the marine naked amoeba Flabellula baltica was studied. It can be interpreted in terms of adaptations to an environment that is patchy in time and space and it represents trade-off between longevity during starvation and the ability to initiate multiplication soon...... after food resource become available. The life history also represents bet hedging in that different cells within a clonal culture may respond in different ways when food is depleted....

  7. Reduction of radiation exposure and improvement of image quality with BMI-adapted prospective cardiac computed tomography and iterative reconstruction

    Purpose: To assess the impact of body mass index (BMI)-adapted protocols and iterative reconstruction algorithms (iDose) on patient radiation exposure and image quality in patients undergoing prospective ECG-triggered 256-slice coronary computed tomography angiography (CCTA). Methods: Image quality and radiation exposure were systematically analyzed in 100 patients. 60 Patients underwent prospective ECG-triggered CCTA using a non-tailored protocol and served as a ‘control’ group (Group 1: 120 kV, 200 mA s). 40 Consecutive patients with suspected coronary artery disease (CAD) underwent prospective CCTA, using BMI-adapted tube voltage and standard (Group 2: 100/120 kV, 100–200 mA s) versus reduced tube current (Group 3: 100/120 kV, 75–150 mA s). Iterative reconstructions were provided with different iDose levels and were compared to filtered back projection (FBP) reconstructions. Image quality was assessed in consensus of 2 experienced observers and using a 5-grade scale (1 = best to 5 = worse), and signal- and contrast-to-noise ratios (SNR and CNR) were quantified. Results: CCTA was performed without adverse events in all patients (n = 100, heart rate of 47–87 bpm and BMI of 19–38 kg/m2). Patients examined using the non-tailored protocol in Group 1 had the highest radiation exposure (3.2 ± 0.4 mSv), followed by Group 2 (1.7 ± 0.7 mSv) and Group 3 (1.2 ± 0.6 mSv) (radiation savings of 47% and 63%, respectively, p < 0.001). Iterative reconstructions provided increased SNR and CNR, particularly when higher iDose level 5 was applied with Multi-Frequency reconstruction (iDose5 MFR) (14.1 ± 4.6 versus 21.2 ± 7.3 for SNR and 12.0 ± 4.2 versus 18.1 ± 6.6 for CNR, for FBP versus iDose5 MFR, respectively, p < 0.001). The combination of BMI adaptation with iterative reconstruction reduced radiation exposure and simultaneously improved image quality (subjective image quality of 1.4 ± 0.4 versus 1.9 ± 0.5 for Group 2 reconstructed using iDose5 MFR versus

  8. Temporal dynamics of stomatal conductance of plants under water deficit: can homeostasis be improved by more complex dynamics?

    Gustavo Maia Souza; Ricardo Ferraz de Oliveira; Victor José Mendes Cardoso

    2004-01-01

    In this study we hypothesized that chaotic or complex behavior of stomatal conductance could improve plant homeostasis after water deficit. Stomatal conductance of sunflower and sugar beet leaves was measured in plants grown either daily irrigation or under water deficit using an infrared gas analyzer. All measurements were performed under controlled environmental conditions. In order to measure a consistent time series, data were scored with time intervals of 20s during 6h. Lyapunov exponent...

  9. SPATIAL AND TEMPORAL DISTRIBUTION OF GROWTH FACTORS RECEPTORS IN THE CALLUS: IMPLICATIONS FOR IMPROVEMENT OF DISTRACTION OSTEOGENESIS

    SIWICKA, KAROLINA A; Kitoh, Hiroshi; KAWASUMI, MOTOAKI; Ishiguro, Naoki

    2011-01-01

    ABSTRACT Management of bone deficits by distraction osteogenesis is an appreciated but lengthy procedure. To accelerate the consolidation of newly formed distraction callus, an administration of growth factors into the distraction gap has been suggested. Changes in expression of growth factors receptors in the distracted callus during consolidation were studied in order to improve our understanding of the underlying molecular mechanisms and to provide a scientific basis for clinical applicati...

  10. Improving thoracic four-dimensional cone-beam CT reconstruction with anatomical-adaptive image regularization (AAIR)

    Total-variation (TV) minimization reconstructions can significantly reduce noise and streaks in thoracic four-dimensional cone-beam computed tomography (4D CBCT) images compared to the Feldkamp–Davis–Kress (FDK) algorithm currently used in practice. TV minimization reconstructions are, however, prone to over-smoothing anatomical details and are also computationally inefficient. The aim of this study is to demonstrate a proof of concept that these disadvantages can be overcome by incorporating the general knowledge of the thoracic anatomy via anatomy segmentation into the reconstruction. The proposed method, referred as the anatomical-adaptive image regularization (AAIR) method, utilizes the adaptive-steepest-descent projection-onto-convex-sets (ASD-POCS) framework, but introduces an additional anatomy segmentation step in every iteration. The anatomy segmentation information is implemented in the reconstruction using a heuristic approach to adaptively suppress over-smoothing at anatomical structures of interest. The performance of AAIR depends on parameters describing the weighting of the anatomy segmentation prior and segmentation threshold values. A sensitivity study revealed that the reconstruction outcome is not sensitive to these parameters as long as they are chosen within a suitable range. AAIR was validated using a digital phantom and a patient scan and was compared to FDK, ASD-POCS and the prior image constrained compressed sensing (PICCS) method. For the phantom case, AAIR reconstruction was quantitatively shown to be the most accurate as indicated by the mean absolute difference and the structural similarity index. For the patient case, AAIR resulted in the highest signal-to-noise ratio (i.e. the lowest level of noise and streaking) and the highest contrast-to-noise ratios for the tumor and the bony anatomy (i.e. the best visibility of anatomical details). Overall, AAIR was much less prone to over-smoothing anatomical details compared to ASD-POCS and

  11. Improving thoracic four-dimensional cone-beam CT reconstruction with anatomical-adaptive image regularization (AAIR)

    Shieh, Chun-Chien; Kipritidis, John; O'Brien, Ricky T.; Cooper, Benjamin J.; Kuncic, Zdenka; Keall, Paul J.

    2015-01-01

    Total-variation (TV) minimization reconstructions can significantly reduce noise and streaks in thoracic four-dimensional cone-beam computed tomography (4D CBCT) images compared to the Feldkamp-Davis-Kress (FDK) algorithm currently used in practice. TV minimization reconstructions are, however, prone to over-smoothing anatomical details and are also computationally inefficient. The aim of this study is to demonstrate a proof of concept that these disadvantages can be overcome by incorporating the general knowledge of the thoracic anatomy via anatomy segmentation into the reconstruction. The proposed method, referred as the anatomical-adaptive image regularization (AAIR) method, utilizes the adaptive-steepest-descent projection-onto-convex-sets (ASD-POCS) framework, but introduces an additional anatomy segmentation step in every iteration. The anatomy segmentation information is implemented in the reconstruction using a heuristic approach to adaptively suppress over-smoothing at anatomical structures of interest. The performance of AAIR depends on parameters describing the weighting of the anatomy segmentation prior and segmentation threshold values. A sensitivity study revealed that the reconstruction outcome is not sensitive to these parameters as long as they are chosen within a suitable range. AAIR was validated using a digital phantom and a patient scan and was compared to FDK, ASD-POCS and the prior image constrained compressed sensing (PICCS) method. For the phantom case, AAIR reconstruction was quantitatively shown to be the most accurate as indicated by the mean absolute difference and the structural similarity index. For the patient case, AAIR resulted in the highest signal-to-noise ratio (i.e. the lowest level of noise and streaking) and the highest contrast-to-noise ratios for the tumor and the bony anatomy (i.e. the best visibility of anatomical details). Overall, AAIR was much less prone to over-smoothing anatomical details compared to ASD-POCS and did

  12. Improving robustness and reliability of phase-sensitive fMRI analysis using temporal off-resonance alignment of single-echo timeseries (TOAST).

    Hahn, Andrew D; Nencka, Andrew S; Rowe, Daniel B

    2009-02-01

    Echo Planar Imaging (EPI), often utilized in functional MRI (fMRI) experiments, is well known for its vulnerability to inconsistencies in the static magnetic field (B(0)). Correction for these field inhomogeneities usually involves measuring the magnetic field at a single time point, and using this static information to correct a series of images collected over the course of one or multiple experiments. However, common phenomena, such as respiration and motion, change the characteristics of the B(0) field homogeneity in a time-dependent and often unpredictable manner, rendering previous field measurements invalid. The effects of these changes are particularly large in the image phase, due to its direct and sensitive relationship to the magnetic field, and methods utilizing complex information can suffer enormously. This dependence can be exploited to estimate the temporal dynamics of the B(0) field. Use of this information to correct fMRI data can provide more effective motion correction, reduce temporal "noise," and can substantially restore statistically significant power to complex fMRI data analysis. All of the necessary information is embedded in complex EPI images, and results indicate this is a robust way to improve the quality of fMRI data, especially when used with complex analysis. PMID:18992826

  13. Food crops face rising temperatures: An overview of responses, adaptive mechanisms, and approaches to improve heat tolerance

    Neeru Kaushal

    2016-12-01

    Full Text Available The rising temperatures are resulting in heat stress for various agricultural crops to limit their growth, metabolism, and leading to significant loss of yield potential worldwide. Heat stress adversely affects normal plant growth and development depending on the sensitivity of each crop species. Each crop species has its own range of temperature maxima and minima at different developmental stages beyond which all these processes get inhibited. The reproductive stage is on the whole more sensitive to heat stress, resulting in impaired fertilization to cause abortion of flowers. During seed filling, heat stress retards seed growth by affecting all the biochemical events to reduce seed size. Unfavorable temperature may significantly affect photosynthesis, respiration, water balance, and membrane stability of leaves. To combat heat stress, plants acquire various defense mechanisms for their survival such as maintaining membrane stability, and scavenging reactive oxygen species by generating antioxidants and stress proteins. Thermo-tolerance can be improved by the accumulation of various compounds of low molecular mass known as thermo-protectants as well as phyto-hormones. Exogenous application of these molecules has benefited plants growing under heat stress. Alternatively, transgenic plants over-expressing the enzymes catalyzing the synthesis of these molecules may be raised to increase their endogenous levels to improve heat tolerance. In recent times, various transgenics have been developed with improved thermo-tolerance having potential benefits for inducing heat tolerance in food crops. Updated information about of the effects of heat stress on various food crops and their responses as well as adaptive mechanisms is reviewed here.

  14. Temporal High-pass Filtering Nonuniformity Correction with Adaptive Time Constant%自适应时间常数的时域高通滤波校正算法

    曹晓荷; 朱斌; 郭立新; 李晶; 常青; 龚涛

    2013-01-01

    The Temporal High-pass Filtering Nonuniformity Correction (THPF-NUC) algorithm has three major drawbacks, namely only correcting the offset coefficient, difficulty in choosing a proper time constant and unclear detail of corrected image. By analyzing the time constant’s effect on the correction quality, an improved THPF-NUC algorithm is proposed. Firstly, to guarantee the uniformity of the gain coefficient, the noise background image is subtracted from the output image of Infrared Focal Plane Arrays (IRFPA) as preprocessing. Then according to the motion degree obtained from the motion detection technique, adaptively adjust the time constant to design the low-pass filter. Lastly the high-boost filtering is adopted to improve the brightness of the whole IR image and enhance the details. The experiment on a real IR video shows that the proposed algorithm eliminates the ghosting artifact and the target fade-out effectively. And the corrected image is high quality with fast convergence rate, giving advantage to real-time engineering application.%针对时域高通滤波非均匀性校正算法中存在只对偏移响应系数进行校正、难以选取合适的时间常数以及滤波后图像细节不清晰等问题,本文通过分析时间常数对算法校正效果的影响,提出了一种改进的时域高通滤波非均匀性校正算法。首先采用离线采集的非均匀性噪声底图对红外焦平面阵列的原始输出图像进行预处理,去除部分固定模式噪声,保证了增益的均匀性;然后通过运动检测环节判断场景运动是否充分,根据运动程度自适应选取时间常数构造低通滤波器;最后运用高频提升滤波达到提升红外图像整体的亮度和增强目标细节的效果。对真实的红外视频图像实验表明,通过自适应选取时间常数有效地抑制了目标退化和伪像现象,且算法的收敛速度快,校正后图像细节清晰,有利于工程实时应用。

  15. Improving the effectiveness of real-time flood forecasting through Predictive Uncertainty estimation: the multi-temporal approach

    Barbetta, Silvia; Coccia, Gabriele; Moramarco, Tommaso; Todini, Ezio

    2015-04-01

    The negative effects of severe flood events are usually contrasted through structural measures that, however, do not fully eliminate flood risk. Non-structural measures, such as real-time flood forecasting and warning, are also required. Accurate stage/discharge future predictions with appropriate forecast lead-time are sought by decision-makers for implementing strategies to mitigate the adverse effects of floods. Traditionally, flood forecasting has been approached by using rainfall-runoff and/or flood routing modelling. Indeed, both types of forecasts, cannot be considered perfectly representing future outcomes because of lacking of a complete knowledge of involved processes (Todini, 2004). Nonetheless, although aware that model forecasts are not perfectly representing future outcomes, decision makers are de facto implicitly assuming the forecast of water level/discharge/volume, etc. as "deterministic" and coinciding with what is going to occur. Recently the concept of Predictive Uncertainty (PU) was introduced in hydrology (Krzysztofowicz, 1999), and several uncertainty processors were developed (Todini, 2008). PU is defined as the probability of occurrence of the future realization of a predictand (water level/discharge/volume) conditional on: i) prior observations and knowledge, ii) the available information obtained on the future value, typically provided by one or more forecast models. Unfortunately, PU has been frequently interpreted as a measure of lack of accuracy rather than the appropriate tool allowing to take the most appropriate decisions, given a model or several models' forecasts. With the aim to shed light on the benefits for appropriately using PU, a multi-temporal approach based on the MCP approach (Todini, 2008; Coccia and Todini, 2011) is here applied to stage forecasts at sites along the Upper Tiber River. Specifically, the STAge Forecasting-Rating Curve Model Muskingum-based (STAFOM-RCM) (Barbetta et al., 2014) along with the Rating

  16. Learning and representing temporal knowledge in recurrent networks.

    Borges, Rafael V; Garcez, Artur d'Avila; Lamb, Luis C

    2011-12-01

    The effective integration of knowledge representation, reasoning, and learning in a robust computational model is one of the key challenges of computer science and artificial intelligence. In particular, temporal knowledge and models have been fundamental in describing the behavior of computational systems. However, knowledge acquisition of correct descriptions of a system's desired behavior is a complex task. In this paper, we present a novel neural-computation model capable of representing and learning temporal knowledge in recurrent networks. The model works in an integrated fashion. It enables the effective representation of temporal knowledge, the adaptation of temporal models given a set of desirable system properties, and effective learning from examples, which in turn can lead to temporal knowledge extraction from the corresponding trained networks. The model is sound from a theoretical standpoint, but it has also been tested on a case study in the area of model verification and adaptation. The results contained in this paper indicate that model verification and learning can be integrated within the neural computation paradigm, contributing to the development of predictive temporal knowledge-based systems and offering interpretable results that allow system researchers and engineers to improve their models and specifications. The model has been implemented and is available as part of a neural-symbolic computational toolkit. PMID:22010150

  17. 3D positional control of magnetic levitation system using adaptive control: improvement of positioning control in horizontal plane

    Nishino, Toshimasa; Fujitani, Yasuhiro; Kato, Norihiko; Tsuda, Naoaki; Nomura, Yoshihiko; Matsui, Hirokazu

    2012-01-01

    The objective of this paper is to establish a technique that levitates and conveys a hand, a kind of micro-robot, by applying magnetic forces: the hand is assumed to have a function of holding and detaching the objects. The equipment to be used in our experiments consists of four pole-pieces of electromagnets, and is expected to work as a 4DOF drive unit within some restricted range of 3D space: the three DOF are corresponding to 3D positional control and the remaining one DOF, rotational oscillation damping control. Having used the same equipment, Khamesee et al. had manipulated the impressed voltages on the four electric magnetics by a PID controller by the use of the feedback signal of the hand's 3D position, the controlled variable. However, in this system, there were some problems remaining: in the horizontal direction, when translating the hand out of restricted region, positional control performance was suddenly degraded. The authors propose a method to apply an adaptive control to the horizontal directional control. It is expected that the technique to be presented in this paper contributes not only to the improvement of the response characteristic but also to widening the applicable range in the horizontal directional control.

  18. Cross Layer Adaptation of Check Intervals in Low Power Listening MAC Protocols for Lifetime Improvement in Wireless Sensor Networks

    Maria-Cristina Marinescu

    2012-08-01

    Full Text Available Preamble sampling-based MAC protocols designed forWireless Sensor Networks (WSN are aimed at prolonging the lifetime of the nodes by scheduling their times of activity. This scheduling exploits node synchronization to find the right trade-off between energy consumption and delay. In this paper we consider the problem of node synchronization in preamble sampling protocols. We propose Cross Layer Adaptation of Check intervals (CLAC, a novel protocol intended to reduce the energy consumption of the nodes without significantly increasing the delay. Our protocol modifies the scheduling of the nodes based on estimating the delay experienced by a packet that travels along a multi-hop path. CLAC uses routing and MAC layer information to compute a delay that matches the packet arrival time. We have implemented CLAC on top of well-known routing and MAC protocols for WSN, and we have evaluated our implementation using the Avrora simulator. The simulation results confirm that CLAC improves the network lifetime at no additional packet loss and without affecting the end-to-end delay.

  19. Adaptive Iterative Dose Reduction Using Three Dimensional Processing (AIDR3D improves chest CT image quality and reduces radiation exposure.

    Tsuneo Yamashiro

    Full Text Available To assess the advantages of Adaptive Iterative Dose Reduction using Three Dimensional Processing (AIDR3D for image quality improvement and dose reduction for chest computed tomography (CT.Institutional Review Boards approved this study and informed consent was obtained. Eighty-eight subjects underwent chest CT at five institutions using identical scanners and protocols. During a single visit, each subject was scanned using different tube currents: 240, 120, and 60 mA. Scan data were converted to images using AIDR3D and a conventional reconstruction mode (without AIDR3D. Using a 5-point scale from 1 (non-diagnostic to 5 (excellent, three blinded observers independently evaluated image quality for three lung zones, four patterns of lung disease (nodule/mass, emphysema, bronchiolitis, and diffuse lung disease, and three mediastinal measurements (small structure visibility, streak artifacts, and shoulder artifacts. Differences in these scores were assessed by Scheffe's test.At each tube current, scans using AIDR3D had higher scores than those without AIDR3D, which were significant for lung zones (p<0.0001 and all mediastinal measurements (p<0.01. For lung diseases, significant improvements with AIDR3D were frequently observed at 120 and 60 mA. Scans with AIDR3D at 120 mA had significantly higher scores than those without AIDR3D at 240 mA for lung zones and mediastinal streak artifacts (p<0.0001, and slightly higher or equal scores for all other measurements. Scans with AIDR3D at 60 mA were also judged superior or equivalent to those without AIDR3D at 120 mA.For chest CT, AIDR3D provides better image quality and can reduce radiation exposure by 50%.

  20. Temporal Glare

    Ritschel, Tobias; Ihrke, Matthias; Frisvad, Jeppe Revall;

    2009-01-01

    Glare is a consequence of light scattered within the human eye when looking at bright light sources. This effect can be exploited for tone mapping since adding glare to the depiction of high-dynamic range (HDR) imagery on a low-dynamic range (LDR) medium can dramatically increase perceived contra...... to initially static HDR images. By conducting psychophysical studies, we validate that our method improves perceived brightness and that dynamic glare-renderings are often perceived as more attractive depending on the chosen scene.......Glare is a consequence of light scattered within the human eye when looking at bright light sources. This effect can be exploited for tone mapping since adding glare to the depiction of high-dynamic range (HDR) imagery on a low-dynamic range (LDR) medium can dramatically increase perceived contrast....... Even though most, if not all, subjects report perceiving glare as a bright pattern that fluctuates in time, up to now it has only been modeled as a static phenomenon. We argue that the temporal properties of glare are a strong means to increase perceived brightness and to produce realistic and...

  1. Flexibility of Scope, Type and Temporality in Mustang, Nepal. Opportunities for Adaptation in a Farming System Facing Climatic and Market Uncertainty

    Nina Holmelin

    2013-03-01

    Full Text Available Climate change is projected to increase the seasonality in river flows in the great river systems of Himalaya and impose challenges to regional food production. Since climate change increases the uncertainty in local weather patterns, people’s ability to maintain local agricultural production will probably depend on how flexible the local farming systems are to adjust to unpredictable changes. The objective of this paper is to investigate the flexibility of one such farming system which is located in Mustang, Nepal, Himalaya. Defining flexibility as “uncommitted potentialities for change” following Gregory Bateson, the paper identifies opportunities for change in the farming system, as well as factors that constrain flexibility. Further developing the concept of flexibility, it is suggested that flexibility may be analyzed in terms of scope, type and temporal flexibility. Although there are several underexploited resources in the studied farming system, the present situation is not regarded as one of irrational and suboptimal exploitation of resources. Instead, unexploited resources imply opportunities for change, which provide the system with flexibility to rapidly adjust agricultural production to varying and uncertain conditions of production.

  2. Reinforcement Learning Using Local Adaptive Models

    Borga, Magnus

    1995-01-01

    In this thesis, the theory of reinforcement learning is described and its relation to learning in biological systems is discussed. Some basic issues in reinforcement learning, the credit assignment problem and perceptual aliasing, are considered. The methods of temporal difference are described. Three important design issues are discussed: information representation and system architecture, rules for improving the behaviour and rules for the reward mechanisms. The use of local adaptive models...

  3. Temporal networks

    Saramäki, Jari

    2013-01-01

    The concept of temporal networks is an extension of complex networks as a modeling framework to include information on when interactions between nodes happen. Many studies of the last decade examine how the static network structure affect dynamic systems on the network. In this traditional approach  the temporal aspects are pre-encoded in the dynamic system model. Temporal-network methods, on the other hand, lift the temporal information from the level of system dynamics to the mathematical representation of the contact network itself. This framework becomes particularly useful for cases where there is a lot of structure and heterogeneity both in the timings of interaction events and the network topology. The advantage compared to common static network approaches is the ability to design more accurate models in order to explain and predict large-scale dynamic phenomena (such as, e.g., epidemic outbreaks and other spreading phenomena). On the other hand, temporal network methods are mathematically and concept...

  4. A Comparative Case Study Analysis of Administrators Perceptions on the Adaptation of Quality and Continuous Improvement Tools to Community Colleges in the State of Michigan

    Mattis, Ted B.

    2011-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to determine whether community college administrators in the state of Michigan believe that commonly known quality and continuous improvement tools, prevalent in a manufacturing environment, can be adapted to a community college model. The tools, specifically Six Sigma, benchmarking and process mapping have played a…

  5. Graphene Oxides Decorated with Carnosine as an Adjuvant To Modulate Innate Immune and Improve Adaptive Immunity in Vivo.

    Meng, Chunchun; Zhi, Xiao; Li, Chao; Li, Chuanfeng; Chen, Zongyan; Qiu, Xusheng; Ding, Chan; Ma, Lijun; Lu, Hongmin; Chen, Di; Liu, Guangqing; Cui, Daxiang

    2016-02-23

    Current studies have revealed the immune effects of graphene oxide (GO) and have utilized them as vaccine carriers and adjuvants. However, GO easily induces strong oxidative stress and inflammatory reaction at the site of injection. It is very necessary to develop an alternative adjuvant based on graphene oxide derivatives for improving immune responses and decreasing side effects. Carnosine (Car) is an outstanding and safe antioxidant. Herein, the feasibility and efficiency of ultrasmall graphene oxide decorated with carnosine as an alternative immune adjuvant were explored. OVA@GO-Car was prepared by simply mixing ovalbumin (OVA, a model antigen) with ultrasmall GO covalently modified with carnosine (GO-Car). We investigated the immunological properties of the GO-Car adjuvant in model mice. Results show that OVA@GO-Car can promote robust and durable OVA-specific antibody response, increase lymphocyte proliferation efficiency, and enhance CD4(+) T and CD8(+) T cell activation. The presence of Car in GO also probably contributes to enhancing the antigen-specific adaptive immune response through modulating the expression of some cytokines, including IL-6, CXCL1, CCL2, and CSF3. In addition, the safety of GO-Car as an adjuvant was evaluated comprehensively. No symptoms such as allergic response, inflammatory redness swelling, raised surface temperatures, physiological anomalies of blood, and remarkable weight changes were observed. Besides, after modification with carnosine, histological damages caused by GO-Car in lung, muscle, kidney, and spleen became weaken significantly. This study sufficiently suggest that GO-Car as a safe adjuvant can effectively enhance humoral and innate immune responses against antigens in vivo. PMID:26766427

  6. Improvement in the spatio-temporal distribution of surface solar radiation data over Belgium by merging ground-based and satellite measurements

    Journée, M.; Bertrand, C.

    2010-09-01

    Appropriate information on solar resources is very important for a variety of technological areas, such as: agriculture, meteorology, forestry engineering, water resources and in particular in the designing and sizing of solar energy systems. As an example, time-and space-dependent global solar radiation on horizontal surface at the location of interest is the most critical input parameter employed in the design and prediction of the performance of a solar energy device. Solar radiation is observed by means of networks of meteorological stations. Costs for installation and maintenance of such networks are very high and national networks comprise only few stations. Consequently the availability of observed solar radiation measurements has proven to be spatially and temporally inadequate for many applications. Mapping the solar radiation by interpolation/extrapolation of measurements is possible but leads to large errors, except if the network is dense. A global coverage of solar radiation can however be inferred from space-based observations. In the present study, we evaluate the potential benefit of merging global solar radiation measurements from the Royal Meteorological Institute of Belgium (RMIB) solar measurements network with the operationally derived surface incoming global short-wave radiation products from Meteosat Second Generation (MSG) satellites imageries to improve the spatio-temporal resolution of the surface global solar radiation data over Belgium. Within the Satellite Application Facility (SAF) network supported by the European Organisation for the Exploitation of Meteorological Satellites (Eumetsat), the downwelling shortwave radiation at the surface of Belgium is operationally retrieved from MSG imageries by two decentralized SAFs: the Satellite Application Facility on Climate Monitoring (CM-SAF) and the Land Surface Analysis Satellite Application Facility (LSA-SAF). To retrieve the same parameter, the different SAFs use their own algorithms and

  7. Project Temporalities

    Tryggestad, Kjell; Justesen, Lise; Mouritsen, Jan

    2013-01-01

    Purpose – The purpose of this paper is to explore how animals can become stakeholders in interaction with project management technologies and what happens with project temporalities when new and surprising stakeholders become part of a project and a recognized matter of concern to be taken...... into account. Design/methodology/approach – The paper is based on a qualitative case study of a project in the building industry. The authors use actor-network theory (ANT) to analyze the emergence of animal stakeholders, stakes and temporalities. Findings – The study shows how project temporalities can...... multiply in interaction with project management technologies and how conventional linear conceptions of project time may be contested with the emergence of new non-human stakeholders and temporalities. Research limitations/implications – The study draws on ANT to show how animals can become stakeholders...

  8. An ECT System Based on Improved RBF Network and Adaptive Wavelet Image Enhancement for Solid/Gas Two-phase Flow

    陈夏; 胡红利; 张娟; 周屈兰

    2012-01-01

    Electrical capacitance tomography(ECT) is a non-invasive imaging technique that aims at visualizing the cross-sectional permittivity distribution and phase distribution of solid/gas two-phase flow based on the measured capacitance.To solve the nonlinear and ill-posed inverse problem:image reconstruction of ECT system,this paper proposed a new image reconstruction method based on improved radial basis function(RBF) neural network combined with adaptive wavelet image enhancement.Firstly,an improved RBF network was applied to establish the mapping model between the reconstruction image pixels and the capacitance values measured.Then,for better image quality,adaptive wavelet image enhancement technique was emphatically analyzed and studied,which belongs to a space-frequency analysis method and is suitable for image feature-enhanced.Through multi-level wavelet decomposition,edge points of the image produced from RBF network can be determined based on the neighborhood property of each sub-band;noise distribution in the space-frequency domain can be estimated based on statistical characteristics;after that a self-adaptive edge enhancement gain can be constructed.Finally,the image is reconstructed with adjusting wavelet coefficients.In this paper,a 12-electrode ECT system and a pneumatic conveying platform were built up to verify this image reconstruction algorithm.Experimental results demonstrated that adaptive wavelet image enhancement technique effectively implemented edge detection and image enhancement,and the improved RBF network and adaptive wavelet image enhancement hybrid algorithm greatly improved the quality of reconstructed image of solid/gas two-phase flow [pulverized coal(PC)/air].

  9. Adapted cardiac rehabilitation programme to improve uptake in patients of Moroccan and Turkish origin in The Netherlands: a qualitative study

    Sloots, Maurits; Bartels, Edien A. C.; Angenot, Edmond L. D.; Geertzen, Jan H. B.; Dekker, Joost

    2012-01-01

    Aim. To explore the treatment experiences in patients of Moroccan and Turkish origin and their rehabilitation therapists regarding an adapted outpatient cardiac rehabilitation programme. Background. Non-native patients who participated in a cardiac rehabilitation programme at a Dutch rehabilitation centre had more difficulties to achieve the treatment aims than native Dutch patients. Therefore, an adapted programme for non-native patients, lacking proficiency in Dutch, has been instigated. Th...

  10. Improving education due to the need to adapt it to the requirements of the economic development and of the labor market - issues of past history and contemporary features

    Cornelia Nistor

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available Improving education has been and continues to be a necessary condition in any society. Education contributes to increase the level of civilization, to develop the individual personality, but also to increase the level of the economic development. Organization and subsequent reorganization of the Romanian education system has been pursuing desiring to adapt better it better to the labor market needs and to adapt it to the international education system. The management strategies which are applied in this area should be considered adapting it to the domestic and international labor market conditions to the new education methods and techniques, used at the international level. The new trends desiring to transform the economy into a green economy require increased investments in education, in order to train the specialists in new green areas.

  11. Improvement in the performance of CAD for the Alzheimer-type dementia based on automatic extraction of temporal lobe from coronal MR images

    In this study, we extracted whole brain and temporal lobe images from MR images (26 healthy elderly controls and 34 Alzheimer-type dementia patients) by means of binarize, mask processing, template matching, Hough transformation, and boundary tracing etc. We assessed the extraction accuracy by comparing the extracted images to images extracts by a radiological technologist. The results of assessment by consistent rate; brain images 91.3±4.3%, right temporal lobe 83.3±6.9%, left temporal lobe 83.7±7.6%. Furthermore discriminant analysis using 6 textural features demonstrated sensitivity and specificity of 100% when the healthy elderly controls were compared to the Alzheimer-type dementia patients. Our research showed the possibility of automatic objective diagnosis of temporal lobe abnormalities by automatic extracted images of the temporal lobes. (author)

  12. Temporal variations of the fractal properties of seismicity in the western part of the north Anatolian fault zone: possible artifacts due to improvements in station coverage

    A. O. Öncel

    1995-01-01

    Full Text Available Seismically-active fault zones are complex natural systems exhibiting scale-invariant or fractal correlation between earthquakes in space and time, and a power-law scaling of fault length or earthquake source dimension consistent with the exponent b of the Gutenberg-Richter frequency-magnitude relation. The fractal dimension of seismicity is a measure of the degree of both the heterogeneity of the process (whether fixed or self-generated and the clustering of seismic activity. Temporal variations of the b-value and the two-point fractal (correlation dimension Dc have been related to the preparation process for natural earthquakes and rock fracture in the laboratory These statistical scaling properties of seismicity may therefore have the potential at least to be sensitive short- term predictors of major earthquakes. The North Anatolian Fault Zone (NAFZ is a seismicallyactive dextral strike slip fault zone which forms the northern boundary of the westward moving Anatolian plate. It is splayed into three branches at about 31oE and continues westward toward the northern Aegean sea. In this study, we investigate the temporal variation of Dc and the Gutenberg-Richter b-value for seismicity in the western part of the NAFZ (including the northern Aegean sea for earthquakes of Ms > 4.5 occurring in the period between 1900 and 1992. b ranges from 0.6-1.6 and Dc from 0.6 to 1.4. The b-value is found to be weakly negatively correlated with Dc (r=-0.56. However the (log of event rate N is positively correlated with b, with a similar degree of statistical significance (r=0.42, and negatively correlated with Dc (r=-0.48. Since N increases dramatically with improved station coverage since 1970, the observed negative correlation between b and Dc is therefore more likely to be due to this effect than any underlying physical process in this case. We present this as an example of how man-made artefacts of recording can have similar statistical effects to

  13. Adapt-N: A Cloud-Based Computational Tool for Crop Nitrogen Management that Improves Production and Environmental Outcomes

    van Es, Harold; Sela, Shai; Marjerison, Rebecca; Melkonian, Jeff

    2016-04-01

    Maize production accounts for the largest share of crop land area in the US and is the largest consumer of nitrogen (N) fertilizers, while also having low N use efficiency. Routine application of N fertilizer has led to well-documented environmental problems and social costs. Adapt-N is a computational tool that combines soil, crop and management information with near-real-time weather data to estimate optimum N application rates for maize. Its cloud-based implementation allows for tracking and timely management of the dynamic gains and losses of N in cropping systems. This presentation will provide an overview of the tool and its implementation of farms. We also evaluated Adapt-N tool during five growing seasons (2011-to-2015) using a large dataset of both side-by-side (SBS) strip trials and multi-N rate experiments. The SBS trials consisted of 115 on-farm strip trials in Iowa and New York, each trial including yield results from replicated field-scale plots involving two sidedress N rate treatments: Adapt-N-estimated and Grower-selected (conventional). The Adapt-N rates were on average 53 and 30 kg ha-1 lower than Grower rates for NY and IA, respectively (-34% overall), with no statistically significant difference in yields. On average, Adapt-N rates increased grower profits by 63.9 ha-1 and resulted in an Adapt-N estimated decrease of 28 kg ha-1 (38%) in environmental N losses. A second set of strip trials involved multiple N-rate experiments in Wisconsin, Indiana, Ohio and NY, which allowed for the comparison of Adapt-N and conventional static recommendations to an Economic Optimum N Rate (determined through response model fitting). These trials demonstrated that Adapt-N can achieve the same profitability with greatly reduced average N inputs of 20 lbs N/ac for the Midwest and 65 lbs N/ac for the Northeast, resulting in significantly lower environmental losses. In conclusion, Adapt-N recommendations resulted in both increased growers profits and decreased

  14. Improved Biodegradation of 1,2,4-Trichlorobenzene by Adapted Microorganisms in Agricultural Soil and in Soil Suspension Cultures

    SONG Yang; WANG Fang; F. O. KENGARA; BIAN Yong-Rong; YANG Xing-Lun; LIU Cui-Ying; JIANG Xin

    2011-01-01

    Inoculating soil with an adapted microbial community is a more effective bioaugrnentation approach than inoculation with pure strains in bioremediation.However,information on the potential of different inocula from sites with varying contamination levels and pollution histories in soil remediation is lacking.The objective of the study was to investigate the potential of adapted microorganisms in soil inocula,with different contamination levels and pollution histories,to degrade 1,2,4-trichlorobenzene (1,2,4-TCB).Three different soils from chlorobenzene-contaminated sites were inoculated into agricultural soils and soil suspension cultures spiked with 1,2,4-TCB.The results showed that 36.52% of the initially applied 1,2,4-TCB was present in the non-inoculated soil,whereas about 19.00% of 1,2,4-TCB was present in the agricultural soils inoculated with contaminated soils after 28 days of incubation.The soils inoculated with adapted microbial biomass (in the soil inocula) showed higher respiration and lower 1,2,4-TCB volatilization than the non-inoculated soils,suggesting the existence of 1,2,4-TCB adapted degraders in the contaminated soils used for inoculation.It was further confirmed in the contaminated soil suspension cultures that the concentration of inorganic chloride ions increased continuously over the entire experimental period.Higher contamination of the inocula led not only to higher degradation potential but also to higher residue formation.However,even inocula of low-level contamination were effective in enhancing the degradation of 1,2,4-TCB.Therefore,applying adapted microorganisms in the form of soil inocula,especially with lower contamination levels,could be an effective and environment-friendly strategy for soil remediation.

  15. Adapting developing country epidemiological assessment techniques to improve the quality of health needs assessments in developed countries

    Handy Deirdre

    2005-04-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background We were commissioned to carry out three health assessments in urban areas of Dublin in Ireland. We required an epidemiologically robust method that could collect data rapidly and inexpensively. We were dealing with inadequate health information systems, weak planning data and a history of inadequate recipient involvement in health service planning. These problems had also been identified by researchers carrying out health assessments in developing countries. This paper reports our experience of adapting a cluster survey model originally developed by international organisations to assess community health needs and service coverage in developing countries and applying our adapted model to three urban areas in Dublin, Ireland Methods We adapted the model to control for socio-economic heterogeneity, to take account of the inadequate population list, to ensure a representative sample and to account for a higher prevalence of degenerative and chronic diseases. We employed formal as well as informal communication methods and adjusted data collection times to maximise participation. Results The model we adapted had the capacity to ascertain both health needs and health care delivery needs. The community participated throughout the process and members were trained and employed as data collectors. The assessments have been used by local health boards and non-governmental agencies to plan and deliver better or additional services. Conclusion We were able to carry out high quality health needs assessments in urban areas by adapting and applying a developing country health assessment method. Issues arose relating to health needs assessment as part of the planning cycle and the role of participants in the process.

  16. Temporal networks

    Holme, Petter; Saramäki, Jari

    2012-10-01

    A great variety of systems in nature, society and technology-from the web of sexual contacts to the Internet, from the nervous system to power grids-can be modeled as graphs of vertices coupled by edges. The network structure, describing how the graph is wired, helps us understand, predict and optimize the behavior of dynamical systems. In many cases, however, the edges are not continuously active. As an example, in networks of communication via e-mail, text messages, or phone calls, edges represent sequences of instantaneous or practically instantaneous contacts. In some cases, edges are active for non-negligible periods of time: e.g., the proximity patterns of inpatients at hospitals can be represented by a graph where an edge between two individuals is on throughout the time they are at the same ward. Like network topology, the temporal structure of edge activations can affect dynamics of systems interacting through the network, from disease contagion on the network of patients to information diffusion over an e-mail network. In this review, we present the emergent field of temporal networks, and discuss methods for analyzing topological and temporal structure and models for elucidating their relation to the behavior of dynamical systems. In the light of traditional network theory, one can see this framework as moving the information of when things happen from the dynamical system on the network, to the network itself. Since fundamental properties, such as the transitivity of edges, do not necessarily hold in temporal networks, many of these methods need to be quite different from those for static networks. The study of temporal networks is very interdisciplinary in nature. Reflecting this, even the object of study has many names-temporal graphs, evolving graphs, time-varying graphs, time-aggregated graphs, time-stamped graphs, dynamic networks, dynamic graphs, dynamical graphs, and so on. This review covers different fields where temporal graphs are considered

  17. How urban system vulnerabilities to flooding could be assessed to improve resilience and adaptation in spatial planning

    Pasi, Riccardo; Viavattene, Christophe; La Loggia, Goffredo

    2016-04-01

    Natural hazards damage assets and infrastructure inducing disruptions to urban functions and key daily services. These disruptions may be short or long with a variable spatial scale of impact. From an urban planning perspective, measuring these disruptions and their consequences at an urban scale is fundamental in order to develop more resilient cities. Whereas the assessment of physical vulnerabilities and direct damages is commonly addressed, new methodologies for assessing the systemic vulnerability at the urban scale are required to reveal these disruptions and their consequences. Physical and systemic vulnerability should be measured in order to reflect the multifaceted fragility of cities in the face of external stress, both in terms of the natural/built environment and socio-economic sphere. Additionally, a systemic approach allows the consideration of vulnerability across different spatial scales, as impacts may vary and be transmitted across local, regional or national levels. Urban systems are spatially distributed and the nature of this can have significant effects on flood impacts. The proposed approach identifies the vulnerabilities of flooding within urban contexts, including both in terms of single elementary units (buildings, infrastructures, people, etc.) and systemic functioning (urban functions and daily life networks). Direct losses are appraised initially using conventional methodologies (e.g. depth-damage functions). This aims to both understand the spatial distribution of physical vulnerability and associated losses and, secondly, to identify the most vulnerable building types and ways to improve the physical adaptation of our cities, proposing changes to building codes, design principles and other municipal regulation tools. The subsequent systemic approach recognises the city as a collection of sub-systems or functional units (such as neighbourhoods and suburbs) providing key daily services for inhabitants (e.g. healthcare facilities

  18. Adaptive-Predictive Organ Localization Using Cone-Beam Computed Tomography for Improved Accuracy in External Beam Radiotherapy for Bladder Cancer

    Purpose: To examine patterns of bladder wall motion during high-dose hypofractionated bladder radiotherapy and to validate a novel adaptive planning method, A-POLO, to prevent subsequent geographic miss. Methods and Materials: Patterns of individual bladder filling were obtained with repeat computed tomography planning scans at 0, 15, and 30 minutes after voiding. A series of patient-specific plans corresponding to these time-displacement points was created. Pretreatment cone-beam computed tomography was performed before each fraction and assessed retrospectively for adaptive intervention. In fractions that would have required intervention, the most appropriate plan was chosen from the patient's 'library,' and the resulting target coverage was reassessed with repeat cone-beam computed tomography. Results: A large variation in patterns of bladder filling and interfraction displacement was seen. During radiotherapy, predominant translations occurred cranially (maximum 2.5 cm) and anteriorly (maximum 1.75 cm). No apparent explanation was found for this variation using pretreatment patient factors. A need for adaptive planning was demonstrated by 51% of fractions, and 73% of fractions would have been delivered correctly using A-POLO. The adaptive strategy improved target coverage and was able to account for intrafraction motion also. Conclusions: Bladder volume variation will result in geographic miss in a high proportion of delivered bladder radiotherapy treatments. The A-POLO strategy can be used to correct for this and can be implemented from the first fraction of radiotherapy; thus, it is particularly suited to hypofractionated bladder radiotherapy regimens.

  19. 提高大学新生适应教育实效性的思考%Thinking of Improvement of Effectiveness of Adaption Education to Freshman

    朱薇薇

    2012-01-01

    大学新生适应教育是大学生入学教育的重要内容,是大学生能够顺利适应新环境的重要环节。加强调研、创新形式、引入团队辅导、发挥朋辈引导的作用、将新生适应教育纳入课程体系、与人才培养计划相结合以及建立反馈和评价机制,是提高新生适应教育实效性的有效措施。%education for freshmen is an important content in enrollment education and a vital link for them to adapt the new environment. It' s necessary to strengthen research and innovate, to introduce team tutoring, get schoolmates to play a guiding role and reintegrate adaption education into the curriculum system, and to combine adaption education with talent training and establish feedback mechanism and evaluation mechanism, which is to an effective measure to improve the efficiency of the adaption education to freshmen.

  20. Adaptive foreground and shadow segmentation using hidden conditional random fields

    CHU Yi-ping; YE Xiu-zi; QIAN Jiang; ZHANG Yin; ZHANG San-yuan

    2007-01-01

    Video object segmentation is important for video surveillance, object tracking, video object recognition and video editing. An adaptive video segmentation algorithm based on hidden conditional random fields (HCRFs) is proposed, which models spatio-temporal constraints of video sequence. In order to improve the segmentation quality, the weights of spatio-temporal constraints are adaptively updated by on-line learning for HCRFs. Shadows are the factors affecting segmentation quality. To separate foreground objects from the shadows they cast, linear transform for Gaussian distribution of the background is adopted to model the shadow. The experimental results demonstrated that the error ratio of our algorithm is reduced by 23% and 19% respectively,compared with the Gaussian mixture model (GMM) and spatio-temporal Markov random fields (MRFs).

  1. Forward Masking: Temporal Integration or Adaptation?

    Ewert, Stephan D.; Hau, Ole; Dau, Torsten

    Hearing – From Sensory Processing to Perception presents the papers of the latest "International Symposium on Hearing," a meeting held every three years focusing on psychoacoustics and the research of the physiological mechanisms underlying auditory perception. The proceedings provide an up...... physiological mechanisms of binaural processing in mammals; integration of the different stimulus features into auditory scene analysis; physiological mechanisms related to the formation of auditory objects; speech perception; and limitations of auditory perception resulting from hearing disorders....

  2. Forward Masking: Temporal Integration or Adaptation?

    Ewert, Stephan D.; Hau, Ole; Dau, Torsten

    2007-01-01

    Hearing – From Sensory Processing to Perception presents the papers of the latest "International Symposium on Hearing," a meeting held every three years focusing on psychoacoustics and the research of the physiological mechanisms underlying auditory perception. The proceedings provide an up-to-da...

  3. Enhancing adaptive sparse grid approximations and improving refinement strategies using adjoint-based a posteriori error estimates

    In this paper we present an algorithm for adaptive sparse grid approximations of quantities of interest computed from discretized partial differential equations. We use adjoint-based a posteriori error estimates of the physical discretization error and the interpolation error in the sparse grid to enhance the sparse grid approximation and to drive adaptivity of the sparse grid. Utilizing these error estimates provides significantly more accurate functional values for random samples of the sparse grid approximation. We also demonstrate that alternative refinement strategies based upon a posteriori error estimates can lead to further increases in accuracy in the approximation over traditional hierarchical surplus based strategies. Throughout this paper we also provide and test a framework for balancing the physical discretization error with the stochastic interpolation error of the enhanced sparse grid approximation

  4. Participatory Adaptation of an Evidence-Based, Arthritis Self-Management Program: Making Changes to Improve Program Fit

    Parker, Samantha J.; Chen, Emily K.; Pillemer, Karl; Filiberto, David; Laureano, Evelyn; Piper, Josie; Schwartz-Leeper, Julia; Robbins, Laura; Reid, M.C.

    2012-01-01

    We employed community-based participatory research techniques to adapt an evidence-based Arthritis Self-Help Program (ASHP) for older African American, Hispanic and non-Hispanic white adults. Participants and instructors provided multiple recommendations for program changes in telephone interviews and focus groups. Recommendations were adjudicated and implemented through a collaborative, consensus-based process involving diverse stakeholders. Changes implemented show sensitivity to the prefer...

  5. Adapting ski area operations to a warmer climate in the Swiss Alps through snowmaking investments and efficiency improvements

    Gonseth, Camille

    2008-01-01

    Economic consequences of climate change for the Swiss winter tourism have been assessed in two studies. Though estimates of the potential annual costs highly differ between them, they however agree on two points. On the one hand, winter tourism will be one of the most affected economic sectors. On the other hand, impacts of climate change on this sector will be very disruptive. In this context, adaptation strategies must play an important role in the Swiss winter tourism sector in order to al...

  6. Adapting ski area operations to a warmer climate in the Swiss Alps through snowmaking investments and efficiency improvements

    Gonseth, Camille; Thalmann, Philippe

    2009-01-01

    Economic consequences of climate change for the Swiss winter tourism have been assessed in two studies. Though estimates of the potential annual costs highly differ between them, they however agree on two points. On the one hand, winter tourism will be one of the most affected economic sectors. On the other hand, impacts of climate change on this sector will be very disruptive. In this context, adaptation strategies must play an important role in the Swiss winter tourism sector in order to al...

  7. Improvement in lactic acid production from starch using alpha-amylase-secreting Lactococcus lactis cells adapted to maltose or starch.

    Okano, Kenji; Kimura, Sakurako; Narita, Junya; Fukuda, Hideki; Kondo, Akihiko

    2007-07-01

    To achieve direct and efficient lactic acid production from starch, a genetically modified Lactococcus lactis IL 1403 secreting alpha-amylase, which was obtained from Streptococcus bovis 148, was constructed. Using this strain, the fermentation of soluble starch was achieved, although its rate was far from efficient (0.09 g l(-1) h(-1) lactate). High-performance liquid chromatography revealed that maltose accumulated during fermentation, and this was thought to lead to inefficient fermentation. To accelerate maltose consumption, starch fermentation was examined using L. lactis cells adapted to maltose instead of glucose. This led to a decrease in the amount of maltose accumulation in the culture, and, as a result, a more rapid fermentation was accomplished (1.31 g l(-1) h(-1) lactate). Maximum volumetric lactate productivity was further increased (1.57 g l(-1) h(-1) lactate) using cells adapted to starch, and a high yield of lactate (0.89 g of lactate per gram of consumed sugar) of high optical purity (99.2% of L: -lactate) was achieved. In this study, we propose a new approach to lactate production by alpha-amylase-secreting L. lactis that allows efficient fermentation from starch using cells adapted to maltose or starch before fermentation. PMID:17384945

  8. Short-term adaptation improves the fermentation performance of Saccharomyces cerevisiae in the presence of acetic acid at low pH.

    Sànchez i Nogué, Violeta; Narayanan, Venkatachalam; Gorwa-Grauslund, Marie F

    2013-08-01

    The release of acetic acid due to deacetylation of the hemicellulose fraction during the treatment of lignocellulosic biomass contributes to the inhibitory character of the generated hydrolysates. In the present study, we identified a strain-independent adaptation protocol consisting of pre-cultivating the strain at pH 5.0 in the presence of at least 4 g L⁻¹ acetic acid that enabled aerobic growth and improved fermentation performance of Saccharomyces cerevisiae cells at low pH (3.7) and in the presence of inhibitory levels of acetic acid (6 g L⁻¹). During anaerobic cultivation with adapted cells of strain TMB3500, the specific ethanol production rate was increased, reducing the fermentation time to 48 %. PMID:23872959

  9. Improving the performance of computer-aided detection of subtle breast masses using an adaptive cueing method

    Current computer-aided detection (CAD) schemes for detecting mammographic masses have several limitations including high correlation with radiologists’ detection and cueing most subtle masses only on one view. To increase CAD sensitivity in cueing more subtle masses that are likely missed and/or overlooked by radiologists without increasing false-positive rates, we investigated a new case-dependent cueing method by combining the original CAD-generated detection scores with a computed bilateral mammographic density asymmetry index. Using the new method, we adaptively raise the CAD-generated scores of the regions detected on ‘high-risk’ cases to cue more subtle mass regions and reduce the CAD scores of the regions detected on ‘low-risk’ cases to discard more false-positive regions. A testing dataset involving 78 positive and 338 negative cases was used to test this adaptive cueing method. Each positive case involves two sequential examinations in which the mass was detected in ‘current’ examination and missed in ‘prior’ examination but detected in a retrospective review by radiologists. Applying to this dataset, a pre-optimized CAD scheme yielded 75% case-based and 55% region-based sensitivity on ‘current’ examinations at a false-positive rate of 0.25 per image. CAD sensitivity was reduced to 42% (case based) and 27% (region based) on ‘prior’ examinations. Using the new cueing method, case-based and region-based sensitivity could maximally increase 9% and 33% on the ‘prior’ examinations, respectively. The percentages of the masses cued on two views also increased from 27% to 65%. The study demonstrated that using this adaptive cueing method enabled us to help CAD cue more subtle cancers without increasing the false-positive cueing rate. (paper)

  10. 适应超厚料层烧结的设备改造%Improvement of Sintering Equipment to Adapt to Ultra-thick Bed Sintering Operation

    郭建林

    2011-01-01

    Under the circumstances that the rolled steel market is weak, 1# sintering machine is improved to adapt to the ultra-thick bed and low-cost sintering operation, which has achieved good results.%在钢材市场持续疲软的情况下,为了适应烧结生产的低成本运行,对1号烧结机进行了适应厚料层烧结的设备改造,取得了很好的效果。

  11. Short-term adaptation improves the fermentation performance of Saccharomyces cerevisiae in the presence of acetic acid at low pH

    Sànchez i Nogué, Violeta; Narayanan, Venkatachalam; Gorwa-Grauslund, Marie F

    2013-01-01

    The release of acetic acid due to deacetylation of the hemicellulose fraction during the treatment of lignocellulosic biomass contributes to the inhibitory character of the generated hydrolysates. In the present study, we identified a strain-independent adaptation protocol consisting of pre-cultivating the strain at pH 5.0 in the presence of at least 4 g L−1 acetic acid that enabled aerobic growth and improved fermentation performance of Saccharomyces cerevisiae cells at low pH (3.7) and in t...

  12. Adapting and Implementing a Community Program to Improve Retention in Care among Patients with HIV in Southern Haiti: “Group of 6”

    John A. Naslund

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Objective. In Mozambique, a patient-led Community ART Group model developed by Médecins Sans Frontières improved retention in care and adherence to antiretroviral therapy (ART among persons with HIV. We describe the adaptation and implementation of this model within the HIV clinic located in the largest public hospital in Haiti’s Southern Department. Methods. Our adapted model was named Group of 6. Hospital staff enabled stable patients with HIV receiving ART to form community groups with 4–6 members to facilitate monthly ART distribution, track progress and adherence, and provide support. Implementation outcomes included recruitment success, participant retention, group completion of monthly monitoring forms, and satisfaction surveys. Results. Over one year, 80 patients from nine communities enrolled into 15 groups. Six participants left to receive HIV care elsewhere, two moved away, and one died of a non-HIV condition. Group members successfully completed monthly ART distribution and returned 85.6% of the monthly monitoring forms. Members reported that Group of 6 made their HIV management easier and hospital staff reported that it reduced their workload. Conclusions. We report successful adaptation and implementation of a validated community HIV-care model in Southern Haiti. Group of 6 can reduce barriers to ART adherence, and will be integrated as a routine care option.

  13. Adapting and Implementing a Community Program to Improve Retention in Care among Patients with HIV in Southern Haiti: “Group of 6”

    Junior Destiné, Cléonas; Jogerst, Kristen M.; Renold Sénécharles, Redouin; Jean Louis, Michelande; Desir, Jasmin; Néptune Ledan, Yvette; Beauséjour, Jude Ronald; Charles, Roland; Werbel, Alice; Talbot, Elizabeth A.; Joseph, Patrice; Pape, Jean William; Wright, Peter F.

    2014-01-01

    Objective. In Mozambique, a patient-led Community ART Group model developed by Médecins Sans Frontières improved retention in care and adherence to antiretroviral therapy (ART) among persons with HIV. We describe the adaptation and implementation of this model within the HIV clinic located in the largest public hospital in Haiti's Southern Department. Methods. Our adapted model was named Group of 6. Hospital staff enabled stable patients with HIV receiving ART to form community groups with 4–6 members to facilitate monthly ART distribution, track progress and adherence, and provide support. Implementation outcomes included recruitment success, participant retention, group completion of monthly monitoring forms, and satisfaction surveys. Results. Over one year, 80 patients from nine communities enrolled into 15 groups. Six participants left to receive HIV care elsewhere, two moved away, and one died of a non-HIV condition. Group members successfully completed monthly ART distribution and returned 85.6% of the monthly monitoring forms. Members reported that Group of 6 made their HIV management easier and hospital staff reported that it reduced their workload. Conclusions. We report successful adaptation and implementation of a validated community HIV-care model in Southern Haiti. Group of 6 can reduce barriers to ART adherence, and will be integrated as a routine care option. PMID:25548659

  14. Improvement of Quality of Service (QoS in MISO-OFDM Systems Using Superposition Based Adaptive Modulation (SPAM and Space Frequency Block Coding (SFBC Technique

    K.Vinoth Babu

    2013-06-01

    Full Text Available 4G based wireless communication systems require high data rate with high QoS with minimal system complexity. In wireless environment, as the effect of multipath fading increases, Bit Error Rate (BER also increases. To offer high data rate, the bandwidth has to be increased which is a limited resource. The best possible solution for obtaining high data rate is to combine Multi Input Multi Output (MIMO with OFDM. To ameliorate the performance of MIMO-OFDM systems over multipath fading channels, we use the concept of SFBC which retrieves the orthogonality property of OFDM signals in frequency selective fading channels. In frequency selective fading environment, adaptive modulation gives better performance than fixed modulated systems but with increased decoding complexity. Adaptive modulation implemented with SPAM offers less decoding complexity. Adaptive modulation combined with diversity schemes still improves the reliability of the system. In this paper, SPAM based SFBC is proposed with OFDM to give better performance with less decoding complexity. From the Simulationresults we can conclude that proposed system will have better performance compared to fixed modulated systems.

  15. Temporal Networks

    Holme, Petter

    2011-01-01

    A great variety of systems in nature, society and technology can be modeled as graphs of vertices coupled by edges. The network structure, describing how the graph is wired, helps us understand, predict and optimize the behavior of dynamic systems. In many cases, however, the edges are not continuously active. As an example, in networks of communication via email, text messages, or phone calls, edges represent sequences of instantaneous or practically instantaneous contacts. In some cases, edges are active for non-negligible periods of time: e.g., the proximity patterns of inpatients at hospitals can be represented by a graph where an edge between two individuals is on throughout the time they are at the same ward. Like network topology, the temporal structure of edge activations can affect dynamics of systems interacting through the network, from disease contagion on the network of patients to information diffusion over an e-mail network. In this review, we present the emergent field of temporal networks, an...

  16. Assessing the effectiveness and cost effectiveness of adaptive e-Learning to improve dietary behaviour: protocol for a systematic review

    Michie Susan; Lock Karen; Landon Jane; Free Caroline; Ferguson Elaine; Harris Jody; Felix Lambert; Edwards Phil; Miners Alec; Murray Elizabeth

    2010-01-01

    Abstract Background The composition of habitual diets is associated with adverse or protective effects on aspects of health. Consequently, UK public health policy strongly advocates dietary change for the improvement of population health and emphasises the importance of individual empowerment to improve health. A new and evolving area in the promotion of dietary behavioural change is e-Learning, the use of interactive electronic media to facilitate teaching and learning on a range of issues, ...

  17. An improved adaptive ACO meta heuristic for scheduling multimedia traffic across the 802.11e EDCA

    Ditze, Michael; Becker, Markus

    2008-01-01

    This paper presents an adaptive near-optimal scheduler for multimedia traffic for the 802.11e Enhanced Distributed Channel Access (EDCA) medium access control scheme. The scheduler exploits the ant colony optimization (ACO) meta heuristic to tackle the challenge of packet scheduling. ACO is a biologically inspired algorithm that is known to find near-optimal solutions for combinatorial optimization problems. Thus, we expect that ACO scheduling produces more efficient schedules than comparable deterministic scheduling approaches at the expenses of a computational overhead it introduces. We compare ACO scheduling relevant deterministic scheduling approaches, and in particular the MLLF scheduler that is specifically designed for the needs of compressed multimedia applications. The purpose of the evaluation is twofold. It allows to draw conclusions on the feasibility of ACO scheduling for multimedia traffic while it serves as a benchmark to determine to what extent deterministic schedulers fall short of a near-optimal solution.

  18. Analysis of the spatial and temporal variation of seasonal snow accumulation in alpine catchments using airborne laser scanning : basic research for the adaptation of spatially distributed hydrological models to mountain regions

    Information about the spatial distribution of snow accumulation is a prerequisitefor adaptating hydro-meteorological models to achieve realistic simulations of therunoff from mountain catchments. Therefore, the spatial snow depthdistribution in complex topography of ice-free terrain and glaciers was investigatedusing airborne laser scanning (ALS) data. This thesis presents for the first time an analysis of the persistence and the variability of the snow patterns at the end of five accumulation seasons in a comparatively large catchment. ALS derived seasonal surface elevation changes on glaciers were compared to the actual snow depths calculated from ground penetrating radar (GPR) measurements. Areas of increased deviations. In the investigated region, the ALS-derived snow depths on most of the glacier surface do not deviate markedly from actual snow depths. 75% of a the total area showed low inter-annual variability of standardized snow depths at the end of the five accumulation seasons. The high inter-annual variability of snow depths could be attributed to changes in the ice cover within the investigated 10-yearperiod for much of the remaining area. Avalanches and snow sloughs continuously contribute to the accumulation on glaciers, but their share of the total snow covervolume is small. The assimilation of SWE maps calculated from ALS data in the adaptation of snow-hydrological models to mountain catchments improved the results not only for the but also for the simulated snow cover distribution and for the mass balance of the glaciers. The results demonstrate that ALS data are a beneficial source for extensive analysis of snow patterns and for modeling the runoff from high Alpine catchments.(author)

  19. Adaptive Image Denoising by Mixture Adaptation.

    Luo, Enming; Chan, Stanley H; Nguyen, Truong Q

    2016-10-01

    We propose an adaptive learning procedure to learn patch-based image priors for image denoising. The new algorithm, called the expectation-maximization (EM) adaptation, takes a generic prior learned from a generic external database and adapts it to the noisy image to generate a specific prior. Different from existing methods that combine internal and external statistics in ad hoc ways, the proposed algorithm is rigorously derived from a Bayesian hyper-prior perspective. There are two contributions of this paper. First, we provide full derivation of the EM adaptation algorithm and demonstrate methods to improve the computational complexity. Second, in the absence of the latent clean image, we show how EM adaptation can be modified based on pre-filtering. The experimental results show that the proposed adaptation algorithm yields consistently better denoising results than the one without adaptation and is superior to several state-of-the-art algorithms. PMID:27416593

  20. Coping with climate change uncertainty for adaptation planning: An improved criterion for decision making under uncertainty using UKCP09

    M. Green

    2014-01-01

    Analyses using sub-samples of the complete probabilistic dataset showed that the Green Z-score had comparable reproducibility to Laplace and improved reproducibility compared to other current decision criteria, and unlike Laplace is able to accommodate different risk attitudes.

  1. Adaptive and innovative Radiation Treatment FOR improving Cancer treatment outcomE (ARTFORCE); a randomized controlled phase II trial for individualized treatment of head and neck cancer

    Failure of locoregional control is the main cause of recurrence in advanced head and neck cancer. This multi-center trial aims to improve outcome in two ways. Firstly, by redistribution of the radiation dose to the metabolically most FDG-PET avid part of the tumour. Hereby, a biologically more effective dose distribution might be achieved while simultaneously sparing normal tissues. Secondly, by improving patient selection. Both cisplatin and Epidermal Growth Factor Receptor (EGFR) antibodies like Cetuximab in combination with Radiotherapy (RT) are effective in enhancing tumour response. However, it is unknown which patients will benefit from either agent in combination with irradiation. We will analyze the predictive value of biological markers and 89Zr-Cetuximab uptake for treatment outcome of chemoradiation with Cetuximab or cisplatin to improve patient selection. ARTFORCE is a randomized phase II trial for 268 patients with a factorial 2 by 2 design: cisplatin versus Cetuximab and standard RT versus redistributed RT. Cisplatin is dosed weekly 40 mg/m2 for 6 weeks. Cetuximab is dosed 250mg/m2 weekly (loading dose 400 mg/m2) for 6 weeks. The standard RT regimen consists of elective RT up to 54.25 Gy with a simultaneous integrated boost (SIB) to 70 Gy in 35 fractions in 6 weeks. Redistributed adaptive RT consists of elective RT up to 54.25 Gy with a SIB between 64-80 Gy in 35 fractions in 6 weeks with redistributed dose to the gross tumour volume (GTV) and clinical target volume (CTV), and adaptation of treatment for anatomical changes in the third week of treatment. Patients with locally advanced, biopsy confirmed squamous cell carcinoma of the oropharynx, oral cavity or hypopharynx are eligible. Primary endpoints are: locoregional recurrence free survival at 2 years, correlation of the median 89Zr-cetuximab uptake and biological markers with treatment specific outcome, and toxicity. Secondary endpoints are quality of life, swallowing function preservation

  2. Saccharomyces cerevisiae strain improvement using selection, mutation, and adaptation for the resistance to lignocellulose-derived fermentation inhibitor for ethanol production.

    Jang, Youri; Lim, Younghoon; Kim, Keun

    2014-05-01

    Twenty-five Saccharomyces cerevisiae strains were screened for the highest sugar tolerance, ethanol-tolerance, ethanol production, and inhibitor resistance, and S. cerevisiae KL5 was selected as the best strain. Inhibitor cocktail (100%) was composed of 75 mM formic acid, 75 mM acetic acid, 30 mM furfural, 30 mM hydroxymethyl furfural (HMF), and 2.7 mM vanillin. The cells of strain KL5 were treated with γ-irradiation, and among the survivals, KL5- G2 with improved inhibitor resistance and the highest ethanol yield in the presence of inhibitor cocktail was selected. The KL5-G2 strain was adapted to inhibitor cocktail by sequential transfer of cultures to a minimal YNB medium containing increasing concentrations of inhibitor cocktail. After 10 times of adaptation, most of the isolated colonies could grow in YNB with 80% inhibitor cocktail, whereas the parental KL5 strain could not grow at all. Among the various adapted strains, the best strain (KL5-G2-A9) producing the highest ethanol yield in the presence of inhibitor cocktail was selected. In a complex YP medium containing 60% inhibitor cocktail and 5% glucose, the theoretical yield and productivity (at 48 h) of KL5- G2-A9 were 81.3% and 0.304 g/l/h, respectively, whereas those of KL5 were 20.8% and 0.072 g/l/h, respectively. KL5-G2-A9 reduced the concentrations of HMF, furfural, and vanillin in the medium in much faster rates than KL5. PMID:24608567

  3. Rapid, generalized adaptation to asynchronous audiovisual speech

    Van der Burg, Erik; Goodbourn, Patrick T.

    2015-01-01

    The brain is adaptive. The speed of propagation through air, and of low-level sensory processing, differs markedly between auditory and visual stimuli; yet the brain can adapt to compensate for the resulting cross-modal delays. Studies investigating temporal recalibration to audiovisual speech have used prolonged adaptation procedures, suggesting that adaptation is sluggish. Here, we show that adaptation to asynchronous audiovisual speech occurs rapidly. Participants viewed a brief clip of an...

  4. Improving the Forecast Accuracy of an Ocean Observation and Prediction System by Adaptive Control of the Sensor Network

    Talukder, A.; Panangadan, A. V.; Blumberg, A. F.; Herrington, T.; Georgas, N.

    2008-12-01

    The New York Harbor Observation and Prediction System (NYHOPS) is a real-time, estuarine and coastal ocean observing and modeling system for the New York Harbor and surrounding waters. Real-time measurements from in-situ mobile and stationary sensors in the NYHOPS networks are assimilated into marine forecasts in order to reduce the discrepancy with ground truth. The forecasts are obtained from the ECOMSED hydrodynamic model, a shallow water derivative of the Princeton Ocean Model. Currently, all sensors in the NYHOPS system are operated in a fixed mode with uniform sampling rates. This technology infusion effort demonstrates the use of Model Predictive Control (MPC) to autonomously adapt the operation of both mobile and stationary sensors in response to changing events that are -automatically detected from the ECOMSED forecasts. The controller focuses sensing resources on those regions that are expected to be impacted by the detected events. The MPC approach involves formulating the problem of calculating the optimal sensor parameters as a constrained multi-objective optimization problem. We have developed an objective function that takes into account the spatiotemporal relationship of the in-situ sensor locations and the locations of events detected by the model. Experiments in simulation were carried out using data collected during a freshwater flooding event. The location of the resulting freshwater plume was calculated from the corresponding model forecasts and was used by the MPC controller to derive control parameters for the sensing assets. The operational parameters that are controlled include the sampling rates of stationary sensors, paths of unmanned underwater vehicles (UUVs), and data transfer routes between sensors and the central modeling computer. The simulation experiments show that MPC-based sensor control reduces the RMS error in the forecast by a factor of 380% as compared to uniform sampling. The paths of multiple UUVs were simultaneously

  5. An improved enhancement algorithm based on OTSU adaptive threshold and fuzzy set theory for robot digital roadmap

    Luo, Yuan; Yang, Hongmei

    2009-07-01

    In robot path planning, the robot digital roadmap recognition is very important. The image preprocessing can affect the recognition result. Image enhancement is always used in image preprocessing to provide better input for the following automated image processing and fuzzy image enhancement is one of a effective approach that be used widely in image preprocessing. Through the research of the Pal fuzzy enhancement algorithm, there were two main bugs of the algorithm. The first one was the definition of the membership function, and the second was the selection of the transition point. In this paper, a novel improved algorithm is proposed by analyzing the deficiencies of Pal algorithm. First, use the 2D OTSU operator to automatically select the best threshold value, solve the disadvantage that the transition point should be set artificially, and eliminate the random selection. Then, in order to improve the image information loss problem, modify the core membership function of the fuzzy enhancement algorithm. Finally, the new algorithm was applied to process digital roadmap for Pioneer III robot. The experimental results indicate that the proposed image enhancement method can achieve better performance, and have higher processing speed than now-available fuzzy image enhancement algorithms. And it also possesses the property of high practicability and generality.

  6. Temporal aspects of copper homeostasis and its crosstalk with hormones

    Lola ePeñarrubia

    2015-04-01

    Full Text Available To cope with the dual nature of copper as being essential and toxic for cells, plants temporarily adapt the expression of copper homeostasis components to assure its delivery to cuproproteins while avoiding the interference of potential oxidative damage derived from both copper uptake and photosynthetic reactions during light hours. The circadian clock participates in the temporal organization of coordination of plant nutrition adapting metabolic responses to the daily oscillations. This timely control improves plant fitness and reproduction and holds biotechnological potential to drive increased crop yields. Hormonal pathways, including those of abscisic acid, gibberellins, ethylene, auxins, and jasmonates are also under direct clock and light control, both in mono and dicotyledons. In this review, we focus on copper transport in Arabidopsis thaliana and Oryza sativa and the presumable role of hormones in metal homeostasis matching nutrient availability to growth requirements and preventing metal toxicity. The presence of putative hormone-dependent regulatory elements in the promoters of copper transporters genes suggests hormonal regulation to match special copper requirements during plant development. Spatial and temporal processes that can be affected by hormones include the regulation of copper uptake into roots, intracellular trafficking and compartmentalisation, and long-distance transport to developing vegetative and reproductive tissues. In turn, hormone biosynthesis and signalling are also influenced by copper availability, which suggests reciprocal regulation subjected to temporal control by the central oscillator of the circadian clock. This transcriptional regulatory network, coordinates environmental and hormonal signalling with developmental pathways to allow enhanced micronutrient acquisition efficiency.

  7. Adaptation, plant evolution, and the fossil record

    Knoll, A. H.; Niklas, K. J.

    1987-01-01

    The importance of adaptation in determining patterns of evolution has become an important focus of debate in evolutionary biology. As it pertains to paleobotany, the issue is whether or not adaptive evolution mediated by natural selection is sufficient to explain the stratigraphic distributions of taxa and character states observed in the plant fossil record. One means of addressing this question is the functional evaluation of stratigraphic series of plant organs set in the context of paleoenvironmental change and temporal patterns of floral composition within environments. For certain organ systems, quantitative estimates of biophysical performance can be made on the basis of structures preserved in the fossil record. Performance estimates for plants separated in time or space can be compared directly. Implicit in different hypotheses of the forces that shape the evolutionary record (e.g. adaptation, mass extinction, rapid environmental change, chance) are predictions about stratigraphic and paleoenvironmental trends in the efficacy of functional performance. Existing data suggest that following the evolution of a significant structural innovation, adaptation for improved functional performance can be a major determinant of evolutionary changes in plants; however, there are structural and development limits to functional improvement, and once these are reached, the structure in question may no longer figure strongly in selection until and unless a new innovation evolves. The Silurian-Devonian paleobotanical record is consistent with the hypothesis that the succession of lowland floodplain dominants preserved in the fossil record of this interval was determined principally by the repeated evolution of new taxa that rose to ecological importance because of competitive advantages conferred by improved biophysical performance. This does not seem to be equally true for Carboniferous-Jurassic dominants of swamp and lowland floodplain environments. In these cases

  8. A hybrid, auto-adaptive and rule-based multi-agent approach using evolutionary algorithms for improved searching

    Izquierdo, Joaquín; Montalvo, Idel; Campbell, Enrique; Pérez-García, Rafael

    2016-08-01

    Selecting the most appropriate heuristic for solving a specific problem is not easy, for many reasons. This article focuses on one of these reasons: traditionally, the solution search process has operated in a given manner regardless of the specific problem being solved, and the process has been the same regardless of the size, complexity and domain of the problem. To cope with this situation, search processes should mould the search into areas of the search space that are meaningful for the problem. This article builds on previous work in the development of a multi-agent paradigm using techniques derived from knowledge discovery (data-mining techniques) on databases of so-far visited solutions. The aim is to improve the search mechanisms, increase computational efficiency and use rules to enrich the formulation of optimization problems, while reducing the search space and catering to realistic problems.

  9. Improved Transient Performance of a Fuzzy Modified Model Reference Adaptive Controller for an Interacting Coupled Tank System Using Real-Coded Genetic Algorithm

    Asan Mohideen Khansadurai

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available The main objective of the paper is to design a model reference adaptive controller (MRAC with improved transient performance. A modification to the standard direct MRAC called fuzzy modified MRAC (FMRAC is used in the paper. The FMRAC uses a proportional control based Mamdani-type fuzzy logic controller (MFLC to improve the transient performance of a direct MRAC. The paper proposes the application of real-coded genetic algorithm (RGA to tune the membership function parameters of the proposed FMRAC offline so that the transient performance of the FMRAC is improved further. In this study, a GA based modified MRAC (GAMMRAC, an FMRAC, and a GA based FMRAC (GAFMRAC are designed for a coupled tank setup in a hybrid tank process and their transient performances are compared. The results show that the proposed GAFMRAC gives a better transient performance than the GAMMRAC or the FMRAC. It is concluded that the proposed controller can be used to obtain very good transient performance for the control of nonlinear processes.

  10. Development and applications of coherent imaging with improved temporal and spatial resolution; Developpement et applications de l'imagerie coherente aux rayons X a tres haute resolution spatiale et temporelle

    Mokso, Rajmund

    2006-07-01

    This work has 2 purposes: the improvement of both temporal and spatial resolution of X-ray tomography. The first part is devoted to the technical aspects of the tomographic technique, particularly at the ESRF (European Synchrotron Radiation Facility) beamline ID19, and the application of the new acquisition scheme to the imaging of liquid foams. We have improved the temporal resolution and field of view of the setup, which allowed to obtain for the first time experimental data with good statistics on three dimensional liquid foams. In the second part of the thesis we have described the Kirkpatrick-Baez focusing system and its first applications. In terms of stability and image quality the developments presented in this part of the thesis provide valuable evidence for the feasibility of phase contrast tomography in magnifying geometry. Since the ultimate goal of this research is to improve the spatial resolution in tomography for applications, four different contributions are important for the characterization of the imaging system: 1) the thermal stability and mechanical imperfections, 2) effects of distortion induced by mirror imperfections, 3) effects of refraction on sample borders, and 4) phase propagation effects with the influence of the magnification. Each of these factors has been studied.

  11. Perceptually adapted MPEG video encoding

    Bordes, Philippe; Guillotel, Philippe

    2000-06-01

    In picture quality assessment, the amount of distortion perceived by a human observer differs from one region to another according to its particular local content. This subjective perception can be explained/predicted by considering some simple psychovisual properties (masking) of the Human Visual System (HVS). We have implemented a HVS model based on a pyramid decomposition for extracting the spatial frequencies, associated with a multi-resolution motion representation. Then the visibility of the decoded errors is computed by exploiting the Kelly's contrast sensitivity spatio-velocity model. The resulting data is called a 'Quality-map.' Special attention has been paid to temporal/moving effects since, in the case of video sequences, motion strongly influences the subjective quality assessment. The quality of the motion information is thus preponderant. In the second part, two possible uses of these psychovisual properties for improving MPEG video encoding performances are depicted: (1) The pre-processing of the pictures to remove non-visible information using a motion adapted filtering. This process is efficient in term of bits saved and degradation is not significant especially on consumer electronic TV sets. (2) A perceptual quantizer based on a local adaptation scheme in order to obtain Quality-maps as uniform as possible (homogeneous perceived distortion), at constant bit-rate. Further improvements have been considered, especially when the viewer is tracking a moving object in the scene.

  12. Spatio-Temporal Equalizer for a Receiving-Antenna Feed Array

    Mukai, Ryan; Lee, Dennis; Vilnrotter, Victor

    2010-01-01

    A spatio-temporal equalizer has been conceived as an improved means of suppressing multipath effects in the reception of aeronautical telemetry signals, and may be adaptable to radar and aeronautical communication applications as well. This equalizer would be an integral part of a system that would also include a seven-element planar array of receiving feed horns centered at the focal point of a paraboloidal antenna that would be nominally aimed at or near the aircraft that would be the source of the signal that one seeks to receive (see Figure 1). This spatio-temporal equalizer would consist mostly of a bank of seven adaptive finite-impulse-response (FIR) filters one for each element in the array - and the outputs of the filters would be summed (see Figure 2). The combination of the spatial diversity of the feedhorn array and the temporal diversity of the filter bank would afford better multipath-suppression performance than is achievable by means of temporal equalization alone. The seven-element feed array would supplant the single feed horn used in a conventional paraboloidal ground telemetry-receiving antenna. The radio-frequency telemetry signals re ceiv ed by the seven elements of the array would be digitized, converted to complex baseband form, and sent to the FIR filter bank, which would adapt itself in real time to enable reception of telemetry at a low bit error rate, even in the presence of multipath of the type found at many flight test ranges.

  13. Adaptive Spectral Doppler Estimation

    Gran, Fredrik; Jakobsson, Andreas; Jensen, Jørgen Arendt

    2009-01-01

    In this paper, 2 adaptive spectral estimation techniques are analyzed for spectral Doppler ultrasound. The purpose is to minimize the observation window needed to estimate the spectrogram to provide a better temporal resolution and gain more flexibility when designing the data acquisition sequence....... The methods can also provide better quality of the estimated power spectral density (PSD) of the blood signal. Adaptive spectral estimation techniques are known to pro- vide good spectral resolution and contrast even when the ob- servation window is very short. The 2 adaptive techniques are tested and...... compared with the averaged periodogram (Welch’s method). The blood power spectral capon (BPC) method is based on a standard minimum variance technique adapted to account for both averaging over slow-time and depth. The blood amplitude and phase estimation technique (BAPES) is based on finding a set of...

  14. Leveraging open-source technology and adapting open eLearning content to improve the knowledge and motivation of Ghana’s rural nurses

    Lisa Mwaikambo

    2016-03-01

    Full Text Available Access to training opportunities is strongly correlated with health workers’ motivation because it enables health workers to take on more challenging duties. Mobile technology can be leveraged for professional development support by providing access to open education resources. Community Health Nurses (CHNs in Ghana are the frontline health workers of the Ghana Health Service (GHS and play a vital role in extending maternal and child health care to rural communities. However, as the lowest credentialed nurses, they are at the bottom of the GHS hierarchy. CHNs have limited opportunities for career advancement and report challenges with isolation and lack of resources. Leveraging open-source technology platforms and open eLearning content, the Care Community Hub (CCH project sought to address these barriers in CHN motivation by developing and deploying a mobile application (app, CHN on the Go, to CHNs in five rural districts. The app supports CHNs through tools for continuous learning, diagnostic decision-making, and improved nurse-supervisor interactions. This paper focuses on the adaptation and use of the open eLearning content to address CHNs’ motivation challenges and, ultimately, improve their knowledge and job performance as a result of having access to open education resources.

  15. Behavioral Adaptation and Acceptance

    Martens, M.H.; Jenssen, G.D.

    2012-01-01

    One purpose of Intelligent Vehicles is to improve road safety, throughput, and emissions. However, the predicted effects are not always as large as aimed for. Part of this is due to indirect behavioral changes of drivers, also called behavioral adaptation. Behavioral adaptation (BA) refers to uninte

  16. Behavioural adaptation and acceptance

    Martens, M.H.; Jenssen, G.D.; Eskandarian, A.

    2012-01-01

    One purpose of Intelligent Vehicles is to improve road safety, throughput, and emissions. However, the predicted effects are not always as large as aimed for. Part of this is due to indirect behavioral changes of drivers, also called behavioral adaptation. Behavioral adaptation (BA) refers to uninte

  17. Adaptive Crowdsourcing and Improved Innovation

    Edgeman, Rick; Engell, Toke; Jensen, Nik Grewy;

    Crowdsourcing is central to enterprise open innovation efforts, providing a source of labor, funding, and ideas. Though use of crowdsourcing in selected environments is well understood, application in business-to-business (B2B) market environments has been limited. Selected reasons for this...

  18. Adaptive Lighting

    Petersen, Kjell Yngve; Søndergaard, Karin; Kongshaug, Jesper

    2015-01-01

    Adaptive LightingAdaptive lighting is based on a partial automation of the possibilities to adjust the colour tone and brightness levels of light in order to adapt to people’s needs and desires. IT support is key to the technical developments that afford adaptive control systems. The possibilities offered by adaptive lighting control are created by the ways that the system components, the network and data flow can be coordinated through software so that the dynamic variations are controlled i...

  19. Application of ALOS and Envisat Data in Improving Multi-Temporal InSAR Methods for Monitoring Damavand Volcano and Landslide Deformation in the Center of Alborz Mountains, North Iran

    S. Vajedian

    2013-09-01

    Full Text Available InSAR capacity to detect slow deformation over terrain areas is limited by temporal and geometric decorrelations. Multitemporal InSAR techniques involving Persistent Scatterer (Ps-InSAR and Small Baseline (SBAS are recently developed to compensate the decorrelation problems. Geometric decorrelation in mountainous areas especially for Envisat images makes phase unwrapping process difficult. To improve this unwrapping problem, we first modified phase filtering to make the wrapped phase image as smooth as possible. In addition, in order to improve unwrapping results, a modified unwrapping method has been developed. This method includes removing possible orbital and tropospheric effects. Topographic correction is done within three-dimensional unwrapping, Orbital and tropospheric corrections are done after unwrapping process. To evaluate the effectiveness of our improved method we tested the proposed algorithm by Envisat and ALOS dataset and compared our results with recently developed PS software (StaMAPS. In addition we used GPS observations for evaluating the modified method. The results indicate that our method improves the estimated deformation significantly.

  20. Improvement of adaptive fuzzy control for a photovoltaic/wind/diesel generating system; Taiyoko/furyoku/diesel hatsuden system no saitekigata fuzzy seigyo no kairyo

    Nagaike, H.; Kenmoku, Y.; Sakakibara, T. [Toyohashi University of Technology, Aichi (Japan); Nakagawa, S. [Maizuru National College of Technology, Kyoto (Japan); Kawamoto, T. [Shizuoka University, Shizuoka (Japan).Faculty of Engineering

    1996-10-27

    The photovoltaic/wind/diesel generating system that uses a storage battery as auxiliary power has been proposed to supply power from the system to the independent area. In this system, it is important to generate no insufficient power from the viewpoint of effective energy utilization and minimize the fuel consumption of a diesel generator. Authors have proposed the adaptive fuzzy control that changes the shape of the membership function of input variables according to the parameter indicating the system state. However, a parameter was rapidly changed in the conventional method. This badly influences the control. Therefore, the way to determine the parameter that indicates the state of this system was improved. Assume that an input value is set to the average value between a certain point of time and the {Delta}t time as the method for determining a parameter. If the {Delta}t value is lower, the change in a membership function is more effective. As a result, a greater fuel reduction effect was obtained. 4 refs., 8 figs., 1 tab.

  1. Diffusion Adaptation over Networks

    Sayed, Ali H

    2012-01-01

    Adaptive networks are well-suited to perform decentralized information processing and optimization tasks and to model various types of self organized and complex behavior encountered in nature. Adaptive networks consist of a collection of agents with processing and learning abilities. The agents are linked together through a connection topology, and they cooperate with each other through local interactions to solve distributed inference problems in real-time. The continuous diffusion of information across the network enables agents to adapt their performance in relation to changing data and network conditions; it also results in improved adaptation and learning performance relative to non-cooperative networks. This article provides an overview of diffusion strategies for adaptation and learning over networks. The article is divided into several sections: 1. Motivation; 2. Mean-Square-Error Estimation; 3. Distributed Optimization via Diffusion Strategies; 4. Adaptive Diffusion Strategies; 5. Performance of Ste...

  2. Adaptive management

    Rist, Lucy; Campbell, Bruce Morgan; Frost, Peter

    2013-01-01

    in scientific articles, policy documents and management plans, but both understanding and application of the concept is mixed. This paper reviews recent literature from conservation and natural resource management journals to assess diversity in how the term is used, highlight ambiguities and consider how......Adaptive management (AM) emerged in the literature in the mid-1970s in response both to a realization of the extent of uncertainty involved in management, and a frustration with attempts to use modelling to integrate knowledge and make predictions. The term has since become increasingly widely used...... the concept might be further assessed. AM is currently being used to describe many different management contexts, scales and locations. Few authors define the term explicitly or describe how it offers a means to improve management outcomes in their specific management context. Many do not adhere to the idea...

  3. A SCORING SYSTEM TO IMPROVE DECISION MAKING AND OUTCOMES IN THE ADAPTATION OF RECENTLY CAPTURED WHITE RHINOCEROSES (CERATOTHERIUM SIMUM) TO CAPTIVITY.

    Miller, Michele; Kruger, Milandie; Kruger, Marius; Olea-Popelka, Francisco; Buss, Peter

    2016-04-01

    Ninety-four subadult and adult white rhinoceroses (Ceratotherium simum) were captured between February and October, 2009-11, in Kruger National Park and placed in holding bomas prior to translocation to other locations within South Africa. A simple three-category system was developed based on appetite, fecal consistency/volume, and behavior to assess adaptation to bomas. Individual animal and group daily median scores were used to determine trends and when rhinoceroses had successfully adapted to the boma. Seventeen rhinoceroses did not adapt to boma confinement, and 16 were released (1 mortality). No differences in boma scores were observed between rhinoceroses that adapted and those that did not, until day 8, when the first significant differences were observed (adapted score=13 versus nonadapted score=10). The time to reach a boma score determined as successful adaptation (median 19 d) matched subjective observations, which was approximately 3 wk for most rhinoceroses. Unsuccessful adaptation was indicated by an individual boma score of less than 15, typically during the first 2 wk, or a declining trend in scores within the first 7-14 d. This scoring system can be used for most locations and could also be easily adapted to other areas in which rhinoceroses are held in captivity. This tool also provides important information for assessing welfare in newly captured rhinoceroses. PMID:26845302

  4. Temporal subtraction contrast-enhanced dedicated breast CT

    Gazi, Peymon M.; Aminololama-Shakeri, Shadi; Yang, Kai; Boone, John M.

    2016-09-01

    The development of a framework of deformable image registration and segmentation for the purpose of temporal subtraction contrast-enhanced breast CT is described. An iterative histogram-based two-means clustering method was used for the segmentation. Dedicated breast CT images were segmented into background (air), adipose, fibroglandular and skin components. Fibroglandular tissue was classified as either normal or contrast-enhanced then divided into tiers for the purpose of categorizing degrees of contrast enhancement. A variant of the Demons deformable registration algorithm, intensity difference adaptive Demons (IDAD), was developed to correct for the large deformation forces that stemmed from contrast enhancement. In this application, the accuracy of the proposed method was evaluated in both mathematically-simulated and physically-acquired phantom images. Clinical usage and accuracy of the temporal subtraction framework was demonstrated using contrast-enhanced breast CT datasets from five patients. Registration performance was quantified using normalized cross correlation (NCC), symmetric uncertainty coefficient, normalized mutual information (NMI), mean square error (MSE) and target registration error (TRE). The proposed method outperformed conventional affine and other Demons variations in contrast enhanced breast CT image registration. In simulation studies, IDAD exhibited improvement in MSE (0–16%), NCC (0–6%), NMI (0–13%) and TRE (0–34%) compared to the conventional Demons approaches, depending on the size and intensity of the enhancing lesion. As lesion size and contrast enhancement levels increased, so did the improvement. The drop in the correlation between the pre- and post-contrast images for the largest enhancement levels in phantom studies is less than 1.2% (150 Hounsfield units). Registration error, measured by TRE, shows only submillimeter mismatches between the concordant anatomical target points in all patient studies. The algorithm was

  5. Temporal subtraction contrast-enhanced dedicated breast CT.

    Gazi, Peymon M; Aminololama-Shakeri, Shadi; Yang, Kai; Boone, John M

    2016-09-01

    The development of a framework of deformable image registration and segmentation for the purpose of temporal subtraction contrast-enhanced breast CT is described. An iterative histogram-based two-means clustering method was used for the segmentation. Dedicated breast CT images were segmented into background (air), adipose, fibroglandular and skin components. Fibroglandular tissue was classified as either normal or contrast-enhanced then divided into tiers for the purpose of categorizing degrees of contrast enhancement. A variant of the Demons deformable registration algorithm, intensity difference adaptive Demons (IDAD), was developed to correct for the large deformation forces that stemmed from contrast enhancement. In this application, the accuracy of the proposed method was evaluated in both mathematically-simulated and physically-acquired phantom images. Clinical usage and accuracy of the temporal subtraction framework was demonstrated using contrast-enhanced breast CT datasets from five patients. Registration performance was quantified using normalized cross correlation (NCC), symmetric uncertainty coefficient, normalized mutual information (NMI), mean square error (MSE) and target registration error (TRE). The proposed method outperformed conventional affine and other Demons variations in contrast enhanced breast CT image registration. In simulation studies, IDAD exhibited improvement in MSE (0-16%), NCC (0-6%), NMI (0-13%) and TRE (0-34%) compared to the conventional Demons approaches, depending on the size and intensity of the enhancing lesion. As lesion size and contrast enhancement levels increased, so did the improvement. The drop in the correlation between the pre- and post-contrast images for the largest enhancement levels in phantom studies is less than 1.2% (150 Hounsfield units). Registration error, measured by TRE, shows only submillimeter mismatches between the concordant anatomical target points in all patient studies. The algorithm was

  6. Adaptive skills

    Staša Stropnik; Jana Kodrič

    2013-01-01

    Adaptive skills are defined as a collection of conceptual, social and practical skills that are learned by people in order to function in their everyday lives. They include an individual's ability to adapt to and manage her or his surroundings to effectively function and meet social or community expectations. Good adaptive skills promote individual's independence in different environments, whereas poorly developed adaptive skills are connected to individual's dependency and with g...

  7. Updating representations of temporal intervals.

    Danckert, James; Anderson, Britt

    2015-12-01

    Effectively engaging with the world depends on accurate representations of the regularities that make up that world-what we call mental models. The success of any mental model depends on the ability to adapt to changes-to 'update' the model. In prior work, we have shown that damage to the right hemisphere of the brain impairs the ability to update mental models across a range of tasks. Given the disparate nature of the tasks we have employed in this prior work (i.e. statistical learning, language acquisition, position priming, perceptual ambiguity, strategic game play), we propose that a cognitive module important for updating mental representations should be generic, in the sense that it is invoked across multiple cognitive and perceptual domains. To date, the majority of our tasks have been visual in nature. Given the ubiquity and import of temporal information in sensory experience, we examined the ability to build and update mental models of time. We had healthy individuals complete a temporal prediction task in which intervals were initially drawn from one temporal range before an unannounced switch to a different range of intervals. Separate groups had the second range of intervals switch to one that contained either longer or shorter intervals than the first range. Both groups showed significant positive correlations between perceptual and prediction accuracy. While each group updated mental models of temporal intervals, those exposed to shorter intervals did so more efficiently. Our results support the notion of generic capacity to update regularities in the environment-in this instance based on temporal information. The task developed here is well suited to investigations in neurological patients and in neuroimaging settings. PMID:26303026

  8. SPARTUVIX II: An improved x-ray ultraviolet spectrograph with temporal and spatial capabilities for indirect drive inertial confinement fusion experiments (abstract)

    An improved version of the initial x-ray ultraviolet spectrograph SPARTUVIX1 has been developed to record the time evolution of spatially resolved spectra in the soft x-ray range (from 30 to 300 Angstrom). This diagnostic can be applied to the new class of laser produced plasma experiments now performed in order to better understand the physical evolution of x-ray indirect drive plasmas. Instead of a one-dimensional streak camera used for the first version, a new widely used 2-D soft x-ray time gated imager allows us to follow the time evolution of the spatially resolved soft x-ray spectra. This instrument was designed for plastic foam soft x-ray opacity measurements. The soft x-rays, emitted by an auxiliary radiography laser plasma source, are transmitted through the foam and dispersed into two parts (+1 and -1 order of the transmission grating). Each dispersed spectrum is placed on two different gated striplines of the soft x-ray imager and thus recorded at two different times (exposure time 300 ps, adjustable interframe 600 ps). The spatial resolution is obtained with a slit added in front of the spectrograph, that images the plasma onto the detector with a magnification ratio of 15 and a spatial resolution of 50 μm. A detailed description of this instrument and the main results obtained for two different plastic foam opacity measurements (undoped and doped with chlorine) will be presented. This work is supported by European Community Contract No. CEE/CHGF-CT-92-0016. copyright 1997 American Institute of Physics

  9. ADAPTIVE TRILATERAL FILTER FOR IN-LOOP FILTERING

    Akitha Kesireddy

    2014-07-01

    Full Text Available High Efficiency Video Coding (HEVC has achieved significant coding efficiency improvement beyond existing video coding standard by employing several new coding tools. Deblocking Filter, Sample Adaptive Offset (SAO and Adaptive Loop Filter (ALF for in-loop filtering are currently introduced for the HEVC standard. However, these filters are implemented in spatial domain despite the fact of temporal correlation within video sequences. To reduce the artifacts and better align object boundaries in video, a proposed algorithm in in-loop filtering is proposed. The proposed algorithm is implemented in HM-11.0 software. This proposed algorithm allows an average bitrate reduction of about 0.7% and improves the PSNR of the decoded frame by 0.05%, 0.30% and 0.35% in luminance and chroma.

  10. Adaptive Lighting

    Petersen, Kjell Yngve; Søndergaard, Karin; Kongshaug, Jesper

    2015-01-01

    Adaptive Lighting Adaptive lighting is based on a partial automation of the possibilities to adjust the colour tone and brightness levels of light in order to adapt to people’s needs and desires. IT support is key to the technical developments that afford adaptive control systems. The possibilities...... offered by adaptive lighting control are created by the ways that the system components, the network and data flow can be coordinated through software so that the dynamic variations are controlled in ways that meaningfully adapt according to people’s situations and design intentions. This book discusses...... distributed differently into an architectural body. We also examine what might occur when light is dynamic and able to change colour, intensity and direction, and when it is adaptive and can be brought into interaction with its surroundings. In short, what happens to an architectural space when artificial...

  11. a New Spatial and Temporal Fusion Model

    Wang, Jing; Huang, Bo

    2016-06-01

    As Moderate Resolution Imaging Spectroradiometer (MODIS) and Enhanced Thematic Mapper Plus (ETM+) has a tradeoff between the high temporal resolution and high spatial resolution, this paper proposed a spatial and temporal model with auto-regression error correction (AREC) method to blend the two types of images in order to obtain the composed image with both high spatial and temporal resolution. Experiments and validation were conducted on a data set located in Shenzhen, China and compared with Spatial and Temporal Adaptive Reflectance Fusion Model (STARFM) in several objective indexes and visual analysis. It was found that AREC could effectively predict the land cover changes and the fusion results had better performances versus the ones of STARFM.

  12. Improvement on the quality of the images obtained with adaptive optics and application to the study of the active galactic nuclei

    Exposito, Jonathan

    2013-01-01

    My work is connecting three areas in astrophysics: the study of active galactic nuclei (AGN), adaptive optics (AO) and the optimization of the methods for related data-processing. It focuses on the development of tools to obtain the best image quality in terms of resolution and contrast so as to maximize the scientific return especially for the study of AGN. Adaptive optics can compensate for the effects of atmospheric turbulence on the wavefront and thus to approach the theoretical resolutio...

  13. Progressive Prediction of Turbulence Using Wave-Front Sensor Data in Adaptive Optics Using Data Mining

    Vyas, Akondi; Roopashree, M. B.; Prasad, B Raghavendra

    2009-01-01

    Nullifying the servo bandwidth errors improves the strehl ratio by a substantial quantity in adaptive optics systems. An effective method for predicting atmospheric turbulence to reduce servo bandwidth errors in real time closed loop correction systems is presented using data mining. Temporally evolving phase screens are simulated using Kolmogorov statistics and used for data analysis. A data cube is formed out of the simulated time series. Partial data is used to predict the subsequent phase...

  14. Integrating adaptive governance and participatory multicriteria methods: a framework for climate adaptation governance

    Stefania Munaretto; Giuseppina Siciliano; Margherita E. Turvani

    2014-01-01

    Climate adaptation is a dynamic social and institutional process where the governance dimension is receiving growing attention. Adaptive governance is an approach that promises to reduce uncertainty by improving the knowledge base for decision making. As uncertainty is an inherent feature of climate adaptation, adaptive governance seems to be a promising approach for improving climate adaptation governance. However, the adaptive governance literature has so far paid little attention to decisi...

  15. Adaptive Architectural Envelope

    Foged, Isak Worre; Kirkegaard, Poul Henning

    2010-01-01

    Recent years have seen an increasing variety of applications of adaptive architectural structures for improvement of structural performance by recognizing changes in their environments and loads, adapting to meet goals, and using past events to improve future performance or maintain serviceability....... The general scopes of this paper are to develop a new adaptive kinetic architectural structure, particularly a reconfigurable architectural structure which can transform body shape from planar geometries to hyper-surfaces using different control strategies, i.e. a transformation into more than one or...... two different shape alternatives. The adaptive structure is a proposal for a responsive building envelope which is an idea of a first level operational framework for present and future investigations towards performance based responsive architectures through a set of responsive typologies. A mock- up...

  16. Spatio-temporal visualization

    We propose a spatio-temporal visualization technique. The spatio-temporal visualization technique, which is created by spatio-temporal information mapping, is an information visualization technique useful for specifying the feature area from simulation and measurement results. In the map, the change of a physical quantity is allocated in two-dimensional space with spatial and temporal information in each dimension. By applying the spatio-temporal visualization technique to the three-dimensional virtual vibration simulator, we confirmed that the technique was helpful to detect the region of interest. (author)

  17. Robust Adaptive Control

    Narendra, K. S.; Annaswamy, A. M.

    1985-01-01

    Several concepts and results in robust adaptive control are are discussed and is organized in three parts. The first part surveys existing algorithms. Different formulations of the problem and theoretical solutions that have been suggested are reviewed here. The second part contains new results related to the role of persistent excitation in robust adaptive systems and the use of hybrid control to improve robustness. In the third part promising new areas for future research are suggested which combine different approaches currently known.

  18. [Adaptive optics for ophthalmology].

    Saleh, M

    2016-04-01

    Adaptive optics is a technology enhancing the visual performance of an optical system by correcting its optical aberrations. Adaptive optics have already enabled several breakthroughs in the field of visual sciences, such as improvement of visual acuity in normal and diseased eyes beyond physiologic limits, and the correction of presbyopia. Adaptive optics technology also provides high-resolution, in vivo imaging of the retina that may eventually help to detect the onset of retinal conditions at an early stage and provide better assessment of treatment efficacy. PMID:27019970

  19. Are integral controllers adapted to the new era of ELT adaptive optics?

    Conan, J.-M.; Raynaud, H.-F.; Kulcsár, C.; Meimon, S.

    2011-09-01

    With ELTs we are now entering a new era in adaptive optics developments. Meeting unprecedented level of performance with incredibly complex systems implies reconsidering AO concepts at all levels, including controller design. Concentrating mainly on temporal aspects, one may wonder if integral controllers remain an adequate solution. This question is all the more important that, with ever larger degrees of freedom, one may be tempted to discard more sophisticated approaches because they are deemed too complex to implement. The respective performance of integrator versus LQG control should therefore be carefully evaluated in the ELT context. We recall for instance the impressive correction improvement brought by such controllers for the rejection of windshake and vibration components. LQG controller significantly outperforms the integrator because its disturbance rejection transfer function closely matches the energy concentration, respectively at low temporal frequencies for windshake, and around localized resonant peaks for vibrations. The application to turbulent modes should also be investigated, especially for very low spatial frequencies now explored on the huge ELT pupil. The questions addressed here are: 1/ How do integral and LQG controllers compare in terms of performance for a given sampling frequency and noise level?; 2/ Could we relax sampling frequency with LQG control?; 3/ Does a mode to mode adaptation of temporal rejection bring significant performance improvement?; 4/ Which modes particularly benefit from this fine tuning of the rejection transfer function? Based on a simplified ELT AO configuration, and through a simple analytical formulation, performance is evaluated for several control approaches. Various assumptions concerning the perturbation parameters (seeing and outer-scale value, windshake amplitude) are considered. Bode's integral theorem allows intuitive understanding of the results. Practical implementation and computation complexity

  20. Foreseen hydrological changes drive efforts to formulate water balance improvement measures as part of the management options of adaptation at Lake Balaton, Hungary

    Molnar, Gabor; Kutics, Karoly

    2013-04-01

    Located in Western Hungary, Lake Balaton (LB) is one of the shallowest large lakes of the world. The catchment area including the lake is 5775 km2, only 10 times more than the lake surface area of 593 km2. This relatively small catchment area and the relatively dry climate results in high vulnerability of the lake water budget to any hydro-meteorological changes. Due to the combined effects of planned water quality protection measures (refer to adjoining article on LB water quality) water quality was not as serious a concern over the last 15 years. However, a new and potentially more damaging threat, decreasing water level started to emerge in 2000. The natural water budget was negative half of the time, i.e. 6 years in the last 12 years. It hadn't occurred in the previous 80 years, since 1921, the year from which detailed meteorological data on the area are available. This new phenomenon raised and continues to raise serious sustainability concerns in the Lake Balaton area requiring better understanding of climatic changes and their foreseen impacts on hydrological and ecological processes that would lead decision makers to formulate the appropriate vulnerability and adaptation policies. Based on the common methodologies of the EULAKES project, present state of the hydrological conditions was analyzed as well as qualitative vulnerability assessment carried out to the area. Using the climate scenarios developed by the project partner Austrian Institute of Technology, calculations on water budget changes was possible. It is estimated that by the middle of the 21st century the lake will experience a drastic drop in the inflow and, accompanied by the increased evaporation, it is likely that years without outflow and serious drops in water-level would occur. The increased frequency of unfavorable water deficit will cause not only ecological, but also socio-economic conflicts in the multipurpose usage of the lake. Therefore, a qualitative vulnerability assessment was

  1. Changes of water demand - possible adaptation of agricultural crops and management options to improve water use efficiency in the Marchfeld area

    Thaler, S.; Eitzinger, J.; Dubrovsky, M.; Trnka, M.

    2009-04-01

    The main objective of this study was to determine the vulnerability of current agricultural cropping systems in the Marchfeld region to climate change. The investigation area Marchfeld is located in the north-eastern (NE) part of Austria and is characterized by a semi-arid climate with low annual rainfall. It is one of the driest regions in the country, but also one of the main field crop production areas. The soil conditions in Marchfeld demonstrate a significant spatial variability, which include soils with low to moderate water-storage capacities. Higher temperatures in the next decades imply higher evaporation and consequently higher water demand for the crops. The phenological development rates of the cultivars will accelerate and an increase of heat stress as well as drought stress can be expected. These points influence intense the water balance and subsequently the yield of the crops in the investigation area. In order to improve water use efficiency under those changing conditions, a shift of average sowing dates and an adjustment of tillage were analyzed. The DSSAT cropping system model was applied for winter wheat and spring barley to assess potential yield under climate scenarios for NE Austria. The scenarios were carried out with ECHAM5, HadCM3 and NCAR PCM global circulation models (GCMs) for present conditions (reference period 1961-1990) and 2035's (2021-2050), based on SRES-A1B emission scenarios. Yield model simulations were done for all defined scenarios (climate, management, crop) and different soil classes. The simulations contain the CO2 fertilizing effect, rain fed farming, adapted sowing date and contemporary crops without consideration of potential profit cuts caused by pest or diseases. Simulation results indicate that climate change will force a delay of the sowing date for winter wheat of maximal 14 days in October. In case of spring barley, climate change allows an earlier sowing date in spring (up to 14 days). Both crops show a

  2. Adaptive Lighting

    Petersen, Kjell Yngve; Søndergaard, Karin; Kongshaug, Jesper

    2015-01-01

    Adaptive Lighting Adaptive lighting is based on a partial automation of the possibilities to adjust the colour tone and brightness levels of light in order to adapt to people’s needs and desires. IT support is key to the technical developments that afford adaptive control systems. The possibilities...... offered by adaptive lighting control are created by the ways that the system components, the network and data flow can be coordinated through software so that the dynamic variations are controlled in ways that meaningfully adapt according to people’s situations and design intentions. This book discusses...... the investigations of lighting scenarios carried out in two test installations: White Cube and White Box. The test installations are discussed as large-scale experiential instruments. In these test installations we examine what could potentially occur when light using LED technology is integrated and...

  3. Adaptive skills

    Staša Stropnik

    2013-02-01

    Full Text Available Adaptive skills are defined as a collection of conceptual, social and practical skills that are learned by people in order to function in their everyday lives. They include an individual's ability to adapt to and manage her or his surroundings to effectively function and meet social or community expectations. Good adaptive skills promote individual's independence in different environments, whereas poorly developed adaptive skills are connected to individual's dependency and with greater need for control and help with everyday tasks. Assessment of adaptive skills is often connected to assessment of intellectual disability, due to the reason that the diagnosis of intellectual disability includes lower levels of achievements on standardized tests of intellectual abilities as well as important deficits in adaptive skills. Assessment of adaptive behavior is a part of standard assessment battery with children and adults with different problems, disorders or disabilities that affect their everyday functioning. This contribution also presents psychometric tools most regularly used for assessment of adaptive skills and characteristics of adaptive skills with individual clinical groups.

  4. ADAPT Dataset

    National Aeronautics and Space Administration — Advanced Diagnostics and Prognostics Testbed (ADAPT) Project Lead: Scott Poll Subject Fault diagnosis in electrical power systems Description The Advanced...

  5. Using the collaborative intervention planning framework to adapt a health-care manager intervention to a new population and provider group to improve the health of people with serious mental illness

    Cabassa, Leopoldo J.; Gomes, Arminda P.; Meyreles, Quisqueya; Capitelli, Lucia; Younge, Richard; Dragatsi, Dianna; Alvarez, Juana; Manrique, Yamira; Lewis-Fernández, Roberto

    2014-01-01

    Background Health-care manager interventions improve the physical health of people with serious mental illness (SMI) and could be widely implemented in public mental health clinics. Local adaptations and customization may be needed to increase the reach of these interventions in the public mental health system and across different racial and ethnic communities. In this study, we describe how we used the collaborative intervention planning framework to customize an existing health-care manager...

  6. AdapterRemoval v2

    Schubert, Mikkel; Lindgreen, Stinus; Orlando, Ludovic Antoine Alexandre

    2016-01-01

    BACKGROUND: As high-throughput sequencing platforms produce longer and longer reads, sequences generated from short inserts, such as those obtained from fossil and degraded material, are increasingly expected to contain adapter sequences. Efficient adapter trimming algorithms are also needed to...... process the growing amount of data generated per sequencing run. FINDINGS: We introduce AdapterRemoval v2, a major revision of AdapterRemoval v1, which introduces (i) striking improvements in throughput, through the use of single instruction, multiple data (SIMD; SSE1 and SSE2) instructions and multi......-threading support, (ii) the ability to handle datasets containing reads or read-pairs with different adapters or adapter pairs, (iii) simultaneous demultiplexing and adapter trimming, (iv) the ability to reconstruct adapter sequences from paired-end reads for poorly documented data sets, and (v) native gzip and...

  7. Adaptive sensor fusion

    Kadar, Ivan

    1995-07-01

    A perceptual reasoning system adaptively extracting, associating, and fusing information from multiple sources, at various levels of abstraction, is considered as the building block for the next generation of surveillance systems. A system architecture is presented which makes use of both centralized and distributed predetection fusion combined with intelligent monitor and control coupling both on-platform and off-board track and decision level fusion results. The goal of this system is to create a `gestalt fused sensor system' whose information product is greater than the sum of the information products from the individual sensors and has performance superior to either individual or a sub-group of combined sensors. The application of this architectural concept to the law enforcement arena (e.g. drug interdiction) utilizing multiple spatially and temporally diverse surveillance platforms and/or information sources, is used to illustrate the benefits of the adaptive perceptual reasoning system concept.

  8. Adaptive method of lines

    Saucez, Ph

    2001-01-01

    The general Method of Lines (MOL) procedure provides a flexible format for the solution of all the major classes of partial differential equations (PDEs) and is particularly well suited to evolutionary, nonlinear wave PDEs. Despite its utility, however, there are relatively few texts that explore it at a more advanced level and reflect the method''s current state of development.Written by distinguished researchers in the field, Adaptive Method of Lines reflects the diversity of techniques and applications related to the MOL. Most of its chapters focus on a particular application but also provide a discussion of underlying philosophy and technique. Particular attention is paid to the concept of both temporal and spatial adaptivity in solving time-dependent PDEs. Many important ideas and methods are introduced, including moving grids and grid refinement, static and dynamic gridding, the equidistribution principle and the concept of a monitor function, the minimization of a functional, and the moving finite elem...

  9. Advances in temporal logic

    Fisher, Michael; Gabbay, Dov; Gough, Graham

    2000-01-01

    Time is a fascinating subject that has captured mankind's imagination from ancient times to the present. It has been, and continues to be studied across a wide range of disciplines, from the natural sciences to philosophy and logic. More than two decades ago, Pnueli in a seminal work showed the value of temporal logic in the specification and verification of computer programs. Today, a strong, vibrant international research community exists in the broad community of computer science and AI. This volume presents a number of articles from leading researchers containing state-of-the-art results in such areas as pure temporal/modal logic, specification and verification, temporal databases, temporal aspects in AI, tense and aspect in natural language, and temporal theorem proving. Earlier versions of some of the articles were given at the most recent International Conference on Temporal Logic, University of Manchester, UK. Readership: Any student of the area - postgraduate, postdoctoral or even research professor ...

  10. Computational temporal ghost imaging

    Devaux, Fabrice; Denis, Severine; Lantz, Eric

    2016-01-01

    We present a very simple device, inspired by computational ghost imaging, that allows the re- trieval of a single non-reproducible, periodic or non-periodic, temporal signal. The reconstruction is performed by a single shot, spatially multiplexed, measurement of the spatial intensity correlations between computer-generated random images and the images modulated by the temporal signal, recorded and summed on a chip CMOS camera used with no temporal resolution.

  11. Temporal Photon Differentials

    Schjøth, Lars; Frisvad, Jeppe Revall; Erleben, Kenny; Sporring, Jon

    2010-01-01

    The finite frame rate also used in computer animated films is cause of adverse temporal aliasing effects. Most noticeable of these is a stroboscopic effect that is seen as intermittent movement of fast moving illumination. This effect can be mitigated using non-zero shutter times, effectively, constituting a temporal smoothing of rapidly changing illumination. In global illumination temporal smoothing can be achieved with distribution ray tracing (Cook et al., 1984). Unfortunately, this, and ...

  12. Temporal scaling in information propagation

    Huang, Junming; Li, Chao; Wang, Wen-Qiang; Shen, Hua-Wei; Li, Guojie; Cheng, Xue-Qi

    2014-06-01

    For the study of information propagation, one fundamental problem is uncovering universal laws governing the dynamics of information propagation. This problem, from the microscopic perspective, is formulated as estimating the propagation probability that a piece of information propagates from one individual to another. Such a propagation probability generally depends on two major classes of factors: the intrinsic attractiveness of information and the interactions between individuals. Despite the fact that the temporal effect of attractiveness is widely studied, temporal laws underlying individual interactions remain unclear, causing inaccurate prediction of information propagation on evolving social networks. In this report, we empirically study the dynamics of information propagation, using the dataset from a population-scale social media website. We discover a temporal scaling in information propagation: the probability a message propagates between two individuals decays with the length of time latency since their latest interaction, obeying a power-law rule. Leveraging the scaling law, we further propose a temporal model to estimate future propagation probabilities between individuals, reducing the error rate of information propagation prediction from 6.7% to 2.6% and improving viral marketing with 9.7% incremental customers.

  13. Osteoradionecrosis of the temporal bone

    We report a case of temporal bone necrosis that emerged after radiotherapy for epipharyngeal carcinoma performed 13 years ago. The patient was a 51-year-old male. His major complaint was left facial swelling. The patient underwent chemotherapy and radiotherapy (Co 60, 6120 rad), as the treatment of that period, for epipharyngeal carcinoma from September 30, 1986 to January 31, 1987. He also underwent lobectomy of the left temporal lobe in brain surgery for left temporal lobe necrosis in August, 1989. After that operation, we saw constriction in his left external acoustic meatus and continued the follow-up. On October 22, 1999 he felt a left facial swelling. We found skin defects and ulcer formation in the front part of his left ear. Although we administered an antiseptic and antibiotic to the diseased area, his condition did not improve. He was hospitalized for the purpose of undergoing medical treatment on January 6, 2000. We found extensive skin necrosis and defects in his left auricular area. The corrupted temporal bone reached the zygomatic, the bone department external acoustic meatus and the mastoid process was exposing. We performed debridement of the diseased area on January 19, 2000. On February 23, we performed reconstruction by left trapezius muscle flap after debridement once again. One year after the operation, the flap was completely incorporated. (author)

  14. Saccadic gain adaptation is predicted by the statistics of natural fluctuations in oculomotor function

    Mark V Albert

    2012-12-01

    Full Text Available Due to multiple factors such as fatigue, muscle strengthening, and neural plasticity, the responsiveness of the motor apparatus to neural commands changes over time. To enable precise movements the nervous system must adapt to compensate for these changes. Recent models of motor adaptation derive from assumptions about the way the motor apparatus changes. Characterizing these changes is difficult because motor adaptation happens at the same time, masking most of the effects of ongoing changes. Here, we analyze eye movements of monkeys with lesions to the posterior cerebellar vermis that impair adaptation. Their fluctuations better reveal the underlying changes of the motor system over time. When these measured, unadapted changes are used to derive optimal motor adaptation rules the prediction precision significantly improves. Among three models that similarly fit single-day adaptation results, the model that also matches the temporal correlations of the nonadapting saccades most accurately predicts multiple day adaptation. Saccadic gain adaptation is well matched to the natural statistics of fluctuations of the oculomotor plant.

  15. Immunological perspectives of temporal lobe seizures.

    Liimatainen, Suvi; Lehtimäki, Kai; Kai, Lehtimäki; Palmio, Johanna; Johanna, Palmio; Alapirtti, Tiina; Tiina, Alapirtti; Peltola, Jukka; Jukka, Peltola

    2013-10-15

    The temporal lobes are affected in many different neurological disorders, such as neurodegenerative diseases, viral and immunological encephalitides, and epilepsy. Both experimental and clinical evidence suggests a different inflammatory response to seizures in patients with temporal lobe epilepsy (TLE) in comparison to those with extra-TLE (XTLE). Proinflammatory cytokines and several autoantibodies have been shown to be associated with TLE compared to other epilepsy types suggesting the specific role and structure of the temporal lobe. Abundant experience suggests that activation of both innate and adaptive immunity is associated with epilepsy, particularly refractory focal epilepsy. Limbic encephalitis often triggers temporal lobe seizures, and a proportion of these disorders are immune-mediated. Histological evidence shows activation of specific inflammatory pathways in resected temporal lobes of epileptic patients, and certain epileptic disorders have shown increased incidence in patients with autoimmune diseases. Rapid activation of proinflammatory cytokines is observed after single seizures, but there is also evidence of chronic overproduction of cytokines and other inflammatory mediators in patients with TLE, suggesting a neuromodulatory role of inflammation in epilepsy. In this review we summarize current data on the presence and the role of immunological factors in temporal lobe seizures, and their possible involvement in epileptogenesis. PMID:23998423

  16. Tissue tracking in thermo-physiological imagery through spatio-temporal smoothing.

    Zhou, Yan; Tsiamyrtzis, Panagiotis; Pavlidis, Ioannis T

    2009-01-01

    Accurate tracking of facial tissue in thermal infrared imaging is challenging because it is affected not only by positional but also physiological (functional) changes. This article presents a particle filter tracker driven by a probabilistic template function with both spatial and temporal smoothing components, which is capable of adapting to abrupt positional and physiological changes. The method was tested on tracking facial regions of subjects under varying physiological and environmental conditions in 12 thermal clips. It demonstrated robustness and accuracy, outperforming other strategies. This new method promises improved performance in a host of biomedical applications that involve physiological measurements on the face, like unobtrusive sleep studies. PMID:20426220

  17. Asimovian Adaptive Agents

    Gordon, D F

    2011-01-01

    The goal of this research is to develop agents that are adaptive and predictable and timely. At first blush, these three requirements seem contradictory. For example, adaptation risks introducing undesirable side effects, thereby making agents' behavior less predictable. Furthermore, although formal verification can assist in ensuring behavioral predictability, it is known to be time-consuming. Our solution to the challenge of satisfying all three requirements is the following. Agents have finite-state automaton plans, which are adapted online via evolutionary learning (perturbation) operators. To ensure that critical behavioral constraints are always satisfied, agents' plans are first formally verified. They are then reverified after every adaptation. If reverification concludes that constraints are violated, the plans are repaired. The main objective of this paper is to improve the efficiency of reverification after learning, so that agents have a sufficiently rapid response time. We present two solutions: ...

  18. Using Uncertain Climate and Development Information in Health Adaptation Planning.

    Ebi, Kristie L; Hess, Jeremy J; Isaksen, Tania Busch

    2016-03-01

    To aid health adaptation decision-making, there are increasing efforts to provide climate projections at finer temporal and spatial scales. Relying solely on projected climate changes for longer-term decisions makes the implicit assumption that sources of vulnerability other than climate change will remain the same, which is not very probable. Over longer time horizons, this approach likely over estimates the extent to which climate change could alter the magnitude and pattern of health outcomes, introducing systematic bias into health management decisions. To balance this potential bias, decision-makers also need projections of other drivers of health outcomes that are, like climate change, recognized determinants of some disease burdens. Incorporating projections via an iterative process that allows for regular updates based on new knowledge and experience has the potential to improve the utility of fine-scale climate projections in health system adaptation to climate change. PMID:26814795

  19. An ‘innovation-cycle framework’ of integrated agricultural knowledge system and innovation for improving farmers’climate change adaptation and risk mitigation capacities

    Rahman, Md Zillur

    2015-01-01

    The main objective of this paper is to present a new ‘innovation-cycle’ integrated conceptual framework of ‘TVET-adaptive AKSI’ (TVET: Technical and Vocational Education and Training; AKSI: Agricultural Knowledge System and Innovation). Thus the aim here is to discuss from existing body of litera......The main objective of this paper is to present a new ‘innovation-cycle’ integrated conceptual framework of ‘TVET-adaptive AKSI’ (TVET: Technical and Vocational Education and Training; AKSI: Agricultural Knowledge System and Innovation). Thus the aim here is to discuss from existing body...... and the increased risks of safe agricultural food production, sustainable environment and health, it will be unprecedented challenges due to increasing demand for safe food supply for future growing population in Bangladesh. Studies show that producers (farmers) are still lagging behind with lack of necessary...

  20. Temporal Bisection in Children.

    Droit-Volet, Sylvie; Wearden, John H.

    2001-01-01

    Trained 3-, 5-, and 8-year-olds in temporal bisection task, with nonstandard comparison stimuli spaced linearly between short or long standard visual stimuli. Statistical analyses and results from different theoretical models of the data all suggested that temporal sensitivity was higher in the 8-year-olds than in younger groups, even when the…

  1. Optimizing Temporal Queries

    Toman, David; Bowman, Ivan Thomas

    2003-01-01

    efficient translated SQL queries by taking into account the properties of the encoding used for temporal attributes. For concreteness, this translation technique is presented in the context of SQL/TP; however, these techniques are also applicable to other temporal query languages....

  2. Attribute Exploration of Discrete Temporal Transitions

    Wollbold, Johannes

    2007-01-01

    Discrete temporal transitions occur in a variety of domains, but this work is mainly motivated by applications in molecular biology: explaining and analyzing observed transcriptome and proteome time series by literature and database knowledge. The starting point of a formal concept analysis model is presented. The objects of a formal context are states of the interesting entities, and the attributes are the variable properties defining the current state (e.g. observed presence or absence of proteins). Temporal transitions assign a relation to the objects, defined by deterministic or non-deterministic transition rules between sets of pre- and postconditions. This relation can be generalized to its transitive closure, i.e. states are related if one results from the other by a transition sequence of arbitrary length. The focus of the work is the adaptation of the attribute exploration algorithm to such a relational context, so that questions concerning temporal dependencies can be asked during the exploration pr...

  3. Ambiguous Adaptation

    Møller Larsen, Marcus; Lyngsie, Jacob

    We investigate why some exchange relationships terminate prematurely. We argue that investments in informal governance structures induce premature termination in relationships already governed by formal contracts. The formalized adaptive behavior of formal governance structures and the flexible and...... reciprocal adaptation of informal governance structure create ambiguity in situations of contingencies, which, subsequently, increases the likelihood of premature relationship termination. Using a large sample of exchange relationships in the global service provider industry, we find support for a hypothesis...

  4. Strategic Adaptation

    Andersen, Torben Juul

    2015-01-01

    This article provides an overview of theoretical contributions that have influenced the discourse around strategic adaptation including contingency perspectives, strategic fit reasoning, decision structure, information processing, corporate entrepreneurship, and strategy process. The related...... concepts of strategic renewal, dynamic managerial capabilities, dynamic capabilities, and strategic response capabilities are discussed and contextualized against strategic responsiveness. The insights derived from this article are used to outline the contours of a dynamic process of strategic adaptation...

  5. 心理干预提高独生子女士兵适应能力的研究%A Study on Psychological Intervention to Improve the Adaptability of the Only Son Recruits

    李权超; 蓝新友; 何英强; 蒋忠军; 谭终意; 李兴国

    2002-01-01

    Objective: To study the effects of psychological intervention on the adaptability of the only son recruits. Methods: Mental status of the only son recruits and non-only son recruits were assessed using Symptom Checklist-90, Social Support Questionnaire and Simplified Coping Style Questionnaire before and after psychological intervention. Results: The only son recruits scored significantly higher on depression, anxiety, and interpersonal sensitivity prior to psychological intervention, when compared to the non-only son recruits (P<0.05 or 0.01). The scores of negative emotion decreased and the scores of positive coping style increased significantly in the only son recruits after psychological intervention (P<0.05 or0.01).Conclusion: Psychological intervention could improve the psychological status and adaptability of the only son recruits.

  6. AdapterRemoval v2

    Schubert, Mikkel; Lindgreen, Stinus; Orlando, Ludovic

    2016-01-01

    process the growing amount of data generated per sequencing run. FINDINGS: We introduce AdapterRemoval v2, a major revision of AdapterRemoval v1, which introduces (i) striking improvements in throughput, through the use of single instruction, multiple data (SIMD; SSE1 and SSE2) instructions and multi......-threading support, (ii) the ability to handle datasets containing reads or read-pairs with different adapters or adapter pairs, (iii) simultaneous demultiplexing and adapter trimming, (iv) the ability to reconstruct adapter sequences from paired-end reads for poorly documented data sets, and (v) native gzip and...... bzip2 support. CONCLUSIONS: We show that AdapterRemoval v2 compares favorably with existing tools, while offering superior throughput to most alternatives examined here, both for single and multi-threaded operations....

  7. Adaptation investments and homeownership

    Hansen, Jørgen Drud; Skak, Morten

    2008-01-01

    This article develops a model where ownership improves efficiency of the housing market as it enhances the utility of housing consumption for some consumers. The model is based on an extended Hotelling-Lancaster utility approach in which the ideal variant of housing is obtainable only by adapting...

  8. PCMAT, an adaptive learning platform

    Couto, Paulo; Fernandes, Marta; Martins, Constantino; Faria, Luiz

    2013-01-01

    This paper is about PCMAT, an adaptive learning platform for Mathematics in Basic Education schools. Based on a constructivist approach, PCMAT aims at verifying how techniques from adaptive hypermedia systems can improve e-learning based systems. To achieve this goal, PCMAT includes a Pedagogical Model that contains a set of adaptation rules that influence the student-platform interaction. PCMAT was subject to a preliminary testing with students aged between 12 and 14 years old on th...

  9. Adaptive Mesh Refinement in CTH

    This paper reports progress on implementing a new capability of adaptive mesh refinement into the Eulerian multimaterial shock- physics code CTH. The adaptivity is block-based with refinement and unrefinement occurring in an isotropic 2:1 manner. The code is designed to run on serial, multiprocessor and massive parallel platforms. An approximate factor of three in memory and performance improvements over comparable resolution non-adaptive calculations has-been demonstrated for a number of problems

  10. Staff Adaptation in Selected Company

    Štolcová, Jana

    2011-01-01

    The work focuses on personnel actions of employee adaptation as, nowadays, it is very important to maintain a good and skilled staff. The main aim of this work is to analyze and evaluate the process of adaptation of new employees at the headquarters of the BILLA, Ltd., which operates more than 200 supermarkets around the Czech Republic,. Another task is to propose partial measures which would improve the process of adaptation in the society. The literature review discusses the importance of ...

  11. Is adaptation. Truly an adaptation? Is adaptation. Truly an adaptation?

    Thais Flores Nogueira Diniz

    2008-04-01

    Full Text Available The article begins by historicizing film adaptation from the arrival of cinema, pointing out the many theoretical approaches under which the process has been seen: from the concept of “the same story told in a different medium” to a comprehensible definition such as “the process through which works can be transformed, forming an intersection of textual surfaces, quotations, conflations and inversions of other texts”. To illustrate this new concept, the article discusses Spike Jonze’s film Adaptation. according to James Naremore’s proposal which considers the study of adaptation as part of a general theory of repetition, joined with the study of recycling, remaking, and every form of retelling. The film deals with the attempt by the scriptwriter Charles Kaufman, cast by Nicholas Cage, to adapt/translate a non-fictional book to the cinema, but ends up with a kind of film which is by no means what it intended to be: a film of action in the model of Hollywood productions. During the process of creation, Charles and his twin brother, Donald, undergo a series of adventures involving some real persons from the world of film, the author and the protagonist of the book, all of them turning into fictional characters in the film. In the film, adaptation then signifies something different from itstraditional meaning. The article begins by historicizing film adaptation from the arrival of cinema, pointing out the many theoretical approaches under which the process has been seen: from the concept of “the same story told in a different medium” to a comprehensible definition such as “the process through which works can be transformed, forming an intersection of textual surfaces, quotations, conflations and inversions of other texts”. To illustrate this new concept, the article discusses Spike Jonze’s film Adaptation. according to James Naremore’s proposal which considers the study of adaptation as part of a general theory of repetition

  12. Neuromuscular adaptations to long-term progressive resistance training translates to improved functional capacity for people with multiple sclerosis and is maintained at follow-up

    Kjølhede, Tue; Vissing, Kristian; de Place, Line; Pedersen, Bodil G; Ringgaard, Steffen; Stenager, Egon; Petersen, Thor; Dalgas, Ulrik

    2015-01-01

    : This study was a randomised controlled trial, with a training group and a waitlist group undergoing supervised PRT for 24 weeks initially or after 24 weeks of habitual lifestyle, respectively. Functional capacity, isometric muscle strength of knee extensors and flexors, neural drive and thigh muscle......BACKGROUND: Progressive resistance training (PRT) is acknowledged to effectively improve muscle strength for people with multiple sclerosis (PwMS), but diverging results exist regarding whether such improvements translates to improved functional capacity, possibly relating to insufficient duration...... cross-sectional area was measured at baseline, after 24 and 48 weeks. RESULTS: The training group significantly improved neuromuscular function of the knee extensors and flexors, which translated to improvements in functional capacity. Furthermore, the improved functional capacity was maintained after...

  13. Improving Adaptive Learning Rate of BP Neural Network for the Modelling of 3D Woven Composites Using the Golden Section Law

    易洪雷; 丁辛

    2001-01-01

    Focused on various BP algorithms with variable learning rate based on network system error gradient, a modified learning strategy for training non-linear network models is developed with both the incremental and the decremental factors of network learning rate being adjusted adaptively and dynamically. The golden section law is put forward to build a relationship between the network training parameters, and a series of data from an existing model is used to train and test the network parameters. By means of the evaluation of network performance in respect to convergent speed and predicting precision, the effectiveness of the proposed learning strategy can be illustrated.

  14. 一种基于自适应能力改进的AFSA算法研究%Research about an Improved AFSA Algorithm Based on Self-Adapt Ability

    王虎强; 李东

    2015-01-01

    文章在分析基本人工鱼群算法(AFSA)的基础上,提出了一种基于自适应能力的改进人工鱼群算法,在不明显增加算法计算复杂性的前提下,引入自适应移动和visual、step参数自适应调整策略,这对于克服算法优化后期收敛速度慢,感知和移动距离随机性大、寻优精度低等缺点具有显著效果.仿真测试表明,改进后的人工鱼群算法在很大程度上摆脱了局部极值吸引的能力,寻优精度明显提高.%The paper puts forward an improved AFSA algorithm based on self-adapt ability after analyzing the original artificial fish-swarm algorithm, which not only draws into the self-adapt movement but also the self-adapt adjustment of visual and step with no extra calculate complexity, this will be helpful to overcome the slow convergence in the afterlife of its lifecycle, random perception and movement as well as the low precision of searching. The results of simulation show that the improved AFSA al-gorithm gets rid of the attraction ability of local peak, the precision of searching is improved obviously.

  15. An improved approach based on fuzzy clustering and Back-Propagation Neural Networks with adaptive learning rate for sales forecasting: Case study of PCB industry

    Attariuas Hicham

    2012-05-01

    Full Text Available This paper describes new hybrid sales forecasting system based on fuzzy clustering and Back-propagation (BP Neural Networks with adaptive learning rate (FCBPN.The proposed approach is composed of three stages: (1 Winters Exponential Smoothing method will be utilized to take the trend effect into consideration; (2 utilizing Fuzzy C-Means clustering method (Used in an clusters memberships fuzzy system (CMFS, the clusters membership levels of each normalized data records will be extracted; (3 Each cluster will be fed into parallel BP networks with a learning rate adapted as the level of cluster membership of training data records. Compared to many researches which use Hard clustering, we employ fuzzy clustering which permits each data record to belong to each cluster to a certain degree, which allows the clusters to be larger which consequently increases the accuracy of the proposed forecasting system . Printed Circuit Board (PCB will be used as a case study to evaluate the precision of our proposed architecture. Experimental results show that the proposed model outperforms the previous and traditional approaches. Therefore, it is a very promising solution for industrial forecasting.

  16. A Two-Stage Approach for Improving the Convergence of Least-Mean-Square Adaptive Decision-Feedback Equalizers in the Presence of Severe Narrowband Interference

    A. A. (Louis Beex

    2008-02-01

    Full Text Available It has previously been shown that a least-mean-square (LMS decision-feedback filter can mitigate the effect of narrowband interference (L.-M. Li and L. Milstein, 1983. An adaptive implementation of the filter was shown to converge relatively quickly for mild interference. It is shown here, however, that in the case of severe narrowband interference, the LMS decision-feedback equalizer (DFE requires a very large number of training symbols for convergence, making it unsuitable for some types of communication systems. This paper investigates the introduction of an LMS prediction-error filter (PEF as a prefilter to the equalizer and demonstrates that it reduces the convergence time of the two-stage system by as much as two orders of magnitude. It is also shown that the steady-state bit-error rate (BER performance of the proposed system is still approximately equal to that attained in steady-state by the LMS DFE-only. Finally, it is shown that the two-stage system can be implemented without the use of training symbols. This two-stage structure lowers the complexity of the overall system by reducing the number of filter taps that need to be adapted, while incurring a slight loss in the steady-state BER.

  17. Temporal Expressions in Polish Corpus KPWr

    Jan Kocoń

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available Temporal Expressions in Polish Corpus KPWrThis article presents the result of the recent research in the interpretation of Polish expressions that refer to time. These expressions are the source of information when something happens, how often something occurs or how long something lasts. Temporal information, which can be extracted from text automatically, plays significant role in many information extraction systems, such as question answering, discourse analysis, event recognition and many more. We prepared PLIMEX — a broad description of Polish temporal expressions with annotation guidelines, based on the state-of-the-art solutions for English, mainly TimeML specification. We also adapted the solution to capture the local semantics of temporal expressions, called LTIMEX. Temporal description also supports further event identification and extends event description model, focusing at anchoring events in time, ordering events and reasoning about the persistence of events. We prepared the specification, which is designed to address these issues and we annotated all documents in Polish Corpus of Wroclaw University of Technology (KPWr using our annotation guidelines.

  18. Efficient Prediction Structures for H.264 Multi View Coding Using Temporal Scalability

    Guruvareddiar, Palanivel; Joseph, Biju K.

    2014-03-01

    Prediction structures with "disposable view components based" hierarchical coding have been proven to be efficient for H.264 multi view coding. Though these prediction structures along with the QP cascading schemes provide superior compression efficiency when compared to the traditional IBBP coding scheme, the temporal scalability requirements of the bit stream could not be met to the fullest. On the other hand, a fully scalable bit stream, obtained by "temporal identifier based" hierarchical coding, provides a number of advantages including bit rate adaptations and improved error resilience, but lacks in compression efficiency when compared to the former scheme. In this paper it is proposed to combine the two approaches such that a fully scalable bit stream could be realized with minimal reduction in compression efficiency when compared to state-of-the-art "disposable view components based" hierarchical coding. Simulation results shows that the proposed method enables full temporal scalability with maximum BDPSNR reduction of only 0.34 dB. A novel method also has been proposed for the identification of temporal identifier for the legacy H.264/AVC base layer packets. Simulation results also show that this enables the scenario where the enhancement views could be extracted at a lower frame rate (1/2nd or 1/4th of base view) with average extraction time for a view component of only 0.38 ms.

  19. Spatio-temporal regularization in linear distributed source reconstruction from EEG/MEG: a critical evaluation.

    Dannhauer, Moritz; Lämmel, Eric; Wolters, Carsten H; Knösche, Thomas R

    2013-04-01

    The high temporal resolution of EEG/MEG data offers a way to improve source reconstruction estimates which provide insight into the spatio-temporal involvement of neuronal sources in the human brain. In this work, we investigated the performance of spatio-temporal regularization (STR) in a current density approach using a systematic comparison to simple ad hoc or post hoc filtering of the data or of the reconstructed current density, respectively. For the used STR approach we implemented a frequency-specific constraint to penalize solutions outside a narrow frequency band of interest. The widely used sLORETA algorithm was adapted for STR and generally used for source reconstruction. STR and filtering approaches were evaluated with respect to spatial localization error and spatial dispersion, as well as to correlation of original and reconstructed source time courses in single source and two source scenarios with fixed source locations and oscillating source waveforms. We used extensive computer simulations and tested all algorithms with different parameter settings (noise levels and regularization parameters) for EEG data. To verify our results, we also used data from MEG phantom measurements. For the investigated scenarios, we did not find any evidence that STR-based methods outperform purely spatial algorithms applied to temporally filtered data. Furthermore, the results show very clearly that the performance of STR depends very much on the choice of regularization parameters. PMID:23112100

  20. Adaptive Metric Kernel Regression

    Goutte, Cyril; Larsen, Jan

    1998-01-01

    Kernel smoothing is a widely used nonparametric pattern recognition technique. By nature, it suffers from the curse of dimensionality and is usually difficult to apply to high input dimensions. In this paper, we propose an algorithm that adapts the input metric used in multivariate regression by...... minimising a cross-validation estimate of the generalisation error. This allows one to automatically adjust the importance of different dimensions. The improvement in terms of modelling performance is illustrated on a variable selection task where the adaptive metric kernel clearly outperforms the standard...

  1. Adaptive metric kernel regression

    Goutte, Cyril; Larsen, Jan

    2000-01-01

    Kernel smoothing is a widely used non-parametric pattern recognition technique. By nature, it suffers from the curse of dimensionality and is usually difficult to apply to high input dimensions. In this contribution, we propose an algorithm that adapts the input metric used in multivariate...... regression by minimising a cross-validation estimate of the generalisation error. This allows to automatically adjust the importance of different dimensions. The improvement in terms of modelling performance is illustrated on a variable selection task where the adaptive metric kernel clearly outperforms the...

  2. Tiled Polymorphic Temporal Media

    Hudak, Paul; Janin, David

    2014-01-01

    International audience Tiled Polymorphic Temporal Media (Tiled PTM) is an algebraic approach to specifying the composition of multimedia values having an inherent temporal quality --- for example sound clips, musical scores, computer animations, and video clips. Mathematically, one can think of a tiled PTM as a tiling in the one dimension of time. A tiled PTM value has two synchronization marks that specify, via an effective notion of tiled product, how the tiled PTMs are positioned in tim...

  3. Seleção de progênies de erva-mate (Ilex paraguariensis St. Hill. para a produtividade, estabilidade e adaptabilidade temporal de massa foliar Selection of Erva-mate Progenies for Leaf Weight Productivity, Temporal Stability and Adaptability

    José Alfredo Sturion

    2011-03-01

    Full Text Available O presente trabalho teve por objetivos selecionar progênies de erva-mate (Ilex paraguariensis St. Hil.  em Ivaí - PR, simultaneamente para estabilidade, adaptabilidade e produtividade de massa foliar,  colhidas em três safras, com base na média harmônica a performance relativa dos valores genéticos (MHPRVG, adicionalmente, comparar os resultados  com aqueles obtidos pelos métodos de Annicchiarico e  de Lin & Binns. O material genético consistiu de 25  progênies de meios-irmãos plantadas no delineamento  de blocos ao acaso, com dez repetições  e parcelas lineares de seis plantas no espaçamento de  3m x 2m. O peso de folhas foi avaliado, por árvore,  aos dois, quatro e seis anos após o plantio. Houve  uma alteração no ordenamento das progênies para a produção de massa foliar ao longo das safras. Os  métodos de Annicchiarico, Lin & Binns e MHPRVG  selecionaram, praticamente, as mesmas progênies para os três atributos considerados. Contudo, o método  HPRVG apresenta a vantagem de fornecer  resultados na própria escala e medição do caráter, os quais podem ser interpretados diretamente como  valores genéticos.
    This paper aimed to select progenies of “erva-mate” (Ilex paraguariensis St. HiI. in Ivai - PR based on leaf weight productivity, stability and adaptability across three harvests. This can be achieved by the method MHPRVG (harmonic average of relative performance of genetic values which is comparable with the methods by Annichiaricco and Lin & Binns. The genetic material was constituted by 25 half sib progenies evaluated in a complete block design with ten replicates and six plants per plot, in a 3 x 2 meters spacing. Leaf weight per tree  was evaluated at ages two, four and six years  after planting. There were some changes in progenies  ranking across harvests. The methods MHPRVG, Annichiaricco and Lin & Binns led to selection of the  same progenies, considering the three

  4. An improved adaptive artificial potential field method for the path planning of multi-robot%一种改进的多机器人路径规划自适应人工势场法

    高瑜; 过金超; 崔光照

    2013-01-01

    Based on the study of the traditional multi-robot path planning,an improved adaptive artificial potential field method was proposed.In this method,the local minimum problem of the traditional artificial potential field could be solved by setting the virtual target point for mobile robot to escape local minimum. At the same time,according to the task and speed of the robot,it used the adaptive priority strategy to real-ize the adaptive obstacle avoidance of the robot.The results of the simulation proved the effectiveness and feasibility of this method.%在研究多机器人路径规划传统方法的基础上,提出了一种改进的自适应人工势场法。该方法通过设置虚拟目标点来解决传统人工势场法易陷入局部极小点的问题,同时根据各个机器人所承担的任务和速度,采用自适应优先权策略来实现机器人之间的自适应避障。仿真实验验证了该方法的有效性和可行性。

  5. An Improved Adaptive Multi-way Principal Component Analysis for Monitoring Streptomycin Fermentation Process%自适应MPCA方法在链霉素过程监控中的应用

    何宁; 王树青

    2004-01-01

    Multi-way principal component analysis (MPCA) had been successfully applied to monitoring the batch and semi-batch process in most chemical industry. An improved MPCA approach, step-by-step adaptive MPCA (SAMPCA), using the process variable trajectories to monitoring the batch process is presented in this paper. It does not need to estimate or fill in the unknown part of the process variable trajectory deviation from the current time until the end. The approach is based on a MPCA method that processes the data in a sequential and adaptive manner. The adaptive rate is easily controlled through a forgetting factor that controls the weight of past data in a summation. This algorithm is used to evaluate the industrial streptomycin fermentation process data and is compared with the traditional MPCA. The results show that the method is more advantageous than MPCA,especially when monitoring multi-stage batch process where the latent vector structure can change at several points during the batch.

  6. Adaptive test

    Kjeldsen, Lars Peter; Eriksen, Mette Rose

    2010-01-01

    Artikelen er en evaluering af de adaptive tests, som blev indført i folkeskolen. Artiklen sætter særligt fokus på evaluering i folkeskolen, herunder bidrager den med vejledning til evaluering, evalueringsværktøjer og fagspecifkt evalueringsmateriale.......Artikelen er en evaluering af de adaptive tests, som blev indført i folkeskolen. Artiklen sætter særligt fokus på evaluering i folkeskolen, herunder bidrager den med vejledning til evaluering, evalueringsværktøjer og fagspecifkt evalueringsmateriale....

  7. Science of adaptation to climate change and science for adaptation

    RobSwart

    2014-07-01

    Full Text Available Adaptation to climate change has gained a prominent place next to mitigation on global, national and local policy agendas. However, while an abundance of adaptation strategies, plans and programmes have been developed, progress in turning these into action has been slow. The development of a sound knowledge basis to support adaptation globally is suggested to accelerate progress, but has lagged behind. The emphasis in both current and newly proposed programmes is very much on practice-oriented research with strong stakeholder participation. This paper supports such practice-oriented research, but argues that this is insufficient to support adaptation policy and practice in a productive manner. We argue that there is not only a need for science for adaptation, but also a science of adaptation. The paper argues that participatory, practice-oriented research is indeed essential, but has to be complemented by and connected to more fundamental inquiry and concept development, which takes into account knowledge that has been developed in disciplinary sciences and on issues other than climate change adaptation. At the same time, the level and method of participation in science for adaptation should be determined on the basis of the specific project context and goals. More emphasis on science of adaptation can lead to improved understanding of the conditions for successful science for adaptation.

  8. Reduction of ethanol yield and improvement of glycerol formation by adaptive evolution of the wine yeast Saccharomyces cerevisiae under hyperosmotic conditions.

    Tilloy, Valentin; Ortiz-Julien, Anne; Dequin, Sylvie

    2014-04-01

    There is a strong demand from the wine industry for methodologies to reduce the alcohol content of wine without compromising wine's sensory characteristics. We assessed the potential of adaptive laboratory evolution strategies under hyperosmotic stress for generation of Saccharomyces cerevisiae wine yeast strains with enhanced glycerol and reduced ethanol yields. Experimental evolution on KCl resulted, after 200 generations, in strains that had higher glycerol and lower ethanol production than the ancestral strain. This major metabolic shift was accompanied by reduced fermentative capacities, suggesting a trade-off between high glycerol production and fermentation rate. Several evolved strains retaining good fermentation performance were selected. These strains produced more succinate and 2,3-butanediol than the ancestral strain and did not accumulate undesirable organoleptic compounds, such as acetate, acetaldehyde, or acetoin. They survived better under osmotic stress and glucose starvation conditions than the ancestral strain, suggesting that the forces that drove the redirection of carbon fluxes involved a combination of osmotic and salt stresses and carbon limitation. To further decrease the ethanol yield, a breeding strategy was used, generating intrastrain hybrids that produced more glycerol than the evolved strain. Pilot-scale fermentation on Syrah using evolved and hybrid strains produced wine with 0.6% (vol/vol) and 1.3% (vol/vol) less ethanol, more glycerol and 2,3-butanediol, and less acetate than the ancestral strain. This work demonstrates that the combination of adaptive evolution and breeding is a valuable alternative to rational design for remodeling the yeast metabolic network. PMID:24532067

  9. Adaptable Embedded Systems

    Lisbôa, Carlos; Carro, Luigi

    2013-01-01

    As embedded systems become more complex, designers face a number of challenges at different levels: they need to boost performance, while keeping energy consumption as low as possible, they need to reuse existent software code, and at the same time they need to take advantage of the extra logic available in the chip, represented by multiple processors working together.  This book describes several strategies to achieve such different and interrelated goals, by the use of adaptability. Coverage includes reconfigurable systems, dynamic optimization techniques such as binary translation and trace reuse, new memory architectures including homogeneous and heterogeneous multiprocessor systems, communication issues and NOCs, fault tolerance against fabrication defects and soft errors, and finally, how one can combine several of these techniques together to achieve higher levels of performance and adaptability.  The discussion also includes how to employ specialized software to improve this new adaptive system, and...

  10. Virtual Temporal Bone Anatomy

    2007-01-01

    Background The Visible Human Project(VHP) initiated by the U.S. National Library of Medicine has drawn much attention and interests from around the world. The Visible Chinese Human (VCH) project has started in China. The current study aims at acquiring a feasible virtual methodology for reconstructing the temporal bone of the Chinese population, which may provide an accurate 3-D model of important temporal bone structures that can be used in teaching and patient care for medical scientists and clinicians. Methods A series of sectional images of the temporal bone were generated from section slices of a female cadaver head. On each sectional image, SOIs (structures of interest) were segmented by carefully defining their contours and filling their areas with certain gray scale values. The processed volume data were then inducted into the 3D Slicer software(developed by the Surgical Planning Lab at Brigham and Women's Hospital and the MIT AI Lab) for resegmentation and generation of a set of tagged images of the SOIs. 3D surface models of SOIs were then reconstructed from these images. Results The temporal bone and structures in the temporal bone, including the tympanic cavity, mastoid cells, sigmoid sinus and internal carotid artery, were successfully reconstructed. The orientation of and spatial relationship among these structures were easily visualized in the reconstructed surface models. Conclusion The 3D Slicer software can be used for 3-dimensional visualization of anatomic structures in the temporal bone, which will greatly facilitate the advance of knowledge and techniques critical for studying and treating disorders involving the temporal bone.

  11. Farming System Evolution and Adaptive Capacity: Insights for Adaptation Support

    Jami L. Dixon

    2014-02-01

    Full Text Available Studies of climate impacts on agriculture and adaptation often provide current or future assessments, ignoring the historical contexts farming systems are situated within. We investigate how historical trends have influenced farming system adaptive capacity in Uganda using data from household surveys, semi-structured interviews, focus-group discussions and observations. By comparing two farming systems, we note three major findings: (1 similar trends in farming system evolution have had differential impacts on the diversity of farming systems; (2 trends have contributed to the erosion of informal social and cultural institutions and an increasing dependence on formal institutions; and (3 trade-offs between components of adaptive capacity are made at the farm-scale, thus influencing farming system adaptive capacity. To identify the actual impacts of future climate change and variability, it is important to recognize the dynamic nature of adaptation. In practice, areas identified for further adaptation support include: shift away from one-size-fits-all approach the identification and integration of appropriate modern farming method; a greater focus on building inclusive formal and informal institutions; and a more nuanced understanding regarding the roles and decision-making processes of influential, but external, actors. More research is needed to understand farm-scale trade-offs and the resulting impacts across spatial and temporal scales.

  12. 一类广义隐互补问题的改进的自适应算法%An Improved Self-adaptive Projection Method for a Form of Generalized Implicit Complementarity Problem

    郑邦贵; 张国娟; 陈玮玮

    2012-01-01

    互补问题是运筹学与计算数学的一个交叉研究领域,在力学、工程、经济、交通等许多实际部门有广泛的应用,是数学规划中的一个热门的研究课题.研究了一类广义隐互补问题,改进了变分不等式的自适应算法,并将其应用到广义隐互补问题中:建立了广义隐互补问题的改进的自适应算法,并研究了在伪单调条件下算法的收敛性和收敛速度,讨论了校正步长的选择方法及参数限制条件.%Complementarity problem is a cross research field in operations research and computational mathematics. It has extensive applications in mechanics, engineering, economics, transportation and many other practical departments. It is a very hot research topic in mathematical planning. In this paper we study a class of generalized implicit complementarity problems, give an Improved Self-adaptive Projection method for variational inequality algorithm. The Self-adaptive Projection method is used to solve implicit complementarity problems. The improved Self-adaptive Projection method is built for generalized implicit complementarity problem and porves its convergence with pseudomonotone function. Theremore, we study the step size correction and the parameters.

  13. The effects of visual training on multisensory temporal processing

    Stevenson, Ryan A.; Wilson, Magdalena M.; Powers, Albert R.; Wallace, Mark T.

    2013-01-01

    The importance of multisensory integration for human behavior and perception is well documented, as is the impact that temporal synchrony has on driving such integration. Thus, the more temporally coincident two sensory inputs from different modalities are, the more likely they will be perceptually bound. This temporal integration process is captured by the construct of the temporal binding window - the range of temporal offsets within which an individual is able to perceptually bind inputs across sensory modalities. Recent work has shown that this window is malleable, and can be narrowed via a multisensory perceptual feedback training process. In the current study, we seek to extend this by examining the malleability of the multisensory temporal binding window through changes in unisensory experience. Specifically, we measured the ability of visual perceptual feedback training to induce changes in the multisensory temporal binding window. Visual perceptual training with feedback successfully improved temporal visual processing and more importantly, this visual training increased the temporal precision across modalities, which manifested as a narrowing of the multisensory temporal binding window. These results are the first to establish the ability of unisensory temporal training to modulate multisensory temporal processes, findings that can provide mechanistic insights into multisensory integration and which may have a host of practical applications. PMID:23307155

  14. A spatial-temporal contextual Markovian kernel method for multi-temporal land cover mapping

    Wehmann, Adam; Liu, Desheng

    2015-09-01

    Due to a lack of spatial-temporal consistency, the current generation of multi-temporal land cover products is subject to significant error propagation in change detection results. To address the evolving needs of land change science, the next generation of land cover products must be derived from new classification methods that are designed specifically for multi-temporal land cover mapping. In this paper, a next generation classifier is proposed that fully exploits contextual information by combining results born from the machine learning paradigm in remote sensing with domain knowledge from multi-temporal land cover mapping. This classifier, the Spatial-Temporal Markovian Support Vector Classifier, exhibits an entirely new level of accuracy of change detection when evaluated for the classification of seven Landsat images from an Appalachian Ohio study area. It exceeds previous leading techniques employing machine learning kernel methods and Markov Random Field models of image context on all accuracy metrics for the creation of a spatial-temporally consistent land cover product. It owes its performance to the greatly improved decision-making about contextual information afforded by the extension and integration of these previous techniques. With such a classifier, substantially more accurate and spatial-temporally consistent multi-temporal land cover products are possible that are suitable for the detailed study of land cover change.

  15. An Adaptive Dynamic Pointing Assistance Program to Help People with Multiple Disabilities Improve Their Computer Pointing Efficiency with Hand Swing through a Standard Mouse

    Shih, Ching-Hsiang; Shih, Ching-Tien; Wu, Hsiao-Ling

    2010-01-01

    The latest research adopted software technology to redesign the mouse driver, and turned a mouse into a useful pointing assistive device for people with multiple disabilities who cannot easily or possibly use a standard mouse, to improve their pointing performance through a new operation method, Extended Dynamic Pointing Assistive Program (EDPAP),…

  16. HyCAW: Hydrological Climate change Adaptation Wizard

    Bagli, Stefano; Mazzoli, Paolo; Broccoli, Davide; Luzzi, Valerio

    2016-04-01

    Changes in temporal and total water availability due to hydrologic and climate change requires an efficient use of resources through the selection of the best adaptation options. HyCAW provides a novel service to users willing or needing to adapt to hydrological change, by turning available scientific information into a user friendly online wizard that lets to: • Evaluate the monthly reduction of water availability induced by climate change; • Select the best adaptation options and visualize the benefits in terms of water balance and cost reduction; • Quantify potential of water saving by improving of water use efficiency. The tool entails knowledge of the intra-annual distribution of available surface and groundwater flows at a site under present and future (climate change) scenarios. This information is extracted from long term scenario simulation by E-HYPE (European hydrological predictions for the environment) model from Swedish Meteorological and Hydrological Institute, to quantify the expected evolution in water availability (e.g. percent reduction of soil infiltration and aquifer recharge; relative seasonal shift of runoff from summer to winter in mountain areas; etc.). Users are requested to provide in input their actual water supply on a monthly basis, both from surface and groundwater sources. Appropriate decision trees and an embedded precompiled database of Water saving technology for different sectors (household, agriculture, industrial, tourisms) lead them to interactively identify good practices for water saving/recycling/harvesting that they may implement in their specific context. Thanks to this service, users are not required to have a detailed understanding neither of data nor of hydrological processes, but may benefit of scientific analysis directly for practical adaptation in a simple and user friendly way, effectively improving their adaptation capacity. The tool is being developed under a collaborative FP7 funded project called SWITCH

  17. Temporal aspects of copper homeostasis and its crosstalk with hormones

    Peñarrubia, Lola; Romero, Paco; Carrió-Seguí, Angela; Andrés-Bordería, Amparo; Moreno, Joaquín; Sanz, Amparo

    2015-01-01

    To cope with the dual nature of copper as being essential and toxic for cells, plants temporarily adapt the expression of copper homeostasis components to assure its delivery to cuproproteins while avoiding the interference of potential oxidative damage derived from both copper uptake and photosynthetic reactions during light hours. The circadian clock participates in the temporal organization of coordination of plant nutrition adapting metabolic responses to the daily oscillations. This time...

  18. Improved testing characteristics of austenitic and mixed welds by inverse phase adaptation of phased array signals; Verbesserung der Pruefbarkeit von Austenit- und Mischschweissverbindungen durch inverse Phasenanpassung von Gruppenstrahlerzeitsignalen

    Bulavinov, A.; Kroening, M.; Walte, F. [Fraunhofer Institut Zerstoerungsfreie Pruefverfahren, Saarbruecken (Germany); Reddy, K. [QNET Engineering Ltd., Chennai (India)

    2006-07-01

    Thin-walled welds (less than 10 mm wall thickness) in austenitic pipes and mixed welds are difficult to test using non-destructive methods. This is true especially for detection of closed cracks, which is impossible by radiographic testing and problematic by ultrasonic testing. Several projects in reactor safety research provided better understanding of the testing characteristics of thes compounds. The resulting rules for writing of test specifications and for qualification of the technology employed also showed the limits of radiographic and ultrasonic testing. One important result was the simulation of the propagation of ultrasonic waves in model descriptions of welded structures as a function of the shape of the product. This allows, in principle, the applicaiton of ultrasonic migration techniques which enable consideration of phase disturbances gy structural anisotropy when the time signals of the ultrasonic sensor elements are summed up. The applicability of this 'inverse phase adaptation' was proved in heterogeneous and anisotropic model test bodies and on test bodies of the reactor safety programme. The contribution outlines the fundamentals of the technology and presents preliminary findings. (orig.)

  19. Genetic characterization of an adapted pandemic 2009 H1N1 influenza virus that reveals improved replication rates in human lung epithelial cells.

    Wörmann, Xenia; Lesch, Markus; Welke, Robert-William; Okonechnikov, Konstantin; Abdurishid, Mirshat; Sieben, Christian; Geissner, Andreas; Brinkmann, Volker; Kastner, Markus; Karner, Andreas; Zhu, Rong; Hinterdorfer, Peter; Anish, Chakkumkal; Seeberger, Peter H; Herrmann, Andreas; Meyer, Thomas F; Karlas, Alexander

    2016-05-01

    The 2009 influenza pandemic originated from a swine-origin H1N1 virus, which, although less pathogenic than anticipated, may acquire additional virulence-associated mutations in the future. To estimate the potential risk, we sequentially passaged the isolate A/Hamburg/04/2009 in A549 human lung epithelial cells. After passage 6, we observed a 100-fold increased replication rate. High-throughput sequencing of viral gene segments identified five dominant mutations, whose contribution to the enhanced growth was analyzed by reverse genetics. The increased replication rate was pinpointed to two mutations within the hemagglutinin (HA) gene segment (HA1 D130E, HA2 I91L), near the receptor binding site and the stem domain. The adapted virus also replicated more efficiently in mice in vivo. Enhanced replication rate correlated with increased fusion pH of the HA protein and a decrease in receptor affinity. Our data might be relevant for surveillance of pre-pandemic strains and development of high titer cell culture strains for vaccine production. PMID:26914510

  20. Establishing a temporal bone laboratory: considerations for ENT specialist training.

    Fennessy, B G

    2012-02-01

    Cadaveric temporal bone dissection in a temporal bone laboratory is a vital component in training safe, competent otorhinolaryngologists. Recent controversies pertaining to organ retention have resulted in a more limited supply of temporal bones. Consequently, current trainees are dissecting far fewer bones than their consultants. We discuss the establishment of a temporal bone laboratory in the Department of Anatomy in the University College Cork, from the timely preparation and preservation of the tissue to its disposal. Comparisons are drawn between our experience and that of the United States training schemes. The temporal bone laboratory in Cork is the only one in existence in Ireland. The exposure and experience obtained by registrars rotating through Cork, has resulted in noticeable improvements in their operative abilities. The temporal bone laboratory remains a core component to training. It is hoped that this article may facilitate other units overcoming obstacles to establish a temporal bone laboratory.

  1. Adaptation Laboratory

    Huq, Saleemul

    2011-11-15

    Efforts to help the world's poor will face crises in coming decades as climate change radically alters conditions. Action Research for Community Adapation in Bangladesh (ARCAB) is an action-research programme on responding to climate change impacts through community-based adaptation. Set in Bangladesh at 20 sites that are vulnerable to floods, droughts, cyclones and sea level rise, ARCAB will follow impacts and adaptation as they evolve over half a century or more. National and international 'research partners', collaborating with ten NGO 'action partners' with global reach, seek knowledge and solutions applicable worldwide. After a year setting up ARCAB, we share lessons on the programme's design and move into our first research cycle.

  2. Hedonic "adaptation"

    Paul Rozin

    2008-02-01

    Full Text Available People live in a world in which they are surrounded by potential disgust elicitors such as ``used'' chairs, air, silverware, and money as well as excretory activities. People function in this world by ignoring most of these, by active avoidance, reframing, or adaptation. The issue is particularly striking for professions, such as morticians, surgeons, or sanitation workers, in which there is frequent contact with major disgust elicitors. In this study, we study the ``adaptation'' process to dead bodies as disgust elicitors, by measuring specific types of disgust sensitivity in medical students before and after they have spent a few months dissecting a cadaver. Using the Disgust Scale, we find a significant reduction in disgust responses to death and body envelope violation elicitors, but no significant change in any other specific type of disgust. There is a clear reduction in discomfort at touching a cold dead body, but not in touching a human body which is still warm after death.

  3. Adaptive ethnography

    Berth, Mette

    2005-01-01

    This paper focuses on the use of an adaptive ethnography when studying such phenomena as young people's use of mobile media in a learning perspective. Mobile media such as PDAs and mobile phones have a number of affordances which make them potential tools for learning. However, before we begin to...... design and develop educational materials for mobile media platforms we must first understand everyday use and behaviour with a medium such as a mobile phone. The paper outlines the research design for a PhD project on mobile learning which focuses on mobile phones as a way to bridge the gap between...... formal and informal learning contexts. The paper also proposes several adaptive methodological techniques for studying young people's interaction with mobiles....

  4. Temporal Moments in Hydrogeophysics

    Pollock, D.; Cirpka, O. A.

    2007-12-01

    Electrical Resistivity Tomography (ERT) has been tested as monitoring tool for salt-tracer experiments by various authors. So far, the analysis of such experiments has been done by a two-step procedure [Kemna et al., 2002; Vanderborght et al., 2005; Singha and Gorelick, 2005]. In the first step, classical geophysical inversion methods have been used to infer the distribution of electrical conductivity, which is transferred to an estimated concentration distribution of the tracer. Subsequently, the inferred concentration images were analyzed to estimate hydraulic quantities such as the velocity distribution. This approach has two disadvantages: The concentration distribution is reconstructed with a high spatial resolution, but the estimate is uncertain, and the estimation uncertainty is spatially correlated. These correlated uncertainties should be accounted for in the estimation of hydraulic conductivity from concentration values. The latter, unfortunately, is not practical because the reconstructed data sets are very large. The geophysical inversion is not enforced to be in agreement with basic hydromechanical constraints. E.g., Singha and Gorelick [2005] observed an apparent loss of solute mass when using ERT as monitoring tool. We propose considering the temporal moments of potential-difference time series. These temporal moments depend on temporal moments of concentration, which have already been used in the inference of hydraulic- conductivity distributions (Cirpka and Kitanidis, 2000). In our contribution, we present the complete set of equations leading from hydraulic conductivity via hydraulic heads, velocities, temporal moments of concentrations to temporal moments of potential differences for given flow and transport boundary conditions and electrode configurations. We also present how the sensitivity of temporal moments of potential differences on the hydraulic conductivity field can be computed without the need of storing intermediate sensitivities

  5. Adaptable positioner

    This paper describes the circuits and programs in assembly language, developed to control the two DC motors that give mobility to a mechanical arm with two degrees of freedom. As a whole, the system is based in a adaptable regulator designed around a 8 bit microprocessor that, starting from a mode of regulation based in the successive approximation method, evolve to another mode through which, only one approximation is sufficient to get the right position of each motor. (Author) 22 fig. 6 ref

  6. Adaptive positioner

    This paper describes the circuits and programs in assembly language, developed to control the two DC motors that give mobility to a mechanical arm with two degrees of freedom. As a whole, the system is based in a adaptable regulator designed around a 8 bit microprocessor that, starting from a mode of regulation based in the successive approximation method, evolve to another mode through which, only one approximation is sufficient to get the right position of each motor. (Author) 6 refs

  7. Adaptive noise

    Viney, Mark; Reece, Sarah E.

    2013-01-01

    In biology, noise implies error and disorder and is therefore something which organisms may seek to minimize and mitigate against. We argue that such noise can be adaptive. Recent studies have shown that gene expression can be noisy, noise can be genetically controlled, genes and gene networks vary in how noisy they are and noise generates phenotypic differences among genetically identical cells. Such phenotypic differences can have fitness benefits, suggesting that evolution can shape noise ...

  8. Rapid, generalized adaptation to asynchronous audiovisual speech.

    Van der Burg, Erik; Goodbourn, Patrick T

    2015-04-01

    The brain is adaptive. The speed of propagation through air, and of low-level sensory processing, differs markedly between auditory and visual stimuli; yet the brain can adapt to compensate for the resulting cross-modal delays. Studies investigating temporal recalibration to audiovisual speech have used prolonged adaptation procedures, suggesting that adaptation is sluggish. Here, we show that adaptation to asynchronous audiovisual speech occurs rapidly. Participants viewed a brief clip of an actor pronouncing a single syllable. The voice was either advanced or delayed relative to the corresponding lip movements, and participants were asked to make a synchrony judgement. Although we did not use an explicit adaptation procedure, we demonstrate rapid recalibration based on a single audiovisual event. We find that the point of subjective simultaneity on each trial is highly contingent upon the modality order of the preceding trial. We find compelling evidence that rapid recalibration generalizes across different stimuli, and different actors. Finally, we demonstrate that rapid recalibration occurs even when auditory and visual events clearly belong to different actors. These results suggest that rapid temporal recalibration to audiovisual speech is primarily mediated by basic temporal factors, rather than higher-order factors such as perceived simultaneity and source identity. PMID:25716790

  9. Preconditioned Temporal Difference Learning

    HengShuai, Yao

    2007-01-01

    LSTD is numerically instable for some ergodic Markov chains with preferred visits among some states over the remaining ones. Because the matrix that LSTD accumulates has large condition numbers. In this paper, we propose a variant of temporal difference learning with high data efficiency. A class of preconditioned temporal difference learning algorithms are also proposed to speed up the new method. It includes LSPE, and several new data efficient algorithms. The data efficiency of these algorithms is validated by learning an absorbing Markov chain. Also, the asymptotic properties of the new algorithms are analyzed.

  10. A structure-based approach to evaluation product adaptability in adaptable design

    Adaptable design, as a new design paradigm, involves creating designs and products that can be easily changed to satisfy different requirements. In this paper, two types of product adaptability are proposed as essential adaptability and behavioral adaptability, and through measuring which respectively a model for product adaptability evaluation is developed. The essential adaptability evaluation proceeds with analyzing the independencies of function requirements and function modules firstly based on axiomatic design, and measuring the adaptability of interfaces secondly with three indices. The behavioral adaptability reflected by the performance of adaptable requirements after adaptation is measured based on Kano model. At last, the effectiveness of the proposed method is demonstrated by an illustrative example of the motherboard of a personal computer. The results show that the method can evaluate and reveal the adaptability of a product in essence, and is of directive significance to improving design and innovative design

  11. The effects of event occurrence and duration on resilience and adaptation in energy systems

    Energy security exists in an energy system until an event occurs which increases the stress on one or more of its entities. A resilient entity, designed to recover quickly from an event, will return the system (and, by extension, the affected entity) to its previous secure state. However, if the event occurs repeatedly or the time to recover is deemed too slow, or both, the system may remain in a high-stress, insecure state. In these situations, if the stress is to be reduced, the entity must be adapted to handle the event and put the system into a new, secure state. This paper applies research from a variety of disciplines to analyze the temporal effects of events on entities, and shows how resilience and adaptation contribute to the existence of energy security in energy systems. It underscores the importance of time when discussing the impact of events on an energy system and employs methods associated with reliability, notably mean time between failures (MTBF), mean time to recover (MTTR), and tolerance, to describe resilience and adaptation. The analysis is presented and discussed with examples using three common energy security indicators. - Highlights: • Explains how temporal events, entities, and resilience affect energy security. • Describes the two different temporal effects that can affect an entity's resilience. • Demonstrates how the loss of resilience can lead to the intolerance of an event. • Shows how intolerance can result in new energy policy and adaptation for an entity. • Explains how adaptation leads to resilience and can improve energy security

  12. Adaptive optical processors.

    Ghosh, A

    1989-06-15

    There are two different approaches for improving the accuracy of analog optical associative processors: postprocessing with a bimodal system and preprocessing with a preconditioner. These two approaches can be combined to develop an adaptive optical multiprocessor that can adjust the computational steps depending on the data and produce solutions of linear algebra problems with a specified accuracy in a given amount of time. PMID:19752909

  13. Temporal Photon Differentials

    Schjøth, Lars; Frisvad, Jeppe; Erleben, Kenny;

    2010-01-01

    The frame rate also used in computer animated is cause of adverse temporal aliasing effects. Most noticeable of these is a stroboscopic effect that is seen as intermittent movement of fast moving illumination. This effect can be mitigated using non-zero shutter times, effectively, constituting a ...

  14. Temporal Photon Differentials

    Schjøth, Lars; Frisvad, Jeppe Revall; Erleben, Kenny;

    2010-01-01

    The finite frame rate also used in computer animated films is cause of adverse temporal aliasing effects. Most noticeable of these is a stroboscopic effect that is seen as intermittent movement of fast moving illumination. This effect can be mitigated using non-zero shutter times, effectively, co...

  15. Congenital temporal triangular alopecia.

    Bargman, H

    1984-01-01

    Congenital temporal triangular alopecia is a form of nonscarring alopecia that, as its name suggests, is present at birth. Four cases are reported. One patient underwent hair transplantation, which was successful and might be useful in other patients. Cases occurring in a father and his son suggest for the first time a genetic link.

  16. Temporal Concurrent Constraint Programming

    Nielsen, Mogens; Palamidessi, Catuscia; Valencia, Frank Dan

    2002-01-01

    The ntcc calculus is a model of non-deterministic temporal concurrent constraint programming. In this paper we study behavioral notions for this calculus. In the underlying computational model, concurrent constraint processes are executed in discrete time intervals. The behavioral notions studied...

  17. Communication, Technology, Temporality

    Mark A. Martinez

    2012-08-01

    Full Text Available This paper proposes a media studies that foregrounds technological objects as communicative and historical agents. Specifically, I take the digital computer as a powerful catalyst of crises in communication theories and certain key features of modernity. Finally, the computer is the motor of “New Media” which is at once a set of technologies, a historical epoch, and a field of knowledge. As such the computer shapes “the new” and “the future” as History pushes its origins further in the past and its convergent quality pushes its future as a predominate medium. As treatment of information and interface suggest, communication theories observe computers, and technologies generally, for the mediated languages they either afford or foreclose to us. My project describes the figures information and interface for the different ways they can be thought of as aspects of communication. I treat information not as semantic meaning, formal or discursive language, but rather as a physical organism. Similarly an interface is not a relationship between a screen and a human visual intelligence, but is instead a reciprocal, affective and physical process of contact. I illustrate that historically there have been conceptions of information and interface complimentary to mine, fleeting as they have been in the face of a dominant temporality of mediation. I begin with a theoretically informed approach to media history, and extend it to a new theory of communication. In doing so I discuss a model of time common to popular, scientific, and critical conceptions of media technologies especially in theories of computer technology. This is a predominate model with particular rules of temporal change and causality for thinking about mediation, and limits the conditions of possibility for knowledge production about communication. I suggest a new model of time as integral to any event of observation and analysis, and that human mediation does not exhaust the

  18. 提升幼师素质适应新课改%Improving the Quality of Kindergarten Teachers to Adapt to the New Curriculum Reform

    王素芬

    2012-01-01

    Kindergarten teacher is the main force of preschool education curriculum reform,and their quality relates to children's development.This article explains the impact of the curriculum for early childhood teachers and my views on how to improve the comprehensive quality of kindergarten teachers.%幼师是幼教课程改革的主力军,其素质关系幼儿的发展。本文阐述了课改对幼儿教师的影响并就如何提高幼师的综合素质提出了自己的看法。

  19. 一种提高数据同步精度的自适应插值算法%An Adaptive Interpolation Algorithm to Improve Data Synchronization Precision

    向珉江; 高厚磊; 安艳秋; 杜强; 刘凯; 苏将涛

    2012-01-01

    Abstract: Data synchronization of digital intelligent electronic device (IED) with non-synchronous sampling of electronic transformers is studied. Based on derivative precise error formula of first-order Lagrange interpolation algorithm, each instantaneous error and phasor error of inside and outside interpolation algorithms are calculated, and the impacts to relay protection and measurement are also analyzed. First-order Lagrange interpolation error is related to sampling rate and offset time. But conventional reduce errors method is increasing sampling rate only. Through study on error variation rule with offset factor, and with using parabola equation to fit complex error locus equation by least square method under the certain error, the analysis is simplified. An adaptive adjusting basic time of interpolation algorithm is put forward which can effectively reduce error proved by verification.%研究了电子式互感器采样不同步时数字化智能电子设备(IED)的数据同步问题。在推导一阶Lagrange插值算法精确误差公式的基础上,计算了内、外2种插值方法的瞬时和相量误差,以及对继电保护和测量的影响。传统减小误差的算法只涉及采样率,而一阶Lagrange插值算法与采样率和采样偏移时间都相关。通过研究误差随采样偏移时间变化的规律,用最小二乘法以抛物线方程拟合复杂误差轨迹方程,在限定误差的前提下简化了分析。在此基础上,提出了一种自适应调整插值基准时刻的算法,经分析验证该算法可以有效降低误差。

  20. Impact of space-time mesh adaptation on solute transport modeling in porous media

    Esfandiar, Bahman; Porta, Giovanni; Perotto, Simona; Guadagnini, Alberto

    2015-02-01

    We implement a space-time grid adaptation procedure to efficiently improve the accuracy of numerical simulations of solute transport in porous media in the context of model parameter estimation. We focus on the Advection Dispersion Equation (ADE) for the interpretation of nonreactive transport experiments in laboratory-scale heterogeneous porous media. When compared to a numerical approximation based on a fixed space-time discretization, our approach is grounded on a joint automatic selection of the spatial grid and the time step to capture the main (space-time) system dynamics. Spatial mesh adaptation is driven by an anisotropic recovery-based error estimator which enables us to properly select the size, shape, and orientation of the mesh elements. Adaptation of the time step is performed through an ad hoc local reconstruction of the temporal derivative of the solution via a recovery-based approach. The impact of the proposed adaptation strategy on the ability to provide reliable estimates of the key parameters of an ADE model is assessed on the basis of experimental solute breakthrough data measured following tracer injection in a nonuniform porous system. Model calibration is performed in a Maximum Likelihood (ML) framework upon relying on the representation of the ADE solution through a generalized Polynomial Chaos Expansion (gPCE). Our results show that the proposed anisotropic space-time grid adaptation leads to ML parameter estimates and to model results of markedly improved quality when compared to classical inversion approaches based on a uniform space-time discretization.

  1. Conceptual Model of User Adaptive Enterprise Application

    Inese Šūpulniece

    2015-07-01

    Full Text Available The user adaptive enterprise application is a software system, which adapts its behavior to an individual user on the basis of nontrivial inferences from information about the user. The objective of this paper is to elaborate a conceptual model of the user adaptive enterprise applications. In order to conceptualize the user adaptive enterprise applications, their main characteristics are analyzed, the meta-model defining the key concepts relevant to these applications is developed, and the user adaptive enterprise application and its components are defined in terms of the meta-model. Modeling of the user adaptive enterprise application incorporates aspects of enterprise modeling, application modeling, and design of adaptive characteristics of the application. The end-user and her expectations are identified as two concepts of major importance not sufficiently explored in the existing research. Understanding these roles improves the adaptation result in the user adaptive applications.

  2. Fast-twitch skeletal muscle fiber adaptation to SERCA1 deficiency in a Dutch Improved Red and White calf pseudomyotonia case.

    Dorotea, Tiziano; Grünberg, Walter; Murgiano, Leonardo; Plattet, Philippe; Drögemüller, Cord; Mascarello, Francesco; Sacchetto, Roberta

    2015-11-01

    Missense mutations in ATP2A1 gene, encoding SERCA1 protein, cause a muscle disorder designed as congenital pseudomyotonia (PMT) in Chianina and Romagnola cattle or congenital muscular dystonia1 (CMD1) in Belgian Blue cattle. Although PMT is not life-threatening, CMD1 affected calves usually die within a few weeks of age as a result of respiratory complication. We have recently described a muscular disorder in a double muscle Dutch Improved Red and White cross-breed calf. Mutation analysis revealed an ATP2A1 mutation identical to that described in CMD1, even though clinical phenotype was quite similar to that of PMT. Here, we provide evidence for a deficiency of mutated SERCA1 in PMT affected muscles of Dutch Improved Red and White calf, but not of its mRNA. The reduced expression of SERCA1 is selective and not compensated by the SERCA2 isoform. By contrast, pathological muscles are characterized by a broad distribution of mitochondrial markers in all fiber types, not related to intrinsic features of double muscle phenotype and by an increased expression of sarcolemmal calcium extrusion pump. Calcium removal mechanisms, operating in muscle fibers as compensatory response aimed at lowering excessive cytoplasmic calcium concentration caused by SERCA1 deficiency, could explain the difference in severity of clinical signs. PMID:26482047

  3. Improving China’s Environmental Performance through Adaptive Implementation—A Comparative Case Study of Cleaner Production in Hangzhou and Guiyang

    Ting Guan

    2014-12-01

    Full Text Available This paper examines local policy implementation of Cleaner Production (CP in China. As the major policy implementer, China’s local government plays a crucial role in promoting CP. A better understanding of the factors affecting local government’s incentives regarding CP and different strategies available to the local government can help policy makers and implementers improve CP practices and other environmental policy outcomes. This paper uses the cases of Hangzhou and Guiyang to demonstrate that local conditions of policy implementation have a direct impact on the success of CP promotion. Based on 35 in-depth interviews, statistical data and internal government reports, we find that the location-based incentives of local government strongly influence their implementation strategies; and that the choices of different strategies can bring out various policy results. From this study, the identified location-based incentives are affected by energy resource endowment, economic development stage and technological competence. The successful implementation strategies involve using different policy instruments synthetically, regulating CP service organizations by controlling their qualifications, differentiating CP subsidizations, and improving transparency of project progress and outcomes.

  4. Pulse front adaptive optics in multiphoton microscopy

    Sun, B.; Salter, P. S.; Booth, M. J.

    2016-03-01

    The accurate focusing of ultrashort laser pulses is extremely important in multiphoton microscopy. Using adaptive optics to manipulate the incident ultrafast beam in either the spectral or spatial domain can introduce significant benefits when imaging. Here we introduce pulse front adaptive optics: manipulating an ultrashort pulse in both the spatial and temporal domains. A deformable mirror and a spatial light modulator are operated in concert to modify contours of constant intensity in space and time within an ultrashort pulse. Through adaptive control of the pulse front, we demonstrate an enhancement in the measured fluorescence from a two photon microscope.

  5. Experimental devices for the spatio-temporal characterization of femtosecond high-power laser chains

    One of the advantages of high-power femtosecond lasers (TW-PW) is to obtain, at the focus of a focusing optic, very high intensities up to 1022 W.cm-2 (i.e. an electric field of 2.7 PV.m-1. Therefore, these lasers chains necessarily deliver beams with large diameter (up to 40 cm) and very short pulses (of the order of tens of femto-seconds). As a consequence, the spatial and temporal properties of the pulse are generally not independent. Such dependence, called spatial-temporal coupling has the effect of increasing the pulse duration and the size of the focal spot, which can lead to a significant reduction of the maximum intensity at the focus. Metrology devices commonly used on these high-power femtosecond lasers allow retrieving the spatial and temporal profiles of the pulse only in an independent manner. The aim of this thesis was to develop techniques for measuring spatio-temporal couplings in order to quantify their effect and correct them in order to obtain the maximum intensity at focus. First of all, we adapted an existing technique of spatio-temporal characterization to the measurement of TW lasers. To avoid the issues induced at the focus, such as those related to jittering, measurements were performed on the collimated beam. By adding a reference source to the original device, we managed to take into account the measurement artifacts due to thermal and mechanical variations affecting the interferometer. With this improvement, it was possible to reconstruct the complete spatio-temporal profile of the beam, particularly its wavefront. However, the limitations imposed by this technique led to the development of a new measurement device. Based on a cross-correlation, this technique consists of making the laser beam to interfere with a part of itself, small enough not to be spatio-temporally distorted. We have also implemented a variant of this device for a single-shot measurement along one transverse dimension of the pulse. Using these techniques, we

  6. Predicting gross primary production with high spatio-temporal resolution remote sensing datasets at regional scale

    Fu, D.; Chen, B.

    2012-04-01

    Remote sensing has great potential for estimating gross primary production (GPP) without resorting to interpolation of many surface observations. Meanwhile, it can be applied to analyzing the variation of GPP at different ecosystems across a wide range of spatial, temporal, and spectral resolutions. However, the availability of input data for remote-sensing-based GPP models is the bottleneck. The input data of remote-sensing-based greenness and radiation (GR) model is more independent on climate or ground-based observations, and the result is promising. Previous work using this modeling approach only used coarse spatial resolution data (e.g. MODerate resolution Imaging Spectroradiometer, MODIS), the estimated spatio-temporal distributions of GPP with higher resolution remains unclear. To overcome this limitation, a modified image fusion method was developed based on Enhanced Spatial and Temporal Adaptive Reflectance Fusion Model (mESTARFM), producing images with high spatial and temporal resolutions based on Landsat Thematic Mapper (TM) / Enhanced TM Plus (ETM+) (high spatial resolution, low temporal resolution) and MODIS (low spatial resolution, high temporal resolution). Meanwhile, the Simple Analytical Footprint model on Eulerian coordinates (SAFE) model to estimate the flux tower's footprint, which will be helpful for GR model's calibration, and improve the accuracy of GPP estimate. In the study, twelve flux sites belonging to Fluxnet-Canada Research Network (FCRN)/Canadian Carbon Program (CCP) were selected, covering grassland, forest, and wetland biomes. The remote sensing dataset acquired in this study for each site include MODIS reflectance product (MOD09A1, 500 m), Landsat TM /ETM+ (30 m), MODIS BRDF/ Albedo model parameter product (MCD43A1, 500 m), MODIS BRDF/ Albedo quality product (MCD43A2, 500 m). The steps are as follows:: (i) Landsat TM /ETM+ and MODIS data were used as mESTARFM inputs to produce reflectance datasets with high spatio-temporal

  7. Spatio-temporally smoothed coherence factor for ultrasound imaging.

    Xu, Mengling; Yang, Xin; Ding, Mingyue; Yuchi, Ming

    2014-01-01

    Coherence-factor-like beamforming methods, such as the coherence factor (CF), the phase coherence factor (PCF), or the sign coherence factor (SCF), have been applied to suppress side and/or grating lobes and clutter in ultrasound imaging. These adaptive weighting factors can be implemented effectively with low computational complexity to improve image contrast properties. However, because of low SNR, the resulting images may suffer from deficiencies, including reduced overall image brightness, increased speckle variance, black-region artifacts surrounding hyperechoic objects, and underestimated magnitudes of point targets. To overcome these artifacts, a new spatio-temporal smoothing procedure is introduced to the CF method. It results in a smoothed coherence factor which measures the signal coherence among the beamsums of the divided subarrays over the duration of a transmit pulse. In addition, the procedure is extended to the SCF using the sign bits of the received signals. Simulated and real experimental data sets demonstrate that the proposed methods can improve the robustness of the CF and SCF with reduced speckle variance and significant removal of black-region artifacts, while preserving the ability to suppress clutter. Consequently, image contrast can be enhanced, especially for anechoic cysts. PMID:24402905

  8. Improved Correlation of the Neuropathologic Classification According to Adapted World Health Organization Classification and Outcome After Radiotherapy in Patients With Atypical and Anaplastic Meningiomas

    Purpose: To evaluate the correlation between the 1993 and 2000/2007 World Health Organization (WHO) classification with the outcome in patients with high-grade meningiomas. Patients and Methods: Between 1985 and 2004, 73 patients diagnosed with atypical or anaplastic meningiomas were treated with radiotherapy. Sections from the paraffin-embedded tumor material from 66 patients (90%) from 13 different pathology departments were re-evaluated according to the first revised WHO classification from 1993 and the revised classifications from 2000/2007. In 4 cases, the initial diagnosis meningioma was not reproducible (5%). Therefore, 62 patients with meningiomas were analyzed. Results: All 62 tumors were reclassified according to the 1993 and 2000/2007 WHO classification systems. Using the 1993 system, 7 patients were diagnosed with WHO grade I meningioma (11%), 23 with WHO grade II (37%), and 32 with WHO grade III meningioma (52%). After scoring using the 2000/2007 system, we found 17 WHO grade I meningiomas (27%), 32 WHO grade II meningiomas (52%), and 13 WHO grade III meningiomas (21%). According to the 1993 classification, the difference in overall survival was not statistically significant among the histologic subgroups (p = .96). Using the 2000/2007 WHO classifications, the difference in overall survival became significant (p = .02). Of the 62 reclassified patients 29 developed tumor progression (47%). No difference in progression-free survival was observed among the histologic subgroups (p = .44). After grading according to the 2000/2007 WHO classifications, significant differences in progression-free survival were observed among the three histologic groups (p = .005). Conclusion: The new 2000/2007 WHO classification for meningiomas showed an improved correlation between the histologic grade and outcome. This classification therefore provides a useful basis to determine the postoperative indication for radiotherapy. According to our results, a comparison of the

  9. Non-verbal auditory cognition in patients with temporal epilepsy before and after anterior temporal lobectomy

    Aurélie Bidet-Caulet

    2009-11-01

    Full Text Available For patients with pharmaco-resistant temporal epilepsy, unilateral anterior temporal lobectomy (ATL - i.e. the surgical resection of the hippocampus, the amygdala, the temporal pole and the most anterior part of the temporal gyri - is an efficient treatment. There is growing evidence that anterior regions of the temporal lobe are involved in the integration and short-term memorization of object-related sound properties. However, non-verbal auditory processing in patients with temporal lobe epilepsy (TLE has raised little attention. To assess non-verbal auditory cognition in patients with temporal epilepsy both before and after unilateral ATL, we developed a set of non-verbal auditory tests, including environmental sounds. We could evaluate auditory semantic identification, acoustic and object-related short-term memory, and sound extraction from a sound mixture. The performances of 26 TLE patients before and/or after ATL were compared to those of 18 healthy subjects. Patients before and after ATL were found to present with similar deficits in pitch retention, and in identification and short-term memorisation of environmental sounds, whereas not being impaired in basic acoustic processing compared to healthy subjects. It is most likely that the deficits observed before and after ATL are related to epileptic neuropathological processes. Therefore, in patients with drug-resistant TLE, ATL seems to significantly improve seizure control without producing additional auditory deficits.

  10. Filter Bank Design for Subband Adaptive Filtering

    Haan, Jan Mark de

    2001-01-01

    Adaptive filtering is an important subject in the field of signal processing and has numerous applications in fields such as speech processing and communications. Examples in speech processing include speech enhancement, echo- and interference- cancellation, and speech coding. Subband filter banks have been introduced in the area of adaptive filtering in order to improve the performance of time domain adaptive filters. The main improvements are faster convergence speed and the reduction of co...

  11. A Medical Image Fusion Improved Algorithm Based on NSCT and Adaptive PCNN%一种基于NSCT和自适应PCNN医学图像融合的改进算法

    陈俊强; 黄丹飞

    2015-01-01

    由于医学影像成像原理不同,不同模态图像的质量、空间和时间特性有较大区别,因此临床上需要将不同模态的图像融合进行综合分析。为了准确并全面地融合MRI和PET图像,提出了一种基于NSCT和自适应PCNN医学图像融合的改进算法。算法采用NSCT得到图像的低频和各方向子带信息,采用符合人类视觉系统的自适应PCNN选择融合图像系数,重构得到融合图像。采用颅脑MRI和PET医学图像进行了仿真实验。结果表明,基于NSCT自适应PCNN算法在提高空间纹理细节和减少颜色失真方面明显优于其它的融合算法。%Due to the different medical imaging imaging principles, different multimodal images quality, space and time characteristics are quite different,and there require fuse different multimodal image to comprehensively analysis in clini-cal.In order to accurately and comprehensively fuse multimodal image, this paper propoed a medical image fusion im-proved algorithm based on NSCT and adaptive PCNN.Algorithm used NSCT to acquire image low and each directional subband information,then uses adaptive PCNN in accordance with the human visual system to select image fusion coef-ficient,finally acquired fused image by reconstruction method.Using brain MRI and PET medical image to simulate ex-periments,the result shows that the algorithm of NSCT adaptive PCNN is much better than other fusion algorithms in the aspects of improving the spatial texture detail and reducing color distortion.

  12. ADHD and temporality

    Nielsen, Mikka

    According to the official diagnostic manual, ADHD is defined by symptoms of inattention, hyperactivity, and impulsivity and patterns of behaviour are characterized as failure to pay attention to details, excessive talking, fidgeting, or inability to remain seated in appropriate situations (DSM-5......). In this paper, however, I will ask if we can understand what we call ADHD in a different way than through the symptom descriptions and will advocate for a complementary, phenomenological understanding of ADHD as a certain being in the world – more specifically as a matter of a phenomenological...... difference in temporal experience and/or rhythm. Inspired by both psychiatry’s experiments with people diagnosed with ADHD and their assessment of time and phenomenological perspectives on mental disorders and temporal disorientation I explore the experience of ADHD as a disruption in the phenomenological...

  13. Coverage centralities for temporal networks*

    Takaguchi, Taro; Yano, Yosuke; Yoshida, Yuichi

    2016-02-01

    Structure of real networked systems, such as social relationship, can be modeled as temporal networks in which each edge appears only at the prescribed time. Understanding the structure of temporal networks requires quantifying the importance of a temporal vertex, which is a pair of vertex index and time. In this paper, we define two centrality measures of a temporal vertex based on the fastest temporal paths which use the temporal vertex. The definition is free from parameters and robust against the change in time scale on which we focus. In addition, we can efficiently compute these centrality values for all temporal vertices. Using the two centrality measures, we reveal that distributions of these centrality values of real-world temporal networks are heterogeneous. For various datasets, we also demonstrate that a majority of the highly central temporal vertices are located within a narrow time window around a particular time. In other words, there is a bottleneck time at which most information sent in the temporal network passes through a small number of temporal vertices, which suggests an important role of these temporal vertices in spreading phenomena. Contribution to the Topical Issue "Temporal Network Theory and Applications", edited by Petter Holme.Supplementary material in the form of one pdf file available from the Journal web page at http://dx.doi.org/10.1140/epjb/e2016-60498-7

  14. A Spatio-Temporal Enhancement Method for medium resolution LAI (STEM-LAI)

    Houborg, Rasmus; McCabe, Matthew F.; Gao, Feng

    2016-05-01

    Satellite remote sensing has been used successfully to map leaf area index (LAI) across landscapes, but advances are still needed to exploit multi-scale data streams for producing LAI at both high spatial and temporal resolution. A multi-scale Spatio-Temporal Enhancement Method for medium resolution LAI (STEM-LAI) has been developed to generate 4-day time-series of Landsat-scale LAI from existing medium resolution LAI products. STEM-LAI has been designed to meet the demands of applications requiring frequent and spatially explicit information, such as effectively resolving rapidly evolving vegetation dynamics at sub-field (30 m) scales. In this study, STEM-LAI is applied to Moderate Resolution Imaging Spectroradiometer (MODIS) based LAI data and utilizes a reference-based regression tree approach for producing MODIS-consistent, but Landsat-based, LAI. The Spatial and Temporal Adaptive Reflectance Fusion Model (STARFM) is used to interpolate the downscaled LAI between Landsat acquisition dates, providing a high spatial and temporal resolution improvement over existing LAI products. STARFM predicts high resolution LAI by blending MODIS and Landsat based information from a common acquisition date, with MODIS data from a prediction date. To demonstrate its capacity to reproduce fine-scale spatial features observed in actual Landsat LAI, the STEM-LAI approach is tested over an agricultural region in Nebraska. The implementation of a 250 m resolution LAI product, derived from MODIS 1 km data and using a scale consistent approach based on the Normalized Difference Vegetation Index (NDVI), is found to significantly improve accuracies of spatial pattern prediction, with the coefficient of efficiency (E) ranging from 0.77-0.94 compared to 0.01-0.85 when using 1 km LAI inputs alone. Comparisons against an 11-year record of in-situ measured LAI over maize and soybean highlight the utility of STEM-LAI in reproducing observed LAI dynamics (both characterized by r2 = 0.86) over a

  15. Optimal Temporal Risk Assessment

    Fuat eBalcı; David eFreestone; Patrick eSimen; Laura edeSouza; Cohen, Jonathan D.; Philip eHolmes

    2011-01-01

    Time is an essential feature of most decisions, because the reward earned from decisions frequently depends on the temporal statistics of the environment (e.g., on whether deci- sions must be made under deadlines). Accordingly, evolution appears to have favored a mechanism that predicts intervals in the seconds to minutes range with high accuracy on average, but significant variability from trial to trial. Importantly, the subjective sense of time that results is sufficiently impre...

  16. Temporal Concurrent Constraint Programming

    Nielsen, Mogens; Valencia Posso, Frank Dan

    2002-01-01

    The ntcc calculus is a model of non-deterministic temporal concurrent constraint programming. In this paper we study behavioral notions for this calculus. In the underlying computational model, concurrent constraint processes are executed in discrete time intervals. The behavioral notions studied....... Furthermore, the expressive power of this fragment is illustrated by examples. Basic Research in Computer Science, Centre of the Danish National Research Foundation....

  17. Attractive faces temporally modulate visual attention

    Koyo eNakamura

    2014-06-01

    Full Text Available Facial attractiveness is an important biological and social signal on social interaction. Recent research has demonstrated that an attractive face captures greater spatial attention than an unattractive face does. Little is known, however, about the temporal characteristics of visual attention for facial attractiveness. In this study, we investigated the temporal modulation of visual attention induced by facial attractiveness by using a rapid serial visual presentation (RSVP. Fourteen male faces and two female faces were successively presented for 160 ms respectively, and participants were asked to identify two female faces embedded among a series of multiple male distractor faces. Identification of a second female target (T2 was impaired when a first target (T1 was attractive compared to neutral or unattractive faces, at 320 ms SOA; identification was improved when T1 was attractive compared to unattractive faces at 640 ms SOA. These findings suggest that the spontaneous appraisal of facial attractiveness modulates temporal attention.

  18. Temporal Feature Integration for Music Organisation

    Meng, Anders

    2006-01-01

    organisation. A special emphasis is put on the product probability kernel for which the MAR model is derived in closed form. A thorough investigation, using robust machine learning methods, of the MAR model on two different music genre classification datasets, shows a statistical significant improvement using......This Ph.D. thesis focuses on temporal feature integration for music organisation. Temporal feature integration is the process of combining all the feature vectors of a given time-frame into a single new feature vector in order to capture relevant information in the frame. Several existing methods...... for handling sequences of features are formulated in the temporal feature integration framework. Two datasets for music genre classification have been considered as valid test-beds for music organisation. Human evaluations of these, have been obtained to access the subjectivity on the datasets...

  19. Temporal visual cues aid speech recognition

    Zhou, Xiang; Ross, Lars; Lehn-Schiøler, Tue;

    2006-01-01

    temporal synchronicity of the visual input that aids parsing of the auditory stream. More specifically, we expected that purely temporal information, which does not convey information such as place of articulation may facility word recognition. METHODS: To test this prediction we used temporal features of......BACKGROUND: It is well known that under noisy conditions, viewing a speaker's articulatory movement aids the recognition of spoken words. Conventionally it is thought that the visual input disambiguates otherwise confusing auditory input. HYPOTHESIS: In contrast we hypothesize that it is the...... audio to generate an artificial talking-face video and measured word recognition performance on simple monosyllabic words. RESULTS: When presenting words together with the artificial video we find that word recognition is improved over purely auditory presentation. The effect is significant (p...

  20. A method for investigating the temporal dynamics of local neuroretinal responses.

    Feigl, Beatrix; Zele, Andrew J

    2008-01-30

    Visual sensitivity improves with prolonged exposure to light. Global neuroretinal responses increase, but little is known about the dynamics of local retinal responses over brief time intervals after changes in light level. This study applies the time-slice multifocal electroretinogram (TS mfERG) paradigm for the measurement of local electrical responses of the human eye over brief time intervals. Sixty-one, localised retinal areas were assessed over 25 degrees of the visual field. Cone-mediated contributions to the time-slice waveform were established. The time-slice mfERG waveforms were similar in shape and timing for pre- and post-photopigment bleach conditions after saturation of rod-mediated responses, suggesting there was no rod-mediated intrusion in the waveform. The temporal dynamics of the mfERG components show that N1P1 amplitudes decrease with each successive time-slice probe, with larger amplitude responses in the central retina compared to nasal and temporal retina. The time-slice mfERG waveform is a technique for assessing the temporal dynamics of cone-generated neural responses over time. The data are interpreted in terms of the vascular supplies and lower-level visual adaptation mechanisms. PMID:17913236

  1. Rod-cone interactions and the temporal impulse response of the cone pathway

    Zele, Andrew J.; Cao, Dingcai; Pokorny, Joel

    2008-01-01

    Dark-adapted rods suppress cone-mediated flicker detection. This study evaluates the effect that rod activity has on cone temporal processing by investigating whether rod mediated suppression changes the cone pathway impulse response function, regardless of the form of the temporal signal. Stimuli were generated with a 2-channel photostimulator that has four primaries for the central field and four primaries for the surround. Cone pathway temporal impulse response functions were derived from ...

  2. NEEDS - Information Adaptive System

    Kelly, W. L.; Benz, H. F.; Meredith, B. D.

    1980-01-01

    The Information Adaptive System (IAS) is an element of the NASA End-to-End Data System (NEEDS) Phase II and is focused toward onboard image processing. The IAS is a data preprocessing system which is closely coupled to the sensor system. Some of the functions planned for the IAS include sensor response nonuniformity correction, geometric correction, data set selection, data formatting, packetization, and adaptive system control. The inclusion of these sensor data preprocessing functions onboard the spacecraft will significantly improve the extraction of information from the sensor data in a timely and cost effective manner, and provide the opportunity to design sensor systems which can be reconfigured in near real-time for optimum performance. The purpose of this paper is to present the preliminary design of the IAS and the plans for its development.

  3. Adaptive manifold learning.

    Zhang, Zhenyue; Wang, Jing; Zha, Hongyuan

    2012-02-01

    Manifold learning algorithms seek to find a low-dimensional parameterization of high-dimensional data. They heavily rely on the notion of what can be considered as local, how accurately the manifold can be approximated locally, and, last but not least, how the local structures can be patched together to produce the global parameterization. In this paper, we develop algorithms that address two key issues in manifold learning: 1) the adaptive selection of the local neighborhood sizes when imposing a connectivity structure on the given set of high-dimensional data points and 2) the adaptive bias reduction in the local low-dimensional embedding by accounting for the variations in the curvature of the manifold as well as its interplay with the sampling density of the data set. We demonstrate the effectiveness of our methods for improving the performance of manifold learning algorithms using both synthetic and real-world data sets. PMID:21670485

  4. An Adaptive Robot Game

    Hansen, Søren Tranberg; Svenstrup, Mikael; Dalgaard, Lars

    2010-01-01

    The goal of this paper is to describe an adaptive robot game, which motivates elderly people to do a regular amount of physical exercise while playing. One of the advantages of robot based games is that the initiative to play can be taken autonomously by the robot. In this case, the goal is to...... improve the mental and physical state of the user by playing a physical game with the robot. Ideally, a robot game should be simple to learn but difficult to master, providing an appropriate degree of challenge for players with different skills. In order to achieve that, the robot should be able to adapt...... to the behavior of the interacting person. This paper presents a simple ball game between a single player and a mobile robot platform. The algorithm has been validated using simulation and real world experiments....

  5. Visualization process of Temporal Data

    Daassi, Chaouki; Nigay, Laurence; Fauvet, Marie-Christine

    2004-01-01

    International audience Temporal data are abundantly present in many application domains such as banking, financial, clinical, geographical applications and so on. Temporal data have been extensively studied from data mining and database perspectives. Complementary to these studies, our work focuses on the visualization techniques of temporal data: a wide range of visualization techniques have been designed to assist the users to visually analyze and manipulate temporal data. All the techni...

  6. Temporal lobe epilepsy in children

    Jayanti Mani

    2008-01-01

    Full Text Available Temporal lobe epilepsy is a fairly homogenous syndrome in adults, with hippocampal sclerosis being the commonest etiology. In children, temporal lobe epilepsy is more commonly due to cortical dysplasia or tumors. The semiology and electrophysiology of temporal lobe seizures in children are distinct from adults and have age-dependent variations. The first-line treatment option in children includes antiepileptic drugs. Ketogenic diet and surgery are therapeutic options in refractory pediatric temporal lobe epilepsy.

  7. Cellular Adaptation Facilitates Sparse and Reliable Coding in Sensory Pathways

    Farkhooi, Farzad; Froese, Anja; Muller, Eilif; Menzel, Randolf; Nawrot, Martin P.

    2013-01-01

    Most neurons in peripheral sensory pathways initially respond vigorously when a preferred stimulus is presented, but adapt as stimulation continues. It is unclear how this phenomenon affects stimulus coding in the later stages of sensory processing. Here, we show that a temporally sparse and reliable stimulus representation develops naturally in sequential stages of a sensory network with adapting neurons. As a modeling framework we employ a mean-field approach together with an adaptive popul...

  8. Use of Co-occurrences for Temporal Expressions Annotation

    Craveiro, Olga; Macedo, Joaquim; Madeira, Henrique

    The annotation or extraction of temporal information from text documents is becoming increasingly important in many natural language processing applications such as text summarization, information retrieval, question answering, etc.. This paper presents an original method for easy recognition of temporal expressions in text documents. The method creates semantically classified temporal patterns, using word co-occurrences obtained from training corpora and a pre-defined seed keywords set, derived from the used language temporal references. A participation on a Portuguese named entity evaluation contest showed promising effectiveness and efficiency results. This approach can be adapted to recognize other type of expressions or languages, within other contexts, by defining the suitable word sets and training corpora.

  9. Robust Adaptable Video Copy Detection

    Assent, Ira; Kremer, Hardy

    2009-01-01

    Video copy detection should be capable of identifying video copies subject to alterations e.g. in video contrast or frame rates. We propose a video copy detection scheme that allows for adaptable detection of videos that are altered temporally (e.g. frame rate change) and/or visually (e.g. change...... in contrast). Our query processing combines filtering and indexing structures for efficient multistep computation of video copies under this model. We show that our model successfully identifies altered video copies and does so more reliably than existing models....

  10. The science of adaptation. A framework for assessment

    This paper outlines what is meant by 'adaptation' to climate change, and how it might be addressed in the IPCC Assessments. Two roles of adaptation in the climate change field are identified: adaptation as part of impact assessment (where the key question is: what adaptations are likely?), and adaptation as part of the policy response (where the central question is: what adaptations are recommended?). The concept of adaptation has been adopted in several fields including climate impact assessment and policy development, risk management, and natural hazards research. A framework for systematically defining adaptations is based on three questions: (1) adaptation to what? (2) who or what adapts? and (3) how does adaptation occur? The paper demonstrates that, for adaptation purposes, climate extremes and variability are integral parts of climate change, along with shifts in mean conditions. Attributes for differentiating adaptations include purposefulness, timing, temporal and spatial scope, effects, form and performance. The framework provides a guide for the treatment of adaptation in the IPCC assessments, both in the assessment of impacts and in the evaluation of adaptive policy options. 64 refs

  11. [Temporal meaning of suffering].

    Porée, J

    2015-09-01

    If we had to find a few simple words to express what a suffering human being experiences, no matter what ills are causing the suffering and no matter what circumstances underlie the ills themselves, we could unmistakably say that it is the experience of not being able to go on like this. Suffering can be described, in this same sense, as an alteration in temporality. However, describing suffering as such only makes sense if we already have a conception of normal temporality. Yet for this, philosophical tradition offers not one but four competing conceptions. In the present article, we begin by briefly presenting these different conceptions. We then show how each one sheds light, by way of contrast, on a phenomenon whose meaning thus appears to be essentially negative. But does this phenomenon have a negative meaning only? Doesn't it correspond as much to a transformation as an alteration of temporality? This is what we will strive to establish in the third part of the article by relating suffering to hope, in a paradoxical sense of the term. Of the four conceptions of time likely to shed a contrasting light on the upheavals that suffering introduces into our life experience, the one described by Aristotle in Physics is historically the first. In particular, the notion of succession originates therein. But this conception does not account for what makes time the unit of a past, a present, and a future. In Book XI of Confessions, St. Augustine situated this unit not in nature but in the human mind. Hence, his definition of time as a distension of the soul and the necessary division into physical time and psychic time it entails. Husserl's Lessons on the phenomenology of the consciousness of internal time lend credit to this division, but they illuminate only the internal constitution of the "present", which is at the heart of the psychological conception of time. In Being and Time, Heidegger breaks away from this long-standing tradition; in his view, physical time

  12. Saliency-Based Fidelity Adaptation Preprocessing for Video Coding

    Shao-Ping Lu; Song-Hai Zhang

    2011-01-01

    In this paper, we present a video coding scheme which applies the technique of visual saliency computation to adjust image fidelity before compression. To extract visually salient features, we construct a spatio-temporal saliency map by analyzing the video using a combined bottom-up and top-down visual saliency model. We then use an extended bilateral filter, in which the local intensity and spatial scales are adjusted according to visual saliency, to adaptively alter the image fidelity. Our implementation is based on the H.264 video encoder JM12.0. Besides evaluating our scheme with the H.264 reference software, we also compare it to a more traditional foreground-background segmentation-based method and a foveation-based approach which employs Gaussian blurring. Our results show that the proposed algorithm can improve the compression ratio significantly while effectively preserving perceptual visual quality.

  13. Kalman filtering to suppress spurious signals in Adaptive Optics control

    Poyneer, L; Veran, J P

    2010-03-29

    In many scenarios, an Adaptive Optics (AO) control system operates in the presence of temporally non-white noise. We use a Kalman filter with a state space formulation that allows suppression of this colored noise, hence improving residual error over the case where the noise is assumed to be white. We demonstrate the effectiveness of this new filter in the case of the estimated Gemini Planet Imager tip-tilt environment, where there are both common-path and non-common path vibrations. We discuss how this same framework can also be used to suppress spatial aliasing during predictive wavefront control assuming frozen flow in a low-order AO system without a spatially filtered wavefront sensor, and present experimental measurements from Altair that clearly reveal these aliased components.

  14. 提高酒店新生代员工的适应能力有效改进酒店管理策略%Increasing the Adaptability of New Generation Employees by Improving Hotel Management Strategy

    叶红

    2015-01-01

    New generation employees born in the 80s and 90s who just entered workplaces have unique thoughts, strong innovation awareness and aggressive values, bringing about great management pressure. Analyzing the adaptability of new generation employees from the perspective of psychological need, hindrance, response, and adaption, the study concludes that hotels hold wrong ideas in managing new generation employees. They believe that hotels offer jobs to employees for making a living, the demand of guests should be met prior to the need of hotel staff and that the relationship between superior and subordinate is strict. To improve the adaptability of the employees, hotel managers should act as trustworthy superiors and have the employees understand the value of criticism. Hotels should reduce the number of supervisors and encourage the employees to manage themselves. They should also learn to acknowledge and accept the new generation employees.%刚入职不久的90后、80后新生代酒店员工思维独特,有较强的创新意识和新锐的价值观,他们让酒店管理者倍感压力。从心理学的需要、阻力、反应、适应等角度分析新生代员工的适应性,酒店对新生代员工的管理存在着误区:酒店是“求生存”的组织;“客人第一,员工第二”;“等级森严”的酒店上、下级关系。为有效提高他们的适应能力,酒店管理者应做他们“信得过”的好上司;让新生代员工能认识到批评的价值;减少督导管理层,让新生代员工实现自我管理;学会承认与接受酒店新生代员工。

  15. Increasing the Adaptability of New Generation Employees by Improving Hotel Management Strategy%提高酒店新生代员工的适应能力有效改进酒店管理策略

    叶红

    2015-01-01

    New generation employees born in the 80s and 90s who just entered workplaces have unique thoughts, strong innovation awareness and aggressive values, bringing about great management pressure. Analyzing the adaptability of new generation employees from the perspective of psychological need, hindrance, response, and adaption, the study concludes that hotels hold wrong ideas in managing new generation employees. They believe that hotels offer jobs to employees for making a living, the demand of guests should be met prior to the need of hotel staff and that the relationship between superior and subordinate is strict. To improve the adaptability of the employees, hotel managers should act as trustworthy superiors and have the employees understand the value of criticism. Hotels should reduce the number of supervisors and encourage the employees to manage themselves. They should also learn to acknowledge and accept the new generation employees.%刚入职不久的90后、80后新生代酒店员工思维独特,有较强的创新意识和新锐的价值观,他们让酒店管理者倍感压力。从心理学的需要、阻力、反应、适应等角度分析新生代员工的适应性,酒店对新生代员工的管理存在着误区:酒店是“求生存”的组织;“客人第一,员工第二”;“等级森严”的酒店上、下级关系。为有效提高他们的适应能力,酒店管理者应做他们“信得过”的好上司;让新生代员工能认识到批评的价值;减少督导管理层,让新生代员工实现自我管理;学会承认与接受酒店新生代员工。

  16. Temporal Concurrent Constraint Programming

    Valencia, Frank Dan

    Concurrent constraint programming (ccp) is a formalism for concurrency in which agents interact with one another by telling (adding) and asking (reading) information in a shared medium. Temporal ccp extends ccp by allowing agents to be constrained by time conditions. This dissertation studies...... structures, robotic devises, multi-agent systems and music applications. The calculus is provided with a denotational semantics that captures the reactive computations of processes in the presence of arbitrary environments. The denotation is proven to be fully-abstract for a substantial fragment...

  17. Realistic Prediction of BER for Adaptive OFDM Systems

    Luo, Meiling; Villemaud, Guillaume; Gorce, Jean-Marie; Jie ZHANG

    2013-01-01

    Adaptive OFDM systems improve the spectral efficiency. In this paper, block adaptive modulation is implemented based on the realistic prediction of BER and fading parameters from the MR-FDPF model. The aggregate data rate from block adaptive modulation is compared to that from non-adaptive modulation, and at the end, the data rate gain is obtained.

  18. Losing the beat: deficits in temporal coordination

    Palmer, Caroline; Lidji, Pascale; Peretz, Isabelle

    2014-01-01

    Tapping or clapping to an auditory beat, an easy task for most individuals, reveals precise temporal synchronization with auditory patterns such as music, even in the presence of temporal fluctuations. Most models of beat-tracking rely on the theoretical concept of pulse: a perceived regular beat generated by an internal oscillation that forms the foundation of entrainment abilities. Although tapping to the beat is a natural sensorimotor activity for most individuals, not everyone can track an auditory beat. Recently, the case of Mathieu was documented (Phillips-Silver et al. 2011 Neuropsychologia 49, 961–969. (doi:10.1016/j.neuropsychologia.2011.02.002)). Mathieu presented himself as having difficulty following a beat and exhibited synchronization failures. We examined beat-tracking in normal control participants, Mathieu, and a second beat-deaf individual, who tapped with an auditory metronome in which unpredictable perturbations were introduced to disrupt entrainment. Both beat-deaf cases exhibited failures in error correction in response to the perturbation task while exhibiting normal spontaneous motor tempi (in the absence of an auditory stimulus), supporting a deficit specific to perception–action coupling. A damped harmonic oscillator model was applied to the temporal adaptation responses; the model's parameters of relaxation time and endogenous frequency accounted for differences between the beat-deaf cases as well as the control group individuals. PMID:25385783

  19. Losing the beat: deficits in temporal coordination.

    Palmer, Caroline; Lidji, Pascale; Peretz, Isabelle

    2014-12-19

    Tapping or clapping to an auditory beat, an easy task for most individuals, reveals precise temporal synchronization with auditory patterns such as music, even in the presence of temporal fluctuations. Most models of beat-tracking rely on the theoretical concept of pulse: a perceived regular beat generated by an internal oscillation that forms the foundation of entrainment abilities. Although tapping to the beat is a natural sensorimotor activity for most individuals, not everyone can track an auditory beat. Recently, the case of Mathieu was documented (Phillips-Silver et al. 2011 Neuropsychologia 49, 961-969. (doi:10.1016/j.neuropsychologia.2011.02.002)). Mathieu presented himself as having difficulty following a beat and exhibited synchronization failures. We examined beat-tracking in normal control participants, Mathieu, and a second beat-deaf individual, who tapped with an auditory metronome in which unpredictable perturbations were introduced to disrupt entrainment. Both beat-deaf cases exhibited failures in error correction in response to the perturbation task while exhibiting normal spontaneous motor tempi (in the absence of an auditory stimulus), supporting a deficit specific to perception-action coupling. A damped harmonic oscillator model was applied to the temporal adaptation responses; the model's parameters of relaxation time and endogenous frequency accounted for differences between the beat-deaf cases as well as the control group individuals. PMID:25385783

  20. Quantifying interictal metabolic activity in human temporal lobe epilepsy

    The majority of patients with complex partial seizures of unilateral temporal lobe origin have interictal temporal hypometabolism on [18F]fluorodeoxyglucose positron emission tomography (FDG PET) studies. Often, this hypometabolism extends to ipsilateral extratemporal sites. The use of accurately quantified metabolic data has been limited by the absence of an equally reliable method of anatomical analysis of PET images. We developed a standardized method for visual placement of anatomically configured regions of interest on FDG PET studies, which is particularly adapted to the widespread, asymmetric, and often severe interictal metabolic alterations of temporal lobe epilepsy. This method was applied by a single investigator, who was blind to the identity of subjects, to 10 normal control and 25 interictal temporal lobe epilepsy studies. All subjects had normal brain anatomical volumes on structural neuroimaging studies. The results demonstrate ipsilateral thalamic and temporal lobe involvement in the interictal hypometabolism of unilateral temporal lobe epilepsy. Ipsilateral frontal, parietal, and basal ganglial metabolism is also reduced, although not as markedly as is temporal and thalamic metabolism