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Sample records for adaptation and use of specific materials

  1. Adaptive Assessments Using Open Specifications

    Leon, Hector Barbosa; Garcia-Penalvo, Francisco J.; Rodriguez-Conde, Maria Jose; Morales, Erla M.; de Pablos, Patricia Ordonez

    2012-01-01

    Evaluation is a key element in formal education processes; it must be constructed in a way that the item questions within help students understand by adapting them to the learning style as well. The focus of the present research work specifically in the convenience to adapt an associated multimedia material in each single question besides the…

  2. Non-specific Adaptive Reactions of Athletes: Evaluation and Correction

    K. N. Naumova

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available This work studies changes in non-specific adaptive reactions (NSAR of athletes who practice Wushu and Qigong and take Kladorod, a biological product made from plant material. The results of our study demonstrate the effectiveness of Kladorod as a remedy to enhance adaptive capacity with the possibility of application for training of athletes without any restrictions within the criteria of doping control.

  3. A Predictive Model of Fragmentation using Adaptive Mesh Refinement and a Hierarchical Material Model

    Koniges, A E; Masters, N D; Fisher, A C; Anderson, R W; Eder, D C; Benson, D; Kaiser, T B; Gunney, B T; Wang, P; Maddox, B R; Hansen, J F; Kalantar, D H; Dixit, P; Jarmakani, H; Meyers, M A

    2009-03-03

    Fragmentation is a fundamental material process that naturally spans spatial scales from microscopic to macroscopic. We developed a mathematical framework using an innovative combination of hierarchical material modeling (HMM) and adaptive mesh refinement (AMR) to connect the continuum to microstructural regimes. This framework has been implemented in a new multi-physics, multi-scale, 3D simulation code, NIF ALE-AMR. New multi-material volume fraction and interface reconstruction algorithms were developed for this new code, which is leading the world effort in hydrodynamic simulations that combine AMR with ALE (Arbitrary Lagrangian-Eulerian) techniques. The interface reconstruction algorithm is also used to produce fragments following material failure. In general, the material strength and failure models have history vector components that must be advected along with other properties of the mesh during remap stage of the ALE hydrodynamics. The fragmentation models are validated against an electromagnetically driven expanding ring experiment and dedicated laser-based fragmentation experiments conducted at the Jupiter Laser Facility. As part of the exit plan, the NIF ALE-AMR code was applied to a number of fragmentation problems of interest to the National Ignition Facility (NIF). One example shows the added benefit of multi-material ALE-AMR that relaxes the requirement that material boundaries must be along mesh boundaries.

  4. Adaptation of College English Classroom Materials

    余跃

    2015-01-01

    Materials adaptation involves changing existing materials so that they become more suitable for specific learners, teach⁃ers or situations. This paper reviews the current state of this field, and makes suggestions for and gives example of innovative and principled approaches to college English classroom materials adaptation.

  5. Adaptive Strategies for Materials Design using Uncertainties

    Balachandran, Prasanna V.; Xue, Dezhen; Theiler, James; Hogden, John; Lookman, Turab

    2016-01-01

    We compare several adaptive design strategies using a data set of 223 M2AX family of compounds for which the elastic properties [bulk (B), shear (G), and Young’s (E) modulus] have been computed using density functional theory. The design strategies are decomposed into an iterative loop with two main steps: machine learning is used to train a regressor that predicts elastic properties in terms of elementary orbital radii of the individual components of the materials; and a selector uses these predictions and their uncertainties to choose the next material to investigate. The ultimate goal is to obtain a material with desired elastic properties in as few iterations as possible. We examine how the choice of data set size, regressor and selector impact the design. We find that selectors that use information about the prediction uncertainty outperform those that don’t. Our work is a step in illustrating how adaptive design tools can guide the search for new materials with desired properties.

  6. Design of application specific long period waveguide grating filters using adaptive particle swarm optimization algorithms

    We present design optimization of wavelength filters based on long period waveguide gratings (LPWGs) using the adaptive particle swarm optimization (APSO) technique. We demonstrate optimization of the LPWG parameters for single-band, wide-band and dual-band rejection filters for testing the convergence of APSO algorithms. After convergence tests on the algorithms, the optimization technique has been implemented to design more complicated application specific filters such as erbium doped fiber amplifier (EDFA) amplified spontaneous emission (ASE) flattening, erbium doped waveguide amplifier (EDWA) gain flattening and pre-defined broadband rejection filters. The technique is useful for designing and optimizing the parameters of LPWGs to achieve complicated application specific spectra. (paper)

  7. Brine Organisms and the Question of Habitat Specific Adaptation

    Siegel, B. Z.; Siegel, S. M.; Speitel, Thomas; Waber, Jack; Stoecker, Roy

    1984-12-01

    Among the well-known ultrasaline terrestrial habitats, the Dead Sea in the Jordan Rift Valley and Don Juan Pond in the Upper Wright Valley represent two of the most extreme. The former is a saturated sodium chloride-magnesium sulfate brine in a hot desert, the latter a saturated calcium chloride brine in an Antarctic desert. Both Dead Sea and Don Juan water bodies themselves are limited in microflora, but the saline Don Juan algal mat and muds contain abundant nutrients and a rich and varied microbiota, including Oscillatoria, Gleocapsa, Chlorella, diatoms, Penicillium and bacteria. In such environments, the existence of an array of specific adaptations is a common, and highly reasonable, presumption, at least with respect to habitat-obligate forms. Nevertheless, many years of ongoing study in our laboratory have demonstrated that lichens (e.g. Cladonia), algae (e.g. Nostoc) and fungi (e.g. Penicillium, Aspergillus) from the humid tropics can sustain metabolism down to -40°C and growth down to -10°C in simulated Dead Sea or Don Juan (or similar) media without benefit of selection or gradual acclimation. Non-selection is suggested in fungi by higher growth rates from vegetative inocula than spores. The importance of nutrient parameters was also evident in responses to potassium and reduced nitrogen compounds. In view of the saline performance of tropical Nostoc, and its presence in the Antarctic dry valley soils, its complete absence in our Don Juan mat samples was and remains a puzzle. We suggest that adaptive capability is already resident in many terrestrial life forms not currently in extreme habitats, a possible reflection of evolutionary selection for wide spectrum environmental adaptability.

  8. Development of the Specific Adaptation Mobility Cane.

    Arrington, S.

    1995-01-01

    A travel cane was adapted for use by a 10-year-old boy with cortical blindness, severe mental retardation and cerebral palsy affecting his left arm and leg. The Specific Adaptation Mobility Cane utilizes the affected arm to hold the cane while leaving the other hand free for trailing walls, opening doors, carrying objects, and holding handrails.…

  9. Comparison of marginal adaptation of mineral trioxide aggregate, glass ionomer cement and intermediate restorative material as root-end filling materials, using scanning electron microscope: An in vitro study

    Sirisha Gundam; Jayaprakash Patil; Bhuvan Shome Venigalla; Sravanthi Yadanaparti; Radhika Maddu; Sindhura Reddy Gurram

    2014-01-01

    Aim: The present study compares the marginal adaption of Mineral Trioxide Aggregate (MTA), Glass Ionomer Cement (GIC) and Intermediate Restorative Material (IRM) as root-end filling materials in extracted human teeth using Scanning Electron Microscope (SEM). Materials and Methods: Thirty single rooted human teeth were obturated with Gutta-percha after cleaning and shaping. Apical 3 mm of roots were resected and retrofilled with MTA, GIC and IRM. One millimeter transverse section of the retrof...

  10. The use of application-specific performance targets and engineering considerations to guide hydrogen storage materials development

    Highlights: •Portable power and material handling equipment as early market technology pathways. •Engineering based system-level storage-materials requirements. •Application based targets. -- Abstract: The Hydrogen and Fuel Cells Technologies Office, carried out through the DOE Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy, maintains a broad portfolio of activities to enable the commercialization of fuel cells across a range of near, mid and long-term applications. Improved, advanced hydrogen storage technologies are seen as a critical need for successful implementation of hydrogen fuel cells in many of these applications. To guide and focus materials development efforts, the DOE develops system performance targets for the specific applications of interest, and carries out system engineering analyses to determine the system-level performance delivered when the materials are incorporated into a complete system. To meet the needs of applications, it is important to consider the system-level performance, not just the material-level properties. An overview of the DOE’s hydrogen storage efforts in developing application-specific performance targets and systems engineering to guide hydrogen storage materials identification and development is herein provided

  11. The geography of sex-specific selection, local adaptation, and sexual dimorphism.

    Connallon, Tim

    2015-09-01

    Local adaptation and sexual dimorphism are iconic evolutionary scenarios of intraspecific adaptive differentiation in the face of gene flow. Although theory has traditionally considered local adaptation and sexual dimorphism as conceptually distinct processes, emerging data suggest that they often act concurrently during evolutionary diversification. Here, I merge theories of local adaptation in space and sex-specific adaptation over time, and show that their confluence yields several new predictions about the roles of context-specific selection, migration, and genetic correlations, in adaptive diversification. I specifically revisit two influential predictions from classical studies of clinal adaptation and sexual dimorphism: (1) that local adaptation should decrease with distance from the species' range center and (2) that opposing directional selection between the sexes (sexual antagonism) should inevitably accompany the evolution of sexual dimorphism. I show that both predictions can break down under clinally varying selection. First, the geography of local adaptation can be sexually dimorphic, with locations of relatively high local adaptation differing profoundly between the sexes. Second, the intensity of sexual antagonism varies across the species' range, with subpopulations near the range center representing hotspots for antagonistic selection. The results highlight the context-dependent roles of migration versus sexual conflict as primary constraints to adaptive diversification. PMID:26194274

  12. Adaptability of Alfalfa and Ryegrass to New Reclamation Materials

    WANG ZHAO-FENG; ZHANG Lei-na; FENG Yong-jun; KANG Jing-tao

    2006-01-01

    This paper discussed the adaptability of the alfalfa and ryegrass to the new artificial soil that was composed of fly ash and furfural residue. The potted experiments were taken to compare the growth conditions, yields, and qualities of both grasses. Some pots were covered with wheat stalks and others without. The medium Fluvo-aquic soil was taken as control. The results indicated that the growth of two grasses in the mixture were inferior to their growth in the control in initial period. With the leaching of rain and irrigation, the two grasses improved gradually. The alfalfa and ryegrass both could grow in the new mixture, and the ryegrass would be better to plant in no covered material and the alfalfa in covered. This will be a new way to reclaim subsided land and to improve the environment in mining area.

  13. Comparison of marginal adaptation of mineral trioxide aggregate, glass ionomer cement and intermediate restorative material as root-end filling materials, using scanning electron microscope: An in vitro study

    Gundam, Sirisha; Patil, Jayaprakash; Venigalla, Bhuvan Shome; Yadanaparti, Sravanthi; Maddu, Radhika; Gurram, Sindhura Reddy

    2014-01-01

    Aim: The present study compares the marginal adaption of Mineral Trioxide Aggregate (MTA), Glass Ionomer Cement (GIC) and Intermediate Restorative Material (IRM) as root-end filling materials in extracted human teeth using Scanning Electron Microscope (SEM). Materials and Methods: Thirty single rooted human teeth were obturated with Gutta-percha after cleaning and shaping. Apical 3 mm of roots were resected and retrofilled with MTA, GIC and IRM. One millimeter transverse section of the retrofilled area was used to study the marginal adaptation of the restorative material with the dentin. Mounted specimens were examined using SEM at approximately 15 Kv and 10-6 Torr under high vacuum condition. At 2000 X magnification, the gap size at the material-tooth interface was recorded at 2 points in microns. Statistical Analysis: One way ANOVA Analysis of the data from the experimental group was carried out with gap size as the dependent variable, and material as independent variable. Results: The lowest mean value of gap size was recorded in MTA group (0.722 ± 0.438 μm) and the largest mean gap in GIC group (1.778 ± 0.697 μm). Conclusion: MTA showed least gap size when compared to IRM and GIC suggesting a better marginal adaptation. PMID:25506146

  14. Material and Social Construction: A Framework for the Adaptation of Buildings

    Jesse M. Keenan

    2014-12-01

    Full Text Available This article is a formulation of a framework for understanding the nature of change, particularly climate change, as it applies to the scale of a building. Through an exploration of various scientific and social scientific literutre, the article positions the concept of adaptation as the appropriate mode for understanding and managing change. Through the classification of a duality of material and social construction in the ontological composition of a building, various lines of thought relating to adaptive capacity and adaptive cycling within systems theory are appropriated within an integrated framework for adaptation. Specifically, it is theorized that as buildings as objects are developing greater capacities for intergrated operations and management through artificial intelligence, they will possess an ex ante capacity to autonomously adapt in dynamic relation to and with the ex post adaptation of owners and operators. It is argued that this top-down and bottom-up confluence of multi-scalar dynamic change is consistent with the prevailing theory of Panarchy applied in social-ecological systems theory. The article concludes with normative perspectives on the limitations of systems theory in architecture, future directions for research and an alternative positioning of professional practices.

  15. Use of tactual materials on the achievement of content specific vocabulary and terminology acquisition within an intermediate level science curriculum

    Terry, Brian H.

    In this quasi-experimental study, the researcher investigated the effectiveness of three tactual strategies and one non-tactual strategy of content specific vocabulary acquisition. Flash cards, task cards, and learning wheels served as the tactual strategies, and vocabulary review sheets served as a non-tactual strategy. The sample (n=85) consisted of all middle school students in a small high performing middle school located in the northern suburbs of New York City. All of the vocabulary words and terms came from the New York State Intermediate Level Science Core Curriculum. Pre-tests and post-tests were used to collect the data. A repeated measures ANOVA was conducted on the gain scores from each of the treatments. Multiple paired sample t-tests were conducted to analyze the results. Repeated measures ANOVAs were used to determine if there was a variance between the academic achievement levels of the students, gender, and grade level for each of the treatments. All of the treatments significantly improved the science achievement of the students, but significance was found between them. Significance was found between the achievement groups with the above average students attaining a higher mean on the pre-test and post-test for each treatment, whereas the below average students had the lowest mean on both assessments. The sixth grade students showed significant improvement over the seventh grade students while using the flash cards (p=.004) and learning wheel (p=.007). During the learning wheel treatment, the males scored significantly better (p=.021) than the females on the pre-test and post-test. During the worksheet treatment, significance (p=.034) was found between gender and achievement group. The below average male students had the greatest gain from the pre-test to the post-test, but the post-test mean was still the lowest of the groups. Limitations, implications for future research and current practice are discussed. Key words are: flash cards, task cards

  16. A microcosm test of adaptation and species specific responses to polluted sediments applicable to indigenous chironomids (Diptera)

    Chironomids may adapt to pollution stress but data are confined to species that can be reared in the laboratory. A microcosm approach was used to test for adaptation and species differences in heavy metal tolerance. In one experiment, microcosms containing different levels of contaminants were placed in polluted and reference locations. The response of Chironomus februarius to metal contaminants suggested local adaptation: relatively more flies emerged from clean sediment at the reference site and the reverse pattern occurred at the polluted site. However, maternal effects were not specifically ruled out. In another species, Kiefferulus intertinctus, there was no evidence for adaptation. In a second experiment, microcosms with different contaminant levels were placed at two polluted and two unpolluted sites. Species responded differently to contaminants, but there was no evidence for adaptation in the species where this could be tested. Adaptation to heavy metals may be uncommon and species specific, but more sensitive species need to be tested across a range of pollution levels. Factors influencing the likelihood of adaptation are briefly discussed. - A field test for adaptation applicable to indigenous chironomids suggests adaptation to metal contaminants in one species but not in other species

  17. Design and Implementation of Ranking Adaptation Algorithm for Domain Specific Search

    B.Maheswari 1 , K. Chandra Shekhar Reddy2 , Prof.S.V.Achutha Rao

    2013-08-01

    Full Text Available In the market, various domain-specific search engines emerged, which are restricted to specific topicalities or document formats, and vertical to the broad-based search. Simply applying the ranking model trained for the broad-based search to the verticals cannot achieve a sound performance due to the domain differences, while building different ranking models for each domain is both laborious for labelling sufficient training samples and time-consuming or the training process. In this paper, to address the above difficulties, we investigate two problems: (1 whether we can adapt the ranking model learned for existing Web page search or verticals, to the new domain, so that the amount of labelled data and the training cost is reduced, while the performance requirement is still satisfied; and (2 how to adapt the ranking model from auxiliary domains to a new target domain. We address the second problem from the regularization framework and an algorithm called ranking adaptation SVM is proposed. The results demonstrate the applicability’s of the proposed ranking model adaptation algorithm and the ranking adaptability measurement.

  18. Species- and Strain-Specific Adaptation of the HSP70 Super Family in Pathogenic Trypanosomatids.

    Drini, Sima; Criscuolo, Alexis; Lechat, Pierre; Imamura, Hideo; Skalický, Tomáš; Rachidi, Najma; Lukeš, Julius; Dujardin, Jean-Claude; Späth, Gerald F

    2016-01-01

    All eukaryotic genomes encode multiple members of the heat shock protein 70 (HSP70) family, which evolved distinctive structural and functional features in response to specific environmental constraints. Phylogenetic analysis of this protein family thus can inform on genetic and molecular mechanisms that drive species-specific environmental adaptation. Here we use the eukaryotic pathogen Leishmania spp. as a model system to investigate the evolution of the HSP70 protein family in an early-branching eukaryote that is prone to gene amplification and adapts to cytotoxic host environments by stress-induced and chaperone-dependent stage differentiation. Combining phylogenetic and comparative analyses of trypanosomatid genomes, draft genome of Paratrypanosoma and recently published genome sequences of 204 L. donovani field isolates, we gained unique insight into the evolutionary dynamics of the Leishmania HSP70 protein family. We provide evidence for (i) significant evolutionary expansion of this protein family in Leishmania through gene amplification and functional specialization of highly conserved canonical HSP70 members, (ii) evolution of trypanosomatid-specific, non-canonical family members that likely gained ATPase-independent functions, and (iii) loss of one atypical HSP70 member in the Trypanosoma genus. Finally, we reveal considerable copy number variation of canonical cytoplasmic HSP70 in highly related L. donovani field isolates, thus identifying this locus as a potential hot spot of environment-genotype interaction. Our data draw a complex picture of the genetic history of HSP70 in trypanosomatids that is driven by the remarkable plasticity of the Leishmania genome to undergo massive intra-chromosomal gene amplification to compensate for the absence of regulated transcriptional control in these parasites. PMID:27371955

  19. Evolution of speech-specific cognitive adaptations

    Bart ede Boer

    2015-09-01

    Full Text Available This paper briefly reviews theoretical results that shed light on what kind of cognitive adaptations we can expect to have evolved for (combinatorial speech and then reviews concrete empirical work investigating adaptations for combinatorial speech. The paper argues that an evolutionary perspective is natural when investigating cognitive adaptations related to speech and language. This is because properties of language are determined through complex interaction between biologically evolved cognitive mechanisms (possibly adapted to language and cultural (evolutionary processes. It turns out that there is as yet no strong direct evidence for cognitive traits that have undergone selection related to speech in general or combinatorial structure in particular, but there is indirect evidence that indicates selection. However, the traits that may have undergone selection are expected to be continuously variable ones, rather than the discrete ones that linguists have focused on traditionally.

  20. A neurocomputational model of stimulus-specific adaptation to oddball and Markov sequences.

    Robert Mill; Martin Coath; Thomas Wennekers; Denham, Susan L.

    2011-01-01

    Stimulus-specific adaptation (SSA) occurs when the spike rate of a neuron decreases with repetitions of the same stimulus, but recovers when a different stimulus is presented. It has been suggested that SSA in single auditory neurons may provide information to change detection mechanisms evident at other scales (e.g., mismatch negativity in the event related potential), and participate in the control of attention and the formation of auditory streams. This article presents a spiking-neuron mo...

  1. A neurocomputational model of stimulus-specific adaptation to oddball and Markov sequences.

    Robert Mill

    2011-08-01

    Full Text Available Stimulus-specific adaptation (SSA occurs when the spike rate of a neuron decreases with repetitions of the same stimulus, but recovers when a different stimulus is presented. It has been suggested that SSA in single auditory neurons may provide information to change detection mechanisms evident at other scales (e.g., mismatch negativity in the event related potential, and participate in the control of attention and the formation of auditory streams. This article presents a spiking-neuron model that accounts for SSA in terms of the convergence of depressing synapses that convey feature-specific inputs. The model is anatomically plausible, comprising just a few homogeneously connected populations, and does not require organised feature maps. The model is calibrated to match the SSA measured in the cortex of the awake rat, as reported in one study. The effect of frequency separation, deviant probability, repetition rate and duration upon SSA are investigated. With the same parameter set, the model generates responses consistent with a wide range of published data obtained in other auditory regions using other stimulus configurations, such as block, sequential and random stimuli. A new stimulus paradigm is introduced, which generalises the oddball concept to Markov chains, allowing the experimenter to vary the tone probabilities and the rate of switching independently. The model predicts greater SSA for higher rates of switching. Finally, the issue of whether rarity or novelty elicits SSA is addressed by comparing the responses of the model to deviants in the context of a sequence of a single standard or many standards. The results support the view that synaptic adaptation alone can explain almost all aspects of SSA reported to date, including its purported novelty component, and that non-trivial networks of depressing synapses can intensify this novelty response.

  2. A neurocomputational model of stimulus-specific adaptation to oddball and Markov sequences.

    Mill, Robert; Coath, Martin; Wennekers, Thomas; Denham, Susan L

    2011-08-01

    Stimulus-specific adaptation (SSA) occurs when the spike rate of a neuron decreases with repetitions of the same stimulus, but recovers when a different stimulus is presented. It has been suggested that SSA in single auditory neurons may provide information to change detection mechanisms evident at other scales (e.g., mismatch negativity in the event related potential), and participate in the control of attention and the formation of auditory streams. This article presents a spiking-neuron model that accounts for SSA in terms of the convergence of depressing synapses that convey feature-specific inputs. The model is anatomically plausible, comprising just a few homogeneously connected populations, and does not require organised feature maps. The model is calibrated to match the SSA measured in the cortex of the awake rat, as reported in one study. The effect of frequency separation, deviant probability, repetition rate and duration upon SSA are investigated. With the same parameter set, the model generates responses consistent with a wide range of published data obtained in other auditory regions using other stimulus configurations, such as block, sequential and random stimuli. A new stimulus paradigm is introduced, which generalises the oddball concept to Markov chains, allowing the experimenter to vary the tone probabilities and the rate of switching independently. The model predicts greater SSA for higher rates of switching. Finally, the issue of whether rarity or novelty elicits SSA is addressed by comparing the responses of the model to deviants in the context of a sequence of a single standard or many standards. The results support the view that synaptic adaptation alone can explain almost all aspects of SSA reported to date, including its purported novelty component, and that non-trivial networks of depressing synapses can intensify this novelty response. PMID:21876661

  3. Recognition using information-optimal adaptive feature-specific imaging.

    Baheti, Pawan K; Neifeld, Mark A

    2009-04-01

    We present an information-theoretic adaptive feature-specific imaging (AFSI) system for a M-class recognition task. The proposed system utilizes the recently developed task-specific information (TSI) framework to incorporate the knowledge from previous measurements and adapt the projection matrix at each step. The decision-making framework is based on sequential hypothesis testing. We quantify the number of measurements required to achieve a specified probability of misclassification (P(e)), and we compare the performances of three approaches: the new TSI-based AFSI system, a previously reported statistical AFSI system, and static FSI (SFSI). The TSI-based AFSI system exhibits significant improvement compared with SFSI and statistical AFSI at low signal-to-noise ratio (SNR). It is shown that for M=4 hypotheses, SNR=-20 dB and desired P(e)=10(-2), TSI-based AFSI requires 3 times fewer measurements than statistical AFSI, and 16 times fewer measurements than SFSI. We also describe an extension of the proposed method that is suitable for recognition in the presence of nuisance parameters such as illumination conditions and target orientations. PMID:19340282

  4. Adaptation effects to attractiveness of face photographs and art portraits are domain-specific

    Hayn-Leichsenring, Gregor U.; Kloth, Nadine; Schweinberger, Stefan R.; Redies, Christoph

    2013-01-01

    We studied the neural coding of facial attractiveness by investigating effects of adaptation to attractive and unattractive human faces on the perceived attractiveness of veridical human face pictures (Experiment 1) and art portraits (Experiment 2). Experiment 1 revealed a clear pattern of contrastive aftereffects. Relative to a pre-adaptation baseline, the perceived attractiveness of faces was increased after adaptation to unattractive faces, and was decreased after adaptation to attractive ...

  5. The Implication and Application of Communicative Approach to Designing and Adapting ELT Materials for Chinese College Students

    张靓

    2009-01-01

    The Communicative approach is a main stream in current ELT classroom.This approach mainly aims at developing leamers'communicative competences to equip them to be,proficient in real life communication in English.The communicative approach influences the belief of language learning,teaching,methodology and inevitably the syllabus and also ELT materials.However.communicative materials are not quite suitable for Chinese learners all the time,cause it can not meet the some specific expectations and competences of Chinese learners and teachers.Thus,adaptation is needed to make materials more.workable and help learners to develop their language proficiency.This essay will first introduce the communicative approach and materials briefly and then analyses the reasons of adaptation according to the specific context of Chinese college learners.

  6. The Implication and Application of Communicative Approach to Designing and Adapting ELT Materials for Chinese College Students

    张靓

    2009-01-01

    The Communicative approach is a main stream in current ELT classroom.This approach mainly aims at developing learners'communicative competences to equip them to be proficient in real life communication in English.The communicative approach influences the belief of language learning,teaching,methodology and inevitably the syllabus and also ELT materials.However,communicative materials are not quite suitable for Chinese learners all the time,cause it can not meet the some specific expectations and competences of Chinese learners and teachers.Thus,adaptation is needed to make materials more workable and help learners to develop their language proficiency.This essay will first introduce the communicative approach and materials briefly and then analyses the reasons of adaptation according to the specific context of Chinese college learners.

  7. Comparison of marginal adaptation of mineral trioxide aggregate, glass ionomer cement and intermediate restorative material as root-end filling materials, using scanning electron microscope: An in vitro study

    Sirisha Gundam

    2014-01-01

    Statistical Analysis: One way ANOVA Analysis of the data was carried out with gap size as the dependent variable, and material as independent variable. Results: The lowest mean value of gap size was recorded in MTA group (0.722 ± 0.438 μm and the largest mean gap in GIC group (1.778 ± 0.697 μm. Conclusion: MTA showed least gap size when compared to IRM and GIC suggesting a better marginal adaptation.

  8. Adaptive and maladaptive components of rumination? Diagnostic specificity and relation to depressive biases.

    Joormann, Jutta; Dkane, Marco; Gotlib, Ian H

    2006-09-01

    The present study investigated the validity of the two-factor solution of items selected from the Rumination Scale of the Response Style Questionnaire proposed by Treynor, Gonzalez, and Nolen-Hoeksema (2003). In the first part of this study we used samples of currently depressed (MDD), formerly depressed (FD), socially anxious (SP), and healthy control participants to examine whether the brooding and reflective pondering components differentiate participants with an anxiety disorder from participants with depression. In the second part of this study we examined whether these components of rumination were differentially related to cognitive biases in depression. Overall, the MDD group exhibited higher brooding scores than did all other groups; SP and FD groups did not differ from each other but obtained higher brooding scores than did the control participants. Only the MDD and the control groups differed on the reflective pondering factor. Importantly, brooding and reflective pondering were differentially related to cognitive biases. Specifically, the correlation between brooding/reflective pondering and memory bias was not significant when depressive symptoms were partialed out. The correlation between brooding and attentional bias for sad faces, however, remained significant even when current depressive symptoms were taken into account. In sum, our results support the formulation that rumination is composed of an adaptive reflective pondering factor and a maladaptive brooding factor. PMID:16942978

  9. Simulation and Rapid Prototyping of Adaptive Control Systems using the Adaptive Blockset for Simulink

    Ravn, Ole

    1998-01-01

    The paper describes the design considerations and implementational aspects of the Adaptive Blockset for Simulink which has been developed in a prototype implementation. The concept behind the Adaptive Blockset for Simulink is to bridge the gap between simulation and prototype controller...... implementation. This is done using the code generation capabilities of Real Time Workshop in combination with C s-function blocks for adaptive control in Simulink. In the paper the design of each group of blocks normally found in adaptive controllers is outlined. The block types are, identification, controller...... design, controller and state variable filter.The use of the Adaptive Blockset is demonstrated using a simple laboratory setup. Both the use of the blockset for simulation and for rapid prototyping of a real-time controller are shown....

  10. Use of Adaptive Study Material in Education in E-Learning Environment

    Kostolányová, Katerina; Šarmanová, Jana

    2014-01-01

    Personalised education is a topical matter today and the impact of ICT on education has been covered extensively. The adaptation of education to various types of student is an issue of a vast number of papers presented at diverse conferences. The topic incorporates the fields of information technologies and eLearning, but in no small part also the…

  11. Alkaline hydrolysis of mouse-adapted scrapie for inactivation and disposal of prion-positive material.

    Murphy, R G L; Scanga, J A; Powers, B E; Pilon, J L; Vercauteren, K C; Nash, P B; Smith, G C; Belk, K E

    2009-05-01

    Prion diseases such as bovine spongiform encephalopathy, chronic wasting disease, and scrapie pose serious risks to human and animal health due to a host of disease-specific factors, including the resistance of infectious prions (PrP(Sc)) to natural degradation and to most commercial inactivation procedures. In an attempt to address this concern, a mouse model was used to compare the efficacy of an alkaline hydrolysis process with a simulated continuous-flow rendering treatment for disposal of PrP(Sc)-infected biological material. Female C57/BL6 mice (N = 120) were randomly divided into 4 treatment groups (n = 30), and each mouse was injected intraperitoneally with their designated treatment inoculum. Treatment groups 1 and 2 served as the positive and negative controls, respectively. Group 3 was inoculated with rendered scrapie-positive mouse brain material to investigate the effectiveness of simulated continuous-flow rendering practices to reduce or eliminate PrP(Sc). Group 4 was inoculated with hydrolyzed scrapie-positive mouse brain material to determine the sterilizing effect of alkaline hydrolysis on PrP(Sc). Mice were monitored for overt signs of disease, and those showing clinical signs were killed to prevent undue suffering. Brains were obtained from all mice that died (or were killed) and analyzed with an ELISA for the presence of PrP(Sc). Results indicated that the simulated continuous-flow rendering treatment used for preparing the rendering treatment group inoculum failed to completely eliminate PrP(Sc). Rendering delayed, but did not stop, clinical mouse-adapted scrapie transmission. Compared with positive controls, the rendering treatment group experienced an approximate 45-d average delay in days to death (250 vs. 205 d for positive controls; P loss of 73.9% (P = 0.0094). Positive controls suffered 100% death loss. The results validated the efficacy of the alkaline hydrolysis treatment to inactivate all PrP(Sc) because no alkaline hydrolysis

  12. Thermotropic and Thermochromic Polymer Based Materials for Adaptive Solar Control

    Olaf Mühling; Ralf Ruhmann; Arno Seeboth

    2010-01-01

    The aim of this review is to present the actual status of development in adaptive solar control by use of thermotropic and organic thermochromic materials. Such materials are suitable for application in smart windows. In detail polymer blends, hydrogels, resins, and thermoplastic films with a reversible temperature-dependent switching behavior are described. A comparative evaluation of the concepts for these energy efficient materials is given as well. Furthermore, the change of strategy from...

  13. Modular Sequence: English as a Second Language, Methods and Techniques. TTP 001.13 Evaluating and Adapting Materials. Teacher Corps Bilingual Project.

    Hernandez, Alberto; Melnick, Susan L.

    The purpose of this unit of work is to provide the teacher participant with some useful guidelines for evaluating and adapting written materials for specific English as a second language (ESL) classes. There is pre- and post-assessment of specific learning tasks relevant to evaluating and adapting materials as well as learning activities, which…

  14. Translation and adaptation of smoking relapse-prevention materials for pregnant and postpartum Hispanic women.

    Simmons, Vani Nath; Cruz, Ligia M; Brandon, Thomas H; Quinn, Gwendolyn P

    2011-01-01

    Quitting smoking is one of the most important behavior changes a pregnant woman can make, with health benefits extending beyond pregnancy for the woman and her child. Increasing numbers of pregnant women are quitting smoking; however, the majority resume smoking later in their pregnancy or shortly after giving birth. Previous research has demonstrated the efficacy of self-help smoking relapse-prevention booklets; however, there is a dearth of materials available in Spanish for Hispanic smokers. The goal of the present study was to translate and adapt existing, theoretically based, smoking relapse-prevention materials for pregnant and postpartum Hispanic women. This article describes the transcreation approach used to ensure the Forever Free for Baby and Me booklets were linguistically and culturally relevant for the heterogeneous populations of Hispanic women. The authors conducted multistage formative research to adapt the booklets and modify vignettes and graphics. Compared with previous research conducted with pregnant non-Hispanic women, results revealed the following: (a) a lack of association or concern about smoking and weight gain, (b) the importance of family approval of behavior, and (c) stress related to difficulties surrounding the immigration experience. The authors' qualitative findings confirm and extend past research that has suggested ways to enhance the cultural relevance and acceptability of a health intervention. PMID:21120739

  15. Stimulus-specific adaptation in the inferior colliculus of the mouse: anesthesia and spontaneous activity effects.

    Duque, Daniel; Malmierca, Manuel S

    2015-11-01

    Rapid behavioral responses to unexpected events in the acoustic environment are critical for survival. Stimulus-specific adaptation (SSA) is the process whereby some auditory neurons respond better to rare stimuli than to repetitive stimuli. Most experiments on SSA have been performed under anesthesia, and it is unknown if SSA sensitivity is altered by the anesthetic agent. Only a direct comparison can answer this question. Here, we recorded extracellular single units in the inferior colliculus of awake and anesthetized mice under an oddball paradigm that elicits SSA. Our results demonstrate that SSA is similar, but not identical, in the awake and anesthetized preparations. The differences are mostly due to the higher spontaneous activity observed in the awake animals, which also revealed a high incidence of inhibitory receptive fields. We conclude that SSA is not an artifact of anesthesia and that spontaneous activity modulates neuronal SSA differentially, depending on the state of arousal. Our results suggest that SSA may be especially important when nervous system activity is suppressed during sleep-like states. This may be a useful survival mechanism that allows the organism to respond to danger when sleeping. PMID:25115620

  16. Evolution of adaptation mechanisms: Adaptation energy, stress, and oscillating death.

    Gorban, Alexander N; Tyukina, Tatiana A; Smirnova, Elena V; Pokidysheva, Lyudmila I

    2016-09-21

    In 1938, Selye proposed the notion of adaptation energy and published 'Experimental evidence supporting the conception of adaptation energy.' Adaptation of an animal to different factors appears as the spending of one resource. Adaptation energy is a hypothetical extensive quantity spent for adaptation. This term causes much debate when one takes it literally, as a physical quantity, i.e. a sort of energy. The controversial points of view impede the systematic use of the notion of adaptation energy despite experimental evidence. Nevertheless, the response to many harmful factors often has general non-specific form and we suggest that the mechanisms of physiological adaptation admit a very general and nonspecific description. We aim to demonstrate that Selye׳s adaptation energy is the cornerstone of the top-down approach to modelling of non-specific adaptation processes. We analyze Selye׳s axioms of adaptation energy together with Goldstone׳s modifications and propose a series of models for interpretation of these axioms. Adaptation energy is considered as an internal coordinate on the 'dominant path' in the model of adaptation. The phenomena of 'oscillating death' and 'oscillating remission' are predicted on the base of the dynamical models of adaptation. Natural selection plays a key role in the evolution of mechanisms of physiological adaptation. We use the fitness optimization approach to study of the distribution of resources for neutralization of harmful factors, during adaptation to a multifactor environment, and analyze the optimal strategies for different systems of factors. PMID:26801872

  17. Cultural Adaptation and Translation of Outreach Materials on Autism Spectrum Disorder

    Grinker, Roy R.; Kang-Yi, Christina D.; Ahmann, Chloe; Beidas, Rinad S.; Lagman, Adrienne; Mandell, David S.

    2015-01-01

    In order to connect with families and influence treatment trajectories, outreach materials should address cultural perceptions of the condition, its causes, and post-diagnostic care. This paper describes the cultural adaptation and translation of the Autism Speaks First 100 Days Kit into Korean for the purpose of improving autism spectrum disorder…

  18. Odor-Specific Habituation Arises from Interaction of Afferent Synaptic Adaptation and Intrinsic Synaptic Potentiation in Olfactory Cortex

    Linster, Christiane; Menon, Alka V.; Singh, Christopher Y.; Wilson, Donald A.

    2009-01-01

    Segmentation of target odorants from background odorants is a fundamental computational requirement for the olfactory system and is thought to be behaviorally mediated by olfactory habituation memory. Data from our laboratory have shown that odor-specific adaptation in piriform neurons, mediated at least partially by synaptic adaptation between…

  19. Specificity, cross-talk and adaptation in Interferon signaling

    Zilman, Anton

    Innate immune system is the first line of defense of higher organisms against pathogens. It coordinates the behavior of millions of cells of multiple types, achieved through numerous signaling molecules. This talk focuses on the signaling specificity of a major class of signaling molecules - Type I Interferons - which are also used therapeutically in the treatment of a number of diseases, such as Hepatitis C, multiple sclerosis and some cancers. Puzzlingly, different Interferons act through the same cell surface receptor but have different effects on the target cells. They also exhibit a strange pattern of temporal cross-talk resulting in a serious clinical problem - loss of response to Interferon therapy. We combined mathematical modeling with quantitative experiments to develop a quantitative model of specificity and adaptation in the Interferon signaling pathway. The model resolves several outstanding experimental puzzles and directly affects the clinical use of Type I Interferons in treatment of viral hepatitis and other diseases.

  20. Design principle of TVO's final repository and preliminary adaptation to site specific conditions

    Teollisuuden Voima Oy (TVO) is responsible for the management of spent fuel produced by the Olkiluoto power plant. TVO's current programme of spent fuel management is based on the guidelines and time schedule set by the Finnish Government. TVO has studied a final disposal concept in which the spent fuel bundles are encapsulated in copper canisters and emplaced in Finnish bedrock. According to the plan the final repository for spent fuel will be in operation by 2020. TVO's updated technical plans for the disposal of spent fuel together with a performance analysis (TVO-92) were submitted to the authorities in 1992. The paper describes the design principle of TVO's final repository and preliminary adaptation of the repository to site specific conditions. (author). 10 refs., 5 figs

  1. Development of High Specific Strength Envelope Materials

    Komatsu, Keiji; Sano, Masa-Aki; Kakuta, Yoshiaki

    Progress in materials technology has produced a much more durable synthetic fabric envelope for the non-rigid airship. Flexible materials are required to form airship envelopes, ballonets, load curtains, gas bags and covering rigid structures. Polybenzoxazole fiber (Zylon) and polyalirate fiber (Vectran) show high specific tensile strength, so that we developed membrane using these high specific tensile strength fibers as a load carrier. The main material developed is a Zylon or Vectran load carrier sealed internally with a polyurethane bonded inner gas retention film (EVOH). The external surface provides weather protecting with, for instance, a titanium oxide integrated polyurethane or Tedlar film. The mechanical test results show that tensile strength 1,000 N/cm is attained with weight less than 230g/m2. In addition to the mechanical properties, temperature dependence of the joint strength and solar absorptivity and emissivity of the surface are measured. 

  2. Exploring preservice elementary teachers' critique and adaptation of science curriculum materials in respect to socioscientific issues

    Forbes, Cory T.; Davis, Elizabeth A.

    2008-09-01

    The work presented here represents a preliminary effort undertaken to address the role of teachers in supporting students’ learning and decision-making about socioscientific issues (SSI) by characterizing preservice elementary teachers’ critique and adaptation of SSI-based science curriculum materials and identifying factors that serve to mediate this process. Four undergraduate preservice elementary teachers were studied over the course of one semester. Results indicate that the teachers navigated multiple learning goals, as well as their own subject-matter knowledge, informal reasoning about SSI, and role identity, in their critique and adaptation of SSI-oriented science instructional materials. Implications for science teacher education and the design of curriculum materials in respect to SSI are discussed.

  3. DIRECT AND ADAPTIVE SLICING ON CAD MODEL OF IDEAL FUNCTIONAL MATERIAL COMPONENTS (IFMC)

    Xu Daoming; Jia Zhenyuan; Guo Dongming

    2005-01-01

    A brand new direct and adaptive slicing approach is proposed, which can apparently improve the part accuracy and reduce the building time. At least two stages are included in this operation: getting the crossing contour of the cutting plane with the solid part and determining the layer thickness. Apart from usual SPI algorithm, slicing of the solid model has its special requirements.Enabling the contour line segments of the cross-section as long as possible is one of them, which is for improving manufacturing efficiency and is reached by adaptively adjusting the step direction and the step size at every crossing point to obtain optimized secant height. The layer thickness determination can be divided into two phases: the geometry-based thickness estimation and the material-based thickness verifying. During the former phase, the geometry tolerance is divided into two parts: a variety of curves are approximated by a circular arc, which introduces the first part, and the deviation error between the contour line in LM process and the circular arc generates the second part. The latter phase is mainly verifying the layer thickness estimated in the former stage and determining a new one if necessary. In addition, an example using this slicing algorithm is also illustrated.

  4. The materiality of materials and artefacts used in science classrooms

    Cowie, Bronwen; Otrel-Cass, Kathrin; Moreland, Judy

    2015-01-01

    between materials as natural objects in this world and artefacts as manmade objects. We are aware that in a classroom material objects and artefacts shape, and are shaped by classroom practice through the way they selectively present scientific explanations. However, materials and artefacts have no...... as fossils, plant samples and artefacts like test tubes, worksheets and digital tools along with written inscriptions produced during interactions and that served as artefacts in subsequent interactions (Roehl, 2012). Data sources Data were generated via classroom observation using video, student...... but thought about means and ends of artefacts/ materials. They explored artefacts/materials and how they could be used and through this exemplified materiality in the objects. More deliberate and focused attention to what constitutes materiality can support collaboration and communication to support...

  5. Patient-specific organ dose estimation during transcatheter arterial embolization using Monte Carlo method and adaptive organ segmentation

    Tsai, Hui-Yu; Lin, Yung-Chieh; Tyan, Yeu-Sheng

    2014-11-01

    The purpose of this study was to evaluate organ doses for individual patients undergoing interventional transcatheter arterial embolization (TAE) for hepatocellular carcinoma (HCC) using measurement-based Monte Carlo simulation and adaptive organ segmentation. Five patients were enrolled in this study after institutional ethical approval and informed consent. Gafchromic XR-RV3 films were used to measure entrance surface dose to reconstruct the nonuniform fluence distribution field as the input data in the Monte Carlo simulation. XR-RV3 films were used to measure entrance surface doses due to their lower energy dependence compared with that of XR-RV2 films. To calculate organ doses, each patient's three-dimensional dose distribution was incorporated into CT DICOM images with image segmentation using thresholding and k-means clustering. Organ doses for all patients were estimated. Our dose evaluation system not only evaluated entrance surface doses based on measurements, but also evaluated the 3D dose distribution within patients using simulations. When film measurements were unavailable, the peak skin dose (between 0.68 and 0.82 of a fraction of the cumulative dose) can be calculated from the cumulative dose obtained from TAE dose reports. Successful implementation of this dose evaluation system will aid radiologists and technologists in determining the actual dose distributions within patients undergoing TAE.

  6. Urban adaptation planning: the use and limits of climate science

    Dodman, David; Carmin, Joann

    2011-11-15

    Cities face a mounting challenge from climate change. In developed and developing countries alike, rising temperatures, changing rainfall patterns, higher sea levels, and more frequent and severe extreme events such as droughts and floods threaten to overwhelm urban infrastructure, services and management systems. City officials recognise the need to adapt to climate change, and use scientific evidence to support their plans for doing so. But the precise details of these changes and the local impacts they will have cannot be predicted. Decision makers must learn to draw on scientific data while simultaneously managing the uncertainty inherent in future projections. Across the world, forward-looking city officials are proving themselves to be 'urban adaptation leaders' — mobilising political and public support for and devising flexible approaches to adaptation.

  7. Effect of adaptation and pulp density on bioleaching of mine waste using indigenous acidophilic bacteria

    Cho, K.; Kim, B.; Lee, D.; Choi, N.; Park, C.

    2011-12-01

    Adaptation to environment is a natural phenomena that takes place in many animals, plants and microorganisms. These adapted organisms achieve stronger applicability than unadapted organisms after habitation in a specific environment for a long time. In the biohydrometallurgical industry, adaptation to special environment conditions by selective culturing is the most popular method for improving bioleaching activity of strains-although that is time consuming. This study investigated the influence of the bioleaching efficiency of mine waste under batch experimental conditions (adaptation and pulp density) using the indigenous acidophilic bacteria collected from acid mine drainage in Go-seong and Yeon-hwa, Korea. We conducted the batch experiments at the influences of parameters, such as the adaptation of bacteria and pulp density of the mine waste. In the adaptation case, the value of pH in 1'st adaptation bacteria sample exhibited lower than in 2'nd adaptation bacteria sample. And the content of both Cu and Zn at 1'st adaptation bacteria sample appeared lower than at 2'nd adaptation bacteria sample. In the SEM analysis, the rod-shaped bacteria with 1μm in length were observed on the filter paper (pore size - 0.45μm). The results of pulp density experiments revealed that the content of both Cu and Zn increased with increasing pulp density, since the increment of pulp density resulted in the enhancement of bioleaching capacity.

  8. Development and use of reference materials and quality control materials

    Current knowledge is summarized on correct use of commercially available certified reference materials (CRMs) and reference materials (RMs). Acknowledged are also the limitations and restrictions analysts have to face if they want to apply quality control. The concept of in-house RMs or quality control materials (QCMs) is advocated to supplement the use of CRMs for quality control purposes. On hand advice on how to select, prepare, characterize and use these QCMs is given from the experts' perspective. Several scenarios are described to make this concept widely applicable to: advanced laboratories with CRMs with validated analytical techniques available, laboratories with less experience and facilities, as well as cases were labile compounds and unstable matrices are involved. Each scenario considers different approaches to overcome the lack of appropriate CRMs and advise on the preparation of QCMs, which might fit the particular purpose

  9. Patient-specific organ dose estimation during transcatheter arterial embolization using Monte Carlo method and adaptive organ segmentation

    The purpose of this study was to evaluate organ doses for individual patients undergoing interventional transcatheter arterial embolization (TAE) for hepatocellular carcinoma (HCC) using measurement-based Monte Carlo simulation and adaptive organ segmentation. Five patients were enrolled in this study after institutional ethical approval and informed consent. Gafchromic XR-RV3 films were used to measure entrance surface dose to reconstruct the nonuniform fluence distribution field as the input data in the Monte Carlo simulation. XR-RV3 films were used to measure entrance surface doses due to their lower energy dependence compared with that of XR-RV2 films. To calculate organ doses, each patient's three-dimensional dose distribution was incorporated into CT DICOM images with image segmentation using thresholding and k-means clustering. Organ doses for all patients were estimated. Our dose evaluation system not only evaluated entrance surface doses based on measurements, but also evaluated the 3D dose distribution within patients using simulations. When film measurements were unavailable, the peak skin dose (between 0.68 and 0.82 of a fraction of the cumulative dose) can be calculated from the cumulative dose obtained from TAE dose reports. Successful implementation of this dose evaluation system will aid radiologists and technologists in determining the actual dose distributions within patients undergoing TAE. - Highlights: • An organ dose evaluation system for interventional procedures was successfully established. • Response variation of XR-RV3 due to energy dependence was 2.7%. • Three-dimensional image segmentations utilize thresholding and k-means clustering. • Peak skin doses are the fractions from 0.68 to 0.82 of cumulated doses for interventional TAE of HCC

  10. Impact of Adaptive Materials on Teachers and their Students with Visual Impairments in Secondary Science and Mathematics Classes

    Rule, Audrey C.; Stefanich, Greg P.; Boody, Robert M.; Peiffer, Belinda

    2011-04-01

    Science, technology, engineering, and mathematics (STEM) fields, important in today's world, are underrepresented by students with disabilities. Students with visual impairments, although cognitively similar to sighted peers, face challenges as STEM subjects are often taught using visuals. They need alternative forms of access such as enlarged or audio-converted text, tactile graphics, and involvement in hands-on science. This project focused on increasing teacher awareness of and providing funds for the purchase of supplemental adaptive resources, supplies, and equipment. We examined attitude and instructional changes across the year of the programme in 15 science and mathematics teachers educating students with visual impairments. Positive changes were noted from pretest to posttest in student and teacher perspectives, and in teacher attitudes towards students with disabilities in STEM classes. Teachers also provided insights into their challenges and successes through a reflective narrative. Several adolescent students resisted accommodations to avoid appearing conspicuous to peers. Teachers implemented three strategies to address this: providing the adaptations to all students in the class; convincing the student of the need for adaptation; and involving the class in understanding and accepting the student's impairment. A variety of teacher-created adaptations for various science and mathematics labs are reported. Another finding was many adaptations provided for the student with visual impairment benefitted the entire class. This study supports the claim that given knowledgeable, supportive teachers, and with appropriate accommodations such as tactile or auditory materials, students with visual impairments can be as successful and engaged as other students in science and mathematics.

  11. Thermotropic and Thermochromic Polymer Based Materials for Adaptive Solar Control

    Olaf Mühling

    2010-12-01

    Full Text Available The aim of this review is to present the actual status of development in adaptive solar control by use of thermotropic and organic thermochromic materials. Such materials are suitable for application in smart windows. In detail polymer blends, hydrogels, resins, and thermoplastic films with a reversible temperature-dependent switching behavior are described. A comparative evaluation of the concepts for these energy efficient materials is given as well. Furthermore, the change of strategy from ordinary shadow systems to intrinsic solar energy reflection materials based on phase transition components and a first remark about their realization is reported. Own current results concerning extruded films and high thermally stable casting resins with thermotropic properties make a significant contribution to this field.

  12. Adaptation of Instructional Materials Motivation Survey to Turkish: A Validity and Reliability Study

    Hülya Kutu

    2011-06-01

    Full Text Available The purpose of this study was to adapt “Instructional Materials Motivation Survey [IMMS]”, developed by J. M. Keller, to Turkish and investigate validity and reliability of the Turkish version of the survey. The original version of the survey was composed of 36 items gathered under four factors (attention, relevance, confidence, satisfaction. The survey was translated into Turkish. Views of 15 faculty members who were expert in Turkish and foreign language were sought in terms of correctness of meaning in Turkish and integrity of items into culture of Turkish education system. Turkish version of the survey was administered to total of 262 university students from Education Faculties of Ataturk and Erzincan Universities. The item-total correlations were calculated, and items which had negative or low correlation with the total survey score (r<.30 were excluded from the survey. The construct validity of the survey was examined by exploratory factor analysis. Varimax rotation technique was used due to the separation into irrelevant factors. Finally the survey was constructed from 24 item gathered under two factors. The reliability coefficient (Cronbach Alpha for the whole survey was calculated as 0.83, and 0.79 and 0.69 for the two sub-factors respectively.

  13. Specific Monoclonal Antibody Overcomes the Salmonella enterica Serovar Typhimurium's Adaptive Mechanisms of Intramacrophage Survival and Replication.

    Swarmistha Devi Aribam

    Full Text Available Salmonella-specific antibodies play an important role in host immunity; however, the mechanisms of Salmonella clearance by pathogen-specific antibodies remain to be completely elucidated since previous studies on antibody-mediated protection have yielded inconsistent results. These inconsistencies are at least partially attributable to the use of polyclonal antibodies against Salmonella antigens. Here, we developed a new monoclonal antibody (mAb-449 and identified its related immunogen that protected BALB/c mice from infection with Salmonella enterica serovar Typhimurium. In addition, these data indicate that the mAb-449 immunogen is likely a major protective antigen. Using in vitro infection studies, we also analyzed the mechanism by which mAb-449 conferred host protection. Notably, macrophages infected with mAb-449-treated S. Typhimurium showed enhanced pathogen uptake compared to counterparts infected with control IgG-treated bacteria. Moreover, these macrophages produced elevated levels of pro-inflammatory cytokine TNFα and nitric oxide, indicating that mAb-449 enhanced macrophage activation. Finally, the number of intracellular bacteria in mAb-449-activated macrophages decreased considerably, while the opposite was found in IgG-treated controls. Based on these findings, we suggest that, although S. Typhimurium has the potential to survive and replicate within macrophages, host production of a specific antibody can effectively mediate macrophage activation for clearance of intracellular bacteria.

  14. Inlays made from a hybrid material: adaptation and bond strengths.

    Bottino, M A; Campos, F; Ramos, N C; Rippe, M P; Valandro, L F; Melo, R M

    2015-01-01

    The aim of this study was to evaluate the internal fit, marginal adaptation, and bond strengths of inlays made of computer-aided design/computer-aided manufacturing feldspathic ceramic and polymer-infiltrated ceramic. Twenty molars were randomly selected and prepared to receive inlays that were milled from both materials. Before cementation, internal fit was achieved using the replica technique by molding the internal surface with addition silicone and measuring the cement thicknesses of the pulpal and axial walls. Marginal adaptation was measured on the occlusal and proximal margins of the replica. The inlays were then cemented using resin cement (Panavia F2.0) and subjected to two million thermomechanical cycles in water (200 N load and 3.8-Hz frequency). The restored teeth were then cut into beams, using a lathe, for microtensile testing. The contact angles, marginal integrity, and surface patterns after etching were also observed. Statistical analysis was performed using two-way repeated measures analysis of variance (p<0.05), the Tukey test for internal fit and marginal adaptation, and the Student t-test for bond strength. The failure types (adhesive or cohesive) were classified on each fractured beam. The results showed that the misfit of the pulpal walls (p=0.0002) and the marginal adaptation (p=0.0001) of the feldspathic ceramic were significantly higher when compared to those of the polymer-infiltrated ceramic, while the bond strength values of the former were higher when compared to those of the latter. The contact angle of the polymer-infiltrated ceramic was also higher. In the present study, the hybrid ceramic presented improved internal and marginal adaptation, but the bond strengths were higher for the feldspathic ceramic. PMID:25405903

  15. Brazilian cross-cultural translation and adaptation of the "Questionnaire of Life Quality Specific for Myasthenia Gravis - 15 items"

    Aline Mansueto Mourao; Caroline Martins Araujo; Luiz Sergio Mageste Barbosa; Rodrigo Santiago Gomez; Burns, Ted M.; Stela Maris Aguiar Lemos; Antonio Lucio Teixeira

    2013-01-01

    Objective To translate and to perform the cross-cultural adaptation of the “Questionnaire of Life Quality Specific for Myasthenia Gravis - 15 items” (MG-QOL15). Method The original English version of the questionnaire was translated into Portuguese. This version was revised and translated back into English. Later, both English versions were compared and the divergences were corrected in the Portuguese text. At a second stage, ten patients with MG followed at the Neuromuscular Diseases Clini...

  16. Detecting lineage-specific adaptive evolution of brain-expressed genes in human using rhesus macaque as outgroup

    Yu, Xiao-Jing; Zheng, Hong-Kun; Wang, Jun;

    2006-01-01

    Comparative genetic analysis between human and chimpanzee may detect genetic divergences responsible for human-specific characteristics. Previous studies have identified a series of genes that potentially underwent Darwinian positive selection during human evolution. However, without a closely...... related species as outgroup, it is difficult to identify human-lineage-specific changes, which is critical in delineating the biological uniqueness of humans. In this study, we conducted phylogeny-based analyses of 2633 human brain-expressed genes using rhesus macaque as the outgroup. We identified 47...... candidate genes showing strong evidence of positive selection in the human lineage. Genes with maximal expression in the brain showed a higher evolutionary rate in human than in chimpanzee. We observed that many immune-defense-related genes were under strong positive selection, and this trend was more...

  17. Material Removal and Specific Energy in the Dynamic Scratching of Gamma Titanium Aluminides

    Wang, Hong [ORNL; Lin, Hua-Tay [ORNL; Wereszczak, Andrew A [ORNL

    2006-11-01

    Mechanical responses of three gamma titanium aluminides (TiAls) (denoted as Alloy A, Alloy B and Alloy C) subjected to dynamic scratching were studied by using a single-grit pendulum (rotating) scratch tester. The maximum depth of groove was ~ 0.07 mm, and the scratch velocity used was ~ 1.0 m/s. Normal and tangential forces were monitored. The material removal mechanisms were examined using a scanning electron microscope (SEM) and the scratches were measured by using a laser profilometer. The mechanical properties of the tested TiAls were characterized by the instantaneous specific energy, scratch resistance and scratch hardness as related to the depth of groove. Extensive thermal softening was observed in the dynamic scratch of the tested TiAls, which facilitated both the detachments of developing chips and the pile-ups of materials on side ridges. Sizable fractures were observed in the transverse direction on the tested TiAls; these fractures tended to participate in the chip formation, depending on the microstructure of the TiAl and the size of the scratch groove. Specific energy and scratch hardness are depth-dependent to various degrees for the tested TiAls. The materiel removal might be subjected to different mechanisms, but the overall response of materials can be effectively characterized by the HEM (Hwang, Evans and Malkin) model and the PSR (proportional specimen resistance) model. The obtained depth-independent specific energy and scratch hardness can be used to screen the candidate materials for the specific purpose depending on whether the application is scratch-dominant or impact-dominant. Among the three tested TiAls, the TiAl with larger colony or grain size exhibits a stronger capability of energy dissipation in the material loss or material removal (higher depth-independent specific energy), while the TiAl with smaller colony size show a higher resistance against the indentation (higher depth-independent scratch hardness). The observations and

  18. Graded territories: Towards the design, specification and simulation of materially graded bending active structures

    Nicholas, Paul; Tamke, Martin; Ramsgaard Thomsen, Mette;

    2012-01-01

    The ability to make materials with bespoke behavior affords new perspectives on incorporating material properties within the design process not available through natural materials. This paper reports the design and assembly of two bending-active, fibre-reinforced composite structures. Within these...... structures, the property of bending is activated and varied through bespoke material means so as to match a desired form. Within the architectural design process, formal control depends upon design approaches for material specification and simulation that consider behavior at the level of the material...

  19. Specification of steam generator, condenser and regenerative heat exchanger materials for nuclear applications

    The basic standards specifications of materials for nuclear applications are selected. Seamless Ni-Cr-Fe alloy Tubes (Inconel-600) for steam generators, condensers and other heat exchangers can be employed instead of austenitic stainless steal or copper alloys tubes; supplementary requirements for these materials are given. Specifications of Ni-Cr-Fe alloy plate, sheet and strip for steam generator lower sub-assembly, U-bend seamless copper-alloy tubes for heat exchanger and condensers are also presented. At the end, steam generator channel head material is proposed in the specification for carbon-steel castings suitable for welding

  20. Modular titanium alloy neck adapter failures in hip replacement - failure mode analysis and influence of implant material

    Bloemer Wilhelm

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Modular neck adapters for hip arthroplasty stems allow the surgeon to modify CCD angle, offset and femoral anteversion intraoperatively. Fretting or crevice corrosion may lead to failure of such a modular device due to high loads or surface contamination inside the modular coupling. Unfortunately we have experienced such a failure of implants and now report our clinical experience with the failures in order to advance orthopaedic material research and joint replacement surgery. The failed neck adapters were implanted between August 2004 and November 2006 a total of about 5000 devices. After this period, the titanium neck adapters were replaced by adapters out of cobalt-chromium. Until the end of 2008 in total 1.4% (n = 68 of the implanted titanium alloy neck adapters failed with an average time of 2.0 years (0.7 to 4.0 years postoperatively. All, but one, patients were male, their average age being 57.4 years (36 to 75 years and the average weight 102.3 kg (75 to 130 kg. The failures of neck adapters were divided into 66% with small CCD of 130° and 60% with head lengths of L or larger. Assuming an average time to failure of 2.8 years, the cumulative failure rate was calculated with 2.4%. Methods A series of adapter failures of titanium alloy modular neck adapters in combination with a titanium alloy modular short hip stem was investigated. For patients having received this particular implant combination risk factors were identified which were associated with the occurence of implant failure. A Kaplan-Meier survival-failure-analysis was conducted. The retrieved implants were analysed using microscopic and chemical methods. Modes of failure were simulated in biomechanical tests. Comparative tests included modular neck adapters made of titanium alloy and cobalt chrome alloy material. Results Retrieval examinations and biomechanical simulation revealed that primary micromotions initiated fretting within the modular tapered neck

  1. Material Removal and Specific Energy in the Dynamic Scratching of Gamma Titanium Aluminides

    Wang, H.; Lin, H.-T.; Wereszczak, A.A.

    2006-11-30

    Mechanical responses of three gamma titanium aluminides (TiAls) (denoted as Alloy A, Alloy B and Alloy C) subjected to dynamic scratching were studied by using a single-grit pendulum (rotating) scratch tester. The maximum depth of groove was {approx} 0.07 mm, and the scratch velocity was {approx} 1.0 m/s. Normal and tangential forces were monitored. The material removal mechanisms were examined using a scanning electron microscope (SEM) and the scratches were measured by using a laser profilometer. The mechanical properties of the tested TiAls were characterized by the instantaneous specific energy, scratch resistance and scratch hardness as related to the groove depth. Extensive thermal softening was observed in the dynamic scratch test of the TiAls, which facilitated both the detachment of developing chips and pile-up of material on side ridges. Sizable fractures were observed in the transverse direction in the tested TiAls; these fractures tended to participate in the chip formation, depending on the microstructure of the TiAl and the size of the scratch groove. Specific energy and scratch hardness are depth-dependent to various degrees for the TiAls tested. The material removal might be subjected to different mechanisms, but the overall material response can be effectively characterized by the HEM (Hwang, Evans and Malkin) model and the PSR (proportional specimen resistance) model. The depth-independent specific energy and scratch hardness can be used to screen candidate materials for the applications that are scratch-dominated versus impact-dominated. Among the three tested TiAls, the TiAl with larger colony or grain size exhibits a stronger capability of energy dissipation during material removal (higher depth-independent specific energy), while the TiAl with smaller colony size shows a higher resistance to indentation (higher depth-independent scratch hardness). The observations and conclusions in this study can serve as a base line for the further

  2. A noncontact measurement technique for the specific heat and total hemispherical emissivity of undercooled refractory materials

    Rulison, Aaron J.; Rhim, Won-Kyu

    1994-01-01

    A noncontact measurement technique for the constant pressure specific heat (c(pl)) and the total hemispherical emissivity (epsilon(T1)) of undercooled refractory materials is presented. In purely radiative cooling, a simple formula which relates the post-recalescence isotherm duration and the undercooling level to c(pl) is derived. This technique also allows us to measure epsilon(Tl) once C(pl) is known. The experiments were performed using the high-temperature high-vacuum electrostatic levit...

  3. Thermal management of electronic components with thermal adaptation composite material

    Thermal adaptation composite material is a kind of composite material with required thermal conductivity or coefficient of thermal expansion through the selection and design of its components. A kind of thermal adaptation composite material that has excellent thermal conductivity and heat storage capacity is prepared by absorbing paraffin into expanded graphite. An electronic cooling experimental system based on the thermal adaptation composite material is built. The temperature variations of the simulative chip are respectively measured in this system and the traditional cooling system to investigate the effect of the thermal adaptation composite material on electronic cooling. At the same time, the impacts of composite material dosage and combining active cooling manner on the performance of electronic cooling are also studied. The experimental results show that the apparent heat transfer coefficients of the electronic cooling experimental system are 1.25-1.30 times higher than those of the traditional cooling system. It also can be found that the dosage of composite material has positive impact on the performance of electronic cooling. By combining active cooling manner, it can compensate the deficiency of cooling capacity in phase change thermal control.

  4. Pan-genome analyses identify lineage- and niche-specific markers of evolution and adaptation in Epsilonproteobacteria

    Ying eZhang

    2014-03-01

    Full Text Available The rapidly increasing availability of complete bacterial genomes has created new opportunities for reconstructing bacterial evolution, but it has also highlighted the difficulty to fully understand the genomic and functional variations occurring among different lineages. Using the class Epsilonproteobacteria as a case study, we investigated the composition, flexibility, and function of its pan-genomes. Models were constructed to extrapolate the expansion of pan-genomes at three different taxonomic levels. The results show that, for Epsilonproteobacteria the seemingly large genome variations among strains of the same species are less noticeable when compared with groups at higher taxonomic ranks, indicating that genome stability is imposed by the potential existence of taxonomic boundaries. The analyses of pan-genomes has also defined a set of universally conserved core genes, based on which a phylogenetic tree was constructed to confirm that thermophilic species from deep-sea hydrothermal vents represent the most ancient lineages of Epsilonproteobacteria. Moreover, by comparing the flexible genome of a chemoautotrophic deep-sea vent species to 1 genomes of species belonging to the same genus, but inhabiting different environments, and 2 genomes of other vent species, but belonging to different genera, we were able to delineate the relative importance of lineage-specific versus niche-specific genes. This result not only emphasizes the overall importance of phylogenetic proximity in shaping the variable part of the genome, but also highlights the adaptive functions of niche-specific genes. Overall, by modeling the expansion of pan-genomes and analyzing core and flexible genes, this study provides snapshots on how the complex processes of gene acquisition, conservation, and removal affect the evolution of different species, and contribute to the metabolic diversity and versatility of Epsilonproteobacteria.

  5. Software development for specific geometry and safe design of isotropic material multicell beams

    Comparison of analytical results with finite element results for analysis of isotropic material multicell beams subjected to free torsion case is the main idea of this paper. Progress in the fundamentals and applications of advanced materials and their processing technologies involves costly experiments and prototype testing for reliability. The software development for design analysis of structures with advanced materials is a low cost but challenging research. Multicell beams have important industrial applications in the aerospace and automotive sectors. This paper explains software development to test different materials in design of a multicell beam. Objective of this paper is to compute the torsional loading of multicell beams of isotropic materials for safe design in both symmetrical and asymmetrical geometries. Software has been developed in Microsoft Visual Basic. Distribution of Saint Venant shear flows, shear stresses, factors of safety, volume, mass, weight, twist, polar moment of inertia and aspect ratio for free torsion in multicell beam have been calculated using this software. The software works on four algorithms, these are, Specific geometry algorithm, material selection algorithm, factor of safety algorithm and global algorithm. User can specify new materials analytically, or choose a pre-defined material from the list, which includes, plain carbon steels, low alloy steels, stainless steels, cast irons, aluminum alloys, copper alloys, magnesium alloys, titanium alloys, precious metals and refractory metals. Although this software is restricted to multicell beam comprising of three cells, however future versions can have ability to address more complicated shapes and cases of multicell beams. Software also describes nomenclature and mathematical formulas applied to help user understand the theoretical background. User can specify geometry of multicell beam for three rectangular cells. Software computes shear flows, shear stresses, safety factors

  6. Guidance and methods for satisfying low specific activity material and surface contaminated object regulatory requirements

    The US Department of Transportation (DOT) and the US Nuclear Regulatory Commission (NRC) have prepared a comprehensive set of draft guidance for shippers and inspectors to use when applying the newly imposed regulatory requirements for low specific activity (LSA) material and surface contaminated objects (SCOs). These requirements represent significant departures in some areas from the manner in which these materials and objects were regulated by the earlier versions of the regulations. The proper interpretation and application of the regulatory criteria can require a fairly complex set of decisions be made. To assist those trying to apply these regulatory requirements, a detailed set of logic flow diagrams representing decisions related to multiple factors were prepared and included in the draft report for comment on Categorizing and Transporting Low Specific Activity Materials and Surface Contaminated Objects. These logic flow diagrams, as developed, are specific to the US regulations, but were readily adaptable to the IAEA regulations. The diagrams have been modified accordingly and tied directly to specific paragraphs in IAEA Safety Series No. 6. This paper provides the logic flow diagrams adapted to the IAEA regulations, and demonstrates how these diagrams can be used to assist consignors and inspectors in assessing compliance of shipments with the LSA material and SCO regulatory requirements

  7. Universality and Specificity of Fractal Dimension of Fractured Surfaces in Materials

    2000-01-01

    After calculation on the fracture angles under various conditions of specific surface energies with different symmetry operations of rotation, the complicated behavior of dependence of fractal dimension on the structure of crystal is shown. It is found that the crack propagates along the weakest crystal plane no matter what the direction of the maximum stress is if the anisotropy is sufficiently strong; and then, the fractal dimension of the fractured surfaces might be determined by the approximate fractal structure already existed in the material. Specificity of the fractal dimension of fractured surfaces would be easy to appear in this case. Reversely, the crack propagates along the direction of the maximum stress no matter what direction of the weakest crystal plane is if the anisotropy is sufficiently weak. Universality of the fractal dimension of fractured surfaces would be possible to appear in this case. In many real materials, universality and specificity of the materials are associated. The fractal dimension measured may more or less be influenced by the structure of materials and it shows its universality through the specificity of materials.

  8. Effect of Guide Materials Developed in “Adaptation and Natural Selection” Subject on Remedying Grade 8 Students Alternative Conceptions

    Bakırcı, Hasan; Çalık, Muammer

    2013-01-01

    The purpose of this study is to examine effect of guide materials developed in ‘adaptation and natural selection’ subject on grade 8 students’ alternative conceptions. This study was conducted with 31 grade 8 students in spring semester of 2009-2010. In this context, to define the students’ conceptual problems cited in related literature, an extensive literature review was initially carried out. Adaptation and Natural Selection Concept Test was employed as a pre-test one week before the teach...

  9. Specific and Reversible DNA-Directed Self-Assembly of Modular Vesicle-Droplet Hybrid Materials.

    Hadorn, Maik; Boenzli, Eva; Hanczyc, Martin M

    2016-04-19

    Modular hybrid structures functionalized to assemble in a controlled manner possess diverse properties necessary for a new generation of complex materials and applications. Here, we functionalized giant unilamellar vesicles and emulsion droplets with biotinylated single-stranded DNA oligonucleotides using streptavidin as an intermediary linker to demonstrate specific and reversible DNA-directed self-assembly into vesicle-droplet hybrid structures. A low molar percentage of PEGylated phospholipids independent of the DNA-based recognition machinery at the supramolecular surface modulated the stability of the system. The reversibility of the aggregation was demonstrated by heating the hybrid structures above the melting temperature of the conjoining double-stranded DNA in the presence of excess biotin. The application of this general assembly control system to diverse multiphase soft materials provides the mechanism to assemble complex modular hybrid systems in a controllable and reversible way, which may provide an advantage where multifunctionality is a target property. PMID:27010467

  10. Gender-Specific Models of Work-Bound Korean Adolescents' Social Supports and Career Adaptability on Subsequent Job Satisfaction

    Han, Hyojung; Rojewski, Jay W.

    2015-01-01

    A Korean national database, the High School Graduates Occupational Mobility Survey, was used to examine the influence of perceived social supports (family and school) and career adaptability on the subsequent job satisfaction of work-bound adolescents 4 months after their transition from high school to work. Structural equation modeling analysis…

  11. Genomics-Based Exploration of Virulence Determinants and Host-Specific Adaptations of Pseudomonas syringae Strains Isolated from Grasses

    Alexey Dudnik

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available The Pseudomonas syringae species complex has recently been named the number one plant pathogen, due to its economic and environmental impacts, as well as for its role in scientific research. The bacterium has been repeatedly reported to cause outbreaks on bean, cucumber, stone fruit, kiwi and olive tree, as well as on other crop and non-crop plants. It also serves as a model organism for research on the Type III secretion system (T3SS and plant-pathogen interactions. While most of the current work on this pathogen is either carried out on one of three model strains found on dicot plants with completely sequenced genomes or on isolates obtained from recent outbreaks, not much is known about strains isolated from grasses (Poaceae. Here, we use comparative genomics in order to identify putative virulence-associated genes and other Poaceae-specific adaptations in several newly available genome sequences of strains isolated from grass species. All strains possess only a small number of known Type III effectors, therefore pointing to the importance of non-Type III secreted virulence factors. The implications of this finding are discussed.

  12. Design of a Domain-Specific Language for Material Flow Analysis using Microsoft DSL tools: An Experience Paper

    Zarrin, Bahram; Baumeister, Hubert

    2014-01-01

    Material Flow Analysis (MFA) is the procedure of measuring and assessing the mass flows of matter (solid waste, water, food...) and substances (carbon, phosphorus ...) within a process or a system for the period of time. In this paper we propose a Domain-Specific Language (DSL) to model MFA in a...

  13. Specification of failure-handling requirements as policy rules on self-adaptive systems

    Pimentel, João Henrique; Castro, Jaelson; Franch Gutiérrez, Javier

    2012-01-01

    Most adaptive systems have compensation mechanisms for recovering from or preventing failures. However, sometimes a compensation is not essential. Hence, diagnosing and compensating each and every one of their failures may be ineffective. Rather than polluting a requirements specification with fine grained definition of failure-handling conditions, this work aims to increase the flexibility of failure handling in self-adaptive systems using tolerance policies. We allow the expression...

  14. Generalization of Hindi OCR Using Adaptive Segmentation and Font Files

    Agrawal, Mudit; Ma, Huanfeng; Doermann, David

    In this chapter, we describe an adaptive Indic OCR system implemented as part of a rapidly retargetable language tool effort and extend work found in [20, 2]. The system includes script identification, character segmentation, training sample creation, and character recognition. For script identification, Hindi words are identified in bilingual or multilingual document images using features of the Devanagari script and support vector machine (SVM). Identified words are then segmented into individual characters, using a font-model-based intelligent character segmentation and recognition system. Using characteristics of structurally similar TrueType fonts, our system automatically builds a model to be used for the segmentation and recognition of the new script, independent of glyph composition. The key is a reliance on known font attributes. In our recognition system three feature extraction methods are used to demonstrate the importance of appropriate features for classification. The methods are tested on both Latin and non-Latin scripts. Results show that the character-level recognition accuracy exceeds 92% for non-Latin and 96% for Latin text on degraded documents. This work is a step toward the recognition of scripts of low-density languages which typically do not warrant the development of commercial OCR, yet often have complete TrueType font descriptions.

  15. Adapted VTA and SIA method in tree static assessment with use of resistography

    PERNEK, MILAN; Lacković, Nikola; MAČAK-HADŽIOMEROVIĆ, AMRA; Stamenković, Vanja

    2013-01-01

    Background and Purpose: This paper introduces a method for assessment of static safety by using the combination of adapted VTA and SIA methods and a resistograph. The aim is to assess the static as reliably as possible and without the need for expensive equipment. The purpose of this paper is to propose amethod for the static assessment which could be applied in practice in the future. Materials and Methods: Seven trees in the Botanical Garden of the Faculty of Science (University of Z...

  16. Curriculum-Dependent and Curriculum-Independent Factors in Preservice Elementary Teachers' Adaptation of Science Curriculum Materials for Inquiry-Based Science

    Forbes, Cory T.

    2013-02-01

    In this nested mixed methods study I investigate factors influencing preservice elementary teachers' adaptation of science curriculum materials to better support students' engagement in science as inquiry. Analyses focus on two `reflective teaching assignments' completed by 46 preservice elementary teachers in an undergraduate elementary science methods course in which they were asked to adapt existing science curriculum materials to plan and enact inquiry-based science lessons in elementary classrooms. Data analysis involved regression modeling of artifacts associated with these lessons, as well as in-depth, semester-long case studies of six of these preservice teachers. Results suggest that features of the existing science curriculum materials, including measures of how inquiry-based they were, have a relatively small influence on the preservice teachers' curricular adaptations, while teacher-specific variables account for a much greater percentage of the variance. Evidence from the case studies illustrates the critical impact of the preservice teachers' field placement contexts as an explanatory, teacher-specific factor in their curricular adaptations. These findings have important implications for science teacher educators and science curriculum developers, in terms of not only better understanding how preservice teachers engage with curriculum materials, but also how programmatic features of teacher education programs influence their ability to do so.

  17. Genus-Wide Comparative Genome Analyses of Colletotrichum Species Reveal Specific Gene Family Losses and Gains during Adaptation to Specific Infection Lifestyles.

    Gan, Pamela; Narusaka, Mari; Kumakura, Naoyoshi; Tsushima, Ayako; Takano, Yoshitaka; Narusaka, Yoshihiro; Shirasu, Ken

    2016-01-01

    Members from Colletotrichum genus adopt a diverse range of lifestyles during infection of plants and represent a group of agriculturally devastating pathogens. In this study, we present the draft genome of Colletotrichum incanum from the spaethianum clade of Colletotrichum and the comparative analyses with five other Colletotrichum species from distinct lineages. We show that the C. incanum strain, originally isolated from Japanese daikon radish, is able to infect both eudicot plants, such as certain ecotypes of the eudicot Arabidopsis, and monocot plants, such as lily. Being closely related to Colletotrichum species both in the graminicola clade, whose members are restricted strictly to monocot hosts, and to the destructivum clade, whose members are mostly associated with dicot infections, C. incanum provides an interesting model system for comparative genomics to study how fungal pathogens adapt to monocot and dicot hosts. Genus-wide comparative genome analyses reveal that Colletotrichum species have tailored profiles of their carbohydrate-degrading enzymes according to their infection lifestyles. In addition, we show evidence that positive selection acting on secreted and nuclear localized proteins that are highly conserved may be important in adaptation to specific hosts or ecological niches. PMID:27189990

  18. Apical adaptation, sealing ability and push-out bond strength of five root-end filling materials

    Pablo Andrés AMOROSO-SILVA

    2014-08-01

    Full Text Available This study compared the fluid filtration, adaptation to the root canal walls, and the push-out bond strength of two resin-based sealers and three calcium silicate-based retrograde filling materials. Fifty maxillary canines were shaped using manual instruments and the apical portion was sectioned. Retrograde cavities of 3-mm depth were prepared. The specimens were divided into five groups (n = 10: Sealer 26 (S26; MBPc (experimental; MTA; Portland cement with 20% zirconium oxide (PC/ZO, and Portland cement with 20% calcium tungstate (PC/CT. The fluid filtration was measured at 7 and 15 days. To evaluate the interfacial adaptation, sections of the teeth, 1 and 2 mm from the apex, were prepared and the percentage of gaps was calculated. The push-out bond strength at 2 mm from the apex was evaluated. Statistical analysis was performed using the ANOVA/Tukey’s test (p < 0.05. At 7 and 15 days (p = 0.0048, p = 0.006, the PC/CT group showed higher fluid filtration values when compared to other groups. At 1 mm from the apex, no statistical differences in the adaptation were found among the cements (p = 0.44. At 2 mm from the apex, the PC/ZO group presented statistically lower percentage of gaps than S26, MBPc, and MTA (p = 0.0007. The MBPc group showed higher push-out bond strength than other cements evaluated (p = 0.0008. The fluid filtration and interfacial adaptation of the calcium silicate-based cements were similar to those of the resin-based cements. The resinous cement MBPc showed superior push-out bond strength.

  19. Adaptive coupling between damage mechanics and peridynamics: a route for objective simulation of material degradation up to complete failure

    Han, Fei

    2016-05-17

    The objective (mesh-independent) simulation of evolving discontinuities, such as cracks, remains a challenge. Current techniques are highly complex or involve intractable computational costs, making simulations up to complete failure difficult. We propose a framework as a new route toward solving this problem that adaptively couples local-continuum damage mechanics with peridynamics to objectively simulate all the steps that lead to material failure: damage nucleation, crack formation and propagation. Local-continuum damage mechanics successfully describes the degradation related to dispersed microdefects before the formation of a macrocrack. However, when damage localizes, it suffers spurious mesh dependency, making the simulation of macrocracks challenging. On the other hand, the peridynamic theory is promising for the simulation of fractures, as it naturally allows discontinuities in the displacement field. Here, we present a hybrid local-continuum damage/peridynamic model. Local-continuum damage mechanics is used to describe “volume” damage before localization. Once localization is detected at a point, the remaining part of the energy is dissipated through an adaptive peridynamic model capable of the transition to a “surface” degradation, typically a crack. We believe that this framework, which actually mimics the real physical process of crack formation, is the first bridge between continuum damage theories and peridynamics. Two-dimensional numerical examples are used to illustrate that an objective simulation of material failure can be achieved by this method.

  20. Adaptive radiotherapy based on fiducial marker using off-line strategy to construct patient specific PTV in prostate IMRT

    The aim is to develop an off-line strategy for constructing a patient specific target PTV margin in Adaptive Radiotherapy (ART) process using image feedback based on gold seed movements to improve the efficacy and dose escalation for IMRT of prostate cancer

  1. Review Of Parameter Estimation Using Adaptive Filtering

    LALITA RANI, SHALOO KIKAN

    2013-07-01

    Full Text Available In this paper, a comparative study of different adaptive filter algorithm for channel parameter estimation is described. We presented different parameter estimation approaches of adaptive filtering. An extended Kalman filter is then applied as a near-optimal solution to the adaptive channel parameter estimation problem. Kalman filtering is applied for motion parameters resulting in optimal pose estimation. A parallel Kalman filter is applied for joint estimation of code delay, multipath gains and Doppler shift. In this paper, a complete review of parameter estimation using adaptive filtering is explained.

  2. [In vitro comparison of marginal adaptation of various filling materials. I. Effect of the filling material on marginal adaptation].

    Kóhalmi, T; Gorzo, I; Mari, A; Nagy, K

    1999-03-01

    In a two-month in vitro experiment cervical marginal adaptation was examined in relation to the preparation, filling method and restorative material. Fifty Class II cavities were prepared in fifty extracted sound human premolar and molar teeth extending to the approximal cement-enamel junction. The cavities to receive composite restorations were bevelled at the vestibulo-occlusal and -approximal enamel margins, the other aspects of the cavity enamel and gingival margins at the cement-enamel junction being prepared conventionally. The cavities for amalgam were prepared and filled conventionally. The specimens were cycled in different buffer solutions and temperature, modelling possible variations in the oral environment and examined with SEM. The results were analysed using ANOVA. The best marginal adaptation among the composites was achieved with Charisma, Estilux Posterior, Durafil and Prisma AP. H at the bevelled enamel margins, the worst marginal fit was with Heliomolar and Polofil. It was concluded, that adhesive technique reduces, but does not eliminate marginal leakage. PMID:10205985

  3. Solution-verified reliability analysis and design of bistable MEMS using error estimation and adaptivity.

    Eldred, Michael Scott; Subia, Samuel Ramirez; Neckels, David; Hopkins, Matthew Morgan; Notz, Patrick K.; Adams, Brian M.; Carnes, Brian; Wittwer, Jonathan W.; Bichon, Barron J.; Copps, Kevin D.

    2006-10-01

    This report documents the results for an FY06 ASC Algorithms Level 2 milestone combining error estimation and adaptivity, uncertainty quantification, and probabilistic design capabilities applied to the analysis and design of bistable MEMS. Through the use of error estimation and adaptive mesh refinement, solution verification can be performed in an automated and parameter-adaptive manner. The resulting uncertainty analysis and probabilistic design studies are shown to be more accurate, efficient, reliable, and convenient.

  4. Adaptation of Fusarium oxysporum and Fusarium dimerum to the specific aquatic environment provided by the water systems of hospitals.

    Steinberg, Christian; Laurent, Julie; Edel-Hermann, Véronique; Barbezant, Marie; Sixt, Nathalie; Dalle, Frédéric; Aho, Serge; Bonnin, Alain; Hartemann, Philippe; Sautour, Marc

    2015-06-01

    Members of the Fusarium group were recently detected in water distribution systems of several hospitals in the world. An epidemiological investigation was conducted over 2 years in hospital buildings in Dijon and Nancy (France) and in non-hospital buildings in Dijon. The fungi were detected only within the water distribution systems of the hospital buildings and also, but at very low concentrations, in the urban water network of Nancy. All fungi were identified as Fusarium oxysporum species complex (FOSC) and Fusarium dimerum species complex (FDSC) by sequencing part of the translation elongation factor 1-alpha (TEF-1α) gene. Very low diversity was found in each complex, suggesting the existence of a clonal population for each. Density and heterogeneous distributions according to buildings and variability over time were explained by episodic detachments of parts of the colony from biofilms in the pipes. Isolates of these waterborne populations as well as soilborne isolates were tested for their ability to grow in liquid medium in the presence of increasing concentrations of sodium hypochlorite, copper sulfate, anti-corrosion pipe coating, at various temperatures (4°-42 °C) and on agar medium with amphotericin B and voriconazole. The waterborne isolates tolerated higher sodium hypochlorite and copper sulfate concentrations and temperatures than did soilborne isolates but did not show any specific resistance to fungicides. In addition, unlike waterborne isolates, soilborne isolates did not survive in water even supplemented with glucose, while the former developed in the soil as well as soilborne isolates. We concluded the existence of homogeneous populations of FOSC and FDSC common to all contaminated hospital sites. These populations are present at very low densities in natural waters, making them difficult to detect, but they are adapted to the specific conditions offered by the complex water systems of public hospitals in Dijon and Nancy and probably other

  5. Brazilian cross-cultural translation and adaptation of the "Questionnaire of Life Quality Specific for Myasthenia Gravis - 15 items"

    Aline Mansueto Mourao

    2013-12-01

    Full Text Available Objective To translate and to perform the cross-cultural adaptation of the “Questionnaire of Life Quality Specific for Myasthenia Gravis - 15 items” (MG-QOL15. Method The original English version of the questionnaire was translated into Portuguese. This version was revised and translated back into English. Later, both English versions were compared and the divergences were corrected in the Portuguese text. At a second stage, ten patients with MG followed at the Neuromuscular Diseases Clinic from the University Hospital, Universidade Federal de Minas Gerais answered the questionnaire. The authors analyzed the difficulties and misunderstandings in the application of the questionnaire. Results The questions 8, 13 and 15 were considered difficult to understand and were modified in the final Portuguese version. Most patients (70% had a total score above 25, and the statements 3, 8 and 9 showed the highest scores. Conclusion The Brazilian version of the questionnaire MG-QOL15 seems to be a promising tool for the assessment of Brazilian patients with MG.

  6. Experimental and theoretical investigation of organometallic radioprotective materials adapted to radiation sources with complex isotope composition

    Attenuation of γ-radiation dose rate (60Co, 58Co, 198Au, 54Mn, 24Na) by homogeneous radioprotective material Abris RZ depending on composition and thickness is studied. The technology of homogeneous radioprotective materials permits to form necessary chemical and percentage composition of filling agents (barium sulfate, lead) with good attenuating properties. It is shown that the difference between experimental and calculated dose rate attenuation factors is within 5 %

  7. Specificity analysis of lectins and antibodies using remodeled glycoproteins

    Iskratsch, Thomas; Braun, Andreas; Paschinger, Katharina; Wilson, Iain B. H.

    2009-01-01

    Due to their ability to bind specifically to certain carbohydrate sequences, lectins are a frequently used tool in cytology, histology, and glycan analysis but also offer new options for drug targeting and drug delivery systems. For these and other potential applications, it is necessary to be certain as to the carbohydrate structures interacting with the lectin. Therefore, we used glycoproteins remodeled with glycosyltransferases and glycosidases for testing specificities of lectins from Ale...

  8. Adaptive Tests of Significance Using Permutations of Residuals with R and SAS

    O'Gorman, Thomas W

    2012-01-01

    Provides the tools needed to successfully perform adaptive tests across a broad range of datasets Adaptive Tests of Significance Using Permutations of Residuals with R and SAS illustrates the power of adaptive tests and showcases their ability to adjust the testing method to suit a particular set of data. The book utilizes state-of-the-art software to demonstrate the practicality and benefits for data analysis in various fields of study. Beginning with an introduction, the book moves on to explore the underlying concepts of adaptive tests, including:Smoothing methods and normalizing transforma

  9. M-Learning: Implications in Learning Domain Specificities, Adaptive Learning, Feedback, Augmented Reality, and the Future of Online Learning

    Squires, David R.

    2014-01-01

    The aim of this paper is to examine the potential and effectiveness of m-learning in the field of Education and Learning domains. The purpose of this research is to illustrate how mobile technology can and is affecting novel change in instruction, from m-learning and the link to adaptive learning, to the uninitiated learner and capacities of…

  10. Comparative Scanning Electron Microscopic Study of the Marginal Adaptation of Four Root-End Filling Materials in Presence and Absence of Blood

    Behnam Bolhari

    2015-10-01

    Full Text Available Objectives: The aim of this study was to evaluate marginal adaptation of mineral trioxide aggregate (MTA, calcium enriched mixture (CEM cement, Biodentine and BioAggregate in presence of normal saline and human blood.Materials and Methods: In this in-vitro experimental study, 80 extracted single-rooted human teeth were instrumented and filled with gutta-percha. After resect- ing the root-end, apical cavity preparation was done and the teeth were randomly divided into 4 groups (N=20(a total of 8 subgroups. Root-end filling materials were placed in 3mm root-end cavities prepared ultrasonically. Half the specimens in each group were exposed to normal saline and the other half to fresh whole human blood. After 4 days, epoxy resin replicas of the apical portion of samples were fabricated and scanning electron microscopy (SEM analysis was performed to find gaps in the adaptation of the root-end filling materials at their interface with dentin. The Kruskal-Wallis and Mann-Whitney tests were used for statistical analysis of data with P<0.05 as the limit of significance.Results: There were no significant differences in marginal adaptation of the 8 tested groups (P>0.05.Conclusion: Based on the results, blood contamination does not affect the mar- ginal adaptation of MTA, CEM cement, Biodentine or BioAggregate .

  11. Topology optimization of compliant adaptive wing leading edge with composite materials

    Tong Xinxing; Ge Wenjie; Sun Chao; Liu Xiaoyong

    2014-01-01

    An approach for designing the compliant adaptive wing leading edge with composite material is proposed based on the topology optimization. Firstly, an equivalent constitutive relationship of laminated glass fiber reinforced epoxy composite plates has been built based on the symmetric laminated plate theory. Then, an optimization objective function of compliant adaptive wing leading edge was used to minimize the least square error (LSE) between deformed curve and desired aerodynamics shape. Af...

  12. Certification of butyltins and phenyltins in marine sediment certified reference material by species-specific isotope-dilution mass spectrometric analysis using synthesized 118Sn-enriched organotin compounds.

    Inagaki, Kazumi; Takatsu, Akiko; Watanabe, Takuro; Aoyagi, Yoshie; Yarita, Takashi; Okamoto, Kensaku; Chiba, Koichi

    2007-04-01

    A new marine sediment certified reference material, NMIJ CRM 7306-a, for butyltin and phenyltin analysis has been prepared and certified by the National Metrological Institute of Japan at the National Institute of Advanced Industrial Science and Technology (NMIJ/AIST). Candidate sediment material was collected at a bay near industrial activity in Japan. After air-drying, sieving, and mixing the material was sterilized with gamma-ray irradiation. The material was re-mixed and packaged into 250 glass bottles (15 g each) and these were stored in a freezer at -30 degrees C. Certification was performed by use of three different types of species-specific isotope-dilution mass spectrometry (SSID-MS)-SSID-GC-ICP-MS, SSID-GC-MS, and SSID-LC-ICP-MS, with 118Sn-enriched organotin compounds synthesized from 118Sn-enriched metal used as a spike. The 118Sn-enriched mono-butyltin (MBT), dibutyltin (DBT), and tributyltin (TBT) were synthesized as a mixture whereas the 118Sn-enriched di-phenyltin (DPhT) and triphenyltin (TPhT) were synthesized individually. Four different extraction methods, mechanical shaking, ultrasonic, microwave-assisted, and pressurized liquid extraction, were adopted to avoid possible analytical bias caused by non-quantitative extraction and degradation or inter-conversion of analytes in sample preparations. Tropolone was used as chelating agent in all the extraction methods. Certified values are given for TBT 44+/-3 microg kg(-1) as Sn, DBT 51 +/- 2 microg kg(-1) as Sn, MBT 67 +/- 3 microg kg(-1) as Sn, TPhT 6.9 +/- 1.2 microg kg(-1) as Sn, and DPhT 3.4 +/- 1.2 microg kg(-1) as Sn. These levels are lower than in other sediment CRMs currently available for analysis of organotin compounds. PMID:16874473

  13. Feature-specific imaging: Extensions to adaptive object recognition and active illumination based scene reconstruction

    Baheti, Pawan K.

    Computational imaging (CI) systems are hybrid imagers in which the optical and post-processing sub-systems are jointly optimized to maximize the task-specific performance. In this dissertation we consider a form of CI system that measures the linear projections (i.e., features) of the scene optically, and it is commonly referred to as feature-specific imaging (FSI). Most of the previous work on FSI has been concerned with image reconstruction. Previous FSI techniques have also been non-adaptive and restricted to the use of ambient illumination. We consider two novel extensions of the FSI system in this work. We first present an adaptive feature-specific imaging (AFSI) system and consider its application to a face-recognition task. The proposed system makes use of previous measurements to adapt the projection basis at each step. We present both statistical and information-theoretic adaptation mechanisms for the AFSI system. The sequential hypothesis testing framework is used to determine the number of measurements required for achieving a specified misclassification probability. We demonstrate that AFSI system requires significantly fewer measurements than static-FSI (SFSI) and conventional imaging at low signal-to-noise ratio (SNR). We also show a trade-off, in terms of average detection time, between measurement SNR and adaptation advantage. Experimental results validating the AFSI system are presented. Next we present a FSI system based on the use of structured light. Feature measurements are obtained by projecting spatially structured illumination onto an object and collecting all of the reflected light onto a single photodetector. We refer to this system as feature-specific structured imaging (FSSI). Principal component features are used to define the illumination patterns. The optimal LMMSE operator is used to generate object estimates from the measurements. We demonstrate that this new imaging approach reduces imager complexity and provides improved image

  14. Science of adaptation to climate change and science for adaptation

    RobSwart

    2014-07-01

    Full Text Available Adaptation to climate change has gained a prominent place next to mitigation on global, national and local policy agendas. However, while an abundance of adaptation strategies, plans and programmes have been developed, progress in turning these into action has been slow. The development of a sound knowledge basis to support adaptation globally is suggested to accelerate progress, but has lagged behind. The emphasis in both current and newly proposed programmes is very much on practice-oriented research with strong stakeholder participation. This paper supports such practice-oriented research, but argues that this is insufficient to support adaptation policy and practice in a productive manner. We argue that there is not only a need for science for adaptation, but also a science of adaptation. The paper argues that participatory, practice-oriented research is indeed essential, but has to be complemented by and connected to more fundamental inquiry and concept development, which takes into account knowledge that has been developed in disciplinary sciences and on issues other than climate change adaptation. At the same time, the level and method of participation in science for adaptation should be determined on the basis of the specific project context and goals. More emphasis on science of adaptation can lead to improved understanding of the conditions for successful science for adaptation.

  15. Stage-specific global alterations in the transcriptomes of Lyme disease spirochetes during tick feeding and following mammalian host adaptation.

    Iyer, Radha; Caimano, Melissa J; Luthra, Amit; Axline, David; Corona, Arianna; Iacobas, Dumitru A; Radolf, Justin D; Schwartz, Ira

    2015-02-01

    Borrelia burgdorferi, the agent of Lyme disease, is maintained in nature within an enzootic cycle involving a mammalian reservoir and an Ixodes sp. tick vector. The transmission, survival and pathogenic potential of B. burgdorferi depend on the bacterium's ability to modulate its transcriptome as it transits between vector and reservoir host. Herein, we employed an amplification-microarray approach to define the B. burgdorferi transcriptomes in fed larvae, fed nymphs and in mammalian host-adapted organisms cultivated in dialysis membrane chambers. The results show clearly that spirochetes exhibit unique expression profiles during each tick stage and during cultivation within the mammal; importantly, none of these profiles resembles that exhibited by in vitro grown organisms. Profound shifts in transcript levels were observed for genes encoding known or predicted lipoproteins as well as proteins involved in nutrient uptake, carbon utilization and lipid synthesis. Stage-specific expression patterns of chemotaxis-associated genes also were noted, suggesting that the composition and interactivities of the chemotaxis machinery components vary considerably in the feeding tick and mammal. The results as a whole make clear that environmental sensing by B. burgdorferi directly or indirectly drives an extensive and tightly integrated modulation of cell envelope constituents, chemotaxis/motility machinery, intermediary metabolism and cellular physiology. These findings provide the necessary transcriptional framework for delineating B. burgdorferi regulatory pathways throughout the enzootic cycle as well as defining the contribution(s) of individual genes to spirochete survival in nature and virulence in humans. PMID:25425211

  16. Pre-adjustment of adult attachment style to extrinsic risk levels via early attachment style is neither specific, nor reliable, nor effective, and is thus not an adaptation

    Honekopp, Johannes

    2009-01-01

    The mechanism proposed by Del Giudice by which adult attachment style is adapted to the extrinsic risk in the local environment via attachment style during the early years does not fulfill important criteria of an adaptation. The proposed mechanism is neither specific, nor developmentally reliable, nor effective. Therefore, it should not be considered an adaptation.

  17. Specific activity measurement of radioelement in construction material

    Human beings have always been exposed to radiation from both natural and technological sources. The main components of the construction materials produced from earth and thus they contain radioelement naturally exist. The most important source of external radiation exposure in buildings is caused by the gamma rays emitted from members of the uranium and thorium decay chains and 40K occurring naturally in building materials. The aim of this work is to determine the specific activity concentrations (Bq/kg) of 226Ra, 232Th and 40K in some building materials used for construction purposes in the houses. The measurement has been performed using gamma ray spectrometer with the NaI(Tl) detector.

  18. Cross-cultural adaptation of the Burns Specific Pain Anxiety Scale - BSPAS to be used with Brazilian burned patients Adaptación transcultural de la "Burns Specific Pain Anxiety Scale - BSPAS" para ser aplicada en pacientes quemados brasileños Adaptação transcultural da "Burns Specific Pain Anxiety Scale - BSPAS" para ser aplicada em pacientes queimados brasileiros

    María Elena Echevarría-Guanilo; Lídia Aparecida Rossi; Rosana Aparecida Spadoti Dantas; Cláudia Benedita dos Santos

    2006-01-01

    This study aimed at translating and adapting the Burns Specific Pain Anxiety Scale - BSPAS and the Impact of Event Scale - IES into Portuguese; making available two simple, short and easily applicable instruments and describing the study participants according to their scores on the Visual Analogue Scale and the Trait-State Anxiety Inventory. The cross-cultural adaptation process involved the following steps: translation of the scales; reaching a consensus in Portuguese; evaluation by an expe...

  19. A comparative study of software adaptation using remote method call and Web Services

    AFFONSO, F. J.

    2011-06-01

    Full Text Available The software development process has been directed, over the years, to various methodologies with specific purposes to attend emerging needs. Besides, it can also be noticed, during this period, that some processes require mechanisms related to software reuse and greater speed in the development stage. An important factor in this context is the mutation (adaptation, which occurs in all the software's life cycle, due to its customers' needs or due to technological changes. Regarding the latter factor, it has been observed a significant increase in developments that use distributed applications through the World Wide Web or remote application. Based on the adaptation idea and on the necessity of software distribution systems, this paper presents a technique to reconfigure software capable of acting in several developmental contexts (local, distributed and/or Web. In order to demonstrate its applicability, a case study, through the use of service orientation and remote calls, was done to show the software adaptation in the development of applications. Besides, comparative results among the approaches used in the development of reconfigurable applications are also presented.

  20. Material selection,hardness after heat treatment and use specification of steel extrusion toolings%钢挤压工模具材质选择、热处理硬度及使用规范

    包进平; 赵云路; 薛荣敬

    2012-01-01

    For the high temperature strength and toughness of the traditional hot working die steel materials can not meet the requirement of the steel extrusion toolings, and their comprehensive costs are high, so the hot working die steel material 1. 2367 suiting for steel extrusion toolings was proposed. And the differences between them and the traditional hot working die steel materials were compared. The material selection, suitable hardness after heat treatment and use specification of each steel extrusion toolings were described in detail. The frequently water cooling usually resulted in the die steel thermal fatigue, so the viewpoint of water cooling replaced by several toolings cycle use and natural cooling was proposed.%由于传统热作模具钢的高温强韧性不能满足钢挤压工模具的要求以及综合成本较高等原因,提出了适合用于钢挤压工模具的热作模具钢材质1.2367,并将其与传统热作模具钢进行对比;对各种钢挤压工模具材质选择、适宜的热处理硬度及使用规范进行了较为详细的叙述;对频繁水冷容易造成模具钢热疲劳的问题,提出了利用多件工模具循环使用并采取自然冷却的方法代替水冷的观点.

  1. Specific of adaptation foreign student with different health and physical preparedness level to employments on physical education in Kharkov National Medical University

    Lukavenko H.G.

    2010-06-01

    Full Text Available The specific of adaptation of foreign students is considered to Ukrainian university reality. Researches were conducted with participation 762 students from 62 countries. Possibilities of teaching of all objects are rotined in English language. The results of questionnaire of students of the first course are presented. Attitude of students is exposed toward an object and their level of physical preparedness. Traditions and departmental of other countries teaching are rotined. Methods and facilities of reduction of adaptation period are presented the increase of level of physical and mental capacity.

  2. Comparative Scanning Electron Microscopic Study of the Marginal Adaptation of Four Root-End Filling Materials in Presence and Absence of Blood

    Bolhari, Behnam; Ashofteh Yazdi, Kazem; Sharifi, Farnood; Pirmoazen, Salma

    2015-01-01

    Objectives: The aim of this study was to evaluate marginal adaptation of mineral trioxide aggregate (MTA), calcium enriched mixture (CEM) cement, Biodentine and BioAggregate in presence of normal saline and human blood. Materials and Methods: In this in-vitro experimental study, 80 extracted single-rooted human teeth were instrumented and filled with gutta-percha. After resecting the root-end, apical cavity preparation was done and the teeth were randomly divided into 4 groups (N=20)(a total of 8 subgroups). Root-end filling materials were placed in 3mm root-end cavities prepared ultrasonically. Half the specimens in each group were exposed to normal saline and the other half to fresh whole human blood. After 4 days, epoxy resin replicas of the apical portion of samples were fabricated and scanning electron microscopy (SEM) analysis was performed to find gaps in the adaptation of the root-end filling materials at their interface with dentin. The Kruskal-Wallis and Mann-Whitney tests were used for statistical analysis of data with P0.05). Conclusion: Based on the results, blood contamination does not affect the marginal adaptation of MTA, CEM cement, Biodentine or BioAggregate. PMID:26622276

  3. The guide to PAMIR theory and use of Parameterized Adaptive Multidimensional Integration Routines

    Adler, Stephen L

    2013-01-01

    PAMIR (Parameterized Adaptive Multidimensional Integration Routines) is a suite of Fortran programs for multidimensional numerical integration over hypercubes, simplexes, and hyper-rectangles in general dimension p, intended for use by physicists, applied mathematicians, computer scientists, and engineers. The programs, which are available on the internet at website and are free for non-profit research use, are capable of following localized peaks and valleys of the integrand. Each program comes with a Message-Passing Interface (MPI) parallel version for cluster use as well as serial versions. The first chapter presents introductory material, similar to that on the PAMIR website, and the next is a "manual" giving much more detail on the use of the programs than is on the website. They are followed by many examples of performance benchmarks and comparisons with other programs, and a discussion of the computational integration aspects of PAMIR, in comparison with other methods in the literature. The final chapt...

  4. Specificity analysis of lectins and antibodies using remodeled glycoproteins.

    Iskratsch, Thomas; Braun, Andreas; Paschinger, Katharina; Wilson, Iain B H

    2009-03-15

    Due to their ability to bind specifically to certain carbohydrate sequences, lectins are a frequently used tool in cytology, histology, and glycan analysis but also offer new options for drug targeting and drug delivery systems. For these and other potential applications, it is necessary to be certain as to the carbohydrate structures interacting with the lectin. Therefore, we used glycoproteins remodeled with glycosyltransferases and glycosidases for testing specificities of lectins from Aleuria aurantia (AAL), Erythrina cristagalli (ECL), Griffonia simplicifolia (GSL I-B(4)), Helix pomatia agglutinin (HPA), Lens culinaris (LCA), Lotus tetragonolobus (LTA), peanut (Arachis hypogaeae) (PNA), Ricinus communis (RCA I), Sambucus nigra (SNA), Vicia villosa (VVA), and wheat germ (Triticum vulgaris) (WGA) as well as reactivities of anti-carbohydrate antibodies (anti-bee venom, anti-horseradish peroxidase [anti-HRP], and anti-Lewis(x)). After enzymatic remodeling, the resulting neoglycoforms display defined carbohydrate sequences and can be used, when spotted on nitrocellulose or in enzyme-linked lectinosorbent assays, to identify the sugar moieties bound by the lectins. Transferrin with its two biantennary complex N-glycans was used as scaffold for gaining diverse N-glycosidic structures, whereas fetuin was modified using glycosidases to test the specificities of lectins toward both N- and O-glycans. In addition, alpha(1)-acid glycoprotein and Schistosoma mansoni egg extract were chosen as controls for lectin interactions with fucosylated glycans (Lewis(x) and core alpha1,3-fucose). Our data complement and expand the existing knowledge about the binding specificity of a range of commercially available lectins. PMID:19123999

  5. Implementation and use of composite materials in Fedem

    Tyldum, Tor Helge

    2010-01-01

    The main goal of this master thesis was to implement composite materials in the analyzing software Fedem. Composite materials have become much used materials for various applications; they are used in everything from windmill blades and offshore diving life boats to sporting equipment.Because of the increasing use of composite materials Fedem Technology AS analyses more and more mechanisms containing parts made from these materials. They therefore wanted to implement an element in Fedem that ...

  6. The Determinants of Household Recycling: A Material Specific Analysis of Unit Pricing and Recycling Program Attributes

    Palmer, Karen; Martinez, Salvador; Jenkins, Robin; Podolsky, Michael, J.

    1999-01-01

    This paper examines the impact of two popular solid waste programs on the percent recycled of several different materials found in the residential solid waste stream. We examine a unique, national, household-level data set containing information on the percent recycled of five different materials: glass bottles, plastic bottles, aluminum, newspaper, and yard waste. We find that access to curbside recycling has a significant and substantial positive effect on the percentage recycled of all fiv...

  7. Northern range expansion of European populations of the wasp spider Argiope bruennichi is associated with global warming-correlated genetic admixture and population-specific temperature adaptations.

    Krehenwinkel, Henrik; Tautz, Diethard

    2013-04-01

    Poleward range expansions are observed for an increasing number of species, which may be an effect of global warming during the past decades. However, it is still not clear in how far these expansions reflect simple geographical shifts of species ranges, or whether new genetic adaptations play a role as well. Here, we analyse the expansion of the wasp spider Argiope bruennichi into Northern Europe during the last century. We have used a range-wide sampling of contemporary populations and historical specimens from museums to trace the phylogeography and genetic changes associated with the range shift. Based on the analysis of mitochondrial, microsatellite and SNP markers, we observe a higher level of genetic diversity in the expanding populations, apparently due to admixture of formerly isolated lineages. Using reciprocal transplant experiments for testing overwintering tolerance, as well as temperature preference and tolerance tests in the laboratory, we find that the invading spiders have possibly shifted their temperature niche. This may be a key adaptation for survival in Northern latitudes. The museum samples allow a reconstruction of the invasion's genetic history. A first, small-scale range shift started around 1930, in parallel with the onset of global warming. A more massive invasion of Northern Europe associated with genetic admixture and morphological changes occurred in later decades. We suggest that the latter range expansion into far Northern latitudes may be a consequence of the admixture that provided the genetic material for adaptations to new environmental regimes. Hence, global warming could have facilitated the initial admixture of populations and this resulted in genetic lineages with new habitat preferences. PMID:23496675

  8. Simulation Research on Adaptive Control of a Six-degree-of-freedom Material-testing Machine

    Dan Wang

    2014-02-01

    Full Text Available This paper presents an adaptive controller equipped with a stiffness estimation method for a novel material-testing machine, in order to alleviate the performance depression caused by the stiffness variance of the tested specimen. The dynamic model of the proposed machine is built using the Kane method, and the kinematic model is established with a closed-form solution. The stiffness estimation method is developed based on the recursive least-squares method and the proposed stiffness equivalent matrix. Control performances of the adaptive controller are simulated in detail. The simulation results illustrate that the proposed controller can greatly improve the control performance of the target material-testing machine by online stiffness estimation and adaptive parameter tuning, especially in low-cycle fatigue (LCF and high-cycle fatigue (HCF tests.

  9. Transcultural adaptation and validation of the Celiac Disease Quality of Life (CD-QOL survey, a specific questionnaire to measure quality of life in patients with celiac disease

    Francesc Casellas

    2013-12-01

    Full Text Available Introduction: celiac disease is a chronic condition that requires continued treatment, with the resultant impact on health-related quality of life (HRQOL of people who suffer it. Most studies in this field have used generic questionnaires to measure HRQOL in celiac patients. It was therefore decided to conduct a study to translate into Spanish and validate a specific questionnaire for celiac disease, the Celiac Disease Quality Of Life Survey (CD-QOL. Objectives: to translate and validate in Spanish the specific celiac disease questionnaire CD-QOL. Methods: a multicenter, prospective, observational study was designed consisting of two phases: In the first phase, the questionnaire was translated and adapted into Spanish using the translation/back translation procedure and an understandability study. In the second phase, internal consistency of the translated questionnaire was analyzed. For this, results of the CD-QOL were compared to those of EuroQol and the Daily Fatigue Impact Scale (D-FIS. Understandability of the translated and adapted questionnaire was tested in six patients, and the validation study was done in 298 celiac patients (201 treated with a gluten-free diet and 97 at diagnosis. Results: in both celiac groups, Cronbach's alpha coefficient was high (0.90, feasibility was excellent (99.2 % of patients completed all questions, and there were no ceiling and floor effects. Spearman correlation to EuroQol and D-FIS was statistically significant (p < 0.05. CD-QOL score was different depending on whether state of health was good, fair, or poor based on the EuroQol score. Conclusion: the Spanish version of the CD-QOL is a valid tool for measuring HRQOL in celiac patients.

  10. Qualification of tribological materials and coatings for use in sodium

    This paper describes some of the essential performance measures used to qualify materials for tribological applications in liquid sodium environments and summarizes relative properties of some of the newer tribological materials now qualified for use in sodium systems

  11. On Automatic Modeling and Use of Domain-specific Ontologies

    Andreasen, Troels; Knappe, Rasmus; Bulskov, Henrik

    2005-01-01

    In this paper, we firstly introduce an approach to the modeling of a domain-specific ontology for use in connection with a given document collection. Secondly, we present a methodology for deriving conceptual similarity from the domain-specific ontology. Adopted for ontology representation is a s...

  12. Certification of butyltins and phenyltins in marine sediment certified reference material by species-specific isotope-dilution mass spectrometric analysis using synthesized {sup 118}Sn-enriched organotin compounds

    Inagaki, Kazumi; Takatsu, Akiko; Watanabe, Takuro; Aoyagi, Yoshie; Yarita, Takashi; Okamoto, Kensaku; Chiba, Koichi [National Institute of Advanced Industrial Science and Technology (AIST), Environmental Standard Section, National Metrology Institute of Japan (NMIJ), Tsukuba, Ibaraki (Japan)

    2007-04-15

    A new marine sediment certified reference material, NMIJ CRM 7306-a, for butyltin and phenyltin analysis has been prepared and certified by the National Metrological Institute of Japan at the National Institute of Advanced Industrial Science and Technology (NMIJ/AIST). Candidate sediment material was collected at a bay near industrial activity in Japan. After air-drying, sieving, and mixing the material was sterilized with {gamma}-ray irradiation. The material was re-mixed and packaged into 250 glass bottles (15 g each) and these were stored in a freezer at -30 C. Certification was performed by use of three different types of species-specific isotope-dilution mass spectrometry (SSID-MS) - SSID-GC-ICP-MS, SSID-GC-MS, and SSID-LC-ICP-MS, with {sup 118}Sn-enriched organotin compounds synthesized from {sup 118}Sn-enriched metal used as a spike. The {sup 118}Sn-enriched mono-butyltin (MBT), dibutyltin (DBT), and tributyltin (TBT) were synthesized as a mixture whereas the {sup 118}Sn-enriched di-phenyltin (DPhT) and triphenyltin (TPhT) were synthesized individually. Four different extraction methods, mechanical shaking, ultrasonic, microwave-assisted, and pressurized liquid extraction, were adopted to avoid possible analytical bias caused by non-quantitative extraction and degradation or inter-conversion of analytes in sample preparations. Tropolone was used as chelating agent in all the extraction methods. Certified values are given for TBT 44{+-}3 {mu}g kg{sup -1} as Sn, DBT 51 {+-} 2 {mu}g kg{sup -1} as Sn, MBT 67 {+-} 3 {mu}g kg{sup -1} as Sn, TPhT 6.9 {+-} 1.2 {mu}g kg{sup -1} as Sn, and DPhT 3.4 {+-} 1.2 {mu}g kg{sup -1} as Sn. These levels are lower than in other sediment CRMs currently available for analysis of organotin compounds. (orig.)

  13. Optimal Multitrial Prediction Combination and Subject-Specific Adaptation for Minimal Training Brain Switch Designs.

    Spyrou, Loukianos; Blokland, Yvonne; Farquhar, Jason; Bruhn, Jorgen

    2016-06-01

    Brain-Computer Interface (BCI) systems are traditionally designed by taking into account user-specific data to enable practical use. More recently, subject independent (SI) classification algorithms have been developed which bypass the subject specific adaptation and enable rapid use of the system. A brain switch is a particular BCI system where the system is required to distinguish from two separate mental tasks corresponding to the on-off commands of a switch. Such applications require a low false positive rate (FPR) while having an acceptable response time (RT) until the switch is activated. In this work, we develop a methodology that produces optimal brain switch behavior through subject specific (SS) adaptation of: a) a multitrial prediction combination model and b) an SI classification model. We propose a statistical model of combining classifier predictions that enables optimal FPR calibration through a short calibration session. We trained an SI classifier on a training synchronous dataset and tested our method on separate holdout synchronous and asynchronous brain switch experiments. Although our SI model obtained similar performance between training and holdout datasets, 86% and 85% for the synchronous and 69% and 66% for the asynchronous the between subject FPR and TPR variability was high (up to 62%). The short calibration session was then employed to alleviate that problem and provide decision thresholds that achieve when possible a target FPR=1% with good accuracy for both datasets. PMID:26529768

  14. Safe use of radioactive materials

    Radioactive materials have become essential tools in much of the research conducted in the biological and medical sciences. Procedures documented in this manual are only examples of the numerous applications of radioactive materials in the field of parasitology. Like many chemical reagents and much of the equipment found in laboratories, radionuclides can be hazardous if used carelessly. Exposure to large doses of ionizing radiation has been shown to increase the risk of cancer in humans and animals, and has been shown to increase the risk of genetic abnormalities in animal studies. Everyone handling radionuclides in a research program has a responsibility to follow safe laboratory practices for use of these materials. Most research institutions will have a radiation safety organization which may include a Radiation Safety Officer and a Radiation Safety Committee. Procedures developed by the radiation safety organization must be followed in order to protect personnel working with radioactive material, and the public, from unnecessary exposure to radiation. Investigators must also know and follow regulations established by government agencies for the use and disposal of radioactive materials. In this chapter some basic information on procedures for the safe use of radioactive materials in the laboratory is provided. Greater detail for specific operations and radiation safety concerns may be obtained from documents referred to in the text

  15. Estimating patient specific uncertainty parameters for adaptive treatment re-planning in proton therapy using in vivo range measurements and Bayesian inference: application to setup and stopping power errors

    Labarbe, Rudi; Janssens, Guillaume; Sterpin, Edmond

    2016-09-01

    In proton therapy, quantification of the proton range uncertainty is important to achieve dose distribution compliance. The promising accuracy of prompt gamma imaging (PGI) suggests the development of a mathematical framework using the range measurements to convert population based estimates of uncertainties into patient specific estimates with the purpose of plan adaptation. We present here such framework using Bayesian inference. The sources of uncertainty were modeled by three parameters: setup bias m, random setup precision r and water equivalent path length bias u. The evolution of the expectation values E(m), E(r) and E(u) during the treatment was simulated. The expectation values converged towards the true simulation parameters after 5 and 10 fractions, for E(m) and E(u), respectively. E(r) settle on a constant value slightly lower than the true value after 10 fractions. In conclusion, the simulation showed that there is enough information in the frequency distribution of the range errors measured by PGI to estimate the expectation values and the confidence interval of the model parameters by Bayesian inference. The updated model parameters were used to compute patient specific lateral and local distal margins for adaptive re-planning.

  16. Increased allowable stresses and acceptance of international material specifications in the ASME Boiler and Pressure Vessel Code

    Section II of the ASME Boiler a Pressure Vessel Code consists of four volumes or Parts: A, B, C, and D. Parts A and B contain the ferrous and nonferrous base-material specifications that have been adopted by the ASME Boiler and Pressure Vessel Committee (B and PVC). Part C contains the welding consumable material specifications. Part D contains the tables and charts of design values and material properties required for any of the construction sections of the ASME B and PVC Code. Section II, Parts A, B, and D are under the jurisdiction of the Subcommittee II on Materials of the ASME B and PVC Committee. Part C is under the jurisdiction of Subcommittee IX on welding. This paper will describe the most important of the recent developments for Parts A, B, and D. These are: (1) The increase in allowable stresses for Section I; Section VIII, Division 1 ; and Section III, Classes 2 and 3 Construction, in pan D; (2) The adoption of international material specifications into pans A and B; and (3) The setting of allowable stresses for international materials in Part D. (author)

  17. Adaptive process control using fuzzy logic and genetic algorithms

    Karr, C. L.

    1993-01-01

    Researchers at the U.S. Bureau of Mines have developed adaptive process control systems in which genetic algorithms (GA's) are used to augment fuzzy logic controllers (FLC's). GA's are search algorithms that rapidly locate near-optimum solutions to a wide spectrum of problems by modeling the search procedures of natural genetics. FLC's are rule based systems that efficiently manipulate a problem environment by modeling the 'rule-of-thumb' strategy used in human decision making. Together, GA's and FLC's possess the capabilities necessary to produce powerful, efficient, and robust adaptive control systems. To perform efficiently, such control systems require a control element to manipulate the problem environment, and a learning element to adjust to the changes in the problem environment. Details of an overall adaptive control system are discussed. A specific laboratory acid-base pH system is used to demonstrate the ideas presented.

  18. A review of diabetes prevention program translations: use of cultural adaptation and implementation research.

    Tabak, Rachel G; Sinclair, Kàimi A; Baumann, Ana A; Racette, Susan B; Sebert Kuhlmann, Anne; Johnson-Jennings, Michelle D; Brownson, Ross C

    2015-12-01

    The Diabetes Prevention Program (DPP) has been shown to prevent type 2 diabetes through lifestyle modification. The purpose of this study was to describe the literature on DPP translation, synthesizing studies using cultural adaptation and implementation research. A systematic search was conducted. Original studies evaluating DPP implementation and/or cultural adaptation were included. Data about cultural adaptation, implementation outcomes, and translation strategies was abstracted. A total of 44 were included, of which 15 reported cultural adaptations and 38 explored implementation. Many studies shortened the program length and reported a group format. The most commonly reported cultural adaptation (13 of 15) was with content. At the individual level, the most frequently assessed implementation outcome (n = 30) was adoption. Feasibility was most common (n = 32) at the organization level. The DPP is being tested in a variety of settings and populations, using numerous translational strategies and cultural adaptations. Implementation research that identifies, evaluates, and reports efforts to translate the DPP into practice is crucial. PMID:26622913

  19. Developing a Sealing Material: Effect of Epoxy Modification on Specific Physical and Mechanical Properties

    Christoph Schoberleitner

    2013-11-01

    Full Text Available To develop a matched sealing material for socket rehabilitation of grey cast iron pipes, an epoxy resin is modified by the addition of different components to improve the flexibility. Three different modifications are made by adding ethylene-propylene diene monomer (EPDM rubber powder, reactive liquid polymer (ATBN and epoxidized modifier. In this paper the effect of the modification method as well as the influence of absorption of water on the mechanical and physical properties are analyzed in terms of: tensile strength, modulus of elasticity, adhesion performance, pressure resistance, glass transition temperature and water content. A comparison with neat epoxy shows for all materials that the modulus of elasticity and strength decrease. Unlike other tested modification methods, the modification with rubber powder did not enhance the flexibility. All materials absorb water and a plasticization effect arises with further changes of mechanical and physical properties. The application of the sealant on the grey cast iron leads to a reduction of the strain at break (in comparison to the common tensile test of the pure materials and has to be evaluated. The main requirement of pressure resistance up to 1 MPa was tested on two chosen materials. Both materials fulfill this requirement.

  20. Increase of company performances and shareholders’ satisfaction by using design for adaptability (DFA)

    Briciu, Sorin; Sorinel CĂPUŞNEANU; Dan TOPOR; Raul BURDEA

    2014-01-01

    The article handles the increase in performances of an electrical appliances company and in the satisfaction degree of its shareholders by using the design for adaptability method. A strategic decision is based on the quality of accounting information provided by the company’s management. The design for adaptability method and the target costing method highlight the importance of the reliability of accounting information provided by both of them for the solid foundation of strategic decisions...

  1. Dosimetric- and Geometric Evaluation of Adaptive H&N IMRT Using Deformable Image Registration

    Eiland, R.B.; Behrens, C. F.; Sjöström, D.;

    2012-01-01

    performance of a DIR algorithm, using geometric and dosimetric measures. Materials and Methods: Seven patients treated with IMRT were included in this study, each with a planning- and midterm CT (pCT, ReCT) as well as a CBCT, acquired on the same day as the ReCT. ReCT served as the ground truth for evaluation...... of the DIR. A deformed CT (dCT) with contours was created by deforming the pCT and associated manually drawn contours to the CBCT. A commercially software using the Demons DIR algorithm (SmartAdapt, Varian Medical Systems, v.11.0) was utilized. A geometrical comparison was based on the estimated...

  2. Modality-specific facilitation and adaptation to painful tonic stimulation in humans.

    Polianskis, Romanas; Graven-Nielsen, Thomas; Arendt-Nielsen, Lars

    2002-01-01

    " session. The overshoot magnitude was lowest during "VAS 6" session. Adapting and non-adapting/facilitating responses to cold and to pressure during "VAS 6" session were not correlated, suggesting that pain course and therefore stimulus tolerance during tonic stimulation are modality-specific. The results of the study suggest that tolerance of tonic painful pressure and cold stimulations is specific to stimulus modality and may represent separate nociceptive mechanisms. PMID:12413436

  3. Examining the Specific Effects of Context on Adaptive Behavior and Achievement in a Rural African Community: Six Case Studies from Rural Areas of Southern Province, Zambia

    Tan, Mei; Reich, Jodi; Hart, Lesley; Thuma, Philip E.; Grigorenko, Elena L.

    2014-01-01

    Generally accepted as universal, the construct of adaptive behavior differs in its manifestations across different cultures and settings. The Vineland-II (Sparrow et al. in "Vineland Adaptive Behavior Scales, Second edn." AGS Publishing, Circle Pines, MN, 2005) was translated into Chitonga and adapted to the setting of rural Southern…

  4. Discovery and Optimization of Materials Using Evolutionary Approaches.

    Le, Tu C; Winkler, David A

    2016-05-25

    Materials science is undergoing a revolution, generating valuable new materials such as flexible solar panels, biomaterials and printable tissues, new catalysts, polymers, and porous materials with unprecedented properties. However, the number of potentially accessible materials is immense. Artificial evolutionary methods such as genetic algorithms, which explore large, complex search spaces very efficiently, can be applied to the identification and optimization of novel materials more rapidly than by physical experiments alone. Machine learning models can augment experimental measurements of materials fitness to accelerate identification of useful and novel materials in vast materials composition or property spaces. This review discusses the problems of large materials spaces, the types of evolutionary algorithms employed to identify or optimize materials, and how materials can be represented mathematically as genomes, describes fitness landscapes and mutation operators commonly employed in materials evolution, and provides a comprehensive summary of published research on the use of evolutionary methods to generate new catalysts, phosphors, and a range of other materials. The review identifies the potential for evolutionary methods to revolutionize a wide range of manufacturing, medical, and materials based industries. PMID:27171499

  5. Cross-cultural adaptation and linguistic validation of age-group-specific haemophilia patient-reported outcome (PRO) instruments for patients and parents

    von Mackensen, S; Campos, I G; Acquadro, C;

    2013-01-01

    Currently, haemophilia care aims to provide the best possible quality of life for individuals living with this chronic disease. Many factors are known to influence treatment adherence, including treatment satisfaction. Health-related quality of life (HRQoL) and treatment satisfaction are, therefore...... the patient and their family can be different, so it is important to assess how parents perceive the impact on their children. A series of PRO instruments have been developed, adapted to different age groups and parents of patients with haemophilia. To allow the instruments to be used internationally......, culturally adapted and linguistically validated translations have been developed; some instruments have been translated into 61 languages. Here, we report the process used for cultural adaptation of the Haemo-QoL, Haem-A-QoL and Hemo-Sat into 28 languages. Equivalent concepts for 22 items that were difficult...

  6. The process of organisational adaptation through innovations, and organisational adaptability

    Tikka, Tommi

    2010-01-01

    This study is about the process of organisational adaptation and organisational adaptability. The study generates a theoretical framework about organisational adaptation behaviour and conditions that have influence on success of organisational adaptation. The research questions of the study are: How does an organisation adapt through innovations, and which conditions enhance or impede organisational adaptation through innovations? The data were gathered from five case organisations withi...

  7. Preparation and use of radiolabelled specific helminth antibodies

    Movsesijan, M.; Jovanovic, B.; Borojevic, D.; Petrovic, M. (Institut za Primeni Nuklearne Energije u Poljoprivedri, Veterinarstvu i Sumarstvu, Zemun (Yugoslavia))

    1983-05-01

    Specific antibodies from the serum of sheep infected with Haemonchus contortus were isolated by combination with a ''solid phase antigen'' (soluble antigen coupled to an activated crystalline cellulose). The antibodies were labelled with /sup 125/I while bound to the solid phase then eluted and their potential demonstrated: (1) to determine amounts of specific antibody in unknown sera; (2) to determine amounts of soluble antigen in unknown preparations.

  8. The preparation and use of radiolabelled specific helminth antibodies

    Specific antibodies from the serum of sheep infected with Haemonchus contortus were isolated by combination with a ''solid phase antigen'' (soluble antigen coupled to an activated crystalline cellulose). The antibodies were labelled with 125I while bound to the solid phase then eluted and their potential demonstrated: (1) to determine amounts of specific antibody in unknown sera; (2) to determine amounts of soluble antigen in unknown preparations. (author)

  9. Investigation on Adaptive Re-use of Heritage Building in George Town, Penang

    Marhamah Abdul Hadi; Md Azree Othuman Mydin; Noor Faisal Abas

    2013-01-01

    Adaptive re-use of heritage buildings in George Town has gained attention from their owners. Their owners either private owners or government, want to adapt their respective buildings to new usage for instance to become a gallery, museum, restaurant, boutique hotel and many more. Every heritage building that is being adapted to paper main objective is to identify the changes made in terms of structure, space and material when adapting the heritage buildings to a new usage ...

  10. Material specific X-ray imaging using an energy-dispersive pixel detector

    By imaging the X-ray spectral properties or ‘colours’ we have shown how material specific imaging can be performed. Using a pixelated energy-dispersive X-ray detector we record the absorbed and emitted hard X-radiation and measure the energy (colour) and intensity of the photons. Using this technology, we are not only able to obtain attenuation contrast but also to image chemical (elemental) variations inside objects, potentially opening up a very wide range of applications from materials science to medical diagnostics

  11. Material specific X-ray imaging using an energy-dispersive pixel detector

    Egan, Christopher K., E-mail: christopher.egan@manchester.ac.uk [School of Materials, University of Manchester, Manchester M13 9PL (United Kingdom); Wilson, Matthew D.; Veale, Matthew C.; Seller, Paul [STFC Rutherford Appleton Laboratory, Harwell, Didcot, Oxfordshire OX11 0QX (United Kingdom); Jacques, Simon D.M.; Cernik, Robert J. [School of Materials, University of Manchester, Manchester M13 9PL (United Kingdom)

    2014-04-01

    By imaging the X-ray spectral properties or ‘colours’ we have shown how material specific imaging can be performed. Using a pixelated energy-dispersive X-ray detector we record the absorbed and emitted hard X-radiation and measure the energy (colour) and intensity of the photons. Using this technology, we are not only able to obtain attenuation contrast but also to image chemical (elemental) variations inside objects, potentially opening up a very wide range of applications from materials science to medical diagnostics.

  12. Topology optimization of compliant adaptive wing leading edge with composite materials

    Tong Xinxing

    2014-12-01

    Full Text Available An approach for designing the compliant adaptive wing leading edge with composite material is proposed based on the topology optimization. Firstly, an equivalent constitutive relationship of laminated glass fiber reinforced epoxy composite plates has been built based on the symmetric laminated plate theory. Then, an optimization objective function of compliant adaptive wing leading edge was used to minimize the least square error (LSE between deformed curve and desired aerodynamics shape. After that, the topology structures of wing leading edge of different glass fiber ply-orientations were obtained by using the solid isotropic material with penalization (SIMP model and sensitivity filtering technique. The desired aerodynamics shape of compliant adaptive wing leading edge was obtained based on the proposed approach. The topology structures of wing leading edge depend on the glass fiber ply-orientation. Finally, the corresponding morphing experiment of compliant wing leading edge with composite materials was implemented, which verified the morphing capability of topology structure and illustrated the feasibility for designing compliant wing leading edge. The present paper lays the basis of ply-orientation optimization for compliant adaptive wing leading edge in unmanned aerial vehicle (UAV field.

  13. Optical measurement of materials and lens assemblies at specific or varied temperatures

    Nemechek, John J.

    2015-10-01

    Optical materials and lens assemblies are specified for use at various operating temperatures. Ophthalmic lenses such as intra-ocular (IOLs), rigid gas permeable (RGP), and soft contact lenses must be verified at a single well-controlled temperature to ensure correct performance. In comparison, lens assemblies for UAVs (unmanned aerial vehicles) and other "outdoor" applications demand performance over a substantial range of temperatures. Both applications demand the ability to integrate temperature monitoring or control with optical measuring instruments. A common practice is to thermally soak the material or lens assembly and then attempt measurement before the object under evaluation returns to ambient room temperature. We are reporting on the utilization of a NIST-traceable temperature device combined with wavefront sensing technology for faster integrated measurement capability. The temperature sensor is currently capable of 0.01 and 0.1 degree C resolution and accuracy; respectively for an operating range of 0 to 100 degrees C. Efforts are underway to extend the temperature measurement range down to -30 C. The wavefront measurement device is a Shack- Hartmann sensor (SHS) operating at 5 to 15 Hz with simultaneous gauging of temperature. The SHS can be operated with a choice of wavelengths from 400 to 1,000 nm. It also supports both single and double-pass configurations. The single-pass arrangement was chosen for these experiments due to the simpler, more compact set-up. The dynamic range of the wavefront sensor is first utilized to evaluate the temperature chamber. Results are then presented for two lens assemblies intended for commercial UAVs.

  14. Issues in development, evaluation, and use of the NASA Preflight Adaptation Trainer (PAT)

    Lane, Norman E.; Kennedy, Robert S.

    1988-01-01

    The Preflight Adaptation Trainer (PAT) is intended to reduce or alleviate space adaptation syndrome by providing opportunities for portions of that adaptation to occur under normal gravity conditions prior to space flight. Since the adaptation aspects of the PAT objectives involve modification not only of the behavior of the trainee, but also of sensiomotor skills which underly the behavioral generation, the defining of training objectives of the PAT utilizes four mechanisms: familiarization, demonstration, training and adaptation. These mechanisms serve as structural reference points for evaluation, drive the content and organization of the training procedures, and help to define the roles of the PAT instructors and operators. It was determined that three psychomotor properties are most critical for PAT evaluation: reliability; sensitivity; and relevance. It is cause for concern that the number of measures available to examine PAT effects exceed those that can be properly studied with the available sample sizes; special attention will be required in selection of the candidate measure set. The issues in PAT use and application within a training system context are addressed through linking the three training related mechanisms of familiarization, demonstration and training to the fourth mechanism, adaptation.

  15. Increasing Time-Efficiency and Accuracy of Robotic Machining Processes Using Model-Based Adaptive Force Control

    Sörnmo, Olof; Olofsson, Björn; Robertsson, Anders; Johansson, Rolf

    2012-01-01

    Machining processes in the industry of today are rarely performed using industrial robots. In the cases where robots are used, machining is often performed using position control with a conservative feed-rate, to avoid excessive process forces. There is a great benefit in controlling the process forces instead, so as to improve the time-efficiency by applying the maximum allowed force, and thus removing the maximum amount of material per time unit. This paper presents a novel adaptive force c...

  16. Face adaptation effects: Reviewing the impact of adapting information, time, and transfer

    Tilo eStrobach

    2013-06-01

    Full Text Available The ability to adapt is essential to live and survive in an ever-changing environment such as the human ecosystem. Here we review the literature on adaptation effects of face stimuli to give an overview of existing findings in this area, highlight gaps in its research literature, initiate new directions in face adaptation research and help to design future adaptation studies. Furthermore, this review should lead to better understanding of the processing characteristics as well as the mental representations of face-relevant information. The review systematises studies at a behavioral level in respect of a framework which includes 3 dimensions representing the major characteristics of studies in this field of research. These dimensions comprise (1 the specificity of adapting face information, e.g. identity, gender or age aspects of the material to be adapted to, (2 aspects of timing (e.g., the sustainability of adaptation effects, and (3 transfer relations between face images presented during adaptation and adaptation tests (e.g., images of the same or different identities. The review concludes with options for how to combine findings across different dimensions to demonstrate the relevance of our framework for future studies.

  17. Improvement of flight simulator feeling using adaptive fuzzy backlash compensation

    Amara, Zied; Bordeneuve-Guibé, Joël

    2007-01-01

    In this paper we addressed the problem of improving the control of DC motors used for the specific application of a 3 degrees of freedom moving base flight simulator. Indeed the presence of backlash in DC motors gearboxes induces shocks and naturally limits the flight feeling. In this paper, dynamic inversion with Fuzzy Logic is used to design an adaptive backlash compensator. The classification property of fuzzy logic techniques makes them a natural candidate for the rejection of errors indu...

  18. Proteomic Analysis of Rhizoctonia solani Identifies Infection-specific, Redox Associated Proteins and Insight into Adaptation to Different Plant Hosts.

    Anderson, Jonathan P; Hane, James K; Stoll, Thomas; Pain, Nicholas; Hastie, Marcus L; Kaur, Parwinder; Hoogland, Christine; Gorman, Jeffrey J; Singh, Karam B

    2016-04-01

    Rhizoctonia solaniis an important root infecting pathogen of a range of food staples worldwide including wheat, rice, maize, soybean, potato and others. Conventional resistance breeding strategies are hindered by the absence of tractable genetic resistance in any crop host. Understanding the biology and pathogenicity mechanisms of this fungus is important for addressing these disease issues, however, little is known about howR. solanicauses disease. This study capitalizes on recent genomic studies by applying mass spectrometry based proteomics to identify soluble, membrane-bound and culture filtrate proteins produced under wheat infection and vegetative growth conditions. Many of the proteins found in the culture filtrate had predicted functions relating to modification of the plant cell wall, a major activity required for pathogenesis on the plant host, including a number found only under infection conditions. Other infection related proteins included a high proportion of proteins with redox associated functions and many novel proteins without functional classification. The majority of infection only proteins tested were confirmed to show transcript up-regulation during infection including a thaumatin which increased susceptibility toR. solaniwhen expressed inNicotiana benthamiana In addition, analysis of expression during infection of different plant hosts highlighted how the infection strategy of this broad host range pathogen can be adapted to the particular host being encountered. Data are available via ProteomeXchange with identifier PXD002806. PMID:26811357

  19. Proteomic Analysis of Rhizoctonia solani Identifies Infection-specific, Redox Associated Proteins and Insight into Adaptation to Different Plant Hosts*

    Anderson, Jonathan P.; Hane, James K.; Stoll, Thomas; Pain, Nicholas; Hastie, Marcus L.; Kaur, Parwinder; Hoogland, Christine; Gorman, Jeffrey J.; Singh, Karam B.

    2016-01-01

    Rhizoctonia solani is an important root infecting pathogen of a range of food staples worldwide including wheat, rice, maize, soybean, potato and others. Conventional resistance breeding strategies are hindered by the absence of tractable genetic resistance in any crop host. Understanding the biology and pathogenicity mechanisms of this fungus is important for addressing these disease issues, however, little is known about how R. solani causes disease. This study capitalizes on recent genomic studies by applying mass spectrometry based proteomics to identify soluble, membrane-bound and culture filtrate proteins produced under wheat infection and vegetative growth conditions. Many of the proteins found in the culture filtrate had predicted functions relating to modification of the plant cell wall, a major activity required for pathogenesis on the plant host, including a number found only under infection conditions. Other infection related proteins included a high proportion of proteins with redox associated functions and many novel proteins without functional classification. The majority of infection only proteins tested were confirmed to show transcript up-regulation during infection including a thaumatin which increased susceptibility to R. solani when expressed in Nicotiana benthamiana. In addition, analysis of expression during infection of different plant hosts highlighted how the infection strategy of this broad host range pathogen can be adapted to the particular host being encountered. Data are available via ProteomeXchange with identifier PXD002806. PMID:26811357

  20. Development of carbon/carbon composite control rod for HTTR. 2. Concept, specifications and mechanical test of materials

    A concept and specifications of carbon/carbon composite (C/C) control rod were proposed, aiming at the application of the material to the HTTR. The outer diameter and length of the control rod were kept as the same as those of the present control rod, i.e., 113 mm and 3094 mm, respectively. According to the concept, the rod consists of ten units which are connected in series using bolts. Then, the stresses generated by dead loads in the control rod elements were estimated and compared with the design strengths which were derived from the results of measurements of tensile, compressive, bending and shear strengths of two candidate materials, AC250 (Across Co.) and CX-270 (Toyo Tanso Co.). Design strength was preliminarily determined as one-third or one-fifth of the mean strength. Ratio of the design strength to generated stress for the AC250 (2D) was : Tensile stress in the outer sleeve tube, 66, tensile and shear stresses in the M16 bolt, 8.8 and 8.5, shear stress in the plug support bolt M8, 2.43. These results are believed to indicate the mechanical integrity of the control rod structure. Data available on the candidate materials were also compiled in the Appendix. (author)

  1. Simulation Research on Adaptive Control of a Six-degree-of-freedom Material-testing Machine

    Dan Wang; Rui Fan; Wuyi Chen

    2014-01-01

    This paper presents an adaptive controller equipped with a stiffness estimation method for a novel material-testing machine, in order to alleviate the performance depression caused by the stiffness variance of the tested specimen. The dynamic model of the proposed machine is built using the Kane method, and the kinematic model is established with a closed-form solution. The stiffness estimation method is developed based on the recursive least-squares method and the proposed stiffness equivale...

  2. Cost of riparian buffer zones: A comparison of hydrologically adapted site-specific riparian buffers with traditional fixed widths

    Tiwari, T.; Lundström, J.; Kuglerová, L.; Laudon, H.; Öhman, K.; Ågren, A. M.

    2016-02-01

    Traditional approaches aiming at protecting surface waters from the negative impacts of forestry often focus on retaining fixed width buffer zones around waterways. While this method is relatively simple to design and implement, it has been criticized for ignoring the spatial heterogeneity of biogeochemical processes and biodiversity in the riparian zone. Alternatively, a variable width buffer zone adapted to site-specific hydrological conditions has been suggested to improve the protection of biogeochemical and ecological functions of the riparian zone. However, little is known about the monetary value of maintaining hydrologically adapted buffer zones compared to the traditionally used fixed width ones. In this study, we created a hydrologically adapted buffer zone by identifying wet areas and groundwater discharge hotspots in the riparian zone. The opportunity cost of the hydrologically adapted riparian buffer zones was then compared to that of the fixed width zones in a meso-scale boreal catchment to determine the most economical option of designing riparian buffers. The results show that hydrologically adapted buffer zones were cheaper per hectare than the fixed width ones when comparing the total cost. This was because the hydrologically adapted buffers included more wetlands and low productive forest areas than the fixed widths. As such, the hydrologically adapted buffer zones allows more effective protection of the parts of the riparian zones that are ecologically and biogeochemically important and more sensitive to disturbances without forest landowners incurring any additional cost than fixed width buffers.

  3. Moving HAIRS: Towards adaptive, homeostatic materials

    Aizenberg, Joanna

    Dynamic structures that respond reversibly to changes in their environment are central to self-regulating thermal and lighting systems, targeted drug delivery, sensors, and self-propelled locomotion. Since an adaptive change requires energy input, an ideal strategy would be to design materials that harvest energy directly from the environment and use it to drive an appropriate response. This lecture will present the design of a novel class of reconfigurable materials that use surfaces bearing arrays of nanostructures put in motion by environment-responsive gels. Their unique hybrid architecture, and chemical and mechanical properties can be optimized to confer a wide range of adaptive behaviors. Using both experimental and modeling approaches, we are developing these hydrogel-actuated integrated responsive systems (HAIRS) as new materials with reversible optical and wetting properties, as a multifunctional platform for controlling cell differentiation and function, and as a first homeostatic system with autonomous self-regulation.

  4. MUSCLE FIBER SPECIFIC ANTIOXIDATIVE SYSTEM ADAPTATION TO SWIM TRAINING IN RATS: INFLUENCE OF INTERMITTENT HYPOXIA

    Olga Gonchar

    2005-06-01

    Full Text Available The aim of the present study was to examine the influence of intermittent hypoxia at rest and in combination with long-term high-intensity swimming exercise on lipid peroxidation and antioxidant defense system adaptation in skeletal muscles differing in fiber type composition. High-intensity chronic exercise was performed as swimming training with load that corresponded to ~ 75 % VO2max (30 min·day-1, 5 days·wk-1, for 4 wk. Intermittent hypoxic training (IHT consisted of repeated episodes of hypoxia (12%O2, 15 min, interrupted by equal periods of recovery (5 sessions/day, for 2 wk. Sessions of IHT were used during the first two weeks and during the last two weeks of chronic exercise. Oxidative (red gastrocnemius and soleus, mix and glycolytic (white gastrocnemius muscles were sampled. Our results indicated that high-intensity swim training in combination with sessions of IHT induced more profound antioxidative adaptations in skeletal muscles than the exercise training only. This adaptation has muscle fiber type specificity and is reflected in significantly elevated superoxide dismutase and catalase activities in highly oxidative muscle only. Training adaptation of GSH system (reduced glutathione content, activities of glutathione reductase, glutathione peroxidase, NADPH-supplying enzyme glucose-6-phosphate dehydrogenase occurred both in slow- and fast-twitch muscles. However, this process was more effective in oxidative muscles. IHT attenuated the increase in TBARS content induced by high-intensity swimming training. The test on exercise tolerance demonstrated a significant elevation of the swimming time to exhaustion after IHT at rest and after IHT in conjunction with high-intensity exercise in comparison with untrained and chronically exercised rats. These results confirmed that sessions of IHT might improve exercise tolerance and increase maximal work capacity

  5. Certification of butyltins and phenyltins in marine sediment certified reference material by species-specific isotope-dilution mass spectrometric analysis using synthesized 118Sn-enriched organotin compounds

    Inagaki, Kazumi; Takatsu, Akiko; Watanabe, Takuro; Aoyagi, Yoshie; Yarita, Takashi; Okamoto, Kensaku; Chiba, Koichi

    2006-01-01

    A new marine sediment certified reference material, NMIJ CRM 7306-a, for butyltin and phenyltin analysis has been prepared and certified by the National Metrological Institute of Japan at the National Institute of Advanced Industrial Science and Technology (NMIJ/AIST). Candidate sediment material was collected at a bay near industrial activity in Japan. After air-drying, sieving, and mixing the material was sterilized with γ-ray irradiation. The material was re-mixed and packaged into 250 gla...

  6. Three-dimensional material-specific imaging using energetic pulsed neutrons

    Brown, Douglas R.; Loveman, Robert; Stevenson, John; Gozani, Tsahi; Ryge, Peter

    2001-12-01

    A novel method for detecting materials concealed in fully loaded cargo containers and trucks using pulsed neutrons has been developed. This method, called Pulsed Fast Neutron Analysis (PFNA), uses a collimated beam of nanosecond pulsed, mono-energetic neutrons to stimulate gamma rays emitted from the elements in the cargo materials through inelastic scattering. The collimation and precise timing of the gamma rays allows the position of the interactions to be determined. By sweeping the beam over the inspected object as it is conveyed, a full 3D image of the elemental contents is composed. Unique elemental signatures of specific materials are then used to identify the contraband. This technique has been incorporated into a cargo and truck inspection system capable of scanning full-sized cargo containers. Algorithms have been developed to detect concealed drugs, explosives and hazardous materials. The location of the detected materials is displayed on a unique, workstation-based, user interface. Pull-down menus allow the user to select the elements of interest and the resulting display indicates the location and spatial extent of the material in three-dimensions.

  7. Investigation on Adaptive Re-use of Heritage Building in George Town, Penang

    Marhamah Abdul Hadi

    2013-09-01

    Full Text Available Adaptive re-use of heritage buildings in George Town has gained attention from their owners. Their owners either private owners or government, want to adapt their respective buildings to new usage for instance to become a gallery, museum, restaurant, boutique hotel and many more. Every heritage building that is being adapted to paper main objective is to identify the changes made in terms of structure, space and material when adapting the heritage buildings to a new usage specifically into a gallery. Two heritage buildings are chosen as case studies for this paper which are Rumah Teh Bunga and Fort Cornwallis; both buildings located in Penang, Malaysia. The changes made to these two buildings were analyzed using the guidelines provided which are Guideline for Conservation areas and Heritage Buildings and National Heritage Acts 2005. Both buildings will be analyzed using National Heritage Acts, while only Fort Cornwallis will be analyzed using Guideline for Conservation areas and Heritage Buildings. Adaptation of these two heritage buildings requires changes in structure, space and material. The changes in Rumah Teh Bunga focuses more on materials and space while changes in Fort Cornwallis emphasize more to space and addition of other structures. Analysis on the changes are made by using the guideline provided, most of the changes made to both of these heritage buildings comply the rules and regulations stated in the guideline. It was found from the data that some of the reasons on why the owner change Rumah Teh Bunga to gallery are because of its complicated procedure that involves in privatization of this building to other owner and the need to promote the heritage significance of this building to the public. As for Fort Cornwallis, the adaptation is more on strengthening its value as a fort and becoming a tourist attraction.

  8. Sliding mode control of wind-induced vibrations using fuzzy sliding surface and gain adaptation

    Thenozhi, Suresh; Yu, Wen

    2016-04-01

    Although fuzzy/adaptive sliding mode control can reduce the chattering problem in structural vibration control applications, they require the equivalent control and the upper bounds of the system uncertainties. In this paper, we used fuzzy logic to approximate the standard sliding surface and designed a dead-zone adaptive law for tuning the switching gain of the sliding mode control. The stability of the proposed controller is established using Lyapunov stability theory. A six-storey building prototype equipped with an active mass damper has been used to demonstrate the effectiveness of the proposed controller towards the wind-induced vibrations.

  9. Probing the mechanism of material specific peptides for optical biosensors

    Ramakrishnan, Sathish K.; Estephan, Elias; Martin, Marta; Cloitre, Thierry; Gergely, Csilla

    2013-05-01

    The possibility to engineer bio-nanomaterials with programmed synthesis and controlled immobilization of biomolecules through biomimetic molecular evolution approach has been demonstrated. Material specific peptides with exquisite molecular recognition function were used as a linker for the attachment of biomolecules. Exploring the origin of peptide material specificity not only opens up rational design approach with precise control over biomimetic bio-sensor design, but more importantly provides a new route of functionalizing for various material surfaces with enhanced sensitivity over classical grafting chemistry. To study the fine prints of experimentally obtained peptides, theoretical understanding of surface interactions may serve as important clues for further refinement. By taking advantage of classical molecular dynamics (MD) simulations and density functional theory (DFT), we investigated the origin of this smart recognition function through the strength of interaction of experimentally selected 12mer peptides revealing high binding affinity towards n+-Si(100). Here, we attempt for the very first time to model the interaction of the peptides (in buffer solution) with semiconductors and we calculate their binding energies at the atomic level, enabling thereby linking direct evidence to our experimental evidence. Several peptide conformations have been taken into account simultaneously upon the surface. Our studies demonstrate that the peptides possess certain recognition function and their high interaction energy with the surface makes them unique among the populations. Our work is a step towards the understanding of the interactions between peptides and semiconductor surfaces that is a highly relevant challenge in the development of novel devices with a high degree of biocompatibility as well.

  10. Isotope specific arbitrary material sorter

    Barty, Christopher P.J.

    2015-12-08

    A laser-based mono-energetic gamma-ray source is used to provide a rapid and unique, isotope specific method for sorting materials. The objects to be sorted are passed on a conveyor in front of a MEGa-ray beam which has been tuned to the nuclear resonance fluorescence transition of the desired material. As the material containing the desired isotope traverses the beam, a reduction in the transmitted MEGa-ray beam occurs. Alternately, the laser-based mono-energetic gamma-ray source is used to provide non-destructive and non-intrusive, quantitative determination of the absolute amount of a specific isotope contained within pipe as part of a moving fluid or quasi-fluid material stream.

  11. Use Case Design for AdaptIVe

    Wolter, Stefan; Kelsch, Johann

    2014-01-01

    AdaptIVe is a large scale European project on vehicle automation and the pertaining human-machine interaction. The use case design process is a crucial part of the system design process and a part of the human-vehicle integration subproject. This paper explains the methodology for describing use cases in AdaptIVe. They are primarily based on sequence diagrams with main and alternative flows.

  12. Fault Adaptive Control of Overactuated Systems Using Prognostic Estimation

    National Aeronautics and Space Administration — Most fault adaptive control research addresses the preservation of system stability or functionality in the presence of a specific failure (fault). This paper...

  13. Adaptation and risk management

    Preston, Benjamin L [ORNL

    2011-01-01

    Adaptation assessment methods are compatible with the international risk management standard ISO:31000. Risk management approaches are increasingly being recommended for adaptation assessments at both national and local levels. Two orientations to assessments can commonly be identified: top-down and bottom-up, and prescriptive and diagnostic. Combinations of these orientations favor different types of assessments. The choice of orientation can be related to uncertainties in prediction and taking action, in the type of adaptation and in the degree of system stress. Adopting multiple viewpoints is to be encouraged, especially in complex situations. The bulk of current guidance material is consistent with top-down and predictive approaches, thus is most suitable for risk scoping and identification. Abroad range ofmaterial fromwithin and beyond the climate change literature can be used to select methods to be used in assessing and implementing adaptation. The framing of risk, correct formulation of the questions being investigated and assessment methodology are critical aspects of the scoping phase. Only when these issues have been addressed should be issue of specific methods and tools be addressed. The reorientation of adaptation from an assessment focused solely on anthropogenic climate change to broader issues of vulnerability/resilience, sustainable development and disaster risk, especially through a risk management framework, can draw from existing policy and management understanding in communities, professions and agencies, incorporating existing agendas, knowledge, risks, and issues they already face.

  14. Preparation and quality control of materials used in the reference buffer material

    Dixon, D.A.; Hnatiw, D.S.J.; Kohle, C.L.

    1992-09-15

    This document summarizes the methodologies developed for preparing the reference buffer material (RBM) for use in laboratory-scale and field-scale experiments. Two commercially available concrete mixers have been successfully used to repeatedly produce homogeneous bulk buffer and backfill materials. The components, blending procedures, quality control sampling requirements, and mixing checklists used in the production of the reference buffer material are presented. Use of these directions will ensure that consistent batching of sealing materials is achieved and operator-induced variability is minimized.

  15. The estimation postradiational adaptation and the recovering processes using parameters of radiocapacity on model ecosystem

    The results of investigations of effect of adaptation and the recovering processes of plants in condition of the ionizing radiation on model ecosystem are shown in this article. The estimation using the parameter of radiocapacity biotic component in water culture of plants of maize on model monoecosystem was conducted

  16. Overcoming Barriers in the Use of Adaptive and Assistive Technology in Special Education.

    Bushrow, Kathy M.; Turner, Keith D.

    This paper examines change and change facilitators as they affect full use of adaptive and assistive technology (AAT) in special education, and compares qualitative versus quantitative methods of researching the change process. Four administrators and two teachers from a rural school district completed the Stages of Concern Questionnaire, which…

  17. Quality Assessment of Adaptive Bitrate Videos using Image Metrics and Machine Learning

    Søgaard, Jacob; Forchhammer, Søren; Brunnström, Kjell

    2015-01-01

    Adaptive bitrate (ABR) streaming is widely used for distribution of videos over the internet. In this work, we investigate how well we can predict the quality of such videos using well-known image metrics, information about the bitrate levels, and a relatively simple machine learning method...

  18. Analysis and Design of a Morphing Wing Tip using Multicellular Flexible Matrix Composite Adaptive Skins

    Hinshaw, Tyler

    2009-01-01

    The material presented in this thesis uses concepts of the finite element and doublet panel methods to develop a structural-aerodynamic coupled mathematical model for the analysis of a morphing wing tip composed of smart materials. Much research is currently being performed within many facets of engineering on the use of smart or intelligent materials. Examples of the beneficial characteristics of smart materials might include altering a structureâ s mechanical properties, controlling its dy...

  19. Sensorless control of salient PMSM with adaptive integrator and resistance online identification using strong tracking filter

    Ma, Shaokang; Wu, Peijun; Ji, Jinhu; Li, Xuchun

    2016-02-01

    This article presents a sensorless control approach of salient PMSM with an online parameter identifier. Adaptive Integrator is proposed and utilised for the estimation of active flux and rotor position. As a result, integrator overflow caused by DC offset is avoided. Meanwhile, an online stator resistance identification algorithm using strong tracking filter is employed, and the identified stator resistance is fed back to the estimating algorithm. Thus, the estimating algorithm can calculate the rotor position correctly. Simulations and experimental results validate the feasibility of both adaptive integrator and the parameter identification method.

  20. Automation of Packaging and Material Handling Using Programmable Logic Controller

    Joanna Marie M. Baroro, Melchizedek I. Alipio, Michael Lawrence T. Huang, Teodoro M. Ricamara, Angelo A. Beltran Jr.

    2014-01-01

    This paper presents an automation of packaging and material handling using a programmable logic controller. The idea is to automate the process of placing the materials inside a box, detecting good and bad items in terms of weight, and sealing using a packaging tape. The purpose of the study is to replace the manual system being used in the industry, compare the time, and manpower requirement for both the existing system with the proposed automated system. The ...

  1. REGISTRATION OF BRAIN IMAGES USING MODIFIED ADAPTIVE POLAR TRANSFORM

    D.Sasikala,

    2010-09-01

    Full Text Available Image registration has great significance in medicine, with a lot of techniques anticipated in it. This paper discusses an approach for medical image registration. It registers images of the mono or multi modalities for CT or MRI images using Modified Adaptive Polar Transform. The performance of the Adaptive Polar Transform with theproposed technique is examined. The results prove that the proposed method performs better than Adaptive Polar Transform technique. The proposed method reduces the errors and also the elapsed time for registration. An analysis is presented for the medical image registration of brain images using Adaptive Polar Transform and Modified Adaptive Polar Transform.

  2. ACTRESS: Domain-Specific Modeling of Self-Adaptive Software Architectures

    Krikava, Filip; Collet, Philippe; France, Robert

    2014-01-01

    A common approach for engineering self-adaptive software systems is to use Feedback Control Loops (FCLs). Advances have led to more explicit and safer design of some control architectures, however, there is a need for more integrated and systematic approaches that support end-to-end integration of FCLs into software systems. In this paper, we propose a tooled approach that enables researchers and engineers to design and integrate adaptation mechanisms into software systems through FCLs. It co...

  3. Sports-specific adaptation of left ventricular muscle mass in athlete's heart. II: An echocardiographic study with 400-m runners and soccer players.

    Urhausen, A; Monz, T; Kindermann, W

    1996-11-01

    Regarding the influence of the left ventricular (LV) adaptation by sports-specific factors the supposed endurance training have so far been compared mainly to strength conditioning. In the present study we investigated the echocardiographic LV measurements of endurance-trained athletes in different kinds of endurance sports (running and ball games) by using matched-pair procedures. We examined 22 male soccer players (S) and 22 male 400-m runners (R) on a regional up to a national level with--each similar in pairs--the following body mass (S: 75.7 +/-5.0 kg; R: 75.2 +/- 5.6), body surface area (S: 1.97 +/- 0.09 m2; R: 1.98 +/- 0.09), fat-free body mass (S: 68.4 +/- 4.6 kg; R: 68.3 +/- 5.3) and individual anaerobic threshold as a criterion to determine the running endurance (S: 14.23 +/- 0.79 km.h-1; R: 14.25 +/- 0.80). The body dimensions-related heart volume (HV/lean body mass: S: 14.2 +/- 1.5 ml.kg-1; R: 13.4 +/- 1.0) as well as the absolute and body surface-related LV internal diameter (EDD: S: 55.0 +/- 3.8 mm; R: 52.7 +/- 3.3; EDD/body-surface area: S: 27.8 +/- 1.9 mm.m-2; R: 26.6 +/- 1.3) were measured significantly higher in S as compared to R (p form (typical for ball games) and a different volume/intensity ratio could significantly influence the LV adaptation beside the endurance performance as well as constitutional and genetic factors. PMID:9119536

  4. SPECIFICS OF WAR JOURNALISM: THE PROBLEM OF CAMOUFLAGE AND THE LANGUAGE SPECIFICS OF USING COLOR NAMES FOR DENOTING CAMOUFLAGE UNIFORMS

    Polyakova, D.

    2013-01-01

    The paper discusses some specifics of war journalism, such as the issue of journalists’ security and the problem of using camouflage in the conditions of war and social conflicts, as well as the features of professional military language is terms of using color names for denoting camouflage uniforms in Russian and American English.

  5. Measuring yield performance of upland cotton varieties using adaptability, stability and principal component analyses

    Nine upland cotton varieties/strains were tested over 36 environments in Pakistan so as to determine their stability in yield performance. The regression coefficient (b) was used as a measure of adaptability, whereas parameters such as coefficient of determination (r2) and sum of squared deviations from regression (s/sup 2/d) were used as measure of stability. Although the regression coefficients (b) of all varieties did not deviate significantly from the unit slope, the varieties CRIS-5A. BII-89, DNH-40 and Rehmani gave b value closer to unity implying their better adaptation. Lower s/sub 2/d and higher r/sub 2/ of CRIS- 121 and DNH-40 suggest that both of these are fairly stable. The results indicate that, generally, adaptability and stability parameters are independent of each in as much as not all of the parameters simultaneously favoured one variety over the other excepting the variety DNH-40, which was stable based on majority of the parameters. Principal component analysis revealed that the first two components (latent roots) account for about 91.4% of the total variation. The latent vectors of first principal component (PCA1) were smaller and positive which also suggest that most of the varieties were quite adaptive to all of the test environments. (author)

  6. Access and comprehension - Teachers use of simplified language materials

    Rix, Jonathan

    2004-01-01

    This paper examines the current use of simplified language materials (SLMs) by primary and secondary teachers across England. Drawing on a survey of 33 schools the paper examines the degree to which teachers and support teachers currently use simplified language materials and the reasons they give for their usage. It discusses both the contradictions and similarities between teachers' perceptions of the value of SLMs and the existing research base. It focuses on current national guidance, the...

  7. The Vulnerability of Threatened Species: Adaptive Capability and Adaptation Opportunity

    Andrew McVey

    2013-07-01

    Full Text Available Global targets to halt the loss of biodiversity have not been met, and there is now an additional Aichi target for preventing the extinction of known threatened species and improving their conservation status. Climate change increasingly needs to be factored in to these, and thus there is a need to identify the extent to which it could increase species vulnerability. This paper uses the exposure, sensitivity, and adaptive capacity framework to assess the vulnerability of a selection of WWF global priority large mammals and marine species to climate change. However, it divides adaptive capacity into adaptive capability and adaptation opportunity, in order to identify whether adaptation is more constrained by the biology of the species or by its environmental setting. Lack of evidence makes it difficult to apply the framework consistently across the species, but it was found that, particularly for the terrestrial mammals, adaptation opportunities seems to be the greater constraint. This framework and analysis could be used by conservationists and those wishing to enhance the resilience of species to climate change.

  8. Research and development of advanced materials using ion beam

    Namba, Susumu [Nagasaki Inst. of Applied Science, Nagasaki (Japan)

    1997-03-01

    A wide range of research and development activities of advanced material synthesis using ion beams will be discussed, including ion beam applications to the state-of-the-art electronics from giant to nano electronics. (author)

  9. Supervised and Unsupervised Speaker Adaptation Using Confidence Measure

    LIUJia; LIHusheng; LIUJing; LIURunsheng

    2003-01-01

    The speaker adaptation is an effective means of improving the performance of a speech recognition system,and it can be divided into supervised or unsupervised speaker adaptation.In this paper a kind of confidence measure based on the word lattice structure is proposed and is used for the supervised and unsupervised speaker adaptation.The reliability of the recognition results can be evaluated by the confidence measure,and the uncertain parts in the recognition results can be removed or be given smaller weights in the speaker adaptation process.The experiments show that the confidence can effectively eliminate the suspicious speech and improve the performance of the supervised and unsupervised adaptation considerably.The performance difference between the supervised and unsupervised adaptation is reduced by using the confidence measure based on the word lattice structure.

  10. Informing material specification

    Ramsgaard Thomsen, Mette; Karmon, Ayelet

    2012-01-01

    Architecture is entering a radical rethinking of its material practice. Advancements in material science and more complex models of material simulation as well as the interfaces between design and fabrication are fundamentally changing the way we conceive and design our built environment. This new...... technological platform allows an unprecedented control over the material. Creating direct links between the space of design and the space of fabrication, the idea of the hyper specified material developed in direct response to defined design criteria calls upon a new material practice in which designers of...... artifacts are also designers of materials. In this practice materials are seen as bespoke composites, differentiated and graded, and whose particular detailing is a central part of a projects overall solution. This paper will present a dual investigation into material design as an architectural practice...

  11. Active materials for adaptive architectural envelopes based on plant adaptation principles

    Marlen Lopez; Ramon Rubio; Santiago Martın; Ben Croxford; Richard Jackson

    2015-01-01

    In this paper, the authors present research into adaptive architectural envelopes that adapt to environmental changes using active materials, as a result of application of biomimetic principles from plants to architecture. Buildings use large amounts of energy in order to maintain their internal comfort, because conventional buildings are designed to provide a static design solution. Most of the current solutions for facades are not designed for optimum adaptation to contextual issues and nee...

  12. A Novel Broadband MIMO/OFDM System Using Adaptive Modulation and Adaptive Diversity

    PANYahan; KhaledBenLetaief; CAOZhigang; QIUYonghong

    2005-01-01

    OFDM (Orthogonal frequency division multiplexing) has been widely regarded as an effective modulation technique for mitigating the effects of ISI in a frequency selective fading channel and for providing reliable high-data transmission over wireless links. Adaptive modulation combined with adaptive transmit and receive diversity can achieve further increases in system's capacity and bandwidth efficiency, as well as in QoS improvement in conventional OFDM systems. In this paper, we propose a novel broadband MIMO/OFDM system using adaptive modulation and adaptive transmit and receive diversity. By applying an EVD on each sub-carrier channel matrix, joint optimal transmit and receive antenna weights as well as maximal SNR on each sub-carrier are obtained. Then, by employing adaptive modulation on each sub-carrier, the maximal SNR on each sub-carrier obtained by adaptive transmit and receive diversity is further maximized through adaptive bit assignment and power assignment on each sub-carrier under the constraint of power and overall bit rate. Simulation results show that the proposed system can achieve better performance than an adaptive antenna array based OFDM system without adaptive modulation over multipath fading channels.

  13. Characterization and Mechanical Behavior of Composite Material Using FEA

    S. Irfan Sadaq

    2013-04-01

    Full Text Available Composites have been used extensively in applications such as pipes and pressure vessels. Therefore there is need for furtherstudies on the physical and mechanical properties of these materials. In the present work composite laminates made of gl;ass fiber and epoxy resin are tested to find the strength of the laminate and also its mechanical properties. By using FEA (Ansys 11.0 the optimum helix angle is determined for the composite material

  14. Characterization and Mechanical Behavior of Composite Material Using FEA

    S. Irfan Sadaq; J. Dhanraj Pamar; Dr.N Seetharamaih; Afroz Mehar

    2013-01-01

    Composites have been used extensively in applications such as pipes and pressure vessels. Therefore there is need for furtherstudies on the physical and mechanical properties of these materials. In the present work composite laminates made of gl;ass fiber and epoxy resin are tested to find the strength of the laminate and also its mechanical properties. By using FEA (Ansys 11.0) the optimum helix angle is determined for the composite material

  15. Origins of adaptive immunity.

    Liongue, Clifford; John, Liza B; Ward, Alister

    2011-01-01

    Adaptive immunity, involving distinctive antibody- and cell-mediated responses to specific antigens based on "memory" of previous exposure, is a hallmark of higher vertebrates. It has been argued that adaptive immunity arose rapidly, as articulated in the "big bang theory" surrounding its origins, which stresses the importance of coincident whole-genome duplications. Through a close examination of the key molecules and molecular processes underpinning adaptive immunity, this review suggests a less-extreme model, in which adaptive immunity emerged as part of longer evolutionary journey. Clearly, whole-genome duplications provided additional raw genetic materials that were vital to the emergence of adaptive immunity, but a variety of other genetic events were also required to generate some of the key molecules, whereas others were preexisting and simply co-opted into adaptive immunity. PMID:21395512

  16. Adaptive Control of Flexible Structures Using Residual Mode Filters

    Balas, Mark J.; Frost, Susan

    2010-01-01

    Flexible structures containing a large number of modes can benefit from adaptive control techniques which are well suited to applications that have unknown modeling parameters and poorly known operating conditions. In this paper, we focus on a direct adaptive control approach that has been extended to handle adaptive rejection of persistent disturbances. We extend our adaptive control theory to accommodate troublesome modal subsystems of a plant that might inhibit the adaptive controller. In some cases the plant does not satisfy the requirements of Almost Strict Positive Realness. Instead, there maybe be a modal subsystem that inhibits this property. This section will present new results for our adaptive control theory. We will modify the adaptive controller with a Residual Mode Filter (RMF) to compensate for the troublesome modal subsystem, or the Q modes. Here we present the theory for adaptive controllers modified by RMFs, with attention to the issue of disturbances propagating through the Q modes. We apply the theoretical results to a flexible structure example to illustrate the behavior with and without the residual mode filter. We have proposed a modified adaptive controller with a residual mode filter. The RMF is used to accommodate troublesome modes in the system that might otherwise inhibit the adaptive controller, in particular the ASPR condition. This new theory accounts for leakage of the disturbance term into the Q modes. A simple three-mode example shows that the RMF can restore stability to an otherwise unstable adaptively controlled system. This is done without modifying the adaptive controller design.

  17. Subfamily-specific adaptations in the structures of two penicillin-binding proteins from Mycobacterium tuberculosis.

    Daniil M Prigozhin

    Full Text Available Beta-lactam antibiotics target penicillin-binding proteins including several enzyme classes essential for bacterial cell-wall homeostasis. To better understand the functional and inhibitor-binding specificities of penicillin-binding proteins from the pathogen, Mycobacterium tuberculosis, we carried out structural and phylogenetic analysis of two predicted D,D-carboxypeptidases, Rv2911 and Rv3330. Optimization of Rv2911 for crystallization using directed evolution and the GFP folding reporter method yielded a soluble quadruple mutant. Structures of optimized Rv2911 bound to phenylmethylsulfonyl fluoride and Rv3330 bound to meropenem show that, in contrast to the nonspecific inhibitor, meropenem forms an extended interaction with the enzyme along a conserved surface. Phylogenetic analysis shows that Rv2911 and Rv3330 belong to different clades that emerged in Actinobacteria and are not represented in model organisms such as Escherichia coli and Bacillus subtilis. Clade-specific adaptations allow these enzymes to fulfill distinct physiological roles despite strict conservation of core catalytic residues. The characteristic differences include potential protein-protein interaction surfaces and specificity-determining residues surrounding the catalytic site. Overall, these structural insights lay the groundwork to develop improved beta-lactam therapeutics for tuberculosis.

  18. Microassembly of Heterogeneous Materials using Transfer Printing and Thermal Processing

    Keum, Hohyun; Yang, Zining; Han, Kewen; Handler, Drew E.; Nguyen, Thong Nhu; Schutt-Aine, Jose; Bahl, Gaurav; Kim, Seok

    2016-01-01

    Enabling unique architectures and functionalities of microsystems for numerous applications in electronics, photonics and other areas often requires microassembly of separately prepared heterogeneous materials instead of monolithic microfabrication. However, microassembly of dissimilar materials while ensuring high structural integrity has been challenging in the context of deterministic transferring and joining of materials at the microscale where surface adhesion is far more dominant than body weight. Here we present an approach to assembling microsystems with microscale building blocks of four disparate classes of device-grade materials including semiconductors, metals, dielectrics, and polymers. This approach uniquely utilizes reversible adhesion-based transfer printing for material transferring and thermal processing for material joining at the microscale. The interfacial joining characteristics between materials assembled by this approach are systematically investigated upon different joining mechanisms using blister tests. The device level capabilities of this approach are further demonstrated through assembling and testing of a microtoroid resonator and a radio frequency (RF) microelectromechanical systems (MEMS) switch that involve optical and electrical functionalities with mechanical motion. This work opens up a unique route towards 3D heterogeneous material integration to fabricate microsystems. PMID:27427243

  19. Microassembly of Heterogeneous Materials using Transfer Printing and Thermal Processing.

    Keum, Hohyun; Yang, Zining; Han, Kewen; Handler, Drew E; Nguyen, Thong Nhu; Schutt-Aine, Jose; Bahl, Gaurav; Kim, Seok

    2016-01-01

    Enabling unique architectures and functionalities of microsystems for numerous applications in electronics, photonics and other areas often requires microassembly of separately prepared heterogeneous materials instead of monolithic microfabrication. However, microassembly of dissimilar materials while ensuring high structural integrity has been challenging in the context of deterministic transferring and joining of materials at the microscale where surface adhesion is far more dominant than body weight. Here we present an approach to assembling microsystems with microscale building blocks of four disparate classes of device-grade materials including semiconductors, metals, dielectrics, and polymers. This approach uniquely utilizes reversible adhesion-based transfer printing for material transferring and thermal processing for material joining at the microscale. The interfacial joining characteristics between materials assembled by this approach are systematically investigated upon different joining mechanisms using blister tests. The device level capabilities of this approach are further demonstrated through assembling and testing of a microtoroid resonator and a radio frequency (RF) microelectromechanical systems (MEMS) switch that involve optical and electrical functionalities with mechanical motion. This work opens up a unique route towards 3D heterogeneous material integration to fabricate microsystems. PMID:27427243

  20. Role of non-enzymatic antioxidants on the bivalves' adaptation to environmental mercury: Organ-specificities and age effect in Scrobicularia plana inhabiting a contaminated lagoon

    This study aimed to investigate the role of non-enzymatic antioxidants on adaptive skills over time in the bivalve Scrobicularia plana environmentally exposed to mercury. Inter-age (2+, 3+, 4+, 5+ year old) and organ-specific (gills, digestive gland) approaches were applied in bivalves collected from moderately and highly contaminated sites at Ria de Aveiro (Portugal). S. plana's adaptive skills were dependent on the contamination extent; under moderate contamination scenario, the intervention of the different antioxidants took place harmoniously, evidencing an adjustment capacity increasing with the age. Under higher contamination degree, S. plana failed to cope with mercury threat, showing an age-dependent deterioration of the defense abilities. In organ-specific approach, the differences were particularly evident for thiol-compounds, since only gills displayed the potential to respond to moderate levels by increasing non-protein thiols and total glutathione. Under high contamination degree, both organs were unable to increase thiol-compounds, which were compensated by the ascorbic acid elevation. - Highlights: ► Results demonstrated non-enzymatic antioxidants' importance on protecting bivalves. ► S. plana's adaptive skills over time depend on the contamination extent. ► Antioxidants intervention evidenced an adjustment capacity increasing with the age. ► Gills responded to mercury moderate levels by increasing thiols and glutathione. ► Ascorbic acid displayed a compensatory role where organs failed to increase thiols. - Results demonstrated the importance of non-enzymatic antioxidants on protecting S. plana from mercury pro-oxidant action, under environmentally realistic conditions.

  1. Experimental and theoretical study of organometallic radiation-protective materials adapted to radiation sources with a complex isotopic composition

    Russkikh, I. M.; Seleznev, E. N. [Institute of Reactor Materials (Russian Federation); Tashlykov, O. L., E-mail: otashlykov@list.ru; Shcheklein, S. E. [Ural Federal University (Russian Federation)

    2015-12-15

    The significance of optimizing the content of components of a radiation-protective material, which is determined by the isotopic composition of radioactive contamination, depending on the reactor type, operating time, and other factors is demonstrated. The results of computational and experimental investigation of the gamma-radiation attenuation capacity of homogenous radiation-protective materials with different fillers are reported.

  2. Experimental and theoretical study of organometallic radiation-protective materials adapted to radiation sources with a complex isotopic composition

    The significance of optimizing the content of components of a radiation-protective material, which is determined by the isotopic composition of radioactive contamination, depending on the reactor type, operating time, and other factors is demonstrated. The results of computational and experimental investigation of the gamma-radiation attenuation capacity of homogenous radiation-protective materials with different fillers are reported

  3. Experimental and theoretical study of organometallic radiation-protective materials adapted to radiation sources with a complex isotopic composition

    Russkikh, I. M.; Seleznev, E. N.; Tashlykov, O. L.; Shcheklein, S. E.

    2015-12-01

    The significance of optimizing the content of components of a radiation-protective material, which is determined by the isotopic composition of radioactive contamination, depending on the reactor type, operating time, and other factors is demonstrated. The results of computational and experimental investigation of the gamma-radiation attenuation capacity of homogenous radiation-protective materials with different fillers are reported.

  4. Biodiversity and cold adaptive mechanisms of psychrophiles

    Yuhua Xin

    2013-07-01

    Full Text Available Cold-adapted bacteria and archaea are widely distributed in cold environments on Earth, such as permafrost, cold soils and deserts, glaciers, lakes, sea ice in the Arctic, Antarctic and high mountains, as well as the deep sea, ice caves and the atmospheric stratosphere etc. Cold-adapted organisms inhabiting these environments exhibit rich diversity. Studies on the biogeography of psychrophiles will enable us to understand their biodiversity, distribution and origins. Due to long-term living in cold regions, cold-adapted bacteria and archeae have developed specific physiological mechanisms of adaptation to cold environments. These mechanisms include: regulating the fluidity of the cytoplasmic membrane through adjusting the composition of membrane lipids; achieving low-temperature protection through compatibility solute, antifreeze proteins, ice-binding proteins, ice-nucleation proteins and anti-nucleating proteins; production of heat-shock and coldshock proteins, cold acclimation protein and DEAD-box RNA helicase at low temperatures; production of cold-active enzymes; increasing energy generation and conservation. With the rapid development of sequencing technology, various omics-based approaches have been used to reveal cold-adaptive mechanisms of psychrophiles at the genomic level.

  5. Adaptation of ICT for children with specific learning difficulties

    Klemen, Brigita

    2013-01-01

    The aim of the thesis is to review the legislation pertaining to education of children with special needs in the Republic of Slovenia. The Elementary School Act and the Placement of Children with Special Needs Act define the groups of special needs in Slovenia; moreover, the two acts prescribe the procedures of placing and acquiring an individualised programme. Through an individualised programme, the pupil is eligible for adjustments allowing equal integration into the educational process. ...

  6. Stimulus-specific adaptation at the synapse level in vitro

    Haitao Wang; Yi-Fan Han; Ying-Shing Chan; Jufang He

    2014-01-01

    Stimulus-specific adaptation (SSA) is observed in many brain regions in humans and animals. SSA of cortical neurons has been proposed to accumulate through relays in ascending pathways. Here, we examined SSA at the synapse level using whole-cell patch-clamp recordings of primary cultured cortical neurons of the rat. First, we found that cultured neurons had high firing capability with 100-Hz current injection. However, neuron firing started to adapt to repeated electrically activated synaptic...

  7. SOCIAL ADAPTABILITY OF YOUNG PEOPLE WITH MENTAL DISABILITIES FOR INDEPENDENT LIFE IN SOCIETY: ESSENCE, SPECIFICITY, LEVELS OF EXISTENCE, CRITERIA AND INDICATORS FOR THEIR EVALUATION

    Veronika Grebennikova

    2015-10-01

    Full Text Available This article was prepared within the framework of the state assignment of the Ministry of education and science of the Russian Federation No. 3307 In the article the authors explain the nature and content of social adaptability of graduates psycho-neurological boarding schools (young people with disabilities from 24 to 27 years old with mild mental retardation to independent life in society; note that this adaptability is characterized by the level of proficiency of graduate boarding norms of social behavior, professional orientation and socio-moral experience of self in different situations. Reveal the content of main components (motivational, cognitive, activity that determine the social adaptability of the graduate psycho-neurological boarding school; lead characteristics of the levels of formation of social adaptability of graduates of psycho-neurological boarding schools for independent living (minimal-basic level; socially stable level; social perspective level. Also, the authors consider the principles of implementation of socio-pedagogical support of adaptation of graduates of the boarding school to independent life in society (in particular, the principle of the humanistic nature of the relationship specialists of psycho-neurological boarding schools with young people with disabilities; the principle of individual approach; the principle of variability and complexity of forms, methods, means of support; the principle of the priority of the interests of professional and personal development of a young disabled person in the implementation of socio-pedagogical support of its adaptation to independent life in society, etc..

  8. Freeform surfaces adaptation using developable strips and planar quadrilateral facets

    Francisco Gonzalez-Quintial

    2015-06-01

    Full Text Available Almost all industrialized materials commonly employed at engineering and building construction are approximately unstretchable, metal sheets, plywood or glass. So there is no doubt about the advantages offered, mainly from the economic point of view, by the processes that use flat or developable surfaces in the resolution of doubly curved ones. Using two prototypical kinds of developable surfaces, an adaptation method of double curvature surfaces is formulated using either developable strips or planar quadrilateral surfaces. Through the geometric concept of apparent contours and by the systematization of a process inspired by traditional projective geometry an algorithm is built, using the newest and outstanding CAD processes. They systematize and allow obtaining single-curvature strips or flat facets, in order to be able to address its construction, using materials that can be bent in one direction or rigid material with no possibility of being bent at all by simple and economical procedures. These strips obtained are from the geometrical viewpoint absolutely developable. They are patches extracted from cones or cylinders. The main subject to be developed in this paper is on one hand showing of the system and its geometric basis and on the other the exhibition of the results that are being obtained over physical models and prototypes built in diverse materials.  

  9. Reliability and consistency of plantarflexor stretch-shortening cycle function using an adapted force sledge apparatus

    There are various limitations to existing methods of studying plantarflexor stretch-shortening cycle (SSC) function and muscle-tendon unit (MTU) mechanics, predominantly related to measurement validity and reliability. This study utilizes an innovative adaptation to a force sledge which isolates the plantarflexors and ankle for analysis. The aim of this study was to determine the sledge loading protocol to be used, most appropriate method of data analysis and measurement reliability in a group of healthy, non-injured subjects. Twenty subjects (11 males, 9 females; age: 23.5 ±2.3 years; height: 1.73 ±0.08 m; mass: 74.2 ±11.3 kg) completed 11 impacts at five different loadings rated on a scale of perceived exertion from 1 to 5, where 5 is a loading that the subject could only complete the 11 impacts using the adapted sledge. Analysis of impacts 4–8 or 5–7 using loading 2 provided consistent results that were highly reliable (single intra-class correlation, ICC > 0.85, average ICC > 0.95) and replicated kinematics found in hopping and running. Results support use of an adapted force sledge apparatus as an ecologically valid, reliable method of investigating plantarflexor SSC function and MTU mechanics in a dynamic controlled environment. (paper)

  10. The Aviation Adaptability of the New Structure Framework Material

    Jiang Jinsan

    2013-01-01

    In this study, 0Cr15Ni5Cu2Ti, stainless steel sheet material with high strength is introduced to replace light metal of magnesium as aviation structural material. The research on heat process technology is emphasized and overall welding of 0Cr15Ni5Cu2Ti sheet is employed, adopting such methods as argon arc protection, anti-deformation technology of hot bending forming, special heat treatment technology, five-axis numerical control machining. It is the first time for the new material applied t...

  11. Adaptive control of active filter using DSP

    In order to reduce output-voltage ripple of power supply, an active filter is necessary. In this paper, the active filter with DSP is proposed. The waveform from active filter can be flexibly improved by DSP programming. The output-voltage ripple can be enough reduced by mixing frequency components of the input-voltage ripple. The result of adaptive control using LMS algorism is presented. The improvement by using filtered-X method is discussed. (author)

  12. Acne-specific quality of life questionnaire (Acne-QoL): translation, cultural adaptation and validation into Brazilian-Portuguese language*

    Kamamoto, Cristhine de Souza Leão; Hassun, Karime Marques; Bagatin, Ediléia; Tomimori, Jane

    2014-01-01

    BACKGROUND many studies about the psychosocial impact of acne have been reported in international medical literature describing quality of life as a relevant clinical outcome. It is well known that the patient's perception about the disease may be different from the physician's evaluation. Therefore, it is important to use validated instruments that turn the patient's subjective opinion into objective information. OBJECTIVES to translate into Brazilian-Portuguese language and to culturally adapt a quality of life questionnaire, the Acne-Specific Quality of Life Questionnaire (Acne-QoL), as well as to evaluate its reliability and validity. METHODS measurement properties were assessed: 1) validity: comparison between severity and Acne-QoL domain scores, correlations between acne duration and Acne-QoL domain scores, and correlation between Acne-QoL domain scores and SF-36 components; 2) internal consistency: Cronbach's α coefficient; 3) test-retest reproducibility: intraclass correlation coefficient and Wilcoxon test. RESULTS Eighty subjects with a mean age of 20.5 ± 4.8 years presenting mild (33.8%), moderate (36.2%) and severe (30%) facial acne were enrolled. Acne-QoL domain scores were similar among the different acne severity groups except for role-social domain. Subjects with shorter acne duration presented significant higher scores. Acne-QoL domains showed significant correlations, both between themselves and with SF-36 role-social and mental health components. Internal consistency (0.925-0.952) and test-retest reproducibility were considered acceptable (0.768-0.836). CONCLUSIONS the Brazilian-Portuguese version of the Acne-QoL is a reliable and valid satisfactory outcome measure to be used in facial acne studies. PMID:24626652

  13. Use of UHPC in Bridge Structures: Material Modeling and Design

    Oguz Gunes

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available Ultra-high-performance concrete (UHPC is a promising new class of concrete material that is likely to make a significant contribution to addressing the challenges associated with the load capacity, durability, sustainability, economy, and environmental impact of concrete bridge infrastructures. This paper focuses on the material modeling of UHPC and design of bridge girders made of UHPC. A two-phase model used for modeling the behavior of UHPC was briefly discussed, and the model was implemented in a preliminary design case study. Based on the implemented design and the reported use of UHPC in bridge applications, the advantages, limitations, and future prospects of UHPC bridges were discussed, highlighting the need for innovative research and design to make optimum use of the favorable properties of the material in bridge structures.

  14. Multi-omics analysis of niche specificity provides new insights into ecological adaptation in bacteria.

    Zhu, Bo; Ibrahim, Muhammad; Cui, Zhouqi; Xie, Guanlin; Jin, Gulei; Kube, Michael; Li, Bin; Zhou, Xueping

    2016-08-01

    Different lifestyles, ranging from a saprophyte to a pathogen, have been reported in bacteria of one species. Here, we performed genome-wide survey of the ecological adaptation in four Burkholderia seminalis strains, distinguished by their origin as part of the saprophytic microbial community of soil or water but also including human and plant pathogens. The results indicated that each strain is separated from the others by increased fitness in medium simulating its original niche corresponding to the difference between strains in metabolic capacities. Furthermore, strain-specific metabolism and niche survival was generally linked with genomic variants and niche-dependent differential expression of the corresponding genes. In particular, the importance of iron, trehalose and d-arabitol utilization was highlighted by the involvement of DNA-methylation and horizontal gene transfer in niche-adapted regulation of the corresponding operons based on the integrated analysis of our multi-omics data. Overall, our results provided insights of niche-specific adaptation in bacteria. PMID:26859773

  15. Timing of ibuprofen use and musculoskeletal adaptations to exercise training in older adults

    Jankowski, Catherine M.; Karen Shea; Barry, Daniel W; Linnebur, Sunny A.; Pamela Wolfe; John Kittelson; Schwartz, Robert S.; Kohrt, Wendy M.

    2015-01-01

    Prostaglandins (PGs) increase in bone in response to mechanical loading and stimulate bone formation. Inhibition of cyclooxygenase (COX), the enzyme responsible for PG synthesis, by non-steroidal anti-inflammatory drugs (NSAIDs) impairs the bone formation response to loading in animals when administered before, but not after, loading. The aim was to determine whether the timing of ibuprofen use (400 mg before versus after exercise sessions) is a significant determinant of the adaptive respons...

  16. GUIDANCE FOR THE PROPER CHARACTERIZATION AND CLASSIFICATION OF LOW SPECIFIC ACTIVITY MATERIALS AND SURFACE CONTAMINATED OBJECTS FOR DISPOSAL

    PORTSMOUTH JH; BLACKFORD LT

    2012-02-13

    Regulatory concerns over the proper characterization of certain waste streams led CH2M HILL Plateau Remediation Company (CHPRC) to develop written guidance for personnel involved in Decontamination & Decommissioning (D&D) activities, facility management and Waste Management Representatives (WMRs) involved in the designation of wastes for disposal on and off the Hanford Site. It is essential that these waste streams regularly encountered in D&D operations are properly designated, characterized and classified prior to shipment to a Treatment, Storage or Disposal Facility (TSDF). Shipments of waste determined by the classification process as Low Specific Activity (LSA) or Surface Contaminated Objects (SCO) must also be compliant with all applicable U.S. Department of Transportation (DOE) regulations as well as Department of Energy (DOE) orders. The compliant shipment of these waste commodities is critical to the Hanford Central Plateau cleanup mission. Due to previous problems and concerns from DOE assessments, CHPRC internal critiques as well as DOT, a management decision was made to develop written guidance and procedures to assist CHPRC shippers and facility personnel in the proper classification of D&D waste materials as either LSA or SCO. The guidance provides a uniform methodology for the collection and documentation required to effectively characterize, classify and identify candidate materials for shipping operations. A primary focus is to ensure that waste materials generated from D&D and facility operations are compliant with the DOT regulations when packaged for shipment. At times this can be difficult as the current DOT regulations relative to the shipment of LSA and SCO materials are often not clear to waste generators. Guidance is often sought from NUREG 1608/RAMREG-003 [3]: a guidance document that was jointly developed by the DOT and the Nuclear Regulatory Commission (NRC) and published in 1998. However, NUREG 1608 [3] is now thirteen years old and

  17. Adaptive Control of Linear Modal Systems Using Residual Mode Filters and a Simple Disturbance Estimator

    Balas, Mark; Frost, Susan

    2012-01-01

    Flexible structures containing a large number of modes can benefit from adaptive control techniques which are well suited to applications that have unknown modeling parameters and poorly known operating conditions. In this paper, we focus on a direct adaptive control approach that has been extended to handle adaptive rejection of persistent disturbances. We extend our adaptive control theory to accommodate troublesome modal subsystems of a plant that might inhibit the adaptive controller. In some cases the plant does not satisfy the requirements of Almost Strict Positive Realness. Instead, there maybe be a modal subsystem that inhibits this property. This section will present new results for our adaptive control theory. We will modify the adaptive controller with a Residual Mode Filter (RMF) to compensate for the troublesome modal subsystem, or the Q modes. Here we present the theory for adaptive controllers modified by RMFs, with attention to the issue of disturbances propagating through the Q modes. We apply the theoretical results to a flexible structure example to illustrate the behavior with and without the residual mode filter.

  18. Using adaptive techniques to validate and correct an audience driven design of web sites

    Casteleyn, Sven; Garrigós Fernández, Irene; De Troyer, Olga

    2004-01-01

    An audience driven philosophy for web site design takes the different target audiences as an explicit starting point, and organizes the basic navigation structure accordingly. However, for the designer it is not always easy, or sometimes even impossible, to assess the different requirements of the different target audiences correctly. In this paper, we show how to correct for such possible flaws using adaptive behavior. A mechanism for detecting both missing and superfluous information in a c...

  19. Measurement of the enthalpy and specific heat of a Be2C-graphite-UC2 reactor fuel material to 19800K

    The enthalpy and specific heat of a Be2C-graphite-UC2 composite nuclear fuel material were measured over the temperature range 300 to 19800K using differential scanning calorimetry and liquid argon vaporization calorimetry. The fuel material measured was developed at Sandia National Laboratories for use in pulsed test reactors. The material is a hot-pressed composite consisting of 40 vol % Be2C, 49.5 vol % graphite, 3.5 vol % UC2 and 7.0 vol % void. The specific heat was measured with the differential scanning calorimeter over the temperature range 300 to 9500K while the enthalpy was measured over the range 1185 to 19800K with the liquid argon vaporization calorimeter. The normal spectral emittance at a wavelength of 6.5 x 10-5 cm was measured over the experimental temperature range. The combined experimental enthalpy data were fit using a spline routine and differentiated to give the specific heat. Comparison of the measured specific heat of the composite to the specific heat calculated by summing the contributions of the individual components indicates that the specific heat of the Be2C component differs significantly from literature values and is approximately 0.6 cal/g-K (2.5 x 103 J/Kg-K) for temperatures above 10000K

  20. Active materials for adaptive architectural envelopes based on plant adaptation principles

    Marlen Lopez

    2015-06-01

    Full Text Available In this paper, the authors present research into adaptive architectural envelopes that adapt to environmental changes using active materials, as a result of application of biomimetic principles from plants to architecture. Buildings use large amounts of energy in order to maintain their internal comfort, because conventional buildings are designed to provide a static design solution. Most of the current solutions for facades are not designed for optimum adaptation to contextual issues and needs, while biological solutions to adaptation are often complex, multi-functional and highly responsive. We focus on plant adaptations to the environment, as, due to their immobility, they have developed special means of protection against weather changing conditions. Furthermore, recent developments in new technologies are allowing the possibility to transfer these plant adaptation strategies to technical implementation. These technologies include: multi-material 3D printing, advances in materials science and new capabilities in simulation software. Unlike traditional mechanical activation used for dynamic systems in kinetic facades, adaptive architectural envelopes require no complex electronics, sensors, or actuators. The paper proposes a research of the relationship that can be developed between active materials and environmental issues in order to propose innovative and low-tech design strategies to achieve living envelopes according to plant adaptation principles.  

  1. An adaptable product for material processing and life science missions

    Wassick, Gregory; Dobbs, Michael

    1995-01-01

    The Experiment Control System II (ECS-II) is designed to make available to the microgravity research community the same tools and mode of automated experimentation that their ground-based counterparts have enjoyed for the last two decades. The design goal was accomplished by combining commercial automation tools familiar to the experimenter community with system control components that interface with the on-orbit platform in a distributed architecture. The architecture insulates the tools necessary for managing a payload. By using commercial software and hardware components whenever possible, development costs were greatly reduced when compared to traditional space development projects. Using commercial-off-the-shelf (COTS) components also improved the usability documentation, and reducing the need for training of the system by providing familiar user interfaces, providing a wealth of readily available documentation, and reducing the need for training on system-specific details. The modularity of the distributed architecture makes it very amenable for modification to different on-orbit experiments requiring robotics-based automation.

  2. Tissue-specific calibration of extracellular matrix material properties by transforming growth factor-β and Runx2 in bone is required for hearing

    Chang, Jolie L; Brauer, Delia S.; Johnson, Jacob; Chen, Carol G.; Akil, Omar; Balooch, Guive; Humphrey, Mary Beth; Chin, Emily N.; Porter, Alexandra E.; Butcher, Kristin; Ritchie, Robert O.; Schneider, Richard A; Lalwani, Anil; Derynck, Rik; Marshall, Grayson W.

    2010-01-01

    By investigating the role of bone quality in hearing, this study provides evidence that signaling pathways and lineage-specific transcription factors cooperate to define the tissue-specific and functionally essential material properties of the extracellular matrix.

  3. Exploring the Use of Adaptively Restrained Particles for Graphics Simulations

    Pierre-Luc Manteaux; Fran\\xe7ois Faure; Stephane Redon; Marie-Paule Cani

    2013-01-01

    International audience In this paper, we explore the use of Adaptively Restrained (AR) particles for graphics simulations. Contrary to previous methods, Adaptively Restrained Particle Simulations (ARPS) do not adapt time or space sampling, but rather switch the positional degrees of freedom of particles on and off, while letting their momenta evolve. Therefore, inter-particles forces do not have to be updated at each time step, in contrast with traditional methods that spend a lot of time ...

  4. Design of Responsive and Active (Soft) Materials Using Liquid Crystals.

    Bukusoglu, Emre; Bedolla Pantoja, Marco; Mushenheim, Peter C; Wang, Xiaoguang; Abbott, Nicholas L

    2016-06-01

    Liquid crystals (LCs) are widely known for their use in liquid crystal displays (LCDs). Indeed, LCDs represent one of the most successful technologies developed to date using a responsive soft material: An electric field is used to induce a change in ordering of the LC and thus a change in optical appearance. Over the past decade, however, research has revealed the fundamental underpinnings of potentially far broader and more pervasive uses of LCs for the design of responsive soft material systems. These systems involve a delicate interplay of the effects of surface-induced ordering, elastic strain of LCs, and formation of topological defects and are characterized by a chemical complexity and diversity of nano- and micrometer-scale geometry that goes well beyond that previously investigated. As a reflection of this evolution, the community investigating LC-based materials now relies heavily on concepts from colloid and interface science. In this context, this review describes recent advances in colloidal and interfacial phenomena involving LCs that are enabling the design of new classes of soft matter that respond to stimuli as broad as light, airborne pollutants, bacterial toxins in water, mechanical interactions with living cells, molecular chirality, and more. Ongoing efforts hint also that the collective properties of LCs (e.g., LC-dispersed colloids) will, over the coming decade, yield exciting new classes of driven or active soft material systems in which organization (and useful properties) emerges during the dissipation of energy. PMID:26979412

  5. The coordinated control of SVC and excitation of generators Using Adaptive Fuzzy Control

    Berbaoui Brahim

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available Based on the feedback linearized technique and control of differential and algebraic systems, the Indirect Adaptive fuzzy excitation control is presented in this paper for SVC (static var compensator and generator excitation controllers in power systems with nonlinear loads. It can improve both the power angle stability ofgenerators and the voltage behavior at the SVC location. Simulation results shown that the proposed controller IAFLC, compared with a controller based on tradition linearization technique can enhance the transient stability of the power system. In addition, this system is used through the Algerian South-Western power system (SONELGAZ "Algerian electrical society" NAAMA city and BECHAR city.

  6. Learning an EMG Controlled Game: Task-Specific Adaptations and Transfer.

    van Dijk, Ludger; van der Sluis, Corry K; van Dijk, Hylke W; Bongers, Raoul M

    2016-01-01

    Video games that aim to improve myoelectric control (myogames) are gaining popularity and are often part of the rehabilitation process following an upper limb amputation. However, direct evidence for their effect on prosthetic skill is limited. This study aimed to determine whether and how myogaming improves EMG control and whether performance improvements transfer to a prosthesis-simulator task. Able-bodied right-handed participants (N = 28) were randomly assigned to 1 of 2 groups. The intervention group was trained to control a video game (Breakout-EMG) using the myosignals of wrist flexors and extensors. Controls played a regular Mario computer game. Both groups trained 20 minutes a day for 4 consecutive days. Before and after training, two tests were conducted: one level of the Breakout-EMG game, and grasping objects with a prosthesis-simulator. Results showed a larger increase of in-game accuracy for the Breakout-EMG group than for controls. The Breakout-EMG group moreover showed increased adaptation of the EMG signal to the game. No differences were found in using a prosthesis-simulator. This study demonstrated that myogames lead to task-specific myocontrol skills. Transfer to a prosthesis task is therefore far from easy. We discuss several implications for future myogame designs. PMID:27556154

  7. Motivations and domain specificity in intercultural adaptation : bloggers' experiences in their new host countries

    Myry, Tanja

    2014-01-01

    The current qualitative study investigates immigrant’s intrinsic (internal) and extrinsic (external) motivations and how they surface in the intercultural adaption process. Additionally, it aims to answer whether immigrant’s adaptation orientations differ between private and public (life) domains by testing Boski’s (2008) IAFS model [the model of integration as functional(partial) specialization]. It is a fairly recent model of adaptation and only few prior studies have utilized it. The...

  8. Specification and prediction of nickel mobilization using artificial intelligence methods

    Gholami, Raoof; Ziaii, Mansour; Ardejani, Faramarz; Maleki, Shahoo

    2011-12-01

    Groundwater and soil pollution from pyrite oxidation, acid mine drainage generation, and release and transport of toxic metals are common environmental problems associated with the mining industry. Nickel is one toxic metal considered to be a key pollutant in some mining setting; to date, its formation mechanism has not yet been fully evaluated. The goals of this study are 1) to describe the process of nickel mobilization in waste dumps by introducing a novel conceptual model, and 2) to predict nickel concentration using two algorithms, namely the support vector machine (SVM) and the general regression neural network (GRNN). The results obtained from this study have shown that considerable amount of nickel concentration can be arrived into the water flow system during the oxidation of pyrite and subsequent Acid Drainage (AMD) generation. It was concluded that pyrite, water, and oxygen are the most important factors for nickel pollution generation while pH condition, SO4, HCO3, TDS, EC, Mg, Fe, Zn, and Cu are measured quantities playing significant role in nickel mobilization. SVM and GRNN have predicted nickel concentration with a high degree of accuracy. Hence, SVM and GRNN can be considered as appropriate tools for environmental risk assessment.

  9. Techniques of English Textbooks Adaptation

    张婧雯; 杨竞欧

    2014-01-01

    This essay attempts to aim English teachers to evaluate and adapt the current English textbooks.According to different levels and majors of the students,English teachers can enhance the teaching materials and their teaching skills.This paper would provide several useful techniques for teachers to make evaluations and adaptations of using teaching materials.

  10. Using Frustration in the Design of Adaptive Videogames

    Gilleade, Kiel; Dix, Alan

    2004-01-01

    In efforts to attract a wider audience, videogames are beginning to incorporate adaptive gameplay mechanics. Unlike the more traditional videogame, adaptive games can cater the gaming experience to the individual user and not just a particular group of users as with the former. Affective videogames, games that respond to the user's emotional state, may hold the key to creating such gameplay mechanics. In this paper we discus how the emotion frustration may be used in the design of adaptive vi...

  11. The Aviation Adaptability of the New Structure Framework Material

    Jiang Jinsan

    2013-05-01

    Full Text Available In this study, 0Cr15Ni5Cu2Ti, stainless steel sheet material with high strength is introduced to replace light metal of magnesium as aviation structural material. The research on heat process technology is emphasized and overall welding of 0Cr15Ni5Cu2Ti sheet is employed, adopting such methods as argon arc protection, anti-deformation technology of hot bending forming, special heat treatment technology, five-axis numerical control machining. It is the first time for the new material applied to the external measuring set with pylon-balance of aircraft in our country, overcoming the weaknesses of the aluminum framework in strength and meeting the needs of new airborne equipment.

  12. Use of Imaging for Nuclear Material Control and Accountability

    The recent addition of imaging to the Nuclear Materials and Identification System (NMIS) using a small portable DT neutron generator with an embedded alpha detector to time and directionally tag neutrons from the DT reaction is discussed. The generator weighs ∼35 lbs including power supplies (5 x 107 n/sec) and operates on 50 watts power. Thus, the source can be easily moved to a variety of locations within an operational facility with minimum impact on operations or can be used at a fixed location for example to monitor receipts. Imaging NMIS (INMIS) not only characterizes the detailed shape of a containerized object by transmission tomography but determines the presence of fissile material by measuring the emitted radiation from induced fission. Previous work has shown that this type of imaging has a variety of applications other than nuclear material control and accountability (NMC and A). These include nonproliferation applications such as verification of configuration of nuclear weapons/components shipped or received, warhead authentication behind an information barrier, and traceability of weapons components both fissile and non fissile in dismantlement and counter terrorism. This paper concentrates on the use for NMC and A. Some of the NMC and A applications discussed are: verifying inventory and receipts, making more accurate holdup measurements especially where thicknesses of materials affect gamma ray spectrometry , determining the shape of unknown configurations of fissile materials where the material type may be known but not the form, determining the oxidation of fissile metal in storage cans, fingerprinting the content of storage containers going into a storage facility, and determining unknown configurations for criticality safety.

  13. Model-driven transformation and validation of adaptive educational hypermedia using CAVIAr

    Melia, Mark; Pahl, Claus

    2010-01-01

    Authoring of Adaptive Educational Hypermedia is a complex activity requiring the combination of a range of design and validation techniques.We demonstrate how Adaptive Educational Hypermedia can be transformed into CAVIAr courseware validation models allowing for its validation. The model-based representation and analysis of different concerns and model-based mappings and transformations are key contributors to this integrated solution. We illustrate the benefits of Model Driven Engineering m...

  14. Examining the Domain-Specificity of Metacognition Using Academic Domains and Task-Specific Individual Differences

    Scott, Brianna M.; Berman, Ashleigh F.

    2013-01-01

    Metacognition refers to students' knowledge and regulation of cognition, as well as their accuracy in predicting their academic performance. This study addressed two major questions: 1) how do metacognitive knowledge, regulation and accuracy differ across domains?, and 2) how do students' individual differences relate to their reported…

  15. Performance assessment of electric power generations using an adaptive neural network algorithm and fuzzy DEA

    Javaheri, Zahra

    2010-09-15

    Modeling, evaluating and analyzing performance of Iranian thermal power plants is the main goal of this study which is based on multi variant methods analysis. These methods include fuzzy DEA and adaptive neural network algorithm. At first, we determine indicators, then data is collected, next we obtained values of ranking and efficiency by Fuzzy DEA, Case study is thermal power plants In view of the fact that investment to establish on power plant is very high, and maintenance of power plant causes an expensive expenditure, moreover using fossil fuel effected environment hence optimum produce of current power plants is important.

  16. Neuromuscular adaptations predict functional disability independently of clinical pain and psychological factors in patients with chronic non-specific low back pain.

    Dubois, Jean-Daniel; Abboud, Jacques; St-Pierre, Charles; Piché, Mathieu; Descarreaux, Martin

    2014-08-01

    Patients with chronic low back pain exhibit characteristics such as clinical pain, psychological symptoms and neuromuscular adaptations. The purpose of this study was to determine the independent contribution of clinical pain, psychological factors and neuromuscular adaptations to disability in patients with chronic low back pain. Clinical pain intensity, pain catastrophizing, fear-avoidance beliefs, anxiety, neuromuscular adaptations to chronic pain and neuromuscular responses to experimental pain were assessed in 52 patients with chronic low back pain. Lumbar muscle electromyographic activity was assessed during a flexion-extension task (flexion relaxation phenomenon) to assess both chronic neuromuscular adaptations and neuromuscular responses to experimental pain during the task. Multiple regressions showed that independent predictors of disability included neuromuscular adaptations to chronic pain (β=0.25, p=0.006, sr(2)=0.06), neuromuscular responses to experimental pain (β=-0.24, p=0.011, sr(2)=0.05), clinical pain intensity (β=0.28, p=0.002, sr(2)=0.08) and psychological factors (β=0.58, ppain intensity and psychological factors, and contribute to inter-individual differences in patients' disability. This suggests that disability, in chronic low back pain patients, is determined by a combination of factors, including clinical pain, psychological factors and neuromuscular adaptations. PMID:24837629

  17. Safety requirements and feedback of commonly used material handling equipment

    Different types of cranes, hoists, chain pulley blocks are the most commonly used material handling equipment in industry along with attachments like chains, wire rope slings, d-shackles, etc. These equipment are used at work for transferring loads from one place to another and attachments are used for anchoring, fixing or supporting the load. Selection of the correct equipment, identification of the equipment planning of material handling operation, examination/testing of the equipment, education and training of the persons engaged in operation of the material handling equipment can reduce the risks to safety of people in workplace. Different safety systems like boom angle indicator, overload tripping device, limit switches, etc. should be available in the cranes for their safe use. Safety requirement for safe operation of material handling equipment with emphasis on different cranes and attachments particularly wire rope slings and chain slings have been brought out in this paper. An attempt has also been made to bring out common nature of deficiencies observed during regulatory inspection carried out by AERB. (author)

  18. Proteomic Analysis of Rhizoctonia solani Identifies Infection-specific, Redox Associated Proteins and Insight into Adaptation to Different Plant Hosts*

    Anderson, Jonathan P.; Hane, James K.; STOLL, THOMAS; Pain, Nicholas; Hastie, Marcus L.; Kaur, Parwinder; Hoogland, Christine; Gorman, Jeffrey J.; Singh, Karam B.

    2016-01-01

    Rhizoctonia solani is an important root infecting pathogen of a range of food staples worldwide including wheat, rice, maize, soybean, potato and others. Conventional resistance breeding strategies are hindered by the absence of tractable genetic resistance in any crop host. Understanding the biology and pathogenicity mechanisms of this fungus is important for addressing these disease issues, however, little is known about how R. solani causes disease. This study capitalizes on recent genomic...

  19. PROFESSIONAL CHALLENGES CONCERNING THE CALCULATION AND USE OF MATERIALITY

    Daniel Botez

    2013-01-01

    Significance is an essential reference in the judgments of the economic environment. It talks about significant influence, meaningful, significant risk, significant accounting policies, and the like. In accounting and auditing is used the term "materiality" when the submit financial information, to evaluate the risk or partial information or investigating events using statistical sampling technique. Starting from the premise that the conceptual and practical approach of the threshold of signi...

  20. Adaptation and security validation of an irradiator suitable for use of cesium-137 sources

    Silva Rogério M.V.

    2014-03-01

    Full Text Available With the aim of offering a new application for 137Cs sources that were previously used in brachytherapy, we developed an irradiator for TL and OSL dosimeters by adapting a shielded storage container; this irradiator was named SOPHIA. It was assembled from a cubic iron casing, filled with lead, with external dimensions of 25 × 25 × 25 cm3. It has three different drawers with two sample holders suitable for samples or dosimeters with dimensions of up to 2 cm. Dose distribution of the surface of sample holder was obtained with EBT-3 radiochromic film and detectors thermoluminescent CaSO4: Dy. Regarding the security conditions of irradiation, the whole routine procedure for placement and removal of samples was simulated using Monte Carlo code. The equipment presented proper security conditions and the doses received by users during procedures for placement and extraction of the samples are in accordance with international standards.

  1. Study level of physical fitness and adaptability of foreign students

    Оlga Yushkovskaya

    2014-10-01

    Full Text Available Purpose: to study the problems of adaptation of foreign students. Materials and Methods: the study involved 33 students from Israel, 25 students from India. All surveyed foreign students men, studying at the Odessa national medical university. Survey was conducted using a multi-level personality questionnaire "Adaptability" (MLQ-AM, developed by A. G. Maklakov and S. V. Chermyanin, and testing physical fitness. Results: found that majority students from Israel and India had a medium and low level of physical fitness and adaptability. Conclusions: in connection with violations of adaptability and physical preparedness of foreign students, particularly acute issue is the organization of physical culture and sports-mass work, as a means of improving adaptation to conditions of life and learning.

  2. Considering adaptation and the 'function' of traits in the classroom, using wiki tools

    Rands, SA

    2010-01-01

    The conceptual understanding of the process of adaptation (whereby a population becomes better suited to its environment over evolutionary time) is acknowledged to be a difficult one. Many studies have shown that there is an inherent misunderstanding of the term, which is often related to the learner adopting the common rather than biological usage of the term in the learner’s language. But understanding adaptation is essential to understanding evolution, and learners need to be encouraged to...

  3. Investigation and Comparison of Recording Time of Steady State Evoked Potentials Using Three Methods of Kalman, Ziarani and adaptive

    Ali Reza Mehri

    2007-06-01

    Full Text Available Background and Aim: Hearing assessment in infants and children younger than two years is an impor­tant issue, because the golden time of the language learning and speaking is under the age of two. Steady state auditory evoked potentials (SSAEPs is one of the best ways of the objective hearing assess­ment for infants and young children. The need for long time of stimulation and recording re­stricted the clinical uses of this method. Therefore, the reduction of the recording time is a common prob­lem. SSAEP signals are contaminated with background EEG signals of the brain and nervous sys­tem. To discriminate these signals the approach is using averaging method.Materials and Methods: In this work two adaptive methods were programmed and tried on (SSAEP sig­nals. The first method was the work of the Ziarani et al. and the second was the enhanced Kalman fil­ter. To assess suggested methods and to compare them with traditional averaging one, two sets of clini­cal signals prepared with Rotmen research group in university of Toronto were applied. Results: The speed of the extraction of the SSAEP signals with the Ziarani method is 1.6 times faster than the averaging method. The extraction time of the enhanced adaptive Kalman filter is 13.1 times faster than currently used averaging methods. Conclusion: The Kalman filter method seems to be more reliable than the other two methods. In addi­tion, this new application of the Kalman filter in hearing assessment could be more beneficial and faster than other methods as an objective method.

  4. The structure of TAX1BP1 UBZ1+2 provides insight into target specificity and adaptability.

    Ceregido, M Angeles; Spínola Amilibia, Mercedes; Buts, Lieven; Rivera-Torres, José; Garcia-Pino, Abel; Bravo, Jerónimo; van Nuland, Nico A J

    2014-02-01

    TAX1BP1 is a novel ubiquitin-binding adaptor protein involved in the negative regulation of the NF-kappaB transcription factor, which is a key player in inflammatory responses, immunity and tumorigenesis. TAX1BP1 recruits A20 to the ubiquitinated signaling proteins TRAF6 and RIP1, leading to their A20-mediated deubiquitination and the disruption of IL-1-induced and TNF-induced NF-kappaB signaling, respectively. The two zinc fingers localized at its C-terminus function as novel ubiquitin-binding domains (UBZ, ubiquitin-binding zinc finger). Here we present for the first time both the solution and crystal structures of two classical UBZ domains in tandem within the human TAX1BP1. The relative orientation of the two domains is slightly different in the X-ray structure with respect to the NMR structure, indicating some degree of conformational flexibility, which is rationalized by NMR relaxation data. The observed degree of flexibility and stability between the two UBZ domains might have consequences on the recognition mechanism of interacting partners. PMID:24239949

  5. Despeckling of medical ultrasound images using data and rate adaptive lossy compression.

    Gupta, Nikhil; Swamy, M N S; Plotkin, Eugene

    2005-06-01

    A novel technique for despeckling the medical ultrasound images using lossy compression is presented. The logarithm of the input image is first transformed to the multiscale wavelet domain. It is then shown that the subband coefficients of the log-transformed ultrasound image can be successfully modeled using the generalized Laplacian distribution. Based on this modeling, a simple adaptation of the zero-zone and reconstruction levels of the uniform threshold quantizer is proposed in order to achieve simultaneous despeckling and quantization. This adaptation is based on: (1) an estimate of the corrupting speckle noise level in the image; (2) the estimated statistics of the noise-free subband coefficients; and (3) the required compression rate. The Laplacian distribution is considered as a special case of the generalized Laplacian distribution and its efficacy is demonstrated for the problem under consideration. Context-based classification is also applied to the noisy coefficients to enhance the performance of the subband coder. Simulation results using a contrast detail phantom image and several real ultrasound images are presented. To validate the performance of the proposed scheme, comparison with two two-stage schemes, wherein the speckled image is first filtered and then compressed using the state-of-the-art JPEG2000 encoder, is presented. Experimental results show that the proposed scheme works better, both in terms of the signal to noise ratio and the visual quality. PMID:15957598

  6. Removal of blue indigo and cadmium present in aqueous solutions using a modified zeolitic material and an activated carbonaceous material

    In the last years the use of water has been increased substantially, it has been also altered its quality as a result of human activities such as mining, industrial activities and others. Water pollution caused by dyes and heavy metals has adverse effects on the environment, since both pollutants are very persisten even after conventional treatments. Denim blue and cadmium are not biodegradable. There is a growing interest in finding new, efficient and low cost alternative materials to remove such pollutants from the aqueous medium. The purpose of this work was to evaluate a modified zeolitic tuff and an activated carbonaceous material obtained from the pyrolysis of sewage sludge for the removal of denim blue and cadmium. The zeolitic material was modified with Na+ and Fe3+ solutions to improve its sorption properties for the removal of cadmium and denim blue, respectively. Carbonaceous material was treated with 10% HCl solution to remove ashes. Both materials were characterized by scanning electron microscopy and elemental analysis (EDS), specific surface areas (Bet), thermogravimetric analysis, infrared spectroscopy and X-ray diffraction. Simultaneously, the denim blue dye was characterized by infrared spectroscopy and its pKa value was determined, these data allowed the determination of its chemical properties and its acid-base behavior in solution. In the content of this work the term indigo blue was changed by denim blue, as it corresponds to the commercial name of the dye. To assess the sorption capacity of sorbents, the sorption kinetics and sorption isotherms in batch system were determined; the results were fitted to mathematical models such as the pseudo-first order, pseudo second order and second order to describe the sorption kinetics and the Langmuir, Freundlich and Langmuir-Freundlich isotherms to describe sorption processes. The results show that the most efficient material to remove denim blue from aqueous solutions is the carbonaceous material, and

  7. Sorting of pistachio nuts using image processing techniques and an adaptive neural-fuzzy inference system

    A. R Abdollahnejad Barough

    2016-04-01

    Full Text Available Introduction: Pistachio nut is one of the most important agricultural products of Iran and it is priced due to the quality and type. One of the significant factors of pistachio cost is its type in terms of shell. Filled split pistachio nut has the most quality and is utilized as nuts, while the closed shell type has lower cost, at the same time is economically efficient in food industry such as confectionery. Now, pistachio sorting is performed usually by human and sometimes using electromechanical apparatuses. Classification of pistachio by human is time consuming and is done with an unacceptable accuracy, on the other hand, electromechanical and electro optical apparatuses damages pistachio because the mechanism used in them while separating. So, the need to develop automated systems that could be implemented by intelligent ways is evident to increase the speed and accuracy of classification. Materials and Methods: In this study, 300 samples of pistachios contains 100 Filled split, 100 Filled non-split and 100 split blank nuts ones are used. The training set consisted of 60 samples of each type of opened nuts, closed and empty opened shell nuts a total of 180 samples and the evaluation set consisted of 40 samples of each type of opened shell, closed shell and empty opened shell nuts a total of 120 samples. The principle of this study is implemented in two steps: 1 sample imaging and image processing to extract features 2 fuzzy network design based on the characteristics of data and training. To select useful features from the hypothesis, C4.5 decision tree is used. C4.5 algorithm makes a greedy top to bottom search on the hypothesis, and is made by the question what feature must be at the root of the tree. By the help of statistical methods, extracted features from the images were prioritized and the most appropriate features for classification of training set were selected. The algorithm chooses the best features as their number is minimum

  8. Adaptable Web Modules to Stimulate Active Learning in Engineering Hydrology using Data and Model Simulations of Three Regional Hydrologic Systems

    Habib, E. H.; Tarboton, D. G.; Lall, U.; Bodin, M.; Rahill-Marier, B.; Chimmula, S.; Meselhe, E. A.; Ali, A.; Williams, D.; Ma, Y.

    2013-12-01

    server-based system. Open source web technologies and community-based tools are used to facilitate wide dissemination and adaptation by diverse, independent institutions. The new hydrologic learning modules are based on recent developments in hydrologic modeling, data, and resources. The modules are embedded in three regional-scale ecosystems, Coastal Louisiana, Florida Everglades, and Utah Great Salt Lake Basin. These sites provide a wealth of hydrologic concepts and scenarios that can be used in most water resource and hydrology curricula. The study develops several learning modules based on the three hydro-systems covering subjects such as: water-budget analysis, effects of human and natural changes, climate-hydrology teleconnections, and water-resource management scenarios. The new developments include an instructional interface to give critical guidance and support to the learner and an instructor's guide containing adaptation and implementation procedures to assist instructors in adopting and integrating the material into courses and provide a consistent experience. The design of the new hydrologic education developments will be transferable to independent institutions and adaptable both instructionally and technically through a server system capable of supporting additional developments by the educational community.

  9. Exotic properties of neutrinos using effective Lagrangians and specific models

    Aparici, Alberto

    2013-01-01

    This doctoral dissertation presents several works on nonstandard properties of neutrinos exploiting the synergies between effective field theory and models. The phenomena are first analysed by means of effective operators, which allow to discuss their phenomenological consequences and to derive estimations about the mass scale of the heavy particles needed to induce the new interactions. In a second phase we propose models that realise the effective operators, allowing us to check the conclusions of effective field theory as well as to extract new phenomenological features of the scenarios considered. The text is divided into two parts: in the first one we apply these ideas to an effective interaction that generates magnetic dipole moments for right-handed neutrinos, and in the second one we discuss a family of operators that violate lepton number without quarks, and which can allow for large rates of neutrinoless double $\\beta$ decay and small neutrino masses. The right-handed neutrino magnetic moments have ...

  10. The non-equilibrium and energetic cost of sensory adaptation

    Biological sensory systems respond to external signals in short time and adapt to permanent environmental changes over a longer timescale to maintain high sensitivity in widely varying environments. In this work we have shown how all adaptation dynamics are intrinsically non-equilibrium and free energy is dissipated. We show that the dissipated energy is utilized to maintain adaptation accuracy. A universal relation between the energy dissipation and the optimum adaptation accuracy is established by both a general continuum model and a discrete model i n the specific case of the well-known E. coli chemo-sensory adaptation. Our study suggests that cellular level adaptations are fueled by hydrolysis of high energy biomolecules, such as ATP. The relevance of this work lies on linking the functionality of a biological system (sensory adaptation) with a concept rooted in statistical physics (energy dissipation), by a mathematical law. This has been made possible by identifying a general sensory system with a non-equilibrium steady state (a stationary state in which the probability current is not zero, but its divergence is, see figure), and then numerically and analytically solving the Fokker-Planck and Master Equations which describe the sensory adaptive system. The application of our general results to the case of E. Coli has shed light on why this system uses the high energy SAM molecule to perform adaptation, since using the more common ATP would not suffice to obtain the required adaptation accuracy.

  11. Locomotor Experience and Use of Social Information Are Posture Specific

    Adolph, Karen E.; Tamis-LeMonda, Catherine S.; Ishak, Shaziela; Karasik, Lana B.; Lobo, Sharon A.

    2008-01-01

    The authors examined the effects of locomotor experience on infants' perceptual judgments in a potentially risky situation--descending steep and shallow slopes--while manipulating social incentives to determine where perceptual judgments are most malleable. Twelve-month-old experienced crawlers and novice walkers were tested on an adjustable…

  12. Specification and comparison of 'Material Properties' subroutines and functions for calculation of material properties of solid materials in the computer codes ATHLET/SA and RELAP5/SCDAP. 3rd technical report

    The material properties (MATPRO) functions of solid materials for the SCDAP/RELAP- and the ATHLET/SA-Code are specified and compared, especially for absorber rods (AgInCd, B4C), cladding (Zircaloy) and fuel rods and for chemical products of these materials (Al, Al2O3, Cd, stainless steel, Zr-U-O) (due to severe accident - meltdown - chemical reactions). The related subroutines and functions contribute to thermodynamical as well as mechanical properties. The comparison shows that both computer codes, SCDAP/RELAP and ATHLET/SA, in some cases use identical subroutines and functions from the MATPRO-library. (orig.)

  13. An Adaptive Updating Topic Specific Web Search System Using T-Graph

    Ahmed Patel

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available Problem statement: The main goal of a Web crawler is to collect documents that are relevant to a given topic in which the search engine specializes. These topic specific search systems typically take the whole document's content in predicting the importance of an unvisited link. But current research had proven that the document's content pointed to by an unvisited link is mainly dependent on the anchor text, which is more accurate than predicting it on the contents of the whole page. Approach: Between these two extremes, it was proposed that Treasure Graph, called T-Graph is a more effective way to guide the Web crawler to fetch topic specific documents predicted by identifying the topic boundary around the unvisited link and comparing that text with all the nodes of the T-Graph to obtain the matching node(s and calculating the distance in the form of documents to be downloaded to reach the target documents. Results: Web search systems based on this strategy allowed crawlers and robots to update their experiences more rapidly and intelligently that can also offer speed of access and presentation advantages. Conclusion/Recommendations: The consequences of visiting a link to update a robot's experiences based on the principles and usage of T-Graph can be deployed as intelligent-knowledge Web crawlers as shown by the proposed novel Web search system architecture.

  14. Specific and rapid analysis of ubiquinones using Craven's reaction and HPLC with postcolumn derivatization.

    Shimada, Haruo; Kodjabachian, David; Ishida, Masami

    2007-09-01

    A new method for the analysis of ubiquinones in various samples was developed using an HPLC system with postcolumn derivatization. Craven's reaction, a specific color reaction for the analysis of ubiquinones, was used in the system. Because the reaction progressed in organic solvents that contained ubiquinones and ethylcyanoacetate under an alkaline condition, the selectivity for ubiquinone detection was higher than that for ubiquinone detection using the nonderivatized ultraviolet detection system at 275 nm, a system widely used for the analysis of ubiquinones. The new detection system can avoid the adverse effects of impurities. Furthermore, it can confirm specificity by stopping the color reaction under a neutral condition. The detection limit for ubiquinone-10 was 1 ng (1.2 pmol). A good linearity for the calibration curve was observed in the range of 11.7 pmol to 11.7 nmol. To investigate the possible application of this method, various samples, such as soybean capsules used as a dietary supplement and biological materials (rice as well as bovine plasma and liver samples), were applied to the system and their ubiquinone contents were quantified. This method is thought to be widely and conveniently applicable for determining the level of ubiquinones because of its high selectivity for ubiquinone detection. PMID:17579247

  15. Heat acclimation and physical training adaptations of young women using different contraceptive hormones.

    Armstrong, Lawrence E; Maresh, Carl M; Keith, Nicole R; Elliott, Tabatha A; Vanheest, Jaci L; Scheett, Timothy P; Stoppani, James; Judelson, Daniel A; De Souza, Mary Jane

    2005-05-01

    Although endogenous and exogenous steroid hormones affect numerous physiological processes, the interactions of reproductive hormones, chronic exercise training, and heat acclimation are unknown. This investigation evaluated the responses and adaptations of 36 inactive females [age 21 +/- 3 (SD) yr] as they undertook a 7- to 8-wk program [heat acclimation and physical training (HAPT)] of indoor heat acclimation (90 min/day, 3 days/wk) and outdoor physical training (3 days/wk) while using either an oral estradiol-progestin contraceptive (ORAL, n = 15), a contraceptive injection of depot medroxyprogesterone acetate (DEPO, n = 7), or no contraceptive (EU-OV, n = 14; control). Standardized physical fitness and exercise-heat tolerance tests (36.5 degrees C, 37% relative humidity), administered before and after HAPT, demonstrated that the three subject groups successfully (P heat (i.e., rectal temperature, heart rate) and improved muscular endurance (i.e., sit-ups, push-ups, 4.6-km run time) and body composition characteristics. The stress of HAPT did not disrupt the menstrual cycle length/phase characteristics, ovulation, or plasma hormone concentrations of EU-OV. No between-group differences (P > 0.05) existed for rectal and skin temperatures or metabolic, cardiorespiratory, muscular endurance, or body composition variables. A significant difference post-HAPT in the onset temperature of local sweating, ORAL (37.2 +/- 0.4 degrees C) vs. DEPO (37.7 +/- 0.2 degrees C), suggested that steroid hormones influenced this adaptation. In summary, virtually all adaptations of ORAL and DEPO were similar to EU-OV, suggesting that exogenous reproductive hormones neither enhanced nor impaired the ability of women to complete 7-8 wk of strenuous physical training and heat acclimation. PMID:15598669

  16. Influence of chance, history, and adaptation on digital evolution

    Wagenaar, Daniel A.; Adami, Christoph

    2004-01-01

    We evolved multiple clones of populations of digital organisms to study the effects of chance, history, and adaptation in evolution. We show that clones adapted to a specific environment can adapt to new environments quickly and efficiently, although their history remains a significant factor in their fitness. Adaptation is most significant (and the effects of history less so) if the old and new environments are dissimilar. For more similar environments, adaptation is slower while history is ...

  17. [Specific features of materials for initial pulpitis treatment].

    Ivanova, E V; Shamkhalov, G S; Dmitrieva, N A; Akhmedova, Z R

    2014-01-01

    The aim of the current study was to assess antibacterial and cytotoxic properties of Biodentine (Septodont), Rootdent (TehnoDent) and adhesive Futurabond НР (Voco). Two lines of experiments were carried out using cements water solutions and firm tablet-like samples (made by means of special pattern). Citotoxic activity was tested on NCTC L929 mice line fibroblasts culture. All the examined materials showed antibacterial activity against E. coli, S. aureus, C. albiсans, St. faecalis, mostly evident in Futurabond and the poorest in Biodentine samples. As for cytotoxic properties, Biodentine proved not to suppress metabolic activity stimulating odontotropic impact. The results confirm the analyzed materials to be a useful tool for deep caries lesions and initial pulpitis treatment. PMID:24781120

  18. Adaptive Evolution of cry Genes in Bacillus thuringiensis:Implications for Their Specificity Determination

    2007-01-01

    The cry gene family, produced during the late exponential phase of growth in Bacillus thuringiensis, is a large, still-growing family of homologous genes, in which each gene encodes a protein with strong specific activity against only one or a few insect species. Extensive studies are mostly focusing on the structural and functional relationships of Cry proteins, and have revealed several residues or domains that are important for the target recognition and receptor attachment. In this study,we have employed a maximum likelihood method to detect evidence of adaptive evolution in Cry proteins, and have identified 24 positively selected residues, which are all located in Domain Ⅱ or Ⅲ. Combined with known data from mutagenesis studies, the majority of these residues, at the molecular level, contribute much to the insect specificity determination. We postulate that the potential pressures driving the diversification of Cry proteins may be in an attempt to adapt for the "arm race" between δ-endotoxins and the targeted insects, or to enlarge their target spectra, hence result in the functional divergence. The sites identified to be under positive selection would provide targets for further structural and functional analyses on Cry proteins.

  19. Control of Orphan Sources and Other Radioactive Material in the Metal Recycling and Production Industries. Specific Safety Guide

    Accidents involving orphan sources and other radioactive material in the metal recycling and production industries have resulted in serious radiological accidents as … well as in harmful environmental, social and economic impacts. This Safety Guide provides recommendations, the implementation of which should prevent such accidents and provide confidence that scrap metal and recycled products are safe. Contents: 1. Introduction; 2. Protection of people and the environment; 3. Responsibilities; 4. Monitoring for radioactive material; 5. Response to the discovery of radioactive material; 6. Remediation of contaminated areas; 7. Management of recovered radioactive material; Annex I: Review of events involving radioactive material in the metal recycling and production industries; Annex II: Categorization of radioactive sources; Annex III: Some examples of national and international initiatives

  20. Control of Orphan Sources and Other Radioactive Material in the Metal Recycling and Production Industries. Specific Safety Guide (Spanish Edition)

    Accidents involving orphan sources and other radioactive material in the metal recycling and production industries have resulted in serious radiological accidents as well as in harmful environmental, social and economic impacts. This Safety Guide provides recommendations, the implementation of which should prevent such accidents and provide confidence that scrap metal and recycled products are safe. Contents: 1. Introduction; 2. Protection of people and the environment; 3. Responsibilities; 4. Monitoring for radioactive material; 5. Response to the discovery of radioactive material; 6. Remediation of contaminated areas; 7. Management of recovered radioactive material; Annex I: Review of events involving radioactive material in the metal recycling and production industries; Annex II: Categorization of radioactive sources; Annex III: Some examples of national and international initiatives

  1. Control of Orphan Sources and Other Radioactive Material in the Metal Recycling and Production Industries. Specific Safety Guide (Arabic Edition)

    Accidents involving orphan sources and other radioactive material in the metal recycling and production industries have resulted in serious radiological accidents as well as in harmful environmental, social and economic impacts. This Safety Guide provides recommendations, the implementation of which should prevent such accidents and provide confidence that scrap metal and recycled products are safe. Contents: 1. Introduction; 2. Protection of people and the environment; 3. Responsibilities; 4. Monitoring for radioactive material; 5. Response to the discovery of radioactive material; 6. Remediation of contaminated areas; 7. Management of recovered radioactive material; Annex I: Review of events involving radioactive material in the metal recycling and production industries; Annex II: Categorization of radioactive sources; Annex III: Some examples of national and international initiatives

  2. Reading Materials Adaption for English Language Training

    2012-01-01

    According to the observance of ELT (English Language Training)classes in China, the selection of reading materials becomes a big problem. Most teachers there are in a traditional way of following the textbooks, and regard texts given in those books as the sole resource of teaching materials. However, those texts are not ideal for all situations, and when there are problems, we need to make improvements instead of sticking to the authority of textbooks. In this paper the author will illustrate the necessity of adapting reading textbooks mainly in a Chinese ELT context and set forth some corresponding suggestions about adaption in differ- ent cases.

  3. Tractography of the parahippocampal gyrus and material specific memory impairment in unilateral temporal lobe epilepsy

    Yogarajah, M.; Powell, H.W.R.; Parker, G J M; Alexander, D. C.; Thompson, P J; Symms, M.R.; Boulby, P.; Wheeler-Kingshott, C.A.; Barker, G.J.; Koepp, M J.; Duncan, J.S.

    2008-01-01

    Introduction: Temporal lobe epilepsy (TLE) is associated with disrupted memory function. The structural changes underlying this memory impairment have not been demonstrated previously with tractography.Methods: We performed a tractography analysis of diffusion magnetic resonance imaging scans in 18 patients with unilateral TLE undergoing presurgical evaluation, and in 10 healthy controls. A seed region in the anterior parahippocampal gyrus was selected from which to trace the white matter con...

  4. Sample preparation and biomass determination of SRF model mixture using cryogenic milling and the adapted balance method

    Schnöller, Johannes, E-mail: johannes.schnoeller@chello.at; Aschenbrenner, Philipp; Hahn, Manuel; Fellner, Johann; Rechberger, Helmut

    2014-11-15

    Highlights: • An alternative sample comminution procedure for SRF is tested. • Proof of principle is shown on a SRF model mixture. • The biogenic content of the SRF is analyzed with the adapted balance method. • The novel method combines combustion analysis and a data reconciliation algorithm. • Factors for the variance of the analysis results are statistically quantified. - Abstract: The biogenic fraction of a simple solid recovered fuel (SRF) mixture (80 wt% printer paper/20 wt% high density polyethylene) is analyzed with the in-house developed adapted balance method (aBM). This fairly new approach is a combination of combustion elemental analysis (CHNS) and a data reconciliation algorithm based on successive linearisation for evaluation of the analysis results. This method shows a great potential as an alternative way to determine the biomass content in SRF. However, the employed analytical technique (CHNS elemental analysis) restricts the probed sample mass to low amounts in the range of a few hundred milligrams. This requires sample comminution to small grain sizes (<200 μm) to generate representative SRF specimen. This is not easily accomplished for certain material mixtures (e.g. SRF with rubber content) by conventional means of sample size reduction. This paper presents a proof of principle investigation of the sample preparation and analysis of an SRF model mixture with the use of cryogenic impact milling (final sample comminution) and the adapted balance method (determination of biomass content). The so derived sample preparation methodology (cutting mills and cryogenic impact milling) shows a better performance in accuracy and precision for the determination of the biomass content than one solely based on cutting mills. The results for the determination of the biogenic fraction are within 1–5% of the data obtained by the reference methods, selective dissolution method (SDM) and {sup 14}C-method ({sup 14}C-M)

  5. Specific heat capacity and emissivity measurements of ribbon-shaped graphite using pulse current heating

    A measurement method for specific heat capacity and hemispherical total emissivity of electrically conductive materials with pulse current heating is investigated, in which a ribbon-shaped sample is heated up to 3000 K in a subsecond-duration experiment. Specific heat capacity and hemispherical total emissivity of the sample are calculated from the time variations of heat generation and surface temperature of the sample measured during heating and cooling phases. The true surface temperature of the ribbon-shaped sample is obtained with a radiation thermometer, the directional spectral emissivity of the sample surface is measured using a hemispherical mirror centered at the sample surface. Measurements are performed for POCO AXM-5Q1 graphite in the temperature range from 1500 to 3000 K

  6. Compulsive Use of Internet-based Sexually Explicit Media: Adaptation and Validation of the Compulsive Internet Use Scale (CIUS)

    Antebi, Nadav; Schrimshaw, Eric W.

    2014-01-01

    Despite evidence that viewing sexually explicit media (SEM) may contribute to greater numbers of sexual partners, sexual risk taking, greater interest in group sex, and lower self-esteem among men who have sex with men (MSM), research has not addressed compulsive use of Internet-based SEM due to the lack of a validated measure for this population. This report investigates the psychometric properties of the 14-item Compulsive Internet Use Scale (CIUS; Meerkerk, van den Eijnden, Vermulst, & Garretsen, 2009) adapted to assess the severity of compulsive Internet SEM use. A total of 265 Internet SEM-viewing MSM participated in an online survey about their SEM preferences, viewing habits, and recent sexual behaviors. A principal components analysis revealed a single-component, 13-item scale to adequately assess the cognitive, emotional, and behavioral aspects of this phenomenon, with a high internal consistency (α = .92). Greater compulsive use of Internet SEM was positively correlated with several relevant variables including boredom, sexual frustration, time spent viewing Internet SEM, and number of recent male sexual partners. The results offer preliminary evidence for the reliability and validity of using an adapted version of the CIUS to understand compulsive Internet SEM use, and allow for more research into the potential negative consequences of compulsive SEM use. PMID:24679612

  7. Stability and adaptability analysis of rice cultivars using environment-centered yield in two-way ANOVA model

    D. Sumith De. Z. Abeysiriwardena

    2011-12-01

    Full Text Available Identification of rice varieties with wider adaptability and stability are the important aspects in varietal recommendation to achieve better economic benefits for farmers. Multi locational trails are conducted in different locations / seasons to test and identify the consistently performing varieties in wider environments and location specific high performing varieties. The interaction aspect of varieties with environment is complex and highly variable across locations. Thus, the identifying varieties under these circumstances are difficult for varietal recommendations. However, several methods have been proposed in the recent past with the complex computation requirements. But, the aid of statistical software and other programs capabilities ease the complexity to a large extent. In this study, we employed one of the established techniques called variance component analysis (VCA to make the varietal recommendation for wider adaptability for many varying environments and the location specific recommendations. In this method variety × environment interaction is portioned into components for individual varieties using yield deviation approach. The average effect of variety (environment centered yield deviation - Dk and the stability measure of each variety (variety interaction variance -Sk2 are used make the recommendations. The rice yield data of cultivars of three month maturity duration, cultivated across diverse environments during the 2002/03 wet–season in Sri Lanka was analyzed for making recommendations. Based on the results the variety At581 gave the highest D2ksk value with wide adaptability selected for general recommendation. Varieties Bg305 and At303 also had relatively higher Dk and thus these two can also be selected for general cultivation purpose.

  8. Stage-Specific Global Alterations in the Transcriptomes of Lyme Disease Spirochetes During Tick Feeding and Following Mammalian Host-Adaptation

    Iyer, Radha; Caimano, Melissa J.; Luthra, Amit; Axline, David; Corona, Arianna; Iacobas, Dumitru A.; Radolf, Justin D.; Schwartz, Ira

    2015-01-01

    Borrelia burgdorferi, the agent of Lyme disease, is maintained in nature within an enzootic cycle involving a mammalian reservoir and an Ixodes sp. tick vector. The transmission, survival and pathogenic potential of B. burgdorferi depend on the bacterium’s ability to modulate its transcriptome as it transits between vector and reservoir host. Herein, we employed an amplification-microarray approach to define the B. burgdorferi transcriptomes in fed larvae, fed nymphs and in mammalian host-adapted organisms cultivated in dialysis membrane chambers. The results show clearly that spirochetes exhibit unique expression profiles during each tick stage and during cultivation within the mammal; importantly, none of these profiles resembles that exhibited by in vitro-grown organisms. Profound shifts in transcript levels were observed for genes encoding known or predicted lipoproteins as well as proteins involved in nutrient uptake, carbon utilization and lipid synthesis. Stage-specific expression patterns of chemotaxis-associated genes also were noted, suggesting that the composition and interactivities of the chemotaxis machinery components vary considerably in the feeding tick and mammal. The results as a whole make clear that environmental sensing by B. burgdorferi directly or indirectly drives an extensive and tightly integrated modulation of cell envelope constituents, chemotaxis/motility machinery, intermediary metabolism and cellular physiology. These findings provide the necessary transcriptional framework for delineating B. burgdorferi regulatory pathways throughout the enzootic cycle as well as defining the contribution(s) of individual genes to spirochete survival in nature and virulence in humans. PMID:25425211

  9. Adaptive optimal control of unknown constrained-input systems using policy iteration and neural networks.

    Modares, Hamidreza; Lewis, Frank L; Naghibi-Sistani, Mohammad-Bagher

    2013-10-01

    This paper presents an online policy iteration (PI) algorithm to learn the continuous-time optimal control solution for unknown constrained-input systems. The proposed PI algorithm is implemented on an actor-critic structure where two neural networks (NNs) are tuned online and simultaneously to generate the optimal bounded control policy. The requirement of complete knowledge of the system dynamics is obviated by employing a novel NN identifier in conjunction with the actor and critic NNs. It is shown how the identifier weights estimation error affects the convergence of the critic NN. A novel learning rule is developed to guarantee that the identifier weights converge to small neighborhoods of their ideal values exponentially fast. To provide an easy-to-check persistence of excitation condition, the experience replay technique is used. That is, recorded past experiences are used simultaneously with current data for the adaptation of the identifier weights. Stability of the whole system consisting of the actor, critic, system state, and system identifier is guaranteed while all three networks undergo adaptation. Convergence to a near-optimal control law is also shown. The effectiveness of the proposed method is illustrated with a simulation example. PMID:24808590

  10. Making Legacy LMS adaptable using Policy and Policy templates

    Koesling, Arne; Herder, Eelco; De Coi, Juri; Abel, Fabian

    2008-01-01

    Koesling, A., Herder, E., De Coi, J., & Abel, F. (2008). Making Legacy LMS adaptable using Policy and Policy templates. In J. Baumeister & M. Atzmüller, Proceedings of the 16th Workshop on Adaptivity and User Modeling in Interactive System, ABIS 2008 (pp. 35-40). October, 6-8, 2008, Würzburg, Germany: University of Würzburg. Website with link to proceedings: http://lwa08.informatik.uni-wuerzburg.de/Wiki.jsp?page=FGABIS08