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Sample records for adamantane

  1. Bis(adamantan-1-aminium carbonate

    Monika Nowakowska

    2012-04-01

    Full Text Available In the title compound, 2C10H18N+·CO32−, the adamantan-1-aminium cation forms three N—H...O hydrogen bonds to three carbonate ions, resulting in a layer parallel to (001 with the adamantane groups located on its surface so that adjacent layers form only C—H...H—C contacts. The carbonate anions occupy special positions of 32 symmetry, whereas the adamantan-1-aminium cations occupy special positions of 3 symmetry.

  2. The origin and evolution of adamantanes and diamantanes in petroleum

    Fang, Chenchen; Xiong, Yongqiang; Li, Yun; Chen, Yuan; Liu, Jinzhong; Zhang, Haizu; Adedosu, Taofik Adewale; Peng, Ping'an

    2013-11-01

    This study investigates the origin and evolution of adamantanes and diamantanes in petroleum, based on the results of pyrolysis experiments on different group components of crude oil and quantitative analyses of diamondoids in the pyrolysates. Results show that the formation and evolution of lower diamondoids in petroleum occurs in three main stages: (1) early generation during the formation of oil (1.0% EasyRo), and (3) destruction during the late period of oil cracking. The lower diamondoids that formed during the early generation stage include free diamondoids present in the original oil and diamondoids released or transformed from group fractions of oil at relatively low levels of maturity (asphaltene fractions) can produce adamantanes and diamantanes. Overall, adamantanes are generated primarily within the maturity range 1.0-2.3% EasyRo, and diamantanes within the maturity range 1.6-2.7% EasyRo. Group composition of the oil is probably a major factor controlling the yield and distribution of diamondoids in the main generation stage. The yield ratios of diamondoids can be used as maturity indices to assess the thermal maturity of oil, while the isomerization ratios of diamondoids are potential source facies indices for the generation stage of diamondoids. The destruction of diamondoids is observed at thermal maturity ranges >2.3% EasyRo in adamantanes and >2.7% EasyRo in diamantanes. The thermal stability of diamondoid compounds becomes a critical factor influencing the isomerization index of diamondoids during the destruction stage. The isomerization ratios of some diamondoids (e.g., MAI, DMAI-1, DMAI-2, TMAI-1, TMAI-2, and EAI) are well correlated with maturity within certain maturity ranges, indicating that isomerization indices provide good estimates of the thermal maturity of highly cracked oils. Bivariate diagrams of concentration versus isomerization indices of diamondoids are introduced to assess the maturity of oils; these diagrams provide more refined

  3. Tuning hydrophobicity of highly cationic tetradecameric Gramicidin S analogues using adamantane amino acids

    Knijnenburg, A.D.; Kapoerchan, V.V.; Spalburg, E.; Neeling, A.J. de; Mars-Groenendijk, R.H.; Noort, D.; Marel, G.A. van der; Overkleeft, H.S.; Overhand, M.

    2010-01-01

    Ring extended Gramicidin S analogues containing adamantane amino acids and six cationic residues were designed and evaluated. Systematic replacement of the hydrophobic residues with adamantane amino acids resulted in a small set of compounds with varying amphipathic character. It was found that the

  4. Design, synthesis, and bioactivity of putative tubulin ligands with adamantane core.

    Zefirova, Olga N; Nurieva, Evgeniya V; Lemcke, Heiko; Ivanov, Andrei A; Shishov, Dmitrii V; Weiss, Dieter G; Kuznetsov, Sergei A; Zefirov, Nikolay S

    2008-09-15

    Several adamantane-based taxol mimetics were synthesized and found to be cytotoxic at micromolar concentrations and to cause tubulin aggregation. The extent of the aggregation is maximal for N-benzoyl-(2R,3S)-phenylisoseryloxyadamantane (5) and is very sensitive to the structural modifications. A hybrid compound (15), combining adamantane-based taxol mimetic with colchicine was synthesized and found to possess both microtubule depolymerizing and microtubule bundling activities in A549 human lung carcinoma cells. PMID:18715782

  5. Construction of the adamantane core of plukenetione-type polycyclic polyprenylated acylphloroglucinols.

    Takagi, Ryukichi; Inoue, Yuta; Ohkata, Katsuo

    2008-12-01

    The construction of a highly functionalized adamantane core of plukenetione-type polycyclic polyprenylated acylphloroglucinols (PPAPs) is described. The method features the construction of the bicyclo[3.3.1]nonane core (3) by successive Michael reactions and the construction of the adamantane core of plukenetione-type PPAPs by acid-catalyzed cyclization of a bicyclo[3.3.1]nonane precursor (2). PMID:18980328

  6. The role of C-H$\\ldots$ interaction in the stabilization of benzene and adamantane clusters

    R Mahesh Kumar; M Elango; R Parthasarathi; Dolly Vijay; V Subramanian

    2012-01-01

    In this investigation, a systematic attempt has been made to understand the interaction between adamantane and benzene using both ab initio and density functional theory methods. C-H$\\ldots$ type of interaction between C-H groups of adamantane and cloud of benzene is found as the important attraction for complex formation. The study also reveals that the methylene (-CH2) and methine (-CH) groups of adamantane interact with benzene resulting in different geometrical structures. And it is found that the former complex is stronger than the later. The diamondoid structure of adamantane enables it to interact with a maximum of four benzene molecules, each one along the four faces. The stability of the complex increases with increase in the number of benzene molecules. The energy decomposition analysis of adamantane-benzene complexes using DMA approach shows that the origin of the stability primarily arises from the dispersive interaction. The theory of atoms in molecules (AIM) supports the existence of weak interaction between the two systems. The electrostatic topography features provide clues for the mode of interaction of adamantane with benzene.

  7. Synthesis, structural and vibrational properties of 1-(adamantane-1-carbonyl)-3-halophenyl thioureas

    Saeed, Aamer; Erben, Mauricio F.; Bolte, Michael

    2013-02-01

    1-(Adamantane-1-carbonyl)-3-(2,4-dichlorophenyl)thiourea (1) and 1-(adamantane-1-carbonyl)-3-(2-bromo-4,6-difluorophenyl)thiourea (2) were synthesized by the reaction of adamantane-1-carbonyl chloride with ammonium thiocyanate to afford the adamantane-1-carbonylisothiocyanate in situ followed by treatment with suitable halogenated anilines. The structures of the products were established by elemental analyses, Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy (FTIR), 1H, 13C nuclear magnetic resonance (NMR), mass spectroscopy and single crystal X-ray diffraction study. Bond lengths and angles show the usual values. All of three condensed cyclohexane rings of the adamantane residues adopt the usual chair conformation. The molecular conformation of 1 and 2 is stabilized by an intramolecular (Nsbnd H⋯Odbnd C) hydrogen bond which forms a pseudo-six-membered ring. Structural features have been complemented with the joint analysis of the FTIR and FT-Raman spectra along with quantum chemical calculations at the B3LYP/6-311++G** level.

  8. Hypersubones A and B, new polycyclic acylphloroglucinols with intriguing adamantane type cores from Hypericum subsessile.

    Liao, Yang; Liu, Xia; Yang, Jing; Lao, Yuan-Zhi; Yang, Xing-Wei; Li, Xiao-Nian; Zhang, Jing-Jing; Ding, Zhi-jie; Xu, Hong-Xi; Xu, Gang

    2015-03-01

    Hypersubones A and B (1, 2), two adamantane type polycyclic polyprenylated acylphloroglucinols possessing an unprecedented seco-adamantane architecture and a tetracyclo-[6.3.1.1(3,10).0(4,8)]-tridecane core combined with a peroxide ring, respectively, were isolated from Hypericum subsessile together with three analogues (3-5). Their structures were determined by extensive NMR spectroscopic analysis, ECD calculations, and single-crystal X-ray diffraction. Compound 2 exhibited significant cytotoxicities against four human cancer lines in vitro (IC50 0.07-7.52 μM). PMID:25699579

  9. Novel adamantane-bearing anilines and properties of their supramolecular complexes with b-cyclodextrin

    Vícha, R.; Rouchal, M.; Kozubková, Z.; Kuřitka, I.; Marek, R.; Branná, P.; Čmelík, Richard

    2011-01-01

    Roč. 23, č. 10 (2011), s. 663-677. ISSN 1061-0278 Institutional research plan: CEZ:AV0Z40310501 Keywords : adamantane * cyclodextrin s * host–guest systems Subject RIV: CB - Analytical Chemistry, Separation Impact factor: 2.145, year: 2011

  10. Tetrakis(dimethoxyphenyl)adamantane (TDA) and its inclusion complexes in the crystalline state: a versatile carrier for small molecules.

    Schwenger, Alexander; Frey, Wolfgang; Richert, Clemens

    2015-06-01

    Molecular storage solutions for incorporating small molecules in crystalline matrices are of interest in the context of structure elucidation, decontamination, and slow release of active ingredients. Here we report the syntheses of 1,3,5,7-tetrakis(2,4-dimethoxyphenyl)adamantane, 1,3,5,7-tetrakis(4-methoxyphenyl)adamantane, 1,3,5,7-tetrakis(4-methoxy-2-methylphenyl)adamantane, and 1,3,5,7-tetrakis(4-methoxy-2-ethylphenyl)adamantane, together with their X-ray crystal structures. All four compounds crystallize readily. Only the octaether shows an unusual level of (pseudo)polymorphism in its crystalline state, combined with the ability to include a number of different small molecules in its crystal lattices. A total of 20 different inclusion complexes with guest molecules as different as ethanol or trifluorobenzene were found. For nitromethane and benzene, schemes for uptake and release are presented. PMID:25925766

  11. Thermodynamics of Ru(III)-EDTA catalyzed homogeneous oxidation of adamantane by molecular oxygen

    The kinetics and thermodynamics of Ru(III)-EDTA catalyzed oxidation of adamantane by molecular oxygen (pH = 1.5 to 3.0) has been investigated in the temperature range 288-313 K in presence and absence of ascorbic acid in a 1:3 (v/v) mixture of water and 1.4 dioxane. The rate of oxidation is first order with respect to the concentration of catalyst, ascorbic acid and molecular oxygen; fractional order with respect to adamantane and inverse first order with respect to hydrogen ion. In the absence of ascorbic acid the reaction orders with respect to the concentrations of adamantane, dioxygen and hydrogen ion were one, half and zero respectively. Thermodynamic quantities associated with catalytic systems Ru(III)-EDTA-O2 and Ru(III)-EDTA-ascorbate-O2 indicated that activation parameters become more favourable in the presence ascorbic acid where heterolytic cleavage of the O-O bond takes place. In absence of ascorbic acid concerted homolytic cleavage of the O-O bond is associated with higher-activation parameters. (author)

  12. Energies for cyclic and acyclic aggregations of adamantane and diamantane units sharing vertices, edges, or six-membered rings

    Balaban, Alexandru T; Klein, Douglas J; Ortiz, Yenni P

    2015-01-01

    Diamondoids are hydrocarbons having a carbon scaffold comprised from polymer-like composites of adamantane cages. The present paper describes computed total energies and "SWB-tension" energies (often referred to as "strain" energies) for species having $n$ adamantane or diamantane units sharing pairwise: one carbon atom (spiro-[n]adamantane or spiro-[$n$]diamantane); one C-C bond (one-bond-sharing-[$n$]adamantane or one-bond-sharing-[$n$]diamantane); or one chair-shaped hexagon of carbon atoms (1234-helical-cata-[$n$]diamantanes). Each of the five investigated polymer-like types is considered either as an acyclic or a cyclic chain of adamantane- or diamantane-unit cages. With increasing $n$ values, SWB-tension energies for acyclic aggregates are found to increase linearly, while the net SWB-tension energies of cyclic aggregates often go thru a minimum at a suitable value of $n$. In all five cases, a limiting common energy per unit ($E/n$ ) is found to be approached by both cyclic and acyclic chains as $n\\to \\...

  13. Synthesis and Crystallographic Insight into the Structural Aspects of Some Novel Adamantane-Based Ester Derivatives.

    Kumar, C S Chidan; Kwong, Huey Chong; Mah, Siau Hui; Chia, Tze Shyang; Loh, Wan-Sin; Quah, Ching Kheng; Lim, Gin Keat; Chandraju, Siddegowda; Fun, Hoong-Kun

    2015-01-01

    Adamantyl-based compounds are commercially important in the treatments for neurological conditions and type-2 diabetes, aside from their anti-viral abilities. Their values in drug design are chronicled as multi-dimensional. In the present study, a series of 2-(adamantan-1-yl)-2-oxoethyl benzoates, 2(a-q), and 2-(adamantan-1-yl)-2-oxoethyl 2-pyridinecarboxylate, 2r, were synthesized by reacting 1-adamantyl bromomethyl ketone with various carboxylic acids using potassium carbonate in dimethylformamide medium at room temperature. Three-dimensional structures studied using X-ray diffraction suggest that the adamantyl moiety can serve as an efficient building block to synthesize 2-oxopropyl benzoate derivatives with synclinal conformation with a looser-packed crystal packing system. Compounds 2a, 2b, 2f, 2g, 2i, 2j, 2m, 2n, 2o, 2q and 2r exhibit strong antioxidant activities in the hydrogen peroxide radical scavenging test. Furthermore, three compounds, 2p, 2q and 2r, show good anti-inflammatory activities in the evaluation of albumin denaturation. PMID:26501248

  14. Synthesis and Crystallographic Insight into the Structural Aspects of Some Novel Adamantane-Based Ester Derivatives

    C. S. Chidan Kumar

    2015-10-01

    Full Text Available Adamantyl-based compounds are commercially important in the treatments for neurological conditions and type-2 diabetes, aside from their anti-viral abilities. Their values in drug design are chronicled as multi-dimensional. In the present study, a series of 2-(adamantan-1-yl-2-oxoethyl benzoates, 2(a–q, and 2-(adamantan-1-yl-2-oxoethyl 2-pyridinecarboxylate, 2r, were synthesized by reacting 1-adamantyl bromomethyl ketone with various carboxylic acids using potassium carbonate in dimethylformamide medium at room temperature. Three-dimensional structures studied using X-ray diffraction suggest that the adamantyl moiety can serve as an efficient building block to synthesize 2-oxopropyl benzoate derivatives with synclinal conformation with a looser-packed crystal packing system. Compounds 2a, 2b, 2f, 2g, 2i, 2j, 2m, 2n, 2o, 2q and 2r exhibit strong antioxidant activities in the hydrogen peroxide radical scavenging test. Furthermore, three compounds, 2p, 2q and 2r, show good anti-inflammatory activities in the evaluation of albumin denaturation.

  15. Using Electronic Properties of Adamantane Derivatives to Analyze their Ion Channel Interactions: Implications for Alzheimer's Disease

    Bonacum, Jason

    2013-03-01

    The derivatives of adamantane, which is a cage-like diamondoid structure, can be used as pharmaceuticals for the treatment of various diseases and disorders such as Alzheimer's disease. These drugs interact with ion channels, and they act by electronically and physically hindering the ion transport. The electronic properties of each compound influence the location and level of ion channel hindrance, and the specific use of each compound depends on the functional groups that are attached to the adamantane base chain. Computational analysis and molecular simulations of these different derivatives and the ion channels can provide useful insight into the effect that the functional groups have on the properties of the compounds. Using this information, conclusions can be made about the pharmaceutical mechanisms, as well as how to improve them or create new beneficial compounds. Focusing on the electronic properties, such as the dipole moments of the derivatives and amino acids in the ion channels, can provide more efficient predictions of how these drugs work and how they can be enhanced. Department of Energy Grant DE-FG02-06ER46304

  16. Adamantane-bearing benzylamines and benzylamides: novel building blocks for supramolecular systems with finely tuned binding properties towards β-cyclodextrin

    Rouchal, M.; Matelová, A.; de Carvalho, F. P.; Bernat, R.; Grbić, D.; Kuřitka, I.; Babinský, M.; Marek, R.; Čmelík, Richard; Vícha, R.

    2013-01-01

    Roč. 25, č. 6 (2013), s. 349-361. ISSN 1061-0278 Institutional support: RVO:68081715 Keywords : host-guest system * cyclodextrin s * adamantane Subject RIV: CB - Analytical Chemistry, Separation Impact factor: 2.132, year: 2013

  17. Adamantane and Neuraminidase resistant influenza A/H3N2 isolated in Iran from 2005 to 2013

    Jila Yavarian

    2014-04-01

    Conclusion: This study showed circulating A/H3N2 viruses was resistant to adaman-tanes but susceptible to neuraminidase inhibitors. The national data analyzed in this re-search may help increase knowledge about influenza virus antiviral drug resistance, which is a global public health concern. The authors suggested continuing this study and also the investigation of antiviral drug resistance of influenza A/H1N1 and B viruses.

  18. EPR and optical spectroscopic studies of neutral free radicals in an adamantane matrix

    Recent work in our laboratory has demonstrated that neutral free radicals produced by x-irradiation and trapped in adamantane exhibit exceedingly long lifetimes because of the lack of rapid diffusion in the solid matrix. This observation and the fact that samples can be pressed into pellets with high optical transparency in the visible and near uv regions of the spectrum suggested to us that this unique matrix might be used for studying the optical properties of free radicals. The results of a wide variety of experiments of this type are described in this thesis. These include experiments in which secondary free radicals are produced by photoinduced decomposition of primary free radicals by selective irradiation with visible light, the observation of strong optical absorption spectra of free radicals at room temperature using a Cary 14 spectrophotometer, the finding that certain free radicals exhibit strong, visible fluorescence when irradiated with uv light, and the discovery that the absorption intensity of multiplicity-forbidden transition in singlet and doublet state species is enhanced relative to spin-allowed transitions by at least three orders of magnitude. An analysis of these results in terms of molecular orbital theory is given, and experiments designed to obtain the epr spectra of electronically-excited states of free radicals are described

  19. Synthesis and Electroluminescent Properties of Julolidine-π-Juloidine Type Materials with the Bulky Adamantane Groups

    Lee, Kum Hee; Yoon, Seung Soo [Sungkyunkwan Univ., Suwon (Korea, Republic of); Lee, Seok Jae; Kim, Young Kwan [Hongik Univ., Seoul (Korea, Republic of)

    2012-11-15

    A main problem of red emitting material, which contributes to their low EL performances, is the concentration quenching due to the effective self aggregation and the consequent formation of excimers. To avoid this drawback and thus improve the EL properties of red fluorescent OLED devices, many synthetic efforts have been conducted to develop new emitting materials with the structural motifs to suppress self-aggregation by the weakening intermolecular attractive interactions. Particularly, the introduction of bulky moieties in the emitters would provide the steric hindrance between emitting materials in solid state devices and thus reduce the self-aggregation. Nevertheless, EL performances of red materials still need to be improved for the practical applications. In conclusion, we designed and synthesized three julolidine-π-juloidine type emitting materials (1-3) with the bulky adamantane groups. To study their electroluminescent properties, the multilayered OLED devices with the structure of ITO/NPB (40 nm)/ADN : 1-3 (x%) (20 nm)/Alq{sub 3} (40 nm)/Liq (2 nm)/Al were fabricated. All devices using emitters 1-3 showed the efficient emissions, in which their EL performances depend on the structure of emitters sensitively. Particularly, a device using emitter 3 exhibited the efficient orange-red emission with the luminous and power efficiencies of 4.79 cd/A and 1.76 lm/W at 20 mA/cm{sup 2}, respectively. The CIE coordinates of this device was (0.57, 0.42) at 7.0 V.

  20. Complexes of adamantane-based group 13 Lewis acids and superacids: Bonding analysis and thermodynamics of hydrogen splitting.

    El-Hamdi, Majid; Solà, Miquel; Poater, Jordi; Timoshkin, Alexey Y

    2016-06-01

    The electronic structure and chemical bonding in donor-acceptor complexes formed by group 13 element adamantane and perfluorinated adamantane derivatives EC9 R'15 (E = B, Al; R' = H, F) with Lewis bases XR3 and XC9 H15 (X = N, P; R= H, CH3 ) have been studied using energy decomposition analysis at the BP86/TZ2P level of theory. Larger stability of complexes with perfluorinated adamantane derivatives is mainly due to better electrostatic and orbital interactions. Deformation energies of the fragments and Pauli repulsion are of less importance, with exception for the boron-phosphorus complexes. The MO analysis reveals that LUMO energies of EC9 R'15 significantly decrease upon fluorination (by 4.7 and 3.6 eV for E = B and Al, respectively) which results in an increase of orbital interaction energies by 27-38 (B) and 15-26 (Al) kcal mol(-1) . HOMO energies of XR3 increase in order PH3  < NH3  < PMe3  < PC9 H15  < NMe3  < NC9 H15 . For the studied complexes, there is a linear correlation between the dissociation energy of the complex and the energy difference between HOMO of the donor and LUMO of the acceptor. The fluorination of the Lewis acid significantly reduces standard enthalpies of the heterolytic hydrogen splitting H2  + D + A = [HD](+)  + [HA](-) . Analysis of several types of the [HD](+) ···[HA](-) ion pair formation in the gas phase reveals that structures with additional H···F interactions are energetically favorable. Taking into account the ion pair formation, hydrogen splitting is predicted to be highly exothermic in case of the perfluorinated derivatives both in the gas phase and in solution. Thus, fluorinated adamantane-based Lewis superacids are attractive synthetic targets for the construction of the donor-acceptor cryptands. © 2016 Wiley Periodicals, Inc. PMID:26931238

  1. catena-Poly[[[aqua(1,10-phenanthrolinemanganese(II]-μ-adamantane-1,3-dicarboxylato] monohydrate

    Jian-Qiang Liu

    2011-11-01

    Full Text Available In the title coordination polymer, {[Mn(C12H14O4(C12H8N2(H2O]·H2O}n, the MnII atom has a highly distorted cis-MnN2O4 octahedral geometry arising from its coordination by a bidentate phenanthroline ligand, a water molecule and monodentate and bidentate adamantane-1,3-dicarboxylate dianions. The bridging dianion leads to [001] chains in the crystal. The chains are linked by O—H...O hydrogen bonds, involving both the coordinated and uncoordinated water molecules, thereby forming a two-dimensional network.

  2. Quaternized adamantane-containing poly(aryl ether ketone) anion exchange membranes for vanadium redox flow battery applications

    Zhang, Bengui; Zhang, Shouhai; Weng, Zhihuan; Wang, Guosheng; Zhang, Enlei; Yu, Ping; Chen, Xiaomeng; Wang, Xinwei

    2016-09-01

    Quaternized adamantane-containing poly(aryl ether ketone) anion exchange membranes (QADMPEK) are prepared and investigated for vanadium redox flow batteries (VRFB) application. The bulky, rigid and highly hydrophobic adamantane segment incorporated into the backbone of membrane material makes QADMPEK membranes have low water uptake and swelling ratio, and the as-prepared membranes display significantly lower permeability of vanadium ions than that of Nafion117 membrane. As a consequence, the VRFB cell with QADMPEK-3 membrane shows higher coulombic efficiency (99.4%) and energy efficiency (84.0%) than those for Nafion117 membrane (95.2% and 80.5%, respectively) at the current density of 80 mA cm-2. Furthermore, at a much higher current density of 140 mA cm-2, QADMPEK membrane still exhibits better coulombic efficiency and energy efficiency than Nafion117 membrane (coulombic efficiency 99.2% vs 96.5% and energy efficiency 76.0% vs 74.0%). Moreover, QADMPEK membranes show high stability in in-situ VRFB cycle test and ex-situ oxidation stability test. These results indicate that QADMPEK membranes are good candidates for VRFB applications.

  3. Synthesis and SAR requirements of adamantane-colchicine conjugates with both microtubule depolymerizing and tubulin clustering activities.

    Zefirova, Olga N; Nurieva, Evgeniya V; Shishov, Dmitrii V; Baskin, Igor I; Fuchs, Fabian; Lemcke, Heiko; Schröder, Fabian; Weiss, Dieter G; Zefirov, Nikolay S; Kuznetsov, Sergei A

    2011-09-15

    A series of analogues of conjugate 1, combining an adamantane-based paclitaxel (taxol) mimetic with colchicine was synthesized and tested for cytotoxicity in a cell-based assay with the human lung carcinoma cell line A549. The most active compounds (10 EC(50) 2 ± 1.0 nM, 23 EC(50) 6 ± 1.4 nM, 26 EC(50) 5 ± 1.8 nM, 28 EC(50) 11 ± 1.7 nM, 30 EC(50) 4.8 ± 0.5 nM) were found to interfere with the microtubule dynamics in an interesting manner. Treatment of the cells with these compounds promoted disassembly of microtubules followed by the formation of stable tubulin clusters. Structure-activity relationships for the analogues of 23 revealed the sensitivity of both cytotoxicity and tubulin clustering ability to the linker length. The presence of adamantane (or another bulky hydrophobic and non-aromatic moiety) in 23 was found to play an important role in the formation of tubulin clusters. Structural requirements for optimal activity have been partially explained by molecular modeling. PMID:21873068

  4. The effect of intravenous sulfobutylether7 -β-cyclodextrin on the pharmacokinetics of a series of adamantane-containing compounds.

    Leong, Nathania J; Prankerd, Richard J; Shackleford, David M; Mcintosh, Michelle P

    2015-04-01

    Intravenously administered (i.v.) drug-cyclodextrin (CD) inclusion complexes are generally expected to dissociate rapidly and completely, such that the i.v. pharmacokinetic profile of a drug is unchanged in the presence of CD. The altered pharmacokinetics of a synthetic ozonide in rats has been attributed to an unusually high-binding affinity (2.3 × 10(6) M(-1) ) between the drug and sulfobutylether7 -β-cyclodextrin (SBE7 -β-CD) with further studies suggesting a significant binding contribution from the adamantane ring. This work investigated the binding affinity of three adamantane derivatives [amantadine (AMA), memantine (MEM) and rimantadine (RIM)] to SBE7 -β-CD and the impact of complexation on their i.v. pharmacokinetics. In vitro studies defined the plasma protein binding, as well as the impact of SBE7 -β-CD on erythrocyte partitioning of each compound. SBE7 -β-CD binding constants for the compounds were within the typical range for drug-like molecules (10(2) -10(4) M(-1) ). The pharmacokinetics of AMA and MEM were unchanged; however, significant alteration of RIM plasma and urinary pharmacokinetics was observed when formulated with CD. In vitro studies suggested two factors contributing to the altered pharmacokinetics: (1) low plasma protein binding of RIM, and (2) decreased erythrocyte partitioning in the presence of high SBE7 -β-CD concentrations. This work demonstrated the potential for typical drug-cyclodextrin interactions to alter drug plasma pharmacokinetics. PMID:25573540

  5. Raman, infrared and DFT studies of N‧-(adamantan-2-ylidene)benzohydrazide, a potential antibacterial agent

    Shundalau, Maksim B.; Al-Abdullah, Ebtehal S.; Shabunya-Klyachkovskaya, Elena V.; Hlinisty, Anton V.; Al-Deeb, Omar A.; El-Emam, Ali A.; Gaponenko, Sergey V.

    2016-07-01

    The Raman and Fourier transform infrared spectra of the N‧-(adamantan-2-ylidene)benzohydrazide molecule (C17H20N2O), a potential antibacterial agent, were examined in the ranges of 3500-300 cm-1 and 3500-650 cm-1, respectively. The density functional theory calculations were performed for the geometric structures and vibrational spectra for the two conformers (cis- and trans-) and for the dimer of the title molecule. On the basis of full geometry optimization at the B3LYP/cc-pVDZ level of the theory, the equilibrium configurations were determined; Raman and IR vibrational spectra were calculated and compared with the experimental ones. The experimental vibrational Raman and infrared spectra were interpreted. The calculations for the trans-conformer were found to describe better the experimentally observed vibrational modes for the crystalline phase than the calculations which were performed for the cis-conformer and for the dimer.

  6. First-principles calculation of structural and electronic properties of memantine (Alzheimer's disease) and adamantane (anti-flu) drugs

    Middleton, Kirsten; Zhang, Guoping; George, Thomas F.

    2012-02-01

    Memantine is currently used as a treatment for mild to severe Alzheimer's disease, although its functionality is complicated. Using various density functional theory calculations and basis sets, we first examine memantine alone and then add ions which are present in the human body. This provides clues as to how the compound may react in the calcium ion channel, where it is believed to treat the disease. In order to understand the difference between calcium and magnesium ions interacting with memantine, we compute the electron affinity of each complex. We find that memantine is more strongly attracted to magnesium ions than calcium ions within the channel. By observing the HOMO-LUMO gap within memantine in comparison to adamantane, we find that memantine is more excitable than the anti-flu drug. We believe these factors to affect the efficiency of memantine as a treatment of Alzheimer's disease.

  7. [The antiviral activity of the adamantane derivatives against the influenza virus A (H1N1) pdm2009 model in vivo].

    Shchelkanov, M Iu; Shibnev, V A; Finogenova, I T; Fediakina, T M; Garaev, T M; Markova, N V; Kirillov, I M

    2014-01-01

    For the first time in vivo, the model of the viral pneumonia in mice was used to study the antiviral activity against influenza A virus (H1N1) pdm09 synthetic derivatives of adamantane series including the amino acid residues and lipoid acid. It was found that the adamantane derivatives with histidine, serine, and lipoid acid could inhibit the rimantadine-resistant strain of the influenza A (H1N1) pdm09. As a result, the lifespan of the mice infected with the virus has increased by 1.6 times with respect to viral control. Thus, the possibility of restoration of antiviral properties of rimantadine both in vitro and in vivo by introducing into its molecular structure new functionally active groups was tested. PMID:25069284

  8. Luminescent properties and structure of multicomponent naphthalene-{beta}-cyclodextrin complexes. 1. Effect of adding third parties, o-carborane or/and adamantane

    Nazarov, Valery B. [Institute of Problems of Chemical Physics of Russian Academy of Sciences, 142432 Moscow region, Chernogolovka (Russian Federation); Avakyan, Vitaly G., E-mail: avak@photonics.ru [Photochemistry Center of Russian Academy of Sciences, 119421 Moscow, Novatorov 7a (Russian Federation); Rudyak, Vladimir Y.; Alfimov, Michail V. [Photochemistry Center of Russian Academy of Sciences, 119421 Moscow, Novatorov 7a (Russian Federation); Vershinnikova, Tatiana G. [Institute of Problems of Chemical Physics of Russian Academy of Sciences, 142432 Moscow region, Chernogolovka (Russian Federation)

    2011-09-15

    Luminescence spectra of water solution of {beta}-cyclodextrin ({beta}-CD) inclusion complexes with naphthalene have been studied in the presence of carcass compounds (CC), adamantane and ocarborane, added in solution as the third parties. It was observed that the CC structure completely determines luminescence type displayed by the three-component complex. Adding adamantane to the solution leads to the disappearance of the spontaneous excimer fluorescence observed usually along with a monomer fluorescence of naphthalene and the appearance of the long lived phosphorescence at room temperature. At the same time, introducing o-carborane in solution of {beta}-CD inclusion complexes with naphthalene results in the dramatic growth of intensity of the excimer band at the expense of lowering intensity of monomer fluorescence. These phenomena were explained using results of the quantum-chemical calculation of the structure and complexation energies at the semi-empirical PM3 and DFT levels of theory. - Highlights: > Structure of carcass compounds determines luminescence types for naphthalene - betaCD complex. > Adding o-carborane leads to the growth of excimer fluorescence at low naphthalene concentrations. > Adding adamantane leads to the room temperature phosphorescence without deoxygenation.

  9. Diamondoid synthesis in atmospheric pressure adamantane-argon-methane-hydrogen mixtures using a continuous flow plasma microreactor

    Stauss, Sven; Ishii, Chikako; Pai, David Z.; Urabe, Keiichiro; Terashima, Kazuo

    2014-06-01

    Due to their small size, low-power consumption and potential for integration with other devices, microplasmas have been used increasingly for the synthesis of nanomaterials. Here, we have investigated the possibility of using dielectric barrier discharges generated in continuous flow glass microreactors for the synthesis of diamondoids, at temperatures of 300 and 320 K, and applied voltages of 3.2-4.3 kVp-p, at a frequency of 10 kHz. The microplasmas were generated in gas mixtures containing argon, methane, hydrogen and adamantane, which was used as a precursor and seed. The plasmas were monitored by optical emission spectroscopy measurements and the synthesized products were characterized by gas chromatography—mass spectrometry (GC-MS). Depending on the gas composition, the optical emission spectra contained CH and C2 bands of varying intensities. The GC-MS measurements revealed that diamantane can be synthesized by microplasmas generated at atmospheric pressure, and that the yields highly depend on the gas composition and the presence of carbon sources.

  10. catena-Poly[[[aqua­(1,10-phenanthro­line)manganese(II)]-μ-adamantane-1,3-dicarboxyl­ato] monohydrate

    Jian-Qiang Liu; Yun-Sheng Huang

    2011-01-01

    In the title coordination polymer, {[Mn(C12H14O4)(C12H8N2)(H2O)]·H2O}n, the MnII atom has a highly distorted cis-MnN2O4 octahedral geometry arising from its coordination by a bidentate phenanthroline ligand, a water molecule and monodentate and bidentate adamantane-1,3-dicarboxylate dianions. The bridging dianion leads to [001] chains in the crystal. The chains are linked by O—H...O hydrogen bonds, involving both the coordinated and uncoordinated water molecules, thereby fo...

  11. Adamantane-1-ammonium acetate

    Elise J. C. de Vries

    2011-06-01

    Full Text Available In the title compound, C10H18N+·C2H3O2−, the ammonium H atoms of the cation are linked to three acetate anions via N—H...O hydrogen bonds, forming a chain structure extending along the b axis.

  12. Synthesis and structure of spiro[2-(2-methylphenyl)-4H-1,3-benzoxazine-4,2′-adamantane

    Synthesis and an X-ray diffraction study of spiro[2-(2-methylphenyl)-4H-1,3-benzoxazine-4,2′-adamantane] C24H25NO are performed: monoclinic crystal system, space group P21/c, a = 13.9424(3) Å, b = 7.56554(17) Å, c = 17.0155(3) Å, β = 99.6457(18)°, Z = 4, V = 1769.45(6) Å3. ρcalcd = 1.244 g/cm3, R = 0.0339 [T = 100(2) K]. The oxazine ring of the molecule adopts the boat conformation. The bond lengths and angles are standard for this class of compounds

  13. New ultra-high affinity host-guest complexes of cucurbit[7]uril with bicyclo[2.2.2]octane and adamantane guests: Thermodynamic analysis and evaluation of M2 affinity calculations

    Moghaddam, Sarvin; Yang, Cheng; Rekharsky, Mikhail; Ko, Young Ho; Kim, Kimoon; Inoue, Yoshihisa; Gilson, Michael K.

    2011-01-01

    A dicationic ferrocene derivative has previously been shown to bind cucurbit[7]uril (CB[7]) in water with ultra-high affinity (ΔGo= −21 kcal/mol). Here, we describe new compounds that bind aqueous CB[7] equally well, validating our prior suggestion that they, too, would be ultra-high affinity CB[7] guests. The present guests, which are based upon either a bicyclo[2.2.2]octane or adamantane core, have no metal atoms, so these results also confirm that the remarkably high affinities of the ferr...

  14. 1,3,5,7-Tetrakis(tetrazol-5-yl)-adamantane: the smallest tetrahedral tetrazole-functionalized ligand and its complexes formed by reaction with anhydrous M(II)Cl2 (M = Mn, Cu, Zn, Cd).

    Boldog, Ishtvan; Domasevitch, Konstantin V; Sanchiz, Joaquín; Mayer, Peter; Janiak, Christoph

    2014-09-01

    1,3,5,7-Tetrakis(tetrazol-5-yl)-adamantane (H4L) was probed as a building block for the synthesis of tetrazolato/halido coordination polymers with open-network structures. MCl2 (M = Cu, Cd, Zn, Mn) was reacted with H4L in DMF at 70 °C to yield [Cu4Cl4L(DMF)5]·DMF, ; [Cd4Cl4L(DMF)7]·DMF, ; [Zn3Cl2L(DMF)4]·2DMF, and [Mn2L(DMF)2(MeOH)4]·DMF·2MeOH·2H2O, . and (Fddd) are nearly isostructural and have zeolitic structures with a {4(3)·6(2)·8}, gis or gismondine underlying net, where the role of the tetrahedral nodes is served by the coordination bonded clusters and the adamantane moiety. (P21/n) has a porous structure composed of coordination bonded layers with a (4·8(2)) fes topology joined via trans-{Zn(tetrazolate)2(DMF)4} pillars with an overall topology of {4·6(2)}{4·6(6)·8(3)}, fsc-3,5-Cmce-2. (Pca21) is composed of stacked {Mn2L} hexagonal networks. In and the ligand fulfills a symmetric role of a tetrahedral building block, while in and it fulfills rather a role of an effective trigonal unit. Methanol-exchanged and activated displayed an unusual type IV isotherm with H2 type hysteresis for N2 sorption with an expected uptake at high P/P0, but with a smaller SBET = 505.5 m(2) g(-1) compared to the calculated 1789 m(2) g(-1), which is a possible result of the framework's flexibility. For H2 sorption 0.79 wt% (1 bar, 77 K) and 0.06 wt% (1 bar, RT) uptake and Qst = -7.2 kJ mol(-1) heat of adsorption (77 K) were recorded. Weak antiferromagnetic interactions were found in and with J1 = -9.60(1), J2 = -17.2(2), J3 = -2.28(10) cm(-1) and J = -0.76 cm(-1) respectively. The formation of zeolitic structures in and , the concept of structural 'imprinting' of rigid building blocks, and design opportunities suggested as a potential hexafunctionalized biadamantane building block. PMID:25005719

  15. Electrophysiological study, biodistribution in mice, and preliminary PET evaluation in a rhesus monkey of 1-amino-3-[18F]fluoromethyl-5-methyl-adamantane (18F-MEM): a potential radioligand for mapping the NMDA-receptor complex

    The effect of the fluorinated memantine derivative and NMDA receptor antagonist, 1-amino-3-fluoromethyl-5-methyl-adamantane (19F-MEM), at the NMDA receptor ion channel was studied by patch clamp recording. The results showed that 19F-MEM is a moderate NMDA receptor channel blocker. A procedure for the routine preparation of the 18F-labelled analog 18F-MEM has been developed using a two-step reaction sequence. This involves the no-carrier-added nucleophilic radiofluorination of 1-[N-(tert-butyloxy)carbamoyl]-3-(toluenesulfonyloxy)methyl-5- methyl-adamantane and the subsequent cleavage of the BOC-protecting group using aqueous HCl. The 18F-MEM was obtained in 22±7% radiochemical yield (decay-corrected to EOB) in a total synthesis time including HPLC purification of 90 min. A biodistribution study after IV injection of 18F-MEM in mice showed a fast clearance of radioactivity from blood and relatively high initial uptake in the kidney and in the lung, which gradually decreased with time. The brain uptake was high (up to 3.6% ID/g, 60 min postinjection) with increasing brain-blood ratios: 2.40, 5.10, 6.33, and 9.27 at 5, 30, 60, and 120 min, respectively. The regional accumulation of the radioactivity in the mouse brain was consistent with the known distribution of the PCP recognition site. Preliminary PET evaluation of the radiotracer in a rhesus monkey demonstrated good uptake and prolonged retention in the brain, with a plateau from 35 min onwards p.i. in the NMDA receptor-rich regions (frontal cortex, striata, and temporal cortex). Delineation of the hippocampus, a region known to contain a high density of NMDA receptors, was not possible owing to the resolution of the PET tomograph. The regional brain uptake of 18F-MEM was changed by memantine and by a pharmacological dose of (+)-MK-801, indicating competition for the same binding sites. In a preliminary experiment, haloperidol, a dopamine D2 and sigma receptor antagonist, decreased the binding of 18F-MEM from the

  16. Synthesis of 2-(3-Hydroxy-1-adamantane)-2-oxoacetic Acid%2-(3-羟基-1-金刚烷)-2-氧代乙酸的合成

    李先喆; 宗乾收; 吴建一; 车大庆

    2013-01-01

    2-(3-Hydroxy-l-adamantane)-2-oxoacetic acid, the intermediate of saxaglipitin for type 2 diabetes, was synthesized from adamantyl methyl ketone (2) via two-step oxidation by potassium permanganate with an overall yield of about 74.7% : ①the molecular ratio of potassium permanganate and 2 was 2.05 : 1, the temperature was controlled at 50 - 55 ℃ with tetrabutylammonium bromide as catalyst, and the pH value was adjusted to 12 - 13; ② additional 1.2 eq potassium permanganate was added, the temperature was controlled at 40 - 45 ℃ and the pH value was adjusted to 8 - 9.%金刚烷甲酮(2)经高锰酸钾两步氧化制得糖尿病药物沙格列汀中间体2-(3-羟基-1-金刚烷)-2-氧代乙酸,总收率为74.7%:氧化条件①以溴化四丁铵为相转移催化剂,高锰酸钾与2投料摩尔比2.05∶1,反应温度50~55℃、pH12~13;②续加1.2当量的高锰酸钾,温度40~45℃,pH8~9.

  17. N-(Adamantan-1-yl-2-chloroacetamide

    Oluseye K. Onajole

    2011-06-01

    Full Text Available In the title compound, C12H18ClNO, which was synthesized as part of a study into potential antituberculosis agents, the adamantine skeleton displays shorter than normal C—C bond lengths ranging between 1.5293 (18 and 1.5366 (15 Å. The structure also displays intermolecular N—H...O hydrogen bonding, which forms an infinite chain in the a-axis direction.

  18. N′-(Adamantan-2-ylidenethiophene-2-carbohydrazide

    Adnan A. Kadi

    2011-11-01

    Full Text Available In the title molecule, C15H18N2OS, a small twist is noted, with the dihedral angle between the central carbohydrazone residue (r.m.s. deviation = 0.029 Å and the thiophene ring being 12.47 (10°. The syn arrangement of the amide H and carbonyl O atoms allows for the formation of centrosymmetric dimers via N—H...O hydrogen bonds. These are linked in the three-dimensional structure by C—H...π interactions. The thiophene ring is disordered over two co-planar orientations, the major component having a site-occupancy factor of 0.833 (2.

  19. Adamantane Derivates of Tenocyclidine - Effective Radioprotective Agents

    Adamantyl derivatives of phencyclidine (PCP) showed better radioprotective effects than PCP itself. We prepared known thienylphencyclidine (TCP) and three of its adamantyl derivatives (Ad-TCP) and tested them in cultured cells for their radioprotective effects. The results with cells show that the piperidine derivative of adamantyl-tenocyclidine (Ad-TCP (II)) has rather outstanding radioprotective properties. This derivative revealed significant radioprotection at all survival levels. (author)

  20. Electrophysiological study, biodistribution in mice, and preliminary PET evaluation in a rhesus monkey of 1-amino-3-[{sup 18}F]fluoromethyl-5-methyl-adamantane ({sup 18}F-MEM): a potential radioligand for mapping the NMDA-receptor complex

    Samnick, Samuel; Ametamey, Simon; Leenders, Klaus L.; Vontobel, Peter; Quack, Guenter; Parsons, Chris G.; Neu, Henrik; Schubiger, Pius A

    1998-05-01

    The effect of the fluorinated memantine derivative and NMDA receptor antagonist, 1-amino-3-fluoromethyl-5-methyl-adamantane ({sup 19}F-MEM), at the NMDA receptor ion channel was studied by patch clamp recording. The results showed that {sup 19}F-MEM is a moderate NMDA receptor channel blocker. A procedure for the routine preparation of the {sup 18}F-labelled analog {sup 18}F-MEM has been developed using a two-step reaction sequence. This involves the no-carrier-added nucleophilic radiofluorination of 1-[N-(tert-butyloxy)carbamoyl]-3-(toluenesulfonyloxy)methyl-5- methyl-adamantane and the subsequent cleavage of the BOC-protecting group using aqueous HCl. The {sup 18}F-MEM was obtained in 22{+-}7% radiochemical yield (decay-corrected to EOB) in a total synthesis time including HPLC purification of 90 min. A biodistribution study after IV injection of {sup 18}F-MEM in mice showed a fast clearance of radioactivity from blood and relatively high initial uptake in the kidney and in the lung, which gradually decreased with time. The brain uptake was high (up to 3.6% ID/g, 60 min postinjection) with increasing brain-blood ratios: 2.40, 5.10, 6.33, and 9.27 at 5, 30, 60, and 120 min, respectively. The regional accumulation of the radioactivity in the mouse brain was consistent with the known distribution of the PCP recognition site. Preliminary PET evaluation of the radiotracer in a rhesus monkey demonstrated good uptake and prolonged retention in the brain, with a plateau from 35 min onwards p.i. in the NMDA receptor-rich regions (frontal cortex, striata, and temporal cortex). Delineation of the hippocampus, a region known to contain a high density of NMDA receptors, was not possible owing to the resolution of the PET tomograph. The regional brain uptake of {sup 18}F-MEM was changed by memantine and by a pharmacological dose of (+)-MK-801, indicating competition for the same binding sites. In a preliminary experiment, haloperidol, a dopamine D2 and sigma receptor

  1. N-(Adamantan-1-yl)-2-chloro­acetamide

    Oluseye K. Onajole; Thavendran Govender; Hendrik G. Kruger; Maguire, Glenn E. M.

    2011-01-01

    In the title compound, C12H18ClNO, which was synthesized as part of a study into potential antituberculosis agents, the adamantine skeleton displays shorter than normal C—C bond lengths ranging between 1.5293 (18) and 1.5366 (15) Å. The structure also displays intermolecular N—H...O hydrogen bonding, which forms an infinite chain in the a-axis direction.

  2. Determination of solvation and specific interaction enthalpies of adamantane derivatives in aprotic solvents

    Solution and solvation enthalpies at infinite dilution of 1-bromoadamantane, 1-adamantanol, and 2-adamantanone are reported at 298.15 K in a set of 14 aprotic solvents. The specific interaction enthalpies of the solid solutes are calculated using a methodology recently published by other authors. 1-Adamantanol's specific interaction enthalpies show a good correlation with the Kamlet-Taft β scale

  3. Crystal structure of 2-(adamantan-1-yl-5-(4-bromophenyl-1,3,4-oxadiazole

    Nourah Z. Alzoman

    2014-12-01

    Full Text Available In the title molecule, C18H19BrN2O, the benzene ring is inclined to the oxadiazole ring by 10.44 (8°. In the crystal, C—H...π interactions link the molecules in a head-to-tail fashion, forming chains extending along the c-axis direction. The chains are further connected by π–π stacking interactions, with centroid–centroid distances of 3.6385 (7 Å, forming layers parallel to the bc plane.

  4. Evaluation of adamantane hydroxamates as botulinum neurotoxin inhibitors: synthesis, crystallography, modeling, kinetic and cellular based studies

    Šilhár, Peter; Silvaggi, Nicholas R; Pellett, Sabine; Čapková, Kateřina; Johnson, Eric A.; Allen, Karen N.; Janda, Kim D.

    2012-01-01

    Botulinum neurotoxins (BoNTs) are the most lethal biotoxins known to mankind and are responsible for the neuroparalytic disease botulism. Current treatments for botulinum poisoning are all protein based and thus have a limited window of treatment opportunity. Inhibition of the BoNT light chain protease (LC) has emerged as a therapeutic strategy for the treatment of botulism as it may provide an effective post exposure remedy. Using a combination of crystallographic and modeling studies a seri...

  5. Crystal structure of [2,6-bis(adamantan-1-yl-4-tert-butylphenolato-κO]dimethylaluminium(III

    Lei Wang

    2014-10-01

    Full Text Available The title compound, [Al(CH32(C30H41O] is synthesized by the reaction of 2,6-di-adamantyl-4-tert-butyl-phenol with Al(CH33 in a nitrogen atmosphere. In the molecule, the coordination geometry around the AlIII atom is slightly distorted C2O trigonal (the sum of the bond angles subtended at Al atom being 359.9°, which is rarely reported for organometallic aluminium compounds. The coordination plane is approximately perpendicular to the benzene ring [the dihedral angle = 87.73 (16°]. There is no intermolecular hydrogen bonding in the crystal structure.

  6. Insights from investigating the interactions of adamantane-based drugs with the M2 proton channel from the H1N1 swine virus

    Wang, Jing-Fang [College of Life Science and Biotechnology, Shanghai Jiaotong University, Shanghai 200240 (China); Wei, Dong-Qing, E-mail: dqwei@gordonlifescience.org [College of Life Science and Biotechnology, Shanghai Jiaotong University, Shanghai 200240 (China); Gordon Life Science Institute, 13784 Torrey Del Mar Drive, San Diego, CA 92130 (United States); Chou, Kuo-Chen [College of Life Science and Biotechnology, Shanghai Jiaotong University, Shanghai 200240 (China); Gordon Life Science Institute, 13784 Torrey Del Mar Drive, San Diego, CA 92130 (United States)

    2009-10-16

    The M2 proton channel is one of indispensable components for the influenza A virus that plays a vital role in its life cycle and hence is an important target for drug design against the virus. In view of this, the three-dimensional structure of the H1N1-M2 channel was developed based on the primary sequence taken from a patient recently infected by the H1N1 (swine flu) virus. With an explicit water-membrane environment, molecular docking studies were performed for amantadine and rimantadine, the two commercial drugs generally used to treat influenza A infection. It was found that their binding affinity to the H1N1-M2 channel is significantly lower than that to the H5N1-M2 channel, fully consistent with the recent report that the H1N1 swine virus was resistant to the two drugs. The findings and the relevant analysis reported here might provide useful structural insights for developing effective drugs against the new swine flu virus.

  7. 2 : 2 Fe(III): ligand and "adamantane core" 4 : 2 Fe(III): ligand (hydr)oxo complexes of an acyclic ditopic ligand

    Ghiladi, Morten; Larsen, Frank B.; McKenzie, Christine J.; Søtofte, Inger; Tuchagues, Jean-Pierre

    -ray structure of the dinuclear complex [{( Hbpbp) Fe(mu-OH)}(2)](ClO4)(4) center dot 2C(3)H(6)O ( 1 center dot 2C(3)H(6)O) shows that only one of the metal-binding cavities of each ligand is occupied by an iron( III) atom and two [Fe(Hbpbp)](3+) units are linked together by two hydroxo bridging groups to form a......A bis-hydroxo-bridged diiron(III) complex and a bis-mu-oxo-bis-mu-hydroxo-bridged tetrairon( III) complex are isolated from the reaction of 2,6-bis((N, N'-bis-(2-picolyl) amino) methyl)-4-tert-butylphenol (Hbpbp) with iron perchlorate in acidic and neutral solutions respectively. The X...... bond lengths of the two different octahedral iron sites: Fe -mu-OH, 1.953( 5), 2.013( 5) angstrom and Fe-mu-O, 1.803( 5), 1.802( 5) angstrom. The difference in ligand environment is too small for allowing Mossbauer spectroscopy to distinguish between the two crystallographically independent Fe sites...

  8. 3-(Adamantan-1-yl-4-ethyl-1-{[4-(2-methoxyphenylpiperazin-1-yl]methyl}-1H-1,2,4-triazole-5(4H-thione

    Ali A. El-Emam

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available In the title compound, C26H37N5OS, the piperazine ring adopts a chair conformation. The triazole ring forms dihedral angles of 67.85 (9 and 59.41 (9° with the piperazine and benzene rings, respectively, resulting in an approximate V-shaped conformation for the molecule. An intramolecular C—H...O hydrogen bond generates an S(6 ring motif. The crystal structure features C—H...π interactions, producing a two-dimensional supramolecular architecture.

  9. 3-(Adamantan-1-yl-4-phenyl-1-[(4-phenylpiperazin-1-ylmethyl]-1H-1,2,4-triazole-5(4H-thione

    Ebtehal S. Al-Abdullah

    2012-02-01

    Full Text Available The title molecule, C29H35N5S, displays a chair-shaped piperazine ring, as well as an approximately planar triazole ring (r.m.s. deviation = 0.001 Å whose phenyl substituent is nearly perpendicular to the mean plane of the five-membered ring [dihedral angle = 88.9 (1°]. The substituents on the piperazine ring occupy equatorial sites. In the crystal, the adamantyl cage is disordered over two sets of sites with a major component of 67.8 (5%. Weak intermolecular C—H...S hydrogen bonding is present in the crystal.

  10. 3-(Adamantan-1-yl-1-[(4-benzylpiperazin-1-ylmethyl]-4-[(E-(2-hydroxybenzylideneamino]-1H-1,2,4-triazole-5(4H-thione

    Ali A. El-Emam

    2012-06-01

    Full Text Available In the title compound, C31H38N6OS, the conformation about the N=C [1.285 (2 Å] imine bond is E. The piperazine ring has a chair conformation and occupies a position almost perpendicular to the plane through the triazole ring; the benzene ring forms a dihedral angle of 31.95 (10° with the triazole ring. Overall, the molecule has the shape of a flattened bowl. The hydroxy group is disordered over two positions. The major component has a site-occupancy factor of 0.762 (3 and forms an intramolecular O—H...N(imine bond to close an S(6 loop. The minor component of the disordered hydroxy group forms an O—H...N(piperazine hydrogen bond. These, along with C—H...S and C—H...N interactions, link molecules into a three-dimensional architecture.

  11. Insights from investigating the interactions of adamantane-based drugs with the M2 proton channel from the H1N1 swine virus

    The M2 proton channel is one of indispensable components for the influenza A virus that plays a vital role in its life cycle and hence is an important target for drug design against the virus. In view of this, the three-dimensional structure of the H1N1-M2 channel was developed based on the primary sequence taken from a patient recently infected by the H1N1 (swine flu) virus. With an explicit water-membrane environment, molecular docking studies were performed for amantadine and rimantadine, the two commercial drugs generally used to treat influenza A infection. It was found that their binding affinity to the H1N1-M2 channel is significantly lower than that to the H5N1-M2 channel, fully consistent with the recent report that the H1N1 swine virus was resistant to the two drugs. The findings and the relevant analysis reported here might provide useful structural insights for developing effective drugs against the new swine flu virus.

  12. Inhibition of soluble epoxide hydrolase by cis-4-[4-(3-adamantan-1-ylureido)cyclohexyl-oxy]benzoic acid exhibits antihypertensive and cardioprotective actions in transgenic rats with angiotensin II-dependent hypertension

    Neckář, Jan; Kopkan, L.; Husková, Z.; Kolář, František; Papoušek, František; Kramer, H. J.; Hwang, S.H.; Hammock, B.D.; Imig, J. D.; Malý, J.; Netuka, I.; Ošťádal, Bohuslav; Červenka, L.

    2012-01-01

    Roč. 122, č. 11 (2012), s. 513-525. ISSN 0143-5221 R&D Projects: GA AV ČR(CZ) IAAX01110901; GA AV ČR(CZ) KAN200520703; GA MŠk(CZ) 1M0510 Institutional research plan: CEZ:AV0Z50110509 Keywords : hypertension * angiotensin II * kidney * epoxyeicosatrienoic acids * soluble epoxide hydrolase inhibitor * myocardial ischemia/reperfusion injury Subject RIV: FA - Cardiovascular Diseases incl. Cardiotharic Surgery Impact factor: 4.859, year: 2012

  13. Antiviral resistance: influenza B

    Conde, Patrícia; Guiomar, Raquel; Cristóvão, Paula; Pechirra, Pedro

    2013-01-01

    Currently circulating influenza viruses are resistant to adamantanes and except for a low number of sporadic cases most are sensitive to neuraminidase inhibitors (NI). Adamantanes are ineffective against influenza B viruses and although NI-resistant influenza B viruses have been rarely reported, recently in the United States was identified one cluster of influenza B viruses with reduced susceptibility to NI and with the I221V substitution in the active site of the neuraminidase. Despite the l...

  14. A Nano-MgO and Ionic Liquid-Catalyzed ‘Green’ Synthesis Protocol for the Development of Adamantyl-Imidazolo-Thiadiazoles as Anti-Tuberculosis Agents Targeting Sterol 14α-Demethylase (CYP51)

    Anusha, Sebastian; CP, Baburajeev; Mohan, Chakrabhavi Dhananjaya; Mathai, Jessin; Rangappa, Shobith; Mohan, Surender; Chandra; Paricharak, Shardul; Mervin, Lewis; Fuchs, Julian E.; M, Mahedra; Bender, Andreas; Basappa,; Rangappa, Kanchugarakoppal S.

    2015-01-01

    In this work, we describe the ‘green’ synthesis of novel 6-(adamantan-1-yl)-2-substituted-imidazo[2,1-b][1,3,4]thiadiazoles (AITs) by ring formation reactions using 1-(adamantan-1-yl)-2-bromoethanone and 5-alkyl/aryl-2-amino1,3,4-thiadiazoles on a nano material base in ionic liquid media. Given the established activity of imidazothiadiazoles against M. tuberculosis, we next examined the anti-TB activity of AITs against the H37Rv strain using Alamar blue assay. Among the tested compounds 6-(ad...

  15. Multidrug resistant 2009 a/h1n1 influenza clinical isolate with a neuraminidase i223r mutation retains its virulence and transmissibility in ferrets

    Vries, Erhard; Kroeze, E.J.B.V.; Stittelaar, Koert; Linster, Martin; Linden, A; Schrauwen, Eefje; Leijten, Lonneke; Amerongen, Geert; Schutten, Martin; Kuiken, Thijs; Osterhaus, Albert; Fouchier, Ron; Boucher, Charles; Herfst, Sander

    2011-01-01

    textabstractOnly two classes of antiviral drugs, neuraminidase inhibitors and adamantanes, are approved for prophylaxis and therapy against influenza virus infections. A major concern is that influenza virus becomes resistant to these antiviral drugs and spreads in the human population. The 2009 pandemic A/H1N1 influenza virus is naturally resistant to adamantanes. Recently a novel neuraminidase I223R mutation was identified in an A/H1N1 virus showing cross-resistance to the neuraminidase inh...

  16. Drug: D00901 [KEGG MEDICUS

    Full Text Available D00901 Drug Rimantadine hydrochloride (USAN); Flumadine (TN) C12H21N. HCl 215.1441 215.7628 D009 ... TC code: J05AC02 Adamantane derivative Indication: Influenza ... A influenza ... A M2 proton channel blocker [VG:NC_004 ... P drug classification [BR:br08302] Antivirals Anti-influenza ... Agents Rimantadine D00901 Rimantadine hydrochlorid ...

  17. Sugar-Decorated Sugar Vesicles : Lectin-Carbohydrate Recognition at the Surface of Cyclodextrin Vesicles

    Voskuhl, Jens; Stuart, Marc C. A.; Ravoo, Bart Jan

    2010-01-01

    An artificial glycocalix self-assembles when unilamellar bilayer vesicles of amphiphilic beta-cyclodextrins are decorated with maltose and lactose by host-guest interactions. To this end, maltose and lactose were conjugated with adamantane through a tetra(ethyleneglycol) spacer. Both carbohydrate-ad

  18. Total Synthesis of (±)-7-epi-Nemorosone

    Zhang, Qiang; Porco, John A.

    2012-01-01

    A concise total synthesis of (±)-7-epi-nemorosone is reported. Our synthetic approach establishes a viable route to polycyclic polyprenylated acylphloroglucinol natural products (PPAP’s) bearing a C-7 endo prenyl sidechain. Key steps include retro-aldol-vinyl cerium addition to a hydroxy adamantane core scaffold and palladium-mediated deoxygenation. PMID:22449198

  19. Multidrug resistant 2009 a/h1n1 influenza clinical isolate with a neuraminidase i223r mutation retains its virulence and transmissibility in ferrets

    E. van der Vries (Erhard); E.J.B.V. Kroeze; K.J. Stittelaar (Koert); M. Linster (Martin); A. van der Linden; E.J.A. Schrauwen (Eefje); L.M.E. Leijten (Lonneke); G. van Amerongen (Geert); M. Schutten (Martin); T. Kuiken (Thijs); A.D.M.E. Osterhaus (Albert); R.A.M. Fouchier (Ron); C.A.B. Boucher (Charles); S. Herfst (Sander)

    2011-01-01

    textabstractOnly two classes of antiviral drugs, neuraminidase inhibitors and adamantanes, are approved for prophylaxis and therapy against influenza virus infections. A major concern is that influenza virus becomes resistant to these antiviral drugs and spreads in the human population. The 2009 pan

  20. ADMINISTRATION OF A SUBSTITUTED ADAMANTLY-UREA INHIBITOR OF THE SOLUBLE EPOXIDE HYDROLASE PROTECTS THE KIDNEY FROM DAMAGE IN HYPERTENSIVE GOTO-KAKIZAKI RATS

    Hypertension and type II diabetes are co-morbid diseases that lead to the development of nephropathy. Soluble epoxide hydrolase (sEH) inhibitors are reported to provide protection from renal injury. We hypothesized that the sEH inhibitor 12-(3-adamantan-1-yl-ureido) dodecanoic acid (AUDA) protects ...

  1. Simulation optimization of spherical non-polar guest recognition by deep-cavity cavitands

    Wanjari, Piyush P.; Gibb, Bruce C.; Ashbaugh, Henry S.

    2013-12-01

    Biomimetic deep-cavity cavitand hosts possess unique recognition and encapsulation properties that make them capable of selectively binding a range of non-polar guests within their hydrophobic pocket. Adamantane based derivatives which snuggly fit within the pocket of octa-acid deep cavity cavitands exhibit some of the strongest host binding. Here we explore the roles of guest size and attractiveness on optimizing guest binding to form 1:1 complexes with octa-acid cavitands in water. Specifically we simulate the water-mediated interactions of the cavitand with adamantane and a range of simple Lennard-Jones guests of varying diameter and attractive well-depth. Initial simulations performed with methane indicate hydrated methanes preferentially reside within the host pocket, although these guests frequently trade places with water and other methanes in bulk solution. The interaction strength of hydrophobic guests increases with increasing size from sizes slightly smaller than methane to Lennard-Jones guests comparable in size to adamantane. Over this guest size range the preferential guest binding location migrates from the bottom of the host pocket upwards. For guests larger than adamantane, however, binding becomes less favorable as the minimum in the potential-of-mean force shifts to the cavitand face around the portal. For a fixed guest diameter, the Lennard-Jones well-depth is found to systematically shift the guest-host potential-of-mean force to lower free energies, however, the optimal guest size is found to be insensitive to increasing well-depth. Ultimately our simulations show that adamantane lies within the optimal range of guest sizes with significant attractive interactions to match the most tightly bound Lennard-Jones guests studied.

  2. Carbon and deuterium nuclear magnetic resonance in solids

    Results are presented on a study of cross polarization dynamics, between protons and carbon-13 in adamantane, by the direct observation of the dilute, carbon-13 spins. A comparison is presented of the experimental and theoretical proton dipolar fluctuation correlation time tau/sub c/, which is experimentally 110 +- 15 μsec and theoretically 122 μsec for adamantane. An approach to high resolution NMR of deuterium in solids is described. The m = 1 → --1 transition is excited by a double quantum process and the decay of coherence Q(tau) is monitored. The carboxyl and the water deuterium shifts are resolved and the anisotropy of the carboxyl shielding tensor is estimated to be Δ sigma = 32 +- ppM. A complete theoretical analysis is presented. The extension of cross relaxation techniques, both direct and indirect, to proton-deuterium double resonance is also described

  3. Crystal structure of the drug-resistant S31N influenza M2 proton channel.

    Thomaston, Jessica L; DeGrado, William F

    2016-08-01

    The M2 protein is a small proton channel found in the influenza A virus that is necessary for viral replication. The M2 channel is the target of a class of drugs called the adamantanes, which block the channel pore and prevent the virus from replicating. In recent decades mutations have arisen in M2 that prevent the adamantanes from binding to the channel pore, with the most prevalent of these mutations being S31N. Here we report the first crystal structure of the S31N mutant crystallized using lipidic cubic phase crystallization techniques and solved to 1.59 Å resolution. The Asn31 residues point directly into the center of the channel pore and form a hydrogen-bonded network that disrupts the drug-binding site. Ordered waters in the channel pore form a continuous hydrogen bonding network from Gly34 to His37. PMID:27082171

  4. Catalyst-free multicomponent synthesis of novel adamantyl-containing tetrahydropyrimidine carboxylates.

    Kalita, Utpalparna; Kaping, Shunan; Vishwakarma, Jai Narain

    2016-08-01

    [Formula: see text]-Enaminoesters were generated in situ by the reaction of aliphatic or aromatic primary amines to electron-deficient alkynes, dimethyl acetylenedicarboxylate, and methyl propiolate. [Formula: see text]-Enaminoesters thus formed were reacted with 1-adamantanamine and formaldehyde in methanol to give novel molecular hybrids: dimethyl 3-((3s,5s,7s)-adamantan-1-yl)-1-(alkyl/aralkyl/aryl)-1,2,3,4-tetrahydropyrimidine-5,6-dicarboxylates (5a-j) and methyl 3-((3s,5s,7s)-adamantan-1-yl)-1-(alkyl/aralkyl/aryl)-1,2,3,4-tetrahydropyrimidine-5-carboxylates (9a-j). The structures of the molecular hybrids have been established based on the spectral and analytical data. Structural confirmation of the products was done by X-ray crystallography of 5d as a representative product of the series. PMID:26797716

  5. Supramolecular biosensors based on electropolymerised pyrrole-cyclodextrin modified surfaces for antibody detection.

    Wajs, Ewelina; Fernández, Núria; Fragoso, Alex

    2016-06-01

    The self-assembly of an adamantane-appended polymer bearing an antigen fragment on a polypyrrole-cyclodextrin modified surface provides a highly sensitive immunosensor with low limits of detection for celiac disease related targets. The pyrrole-carboxylic acid films were formed on the surface of gold electrodes by electropolymerisation and followed by covalent attachment of cyclodextrin units. Surface plasmon resonance measurements confirmed the role of the host/guest interactions between adamantane moieties and β-cyclodextrin hosts in the formation of the supramolecular sensor interface. Furthermore, this novel electrochemical supramolecular platform was effective in the amperometric detection of anti-gliadin antibodies in spiked serum samples with very good signal recovery. PMID:27097527

  6. NMR studies of liquids and disordered solids at high pressure

    Molecular reorientation and translation in molecular liquids was studied. A dominant premise in these studies was that, except in strongly hydrogen-bonded systems such as water, the dynamics of a liquid may be considered to be a series of impulsive collisions. Details of the behavior would be dominated by the shape and size of the molecules under constant packing conditions. The second area of effort was in the plastic crystalline solid phase of two globular molecules, adamantane and cyclohexane. The NMR technique was used in these studies to measure self-diffusion coefficients and spin-lattice relaxation times. The applicability of pulsed NMR techniques to the study of the kinetics of order--disorder phase transitions in solid adamantane was demonstrated

  7. 2-(1-Adamantyl-1-(3-aminophenylethanol

    Michal Rouchal

    2011-09-01

    Full Text Available In the crystal structure of the title compound, C18H25NO, molecules are linked via O—H...N hydrogen bonds, forming chains parallel to the c axis. Additional weak N—H...O interactions stabilize the crystal packing. The adamantane cage consists of three fused cyclohexane rings in almost ideal chair conformations, with C—C—C angles in the range 107.9 (10–111.3 (11°.

  8. Versatile types of polysaccharide-based supramolecular polycation/pDNA nanoplexes for gene delivery

    Hu, Yang; Zhao, Nana; Yu, Bingran; Liu, Fusheng; Xu, Fu-Jian

    2014-06-01

    Different polysaccharide-based supramolecular polycations were readily synthesized by assembling multiple β-cyclodextrin-cored star polycations with an adamantane-functionalized dextran via host-guest interaction in the absence or presence of bioreducible linkages. Compared with nanoplexes of the starting star polycation and pDNA, the supramolecular polycation/pDNA nanoplexes exhibited similarly low cytotoxicity, improved cellular internalization and significantly higher gene transfection efficiencies. The incorporation of disulfide linkages imparted the supramolecular polycation/pDNA nanoplexes with the advantage of intracellular bioreducibility, resulting in better gene delivery properties. In addition, the antitumor properties of supramolecular polycation/pDNA nanoplexes were also investigated using a suicide gene therapy system. The present study demonstrates that the proper assembly of cyclodextrin-cored polycations with adamantane-functionalized polysaccharides is an effective strategy for the production of new nanoplex delivery systems.Different polysaccharide-based supramolecular polycations were readily synthesized by assembling multiple β-cyclodextrin-cored star polycations with an adamantane-functionalized dextran via host-guest interaction in the absence or presence of bioreducible linkages. Compared with nanoplexes of the starting star polycation and pDNA, the supramolecular polycation/pDNA nanoplexes exhibited similarly low cytotoxicity, improved cellular internalization and significantly higher gene transfection efficiencies. The incorporation of disulfide linkages imparted the supramolecular polycation/pDNA nanoplexes with the advantage of intracellular bioreducibility, resulting in better gene delivery properties. In addition, the antitumor properties of supramolecular polycation/pDNA nanoplexes were also investigated using a suicide gene therapy system. The present study demonstrates that the proper assembly of cyclodextrin-cored polycations

  9. Drug: D08483 [KEGG MEDICUS

    Full Text Available D08483 Drug Rimantadine (INN) C12H21N 179.1674 179.3018 D08483.gif Antiviral [DS:H00398] Same as ... : C07236 ATC code: J05AC02 Adamantane derivative influenza ... A M2 proton channel blocker [VG:NC_004907_1 NC_002 ... P drug classification [BR:br08302] Antivirals Anti-influenza ... Agents Rimantadine D08483 Rimantadine (INN) Antiin ...

  10. Triple Combination of Oseltamivir, Amantadine, and Ribavirin Displays Synergistic Activity against Multiple Influenza Virus Strains In Vitro ▿

    Nguyen, Jack T.; Justin D Hoopes; Smee, Donald F.; Prichard, Mark N.; Driebe, Elizabeth M; Engelthaler, David M.; Le, Minh H.; Keim, Paul S; Spence, R. Paul; Went, Gregory T.

    2009-01-01

    The recurring emergence of influenza virus strains that are resistant to available antiviral medications has become a global health concern, especially in light of the potential for a new influenza virus pandemic. Currently, virtually all circulating strains of influenza A virus in the United States are resistant to either of the two major classes of anti-influenza drugs (adamantanes and neuraminidase inhibitors). Thus, new therapeutic approaches that can be rapidly deployed and that will add...

  11. Simulation optimization of spherical non-polar guest recognition by deep-cavity cavitands

    Wanjari, Piyush P.; Gibb, Bruce C.; Ashbaugh, Henry S.

    2013-01-01

    Biomimetic deep-cavity cavitand hosts possess unique recognition and encapsulation properties that make them capable of selectively binding a range of non-polar guests within their hydrophobic pocket. Adamantane based derivatives which snuggly fit within the pocket of octa-acid deep cavity cavitands exhibit some of the strongest host binding. Here we explore the roles of guest size and attractiveness on optimizing guest binding to form 1:1 complexes with octa-acid cavitands in water. Specific...

  12. Full-Genome Analysis of Avian Influenza A(H5N1) Virus from a Human, North America, 2013

    Pabbaraju, Kanti; Tellier, Raymond; Wong, Sallene; Li, Yan; Bastien, Nathalie; Tang, Julian W.; Drews, Steven J.; Jang, Yunho; Davis, C. Todd; Fonseca, Kevin; Tipples, Graham A

    2014-01-01

    Full-genome analysis was conducted on the first isolate of a highly pathogenic avian influenza A(H5N1) virus from a human in North America. The virus has a hemagglutinin gene of clade 2.3.2.1c and is a reassortant with an H9N2 subtype lineage polymerase basic 2 gene. No mutations conferring resistance to adamantanes or neuraminidase inhibitors were found.

  13. A small MRI contrast agent library of gadolinium(III)-encapsulated supramolecular nanoparticles for improved relaxivity and sensitivity**

    Chen, Kuan-Ju; Wolahan, Stephanie M.; Wang, Hao; Hsu, Chao-Hsiung; Chang, Hsing-Wei; Durazo, Armando; Hwang, Lian-Pin; Garcia, Mitch A.; Jiang, Ziyue Karen; Wu, Lily; Lin, Yung-Ya; Tseng, Hsian-Rong

    2010-01-01

    We introduce a new category of nanoparticle-based T1 MRI contrast agents (CAs) by encapsulating paramagnetic chelated gadolinium(III), i.e., Gd3+·DOTA, through supramolecular assembly of molecular building blocks that carry complementary molecular recognition motifs, including adamantane (Ad) and β-cyclodextrin (CD). A small library of Gd3+·DOTA-encapsulated supramolecular nanoparticles (Gd3+·DOTA⊂SNPs) was produced by systematically altering the molecular building block mixing ratios. A broa...

  14. Rigide, multivalente Grundgerüste auf Adamantanbasis für die Zelloberflächenerkennung

    Pannier, Nadine

    2008-01-01

    Ziel dieser vorliegenden Arbeit war es multivalente Grundgerüste auf Adamantanbasis für die Konjugation mit Zelloberflächenbindern zu entwickeln. Bei dem Entwurf der Adamantan-Grundgerüste haben wir uns an natürlichen Systemen orientiert und dafür zwei Bausteine synthetisiert, das symmetrisch tetrasubstituierten Kernfragment und die unsymmetrisch tetrasubstituierten Kopffragmente. Als Kernfragmente wurden erfolgreich zwei Tetracarboxyadamantan-Derivate synthetisiert. Es konnten hierfür zwei n...

  15. Tools for Chemical Biology: New Macrocyclic Compounds from Diversity-Oriented Synthesis and Toward Materials from Silver(I) Acetylides

    Madsen, Charlotte Marie

    Part I The formation of a library of diverse macrocyclic compounds with different functionalities and ring sizes in a few steps from two easily accessible α,ω-diol building blocks is presented. The building blocks are combined by esteriffcations in four different ways leading to the formation of...... of uoro-iodoadamantanes. However, overall the results provide a good starting point for the synthesis of new triptycene and adamantane-containing molecules that can interact with carbon nanotubes....

  16. Influenza Virus Resistance to Antiviral Agents: A Plea for Rational Use

    Poland, Gregory A.; Jacobson, Robert M.; Ovsyannikova, Inna G.

    2009-01-01

    Although influenza vaccine can prevent influenza virus infection, the only therapeutic options to treat influenza virus infection are antiviral agents. At the current time, nearly all influenza A/H3N2 viruses and a percentage of influenza A/H1N1 viruses are adamantane resistant, which leaves only neuraminidase inhibitors available for treatment of infection with these viruses. In December 2008, the Centers for Disease Control and Prevention released new data demonstrating that a high percenta...

  17. Dynamic Cross-Linking of Polymeric Binders Based on Host-Guest Interactions for Silicon Anodes in Lithium Ion Batteries.

    Kwon, Tae-woo; Jeong, You Kyeong; Deniz, Erhan; AlQaradawi, Siham Y; Choi, Jang Wook; Coskun, Ali

    2015-11-24

    We report supramolecular cross-linking of polymer binders via dynamic host-guest interactions between hyperbranched β-cyclodextrin polymer and a dendritic gallic acid cross-linker incorporating six adamantane units for high-capacity silicon anodes. Calorimetric analysis in the solution phase indicates that the given host-guest complexation is a highly spontaneous and enthalpically driven process. These findings are further verified by carrying out gelation experiments in both aqueous and organic media. The dynamic cross-linking process enables intimate silicon-binder interaction, structural stability of electrode film, and controlled electrode-electrolyte interface, yielding enhanced cycling performance. Control experiments using both α, γ-CDp with different cavity sizes and a guest molecule incorporating a single adamantane unit verified that the enhanced cycle life originates from the host-guest interaction between β-cyclodextrin and adamantane. The impact of the dynamic cross-linking is maximized at an optimal stoichiometry between the two components. Importantly, the present investigation proves that the molecular-level tuning of the host-guest interactions can be translated directly to the cycling performance of silicon anodes. PMID:26422642

  18. A Nano-MgO and Ionic Liquid-Catalyzed 'Green' Synthesis Protocol for the Development of Adamantyl-Imidazolo-Thiadiazoles as Anti-Tuberculosis Agents Targeting Sterol 14α-Demethylase (CYP51.

    Sebastian Anusha

    Full Text Available In this work, we describe the 'green' synthesis of novel 6-(adamantan-1-yl-2-substituted-imidazo[2,1-b][1,3,4]thiadiazoles (AITs by ring formation reactions using 1-(adamantan-1-yl-2-bromoethanone and 5-alkyl/aryl-2-amino1,3,4-thiadiazoles on a nano material base in ionic liquid media. Given the established activity of imidazothiadiazoles against M. tuberculosis, we next examined the anti-TB activity of AITs against the H37Rv strain using Alamar blue assay. Among the tested compounds 6-(adamantan-1-yl-2-(4-methoxyphenylimidazo[2,1-b][1,3,4]thiadiazole (3f showed potent inhibitory activity towards M. tuberculosis with an MIC value of 8.5 μM. The inhibitory effect of this molecule against M. tuberculosis was comparable to the standard drugs such as Pyrazinamide, Streptomycin, and Ciprofloxacin drugs. Mechanistically, an in silico analysis predicted sterol 14α-demethylase (CYP51 as the likely target and experimental activity of 3f in this system corroborated the in silico target prediction. In summary, we herein report the synthesis and biological evaluation of novel AITs against M. tuberculosis that likely target CYP51 to induce their antimycobacterial activity.

  19. A Nano-MgO and Ionic Liquid-Catalyzed 'Green' Synthesis Protocol for the Development of Adamantyl-Imidazolo-Thiadiazoles as Anti-Tuberculosis Agents Targeting Sterol 14α-Demethylase (CYP51).

    Anusha, Sebastian; Cp, Baburajeev; Mohan, Chakrabhavi Dhananjaya; Mathai, Jessin; Rangappa, Shobith; Mohan, Surender; Chandra; Paricharak, Shardul; Mervin, Lewis; Fuchs, Julian E; M, Mahedra; Bender, Andreas; Basappa; Rangappa, Kanchugarakoppal S

    2015-01-01

    In this work, we describe the 'green' synthesis of novel 6-(adamantan-1-yl)-2-substituted-imidazo[2,1-b][1,3,4]thiadiazoles (AITs) by ring formation reactions using 1-(adamantan-1-yl)-2-bromoethanone and 5-alkyl/aryl-2-amino1,3,4-thiadiazoles on a nano material base in ionic liquid media. Given the established activity of imidazothiadiazoles against M. tuberculosis, we next examined the anti-TB activity of AITs against the H37Rv strain using Alamar blue assay. Among the tested compounds 6-(adamantan-1-yl)-2-(4-methoxyphenyl)imidazo[2,1-b][1,3,4]thiadiazole (3f) showed potent inhibitory activity towards M. tuberculosis with an MIC value of 8.5 μM. The inhibitory effect of this molecule against M. tuberculosis was comparable to the standard drugs such as Pyrazinamide, Streptomycin, and Ciprofloxacin drugs. Mechanistically, an in silico analysis predicted sterol 14α-demethylase (CYP51) as the likely target and experimental activity of 3f in this system corroborated the in silico target prediction. In summary, we herein report the synthesis and biological evaluation of novel AITs against M. tuberculosis that likely target CYP51 to induce their antimycobacterial activity. PMID:26470029

  20. A Nano-MgO and Ionic Liquid-Catalyzed ‘Green’ Synthesis Protocol for the Development of Adamantyl-Imidazolo-Thiadiazoles as Anti-Tuberculosis Agents Targeting Sterol 14α-Demethylase (CYP51)

    Anusha, Sebastian; CP, Baburajeev; Mohan, Chakrabhavi Dhananjaya; Mathai, Jessin; Rangappa, Shobith; Mohan, Surender; Chandra; Paricharak, Shardul; Mervin, Lewis; Fuchs, Julian E.; M, Mahedra; Bender, Andreas; Basappa; Rangappa, Kanchugarakoppal S.

    2015-01-01

    In this work, we describe the ‘green’ synthesis of novel 6-(adamantan-1-yl)-2-substituted-imidazo[2,1-b][1,3,4]thiadiazoles (AITs) by ring formation reactions using 1-(adamantan-1-yl)-2-bromoethanone and 5-alkyl/aryl-2-amino1,3,4-thiadiazoles on a nano material base in ionic liquid media. Given the established activity of imidazothiadiazoles against M. tuberculosis, we next examined the anti-TB activity of AITs against the H37Rv strain using Alamar blue assay. Among the tested compounds 6-(adamantan-1-yl)-2-(4-methoxyphenyl)imidazo[2,1-b][1,3,4]thiadiazole (3f) showed potent inhibitory activity towards M. tuberculosis with an MIC value of 8.5 μM. The inhibitory effect of this molecule against M. tuberculosis was comparable to the standard drugs such as Pyrazinamide, Streptomycin, and Ciprofloxacin drugs. Mechanistically, an in silico analysis predicted sterol 14α-demethylase (CYP51) as the likely target and experimental activity of 3f in this system corroborated the in silico target prediction. In summary, we herein report the synthesis and biological evaluation of novel AITs against M. tuberculosis that likely target CYP51 to induce their antimycobacterial activity. PMID:26470029

  1. A Review of the Antiviral Susceptibility of Human and Avian Influenza Viruses over the Last Decade

    Ding Yuan Oh

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Antivirals play an important role in the prevention and treatment of influenza infections, particularly in high-risk or severely ill patients. Two classes of influenza antivirals have been available in many countries over the last decade (2004–2013, the adamantanes and the neuraminidase inhibitors (NAIs. During this period, widespread adamantane resistance has developed in circulating influenza viruses rendering these drugs useless, resulting in the reliance on the most widely available NAI, oseltamivir. However, the emergence of oseltamivir-resistant seasonal A(H1N1 viruses in 2008 demonstrated that NAI-resistant viruses could also emerge and spread globally in a similar manner to that seen for adamantane-resistant viruses. Previously, it was believed that NAI-resistant viruses had compromised replication and/or transmission. Fortunately, in 2013, the majority of circulating human influenza viruses remain sensitive to all of the NAIs, but significant work by our laboratory and others is now underway to understand what enables NAI-resistant viruses to retain the capacity to replicate and transmit. In this review, we describe how the susceptibility of circulating human and avian influenza viruses has changed over the last ten years and describe some research studies that aim to understand how NAI-resistant human and avian influenza viruses may emerge in the future.

  2. Pharmacological Characterization of the Spectrum of Antiviral Activity and Genetic Barrier to Drug Resistance of M2-S31N Channel Blockers.

    Ma, Chunlong; Zhang, Jiantao; Wang, Jun

    2016-09-01

    Adamantanes (amantadine and rimantadine) are one of the two classes of Food and Drug Administration-approved antiviral drugs used for the prevention and treatment of influenza A virus infections. They inhibit viral replication by blocking the wild-type (WT) M2 proton channel, thus preventing viral uncoating. However, their use was discontinued due to widespread drug resistance. Among a handful of drug-resistant mutants, M2-S31N is the predominant mutation and persists in more than 95% of currently circulating influenza A strains. We recently designed two classes of M2-S31N inhibitors, S31N-specific inhibitors and S31N/WT dual inhibitors, which are represented by N-[(5-cyclopropyl-1,2-oxazol-3-yl)methyl]adamantan-1-amine (WJ379) and N-[(5-bromothiophen-2-yl)methyl]adamantan-1-amine (BC035), respectively. However, their antiviral activities against currently circulating influenza A viruses and their genetic barrier to drug resistance are unknown. In this report, we evaluated the therapeutic potential of these two classes of M2-S31N inhibitors (WJ379 and BC035) by profiling their antiviral efficacy against multidrug-resistant influenza A viruses, in vitro drug resistance barrier, and synergistic effect with oseltamivir. We found that M2-S31N inhibitors were active against several influenza A viruses that are resistant to one or both classes of Food and Drug Administration-approved anti-influenza drugs. In addition, M2-S31N inhibitors display a higher in vitro genetic barrier to drug resistance than amantadine. The antiviral effect of WJ379 was also synergistic with oseltamivir carboxylate. Overall, these results reaffirm that M2-S31N inhibitors are promising antiviral drug candidates that warrant further development. PMID:27385729

  3. Designing inhibitors of M2 proton channel against H1N1 swine influenza virus.

    Qi-Shi Du

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: M2 proton channel of H1N1 influenza A virus is the target protein of anti-flu drugs amantadine and rimantadine. However, the two once powerful adamantane-based drugs lost their 90% bioactivity because of mutations of virus in recent twenty years. The NMR structure of the M2 channel protein determined by Schnell and Chou (Nature, 2008, 451, 591-595 may help people to solve the drug-resistant problem and develop more powerful new drugs against H1N1 influenza virus. METHODOLOGY: Docking calculation is performed to build the complex structure between receptor M2 proton channel and ligands, including existing drugs amantadine and rimantadine, and two newly designed inhibitors. The computer-aided drug design methods are used to calculate the binding free energies, with the computational biology techniques to analyze the interactions between M2 proton channel and adamantine-based inhibitors. CONCLUSIONS: 1 The NMR structure of M2 proton channel provides a reliable structural basis for rational drug design against influenza virus. 2 The channel gating mechanism and the inhibiting mechanism of M2 proton channel, revealed by the NMR structure of M2 proton channel, provides the new ideas for channel inhibitor design. 3 The newly designed adamantane-based inhibitors based on the modeled structure of H1N1-M2 proton channel have two pharmacophore groups, which act like a "barrel hoop", holding two adjacent helices of the H1N1-M2 tetramer through the two pharmacophore groups outside the channel. 4 The inhibitors with such binding mechanism may overcome the drug resistance problem of influenza A virus to the adamantane-based drugs.

  4. Reaction mechanisms of ruthenium tetroxide mediated oxidations of organic compounds

    Froehaug, Astrid Elisabeth

    1995-12-31

    This thesis reports a study of the mechanism of ruthenium tetroxide mediated oxidations of saturated hydrocarbons, ethers, alkenes and alcohols. Several methods were used. The RuO{sub 4}-mediated oxidations of adamantane and cis-decalin were studied in CCl{sub 4}-CH{sub 3}CN-H{sub 2}O and in acetone-water. The rate of reaction was found to be moderately influenced by the polarity of the solvent. Solvent properties other than the polarity were also found to influence the reaction rates. From the oxidations of adamantane and adamantane-1,3,5,7-d{sub 4} two primary kinetic deuterium isotope effects were found. These were comparable with the deuterium isotope effects found for the analogous oxidations of cis-decalin and cis-decalin-d{sub 18}. The results seem to exclude both a one step hydride abstraction reaction mechanism and a one step concerted mechanism, as well as a scheme where two such mechanisms compete. The observations may be explained by a two step reaction mechanism consisting of a pre-equilibrium with formation of a substrate-RuO{sub 4} complex followed by a concerted rate determining reaction. The RuO{sub 4}-mediated oxidation of ethers was of kinetic second order with a small enthalpy of activation and a large negative entropy of activation. Oxidation of cyclopropylmethyl methyl ether gave methyl cyclopropanecarboxylate, no rearranged products were observed. On RuO{sub 4} oxidations in CCl{sub 4} with NaIO{sub 4} as stoichiometric oxidant, no chlorinated products were observed. Several observations not in agreement with a hydride or a hydrogen abstraction mechanism may be explained by assuming that the reaction proceeds by either a concerted reaction or by a reversible oxidative addition of the ether to RuO{sub 4} followed by a slow concerted step. 228 refs., 9 figs., 27 tabs.

  5. Dual-responsive colloidal microcapsules based on host-guest interaction on solid templates.

    Li, Guangyu; Dong, Zhirui; Zhu, Yuting; Tong, Weijun; Gao, Changyou

    2016-08-01

    Colloidal microcapsules (MCs) have received considerable attention in the fields of microencapsulation, drug delivery as well as microreactors due to their unique nanoparticles-composed structure. In this study, dual-responsive colloidal MCs based on host-guest interaction were successfully fabricated via a layer-by-layer assembly method on sacrificial solid templates. Ferrocene-modified polyethylenimine (PEI-Fc) and cyclodextrin-modified polystyrene nanoparticles (PS-CD NPs) were used as building blocks for assembly. The colloidal MCs could be disassembled into nano-components upon addition of competitive adamantane (Ad) molecules or in the solution with a pH lower than 4. PMID:27175830

  6. Plasma microreactor in supercritical xenon and its application to diamondoid synthesis

    Oshima, F.; Stauss, S.; Ishii, C.; Pai, D. Z.; Terashima, K.

    2012-10-01

    The generation of plasmas in a microreactor is demonstrated in xenon from atmospheric pressure up to supercritical conditions. Ac high voltage at a frequency of 15 kHz was applied across a 25-µm discharge gap between a tungsten wire and a fused silica micro-capillary tube in a coaxial configuration. Using this continuous flow supercritical fluid microreactor, it was possible to synthesize diamantane and other diamondoids up to nonamantane, using adamantane as a precursor and seed. It is anticipated that plasmas generated in supercritical fluid microreactors may not only allow faster fabrication of diamondoids, but also offer opportunities for the fabrication of other nanomaterials.

  7. LC-MS study of ruthenium catalysts of water oxidation in artificial photosynthesis

    Dzhabieva, Z. M.; Martynenko, V. M.; Temnova, M. L.; Yakutkina, O. V.; Dzhabiev, T. S.; Shilov, A. E.

    2014-05-01

    Catalysts of water oxidation for artificial photosynthesis, formed from the binuclear oxysulfate ruthenium(IV) complex K4[Ru2(SO4)2(μ-SO4)2(μ-O)2] · 2H2O, are studied via chromatography-mass spectrometry. It is shown that these new catalysts do not contain organic ligands and are more stable and active than the familiar blue dimer [(bpy)2Ru(OH)2]2O4+ and its analogues. It is found that adamantane-like tetra-nuclear and octanuclear ruthenium clusters are active catalysts that oxidize water to oxygen and oxozone O4, respectively.

  8. Host-Guest Complexation Studied by Fluorescence Correlation Spectroscopy: Adamantane–Cyclodextrin Inclusion

    Wajih Al-Soufi

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available The host-guest complexation between an Alexa 488 labelled adamantane derivative and β-cyclodextrin is studied by Fluorescence Correlation Spectroscopy (FCS. A 1:1 complex stoichiometry and a high association equilibrium constant of K = 5.2 × 104 M-1 are obtained in aqueous solution at 25 °C and pH = 6. The necessary experimental conditions are discussed. FCS proves to be an excellent method for the determination of stoichiometry and association equilibrium constant of this type of complexes, where both host and guest are nonfluorescent and which are therefore not easily amenable to standard fluorescence spectroscopic methods.

  9. Host-Guest Complexation Studied by Fluorescence Correlation Spectroscopy: Adamantane–Cyclodextrin Inclusion

    Wajih Al-Soufi; Mercedes Novo; Maria Jesus Pérez-Alvite; Jorge Bordello; Daniel Granadero

    2010-01-01

    The host-guest complexation between an Alexa 488 labelled adamantane derivative and β-cyclodextrin is studied by Fluorescence Correlation Spectroscopy (FCS). A 1:1 complex stoichiometry and a high association equilibrium constant of K = 5.2 × 104 M-1 are obtained in aqueous solution at 25 °C and pH = 6. The necessary experimental conditions are discussed. FCS proves to be an excellent method for the determination of stoichiometry and association equilibrium constant of this type of complexes,...

  10. Superstructures of fluorescent cyclodextrin via click-reaction

    Arkadius Maciollek

    2013-04-01

    Full Text Available Mono-(6-azido-6-deoxy-β-cyclodextrin (CD was covalently attached to an alkyne-modified 5-methyl-2-(pyridin-2-ylthiazol-4-ol yielding a fluorophore containing CD in a click-type reaction. Intermolecular complexes were formed by poly(host–guest-interactions. The supramolecular structures were characterized by 1H NMR-ROESY spectroscopy, dynamic light scattering, UV–vis spectroscopy, fluorescence spectroscopy, and asymmetric flow field-flow fractionation. By adding potassium adamantane-1-carboxylate, the thiazol dye is displaced from the CD-cavity and the elongated noncovalent polymeric structures collapse.

  11. Drug: D00777 [KEGG MEDICUS

    Full Text Available 28 187.7096 D00777.gif Antiviral, Antiparkinsonian [DS:H00057 H00398] Same as: C07939 Therapeutic category: ...ansporter: SLC22A2 [HSA:6582] map07044 Antiviral agents map07057 Antiparkinsonian agents map07235 N-Metyl-D-...rvous system and sensory organs 11 Agents affecting central nervous system 116 Antiparkinson...ation [BR:br08302] Antiparkinson Agents Antiparkinson Agents, Other Amantadine D0...04BB Adamantane derivatives N04BB01 Amantadine D00777 Amantadine hydrochloride (JP16/USP) USP drug classific

  12. Atomistic Study of the Encapsulation of Diamondoids Inside Carbon Nanotubes

    Troche, Karla S.; Coluci, Vitor R.; Galvao, Douglas S.

    2007-01-01

    The encapsulation of hydrogen-terminated nanosized diamond fragments (the so-called diamondoids) into armchair single walled carbon nanotubes with diameters in the range of 1.0 up to 2.2 nm has been investigated using classical molecular dynamics simulations. Diameter dependent molecular ordered phases were found for the encapsulation of adamantane (C10H16), diamantane (C14H20), and dihydroxy diamantane (C14H20O2). The same types of chiral ordered phases (double, triple, 4- and 5-stranded hel...

  13. Self-refocused slice selection by magic echo DANTE with 270° flipping Gaussian RF modulation

    Masumoto, Hidefumi; Hashimoto, Takeyuki; Matsui, Shigeru

    2010-04-01

    The method of slice selection proposed for solid-state MRI by combining DANTE selective excitation with magic echo (ME) line narrowing requires a rephasing period ca. 0.6 times the DANTE excitation period. The added rephasing period results in a significant loss of sensitivity due to transverse relaxation. To solve the sensitivity problem, we make use of the self-refocusing effect of the 270° Gaussian-shaped soft pulse by introducing a 270° flipping Gaussian modulation to the ME DANTE method. This eliminates the rephasing period. The utility of the improved method is demonstrated by experiments performed on test samples of adamantane and polycarbonate.

  14. A molecular dynamics simulation study of diffuse x-ray scattering from C{sub 10}H{sub 16}

    Lonie, S

    1997-09-01

    Adamantane C{sub 10}H{sub 16} is an interesting archetypal plastic crystal which has been extensively studied. It undergoes transition from a low temperature ordered phase to a high temperature disordered phase at T=208.6K. The C{sub 10}H{sub 16} molecule has tetrahedral symmetry and the orientational disorder in the plastic phase has been interpreted in terms of the distribution of the molecules between two equally preferred orientations. A molecular dynamics simulation of C{sub 10}H{sub 16} has been carried out using the CCP5 Library program moliq-dynamo, written by Dr. D. Fincham of Keele University. The simulation model consists of rigid molecules interacting with an atom-atom pairwise additive potential. The dynamics of the adamantane molecules in the plastic phase have been investigated and results have been compared with previous work. The molecular trajectories generated by the simulation have been used to evaluate the intensity of diffuse x-ray scattering from the crystal. Results have been compared with experimental data obtained from energy-dispersive x-ray scattering measurements made at the Daresbury SRS. Using a series of simplified models of the crystal, the relative contributions to the scattered intensity from translational and orientational disorder have been investigated. (author)

  15. A molecular dynamics simulation study of diffuse x-ray scattering from C10H16

    Adamantane C10H16 is an interesting archetypal plastic crystal which has been extensively studied. It undergoes transition from a low temperature ordered phase to a high temperature disordered phase at T=208.6K. The C10H16 molecule has tetrahedral symmetry and the orientational disorder in the plastic phase has been interpreted in terms of the distribution of the molecules between two equally preferred orientations. A molecular dynamics simulation of C10H16 has been carried out using the CCP5 Library program moliq-dynamo, written by Dr. D. Fincham of Keele University. The simulation model consists of rigid molecules interacting with an atom-atom pairwise additive potential. The dynamics of the adamantane molecules in the plastic phase have been investigated and results have been compared with previous work. The molecular trajectories generated by the simulation have been used to evaluate the intensity of diffuse x-ray scattering from the crystal. Results have been compared with experimental data obtained from energy-dispersive x-ray scattering measurements made at the Daresbury SRS. Using a series of simplified models of the crystal, the relative contributions to the scattered intensity from translational and orientational disorder have been investigated. (author)

  16. Polycyclic amines as chloroquine resistance modulating agents in Plasmodium falciparum.

    Joubert, Jacques; Kapp, Erika; Taylor, Dale; Smith, Peter J; Malan, Sarel F

    2016-02-15

    Pentacycloundecylamines (PCUs) and adamantane amines, such as NGP1-01 (1) and amantadine, have shown significant channel blocking activities. They are postulated to act as chemosensitizers and circumvent the resistance of the plasmodia parasite against chloroquine (CQ) by inhibiting the p-glycoprotein efflux pump and enabling the accumulation of CQ inside the parasite digestive vacuole. Twelve polycyclic amines containing either a PCU or adamantane amine moiety conjugated to different aromatic functionalities through various tethered linkers were selected based on their channel blocking abilities and evaluated as potential chemosensitizers. Compounds 2, 4, 5 and 10 showed significant voltage-gated calcium channel (VGCC) blocking ability (IC50=0.27-35 μM) and were able to alter the CQ IC50 in differing degrees (45-81%) in the multidrug resistant Plasmodium falciparum Dd2 isolate. Among them, the PCU-dansyl amine compound (4) displayed the best potential to act as a chemosensitizer against the Dd2 strain at a 1 μM concentration (RMI=0.19) while displaying moderate antiplasmodial activity (Dd2 IC50=6.25 μM) and low in vitro cytotoxicity against a mammalian cell line (CHO, IC50=119 μM). Compounds 2 and 10 also showed some promising chemosensitizing abilities (RMI=0.36 and 0.35 respectively). A direct correlation was found between the VGCC blocking ability of these polycyclic amines and their capacity to act as CQ resistance modulating agents. PMID:26832222

  17. Supramolecular Probes for Assessing Glutamine Uptake Enable Semi-Quantitative Metabolic Models in Single Cells.

    Xue, Min; Wei, Wei; Su, Yapeng; Johnson, Dazy; Heath, James R

    2016-03-01

    We describe a supramolecular surface competition assay for quantifying glutamine uptake from single cells. Cy3-labeled cyclodextrins were immobilized on a glass surface as a supramolecular host/FRET donor, and adamantane-BHQ2 conjugates were employed as the guest/quencher. An adamantane-labeled glutamine analog was selected through screening a library of compounds and validated by cell uptake experiments. When integrated onto a single cell barcode chip with a multiplex panel of 15 other metabolites, associated metabolic enzymes, and phosphoproteins, the resultant data provided input for a steady-state model that describes energy potential in single cells and correlates that potential with receptor tyrosine kinase signaling. We utilize this integrated assay to interrogate a dose-dependent response of model brain cancer cells to EGFR inhibition. We find that low-dose (1 μM erlotinib) drugging actually increases cellular energy potential even as glucose uptake and phosphoprotein signaling is repressed. We also identify new interactions between phosphoprotein signaling and cellular energy processes that may help explain the facile resistance exhibited by certain cancer patients to EGFR inhibitors. PMID:26916347

  18. Cyclodextrin capped gold nanoparticles as a delivery vehicle for a prodrug of cisplatin.

    Shi, Yi; Goodisman, Jerry; Dabrowiak, James C

    2013-08-19

    In this work, we explore the use of a quick coupling mechanism for "arming" a cyclodextrin coated gold nanoparticle (AuNP) delivery vehicle, 2, with an adamantane-oxoplatin conjugate that is a prodrug of cisplatin, 3, to produce a cytotoxic nanodrug, 4. The two-part arming system, which utilizes the well-known guest-host interaction between β-cyclodextrin and adamantane, may be useful for rapidly constituting polyfunctional nanodrugs prior to their application in chemotherapy. The 4.7 ± 1.1 nm delivery vehicle, 2, coated with per-6-thio-β-cyclodextrin (βSCD), was characterized using transmission electron microscopy and absorption spectroscopy, and the density of surface-attached βSCD molecules, ∼210 βSCD/AuNP, was determined using thermogravimetric analysis. Because (13)C NMR spectra of βSCD used in the study exhibited disulfide linkages and the observed surface density on the AuNP exceeded that possible for a close-packed mono layer, a fraction of the surface-attached βSCD molecules on the particle were oligomerized through disulfide linkages. Determination of the binding constant, K, for the 3-βCD interaction using (1)H NMR chemical shifts was complicated by the self-association of 3 to form a dimer through its conjugated adamantane residue. With a dimerization constant of K2 = 26.7 M(-1), the value of K for the 3-βCD interaction (1:1 stoichiometry) is 400-800 M(-1), which is lower than the value, K = 1.4 × 10(3) M(-1), measured for the 2-3 interaction using ICP-MS. Optical microscopy showed that when neuroblastoma SK-N-SH cells are treated with the nanodrug, 4 (2+3), clusters of gold nanoparticles are observed in the nuclear regions of living cells within 24 h after exposure, but, at later times when most cells are dying or dead, clustering is no longer observed. Treating the cells with 4 for 72 h gave percent inhibitions that are lower than that of cisplatin, suggesting that the Pt(IV) ions in 4 may be incompletely reduced to cytotoxic Pt

  19. View at Croatian Chemistry through Meetings of Croatian

    Trinajstić, N.

    2007-10-01

    Full Text Available The 20th Croatian meeting of chemists and chemical engineers was a proper occasion to consider the past meetings and their role in the development of Croatian chemistry and chemical engineering last 40 years, because these meetings reflect to a large extent the state of these sciences in Croatia. The circumstances that lead to establishment of the Croatian meetings of chemists and chemical engineers and the role of Professor Marijan Laaan (1919-1981 who started these meetings by organizing the first one are described. He also organized the second and the seventh meeting. All persons who chaired these meetings are mentioned, as well as all the lecturers who won the Nobel Prize in chemistry. Especially emphasized is the participation of Vladimir Prelog (1906-1998 since the twentieth meeting was dedicated to him and to Leopold Ružička (1887-1976 - two excellent Croatian chemists who for their first-class research in organic chemistry won the Nobel Prize (Ružička in 1939 and Prelog 1975. The places where the meetings were held are listed. The structure of the meetings when the change of the meetings' title happened is delineated and the representation of various branches of chemistry according to the number of contributions is discussed. Similarly, the Croatian institutions according to the number ofcontributions of their staff-members and the contributors with the highest number of communications at each meeting are pointed out. Emphasized is the international character of these meetings and the countries from which the participants came are listed. Finally, only one contribution is discussed in detail - the report by Kata Mlinarić-Majerski and Zdenko Majerski on the preparation of [3.1.1]propellane inserted in the structure of adamantane. Adamantane chemistry in Croatia started with the first ever adamantane synthesis in 1941, when Prelog and Seiwerth prepared this cage hydrocarbon and is still going strong due to efforts by Kata Mlinaria

  20. Role of hydrophilicity and length of diblock arms for determining star polymer physical properties.

    Felberg, Lisa E; Brookes, David H; Head-Gordon, Teresa; Rice, Julia E; Swope, William C

    2015-01-22

    We present a molecular simulation study of star polymers consisting of 16 diblock copolymer arms bound to a small adamantane core by varying both arm length and the outer hydrophilic block when attached to the same hydrophobic block of poly-δ-valerolactone. Here we consider two biocompatible star polymers in which the hydrophilic block is composed of polyethylene glycol (PEG) or polymethyloxazoline (POXA) in addition to a polycarbonate-based polymer with a pendant hydrophilic group (PC1). We find that the different hydrophilic blocks of the star polymers show qualitatively different trends in their interactions with aqueous solvent, orientational time correlation functions, and orientational correlation between pairs of monomers of their polymeric arms in solution, in which we find that the PEG polymers are more thermosensitive compared with the POXA and PC1 star polymers over the physiological temperature range we have investigated. PMID:25254622

  1. Crystal growth of CVD diamond and some of its peculiarities

    Piekarczyk, W

    1999-01-01

    Experiments demonstrate that CVD diamond can form in gas environments that are carbon undersaturated with respect to diamond. This fact is, among others, the most serious violation of principles of chemical thermodynamics. In this $9 paper it is shown that none of the principles is broken when CVD diamond formation is considered not a physical process consisting in growth of crystals but a chemical process consisting in accretion of macro-molecules of polycyclic $9 saturated hydrocarbons belonging to the family of organic compounds the smallest representatives of which are adamantane, diamantane, triamantane and so forth. Since the polymantane macro-molecules are in every respect identical with $9 diamond single crystals with hydrogen-terminated surfaces, the accretion of polymantane macro- molecules is a process completely equivalent to the growth of diamond crystals. However, the accretion of macro-molecules must be $9 described in a way different from that used to describe the growth of crystals because so...

  2. Crystal structure of the quaternary compounds CuFe2AlSe4 and CuFe2GaSe4 from X-ray powder diffraction

    G E Delgado; A J Mora; P Grima-Gallardo; M Muñoz; S Durán; M Quintero; J M Briceño

    2015-08-01

    The crystal structure of the quaternary compounds CuFe2AlSe4 and CuFe2GaSe4, belonging to the system I–II2–III–VI4, were characterized using X-ray powder diffraction data. Both compounds crystallize in the tetragonal space group I42m (No. 121), = 2, with unit cell parameters = 5.609(1) Å, = 10.963(2) Å for CuFe2AlSe4 and = 5.6165(3) Å, = 11.075(1) Å for CuFe2GaSe4. These compounds are isostructural with CuFe2InSe4, and have a normal adamantane stannite structure.

  3. Preparation and crystal structure characterization of CuNiGaSe3 and CuNiInSe3 quaternary compounds

    G E Delgado; A J Mora; P Grima-Gallardo; S Durán; M Muñoz; M Quintero

    2010-10-01

    Samples of the quaternary chalcogenide compounds, CuNiGaSe3 and CuNiInSe3, prepared by direct fusion and annealing method, were characterized by X-ray powder diffraction. In each case, the crystal structure was refined using the Rietveld method. Both compounds were found to crystallize in the tetragonal system, space group $\\bar{4}$2 (N°112), with unit cell parameter values = 5.6213(1) Å, = 11.0282(3) Å, = 348.48(1) Å3 and = 5.7857(2) Å, = 11.6287(5) Å, = 389.26(3) Å3 for CuNiGaSe3 and CuNiInSe3, respectively. These compounds have a normal adamantane structures and are isostructural with CuFeInSe3.

  4. Continuous probe of cold complex molecules with infrared frequency comb spectroscopy

    Spaun, Ben; Patterson, David; Bjork, Bryce J; Heckl, Oliver H; Doyle, John M; Ye, Jun

    2016-01-01

    Cavity-enhanced frequency comb spectroscopy for molecule detection in the mid-infrared powerfully combines high resolution, high sensitivity, and broad spectral coverage. However, this technique, and essentially all spectroscopic methods, is limited in application to relatively small, simple molecules. Here we integrate comb spectroscopy with continuous, cold samples of molecules produced via buffer gas cooling, thus enabling the study of significantly more complex molecules. We report simultaneous gains in resolution, sensitivity, and bandwidth and demonstrate this combined capability with the first rotationally resolved direct absorption spectra in the CH stretch region of several complex molecules. These include nitromethane (CH$_3$NO$_2$), a model system that presents challenging questions to the understanding of large amplitude vibrational motion, as well as several large organic molecules with fundamental spectroscopic and astrochemical relevance, including naphthalene (C$_{10}$H$_8$), adamantane (C$_{1...

  5. Ruthenium-Immobilized Periodic Mesoporous Organosilica: Synthesis, Characterization, and Catalytic Application for Selective Oxidation of Alkanes.

    Ishito, Nobuhiro; Kobayashi, Hirokazu; Nakajima, Kiyotaka; Maegawa, Yoshifumi; Inagaki, Shinji; Hara, Kenji; Fukuoka, Atsushi

    2015-10-26

    Periodic mesoporous organosilica (PMO) is a unique material that has a crystal-like wall structure with coordination sites for metal complexes. A Ru complex, [RuCl2 (CO)3 ]2 , is successfully immobilized onto 2,2'-bipyridine (BPy) units of PMO to form a single-site catalyst, which has been confirmed by various physicochemical analyses. Using NaClO as an oxidant, the Ru-immobilized PMO oxidizes the tertiary C-H bonds of adamantane to the corresponding alcohols at 57 times faster than the secondary C-H bonds, thereby exhibiting remarkably high regioselectivity. Moreover, the catalyst converts cis-decalin to cis-9-decalol in a 63 % yield with complete retention of the substrate stereochemistry. The Ru catalyst can be separated by simple filtration and reused without loss of the original activity and selectivity for the oxidation reactions. PMID:26330333

  6. A CCD area detector for X-ray diffraction under high pressure for rotating anode source

    Amar Sinha; Alka B Garg; V Vijayakumar; B K Godwal; S K Sikka

    2000-04-01

    Details of a two-dimensional X-ray area detector developed using a charge coupled device, a image intensifier and a fibre optic taper are given. The detector system is especially optimized for angle dispersive X-ray diffraction set up using rotating anode generator as X-ray source. The performance of this detector was tested by successfully carrying out powder X-ray diffraction measurements on various materials such as intermetallics AuIn2, AuGa2, high material Pd and low scatterer adamantane (C10H16) at ambient conditions. Its utility for quick detection of phase transitions at high pressures with diamond anvil cell is demonstrated by reproducing the known pressure induced structural transitions in RbI, KI and a new structural phase transition in AuGa2 above 10 GPa. Various softwares have also been developed to analyze data from this detector.

  7. Development of Poly(ɛ-caprolactone Scaffold Loaded with Simvastatin and Beta-Cyclodextrin Modified Hydroxyapatite Inclusion Complex for Bone Tissue Engineering

    Jung Bok Lee

    2016-02-01

    Full Text Available In this study, we developed poly(ɛ-caprolactone (PCL 3D scaffolds using a solid free form fabrication (SFF technique. β-cyclodextrin (βCD was grafted to hydroxyapatite (HAp and this βCD grafted HAp was coated onto the PCL scaffold surface, followed by drug loading through an inclusion complex interaction between the βCD and adamantane (AD or between βCD and simvastatin (SIM. The scaffold structure was characterized by scanning electron microscopy (SEM. The release profile of simvastatin in the β-CD grafted HAp was also evaluated. Osteogenic differentiation of adipose-derived stromal cells (ADSCs was examined using an alkaline phosphatase activity (ALP assay. The results suggest that drug loaded PCL-HAp 3-D scaffolds enhances osteogenic differentiation of ADSCs.

  8. Effective one-body dynamics in multiple-quantum NMR experiments

    Rufeil-Fiori, E.; Sánchez, C. M.; Oliva, F. Y.; Pastawski, H. M.; Levstein, P. R.

    2009-03-01

    A suitable NMR experiment in a one-dimensional dipolar coupled spin system allows one to reduce the natural many-body dynamics into effective one-body dynamics. We verify this in a polycrystalline sample of hydroxyapatite (HAp) by monitoring the excitation of NMR many-body superposition states: the multiple-quantum coherences. The observed effective one-dimensionality of HAp relies on the quasi-one-dimensional structure of the dipolar coupled network that, as we show here, is dynamically enhanced by the quantum Zeno effect. Decoherence is also probed through a Loschmidt echo experiment, where the time reversal is implemented on the double-quantum Hamiltonian, HDQ∝Ii+Ij++Ii-Ij- . We contrast the decoherence of adamantane, a standard three-dimensional system, with that of HAp. While the first shows an abrupt Fermi-type decay, HAp presents a smooth exponential law.

  9. Controlled synthesis and inclusion ability of a hyaluronic acid derivative bearing beta-cyclodextrin molecules.

    Charlot, Aurélia; Heyraud, Alain; Guenot, Pierre; Rinaudo, Marguerite; Auzély-Velty, Rachel

    2006-03-01

    A new synthetic route to beta-cyclodextrin-linked hyaluronic acid (HA-CD) was developed. This was based on the preparation of a HA derivative selectively modified with adipic dihydrazide (HA-ADH) and a beta-cyclodextrin derivative possessing an aldehyde function on the primary face, followed by their coupling by a reductive amination-type reaction. The CD-polysaccharide was fully characterized in terms of chemical integrity and purity by high-resolution NMR spectroscopy. The complexation ability of the grafted CD was further demonstrated by isothermal titration calorimetry using sodium adamantane acetate (ADAc) and Ibuprofen as model guest molecules. The thermodynamic parameters for the complexation of these negatively charged guest molecules by the beta-CD grafted on negatively charged HA were shown to be largely influenced by the ionic strength of the aqueous medium. PMID:16529430

  10. Collision dynamics of polyatomic molecules containing carbon rings at low temperatures

    Li, Zhiying; Heller, Eric J. [Department of Physics, Harvard University, Cambridge, Massachusetts 02138 (United States); Krems, Roman V. [Department of Chemistry, The University of British Columbia, Vancouver, British Columbia V6T 1Z1 (Canada)

    2014-09-14

    We explore the collision dynamics of complex hydrocarbon molecules (benzene, coronene, adamantane, and anthracene) containing carbon rings in a cold buffer gas of {sup 3}He. For benzene, we present a comparative analysis of the fully classical and fully quantum calculations of elastic and inelastic scattering cross sections at collision energies between 1 and 10 cm{sup −1}. The quantum calculations are performed using the time-independent coupled channel approach and the coupled-states approximation. We show that the coupled-states approximation is accurate at collision energies between 1 and 20 cm{sup −1}. For the classical dynamics calculations, we develop an approach exploiting the rigidity of the carbon rings and including low-energy vibrational modes without holonomic constraints. Our results illustrate the effect of the molecular shape and the vibrational degrees of freedom on the formation of long-lived resonance states that lead to low-temperature clustering.

  11. Cyclodextrin-Based [1]Rotaxanes on Gold Nanoparticles

    Yanli Zhao

    2012-08-01

    Full Text Available Transformation of mechanically interlocked molecules (e.g., rotaxanes and catenanes into nanoscale materials or devices is an important step towards their real applications. In our current work, an azobenzene-modified β-cyclodextrin (β-CD derivative that can form a self-inclusion complex in aqueous solution was prepared. The self-included β-CD derivative was then functionalized onto a gold nanoparticle (AuNP surface via a ligand-exchange reaction in aqueous solution, leading to the formation of AuNP-[1]rotaxane hybrids. Corresponding non-self-included β-CD derivative functionalized AuNPs were also developed in a DMF/H2O mixture solution for control experiments. These hybrids were fully characterized by UV-vis and circular dichroism spectroscopies, together with transmission electron microscopy (TEM. The competitive binding behavior of the hybrids with an adamantane dimer was investigated.

  12. Self-Healing, Expansion-Contraction, and Shape-Memory Properties of a Preorganized Supramolecular Hydrogel through Host-Guest Interactions.

    Miyamae, Kohei; Nakahata, Masaki; Takashima, Yoshinori; Harada, Akira

    2015-07-27

    Supramolecular materials cross-linked between polymer chains by noncovalent bonds have the potential to provide dynamic functions that are not produced by covalently cross-linked polymeric materials. We focused on the formation of supramolecular polymeric materials through host-guest interactions: a powerful method for the creation of nonconventional materials. We employed two different kinds of host-guest inclusion complexes of β-cyclodextrin (βCD) with adamantane (Ad) and ferrocene (Fc) to bind polymers together to form a supramolecular hydrogel (βCD-Ad-Fc gel). The βCD-Ad-Fc gel showed self-healing ability when damaged and responded to redox stimuli by expansion or contraction. Moreover, the βCD-Ad-Fc gel showed a redox-responsive shape-morphing effect. We thus succeeded in deriving three functions from the introduction of two kinds of functional units into a supramolecular material. PMID:26080301

  13. Investigation of Solvent Effects on NMR Shielding Tensors of Tripeptide Tyr-Aaa-Gly

    Ebrahim Balali

    2014-09-01

    Full Text Available The unique structure of adamantane is reflected in its highly unusual physical and chemical properties, which can have many applications including drug design and drug delivery. Tripeptide Tyr-Aaa-Gly is methionine-enkephalin analogues [Aaa = (R,S-(1-adamantylglycine]. In this research, according to Quantum-mechanical calculations nuclear, shielding parameters of Tripeptide Tyr-Aaa-Gly, such as chemical shift isotropic value (σiso and the anisotropy shielding (σaniso , ∆σ, and other parameter such as δ, η and atomic charge water have been taken into account using GIAO method at the HF method with the 3-21G, 6-31G and 6-31G* basis sets and at the B3LYP method with the 3-21G, 6-31G and STO-3G basis sets in the gas phase and in different solvents such as, DMSO, methanol, ethanol and dichloromethane.

  14. Simultaneous expression and transportation of insulin by supramolecular polysaccharide nanocluster

    Zhang, Yu-Hui; Zhang, Ying-Ming; Zhao, Qi-Hui; Liu, Yu

    2016-03-01

    Drug/gene transportation systems with stimuli-responsive release behaviors are becoming research hotspots in biochemical and biomedical fields. In this work, a glucose-responsive supramolecular nanocluster was successfully constructed by the intermolecular complexation of phenylboronic acid modified β-cyclodextrin with adamantane modified polyethylenimine, which could be used as a biocompatible carrier for insulin and pCMV3-C-GFPSpark-Ins DNA which could express insulin co-delivery. Benefiting from the response capability of phenylboronic acid moiety toward glucose, the encapsulated insulin could be specifically released and the corresponding targeted DNA could efficiently express insulin in HepG2 cell, accompanied by the high-level insulin release in vitro. Our results demonstrate that the simultaneous insulin drug delivery and insulin gene transfection in a controlled mode may have great potential in the clinical diabetes treatments.

  15. H1N1 2009 pandemic influenza virus: resistance of the I223R neuraminidase mutant explained by kinetic and structural analysis.

    Erhard van der Vries

    2012-09-01

    Full Text Available Two classes of antiviral drugs, neuraminidase inhibitors and adamantanes, are approved for prophylaxis and therapy against influenza virus infections. A major concern is that antiviral resistant viruses emerge and spread in the human population. The 2009 pandemic H1N1 virus is already resistant to adamantanes. Recently, a novel neuraminidase inhibitor resistance mutation I223R was identified in the neuraminidase of this subtype. To understand the resistance mechanism of this mutation, the enzymatic properties of the I223R mutant, together with the most frequently observed resistance mutation, H275Y, and the double mutant I223R/H275Y were compared. Relative to wild type, K(M values for MUNANA increased only 2-fold for the single I223R mutant and up to 8-fold for the double mutant. Oseltamivir inhibition constants (K(I increased 48-fold in the single I223R mutant and 7500-fold in the double mutant. In both cases the change was largely accounted for by an increased dissociation rate constant for oseltamivir, but the inhibition constants for zanamivir were less increased. We have used X-ray crystallography to better understand the effect of mutation I223R on drug binding. We find that there is shrinkage of a hydrophobic pocket in the active site as a result of the I223R change. Furthermore, R223 interacts with S247 which changes the rotamer it adopts and, consequently, binding of the pentoxyl substituent of oseltamivir is not as favorable as in the wild type. However, the polar glycerol substituent present in zanamivir, which mimics the natural substrate, is accommodated in the I223R mutant structure in a similar way to wild type, thus explaining the kinetic data. Our structural data also show that, in contrast to a recently reported structure, the active site of 2009 pandemic neuraminidase can adopt an open conformation.

  16. Mechanisms of Action of Novel Influenza A/M2 Viroporin Inhibitors Derived from Hexamethylene Amiloride.

    Jalily, Pouria H; Eldstrom, Jodene; Miller, Scott C; Kwan, Daniel C; Tai, Sheldon S-H; Chou, Doug; Niikura, Masahiro; Tietjen, Ian; Fedida, David

    2016-08-01

    The increasing prevalence of influenza viruses with resistance to approved antivirals highlights the need for new anti-influenza therapeutics. Here we describe the functional properties of hexamethylene amiloride (HMA)-derived compounds that inhibit the wild-type and adamantane-resistant forms of the influenza A M2 ion channel. For example, 6-(azepan-1-yl)-N-carbamimidoylnicotinamide ( 9: ) inhibits amantadine-sensitive M2 currents with 3- to 6-fold greater potency than amantadine or HMA (IC50 = 0.2 vs. 0.6 and 1.3 µM, respectively). Compound 9: competes with amantadine for M2 inhibition, and molecular docking simulations suggest that 9: binds at site(s) that overlap with amantadine binding. In addition, tert-butyl 4'-(carbamimidoylcarbamoyl)-2',3-dinitro-[1,1'-biphenyl]-4-carboxylate ( 27: ) acts both on adamantane-sensitive and a resistant M2 variant encoding a serine to asparagine 31 mutation (S31N) with improved efficacy over amantadine and HMA (IC50 = 0.6 µM and 4.4 µM, respectively). Whereas 9: inhibited in vitro replication of influenza virus encoding wild-type M2 (EC50 = 2.3 µM), both 27: and tert-butyl 4'-(carbamimidoylcarbamoyl)-2',3-dinitro-[1,1'-biphenyl]-4-carboxylate ( 26: ) preferentially inhibited viruses encoding M2(S31N) (respective EC50 = 18.0 and 1.5 µM). This finding indicates that HMA derivatives can be designed to inhibit viruses with resistance to amantadine. Our study highlights the potential of HMA derivatives as inhibitors of drug-resistant influenza M2 ion channels. PMID:27193582

  17. Diamondoid naphthenic acids cause in vivo genetic damage in gills and haemocytes of marine mussels.

    Dissanayake, Awantha; Scarlett, Alan G; Jha, Awadhesh N

    2016-04-01

    Diamondoids are polycyclic saturated hydrocarbons that possess a cage-like carbon skeleton approaching that of diamond. These 'nano-diamonds' are used in a range of industries including nanotechnologies and biomedicine. Diamondoids were thought to be highly resistant to degradation, but their presumed degradation acid products have now been found in oil sands process-affected waters (OSPW) and numerous crude oils. Recently, a diamondoid-related structure, 3-noradamantane carboxylic acid, was reported to cause genetic damage in trout hepatocytes under in vitro conditions. This particular compound has never been reported in the environment but led us to hypothesise that other more environmentally relevant diamondoid acids could also be genotoxic. We carried out in vivo exposures (3 days, semi-static) of marine mussels to two environmentally relevant diamondoid acids, 1-adamantane carboxylic acid and 3,5-dimethyladamantane carboxylic acid plus 3-noradamantane carboxylic acid with genotoxic damage assessed using the Comet assay. An initial screening test confirmed that these acids displayed varying degrees of genotoxicity to haemocytes (increased DNA damage above that of controls) when exposed in vivo to a concentration of 30 μmol L(-1). In a further test focused on 1-adamantane carboxylic acid with varying concentrations (0.6, 6 and 30 μmol L(-1)), significant (P < 0.05 %) DNA damage was observed in different target cells (viz. gills and haemocytes) at 0.6 μmol L(-1). Such a level of induced genetic damage was similar to that observed following exposure to a known genotoxin, benzo(a)pyrene (exposure concentration, 0.8 μmol L(-1)). These findings may have implications for a range of worldwide industries including oil extraction, nanotechnology and biomedicine. PMID:26884235

  18. Computational study on the conformations of CD38 and inclusion complexes of some lower-size large-ring cyclodextrins

    Ivanov, Petko; Atanassov, Emanouil; Jaime, Carlos

    2014-01-01

    The conformations of CD38 were examined by conformational search with molecular dynamics simulations using the Glycam04 force field. The results were compared with previous ones for CD26, the largest cyclodextrin for which crystal data are available. Principal component analysis (PCA) was applied for post-processing of the simulation trajectories. Limited number of modes determine the overall deformations of the macroring of CD38. The longer perimeter of the macroring allowed the formation of a form not observed so far - a three-turn helix shaped as a short tube. In analogy with CD26, significant participation was monitored for conformations of CD38 with one-turn spirals at the opposite sides of the macroring linked together from the 'bottom' and from the 'top' with extended bridge spacers. Computationally were examined for the first time inclusion complexes of some lower-size LR-CDs, namely complexes of CDn (n = 13, 14, 26) with adamantane and of CD14 with 1-hydroxyadamantane. The macroring conformation of CD13 was not altered by the inclusion of the substrate molecule which acquired preferred positioning not in the middle of the cavity but rather close to the glucose residues at one of the sides. The same positioning of the small molecule in the cavity of the more flexible CD14 macroring enhanced the appearance of bent onto two conformation of this cyclodextrin. The most interesting behaviour presented the complex of CD26 with adamantane in which case the small molecule acts as a 'nucleation center' for the formation of a second helical turn about the substrate molecule.

  19. Triple combination of amantadine, ribavirin, and oseltamivir is highly active and synergistic against drug resistant influenza virus strains in vitro.

    Jack T Nguyen

    Full Text Available The rapid emergence and subsequent spread of the novel 2009 Influenza A/H1N1 virus (2009 H1N1 has prompted the World Health Organization to declare the first pandemic of the 21st century, highlighting the threat of influenza to public health and healthcare systems. Widespread resistance to both classes of influenza antivirals (adamantanes and neuraminidase inhibitors occurs in both pandemic and seasonal viruses, rendering these drugs to be of marginal utility in the treatment modality. Worldwide, virtually all 2009 H1N1 and seasonal H3N2 strains are resistant to the adamantanes (rimantadine and amantadine, and the majority of seasonal H1N1 strains are resistant to oseltamivir, the most widely prescribed neuraminidase inhibitor (NAI. To address the need for more effective therapy, we evaluated the in vitro activity of a triple combination antiviral drug (TCAD regimen composed of drugs with different mechanisms of action against drug-resistant seasonal and 2009 H1N1 influenza viruses. Amantadine, ribavirin, and oseltamivir, alone and in combination, were tested against amantadine- and oseltamivir-resistant influenza A viruses using an in vitro infection model in MDCK cells. Our data show that the triple combination was highly synergistic against drug-resistant viruses, and the synergy of the triple combination was significantly greater than the synergy of any double combination tested (P<0.05, including the combination of two NAIs. Surprisingly, amantadine and oseltamivir contributed to the antiviral activity of the TCAD regimen against amantadine- and oseltamivir-resistant viruses, respectively, at concentrations where they had no activity as single agents, and at concentrations that were clinically achievable. Our data demonstrate that the TCAD regimen composed of amantadine, ribavirin, and oseltamivir is highly synergistic against resistant viruses, including 2009 H1N1. The TCAD regimen overcomes baseline drug resistance to both classes of

  20. Multidrug resistant 2009 A/H1N1 influenza clinical isolate with a neuraminidase I223R mutation retains its virulence and transmissibility in ferrets.

    Erhard van der Vries

    2011-09-01

    Full Text Available Only two classes of antiviral drugs, neuraminidase inhibitors and adamantanes, are approved for prophylaxis and therapy against influenza virus infections. A major concern is that influenza virus becomes resistant to these antiviral drugs and spreads in the human population. The 2009 pandemic A/H1N1 influenza virus is naturally resistant to adamantanes. Recently a novel neuraminidase I223R mutation was identified in an A/H1N1 virus showing cross-resistance to the neuraminidase inhibitors oseltamivir, zanamivir and peramivir. However, the ability of this virus to cause disease and spread in the human population is unknown. Therefore, this clinical isolate (NL/2631-R223 was compared with a well-characterized reference virus (NL/602. In vitro experiments showed that NL/2631-I223R replicated as well as NL/602 in MDCK cells. In a ferret pathogenesis model, body weight loss was similar in animals inoculated with NL/2631-R223 or NL/602. In addition, pulmonary lesions were similar at day 4 post inoculation. However, at day 7 post inoculation, NL/2631-R223 caused milder pulmonary lesions and degree of alveolitis than NL/602. This indicated that the mutant virus was less pathogenic. Both NL/2631-R223 and a recombinant virus with a single I223R change (recNL/602-I223R, transmitted among ferrets by aerosols, despite observed attenuation of recNL/602-I223R in vitro. In conclusion, the I223R mutated virus isolate has comparable replicative ability and transmissibility, but lower pathogenicity than the reference virus based on these in vivo studies. This implies that the 2009 pandemic influenza A/H1N1 virus subtype with an isoleucine to arginine change at position 223 in the neuraminidase has the potential to spread in the human population. It is important to be vigilant for this mutation in influenza surveillance and to continue efforts to increase the arsenal of antiviral drugs to combat influenza.

  1. Effects of soluble epoxide hydrolase inhibitor on the expression of fatty acid synthase in peripheral blood mononuclear cell in patients with acute coronary syndrome

    Zhao Xuan

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Researches have shown that soluble epoxide hydrolase inhibitors (sEHi can protect against the development of atherosclerosis. Simultaneously, emerging evidences have implicated the association between fatty acid synthase (FAS and acute coronary syndrome (ACS. We tested the hypothesis that sEHi could reduce the occurrence of ACS by regulating FAS. Methods Hospitalized ACS patients were selected as the ACS group (n = 65 while healthy normal subjects as the control group (n = 65. The blood levels of lipoproteins, fasting glucose, myocardial enzyme and high-sensitivity C-reactive protein (hs-CRP were measured within 24 hours after admission. The peripheral blood mononuclear cells (PBMCs were isolated and cultured. Trans-4-[4-(3-Adamantan-1-ylureidocyclohexyloxy] benzoic acid (t-AUCB, a kind of sEHi, was then added to cells in various concentrations (0, 10, 50, 100 μmol/L. The expression of FAS, interleukin-6 (IL-6 mRNA and protein was detected by real-time PCR or Western blot, respectively. Results (1 Compared with the control group, the serum concentration of hs-CRP in the ACS group was increased (PPPPP Conclusions sEH inhibition regulated FAS and inhibited inflammation in cultured PBMCs from ACS patients, a mechanism that might prevent rupture of atherosclerotic lesions and protect against development of ACS.

  2. Two-photon Lee-Goldburg nuclear magnetic resonance: Simultaneous homonuclear decoupling and signal acquisition

    We present NMR signals from a strongly coupled homonuclear spin system, 1H nuclei in adamantane, acquired with simultaneous two-photon excitation under conditions of the Lee-Goldburg experiment. Small coils, having inside diameters of 0.36 mm, are used to achieve two-photon nutation frequencies of ∼20 kHz. The very large rf field strengths required give rise to large Bloch-Siegert shifts that cannot be neglected. These experiments are found to be extremely sensitive to inhomogeneity of the applied rf field, and due to the Bloch-Siegert shift, exhibit a large asymmetry in response between the upper and lower Lee-Goldburg offsets. Two-photon excitation has the potential to enhance both the sensitivity and performance of homonuclear dipolar decoupling, but is made challenging by the high rf power required and the difficulties introduced by the inhomogeneous Bloch-Siegert shift. We briefly discuss a variation of the frequency-switched Lee-Goldburg technique, called four-quadrant Lee-Goldburg (4QLG) that produces net precession in the x-y plane, with a reduced chemical shift scaling factor of 1/3

  3. Polysaccharide Nanoparticles for Efficient siRNA Targeting in Cancer Cells by Supramolecular pKa Shift

    Zhang, Ying-Ming; Yang, Yang; Zhang, Yu-Hui; Liu, Yu

    2016-07-01

    Biomacromolecular pKa shifting is considered as one of the most ubiquitous processes in biochemical events, e.g., the enzyme-catalyzed reaction and protein conformational stabilization. In this paper, we report on the construction of biocompatible polysaccharide nanoparticle with targeting ability and lower toxicity by supramolecular pKa shift strategy. This was realized through a ternary assembly constructed by the dual host‒guest interactions of an adamantane-bis(diamine) conjugate (ADA) with cucurbit[6]uril (CB[6]) and a polysaccharide. The potential application of such biocompatible nanostructure was further implemented by the selective transportation of small interfering RNA (siRNA) in a controlled manner. It is demonstrated that the strong encapsulation of the ADA’s diammonium tail by CB[6] not only reduced the cytotoxicity of the nano-scaled vehicle but also dramatically enhanced cation density through an obvious positive macrocycle-induced pKa shift, which eventually facilitated the subsequent siRNA binding. With a targeted polysaccharide shell containing a cyclodextrin‒hyaluronic acid conjugate, macrocycle-incorporated siRNA polyplexes were specifically delivered into malignant human prostate PC-3 cells. The supramolecular polysaccharide nanoparticles, the formation of which was enabled and promoted by the complexation-assisted pKa shift, may be used as a versatile tool for controlled capture and release of biofunctional substrates.

  4. Magnetic resonance as a structural probe of a uranium (VI) sol-gel process

    NMR investigations on the ORNL process for sol-gel synthesis of microspherical nuclear fuel (UO2), has been useful in sorting out the chemical mechanism in the sol-gel steps. 13C, 15N, and 1H NMR studies on the HMTA gelation agent (Hexamethylene tetramine, C6Hl2N4) has revealed near quantitative stability of this adamantane-like compound in the sol-Gel process, contrary to its historical role as an ammonia source for gelation from the worldwide technical literature. 170 NMR of uranyl (UO2++) hydrolysis fragments produced in colloidal sols has revealed the selective formation of a uranyl trimer, [(UO2)3(μ3-O)(μ2-OH)3]+, induced by basic hydrolysis with the HMTA gelation agent. Spectroscopic results show that trimer condensation occurs during sol-gel processing leading to layered polyanionic hydrous uranium oxides in which HMTAH+ is occluded as an ''intercalation'' cation. Subsequent sol-gel processing of microspheres by ammonia washing results in in-situ ion exchange and formation of a layered hydrous ammonium uranate with a proposed structural formula of (NH4)2[(UO2)8O4(OH)10] · 8H20. This compound is the precursor to sintered U02 ceramic fuel

  5. Magnetic resonance as a structural probe of a uranium (VI) sol-gel process

    This paper reports on nuclear magnetic resonance (NMR) investigations on the Oak Ridge National Laboratory process for sol-gel synthesis of microspherical nuclear fuel (UO2) which has been extremely useful in sorting out the chemical mechanism in the sol-gel steps. 13C, 15N, and 1H NMR studies on the HMTA gelation agent (hexamethylenetetramine, C6H12N4) has revealed near quantitative stability of this adamantane-like compound in the sol-gel process, contrary to its historical role as an ammonia source for gelation from the worldwide technical literature. 17O NMR of uranyl (UO2++) hydrolysis fragments produced in colloidal sols has revealed the selective formation of a uranyl trimer, [(UO2)3 (μ3-O)(μ2-OH)3]+, induced by basic hydrolysis with the HMTA gelation agent. Spectroscopic results are presented to illustrate that trimer condensation occurs during sol-gel processing leading to layered polyanionic hydrous uranium oxides in which HMTAH+ is occluded as an intercalation cation. Subsequent sol-gel processing of microspheres by ammonia washing results in in-situ ion exchange and formation of a layered hydrous ammonium uranate with a proposed structural formula of (NH4)2 [(UO2)8 O4 (OH)10] · 8H2O. This compound is the precursor to sintered UO2 ceramic fuel

  6. Issues in pharmacotherapy of 2009 H1N1 influenza infection

    Gupta Y

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available The pandemic caused by the 2009 H1N1 influenza A virus has been a cause of great concern for healthcare professionals and the scientific community worldwide. Due to the widespread resistance of the virus to adamantanes, pharmacotherapy is currently limited to neuraminidase inhibitors, oseltamivir and zanamivir. The use of neuraminidase inhibitors in India is primarily associated with issues of patient and physician awareness, variability in disease management guidelines, safety and efficacy in the Indian population, need for active drug safety monitoring, and development of resistance due to possible misuse. In addition, other issues like availability of the drugs in retail and stockpiling by the public health authorities need careful introspection. The development of influenza vaccines in India and its adequate availability to the country′s populace also poses significant challenges in the management of the pandemic. In light of the limited therapeutic options available for the management of the disease, research on novel targets and pharmacological agents would also be beneficial in addressing the challenges of future outbreaks.

  7. Molecular epidemiology of A/H3N2 and A/H1N1 influenza virus during a single epidemic season in the United States.

    Martha I Nelson

    Full Text Available To determine the spatial and temporal dynamics of influenza A virus during a single epidemic, we examined whole-genome sequences of 284 A/H1N1 and 69 A/H3N2 viruses collected across the continental United States during the 2006-2007 influenza season, representing the largest study of its kind undertaken to date. A phylogenetic analysis revealed that multiple clades of both A/H1N1 and A/H3N2 entered and co-circulated in the United States during this season, even in localities that are distant from major metropolitan areas, and with no clear pattern of spatial spread. In addition, co-circulating clades of the same subtype exchanged genome segments through reassortment, producing both a minor clade of A/H3N2 viruses that appears to have re-acquired sensitivity to the adamantane class of antiviral drugs, as well as a likely antigenically distinct A/H1N1 clade that became globally dominant following this season. Overall, the co-circulation of multiple viral clades during the 2006-2007 epidemic season revealed patterns of spatial spread that are far more complex than observed previously, and suggests a major role for both migration and reassortment in shaping the epidemiological dynamics of human influenza A virus.

  8. Nanoassemblies Based on Supramolecular Complexes of Nonionic Amphiphilic Cyclodextrin and Sorafenib as Effective Weapons to Kill Human HCC Cells.

    Bondì, Maria Luisa; Scala, Angela; Sortino, Giuseppe; Amore, Erika; Botto, Chiara; Azzolina, Antonina; Balasus, Daniele; Cervello, Melchiorre; Mazzaglia, Antonino

    2015-12-14

    Sorafenib (Sor), an effective chemiotherapeutic drug utilized against hepatocellular carcinoma (HCC), robustly interacts with nonionic amphiphilic cyclodextrin (aCD, SC6OH), forming, in aqueous solution, supramolecular complexes that behave as building blocks of highly water-dispersible colloidal nanoassemblies. SC6OH/Sor complex has been characterized by complementary spectroscopic techniques, such as UV-vis, steady-state fluorescence and anisotropy, resonance light scattering and (1)H NMR. The spectroscopic evidences and experiments carried out in the presence of an adamantane derivative, which competes with drug for CD cavity, agree with the entrapment of Sor in aCD, pointing out the role of the aCD cavity in the interaction between drug and amphiphile. Nanoassemblies based on SC6OH/Sor display size of ∼200 nm, negative zeta-potential (ζ = -11 mV), and both maximum loading capacity (LC ∼ 17%) and entrapment efficiency (EE ∼ 100%). Kinetic release profiles show a slower release of Sor from nanoassemblies with respect to the free drug. SC6OH/Sor nanoassemblies have very low hemolytic activity and high efficiency in vitro in decreasing cell growth and viability of HCC cell lines, such as HepG2, Hep3B, and PLC/PRF/5, opening promising chances to their in vivo applications. PMID:26528591

  9. Vesicular gold assemblies based on host-guest inclusion and its controllable release of doxorubicin

    Ha, Wei; Kang, Yang; Peng, Shu-Lin; Ding, Li-Sheng; Zhang, Sheng; Li, Bang-Jing

    2013-12-01

    We have developed a kind of gold nanoparticle (AuNP) in which polyethylene glycol (PEG) and poly(N-isopropylacrylamide) (PNIPAM) are attached on the surface of a gold nanocrystal through the host-guest inclusion between adamantane groups (ADA) and β-cyclodextrin (β-CD). The resulting AuNPs become amphiphilic in water above body temperature and self-assemble into vesicles. It is found that these vesicles can load doxorubicin (Dox) effectively. With a decrease in temperature, the PNIPAM shifted from hydrophobic to hydrophilic, causing Au vesicles to disassemble into stable small AuNPs, triggering the release of Dox. These hybrid vesicles, combining polymer functionality with the intriguing properties of AuNPs, can first release free Dox and AuNP/Dox at a site of a tumor through the application of either simple ice packs or deeply penetrating cryoprobes, then the AuNP/Dox can be taken in by tumor cells and destroy them like miniature munitions. Furthermore, these vesicles showed other therapeutic possibilities due to the presence of gold. We believe that the development of such multi-functional vesicles will provide new and therapeutically useful means for medical applications.

  10. Sphere-Like Protein-Glycopolymer Nanostructures Tailored by Polyassociation.

    Ennen, Franka; Fenner, Philipp; Boye, Susanne; Lederer, Albena; Komber, Hartmut; Voit, Brigitte; Appelhans, Dietmar

    2016-01-11

    Key parameters allow a reproducible polyassociation between avidin and biotinylated glycopolymers in order to fabricate defined supramolecular nanostructures for future (bio)medical and biotechnological applications. Thus, the polymerization efficiency of biotinylated glycopolymers in the fabrication of biohybrid structures (BHS) was investigated with regard to the influence of (i) the degree of biotinylation of the dendritic glycoarchitectures, (ii) two biotin linkers, (iii) the dendritic scaffold (perfectly branched vs hyperbranched), and (iv) the ligand-receptor stoichiometry. The adjustment of all these parameters opens the way to fabricate defined sizes of the final biohybrid structures as a multifunctional platform ready for their use in different applications. Various analytical techniques, including purification of BHS, were used to gain fundamental insights into the structural properties of the resulting protein-glycopolymer BHS. Finally, the elucidation of pivotal conformational properties of isolated BHS with defined sizes by asymmetrical flow field flow fractionation study revealed that they mainly possess spherical-/star-like properties. From this study, the fundamental knowledge can be likely transferred to other assemblies formed by molecular recognition processes (e.g., adamantane-β-cyclodextrin). PMID:26623666

  11. Synthesis and biological evaluation of novel 5-hydroxylaminoisoxazole derivatives as lipoxygenase inhibitors and metabolism enhancing agents.

    Averina, Elena B; Vasilenko, Dmitry A; Gracheva, Yulia A; Grishin, Yuri K; Radchenko, Eugene V; Burmistrov, Vladimir V; Butov, Gennady M; Neganova, Margarita E; Serkova, Tatyana P; Redkozubova, Olga M; Shevtsova, Elena F; Milaeva, Elena R; Kuznetsova, Tamara S; Zefirov, Nikolay S

    2016-02-15

    A versatile synthesis of novel 5-hydroxylaminoisoxazoles bearing adamantane moieties has been accomplished using the heterocyclization reactions of readily available unsaturated esters by the treatment with tetranitromethane in the presence of triethylamine and subsequent reduction of resulting 5-nitroisoxazoles by SnCl2 with the participation of THF. A number of obtained isoxazole derivatives were evaluated for their antioxidative activity, inhibition of lipoxygenases and impact on the rat liver mitochondria. The majority of tested compounds demonstrated moderate antiradical activity in DPPH test (up to EC50 16μM). The same compounds strongly inhibited soybean lipoxygenase (up to IC50 0.4μM) and Fe(2+)- and Fe(3+)-induced lipid peroxidation (LP) of rat brain cortex homogenate (up to IC50 0.3μM). All tested isoxazole derivatives promoted the phosphorylating respiratory activity simultaneously with maximal stimulated respiratory activity of mitochondria and do not reveal any toxicity towards the primary culture of rat cortex neurons. PMID:26753816

  12. Polysaccharide Nanoparticles for Efficient siRNA Targeting in Cancer Cells by Supramolecular pKa Shift

    Zhang, Ying-Ming; Yang, Yang; Zhang, Yu-Hui; Liu, Yu

    2016-01-01

    Biomacromolecular pKa shifting is considered as one of the most ubiquitous processes in biochemical events, e.g., the enzyme-catalyzed reaction and protein conformational stabilization. In this paper, we report on the construction of biocompatible polysaccharide nanoparticle with targeting ability and lower toxicity by supramolecular pKa shift strategy. This was realized through a ternary assembly constructed by the dual host‒guest interactions of an adamantane-bis(diamine) conjugate (ADA) with cucurbit[6]uril (CB[6]) and a polysaccharide. The potential application of such biocompatible nanostructure was further implemented by the selective transportation of small interfering RNA (siRNA) in a controlled manner. It is demonstrated that the strong encapsulation of the ADA’s diammonium tail by CB[6] not only reduced the cytotoxicity of the nano-scaled vehicle but also dramatically enhanced cation density through an obvious positive macrocycle-induced pKa shift, which eventually facilitated the subsequent siRNA binding. With a targeted polysaccharide shell containing a cyclodextrin‒hyaluronic acid conjugate, macrocycle-incorporated siRNA polyplexes were specifically delivered into malignant human prostate PC-3 cells. The supramolecular polysaccharide nanoparticles, the formation of which was enabled and promoted by the complexation-assisted pKa shift, may be used as a versatile tool for controlled capture and release of biofunctional substrates. PMID:27363811

  13. A targeted nanoglobular contrast agent from host-guest self-assembly for MR cancer molecular imaging.

    Zhou, Zhuxian; Han, Zhen; Lu, Zheng-Rong

    2016-04-01

    The clinical application of nanoparticular Gd(III) based contrast agents for tumor molecular MRI has been hindered by safety concerns associated with prolonged tissue retention, although they can produce strong tumor enhancement. In this study, a targeted well-defined cyclodextrin-based nanoglobular contrast agent was developed through self-assembly driven by host-guest interactions for safe and effective cancer molecular MRI. Multiple β-cyclodextrins attached POSS (polyhedral oligomeric silsesquioxane) nanoglobule was used as host molecule. Adamantane-modified macrocyclic Gd(III) contrast agent, cRGD (cyclic RGDfK peptide) targeting ligand and fluorescent probe was used as guest molecules. The targeted host-guest nanoglobular contrast agent cRGD-POSS-βCD-(DOTA-Gd) specifically bond to αvβ3 integrin in malignant 4T1 breast tumor and provided greater contrast enhancement than the corresponding non-targeted agent. The agent also provided significant fluorescence signal in tumor tissue. The histological analysis of the tumor tissue confirmed its specific and effective targeting to αvβ3 integrin. The targeted imaging agent has a potential for specific cancer molecular MR and fluorescent imaging. PMID:26874280

  14. In vitro interaction of artemisinin derivatives or the fully synthetic peroxidic anti-malarial OZ277 with thapsigargin in Plasmodium falciparum strains

    Abiodun Oyindamola O

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Semi-synthetic artemisinin derivatives are powerful peroxidic drugs in artemisinin-based combination therapy (ACT recommended as first-line treatment of Plasmodium falciparum malaria in disease-endemic countries. Studies by Eckstein-Ludwig and co-workers showed both thapsigargin and artemisinin specifically inhibit the sarcoplasmic reticulum Ca2+−ATPase of Plasmodium falciparum (PfATP6. In the present study the type of interaction between thapsigargin and artemisinin derivatives as well as the ozonide OZ277 (RBx11160 or arterolane was evaluated in parasite cultures. The latter compound is an adamantane-based peroxide and the first fully synthetic clinical candidate recently registered in India by Ranbaxy Laboratories Ltd. for anti-malarial combination therapy. Methods Drug interaction studies were performed using a previously described fixed ratio method and anti-malarial activity measured using the [3H] hypoxanthine incorporation assay. Results The sum 50% and 90% fractional inhibitory concentration (∑FIC50, 90 of the interaction of thapsigargin with OZ277, artemether or artesunate, against NF54 and K1 strains of P. falciparum ranged from 0.9 to 1.4. Conclusion The interaction of thapsigargin with OZ277, artesunate or artemether was additive, data consistent with previous observations indicating that activity of anti-malarial peroxides does not derive from reversible interactions with parasite targets.

  15. Properties of Atoms in Molecules:  Caged Atoms and the Ehrenfest Force.

    Bader, Richard F W; Fang, De-Cai

    2005-05-01

    This paper uses the properties of atom X enclosed within an adamantane cage, denoted by X@C10H16, as a vehicle to introduce the Ehrenfest force into the discussion of bonding, the properties being determined by the physics of an open system. This is the force acting on an atom in a molecule and determining the potential energy appearing in Slater's molecular virial theorem. The Ehrenfest force acting across the interatomic surface of a bonded pair atoms [Formula: see text] atoms linked by a bond path [Formula: see text] is attractive, each atom being drawn toward the other, and the associated surface virial that measures the contribution to the energy arising from the formation of the surface is stabilizing. It is the Ehrenfest force that determines the adhesive properties of surfaces. The endothermicity of formation for X = He or Ne is not a result of instabilities incurred in the interaction of X with the four methine carbons to which it is bonded, interactions that are stabilizing both in terms of the changes in the atomic energies and in the surface virials. The exothermicity for X = Be(2+), B(3+), and Al(3+) is a consequence of the transfer of electron density from the hydrogen atoms to the carbon and X atoms, the exothermicity increasing with charge transfer despite an increase in the contained volume of X. PMID:26641507

  16. Oseltamivir-resistant pandemic (H1N12009 in Yemen - case report

    Al-Kohlani Abdulhakeem

    2010-05-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background During the influenza season of 2007-08, oseltamivir-resistant influenza A (H1N1 viruses emerged in several countries in Europe, North America, and Asia. Despite substantial prevalence of oseltamivir-resistant viruses, few data are available on the clinical profile of subjects infected with these viruses. Objectives: to describe the first oseltamivir-resistant (H1N1 influenza virus pandemic 2009 from the Eastern Mediterranean Region including Yemen and to determine the evidence by clinical presentation of children infected with these oseltamivir - resistant viruses. Methodology History, physical examination and laboratory investigations including Complete Blood Count, chest x-ray, blood cultures, CSF examination, LFTs, RFTs, blood for sugar, H1N1 test and oseltamivir resistance test. Results Nasal swabs indicated positivity on both H1N1 test and the RNP gene (Human R Nase P gene that serves as internal positive control for Human RNA. Both clinical specimens presented the mutation S31N in the M2 gene associated with resistance to adamantanes and H274Y in NA gene associated with resistance to oseltamivir. This was the first diagnosed case of resistance to oseltamivir in Yemen and also it is the first reported case of oseltamivir resistance virus in the Eastern Mediterranean Region. Conclusion The pattern of resistance found in the oseltamivir resistant isolate collected from Yemen is the same as has been reported elsewhere in other WHO regions. Clinical description and outcomes are not different from what is described elsewhere.

  17. Novel spirothiazamenthane inhibitors of the influenza A M2 proton channel.

    Arns, Steve; Balgi, Aruna D; Shimizu, Yoko; Pfeifer, Tom A; Kumar, Nag; Shidmoossavee, Fahimeh S; Sun, Sharon; Tai, Sheldon S-H; Agafitei, Olga; Jaquith, James B; Bourque, Elyse; Niikura, Masahiro; Roberge, Michel

    2016-09-14

    The development of treatments for influenza that inhibit the M2 proton channel without being susceptible to the widespread resistance mechanisms associated with the adamantanes is an ongoing challenge. Using a yeast high-throughput yeast growth restoration assay designed to identify M2 channel inhibitors, a single screening hit was uncovered. This compound (3), whose structure was incorrectly identified in the literature, is an inhibitor with similar potency to amantadine against WT M2. A library of derivatives of 3 was prepared and activity against WT M2 and the two principal mutant strains (V27A and S31N) was assessed in the yeast assay. The best compounds were further evaluated in an antiviral plaque reduction assay using engineered WT, V27A and S31N M2 influenza A strains with otherwise identical genetic background. Compound 63 was found to inhibit all three virus strains in this cell based antiviral assay at micromolar concentrations, possibly through a mechanism other than M2 inhibition. PMID:27187859

  18. The first pandemic of the 21st century: a review of the 2009 pandemic variant influenza A (H1N1) virus.

    Scalera, Nikole M; Mossad, Sherif B

    2009-09-01

    Swine influenza was first described in the 1918 pandemic and made a resurgence in April 2009 in the form of a triple-reassortant influenza A virus, which is composed of a combination of human, swine, and Eurasian avian strains. As evidenced with previous influenza pandemics, young adults and children aged < 24 years are the population most affected. Definitive diagnosis has largely been limited by the inability of conventional influenza testing to distinguish among influenza A subtypes; however, the surge in pandemic cases clearly emerged at the end of the annual influenza season in the northern hemisphere. The pandemic variant influenza A (H1N1) strain is typically susceptible to oseltamivir and resistant to adamantanes, unlike the 2008 to 2009 seasonal influenza A (H1N1). However, 2 cases of oseltamivir-resistant pandemic-variant influenza A (H1N1) were reported in late August 2009. The full impact of the current pandemic is not yet clear, and further reassortment with the circulating seasonal influenza strains in the upcoming 2009 fall season could potentially lead to acquisition of widespread oseltamivir resistance. Vaccination will become paramount in importance for prevention and public health safety. PMID:19820273

  19. Ligand-functionalized degradable polyplexes formed by cationic poly(aspartic acid)-grafted chitosan-cyclodextrin conjugates

    Song, Hai-Qing; Li, Rui-Quan; Duan, Shun; Yu, Bingran; Zhao, Hong; Chen, Da-Fu; Xu, Fu-Jian

    2015-03-01

    Polypeptide-based degradable polyplexes attracted considerable attention in drug delivery systems. Polysaccharides including cyclodextrin (CD), dextran, and chitosan (CS) were readily grafted with cationic poly(aspartic acid)s (PAsps). To further enhance the transfection performances of PAsp-based polyplexes, herein, different types of ligand (folic acid, FA)-functionalized degradable polyplexes were proposed based on the PAsp-grafted chitosan-cyclodextrin conjugate (CCPE), where multiple β-CDs were tied on a CS chain. The FA-functionalized CCPE (i.e., CCPE-FA) was obtained via a host-guest interaction between the CD units of CCPE and the adamantane (Ad) species of Ad-modified FA (Ad-FA). The resulting CCPE/pDNA, CCPE-FA/pDNA, and ternary CCPE-FA/CCPE/pDNA (prepared by layer-by-layer assembly) polyplexes were investigated in detail using different cell lines. The CCPE-based polyplexes displayed much higher transfection efficiencies than the CS-based polyplexes reported earlier by us. The ternary polyplexes of CCPE-FA/CCPE/pDNA produced excellent gene transfection abilities in the folate receptor (FR)-positive tumor cells. This work would provide a promising means to produce highly efficient polyplexes for future gene therapy applications.Polypeptide-based degradable polyplexes attracted considerable attention in drug delivery systems. Polysaccharides including cyclodextrin (CD), dextran, and chitosan (CS) were readily grafted with cationic poly(aspartic acid)s (PAsps). To further enhance the transfection performances of PAsp-based polyplexes, herein, different types of ligand (folic acid, FA)-functionalized degradable polyplexes were proposed based on the PAsp-grafted chitosan-cyclodextrin conjugate (CCPE), where multiple β-CDs were tied on a CS chain. The FA-functionalized CCPE (i.e., CCPE-FA) was obtained via a host-guest interaction between the CD units of CCPE and the adamantane (Ad) species of Ad-modified FA (Ad-FA). The resulting CCPE/pDNA, CCPE

  20. Genetic programming based quantitative structure-retention relationships for the prediction of Kovats retention indices.

    Goel, Purva; Bapat, Sanket; Vyas, Renu; Tambe, Amruta; Tambe, Sanjeev S

    2015-11-13

    The development of quantitative structure-retention relationships (QSRR) aims at constructing an appropriate linear/nonlinear model for the prediction of the retention behavior (such as Kovats retention index) of a solute on a chromatographic column. Commonly, multi-linear regression and artificial neural networks are used in the QSRR development in the gas chromatography (GC). In this study, an artificial intelligence based data-driven modeling formalism, namely genetic programming (GP), has been introduced for the development of quantitative structure based models predicting Kovats retention indices (KRI). The novelty of the GP formalism is that given an example dataset, it searches and optimizes both the form (structure) and the parameters of an appropriate linear/nonlinear data-fitting model. Thus, it is not necessary to pre-specify the form of the data-fitting model in the GP-based modeling. These models are also less complex, simple to understand, and easy to deploy. The effectiveness of GP in constructing QSRRs has been demonstrated by developing models predicting KRIs of light hydrocarbons (case study-I) and adamantane derivatives (case study-II). In each case study, two-, three- and four-descriptor models have been developed using the KRI data available in the literature. The results of these studies clearly indicate that the GP-based models possess an excellent KRI prediction accuracy and generalization capability. Specifically, the best performing four-descriptor models in both the case studies have yielded high (>0.9) values of the coefficient of determination (R(2)) and low values of root mean squared error (RMSE) and mean absolute percent error (MAPE) for training, test and validation set data. The characteristic feature of this study is that it introduces a practical and an effective GP-based method for developing QSRRs in gas chromatography that can be gainfully utilized for developing other types of data-driven models in chromatography science

  1. High-Resolution NMR of Quadrupolar Nuclei in the Solid State

    Gann, Sheryl Lee

    1995-11-30

    This dissertation describes recent developments in solid state nuclear magnetic resonance (NMR), for the most part involving the use of dynamic-angle spinning (DAS) NMR to study quadrupolar nuclei. Chapter 1 introduces some of the basic concepts and theory that will be referred to in later chapters, such as the density operator, product operators, rotations, coherence transfer pathways, phase cycling, and the various nuclear spin interactions, including the quadrupolar interaction. Chapter 2 describes the theory behind motional averaging experiments, including DAS, which is a technique where a sample is spun sequentially about two axis oriented at different angles with respect to the external magnetic field such that the chemical shift and quadrupolar anisotropy are averaged to zero. Work done on various rubidium-87 salts is presented as a demonstration of DAS. Chapter 3 explains how to remove sidebands from DAS and magic-angle spinning (MAS) experiments, which result from the time-dependence of the Hamiltonian under sample spinning conditions, using rotor-synchronized {pi}-pulses. Data from these experiments, known as DAH-180 and MAH-180, respectively, are presented for both rubidium and lead salts. In addition, the applicability of this technique to double rotation (DOR) experiments is discussed. Chapter 4 concerns the addition of cross-polarization to DAS (CPDAS). The theory behind spin locking and cross polarizing quadrupolar nuclei is explained and a method of avoiding the resulting problems by performing cross polarization at 0{sup o} (parallel) with respect to the magnetic field is presented. Experimental results are shown for a sodium-23 compound, sodium pyruvate, and for oxygen-17 labeled L-akmine. In Chapter 5, a method for broadening the Hartmann-Hahn matching condition under MAS, called variable effective field cross-polarization (VEFCI?), is presented, along with experimental work on adamantane and polycarbonate.

  2. Clinical, epidemiological and virological characteristics of the first detected human case of avian influenza A(H5N6) virus

    Zhang, Rusheng; Chen, Tianmu; Ou, Xinhua; Liu, Ruchun; Yang, Yang; Ye, Wen; Chen, Jingfang; Yao, Dong; Sun, Biancheng; Zhang, Xixing; Zhou, Jianxiang; Sun, Yan; Chen, Faming; Wang, Shi-Ping

    2016-01-01

    A human infection with novel avian influenza A H5N6 virus emerged in Changsha city, China in February, 2014. This is the first detected human case among all human cases identified from 2014 to early 2016. We obtained and summarized clinical, epidemiological, and virological data from this patient. Complete genome of the virus was determined and compared to other avian influenza viruses via the construction of phylogenetic trees using the neighbor-joining approach. A girl aged five and half years developed fever and mild respiratory symptoms on Feb. 16, 2014 and visited hospital on Feb. 17. Throat swab specimens were obtained from the patient and a novel reassortant avian influenza A H5N6 virus was detected. All eight viral gene segments were of avian origin. The hemagglutinin (HA) and neuraminidase (NA) gene segments were closely related to A/duck/Sichuan/NCXN11/2014(H5N1) and A/chicken/Jiangxi/12782/2014(H10N6) viruses, respectively. The six internal genes were homologous to avian influenza A (H5N2) viruses isolated in duck from Jiangxi in China. This H5N6 virus has not gained genetic mutations necessary for human infection and was suggested to be sensitive to neuraminidase inhibitors, but resistant to adamantanes. Epidemiological investigation of the exposure history of the patient found that a live poultry market could be the source place of infection and the incubation period was 2–5 days. This novel reassortant Avian influenza A(H5N6) virus could be low pathogenic in humans. The prevalence and genetic evolution of this virus should be closely monitored. PMID:26973295

  3. Metallic Ternary Telluride with Sphalerite Superstructure.

    Adhikary, Amit; Mohapatra, Sudip; Lee, Seng Huat; Hor, Yew San; Adhikari, Puja; Ching, Wai-Yim; Choudhury, Amitava

    2016-03-01

    A new ternary compound with composition Cu5Sn2Te7 has been synthesized using the stoichiometric reaction of Cu, Sn, and Te. The compound crystallizes in C2 space group with unit cell parameters of a = 13.549(2) Å, b = 6.0521(11) Å, c = 9.568(2) Å, and β = 98.121(2)°. Cu5Sn2Te7 is a superstructure of sphalerite and exhibits tetrahedral coordination of Cu, Sn, and Te atoms, containing a unique adamantane-like arrangement. The compound is formally mixed valent with a high electrical conductivity of 9.8 × 10(5) S m(-1) at 300 K and exhibits metallic behavior having p-type charge carriers as indicated from the positive Seebeck coefficient. Hall effect measurements further confirm holes as charge carriers with a carrier density of 1.39 × 10(21) cm(-3) and Hall mobility of 4.5 cm(2) V(-1) s(-1) at 300 K. The electronic band structure calculations indicate the presence of a finite density of states around the Fermi level and agree well with the p-type metallic conductivity. Band structure analysis suggests that the effective mass of the hole state is small and could be responsible for high electronic conductivity and Hall mobility. The high thermal conductivity of 15.1 W m(-1) K(-1) at 300 K coupled with the low Seebeck coefficient results in a poor thermoelectric figure of merit (ZT) for this compound. Theoretical calculations indicate that if Cu5Sn2Te7 is turned into a valence precise compound by substituting one Cu by a Zn, a semiconducting material, Cu4ZnSn2Te7, with a direct band gap of ∼0.5 eV can be obtained. PMID:26890202

  4. Molecular epidemiology of influenza A/H3N2 viruses circulating in Uganda.

    Denis K Byarugaba

    Full Text Available The increasing availability of complete influenza virus genomes is deepening our understanding of influenza evolutionary dynamics and facilitating the selection of vaccine strains. However, only one complete African influenza virus sequence is available in the public domain. Here we present a complete genome analysis of 59 influenza A/H3N2 viruses isolated from humans in Uganda during the 2008 and 2009 season. Isolates were recovered from hospital-based sentinel surveillance for influenza-like illnesses and their whole genome sequenced. The viruses circulating during these two seasons clearly differed from each other phylogenetically. They showed a slow evolution away from the 2009/10 recommended vaccine strain (A/Brisbane/10/07, instead clustering with the 2010/11 recommended vaccine strain (A/Perth/16/09 in the A/Victoria/208/09 clade, as observed in other global regions. All of the isolates carried the adamantane resistance marker S31N in the M2 gene and carried several markers of enhanced transmission; as expected, none carried any marker of neuraminidase inhibitor resistance. The hemagglutinin gene of the 2009 isolates differed from that of the 2008 isolates in antigenic sites A, B, D, and to a lesser extent, C and E indicating evidence of an early phylogenetic shift from the 2008 to 2009 viruses. The internal genes of the 2009 isolates were similar to those of one 2008 isolate, A/Uganda/MUWRP-050/2008. Another 2008 isolate had a truncated PB1-F2 protein. Whole genome sequencing can enhance surveillance of future seasonal changes in the viral genome which is crucial to ensure that selected vaccine strains are protective against the strains circulating in Eastern Africa. This data provides an important baseline for this surveillance. Overall the influenza virus activity in Uganda appears to mirror that observed in other regions of the southern hemisphere.

  5. Microfabricated inserts for magic angle coil spinning (MACS wireless NMR spectroscopy.

    Vlad Badilita

    Full Text Available This article describes the development and testing of the first automatically microfabricated probes to be used in conjunction with the magic angle coil spinning (MACS NMR technique. NMR spectroscopy is a versatile technique for a large range of applications, but its intrinsically low sensitivity poses significant difficulties in analyzing mass- and volume-limited samples. The combination of microfabrication technology and MACS addresses several well-known NMR issues in a concerted manner for the first time: (i reproducible wafer-scale fabrication of the first-in-kind on-chip LC microresonator for inductive coupling of the NMR signal and reliable exploitation of MACS capabilities; (ii improving the sensitivity and the spectral resolution by simultaneous spinning the detection microcoil together with the sample at the "magic angle" of 54.74° with respect to the direction of the magnetic field (magic angle spinning - MAS, accompanied by the wireless signal transmission between the microcoil and the primary circuit of the NMR spectrometer; (iii given the high spinning rates (tens of kHz involved in the MAS methodology, the microfabricated inserts exhibit a clear kinematic advantage over their previously demonstrated counterparts due to the inherent capability to produce small radius cylindrical geometries, thus tremendously reducing the mechanical stress and tearing forces on the sample. In order to demonstrate the versatility of the microfabrication technology, we have designed MACS probes for various Larmor frequencies (194, 500 and 700 MHz testing several samples such as water, Drosophila pupae, adamantane solid and LiCl at different magic angle spinning speeds.

  6. Proteasomal degradation of sphingosine kinase 1 and inhibition of dihydroceramide desaturase by the sphingosine kinase inhibitors, SKi or ABC294640, induces growth arrest in androgen-independent LNCaP-AI prostate cancer cells

    McNaughton, Melissa; Pitman, Melissa; Pitson, Stuart M.; Pyne, Nigel J.; Pyne, Susan

    2016-01-01

    Sphingosine kinases (two isoforms termed SK1 and SK2) catalyse the formation of the bioactive lipid sphingosine 1-phosphate. We demonstrate here that the SK2 inhibitor, ABC294640 (3-(4-chlorophenyl)-adamantane-1-carboxylic acid (pyridin-4-ylmethyl)amide) or the SK1/SK2 inhibitor, SKi (2-(p-hydroxyanilino)-4-(p-chlorophenyl)thiazole)) induce the proteasomal degradation of SK1a (Mr = 42 kDa) and inhibit DNA synthesis in androgen-independent LNCaP-AI prostate cancer cells. These effects are recapitulated by the dihydroceramide desaturase (Des1) inhibitor, fenretinide. Moreover, SKi or ABC294640 reduce Des1 activity in Jurkat cells and ABC294640 induces the proteasomal degradation of Des1 (Mr = 38 kDa) in LNCaP-AI prostate cancer cells. Furthermore, SKi or ABC294640 or fenretinide increase the expression of the senescence markers, p53 and p21 in LNCaP-AI prostate cancer cells. The siRNA knockdown of SK1 or SK2 failed to increase p53 and p21 expression, but the former did reduce DNA synthesis in LNCaP-AI prostate cancer cells. Moreover, N-acetylcysteine (reactive oxygen species scavenger) blocked the SK inhibitor-induced increase in p21 and p53 expression but had no effect on the proteasomal degradation of SK1a. In addition, siRNA knockdown of Des1 increased p53 expression while a combination of Des1/SK1 siRNA increased the expression of p21. Therefore, Des1 and SK1 participate in regulating LNCaP-AI prostate cancer cell growth and this involves p53/p21-dependent and -independent pathways. Therefore, we propose targeting androgen-independent prostate cancer cells with compounds that affect Des1/SK1 to modulate both de novo and sphingolipid rheostat pathways in order to induce growth arrest. PMID:26934645

  7. Immobilized Multifunctional Polymersomes on Solid Surfaces: Infrared Light-Induced Selective Photochemical Reactions, pH Responsive Behavior, and Probing Mechanical Properties under Liquid Phase.

    Iyisan, Banu; Janke, Andreas; Reichenbach, Philipp; Eng, Lukas M; Appelhans, Dietmar; Voit, Brigitte

    2016-06-22

    Fixing polymersomes onto surfaces is in high demand not only for the characterization with advanced microscopy techniques but also for designing specific compartments in microsystem devices in the scope of nanobiotechnology. For this purpose, this study reports the immobilization of multifunctional, responsive, and photo-cross-linked polymersomes on solid substrates by utilizing strong adamantane-β-cyclodextrin host-guest interactions. To reduce nonspecific binding and retain better spherical shape, the level of attractive forces acting on the immobilized polymersomes was tuned through poly(ethylene glycol) passivation as well as decreased β-cyclodextrin content on the corresponding substrates. One significant feature of this system is the pH responsivity of the polymersomes which has been demonstrated by swelling of the immobilized vesicles at acidic condition through in situ AFM measurements. Also, light responsivity has been provided by introducing nitroveratryloxycarbonyl (NVOC) protected amine molecules as photocleavable groups to the polymersome surface before immobilization. The subsequent low-energy femtosecond pulsed laser irradiation resulted in the cleavage of NVOC groups on immobilized polymersomes which in turn led to free amino groups as an additional functionality. The freed amines were further conjugated with a fluorescent dye having an activated ester that illustrates the concept of bio/chemo recognition for a potential binding of biological compounds. In addition to the responsive nature, the mechanical stability of the analyzed polymersomes was supported by computing Young's modulus and bending modulus of the membrane through force curves obtained by atomic force microscopy measurements. Overall, polymersomes with a robust and pH-swellable membrane combined with effective light responsive behavior are promising tools to design smart and stable compartments on surfaces for the development of microsystem devices such as chemo/biosensors. PMID

  8. Continuous probing of cold complex molecules with infrared frequency comb spectroscopy

    Spaun, Ben; Changala, P. Bryan; Patterson, David; Bjork, Bryce J.; Heckl, Oliver H.; Doyle, John M.; Ye, Jun

    2016-05-01

    For more than half a century, high-resolution infrared spectroscopy has played a crucial role in probing molecular structure and dynamics. Such studies have so far been largely restricted to relatively small and simple systems, because at room temperature even molecules of modest size already occupy many millions of rotational/vibrational states, yielding highly congested spectra that are difficult to assign. Targeting more complex molecules requires methods that can record broadband infrared spectra (that is, spanning multiple vibrational bands) with both high resolution and high sensitivity. However, infrared spectroscopic techniques have hitherto been limited either by narrow bandwidth and long acquisition time, or by low sensitivity and resolution. Cavity-enhanced direct frequency comb spectroscopy (CE-DFCS) combines the inherent broad bandwidth and high resolution of an optical frequency comb with the high detection sensitivity provided by a high-finesse enhancement cavity, but it still suffers from spectral congestion. Here we show that this problem can be overcome by using buffer gas cooling to produce continuous, cold samples of molecules that are then subjected to CE-DFCS. This integration allows us to acquire a rotationally resolved direct absorption spectrum in the C–H stretching region of nitromethane, a model system that challenges our understanding of large-amplitude vibrational motion. We have also used this technique on several large organic molecules that are of fundamental spectroscopic and astrochemical relevance, including naphthalene, adamantane and hexamethylenetetramine. These findings establish the value of our approach for studying much larger and more complex molecules than have been probed so far, enabling complex molecules and their kinetics to be studied with orders-of-magnitude improvements in efficiency, spectral resolution and specificity.

  9. Role of haem oxygenase in the renoprotective effects of soluble epoxide hydrolase inhibition in diabetic spontaneously hypertensive rats.

    Elmarakby, Ahmed A; Faulkner, Jessica; Pye, Chelsey; Rouch, Katelyn; Alhashim, Abdulmohsin; Maddipati, Krishna Rao; Baban, Babak

    2013-10-01

    We have shown previously that inhibition of sEH (soluble epoxide hydrolase) increased EETs (epoxyeicosatrienoic acids) levels and reduced renal injury in diabetic mice and these changes were associated with induction of HO (haem oxygenase)-1. The present study determines whether the inhibition of HO negates the renoprotective effect of sEH inhibition in diabetic SHR (spontaneously hypertensive rats). After 6 weeks of induction of diabetes with streptozotocin, SHR were divided into the following groups: untreated, treated with the sEH inhibitor t-AUCB {trans-4-[4-(3-adamantan-1-yl-ureido)-cyclohexyloxy]-benzoic acid}, treated with the HO inhibitor SnMP (stannous mesoporphyrin), and treated with both inhibitors for 4 more weeks; non-diabetic SHR served as a control group. Induction of diabetes significantly increased renal sEH expression and decreased the renal EETs/DHETEs (dihydroxyeicosatrienoic acid) ratio without affecting HO-1 activity or expression in SHR. Inhibition of sEH with t-AUCB increased the renal EETs/DHETEs ratio and HO-1 activity in diabetic SHR; however, it did not significantly alter systolic blood pressure. Treatment of diabetic SHR with t-AUCB significantly reduced the elevation in urinary albumin and nephrin excretion, whereas co-administration of the HO inhibitor SnMP with t-AUCB prevented these changes. Immunohistochemical analysis revealed elevations in renal fibrosis as indicated by increased renal TGF-β (transforming growth factor β) levels and fibronectin expression in diabetic SHR and these changes were reduced with sEH inhibition. Co-administration of SnMP with t-AUCB prevented its ability to reduce renal fibrosis in diabetic SHR. In addition, SnMP treatment also prevented t-AUCB-induced decreases in renal macrophage infiltration, IL-17 expression and MCP-1 levels in diabetic SHR. These findings suggest that HO-1 induction is involved in the protective effect of sEH inhibition against diabetic renal injury. PMID:23611540

  10. Self-construction of supramolecular polyrotaxane films by an electrotriggered morphogen-driven process.

    Rydzek, Gaulthier; Garnier, Tony; Schaaf, Pierre; Voegel, Jean-Claude; Senger, Bernard; Frisch, Benoît; Haikel, Youssef; Petit, Corinne; Schlatter, Guy; Jierry, Loïc; Boulmedais, Fouzia

    2013-08-27

    The design of films using a one-pot process has recently attracted increasing interest in the field of polymer thin film formation. Herein we describe the preparation of one-pot supramolecular polyrotaxane (PRX) films using the morphogen-driven self-construction process. This one-pot buildup strategy where the film growth is triggered by the electrochemical formation and diffusion of a catalyst in close vicinity of the substrate has recently been introduced by our group. A one-pot mixture was used that contained (i) poly(acrylic acid) (PAA) functionalized by azide groups grafted on the polymer chain through oligo(ethylene glycol) (EG) arms, leading to PAA-EG13-N3, (ii) cyclodextrins (α and β CD), as macrocycles that can be threaded along EG arms, (iii) alkyne-functionalized stoppers (ferrocene or adamantane), to cap the PRX assembly by click chemistry, and (iv) copper sulfate. The one-pot mixture solution was brought into contact with a gold electrode. Cu(I), the morphogen, was generated electrochemically from Cu(II) at the electrode/one-pot solution interface. This electrotriggered click reaction leads to the capping of polypseudorotaxane yielding to PRXs. The PRXs can self-assemble through lateral supramolecular interactions to form aggregates and ensure the cohesion of the film. The film buildup was investigated using different types of CD and alkyne functionalized stoppers. Supramolecular PRX aggregates were characterized by X-ray diffraction measurements. The film topographies were imaged by atomic force microscopy. The influence of the concentration in CD and the presence of a competitor were studied as well. The stability of the resulting film was tested in contact with 8 M urea and during the electrochemical oxidation of ferrocene. PMID:23895332

  11. Anti-influenza virus agents and drug resistance%抗流感病毒药物和病毒耐药性

    张兴权; 范江

    2011-01-01

    M2蛋白通道阻断剂金刚烷胺(amantadine)和金刚乙胺(rimantadine)在体内外均可迅速产生耐药和交叉耐药,机制是源于M2蛋白转膜区突变,涉及的5个主要氨基酸残基是26、27、30、31和34位.神经氨酸酶抑制剂磷酸奥司他韦(oseltamivir)、扎那米韦(zanamivir)和帕那米韦(paramivir)耐药的突变位点发生在病毒A型NA的119、274、292位点及B型152位点.目前尚无一种流感病毒对所有的化疗药物多重耐药.新的神经氨酸酶抑制剂和作用于其他靶点的新药尚处于临床前试验阶段.%Resistance and cross-resistance of influenza A virus to M2 inhibitors adamantane and rimantadine can emerge rapidly during treatment in vitro and in vivo. A single point mutation in the codons for amino acids at positions 26, 27, 30, 31, or 34 of the M2 protein can confer the resistance and cross-resistance to both amantadine and rimantadine. Drug resistance emergency in use of neuraminidase (NA) inhibitors, oseltamivir, zanamivir and paramivir is caused by the change of the NA at residues 119, 274,292 (type A) and 152 (type B). So far no any influenza virus strain has been found to bo resistant to all chemotherapeutic drugs. The studies on new NA inhibitors and drugs directed to other targets are now in trial period.

  12. Design, synthesis, and in vitro biological evaluation of novel 6-methyl-7-substituted-7-deaza purine nucleoside analogs as anti-influenza A agents.

    Lin, Cai; Sun, Chenghai; Liu, Xiao; Zhou, Yiqian; Hussain, Muzammal; Wan, Junting; Li, Minke; Li, Xue; Jin, Ruiliang; Tu, Zhengchao; Zhang, Jiancun

    2016-05-01

    Among many subtypes of influenza A viruses, influenza A(H1N1) and A(H3N2) subtypes are currently circulating among humans (WHO report 2014-15). Therapeutically, the emergence of viral resistance to currently available drugs (adamantanes and neuraminidase inhibitors) has heightened alarms for developing novel drugs that could address diverse targets in the viral replication cycle in order to improve treatment outcomes. To this regard, the design and synthesis of nucleoside analog inhibitors as potential anti-influenza A agents is a very active field of research nowadays. In this study, we designed and synthesized a series of hitherto unknown 6-methyl-7-substituted-7-deaza purine nucleoside analogs, and evaluated for their biological activities against influenza A virus strains, H1N1 and H3N2. From the viral inhibition assay, we identified some effective compounds, among which, compounds 5x (IC50 = 5.88 μM and 6.95 μM for H1N1 and H3N2, respectively) and 5z (IC50 = 3.95 μM and 3.61 μM for H1N1 and H3N2, respectively) demonstrated potent anti-influenza A activity. On the basis of selectivity index, we conceive that compound 5x may serve as a chemical probe of interest for further lead optimization studies with a general aim of developing novel and effective anti-influenza A virus agents. PMID:26802557

  13. Interaction of blood coagulation factor Va with phospholipid vesicles examined by using lipophilic photoreagents

    Two different lipophilic photoreagents, [3H]adamantane diazirine and 3-(trifluoromethyl)-3-(m-[125I]iodophenyl)diazirine (TID), have been utilized to examine the interactions of blood coagulation factor Va with calcium, prothrombin, factor Xa, and, in particular, phospholipid vesicles. With each of these structurally dissimilar reagents, the extent of photolabeling of factor Va was greater when the protein was bound to a membrane surface than when it was free in solution. Specifically, the covalent photoreaction with Vl, the smaller subunit of factor Va, was 2-fold higher in the presence of phosphatidylcholine/phosphatidylserine (PC/PS, 3:1) vesicles, to which factor Va binds, than in the presence of 100% PC vesicles, to which the protein does not bind. However, the magnitude of the PC/PS-dependent photolabeling was much less than has been observed previously with integral membrane proteins. It therefore appears that the binding of factor Va to the membrane surface exposes Vl to the lipid core of the bilayer, but that only a small portion of the Vl polypeptide is exposed to, or embedded in, the bilayer core. Addition of either prothrombin or active-site-blocked factor Xa to PC/PS-bound factor Va had little effect on the photolabeling of Vl with TID, but reduced substantially the covalent labeling of Vh, the larger subunit of factor Va. This indicates that prothrombin and factor Xa each cover nonpolar surfaces on Vh when the macromolecules associate on the PC/PS surface. It therefore seems likely that the formation of the prothrombinase complex involves a direct interaction between Vh and factor Xa and between Vh and prothrombin.(ABSTRACT TRUNCATED AT 250 WORDS)

  14. Synthesis, antimicrobial, and anti-inflammatory activity, of novel S-substituted and N-substituted 5-(1-adamantyl-1,2,4-triazole-3-thiols

    Al-Abdullah ES

    2014-05-01

    Full Text Available Ebtehal S Al-Abdullah,1 Hanadi H Asiri,1 Siham Lahsasni,2 Elsayed E Habib,3 Tarek M Ibrahim,4 Ali A El-Emam1 1Department of Pharmaceutical Chemistry, College of Pharmacy, 2Department of Chemistry, College of Sciences, King Saud University, Riyadh, 3Department of Pharmaceutics and Pharmaceutical Technology, College of Pharmacy, Taibah University, Medinah, Saudi Arabia; 4Department of Pharmacology and Toxicology, Faculty of Pharmacy, University of Mansoura, Mansoura, Egypt Abstract: The reaction of 5-(1-adamantyl-4-phenyl-1,2,4-triazoline-3-thione (compound 5 with formaldehyde and 1-substituted piperazines yielded the corresponding N-Mannich bases 6a–f. The reaction of 5-(1-adamantyl-4-methyl-1,2,4-triazoline-3-thione 8 with various 2-aminoethyl chloride yielded separable mixtures of the S-(2-aminoethyl 9a–d and the N-(2-aminoethyl 10a–d derivatives. The reaction of compound 5 with 1-bromo-2-methoxyethane, various aryl methyl halides, and ethyl bromoacetate solely yielded the S-substituted products 11, 12a–d, and 13. The new compounds were tested for activity against a panel of Gram-positive and Gram-negative bacteria and the pathogenic fungus Candida albicans. Compounds 6b, 6c, 6d, 6e, 6f, 10b, 10c, 10d, 12c, 12d, 12e, 13, and 14 displayed potent antibacterial activity. Meanwhile, compounds 13 and 14 produced good dose-dependent anti-inflammatory activity against carrageenan-induced paw edema in rats. Keywords: adamantane derivatives, 1,2,4-triazoles, N-Mannich bases, antimicrobial activity, anti-inflammatory activity

  15. Experimental quantification of decoherence via the Loschmidt echo in a many spin system with scaled dipolar Hamiltonians

    We performed Loschmidt echo nuclear magnetic resonance experiments to study decoherence under a scaled dipolar Hamiltonian by means of a symmetrical time-reversal pulse sequence denominated Proportionally Refocused Loschmidt (PRL) echo. The many-spin system represented by the protons in polycrystalline adamantane evolves through two steps of evolution characterized by the secular part of the dipolar Hamiltonian, scaled down with a factor |k| and opposite signs. The scaling factor can be varied continuously from 0 to 1/2, giving access to a range of complexity in the dynamics. The experimental results for the Loschmidt echoes showed a spreading of the decay rates that correlate directly to the scaling factors |k|, giving evidence that the decoherence is partially governed by the coherent dynamics. The average Hamiltonian theory was applied to give an insight into the spin dynamics during the pulse sequence. The calculations were performed for every single radio frequency block in contrast to the most widely used form. The first order of the average Hamiltonian numerically computed for an 8-spin system showed decay rates that progressively decrease as the secular dipolar Hamiltonian becomes weaker. Notably, the first order Hamiltonian term neglected by conventional calculations yielded an explanation for the ordering of the experimental decoherence rates. However, there is a strong overall decoherence observed in the experiments which is not reflected by the theoretical results. The fact that the non-inverted terms do not account for this effect is a challenging topic. A number of experiments to further explore the relation of the complete Hamiltonian with this dominant decoherence rate are proposed

  16. Shell-sheddable, pH-sensitive supramolecular nanoparticles based on ortho ester-modified cyclodextrin and adamantyl PEG.

    Ji, Ran; Cheng, Jing; Yang, Ting; Song, Cheng Cheng; Li, Lei; Du, Fu-Sheng; Li, Zi-Chen

    2014-10-13

    We report a new type of pH-sensitive supramolecular aggregates which possess a programmable character of sequential dePEGylation and degradation. As a platform of designing and building multifunctional supramolecular nanoparticles, a family of 6-OH ortho ester-modified β-cyclodextrin (β-CD) derivatives have been synthesized via the facile reaction between β-CD and cyclic ketene acetals with different alkyl lengths. These asymmetric acid-labile β-CD derivatives formed amphiphilic supramolecules with adamantane-modified PEG through host-guest interaction in polar solvents such as ethanol. The supramolecules can self-assemble in water to form acid-labile supramolecular aggregates. The results of TEM and light scattering measurements demonstrate that the size and morphology of the aggregates are influenced by the alkyl or PEG length and the host-guest feed ratio. By carefully balancing the alkyl and PEG lengths and adjusting the host-guest ratio, well-dispersed vesicles (50-100 nm) or sphere-like nanoparticles (200-500 nm) were obtained. Zeta potential measurements reveal that these supramolecular aggregates are capable of being surface-functionalized via dynamic host-guest interaction. The supramolecular aggregates were stable at pH 8.4 for at least 12 h as proven by the (1)H NMR and LLS measurements. However, rapid dePEGylation occurred at pH 7.4 due to the hydrolysis of the ortho ester linkages locating at the interface, which resulted in aggregation of the dePEGylated hydrophobic inner cores. Upon further decreasing the pH to 6.4, the hydrophobic cores were further degraded due to the acid-accelerated hydrolysis of the ortho esters. The incubation stability of the acid-labile supramolecular aggregates in neutral buffer could be improved by incorporating hydrophobic poly(ε-caprolactone) into the core of the aggregates. PMID:25144934

  17. Early postnatal treatment with soluble epoxide hydrolase inhibitor or 15-deoxy-Δ(12,14)-prostagandin J2 prevents prenatal dexamethasone and postnatal high saturated fat diet induced programmed hypertension in adult rat offspring.

    Lu, Pei-Chen; Sheen, Jiunn-Ming; Yu, Hong-Ren; Lin, Yu-Ju; Chen, Chih-Cheng; Tiao, Mao-Meng; Tsai, Ching-Chou; Huang, Li-Tung; Tain, You-Lin

    2016-07-01

    Prenatal dexamethasone (DEX) exposure, postnatal high-fat (HF) intake, and arachidonic acid pathway are closely related to hypertension. We tested whether a soluble epoxide hydrolase (SEH) inhibitor, 12-(3-adamantan-1-yl-ureido)-dodecanoic acid (AUDA) or 15-deoxy-Δ(12,14)-prostagandin J2 (15dPGJ2) therapy can rescue programmed hypertension in the DEX+HF two-hit model. Four groups of Sprague Dawley rats were studied: control, DEX+HF, AUDA, and 15dPGJ2. Dexamethasone (0.1mg/kg body weight) was intraperitoneally administered to pregnant rats from gestational day 16-22. Male offspring received high-fat diet (D12331, Research Diets) from weaning to 4 months of age. In AUDA group, mother rats received 25mg/L in drinking water during lactation. In the 15dPGJ2 group, male offspring received 15dPGJ2 1.5mg/kg BW by subcutaneous injection once daily for 1 week after birth. We found postnatal HF diet aggravated prenatal DEX-induced programmed hypertension, which was similarly prevented by early treatment with AUDA or 15dPGJ2. The beneficial effects of AUDA and 15d-PGJ2 therapy include inhibition of SEH, increases of renal angiotensin converting enzyme-2 (ACE2) and angiotensin II type 2 receptor (AT2R) protein levels, and restoration of nitric oxide bioavailability. Better understanding of the impact of arachidonic acid pathway in the two-hit model will help prevent programmed hypertension in children exposed to corticosteroids and postnatal HF intake. PMID:27210044

  18. Clinical, epidemiological and virological characteristics of the first detected human case of avian influenza A(H5N6) virus.

    Zhang, Rusheng; Chen, Tianmu; Ou, Xinhua; Liu, Ruchun; Yang, Yang; Ye, Wen; Chen, Jingfang; Yao, Dong; Sun, Biancheng; Zhang, Xixing; Zhou, Jianxiang; Sun, Yan; Chen, Faming; Wang, Shi-Ping

    2016-06-01

    A human infection with novel avian influenza A H5N6 virus emerged in Changsha city, China in February, 2014. This is the first detected human case among all human cases identified from 2014 to early 2016. We obtained and summarized clinical, epidemiological, and virological data from this patient. Complete genome of the virus was determined and compared to other avian influenza viruses via the construction of phylogenetic trees using the neighbor-joining approach. A girl aged five and half years developed fever and mild respiratory symptoms on Feb. 16, 2014 and visited hospital on Feb. 17. Throat swab specimens were obtained from the patient and a novel reassortant avian influenza A H5N6 virus was detected. All eight viral gene segments were of avian origin. The hemagglutinin (HA) and neuraminidase (NA) gene segments were closely related to A/duck/Sichuan/NCXN11/2014(H5N1) and A/chicken/Jiangxi/12782/2014(H10N6) viruses, respectively. The six internal genes were homologous to avian influenza A (H5N2) viruses isolated in duck from Jiangxi in China. This H5N6 virus has not gained genetic mutations necessary for human infection and was suggested to be sensitive to neuraminidase inhibitors, but resistant to adamantanes. Epidemiological investigation of the exposure history of the patient found that a live poultry market could be the source place of infection and the incubation period was 2-5days. This novel reassortant Avian influenza A(H5N6) virus could be low pathogenic in humans. The prevalence and genetic evolution of this virus should be closely monitored. PMID:26973295

  19. Broad range of inhibiting action of novel camphor-based compound with anti-hemagglutinin activity against influenza viruses in vitro and in vivo.

    Zarubaev, V V; Garshinina, A V; Tretiak, T S; Fedorova, V A; Shtro, A A; Sokolova, A S; Yarovaya, O I; Salakhutdinov, N F

    2015-08-01

    Influenza virus continues to remain one of the leading human respiratory pathogens causing significant morbidity and mortality around the globe. Due to short-term life cycle and high rate of mutations influenza virus is able to rapidly develop resistance to clinically available antivirals. This makes necessary the search and development of new drugs with different targets and mechanisms of activity. Here we report anti-influenza activity of camphor derivative 1,7,7-trimethylbicyclo[2.2.1]heptan-2-ylidene-aminoethanol (camphecene). In in vitro experiments it inhibited influenza viruses A(H1, H1pdm09, H3 and H5 subtypes) and B with EC50's lying in micromolar range. Due to low cytotoxicity it resulted in high selectivity indices (74-661 depending on the virus). This effect did not depend on susceptibility or resistance of the viruses to adamantane derivatives amantadine and rimantadine. The compound appeared the most effective when added at the early stages of viral life cycle (0-2h p.i.). In direct hemagglutinin inhibition tests camphecene was shown to decrease the activity of HA's of influenza viruses A and B. The activity of camphecene was further confirmed in experiments with influenza virus-infected mice, in which, being used orally by therapeutic schedule (once a day, days 1-5 p.i.) it decreased specific mortality of animals infected with both influenza A and B viruses (highest indices of protection 66.7% and 88.9%, respectively). Taken together, these results are encouraging for further development of camphecene-based drug(s) and for exploration of camphor derivatives as highly prospective group of potential antivirals. PMID:26072310

  20. Novel Cycloheximide Derivatives Targeting the Moonlighting Protein Mip Exhibit Specific Antimicrobial Activity Against Legionella pneumophila

    Rasch, Janine; Theuerkorn, Martin; Ünal, Can; Heinsohn, Natascha; Tran, Stefan; Fischer, Gunter; Weiwad, Matthias; Steinert, Michael

    2015-01-01

    Macrophage infectivity potentiator (Mip) and Mip-like proteins are virulence factors in a wide range of pathogens including Legionella pneumophila. These proteins belong to the FK506 binding protein (FKBP) family of peptidyl-prolyl-cis/trans-isomerases (PPIases). In L. pneumophila, the PPIase activity of Mip is required for invasion of macrophages, transmigration through an in vitro lung–epithelial barrier, and full virulence in the guinea pig infection model. Additionally, Mip is a moonlighting protein that binds to collagen IV in the extracellular matrix. Here, we describe the development and synthesis of cycloheximide derivatives with adamantyl moieties as novel FKBP ligands, and analyze their effect on the viability of L. pneumophila and other bacteria. All compounds efficiently inhibited PPIase activity of the prototypic human FKBP12 as well as Mip with IC50-values as low as 180 nM and 1.7 μM, respectively. Five of these derivatives inhibited the growth of L. pneumophila at concentrations of 30–40 μM, but exhibited no effect on other tested bacterial species indicating a specific spectrum of antibacterial activity. The derivatives carrying a 3,5-dimethyladamantan-1-[yl]acetamide substitution (MT_30.32), and a 3-ethyladamantan-1-[yl]acetamide substitution (MT_30.51) had the strongest effects in PPIase- and liquid growth assays. MT_30.32 and MT_30.51 were also inhibitory in macrophage infection studies without being cytotoxic. Accordingly, by applying a combinatorial approach, we were able to generate novel, hybrid inhibitors consisting of cycloheximide and adamantane, two known FKBP inhibitors that interact with different parts of the PPIase domain, respectively. Interestingly, despite the proven Mip-inhibitory activity, the viability of a Mip-deficient strain was affected to the same degree as its wild type. Hence, we also propose that cycloheximide derivatives with adamantyl moieties are potent PPIase inhibitors with multiple targets in L

  1. Hydrogen-bonding patterns in bis[2,4,6-triazaniumylcyclohexane-1,3,5-tris(olate)-κ(3)O,O',O'']germanium(IV) tetrachloride hexahydrate.

    Neis, Christian; Morgenstern, Bernd; Hegetschweiler, Kaspar

    2016-01-01

    A first preliminary report on the crystal structure of a hydrated salt formulated as [Ge(taci)2]Cl4·13H2O (taci is 1,3,5-triamino-1,3,5-trideoxy-cis-inositol) appeared more than 20 years ago [Ghisletta (1994). PhD thesis, ETH Zürich. Switzerland]. At that time it was not possible to discriminate unambiguously between the positions of some of the chloride ions and water O atoms, and disorder was thus postulated. In a new determination, a conclusive scheme of hydrogen bonding proves to be a particularly appealing aspect of the structure. Single crystals of the title compound, C12H30GeN6O6(4+)·4Cl(-)·6H2O or [Ge(taci)2]2Cl8·12H2O, were grown from an aqueous solution by slow evaporation of the solvent. The two [Ge(taci)2](4+) cations exhibit a double-adamantane-type structure with exclusive O-atom coordination and approximate D3d symmetry. The taci ligands adopt a zwitterionic form with deprotonated hydroxy groups and protonated amino groups. Both cations are hydrogen bonded to six water molecules. The structure of the hydration shell of the two cations is, however, slightly different. The {[Ge(taci)2]·6H2O}(4+) aggregates are interlinked in all three dimensions by further hydrogen bonds of the types N-H...Cl...H-N, N-H...O(H)2...H-N, (Ge)O...H-O(H)...H-N, N-H...O(H)-H...Cl...H-N, (Ge)O...H-O-H...Cl...H-N, N-H...O(H)-H...Cl...H-(H)O...H-N, (Ge)O...H-O-H...Cl...H-(H)O...H-N and Ge(O)...H-O-H...Cl...H-O-H...O(Ge). PMID:26742824

  2. Soluble epoxide hydrolase inhibition and gene deletion are protective against myocardial ischemia-reperfusion injury in vivo.

    Motoki, Atsuko; Merkel, Matthias J; Packwood, William H; Cao, Zhiping; Liu, Lijuan; Iliff, Jeffrey; Alkayed, Nabil J; Van Winkle, Donna M

    2008-11-01

    Soluble epoxide hydrolase (sEH) metabolizes epoxyeicosatrienoic acids (EETs) to dihydroxyeicosatrienoic acids. EETs are formed from arachidonic acid during myocardial ischemia and play a protective role against ischemic cell death. Deletion of sEH has been shown to be protective against myocardial ischemia in the isolated heart preparation. We tested the hypothesis that sEH inactivation by targeted gene deletion or pharmacological inhibition reduces infarct size (I) after regional myocardial ischemia-reperfusion injury in vivo. Male C57BL\\6J wild-type or sEH knockout mice were subjected to 40 min of left coronary artery (LCA) occlusion and 2 h of reperfusion. Wild-type mice were injected intraperitoneally with 12-(3-adamantan-1-yl-ureido)-dodecanoic acid butyl ester (AUDA-BE), a sEH inhibitor, 30 min before LCA occlusion or during ischemia 10 min before reperfusion. 14,15-EET, the main substrate for sEH, was administered intravenously 15 min before LCA occlusion or during ischemia 5 min before reperfusion. The EET antagonist 14,15-epoxyeicosa-5(Z)-enoic acid (EEZE) was given intravenously 15 min before reperfusion. Area at risk (AAR) and I were assessed using fluorescent microspheres and triphenyltetrazolium chloride, and I was expressed as I/AAR. I was significantly reduced in animals treated with AUDA-BE or 14,15-EET, independent of the time of administration. The cardioprotective effect of AUDA-BE was abolished by the EET antagonist 14,15-EEZE. Immunohistochemistry revealed abundant sEH protein expression in left ventricular tissue. Strategies to increase 14,15-EET, including sEH inactivation, may represent a novel therapeutic approach for cardioprotection against myocardial ischemia-reperfusion injury. PMID:18835921

  3. Genetic Characteristics of 2009 Pandemic H1N1 Influenza A Viruses Isolated from Mainland China

    Jiu-ru Zhao; Han Xia; Na Han; Shuang Tang; Zhong Zhang; Zheng Kou; Simon Rayner; Tian-xian Li; Yong-dong Li; Li-min Pan; Na Zhu; Hong-xia Ni; Guo-zhang Xu; Yong-zhong Jiang; Xi-xiang Huo; Jun-qiang Xu

    2011-01-01

    A total of 100 HIN1 flu real-time-PCR positive throat swabs collected from fever patients in Zhejiang,Hubei and Guangdong between June and November 2009,were provided by local CDC laboratories.After MDCK cell culture,57 Influenza A Pandemic (H1N1) viruses were isolated and submitted for whole genome sequencing.A total of 39 HA sequences,52 NA sequences,36 PB2 sequences,31 PB1 sequences,40 PA sequences,48 NP sequences,51 MP sequences and 36 NS sequences were obtained,including 20 whole genome sequences.Sequence comparison revealed they shared a high degree of homology (96%~99%) with known epidemic strains (A/Califomia/04/2009(H1N1).Phylogenetic analysis showed that although the sequences were highly conserved,they clustered into a small number of groups with only a few distinct strains.Site analysis revealed three substitutions at loop 220 (221-228) of the HA receptor binding site in the 39 HA sequences:A/Hubei/86/2009 PKVRDQEG→PKVRDQEA,A/Zhejiang/08/2009 PKVRDQEG→PKVRDQER,A/Hubei/75/2009PKVRDQEG→PKVRDQGG,the A/Hubei/75/2009 was isolated from an acute case,while the other two were from patients with mild symptoms.Other key sites such as 119,274,292 and 294 amino acids of NA protein,627 of PB2 protein were conserved.Meanwhile,all the M2 protein sequences possessed the Ser32Asn mutation,suggesting that these viruses were resistant to adamantanes.Comparison of these sequences with other H1N1 viruses collected from the NCBI database provides insight into H1N1 transmission and circulation patterns.

  4. Experimental quantification of decoherence via the Loschmidt echo in a many spin system with scaled dipolar Hamiltonians

    Buljubasich, Lisandro; Dente, Axel D.; Levstein, Patricia R.; Chattah, Ana K.; Pastawski, Horacio M. [Instituto de Física Enrique Gaviola (IFEG-CONICET), Córdoba 5000 (Argentina); Facultad de Matemática, Astronomía y Física, Universidad Nacional de Córdoba, Ciudad Universitaria, Córdoba 5000 (Argentina); Sánchez, Claudia M. [Facultad de Matemática, Astronomía y Física, Universidad Nacional de Córdoba, Ciudad Universitaria, Córdoba 5000 (Argentina)

    2015-10-28

    We performed Loschmidt echo nuclear magnetic resonance experiments to study decoherence under a scaled dipolar Hamiltonian by means of a symmetrical time-reversal pulse sequence denominated Proportionally Refocused Loschmidt (PRL) echo. The many-spin system represented by the protons in polycrystalline adamantane evolves through two steps of evolution characterized by the secular part of the dipolar Hamiltonian, scaled down with a factor |k| and opposite signs. The scaling factor can be varied continuously from 0 to 1/2, giving access to a range of complexity in the dynamics. The experimental results for the Loschmidt echoes showed a spreading of the decay rates that correlate directly to the scaling factors |k|, giving evidence that the decoherence is partially governed by the coherent dynamics. The average Hamiltonian theory was applied to give an insight into the spin dynamics during the pulse sequence. The calculations were performed for every single radio frequency block in contrast to the most widely used form. The first order of the average Hamiltonian numerically computed for an 8-spin system showed decay rates that progressively decrease as the secular dipolar Hamiltonian becomes weaker. Notably, the first order Hamiltonian term neglected by conventional calculations yielded an explanation for the ordering of the experimental decoherence rates. However, there is a strong overall decoherence observed in the experiments which is not reflected by the theoretical results. The fact that the non-inverted terms do not account for this effect is a challenging topic. A number of experiments to further explore the relation of the complete Hamiltonian with this dominant decoherence rate are proposed.

  5. Exploring the binding nature of pyrrolidine pocket-dependent interactions in the polo-box domain of polo-like kinase 1.

    Ravichandran N Murugan

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: Over the years, a great deal of effort has been focused on the design and synthesis of potent, linear peptide inhibitors targeting the polo-like kinase 1 (Plk1, which is critically involved in multiple mitotic processes and has been established as an adverse prognostic marker for tumor patients. Plk1 localizes to its intracellular anchoring sites via its polo-box domain, and inhibiting the Plk1 polo-box domain has been considered as an approach to circumvent the specificity problems associated with inhibiting the conserved adenosine triphosphate-binding pocket. The polo-box domain consists of two different binding regions, such as the unique, broader pyrrolidine-binding pocket and the conserved, narrow, Tyr-rich hydrophobic channel, among the three Plk polo-box domains (Plks 1-3, respectively. Therefore, the studies that provide insights into the binding nature of the unique, broader pyrrolidine-binding pocket might lead to the development of selective Plk1-inhibitory compounds. METHODOLOGY/PRINCIPAL FINDINGS: In an attempt to retain the monospecificity by targeting the unique, broader pyrrolidine-binding pocket, here, for the first time, a systematic approach was undertaken to examine the structure-activity relationship of N-terminal-truncated PLHSpTM derivatives, to apply a site-directed ligand approach using bulky aromatic and non-aromatic systems, and to characterize the binding nature of these analogues using X-ray crystallographic studies. We have identified a new mode of binding interactions, having improved binding affinity and retaining the Plk1 polo-box domain specificity, at the pyrrolidine-binding pocket. Furthermore, our data revealed that the pyrrolidine-binding pocket was very specific to recognize a short and bulky hydrophobic ligand like adamantane, whereas the Tyr-rich hydrophobic channel was specific with lengthy and small hydrophobic groups. CONCLUSION/SIGNIFICANCE: The progress made using our site

  6. Antiviral drug profile of human influenza A & B viruses circulating in India: 2004-2011

    V A Potdar

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Background & objectives: Recent influenza antiviral resistance studies in South East Asia, Europe and the United States reveal adamantane and neuraminidase inhibitor (NAIs resistance. This study was undertaken to evaluate antiviral resistance in influenza viruses isolated from various parts of India, during 2004 to 2011. Methods: Influenza viruses were analyzed genetically for known resistance markers by M2 and NA gene sequencing. Influenza A/H1N1 (n=206, A/H3N2 (n=371 viruses for amantadine resistance and A/H1N1 (n=206, A/H3N2 (n=272 and type B (n=326 for oseltamivir resistance were sequenced. Pandemic (H1N1 (n= 493 isolates were tested for H274Y mutation by real time reverse transcription (rRT-PCR. Randomly selected resistant and sensitive influenza A/H1N1 and A/H3N2 viruses were confirmed by phenotypic assay. Results: Serine to asparagine (S3IN mutation was detected in six isolates of 2007-2008.One dual-resistant A/H1N1 was detected for the first time in India with leucine to phenylalanine (L26F mutation in M2 gene and H274Y mutation in NA gene. A/H3N2 viruses showed an increase in resistance to amantadine from 22.5 per cent in 2005 to 100 per cent in 2008 onwards with S3IN mutation. Fifty of the 61 (82% A/H1N1 viruses tested in 2008-2009 were oseltamivir resistant with H274Y mutation, while all A/H3N2, pandemic A/H1N1 and type B isolates remained sensitive. Genetic results were also confirmed by phenotypic analysis of randomly selected 50 resistant A/H1N1 and 40 sensitive A/H3N2 isolates. Interpretation & conclusions: Emergence of influenza viruses resistant to amantadine and oseltamivir in spite of negligible usage of antivirals emphasizes the need for continuous monitoring of antiviral resistance.

  7. Magnetic-particle-based, ultrasensitive chemiluminescence enzyme immunoassay for free prostate-specific antigen

    Graphical abstract: -- Highlights: •A low-cost and rapid assay for f-PSA in serum was developed using MMP-based CLEIA. •f-PSA detection: 0.1–30 ng mL−1 concentration range; 0.1 ng mL−1 detection limit. •The proposed method showed high sensitivity, good reproducibility and stability. •The strategy showed great potential in the fabrication of MMP-based f-PSA test kits. -- Abstract: We report a magnetic-particle (MMP)-based chemiluminescence enzyme immunoassay (CLEIA) for free prostate-specific antigen (f-PSA) in human serum. In this method, the f-PSA is sandwiched between the anti-PSA antibody coated MMPs and alkaline phosphatase (ALP)-labeled anti-f-PSA antibody. The signal produced by the emitted photons from the chemiluminescent substrate (4-methoxy-4-(3-phosphatephenyl)-spiro-(1,2-dioxetane-3,2′-adamantane)) is directly proportional to the amount of f-PSA in a sample. The present MMP-based assay can detect f-PSA in the range of 0.1–30 ng mL−1 with the detection limit of 0.1 ng mL−1. The linear detection range could match the concentration range within the “diagnostic gray zone” of serum f-PSA levels (4–10 ng mL−1). The detection limit was sufficient for measuring clinically relevant f-PSA levels (>4 ng mL−1). Furthermore, the method was highly selective; it was unaffected by cross-reaction with human glandular kallikrein-2, a kallikrein-like serine protease that is 80% similar to f-PSA. The proposed method was finally applied to determine f-PSA in 40 samples of human sera. Results obtained using the method showed high correlation with those obtained using a commercially available microplate CLEIA kit (correlation coefficient, 0.9821). This strategy shows great potential application in the fabrication of diagnostic kits for determining f-PSA in serum

  8. Investigation of diamondoid and functionalized diamondoid molecules under extreme conditions

    Yang, F.; Lin, Y.; Mao, W. L.

    2013-12-01

    As the fourth most abundant element in the universe and an important energy carrier, carbon based materials have long been of considerable interests in research. Diamondoids are cage-like, ultra-stable, saturated hydrocarbons, with carbon-carbon frameworks superimposed on the diamond lattice and originally found in petroleum. The exceptional electron photoemission from thin film of diamondoids has excited interests in using these unique materials as functional elements to regulate energy flow at the nanoscale. Selective chemical functionalization further changes the electronic properties of the system and brings many more possible applications. Pressure (P), together with temperature (T), could lead to formation of novel phases of pure diamondoids and provide alternative routes for potentially synthesizing higher diamondoids. In addition, the electronic properties of functionalized diamondoids may also be enhanced with P. We have compressed pure diamondoids: the [121] tetramantane up to 20 GPa and observed a phase transition at high pressure from powder x-ray diffraction (XRD). This phase transition took place at approximately 13 GPa and completed within a short pressure range. Meanwhile, we observed only continuous changes in the CCC bending and CC stretching regions from Raman spectroscopy, suggesting that the carbon framework of the diamondoid molecules remains intact with pressure. The phase transition observed in XRD is probably due to the molecular packing rearrangement. We also discovered interesting pressure-induced electronic properties changes in newly synthesized functionalized diamondoids, particularly the Ag-adamantane-thiol, from Raman spectroscopy. First, there is an abrupt emergence of photoluminescence with ~700 nm peak emission when the crystals are compressed to 2-3 GPa, suggesting an indirect to direct band gap transition. Second, the phonon modes in the Raman spectra begin to diminish, accompanied by an increase of the baseline slope, when the

  9. High-Resolution Infrared Spectroscopy of Cubane, C_8H_8

    Boudon, Vincent; Pirali, Olivier; Gruet, Sébastien; D'accolti, Lucia; Fusco, Caterina; Annese, Cosimo

    2014-06-01

    Carbon-cage molecules have generated a considerable interest from both experimental and theoretical point of views. We recently performed a high-resolution study of adamantane (C10H16), the smallest hydrocarbon cage belonging to the diamandoid family. There exist another family of hydrocarbon cages with additional interesting chemical properties: the so-called Platonic hydrocarbons that comprise dodecahedrane (C20H20) and cubane (C_8H_8). Both possess C-C bond angles that deviate from the tetrahedral angle (109.8°) of the sp^3 hybridized form of carbon. This generates a considerable strain in the molecule. Cubane itself has the highest density of all hydrocarbons (1.29 g/cm^3). This makes it able to store larges amounts of energy, although the molecule is fully stable. Up to now, only one high-resolution study of cubane has been performed on a few bands [2]. We report here a new wide-range high-resolution study of the infrared spectrum of cubane. The sample was synthesized in Bari upon decarboxylation of 1,4-cubanedicarboxylic acid thanks to the improved synthesis of literature [3]; its {}1H and 13C NMR, FTIR, and mass spectrometry agreed with reported data [4]. Several spectra have been recorded at the AILES beamline of the SOLEIL French synchrotron facility. They cover the 800 to 3100 cm-1 region. Besides the three infrared-active fundamentals (ν10, ν11 and ν12), we could record many combination bands, all of them displaying a well-resolved octahedral rotational structure. We present here a preliminary analysis of some of the recorded bands, performed thanks the SPVIEW and XTDS software, based on the tensrorial formalism developed in the Dijon group [5]. [1] O. Pirali, V. Boudon, J. Oomens, M. Vervloet, J. Chem. Phys., 136, 024310 (2012). [2] A. S. Pine, A. G. Maki, A. G. Robiette, B. J. Krohn, J. K. G. Watson, Th. Urbanek, J. Am. Chem. Soc., 106, 891-897 (1984). [3] P. E. Eaton, N. Nordari, J. Tsanaktsidis, P. S. Upadhyaya, Synthesis, 1, 501, (1995). [4] E

  10. Activation of C-Cl by ground-state aluminum atoms: an EPR and DFT investigation.

    Joly, Helen A; Newton, Trevor; Myre, Maxine

    2012-01-01

    The reaction of ground-state Al atoms with dichloromethane (CH(2)Cl(2)) in an adamantane matrix at 77 K yielded two mononuclear Al species. The magnetic parameters, extracted from the axial EPR spectrum of Species A/A' (g(1) = 2.0037, g(2) = g(3) = 2.0030, a(Al,1) = 1307 MHz, a(Al,2) = a(Al,3) = 1273 MHz, a(35Cl) = 34 MHz and a(37Cl) = 28 MHz) were assigned to the Al-atom insertion product, ClCH(2)AlCl. Density functional theory (DFT) calculations of the values of the Al and Cl hyperfine interaction (hfi) of the Cl(1)-Cl(2)gauche conformer were in close agreement with the experimental values of ClCH(2)AlCl. The second species, B/B', had identical magnetic parameters to those of ClCH(2)AlCl with the exception that the Al hfi was 15% smaller. Coordination of a ligand, possessing a lone pair of electrons, to the Al atom of the insertion product, [ClCH(2)AlCl]:X, could cause the a(Al) to decrease by 15%. Alternatively, it is possible that the Cl(1)-Cl(2) anti conformer of ClCH(2)AlCl is also isolated in the matrix. Support for the spectral assignments is given by calculation of the nuclear hfi of [ClCH(2)AlCl]:H(2)O and the Cl(1)-Cl(2) anti conformer of ClCH(2)AlCl using a DFT method. The potential energy hypersurface for an Al atom approaching CH(2)Cl(2), calculated at the B3LYP level, suggests that Al atom abstraction of Cl forming AlCl and CH(2)Cl is favoured in the gas phase. When produced in a matrix, the close proximity of AlCl and CH(2)Cl could account for the formation of ClCH(2)AlCl. EPR evidence was also found for the formation of the CHCl(2) radical. PMID:22086441

  11. Magnetic-particle-based, ultrasensitive chemiluminescence enzyme immunoassay for free prostate-specific antigen

    Liu, Ruping [College of Electronic Information and Optical Engineering, Nankai University, Tianjin 300071 (China); Wang, Cheng [College of Electronic Information and Optical Engineering, Nankai University, Tianjin 300071 (China); Department of Mechanical Engineering, Columbia University, New York 10027 (United States); Jiang, Quan [Institute of Material Science and Engineering, Wuhan University of Technology, Wuhan 430070 (China); Zhang, Wei; Yue, Zhao [College of Electronic Information and Optical Engineering, Nankai University, Tianjin 300071 (China); Liu, Guohua, E-mail: liugh@nankai.edu.cn [College of Electronic Information and Optical Engineering, Nankai University, Tianjin 300071 (China)

    2013-11-01

    Graphical abstract: -- Highlights: •A low-cost and rapid assay for f-PSA in serum was developed using MMP-based CLEIA. •f-PSA detection: 0.1–30 ng mL{sup −1} concentration range; 0.1 ng mL{sup −1} detection limit. •The proposed method showed high sensitivity, good reproducibility and stability. •The strategy showed great potential in the fabrication of MMP-based f-PSA test kits. -- Abstract: We report a magnetic-particle (MMP)-based chemiluminescence enzyme immunoassay (CLEIA) for free prostate-specific antigen (f-PSA) in human serum. In this method, the f-PSA is sandwiched between the anti-PSA antibody coated MMPs and alkaline phosphatase (ALP)-labeled anti-f-PSA antibody. The signal produced by the emitted photons from the chemiluminescent substrate (4-methoxy-4-(3-phosphatephenyl)-spiro-(1,2-dioxetane-3,2′-adamantane)) is directly proportional to the amount of f-PSA in a sample. The present MMP-based assay can detect f-PSA in the range of 0.1–30 ng mL{sup −1} with the detection limit of 0.1 ng mL{sup −1}. The linear detection range could match the concentration range within the “diagnostic gray zone” of serum f-PSA levels (4–10 ng mL{sup −1}). The detection limit was sufficient for measuring clinically relevant f-PSA levels (>4 ng mL{sup −1}). Furthermore, the method was highly selective; it was unaffected by cross-reaction with human glandular kallikrein-2, a kallikrein-like serine protease that is 80% similar to f-PSA. The proposed method was finally applied to determine f-PSA in 40 samples of human sera. Results obtained using the method showed high correlation with those obtained using a commercially available microplate CLEIA kit (correlation coefficient, 0.9821). This strategy shows great potential application in the fabrication of diagnostic kits for determining f-PSA in serum.

  12. Compound-specific sulfur isotope analysis of thiadiamondoids of oils from the Smackover Formation, USA

    Gvirtzman, Zvi; Said-Ahmad, Ward; Ellis, Geoffrey S.; Hill, Ronald J.; Moldowan, J. Michael; Wei, Zhibin; Amrani, Alon

    2015-10-01

    Thiadiamondoids (TDs) are diamond-like compounds with a sulfide bond located within the cage structure. These compounds were suggested as a molecular proxy for the occurrence and extent of thermochemical sulfate reduction (TSR). Compound-specific sulfur-isotope analysis of TDs may create a multi-parameter system, based on molecular and δ34S values that may be sensitive over a wider range of TSR and thermal maturation stages. In this study, we analyzed a suite of 12 Upper Jurassic oil and condensate samples generated from source rocks in the Smackover Formation to perform a systematic study of the sulfur isotope distribution in thiadiamondoids (one and two cages). For comparison we measured the δ34S composition of benzothiophenes (BTs) and dibenzothiophenes (DBTs). We also conducted pyrolysis experiments with petroleum and model compounds to have an insight into the formation mechanisms of TDs. The δ34S of the TDs varied significantly (ca 30‰) between the different oils depending on the degree of TSR alteration. The results showed that within the same oil, the one-cage TDs were relatively uniform, with 34S enriched values similar to those of the coexisting BTs. The two-cage TDs had more variable δ34S values that range from the δ34S values of BTs to those of the DBTs, but with general 34S depletion relative to one cage TDs. Hydrous pyrolysis experiments (360 °C, 40 h) with either CaSO4 or elemental S (equivalent S molar concentrations) and adamantane as a model compound demonstrate the formation of one cage TDs in relatively low yields (compounds, most notably 2-thiaadamantanone and phenol, were also formed during these pyrolysis experiments. This may represent the first stage in the formation of sulfurized compounds and the oxidation of organic matter under TSR conditions. Pyrolysis experiments with elemental S and a TD-enriched oil showed that the δ34S values of the TDs did not change, whereas the BTs did change significantly. It is therefore concluded

  13. Design, synthesis, and characterization of new phosphazene related materials, and study the structure property correlations

    Tian, Zhicheng

    various gelation rates depending on the polymer structures and the concentrations. The rheological measurements of the supramolecular hydrogels indicate a fast gelation process and flowable character under a large stain. Chapter 4 outlines the preparation of a number of amphiphilic diblock copolymers based on poly[bis(trifluoroethoxy)phosphazene] (TFE) as the hydrophobic block and poly(dimethylaminoethylmethacrylate) (PDMAEMA) as the hydrophilic block. The TFE block was synthesized first by the controlled living cationic polymerization of a phosphoranimine, followed by replacement of all the chlorine atoms using sodium trifluoroethoxide. To allow for the growth of the PDMAEMA block, 3-azidopropyl-2-bromo-2-methylpropanoate, an atom transfer radical polymerization (ATRP) initiator, was grafted onto the endcap of the TFE block via the 'click' reaction followed by the ATRP of 2-(dimethylamino)ethyl methacrylate (DMAEMA). Chapter 5 is a report on the design and assembly of polyphosphazene materials based on the non-covalent "host--guest" interactions either at the terminus of the polymeric main-chains or the pendant side-chains. The supramolecular interaction at the main chain terminus was used to produce amphiphilic palm-tree like pseudo-block copolymers via host-guest interactions between an adamantane end-functionalized polyphosphazene and a 4-armed beta-cyclodextrin (beta-CD) initiated poly[poly(ethylene glycol) methyl ether methacylate] branched-star type polymer. The formation of micelles of the obtained amphiphiles was analyzed by fluorescence technique, dynamic light scattering, transmission electron microscopy, and atomic force microscopy. Chapter 6 is an investigation of the influence of bulky fluoroalkoxy side groups on the properties of polyphosphazenes. A new series of mixed-substituent high polymeric poly(fluoroalkoxyphosphazenes) containing trifluoroethoxy and branched fluoroalkoxy side groups was synthesized and characterized by NMR and GPC methods. These

  14. Preparation and Immunomodulatory Properties of Modified Peptidoglycan Fragments

    Tomić, S.

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Immunostimulators, known also as adjuvants, are added to vaccines to accelerate, extend or amplify the specific immune reaction to a specific antigen. One well known class of immuno- modulating compounds is based on muramylpeptides which are fragments of peptidoglycans, natural polymers that build up the cell wall of bacteria. Muramyldipeptide, N-acetyl- muramyl-L-alanyl-D-isoglutamine (MDP, Fig. 1 is the smallest structural unit of the peptidoglycan monomer (PGM, Fig. 2 which shows immunostimulating activity. PGM isolated from Brevibacterium divaricatum, acts in itself as an effective adjuvant, and several derivatives were prepared to study the possible influence of different substituents on the immunomodulatory activity. Thus, lipophilic derivativestert-butyloxycarbonyl-L-tyrosyl-PGM and (adamant- 1-ylacetyl-PGM (Fig. 3 were prepared and their activities studied. They were also shown to be good substrates for N-acetylmuramyl-L-alanine amidase from human serum (Scheme 1 which specifically hydrolyzes the lactylamide bond. MDP which is an integral part of PGM and proven to be an effective adjuvant was further synthetically modified and obtained derivatives tested as possible immunomodulators. Romutide (MDP-Lys(L18, approved by Food and Drug Administration (FDA, and mifamurtide (L-MTP-PE, approved by European Medicines Agency (EMA, highlight among many other MDP derivatives (Fig. 4. Since N-acetylglucosamine in the structure of MDP is not essential for the immunostimulating effect, desmuramyldipeptides (Fig. 5 with different acyl groups at N-terminus of L-Ala-D-isoGln dipeptide were prepared. In ada mantyl desmuramyldipeptides such as adamantylamide dipeptide (Fig 6, adamantyl tripeptides (Fig. 7 and desmuramylpeptides with (adamant-1-ylcarboxyamido group (Fig. 8, lipophilic adamantane moiety is bound to the dipeptide part. Binding of some specific sugars to immune active substances may help their targeted delivery. An example is mannose which

  15. Vladimir Prelog i Zavod za organsku kemiju

    Jakopčić, K.

    2007-03-01

    -operation from the small but prosperous pharmaceutical company "Kaštel" in Zagreb. On behalf of the agreement, Prelog and his department obtained funds to fit up the laboratory and to start very prosperous research in the synthesis and studies of pharmaceutically interesting compounds. With his assistants, students and other collaborators, Prelog started research of cinchona bark alkaloids, preferentially oriented to the synthesis of quinine. For example, Prelog's method of double intramolecular alkylation to synthetize the quinuclidine moiety of quinine was patented by "Kaštel". With R. Seiwerth he developed the first useful synthesis of adamantane. Prelog's group started research in the field of sulphonamides and commercial success of "Streptazole" stimulated the development of the research laboratories within "Kaštel". The collaboration in the research continued in fields of other chemotherapeutics, analeptics, spasmolitics, barbiturates etc. Within the period 1935-1941, Prelog published 48 scientific papers and 8 patents. In less than seven years, his results enormously influenced the entire organic chemistry in Zagreb till nowadays. Under the confused and uncertain circumstances caused by the beginning of World War II, Prelog left Zagreb in 1941 and continued his extraordinary scientific career at the ETH in Zürich.During the war (1942-1945 the tuition and the Department were run by Dr. Rativoj Seiwerth, former collaborator and first assistant to V. Prelog. In almost unbelievable conditions, the young assistant, then assistant professor (since January 1943, R. Seiwerth fully succeeded in continuing most activities founded by Professor Prelog. After the war (1945, R. Seiwerth was forced to resign. Nevertheless, soon after R. Seiwerth continued his research work, firstly in the Institute for Industrial Research in Zagreb (1946-1952, and later in the Research Institute of "Pliva" in Zagreb. He retired in 1980.In post-war conditions (1945/46, the activity of the Technical

  16. PREFACE: IUMRS-ICA 2008 Symposium, Sessions 'X. Applications of Synchrotron Radiation and Neutron Beam to Soft Matter Science' and 'Y. Frontier of Polymeric Nano-Soft-Materials - Precision Polymer Synthesis, Self-assembling and Their Functionalization'

    Takahara, Atsushi; Kawahara, Seiichi

    2009-09-01

    aimed to provide recent advances in polymer synthesis, self-assembling processes and morphologies, and functionalization of nano-soft-materials in order to initiate mutual and collaborative research interest that is essential to develop revolutionarily new nano-soft-materials in the decades ahead. Four Keynote lectures, 15 invited talks and 30 posters presented important new discoveries in polymeric nano-soft-materials, precision polymer synthesis, self-assembling and their functionalization. As for the precision polymer synthesis, the latest results were provided for studies on synthesis of polyrotaxane with movable graft chains, organic-inorganic hybridization of polymers, supra-molecular coordination assembly of conjugated polymers, precision polymerization of adamantane-containing monomers, production of high density polymer brush and synthesis of rod coil type polymer. The state-of-the-art results were introduced for the formation of nano-helical-structure of block copolymer containing asymmetric carbon atoms, self-assembling of block copolymers under the electric field, self-assembling of liquid crystalline elastomers, preparation of nano cylinder template films and mesoscopic simulation of phase transition of polymers and so forth. Moreover, recent advantages of three-dimensional electron microtomography and scanning force microscopy were proposed for analyses of nano-structures and properties of polymeric multi-component systems. Syntheses, properties and functions of slide-ring-gel, organic-inorganic hybrid hydrogels, hydrogel nano-particles, liquid-crystalline gels, the self-oscillating gels, and double network gels attracted participants' attention. Modifications of naturally occurring polymeric materials with supercritical carbon dioxide were introduced as a novel technology. Some of the attractive topics are presented in this issue. We are grateful to all the speakers and participants for valuable contributions and active discussions. Organizing committee