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Sample records for adaptation biological

  1. A review on biological adaptation: with applications in engineering science

    LiMin Luo; WenJun Zhang

    2014-01-01

    Biological adaptation refers to that organisms change themselves at morphological, physiological, behavioral and molecular level to better survive in a changing environment. It includes phenotype adaptation and molecular adaptation. Biological adaptation is a driving force of evolution. Biological adaptation was described from Darwinian theory of evolution to the theory of molecular evolution in present paper. Adaptive control and adaptive filtering were briefly described also.

  2. Adaptive multiscale biological signal processing

    Testoni, Nicola

    2008-01-01

    Biological processes are very complex mechanisms, most of them being accompanied by or manifested as signals that reflect their essential characteristics and qualities. The development of diagnostic techniques based on signal and image acquisition from the human body is commonly retained as one of the propelling factors in the advancements in medicine and biosciences recorded in the recent past. It is a fact that the instruments used for biological signal and image rec...

  3. Adaptive filtering in biological signal processing.

    Iyer, V K; Ploysongsang, Y; Ramamoorthy, P A

    1990-01-01

    The high dependence of conventional optimal filtering methods on the a priori knowledge of the signal and noise statistics render them ineffective in dealing with signals whose statistics cannot be predetermined accurately. Adaptive filtering methods offer a better alternative, since the a priori knowledge of statistics is less critical, real time processing is possible, and the computations are less expensive for this approach. Adaptive filtering methods compute the filter coefficients "on-line", converging to the optimal values in the least-mean square (LMS) error sense. Adaptive filtering is therefore apt for dealing with the "unknown" statistics situation and has been applied extensively in areas like communication, speech, radar, sonar, seismology, and biological signal processing and analysis for channel equalization, interference and echo canceling, line enhancement, signal detection, system identification, spectral analysis, beamforming, modeling, control, etc. In this review article adaptive filtering in the context of biological signals is reviewed. An intuitive approach to the underlying theory of adaptive filters and its applicability are presented. Applications of the principles in biological signal processing are discussed in a manner that brings out the key ideas involved. Current and potential future directions in adaptive biological signal processing are also discussed. PMID:2180633

  4. Adaptable data management for systems biology investigations

    Burdick David

    2009-03-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Within research each experiment is different, the focus changes and the data is generated from a continually evolving barrage of technologies. There is a continual introduction of new techniques whose usage ranges from in-house protocols through to high-throughput instrumentation. To support these requirements data management systems are needed that can be rapidly built and readily adapted for new usage. Results The adaptable data management system discussed is designed to support the seamless mining and analysis of biological experiment data that is commonly used in systems biology (e.g. ChIP-chip, gene expression, proteomics, imaging, flow cytometry. We use different content graphs to represent different views upon the data. These views are designed for different roles: equipment specific views are used to gather instrumentation information; data processing oriented views are provided to enable the rapid development of analysis applications; and research project specific views are used to organize information for individual research experiments. This management system allows for both the rapid introduction of new types of information and the evolution of the knowledge it represents. Conclusion Data management is an important aspect of any research enterprise. It is the foundation on which most applications are built, and must be easily extended to serve new functionality for new scientific areas. We have found that adopting a three-tier architecture for data management, built around distributed standardized content repositories, allows us to rapidly develop new applications to support a diverse user community.

  5. Completing and adapting models of biological processes

    Margaria, Tiziana; Hinchey, Michael G.; Raffelt, Harald; Rash, James L.; Rouff, Christopher A.; Steffen, Bernhard

    2006-01-01

    We present a learning-based method for model completion and adaptation, which is based on the combination of two approaches: 1) R2D2C, a technique for mechanically transforming system requirements via provably equivalent models to running code, and 2) automata learning-based model extrapolation. The intended impact of this new combination is to make model completion and adaptation accessible to experts of the field, like biologists or engineers. The principle is briefly illustrated by gene...

  6. Multidimensional Computerized Adaptive Testing for Indonesia Junior High School Biology

    Kuo, Bor-Chen; Daud, Muslem; Yang, Chih-Wei

    2015-01-01

    This paper describes a curriculum-based multidimensional computerized adaptive test that was developed for Indonesia junior high school Biology. In adherence to the Indonesian curriculum of different Biology dimensions, 300 items was constructed, and then tested to 2238 students. A multidimensional random coefficients multinomial logit model was…

  7. Adaptive Fuzzy-Lyapunov Controller Using Biologically Inspired Swarm Intelligence

    Alejandro Carrasco Elizalde; Peter Goldsmith

    2008-01-01

    The collective behaviour of swarms produces smarter actions than those achieved by a single individual. Colonies of ants, flocks of birds and fish schools are examples of swarms interacting with their environment to achieve a common goal. This cooperative biological intelligence is the inspiration for an adaptive fuzzy controller developed in this paper. Swarm intelligence is used to adjust the parameters of the membership functions used in the adaptive fuzzy controller. The rules of the cont...

  8. Engineering Design of an Adaptive Leg Prosthesis Using Biological Principles

    Lenau, Torben Anker; Dentel, Andy; Invarsdottir, Thorunn;

    2010-01-01

    The biomimetic design process is explored through a design case: An adaptive leg prosthesis. The aim is to investigate if the biomimetic design process can be carried out with a minimum of biological knowledge and without using advanced design methods. In the design case biomimetic design was...

  9. Genomics and Genetics in the Biology of Adaptation to Exercise

    Bouchard, Claude; Rankinen, Tuomo; Timmons, James A.

    2011-01-01

    This chapter is devoted to the role of genetic variation and gene-exercise interactions in the biology of adaptation to exercise. There is evidence from genetic epidemiology research that DNA sequence differences contribute to human variation in physical activity level, cardiorespiratory fitness in the untrained state, cardiovascular and metabolic response to acute exercise, and responsiveness to regular exercise. Methodological and technological advances have made it possible to undertake th...

  10. Adaptive Fuzzy-Lyapunov Controller Using Biologically Inspired Swarm Intelligence

    Alejandro Carrasco Elizalde

    2008-01-01

    Full Text Available The collective behaviour of swarms produces smarter actions than those achieved by a single individual. Colonies of ants, flocks of birds and fish schools are examples of swarms interacting with their environment to achieve a common goal. This cooperative biological intelligence is the inspiration for an adaptive fuzzy controller developed in this paper. Swarm intelligence is used to adjust the parameters of the membership functions used in the adaptive fuzzy controller. The rules of the controller are designed using a computing-with-words approach called Fuzzy-Lyapunov synthesis to improve the stability and robustness of an adaptive fuzzy controller. Computing-with-words provides a powerful tool to manipulate numbers and symbols, like words in a natural language.

  11. Influence of MLC leaf width on biologically adapted IMRT plans

    Introduction. High resolution beam delivery may be required for optimal biology-guided adaptive therapy. In this work, we have studied the influence of multi leaf collimator (MLC) leaf widths on the treatment outcome following adapted IMRT of a hypoxic tumour. Material and methods. Dynamic contrast enhanced MR images of a dog with a spontaneous tumour in the nasal region were used to create a tentative hypoxia map following a previously published procedure. The hypoxia map was used as a basis for generating compartmental gross tumour volumes, which were utilised as planning structures in biologically adapted IMRT. Three different MLCs were employed in inverse treatment planning, with leaf widths of 2.5 mm, 5 mm and 10 mm. The number of treatment beams and the degree of step-and-shoot beam modulation were varied. By optimising the tumour control probability (TCP) function, optimal compartmental doses were derived and used as target doses in the inverse planning. Resulting IMRT dose distributions and dose volume histograms (DVHs) were exported and analysed, giving estimates of TCP and compartmental equivalent uniform doses (EUDs). The impact of patient setup accuracy was simulated. Results. The MLC with the smallest leaf width (2.5 mm) consistently gave the highest TCPs and compartmental EUDs, assuming no setup error. The difference between this MLC and the 5 mm MLC was rather small, while the MLC with 10 mm leaf width gave considerably lower TCPs. When including random and systematic setup errors, errors larger than 5 mm gave only small differences between the MLC types. For setup errors larger than 7 mm no differences were found between non-uniform and uniform dose distributions. Conclusions. Biologically adapted radiotherapy may require MLCs with leaf widths smaller than 10 mm. However, for a high probability of cure it is crucial that accurate patient setup is ensured.

  12. Studying of Phenomenon of Biological Adaptation to Heavy Water

    Oleg Mosin

    2014-12-01

    Full Text Available Biological influence of deuterium on cells of various taxonomic groups of prokaryotic and eucaryotic microorganisms realizing methylotrophic, chemoheterotrophic, photo-organotrophic, and photosynthetic ways of assimilation of carbon substrates (methylotrophic bacteria Brevibacterium methylicum, chemoheterotrophic bacteria Bacillus subtilis, photo-organotrophic halobacteria Halobacterium halobium, and green micro algae Chlorella vulgaris was investigated at the growth on media with heavy water (2H2O. For investigated microorganisms are submitted the data on growth and adaptation on the growth media containing as sources of deuterated substrates 2H2O, [2H]methanol and hydrolisates of deutero-biomass of methylotrophic bacteria B. methylicum, obtained after multistage adaptation to 2H2O. The qualitative and quantitative composition of intra- and endocellular amino acids, proteins, carbohydrates and fatty acids in conditions of adaptation to 2H2O is investigated. It is shown, that the effects observed at adaptation to 2H2O, possess a complex multifactorial character and connected to cytological, morphological and physiological changes – the magnitude of the lag- period, time of cellular generation, output of biomass, a parity ratio of synthesized amino acids, proteins, carbohydrates and lipids, and also with an evolutionary level of the organization of the investigated object and the pathways of assimilation of carbon substrates as well.

  13. Adoption: biological and social processes linked to adaptation.

    Grotevant, Harold D; McDermott, Jennifer M

    2014-01-01

    Children join adoptive families through domestic adoption from the public child welfare system, infant adoption through private agencies, and international adoption. Each pathway presents distinctive developmental opportunities and challenges. Adopted children are at higher risk than the general population for problems with adaptation, especially externalizing, internalizing, and attention problems. This review moves beyond the field's emphasis on adoptee-nonadoptee differences to highlight biological and social processes that affect adaptation of adoptees across time. The experience of stress, whether prenatal, postnatal/preadoption, or during the adoption transition, can have significant impacts on the developing neuroendocrine system. These effects can contribute to problems with physical growth, brain development, and sleep, activating cascading effects on social, emotional, and cognitive development. Family processes involving contact between adoptive and birth family members, co-parenting in gay and lesbian adoptive families, and racial socialization in transracially adoptive families affect social development of adopted children into adulthood. PMID:24016275

  14. Adaptive resistance to antibiotics in bacteria: a systems biology perspective.

    Sandoval-Motta, Santiago; Aldana, Maximino

    2016-05-01

    Despite all the major breakthroughs in antibiotic development and treatment procedures, there is still no long-term solution to the bacterial antibiotic resistance problem. Among all the known types of resistance, adaptive resistance (AdR) is particularly inconvenient. This phenotype is known to emerge as a consequence of concentration gradients, as well as contact with subinhibitory concentrations of antibiotics, both known to occur in human patients and livestock. Moreover, AdR has been repeatedly correlated with the appearance of multidrug resistance, although the biological processes behind its emergence and evolution are not well understood. Epigenetic inheritance, population structure and heterogeneity, high mutation rates, gene amplification, efflux pumps, and biofilm formation have all been reported as possible explanations for its development. Nonetheless, these concepts taken independently have not been sufficient to prevent AdR's fast emergence or to predict its low stability. New strains of resistant pathogens continue to appear, and none of the new approaches used to kill them (mixed antibiotics, sequential treatments, and efflux inhibitors) are completely efficient. With the advent of systems biology and its toolsets, integrative models that combine experimentally known features with computational simulations have significantly improved our understanding of the emergence and evolution of the adaptive-resistant phenotype. Apart from outlining these findings, we propose that one of the main cornerstones of AdR in bacteria, is the conjunction of two types of mechanisms: one rapidly responding to transient environmental challenges but not very efficient, and another much more effective and specific, but developing on longer time scales. WIREs Syst Biol Med 2016, 8:253-267. doi: 10.1002/wsbm.1335 For further resources related to this article, please visit the WIREs website. PMID:27103502

  15. Teaching Mathematical Biology in High School Using Adapted Primary Literature

    Norris, Stephen P.; Stelnicki, Nathan; de Vries, Gerda

    2012-01-01

    The study compared the effect of two adaptations of a scientific article on students' comprehension and use of scientific inquiry skills. One adaptation preserved as much as possible the canonical form of the original article (APL, Adapted Primary Literature) and the other was written in a more narrative mode typical of secondary literature (SL).…

  16. Adaptive evolution of a generalist parasitoid: implications for the effectiveness of biological control agents

    Zepeda-Paulo, Francisca A; Ortiz-Martínez, Sebastián A; Figueroa, Christian C.; Lavandero, Blas

    2013-01-01

    The use of alternative hosts imposes divergent selection pressures on parasitoid populations. In response to selective pressures, these populations may follow different evolutionary trajectories. Divergent natural selection could promote local host adaptation in populations, translating into direct benefits for biological control, thereby increasing their effectiveness on the target host. Alternatively, adaptive phenotypic plasticity could be favored over local adaptation in temporal and spat...

  17. Building Biologically-Inspired Self-Adapting Systems

    Brun, Yuriy

    2008-01-01

    Biological systems are far more complex than systems we design and build today. The human body alone has orders of magnitude more complexity than our most-intricate designed systems. Further, biological systems are decentralized in such a way that allows them to benefit from built-in error-correction, fault tolerance, and scalability. It follows that if we can extract certain properties of biological systems and inject them into our software design process, we may be able to build complex ...

  18. Biologically-Inspired Adaptive Obstacle Negotiation Behavior of Hexapod Robots

    Goldschmidt, Dennis; Wörgötter, Florentin; Manoonpong, Poramate

    2014-01-01

    these findings, we present an adaptive neural control mechanism for obstacle negotiation behavior in hexapod robots. It combines locomotion control, backbone joint control, local leg reflexes, and neural learning. While the first three components generate locomotion including walking and climbing, the...... neural learning mechanism allows the robot to adapt its behavior for obstacle negotiation with respect to changing conditions, e.g., variable obstacle heights and different walking gaits. By successfully learning the association of an early, predictive signal (conditioned stimulus, CS) and a late, reflex...... signal (unconditioned stimulus, UCS), both provided by ultrasonic sensors at the front of the robot, the robot can autonomously find an appropriate distance from an obstacle to initiate climbing. The adaptive neural control was developed and tested first on a physical robot simulation, and was then...

  19. Teaching Mathematical Biology in High School Using Adapted Primary Literature

    Norris, Stephen P.; Stelnicki, Nathan; de Vries, Gerda

    2012-08-01

    The study compared the effect of two adaptations of a scientific article on students' comprehension and use of scientific inquiry skills. One adaptation preserved as much as possible the canonical form of the original article (APL, Adapted Primary Literature) and the other was written in a more narrative mode typical of secondary literature (SL). Both adaptations contained the same content. Two hundred and eleven senior high school students in a Western Canadian school district participated. The numbers of males and females were approximately equal, and all students were registered in an introductory calculus course. All students were given a 90 min class by their teachers that introduced them to the basic mathematical concepts needed to read the articles. Students were randomly assigned to read either the APL or the SL and afterwards to complete a questionnaire, which was common to both groups. Major findings showed that the SL students better understood the article, that the APL students thought more critically about the article, that females understood the article better than males, and that students' attitudes towards reading the articles, regardless of group, were positively associated with their comprehension and use of inquiry skills. The results coincide in important ways with those of similar studies in Israel, and show that asking students to read text that resembles scientific writing increases their use of critical thinking skills when reading.

  20. Biologically-Inspired Adaptive Obstacle Negotiation Behavior of Hexapod Robots

    Dennis eGoldschmidt

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Neurobiological studies have shown that insects are able to adapt leg movements and posture for obstacle negotiation in changing environments. Moreover, the distance to an obstacle where an insect begins to climb is found to be a major parameter for successful obstacle negotiation. Inspired by these findings, we present an adaptive neural control mechanism for obstacle negotiation behavior in hexapod robots. It combines locomotion control, backbone joint control, local leg reflexes, and neural learning. While the first three components generate locomotion including walking and climbing, the neural learning mechanism allows the robot to adapt its behavior for obstacle negotiation with respect to changing conditions, e.g., variable obstacle heights and different walking gaits. By successfully learning the association of an early, predictive signal (conditioned stimulus, CS and a late, reflex signal (unconditioned stimulus, UCS, both provided by ultrasonic sensors at the front of the robot, the robot can autonomously find an appropriate distance from an obstacle to initiate climbing. The adaptive neural control was developed and tested first on a physical robot simulation, and was then successfully transferred to a real hexapod robot, called AMOS II. The results show that the robot can efficiently negotiate obstacles with a height up to 85% of the robot's leg length in simulation and 75% in a real environment.

  1. Studying of Phenomenon of Biological Adaptation to Heavy Water

    Oleg Mosin; Ignat Ignatov; Dmitry Skladnev; Vitaly Shvets

    2014-01-01

    Biological influence of deuterium on cells of various taxonomic groups of prokaryotic and eucaryotic microorganisms realizing methylotrophic, chemoheterotrophic, photo-organotrophic, and photosynthetic ways of assimilation of carbon substrates (methylotrophic bacteria Brevibacterium methylicum, chemoheterotrophic bacteria Bacillus subtilis, photo-organotrophic halobacteria Halobacterium halobium, and green micro algae Chlorella vulgaris) was investigated at the growth on media with heavy wate...

  2. Adaptations: Using Darwin's Origin to teach biology and writing.

    Morris, James R; Costa, James T; Berry, Andrew

    2015-10-01

    Charles Darwin's On the Origin of Species is at once familiar and unfamiliar. Everyone knows that the Origin introduced the world to the idea of evolution by natural selection, but few of us have actually read it. We suggest that it is worth taking the time not only to read what Darwin had to say, but also to use the Origin to teach both biology and writing. It provides scientific lessons in areas beyond evolutionary biology, such as ecology and biogeography. In addition, it provides valuable rhetorical lessons-how to construct an argument, write persuasively, make use of evidence, know your audience, and anticipate counterarguments. We have been using the Origin in various classes for several years, introducing new generations to Darwin, in his own words. PMID:26315858

  3. Floral thermogenesis: An adaptive strategy of pollination biology in Magnoliaceae

    Wang, Ruohan; Zhang, Zhixiang

    2015-01-01

    Floral thermogenesis plays a crucial role in pollination biology, especially in plant–pollinator interactions. We have recently explored how thermogenesis is related to pollinator activity and odour release in Magnolia sprengeri. By analyzing flower temperatures, emission of volatiles, and insect visitation, we found that floral blends released during pistillate and staminate stages were similar and coincided with sap beetle visitation. Thus, odour mimicry of staminate-stage flowers may occur...

  4. Quantum Information Biology: From Theory of Open Quantum Systems to Adaptive Dynamics

    Asano, Masanari; Basieva, Irina; Khrennikov, Andrei; Ohya, Masanori; Tanaka, Yoshiharu; Yamato, Ichiro

    This chapter reviews quantum(-like) information biology (QIB). Here biology is treated widely as even covering cognition and its derivatives: psychology and decision making, sociology, and behavioral economics and finances. QIB provides an integrative description of information processing by bio-systems at all scales of life: from proteins and cells to cognition, ecological and social systems. Mathematically QIB is based on the theory of adaptive quantum systems (which covers also open quantum systems). Ideologically QIB is based on the quantum-like (QL) paradigm: complex bio-systems process information in accordance with the laws of quantum information and probability. This paradigm is supported by plenty of statistical bio-data collected at all bio-scales. QIB re ects the two fundamental principles: a) adaptivity; and, b) openness (bio-systems are fundamentally open). In addition, quantum adaptive dynamics provides the most generally possible mathematical representation of these principles.

  5. Sensorless adaptive optics and the effect of field of view in biological second harmonic generation microscopy

    Vandendriessche, Stefaan; Vanbel, Maarten K.; Verbiest, Thierry

    2014-05-01

    In light of the population aging in many developed countries, there is a great economical interest in improving the speed and cost-efficiency of healthcare. Clinical diagnosis tools are key to these improvements, with biophotonics providing a means to achieve them. Standard optical microscopy of in vitro biological samples has been an important diagnosis tool since the invention of the microscope, with well known resolution limits. Nonlinear optical imaging improves on the resolution limits of linear microscopy, while providing higher contrast images and a greater penetration depth due to the red-shifted incident light compared to standard optical microscopy. It also provides information on molecular orientation and chirality. Adaptive optics can improve the quality of nonlinear optical images. We analyzed the effect of sensorless adaptive optics on the quality of the nonlinear optical images of biological samples. We demonstrate that care needs to be taken when using a large field of view. Our findings provide information on how to improve the quality of nonlinear optical imaging, and can be generalized to other in vitro biological samples. The image quality improvements achieved by adaptive optics should help speed up clinical diagnostics in vitro, while increasing their accuracy and helping decrease detection limits. The same principles apply to in vivo biological samples, and in the future it may be possible to extend these findings to other nonlinear optical effects used in biological imaging.

  6. Adaptation of sensor morphology: an integrative view of perception from biologically inspired robotics perspective.

    Iida, Fumiya; Nurzaman, Surya G

    2016-08-01

    Sensor morphology, the morphology of a sensing mechanism which plays a role of shaping the desired response from physical stimuli from surroundings to generate signals usable as sensory information, is one of the key common aspects of sensing processes. This paper presents a structured review of researches on bioinspired sensor morphology implemented in robotic systems, and discusses the fundamental design principles. Based on literature review, we propose two key arguments: first, owing to its synthetic nature, biologically inspired robotics approach is a unique and powerful methodology to understand the role of sensor morphology and how it can evolve and adapt to its task and environment. Second, a consideration of an integrative view of perception by looking into multidisciplinary and overarching mechanisms of sensor morphology adaptation across biology and engineering enables us to extract relevant design principles that are important to extend our understanding of the unfinished concepts in sensing and perception. PMID:27499843

  7. Computational adaptive optics for broadband optical interferometric tomography of biological tissue

    Boppart, Stephen A.

    2015-03-01

    High-resolution real-time tomography of biological tissues is important for many areas of biological investigations and medical applications. Cellular level optical tomography, however, has been challenging because of the compromise between transverse imaging resolution and depth-of-field, the system and sample aberrations that may be present, and the low imaging sensitivity deep in scattering tissues. The use of computed optical imaging techniques has the potential to address several of these long-standing limitations and challenges. Two related techniques are interferometric synthetic aperture microscopy (ISAM) and computational adaptive optics (CAO). Through three-dimensional Fourierdomain resampling, in combination with high-speed OCT, ISAM can be used to achieve high-resolution in vivo tomography with enhanced depth sensitivity over a depth-of-field extended by more than an order-of-magnitude, in realtime. Subsequently, aberration correction with CAO can be performed in a tomogram, rather than to the optical beam of a broadband optical interferometry system. Based on principles of Fourier optics, aberration correction with CAO is performed on a virtual pupil using Zernike polynomials, offering the potential to augment or even replace the more complicated and expensive adaptive optics hardware with algorithms implemented on a standard desktop computer. Interferometric tomographic reconstructions are characterized with tissue phantoms containing sub-resolution scattering particles, and in both ex vivo and in vivo biological tissue. This review will collectively establish the foundation for high-speed volumetric cellular-level optical interferometric tomography in living tissues.

  8. Subjectivity: A Case of Biological Individuation and an Adaptive Response to Informational Overflow

    Jonkisz, Jakub

    2016-01-01

    The article presents a perspective on the scientific explanation of the subjectivity of conscious experience. It proposes plausible answers for two empirically valid questions: the ‘how’ question concerning the developmental mechanisms of subjectivity, and the ‘why’ question concerning its function. Biological individuation, which is acquired in several different stages, serves as a provisional description of how subjective perspectives may have evolved. To the extent that an individuated informational space seems the most efficient way for a given organism to select biologically valuable information, subjectivity is deemed to constitute an adaptive response to informational overflow. One of the possible consequences of this view is that subjectivity might be (at least functionally) dissociated from consciousness, insofar as the former primarily facilitates selection, the latter action. PMID:27555835

  9. Biologically inspired control of humanoid robot arms robust and adaptive approaches

    Spiers, Adam; Herrmann, Guido

    2016-01-01

    This book investigates a biologically inspired method of robot arm control, developed with the objective of synthesising human-like motion dynamically, using nonlinear, robust and adaptive control techniques in practical robot systems. The control method caters to a rising interest in humanoid robots and the need for appropriate control schemes to match these systems. Unlike the classic kinematic schemes used in industrial manipulators, the dynamic approaches proposed here promote human-like motion with better exploitation of the robot’s physical structure. This also benefits human-robot interaction. The control schemes proposed in this book are inspired by a wealth of human-motion literature that indicates the drivers of motion to be dynamic, model-based and optimal. Such considerations lend themselves nicely to achievement via nonlinear control techniques without the necessity for extensive and complex biological models. The operational-space method of robot control forms the basis of many of the techniqu...

  10. Adapting federated cyberinfrastructure for shared data collection facilities in structural biology

    It has been difficult, historically, to manage and maintain early-stage experimental data collected by structural biologists in synchrotron facilities. This work describes a prototype system that adapts existing federated cyberinfrastructure technology and techniques to manage collected data at synchrotrons and to facilitate the efficient and secure transfer of data to the owner's home institution. Early stage experimental data in structural biology is generally unmaintained and inaccessible to the public. It is increasingly believed that this data, which forms the basis for each macromolecular structure discovered by this field, must be archived and, in due course, published. Furthermore, the widespread use of shared scientific facilities such as synchrotron beamlines complicates the issue of data storage, access and movement, as does the increase of remote users. This work describes a prototype system that adapts existing federated cyberinfrastructure technology and techniques to significantly improve the operational environment for users and administrators of synchrotron data collection facilities used in structural biology. This is achieved through software from the Virtual Data Toolkit and Globus, bringing together federated users and facilities from the Stanford Synchrotron Radiation Lightsource, the Advanced Photon Source, the Open Science Grid, the SBGrid Consortium and Harvard Medical School. The performance and experience with the prototype provide a model for data management at shared scientific facilities

  11. Molecular PET imaging for biology-guided adaptive radiotherapy of head and neck cancer

    Integration of molecular imaging PET techniques into therapy selection strategies and radiation treatment planning for head and neck squamous cell carcinoma (HNSCC) can serve several purposes. First, pre-treatment assessments can steer decisions about radiotherapy modifications or combinations with other modalities. Second, biology-based objective functions can be introduced to the radiation treatment planning process by co-registration of molecular imaging with planning computed tomography (CT) scans. Thus, customized heterogeneous dose distributions can be generated with escalated doses to tumor areas where radiotherapy resistance mechanisms are most prevalent. Third, monitoring of temporal and spatial variations in these radiotherapy resistance mechanisms early during the course of treatment can discriminate responders from non-responders. With such information available shortly after the start of treatment, modifications can be implemented or the radiation treatment plan can be adapted tailing the biological response pattern. Currently, these strategies are in various phases of clinical testing, mostly in single-center studies. Further validation in multicenter set-up is needed. Ultimately, this should result in availability for routine clinical practice requiring stable production and accessibility of tracers, reproducibility and standardization of imaging and analysis methods, as well as general availability of knowledge and expertise. Small studies employing adaptive radiotherapy based on functional dynamics and early response mechanisms demonstrate promising results. In this context, we focus this review on the widely used PET tracer 18F-FDG and PET tracers depicting hypoxia and proliferation; two well-known radiation resistance mechanisms

  12. ADAPT: building conceptual models of the physical and biological processes across permafrost landscapes

    Allard, M.; Vincent, W. F.; Lemay, M.

    2012-12-01

    Fundamental and applied permafrost research is called upon in Canada in support of environmental protection, economic development and for contributing to the international efforts in understanding climatic and ecological feedbacks of permafrost thawing under a warming climate. The five year "Arctic Development and Adaptation to Permafrost in Transition" program (ADAPT) funded by NSERC brings together 14 scientists from 10 Canadian universities and involves numerous collaborators from academia, territorial and provincial governments, Inuit communities and industry. The geographical coverage of the program encompasses all of the permafrost regions of Canada. Field research at a series of sites across the country is being coordinated. A common protocol for measuring ground thermal and moisture regime, characterizing terrain conditions (vegetation, topography, surface water regime and soil organic matter contents) is being applied in order to provide inputs for designing a general model to provide an understanding of transfers of energy and matter in permafrost terrain, and the implications for biological and human systems. The ADAPT mission is to produce an 'Integrated Permafrost Systems Science' framework that will be used to help generate sustainable development and adaptation strategies for the North in the context of rapid socio-economic and climate change. ADAPT has three major objectives: to examine how changing precipitation and warming temperatures affect permafrost geosystems and ecosystems, specifically by testing hypotheses concerning the influence of the snowpack, the effects of water as a conveyor of heat, sediments, and carbon in warming permafrost terrain and the processes of permafrost decay; to interact directly with Inuit communities, the public sector and the private sector for development and adaptation to changes in permafrost environments; and to train the new generation of experts and scientists in this critical domain of research in Canada

  13. Maneuvering control and configuration adaptation of a biologically inspired morphing aircraft

    Abdulrahim, Mujahid

    Natural flight as a source of inspiration for aircraft design was prominent with early aircraft but became marginalized as aircraft became larger and faster. With recent interest in small unmanned air vehicles, biological inspiration is a possible technology to enhance mission performance of aircraft that are dimensionally similar to gliding birds. Serial wing joints, loosely modeling the avian skeletal structure, are used in the current study to allow significant reconfiguration of the wing shape. The wings are reconfigured to optimize aerodynamic performance and maneuvering metrics related to specific mission tasks. Wing shapes for each mission are determined and related to the seagulls, falcons, albatrosses, and non-migratory African swallows on which the aircraft are based. Variable wing geometry changes the vehicle dynamics, affording versatility in flight behavior but also requiring appropriate compensation to maintain stability and controllability. Time-varying compensation is in the form of a baseline controller which adapts to both the variable vehicle dynamics and to the changing mission requirements. Wing shape is adapted in flight to minimize a cost function which represents energy, temporal, and spatial efficiency. An optimal control architecture unifies the control and adaptation tasks.

  14. Neural adaptation in pSTS correlates with perceptual aftereffects to biological motion and with autistic traits.

    Thurman, Steven M; van Boxtel, Jeroen J A; Monti, Martin M; Chiang, Jeffrey N; Lu, Hongjing

    2016-08-01

    The adaptive nature of biological motion perception has been documented in behavioral studies, with research showing that prolonged viewing of an action can bias judgments of subsequent actions towards the opposite of its attributes. However, the neural mechanisms underlying action adaptation aftereffects remain unknown. We examined adaptation-induced changes in brain responses to an ambiguous action after adapting to walking or running actions within two bilateral regions of interest: 1) human middle temporal area (hMT+), a lower-level motion-sensitive region of cortex, and 2) posterior superior temporal sulcus (pSTS), a higher-level action-selective area. We found a significant correlation between neural adaptation strength in right pSTS and perceptual aftereffects to biological motion measured behaviorally, but not in hMT+. The magnitude of neural adaptation in right pSTS was also strongly correlated with individual differences in the degree of autistic traits. Participants with more autistic traits exhibited less adaptation-induced modulations of brain responses in right pSTS and correspondingly weaker perceptual aftereffects. These results suggest a direct link between perceptual aftereffects and adaptation of neural populations in right pSTS after prolonged viewing of a biological motion stimulus, and highlight the potential importance of this brain region for understanding differences in social-cognitive processing along the autistic spectrum. PMID:27164327

  15. Monod before Monod: enzymatic adaptation, Lwoff, and the legacy of general biology.

    Loison, Laurent

    2013-01-01

    For most of his scientific career, Jacques Monod appeared to be a man of a single problem: the formation of enzymes and the regulation of their properties. His ability to produce theoretical models led him to play a major role in both the discovery of the operon regulation and the model of allosteric transitions. The successes of Monod, from the 1950s to the Noble Prize (1965), are already well documented. In this paper, I will focus on the Monod before Monod, that is, the Monod who, during the 1940s, tried to explain the fundamental phenomenon of enzymatic adaptation. To begin with, however, I will survey how this phenomenon was discovered and explained by French Pasteurians at the very beginning of the twentieth century. This first explanation took place amidst an entrenched Lamarckian atmosphere in French thought, which was still alive during the 1920s and the 1930s, when Monod commenced the study of biology at the Sorbonne. Because of his will to construct a scientific biology free from teleology, Monod always tried to break from the legacy of this traditional background of Lamarckism, and he consequently developed ways of thinking that, in the main, were not part of the French biological tradition. Nevertheless, one point did link Monod to French history: his fruitful interactions with André Lwoff. As we shall see, these interactions were necessary for the development of Monod's science, both technically and intellectually speaking. PMID:24466631

  16. Ecological-biological Aspects of Stipa krylovii Roshev Adaptation at the Initial Stages of Ontogenesis

    N.S. Chistyakova

    2016-08-01

    Full Text Available Xerophytic cereal Stipa krylovii Roshev is interesting as a relic with extensive capabilities to adapt to severe climatic conditions of Eastern Zabaikal’ye, which allows it to occupy a vast areal. The species under study is characterized by distinctive ecological-biological peculiarities, which are underpinned by not only distribution, but historical establishment of the species. The primary goal of the research was to study ecological-biological peculiarities of adaptation of wild cereal Stipa krylovii to the habitat in Eastern Zabaikal’ye. According to the observations, Stipa krylovii is characterized by late development rate coinciding with the period of optimal heat and moisture availability. Seed embryos have a well-developed scutellum, distinct structures and well differentiated embryo axis. The studies identified no lateral or secondary roots in the cereal. In nature, seeds of S. krylovii are characterized by profound organic peace period, which persists in the course of sprouting under optimal conditions. Peace period of S. krylovii caryopses is likely to be due to the presence of sprouting inhibitors and is overcome in moist autumn period. Seed viability was determined under various soil moisture parameters up to its complete water capacity; the impact of moisture content on seed sprouting rate was studied. The results of the tests on caryopses sprouting with various moisture content demonstrated that at minimum moisture content (10% S. krylovii forms epidermal hairs on coleorhiza; 30% of soil water content is enough for growth activation, viability and sprouting rate of this cereal, which is due to its xerophytic nature. This morphological peculiarity is likely to ensure in nature sprouting of these species in early spring, when soil contain minimum water. Intensity of the initial growth was determined by a number of parameters: rate of change in linear growth of trunk and root parts of the embryo, growth of dry substance of

  17. Recovery Management in All Optical Networks Using Biologically-Inspired Complex Adaptive System

    Inadyuti Dutt

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available All-Optical Networks have the ability to display varied advantages like performance efficiency, throughput etc but their efficiency depends on their survivability as they are attack prone. These attacks can be categorised as active or passive because they try to access information within the network or alter the information in the network. The attack once detected has to be recovered by formulating back-up or alternative paths. The proposed heuristic uses biologically inspired Complex Adaptive System, inspired by Natural Immune System. The study shows that natural immune system exhibit unique behaviour of detecting foreign bodies in our body and removing them on their first occurrences. This phenomenon is being utilised in the proposed heuristic for recovery management in All-optical Network

  18. Biologically Inspired Design Principles for Scalable, Robust, Adaptive, Decentralized Search and Automated Response (RADAR)

    Moses, Melanie

    2010-01-01

    Distributed search problems are ubiquitous in Artificial Life (ALife). Many distributed search problems require identifying a rare and previously unseen event and producing a rapid response. This challenge amounts to finding and removing an unknown needle in a very large haystack. Traditional computational search models are unlikely to find, nonetheless, appropriately respond to, novel events, particularly given data distributed across multiple platforms in a variety of formats and sources with variable and unknown reliability. Biological systems have evolved solutions to distributed search and response under uncertainty. Immune systems and ant colonies efficiently scale up massively parallel search with automated response in highly dynamic environments, and both do so using distributed coordination without centralized control. These properties are relevant to ALife, where distributed, autonomous, robust and adaptive control is needed to design robot swarms, mobile computing networks, computer security system...

  19. Biological stress response terminology: Integrating the concepts of adaptive response and preconditioning stress within a hormetic dose-response framework

    Many biological subdisciplines that regularly assess dose-response relationships have identified an evolutionarily conserved process in which a low dose of a stressful stimulus activates an adaptive response that increases the resistance of the cell or organism to a moderate to severe level of stress. Due to a lack of frequent interaction among scientists in these many areas, there has emerged a broad range of terms that describe such dose-response relationships. This situation has become problematic because the different terms describe a family of similar biological responses (e.g., adaptive response, preconditioning, hormesis), adversely affecting interdisciplinary communication, and possibly even obscuring generalizable features and central biological concepts. With support from scientists in a broad range of disciplines, this article offers a set of recommendations we believe can achieve greater conceptual harmony in dose-response terminology, as well as better understanding and communication across the broad spectrum of biological disciplines

  20. 75 FR 8968 - Draft Guidance for Industry on Adaptive Design Clinical Trials for Drugs and Biologics; Availability

    2010-02-26

    ... HUMAN SERVICES Food and Drug Administration Draft Guidance for Industry on Adaptive Design Clinical Trials for Drugs and Biologics; Availability AGENCY: Food and Drug Administration, HHS. ACTION: Notice. SUMMARY: The Food and Drug Administration (FDA) is announcing the availability of a draft...

  1. Biological Stress Response Terminology: Integrating the Concepts of Adaptive Response and Preconditioning Stress Within a Hormetic Dose-Response Framework

    Many biological subdisciplines that regularly assess dose-response relationships have identified an evolutionarily conserved process in which a low dose of a stressful stimulus activates an adaptive response that increases the resistance of the cell or organism to a moderate to severe level of stres...

  2. An adaptive algorithm for tracking 3D bead displacements: application in biological experiments

    This paper presents a feature-vector-based relaxation method (FVRM) to track bead displacements within a three-dimensional (3D) volume. The FVRM merges the feature vector method, a technique used in tracking bead displacements in biological gels, with the relaxation method, an algorithm employed successfully in tracking bead pairs in fluids. More specifically, the FVRM evaluates the probability of a bead pairing event based on the quasi-rigidity condition between the feature vectors of a bead and its candidate positions within a searching domain. Computational efficiency is improved via the introduction of an adaptive searching domain size and mismatches are reduced via a two-directional matching strategy. The algorithm is validated using simulated 3D bead displacements caused by a force dipole within a linear elastic gel. Results demonstrate a consistently high recovery ratio (above 98%) and low mismatch ratio (below 0.1%) for tracking parameter (mean bead distance/maximum bead displacement) greater than 0.73. (paper)

  3. Toward systems biology in brown algae to explore acclimation and adaptation to the shore environment.

    Tonon, Thierry; Eveillard, Damien; Prigent, Sylvain; Bourdon, Jérémie; Potin, Philippe; Boyen, Catherine; Siegel, Anne

    2011-12-01

    Brown algae belong to a phylogenetic lineage distantly related to land plants and animals. They are almost exclusively found in the intertidal zone, a harsh and frequently changing environment where organisms are submitted to marine and terrestrial constraints. In relation with their unique evolutionary history and their habitat, they feature several peculiarities, including at the level of their primary and secondary metabolism. The establishment of Ectocarpus siliculosus as a model organism for brown algae has represented a framework in which several omics techniques have been developed, in particular, to study the response of these organisms to abiotic stresses. With the recent publication of medium to high throughput profiling data, it is now possible to envision integrating observations at the cellular scale to apply systems biology approaches. As a first step, we propose a protocol focusing on integrating heterogeneous knowledge gained on brown algal metabolism. The resulting abstraction of the system will then help understanding how brown algae cope with changes in abiotic parameters within their unique habitat, and to decipher some of the mechanisms underlying their (1) acclimation and (2) adaptation, respectively consequences of (1) the behavior or (2) the topology of the system resulting from the integrative approach. PMID:22136637

  4. Adapt

    Bargatze, L. F.

    2015-12-01

    Active Data Archive Product Tracking (ADAPT) is a collection of software routines that permits one to generate XML metadata files to describe and register data products in support of the NASA Heliophysics Virtual Observatory VxO effort. ADAPT is also a philosophy. The ADAPT concept is to use any and all available metadata associated with scientific data to produce XML metadata descriptions in a consistent, uniform, and organized fashion to provide blanket access to the full complement of data stored on a targeted data server. In this poster, we present an application of ADAPT to describe all of the data products that are stored by using the Common Data File (CDF) format served out by the CDAWEB and SPDF data servers hosted at the NASA Goddard Space Flight Center. These data servers are the primary repositories for NASA Heliophysics data. For this purpose, the ADAPT routines have been used to generate data resource descriptions by using an XML schema named Space Physics Archive, Search, and Extract (SPASE). SPASE is the designated standard for documenting Heliophysics data products, as adopted by the Heliophysics Data and Model Consortium. The set of SPASE XML resource descriptions produced by ADAPT includes high-level descriptions of numerical data products, display data products, or catalogs and also includes low-level "Granule" descriptions. A SPASE Granule is effectively a universal access metadata resource; a Granule associates an individual data file (e.g. a CDF file) with a "parent" high-level data resource description, assigns a resource identifier to the file, and lists the corresponding assess URL(s). The CDAWEB and SPDF file systems were queried to provide the input required by the ADAPT software to create an initial set of SPASE metadata resource descriptions. Then, the CDAWEB and SPDF data repositories were queried subsequently on a nightly basis and the CDF file lists were checked for any changes such as the occurrence of new, modified, or deleted

  5. Assessment of students’ health condition by indicators of adaptation potential, biological age and bio-energetic reserves of organism

    Martyniuk O.V.

    2015-06-01

    Full Text Available Purpose: to assess students’ health condition by indicators of adaptation potential, biological age and express-assessment. Material: in the research 47 first and second year girl students participated, who belonged to main health group. Results: we distributed the girl students into three groups: 14.89% of them were included in group with “safe” health condition; 34.04% - in group of “third state”; 51.06% were related to group with “ dangerous” health condition. We established that dangerous level was characterized by energy potential of below middle and low level. It is accompanied by accelerated processes of organism’s age destructions and tension of regulation mechanisms. Conclusions: the received results permit to further develop and generalize the data of students’ health’s assessment by indicators of adaptation potentials, biological age and physical health’s condition.

  6. Signaling pathways for stress responses and adaptation in Aspergillus species: stress biology in the post-genomic era.

    Hagiwara, Daisuke; Sakamoto, Kazutoshi; Abe, Keietsu; Gomi, Katsuya

    2016-09-01

    Aspergillus species are among the most important filamentous fungi in terms of industrial use and because of their pathogenic or toxin-producing features. The genomes of several Aspergillus species have become publicly available in this decade, and genomic analyses have contributed to an integrated understanding of fungal biology. Stress responses and adaptation mechanisms have been intensively investigated using the accessible genome infrastructure. Mitogen-activated protein kinase (MAPK) cascades have been highlighted as being fundamentally important in fungal adaptation to a wide range of stress conditions. Reverse genetics analyses have uncovered the roles of MAPK pathways in osmotic stress, cell wall stress, development, secondary metabolite production, and conidia stress resistance. This review summarizes the current knowledge on the stress biology of Aspergillus species, illuminating what we have learned from the genomic data in this "post-genomic era." PMID:27007956

  7. A transcriptomic analysis of Echinococcus granulosus larval stages: implications for parasite biology and host adaptation.

    John Parkinson

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: The cestode Echinococcus granulosus--the agent of cystic echinococcosis, a zoonosis affecting humans and domestic animals worldwide--is an excellent model for the study of host-parasite cross-talk that interfaces with two mammalian hosts. To develop the molecular analysis of these interactions, we carried out an EST survey of E. granulosus larval stages. We report the salient features of this study with a focus on genes reflecting physiological adaptations of different parasite stages. METHODOLOGY/PRINCIPAL FINDINGS: We generated ~10,000 ESTs from two sets of full-length enriched libraries (derived from oligo-capped and trans-spliced cDNAs prepared with three parasite materials: hydatid cyst wall, larval worms (protoscoleces, and pepsin/H(+-activated protoscoleces. The ESTs were clustered into 2700 distinct gene products. In the context of the biology of E. granulosus, our analyses reveal: (i a diverse group of abundant long non-protein coding transcripts showing homology to a middle repetitive element (EgBRep that could either be active molecular species or represent precursors of small RNAs (like piRNAs; (ii an up-regulation of fermentative pathways in the tissue of the cyst wall; (iii highly expressed thiol- and selenol-dependent antioxidant enzyme targets of thioredoxin glutathione reductase, the functional hub of redox metabolism in parasitic flatworms; (iv candidate apomucins for the external layer of the tissue-dwelling hydatid cyst, a mucin-rich structure that is critical for survival in the intermediate host; (v a set of tetraspanins, a protein family that appears to have expanded in the cestode lineage; and (vi a set of platyhelminth-specific gene products that may offer targets for novel pan-platyhelminth drug development. CONCLUSIONS/SIGNIFICANCE: This survey has greatly increased the quality and the quantity of the molecular information on E. granulosus and constitutes a valuable resource for gene prediction on the

  8. The adaptation of biological membranes to temperature and pressure: fish from the deep and cold.

    Cossins, A R; Macdonald, A G

    1989-02-01

    The homeostatic regulation of bilayer order is a property of functional importance. Arguably, it is best studied in those organisms which experience and must overcome disturbances in bilayer order which may be imposed by variations in temperature of hydrostatic pressure. This article reviews our recent work on the adaptations of order in brain membranes of those fish which acclimate to seasonal changes in temperature or which have evolved in extreme thermal or abyssal habitats. The effects of temperature and pressure upon hydrocarbon order and phase state are reviewed to indicate the magnitude of the disturbances experienced by animals in their environments over the seasonal or evolutionary timescale. Acclimation of fish to altered temperature leads to a partial correction of order, while comparison of fish from extreme cold environments with those from temperate or tropical waters reveals a more complete adaptation. Fish from the deep sea also display adaptations of bilayer order which largely overcome the ordering effects of pressure. PMID:2651424

  9. Acclimation, adaptation, traits and trade-offs in plankton functional type models: reconciling terminology for biology and modelling

    Flynn, Kevin J.; St. John, Michael; Raven, John A.;

    2015-01-01

    ideally only be considered for describing intra-generational interactions; in applications between generations, and certainly between unrelated species, such concepts should be avoided. We suggest that systems biology approaches, through to complex adaptive/acclimative systems modelling, with explicit......We propose definitions in terminology to enhance ongoing collaborations between biologists and modellers on plankton ecology. Organism “functional type” should refer to commonality in ecology not biogeochemistry; the latter is largely an emergent property of the former, while alignment with ecology...

  10. Dynamic contrast enhanced magnetic resonance imaging of bladder cancer and implications for biological image-adapted radiotherapy

    Purpose. To assess the role of image parameters derived from dynamic contrast enhanced magnetic resonance imaging (DCEMRI) in bladder cancer staging, and to investigate the potential use of such parameter images in biological image-adapted radiotherapy (RT). Materials and methods. High-resolution volumetric interpolated breath-hold (VIBE) DCEMRI of 26 patients diagnosed with bladder cancer was performed. DCEMRI parameters derived from tumor and muscle contrast uptake curves were extracted and subjected to correlation analysis with tumor volume as well as clinical, pathological, histological and T2-weighted MR tumor stage. For parameters showing a significant correlation with tumor stage, 3D malignancy maps were generated. As an initial step towards delivery of biologically adapted intensity modulated radiotherapy (IMRT) it was hypothesized that the malignancy map could be used as a RT dose prescription map. Simulating IMRT delivery with multi-leaf collimators (MLCs), idealized dose distributions, constituted by dose cubes, were adapted to the prescription map. The size of the dose cubes were varied to mimic MLCs of varying leaf width. The difference between the adapted and prescribed dose distributions was quantified by the root mean square deviation (RMSD). Results. No significant relationships were found between tumor volume and extracted DCEMRI parameters. The normalized area between tumor and muscle contrast uptake curves (nABC) evaluated from 0-180 seconds (nABC180) and 0-480s (nABC480) correlated significantly with tumor stage (p=0.047 and p=0.035, respectively). Dose prescription maps for 10 patients were generated from the nABC480. The RMSD between the prescribed and adapted dose distribution decreased with decreasing size of the dose cubes. Large interpatient variations in the RMSD and in the dependence of the RMSD on different dose cube sizes were found. Conclusions. The nABC180 and nABC480 may provide added value in staging of bladder cancer. High

  11. [Certain biological traits and morphobiochemical adaptations to nutrition in Strombus decorus raybaudii Nicolay and Manoja, 1983].

    Aliakrinskaia, I O

    2003-01-01

    Habitat locations, behavioral properties, as well as external and internal structure of poorly explored Mediterranean gastropod Strombus decorus raybaudii were analyzed. The data on the dimensions and weight of the crystalline style are presented. Morphobiochemical adaptations to nutrition are discussed in terms of weights of the main parts of the radular apparatus and hemoglobin content in the radular tissues of the mollusk. PMID:12712583

  12. Biological Co-Adaptation of Morphological and Composition Traits Contributes to Mechanical Functionality and Skeletal Fragility

    Tommasini, Steven M.; Nasser, Philip; Hu, Bin; Jepsen, Karl J

    2007-01-01

    A path analysis was conducted to determine whether functional interactions exist among morphological, compositional, and microstructural traits for young adult human tibias. Data provided evidence that bone traits are co-adapted during ontogeny so that the sets of traits together satisfy physiological loading demands. However, certain sets of traits are expected to perform poorly under extreme load conditions.

  13. Population variability in biological adaptive responses to DNA damage and the shapes of carcinogen dose-response curves

    Carcinogen dose-response curves for both ionizing radiation and chemicals are typically assumed to be linear at environmentally relevant doses. This assumption is used to ensure protection of the public health in the absence of relevant dose-response data. A theoretical justification for the assumption has been provided by the argument that low dose linearity is expected when an exogenous agent adds to an ongoing endogenous process. Here, we use computational modeling to evaluate (1) how two biological adaptive processes, induction of DNA repair and cell cycle checkpoint control, may affect the shapes of dose-response curves for DNA-damaging carcinogens and (2) how the resulting dose-response behaviors may vary within a population. Each model incorporating an adaptive process was capable of generating not only monotonic dose-responses but also nonmonotonic (J-shaped) and threshold responses. Monte Carlo analysis suggested that all these dose-response behaviors could coexist within a population, as the spectrum of qualitative differences arose from quantitative changes in parameter values. While this analysis is largely theoretical, it suggests that (a) accurate prediction of the qualitative form of the dose-response requires a quantitative understanding of the mechanism (b) significant uncertainty is associated with human health risk prediction in the absence of such quantitative understanding and (c) a stronger experimental and regulatory focus on biological mechanisms and interindividual variability would allow flexibility in regulatory treatment of environmental carcinogens without compromising human health

  14. Sensorless adaptive optics and the effect of field of view in biological second harmonic generation microscopy

    Vandendriessche, Stefaan; Vanbel, Maarten; Verbiest, Thierry

    2014-01-01

    In light of the population aging in many developed countries, there is a great economical interest in improving the speed and cost-efficiency of healthcare. Clinical diagnosis tools are key to these improvements, with biophotonics providing a means to achieve them. Standard optical microscopy of in vitro biological samples has been an important diagnosis tool since the invention of the microscope, with well known resolution limits. Nonlinear optical imaging improves on the resolution limits o...

  15. Antarctic Thresholds - Ecosystem Resilience and Adaptation a new SCAR-Biology Programme

    Gutt, Julian; Adams, Byron; Bracegirdle, Thomas; Cowan, Don; Cummings, Vonda; di Prisco, Guido; Gradinger, Rolf; Isla, Enrique; McIntyre, Trevor; Murphy, Eugene; Peck, Lloyd; Schloss, Irene; Smith, Craig; Suckling, Coleen; Takahashi, Akinori

    2013-01-01

    Stresses on Antarctic ecosystems result from environmental change, including extreme events, and from (other) human impacts. Consequently, Antarctic habitats are changing, some at a rapid pace while others are relatively stable. A cascade of responses from molecular through organismic to the community level are expected. The differences in biological complexity and evolutionary histories between both polar regions and the rest of the planet suggest that stresses on polar ...

  16. Stress Biology and Aging Mechanisms: Toward Understanding the Deep Connection Between Adaptation to Stress and Longevity

    Epel, Elissa S.; Lithgow, Gordon J.

    2014-01-01

    The rate of biological aging is modulated in part by genes interacting with stressor exposures. Basic research has shown that exposure to short-term stress can strengthen cellular responses to stress (“hormetic stress”). Hormetic stress promotes longevity in part through enhanced activity of molecular chaperones and other defense mechanisms. In contrast, prolonged exposure to stress can overwhelm compensatory responses (“toxic stress”) and shorten lifespan. One key question is whether the str...

  17. Genetic divergence and biology of adaptation inCicer arietinum L.

    Dani, R G; Murty, B R

    1985-07-01

    The role of 19 structural, developmental and biochemical traits in relation to specific adaptation was analysed in a set of 17 diverse lines with quantified adaptation, representing contemporary cultivars and land races of chickpea (Cicer arietinum L.), using multivariate analysis. Significant varietal variation was observed for most characters, particularly for the activity of the enzyme nitrate reductase (NR) and protein content in the plant. The distance analysis (D(2)-statistic) revealed that seed size and pod number and their associated attributes were important forces of divergence. The additional forces of divergence were NR activity at the flower initiation stage, yield components such as number of primary and secondary branches, and other features such as plant habit and duration of flowering. The principal component analysis revealed some similarities and also differences from the distance analysis. Leaf size, days to flower initiation, seed size and, to some extent, NR activity at flower initiation stage, were important in the first vector. Developmental traits such as chlorophyll depth, NR activity at the pod initiation and grain filling stages, and the percent protein content in the plant at flower initiation were important in the second vector. In general, the clustering pattern was not related to the geographical origin, seed colour, size of regression coefficient for yield, or deviation from linearity. The importance of the developmental and biochemical attributes in the divergence of cultivated chickpea, such as days to flower initiation, duration of flowering, NR activity and the rates of protein accumulation in developing seeds, and in adaptation, suggests the critical role of these attributes. NR activity at the flower initiation stage would appear to have a major role in the domestication of this crop and its intra-specific differentiation, as an increased seed size could not have been possible without better nutrient uptake and utilization

  18. Geometric adaption of biodegradable magnesium alloy scaffolds to stabilise biological myocardial grafts. Part I.

    Bauer, M; Schilling, T; Weidling, M; Hartung, D; Biskup, Ch; Wriggers, P; Wacker, F; Bach, Fr-W; Haverich, A; Hassel, T

    2014-03-01

    Synthetic patch materials currently in use have major limitations, such as high susceptibility to infections and lack of contractility. Biological grafts are a novel approach to overcome these limitations, but do not always offer sufficient mechanical durability in early stages after implantation. Therefore, a stabilising structure based on resorbable magnesium alloys could support the biological graft until its physiologic remodelling. To prevent early breakage in vivo due to stress of non-determined forming, these scaffolds should be preformed according to the geometry of the targeted myocardial region. Thus, the left ventricular geometry of 28 patients was assessed via standard cardiac magnetic resonance imaging (MRI). The resulting data served as a basis for a finite element simulation (FEM). Calculated stresses and strains of flat and preformed scaffolds were evaluated. Afterwards, the structures were manufactured by abrasive waterjet cutting and preformed according to the MRI data. Finally, the mechanical durability of the preformed and flat structures was compared in an in vitro test rig. The FEM predicted higher durability of the preformed scaffolds, which was proven in the in vitro test. In conclusion, preformed scaffolds provide extended durability and will facilitate more widespread use of regenerative biological grafts for surgical left ventricular reconstruction. PMID:24264726

  19. The Yak genome database: an integrative database for studying yak biology and high-altitude adaption

    Hu Quanjun

    2012-11-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background The yak (Bos grunniens is a long-haired bovine that lives at high altitudes and is an important source of milk, meat, fiber and fuel. The recent sequencing, assembly and annotation of its genome are expected to further our understanding of the means by which it has adapted to life at high altitudes and its ecologically important traits. Description The Yak Genome Database (YGD is an internet-based resource that provides access to genomic sequence data and predicted functional information concerning the genes and proteins of Bos grunniens. The curated data stored in the YGD includes genome sequences, predicted genes and associated annotations, non-coding RNA sequences, transposable elements, single nucleotide variants, and three-way whole-genome alignments between human, cattle and yak. YGD offers useful searching and data mining tools, including the ability to search for genes by name or using function keywords as well as GBrowse genome browsers and/or BLAST servers, which can be used to visualize genome regions and identify similar sequences. Sequence data from the YGD can also be downloaded to perform local searches. Conclusions A new yak genome database (YGD has been developed to facilitate studies on high-altitude adaption and bovine genomics. The database will be continuously updated to incorporate new information such as transcriptome data and population resequencing data. The YGD can be accessed at http://me.lzu.edu.cn/yak.

  20. Characterization of Adaptation by Morphology in a Planar Biological Network of Plasmodial Slime Mold

    Ito, Masateru; Okamoto, Riki; Takamatsu, Atsuko

    2011-07-01

    Growth processes of a planar biological network of plasmodium of a true slime mold, Physarum polycephalum, were analyzed quantitatively. The plasmodium forms a transportation network through which protoplasm conveys nutrients, oxygen, and cellular organelles similarly to blood in a mammalian vascular network. To analyze the network structure, vertices were defined at tube bifurcation points. Then edges were defined for the tubes connecting both end vertices. Morphological analysis was attempted along with conventional topological analysis, revealing that the growth process of the plasmodial network structure depends on environmental conditions. In an attractive condition, the network is a polygonal lattice with more than six edges per vertex at the early stage and the hexagonal lattice at a later stage. Through all growing stages, the tube structure was not highly developed but an unstructured protoplasmic thin sheet was dominantly formed. The network size is small. In contrast, in the repulsive condition, the network is a mixture of polygonal lattice and tree-graph. More specifically, the polygonal lattice has more than six edges per vertex in the early stage, then a tree-graph structure is added to the lattice network at a later stage. The thick tube structure was highly developed. The network size, in the meaning of Euclidean distance but not topological one, grows considerably. Finally, the biological meaning of the environment-dependent network structure in the plasmodium is discussed.

  1. Biologically-inspired approaches for self-organization, adaptation, and collaboration of heterogeneous autonomous systems

    Steinberg, Marc

    2011-06-01

    This paper presents a selective survey of theoretical and experimental progress in the development of biologicallyinspired approaches for complex surveillance and reconnaissance problems with multiple, heterogeneous autonomous systems. The focus is on approaches that may address ISR problems that can quickly become mathematically intractable or otherwise impractical to implement using traditional optimization techniques as the size and complexity of the problem is increased. These problems require dealing with complex spatiotemporal objectives and constraints at a variety of levels from motion planning to task allocation. There is also a need to ensure solutions are reliable and robust to uncertainty and communications limitations. First, the paper will provide a short introduction to the current state of relevant biological research as relates to collective animal behavior. Second, the paper will describe research on largely decentralized, reactive, or swarm approaches that have been inspired by biological phenomena such as schools of fish, flocks of birds, ant colonies, and insect swarms. Next, the paper will discuss approaches towards more complex organizational and cooperative mechanisms in team and coalition behaviors in order to provide mission coverage of large, complex areas. Relevant team behavior may be derived from recent advances in understanding of the social and cooperative behaviors used for collaboration by tens of animals with higher-level cognitive abilities such as mammals and birds. Finally, the paper will briefly discuss challenges involved in user interaction with these types of systems.

  2. Application of Symmetry Adapted Function Method for Three-Dimensional Reconstruction of Octahedral Biological Macromolecules

    Songjun Zeng

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available A method for three-dimensional (3D reconstruction of macromolecule assembles, that is, octahedral symmetrical adapted functions (OSAFs method, was introduced in this paper and a series of formulations for reconstruction by OSAF method were derived. To verify the feasibility and advantages of the method, two octahedral symmetrical macromolecules, that is, heat shock protein Degp24 and the Red-cell L Ferritin, were utilized as examples to implement reconstruction by the OSAF method. The schedule for simulation was designed as follows: 2000 random orientated projections of single particles with predefined Euler angles and centers of origins were generated, then different levels of noises that is signal-to-noise ratio (S/N =0.1,0.5, and 0.8 were added. The structures reconstructed by the OSAF method were in good agreement with the standard models and the relative errors of the structures reconstructed by the OSAF method to standard structures were very little even for high level noise. The facts mentioned above account for that the OSAF method is feasible and efficient approach to reconstruct structures of macromolecules and have ability to suppress the influence of noise.

  3. An adaptive multi-level simulation algorithm for stochastic biological systems

    Lester, C.; Yates, C. A.; Giles, M. B.; Baker, R. E.

    2015-01-01

    Discrete-state, continuous-time Markov models are widely used in the modeling of biochemical reaction networks. Their complexity often precludes analytic solution, and we rely on stochastic simulation algorithms (SSA) to estimate system statistics. The Gillespie algorithm is exact, but computationally costly as it simulates every single reaction. As such, approximate stochastic simulation algorithms such as the tau-leap algorithm are often used. Potentially computationally more efficient, the system statistics generated suffer from significant bias unless tau is relatively small, in which case the computational time can be comparable to that of the Gillespie algorithm. The multi-level method [Anderson and Higham, "Multi-level Monte Carlo for continuous time Markov chains, with applications in biochemical kinetics," SIAM Multiscale Model. Simul. 10(1), 146-179 (2012)] tackles this problem. A base estimator is computed using many (cheap) sample paths at low accuracy. The bias inherent in this estimator is then reduced using a number of corrections. Each correction term is estimated using a collection of paired sample paths where one path of each pair is generated at a higher accuracy compared to the other (and so more expensive). By sharing random variables between these paired paths, the variance of each correction estimator can be reduced. This renders the multi-level method very efficient as only a relatively small number of paired paths are required to calculate each correction term. In the original multi-level method, each sample path is simulated using the tau-leap algorithm with a fixed value of τ. This approach can result in poor performance when the reaction activity of a system changes substantially over the timescale of interest. By introducing a novel adaptive time-stepping approach where τ is chosen according to the stochastic behaviour of each sample path, we extend the applicability of the multi-level method to such cases. We demonstrate the

  4. An adaptive multi-level simulation algorithm for stochastic biological systems

    Discrete-state, continuous-time Markov models are widely used in the modeling of biochemical reaction networks. Their complexity often precludes analytic solution, and we rely on stochastic simulation algorithms (SSA) to estimate system statistics. The Gillespie algorithm is exact, but computationally costly as it simulates every single reaction. As such, approximate stochastic simulation algorithms such as the tau-leap algorithm are often used. Potentially computationally more efficient, the system statistics generated suffer from significant bias unless tau is relatively small, in which case the computational time can be comparable to that of the Gillespie algorithm. The multi-level method [Anderson and Higham, “Multi-level Monte Carlo for continuous time Markov chains, with applications in biochemical kinetics,” SIAM Multiscale Model. Simul. 10(1), 146–179 (2012)] tackles this problem. A base estimator is computed using many (cheap) sample paths at low accuracy. The bias inherent in this estimator is then reduced using a number of corrections. Each correction term is estimated using a collection of paired sample paths where one path of each pair is generated at a higher accuracy compared to the other (and so more expensive). By sharing random variables between these paired paths, the variance of each correction estimator can be reduced. This renders the multi-level method very efficient as only a relatively small number of paired paths are required to calculate each correction term. In the original multi-level method, each sample path is simulated using the tau-leap algorithm with a fixed value of τ. This approach can result in poor performance when the reaction activity of a system changes substantially over the timescale of interest. By introducing a novel adaptive time-stepping approach where τ is chosen according to the stochastic behaviour of each sample path, we extend the applicability of the multi-level method to such cases. We demonstrate the

  5. Vanguards of paradigm shift in radiation biology. Radiation-induced adaptive and bystander responses

    The risks of exposure to low dose ionizing radiation (below 100 mSv) are estimated by extrapolating from data obtained after exposure to high dose radiation, using a linear no-threshold model (LNT model). However, the validity of using this dose-response model is controversial because evidence accumulated over the past decade has indicated that living organisms, including humans, respond differently to low dose/low dose-rate radiation than they do to high dose/high dose-rate radiation. In other words, there are accumulated findings which cannot be explained by the classical ''target theory'' of radiation biology. The radioadaptive response, radiation-induced bystander effects, low-dose radio-hypersensitivity, and genomic instability are specifically observed in response to low dose/low dose-rate radiation, and the mechanisms underlying these responses often involve biochemical/molecular signals that respond to targeted and non-targeted events. Recently, correlations between the radioadaptive and bystander responses have been increasingly reported. The present review focuses on the latter two phenomena by summarizing observations supporting their existence, and discussing the linkage between them from the aspect of production of reactive oxygen and nitrogen species. (author)

  6. Biologically inspired information theory: Adaptation through construction of external reality models by living systems.

    Nakajima, Toshiyuki

    2015-12-01

    Higher animals act in the world using their external reality models to cope with the uncertain environment. Organisms that have not developed such information-processing organs may also have external reality models built in the form of their biochemical, physiological, and behavioral structures, acquired by natural selection through successful models constructed internally. Organisms subject to illusions would fail to survive in the material universe. How can organisms, or living systems in general, determine the external reality from within? This paper starts with a phenomenological model, in which the self constitutes a reality model developed through the mental processing of phenomena. Then, the it-from-bit concept is formalized using a simple mathematical model. For this formalization, my previous work on an algorithmic process is employed to constitute symbols referring to the external reality, called the inverse causality, with additional improvements to the previous work. Finally, as an extension of this model, the cognizers system model is employed to describe the self as one of many material entities in a world, each of which acts as a subject by responding to the surrounding entities. This model is used to propose a conceptual framework of information theory that can deal with both the qualitative (semantic) and quantitative aspects of the information involved in biological processes. PMID:26196087

  7. Biologic

    Kauffman, L H

    2002-01-01

    In this paper we explore the boundary between biology and the study of formal systems (logic). In the end, we arrive at a summary formalism, a chapter in "boundary mathematics" where there are not only containers but also extainers ><, entities open to interaction and distinguishing the space that they are not. The boundary algebra of containers and extainers is to biologic what boolean algebra is to classical logic. We show how this formalism encompasses significant parts of the logic of DNA replication, the Dirac formalism for quantum mechanics, formalisms for protein folding and the basic structure of the Temperley Lieb algebra at the foundations of topological invariants of knots and links.

  8. Contribution of the modulation of intensity and the optimization to deliver a dose adapted to the biological heterogeneities

    The recent progress in functional imaging by Positron Emission Tomography (TEP) opens new perspectives in the delineation of target volumes in radiotherapy. The functional data is major; we can intend to adapt the irradiation doses on the tumor activity (TA) and to perform a dose escalation. Our objectives were (i) to characterize the TEP threshold, by quantifying the uncertainties of the target volume contour according to the lesion size and the threshold contour level, (ii) to set up the geometry suited to perform a high-precision irradiation based on the TA, (iii) to estimate the dosimetric impact of this new protocol and (iv) to verify that dosimetry is perfectly distributed. Three original phantoms were specially created to satisfy the constraints met, as well as two virtual phantoms containing 3 dose levels (dose level 3 = TA). Our results showed the importance of the effect threshold-volume on the planning in radiotherapy. To use this irradiation method, the diameter of 1 cm for the third level was able to be reached. A dose escalation of 20 Gy was possible between the second (70 Gy) and the third level (90 Gy). The dosimetric impact estimated on two real cases was suitable - increase of COIN (conformal index) from 0.6 to 0.8 and decrease of NTCP (normal tissue complication probability) of a factor 5 -. In absolute and relative dosimetry, the clinical tolerances were respected. So all the treatment process, going from the diagnosis with the TEP to reveal the TA, to the patient treatment made beforehand on phantom, and going through the ballistic and the dose calculation, was estimated and validated according to our objective to adapt the irradiation to the biological heterogeneities. However such high doses should be carefully estimated before being prescribed clinically and progress is also expected in imaging, because the minimal size which we can irradiate is on the limit of the resolution TEP. (author)

  9. Adaptation of the Biolog Phenotype MicroArrayTM Technology to Profile the Obligate Anaerobe Geobacter metallireducens

    Joyner, Dominique; Fortney, Julian; Chakraborty, Romy; Hazen, Terry

    2010-05-17

    The Biolog OmniLog? Phenotype MicroArray (PM) plate technology was successfully adapted to generate a select phenotypic profile of the strict anaerobe Geobacter metallireducens (G.m.). The profile generated for G.m. provides insight into the chemical sensitivity of the organism as well as some of its metabolic capabilities when grown with a basal medium containing acetate and Fe(III). The PM technology was developed for aerobic organisms. The reduction of a tetrazolium dye by the test organism represents metabolic activity on the array which is detected and measured by the OmniLog(R) system. We have previously adapted the technology for the anaerobic sulfate reducing bacterium Desulfovibrio vulgaris. In this work, we have taken the technology a step further by adapting it for the iron reducing obligate anaerobe Geobacter metallireducens. In an osmotic stress microarray it was determined that the organism has higher sensitivity to impermeable solutes 3-6percent KCl and 2-5percent NaNO3 that result in osmotic stress by osmosis to the cell than to permeable non-ionic solutes represented by 5-20percent ethylene glycol and 2-3percent urea. The osmotic stress microarray also includes an array of osmoprotectants and precursor molecules that were screened to identify substrates that would provide osmotic protection to NaCl stress. None of the substrates tested conferred resistance to elevated concentrations of salt. Verification studies in which G.m. was grown in defined medium amended with 100mM NaCl (MIC) and the common osmoprotectants betaine, glycine and proline supported the PM findings. Further verification was done by analysis of transcriptomic profiles of G.m. grown under 100mM NaCl stress that revealed up-regulation of genes related to degradation rather than accumulation of the above-mentioned osmoprotectants. The phenotypic profile, supported by additional analysis indicates that the accumulation of these osmoprotectants as a response to salt stress does not

  10. Optimal schedules of fractionated radiation therapy by way of the greedy principle: biologically-based adaptive boosting

    We revisit a long-standing problem of optimization of fractionated radiotherapy and solve it in considerable generality under the following three assumptions only: (1) repopulation of clonogenic cancer cells between radiation exposures follows linear birth-and-death Markov process; (2) clonogenic cancer cells do not interact with each other; and (3) the dose response function s(D) is decreasing and logarithmically concave. Optimal schedules of fractionated radiation identified in this work can be described by the following ‘greedy’ principle: give the maximum possible dose as soon as possible. This means that upper bounds on the total dose and the dose per fraction reflecting limitations on the damage to normal tissue, along with a lower bound on the time between successive fractions of radiation, determine the optimal radiation schedules completely. Results of this work lead to a new paradigm of dose delivery which we term optimal biologically-based adaptive boosting (OBBAB). It amounts to (a) subdividing the target into regions that are homogeneous with respect to the maximum total dose and maximum dose per fraction allowed by the anatomy and biological properties of the normal tissue within (or adjacent to) the region in question and (b) treating each region with an individual optimal schedule determined by these constraints. The fact that different regions may be treated to different total dose and dose per fraction mean that the number of fractions may also vary between regions. Numerical evidence suggests that OBBAB produces significantly larger tumor control probability than the corresponding conventional treatments. (paper)

  11. West Nile Virus: Using Adapted Primary Literature in Mathematical Biology to Teach Scientific and Mathematical Reasoning in High School

    Norris, Stephen P.; Macnab, John S.; Wonham, Marjorie; de Vries, Gerda

    2009-01-01

    This paper promotes the use of adapted primary literature as a curriculum and instruction innovation for use in high school. Adapted primary literature is useful for promoting an understanding of scientific and mathematical reasoning and argument and for introducing modern science into the schools. We describe a prototype adapted from a published…

  12. Validation of 3'-deoxy-3'-fluorine-18-fluorothymidine positron emission tomography for image-guidance in biologically adaptive radiotherapy

    Axente, Marian

    Accelerated tumor cell repopulation during radiation therapy is one of the leading causes for low survival rates of head-and-neck cancer patients. The therapeutic effectiveness of radiotherapy could be improved by selectively targeting proliferating tumor subvolumes with higher doses of radiation. Positron emission tomography (PET) imaging with 3'-deoxy-3 '-18F-fluorothymidine (FLT) has shown great potential as a non-invasive approach to characterizing the proliferation status of tumors. This thesis focuses on histopathological validation of FLT PET imaging specifically for image-guidance applications in biologically adaptive radiotherapy. The lack of experimental data supporting the use of FLT PET imaging for radiotherapy guidance is addressed by developing a novel methodology for histopathological validation of PET imaging. Using this new approach, the spatial concordance between the intratumoral pattern of FLT uptake and the spatial distribution of cell proliferation is demonstrated in animal tumors. First, a two-dimensional analysis is conducted comparing the microscopic FLT uptake as imaged with autoradiography and the distribution of active cell proliferation markers imaged with immunofluorescent microscopy. It was observed that when tumors present a pattern of cell proliferation that is highly dispersed throughout the tumor, even high-resolution imaging modalities such as autoradiography could not accurately determine the extent and spatial distribution of proliferative tumor subvolumes. While microscopic spatial coincidence between high FLT uptake regions and actively proliferative subvolumes was demonstrated in tumors with highly compartmentalized/aggregated features of cell proliferation, there were no conclusive results across the entire set of utilized tumor specimens. This emphasized the need for addressing the limited resolution of FLT PET when imaging microscopic patterns of cell proliferation. This issue was emphasized in the second part of the

  13. Biological and molecular analysis of the pathogenic variant C3 of potato spindle tuber viroid (PSTVd) evolved during adaptation to chamomile (Matricaria chamomilla)

    Matoušek, Jaroslav; Stehlík, Jan; Procházková, Jitka; Orctová, Lidmila; Wullenweber, J.; Füssy, Zoltán; Kováčik, J.; Duraisamy, Ganesh Selvaraj; Ziegler, A.; Schubert, J.; Steger, G.

    2012-01-01

    Roč. 393, č. 7 (2012), s. 605-615. ISSN 1431-6730 R&D Projects: GA ČR GCP501/10/J018 Institutional research plan: CEZ:AV0Z50510513 Institutional support: RVO:60077344 Keywords : viroid-specific small RNA profiles * micro RNA probes * viroid adaptation * biolistic inoculation of plants * viroid pathogenesis markers Subject RIV: EB - Genetics ; Molecular Biology Impact factor: 2.683, year: 2012

  14. West Nile Virus: Using Adapted Primary Literature in Mathematical Biology to Teach Scientific and Mathematical Reasoning in High School

    Norris, Stephen P.; Macnab, John S.; Wonham, Marjorie; de Vries, Gerda

    2009-05-01

    This paper promotes the use of adapted primary literature as a curriculum and instruction innovation for use in high school. Adapted primary literature is useful for promoting an understanding of scientific and mathematical reasoning and argument and for introducing modern science into the schools. We describe a prototype adapted from a published article on a mathematical model of the spread of the West Nile virus in North America. The prototype is available as a web-based resource that includes supplemental pedagogical units. Preliminary feedback from use of the prototype in two classrooms is described and a sketch of an ongoing formal evaluation is provided.

  15. The RBE of tritium-beta exposure for the induction of the adaptive response and apoptosis; cellular defense mechanisms against the biological effects of ionizing radiation

    Adaption to radiation is one of a few biological responses that has been demonstrated to occur in mammalian cells exposed to doses of ionizing radiation in the occupational exposure range. The adaptive response has been well characterized in the yeast Saccharomyces cerevisiae, although the doses required to induce the response are higher than in mammalian cells. When yeast cells are primed with sublethal doses of gamma-radiation, they subsequently undergo an adaptive response and develop resistance to radiation, heat the chemical mutagens in a time and dose dependent manner. We have used this model system to assess the relative ability of tritium-beta radiation to induce the adaptive response the examined tritium-induced radiation resistance, thermal tolerance and suppression of mutation. The results show that sublethal priming doses of tritium caused yeast cells to develop resistance to radiation, heat, and a chemical mutagen MNNG. The magnitude and kinetics of the response, per unit dose, were the same for tritium and gamma-radiation. Therefore, the relative biological effectiveness (RBE) of tritium induction of the adaptive response was about 1.0. Apoptosis is a genetically programmed cell death or cell suicide. Cells damaged by radiation can be selectively removed from the population by apoptosis and therefore eliminated as a potential cancer risk to the organism. Since we have previously shown that apoptosis is a sensitive indicator of radiation damage in human lymphocytes exposed to low doses, we have used this endpoint to investigate the potency of tritium-beta radiation. Initially, tritium was compared to X-rays for relative effectiveness at inducing apoptosis. The results showed the lymphocytes irradiated in vitro with X-rays or tritium had similar levels of apoptosis per unit dose. Therefore the relative biology effectiveness of tritium for induction of apoptosis in human lymphocytes was also about 1. In the work presented here, we have demonstrated that

  16. ADAPTATION OF THE STUDENTS' MOTIVATION TOWARDS SCIENCE LEARNING QUESTIONNAIRE TO MEASURE GREEK STUDENTS’ MOTIVATION TOWARDS BIOLOGY LEARNING

    Andressa, Helen; Mavrikaki, Evangelia; Dermitzaki, Irini

    2015-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to investigate students’ motivation towards biology learning and to determine the factors that are related to it: students’ gender and their parents’ occupation (relevant with biology or not) were investigated. The sample of the study consisted of 360 Greek high school students of the 10th grade (178 boys and 182 girls). The data were collected through Students’ Motivation Toward Science Learning (SMTSL) questionnaire. It was found that it was a valid and reliabl...

  17. An embodied biologically constrained model of foraging: from classical and operant conditioning to adaptive real-world behavior in DAC-X.

    Maffei, Giovanni; Santos-Pata, Diogo; Marcos, Encarni; Sánchez-Fibla, Marti; Verschure, Paul F M J

    2015-12-01

    Animals successfully forage within new environments by learning, simulating and adapting to their surroundings. The functions behind such goal-oriented behavior can be decomposed into 5 top-level objectives: 'how', 'why', 'what', 'where', 'when' (H4W). The paradigms of classical and operant conditioning describe some of the behavioral aspects found in foraging. However, it remains unclear how the organization of their underlying neural principles account for these complex behaviors. We address this problem from the perspective of the Distributed Adaptive Control theory of mind and brain (DAC) that interprets these two paradigms as expressing properties of core functional subsystems of a layered architecture. In particular, we propose DAC-X, a novel cognitive architecture that unifies the theoretical principles of DAC with biologically constrained computational models of several areas of the mammalian brain. DAC-X supports complex foraging strategies through the progressive acquisition, retention and expression of task-dependent information and associated shaping of action, from exploration to goal-oriented deliberation. We benchmark DAC-X using a robot-based hoarding task including the main perceptual and cognitive aspects of animal foraging. We show that efficient goal-oriented behavior results from the interaction of parallel learning mechanisms accounting for motor adaptation, spatial encoding and decision-making. Together, our results suggest that the H4W problem can be solved by DAC-X building on the insights from the study of classical and operant conditioning. Finally, we discuss the advantages and limitations of the proposed biologically constrained and embodied approach towards the study of cognition and the relation of DAC-X to other cognitive architectures. PMID:26585942

  18. Radio-adaptive Response: An Implication for the Biological Consequences of Low Dose-rate Exposure to X-Ray

    Radiation induced adaptive response is described as the reduced damaging effect of a challenging radiation dose when induced by a previous low priming dose. To verify the radio-adaptive response that can be induced by occupationally (in vivo) received chronic low dose of X-ray, chromosomal aberration (CA) analysis, micronucleus test (MN), interleukin-1β (IL-1β) and nitric oxide (NO) concentrations were investigated for both the occupationally exposed and control groups before and after exposure to 2 Gy γ-rays as a challenge dose. The results showed that an elevated frequency of CA, MN and nucleoplasmic bridge (NPB) was recorded in radiation workers (exposed group) compared to control group. However, after 2Gy in vitro irradiation of lymphocytes of exposed and control groups, the exposed group was found to be lower than that of control group. On the other hand, IL-1β and NO concentrations in plasma were elevated in exposed group more than in control group. While, after 2Gy irradiation for both groups, there are higher increment in the concentrations of IL-1β and NO in exposed group than the increment difference observed for control group after in vitro irradiation as compared to the same group before irradiation. The present results suggested the existence of an in vivo cytogenetic adaptive response in individuals occupationally exposed to low dose of X-ray. In addition, the results showed that NO radicals and IL-1β have a role in the induction of radio-resistance due to in vivo exposure that may intermediate this radiation.

  19. Neurological adaptations to hypoxia in Tibetan antelope (Pantholops hodgsonii) with a view of molecular biology of respiratory globin-neuroglobin

    Zhen-zhong BAI; Ying-zhong YANG; Guo-en JIN; Lan MA; Ri-li Ge

    2012-01-01

    Neuroglobin (Ngb) is a respiratory protein that is preferentially expressed in brain of mouse and man.In this article,Tibetan antelope,living at altitude of 3000~5000 m for millions of years,was selected as the model of hypoxia-tolerant adaptation species.Using reverse transcription polymerase chain reaction (RT-PCR) and Western blot techniques,expression of Ngb gene was amplified and analyzed in antelope brain tissue.Our results showed that Ngb homology protein in Tibetan antelope was identified with more sequence similarity with cattle (96%),sheep (95%),and human (95%).We detected that there were some mutations occurred in the Open Reading Frame of Ngb in Tibetan antelope compared with sheep.Phylogenetic analysis of Ngb chain showed that it was closer to cattle than the others.This study suggests possible roles of central nervous system enriched Ngb in adaptation of Tibetan antelope to extremely high altitude.

  20. Regional-scale simulations of fungal spore aerosols using an emission parameterization adapted to local measurements of fluorescent biological aerosol particles

    M. Hummel

    2014-04-01

    Full Text Available Fungal spores as a prominent type of primary biological aerosol particles (PBAP have been incorporated into the COSMO-ART regional atmospheric model, using and comparing three different emission parameterizations. Two literature-based emission rates derived from fungal spore colony counts and chemical tracer measurements were used as a parameterization baseline for this study. A third, new emission parameterization was adapted to field measurements of fluorescent biological aerosol particles (FBAP from four locations across Northern Europe. FBAP concentrations can be regarded as a lower estimate of total PBAP concentrations. Size distributions of FBAP often show a distinct mode at approx. 3 μm, corresponding to a diameter range characteristic for many fungal spores. Previous studies have suggested the majority of FBAP in several locations are dominated by fungal spores. Thus, we suggest that simulated fungal spore concentrations obtained from the emission parameterizations can be compared to the sum of total FBAP concentrations. A comparison reveals that parameterized estimates of fungal spore concentrations based on literature numbers underestimate measured FBAP concentrations. In agreement with measurement data, the model results show a diurnal cycle in simulated fungal spore concentrations, which may develop partially as a consequence of a varying boundary layer height between day and night. Measured FBAP and simulated fungal spore concentrations also correlate similarly with simulated temperature and humidity. These meteorological variables, together with leaf area index, were chosen to drive the new emission parameterization discussed here. Using the new emission parameterization on a model domain covering Western Europe, fungal spores in the lowest model layer comprise a fraction of 15% of the total aerosol mass over land and reach average number concentrations of 26 L−1. The results confirm that fungal spores and biological particles

  1. Testing biological hypotheses with embodied robots: adaptations, accidents, and by-products in the evolution of vertebrates

    Sonia F Roberts

    2014-11-01

    Full Text Available Evolutionary robotics allows biologists to test hypotheses about extinct animals. We modeled some of the first vertebrates, jawless fishes, in order to study the evolution of the trait after which vertebrates are named: vertebrae. We tested the hypothesis that vertebrae are an adaptation for enhanced feeding and fleeing performance. We created a population of autonomous embodied robots, Preyro, in which the number of vertebrae, N, were free to evolve. In addition, two other traits, the span of the caudal fin, b, and the predator detection threshold, ζ, a proxy for the lateral line sensory system, were also allowed to evolve. These three traits were chosen because they evolved early in vertebrates, are all potentially important in feeding and fleeing, and vary in form among species. Preyro took on individual identities in a given generation as defined by the population’s six diploid genotypes, Gi. Each Gi was a 3-tuple, with each element an integer specifying N, b, and, ζ. The small size of the population allowed for genetic drift to operate in concert with random mutation and mating; the presence of these mechanisms of chance provided an opportunity for N to evolve by accident. The presence of three evolvable traits provided an opportunity for direct selection on b and/or ζ to evolve N as a by-product linked trait correlation. In selection trials, different Gi embodied in Preyro attempted to feed at a light source and then flee to avoid a predator robot in pursuit. The fitness of each Gi was calculated from five different types of performance: speed, acceleration, distance to the light, distance to the predator, and the number of predator escapes initiated. In each generation, we measured the selection differential, the selection gradient, the strength of chance, and the indirect correlation selection gradient. These metrics allowed us to understand the relative contributions of the three mechanisms: direct selection, chance, and indirect

  2. Adaptive plasticity of Laguncularia racemosa in response to different environmental conditions: integrating chemical and biological data by chemometrics.

    da Souza, Iara; Bonomo, Marina Marques; Morozesk, Mariana; Rocha, Lívia Dorsch; Duarte, Ian Drumond; Furlan, Larissa Maria; Arrivabene, Hiulana Pereira; Monferrán, Magdalena Victoria; Matsumoto, Silvia Tamie; Milanez, Camilla Rozindo Dias; Wunderlin, Daniel Alberto; Fernandes, Marisa Narciso

    2014-04-01

    Mangroves are dynamic environments under constant influence of anthropic contaminants. The correlation between environmental contamination levels and possible changes in the morphology of plants, evaluated by multivariate statistics helps to highlight matching between these variables. This study aimed to evaluate the uptake and translocation of metals and metalloids in roots and leaves as well as the changes induced in both anatomy and histochemistry of roots of Laguncularia racemosa inhabiting two estuaries of Espírito Santo (Brazil) with different pollution degrees. The analysis of 14 elements in interstitial water, sediments and plants followed by multivariate statistics, allowed the differentiation of studied sites, showing good match between levels of elements in the environment with the corresponding in plants. L. racemosa showed variations in their root anatomy in different collection areas, with highest values of cortex/vascular cylinder ratio, periderm thickness and air gap area in Vitória Bay, the most polluted sampling area. These three parameters were also important to differentiate the mangrove areas by linear discriminant analysis. The development stage of aerenchyma in roots reflected the oxygen availability in the water, being found a negative correlation between these variables. The combined use of chemical and biological analyses responded quite well to different pollution scenarios, matching morphological responses to physical and chemical parameters, measured at different partitions within the estuary. Thus, L. racemosa can be confirmed as a reliable sentinel plant for biomonitoring of estuaries impacted by anthropic pollution. PMID:24445776

  3. Biological Significance of Photoreceptor Photocycle Length: VIVID Photocycle Governs the Dynamic VIVID-White Collar Complex Pool Mediating Photo-adaptation and Response to Changes in Light Intensity.

    Arko Dasgupta

    2015-05-01

    Full Text Available Most organisms on earth sense light through the use of chromophore-bearing photoreceptive proteins with distinct and characteristic photocycle lengths, yet the biological significance of this adduct decay length is neither understood nor has been tested. In the filamentous fungus Neurospora crassa VIVID (VVD is a critical player in the process of photoadaptation, the attenuation of light-induced responses and the ability to maintain photosensitivity in response to changing light intensities. Detailed in vitro analysis of the photochemistry of the blue light sensing, FAD binding, LOV domain of VVD has revealed residues around the site of photo-adduct formation that influence the stability of the adduct state (light state, that is, altering the photocycle length. We have examined the biological significance of VVD photocycle length to photoadaptation and report that a double substitution mutant (vvdI74VI85V, previously shown to have a very fast light to dark state reversion in vitro, shows significantly reduced interaction with the White Collar Complex (WCC resulting in a substantial photoadaptation defect. This reduced interaction impacts photoreceptor transcription factor WHITE COLLAR-1 (WC-1 protein stability when N. crassa is exposed to light: The fast-reverting mutant VVD is unable to form a dynamic VVD-WCC pool of the size required for photoadaptation as assayed both by attenuation of gene expression and the ability to respond to increasing light intensity. Additionally, transcription of the clock gene frequency (frq is sensitive to changing light intensity in a wild-type strain but not in the fast photo-reversion mutant indicating that the establishment of this dynamic VVD-WCC pool is essential in general photobiology and circadian biology. Thus, VVD photocycle length appears sculpted to establish a VVD-WCC reservoir of sufficient size to sustain photoadaptation while maintaining sensitivity to changing light intensity. The great diversity

  4. Adaptive noise

    Viney, Mark; Reece, Sarah E.

    2013-01-01

    In biology, noise implies error and disorder and is therefore something which organisms may seek to minimize and mitigate against. We argue that such noise can be adaptive. Recent studies have shown that gene expression can be noisy, noise can be genetically controlled, genes and gene networks vary in how noisy they are and noise generates phenotypic differences among genetically identical cells. Such phenotypic differences can have fitness benefits, suggesting that evolution can shape noise ...

  5. Changes of morphological, biological and antigenic properties of avian influenza a virus hemagglutinin H2 in the course of adaptation to new host

    The alterations of avian influenza A virus hemagglutinin (HA) H2 as a result of adaptation to mice were first investigated in this study. HA of mouse-adapted (MA) variant was somewhat different from that of the original strain in electrophoretic mobility, antigenic structure and in hemagglutination activity with mouse red blood cells. (author)

  6. THE USE OF BIOLOGICALLY ACTIVE SUBSTANCES FOR INCREASING THE ADAPTIVE CAPACITY OF THE STEVIA PLANT CULTIVATION IN CONDITIONS OF CENTRAL CISCAUCASIA

    Krivenko A. A.

    2013-11-01

    Full Text Available This article considers a possibility of increasing adaptive potential of stevia - native substitute of sugar impacting with influence of processing BAS of green apical sprigs used for receiving seedlings

  7. THE USE OF BIOLOGICALLY ACTIVE SUBSTANCES FOR INCREASING THE ADAPTIVE CAPACITY OF THE STEVIA PLANT CULTIVATION IN CONDITIONS OF CENTRAL CISCAUCASIA

    Krivenko A. A.; Voyskovoy A. I.; Donets I. A.; Golyub A. S.

    2013-01-01

    This article considers a possibility of increasing adaptive potential of stevia - native substitute of sugar impacting with influence of processing BAS of green apical sprigs used for receiving seedlings

  8. Marine Biology: Self-Directed Study Units for Grades K-3 and 4-8, Gifted. Easily Adapted for Regular Classroom Use. Zephyr Learning Project.

    Tanner, Joey

    Originally designed for the gifted student, these reproducible marine biology units emphasize the use of higher order thinking skills and are appropriate for use in any classroom. Interdisciplinary in content, the units provide a broad view of marine biology. Included are two complete units, one created for the upper elementary gifted student and…

  9. A Systems Biology Approach to the Coordination of Defensive and Offensive Molecular Mechanisms in the Innate and Adaptive Host-Pathogen Interaction Networks.

    Wu, Chia-Chou; Chen, Bor-Sen

    2016-01-01

    Infected zebrafish coordinates defensive and offensive molecular mechanisms in response to Candida albicans infections, and invasive C. albicans coordinates corresponding molecular mechanisms to interact with the host. However, knowledge of the ensuing infection-activated signaling networks in both host and pathogen and their interspecific crosstalk during the innate and adaptive phases of the infection processes remains incomplete. In the present study, dynamic network modeling, protein interaction databases, and dual transcriptome data from zebrafish and C. albicans during infection were used to infer infection-activated host-pathogen dynamic interaction networks. The consideration of host-pathogen dynamic interaction systems as innate and adaptive loops and subsequent comparisons of inferred innate and adaptive networks indicated previously unrecognized crosstalk between known pathways and suggested roles of immunological memory in the coordination of host defensive and offensive molecular mechanisms to achieve specific and powerful defense against pathogens. Moreover, pathogens enhance intraspecific crosstalk and abrogate host apoptosis to accommodate enhanced host defense mechanisms during the adaptive phase. Accordingly, links between physiological phenomena and changes in the coordination of defensive and offensive molecular mechanisms highlight the importance of host-pathogen molecular interaction networks, and consequent inferences of the host-pathogen relationship could be translated into biomedical applications. PMID:26881892

  10. Comparative biology and reproductive behaviour of a laboratory-adapted Redco strain of Anopheles Gambiae Giles (Diptera; culicidae and wild populations of the same species

    The sterile insect technique involves mass rearing of male insects for sterility purpose. This heavily relies on male fitness and genetic compatibility of laboratory-adapted male insects and the wild to ensure successful competition with their male counterpart in the wild. Uniform environment in the laboratory as compared to the wild conditions might lead to genetic drift which might lead to reduced sexual competitiveness, fitness, morphological changes or changes in the sexual behaviour of mosquitoes. This work investigated the sexual compatibility, morphometry and sexual behaviour of laboratory-adapted strain and wild strain of Anopheles gambiae under laboratory conditions. These measurements were done by observing swarm formation, genitalia rotation, percentage insemination, fecundity, fertility, wing length, wing width, thoracic width, body length, body size index and wing size index. Morphometric studies of laboratory-adapted and wild strain of Anopheles gambiae were carried out by observing the wing length, body length and thoracic length under Lecia 4D stereoscope in order to find out variations in the body size between the two strains. The results showed significant difference between thoracic width and wing length between the laboratory-adapted strain and wild strain. Indices such as body size index and wing length index also showed significant difference between the two strains; laboratory-adapted REDCO strain (BSI 4.45 ± 0.10, p = 0.010 ; WSI 1.92 ± 0.07, p = 0.026) and wild REDCO strain ( 4.08 ± 0.10, p = 0.010 ; WSI 1.73 ± 0.04, p = 0.026 ). Body length of laboratory-adapted male mosquitoes (4.24 ± 0.05, p = 0.462) was not significantly different from its thoracic width, wing length, and wing width. The wild strain on the other hand had significant difference between its body length (4.19 ± 0.04, p = 0.462), thoracic width (0.096 ± 0.02, p = 0.002 ) and wing length (2.99 ± 0.03, p = 0.050 ). In the mating experiment, egg production in each of

  11. Limitations of science and adaptive management

    Narasimhan, T. N.

    2001-01-01

    Adaptive management consists in patterning human sustenance within the constraints of Earth and biological systems whose behavior is inherently uncertain and difficult to control. For successful adaptive management, a mind-set recognizing the limitations of science is needed.

  12. Biological races in humans.

    Templeton, Alan R

    2013-09-01

    Races may exist in humans in a cultural sense, but biological concepts of race are needed to access their reality in a non-species-specific manner and to see if cultural categories correspond to biological categories within humans. Modern biological concepts of race can be implemented objectively with molecular genetic data through hypothesis-testing. Genetic data sets are used to see if biological races exist in humans and in our closest evolutionary relative, the chimpanzee. Using the two most commonly used biological concepts of race, chimpanzees are indeed subdivided into races but humans are not. Adaptive traits, such as skin color, have frequently been used to define races in humans, but such adaptive traits reflect the underlying environmental factor to which they are adaptive and not overall genetic differentiation, and different adaptive traits define discordant groups. There are no objective criteria for choosing one adaptive trait over another to define race. As a consequence, adaptive traits do not define races in humans. Much of the recent scientific literature on human evolution portrays human populations as separate branches on an evolutionary tree. A tree-like structure among humans has been falsified whenever tested, so this practice is scientifically indefensible. It is also socially irresponsible as these pictorial representations of human evolution have more impact on the general public than nuanced phrases in the text of a scientific paper. Humans have much genetic diversity, but the vast majority of this diversity reflects individual uniqueness and not race. PMID:23684745

  13. Adaptive Lighting

    Petersen, Kjell Yngve; Søndergaard, Karin; Kongshaug, Jesper

    2015-01-01

    Adaptive LightingAdaptive lighting is based on a partial automation of the possibilities to adjust the colour tone and brightness levels of light in order to adapt to people’s needs and desires. IT support is key to the technical developments that afford adaptive control systems. The possibilities offered by adaptive lighting control are created by the ways that the system components, the network and data flow can be coordinated through software so that the dynamic variations are controlled i...

  14. The role of biological activity of hydrohumate, produced from peat, in formation of adaptive response of rats under influence of chronic stress

    Lyanna, O. L.; Chorna, V. I.; Stepchenko, L. M.

    2009-04-01

    It is well known that humic compounds are the most distributed in nature among the organic matter. It is believed that humic polyphenol preparations, produced from the peat, represent adaptogenes and immunomodulators. But the total mechanism of their adaptogenic action is still completely unclear. In response to extraordinary irritant action, one of the most sensitive to stress and highly reactive systems of organism, endosomal-lysosomal cellular apparatus takes part. It is believed that humic compounds are able to penetrate through plasmatic membrane and by this way to affect on lysosomal proteases function. Among the wide range of lysosomal proteases, cysteine cathepsin L (EC 3.4.22.15) was in interest due to its powerful endopeptidase activity and widespread localization. Purpose. The aim of the work was to investigate the influence of humic acids on intracellular proteolysis in blood plasma and heart muscle of rats in adaptive-restorative processes developing in rat organisms as a result of chronic stress action. The experiment was held on Wistar's rats (160-200 g weight) which were divided into 4 groups: 1 - the control group; 2 - the animals which were received the hydrohumate with water (10 mg hydrohumate (0,1% solution) per 1 kg of weight) during 3 weeks; 3 - the group of stressed rats (test "forced swimming" for 2 hours); 4 - the stressed rats which received the hydrohumate. The activity of lysosomal cysteine cathepsin L was determined spectrophotometrically by usage 1% azocasein, denaturated by 3 M urea, as substrate. It was obtained that under hydrohumate influence the activity of lysosomal cysteine cathepsin L in rat blood plasma changed on 20% in comparison with control group that is suggested to be caused by leakage of tissue cathepsins from organs and tissues and kidneys' filtration of these cysteine enzymes in urine. In rat heart tissues it was obtained that cathepsin L activity level was on 26,8% higher in rats which were under stress influence in

  15. Statistical Physics of Adaptation

    Perunov, Nikolai; England, Jeremy

    2014-01-01

    All living things exhibit adaptations that enable them to survive and reproduce in the natural environment that they inhabit. From a biological standpoint, it has long been understood that adaptation comes from natural selection, whereby maladapted individuals do not pass their traits effectively to future generations. However, we may also consider the phenomenon of adaptation from the standpoint of physics, and ask whether it is possible to delineate what the difference is in terms of physical properties between something that is well-adapted to its surrounding environment, and something that is not. In this work, we undertake to address this question from a theoretical standpoint. Building on past fundamental results in far-from-equilibrium statistical mechanics, we demonstrate a generalization of the Helmholtz free energy for the finite-time stochastic evolution of driven Newtonian matter. By analyzing this expression term by term, we are able to argue for a general tendency in driven many-particle systems...

  16. Adaptive skills

    Staša Stropnik; Jana Kodrič

    2013-01-01

    Adaptive skills are defined as a collection of conceptual, social and practical skills that are learned by people in order to function in their everyday lives. They include an individual's ability to adapt to and manage her or his surroundings to effectively function and meet social or community expectations. Good adaptive skills promote individual's independence in different environments, whereas poorly developed adaptive skills are connected to individual's dependency and with g...

  17. Contribution of the modulation of intensity and the optimization to deliver a dose adapted to the biological heterogeneities; Apport de la modulation d'intensite et de l'optimisation pour delivrer une dose adaptee aux heterogeneites biologiques

    Kubs, F

    2007-10-15

    The recent progress in functional imaging by Positron Emission Tomography (TEP) opens new perspectives in the delineation of target volumes in radiotherapy. The functional data is major; we can intend to adapt the irradiation doses on the tumor activity (TA) and to perform a dose escalation. Our objectives were (i) to characterize the TEP threshold, by quantifying the uncertainties of the target volume contour according to the lesion size and the threshold contour level, (ii) to set up the geometry suited to perform a high-precision irradiation based on the TA, (iii) to estimate the dosimetric impact of this new protocol and (iv) to verify that dosimetry is perfectly distributed. Three original phantoms were specially created to satisfy the constraints met, as well as two virtual phantoms containing 3 dose levels (dose level 3 = TA). Our results showed the importance of the effect threshold-volume on the planning in radiotherapy. To use this irradiation method, the diameter of 1 cm for the third level was able to be reached. A dose escalation of 20 Gy was possible between the second (70 Gy) and the third level (90 Gy). The dosimetric impact estimated on two real cases was suitable - increase of COIN (conformal index) from 0.6 to 0.8 and decrease of NTCP (normal tissue complication probability) of a factor 5 -. In absolute and relative dosimetry, the clinical tolerances were respected. So all the treatment process, going from the diagnosis with the TEP to reveal the TA, to the patient treatment made beforehand on phantom, and going through the ballistic and the dose calculation, was estimated and validated according to our objective to adapt the irradiation to the biological heterogeneities. However such high doses should be carefully estimated before being prescribed clinically and progress is also expected in imaging, because the minimal size which we can irradiate is on the limit of the resolution TEP. (author)

  18. Adaptive Lighting

    Petersen, Kjell Yngve; Søndergaard, Karin; Kongshaug, Jesper

    2015-01-01

    Adaptive Lighting Adaptive lighting is based on a partial automation of the possibilities to adjust the colour tone and brightness levels of light in order to adapt to people’s needs and desires. IT support is key to the technical developments that afford adaptive control systems. The possibilities...... offered by adaptive lighting control are created by the ways that the system components, the network and data flow can be coordinated through software so that the dynamic variations are controlled in ways that meaningfully adapt according to people’s situations and design intentions. This book discusses...... distributed differently into an architectural body. We also examine what might occur when light is dynamic and able to change colour, intensity and direction, and when it is adaptive and can be brought into interaction with its surroundings. In short, what happens to an architectural space when artificial...

  19. Adaptive Lighting

    Petersen, Kjell Yngve; Søndergaard, Karin; Kongshaug, Jesper

    2015-01-01

    Adaptive Lighting Adaptive lighting is based on a partial automation of the possibilities to adjust the colour tone and brightness levels of light in order to adapt to people’s needs and desires. IT support is key to the technical developments that afford adaptive control systems. The possibilities...... offered by adaptive lighting control are created by the ways that the system components, the network and data flow can be coordinated through software so that the dynamic variations are controlled in ways that meaningfully adapt according to people’s situations and design intentions. This book discusses...... the investigations of lighting scenarios carried out in two test installations: White Cube and White Box. The test installations are discussed as large-scale experiential instruments. In these test installations we examine what could potentially occur when light using LED technology is integrated and...

  20. Biological Threats

    ... Workplace Plans School Emergency Plans Main Content Biological Threats Biological agents are organisms or toxins that can ... for Disease Control and Prevention . Before a Biological Threat Unlike an explosion, a biological attack may or ...

  1. Adaptive skills

    Staša Stropnik

    2013-02-01

    Full Text Available Adaptive skills are defined as a collection of conceptual, social and practical skills that are learned by people in order to function in their everyday lives. They include an individual's ability to adapt to and manage her or his surroundings to effectively function and meet social or community expectations. Good adaptive skills promote individual's independence in different environments, whereas poorly developed adaptive skills are connected to individual's dependency and with greater need for control and help with everyday tasks. Assessment of adaptive skills is often connected to assessment of intellectual disability, due to the reason that the diagnosis of intellectual disability includes lower levels of achievements on standardized tests of intellectual abilities as well as important deficits in adaptive skills. Assessment of adaptive behavior is a part of standard assessment battery with children and adults with different problems, disorders or disabilities that affect their everyday functioning. This contribution also presents psychometric tools most regularly used for assessment of adaptive skills and characteristics of adaptive skills with individual clinical groups.

  2. ADAPT Dataset

    National Aeronautics and Space Administration — Advanced Diagnostics and Prognostics Testbed (ADAPT) Project Lead: Scott Poll Subject Fault diagnosis in electrical power systems Description The Advanced...

  3. Spin glasses and biology

    Stein, David

    1992-01-01

    This volume is an introduction to the application of techniques developed for the study of disordered systems to problems which arise in biology. Topics presented include neural networks, adaptation and evolution, maturation of the immune response, and protein dynamics and folding. This book will appeal to students and researchers interested in statistical and condensed matter physics, glasses and spin glasses, and biophysics.

  4. Biological sample collector

    Murphy, Gloria A.

    2010-09-07

    A biological sample collector is adapted to a collect several biological samples in a plurality of filter wells. A biological sample collector may comprise a manifold plate for mounting a filter plate thereon, the filter plate having a plurality of filter wells therein; a hollow slider for engaging and positioning a tube that slides therethrough; and a slide case within which the hollow slider travels to allow the tube to be aligned with a selected filter well of the plurality of filter wells, wherein when the tube is aligned with the selected filter well, the tube is pushed through the hollow slider and into the selected filter well to sealingly engage the selected filter well and to allow the tube to deposit a biological sample onto a filter in the bottom of the selected filter well. The biological sample collector may be portable.

  5. Biological couplings: Function, characteristics and implementation mode

    2010-01-01

    Through rigorous natural selection, biological organisms have evolved exceptional functions highly adaptable to their living environments. Biological organisms can achieve a variety of biological functions efficiently by using the synergic actions of two or more different parts of the body, or the coupling effects of multiple factors, and demonstrate optimal adaptations to the living environment. In this paper, the function, characteristics and types of biological couplings are analyzed, the implementation mechanism and mode of biological coupling functions are revealed from the bionic viewpoint. Finally, the technological prospects of the bionic implementation of biological coupling function are predicted.

  6. Biology and the Peasant Farmer

    Coverdale, G. M.

    1973-01-01

    Discusses the importance of biological education in the rural development of under-developed countries. Argues that if the peasant farmer possessed even the most basic rudiments of biological knowledge he would be much more adaptable and amenable to technological innovation. Also describes how such an educational program might be implemented. (JR)

  7. BIological Psychology, Exercise, and Stress.

    Dishman, Rod K.

    1994-01-01

    Reviews theory and methods used by the field of biological psychology to study stress that have potential for understanding how behavioral and biological adaptations to the stress of exercise are integrated. The overview focuses on anxiety, depression, and physiological responsiveness to nonexercise stressors from the perspective of biological…

  8. Ambiguous Adaptation

    Møller Larsen, Marcus; Lyngsie, Jacob

    We investigate why some exchange relationships terminate prematurely. We argue that investments in informal governance structures induce premature termination in relationships already governed by formal contracts. The formalized adaptive behavior of formal governance structures and the flexible and...... reciprocal adaptation of informal governance structure create ambiguity in situations of contingencies, which, subsequently, increases the likelihood of premature relationship termination. Using a large sample of exchange relationships in the global service provider industry, we find support for a hypothesis...

  9. Strategic Adaptation

    Andersen, Torben Juul

    2015-01-01

    This article provides an overview of theoretical contributions that have influenced the discourse around strategic adaptation including contingency perspectives, strategic fit reasoning, decision structure, information processing, corporate entrepreneurship, and strategy process. The related...... concepts of strategic renewal, dynamic managerial capabilities, dynamic capabilities, and strategic response capabilities are discussed and contextualized against strategic responsiveness. The insights derived from this article are used to outline the contours of a dynamic process of strategic adaptation...

  10. Is adaptation. Truly an adaptation? Is adaptation. Truly an adaptation?

    Thais Flores Nogueira Diniz

    2008-04-01

    Full Text Available The article begins by historicizing film adaptation from the arrival of cinema, pointing out the many theoretical approaches under which the process has been seen: from the concept of “the same story told in a different medium” to a comprehensible definition such as “the process through which works can be transformed, forming an intersection of textual surfaces, quotations, conflations and inversions of other texts”. To illustrate this new concept, the article discusses Spike Jonze’s film Adaptation. according to James Naremore’s proposal which considers the study of adaptation as part of a general theory of repetition, joined with the study of recycling, remaking, and every form of retelling. The film deals with the attempt by the scriptwriter Charles Kaufman, cast by Nicholas Cage, to adapt/translate a non-fictional book to the cinema, but ends up with a kind of film which is by no means what it intended to be: a film of action in the model of Hollywood productions. During the process of creation, Charles and his twin brother, Donald, undergo a series of adventures involving some real persons from the world of film, the author and the protagonist of the book, all of them turning into fictional characters in the film. In the film, adaptation then signifies something different from itstraditional meaning. The article begins by historicizing film adaptation from the arrival of cinema, pointing out the many theoretical approaches under which the process has been seen: from the concept of “the same story told in a different medium” to a comprehensible definition such as “the process through which works can be transformed, forming an intersection of textual surfaces, quotations, conflations and inversions of other texts”. To illustrate this new concept, the article discusses Spike Jonze’s film Adaptation. according to James Naremore’s proposal which considers the study of adaptation as part of a general theory of repetition

  11. Insight into Enabling Adaptive Management

    Lorne A. Greig

    2013-09-01

    Full Text Available The U.S. National Commission on Science for Sustainable Forestry recognized a need for effective adaptive management to support management for biological diversity. However, difficulties in implementing adaptive management in the U.S. Northwest Forest Plan led the Commission to wonder if comparisons across multiple adaptive management trials in the forest sector could provide insight into the factors that serve to enable or inhibit adaptive management. This comparison and the resulting discussions among a group of seasoned practitioners, with adaptive management experience at a variety of scales and levels of complexity, led to insights into a hierarchy of ten factors that can serve to either enable or inhibit implementation. Doing high quality adaptive management is about doing good science to enable learning from management experience. Enabling adaptive management though is about working with people to understand their concerns, to develop a common understanding and an environment of trust that allows adaptive management to proceed. Careful attention to enabling factors is critical to fulfilling the promise of adaptive management.

  12. Unraveling adaptation in eukaryotic pathways: lessons from protocells

    De Palo, Giovanna; Robert G Endres

    2013-01-01

    Author Summary Adaptation is a common feature in sensory systems, well familiar to us from light and dark adaptation of our visual system. Biological cells, ranging from bacteria to complex eukaryotes, including single-cell organisms and human sensory receptors, adopt different strategies to fulfill this property. However, all of them require substantial amounts of energy to adapt. Here, we compare the different biological strategies and design two minimal models which allow adaptation withou...

  13. Adaptive test

    Kjeldsen, Lars Peter; Eriksen, Mette Rose

    2010-01-01

    Artikelen er en evaluering af de adaptive tests, som blev indført i folkeskolen. Artiklen sætter særligt fokus på evaluering i folkeskolen, herunder bidrager den med vejledning til evaluering, evalueringsværktøjer og fagspecifkt evalueringsmateriale.......Artikelen er en evaluering af de adaptive tests, som blev indført i folkeskolen. Artiklen sætter særligt fokus på evaluering i folkeskolen, herunder bidrager den med vejledning til evaluering, evalueringsværktøjer og fagspecifkt evalueringsmateriale....

  14. Limitations of science and adaptive management

    Narasimhan, T.N.

    2001-12-20

    Adaptive management consists in patterning human sustenancewithin the constraints of Earth and biological systems whose behavior isinherently uncertain and difficult to control. For successful adaptivemanagement, a mind-set recognizing the limitations of science isneeded.

  15. Evolution or adaptation? What do heritable adaptive changes imply?

    M. Kemal Irmak

    2014-02-01

    Full Text Available Interactions between environmental factors and epigenetic inheritance system produce a great deal of variation from one geographic region to another in human craniofacial morphology, skin color, hair form, stature and body proportions. In this system, while environmental factors produce modifications in the body, they simultaneously induce long-term epigenetic modifications in the germ cells that are inherited to offspring. This kind of heritable changes is called biological adaptation. It was previously reported that biological adaptation is limited to neural crest derivatives such as craniofacial tissues, melanocytes, and structures related to hair form, stature and body proportions. Thus, inheritance of adaptive changes is limited to a number of traits and species-to-species evolution seems unlikely. [J Exp Integr Med 2014; 4(1.000: 13-16

  16. Adaptation Laboratory

    Huq, Saleemul

    2011-11-15

    Efforts to help the world's poor will face crises in coming decades as climate change radically alters conditions. Action Research for Community Adapation in Bangladesh (ARCAB) is an action-research programme on responding to climate change impacts through community-based adaptation. Set in Bangladesh at 20 sites that are vulnerable to floods, droughts, cyclones and sea level rise, ARCAB will follow impacts and adaptation as they evolve over half a century or more. National and international 'research partners', collaborating with ten NGO 'action partners' with global reach, seek knowledge and solutions applicable worldwide. After a year setting up ARCAB, we share lessons on the programme's design and move into our first research cycle.

  17. Adaptive ethnography

    Berth, Mette

    2005-01-01

    This paper focuses on the use of an adaptive ethnography when studying such phenomena as young people's use of mobile media in a learning perspective. Mobile media such as PDAs and mobile phones have a number of affordances which make them potential tools for learning. However, before we begin to...... design and develop educational materials for mobile media platforms we must first understand everyday use and behaviour with a medium such as a mobile phone. The paper outlines the research design for a PhD project on mobile learning which focuses on mobile phones as a way to bridge the gap between...... formal and informal learning contexts. The paper also proposes several adaptive methodological techniques for studying young people's interaction with mobiles....

  18. Hedonic "adaptation"

    Paul Rozin

    2008-02-01

    Full Text Available People live in a world in which they are surrounded by potential disgust elicitors such as ``used'' chairs, air, silverware, and money as well as excretory activities. People function in this world by ignoring most of these, by active avoidance, reframing, or adaptation. The issue is particularly striking for professions, such as morticians, surgeons, or sanitation workers, in which there is frequent contact with major disgust elicitors. In this study, we study the ``adaptation'' process to dead bodies as disgust elicitors, by measuring specific types of disgust sensitivity in medical students before and after they have spent a few months dissecting a cadaver. Using the Disgust Scale, we find a significant reduction in disgust responses to death and body envelope violation elicitors, but no significant change in any other specific type of disgust. There is a clear reduction in discomfort at touching a cold dead body, but not in touching a human body which is still warm after death.

  19. Adaptable positioner

    This paper describes the circuits and programs in assembly language, developed to control the two DC motors that give mobility to a mechanical arm with two degrees of freedom. As a whole, the system is based in a adaptable regulator designed around a 8 bit microprocessor that, starting from a mode of regulation based in the successive approximation method, evolve to another mode through which, only one approximation is sufficient to get the right position of each motor. (Author) 22 fig. 6 ref

  20. Adaptive positioner

    This paper describes the circuits and programs in assembly language, developed to control the two DC motors that give mobility to a mechanical arm with two degrees of freedom. As a whole, the system is based in a adaptable regulator designed around a 8 bit microprocessor that, starting from a mode of regulation based in the successive approximation method, evolve to another mode through which, only one approximation is sufficient to get the right position of each motor. (Author) 6 refs

  1. Adaptive evolution in ecological communities.

    Martin M Turcotte

    Full Text Available Understanding how natural selection drives evolution is a key challenge in evolutionary biology. Most studies of adaptation focus on how a single environmental factor, such as increased temperature, affects evolution within a single species. The biological relevance of these experiments is limited because nature is infinitely more complex. Most species are embedded within communities containing many species that interact with one another and the physical environment. To understand the evolutionary significance of such ecological complexity, experiments must test the evolutionary impact of interactions among multiple species during adaptation. Here we highlight an experiment that manipulates species composition and tracks evolutionary responses within each species, while testing for the mechanisms by which species interact and adapt to their environment. We also discuss limitations of previous studies of adaptive evolution and emphasize how an experimental evolution approach can circumvent such shortcomings. Understanding how community composition acts as a selective force will improve our ability to predict how species adapt to natural and human-induced environmental change.

  2. Biological Evolution and Statistical Physics

    Drossel, Barbara

    2001-01-01

    This review is an introduction to theoretical models and mathematical calculations for biological evolution, aimed at physicists. The methods in the field are naturally very similar to those used in statistical physics, although the majority of publications appeared in biology journals. The review has three parts, which can be read independently. The first part deals with evolution in fitness landscapes and includes Fisher's theorem, adaptive walks, quasispecies models, effects of finite popu...

  3. On adaptation to the effect of ionizing radiation

    Determination of the notion adaptation and its application in biology and medicine where this notion is understood as accomodation which does not result from pathological consequences (physiological adaptation) is considered. Reactions to influence of those medium factors. Which have no receptors in the organims and those which are destructive at any structural level of the organism should not be called adaptation reactions. 18 refs

  4. The Vulnerability of Threatened Species: Adaptive Capability and Adaptation Opportunity

    Andrew McVey

    2013-07-01

    Full Text Available Global targets to halt the loss of biodiversity have not been met, and there is now an additional Aichi target for preventing the extinction of known threatened species and improving their conservation status. Climate change increasingly needs to be factored in to these, and thus there is a need to identify the extent to which it could increase species vulnerability. This paper uses the exposure, sensitivity, and adaptive capacity framework to assess the vulnerability of a selection of WWF global priority large mammals and marine species to climate change. However, it divides adaptive capacity into adaptive capability and adaptation opportunity, in order to identify whether adaptation is more constrained by the biology of the species or by its environmental setting. Lack of evidence makes it difficult to apply the framework consistently across the species, but it was found that, particularly for the terrestrial mammals, adaptation opportunities seems to be the greater constraint. This framework and analysis could be used by conservationists and those wishing to enhance the resilience of species to climate change.

  5. Adaptive management

    Rist, Lucy; Campbell, Bruce Morgan; Frost, Peter

    2013-01-01

    in scientific articles, policy documents and management plans, but both understanding and application of the concept is mixed. This paper reviews recent literature from conservation and natural resource management journals to assess diversity in how the term is used, highlight ambiguities and consider how......Adaptive management (AM) emerged in the literature in the mid-1970s in response both to a realization of the extent of uncertainty involved in management, and a frustration with attempts to use modelling to integrate knowledge and make predictions. The term has since become increasingly widely used...... the concept might be further assessed. AM is currently being used to describe many different management contexts, scales and locations. Few authors define the term explicitly or describe how it offers a means to improve management outcomes in their specific management context. Many do not adhere to the idea...

  6. Evolution or adaptation? What do heritable adaptive changes imply?

    M. Kemal Irmak

    2014-01-01

    Interactions between environmental factors and epigenetic inheritance system produce a great deal of variation from one geographic region to another in human craniofacial morphology, skin color, hair form, stature and body proportions. In this system, while environmental factors produce modifications in the body, they simultaneously induce long-term epigenetic modifications in the germ cells that are inherited to offspring. This kind of heritable changes is called biological adaptation. It wa...

  7. Ten questions about systems biology

    Joyner, Michael J; Pedersen, Bente K

    2011-01-01

    understand how whole animals adapt to the real world. We argue that a lack of fluency in these concepts is a major stumbling block for what has been narrowly defined as 'systems biology' by some of its leading advocates. We also point out that it is a failure of regulation at multiple levels that causes many......In this paper we raise 'ten questions' broadly related to 'omics', the term systems biology, and why the new biology has failed to deliver major therapeutic advances for many common diseases, especially diabetes and cardiovascular disease. We argue that a fundamentally narrow and reductionist...

  8. Ten questions about systems biology

    Joyner, Michael J; Pedersen, Bente K

    2011-01-01

    In this paper we raise 'ten questions' broadly related to 'omics', the term systems biology, and why the new biology has failed to deliver major therapeutic advances for many common diseases, especially diabetes and cardiovascular disease. We argue that a fundamentally narrow and reductionist...... to understand how whole animals adapt to the real world. We argue that a lack of fluency in these concepts is a major stumbling block for what has been narrowly defined as 'systems biology' by some of its leading advocates. We also point out that it is a failure of regulation at multiple levels that causes many...

  9. Biology Notes.

    School Science Review, 1982

    1982-01-01

    Presents procedures, exercises, demonstrations, and information on a variety of biology topics including labeling systems, biological indicators of stream pollution, growth of lichens, reproductive capacity of bulbous buttercups, a straw balance to measure transpiration, interaction of fungi, osmosis, and nitrogen fixation and crop production. (DC)

  10. SENSATION SEEKING SCALE: INDIAN ADAPTATION

    Basu, Debasish; Verma, Vijoy K.; Malhotra, Savita; Malhotra, Anil

    1993-01-01

    SUMMARY Sensation seeking refers to a biologically based personality dimension defined as the need for varied, novel and complex sensations and experiences, and the willingness to take physical and social risks for the sake of such experiences. Although researched worldwide for nearly three decades now, there is to date no published Indian study utilizing the concept of sensation seeking. This paper describes adaptation of the Sensation Seeking Scale for the Indian population. After due modif...

  11. Adaptive Radiation for Lung Cancer

    Daniel R. Gomez

    2011-01-01

    need to spare surrounding critical structures. Evolving radiotherapy technologies, such as four-dimensional (4D image-based motion management, daily on-board imaging and adaptive radiotherapy based on volumetric images over the course of radiotherapy, have enabled us to deliver higher dose to target while minimizing normal tissue toxicities. The image-guided radiotherapy adapted to changes of motion and anatomy has made the radiotherapy more precise and allowed ablative dose delivered to the target using novel treatment approaches such as intensity-modulated radiation therapy, stereotactic body radiation therapy, and proton therapy in lung cancer, techniques used to be considered very sensitive to motion change. Future clinical trials using real time tracking and biological adaptive radiotherapy based on functional images are proposed.

  12. Quantum Biology

    Alessandro Sergi

    2009-06-01

    Full Text Available A critical assessment of the recent developmentsof molecular biology is presented.The thesis that they do not lead to a conceptualunderstanding of life and biological systems is defended.Maturana and Varela's concept of autopoiesis is briefly sketchedand its logical circularity avoided by postulatingthe existence of underlying living processes,entailing amplification from the microscopic to the macroscopic scale,with increasing complexity in the passage from one scale to the other.Following such a line of thought, the currently accepted model of condensed matter, which is based on electrostatics and short-ranged forces,is criticized. It is suggested that the correct interpretationof quantum dispersion forces (van der Waals, hydrogen bonding, and so onas quantum coherence effects hints at the necessity of includinglong-ranged forces (or mechanisms for them incondensed matter theories of biological processes.Some quantum effects in biology are reviewedand quantum mechanics is acknowledged as conceptually important to biology since withoutit most (if not all of the biological structuresand signalling processes would not even exist. Moreover, it is suggested that long-rangequantum coherent dynamics, including electron polarization,may be invoked to explain signal amplificationprocess in biological systems in general.

  13. Illuminating Cell Biology

    2002-01-01

    NASA's Ames Research Center awarded Ciencia, Inc., a Small Business Innovation Research contract to develop the Cell Fluorescence Analysis System (CFAS) to address the size, mass, and power constraints of using fluorescence spectroscopy in the International Space Station's Life Science Research Facility. The system will play an important role in studying biological specimen's long-term adaptation to microgravity. Commercial applications for the technology include diverse markets such as food safety, in situ environmental monitoring, online process analysis, genomics and DNA chips, and non-invasive diagnostics. Ciencia has already sold the system to the private sector for biosensor applications.

  14. Quantum Biology

    Sergi, Alessandro

    2009-01-01

    A critical assessment of the recent developments of molecular biology is presented. The thesis that they do not lead to a conceptual understanding of life and biological systems is defended. Maturana and Varela's concept of autopoiesis is briefly sketched and its logical circularity avoided by postulating the existence of underlying {\\it living processes}, entailing amplification from the microscopic to the macroscopic scale, with increasing complexity in the passage from one scale to the other. Following such a line of thought, the currently accepted model of condensed matter, which is based on electrostatics and short-ranged forces, is criticized. It is suggested that the correct interpretation of quantum dispersion forces (van der Waals, hydrogen bonding, and so on) as quantum coherence effects hints at the necessity of including long-ranged forces (or mechanisms for them) in condensed matter theories of biological processes. Some quantum effects in biology are reviewed and quantum mechanics is acknowledge...

  15. Use Case Design for AdaptIVe

    Wolter, Stefan; Kelsch, Johann

    2014-01-01

    AdaptIVe is a large scale European project on vehicle automation and the pertaining human-machine interaction. The use case design process is a crucial part of the system design process and a part of the human-vehicle integration subproject. This paper explains the methodology for describing use cases in AdaptIVe. They are primarily based on sequence diagrams with main and alternative flows.

  16. Cooperation, adaptation and the emergence of leadership

    Zimmermann, Martin G.; Eguíluz, Víctor M.; San Miguel, Maxi

    2001-01-01

    A generic property of biological, social and economical networks is their ability to evolve in time, creating and suppressing interactions. We approach this issue within the framework of an adaptive network of agents playing a Prisoner's Dilemma game, where each agent plays with its local neighbors, collects an aggregate payoff and imitates the strategy of its best neighbor. We allow the agents to adapt their local neighborhood according to their satisfaction level and the strategy played. We...

  17. Adaptively robust filtering with classified adaptive factors

    CUI Xianqiang; YANG Yuanxi

    2006-01-01

    The key problems in applying the adaptively robust filtering to navigation are to establish an equivalent weight matrix for the measurements and a suitable adaptive factor for balancing the contributions of the measurements and the predicted state information to the state parameter estimates. In this paper, an adaptively robust filtering with classified adaptive factors was proposed, based on the principles of the adaptively robust filtering and bi-factor robust estimation for correlated observations. According to the constant velocity model of Kalman filtering, the state parameter vector was divided into two groups, namely position and velocity. The estimator of the adaptively robust filtering with classified adaptive factors was derived, and the calculation expressions of the classified adaptive factors were presented. Test results show that the adaptively robust filtering with classified adaptive factors is not only robust in controlling the measurement outliers and the kinematic state disturbing but also reasonable in balancing the contributions of the predicted position and velocity, respectively, and its filtering accuracy is superior to the adaptively robust filter with single adaptive factor based on the discrepancy of the predicted position or the predicted velocity.

  18. A Critical Perspective on Synthetic Biology

    Michel Morange

    2009-07-01

    Full Text Available Synthetic biology emerged around 2000 as a new biological discipline. It shares with systems biology the same modular vision of organisms, but is more concerned with applications than with a better understanding of the functioning of organisms. A herald of this new discipline is Craig Venter who aims to create an artificial microorganism with the minimal genome compatible with life and to implement into it different 'functional modules' to generate new micro-organisms adapted to specific tasks. Synthetic biology is based on the possibilities raised by genetic engineering, but it aims to engineer organisms, and not simply to modify them, mimicking the practice of computer engineers. Three points will be discussed: In what regard does synthetic biology represent a new epistemology of the life sciences? What are the relations between synthetic biology and evolutionary biology? What is the raison d'être of synthetic biology as a discipline independent of nanotechnologies?

  19. Biological preconcentrator

    Manginell, Ronald P.; Bunker, Bruce C.; Huber, Dale L.

    2008-09-09

    A biological preconcentrator comprises a stimulus-responsive active film on a stimulus-producing microfabricated platform. The active film can comprise a thermally switchable polymer film that can be used to selectively absorb and desorb proteins from a protein mixture. The biological microfabricated platform can comprise a thin membrane suspended on a substrate with an integral resistive heater and/or thermoelectric cooler for thermal switching of the active polymer film disposed on the membrane. The active polymer film can comprise hydrogel-like polymers, such as poly(ethylene oxide) or poly(n-isopropylacrylamide), that are tethered to the membrane. The biological preconcentrator can be fabricated with semiconductor materials and technologies.

  20. Biological Oceanography

    Abbott, M. R.

    1984-01-01

    Within the framework of global biogeochemical cycles and ocean productivity, there are two areas that will be of particular interest to biological oceanography in the 1990s. The first is the mapping in space time of the biomass and productivity of phytoplankton in the world ocean. The second area is the coupling of biological and physical processes as it affects the distribution and growth rate of phytoplankton biomass. Certainly other areas will be of interest to biological oceanographers, but these two areas are amenable to observations from satellites. Temporal and spatial variability is a regular feature of marine ecosystems. The temporal and spatial variability of phytoplankton biomass and productivity which is ubiquitous at all time and space scales in the ocean must be characterized. Remote sensing from satellites addresses these problems with global observations of mesocale (2 to 20 days, 10 to 200 km) features over a long period of time.

  1. Adaptive Image Denoising by Mixture Adaptation.

    Luo, Enming; Chan, Stanley H; Nguyen, Truong Q

    2016-10-01

    We propose an adaptive learning procedure to learn patch-based image priors for image denoising. The new algorithm, called the expectation-maximization (EM) adaptation, takes a generic prior learned from a generic external database and adapts it to the noisy image to generate a specific prior. Different from existing methods that combine internal and external statistics in ad hoc ways, the proposed algorithm is rigorously derived from a Bayesian hyper-prior perspective. There are two contributions of this paper. First, we provide full derivation of the EM adaptation algorithm and demonstrate methods to improve the computational complexity. Second, in the absence of the latent clean image, we show how EM adaptation can be modified based on pre-filtering. The experimental results show that the proposed adaptation algorithm yields consistently better denoising results than the one without adaptation and is superior to several state-of-the-art algorithms. PMID:27416593

  2. Research on Adaptive Variable Structure Control for Bi-ological Model of Red Tide%赤潮生物种群模型的自适应变结构控制器设计

    雷小春

    2016-01-01

    【目的】为进一步改进有害藻和有益藻的消长控制模型,更好控制有害藻的发生,避免其所造成的危害。【方法】假设赤潮有害藻密度可测,有益藻密度不可测,在有害藻和有益藻密度模型正则化的基础上,设计神经网络观测器来估计有益藻对应的变量;然后,设计变结构控制使有害藻浓度减少而有益藻浓度增大,最终达到稳定状态。【结果】仿真分析结果显示,有害藻和有益藻持续在稳定的状态。【结论】变结构控制器的设计合理有效。%Objective]In order to overcome the weakness of traditional treatment methods of red tide(including physical method and chemical method),biological treatment technique was ex-plored,where the relationship among creature competition,biological inhibition and biological predation was evaluated.Introducing beneficial creature in the area of red tide could inhibit the eruption of red-tide algae,and reduce the occurrence of red-tide algae and its damage.[Methods]In the paper,we assumed that the density of harmful algae could be measured whereas the den-sity of beneficial algae could not be measured.Based on the regularization of the density model of harmful algae and beneficial algae,neural network viewer was designed to estimate corre-sponding changes of beneficial algae.Then,a variable structure control was designed to reduce the density of harmful algae and increase that of beneficial algae,and finally to reach a steady state.[Results]Simulation results of an example illustrated the effectiveness of the proposed method.[Conclusion]The designed variable structure control is effective.

  3. Marine Biology

    Dewees, Christopher M.; Hooper, Jon K.

    1976-01-01

    A variety of informational material for a course in marine biology or oceanology at the secondary level is presented. Among the topics discussed are: food webs and pyramids, planktonic blooms, marine life, plankton nets, food chains, phytoplankton, zooplankton, larval plankton and filter feeders. (BT)

  4. Biology Notes.

    School Science Review, 1983

    1983-01-01

    Describes laboratory procedures, demonstrations, and classroom activities/materials, including water relation exercise on auxin-treated artichoke tuber tissue; aerobic respiration in yeast; an improved potometer; use of mobiles in biological classification, and experiments on powdery mildews and banana polyphenol oxidase. Includes reading lists…

  5. Limitations of science and adapting to Nature

    Historically, science has pursued a premise that Nature can be understood fully, its future predicted precisely, and its behavior controlled at will. However, emerging knowledge indicates that the nature of Earth and biological systems transcends the limits of science, questioning the premise of knowing, prediction, and control. This knowledge has led to the recognition that, for civilized human survival, technological society has to adapt to the constraints of these systems. Simultaneously, spurred by explosive developments in the understanding of materials (non-biological and biological), applied scientific research pursues a contrary goal of controlling the material world, with the promise of spectacular economic growth and human well-being. If adaptation to Nature is so important, why does applied research pursue a contrary course? Adapting to Nature requires a recognition of the limitations of science, and espousal of human values. Although the concept of adapting to Nature is accepted by some, especially conservation ecologists, such an acceptance may not exist in other fields. Also, in a world dominated by democratic ideals of freedom and liberty, the discipline required for adapting to Nature may often be overridden by competition among various segments of society to exercise their respective rights. In extreme cases of catastrophic failure of Earth or biological systems, the imperative for adaptation may fall victim to instinct for survival. In essence, although adequate scientific know-how and technological competence exists to facilitate adaptation to Nature, choosing between that and the pursuit of controlling Nature entails human judgment. What that choice may be when humans have to survive under severe environmental stress cannot be predicted

  6. Adaptive Modular Playware

    Lund, Henrik Hautop; Þorsteinsson, Arnar Tumi

    2011-01-01

    In this paper, we describe the concept of adaptive modular playware, where the playware adapts to the interaction of the individual user. We hypothesize that there are individual differences in user interaction capabilities and styles, and that adaptive playware may adapt to the individual user’s...

  7. Inducible competitors and adaptive diversification

    Beren W. ROBINSON, David W. PFENNIG

    2013-08-01

    Full Text Available Identifying the causes of diversification is central to evolutionary biology. The ecological theory of adaptive diversification holds that the evolution of phenotypic differences between populations and species––and the formation of new species––stems from divergent natural selection, often arising from competitive interactions. Although increasing evidence suggests that phenotypic plasticity can facilitate this process, it is not generally appreciated that competitively mediated selection often also provides ideal conditions for phenotypic plasticity to evolve in the first place. Here, we discuss how competition plays at least two key roles in adaptive diversification depending on its pattern. First, heterogenous competition initially generates heterogeneity in resource use that favors adaptive plasticity in the form of “inducible competitors”. Second, once such competitively induced plasticity evolves, its capacity to rapidly generate phenotypic variation and expose phenotypes to alternate selective regimes allows populations to respond readily to selection favoring diversification, as may occur when competition generates steady diversifying selection that permanently drives the evolutionary divergence of populations that use different resources. Thus, competition plays two important roles in adaptive diversification––one well-known and the other only now emerging––mediated through its effect on the evolution of phenotypic plasticity [Current Zoology 59 (4: 537–552, 2013].

  8. Adaptive Sticky Generalized Metropolis

    Fabrizio Leisen; Roberto Casarin; David Luengo; Luca Martino

    2013-01-01

    We introduce a new class of adaptive Metropolis algorithms called adaptive sticky algorithms for efficient general-purpose simulation from a target probability distribution. The transition of the Metropolis chain is based on a multiple-try scheme and the different proposals are generated by adaptive nonparametric distributions. Our adaptation strategy uses the interpolation of support points from the past history of the chain as in the adaptive rejection Metropolis. The algorithm efficiency i...

  9. Hormesis and adaptive cellular control systems

    Hormetic dose response occurs for many endpoints associated with exposures of biological organisms to environmental stressors. Cell-based U- or inverted U-shaped responses may derive from common processes involved in activation of adaptive responses required to protect cells from...

  10. Mesoscopic biology

    G V Shivashankar

    2002-02-01

    In this paper we present a qualitative outlook of mesoscopic biology where the typical length scale is of the order of nanometers and the energy scales comparable to thermal energy. Novel biomolecular machines, governed by coded information at the level of DNA and proteins, operate at these length scales in biological systems. In recent years advances in technology have led to the study of some of the design principles of these machines; in particular at the level of an individual molecule. For example, the forces that operate in molecular interactions, the stochasticity involved in these interactions and their spatio-temporal dynamics are beginning to be explored. Understanding such design principles is opening new possibilities in mesoscopic physics with potential applications.

  11. Mapping biological systems to network systems

    Rathore, Heena

    2016-01-01

    The book presents the challenges inherent in the paradigm shift of network systems from static to highly dynamic distributed systems – it proposes solutions that the symbiotic nature of biological systems can provide into altering networking systems to adapt to these changes. The author discuss how biological systems – which have the inherent capabilities of evolving, self-organizing, self-repairing and flourishing with time – are inspiring researchers to take opportunities from the biology domain and map them with the problems faced in network domain. The book revolves around the central idea of bio-inspired systems -- it begins by exploring why biology and computer network research are such a natural match. This is followed by presenting a broad overview of biologically inspired research in network systems -- it is classified by the biological field that inspired each topic and by the area of networking in which that topic lies. Each case elucidates how biological concepts have been most successfully ...

  12. Biological programming

    Ramsden, Jeremy J.; Bándi, Gergely

    2010-01-01

    Biology offers a tremendous set of concepts that are potentially very powerfully usable for the software engineer, but they have been barely exploited hitherto. In this position paper we propose a fresh attempt to create the building blocks of a programming technology that could be as successful as life. A key guiding principle is to develop and make use of unambiguous definitions of the essential features of life.

  13. Biological radioprotector

    According to the patent description, the biological radioprotector is deuterium depleted water, DDW, produced by vacuum distillation with an isotopic content lower than natural value. It appears as such or in a mixture with natural water and carbon dioxide. It can be used for preventing and reducing the ionizing radiation effects upon humans or animal organisms, exposed therapeutically, professionally or accidentally to radiation. The most significant advantage of using DDW as biological radioprotector results from its way of administration. Indeed no one of the radioprotectors currently used today can be orally administrated, what reduces the patients' compliance to prophylactic administrations. The biological radioprotector is an unnoxious product obtained from natural water, which can be administrated as food additive instead of drinking water. Dose modification factor is according to initial estimates around 1.9, what is a remarkable feature when one takes into account that the product is toxicity-free and side effect-free and can be administrated prophylactically as a food additive. A net radioprotective action of the deuterium depletion was evidenced experimentally in laboratory animals (rats) hydrated with DDW of 30 ppm D/(D+H) concentration as compared with normally hydrated control animals. Knowing the effects of irradiation and mechanisms of the acute radiation disease as well as the effects of administration of radiomimetic chemicals upon cellular lines of fast cell division, it appears that the effects of administrating DDW result from stimulation of the immunity system. In conclusion, the biological radioprotector DDW presents the following advantages: - it is obtained from natural products without toxicity; - it is easy to be administrated as a food additive, replacing the drinking water; - besides radioprotective effects, the product has also immunostimulative and antitumoral effects

  14. Marine biology

    This book discusses both taxonomic and ecological topics on marine biology. Full coverage of marine organisms of all five kingdoms is provided, along with interesting and thorough discussion of all major marine habitats. Organization into six major parts allows flexibility. It also provides insight into important topics such as disposal of nuclear waste at sea, the idea that life began on the ocean floor, and how whales, krill, and people interact. A full-color photo chapter reviews questions, and exercises. The contents are: an overview marine biology: fundamental concepts/investigating life in the ocean; the physical ocean, the ocean floor, the nature of water, the nature and motion of ocean water; general ecology, conditions for life in the sea, biological productivity and energy transfer; marine organisms; monera, protista, mycota and metaphyta; the smaller marine animals, the large animals marine habitats, the intertidal zone/benthos of the continental shelf, the photic zone, the deep ocean, the ocean under stress, marine pollution, appendix a: the metric system and conversion factors/ appendix b: prefixes and suffixes/ appendix c: taxonomic classification of common marine organisms, and glossary, and index

  15. Marine biology

    Thurman, H.V.; Webber, H.H.

    1984-01-01

    This book discusses both taxonomic and ecological topics on marine biology. Full coverage of marine organisms of all five kingdoms is provided, along with interesting and thorough discussion of all major marine habitats. Organization into six major parts allows flexibility. It also provides insight into important topics such as disposal of nuclear waste at sea, the idea that life began on the ocean floor, and how whales, krill, and people interact. A full-color photo chapter reviews questions, and exercises. The contents are: an overview marine biology: fundamental concepts/investigating life in the ocean; the physical ocean, the ocean floor, the nature of water, the nature and motion of ocean water; general ecology, conditions for life in the sea, biological productivity and energy transfer; marine organisms; monera, protista, mycota and metaphyta; the smaller marine animals, the large animals marine habitats, the intertidal zone/benthos of the continental shelf, the photic zone, the deep ocean, the ocean under stress, marine pollution, appendix a: the metric system and conversion factors/ appendix b: prefixes and suffixes/ appendix c: taxonomic classification of common marine organisms, and glossary, and index.

  16. Adaptive Epidemic Dynamics in Networks: Thresholds and Control

    Xu, Shouhuai; Lu, Wenlian; Xu, Li; Zhan, Zhenxin

    2013-01-01

    Theoretical modeling of computer virus/worm epidemic dynamics is an important problem that has attracted many studies. However, most existing models are adapted from biological epidemic ones. Although biological epidemic models can certainly be adapted to capture some computer virus spreading scenarios (especially when the so-called homogeneity assumption holds), the problem of computer virus spreading is not well understood because it has many important perspectives that are not necessarily ...

  17. Expressing Adaptation Strategies Using Adaptation Patterns

    Zemirline, N.; Bourda, Y.; Reynaud, C.

    2012-01-01

    Today, there is a real challenge to enable personalized access to information. Several systems have been proposed to address this challenge including Adaptive Hypermedia Systems (AHSs). However, the specification of adaptation strategies remains a difficult task for creators of such systems. In this paper, we consider the problem of the definition…

  18. Evidence for Pervasive Adaptive Protein Evolution in Wild Mice

    Halligan, D.; Oliver, F.; Eyre-Walker, A.; Harr, B; Keightley, P

    2010-01-01

    The relative contributions of neutral and adaptive substitutions to molecular evolution has been one of the most controversial issues in evolutionary biology for more than 40 years. The analysis of within-species nucleotide polymorphism and between-species divergence data supports a widespread role for adaptive protein evolution in certain taxa. For example, estimates of the proportion of adaptive amino acid substitutions (alpha) are 50% or more in enteric bacteria and Drosophila. In contrast...

  19. Adaptive Finite Element Approximations for Kohn-Sham Models

    Chen, Huajie; Dai, Xiaoying; Gong, Xingao; He, Lianhua; Zhou, Aihui

    2013-01-01

    The Kohn-Sham equation is a powerful, widely used approach for computation of ground state electronic energies and densities in chemistry, materials science, biology, and nanosciences. In this paper, we study the adaptive finite element approximations for the Kohn-Sham model. Based on the residual type a posteriori error estimators proposed in this paper, we introduce an adaptive finite element algorithm with a quite general marking strategy and prove the convergence of the adaptive finite el...

  20. Biological Databases

    Kaviena Baskaran

    2013-12-01

    Full Text Available Biology has entered a new era in distributing information based on database and this collection of database become primary in publishing information. This data publishing is done through Internet Gopher where information resources easy and affordable offered by powerful research tools. The more important thing now is the development of high quality and professionally operated electronic data publishing sites. To enhance the service and appropriate editorial and policies for electronic data publishing has been established and editors of article shoulder the responsibility.

  1. Cloning humans? Biological, ethical, and social considerations

    Ayala, FJ

    2015-01-01

    © 2015, National Academy of Sciences. All rights reserved. There are, in mankind, two kinds of heredity: biological and cultural. Cultural inheritance makes possible for humans what no other organism can accomplish: the cumulative transmission of experience from generation to generation. In turn, cultural inheritance leads to cultural evolution, the prevailing mode of human adaptation. For the last few millennia, humans have been adapting the environments to their genes more often than their ...

  2. Evolution of speech-specific cognitive adaptations

    Bart ede Boer

    2015-09-01

    Full Text Available This paper briefly reviews theoretical results that shed light on what kind of cognitive adaptations we can expect to have evolved for (combinatorial speech and then reviews concrete empirical work investigating adaptations for combinatorial speech. The paper argues that an evolutionary perspective is natural when investigating cognitive adaptations related to speech and language. This is because properties of language are determined through complex interaction between biologically evolved cognitive mechanisms (possibly adapted to language and cultural (evolutionary processes. It turns out that there is as yet no strong direct evidence for cognitive traits that have undergone selection related to speech in general or combinatorial structure in particular, but there is indirect evidence that indicates selection. However, the traits that may have undergone selection are expected to be continuously variable ones, rather than the discrete ones that linguists have focused on traditionally.

  3. Adaptive Dynamics of Regulatory Networks: Size Matters

    Martinetz Thomas

    2009-01-01

    Full Text Available To accomplish adaptability, all living organisms are constructed of regulatory networks on different levels which are capable to differentially respond to a variety of environmental inputs. Structure of regulatory networks determines their phenotypical plasticity, that is, the degree of detail and appropriateness of regulatory replies to environmental or developmental challenges. This regulatory network structure is encoded within the genotype. Our conceptual simulation study investigates how network structure constrains the evolution of networks and their adaptive abilities. The focus is on the structural parameter network size. We show that small regulatory networks adapt fast, but not as good as larger networks in the longer perspective. Selection leads to an optimal network size dependent on heterogeneity of the environment and time pressure of adaptation. Optimal mutation rates are higher for smaller networks. We put special emphasis on discussing our simulation results on the background of functional observations from experimental and evolutionary biology.

  4. Biological biomaterials

    Jorge-Herrero, E. [Servicio de Cirugia Experimental. Clinica Puerta de Hierro, Madrid (Spain)

    1997-05-01

    There are a number of situations in which substances of biological origin are employed as biomaterials. Most of them are macromolecules derived from isolated connective tissue or the connective tissue itself in membrane form, in both cases, the tissue can be used in its natural form or be chemically treated. In other cases, certain blood vessels can be chemically pretreated and used as vascular prostheses. Proteins such as albumin, collagen and fibrinogen are employed to coat vascular prostheses. Certain polysaccharides have also been tested for use in controlled drug release systems. Likewise, a number of tissues, such as dura mater, bovine pericardium, procine valves and human valves, are used in the preparation of cardiac prostheses. We also use veins from animals or humans in arterial replacement. In none of these cases are the tissues employed dissimilar to the native tissues as they have been chemically modified, becoming a new bio material with different physical and biochemical properties. In short, we find that natural products are being utilized as biomaterials and must be considered as such; thus, it is necessary to study both their chemicobiological and physicomechanical properties. In the present report, we review the current applications, problems and future prospects of some of these biological biomaterials. (Author) 84 refs.

  5. Uncertainty in adaptive capacity

    The capacity to adapt is a critical element of the process of adaptation: it is the vector of resources that represent the asset base from which adaptation actions can be made. Adaptive capacity can in theory be identified and measured at various scales, from the individual to the nation. The assessment of uncertainty within such measures comes from the contested knowledge domain and theories surrounding the nature of the determinants of adaptive capacity and the human action of adaptation. While generic adaptive capacity at the national level, for example, is often postulated as being dependent on health, governance and political rights, and literacy, and economic well-being, the determinants of these variables at national levels are not widely understood. We outline the nature of this uncertainty for the major elements of adaptive capacity and illustrate these issues with the example of a social vulnerability index for countries in Africa. (authors)

  6. Adaptive Rationality, Adaptive Behavior and Institutions

    Volchik Vyacheslav, V.

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available The economic literature focused on understanding decision-making and choice processes reveals a vast collection of approaches to human rationality. Theorists’ attention has moved from absolutely rational, utility-maximizing individuals to boundedly rational and adaptive ones. A number of economists have criticized the concepts of adaptive rationality and adaptive behavior. One of the recent trends in the economic literature is to consider humans irrational. This paper offers an approach which examines adaptive behavior in the context of existing institutions and constantly changing institutional environment. It is assumed that adaptive behavior is a process of evolutionary adjustment to fundamental uncertainty. We emphasize the importance of actors’ engagement in trial and error learning, since if they are involved in this process, they obtain experience and are able to adapt to existing and new institutions. The paper aims at identifying relevant institutions, adaptive mechanisms, informal working rules and practices that influence actors’ behavior in the field of Higher Education in Russia (Rostov Region education services market has been taken as an example. The paper emphasizes the application of qualitative interpretative methods (interviews and discourse analysis in examining actors’ behavior.

  7. Adaptive Coordinate Descent

    Loshchilov, Ilya; Schoenauer, Marc; Sebag, Michèle

    2011-01-01

    Independence from the coordinate system is one source of efficiency and robustness for the Covariance Matrix Adaptation Evolution Strategy (CMA-ES). The recently proposed Adaptive Encoding (AE) procedure generalizes CMA-ES adaptive mechanism, and can be used together with any optimization algorithm. Adaptive Encoding gradually builds a transformation of the coordinate system such that the new coordinates are as decorrelated as possible with respect to the objective function. But any optimizat...

  8. Adapting Natural Resource Management to Climate Change: The Blue Mountains and Northern Rockies Adaptation Partnerships

    Halofsky, J.; Peterson, D. L.

    2014-12-01

    Concrete ways to adapt to climate change are needed to help natural resource managers take the first steps to incorporate climate change into management and take advantage of opportunities to balance the negative effects of climate change. We recently initiated two science-management climate change adaptation partnerships, one with three national forests and other key stakeholders in the Blue Mountains region of northeastern Oregon, and the other with 16 national forests, three national parks and other stakeholders in the northern Rockies region. Goals of both partnerships were to: (1) synthesize published information and data to assess the exposure, sensitivity, and adaptive capacity of key resource areas, including water use, infrastructure, fisheries, and vegetation and disturbance; (2) develop science-based adaptation strategies and tactics that will help to mitigate the negative effects of climate change and assist the transition of biological systems and management to a warmer climate; (3) ensure adaptation strategies and tactics are incorporated into relevant planning documents; and (4) foster an enduring partnership to facilitate ongoing dialogue and activities related to climate change in the partnerships regions. After an initial vulnerability assessment by agency and university scientists and local resource specialists, adaptation strategies and tactics were developed in a series of scientist-manager workshops. The final vulnerability assessments and adaptation actions are incorporated in technical reports. The partnerships produced concrete adaptation options for national forest and other natural resource managers and illustrated the utility of place-based vulnerability assessments and scientist-manager workshops in adapting to climate change.

  9. Adaptation to climate change

    J. Carmin; K. Tierney; E. Chu; L.M. Hunter; J.T. Roberts; L. Shi

    2015-01-01

    Climate change adaptation involves major global and societal challenges such as finding adequate and equitable adaptation funding and integrating adaptation and development programs. Current funding is insufficient. Debates between the Global North and South center on how best to allocate the financ

  10. Biological effects

    Following an introduction into the field of cellular radiation effect considering the most important experimental results, the biological significance of the colony formation ability is brought out. The inactivation concept of stem cells does not only prove to be good, according to the present results, in the interpretation of the pathogenesis of acute radiation effects on moult tissue, it also enables chronicle radiation injuries to be interpreted through changes in the fibrous part of the organs. Radiation therapy of tumours can also be explained to a large extent by the radiation effect on the unlimited reproductiveness of tumour cells. The more or less similar dose effect curves for healthy and tumour tissue in practice lead to intermittent irradiation. The dependence of the intermittent doses and intervals on factors such as Elkind recovery, synchronisation, redistribution, reoxygenation, repopulation and regeneration are reviewed. (ORU/LH)

  11. Biology responses to low dose radiation

    Biology responses to low dose radiation is the most important problem of medical radiation and radiation protection. The especial mechanism of low dose or low dose rate induced cell responses, has been found independent with linear no-threshold model. This article emphasize to introduce low dose or low dose rate induced biology responses of adaptive response, by-effect, super-sensitivity and genomic instability. (authors)

  12. Creating biological nanomaterials using synthetic biology

    Synthetic biology is a new discipline that combines science and engineering approaches to precisely control biological networks. These signaling networks are especially important in fields such as biomedicine and biochemical engineering. Additionally, biological networks can also be critical to the production of naturally occurring biological nanomaterials, and as a result, synthetic biology holds tremendous potential in creating new materials. This review introduces the field of synthetic biology, discusses how biological systems naturally produce materials, and then presents examples and strategies for incorporating synthetic biology approaches in the development of new materials. In particular, strategies for using synthetic biology to produce both organic and inorganic nanomaterials are discussed. Ultimately, synthetic biology holds the potential to dramatically impact biological materials science with significant potential applications in medical systems. (review)

  13. Creating biological nanomaterials using synthetic biology

    MaryJoe K Rice

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Synthetic biology is a new discipline that combines science and engineering approaches to precisely control biological networks. These signaling networks are especially important in fields such as biomedicine and biochemical engineering. Additionally, biological networks can also be critical to the production of naturally occurring biological nanomaterials, and as a result, synthetic biology holds tremendous potential in creating new materials. This review introduces the field of synthetic biology, discusses how biological systems naturally produce materials, and then presents examples and strategies for incorporating synthetic biology approaches in the development of new materials. In particular, strategies for using synthetic biology to produce both organic and inorganic nanomaterials are discussed. Ultimately, synthetic biology holds the potential to dramatically impact biological materials science with significant potential applications in medical systems.

  14. The non-equilibrium and energetic cost of sensory adaptation

    Biological sensory systems respond to external signals in short time and adapt to permanent environmental changes over a longer timescale to maintain high sensitivity in widely varying environments. In this work we have shown how all adaptation dynamics are intrinsically non-equilibrium and free energy is dissipated. We show that the dissipated energy is utilized to maintain adaptation accuracy. A universal relation between the energy dissipation and the optimum adaptation accuracy is established by both a general continuum model and a discrete model i n the specific case of the well-known E. coli chemo-sensory adaptation. Our study suggests that cellular level adaptations are fueled by hydrolysis of high energy biomolecules, such as ATP. The relevance of this work lies on linking the functionality of a biological system (sensory adaptation) with a concept rooted in statistical physics (energy dissipation), by a mathematical law. This has been made possible by identifying a general sensory system with a non-equilibrium steady state (a stationary state in which the probability current is not zero, but its divergence is, see figure), and then numerically and analytically solving the Fokker-Planck and Master Equations which describe the sensory adaptive system. The application of our general results to the case of E. Coli has shed light on why this system uses the high energy SAM molecule to perform adaptation, since using the more common ATP would not suffice to obtain the required adaptation accuracy.

  15. NASA Biological Specimen Repository

    McMonigal, K. A.; Pietrzyk, R. A.; Sams, C. F.; Johnson, M. A.

    2010-01-01

    The NASA Biological Specimen Repository (NBSR) was established in 2006 to collect, process, preserve and distribute spaceflight-related biological specimens from long duration ISS astronauts. This repository provides unique opportunities to study longitudinal changes in human physiology spanning may missions. The NBSR collects blood and urine samples from all participating ISS crewmembers who have provided informed consent. These biological samples are collected once before flight, during flight scheduled on flight days 15, 30, 60, 120 and within 2 weeks of landing. Postflight sessions are conducted 3 and 30 days after landing. The number of in-flight sessions is dependent on the duration of the mission. Specimens are maintained under optimal storage conditions in a manner that will maximize their integrity and viability for future research The repository operates under the authority of the NASA/JSC Committee for the Protection of Human Subjects to support scientific discovery that contributes to our fundamental knowledge in the area of human physiological changes and adaptation to a microgravity environment. The NBSR will institute guidelines for the solicitation, review and sample distribution process through establishment of the NBSR Advisory Board. The Advisory Board will be composed of representatives of all participating space agencies to evaluate each request from investigators for use of the samples. This process will be consistent with ethical principles, protection of crewmember confidentiality, prevailing laws and regulations, intellectual property policies, and consent form language. Operations supporting the NBSR are scheduled to continue until the end of U.S. presence on the ISS. Sample distribution is proposed to begin with selections on investigations beginning in 2017. The availability of the NBSR will contribute to the body of knowledge about the diverse factors of spaceflight on human physiology.

  16. Structural Biology Fact Sheet

    ... Home > Science Education > Structural Biology Fact Sheet Structural Biology Fact Sheet Tagline (Optional) Middle/Main Content Area What is structural biology? Structural biology is a field of science focused ...

  17. Bats in the Classroom: A Conceptual Guide for Biology Teachers.

    Rankin, W. T.; Lewis, Norma G.

    2002-01-01

    Explains how to use bats to introduce different biological concepts such as classification and phylogeny, altruistic behavior, flight, coevolution, or physiological adaptations. Discusses common myths regarding bats and provides information on additional classroom materials. (YDS)

  18. Simulating Biological and Non-Biological Motion

    Bruzzo, Angela; Gesierich, Benno; Wohlschlager, Andreas

    2008-01-01

    It is widely accepted that the brain processes biological and non-biological movements in distinct neural circuits. Biological motion, in contrast to non-biological motion, refers to active movements of living beings. Aim of our experiment was to investigate the mechanisms underlying mental simulation of these two movement types. Subjects had to…

  19. A Brief Introduction to Chinese Biological Biological

    2005-01-01

    Chinese Biological Abstracts sponsored by the Library, the Shanghai Institutes for Biological Sciences, the Biological Documentation and Information Network, all of the Chinese Academy of Sciences, commenced publication in 1987 and was initiated to provide access to the Chinese information in the field of biology.

  20. Adaptive functional evolution of leptin in cold-adaptive pika family

    2008-01-01

    @@ Aresearch team led by Prof.ZHAO Xinquan with the CAS Northwest Institute of Plateau Biology has put forward the viewpoint for the first time that adaptive functional evolution may occur in the leptin protein of the pika (Ochotona) family, a typical coldadaptive mammal.

  1. Hygienic significance of radiostability as measures of adaptive feasibilities

    An attempt is made to substantiate hygienic significance of radiostability analysis as measures of adaptive feasibilities variation under the low dose ionizing radiation effect (IR). Examples of this substantiation are presented. Not only biological radiation effects but social adaptivity problems may be analysed. With more information adaptive feasibilities of human body to radiation factor are extended, its radiostability increases. Analysis of the state of adaptive feasibilities and their development estimation are vital problems of radiation hygiene, the basis for regulation and normalization of radiation factor

  2. Creating biological nanomaterials using synthetic biology

    MaryJoe K Rice; Ruder, Warren C.

    2014-01-01

    Synthetic biology is a new discipline that combines science and engineering approaches to precisely control biological networks. These signaling networks are especially important in fields such as biomedicine and biochemical engineering. Additionally, biological networks can also be critical to the production of naturally occurring biological nanomaterials, and as a result, synthetic biology holds tremendous potential in creating new materials. This review introduces the field of synthetic bi...

  3. Active materials for adaptive architectural envelopes based on plant adaptation principles

    Marlen Lopez

    2015-06-01

    Full Text Available In this paper, the authors present research into adaptive architectural envelopes that adapt to environmental changes using active materials, as a result of application of biomimetic principles from plants to architecture. Buildings use large amounts of energy in order to maintain their internal comfort, because conventional buildings are designed to provide a static design solution. Most of the current solutions for facades are not designed for optimum adaptation to contextual issues and needs, while biological solutions to adaptation are often complex, multi-functional and highly responsive. We focus on plant adaptations to the environment, as, due to their immobility, they have developed special means of protection against weather changing conditions. Furthermore, recent developments in new technologies are allowing the possibility to transfer these plant adaptation strategies to technical implementation. These technologies include: multi-material 3D printing, advances in materials science and new capabilities in simulation software. Unlike traditional mechanical activation used for dynamic systems in kinetic facades, adaptive architectural envelopes require no complex electronics, sensors, or actuators. The paper proposes a research of the relationship that can be developed between active materials and environmental issues in order to propose innovative and low-tech design strategies to achieve living envelopes according to plant adaptation principles.  

  4. Modeling Co-evolution of Speech and Biology.

    de Boer, Bart

    2016-04-01

    Two computer simulations are investigated that model interaction of cultural evolution of language and biological evolution of adaptations to language. Both are agent-based models in which a population of agents imitates each other using realistic vowels. The agents evolve under selective pressure for good imitation. In one model, the evolution of the vocal tract is modeled; in the other, a cognitive mechanism for perceiving speech accurately is modeled. In both cases, biological adaptations to using and learning speech evolve, even though the system of speech sounds itself changes at a more rapid time scale than biological evolution. However, the fact that the available acoustic space is used maximally (a self-organized result of cultural evolution) is constant, and therefore biological evolution does have a stable target. This work shows that when cultural and biological traits are continuous, their co-evolution may lead to cognitive adaptations that are strong enough to detect empirically. PMID:26936622

  5. Modular microfluidic system for biological sample preparation

    Rose, Klint A.; Mariella, Jr., Raymond P.; Bailey, Christopher G.; Ness, Kevin Dean

    2015-09-29

    A reconfigurable modular microfluidic system for preparation of a biological sample including a series of reconfigurable modules for automated sample preparation adapted to selectively include a) a microfluidic acoustic focusing filter module, b) a dielectrophoresis bacteria filter module, c) a dielectrophoresis virus filter module, d) an isotachophoresis nucleic acid filter module, e) a lyses module, and f) an isotachophoresis-based nucleic acid filter.

  6. Origins of adaptive immunity.

    Liongue, Clifford; John, Liza B; Ward, Alister

    2011-01-01

    Adaptive immunity, involving distinctive antibody- and cell-mediated responses to specific antigens based on "memory" of previous exposure, is a hallmark of higher vertebrates. It has been argued that adaptive immunity arose rapidly, as articulated in the "big bang theory" surrounding its origins, which stresses the importance of coincident whole-genome duplications. Through a close examination of the key molecules and molecular processes underpinning adaptive immunity, this review suggests a less-extreme model, in which adaptive immunity emerged as part of longer evolutionary journey. Clearly, whole-genome duplications provided additional raw genetic materials that were vital to the emergence of adaptive immunity, but a variety of other genetic events were also required to generate some of the key molecules, whereas others were preexisting and simply co-opted into adaptive immunity. PMID:21395512

  7. Technology transfer for adaptation

    Biagini, Bonizella; Kuhl, Laura; Gallagher, Kelly Sims; Ortiz, Claudia

    2014-09-01

    Technology alone will not be able to solve adaptation challenges, but it is likely to play an important role. As a result of the role of technology in adaptation and the importance of international collaboration for climate change, technology transfer for adaptation is a critical but understudied issue. Through an analysis of Global Environment Facility-managed adaptation projects, we find there is significantly more technology transfer occurring in adaptation projects than might be expected given the pessimistic rhetoric surrounding technology transfer for adaptation. Most projects focused on demonstration and early deployment/niche formation for existing technologies rather than earlier stages of innovation, which is understandable considering the pilot nature of the projects. Key challenges for the transfer process, including technology selection and appropriateness under climate change, markets and access to technology, and diffusion strategies are discussed in more detail.

  8. Diffusion Adaptation over Networks

    Sayed, Ali H

    2012-01-01

    Adaptive networks are well-suited to perform decentralized information processing and optimization tasks and to model various types of self organized and complex behavior encountered in nature. Adaptive networks consist of a collection of agents with processing and learning abilities. The agents are linked together through a connection topology, and they cooperate with each other through local interactions to solve distributed inference problems in real-time. The continuous diffusion of information across the network enables agents to adapt their performance in relation to changing data and network conditions; it also results in improved adaptation and learning performance relative to non-cooperative networks. This article provides an overview of diffusion strategies for adaptation and learning over networks. The article is divided into several sections: 1. Motivation; 2. Mean-Square-Error Estimation; 3. Distributed Optimization via Diffusion Strategies; 4. Adaptive Diffusion Strategies; 5. Performance of Ste...

  9. Some nonlinear challenges in biology

    Driven by a deluge of data, biology is undergoing a transition to a more quantitative science. Making sense of the data, building new models, asking the right questions and designing smart experiments to answer them are becoming ever more relevant. In this endeavour, nonlinear approaches can play a fundamental role. The biochemical reactions that underlie life are very often nonlinear. The functional features exhibited by biological systems at all levels (from the activity of an enzyme to the organization of a colony of ants, via the development of an organism or a functional module like the one responsible for chemotaxis in bacteria) are dynamically robust. They are often unaffected by order of magnitude variations in the dynamical parameters, in the number or concentrations of actors (molecules, cells, organisms) or external inputs (food, temperature, pH, etc). This type of structural robustness is also a common feature of nonlinear systems, exemplified by the fundamental role played by dynamical fixed points and attractors and by the use of generic equations (logistic map, Fisher–Kolmogorov equation, the Stefan problem, etc.) in the study of a plethora of nonlinear phenomena. However, biological systems differ from these examples in two important ways: the intrinsic stochasticity arising from the often very small number of actors and the role played by evolution. On an evolutionary time scale, nothing in biology is frozen. The systems observed today have evolved from solutions adopted in the past and they will have to adapt in response to future conditions. The evolvability of biological system uniquely characterizes them and is central to biology. As the great biologist T Dobzhansky once wrote: 'nothing in biology makes sense except in the light of evolution'. (open problem)

  10. Consciousness And Adaptive Behavior

    Sieb, Richard/A.

    2005-01-01

    Consciousness has resisted scientific explanation for centuries. The main problem in explaining consciousness is its subjectivity. Subjective systems may be adaptive. Humans can produce voluntary new or novel intentional (adaptive) action and such action is always accompanied by consciousness. Action normally arises from perception. Perception must be rerepresented in order to produce new or novel adaptive action. The internal explicit states produced by a widespread nonlinear emergen...

  11. Human Adaptations: Free divers

    Tournat, Troy Z.

    2014-01-01

    Freediving has been around for thousands of years and was only way to dive until the inventionof oxygen tanks in the 19th century. Around the world, people dove for goods such as pearls, andtoday people freedive for sport. Divers stretch the limit of their body and mind’s capabilitiesthrough psychological adaptations from thermal, respiratory, and cardiovascular responses.Findings conclude that thermal adaptations are a similar process to cold adaptive response. Withthe implementation of wets...

  12. Adaptive Wireless Transceiver Project

    National Aeronautics and Space Administration — Wireless technologies are an increasingly attractive means for spatial data, input, manipulation, and distribution. Mobitrum is proposing an innovative Adaptive...

  13. Decentralized adaptive control

    Oh, B. J.; Jamshidi, M.; Seraji, H.

    1988-01-01

    A decentralized adaptive control is proposed to stabilize and track the nonlinear, interconnected subsystems with unknown parameters. The adaptation of the controller gain is derived by using model reference adaptive control theory based on Lyapunov's direct method. The adaptive gains consist of sigma, proportional, and integral combination of the measured and reference values of the corresponding subsystem. The proposed control is applied to the joint control of a two-link robot manipulator, and the performance in computer simulation corresponds with what is expected in theoretical development.

  14. Adaptive Multimedia Retrieval: Semantics, Context, and Adaptation

    This book constitutes the thoroughly refereed post-conference proceedings of the 10th International Conference on Adaptive Multimedia Retrieval, AMR 2012, held in Copenhagen, Denmark, in October 2012. The 17 revised full papers presented were carefully reviewed and selected from numerous submissi......This book constitutes the thoroughly refereed post-conference proceedings of the 10th International Conference on Adaptive Multimedia Retrieval, AMR 2012, held in Copenhagen, Denmark, in October 2012. The 17 revised full papers presented were carefully reviewed and selected from numerous...

  15. Biology and Mechanics of Blood Flows Part I: Biology

    Thiriet, Marc

    2008-01-01

    Biology and Mechanics of Blood Flows presents the basic knowledge and state-of-the-art techniques necessary to carry out investigations of the cardiovascular system using modeling and simulation. Part I of this two-volume sequence, Biology, addresses the nanoscopic and microscopic scales. The nanoscale corresponds to the scale of biochemical reaction cascades involved in cell adaptation to mechanical stresses among other stimuli. The microscale is the scale of stress-induced tissue remodeling associated with acute or chronic loadings. The cardiovascular system, like any physiological system, has a complicated three-dimensional structure and composition. Its time dependent behavior is regulated, and this complex system has many components. In this authoritative work, the author provides a survey of relevant cell components and processes, with detailed coverage of the electrical and mechanical behaviors of vascular cells, tissues, and organs. Because the behaviors of vascular cells and tissues are tightly coupl...

  16. Adaptive optics for deeper imaging of biological samples.

    Girkin, John M; Poland, Simon; Wright, Amanda J

    2009-02-01

    Optical microscopy has been a cornerstone of life science investigations since its first practical application around 400 years ago with the goal being subcellular resolution, three-dimensional images, at depth, in living samples. Nonlinear microscopy brought this dream a step closer, but as one images more deeply the material through which you image can greatly distort the view. By using optical devices, originally developed for astronomy, whose optical properties can be changed in real time, active compensation for sample-induced aberrations is possible. Submicron resolution images are now routinely recorded from depths over 1mm into tissue. Such active optical elements can also be used to keep conventional microscopes, both confocal and widefield, in optimal alignment. PMID:19272766

  17. Reinforcement Learning Using Local Adaptive Models

    Borga, Magnus

    1995-01-01

    In this thesis, the theory of reinforcement learning is described and its relation to learning in biological systems is discussed. Some basic issues in reinforcement learning, the credit assignment problem and perceptual aliasing, are considered. The methods of temporal difference are described. Three important design issues are discussed: information representation and system architecture, rules for improving the behaviour and rules for the reward mechanisms. The use of local adaptive models...

  18. Cesium stress and adaptation in pseudomonas fluorescens

    Industrialization and acid rain have led to a marked increment on the bioavailability of numerous metals. These metallic pollutants pose a serious threat to the ecosystem due to their ability to interact negatively with living organisms. Thus, considerable effort has been directed towards the development of environmentally-friendly technologies tailored to the management of metal wastes. As microbes are known to adapt to most environmental stresses, they constitute organisms of choice in the study of molecular adaptation processes. The adaptive features may be subsequently engineered for biotechnological applications. Cesium, a monovalent metal with chemical similarities to potassium but no know essential biological function has become a cause of environmental concern owing to its accidental release from the Chernobyl nuclear accident. This study examines the impact of cesium on the soil microbe Pseudomonas fluorescensts, and discusses the possibilities of its use in management of this nuclear waste. 15 refs., 3 figs

  19. Fundamentals of adaptive signal processing

    Uncini, Aurelio

    2015-01-01

    This book is an accessible guide to adaptive signal processing methods that equips the reader with advanced theoretical and practical tools for the study and development of circuit structures and provides robust algorithms relevant to a wide variety of application scenarios. Examples include multimodal and multimedia communications, the biological and biomedical fields, economic models, environmental sciences, acoustics, telecommunications, remote sensing, monitoring, and, in general, the modeling and prediction of complex physical phenomena. The reader will learn not only how to design and implement the algorithms but also how to evaluate their performance for specific applications utilizing the tools provided. While using a simple mathematical language, the employed approach is very rigorous. The text will be of value both for research purposes and for courses of study.

  20. A Paradigm Shift in Biology?

    Gennaro Auletta

    2010-09-01

    Full Text Available All new developments in biology deal with the issue of the complexity of organisms, often pointing out the necessity to update our current understanding. However, it is impossible to think about a change of paradigm in biology without introducing new explanatory mechanisms. I shall introduce the mechanisms of teleonomy and teleology as viable explanatory tools. Teleonomy is the ability of organisms to build themselves through internal forces and processes (in the expression of the genetic program and not external ones, implying a freedom relative to the exterior; however, the organism is able to integrate internal and external constraints in a process of co-adaptation. Teleology is that mechanism through which an organism exercises an informational control on another system in order to establish an equivalence class and select some specific information for its metabolic needs. Finally, I shall examine some interesting processes in phylogeny, ontogeny, and epigeny in which these two mechanisms are involved.

  1. Biological effects of radiation

    This fourth chapter presents: cell structure and metabolism; radiation interaction with biological tissues; steps of the production of biological effect of radiation; radiosensitivity of tissues; classification of biological effects; reversibility, transmissivity and influence factors; pre-natal biological effects; biological effects in therapy and syndrome of acute irradiation

  2. Adaptive Capacity and Traps

    William A. Brock

    2008-12-01

    Full Text Available Adaptive capacity is the ability of a living system, such as a social–ecological system, to adjust responses to changing internal demands and external drivers. Although adaptive capacity is a frequent topic of study in the resilience literature, there are few formal models. This paper introduces such a model and uses it to explore adaptive capacity by contrast with the opposite condition, or traps. In a social–ecological rigidity trap, strong self-reinforcing controls prevent the flexibility needed for adaptation. In the model, too much control erodes adaptive capacity and thereby increases the risk of catastrophic breakdown. In a social–ecological poverty trap, loose connections prevent the mobilization of ideas and resources to solve problems. In the model, too little control impedes the focus needed for adaptation. Fluctuations of internal demand or external shocks generate pulses of adaptive capacity, which may gain traction and pull the system out of the poverty trap. The model suggests some general properties of traps in social–ecological systems. It is general and flexible, so it can be used as a building block in more specific and detailed models of adaptive capacity for a particular region.

  3. Behavioral Adaptation and Acceptance

    Martens, M.H.; Jenssen, G.D.

    2012-01-01

    One purpose of Intelligent Vehicles is to improve road safety, throughput, and emissions. However, the predicted effects are not always as large as aimed for. Part of this is due to indirect behavioral changes of drivers, also called behavioral adaptation. Behavioral adaptation (BA) refers to uninte

  4. Behavioural adaptation and acceptance

    Martens, M.H.; Jenssen, G.D.; Eskandarian, A.

    2012-01-01

    One purpose of Intelligent Vehicles is to improve road safety, throughput, and emissions. However, the predicted effects are not always as large as aimed for. Part of this is due to indirect behavioral changes of drivers, also called behavioral adaptation. Behavioral adaptation (BA) refers to uninte

  5. Effective Population Size Is Positively Correlated with Levels of Adaptive Divergence among Annual Sunflowers

    Strasburg, Jared L.; Kane, Nolan C.; Raduski, Andrew R.; Bonin, Aurélie; Michelmore, Richard; Rieseberg, Loren H.

    2010-01-01

    The role of adaptation in the divergence of lineages has long been a central question in evolutionary biology, and as multilocus sequence data sets have become available for a wide range of taxa, empirical estimates of levels of adaptive molecular evolution are increasingly common. Estimates vary widely among taxa, with high levels of adaptive evolution in Drosophila, bacteria, and viruses but very little evidence of widespread adaptive evolution in hominids. Although estimates in plants are ...

  6. Appraising Adaptive Management

    Kai N. Lee

    1999-12-01

    Full Text Available Adaptive management is appraised as a policy implementation approach by examining its conceptual, technical, equity, and practical strengths and limitations. Three conclusions are drawn: (1 Adaptive management has been more influential, so far, as an idea than as a practical means of gaining insight into the behavior of ecosystems utilized and inhabited by humans. (2 Adaptive management should be used only after disputing parties have agreed to an agenda of questions to be answered using the adaptive approach; this is not how the approach has been used. (3 Efficient, effective social learning, of the kind facilitated by adaptive management, is likely to be of strategic importance in governing ecosystems as humanity searches for a sustainable economy.

  7. Adapt or Become Extinct!

    Goumas, Georgios; McKee, Sally A.; Själander, Magnus;

    2011-01-01

    boundaries (walls) for applications which limit software development (parallel programming wall), performance (memory wall, communication wall) and viability (power wall). The only way to survive in such a demanding environment is by adaptation. In this paper we discuss how dynamic information collected...... during the execution of an application can be utilized to adapt the execution context and may lead to performance gains beyond those provided by static information and compile-time adaptation. We consider specialization based on dynamic information like user input, architectural characteristics such as...... from static analysis (either during ahead-of-time or just-in-time) compilation. We extend the notion of information-driven adaptation and outline the architecture of an infrastructure designed to enable information ow and adaptation throughout the life-cycle of an application....

  8. Adaptive noise cancellation

    In this report we describe the concept of adaptive noise canceling, an alternative method of estimating signals corrupted by additive noise of interference. The method uses 'primary' input containing the corrupted signal and a 'reference' input containing noise correlated in some unknown way with the primary noise, the reference input is adaptively filtered and subtracted from the primary input to obtain the signal estimate. Adaptive filtering before subtraction allows the treatment of inputs that are deterministic or stochastic, stationary or time variable. When the reference input is free of signal and certain other conditions are met then noise in the primary input can be essentially eliminated without signal distortion. It is further shown that the adaptive filter also acts as notch filter. Simulated results illustrate the usefulness of the adaptive noise canceling technique. (author)

  9. Adaptive signal processor

    An experimental, general purpose adaptive signal processor system has been developed, utilizing a quantized (clipped) version of the Widrow-Hoff least-mean-square adaptive algorithm developed by Moschner. The system accommodates 64 adaptive weight channels with 8-bit resolution for each weight. Internal weight update arithmetic is performed with 16-bit resolution, and the system error signal is measured with 12-bit resolution. An adapt cycle of adjusting all 64 weight channels is accomplished in 8 μsec. Hardware of the signal processor utilizes primarily Schottky-TTL type integrated circuits. A prototype system with 24 weight channels has been constructed and tested. This report presents details of the system design and describes basic experiments performed with the prototype signal processor. Finally some system configurations and applications for this adaptive signal processor are discussed

  10. Systems Biology of Industrial Microorganisms

    Papini, Marta; Salazar, Margarita; Nielsen, Jens

    The field of industrial biotechnology is expanding rapidly as the chemical industry is looking towards more sustainable production of chemicals that can be used as fuels or building blocks for production of solvents and materials. In connection with the development of sustainable bioprocesses, it is a major challenge to design and develop efficient cell factories that can ensure cost efficient conversion of the raw material into the chemical of interest. This is achieved through metabolic engineering, where the metabolism of the cell factory is engineered such that there is an efficient conversion of sugars, the typical raw materials in the fermentation industry, into the desired product. However, engineering of cellular metabolism is often challenging due to the complex regulation that has evolved in connection with adaptation of the different microorganisms to their ecological niches. In order to map these regulatory structures and further de-regulate them, as well as identify ingenious metabolic engineering strategies that full-fill mass balance constraints, tools from systems biology can be applied. This involves both high-throughput analysis tools like transcriptome, proteome and metabolome analysis, as well as the use of mathematical modeling to simulate the phenotypes resulting from the different metabolic engineering strategies. It is in fact expected that systems biology may substantially improve the process of cell factory development, and we therefore propose the term Industrial Systems Biology for how systems biology will enhance the development of industrial biotechnology for sustainable chemical production.

  11. The Adapting Mind in the Genomic Era.

    Fieder, Martin; Huber, Susanne

    2016-01-01

    Genomics and molecular biology has added substantial methods and knowledge to nearly all fields of biology and medicine. In this review we try to demonstrate how genomics and molecular biology is also on the way to have a profound impact on behavioral anthropology, evolutionary psychology, evolutionary sociology, and bio-sociology. We propose that particularly studies on "selection and adaptation" will be influenced profoundly by genomics, for instance via identification of the partially genetic basis of human behavior by "candidate gene studies" and by "genome wide association studies." In addition, epigenetics will lead to a deeper study of the interaction of the genetic basis of a behavior and its environmental regulation. We argue that the "genomic revolution" is much more than merely a new methodological approach, but will change our concepts of human behavior and its development in the evolution of homo. PMID:26869977

  12. Nonequilibrium Enhances Adaptation Efficiency of Stochastic Biochemical Systems.

    Chen Jia

    Full Text Available Adaptation is a crucial biological function possessed by many sensory systems. Early work has shown that some influential equilibrium models can achieve accurate adaptation. However, recent studies indicate that there are close relationships between adaptation and nonequilibrium. In this paper, we provide an explanation of these two seemingly contradictory results based on Markov models with relatively simple networks. We show that as the nonequilibrium driving becomes stronger, the system under consideration will undergo a phase transition along a fixed direction: from non-adaptation to simple adaptation then to oscillatory adaptation, while the transition in the opposite direction is forbidden. This indicates that although adaptation may be observed in equilibrium systems, it tends to occur in systems far away from equilibrium. In addition, we find that nonequilibrium will improve the performance of adaptation by enhancing the adaptation efficiency. All these results provide a deeper insight into the connection between adaptation and nonequilibrium. Finally, we use a more complicated network model of bacterial chemotaxis to validate the main results of this paper.

  13. Cross-Category Adaptation: Objects Produce Gender Adaptation in the Perception of Faces

    Javadi, A. H.; Wee, N.

    2012-01-01

    Adaptation aftereffects have been found for low-level visual features such as colour, motion and shape perception, as well as higher-level features such as gender, race and identity in domains such as faces and biological motion. It is not yet clear if adaptation effects in humans extend beyond this set of higher order features. The aim of this study was to investigate whether objects highly associated with one gender, e.g. high heels for females or electric shavers for males can modulate gen...

  14. The process of organisational adaptation through innovations, and organisational adaptability

    Tikka, Tommi

    2010-01-01

    This study is about the process of organisational adaptation and organisational adaptability. The study generates a theoretical framework about organisational adaptation behaviour and conditions that have influence on success of organisational adaptation. The research questions of the study are: How does an organisation adapt through innovations, and which conditions enhance or impede organisational adaptation through innovations? The data were gathered from five case organisations withi...

  15. [Adaptive optics for ophthalmology].

    Saleh, M

    2016-04-01

    Adaptive optics is a technology enhancing the visual performance of an optical system by correcting its optical aberrations. Adaptive optics have already enabled several breakthroughs in the field of visual sciences, such as improvement of visual acuity in normal and diseased eyes beyond physiologic limits, and the correction of presbyopia. Adaptive optics technology also provides high-resolution, in vivo imaging of the retina that may eventually help to detect the onset of retinal conditions at an early stage and provide better assessment of treatment efficacy. PMID:27019970

  16. Theory of adaptive adjustment

    Weihong Huang

    2000-01-01

    Full Text Available Conventional adaptive expectation as a mechanism of stabilizing an unstable economic process is reexamined through a generalization to an adaptive adjustment framework. The generic structures of equilibria that can be stabilized through an adaptive adjustment mechanism are identified. The generalization can be applied to a broad class of discrete economic processes where the variables interested can be adjusted or controlled directly by economic agents such as in cobweb dynamics, Cournot games, Oligopoly markets, tatonnement price adjustment, tariff games, population control through immigration etc.

  17. Symmetry Adapted Basis Sets

    Avery, John Scales; Rettrup, Sten; Avery, James Emil

    In theoretical physics, theoretical chemistry and engineering, one often wishes to solve partial differential equations subject to a set of boundary conditions. This gives rise to eigenvalue problems of which some solutions may be very difficult to find. For example, the problem of finding...... such problems can be much reduced by making use of symmetry-adapted basis functions. The conventional method for generating symmetry-adapted basis sets is through the application of group theory, but this can be difficult. This book describes an easier method for generating symmetry-adapted basis sets...

  18. Adaptive network countermeasures.

    McClelland-Bane, Randy; Van Randwyk, Jamie A.; Carathimas, Anthony G.; Thomas, Eric D.

    2003-10-01

    This report describes the results of a two-year LDRD funded by the Differentiating Technologies investment area. The project investigated the use of countermeasures in protecting computer networks as well as how current countermeasures could be changed in order to adapt with both evolving networks and evolving attackers. The work involved collaboration between Sandia employees and students in the Sandia - California Center for Cyber Defenders (CCD) program. We include an explanation of the need for adaptive countermeasures, a description of the architecture we designed to provide adaptive countermeasures, and evaluations of the system.

  19. Introduction to adaptive arrays

    Monzingo, Bob; Haupt, Randy

    2011-01-01

    This second edition is an extensive modernization of the bestselling introduction to the subject of adaptive array sensor systems. With the number of applications of adaptive array sensor systems growing each year, this look at the principles and fundamental techniques that are critical to these systems is more important than ever before. Introduction to Adaptive Arrays, 2nd Edition is organized as a tutorial, taking the reader by the hand and leading them through the maze of jargon that often surrounds this highly technical subject. It is easy to read and easy to follow as fundamental concept

  20. Adaptive model based control for wastewater treatment plants

    Niet, de, A.; Vrugt, van de, Noëlle Maria; Korving, Hans; Boucherie, Richard J.; Savic, D.A.; Kapelan, Z.; Butler, D.

    2011-01-01

    In biological wastewater treatment, nitrogen and phosphorous are removed by activated sludge. The process requires oxygen input via aeration of the activated sludge tank. Aeration is responsible for about 60% of the energy consumption of a treatment plant. Hence optimization of aeration can contribute considerably to the increase of energy-efficiency in wastewater treatment. To this end, we introduce an adaptive model based control strategy for aeration called adaptive WOMBAT. The strategy is...

  1. Evolutionary adaptation to high altitude: a view from in utero

    Julian, Colleen Glyde; Wilson, Megan J.; Moore, Lorna G.

    2009-01-01

    A primary focus within biological anthropology has been to elucidate the processes of evolutionary adaptation. A. Roberto Frisancho helped move anthropology towards more mechanistic explanations of human adaptation by drawing attention to the importance of the functional relevance of human variation. Using the natural laboratory of high altitude, he and others asked whether the unique physiology of indigenous high-altitude residents was the result of acclimatization, developmental plasticity ...

  2. Non-specific Adaptive Reactions of Athletes: Evaluation and Correction

    K. N. Naumova

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available This work studies changes in non-specific adaptive reactions (NSAR of athletes who practice Wushu and Qigong and take Kladorod, a biological product made from plant material. The results of our study demonstrate the effectiveness of Kladorod as a remedy to enhance adaptive capacity with the possibility of application for training of athletes without any restrictions within the criteria of doping control.

  3. Remarks on Feedforward Circuits, Adaptation, and Pulse Memory

    Sontag, Eduardo D.

    2008-01-01

    This note studies feedforward circuits as models for perfect adaptation to step signals in biological systems. A global convergence theorem is proved in a general framework, which includes examples from the literature as particular cases. A notable aspect of these circuits is that they do not adapt to pulse signals, because they display a memory phenomenon. Estimates are given of the magnitude of this effect.

  4. Systems biology and mechanics of growth.

    Eskandari, Mona; Kuhl, Ellen

    2015-01-01

    In contrast to inert systems, living biological systems have the advantage to adapt to their environment through growth and evolution. This transfiguration is evident during embryonic development, when the predisposed need to grow allows form to follow function. Alterations in the equilibrium state of biological systems breed disease and mutation in response to environmental triggers. The need to characterize the growth of biological systems to better understand these phenomena has motivated the continuum theory of growth and stimulated the development of computational tools in systems biology. Biological growth in development and disease is increasingly studied using the framework of morphoelasticity. Here, we demonstrate the potential for morphoelastic simulations through examples of volume, area, and length growth, inspired by tumor expansion, chronic bronchitis, brain development, intestine formation, plant shape, and myopia. We review the systems biology of living systems in light of biochemical and optical stimuli and classify different types of growth to facilitate the design of growth models for various biological systems within this generic framework. Exploring the systems biology of growth introduces a new venue to control and manipulate embryonic development, disease progression, and clinical intervention. PMID:26352286

  5. Adaptive Spectral Doppler Estimation

    Gran, Fredrik; Jakobsson, Andreas; Jensen, Jørgen Arendt

    2009-01-01

    In this paper, 2 adaptive spectral estimation techniques are analyzed for spectral Doppler ultrasound. The purpose is to minimize the observation window needed to estimate the spectrogram to provide a better temporal resolution and gain more flexibility when designing the data acquisition sequence....... The methods can also provide better quality of the estimated power spectral density (PSD) of the blood signal. Adaptive spectral estimation techniques are known to pro- vide good spectral resolution and contrast even when the ob- servation window is very short. The 2 adaptive techniques are tested and...... compared with the averaged periodogram (Welch’s method). The blood power spectral capon (BPC) method is based on a standard minimum variance technique adapted to account for both averaging over slow-time and depth. The blood amplitude and phase estimation technique (BAPES) is based on finding a set of...

  6. Adaptive multiresolution methods

    Schneider Kai

    2011-12-01

    Full Text Available These lecture notes present adaptive multiresolution schemes for evolutionary PDEs in Cartesian geometries. The discretization schemes are based either on finite volume or finite difference schemes. The concept of multiresolution analyses, including Harten’s approach for point and cell averages, is described in some detail. Then the sparse point representation method is discussed. Different strategies for adaptive time-stepping, like local scale dependent time stepping and time step control, are presented. Numerous numerical examples in one, two and three space dimensions validate the adaptive schemes and illustrate the accuracy and the gain in computational efficiency in terms of CPU time and memory requirements. Another aspect, modeling of turbulent flows using multiresolution decompositions, the so-called Coherent Vortex Simulation approach is also described and examples are given for computations of three-dimensional weakly compressible mixing layers. Most of the material concerning applications to PDEs is assembled and adapted from previous publications [27, 31, 32, 34, 67, 69].

  7. Adaptive Heat Engine

    Allahverdyan, A. E.; Babajanyan, S. G.; Martirosyan, N. H.; Melkikh, A. V.

    2016-07-01

    A major limitation of many heat engines is that their functioning demands on-line control and/or an external fitting between the environmental parameters (e.g., temperatures of thermal baths) and internal parameters of the engine. We study a model for an adaptive heat engine, where—due to feedback from the functional part—the engine's structure adapts to given thermal baths. Hence, no on-line control and no external fitting are needed. The engine can employ unknown resources; it can also adapt to results of its own functioning that make the bath temperatures closer. We determine resources of adaptation and relate them to the prior information available about the environment.

  8. Adaptive shared control system

    Sanders, David

    2009-01-01

    A control system to aid mobility is presented that is intended to assist living independently and that provides physical guidance. The system has two levels: a human machine interface and an adaptive shared controller.

  9. Adaptations, exaptations, and spandrels.

    Buss, D M; Haselton, M G; Shackelford, T K; Bleske, A L; Wakefield, J C

    1998-05-01

    Adaptation and natural selection are central concepts in the emerging science of evolutionary psychology. Natural selection is the only known causal process capable of producing complex functional organic mechanisms. These adaptations, along with their incidental by-products and a residue of noise, comprise all forms of life. Recently, S. J. Gould (1991) proposed that exaptations and spandrels may be more important than adaptations for evolutionary psychology. These refer to features that did not originally arise for their current use but rather were co-opted for new purposes. He suggested that many important phenomena--such as art, language, commerce, and war--although evolutionary in origin, are incidental spandrels of the large human brain. The authors outline the conceptual and evidentiary standards that apply to adaptations, exaptations, and spandrels and discuss the relative utility of these concepts for psychological science. PMID:9612136

  10. Adapt or Die

    Brody, Joshua Eric; Larsen, Kasper Green

    2015-01-01

    In this paper, we study the role non-adaptivity plays in maintaining dynamic data structures. Roughly speaking, a data structure is non-adaptive if the memory locations it reads and/or writes when processing a query or update depend only on the query or update and not on the contents of previously...... read cells. We study such non-adaptive data structures in the cell probe model. This model is one of the least restrictive lower bound models and in particular, cell probe lower bounds apply to data structures developed in the popular word-RAM model. Unfortunately, this generality comes at a high cost......: the highest lower bound proved for any data structure problem is only polylogarithmic. Our main result is to demonstrate that one can in fact obtain polynomial cell probe lower bounds for non-adaptive data structures. To shed more light on the seemingly inherent polylogarithmic lower bound barrier, we...

  11. Adaptive Space Structures

    Wada, B.

    1993-01-01

    The term adaptive structures refers to a structural control approach in which sensors, actuators, electronics, materials, structures, structural concepts, and system-performance-validation strategies are integrated to achieve specific objectives.

  12. Asimovian Adaptive Agents

    Gordon, D F

    2011-01-01

    The goal of this research is to develop agents that are adaptive and predictable and timely. At first blush, these three requirements seem contradictory. For example, adaptation risks introducing undesirable side effects, thereby making agents' behavior less predictable. Furthermore, although formal verification can assist in ensuring behavioral predictability, it is known to be time-consuming. Our solution to the challenge of satisfying all three requirements is the following. Agents have finite-state automaton plans, which are adapted online via evolutionary learning (perturbation) operators. To ensure that critical behavioral constraints are always satisfied, agents' plans are first formally verified. They are then reverified after every adaptation. If reverification concludes that constraints are violated, the plans are repaired. The main objective of this paper is to improve the efficiency of reverification after learning, so that agents have a sufficiently rapid response time. We present two solutions: ...

  13. Limits to adaptation

    Dow, Kirstin; Berkhout, Frans; Preston, Benjamin L.; Klein, Richard J. T.; Midgley, Guy; Shaw, M. Rebecca

    2013-04-01

    An actor-centered, risk-based approach to defining limits to social adaptation provides a useful analytic framing for identifying and anticipating these limits and informing debates over society's responses to climate change.

  14. The genomics of adaptation.

    Radwan, Jacek; Babik, Wiesław

    2012-12-22

    The amount and nature of genetic variation available to natural selection affect the rate, course and outcome of evolution. Consequently, the study of the genetic basis of adaptive evolutionary change has occupied biologists for decades, but progress has been hampered by the lack of resolution and the absence of a genome-level perspective. Technological advances in recent years should now allow us to answer many long-standing questions about the nature of adaptation. The data gathered so far are beginning to challenge some widespread views of the way in which natural selection operates at the genomic level. Papers in this Special Feature of Proceedings of the Royal Society B illustrate various aspects of the broad field of adaptation genomics. This introductory article sets up a context and, on the basis of a few selected examples, discusses how genomic data can advance our understanding of the process of adaptation. PMID:23097510

  15. Adaptive Architectural Envelope

    Foged, Isak Worre; Kirkegaard, Poul Henning

    2010-01-01

    Recent years have seen an increasing variety of applications of adaptive architectural structures for improvement of structural performance by recognizing changes in their environments and loads, adapting to meet goals, and using past events to improve future performance or maintain serviceability....... The general scopes of this paper are to develop a new adaptive kinetic architectural structure, particularly a reconfigurable architectural structure which can transform body shape from planar geometries to hyper-surfaces using different control strategies, i.e. a transformation into more than one or...... two different shape alternatives. The adaptive structure is a proposal for a responsive building envelope which is an idea of a first level operational framework for present and future investigations towards performance based responsive architectures through a set of responsive typologies. A mock- up...

  16. Adaptive trial designs.

    Lai, Tze Leung; Lavori, Philip William; Shih, Mei-Chiung

    2012-01-01

    We review adaptive designs for clinical trials, giving special attention to the control of the Type I error in late-phase confirmatory trials, when the trial planner wishes to adjust the final sample size of the study in response to an unblinded analysis of interim estimates of treatment effects. We point out that there is considerable inefficiency in using the adaptive designs that employ conditional power calculations to reestimate the sample size and that maintain the Type I error by using certain weighted test statistics. Although these adaptive designs have little advantage over familiar group-sequential designs, our review also describes recent developments in adaptive designs that are both flexible and efficient. We also discuss the use of Bayesian designs, when the context of use demands control over operating characteristics (Type I and II errors) and correction of the bias of estimated treatment effects. PMID:21838549

  17. Biological Effects of Ionizing Radiation

    The aim of this work is to verify the existence of the adaptive response phenomenon induced by low doses of ionizing radiation in living cells.A wild-type yeast Saccharomyces cerevisiae (Baker's yeast) was chosen as the biological target.As a parameter to quantify the sensibility of the target to radiation, the Lethal Dose 50 (LD50 ) was observed. In our experimental condition a value of (60 ± 1) Gy was measured for LD50 with Dose Rate of (0.44 ± 0.03) Gy/min. The method employed to show up the adaptive response phenomenon consisted in exposing the sample to low ''conditioning'' doses, which would initiate these mechanisms. Later the samples with and without conditioning were exposed to higher ''challenging'' doses (such as LD50), and the surviving fractions were compared. In order to maximize the differences, the doses and the time between irradiations were varied. The best results were obtained with both a conditioning dose of (0.44 ± 0.03) Gy and a waiting time of 2 hs until the application of the challenging dose. Following this procedures the 80% of the conditioned samples has survived, after receiving the application of the LD50. The adaptive response phenomenon was also verified for a wide range of challenging doses

  18. Leak test adapter for containers

    Hallett, Brian H.; Hartley, Michael S.

    1996-01-01

    An adapter is provided for facilitating the charging of containers and leak testing penetration areas. The adapter comprises an adapter body and stem which are secured to the container's penetration areas. The container is then pressurized with a tracer gas. Manipulating the adapter stem installs a penetration plug allowing the adapter to be removed and the penetration to be leak tested with a mass spectrometer. Additionally, a method is provided for using the adapter.

  19. Robust Adaptive Control

    Narendra, K. S.; Annaswamy, A. M.

    1985-01-01

    Several concepts and results in robust adaptive control are are discussed and is organized in three parts. The first part surveys existing algorithms. Different formulations of the problem and theoretical solutions that have been suggested are reviewed here. The second part contains new results related to the role of persistent excitation in robust adaptive systems and the use of hybrid control to improve robustness. In the third part promising new areas for future research are suggested which combine different approaches currently known.

  20. Climate Adaptation in Europe

    At the Conference of Parties in Copenhagen, Denmark, December 7-18, 2009 Change Magazine will present a special issue on 'Climate Adaptation in Europe'. The magazine contains articles on climate policy strategies in European countries and cross-border studies on climate change, articles on climate adaptation in the Alps, on water quality as a bottleneck for the agricultural sector, and drought in the mediterranean countries. How will member countries in the European Union tackle the climate crisis?.

  1. Frustratingly Easy Domain Adaptation

    Daumé, Hal

    2009-01-01

    We describe an approach to domain adaptation that is appropriate exactly in the case when one has enough ``target'' data to do slightly better than just using only ``source'' data. Our approach is incredibly simple, easy to implement as a preprocessing step (10 lines of Perl!) and outperforms state-of-the-art approaches on a range of datasets. Moreover, it is trivially extended to a multi-domain adaptation problem, where one has data from a variety of different domains.

  2. Adaptive quantum teleportation

    Modlawska, Joanna; Grudka, Andrzej

    2008-01-01

    We consider multiple teleportation in the Knill-Laflamme-Milburn (KLM) scheme. We introduce adaptive teleportation, i.e., such that the choice of entangled state used in the next teleportation depends on the results of the measurements performed during the previous teleportations. We show that adaptive teleportation enables an increase in the probability of faithful multiple teleportation in the KLM scheme. In particular if a qubit is to be teleported more than once then it is better to use n...

  3. The Adaptive Automation Design

    Calefato, Caterina; Montanari, Roberto; TESAURI, Francesco

    2008-01-01

    After considering the positive effects of adaptive automation implementation, this chapter focuses on two partly overlapping phenomena: on the one hand, the role of trust in automation is considered, particularly as to the effects of overtrust and mistrust in automation's reliability; on the other hand, long-term lack of exercise on specific operation may lead users to skill deterioration. As a future work, it will be interesting and challenging to explore the conjunction of adaptive automati...

  4. The genomics of adaptation

    Radwan, Jacek; Babik, Wiesław

    2012-01-01

    The amount and nature of genetic variation available to natural selection affect the rate, course and outcome of evolution. Consequently, the study of the genetic basis of adaptive evolutionary change has occupied biologists for decades, but progress has been hampered by the lack of resolution and the absence of a genome-level perspective. Technological advances in recent years should now allow us to answer many long-standing questions about the nature of adaptation. The data gathered so far ...

  5. Facilitation of CRISPR adaptation

    Abedon, Stephen T.

    2011-01-01

    CRISPR systems, as bacterial defenses against phages, logically must display in their functioning a sequence of at least three major steps. These, in order of occurrence, are “facilitation,” adaptation and interference, where the facilitation step is the main issue considered in this commentary. Interference is the blocking of phage infections as mediated in part by CRISPR spacer sequences. Adaptation, at least as narrowly defined, is the acquisition of these spacer sequences by CRISPR loci. ...

  6. Network and adaptive sampling

    Chaudhuri, Arijit

    2014-01-01

    Combining the two statistical techniques of network sampling and adaptive sampling, this book illustrates the advantages of using them in tandem to effectively capture sparsely located elements in unknown pockets. It shows how network sampling is a reliable guide in capturing inaccessible entities through linked auxiliaries. The text also explores how adaptive sampling is strengthened in information content through subsidiary sampling with devices to mitigate unmanageable expanding sample sizes. Empirical data illustrates the applicability of both methods.

  7. Opportunistic Adaptation Knowledge Discovery

    Badra, Fadi; Cordier, Amélie; Lieber, Jean

    2009-01-01

    The original publication is available at www.springerlink.com International audience Adaptation has long been considered as the Achilles' heel of case-based reasoning since it requires some domain-specific knowledge that is difficult to acquire. In this paper, two strategies are combined in order to reduce the knowledge engineering cost induced by the adaptation knowledge (CA) acquisition task: CA is learned from the case base by the means of knowledge discovery techniques, and the CA a...

  8. Learning to Adapt. Organisational Adaptation to Climate Change Impacts

    Analysis of human adaptation to climate change should be based on realistic models of adaptive behaviour at the level of organisations and individuals. The paper sets out a framework for analysing adaptation to the direct and indirect impacts of climate change in business organisations with new evidence presented from empirical research into adaptation in nine case-study companies. It argues that adaptation to climate change has many similarities with processes of organisational learning. The paper suggests that business organisations face a number of obstacles in learning how to adapt to climate change impacts, especially in relation to the weakness and ambiguity of signals about climate change and the uncertainty about benefits flowing from adaptation measures. Organisations rarely adapt 'autonomously', since their adaptive behaviour is influenced by policy and market conditions, and draws on resources external to the organisation. The paper identifies four adaptation strategies that pattern organisational adaptive behaviour

  9. A first attempt to bring computational biology into advanced high school biology classrooms.

    Suzanne Renick Gallagher

    2011-10-01

    Full Text Available Computer science has become ubiquitous in many areas of biological research, yet most high school and even college students are unaware of this. As a result, many college biology majors graduate without adequate computational skills for contemporary fields of biology. The absence of a computational element in secondary school biology classrooms is of growing concern to the computational biology community and biology teachers who would like to acquaint their students with updated approaches in the discipline. We present a first attempt to correct this absence by introducing a computational biology element to teach genetic evolution into advanced biology classes in two local high schools. Our primary goal was to show students how computation is used in biology and why a basic understanding of computation is necessary for research in many fields of biology. This curriculum is intended to be taught by a computational biologist who has worked with a high school advanced biology teacher to adapt the unit for his/her classroom, but a motivated high school teacher comfortable with mathematics and computing may be able to teach this alone. In this paper, we present our curriculum, which takes into consideration the constraints of the required curriculum, and discuss our experiences teaching it. We describe the successes and challenges we encountered while bringing this unit to high school students, discuss how we addressed these challenges, and make suggestions for future versions of this curriculum.We believe that our curriculum can be a valuable seed for further development of computational activities aimed at high school biology students. Further, our experiences may be of value to others teaching computational biology at this level. Our curriculum can be obtained at http://ecsite.cs.colorado.edu/?page_id=149#biology or by contacting the authors.

  10. Adaptation and perceptual norms

    Webster, Michael A.; Yasuda, Maiko; Haber, Sara; Leonard, Deanne; Ballardini, Nicole

    2007-02-01

    We used adaptation to examine the relationship between perceptual norms--the stimuli observers describe as psychologically neutral, and response norms--the stimulus levels that leave visual sensitivity in a neutral or balanced state. Adapting to stimuli on opposite sides of a neutral point (e.g. redder or greener than white) biases appearance in opposite ways. Thus the adapting stimulus can be titrated to find the unique adapting level that does not bias appearance. We compared these response norms to subjectively defined neutral points both within the same observer (at different retinal eccentricities) and between observers. These comparisons were made for visual judgments of color, image focus, and human faces, stimuli that are very different and may depend on very different levels of processing, yet which share the property that for each there is a well defined and perceptually salient norm. In each case the adaptation aftereffects were consistent with an underlying sensitivity basis for the perceptual norm. Specifically, response norms were similar to and thus covaried with the perceptual norm, and under common adaptation differences between subjectively defined norms were reduced. These results are consistent with models of norm-based codes and suggest that these codes underlie an important link between visual coding and visual experience.