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Sample records for ada mutant strains

  1. Transcriptome and proteome analyses of adaptive responses to methyl methanesulfonate in Escherichia coli K-12 and ada mutant strains

    Lee Sang Yup

    2009-09-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background The Ada-dependent adaptive response system in Escherichia coli is important for increasing resistance to alkylation damage. However, the global transcriptional and translational changes during this response have not been reported. Here we present time-dependent global gene and protein expression profiles following treatment with methyl methanesulfonate (MMS in E. coli W3110 and its ada mutant strains. Results Transcriptome profiling showed that 1138 and 2177 genes were differentially expressed in response to MMS treatment in the wild-type and mutant strains, respectively. A total of 81 protein spots representing 76 nonredundant proteins differentially expressed were identified using 2-DE and LC-MS/MS. In the wild-type strain, many genes were differentially expressed upon long-exposure to MMS, due to both adaptive responses and stationary phase responses. In the ada mutant strain, the genes involved in DNA replication, recombination, modification and repair were up-regulated 0.5 h after MMS treatment, indicating its connection to the SOS and other DNA repair systems. Interestingly, expression of the genes involved in flagellar biosynthesis, chemotaxis, and two-component regulatory systems related to drug or antibiotic resistance, was found to be controlled by Ada. Conclusion These results show in detail the regulatory components and pathways controlling adaptive response and how the related genes including the Ada regulon are expressed with this response.

  2. Construction of an Escherichia coli K-12 ada deletion by gene replacement in a recD strain reveals a second methyltransferase that repairs alkylated DNA.

    Shevell, D E; Abou-Zamzam, A M; Demple, B; Walker, G C

    1988-01-01

    We constructed an ada deletion by gene replacement in a recD1014 strain of Escherichia coli. Characterization of a delta ada-25 recD+ strain revealed the presence of a second DNA methyltransferase activity in E. coli K-12 which transfers a methyl group from methylated DNA to a protein with a molecular weight of 18,000 to 20,000.

  3. Revealing differences in metabolic flux distributions between a mutant strain and its parent strain Gluconacetobacter xylinus CGMCC 2955.

    Cheng Zhong

    Full Text Available A better understanding of metabolic fluxes is important for manipulating microbial metabolism toward desired end products, or away from undesirable by-products. A mutant strain, Gluconacetobacter xylinus AX2-16, was obtained by combined chemical mutation of the parent strain (G. xylinus CGMCC 2955 using DEC (diethyl sulfate and LiCl. The highest bacterial cellulose production for this mutant was obtained at about 11.75 g/L, which was an increase of 62% compared with that by the parent strain. In contrast, gluconic acid (the main byproduct concentration was only 5.71 g/L for mutant strain, which was 55.7% lower than that of parent strain. Metabolic flux analysis indicated that 40.1% of the carbon source was transformed to bacterial cellulose in mutant strain, compared with 24.2% for parent strain. Only 32.7% and 4.0% of the carbon source were converted into gluconic acid and acetic acid in mutant strain, compared with 58.5% and 9.5% of that in parent strain. In addition, a higher flux of tricarboxylic acid (TCA cycle was obtained in mutant strain (57.0% compared with parent strain (17.0%. It was also indicated from the flux analysis that more ATP was produced in mutant strain from pentose phosphate pathway (PPP and TCA cycle. The enzymatic activity of succinate dehydrogenase (SDH, which is one of the key enzymes in TCA cycle, was 1.65-fold higher in mutant strain than that in parent strain at the end of culture. It was further validated by the measurement of ATPase that 3.53-6.41 fold higher enzymatic activity was obtained from mutant strain compared with parent strain.

  4. Isolation and characterization of mutant strains of Escherichia coli altered in H2 metabolism.

    Lee, J. H.; Patel, P; Sankar, P.; Shanmugam, K. T.

    1985-01-01

    A positive selection procedure is described for the isolation of hydrogenase-defective mutant strains of Escherichia coli. Mutant strains isolated by this procedure can be divided into two major classes. Class I mutants produced hydrogenase activity (determined by using a tritium-exchange assay) and formate hydrogenlyase activity but lacked the ability to reduce benzyl viologen or fumarate with H2 as the electron donor. Class II mutants failed to produce active hydrogenase and hydrogenase-dep...

  5. Biosynthesis of hydrolytic enzymes of UV-mutants of Bacillus subtilis B-3 strain

    The studies were carried out on 12 UV-mutants of Bacillus subtilis B-3 which synthesize from 18 to 105% more hydrolytic enzymes (proteinases, amylases, cellulases and lipases) than the wild strain. After 5 years' storage of the mutants, a 26-fold increase in amylase biosynthesis was observed for a G7 UV-mutant. This mutant showed also other phenotypic differences. The increased ability of mutant G7 to synthesize amylases was controlled by the maltose-substrate induction. (author)

  6. Increased riboflavin production from activated bleaching earth by a mutant strain of Ashbya gossypii.

    Tajima, Satoshi; Itoh, Yoko; Sugimoto, Takashi; Kato, Tatsuya; Park, Enoch Y

    2009-10-01

    The production of riboflavin from vegetable oil was increased using a mutant strain of Ashbya gossypii. This mutant was generated by treating the wild-type strain with N-methyl-N'-nitro-N-nitrosoguanidine (MNNG). Riboflavin production was 10-fold higher in the mutant compared to the wild-type strain. The specific intracellular catalase activity after 3 d of culture was 6-fold higher in the mutant than in the wild-type strain. For the mutant, riboflavin production in the presence of 40 mM hydrogen peroxide was 16% less than that in the absence of hydrogen peroxide, whereas it was 56% less for the wild-type strain. The isocitrate lyase (ICL) activity of the mutant was 0.26 mU/mg of protein during the active riboflavin production phase, which was 2.6-fold higher than the wild-type strain. These data indicate that the mutant utilizes the carbon flux from the TCA cycle to the glyoxylate cycle more efficiently than the wild-type strain, resulting in enhanced riboflavin production. This novel mutant has the potential to be of use for industrial-scale riboflavin production from waste-activated bleaching earth (ABE), thereby transforming a useless material into a valuable bioproduct. PMID:19716523

  7. Antibodies with higher bactericidal activity induced by a Neisseria gonorrhoeae Rmp deletion mutant strain.

    Guocai Li

    Full Text Available Neisseria gonorrhoeae (N. gonorrhoeae outer membrane protein reduction modifiable protein (Rmp has strong immunogenicity. However, anti-Rmp antibodies block rather than preserve the antibacterial effects of protective antibodies, which hampers the development of vaccines for gonococcal infections. We herein constructed an Rmp deletion mutant strain of N. gonorrhoeae by gene homologous recombination. The 261-460 nucleotide residues of Rmp gene amplified from N. gonorrhoeae WHO-A strain were replaced with a kanamycin-resistant Kan gene amplified from pET-28a. The resultant hybridized DNA was transformed into N. gonorrhoeae WHO-A strain. PCR was used to screen the colonies in which wild-type Rmp gene was replaced with a mutant gene fragment. Western blotting revealed that the Rmp deletion mutant strain did not express Rmp protein. Rmp deletion did not alter the morphological and Gram staining properties of the mutant strain that grew slightly more slowly than the wild-type one. Rmp gene mutated stably throughout 25 generations of passage. Antibody-mediated complement-dependent cytotoxicity assay indicated that the antibodies induced by the mutant strain had evidently higher bactericidal activities than those induced by the wild-type strain. Further modification of the Rmp deletion mutant strain is still required in the development of novel live attenuated vaccines for gonorrhea by Opa genes deletion or screening of phenotypic variant strains that do not express Opa proteins.

  8. Development of a mutant strain of Escherichia coli for molecular cloning of highly methylated DNA

    A mutant strain of Escherichia coli designated as GR219 that allows efficient molecular cloning of highly methylated bean DNA has been developed by UV light mutation of the parent LE392 strr strain. This mutant strain, like the parent, is streptomycin resistant and is biologically contained, because it requires thymidine for growth. Both the wild type and the mutant strain have lambda phage receptors so both can be utilized for construction of genomic libraries using the phase as a vector. The efficiency of transformation of the parent and the mutant strain with a recombinant plasmid containing bean DNA was compared to the efficiency of transformation of the PLK-F' strain, which has a deletion of mcrA and mcrB genes and, therefore, allows transformation with methylated bean DNA. It has been found that the GR219 strain has the highest efficiency of transformation, while the PLK-F' strain shows less, and the parent LE392 strr strain the least efficiency of transformation. These results indicate that strains of E. coli with mcrA and mcrB genes can recognize and degrade highly methylated DNA. However, other undefined factors affected by the altered gene(s) in the GR219 strain are also involved in the recognition and degradation of any cloned foreign DNA

  9. Sexual behavior of mutant strains of the medfly Ceratitis capitata (Diptera: Tephritidae)

    R.D Briceño

    2003-01-01

    Males of the mutant strains (blind, vestigal-winged) of the Mediterranean fruit fly (medfly), Ceratits capitata (Wiedmann) showed differences in behavior compared with control (mass-reared) males. Mutant males made fewer mating attempts and achieved fewer matings than control males. Vestigal-winged females copulated less frequently with both mutants. Blind males climbed rather than jumped onto females and copulated in very low numbers compared with control and vestigal males. Blind females co...

  10. Induction, isolation, and characterization of aspergillus niger mutant strains producing elevated levels of beta-galactosidase.

    Nevalainen, K M

    1981-01-01

    An Aspergillus niger mutant strain, VTT-D-80144, with an improvement of three- to fourfold in the production of extracellular beta-galactosidase was isolated after mutagenesis. The production of beta-galactosidase by this mutant was unaffected by fermentor size, and the enzyme was also suitable for immobilization.

  11. Genes for phycocyanin subunits in Synechocystis sp. strain PCC 6701 and assembly mutant UV16.

    Anderson, L K; Grossman, A R

    1990-01-01

    The cyanobacterial phycobilisome is a large protein complex located on the photosynthetic membrane. It harvests light energy and transfers it to chlorophyll for use in photosynthesis. Phycobilisome assembly mutants in the unicellular cyanobacterium Synechocystis sp. strain 6701 have been characterized. One such mutant, UV16, contains a defect in the assembly of the biliprotein phycocyanin. We report the cloning and sequencing of the phycocyanin genes from wild-type Synechocystis strain 6701 a...

  12. Mutant E. coli strain with increased succinic acid production

    Donnelly, Mark; Millard, Cynthia S.; Stols, Lucy

    2001-09-25

    A method for isolating succinic acid producing bacteria is provided comprising increasing the biomass of an organism which lacks the ability to catabolize pyruvate, and then subjecting the biomass to glucose-rich medium in an anaerobic environment to enable pyruvate-catabolizing mutants to grow. The invention also provides for a mutant that produces high amounts of succinic acid, which has been derived from a parent which lacked the genes for pyruvate formate lyase and lactate dehydrogenase, and which belongs to the E.coli Group of Bacteria.

  13. E Sequence Analysis of Persistently Infected Mutant Japanese Encephalitis Virus Strains

    LI Qi; XU Keshu; WANG Huafeng; ZHOU Xia

    2006-01-01

    A persistent infection model was established after human hepatoma cells infected by Japanese encephalitis viruses were subcultured for several times. Viral titers of mutant viruses in persistently infected cells were examined by plaque methods using BHK cells. Nucleotides of the E coding region of two wild and two mutant viruses were amplified by RT-PCR. PCR products were sequenced by ABI-PRSMTM310 sequencing system. Compared to JaGAr-01 wild strains, four amino acids were replaced (E61Tyr→Asp, E219His→Tyr, E384Val→Glu, E418Pro→Ala) in the E sequence of JaGAr-01 persistently-infected mutant strains. Eleven amino acid replacement (E51Arg→Ser, E61Tyr→Asp, E83Lys→Glu, E123Ser→Arg, E209Arg→Lys, E227Pro→Ser, E276Asp→Ser,E290Arg→Lys, E387Lys→Arg, E418Leu→Pro, E454Arg→Gly) was also noted when we compared the E sequence between persistently infected Nakayama and its wild strains. A lot of similarities of amino acid sequence between mutant strains JaGAr-01 and Nakayama were also noted. It was concluded that geno-variation existed in E region of mutant viruses and the mutant protein encoded by E region, especially the mutation of E61 (Tyr→Asp) may contribute to the maintenance of the persistent infection of Japanese encephalitis virus.

  14. Characterization of a non-pigment producing Monascus purpureus mutant strain.

    Rasheva, Tanya V; Nedeva, Trayana S; Hallet, Jean-Noel; Kujumdzieva, Anna V

    2003-01-01

    A characterization of a non-pigment producing mutant Monascus purpureus M12 compared with its parental strain Monascus purpureus Went CBS 109.07 has been performed aiming to investigate the relation between pigment biosynthesis and other characteristics of these fungi. A comparison has been made of morphological features, some physiological properties and biochemical activities of both strains. The albino mutant exhibits an anamorph life cycle, high conidia forming capability, slower radial growth rate and temperature sensitivity. The assimilation capacity of both strains for mono-, disaccharides and some alcohols is in the same range (Yx/c 0.2 - 0.35), while the red strain has a higher fermentation capacity. In a selected albino mutant, the growth rate, metabolic activity and capacity for production of typical for Monascus fungi secondary metabolites were reduced considerably. Hydrolytic activity towards natural substrates expressed through glucoamylase and protease was approximately 10 fold lower in the non pigment producing strain (0.05 - 0.08 U/mg protein and 0.01 - 0.07 U/mg protein respectively) compared with the red one. Important qualitative differences between both strains was found in fatty acid composition and in the production of citrinin and monacolin. The mutant strain possessed C17, C20 and C22 fatty acids and did not produce citrinin. PMID:12777069

  15. Studies on cytological, physiological and genetic characteristics in somatic mutant strains of Sugi (Cryptomeria japonica D. Don)

    From microscopic observation of the pollen of induced mutant strains in Sugi (Cryptomeria japonica D. Don), it was found that there were large differences in pollen fertility among the mutant strains, and that it deviated year to year from the mother plants. The large differences in frequency of sterile pollen among mutant strains depended on the genetic characteristics of each mutant strain. Higher frequencies of sterile pollen were observed at the terminal part of branchlets in some mutant strains, and this was considered to be induced by the lateness of flower-bud formation at low temperature conditions in late summer. Delayed formation and gibberellic acid treatment applied for flower induction resulted in low fertility and abnormality of pollen in mutant strains. Chromosome aberration in mutant strains was caused either by gamma irradiation or by some mutational events that responded to environmental conditions. In the former case, aberration might have been maintained for a long period through vegetative propagation. Some of the irregularities were due to mitotic cell division, because cells with micronuclei at the pacytene stage in pollen mother cells and with fragments at MI were observed. Somatic mutability of Kuma-sugi mutants after re-irradiation was investigated. From waxless mutants morphological somatic mutations, which have fat or stout stems and thick and short needles, were frequently produced, whereas from morphological mutants the lowest somatic mutation frequency was induced. In some mutant strains higher rooting ability than the mother plants was found, and the possibility of character improvement was pointed out. (author)

  16. Sexual behavior of mutant strains of the medfly Ceratitis capitata (Diptera: Tephritidae

    R.D Briceño

    2003-09-01

    Full Text Available Males of the mutant strains (blind, vestigal-winged of the Mediterranean fruit fly (medfly, Ceratits capitata (Wiedmann showed differences in behavior compared with control (mass-reared males. Mutant males made fewer mating attempts and achieved fewer matings than control males. Vestigal-winged females copulated less frequently with both mutants. Blind males climbed rather than jumped onto females and copulated in very low numbers compared with control and vestigal males. Blind females copulated normally with control, males and in very low numbers with both types of mutant malesMachos mutantes (ciegos, alas vestigiales de la mosca del mediterráneo Ceratitis capitata (Wiedmann mostraron diferencias en conducta comparados con los machos testigo (cría masiva. Los machos mutantes, realizaron menos intentos por aparearse y lograron menos apareamientos que los machos testigo. Las hembras con alas vestigiales, copularon menos con ambas clases de mutantes. Los machos ciegos, subieron en lugar de saltar sobre las hembras y copularon en números muy bajos comparados con los machos testigo y con los de alas vestigiales. Las hembras ciegas, copularon de forma normal con los machos testigo y en números muy bajos con ambos tipos de machos mutantes

  17. Mutant strains of Pichia pastoris with enhanced secretion of recombinant proteins

    Larsen, Sasha; Weaver, Jun; de Sa Campos, Katherine; Bulahan, Rhobe; Nguyen, Jackson; Grove, Heather; Huang, Amy; Low, Lauren; Tran, Namphuong; Gomez, Seth; Yau, Jennifer; Ilustrisimo, Thomas; Kawilarang, Jessica; Lau, Jonathan; Tranphung, Maivi

    2013-01-01

    Although Pichia pastoris is a popular protein expression system, it exhibits limitations in its ability to secrete heterologous proteins. Therefore, a REMI (restriction enzyme mediated insertion) strategy was utilized to select mutant beta-galactosidase supersecretion (bgs) strains that secreted increased levels of a β-galactosidase reporter.Many of the twelve BGS genes may have functions in intracellular signaling or vesicle transport. Several of these strains also appeared to contain a more...

  18. Radiation-sensitive mutant of hypertoxinogenic strain 569B of Vibro cholerae

    A radiation-sensitive mutant of the hypertoxinogenic strain 569B of Vibrio cholerae was isolated and characterized. The mutant, designated V. cholerae 569Bsub(s), lacks both excision- and medium-dependent dark-repair mechanisms of UV-induced DNA damage while retaining the wild-type photoreactivating capability. Analysis of the UV-irradiated cell DNA by velocity sedimentation in alkaline sucrose gradient suggests that UV-induced pyrimidine dimers may not be incised in these cells. In contrast to the wild-type cells, the mutant cell DNA was degraded after treatment with nalidixic acid. The mutant cells failed to produce any detectable amount of cholera toxin as measured by ileal-loop assay. (orig.)

  19. Biosynthesis of a steroid metabolite by an engineered Rhodococcus erythropolis strain expressing a mutant cytochrome P450 BM3 enzyme

    Venkataraman, Harini; Te Poele, Evelien M; Rosłoniec, Kamila Z; Vermeulen, Nico; Commandeur, Jan N M; van der Geize, Robert; Dijkhuizen, Lubbert

    2014-01-01

    In the present study, the use of Rhodococcus erythropolis mutant strain RG9 expressing the cytochrome P450 BM3 mutant M02 enzyme has been evaluated for whole-cell biotransformation of a 17-ketosteroid, norandrostenedione, as a model substrate. Purified P450 BM3 mutant M02 enzyme hydroxylated the ste

  20. Mutant strains of Pichia pastoris with enhanced secretion of recombinant proteins.

    Larsen, Sasha; Weaver, Jun; de Sa Campos, Katherine; Bulahan, Rhobe; Nguyen, Jackson; Grove, Heather; Huang, Amy; Low, Lauren; Tran, Namphuong; Gomez, Seth; Yau, Jennifer; Ilustrisimo, Thomas; Kawilarang, Jessica; Lau, Jonathan; Tranphung, Maivi; Chen, Irene; Tran, Christina; Fox, Marcia; Lin-Cereghino, Joan; Lin-Cereghino, Geoff P

    2013-11-01

    Although Pichia pastoris is a popular protein expression system, it exhibits limitations in its ability to secrete heterologous proteins. Therefore, a REMI (restriction enzyme mediated insertion) strategy was utilized to select mutant beta-g alactosidase s upersecretion (bgs) strains that secreted increased levels of a β-galactosidase reporter. Many of the twelve BGS genes may have functions in intracellular signaling or vesicle transport. Several of these strains also appeared to contain a more permeable cell wall. Preliminary characterization of four bgs mutants showed that they differed in the ability to enhance the export of other reporter proteins. bgs13, which has a disruption in a gene homologous to Saccharomyces cerevisiae protein kinase C (PKC1), gave enhanced secretion of most recombinant proteins that were tested, raising the possibility that it has the universal super-secreter phenotype needed in an industrial production strain of P. pastoris. PMID:23881328

  1. Tryptophan provision by dietary supplementation of a Bacillus subtilis mutant strain in piglets

    Torres-Pitarch, A; Nielsen, B.; Canibe, Nuria;

    2015-01-01

    Supplementing Bacillus (B.) subtilis mutants selected to overproduce a specific amino acid (AA) may be an alternative method to provide essential AA in pig diets. Two experiments on a B. subtilis strain selected to overproduce Trp were conducted using 8-kg pigs fed Trp-deficient diets for 20 d. B....... subtilis were supplied in a low or high dose in Experiments 1 and 2, respectively. The Trp-deficient diet (0.15 SID Trp:Lys) reduced (p < .05) both gain and feed intake of piglets compared to the positive control diet (0.17 SID Trp:Lys). Supplementation of the B. subtilis strain was not able to...... counterbalance the Trp deficiency in any of the two experiments. No effect of B. subtilis supplementation to piglet diets was observed on the plasma AA profile. In conclusion, this mutant strain of B. subtilis was not able to compensate a Trp deficiency in the tested doses....

  2. Keratinase production and keratin degradation by a mutant strain of Bacillus subtilis

    Cheng-gang CAI; Bing-gan LOU; Xiao-dong ZHENG

    2008-01-01

    A new feather-degrading bacterium was isolated from a local feather waste site and identified as Bacillus subtilis based on morphological, physiochemical, and phylogenetic characteristics. Screening for mutants with elevated keratinolytic activity using N-methyl-N'-nitro-N-nitrosoguanidine mutagenesis resulted in a mutant strain KD-N2 producing keratinolytic activity about 2.5 times that of the wild-type strain. The mutant strain produced inducible keratinase in different substrates of feathers, hair, wool and silk under submerged cultivation. Scanning electron microscopy studies showed the degradation of feathers, hair and silk by the keratinase. The optimal conditions for keratinase production include initial pH of 7.5, inoculum size of 2% (v/v), age of inoculum of 16 h, and cultivation at 23 ℃. The maximum keratinolytic activity of KD-N2 was achieved after 30 h. Essential amino acids like threonine, valine, methionine as well as ammonia were produced when feathers were used as substrates. Strain KD-N2,therefore, shows great promise of finding potential applications in keratin hydrolysis and keratinase production.

  3. THE MUTANT STRAINS OF MICROORGANISMS ‒ PRODUCERS OF LYSINE AND THREONINE

    G. S. Andriiash

    2014-06-01

    Full Text Available Strains-producers of essential amino acids of aspartate family such as Corynebacterium glutamicum, Brevibacterium flavum, Brevibacterium sp. 90, Brevibacterium sp. 90H, Brevibacterium sp. E531 from «Collections strains and lines of plants for food and agricultural biotechnology» of «Institute of Food Biotechnology and Genomics of the National Academy of Sciences of Ukraine» for biosynthetic activity for lysine and threonine were investigated. Active strains-producers of amino acids were obtained after UV irradiation, biological characteristics of these organisms were studied and their biosynthetic efficiency was estimated. New mutant strains of threonine and lysine were selected using analysis of regulatory and analogorezistent auxotrophy. Sensitivity of output and mutant strain-producers to penicillins, macrolides, cephalosporins, tetracyclines, and other groups of antibiotics was investigated. Biosynthetic activity of obtained threonine producers – Brevibacterium flavum IMВ B-7446 and lysine – Brevibacterium sp. IMВ B-7447 on the production of target amino acids was determined. Strains are deposited in the «National Depository microorganisms» of the Institute of Microbiology and Virology of the National Academy of Sciences of Ukraine.

  4. A Mutant Strain of a Surfactant-Producing Bacterium with Increased Emulsification Activity

    Liu Qingmei; Yao Jianming; Pan Renrui; Yu Zengliang

    2005-01-01

    As reported in this paper, a strain of oil-degrading bacterium Sp- 5- 3 was determined to belong to Enterobacteriaceae, which would be useful for microbial enhanced oil recovery(MEOR). The aim of our study was to generate a mutant using low energy N+ beam implantation. With 10 keV of energy and 5.2 × 10TM N+/cm2 of dose - the optimum condition, a mutant,S - 34, was obtained, which had nearly a 5-fold higher surface and a 13-fold higher of emulsification activity than the wild type. The surface activity was measured by two methods, namely, a surface tension measuring instrument and a recording of the repulsive circle of the oil film; the emulsification activity was scaled through measuring the separating time of the oil-fermentation mixture. The metabolic acid was determined as methane by means of gas chromatography.

  5. Degradation of p-chlorotoluene by a mutant of Pseudomonas sp. strain JS6.

    Haigler, B E; Spain, J C

    1989-01-01

    Pseudomonas sp. strain JS6 grows on chlorobenzene, p-dichlorobenzene, or toluene as a sole source of carbon and energy. It does not grow on p-chlorotoluene (p-CT). Growth on glucose in the presence of p-CT resulted in the accumulation of 4-chloro-2,3-dihydroxy-1-methylbenzene (3-chloro-6-methylcatechol), 4-chloro-2,3-dihydroxy-1-methylcyclohexa-4,6-diene (p-CT dihydrodiol), and 2-methyl-4-carboxymethylenebut-2-en-4-olide (2-methyl dienelactone). Strain JS21, a spontaneous mutant capable of gr...

  6. Live Attenuated Borrelia burgdorferi Targeted Mutants in an Infectious Strain Background Protect Mice from Challenge Infection.

    Hahn, Beth L; Padmore, Lavinia J; Ristow, Laura C; Curtis, Michael W; Coburn, Jenifer

    2016-08-01

    Borrelia burgdorferi, B. garinii, and B. afzelii are all agents of Lyme disease in different geographic locations. If left untreated, Lyme disease can cause significant and long-term morbidity, which may continue after appropriate antibiotic therapy has been administered and live bacteria are no longer detectable. The increasing incidence and geographic spread of Lyme disease are renewing interest in the vaccination of at-risk populations. We took the approach of vaccinating mice with two targeted mutant strains of B. burgdorferi that, unlike the parental strain, are avirulent in mice. Mice vaccinated with both strains were protected against a challenge with the parental strain and a heterologous B. burgdorferi strain by either needle inoculation or tick bite. In ticks, the homologous strain was eliminated but the heterologous strain was not, suggesting that the vaccines generated a response to antigens that are produced by the bacteria both early in mammalian infection and in the tick. Partial protection against B. garinii infection was also conferred. Protection was antibody mediated, and reactivity to a variety of proteins was observed. These experiments suggest that live attenuated B. burgdorferi strains may be informative regarding the identification of protective antigens produced by the bacteria and recognized by the mouse immune system in vivo Further work may illuminate new candidates that are effective and safe for the development of Lyme disease vaccines. PMID:27335385

  7. Tolerance Of Several Rhizobium Strain/Isolate To A1 and Their Interaction With Several Soybean Mutants

    Research activities to study the interaction of several soybean mutant and rhizobium strain/isalates were carried out. The first experiment to be involved screening of nine strain/isolates for tolerance to A1 acid stress. Five strains/isolates were considered tolerance. Further experiment with three strains/isolates with difference A1 concentrations, showed that the isolate no. 06 had the highest growth rate followed by isolate 09 and TAL 102. Experiment on interaction of five soybean mutant/varieties with those strains/isolates were carried out in nutrient culture. Mutant no. 21 and 43 showed better growth in solution containing 50 uM A1. Good nodulation occured in mutant no. 23 inoculated with Rhizobium isolate no. 06. This good symbiotic association should be studied further at higher A1 concentration. (authors). 14 refs, 6 tabs

  8. Ada & the Analytical Engine.

    Freeman, Elisabeth

    1996-01-01

    Presents a brief history of Ada Byron King, Countess of Lovelace, focusing on her primary role in the development of the Analytical Engine--the world's first computer. Describes the Ada Project (TAP), a centralized World Wide Web site that serves as a clearinghouse for information related to women in computing, and provides a Web address for…

  9. A Mutant Strain of a Surfactant-Producing Bacterium with Increased Emulsification Activity

    Liu, Qingmei; Yao, Jianming; Pan, Renrui; Yu, Zengliang

    2005-06-01

    As reported in this paper, a strain of oil-degrading bacterium Sp-5-3 was determined to belong to Enterobacteriaceae, which would be useful for microbial enhanced oil recovery (MEOR). The aim of our study was to generate a mutant using low energy N+ beam implantation. With 10 keV of energy and 5.2 × 1014 N+/cm2 of dose - the optimum condition, a mutant, S-34, was obtained, which had nearly a 5-fold higher surface and a 13-fold higher of emulsification activity than the wild type. The surface activity was measured by two methods, namely, a surface tension measuring instrument and a recording of the repulsive circle of the oil film; the emulsification activity was scaled through measuring the separating time of the oil-fermentation mixture. The metabolic acid was determined as methane by means of gas chromatography.

  10. Carotenoid production and gene expression in an astaxanthin-overproducing Xanthophyllomyces dendrorhous mutant strain.

    Castelblanco-Matiz, Lina M; Barbachano-Torres, Alejandra; Ponce-Noyola, Teresa; Ramos-Valdivia, Ana C; Cerda García-Rojas, Carlos M; Flores-Ortiz, César M; Barahona-Crisóstomo, Salvador K; Baeza-Cancino, Marcelo E; Alcaíno-Gorman, Jennifer; Cifuentes-Guzmán, Víctor H

    2015-12-01

    The primary carotenoid synthesized by Xanthophyllomyces dendrorhous is astaxanthin, which is used as a feed additive in aquaculture. Cell growth kinetics and carotenoid production were correlated with the mRNA levels of the idi, crtE, crtYB, crtI, crtS and crtR genes, and the changes in gene sequence between the wild-type and a carotenoid overproducer XR4 mutant strain were identified. At the late stationary phase, the total carotenoid content in XR4 was fivefold higher than that of the wild-type strain. Additionally, the mRNA levels of crtE and crtS increased during the XR4 growth and were three times higher than the wild-type strain in the late stationary phase. Moreover, the nucleotide sequences of crtYB, crtI and crtR exhibited differences between the strains. Both the higher crtE and crtS transcript levels and the crtYB, crtI and crtR mutations can, at least in part, act to up-regulate the carotenoid biosynthesis pathway in the XR4 strain. PMID:26377586

  11. Cellulase production by two mutant strain of Trichoderma longibrachiatum Qm9414 and Rut C30

    Native or pretreated biomass from Onopordum nervosum boiss, has been examined as candidate feedstock for cellulase production by two mutant strain of trichoderma longibrachiatum QM9414 and Rut C30. Batch cultivation methods were evaluated and compared with previous experiments using ball-milled, crystalline cellulose (Solka floc). Batch cultivation of T. longibrachiatum Rut C30 on 55% (W/V) acid pretreated O. nervosum biomass yielded enzyme productivities and activities comparable to those obtained on Solka floc. However, the overall enzyme production performance was lower than on Solka floc at comparable cellulose concentrations. This fact may be due to the accumulation of pretreated by products and lignin in the fermentor.(author)

  12. Production of ethanol by indigenous wild and mutant strain of thermo tolerant kluyveromyces marxianus under optimized fermentation conditions

    The maximum ethanol production and beta-fructofuranocidase formation under fermentation studies were carried out in microprocessor controlled 23-L stainless steel fermenter at the following conditions: Temp = 40 degree C (wild and mutant organism), pH= 5.5, carbon source (molasses=15% sugar) nitrogen source (ammonium sulphate 0.75%), 300 RPM stirring speed and oxygen flow rate was 0.1 vvm. Mutant. Strain of thermo tolerant Kluyveromyces marxianus M15 produced maximum production of ethanol at 48 hr. All Kinetic Parameters have been studied for the utilization of substrate and production of maximum ethanol for both wild and mutant strains. It has been observed that wild strain was growing up to 55 deg. C while the mutant strain was growing up to 65 deg. C. In this comparison study, wild and mutant strain showed that Mutant-derived M15 was stronger over its parental culture due to its more thermal stability and production of ethanol at 65 deg. C at which wild organism could not grow. (author)

  13. Software engineering capability for Ada (GRASP/Ada Tool)

    Cross, James H., II

    1995-01-01

    The GRASP/Ada project (Graphical Representations of Algorithms, Structures, and Processes for Ada) has successfully created and prototyped a new algorithmic level graphical representation for Ada software, the Control Structure Diagram (CSD). The primary impetus for creation of the CSD was to improve the comprehension efficiency of Ada software and, as a result, improve reliability and reduce costs. The emphasis has been on the automatic generation of the CSD from Ada PDL or source code to support reverse engineering and maintenance. The CSD has the potential to replace traditional prettyprinted Ada Source code. A new Motif compliant graphical user interface has been developed for the GRASP/Ada prototype.

  14. Alginate production by a mutant strain of azotobacter vinelandii using shake flask fermentation

    The present study describes the improvement of parent strain of Azotobacter vinelandii NRRL-14641 for enhanced alginate production using shake flask fermentation. Results indicated that a mutant A. vinelandii EMS-45 obtained after EMS treatment gave 1.55 fold better alginate productions than that of the parent strain. Different cultural conditions were employed to optimize the polymer production in the fermentation broth. It was noted that maximum alginate production (6.17 g/l) was obtained with nitrogen rich phosphate limited medium (NRP) after 110 h of incubation period. The incubation temperature 30 deg. C, pH 7.0, agitation intensity 200 rpm, carbon and nitrogen source were also optimized and sucrose and peptone were found as the best to support 1.55 fold higher alginate than that in un-optimized medium. (author)

  15. Production of a thermal stress resistant mutant Euglena gracilis strain using Fe-ion beam irradiation.

    Yamada, Koji; Kazama, Yusuke; Mitra, Sharbanee; Marukawa, Yuka; Arashida, Ryo; Abe, Tomoko; Ishikawa, Takahiro; Suzuki, Kengo

    2016-08-01

    Euglena gracilis is a common phytoplankton species, which also has motile flagellate characteristics. Recent research and development has enabled the industrial use of E. gracilis and selective breeding of this species is expected to further expand its application. However, the production of E. gracilis nuclear mutants is difficult because of the robustness of its genome. To establish an efficient mutation induction procedure for E. gracilis, we employed Fe-ion beam irradiation in the RIKEN RI beam factory. A decrease in the survival rate was observed with the increase in irradiation dose, and the upper limit used for E. gracilis selective breeding was around 50 Gy. For a practical trial of Fe-ion irradiation, we conducted a screening to isolate high-temperature-tolerant mutants. The screening yielded mutants that proliferated faster than the wild-type strain at 32 °C. Our results demonstrate the effectiveness of heavy-ion irradiation on E. gracilis selective breeding. PMID:27075598

  16. The N-terminus region of the putative C2H2 transcription factor Ada1 harbors a species-specific activation motif that regulates asexual reproduction in Fusarium verticillioides.

    Malapi-Wight, Martha; Kim, Jung-Eun; Shim, Won-Bo

    2014-01-01

    Fusarium verticillioides is an important plant pathogenic fungus causing maize ear and stalk rots. In addition, the fungus is directly associated with fumonisin contamination of food and feeds. Here, we report the functional characterization of Ada1, a putative Cys2-His2 zinc finger transcription factor with a high level of similarity to Aspergillus nidulans FlbC, which is required for the activation of the key regulator of conidiation brlA. ADA1 is predicted to encode a protein with two DNA binding motifs at the C terminus and a putative activator domain at the N terminus region. Deletion of the flbC gene in A. nidulans results in "fluffy" cotton-like colonies, with a defect in transition from vegetative growth to asexual development. In this study we show that Ada1 plays a key role in asexual development in F. verticillioides. Conidia production was significantly reduced in the knockout mutantada1), in which aberrant conidia and conidiophores were also observed. We identified genes that are predicted to be downstream of ADA1, based on A. nidulans conidiation signaling pathway. Among them, the deletion of stuA homologue, FvSTUA, resulted in near absence of conidia production. To further investigate the functional conservation of this transcription factor, we complemented the Δada1 strain with A. nidulans flbC, F. verticillioides ADA1, and chimeric constructs. A. nidulans flbC failed to restore conidia production similar to the wild-type level. However, the Ada1N-terminal domain, which contains a putative activator, fused to A. nidulans FlbC C-terminal motif successfully complemented the Δada1 mutant. Taken together, Ada1 is an important transcriptional regulator of asexual development in F. verticillioides and that the N-terminus domain is critical for proper function of this transcription factor. PMID:24161731

  17. Characterization of a Mutant Listeria monocytogenes Strain Expressing Green Fluorescent Protein

    Ling-Li JIANG; Hou-Hui SONG; Xue-Yan CHEN; Chun-Lin KE; Jing-Jing XU; Ning CHEN; Wei-Huan FANG

    2005-01-01

    To construct a recombinant strain of Listeria monocytogenes for the expression of heterologous genes, homologous recombination was utilized for insertional mutation, targeting its listeriolysin O gene(hly). The gene encoding green fluorescent protein (GFP) was used as the indicator of heterologous gene expression. The gene gfp was inserted into hly downstream from its promoter and signal sequence by an overlapping extension polymerase chain reaction, and was then cloned into the shuttle plasmid pKSV7 for allelic exchange with the L. monocytogenes chromosome. Homologous recombination was achieved by growing the electro-transformed L. monocytogenes cells on chloramphenicol plates at a non-permissive temperature.Sequencing analysis indicated correct insertion of the target gene in-frame with the signal sequence. The recombinant strain expressed GFP constitutively as revealed by fluorescence microscopy. The mutant strain L. monocytogenes hly-gfp lost its hemolytic activity as visualized on the blood agar or when analyzed with the culture supernatant samples. Such insertional mutation resulted in a reduced virulence of about 2 logs less than its parent strain L. monocytogenes 10403s as shown by the 50%-lethal-dose assays in the mouse and embryonated chicken egg models. These results thus demonstrate that mutated L. monocytogenes could be a potential carrier for the expression of heterologous passenger genes or could act as an indicator organism in the food industry.

  18. Tuberculosis vaccine strain Mycobacterium bovis BCG Russia is a natural recA mutant

    Böttger Erik C

    2008-07-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background The current tuberculosis vaccine is a live vaccine derived from Mycobacterium bovis and attenuated by serial in vitro passaging. All vaccine substrains in use stem from one source, strain Bacille Calmette-Guérin. However, they differ in regions of genomic deletions, antigen expression levels, immunogenicity, and protective efficacy. Results As a RecA phenotype increases genetic stability and may contribute restricting the ongoing evolution of the various BCG substrains while maintaining their protective efficacy, we aimed to inactivate recA by allelic replacement in BCG vaccine strains representing different phylogenetic lineages (Pasteur, Frappier, Denmark, Russia. Homologous gene replacement was achieved successfully in three out of four strains. However, only illegitimate recombination was observed in BCG substrain Russia. Sequence analyses of recA revealed that a single nucleotide insertion in the 5' part of recA led to a translational frameshift with an early stop codon making BCG Russia a natural recA mutant. At the protein level BCG Russia failed to express RecA. Conclusion According to phylogenetic analyses BCG Russia is an ancient vaccine strain most closely related to the parental M. bovis. We hypothesize that recA inactivation in BCG Russia occurred early and is in part responsible for its high degree of genomic stability, resulting in a substrain that has less genetic alterations than other vaccine substrains with respect to M. bovis AF2122/97 wild-type.

  19. The Breeding of a Pigment Mutant Strain of Steroid Hydroxylation Aspergillus Flavus by Low Energy Ion Implantation

    In the process of the fermentation of steroid C11α-hydroxylgenation strain Aspergillus flavus AF-ANo208, a red pigment is derived, which will affect the isolation and purification of the target product. Low energy ion beam implantation is a new tool for breeding excellent mutant strains. In this study, the ion beam implantation experiments were performed by infusing two different ions: argon ion (Ar+) and nitrogen ion (N+). The results showed that the optimal ion implantation was N+ with an optimum dose of 2.08 x 1015 ions/cm2, with which the mutant strain AF-ANm16 that produced no red pigment was obtained. The strain had high genetic stability and kept the strong capacity of C11α-hydroxylgenation, which could be utilized in industrial fermentation. The differences between the original strain and the mutant strain at a molecular level were analyzed by randomly amplified polymorphic DNA (RAPD). The results indicated that the frequency of variation was 7.00%, which would establish the basis of application investigation into the breeding of pigment mutant strains by low energy ion implantation. (ion beam bioengineering)

  20. The Breeding of a Pigment Mutant Strain of Steroid Hydroxylation Aspergillus Flavus by Low Energy Ion Implantation

    YE Hui; MA Jingming; FENG Chun; CHENG Ying; ZHU Suwen; CHENG Beijiu

    2009-01-01

    In the process of the fermentation of steroid C11α-hydroxylgenation strain Aspergillus flavus AF-ANo208.a red pigment is derived.which will affect the isolation and purification of the target product.Low energy ion beam implantation is a new tool for breeding excellent mutant strains.In this study,the ion beam implantation experiments were performed by infusing two different ions:argon ion(Ar+)and nitrogen ion(N+).The results showed that the optimal ion implantation was N+ with an optimum dose of 2.08×1015 ions/cm2.with which the mutant strain AF-ANml6 that produced no red pigment was obtained.The strain had high genetic stability and kept the strong capacity of C11α-hydroxylgenation,which could be utilized in industrial fermentation.The difierences between the original strain and the mutant strain at a molecular level were analyzed by randomly amplified polymorphic DNA(RAPD).The results indicated that the frequency of variation Was 7.00%,which would establish the basis of application investigation into the breeding of pigment mutant strains by low energy ion implantation.

  1. Induction of Aspergillus oryzae mutant strains producing increased levels of {alpha}-amylase by gamma-irradiation

    Ito, Hitoshi; Nessa, Azizun [Japan Atomic Energy Research Inst., Takasaki, Gunma (Japan). Takasaki Radiation Chemistry Research Establishment

    1996-12-01

    Spores of Aspergillus oryzae IAM 2630 were suspended in 0.067 m phosphate buffer and irradiated with gamma rays. Spores were incubated for 7 days and colony mutants counted by observing colour change compared to normal colours. {alpha}-amylase activities of the normal and mutant colonies were assayed. DNA assay of the spores was also carried out, after culture on different plating media. Enzyme production increased 2-5 times with increasing radiation dose. Increased spore size and DNA content was also observed in mutant strains with higher enzyme production suggesting that enzyme production is genetically controlled. Ultraviolet radiation did not appear to induce higher frequency of mutation. (UK).

  2. Induction of Aspergillus oryzae mutant strains producing increased levels of α-amylase by gamma-irradiation

    Spores of Aspergillus oryzae IAM 2630 were suspended in 0.067 m phosphate buffer and irradiated with gamma rays. Spores were incubated for 7 days and colony mutants counted by observing colour change compared to normal colours. α-amylase activities of the normal and mutant colonies were assayed. DNA assay of the spores was also carried out, after culture on different plating media. Enzyme production increased 2-5 times with increasing radiation dose. Increased spore size and DNA content was also observed in mutant strains with higher enzyme production suggesting that enzyme production is genetically controlled. Ultraviolet radiation did not appear to induce higher frequency of mutation. (UK)

  3. Cellulase production by two mutant strain of Trichoderma longibranchiatum QM 9414 and Rut C30

    Native or pretreated biomass from Onopordum nervosum Boiss, has been examined as candidate feedstock for cellulase production by two mutant strain of Trichoderma Ionqibrachiatum QM9414 and Rut C30. Batch cultivation methods were evaluated and compared with previous experiments using ball-milled, crystalline cellulose (Solka floc). Batch cultivation of T. Ionqibrachiatum Rut C30 on 5% (w/v) acid pretreated O. nervosum biomass yielded enzyme productivities and activities comparable to those obtained on Solka floc. However, the overall enzyme production performance was lower than on Solka floc at comparable cellulose concentrations. This fact may be due to the accumulation of pretreated by products and lignin in the ferment. (Author) 40 refs

  4. Evaluation of symbiotic performance of some mutant lines of soybean inoculated with two bradyrhizobium japonicum strains using 15N technique

    A pot experiment was conducted to study the symbiotic performance of two soybean varieties and some of their mutants (that were obtained as a result of a previous mutation breeding program) with two bradyrhizobium japonicum strains (RG and FA3) using 15N isotopic dilution method. Random amplified polymorphic DNA technique (RAPD) was used to study the genetic relationships among the soybean genotypes and to make sure that the two rhizobial strains are different. The 25 random primers used discriminated the different soybean genotypes and the dendrogram resultants from shared polymorphic fragments put each variety and its mutants in two separate clusters asserting that the mutants and their mother lines are different. Both strains of B. japonicum were able to form effective nodules on all soybean plants. However, number of nodules, dry matter yield and N-uptake from the available sources by soybeans were affected by both plant genotype and rhizobial strains. N2-fixation was affected to a large extent by different strain and plant genotype combinations. Percentage of fixed N2 (N dfa) ranged between 35 and 49%; whereas, the actual amounts of fixed N2 were between 105 and 210 mg N/pot. Amounts of N2-fixed by FA3 strain were higher than of RG in both soybean varieties, whereas, the latter strain showed higher performance in the mutant lines. The results showed that total plant N estimation may not be a sufficient indicator for high N2-fixation. the results also showed that it is very important to determine both the amount of nitrogen derived from N2-fixation and N derived from soil for evaluating the symbiotic performance ability. Moreover, the performance of symbiotic N2-fixation in soybean was shown to depend on both plant genotype and rhizobial strain and the amount of N2-fixation can be increased by combining the best plant genotypes and the most adapted strain. (author)

  5. Induced drought tolerance through wild and mutant bacterial strain Pseudomonas simiae in mung bean (Vigna radiata L.).

    Kumari, Sarita; Vaishnav, Anukool; Jain, Shekhar; Varma, Ajit; Choudhary, Devendra Kumar

    2016-01-01

    The present study focused on the overproducing mutant of a plant growth promoting rhizobacterium (PGPR) Pseudomonas simiae strain AU (MTCC-12057) for significant drought tolerance in mung bean plants. Five mutants namely AU-M1, AU-M2, AU-M3, AU-M4 and AU-M5 were made after treatment of wild type strain with N-methyl-N-nitro-N-nitrosoguanidine. Mutant strain AU-M4 was recorded for enhanced ACC deaminase (ACC-D) activity, indole acetic acid (IAA) production and inorganic phosphate (Pi) solubilization compared to wild strain and other four mutant strains under drought condition. AU-M4 showed higher phosphate solubilization index (8.17) together with higher ACC-D activity (98 nmol/mg/h) and IAA concentration (69.35 µg/ml) compared with the wild type P. simiae strain AU ACC-D activity (79 nmol/mg/h) and IAA concentration (38.98 µg/ml) respectively. In this report, we investigated the effect of both wild and mutant type bacterial strain on mung bean plants under drought stress. Results showed that mutant AU-M4 and wild type strain AU inoculated plants exhibited superior tolerance against drought stress, as shown by their enhanced plant biomass (fresh weight), higher water content, higher proline accumulation and lower osmotic stress injury. Mutant AU-M4 and wild strain AU inoculated plants reduced the ethylene level by 59 and 45% respectively, compared to the control under stress condition. Furthermore, bacterial inoculated plants showed enhanced induced systemic drought tolerance by reducing stomata size and net photosynthesis resulting higher water content in mung bean plants that may help in survival of plants during drought condition. To mitigate the effects of drought stress, use of PGPR will be needed to ensure sufficient production of food from crop plants. Taking current leads available, concerted future research is needed in this area, particularly on field evaluation with application of potential microorganisms. PMID:26712619

  6. Mutant strain screening by 60Co γ-rays irradiation and its cellulase enzyme produce condition

    A mutant strain A50 with high cellulase activity was induced and isolated by using 60Co γ-rays irradiation from the initial Penicillium decumbens A10. The optimum fermentation conditions of A50 were investigated through orthogonal designing experiment, the major carbon resource 5%, the ratio between wheat bran and corn straw 1:1, the concentration of glucose as supplemental carbon 0.1%, the concentration of (NH4)2HPO4 as supplemental nitrogen resource 0.2%, the initial pH of liquid medium 5.0, the inoculated amount for fermentation 10% and the concentration of Tween-80 0.1%, 30 ml initial media filled in the 300 ml flask with culture condition of 32 degree C and 200 r/min. Under the optimum conditions mentioned above, the highest activities of cellulase and filter paper enzyme were 27.28 and 1.98IU/ml at 60 h fermentation, respectively, which was 33.2% and 45.59% higher than those of the initial strain. (authors)

  7. The Ultrastructure of a Chlamydomonas reinhardtii Mutant Strain Lacking Phytoene Synthase Resembles that of a Colorless Alga

    Inwood, William; Yoshihara, Corinne; Zalpuri, Reena; Kim, Kwang-Seo; Kustu, Sydney

    2008-01-01

    Chlamydomonas reinhardtii strains lacking phytoene synthase, the first enzyme of carotenoid biosynthesis, are white. They lack carotenoid pigments, have very low levels of chlorophyll, and can grow only heterotrophically in the dark. Our electron and fluorescence microscopic studies showed that such a mutant strain (lts1-204) had a proliferated plastid envelope membrane but no stacks of thylakoid membranes within the plastid. It accumulated cytoplasmic compartments that appeared to be autopha...

  8. Improvement of heavy metal stress and toxicity assays by coupling a transgenic reporter in a mutant nematode strain

    Previous studies have demonstrated that wild type Caenorhabditis elegans displays high sensitivity to heavy metals in a lethality test at a level comparable to that of other bioindicator organisms. Taking advantage of the genetics of this model organism, we have tested a number of mutant strains for enhanced sensitivity in heavy metal induced lethality and stress response. These mutants are defective in genes controlling dauer formation, longevity or response to reactive oxygen species (ROS). Among the tested mutants, a double mutant daf-16 unc-75 strain was identified to have superior sensitivity. It has a 6-, 3- and 2-fold increase in sensitivity to cadmium, copper and zinc, respectively, as compared with that of wild type animals. When a fluorescent reporter transgene was coupled with this double mutant for stress detection, a 10-fold enhancement of sensitivity to cadmium over the wild type strain was observed. These transgenic animals, superior to most of the model organisms currently used in bioassays for environmental pollutants, offer a fast and economic approach to reveal the bioavailability of toxic substance in field samples. This study also demonstrates that combination of genetic mutations and transgenesis is a viable approach to identify sensitive indicator animals for environmental monitoring

  9. The effect of gamma irradiation on astaxanthin synthetase encoding gene in two mutant strains of Phaffia rhodozyma.

    Naeimeh Najafi

    2013-09-01

    Full Text Available Astaxanthin, an orange-red carotenoid pigment, acts as a protective agent against oxidative damage to cells in vivo. The astaxanthin synthetase gene (crtS size consists of 3995 bp. This gene has been suggested to catalyse β-carotene to astaxanthin in Phaffia rhodozyma. The aim of this research was to find any possible changes in this gene in two mutant strains, Gam1 and Gam2 (with high astaxanthin pigment production, previously created by gamma irradiation.The astaxanthin synthetase gene sequence of Phaffia rhodozyma in the NCBI Gene bank was used to design primer. In Gam1, this gene was amplified using primers Asta F1, Asta R2, Asta F3, Asta R4. In Gam2, primers asta F1, asta R4 were used to amplify the gene. The amplified fragments were 8 sequenced using primers Asta F1, Asta R1, Asta F2, Asta R2, Asta F3, Asta R3 and Asta F4, Asta R4. Astaxanthin synthetase gene from two mutant strains, Gam1 and Gam2 were amplified using PCR. The amplified products were sequenced and aligned using the ClustalW software.The comparison of this gene showed 98% and 99% similarities between the reference sequence and Gam1 and Gam2 mutant strains, respectively, whereas the comparison of this gene in Gam1 and Gam2 mutant strains showed 97% similarity. However, the deduced proteins showed 78% and 83% between the reference protein obtained from the wild type and Gam1 and Gam2, respectively. This similarity was 75% between the mutant strains.

  10. Analysis of genetic relationship in mutant silkworm strains of Bombyx mori using inter simple sequence repeat (ISSR) markers

    Dhanikachalam Velu; Kangayam M. Ponnuvel; Murugiah Muthulakshmi; Randhir K. Sinha; Syed M.H. Qadri

    2008-01-01

    Amplified inter simple sequence repeats (ISSR) markers were used to determine genetic relationships among mutant silkworm strains of Bombyx mori. Fifteen ISSR primers containing simple sequence repeat (SSR) motifs were used in this study. A total of 113 markers were produced among 20 mutant swains, of which 73.45% were found to be polymorphic. In selected mutant genetic stocks, the average number of observed allele was (1.7080±0.4567), effective alleles (1.5194±0.3950) and genetic diversity (Ht) (0.2901±0.0415). The dendrogram produced using the unweighted pair group method with arithmetic means (UPGMA) and cluster analysis made using Nei's genetic distance resulted in the formation of one major group containing 6 groups separated 20 mutant silkworm strains. Therefore, ISSR amplification is a valuable method for determining the genetic variability among mutant silkworm swains. This efficient molecular marker would be useful for characterizing a considerable number of silkworm swains maintained at the germplasm center.

  11. Purification and characterization of alkaline protease produced by a mutant strain of bacillus subtilis

    The present study describes the production, purification and characterization of alkaline protease from mutant strain of Bacillus subtilis EMS-8. The enzyme was purified using ammonium sulphate precipitation which gave 2.64 fold purification with 81.5% yield at 70% saturation. The molecular weight of the enzyme was determined using SDS-PAGE and it was found to be 25 KDa. The optimum pH of enzyme activity was 8.5; however the enzyme remained stable up to pH 10 after 24 hrs of incubation. Similarly, the optimum temperature for enzyme activity was 40 degree C, whereas it remained stable up to 90 degree C with greatly reduced activity. Alkaline protease showed highest specificity towards casein. Among different inhibitors, Phenylmethylsulphonyl fluoride (PMSF) completely inhibited the enzyme activity indicating the serine nature of protease. Similarly, the protease activity was greatly reduced in the presence of MnCl/sub 2/, whereas MgCl/sub 2/ enhanced its activity. The shelf life of the protease was also determined and it was found that the activity of the enzyme came to an end after second week, when the enzyme was stored at room temperature. (author)

  12. Isolation and complementation of mutants of Anabaena sp. strain PCC 7120 unable to grow aerobically on dinitrogen

    Mutants of Anabaena sp. strain PCC 7120 unable to grow aerobically on dinitrogen were isolated by mutagenesis with UV irradiation, followed by a period of incubation in yellow light and then by penicillin enrichment. A cosmid vector, pRL25C, containing replicons functional in Escherichia coli and in Anabaena species was constructed. DNA from wild-type Anabaena sp. strain PCC 7120 was partially digested with Sau3AI, and size-fractionated fragments about 40 kilobases (kb) in length were ligated into the phosphatase-treated unique BamHI site of pRL25C. A library of 1054 cosmid clones was generated in E. coli DH1 bearing helper plasmid pDS4101. A derivative of conjugative plasmid RP-4 was transferred to this library by conjugation, and the library was replicated to lawns of mutant Anabaena strains with defects in the polysaccharide layer of the envelopes of the heterocysts. Mutant EF116 was complemented by five cosmids, three of which were subjected to detailed restriction mapping; a 2.8-kb fragment of DNA derived from one of the cosmids was found to complement EF116. Mutant EF113 was complemented by a single cosmid, which was also restriction mapped, and was shown to be complemented by a 4.8-kb fragment of DNA derived from this cosmid

  13. Mutant strains of Spirulina (Arthrospira) platensis to increase the efficiency of micro-ecological life support systems

    Brown, Igor

    The European Micro-Ecological Life Support System Alternative (MELiSSA) is an advanced idea for organizing a bioregenerative system for long term space flights and extraterrestrial settlements (Hendrickx, De Wever et al., 2005). Despite the hostility of both lunar and Martian environments to unprotected life, it seems possible to cultivate photosynthetic bacteria using closed bioreactors illuminated and heated by solar energy. Such reactors might be employed in critical processes, e.g. air revitalization, foodcaloric and protein source, as well as an immunomodulators production. The MELiSSA team suggested cyanobacterium Spirulina as most appropriate agent to revitalize air and produce a simple "fast" food. This is right suggestion because Spirulina was recently shown to be an oxygenic organism with the highest level of O2 production per unit mass (Ananyev et al., 2005). Chemical composition of Spirulina includes proteins (55Aiming to make Spirulina cultivation in life support systems like MELiSSA more efficient, we selected Spirulina mutant strains with increased fraction of methionine in the biomass of this cyanobacterium and compared the effect of parental wild strain of Spirulina and its mutants on the tendency of such experimental illnesses as radiationinduced lesions and hemolythic anemia. Results: It was found that mutant strains 198B and 27G contain higher quantities of total protein, essential amino acids, c-phycocyanin, allophycocyanin and chlorophyll a than parental wild strain of S. platensis. The strain 198B is also characterized with increased content of carotenoids. Revealed biochemical peculiarities of mutant strains suggest that these strains can serve as an additional source of essential amino acids as well as phycobiliproteins and carotenoids for the astronauts. Feeding animals suffering from radiation-induced lesions, c-phycocyanin, extracted from strain 27G, led to a correction in deficient dehydrogenase activity and energy-rich phosphate levels

  14. Transcriptome Profiling of Wild-Type and pga-Knockout Mutant Strains Reveal the Role of Exopolysaccharide in Aggregatibacter actinomycetemcomitans.

    Mayilvahanan Shanmugam

    Full Text Available Exopolysaccharides have a diverse set of functions in most bacteria including a mechanistic role in protecting bacteria against environmental stresses. Among the many functions attributed to the exopolysaccharides, biofilm formation, antibiotic resistance, immune evasion and colonization have been studied most extensively. The exopolysaccharide produced by many Gram positive as well as Gram negative bacteria including the oral pathogen Aggregatibacter actinomycetemcomitans is the homopolymer of β(1,6-linked N-acetylglucosamine. Recently, we reported that the PGA-deficient mutant of A. actinomycetemcomitans failed to colonize or induce bone resorption in a rat model of periodontal disease, and the colonization genes, apiA and aae, were significantly down regulated in the mutant strain. To understand the role of exopolysaccharide and the pga locus in the global expression of A. actinomycetemcomitans, we have used comparative transcriptome profiling to identify differentially expressed genes in the wild-type strain in relation to the PGA-deficient strain. Transcriptome analysis revealed that about 50% of the genes are differently expressed (P 1.5. Our study demonstrated that the absence of the pga locus affects the genes involved in peptidoglycan recycling, glycogen storage, and virulence. Further, using confocal microscopy and plating assays, we show that the viability of pga mutant strain is significantly reduced during biofilm growth. Thus, this study highlights the importance of pga genes and the exopolysaccharide in the virulence of A. actinomycetemcomitans.

  15. ADAS Update and Maintainability

    Watson, Leela R.

    2010-01-01

    Since 2000, both the National Weather Service Melbourne (NWS MLB) and the Spaceflight Meteorology Group (SMG) have used a local data integration system (LOIS) as part of their forecast and warning operations. The original LOIS was developed by the Applied Meteorology Unit (AMU) in 1998 (Manobianco and Case 1998) and has undergone subsequent improvements. Each has benefited from three-dimensional (3-D) analyses that are delivered to forecasters every 15 minutes across the peninsula of Florida. The intent is to generate products that enhance short-range weather forecasts issued in support of NWS MLB and SMG operational requirements within East Central Florida. The current LDIS uses the Advanced Regional Prediction System (ARPS) Data Analysis System (AD AS) package as its core, which integrates a wide variety of national, regional, and local observational data sets. It assimilates all available real-time data within its domain and is run at a finer spatial and temporal resolution than current national or regional-scale analysis packages. As such, it provides local forecasters with a more comprehensive understanding of evolving fine-scale weather features. Over the years, the LDIS has become problematic to maintain since it depends on AMU-developed shell scripts that were written for an earlier version of the ADAS software. The goals of this task were to update the NWS MLB/SMG LDIS with the latest version of ADAS, incorporate new sources of observational data, and upgrade and modify the AMU-developed shell scripts written to govern the system. In addition, the previously developed ADAS graphical user interface (GUI) was updated. Operationally, these upgrades will result in more accurate depictions of the current local environment to help with short-range weather forecasting applications, while also offering an improved initialization for local versions of the Weather Research and Forecasting (WRF) model used by both groups.

  16. [Study of the transcriptional and transpositional activities of the Tirant retrotransposon in Drosophila melanogaster strains mutant for the flamenco locus].

    Nefedova, L N; Urusov, F A; Romanova, N I; Shmel'kova, A O; Kim, A I

    2012-11-01

    Transpositions of the gypsy retrotransposon in the Drosophila melanogaster genome are controlled by the flamenco locus, which is represented as an accumulation of defective copies of transposable elements. In the present work, genetic control by the flamenco locus of the transcriptional and transpositional activities of the Tirant retrotransposon from the gypsy group was studied. Tissue-specific expression of Tirant was detected in the tissues of ovaries in a strain mutant for the flamenco locus. Tirant was found to be transpositionally active in isogenic D. melanogaster strains mutant for the flamenco locus. The sites of two new insertions have been localized by the method of subtractive hybridization. It has been concluded from the results obtained that the flamenco locus is involved in the genetic control of Tirant transpositions. PMID:23297482

  17. Anthraquinone dyes decolorization capacity of anamorphic Bjerkandera adusta CCBAS 930 strain and its HRP-like negative mutants.

    Korniłłowicz-Kowalska, Teresa; Rybczyńska, Kamila

    2014-06-01

    Cultures of the anamorphic fungus Bjerkandera adusta CCBAS 930 decolorizing, in stationary cultures, 0.01 % solutions of carminic acid and Poly R-478, were characterised by a strong increase in the activity of the horseradish peroxidase (HRP-like) and manganese-dependent peroxidase (MnP) at a low activity of lignin peroxidase. Genotypically modified mutants of B. adusta CCBAS 930: 930-5 and 930-14, with total or partial loss of decolorization capabilities relative to anthraquinonic dyes, showed inhibition of the activity of HRP-like peroxidase and MnP. Whereas, compared to the parental strain, in the mutant cultures there was an increase in the activity of lignin peroxidase and laccase. The paper presents a discussion of the role of the studied enzymatic activities in the process of decolorization of anthraquinonic dyes by the strain B. adusta CCBAS 930. PMID:24415463

  18. THREONINE MUTANT STRAIN-PRODUCER BREVIBACTERIUM FLAVUM ІМВ В-7446 CHARACTERISTICS AND OPTIMIZATION PROCESS OF ITS BIOSYNTHESIS

    Г. С. Андріяш; Заболотна, Г. М.; Ткаченко, А. Ф.; С. М. Шульга

    2015-01-01

    Aim. Identification and optimization process of biosynthesis threonine of mutant strain-producer Brevibacterium flavum ІМВ В-7446. Methods. The strain Brevibacterium flavum ІМВ В-7446 was studied using standard microbiological and biochemical methods. A fragment of genomic DNA isolated from agarose gel using a set of «Macherey-Nagel NucleoSpin Extract» according to the instructions of the manufacturer and sequenced. A comparative analysis was done by evaluation of statistical significance adj...

  19. Behavioral Study of Some Mutant Strains of Soybeans in Northern Algeria

    Soya has the potential of becoming a very important source of protein and oil for human nutrition, animal feed and for industrial purposes. Since 1974, the government is concerned with introduction and popularization of soybean cultivation. In 1975, work on soybean mutants started with planting mutant lines obtained from Romania in large scale trials. Results of these trials are reported. (author)

  20. L-Glutamate production by lysozyme-sensitive Corynebacterium glutamicum ltsA mutant strains

    Nagai Kazuo

    2001-10-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background A non-pathogenic species of coryneform bacteria, Corynebacterium glutamicum, was originally isolated as an L-glutamate producing bacterium and is now used for fermentative production of various amino acids. A mutation in the C. glutamicum ltsA gene caused susceptibility to lysozyme, temperature-sensitive growth, and L-glutamate production. Results The characteristics of eight lysozyme-sensitive mutants which had been isolated after N-methyl-N'-nitro-N-nitrosoguanidine mutagenesis were examined. Complementation analysis with the cloned wild-type ltsA gene and DNA sequencing of the ItsA region revealed that four mutants had a mutation in the ltsA gene. Among them, two mutants showed temperature-sensitive growth and overproduced L-glutamate at higher temperatures, as well as the previously reported ltsA mutant. Other two showed temperature-resistant growth: one missense mutant produced L-glutamate to some extent but the other nonsense mutant did not. These two mutants remained temperature-resistant in spite of introduction of ltsA::kan mutation that causes temperature-sensitive growth in the wild-type background. Conclusions These results indicate that a defect caused by the ltsA mutations is responsible for temperature-sensitive growth and L-glutamate overproduction by C. glutamicum. The two temperature-resistant mutants seem to carry suppressor mutations that rendered cells temperature-resistance and abolished L-glutamate overproduction.

  1. ARE: Ada Rendering Engine

    Stefano Penge

    2009-10-01

    Full Text Available E' ormai pratica diffusa, nello sviluppo di applicazioni web, l'utilizzo di template e di potenti template engine per automatizzare la generazione dei contenuti da presentare all'utente. Tuttavia a volte la potenza di tali engine è€ ottenuta mescolando logica e interfaccia, introducendo linguaggi diversi da quelli di descrizione della pagina, o addirittura inventando nuovi linguaggi dedicati.ARE (ADA Rendering Engine è€ pensato per gestire l'intero flusso di creazione del contenuto HTML/XHTML dinamico, la selezione del corretto template, CSS, JavaScript e la produzione dell'output separando completamente logica e interfaccia. I templates utilizzati sono puro HTML senza parti in altri linguaggi, e possono quindi essere gestiti e visualizzati autonomamente. Il codice HTML generato è€ uniforme e parametrizzato.E' composto da due moduli, CORE (Common Output Rendering Engine e ALE (ADA Layout Engine.Il primo (CORE viene utilizzato per la generazione OO degli elementi del DOM ed è pensato per aiutare lo sviluppatore nella produzione di codice valido rispetto al DTD utilizzato. CORE genera automaticamente gli elementi del DOM in base al DTD impostato nella configurazioneIl secondo (ALE viene utilizzato come template engine per selezionare automaticamente in base ad alcuni parametri (modulo, profilo utente, tipologia del nodo, del corso, preferenze di installazione il template HTML, i CSS e i file JavaScript appropriati. ALE permette di usare templates di default e microtemplates ricorsivi per semplificare il lavoro del grafico.I due moduli possono in ogni caso essere utilizzati indipendentemente l'uno dall'altro. E' possibile generare e renderizzare una pagina HTML utilizzando solo CORE oppure inviare gli oggetti CORE al template engine ALE che provvede a renderizzare la pagina HTML. Viceversa è possibile generare HTML senza utilizzare CORE ed inviarlo al template engine ALECORE è alla prima release ed è€ già utilizzato all

  2. [Analysis of the structure and expression of the DIP1 gene in Drosophila melanogaster strains mutant for the flamenco gene].

    Nefedova, L N; Potanova, M V; Romanova, N I; Kim, A I

    2009-02-01

    DIP1 gene transcription was analyzed with the use of RT-PCR in three Drosophila melanogaster strains with the flamenco- phenotype (flam(SS), flam(MS), and flam(Ore)) and in one flamenco+ strain at the stages of embryos (0-24 h), third-instar larvae, and adult flies. The mutant strains flam(SS) and flam(Ore) lack an active copy of transposon gypsy. Theflam(MS) strain was obtained by introducing an active copy of gypsy in flies of theflam(SS) strain and is characterized by a high rate of gypsy transpositions. The experiments showed that at least five forms of DIP1 gene transcripts are produced. The form of cDNA corresponding to CDS DIP1-d was discovered only in embryos. It was found that DIP1 gene transcription depends on the age of flies: at the larval stage the level of transcription is significantly reduced. However, no reduction of gene transcription is observed in theflam(Ore) strain. These results suggest that the flamenco- phenotype may be associated with an alteration of DIP1 gene transcription, as in differentflamenco- strains the DIP1 gene expression is changed differently. PMID:19334614

  3. Using Ada: The deeper challenges

    Feinberg, David A.

    1986-01-01

    The Ada programming language and the associated Ada Programming Support Environment (APSE) and Ada Run Time Environment (ARTE) provide the potential for significant life-cycle cost reductions in computer software development and maintenance activities. The Ada programming language itself is standardized, trademarked, and controlled via formal validation procedures. Though compilers are not yet production-ready as most would desire, the technology for constructing them is sufficiently well known and understood that time and money should suffice to correct current deficiencies. The APSE and ARTE are, on the other hand, significantly newer issues within most software development and maintenance efforts. Currently, APSE and ARTE are highly dependent on differing implementer concepts, strategies, and market objectives. Complex and sophisticated mission-critical computing systems require the use of a complete Ada-based capability, not just the programming language itself; yet the range of APSE and ARTE features which must actually be utilized can vary significantly from one system to another. As a consequence, the need to understand, objectively evaluate, and select differing APSE and ARTE capabilities and features is critical to the effective use of Ada and the life-cycle efficiencies it is intended to promote. It is the selection, collection, and understanding of APSE and ARTE which provide the deeper challenges of using Ada for real-life mission-critical computing systems. Some of the current issues which must be clarified, often on a case-by-case basis, in order to successfully realize the full capabilities of Ada are discussed.

  4. The effect of Clostridium perfringens type C strain CN3685 and its isogenic beta toxin null mutant in goats.

    Garcia, J P; Beingesser, J; Fisher, D J; Sayeed, S; McClane, B A; Posthaus, H; Uzal, F A

    2012-06-15

    Clostridium perfringens type C is an important cause of enteritis and/or enterocolitis in several animal species, including pigs, sheep, goats, horses and humans. The disease is a classic enterotoxemia and the enteric lesions and associated systemic effects are thought to be caused primarily by beta toxin (CPB), one of two typing toxins produced by C. perfringens type C. This has been demonstrated recently by fulfilling molecular Koch's postulates in rabbits and mice. We present here an experimental study to fulfill these postulates in goats, a natural host of C. perfringens type C disease. Nine healthy male or female Anglo Nubian goat kids were inoculated with the virulent C. perfringens type C wild-type strain CN3685, an isogenic CPB null mutant or a strain where the cpb null mutation had been reversed. Three goats inoculated with the wild-type strain presented abdominal pain, hemorrhagic diarrhea, necrotizing enterocolitis, pulmonary edema, hydropericardium and death within 24h of inoculation. Two goats inoculated with the CPB null mutant and two goats inoculated with sterile culture media (negative controls) remained clinically healthy during 24h after inoculation and no gross or histological abnormalities were observed in the tissues of any of them. Reversal of the null mutation to partially restore CPB production also increased virulence; 2 goats inoculated with this reversed mutant presented clinical and pathological changes similar to those observed in goats inoculated with the wild-type strain, except that spontaneous death was not observed. These results indicate that CPB is required for C. perfringens type C to induce disease in goats, supporting a key role for this toxin in natural C. perfringens type C disease pathogenesis. PMID:22296994

  5. Ada Structure Design Language (ASDL)

    Chedrawi, Lutfi

    1986-01-01

    An artist acquires all the necessary tools before painting a scene. In the same analogy, a software engineer needs the necessary tools to provide their design with the proper means for implementation. Ada provide these tools. Yet, as an artist's painting needs a brochure to accompany it for further explanation of the scene, an Ada design also needs a document along with it to show the design in its detailed structure and hierarchical order. Ada could be self-explanatory in small programs not exceeding fifty lines of code in length. But, in a large environment, ranging from thousands of lines and above, Ada programs need to be well documented to be preserved and maintained. The language used to specify an Ada document is called Ada Structure Design Language (ASDL). This language sets some rules to help derive a well formatted Ada detailed design document. The rules are defined to meet the needs of a project manager, a maintenance team, a programmer and a systems designer. The design document templates, the document extractor, and the rules set forth by the ASDL are explained in detail.

  6. Update of GRASP/Ada reverse engineering tools for Ada

    Cross, James H., II

    1993-01-01

    The GRASP/Ada project (Graphical Representations of Algorithms, Structures, and Processes for Ada) successfully created and prototyped a new algorithmic level graphical representation for Ada software, the Control Structure Diagram (CSD). The primary impetus for creation of the CSD was to improve the comprehension efficiency of Ada software and, as a result, improve reliability and reduce costs. The emphasis was on the automatic generation of the CSD from Ada PDL or source code to support reverse engineering and maintenance. The CSD has the potential to replace traditional pretty printed Ada source code. In Phase 1 of the GRASP/Ada project, the CSD graphical constructs were created and applied manually to several small Ada programs. A prototype CSD generator (Version 1) was designed and implemented using FLEX and BISON running under VMS on a VAX 11-780. In Phase 2, the prototype was improved and ported to the Sun 4 platform under UNIX. A user interface was designed and partially implemented using the HP widget toolkit and the X Windows System. In Phase 3, the user interface was extensively reworked using the Athena widget toolkit and X Windows. The prototype was applied successfully to numerous Ada programs ranging in size from several hundred to several thousand lines of source code. Following Phase 3,e two update phases were completed. Update'92 focused on the initial analysis of evaluation data collected from software engineering students at Auburn University and the addition of significant enhancements to the user interface. Update'93 (the current update) focused on the statistical analysis of the data collected in the previous update and preparation of Version 3.4 of the prototype for limited distribution to facilitate further evaluation. The current prototype provides the capability for the user to generate CSD's from Ada PDL or source code in a reverse engineering as well as forward engineering mode with a level of flexibility suitable for practical

  7. Functionality of cryopreserved juvenile ovaries from mutant mice in different genetic background strains after allotransplantation

    Huang, K.Y.; Groot, de S.A.; Woelders, H.; Horst, van der G.T.J.; Themmen, A.P.N.; Colenbrander, B.; Fentener van Vlissingen, J.M.

    2010-01-01

    The rapid expansion of mutant mouse colonies for biomedical research has resulted in lack of space at laboratory animal facilities and increasing risks of losing precious lines. These challenges require cheap and effective methods in addition to freezing embryos and sperm to archive the expanding mu

  8. Ada Linear-Algebra Program

    Klumpp, A. R.; Lawson, C. L.

    1988-01-01

    Routines provided for common scalar, vector, matrix, and quaternion operations. Computer program extends Ada programming language to include linear-algebra capabilities similar to HAS/S programming language. Designed for such avionics applications as software for Space Station.

  9. GRASP/Ada 95: Reverse Engineering Tools for Ada

    Cross, James H., II

    1996-01-01

    The GRASP/Ada project (Graphical Representations of Algorithms, Structures, and Processes for Ada) has successfully created and prototyped an algorithmic level graphical representation for Ada software, the Control Structure Diagram (CSD), and a new visualization for a fine-grained complexity metric called the Complexity Profile Graph (CPG). By synchronizing the CSD and the CPG, the CSD view of control structure, nesting, and source code is directly linked to the corresponding visualization of statement level complexity in the CPG. GRASP has been integrated with GNAT, the GNU Ada 95 Translator to provide a comprehensive graphical user interface and development environment for Ada 95. The user may view, edit, print, and compile source code as a CSD with no discernible addition to storage or computational overhead. The primary impetus for creation of the CSD was to improve the comprehension efficiency of Ada software and, as a result, improve reliability and reduce costs. The emphasis has been on the automatic generation of the CSD from Ada 95 source code to support reverse engineering and maintenance. The CSD has the potential to replace traditional prettyprinted Ada source code. The current update has focused on the design and implementation of a new Motif compliant user interface, and a new CSD generator consisting of a tagger and renderer. The Complexity Profile Graph (CPG) is based on a set of functions that describes the context, content, and the scaling for complexity on a statement by statement basis. When combined graphicafly, the result is a composite profile of complexity for the program unit. Ongoing research includes the development and refinement of the associated functions, and the development of the CPG generator prototype. The current Version 5.0 prototype provides the capability for the user to generate CSDs and CPGs from Ada 95 source code in a reverse engineering as well as forward engineering mode with a level of flexibility suitable for

  10. Emergence of potential superbug mycobacterium tuberculosis, lessons from new delhi mutant-1 bacterial strains.

    Nazir, Taha; Abraham, Suraj; Islam, Azharul

    2012-01-01

    Recent reports have shown that certain bacterial strains attain the New Delhi Metallo-beta-lactamase-1 (NDM-1) enzyme and become resistant to a broad range of antibiotics. Similarly, more dangerous "superbugs" of multi-drug resistant (MDR) and extensive drug resistant (XDR) Mycobacterium tuberculosis strains are gradually emerging through rapid genetic mutation caused by prescription non-compliance or unsupervised indiscriminate use of anti-tubercular drugs or other antibiotics. Mycobacterium tuberculosis cases have been reported in highly susceptible population groups including the aboriginal communities of US and Canada. In Canada alone, the total number of reported tuberculosis cases has decreased over the past decade. However, there is a steady increase in HIV cases in certain communities including the aboriginal communities. Reintroduction of MDR/XDR strains of tuberculosis is possible in these susceptible communities, which in turn may pose serious public health situation. MDR/XDR strains of tuberculosis are virtually untreatable using current anti-tubercular medication protocols. Thus, MDR/XDR tuberculosis presents a grave global public health threat. The unpredictable genetic mechanism involved in generating MDR/XDR resistant strains of Mycobacterium tuberculosis may pose greater challenges in developing appropriate treatment strategies. In this article, we briefly review potential genetic mechanism of emerging NDM-1 bacterial strains and draw a rationale parallel to the underlying genetic mechanism of MDR/XDR Mycobacterium tuberculosis strain development. PMID:23267308

  11. Yield response of an erect, narrow and thick-leaved rice mutant and the derived strain to different planting densities

    The study was designed to investigate the possibility of mutation induction concerning leaf photosynthesis and canopy type, and to examine the yield performance of such a mutant at different planting densities. A semidwarf strain, G31, with narrow, erect and thick leaves, was selected after chronic γ-irradiation and hybridization. Net photosynthetic and transpiration rates per leaf area of this strain were found to be 1.5 times as high as the best available cultivar. In direct sowing of rice seeds, G31 had the highest grain yield in all levels of nitrogen top dressing, compared with the yields of the best available cultivars. Out of the progeny, after maize DNA treatment, of the G31 seeds a strain, L99, with a unique plant type was isolated. The tillering is less, the culms are taller and thicker, and the panicles are larger, compared with the parent G31. The agronomic performance of the L99 strain was tested with heavy nitrogen top dressing at different planting densities, along with other varieties. The yielding abilities were about the same in the best available cultivar when evaluated against the yield per day during their growth period. (author)

  12. Emergence of Potential Superbug Mycobacterium Tuberculosis, Lessons from New Delhi Mutant-1 Bacterial Strains

    Nazir, Taha; Abraham, Suraj; Islam, Azharul

    2012-01-01

    Recent reports have shown that certain bacterial strains attain the New Delhi Metallo-beta-lactamase-1 (NDM-1) enzyme and become resistant to a broad range of antibiotics. Similarly, more dangerous “superbugs” of multi-drug resistant (MDR) and extensive drug resistant (XDR) Mycobacterium tuberculosis strains are gradually emerging through rapid genetic mutation caused by prescription non-compliance or unsupervised indiscriminate use of anti-tubercular drugs or other antibiotics. Mycobacterium...

  13. Non-spa-typeable clinical Staphylococcus aureus strains are naturally occurring protein A mutants

    Baum, Cathrin; Haslinger-Löffler, Bettina; Westh, Henrik;

    2009-01-01

    Staphylococcus aureus is a major human pathogen responsible for increasing the prevalence of community- and hospital-acquired infections. Protein A (SpA) is a key virulence factor of S. aureus and is highly conserved. Sequencing of the variable-number tandem-repeat region of SpA (spa typing......) provides a rapid and reliable method for epidemiological studies. Rarely, non-spa-typeable S. aureus strains are encountered. The reason for this is not known. In this study, we characterized eight non-spa-typeable bacteremia isolates. Sequencing of the entire spa locus was successful for five strains...... and revealed various mutations of spa, all of which included a deletion of immunoglobulin G binding domain C, in which the upper primer for spa typing is located, while two strains were truly spa negative. This is the first report demonstrating that nontypeability of S. aureus by spa sequencing is due either...

  14. Non-spa-typeable clinical Staphylococcus aureus strains are naturally occurring protein A mutants

    Baum, Cathrin; Haslinger-Löffler, Bettina; Westh, Henrik; Boye, Kit; Peters, Georg; Neumann, Claudia; Kahl, Barbara C

    2009-01-01

    Staphylococcus aureus is a major human pathogen responsible for increasing the prevalence of community- and hospital-acquired infections. Protein A (SpA) is a key virulence factor of S. aureus and is highly conserved. Sequencing of the variable-number tandem-repeat region of SpA (spa typing......) provides a rapid and reliable method for epidemiological studies. Rarely, non-spa-typeable S. aureus strains are encountered. The reason for this is not known. In this study, we characterized eight non-spa-typeable bacteremia isolates. Sequencing of the entire spa locus was successful for five strains and...... revealed various mutations of spa, all of which included a deletion of immunoglobulin G binding domain C, in which the upper primer for spa typing is located, while two strains were truly spa negative. This is the first report demonstrating that nontypeability of S. aureus by spa sequencing is due either...

  15. Some physiological and biochemical characteristics of mutants obtained upon gamma irradiation of the glucose isomerase producer Streptomyces griseoflavus strain 1339

    Two variants of the parent strain of Streptomyces griseoflavus 1339 was obtained: a minus-variant following 2000 Gy one-step irradiation and a plus-variant following 3000 Gy three-step irradiation. Three labelled substrates were used: D-(U-14C)-glucose (USSR, 1.5 GBq/mmol); D-(U-14C)-xylose (Amersham, 2.81 GBq/mmol) and (U-14C)-xylitol (Amersham, 3.3 GBq/mmol). The changes in the levels of glucose isomerase activity, the accumulation of biomass and the depletion of carbon substrates in the time course of growth upon cultivation of the initial parent strain and the mutants have been shown. Compared to the parent strain the plus-variant showed 2.3 times enhanced glucose isomerase biosynthesis, a trend towards increasing of the biomass accumulation level and a more complete consumption of xylitol. The study of the respiration activity assimilation and dissimilation of radioactive carbon by 18-hour cells resting suggested some differences in the rate of oxidation of individual substrates in the variants. 1 tab., 1 fig., 7 refs

  16. Effect of varying temperature on growth, morphology and soluble protein content of div I and div II mutant strains of bacillus sub tills

    In B.subtilis, cell division is controlled by div-genes which have been mapped on its circular chromosome. In the present work, div-mutant strains 1A316(div II), 1A317 and 1A318 (div I) were studied. These strains exhibited temperature sensitive cell division mutations. Colony morphology, cell morphology, staining behavior, growth rate and protein content of PY79 (wild type) and div-mutant strains (1A316, 1A317, 1A318) was studied at different temperatures ( 25 deg. Centi grade and 42 deg. with varying incubation periods(4, 16, 24, 48, 72,96 hrs). div-mutants differ from wild type (PY79) in colony morphology. Colony margin in PY79 was entire while in the div strains it is undulate. Staining behavior of cells as well as cell morphology i.e., cell size, cell types, formation of filaments/minicells were affected by high temperature. At higher temperature (42 deg. Centi grade), div-mutants undergo more severe lysis and degeneration as compare to wild type (PY79). Defective spores were produced by div-mutants at 25 deg. Centi grade and 42 deg. Centi grade. Tetrazolium overlay test was performed at 37 deg. Centi grade and 42 deg. Centi grade to check the spore germination ability of wild type and div-mutants. In 1A318, defective spores were produced at 37 deg. Centi grade, div-mutant was checked after 24 and 96 hrs at different temperatures (25, 37 and 42 deg. Centi grade). At all temperatures protein content were more in PY79 as compare to div-mutants. Also at 25 and 42 deg. Centi grade, protein content was more as compare to 37 deg. Centi grade. Protein contents was reduced at sporulation stages. Thus cell division mutations affect cell morphology, sporulation and germination processes in B.subtilis and thus are multifaceted mutations. (author)

  17. Multiprocessor performance modeling with ADAS

    Hayes, Paul J.; Andrews, Asa M.

    1989-01-01

    A graph managing strategy referred to as the Algorithm to Architecture Mapping Model (ATAMM) appears useful for the time-optimized execution of application algorithm graphs in embedded multiprocessors and for the performance prediction of graph designs. This paper reports the modeling of ATAMM in the Architecture Design and Assessment System (ADAS) to make an independent verification of ATAMM's performance prediction capability and to provide a user framework for the evaluation of arbitrary algorithm graphs. Following an overview of ATAMM and its major functional rules are descriptions of the ADAS model of ATAMM, methods to enter an arbitrary graph into the model, and techniques to analyze the simulation results. The performance of a 7-node graph example is evaluated using the ADAS model and verifies the ATAMM concept by substantiating previously published performance results.

  18. Systematic mutagenesis method for enhanced production of bacitracin by Bacillus licheniformis mutant strain UV-MN-HN-6

    Muhammad Nauman Aftab

    2012-03-01

    Full Text Available The purpose of the current study was intended to obtain the enhanced production of bacitracin by Bacillus licheniformis through random mutagenesis and optimization of various parameters. Several isolates of Bacillus licheniformis were isolated from local habitat and isolate designated as GP-35 produced maximum bacitracin production (14±0.72 IU ml-1. Bacitracin production of Bacillus licheniformis GP-35 was increased to 23±0.69 IU ml-1 after treatment with ultraviolet (UV radiations. Similarly, treatment of vegetative cells of GP-35 with chemicals like N-methyl N'-nitro N-nitroso guanidine (MNNG and Nitrous acid (HNO2 increased the bacitracin production to a level of 31±1.35 IU ml-1 and 27±0.89 IU ml-1 respectively. Treatment of isolate GP-35 with combined effect of UV and chemical treatment yield significantly higher titers of bacitracin with maximum bacitracin production of 41.6±0.92 IU ml-1. Production of bacitracin was further enhanced (59.1±1.35 IU ml-1 by optimization of different parameters like phosphate sources, organic acids as well as temperature and pH. An increase of 4.22 fold in the production of bacitracin after mutagenesis and optimization of various parameters was achieved in comparison to wild type. Mutant strain was highly stable and produced consistent yield of bacitracin even after 15 generations. On the basis of kinetic variables, notably Yp/s (IU/g substrate, Yp/x (IU/g cells, Yx/s (g/g, Yp/s, mutant strain B. licheniformis UV-MN-HN-6 was found to be a hyperproducer of bacitracin.

  19. Protoplast fusion technology for improved production of coenzyme Q10 using Paracoccus denitrificans ATCC 19367 mutant strains

    Pradipta Tokdar

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Normal 0 false false false EN-US X-NONE X-NONE MicrosoftInternetExplorer4 Induced mutants generated from Paracoccus denitrificans ATCC 19367 having antibiotic resistant markers, were used as parent strains to carry out protoplast fusion. The generated fusants were screened using standardized protocol for CoQ10 production. Among the generated fusants, one fusant namely PF-P1 showed 1.73 folds enhancements in specific CoQ10 content than wild type strain. Fusant PF-P1 was characterized by biochemical and molecular approaches where it showed differences than wild type strain. The fusant was further identified by 16S rRNA gene sequence analysis that showed eight nucleotide base pair mutation on conserved region and 99% homology with Paracoccus denitrificans strains. /* Style Definitions */ table.MsoNormalTable {mso-style-name:"Table Normal"; mso-tstyle-rowband-size:0; mso-tstyle-colband-size:0; mso-style-noshow:yes; mso-style-priority:99; mso-style-qformat:yes; mso-style-parent:""; mso-padding-alt:0in 5.4pt 0in 5.4pt; mso-para-margin:0in; mso-para-margin-bottom:.0001pt; mso-pagination:widow-orphan; font-size:11.0pt; font-family:"Calibri","sans-serif"; mso-ascii-font-family:Calibri; mso-ascii-theme-font:minor-latin; mso-fareast-font-family:"Times New Roman"; mso-fareast-theme-font:minor-fareast; mso-hansi-font-family:Calibri; mso-hansi-theme-font:minor-latin; mso-bidi-font-family:"Times New Roman"; mso-bidi-theme-font:minor-bidi;}

  20. An Rh1–GFP Fusion Protein Is in the Cytoplasmic Membrane of a White Mutant Strain of Chlamydomonas reinhardtii

    Yoshihara, Corinne; Inoue, Kentaro; Schichnes, Denise; Ruzin, Steven; Inwood, William; Kustu, Sydney

    2008-01-01

    The major Rhesus (Rh) protein of the green alga Chlamydomonas reinhardtii, Rh1, is homologous to Rh proteins of humans. It is an integral membrane protein involved in transport of carbon dioxide. To localize a fusion of intact Rh1 to the green fluorescent protein (GFP), we used as host a white (lts1) mutant strain of C. reinhardtii, which is blocked at the first step of carotenoid biosynthesis. The lts1 mutant strain accumulated normal amounts of Rh1 heterotrophically in the dark and Rh1–GFP ...

  1. Process optimization for a potent wild and mutant strain of aspergillus niger for biosynthesis of amyloglucosidase

    The present study is concerned with the selection of a potent strain of Aspergillus niger and optimization of the cultural conditions for the biosynthesis of amyloglucosidase. The cultural conditions were optimized for the enzyme production. Twenty percent (50/250ml flask) was found to be optimum volume of the medium. Optimum temperature was 30 deg. C after 72 h of incubation, with the initial pH of the medium 5.0. 2% Starch with 1% glucose as an additional carbon source gave maximum amyloglucosidase production Addition of 0.3% ammonium sulphate in the fermentation medium increased the enzyme production while 2% spore inoculum showed best amyloglucosidase production. (author)

  2. Microbial conversion of ginsenoside Rd from Rb1 by the fungus mutant Aspergillus niger strain TH-10a.

    Feng, Li; Xu, Chunchun; Li, Zhuo; Li, Jing; Dai, Yulin; Han, Hongxiang; Yu, Shanshan; Liu, Shuying

    2016-05-18

    Ginsenoside Rd, one of the ginsenosides with significant pharmaceutical activities, is getting more and more attractions on its biotransformation. In this study, a novel fungus mutant, the Aspergillus niger strain TH-10a, which can efficiently convert ginsenoside Rd from Rb1, was obtained through screening survival library of LiCl and ultraviolet (UV) irradiation. The transformation product ginsenoside Rd, generated by removing the outer glucose residue from the position C20 of ginsenoside Rb1, was identified through high-performance liquid chromatography (HPLC) analysis. Factors for the microbial culture and biotransformation were investigated in terms of the carbon sources, the nitrogen sources, pH values, and temperatures. This showed that maximum mycelia growth could be obtained at 28°C and pH 6.0 with cellobiose and tryptone as the carbon source and the nitrogen source, respectively. The highest transformation rate (∼86%) has been achieved at 32°C and pH 5.0 with the feeding time of substrate 48 hr. Also, Aspergillus niger strain TH-10a could tolerate even 40 mg/mL ginseng root extract as substrate with 60% bioconversion rate after 72 hr of treatment at the optimal condition. Our results highlight a novel ginsenoside Rd transformation fungus and illuminate its potentially practical application in the pharmaceutical industries. PMID:25831478

  3. Monolayer Adsorption of a “Bald” Mutant of the Highly Adhesive and Hydrophobic Bacterium Acinetobacter sp. Strain Tol 5 to a Hydrocarbon Surface▿

    Hori, Katsutoshi; Watanabe, Hisami; Ishii, Shun'ichi; Tanji, Yasunori; Unno, Hajime

    2008-01-01

    The affinity of microbial cells for hydrophobic interfaces is important because it directly affects the efficiency of various bioprocesses, including green biotechnologies. The toluene-degrading bacterium Acinetobacter sp. strain Tol 5 has filamentous appendages and a hydrophobic cell surface, shows high adhesiveness to solid surfaces, and self-agglutinates. A “bald” mutant of this bacterium, strain T1, lacks the filamentous appendages and has decreased adhesiveness but retains a hydrophobic ...

  4. Characterization of the Burkholderia mallei tonB Mutant and Its Potential as a Backbone Strain for Vaccine Development.

    Tiffany M Mott

    Full Text Available In this study, a Burkholderia mallei tonB mutant (TMM001 deficient in iron acquisition was constructed, characterized, and evaluated for its protective properties in acute inhalational infection models of murine glanders and melioidosis.Compared to the wild-type, TMM001 exhibits slower growth kinetics, siderophore hyper-secretion and the inability to utilize heme-containing proteins as iron sources. A series of animal challenge studies showed an inverse correlation between the percentage of survival in BALB/c mice and iron-dependent TMM001 growth. Upon evaluation of TMM001 as a potential protective strain against infection, we found 100% survival following B. mallei CSM001 challenge of mice previously receiving 1.5 x 10(4 CFU of TMM001. At 21 days post-immunization, TMM001-treated animals showed significantly higher levels of B. mallei-specific IgG1, IgG2a and IgM when compared to PBS-treated controls. At 48 h post-challenge, PBS-treated controls exhibited higher levels of serum inflammatory cytokines and more severe pathological damage to target organs compared to animals receiving TMM001. In a cross-protection study of acute inhalational melioidosis with B. pseudomallei, TMM001-treated mice were significantly protected. While wild type was cleared in all B. mallei challenge studies, mice failed to clear TMM001.Although further work is needed to prevent chronic infection by TMM001 while maintaining immunogenicity, our attenuated strain demonstrates great potential as a backbone strain for future vaccine development against both glanders and melioidosis.

  5. Parallel Programming with Declarative Ada

    Thornley, John

    1993-01-01

    Declarative programming languages (e.g., functional and logic programming languages) are semantically elegant and implicitly express parallelism at a high level. We show how a parallel declarative language can be based on a modern structured imperative language with single-assignment variables. Such a language combines the advantages of parallel declarative programming with the strengths and familiarity of the underlying imperative language. We introduce Declarative Ada, a parallel declarativ...

  6. Increase Hydrogen Production by Hydrogen-producing Mutant UV-d48 in Comparison with Wild Parent Strain Etanoligenens sp ZGX4

    ZHENG Guo-xiang; REN Nan-qi; LIN Hai-long; LI Yong-feng

    2006-01-01

    Hydrogen production by hydrogen-producing mutant strain UV-d48 was one typical ethanol-type fermentative H2-producing mutant, which the main metabolic end production was ethanol and acetic acid. Compare to the wild type strain, the activity of hydrogenase of mutant UV-d48 was stronger in course of growth and fermentation. It can evolve hydrogen at stronger ability and a greater rate than that of its parent wild type, namely ZGX4. Resting cells of UVd48 and Ethanoligenens sp ZGX4 were set up in a batch mode in phosphate buffered saline (PBS) to decouple growth from hydrogen production at the expense of glucose of varying composition. Mutant UV-d48 evolved more hydrogen than ZGX4at glucose concentrations ranging from 2 mmol/L to 200 mmol/L. The difference in the amount of H2 evolved by both strains decreased as the concentration of glucose increased. The maximal H2 yield and H2-producing rate by strain UV-d48 was 3091.1 mL/L and 54 mL/(hODunitL) respectively, at a glucose concentration of 60 mmol/L. With strain ZGX4, the maximal H2 yield and H2-producing rate was 2 180.2 mL/L and 33 mL/(hODunitL) under these conditions, respectively.Experiments using wastewater with certain content molasses yielded similar results. In each case, strain UV-d48 evolved hydrogen at a faster rate than the wild type, showing a possible potential for commercial hydrogen production.

  7. Screening of fungal mutant strain with high laccase yield by N+-implantation and enzyme production condition optimization

    The basidiospores of Pleurotus ostreatus WY01 were exposed to N+ beam and the treated basidiospores were screened in RBBR-containing PDA plates. Then the laccase activities of the selected strains were determined by ABTS, and a mutant named ADW-08 with high yield of laccase was obtained. The maximum activity of laccase of ADW-08 increased up to 7.78 U/g, 2.8 times of the original stain, and its laccase production ability was stable in high carbon and low nitrogen rape straw solid medium (SM). Results showed that glucose as carbon source was obviously superior to sucrose, maltose, wheat bran and soluble amylum in solid culture for ADW-08. Ammonium tartrate as nitrogen source was more suitable than other nitrogen sources for the laccase secretion. The optimal initial pH was 5.0 or 6.0. The ability of laccase production clearly increased by ABTS and veratryl alcohol induction, but was inhibited by Tween 80. When the optimum parameters for laccase production got from orthogonal design were as follows: glucose 15 g/L, ammonium tartrate 0.2 g/L, pH 5.2, the peak value of Lac activity was 8.33 U/g. (authors)

  8. Activity, reconstitution, and accumulation of nitrogenase components in Azotobacter vinelandii mutant strains containing defined deletions within the nitrogenase structural gene cluster.

    Robinson, A. C.; Burgess, B. K.; Dean, D R

    1986-01-01

    The Azotobacter vinelandii genes encoding the nitrogenase structural components are clustered and ordered: nifH (Fe protein)-nifD (MoFe protein alpha subunit)-nifK (MoFe protein beta subunit). In this study various A. vinelandii mutant strains which contain defined deletions within the nitrogenase structural genes were isolated and studied. Mutants deleted for the nifD or nifK genes were still able to accumulate significant amounts of the unaltered MoFe protein subunit as well as active Fe pr...

  9. Auxin autonomy in cultured tobacco teratoma tissues transformed by an auxin-mutant strain of Agrobacterium tumefaciens.

    Campell, B R; Su, L Y; Pengelly, W L

    1992-08-01

    We have studied the mechanism of auxin autonomy in tobacco (Nicotiana tabacum L.) crowngall tissues transformed by the auxin-mutant (tms (-)) A66 strain of Agrobacterium tumefaciens. Normally, tms (-) tobacco tumor tissues require the formation of shoots to exhibit auxin-independent growth in culture. We have isolated from tms (-) tobacco cells several stable variants that are fully hormone-independent and grow rapidly as friable, unorganized tissues, thus mimicking the growth and morphology of tms (+) tobacco cells that produce high levels of auxin. However, none of the variants contained the high levels of auxin found in tms (+) tumor cells. The variants could be divided into two classes with respect to their response to applied auxin. The first class was highly sensitive to applied auxin: low concentrations (1 μM) of α-naphthaleneacetic acid (NAA) severely inhibited growth and markedly stimulated the accumulation of the ethylene precursor, 1-aminocyclopropane-1-carboxylic acid (ACC). The second class of variants showed a low sensitivity to applied auxin: growth was promoted by concentrations of NAA up to 10 μM, and growth inhibition and high ACC levels were observed only at high NAA concentrations (100 μM). Unorganized variants with low auxin sensitivity were also isolated from a variant line with high auxin sensitivity. The isolation of tumor cells that exhibited the growth phenotype of tms (+) cells while retaining the low auxin content and low auxin sensitivity of tms (-) cells indicates that full hormone autonomy, characteristic of wild-type crown-gall tumors, can be achieved by a mechanism that is independent of changes in the auxin physiology of the cells. PMID:24178208

  10. Comparative Evaluation of Agroindustrial Byproducts for the Production of Alkaline Protease by Wild and Mutant Strains of Bacillus subtilis in Submerged and Solid State Fermentation

    Mukhtar, Hamid; Haq, Ikramul

    2013-01-01

    The present study describes the screening of different agroindustrial byproducts for enhanced production of alkaline protease by a wild and EMS induced mutant strain of Bacillus subtilis IH-72EMS8. During submerged fermentation, different agro-industrial byproducts were tested which include defatted seed meals of rape, guar, sunflower, gluten, cotton, soybean, and gram. In addition to these meals, rice bran, wheat bran, and wheat flour were also evaluated for protease production. Of all the b...

  11. EXTRACTION AND PURIFICATION OF EXTRACELLULAR LACCASE FROM WILD, MUTANTS AND HYBRID STRAINS OF TWO WHITE-ROT FUNGUS AND ITS APPLICATIONS IN DECOLOURIZATION AND LIGNINOLYSIS

    Olusola Majolagbe

    2012-12-01

    Full Text Available Extracellular laccases were extracted from a 5-day old submerge cultures of the wild, mutants and hybrid of Lentinus subnudus. Mutants were generated by exposure of the wild strain of L. subnudus to ultraviolet radiation (ג = 280 nm at specific time intervals while the hybrid was produced by cross-breeding L. subnudus with L. edodes. The crude enzyme was fractionated with 80% ammonium sulphate and further purified on DEAE column. The laccase has a molecular weight of about 45 KDa. Purification yield on DEAE column gave the highest purification yield of 23.25% in SWT and least in SHT (5.29%. Its potentials in decolourization of 2, 6-dichlorophenol-indophenol dye at different pH conditions were investigated. Five out of the six fungal strains tested gave significant (P<0.05 percentage decolourization (≥43.94% at pH 8. The fungus was further studied for their ability in degrading wheat and paddy straws. The solid substrate fermentation was inoculated with two pieces (0.6cm diameter mycelial agar blocks of each of the fungal strains, supplemented with 30mg/100g sucrose, 24mg/100g KNO3 and 60mg/100g CaCO3. The periodic reduction in weight of the solid substrate medium and enzymatic activity of laccase for each of the fungal strains was assessed. Therefore, the ability of the wild, mutants and hybrid of L subnudus strains to produce laccase enzyme shows their significant potential in textile industry, especially in decolourization of dye and bioconversion of lignocellulosic wastes.

  12. Ada training evaluation and recommendations from the Gamma Ray Observatory Ada Development Team

    1985-01-01

    The Ada training experiences of the Gamma Ray Observatory Ada development team are related, and recommendations are made concerning future Ada training for software developers. Training methods are evaluated, deficiencies in the training program are noted, and a recommended approach, including course outline, time allocation, and reference materials, is offered.

  13. Systematic strain construction and process development: Xylitol production by Saccharomyces cerevisiae expressing Candida tenuis xylose reductase in wild-type or mutant form.

    Pratter, S M; Eixelsberger, T; Nidetzky, B

    2015-12-01

    A novel Saccharomyces cerevisiae whole-cell biocatalyst for xylitol production based on Candida tenuis xylose reductase (CtXR) is presented. Six recombinant strains expressing wild-type CtXR or an NADH-specific mutant were constructed and evaluated regarding effects of expression mode, promoter strength, biocatalyst concentration and medium composition. Intracellular XR activities ranged from 0.09 U mgProt(-1) to 1.05 U mgProt(-1) but did not correlate with the strains' xylitol productivities, indicating that other factors limited xylose conversion in the high-activity strains. The CtXR mutant decreased the biocatalyst's performance, suggesting use of the NADPH-preferring wild-type enzyme when (semi-)aerobic conditions are applied. In a bioreactor process, the best-performing strain converted 40 g L(-1) xylose with an initial productivity of 1.16 g L(-1)h(-1) and a xylitol yield of 100%. The obtained results underline the potential of CtXR wild-type for xylose reduction and point out parameters to improve "green" xylitol production. PMID:26452180

  14. Overproduction of pyoverdins by Fur mutants of Pseudomonas aeruginosa strains PAO1 and Fe10 in stirred bioreactors

    Johnová, Andrea; Dobišová, Marie; Abdallah, M.; Kyslík, Pavel

    2001-01-01

    Roč. 23, - (2001), s. 1759-1763. ISSN 0141-5492 Institutional research plan: CEZ:AV0Z5020903 Keywords : bioreactor * fur mutant * production Subject RIV: EE - Microbiology, Virology Impact factor: 0.915, year: 2001

  15. [The accumulation of proteins with chitinase activity in the culture media of the parent and mutant Serratia marcescens strain grown in the presence of mitomycin C].

    Iusupova, D V; Petukhova, E V; Sokolova, R B; Gabdrakhmanova, L A

    2002-01-01

    The study of the accumulation pattern of extracellular proteins with chitinase activity in the parent Serratia marcescens strain Bú 211 (ATCC 9986) grown in the presence of mitomycin C and its mutant strain with the constitutive synthesis of chitinases grown in the absence of the inducer showed that chitinase activity appeared in the culture liquids of both strains at the end of the exponential phase (4 h of growth) and reached a maximum in the stationary phase (18-20 h of growth). The analysis of the culture liquids (12 h of growth) by denaturing electrophoresis in PAAG followed by the protein renaturation step revealed the presence of four extracellular proteins with chitinase activity and molecular masses of 21, 38, 52, and 58 kDa. PMID:12449629

  16. The development of a program analysis environment for Ada: Reverse engineering tools for Ada

    Cross, James H., II

    1991-01-01

    The Graphical Representations of Algorithms, Structures, and Processes for Ada (GRASP/Ada) has successfully created and prototyped a new algorithm level graphical representation for Ada software, the Control Structure Diagram (CSD). The primary impetus for creation of the CSD was to improve the comprehension efficiency of Ada software and thus improve reliability and reduce costs. The emphasis was on the automatic generation of the CSD from Ada source code to support reverse engineering and maintenance. The CSD has the potential to replace traditional prettyprinted Ada source code. In Phase 1 of the GRASP/Ada project, the CSD graphical constructs were created and applied manually to several small Ada programs. A prototype (Version 1) was designed and implemented using FLEX and BISON running under the Virtual Memory System (VMS) on a VAX 11-780. In Phase 2, the prototype was improved and ported to the Sun 4 platform under UNIX. A user interface was designed and partially implemented. The prototype was applied successfully to numerous Ada programs ranging in size from several hundred to several thousand lines of source code. In Phase 3 of the project, the prototype was prepared for limited distribution (GRASP/Ada Version 3.0) to facilitate evaluation. The user interface was extensively reworked. The current prototype provides the capability for the user to generate CSD from Ada source code in a reverse engineering mode with a level of flexibility suitable for practical application.

  17. Technical Report on the Development of Mutant Paracoccus strain and Optimization of Medium Composition for the Mass Production of Astaxanthin

    Choi, Jong Il; Lee, Ju Woon; Kim, Jae Hun; Song, Beom Seok

    2010-08-15

    Astaxanthin is used to role of provitamin A, and it is stronger antioxidant activity than vitamin E (100-500 times higher activity) and other carotenoids (10-fold). Furthermore, astaxanthin is also used as a nutraceutical and a medicinal ingredient against degenerative diseases such as cancer, heart disease, and skin related illness. The objective of this study was develop a carotenoid-hyperproducing mutant of Paracoccus N81106 using gamma irradiation and optimized medium composition. A mutant of Paracoccus having higher carotenoid content was isolated, and the production medium was optimized using response surface methodology. These results support that astaxanthin with strong antioxidant activity could be economically produced using the mutant and will be helpful for the related industry

  18. Technical Report on the Development of Mutant Paracoccus strain and Optimization of Medium Composition for the Mass Production of Astaxanthin

    Astaxanthin is used to role of provitamin A, and it is stronger antioxidant activity than vitamin E (100-500 times higher activity) and other carotenoids (10-fold). Furthermore, astaxanthin is also used as a nutraceutical and a medicinal ingredient against degenerative diseases such as cancer, heart disease, and skin related illness. The objective of this study was develop a carotenoid-hyperproducing mutant of Paracoccus N81106 using gamma irradiation and optimized medium composition. A mutant of Paracoccus having higher carotenoid content was isolated, and the production medium was optimized using response surface methodology. These results support that astaxanthin with strong antioxidant activity could be economically produced using the mutant and will be helpful for the related industry

  19. Substrate specificity of glucose dehydrogenase and carbon source utilization pattern of pantoea dispersa strain P2 and its radiation induced mutants

    Mineral phosphate solubilizing pantoea dispersa strain P2 produced 5.5 mM and 42.6 mM of gluconic acid on 24 h and 72 h incubation, respectively. Strain P2 exhibited glucose dehydrogenase (GDH) specific activity of 0.32 IU mg-1 protein. We have studied the substrate specificity of GDH as well as carbon source utilization pattern of strain P2. GDH of strain P2 did not use ribose as substrate. Utilization of lactose with specific activity of 0.65 IU mg-1 protein indicated that the enzyme belongs to GDH type B isozyme. Arabinose, galactose, ribose, sucrose and xylose did not induce the synthesis of GDH enzyme while mannose induced the synthesis of GDH with highest specific activity of 0.58 IU mg-1 protein. Through radiation mutagenesis, the substrate specificity of GDH was modified in order to utilize side range of sugars available in root exudates. Ribose, originally not a substrate for GDH of strain P2 was utilized as substrate by mutants P2-M5 with specific activity of 0.44 and 0.57 IU mg-1 protein, respectively. Specific activity of GDH on the media containing lactose and galactose was also improved to 1.2 and 0.52 IU mg-1 protein in P2-M5 and P2-M6 respectively. Based on the carbon source availability in root exudate, the mutants can be selected and utilized as efficient biofertilizer under P-deficient soil conditions

  20. Expression profiles of genes in wild-type DJ-1 and L10P mutant DJ-1 in monoclonal cell strains

    LIU Zhen-hua

    2013-07-01

    Full Text Available Background DJ-1 gene is a causative gene which contributes to the onset of autosomal recessive early-onset parkinsonism (AREP. Many research suggest that DJ-1 protein may change expression of certain genes through regulate its transcriptional activity, which play a role in the pathogenesis of Parkinson's disease (PD. In our previous study, we found a new mutation of DJ-1 which we named as L10P. DJ-1 gene encodes the first frame 29 bp from the thymine (T→cytosine (C, so that the leucine on the 10th locus of DJ-1 protein was replaced by proline (L10P. To elucidate the effect of the L10P mutation, we identify genes for which expressions are abnormally regulated by L10P mutant DJ-1 protein using DNA microarray analysis. Methods Human embryonic kidney cell 293 (HEK293 monoclonal cell strains which can stably express pCMV-Tag2A-Flag, pCMV-Tag2A-Flag-DJ-1 and pCMV-Tag2A-Flag-DJ-1-L10P were selected by screening, and identified on the basis of DNA, RNA and protein levels to confirm whether the acquired HEK293 monoclonal cell strains can stably express empty vector, wild-type DJ-1 protein and L10P mutant DJ-1 protein. Gene chip technique was used to perform differential gene screening for different groups of HEK293 monoclonal cell strains. Results Compared with the expression in empty vector group, the expression of 14 genes was up-regulated and 28 genes was down-regulated in wild-type group; and the expression of 14 genes was up-regulated and 9 down-regulated in expressing L10P mutant group respectively. Comparison of the expression in wild-type group, expression of 59 genes was up-regulated and 27 genes down-regulated in L10P mutant group. These differential genes all took part in the biological processes including signal transduction, transcriptional regulation, cell cycle, apoptosis, oxidative stress and so on. Conclusion L10P mutant DJ-1 protein may directly or indirectly influence the singal transduction and play a role in the mechanism of PD.

  1. Sulphide Resistance in the Cyanobacterium Microcystis aeruginosa: a Comparative Study of Morphology and Photosynthetic Performance Between the Sulphide-Resistant Mutant and the Wild-Type Strain.

    Bañares-España, Elena; Del Mar Fernández-Arjona, María; García-Sánchez, María Jesús; Hernández-López, Miguel; Reul, Andreas; Mariné, Mariona Hernández; Flores-Moya, Antonio

    2016-05-01

    The cyanobacterium Microcystis aeruginosa is a mesophilic freshwater organism, which cannot tolerate sulphide. However, it was possible to isolate a sulphide-resistant (S (r) ) mutant strain that was able to survive in a normally lethal medium sulphide. In order to evaluate the cost of the mutation conferring sulphide resistance in the S (r) strain of M. aeruginosa, the morphology and the photosynthetic performance were compared to that found in the wild-type, sulphide-sensitive (S (s) ) strain. An increase in size and a disrupted morphology was observed in S (r) cells in comparison to the S (s) counterpart. Phycoerythrin and phycocyanin levels were higher in the S (r) than in the S (s) cells, whereas a higher carotenoid content, per unit volume, was found in the S (s) strain. The irradiance-saturated photosynthetic oxygen-production rate (GPR max) and the photosynthetic efficiency (measured both by oxygen production and fluorescence, α (GPR) and α (ETR)) were lower in the S (r) strain than in the wild-type. These results appear to be the result of package effect. On the other hand, the S (r) strain showed higher quantum yield of non-photochemical quenching, especially those regulated mechanisms (estimated throughout q N and Y(NPQ)) and a significantly lower slope in the maximum quantum yield of light-adapted samples (F v '/F m ') compared to the S (s) strain. These findings point to a change in the regulation of the quenching of the transition states (q T ) in the S (r) strain which may be generated by a change in the distribution of thylakoidal membranes, which somehow could protect metalloenzymes of the electron transport chain from the lethal effect of sulphide. PMID:26677166

  2. Experiences with Ada in an embedded system

    Labaugh, Robert J.

    1988-01-01

    Recent experiences with using Ada in a real time environment are described. The application was the control system for an experimental robotic arm. The objectives of the effort were to experiment with developing embedded applications in Ada, evaluating the suitability of the language for the application, and determining the performance of the system. Additional objectives were to develop a control system based on the NASA/NBS Standard Reference Model for Telerobot Control System Architecture (NASREM) in Ada, and to experiment with the control laws and how to incorporate them into the NASREM architecture.

  3. Ada in Real-time Embedded System

    Elnaz Ghodsvali; Rabee Sharifi Rad; Sima Sinaei

    2013-01-01

    Ada has an important role in the real-time/embedded/safety-critical areas. It is the only ISO-standard, object-oriented, concurrent, real-time programming language. Ada is used as a usual language for application areas such as defense embedded systems that reliability and efficiency are very essential. One of the main Ada’s characteristics in compare with other programming languages is that, Ada was developed from the ground up with capabilities that provide real-time requirements. In this st...

  4. Bacterial persistence and immunity in goats vaccinated with a purE deletion mutant or the parental 16M strain of Brucella melitensis.

    Cheville, N. F.; Olsen, S. C.; Jensen, A E; Stevens, M G; Florance, A M; Houng, H S; Drazek, E S; Warren, R. L.; Hadfield, T. L.; Hoover, D L

    1996-01-01

    To evaluate host responses, young goats were inoculated subcutaneously with a genetic deletion mutant (deltapurE201) of Brucella melitensis (n = 6), its virulent parental strain 16M (n = 6), or saline (n = 6). No clinical evidence of brucellosis was seen in any goat. Serum antibody titers peaked at postinoculation day (PID) 14. Bacteria in lymph nodes that drained sites of vaccination reached peak numbers of >10(6) CFU/g in both infected groups at PID 7 and progressively declined to PID 84. A...

  5. 11-Deoxylandomycinone and landomycins X-Z, new cytotoxic angucyclin(on)es from a Streptomyces cyanogenus K62 mutant strain

    Shaaban, Khaled A.; Stamatkin, Chris; Damodaran, Chendil; Rohr, Jürgen

    2010-01-01

    Four new angucyclin(on)es, 11-deoxylandomycinone (1) and landomycins X-Z (2–4) were isolated from the crude extract of Streptomyces cyanogenus K62 mutant strain, along with the recently reported landomycins S, T and V (5–7) and five other known compounds. The structures of the new compounds 1–4 were elucidated by 1D and 2D NMR studies along with HRMS analyses. Unique about the structures is that the fourth sugar moiety (sugar D) in landomycins X-Z (2–4) was β-D-amicetose instead of β-D-olivos...

  6. Characterization of a Synechococcus sp. strain PCC 7002 spontaneous mutant strain defective in accumulation of photosystem II core chlorophyll-protein complexes.

    Webb, R.; Punnett, T

    1989-01-01

    Two photosystem II-associated chlorophyll-protein complexes of Synechococcus sp. strain PCC 7002 were identified. Their polypeptide compositions were similar to those of chlorophyll-containing antenna complexes of other cyanobacteria. Strain GT8B did not possess the complex responsible for 695-nm fluorescence and was unable to grow photoautotrophically; hence, this complex is necessary for photosystem II function in vivo.

  7. Genome Sequences of the Oxytetracycline Production Strain Streptomyces rimosus R6-500 and Two Mutants with Chromosomal Rearrangements

    Baranasic, Damir; Zucko, Jurica; Nair, Mridul; Pain, Arnab; Long, Paul F.; Hranueli, Daslav; Cullum, John; Starcevic, Antonio

    2014-01-01

    The genome sequence of Streptomyces rimosus R6-500, an industrially improved strain which produces high titers of the important antibiotic oxytetracycline, is reported, as well as the genome sequences of two derivatives arising due to the genetic instability of the strain.

  8. Genome Sequences of the Oxytetracycline Production Strain Streptomyces rimosus R6-500 and Two Mutants with Chromosomal Rearrangements

    Baranasic, Damir

    2014-07-17

    The genome sequence of Streptomyces rimosus R6-500, an industrially improved strain which produces high titers of the important antibiotic oxytetracycline, is reported, as well as the genome sequences of two derivatives arising due to the genetic instability of the strain.

  9. Software engineering and Ada in design

    Oneill, Don

    1986-01-01

    Modern software engineering promises significant reductions in software costs and improvements in software quality. The Ada language is the focus for these software methodology and tool improvements. The IBM FSD approach, including the software engineering practices that guide the systematic design and development of software products and the management of the software process are examined. The revised Ada design language adaptation is revealed. This four level design methodology is detailed including the purpose of each level, the management strategy that integrates the software design activity with the program milestones, and the technical strategy that maps the Ada constructs to each level of design. A complete description of each design level is provided along with specific design language recording guidelines for each level. Finally, some testimony is offered on education, tools, architecture, and metrics resulting from project use of the four level Ada design language adaptation.

  10. Low dose vaccination with attenuated Francisella tularensis strain SchuS4 mutants protects against tularemia independent of the route of vaccination.

    Dedeke Rockx-Brouwer

    Full Text Available Tularemia, caused by the gram-negative bacterium Francisella tularensis, is a severe, sometimes fatal disease. Interest in tularemia has increased over the last decade due to its history as a biological weapon. In particular, development of novel vaccines directed at protecting against pneumonic tularemia has been an important goal. Previous work has demonstrated that, when delivered at very high inoculums, administration of live, highly attenuated strains of virulent F. tularensis can protect against tularemia. However, lower vaccinating inoculums did not offer similar immunity. One concern of using live vaccines is that the host may develop mild tularemia in response to infection and use of high inoculums may contribute to this issue. Thus, generation of a live vaccine that can efficiently protect against tularemia when delivered in low numbers, e.g. <100 organisms, may address this concern. Herein we describe the ability of three defined, attenuated mutants of F. tularensis SchuS4, deleted for FTT0369c, FTT1676, or FTT0369c and FTT1676, respectively, to engender protective immunity against tularemia when delivered at concentrations of approximately 50 or fewer bacteria. Attenuated strains for use as vaccines were selected by their inability to efficiently replicate in macrophages in vitro and impaired replication and dissemination in vivo. Although all strains were defective for replication in vitro within macrophages, protective efficacy of each attenuated mutant was correlated with their ability to modestly replicate and disseminate in the host. Finally, we demonstrate the parenteral vaccination with these strains offered superior protection against pneumonic tularemia than intranasal vaccination. Together our data provides proof of principle that low dose attenuated vaccines may be a viable goal in development of novel vaccines directed against tularemia.

  11. Comparative evaluation of agroindustrial byproducts for the production of alkaline protease by wild and mutant strains of Bacillus subtilis in submerged and solid state fermentation.

    Mukhtar, Hamid; Haq, Ikramul

    2013-01-01

    The present study describes the screening of different agroindustrial byproducts for enhanced production of alkaline protease by a wild and EMS induced mutant strain of Bacillus subtilis IH-72(EMS8). During submerged fermentation, different agro-industrial byproducts were tested which include defatted seed meals of rape, guar, sunflower, gluten, cotton, soybean, and gram. In addition to these meals, rice bran, wheat bran, and wheat flour were also evaluated for protease production. Of all the byproducts tested, soybean meal at a concentration of 20 g/L gave maximum production of the enzyme, that is, 5.74  ±  0.26 U/mL from wild and 11.28  ±  0.45 U/mL from mutant strain, during submerged fermentation. Different mesh sizes (coarse, medium, and fine) of the soybean meal were also evaluated, and a finely ground soybean meal (fine mesh) was found to be the best. In addition to the defatted seed meals, their alkali extracts were also tested for the production of alkaline protease by Bacillus subtilis, but these were proved nonsignificant for enhanced production of the enzyme. The production of the enzyme was also studied in solid state fermentation, and different agro-industrial byproducts were also evaluated for enzyme production. Wheat bran partially replaced with guar meal was found as the best substrate for maximum enzyme production under solid state fermentation conditions. PMID:24294129

  12. Comparative Evaluation of Agroindustrial Byproducts for the Production of Alkaline Protease by Wild and Mutant Strains of Bacillus subtilis in Submerged and Solid State Fermentation

    Hamid Mukhtar

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available The present study describes the screening of different agroindustrial byproducts for enhanced production of alkaline protease by a wild and EMS induced mutant strain of Bacillus subtilis IH-72EMS8. During submerged fermentation, different agro-industrial byproducts were tested which include defatted seed meals of rape, guar, sunflower, gluten, cotton, soybean, and gram. In addition to these meals, rice bran, wheat bran, and wheat flour were also evaluated for protease production. Of all the byproducts tested, soybean meal at a concentration of 20 g/L gave maximum production of the enzyme, that is, 5.74  ±  0.26 U/mL from wild and 11.28  ±  0.45 U/mL from mutant strain, during submerged fermentation. Different mesh sizes (coarse, medium, and fine of the soybean meal were also evaluated, and a finely ground soybean meal (fine mesh was found to be the best. In addition to the defatted seed meals, their alkali extracts were also tested for the production of alkaline protease by Bacillus subtilis, but these were proved nonsignificant for enhanced production of the enzyme. The production of the enzyme was also studied in solid state fermentation, and different agro-industrial byproducts were also evaluated for enzyme production. Wheat bran partially replaced with guar meal was found as the best substrate for maximum enzyme production under solid state fermentation conditions.

  13. Cloning of Bordetella bronchiseptica urease genes and analysis of colonization by a urease-negative mutant strain in a guinea-pig model.

    Monack, D M; Falkow, S

    1993-11-01

    The genes encoding urease were cloned from Bordetella bronchiseptica and the 5.2 kb of DNA essential for expression analysed in a T7 RNA polymerase transcription-translation system. At least four polypeptides with predicted molecular weights of 69,000, 26,000, 12,200 and 11,000 were found. Partial DNA sequence of the gene encoding the 69,000 Da polypeptide revealed high amino acid identity to the alpha-subunit of Proteus mirabilis urease, UreC and jack bean urease. A stable, unmarked deletion was constructed in this gene to create a urease-negative mutant of B. bronchiseptica. To assess colonization in a guinea-pig model, the urease-negative strain was inoculated with the urease-positive parental strain in a mixed infection. The urease-negative strain out competed the urease-positive strain in the trachea, lungs and caecum. We demonstrate that urease is not essential for B. bronchiseptica colonization of the guinea-pig respiratory and digestive tracts. PMID:7968532

  14. Hydrogen production by Hup{sup -} mutant and wild type strains of Rhodobacter capsulatus on dark fermenter effluent of sugar beet thick juice in batch and continuous photobioreactors

    Oezguer, Ebru [Middle East Technical Univ., Ankara (Turkey). Dept. of Chemical Engineering; Uyar, Basar [Kocaeli Univ. (Turkey). Dept. of Chemical Engineering; Guergan, Muazzez; Yuecel, Meral [Middle East Technical Univ., Ankara (Turkey). Dept. of Biology

    2010-07-01

    The HYVOLUTION project (EU 6th frame) is aimed to develop an integrated process in which biomass is fermented to acetate, lactate, CO{sub 2} and hydrogen followed by photofermentation of acetate and lactate to hydrogen and CO{sub 2} with photosynthetic purple nonsulfur bacteria (PNS bacteria). Growth and hydrogen production of Rhodobacter capsulatus was investigated on the dark fermenter effluent of thick juice (processed raw sugar beet juice) which contained acetate and NH{sub 4}Cl. In this effluent media, the hydrogen production of wild type bacterium and an uptake-hydrogenase deficient mutant (hup-) were compared in small scale (55 ml) batch and large scale (4 L) continuous photobioreactors in indoor conditions under constant illumination of 2000 lux. In continuous operation mode, the overall hydrogen production yields were 1.84 and 1.92 mol H{sub 2}/mol acetate, the maximum hydrogen productivities were 1.29 and 0.89 mmol H{sub 2}/L.h, for the wild type and mutant strains, respectively. On the other hand, in batch operation mode, the overall hydrogen production yields were 1.25 and 1.44 mol H{sub 2}/mol acetate, the maximum hydrogen productivities were 0.28 and 0.52 mmol H{sub 2}/L.h, for the wild type and mutant strains, respectively. The results show that Rhodobacter capsulatus is capable of using sugar beet thick juice effluent as substrate for hydrogen production; which makes it a suitable bacterium to be employed in integrated termophilic fermentation-photofermentation process. (orig.)

  15. Metabolic Engineering of Light and Dark Biochemical Pathways in Wild-Type and Mutant Strains of Synechocystis PCC 6803 for Maximal, 24-Hour Production of Hydrogen Gas

    Ely, Roger L.; Chaplen, Frank W.R.

    2014-03-11

    enhanced H2 production profiles using selected culture conditions and inhibitors of specific pathways in WT cells and an NDH-1 mutant; 3. Create Synechocystis PCC 6803 mutant strains with modified hydrogenases exhibiting increased O2 tolerance and greater H2 production; and 4. Integrate enhanced hydrogenase mutants and culture and metabolic factor studies to maximize 24-hour H2 production.

  16. Yield and nutritional composition of oyster mushroom strains newly introduced in Bangladesh Produtividade e composição nutricional de linhagens de cogumelo‑ostra recentemente lançadas em Bangladesh

    Mostak Ahmed

    2013-02-01

    Full Text Available The objective of this work was to evaluate yield and chemical composition of oyster mushroom strains newly introduced in Bangladesh. Strains of Pleurotus high‑king (strain PHK, P. ostreatus (strain PO2, and P. geesteranus (strains PG1 and PG3 were evaluated as to yield components and proximate composition. Pleurotus ostreatus was used as control. Pleurotus high‑king showed fastest growth of primordia, but moderate flush of effective fruiting bodies. Pleurotus geesteranus (PG1 showed higher economic yield and biological performance, and better chemical composition, especially in terms of protein and mineral contents. Pleurotus geesteranus (PG1 shows better performance than P. ostreatus (PO2, the most commercially cultivated edible species in Bangladesh, and, therefore, it should be recommended for commercial cultivation.O objetivo deste trabalho foi avaliar a produtividade e a composição química de linhagens de cogumelo‑ostra introduzidas recentemente em Bangladesh. Linhagens de Pleurotus high‑king (linhagem PHK, P. ostreatus (linhagem PO2 e P. geesteranus (linhagens PG1 e PG3 foram avaliadas quanto aos componentes da produção e à composição proximal. Pleurotus ostreatus foi utilizado como controle. Pleurotus high‑king apresentou rápido crescimento de primórdios, mas fluxo moderado de corpos de frutificação efetivos. Pleurotus geesteranus (PG1 apresentou maior produtividade econômica e desempenho biológico, além de melhor composição química, especialmente em termos de conteúdos de proteína e minerais. Pleurotus geesteranus (PG1 apresenta melhor desempenho que P. ostreatus (linhagem PO2, a espécie comestível mais cultivada comercialmente em Bangladesh, e, portanto, deve ser recomendado para plantio comercial.

  17. The mutant U.S. strain of porcine circovirus type 2 (mPCV2) exhibits similar virulence to the classical PCV2a and PCV2b strains in caesarian-derived colostrum-deprived pigs

    Opriessnig, Tanja; Xiao, Chao-Ting; Freitas Gerber, Priscilla; Halbur, Patrick G.; Matzinger, Shannon R; Meng, Xiang-Jin

    2014-01-01

    In 2012, a mutant porcine circovirus type 2 (mPCV2) strain was identified in cases of porcine circovirus associated disease (PCVAD) in the United States. The mPCV2 has an additional amino acid, Lysine (K), in the capsid at position 234. The objectives of this study were to compare the pathogenicity of mPCV2, PCV2a and PCV2b in pigs using biologically pure infectious virus stocks derived from respective infectious DNA clones and to investigate the importance of genotype-specific open reading f...

  18. Mutant USA strain of porcine circovirus type 2 (mPCV2) exhibits similar virulence to the classical PCV2a and PCV2b strains in caesarean-derived, colostrum-deprived pigs

    Opriessnig, Tanja; Xiao, Chao-Ting; Gerber, Priscilla F.; Halbur, Patrick G.; Matzinger, Shannon R; Meng, Xiang-Jin

    2014-01-01

    In 2012, a mutant porcine circovirus type 2 (mPCV2) strain was identified in cases of PCV-associated disease (PCVAD) in the USA. The mPCV2 had an additional amino acid, lysine (K), in the capsid at position 234. The objectives of this study were to compare the pathogenicity of mPCV2, PCV2a and PCV2b in pigs using biologically pure infectious virus stocks derived from respective infectious DNA clones, and to investigate the importance of genotype-specific ORF2 and the presence of lysine at pos...

  19. An Embedded Rule-Based Diagnostic Expert System in Ada

    Jones, Robert E.; Liberman, Eugene M.

    1992-01-01

    Ada is becoming an increasingly popular programming language for large Government-funded software projects. Ada with it portability, transportability, and maintainability lends itself well to today's complex programming environment. In addition, expert systems have also assumed a growing role in providing human-like reasoning capability expertise for computer systems. The integration is discussed of expert system technology with Ada programming language, especially a rule-based expert system using an ART-Ada (Automated Reasoning Tool for Ada) system shell. NASA Lewis was chosen as a beta test site for ART-Ada. The test was conducted by implementing the existing Autonomous Power EXpert System (APEX), a Lisp-based power expert system, in ART-Ada. Three components, the rule-based expert systems, a graphics user interface, and communications software make up SMART-Ada (Systems fault Management with ART-Ada). The rules were written in the ART-Ada development environment and converted to Ada source code. The graphics interface was developed with the Transportable Application Environment (TAE) Plus, which generates Ada source code to control graphics images. SMART-Ada communicates with a remote host to obtain either simulated or real data. The Ada source code generated with ART-Ada, TAE Plus, and communications code was incorporated into an Ada expert system that reads the data from a power distribution test bed, applies the rule to determine a fault, if one exists, and graphically displays it on the screen. The main objective, to conduct a beta test on the ART-Ada rule-based expert system shell, was achieved. The system is operational. New Ada tools will assist in future successful projects. ART-Ada is one such tool and is a viable alternative to the straight Ada code when an application requires a rule-based or knowledge-based approach.

  20. An Ada inference engine for expert systems

    Lavallee, David B.

    1986-01-01

    The purpose is to investigate the feasibility of using Ada for rule-based expert systems with real-time performance requirements. This includes exploring the Ada features which give improved performance to expert systems as well as optimizing the tradeoffs or workarounds that the use of Ada may require. A prototype inference engine was built using Ada, and rule firing rates in excess of 500 per second were demonstrated on a single MC68000 processor. The knowledge base uses a directed acyclic graph to represent production lines. The graph allows the use of AND, OR, and NOT logical operators. The inference engine uses a combination of both forward and backward chaining in order to reach goals as quickly as possible. Future efforts will include additional investigation of multiprocessing to improve performance and creating a user interface allowing rule input in an Ada-like syntax. Investigation of multitasking and alternate knowledge base representations will help to analyze some of the performance issues as they relate to larger problems.

  1. ADASAGE, ADA Application Development System

    1 - Description of program or function: ADASAGE is an application development system designed to facilitate rapid and professional construction of applications written in Ada on microcomputers. ADASAGE applications may vary in size from small to large multi-program systems. ADASAGE consists of a collection of re-usable libraries for database management and form and report processing utilities having the following capabilities: basic universal type and function definitions; sequential file input/output; terminal and file input/output; DOS system command execution; data movement and fill; string manipulation; math libraries; bit manipulation; a relational database utility; data validation; menu form and window procedures; report generation; sort/merge, time, and date functions; sound production; editing; and index rebuilding. Each of the capabilities is integrated to allow the development of an efficient system. As an application is designed and developed, the desired ADASAGE capabilities are chosen and included along with any requirements unique to that application. 2 - Method of solution: All ADASAGE applications which use the database, forms (windows, menus, etc.), or reporting functions require a file with a suffix of .DFL. This file contains the database schema, the various forms and windows, and report definitions. The THOR editor is used to create and maintain the .DFL file. This editor operates on a file with the suffix .SRC and creates and edits schemes, forms, and report formats and compile the .SRC file into the .DFL file used by the application. The application will have unique requirements not satisfied by the selected utilities of ADASAGE. The code for these along with the code necessary to import and use the selected ADASAGE utilities constitutes the programmed application. The completed application system will contain the .DFL file produced by the THOR editor, the required ADASAGE utilities, and the programmed application. During the course of normal

  2. In vivo recruitment analysis and a mutant strain without any group 2 σ factor reveal roles of different σ factors in cyanobacteria.

    Koskinen, Satu; Hakkila, Kaisa; Gunnelius, Liisa; Kurkela, Juha; Wada, Hajime; Tyystjärvi, Taina

    2016-01-01

    In eubacteria, replacement of one σ factor in the RNA polymerase (RNAP) holoenzyme by another one changes the transcription pattern. Cyanobacteria are eubacteria characterized by oxygenic photosynthesis, and they typically encode numerous group 2 σ factors that closely resemble the essential primary σ factor. A mutant strain of the model cyanobacterium Synechocystis sp. PCC 6803 without functional group 2 σ factors (named as ΔsigBCDE) could not acclimate to heat, high salt or bright light stress, but in standard conditions ΔsigBCDE grew only 9% slower than the control strain. One-fifth of the genes in ΔsigBCDE was differently expressed compared with the control strain in standard growth conditions and several physiological changes in photosynthesis, and pigment and lipid compositions were detected. To directly analyze the σ factor content of RNAP holoenzyme in vivo, a His-tag was added to the γ subunit of RNAP in Synechocystis and RNAPs were collected. The results revealed that all group 2 σ factors were recruited by RNAP in standard conditions, but recruitment of SigB and SigC increased in heat stress, SigD in bright light, SigE in darkness and SigB, SigC and SigE in high salt, explaining the poor acclimation of ΔsigBCDE to these stress conditions. PMID:26354085

  3. Identificação do potencial amilolítico de linhagens mutantes do fungo filamentoso Aspergillus nidulans Identification of the amylolytic potential of mutant strains of the filamentous fungi Aspergillus nidulans

    Izabel Aparecida Soares

    2010-09-01

    Full Text Available As amilases estão entre as mais importantes enzimas industriais, apresentando grande importância biotecnológica, principalmente na indústria alimentícia. Com o avanço no conhecimento das enzimas, a utilização dos fungos como fonte de enzimas vem adquirindo um status de destaque nas mais variadas áreas industriais e comerciais. Diante disso, o presente estudo procurou identificar a presença de atividade amilolítica em quatro linhagens do fungo filamentoso Aspergillus nidulans, selvagem, PAT, biA1methG1 e CLB3, utilizando dois meios distintos de cultura, BDA e Meio Completo a 2% amido, variando os tratamentos com adição ou não de glicose. Foram determinados o diâmetro médio da colônia, o diâmetro médio do halo e o Índice Enzimático. Como resultados, todas as linhagens testadas foram capazes de degradar o amido quando na ausência de glicose, porém o tratamento que obteve estatisticamente melhor crescimento e maior degradação do amido foi o MC sem glicose a 2% amido e a linhagem que se demonstrou potencialmente degradadora de amido foi o mutante CLB3. Conclui-se, portanto, que Aspergillus nidulans pode ser considerado como um produtor de amilases.The amylases are among the most important industrial enzymes showing great biotechnological importance, mainly in the food industry. Due to the advance knowledge in enzyme research, the use of fungi as source of enzymes has acquired a prominent status in most varied industrial and commercial areas. Thus, the present study tried to identify the presence of the amylolytic activity in four stains of filamentous fungi Aspergillus nidulans, selvagem, PAT, biA1methG1 and CLB3 by using two different culture means, PDA and Complete mean with 2% starch, varying the treatments with and without the addition of glucose. The colony average diameter, the halo average diameter, and the enzymatic index were determined. The results show that all strains tested were capable of degrading starch in the

  4. Bioreactor studies on the production of bacitracin by mutant strain of bacillus licheniformis BLS-NTTG 4

    The present study deals with the production of antibiotic bacitracin by Bacillus licheniformis using submerged fermentation technique in stirred fermenter. Altogether 15 samples were isolated from local habitat such as Government College Lahore. Of all the culture tested BLS 13 gave maximum titer (81 plus minus li. Micro /ml) in the fermentation broth. To develop the process for the production of antibiotic bacitracin agro industrial wastes used as a sole source of carbon in different fermentation medias (M1-M10). The culture of Bacillus licheniformis BLS 13 was improved by UV irradiation by exposing the cells of BLS-UV 16 mutated for 60 minutes gave the maximum production i.e. 129.1 plus minus 0.7 i. Micro/ml. The parental strain (i.e. BLS 13 was also improved by using chemical mutagen NTTG which enhance the antibiotic activity, and the mutated strain number i.e. BLS-NTTG 4 gave the maximum production 143.0 plus minus 1.0 i. Micro/ml. In stirred fermenter chemically mutated strain was used to check the productivity of bacitracin in stirred fermenter was increased up to 156 plus minus 1 i. micro /ml. (author)

  5. Microevolution of the chromosomal region of acute disease antigen A (adaA in the query (Q fever agent Coxiella burnetii.

    Dimitrios Frangoulidis

    Full Text Available The acute disease antigen A (adaA gene is believed to be associated with Coxiella burnetii strains causing acute Q fever. The detailed analysis of the adaA genomic region of 23 human- and 86 animal-derived C. burnetii isolates presented in this study reveals a much more polymorphic appearance and distribution of the adaA gene, resulting in a classification of C. burnetii strains of better differentiation than previously anticipated. Three different genomic variants of the adaA gene were identified which could be detected in isolates from acute and chronic patients, rendering the association of adaA positive strains with acute Q fever disease disputable. In addition, all adaA positive strains in humans and animals showed the occurrence of the QpH1 plasmid. All adaA positive isolates of acute human patients except one showed a distinct SNP variation at position 431, also predominant in sheep strains, which correlates well with the observation that sheep are a major source of human infection. Furthermore, the phylogenetic analysis of the adaA gene revealed three deletion events and supported the hypothesis that strain Dugway 5J108-111 might be the ancestor of all known C. burnetii strains. Based on our findings, we could confirm the QpDV group and we were able to define a new genotypic cluster. The adaA gene polymorphisms shown here improve molecular typing of Q fever, and give new insights into microevolutionary adaption processes in C. burnetii.

  6. [Characteristics of the structural organization of the DIP1 gene in Drosophila melanogaster strains mutant for the flamenco gene].

    Nefedova, L N; Romanova, N I; Kim, A I

    2007-01-01

    Molecular cloning of the DIP1 gene located in the 20A4-5 region has been performed from the following strains with the flamenco phenotype: flamSS (SS) and flamMS (MS) characterized by a high transposition rate of retrotransposon gypsy (mdg4), flampy + (P) carrying the insertion of a construction based on the P element into the region of the flamenco gene, and flamenco+. The results of restriction analysis and sequencing cloned DNA fragments has shown that strains flamSS, flamMS, flampy +(P), and flamenco+ considerably differ from one another in the structure of DIP1. Strains flamss and flamMS have no Dral restriction site at position 1765 in the coding region of the gene, specifically, in the domain determining the signal of the nuclear localization of the DIP1 protein. This mutation has been found to consist in a nucleotide substitution in the recognition site of DraI restriction endonuclease, which is transformed from TTTAAA into TTTAAG and, hence, is not recognized by the enzyme. This substitution changes codon AAA into AAG and is translationally insignificant, because both triplets encode the same amino acid, lysine. The Dral gene of strainsflamSS andflamMS has been found to contain a 182-bp insertion denoted IdSS (insertion in DIP1 strain SS); it is located in the second intron of the gene. The IdSS sequence is part of the open reading frame encoding the putative transposase of the mobile genetic element HB1 belonging to the Tcl/mariner family. This insertion is presumed to disturb the conformations of DNA and the chromosome, in particular, by forming loops, which alters the expression of DIPI and, probably, neighboring genes. In strains flamenco+ and flampy + (P), the IdSS insertion within the HB1 sequence is deleted. The deletion encompasses five C-terminal amino acid residues of the conserved domain and the entire C-terminal region of the putative HB1 transposase. The obtained data suggest that DIP1 is involved in the control of gypsy transpositions either

  7. Is Your Queuing System ADA-Compliant?

    Lawrence, David

    2002-01-01

    Discusses the Americans with Disabilities (ADA) and Uniform Federal Accessibility Standards (UFAS) regulations regarding public facilities' crowd control stanchions and queuing systems. The major elements are protruding objects and wheelchair accessibility. Describes how to maintain compliance with the regulations and offers a list of additional…

  8. New control system: ADA softwares organization

    On VAX/VMS, ADA compiler is integrated in a workshop of ACS software engineering which allows a coherent development by control of source and executable programs, by separation of applications in various levels of visibility and by management of existing links between different modules of a same application. (A.B.)

  9. AdaNET prototype library administration manual

    Hanley, Lionel

    1989-01-01

    The functions of the AdaNET Prototype Library of Reusable Software Parts is described. Adopted from the Navy Research Laboratory's Reusability Guidebook (V.5.0), this is a working document, customized for use the the AdaNET Project. Within this document, the term part is used to denote the smallest unit controlled by a library and retrievable from it. A part may have several constituents, which may not be individually tracked. Presented are the types of parts which may be stored in the library and the relationships among those parts; a concept of trust indicators which provide measures of confidence that a user of a previously developed part may reasonably apply to a part for a new application; search and retrieval, configuration management, and communications among those who interact with the AdaNET Prototype Library; and the AdaNET Prototype, described from the perspective of its three major users: the part reuser and retriever, the part submitter, and the librarian and/or administrator.

  10. Mapping of internal monophosphate 5' ends of Bacillus subtilis messenger RNAs and ribosomal RNAs in wild-type and ribonuclease-mutant strains.

    DiChiara, Jeanne M; Liu, Bo; Figaro, Sabine; Condon, Ciarán; Bechhofer, David H

    2016-04-20

    The recent findings that the narrow-specificity endoribonuclease RNase III and the 5' exonuclease RNase J1 are not essential in the Gram-positive model organism,Bacillus subtilis, facilitated a global analysis of internal 5' ends that are generated or acted upon by these enzymes. An RNA-Seq protocol known as PARE (Parallel Analysis of RNA Ends) was used to capture 5' monophosphorylated RNA ends in ribonuclease wild-type and mutant strains. Comparison of PARE peaks in strains with RNase III present or absent showed that, in addition to its well-known role in ribosomal (rRNA) processing, many coding sequences and intergenic regions appeared to be direct targets of RNase III. These target sites were, in most cases, not associated with a known antisense RNA. The PARE analysis also revealed an accumulation of 3'-proximal peaks that correlated with the absence of RNase J1, confirming the importance of RNase J1 in degrading RNA fragments that contain the transcription terminator structure. A significant result from the PARE analysis was the discovery of an endonuclease cleavage just 2 nts downstream of the 16S rRNA 3' end. This latter observation begins to answer, at least forB. subtilis, a long-standing question on the exonucleolytic versus endonucleolytic nature of 16S rRNA maturation. PMID:26883633

  11. Production of alpha amylase from a randomly induced mutant strain of bacillus amyloliquefaciens and its application as a desizer in textile industry

    The present study is concerned with the improvement of Bacillus amyloliquefaciens strain UNG-16 for alpha amylase production. The bacterial culture was exposed to UV irradiation at 1.6X102 J/m2/S for 15-60 min. However, UV induced viables did not give improved alpha amylase production; therefore chemical mutation using ethyl methane sulphonate (EMS 50-300 mu l/ml) was undertaken for 10-60 min. The mutant B. amyloliquefaciens EMS-6 gave 102.78+-2.22 U/ml/min enzyme activity which was 1.4 fold higher than the parental strain. In stirred fermentor, the incubation period was reduced from 72 to 48 h after inoculation. The production of alpha amylase was found to be maximal when the 60% volume, 2.0 vvm air supply and 400 rpm agitation rate was maintained during the fermentation period. The incubation temperature (37 deg. C) and size of inoculum (8.0 %) were also optimized. A 100% desizing of grey fabric (or starch removal) was obtained with 200-250 enzyme units at pH 6.5 at 60 deg. C in 1 h. (author)

  12. Growth, ethanol production, and inulinase activity on various inulin substrates by mutant Kluyveromyces marxianus strains NRRL Y-50798 and NRRL Y-50799.

    Galindo-Leva, Luz Ángela; Hughes, Stephen R; López-Núñez, Juan Carlos; Jarodsky, Joshua M; Erickson, Adam; Lindquist, Mitchell R; Cox, Elby J; Bischoff, Kenneth M; Hoecker, Eric C; Liu, Siqing; Qureshi, Nasib; Jones, Marjorie A

    2016-07-01

    Economically important plants contain large amounts of inulin. Disposal of waste resulting from their processing presents environmental issues. Finding microorganisms capable of converting inulin waste to biofuel and valuable co-products at the processing site would have significant economic and environmental impact. We evaluated the ability of two mutant strains of Kluyveromyces marxianus (Km7 and Km8) to utilize inulin for ethanol production. In glucose medium, both strains consumed all glucose and produced 0.40 g ethanol/g glucose at 24 h. In inulin medium, Km7 exhibited maximum colony forming units (CFU)/mL and produced 0.35 g ethanol/g inulin at 24 h, while Km8 showed maximum CFU/mL and produced 0.02 g ethanol/g inulin at 96 h. At 24 h in inulin + glucose medium, Km7 produced 0.40 g ethanol/g (inulin + glucose) and Km8 produced 0.20 g ethanol/g (inulin + glucose) with maximum CFU/mL for Km8 at 72 h, 40 % of that for Km7 at 36 h. Extracellular inulinase activity at 6 h for both Km7 and Km8 was 3.7 International Units (IU)/mL. PMID:27130462

  13. Study on the molecular basis of glucoamylase overproduc-tion of a mutant strain Aspergillus niger T21

    FAN; Xiaochun

    2001-01-01

    [1]Qiao, D., Tang, G., Zhong, L. et al., The overall analysis and comparison of the expression of glucoamylase in the over-production strain A. niger T21 and its original strain A. niger 3.795, Acta Microbiologica Sinica (in Chinese), 1997, 37(5): 349.[2]Zhong, L, Qiao, D, Tang, G. et al., Cloning, sequencing and comparison of the 5′-flanking regions of glaA gene from high and low glucoamylase producing strains of Aspergillus niger, Acta Microbiologica Sinica (in Chinese), 1996, 36: 181.[3]Qiao, D., Zhong, L., Tang, G. et al., Cloning and sequencing of glucoamylase gene from Aspergillus niger 3.795, Chinese J. Biochem. and Mol. Biology (in Chinese), 1998, 14: 254.[4]Zhong, L., Fan, X., Tang, G., Cotransformation of glucoamylase overproducing strain Aspergillus niger T21 with niaD and uidA gene, Mycosystema (in Chinese), 1999, 18: 172.[5]Roberts, I. N., Oliver, R. P., Punt, P. J. et al., Expression of the Escherichia coli b-glucuronidase gene in industrial and phytopathogenic filamentous fungi, Curr. Genet., 1989, 15: 177.[6]Lowry, O. H., Rosebrough, N. J., Farr, A. L. et al., Protein measurement with the folin phenol reagent, J. Biochem., 1951, 193: 268.[7]Zhu, H., Qu, F., Zhu, L., Isolation of genomic DNAs from fungi using benzyl chloride, Acta Mycologica Sinica (in Chi-nese), 1994, 13: 34.[8]Verwoerd, T. C., Dekker, B. M. M., Hoekema, A., A small-scale procedure for the rapid isolation of plant RNAs, Nucleic Acids Research, 1989, 17: 2362.[9]Campbell, E. I., Unkles, S. E., Marco, J. A. et al., Improved transformation efficiency of Aspergillus niger using the ho-mologous niaD gene for nitrate reductase, Curr. Genet., 1989, 16: 53.[10]Fowler, T., Berka, R. M., Ward, M., Regulation of the glaA gene of Aspergillus niger, Curr. Genet., 1990, 18: 537.[11]Verdoes, J. C., Punt, P. J., Stouthamer, A. H. et al., The effect of multiple copies of the upstream region on expression of the Aspergillus niger glucoamylase

  14. Knowledge, programming, and programming cultures: LISP, C, and Ada

    Rochowiak, Daniel

    1990-01-01

    The results of research 'Ada as an implementation language for knowledge based systems' are presented. The purpose of the research was to compare Ada to other programming languages. The report focuses on the programming languages Ada, C, and Lisp, the programming cultures that surround them, and the programming paradigms they support.

  15. Comparing host and target environments for distributed Ada programs

    Paulk, Mark C.

    1986-01-01

    The Ada programming language provides a means of specifying logical concurrency by using multitasking. Extending the Ada multitasking concurrency mechanism into a physically concurrent distributed environment which imposes its own requirements can lead to incompatibilities. These problems are discussed. Using distributed Ada for a target system may be appropriate, but when using the Ada language in a host environment, a multiprocessing model may be more suitable than retargeting an Ada compiler for the distributed environment. The tradeoffs between multitasking on distributed targets and multiprocessing on distributed hosts are discussed. Comparisons of the multitasking and multiprocessing models indicate different areas of application.

  16. Hydrogen production by hup(-) mutant and wild-type strains of Rhodobacter capsulatus from dark fermentation effluent of sugar beet thick juice in batch and continuous photobioreactors.

    Uyar, Basar; Gürgan, Muazzez; Özgür, Ebru; Gündüz, Ufuk; Yücel, Meral; Eroglu, Inci

    2015-10-01

    Photofermentative production of hydrogen is a promising and sustainable process; however, it should be coupled to dark fermentation to become cost effective. In order to integrate dark fermentation and photofermentation, the suitability of dark fermenter effluents for the photofermentative hydrogen production must be demonstrated. In this study, thermophilic dark fermenter effluent (DFE) of sugar beet thick juice was used as a substrate in photofermentation process to compare wild-type and uptake hydrogenase-deficient (hup (-)) mutant strains of Rhodobacter capsulatus by means of hydrogen production and biomass growth. The tests were conducted in small-scale (50 mL) batch and large-scale (4 L) continuous photobioreactors in indoor conditions under continuous illumination. In small scale batch conditions, maximum cell concentrations were 0.92 gdcw/L c and 1.50 gdcw/L c, hydrogen yields were 34 % and 31 %, hydrogen productivities were 0.49 mmol/(L c·h) and 0.26 mmol/(Lc·h), for hup (-) and wild-type cells, respectively. In large-scale continuous conditions, maximum cell concentrations were 1.44 gdcw/L c and 1.87 gdcw/L c, hydrogen yields were 48 and 46 %, and hydrogen productivities were 1.01 mmol/(L c·h) and 1.05 mmol/(L c·h), for hup (-) and wild-type cells, respectively. Our results showed that Rhodobacter capsulatus hup (-) cells reached to a lower maximum cell concentration but their hydrogen yield and productivity were in the same range or superior compared to the wild-type cells in both batch and continuous operating modes. The maximum biomass concentration, yield and productivity of hydrogen were higher in continuous mode compared to the batch mode with both bacterial strains. PMID:26164274

  17. The transcriptional landscape of the deep-sea bacterium Photobacterium profundum in both a toxR mutant and its parental strain

    Campanaro Stefano

    2012-10-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background The deep-sea bacterium Photobacterium profundum is an established model for studying high pressure adaptation. In this paper we analyse the parental strain DB110 and the toxR mutant TW30 by massively parallel cDNA sequencing (RNA-seq. ToxR is a transmembrane DNA-binding protein first discovered in Vibrio cholerae, where it regulates a considerable number of genes involved in environmental adaptation and virulence. In P. profundum the abundance and activity of this protein is influenced by hydrostatic pressure and its role is related to the regulation of genes in a pressure-dependent manner. Results To better characterize the ToxR regulon, we compared the expression profiles of wt and toxR strains in response to pressure changes. Our results revealed a complex expression pattern with a group of 22 genes having expression profiles similar to OmpH that is an outer membrane protein transcribed in response to high hydrostatic pressure. Moreover, RNA-seq allowed a deep characterization of the transcriptional landscape that led to the identification of 460 putative small RNA genes and the detection of 298 protein-coding genes previously unknown. We were also able to perform a genome-wide prediction of operon structure, transcription start and termination sites, revealing an unexpected high number of genes (992 with large 5′-UTRs, long enough to harbour cis-regulatory RNA structures, suggesting a correlation between intergenic region size and UTR length. Conclusion This work led to a better understanding of high-pressure response in P. profundum. Furthermore, the high-resolution RNA-seq analysis revealed several unexpected features about transcriptional landscape and general mechanisms of controlling bacterial gene expression.

  18. Ada (trademark) projects at NASA. Runtime environment issues and recommendations

    Roy, Daniel M.; Wilke, Randall W.

    1988-01-01

    Ada practitioners should use this document to discuss and establish common short term requirements for Ada runtime environments. The major current Ada runtime environment issues are identified through the analysis of some of the Ada efforts at NASA and other research centers. The runtime environment characteristics of major compilers are compared while alternate runtime implementations are reviewed. Modifications and extensions to the Ada Language Reference Manual to address some of these runtime issues are proposed. Three classes of projects focusing on the most critical runtime features of Ada are recommended, including a range of immediately feasible full scale Ada development projects. Also, a list of runtime features and procurement issues is proposed for consideration by the vendors, contractors and the government.

  19. Purification and Characterization of a New Heme-Binding Protein (HBP59) from the Mutant Strain DJ35 of Azotobacter vinelandii

    Shao-Min Bian; Huang-Ping Wang; Hui-Na Zhou; Ying Zhao; Jian-Feng Zhao; Ju-Fu Huang

    2007-01-01

    A new protein, an approximately 59-kDa monomer containing iron atoms, was first isolated from the mutant strain DJ35 of Azotobacter vinelandli Lipmann. After analysis by matrix-assisted laser desorptlon ionization time-offlight mass spectrometry, the protein was identified as the product of a predicted gene. Thus, the protein was tentatively called HBP59. Its absorption spectra (ABS) in the reduced state exhibited three peaks at 421,517, and 556nm and the maximal peak was shifted from 421 to 413 nm after exposure of HBP59 to air. The Soret circular dichroism (CD) spectrum of HBP59 in the reduced state displayed four positive peaks at 364, 382, 406, and 418 nm and two negative peaks at 398 and 433 nm; the Δε (CD extinction coefficient) values of these peaks were found to be 0.92, 0.58, 0.87, 0.72, -0.65 and -1.12 L/mol per cm, respectively. Titration with heme showed that the protein has 0.1 heme molecules/protein molecule. After HBP59 had fully interacted with heme, its maximal ABS value and Soret CD intensity were increased by approximately 10-fold compared with values before interaction. Therefore, it seems that one molecule of HBP59 can be interacted with only one heme. These results indicate that HBP59 contains heme with iow spin and may be involved in heme utilization or adhesion.

  20. Computation of interactive effects and optimization of process parameters for alkaline lipase production by mutant strain of Pseudomonas aeruginosa using response surface methodology

    Deepali Bisht

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Alkaline lipase production by mutant strain of Pseudomonas aeruginosa MTCC 10,055 was optimized in shake flask batch fermentation using response surface methodology. An empirical model was developed through Box-Behnken experimental design to describe the relationship among tested variables (pH, temperature, castor oil, starch and triton-X-100. The second-order quadratic model determined the optimum conditions as castor oil, 1.77 mL.L-1; starch, 15.0 g.L-1; triton-X-100, 0.93 mL.L-1; incubation temperature, 34.12 ºC and pH 8.1 resulting into maximum alkaline lipase production (3142.57 U.mL-1. The quadratic model was in satisfactory adjustment with the experimental data as evidenced by a high coefficient of determination (R² value (0.9987. The RSM facilitated the analysis and interpretation of experimental data to ascertain the optimum conditions of the variables for the process and recognized the contribution of individual variables to assess the response under optimal conditions. Hence Box-Behnken approach could fruitfully be applied for process optimization.

  1. The OPEN-ADAS Approach to Atomic Data Provision

    Dr O'Mullane of University of Strathclyde presented an overview of the ADAS project (Atomic Data and Analysis Structure, http://www.adas.ac.uk/) and of OPEN-ADAS (http://open.adas.ac.uk/). ADAS is maintained as a self-funding consortium of fusion laboratories. The project provides an interconnected set of computer codes and data collections for modeling the radiating properties of ions and atoms in plasmas. The ADAS data fall into 3 broad classes: 1) Fundamental data such as A- values, cross-sections and effective collision strengths obtained from ADAS collaborators, the literature or data centres. 2) Derived data processed for modeling such as electron temperature and density dependent effective emission coefficients, effective ionization/recombination rates, radiated power and spectral emissivities. 3) Driver data which allow complete regeneration of all ADAS derived data in conjunction with the various ADAS codes. ADAS data uses high quality data as well as baseline data for fall-back when high quality data is not available. The data is mostly embedded in codes and the update without expert help is problematic. The ADAS data formats (adf) are precisely defined and Fortran codes are supplied to read the data sets for easy access. IDL can be used for interactive manipulation. The OPEN-ADAS project is a joint development between the ADAS Project and the IAEA to make the extensive fundamental and derived atomic data for fusion more widely available. It is designed to appeal to both plasma modelers and those interested in the detailed atomic physics. It has been searchable through the Google Scholar and appears in citations, which gives greater visibility and credits to the data producers. The OPEN-ADAS server was replaced due to a series of attacks since June 2011 and was off-line for 8 weeks. The new service removed the registration requirement and hence the user statistics is limited.

  2. Object-oriented programming with mixins in Ada

    Seidewitz, ED

    1992-01-01

    Recently, I wrote a paper discussing the lack of 'true' object-oriented programming language features in Ada 83, why one might desire them in Ada, and how they might be added in Ada 9X. The approach I took in this paper was to build the new object-oriented features of Ada 9X as much as possible on the basic constructs and philosophy of Ada 83. The object-oriented features proposed for Ada 9X, while different in detail, are based on the same kind of approach. Further consideration of this approach led me on a long reflection on the nature of object-oriented programming and its application to Ada. The results of this reflection, presented in this paper, show how a fairly natural object-oriented style can indeed be developed even in Ada 83. The exercise of developing this style is useful for at least three reasons: (1) it provides a useful style for programming object-oriented applications in Ada 83 until new features become available with Ada 9X; (2) it demystifies many of the mechanisms that seem to be 'magic' in most object-oriented programming languages by making them explicit; and (3) it points out areas that are and are not in need of change in Ada 83 to make object-oriented programming more natural in Ada 9X. In the next four sections I will address in turn the issues of object-oriented classes, mixins, self-reference and supertyping. The presentation is through a sequence of examples. This results in some overlap with that paper, but all the examples in the present paper are written entirely in Ada 83. I will return to considerations for Ada 9X in the last section of the paper.

  3. Biochemical detection of E-ADA on Neospora caninum tachyzoites and the effects of a specific enzymatic inhibitor

    Alexandre A. Tonin

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Objective. This study aimed to investigate the presence and activity of the ecto adenosine deaminase (E-ADA enzyme in tachyzoites of Neospora caninum (Nc-1 strain, as well as to assess the activity of a well-known E-ADA inhibitor, the deoxycoformycin. Materials and methods. The parasites were grown in cell culture, being subsequently separated in a pellet of tachyzoites, on which the E-ADA activity was tested using the concentrations 0 (control, 0.2, 0.4 and 0.8 mg mL-1. Results. The E-ADA showed high activity, progressively increasing its activity according to the enhancement of the protein concentration. The test was carried out with different concentrations of deoxycoformycin, showing that it was able to inhibit the E-ADA present on the free form of the parasite. Conclusions. Based on these results we conclude that the E-ADA is present on tachyzoites of N. caninum, and deoxycoformycin is able to inhibit this enzyme. In this sense, knowing the negative impact of N. caninum on reproductive issue in cattle (mainly abortion, might it is an alternative in order to deal with this parasitic infection.

  4. A visual language for ADA program unit specifications

    Gordon, Christopher Todd

    1990-01-01

    This thesis describes a visual programming language designed to describe and generate Ada program unit specifications. The author first describes the foundations for the work, and gives a brief introduction to some of the features of the language. Most of the thesis is dedicated to describing the visual representation for each portion of an Ada package specification. The BNF grammar of an Ada package specification is used as a basis for organization. By organizing the the...

  5. Accommodating Uncertainty in ADAS Models and Data

    The Atomic Data and Analysis Structure (ADAS) is an interconnected set of computer codes and data collections for modelling the radiating properties of ions and atoms in plasmas and for assisting in the analysis and interpretation of spectral measurements. Fundamental atomic data is mediated via collisional-radiative population models to produce the effective coefficients for practical use in impurity transport modelling, influx estimation, beam stopping efficiency and active charge exchange quantification. Away from the coronal picture, the simple connection between fundamental processes and the derived population or emissivity is lost. Instead these coefficients become dependent on many fundamental processes with unknown weightings. The challenge is threefold: to develop methods for assigning an uncertainty to the fundamental data, to propagate these through the population models and to enable techniques to utilize within plasmas models atomic data that comes with an accompanying error surface. Pure atomic properties, such as energy levels and some transition probabilities, are measurable and are known to high precision. However most of the fundamental data required for fusion work, such as excitation and state selective charge transfer cross sections, ionisation and recombination rates (for both electron and ion drivers) remain the result of theoretical calculations and this is not likely to change. The envelope of variation between different methods and calculations is the simplest approach to ascribing an error and is useful in identifying both the principal contributors to the final quantity of interest and to assess its domain of influence. A more refined approach, based on variation of the control parameters of the fundamental ab initio codes, is adopted for this smaller set of significant cross sections. The error for the derived quantities is computed via a statistical sampling methodology assuming an error distribution within the ascribed uncertainty

  6. Ada and its impact on the scientific user

    The Ada programming language is the result of a collective effort to design a common language for programming real-time systems. The design of Ada was initiated by the United States Department of Defense (DoD) in 1975. Ada combines facilities found in most classical languages like Fortran, PL/I, Pascal, and Basic together with many features formerly found only in experimental languages. It is argued that these features make Ada a very decent tool not only for writing real-time programs but also for the development of software in the scientific sector. (orig.)

  7. Alma Flor Ada and the Quest for Change

    Manna, Anthony, L.; Hill, Janet; Kellogg, Kathy

    2004-01-01

    Alma Flor Ada, a folklorist, novelist, scholar, teacher, and children's book author has passionate dedication to education for social justice, equality, and peace. As a faculty member at the University of San Francisco, Ada has developed programs that help students and others transform their lives and has written several bilingual legends and…

  8. First International Conference on Ada (R) Programming Language Applications for the NASA Space Station, volume 1

    Bown, Rodney L. (Editor)

    1986-01-01

    Topics discussed include: test and verification; environment issues; distributed Ada issues; life cycle issues; Ada in Europe; management/training issues; common Ada interface set; and run time issues.

  9. Growth-inhibitory activity of the D-mannan of Saccharomyces cerevisiae X2180-1A-5 mutant strain against mouse-implanted sarcoma 180 and Ehrlich-carcinoma solid tumor.

    Matsumoto, T; Takanohashi, M; Okubo, Y; Suzuki, M; Suzuki, S

    1980-08-15

    The D-mannan of Saccharomyces cerevisiae X2180-1A-5 mutant strain, which possesses a main chain composed of alpha-(1 yields 6) linked D-mannopyranosyl residues and a small proportion of branches composed of alpha-(1 yields 2)- and alpha-(1 yields 3)-linked D-mannopyranosyl residues, showed strong growth-inhibitory activity against mouse-implanted Sarcoma 180 and Ehrlich-carcinoma solid tumor. The observation that the level of this activity was nearly identical with that of the D-mannan of a wild-type strain of bakers' yeast, which possesses a high proportion of branches composed of alpha-(1 yields 2)-and alpha-(1 yields 3)-linked D-mannopyranosyl residues, suggests that the branches are not essential for antitumor activity. The partial acid-degradation products of both D-mannans, the molecular weight of which was one-third of that of each parent D-mannan, had only one half of the antitumor activity of the parent D-mannans. This suggests that molecular size is the most important factor for the differences in acitvity of the polysaccharides of wild and mutant strains. PMID:6996813

  10. ADAS: Atomic data, modelling and analysis for fusion

    The Atomic Data and Analysis Structure, ADAS, comprises extensive fundamental and derived atomic data collections, interactive codes for the manipulation and generation of collisional-radiative data and models, off-line codes for large scale fundamental atomic data production and codes for diagnostic analysis in the fusion and astrophysical environments. ADAS data are organized according to precise specifications, tuned to application and are assigned to numbered ADAS data formats. Some of these formats contain very large quantities of data and some have achieved wide-scale adoption in the fusion community.The paper focuses on recent extensions of ADAS designed to orient ADAS to the needs of ITER. The issue of heavy atomic species, expected to be present as ITER wall and divertor materials, dopants or control species, will be addressed with a view to the economized handling of the emission and ionisation state data needed for diagnostic spectral analysis. Charge exchange and beam emission spectroscopic capabilities and developments in ADAS will be reviewed from an ITER perspective and in the context of a shared analysis between fusion laboratories. Finally an overview and summary of current large scale fundamental data production in the framework of the ADAS project will be given and its intended availability in both fusion and astrophysics noted

  11. Comparative Proteomic Analysis of Lactobacillus plantarum WCFS1 and ΔctsR Mutant Strains Under Physiological and Heat Stress Conditions

    Daniela Fiocco

    2012-08-01

    Full Text Available Among Gram-positive bacteria, CtsR (Class Three Stress gene Repressor mainly regulates the expression of genes encoding the Clp ATPases and the ClpP protease. To gain a better understanding of the biological significance of the CtsR regulon in response to heat-shock conditions, we performed a global proteomic analysis of Lactobacillus plantarum WCFS1 and ∆ctsR mutant strains under optimal or heat stress temperatures. Total protein extracts from bacterial cells were analyzed by two-dimensional gel fractionation. By comparing maps from different culture conditions and different L. plantarum strains, image analysis revealed 23 spots with altered levels of expression. The proteomic analysis of L. plantarum WCFS1 and ctsR mutant strains confirms at the translational level the CtsR-mediated regulation of some members of the Clp family, as well as the heat induction of typical stress response genes. Heat activation of the putative CtsR regulon genes at transcriptional and translational levels, in the ∆ctsR mutant, suggests additional regulative mechanisms, as is the case of hsp1. Furthermore, isoforms of ClpE with different molecular mass were found, which might contribute to CtsR quality control. Our results could add new outlooks in order to determine the complex biological role of CtsR-mediated stress response in lactic acid bacteria.

  12. 突变株CTM2降解苯酚和4-氯酚的生物降解特性%Biodegradation of Phenol and 4-Chlorophenol by the Mutant Strain CTM 2

    姜岩; 任南琪; 蔡徇; 吴迪; 乔丽艳; 林森

    2008-01-01

    The biodegradations of phenol and 4-chlorophenol(4-cp)were studied using the mutant strain CTM 2 obtained by the He-Ne laser irradiation on wild-type Candida tropicalis.The results showed that the capacity of the CTM 2 to biodegrade 4-cp was increased up to 400 mg.L-1 within 59.5 h.In the dual.substrate biodegradation,both 2 to degrade phenol.In addition,the kinetic behaviors were described using the kinetic model proposed in this lab.

  13. Bahan pemutih gigi dengan sertifikat ADA/ISO (Tooth bleaching material with ADA/ISO certificate

    Asti Meizarini

    2005-06-01

    Full Text Available Bleaching of teeth for cosmetic reasons is a popular aspect of cosmetic dentistry because patients realize the aesthetical benefits of these products. The dentist as a clinician's practitioner must be knowledgeable of the products and their application techniques. Bleaching materials which are safe and effective are the ADA accepted or manufactured by those which have already haved ISO certificate. Dentist must have enough knowledge about in-office bleaching prescribed for home-use bleaching including their contra indication and side effects, to advise the patients and provide effective bleaching services.

  14. Latvian PR people are world class / Ada Parr

    Parr, Ada

    2004-01-01

    Suhtekorraldusfirma Porter Novelli rahvusvahelise partnerluse juht suhtekorralduse osatähtsuse kasvust ettevõtete äritegevuses, suhtekorraldusturu olukorrast ja teenuste kvaliteedi tasemest Baltimaades. Vt. samas: Ada Parr recommends

  15. A report on NASA software engineering and Ada training requirements

    Legrand, Sue; Freedman, Glenn B.; Svabek, L.

    1987-01-01

    NASA's software engineering and Ada skill base are assessed and information that may result in new models for software engineering, Ada training plans, and curricula are provided. A quantitative assessment which reflects the requirements for software engineering and Ada training across NASA is provided. A recommended implementation plan including a suggested curriculum with associated duration per course and suggested means of delivery is also provided. The distinction between education and training is made. Although it was directed to focus on NASA's need for the latter, the key relationships to software engineering education are also identified. A rationale and strategy for implementing a life cycle education and training program are detailed in support of improved software engineering practices and the transition to Ada.

  16. Cross-Resistance between Triclosan and Antibiotics in Pseudomonas aeruginosa Is Mediated by Multidrug Efflux Pumps: Exposure of a Susceptible Mutant Strain to Triclosan Selects nfxB Mutants Overexpressing MexCD-OprJ

    Chuanchuen, Rungtip; Beinlich, Kerry; Hoang, Tung T.; Becher, Anna; Karkhoff-Schweizer, Roxann R.; Schweizer, Herbert P.

    2001-01-01

    Triclosan is an antiseptic frequently added to items as diverse as soaps, lotions, toothpaste, and many commonly used household fabrics and plastics. Although wild-type Pseudomonas aeruginosa expresses the triclosan target enoyl-acyl carrier protein reductase, it is triclosan resistant due to expression of the MexAB-OprM efflux system. Exposure of a susceptible Δ(mexAB-oprM) strain to triclosan selected multidrug-resistant bacteria at high frequencies. These bacteria hyperexpressed the MexCD-...

  17. Las drogas diseñadas

    Eddie Alvarado Vargas

    1998-12-01

    Full Text Available Cada vez cobra más fuerza la clasificación de las drogas que las divide en psictrópicos y estupefacientes y en Costa Rica se ha añadido la sustancia inhalable. Se hace una ligera definición sobre lo que es una droga y la diferencia con las sustancias indispensables para el organismo como son el agua, el oxígeno y los alimentos las cuales son necesarias para el mismo. En el mundo cada vez es mayor el número de estas sustancias fiscalizadas, y que es considerada una acción delictiva en determinadas ocasiones. Convenios internacionales que deben ser ratificados por las naciones exige que se especifique previamente el objeto material del Delito. Las Drogas Diseñadas son aquellas que por algún cambio realizado en un laboratorio sobre su molécula, tienen los efectos muchas veces superiores a la droga madre, pero que por no estar en la lista de drogas fiscalizadas en el momento de aparición de la misma, va permitiendo que, mientras se agrega a la lista de las mencionadas drogas fiscalizadas, estos actos queden impunes con gran daño por la Salud Pública y del individuo durante mucho tiempo. Costa Rica no escapa de esta realidad por lo que el "narcotraficante" siempre irá adelante con nuevas drogas diseñadas causando grandes estragos, mientras las mismas poco a poco se van incluyendo en la lista de sustancias fiscalizadas. Se hace mención sobre posibles soluciones, entre ellas está incluir en las listas de los convenios internacionales, decretos y reglamentos, nueva terminología que incluya las posibles variaciones de las moléculas de las sustancias fiscalizadas.Every time takes greater force the clasification of drugs, which are divided in psichotropics and stupefacients, and in Costa Rica a new classification has been added: inhalable sustances. A light definition of what a drug is and the difference between the indispensable sustances for the organism like the water, oxigen and food which are necesary for life.Every time the number

  18. GRASP/Ada: Graphical Representations of Algorithms, Structures, and Processes for Ada. The development of a program analysis environment for Ada: Reverse engineering tools for Ada, task 2, phase 3

    Cross, James H., II

    1991-01-01

    The main objective is the investigation, formulation, and generation of graphical representations of algorithms, structures, and processes for Ada (GRASP/Ada). The presented task, in which various graphical representations that can be extracted or generated from source code are described and categorized, is focused on reverse engineering. The following subject areas are covered: the system model; control structure diagram generator; object oriented design diagram generator; user interface; and the GRASP library.

  19. An organic acid-tolerant HAA1-overexpression mutant of an industrial bioethanol strain of Saccharomyces cerevisiae and its application to the production of bioethanol from sugarcane molasses.

    Inaba, Takuya; Watanabe, Daisuke; Yoshiyama, Yoko; Tanaka, Koichi; Ogawa, Jun; Takagi, Hiroshi; Shimoi, Hitoshi; Shima, Jun

    2013-01-01

    Bacterial contamination is known as a major cause of the reduction in ethanol yield during bioethanol production by Saccharomyces cerevisiae. Acetate is an effective agent for the prevention of bacterial contamination, but it negatively affects the fermentation ability of S. cerevisiae. We have proposed that the combined use of organic acids including acetate and lactate and yeast strains tolerant to organic acids may be effective for the elimination of principally lactic acid bacterial (LAB) contamination. In a previous study employing laboratory S. cerevisiae strains, we showed that overexpression of the HAA1 gene, which encodes a transcriptional activator, could be a useful molecular breeding method for acetate-tolerant yeast strains. In the present study, we constructed a HAA1-overexpressing diploid strain (MATa/α, named ER HAA1-OP) derived from the industrial bioethanol strain Ethanol Red (ER). ER HAA1-OP showed tolerance not only to acetate but also to lactate, and this tolerance was dependent on the increased expression of HAA1 gene. The ethanol production ability of ER HAA1-OP was almost equivalent to that of the parent strain during the bioethanol production process from sugarcane molasses in the absence of acetate. The addition of acetate at 0.5% (w/v, pH 4.5) inhibited the fermentation ability of the parent strain, but such an inhibition was not observed in the ethanol production process using ER HAA1-OP. PMID:24373204

  20. Positive selection of mutants with cell envelope defects of a Salmonella typhimurium strain hypersensitive to the products of genes hisF and hisH

    Strain SB564 and its derivative DA78 are hypersensitive to the inhibitory action of the proteins coded for by genes hisF and hisH on cell division. Transduction of hisO1242, a regulatory mutation that elicits a very high level of expression of the histidine operon, into these strains resulted in the production of long filamentous cells carrying large balloons and in growth failure. Forty-one hisO1242 derivatives that escaped inhibition were isolated. These strains showed a large variety of alterations, many of which were related to the cell envelope. The more-frequent alterations included: changes in cell shape, increased sensitivity to one or more of several drugs (deoxycholate, cycloserine, penicillin, novobiocin, acridine orange), increased autolytic activity in alkaline buffer, anomalous fermentation of maltose on eosin--methylene blue plates, and temperature-conditional cell division. The alterations are produced, in some of the strains, by pleiotropic mutations in gene envB. Strains affected in divC, divD, and rodA loci have also been identified. Genetic analaysis has shown that several strains carry more than one envelope mutation. It is assumed that envelope mutations are positively selected because they somehow alleviate the particularly severe inhibition of cell division caused, in strains SB564 and DA78, by the excessive synthesis of hisF and hisH gene products

  1. Hydraulic Capacity of an ADA Compliant Street Drain Grate

    Lottes, Steven A. [Argonne National Lab. (ANL), Argonne, IL (United States); Bojanowski, Cezary [Argonne National Lab. (ANL), Argonne, IL (United States)

    2015-09-01

    Resurfacing of urban roads with concurrent repairs and replacement of sections of curb and sidewalk may require pedestrian ramps that are compliant with the American Disabilities Act (ADA), and when street drains are in close proximity to the walkway, ADA compliant street grates may also be required. The Minnesota Department of Transportation ADA Operations Unit identified a foundry with an available grate that meets ADA requirements. Argonne National Laboratory’s Transportation Research and Analysis Computing Center used full scale three dimensional computational fluid dynamics to determine the performance of the ADA compliant grate and compared it to that of a standard vane grate. Analysis of a parametric set of cases was carried out, including variation in longitudinal, gutter, and cross street slopes and the water spread from the curb. The performance of the grates was characterized by the fraction of the total volume flow approaching the grate from the upstream that was captured by the grate and diverted into the catch basin. The fraction of the total flow entering over the grate from the side and the fraction of flow directly over a grate diverted into the catch basin were also quantities of interest that aid in understanding the differences in performance of the grates. The ADA compliant grate performance lagged that of the vane grate, increasingly so as upstream Reynolds number increased. The major factor leading to the performance difference between the two grates was the fraction of flow directly over the grates that is captured by the grates.

  2. Examining the reliability of ADAS-Cog change scores.

    Grochowalski, Joseph H; Liu, Ying; Siedlecki, Karen L

    2016-09-01

    The purpose of this study was to estimate and examine ways to improve the reliability of change scores on the Alzheimer's Disease Assessment Scale, Cognitive Subtest (ADAS-Cog). The sample, provided by the Alzheimer's Disease Neuroimaging Initiative, included individuals with Alzheimer's disease (AD) (n = 153) and individuals with mild cognitive impairment (MCI) (n = 352). All participants were administered the ADAS-Cog at baseline and 1 year, and change scores were calculated as the difference in scores over the 1-year period. Three types of change score reliabilities were estimated using multivariate generalizability. Two methods to increase change score reliability were evaluated: reweighting the subtests of the scale and adding more subtests. Reliability of ADAS-Cog change scores over 1 year was low for both the AD sample (ranging from .53 to .64) and the MCI sample (.39 to .61). Reweighting the change scores from the AD sample improved reliability (.68 to .76), but lengthening provided no useful improvement for either sample. The MCI change scores had low reliability, even with reweighting and adding additional subtests. The ADAS-Cog scores had low reliability for measuring change. Researchers using the ADAS-Cog should estimate and report reliability for their use of the change scores. The ADAS-Cog change scores are not recommended for assessment of meaningful clinical change. PMID:26708116

  3. Growth, physicochemical properties, and morphogenesis of Chinese wild-type PRV Fa and its gene-deleted mutant strain PRV SA215

    Tang Shanhu

    2011-06-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background PRV Fa is common in China and causes most of the pseudorabies in the pig industry. A PRV SA215 strain with deleted gE, gI, and TK genes was constructed to develop a commercial attenuated live vaccine. However, the physicochemical properties, growth pattern, penetration kinetics, and morphogenesis of the PRV SA215 and its parental PRV Fa strain are unclear. Results A series of experiments were conducted to characterize both strains and provide more information. PRV Fa and PRV SA215 were found to have similar penetration patterns, with about 5 min half-time of penetration. The SA215 strain exhibited a slight delay in entry compared with PRV Fa. In the one-step growth test, the titers of the SA215 strain were first detected at 8 h, rapidly increased, and peaked at 12 h. A plateau was formed between 12-36 h of culturing. PRV SA215 showed delayed replication and approximately 10-30-fold lower titers during 0-16 h of culturing compared with the PRV-Fa strain. After 16 h, the PRV Fa titers dramatically decreased, whereas those of PRV SA215 were prolonged to 36 h and reached a titer value equal to that of PRV Fa and then decreased. Both strains were sensitive to both heat and acid-alkali treatments; however, PRV Fa was relatively more stable to heat treatment than PRV SA215. Both strains could propagate in the cultures with pH values from 5.0 to 9.0. Cultures with pH below 3.0 or above 11.0 were fatal to both strains. Both strains had considerable resistance to freeze-thawing treatments. Morphogenetic investigations showed that typical phases in the maturation pathway were observed in the PRV Fa-infected PK15 cells, whereas secondary envelopment was not observed in the PRV SA215 strain. Instead, capsid aggregations with concomitants of electrodense materials were observed. Conclusions These results suggest that PRV SA215 is a promising strain for vaccine development

  4. Construction and expression of aspartic protease from Onchocerca volvulus* as ompA fusion protein in a mutant strain of Salmonella typhimurium

    Abbas Jolodar

    2002-01-01

    Full Text Available Two constructions in pHS164 vector were designed to permit expression of OV7A and OV4A inserts encoding the N-terminal and C-terminal portion of an aspartic protease from Onchocerca volvulus, respectively. A novel 39 kD protein ompA-OV7A fusion protein was stably expressed as ompA fusion in a modified strain of Salmonella typhimurium strain SL5000 and E.coli strain JM109. Expression of the fusion protein in bacterial strains harboring the constructs were evaluated by western blotting. E.coli and Salmonella lysates were fractionated by 10% SDS-PAGE gel and then immobilized to nitrocellulose membrane by electroblotting. Primary polyclonal antibody generated in rats against the GST-OV7A fusion protein was used in the Western blots. It remains to be seen whether the fusion protein expressed in vivo will promote effective immune response.

  5. Comparative Analysis Of The Development Of Swarming Communities Of Bacillus Subtilis In Case Of Pta And ComXP Mutant Strains

    Kassem Hamze

    2015-08-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Swarming Experiments were carried on with Bacillus subtilis strains to identify the activity of certain genes in the swarming ability and surfactin production. We will examine the effect of comXP as well as pta mutations on the capability of swarming. In different experiments we showed that strain OMG 903 that carries mutation in comXP managed to produce surfactin but showed attenuated defective and random swarming pattern strain OMG 928 that carries mutation in pta gene managed to produce surfactin and showed normal swarming pattern meanwhile double mutation in comXP and pta in strain OMG 929 lead to the absence of surfactin production and didnt manage Thesetoswarmdatashowed. that a threshold of surfactin production is necessary for a normal swarming pattern.

  6. Construction and Characterization of Campylobacter jejuni flhA Mutant Strain%空肠弯曲菌flhA突变株的构建及其功能研究

    惠星星; 李烨; 王小元

    2011-01-01

    flhA, encoded by the gene flhA, is an important component of the flagellar export apparatus of Campylobacter jejuni. Here we constructed an flhA mutant strain HXW001.Compared with that of the wild type, the flhA mutant cell could grow well but lack flagella, the motility of the mutant cells was lost, and the ability of the mutant cells for the formation of biofilm and autoagglutination also decreased. In addition, it was found that the expression of the flagellin gene flaA was affected by flhA. These findings indicated that flhA was the molecular basis of flagellar synthesis and motility of Campylobacter jejuni and that flhA was closely related to pathogenicity of Carnpylobacter jejuni.%flhA是空肠弯曲茵鞭毛输出装置的关键基因,通过构建Campylobacterjejuni flhA突变株HXW001,进行毒力相关表型研究和分析.结果显示HXW001生长性能稳定,但其鞭毛和运动能力丧失,生物膜形成和自身凝集现象明显下降.RT-PCR实验证明flhA对鞭毛丝主要结构蛋白基因flaA的表达有一定的调控功能.研究表明flhA是空肠弯曲茵鞭毛生成和运动能力重要的分子基础,与空肠弯曲菌致病性密切有关.

  7. PRODUKSI L-LISIN OLEH GALUR MUTAN Corynebacterium glutamicum DENGAN MEMANFAATKAN MOLASE L-LYSINE PRODUCTION BY MUTANT STRAINS OF Corynebacterium glutamicum USING MOLASSES

    Budiatman Satiawihardja; Erliza Noor*; Ahmad Haryo Oktamto 3

    2000-01-01

    The objective of this study was to obtain fermentation process for producing l-lysine using two mutans of Corynebacterium glutamicum. The process used a low cost natural raw material molasses as a carbon source which underwent a special treatment before its application for fermentation medium. Strain Corynebacterium glutamicum ATCC 21543 produced higher L-lysine as compared to Corynebacterium glutamicum ATCC 21513. ATCC strain 21543 produced using a 10.98 g/l L-lysine modified basal ...

  8. Locating a modifier gene of Ovum mutant through crosses between DDK and C57BL/6J inbred strains in mice

    JING TAN; GEN DI SONG; JIA SHENG SONG; SHI HAO REN; CHUN LI LI; ZHEN YU ZHENG; WEI DONG ZHAO

    2016-06-01

    A striking infertile phenotype has been discovered in the DDK strain of mouse. The DDK females are usually infertile when crossed with males of other inbred strains, whereas DDK males exhibit normal fertility in reciprocal crosses. This phenomenon is caused by mutation in the ovum (Om) locus on chromosome 11 and known as the DDK syndrome. Previously, some research groups reported that the embryonic mortality deviated from the semilethal rate in backcrosses between heterozygous (Om/+) females and males of other strains. This embryonic mortality exhibited an aggravated trend with increasing background genes of other strains. These results indicated that some modifier genes of Om were present in other strains. In the present study, a population of N 2(Om/+) females from the backcrosses between C57BL/6J (B6) and F1(B6♀×DDK♂) was used to map potential modifier genes of Om. Quantitative trait locus showed that a major locus, namely Amom1 (aggravate modifier gene of Om 1), was located at the middle part of chromosome 9 in mice. The Amom1 could increase the expressivity of Om gene, thereby aggravating embryonic lethality when heterozygous (Om/+)females mated with males of B6 strain. Further, the 1.5 LOD-drop analysis indicated that the confidence interval was between 37.54 and 44.46 cM,∼6.92 cM. Amom1 is the first modifier gene of Om in the B6 background.

  9. Remolding Diversified Objects in Ada95: Toward A-Object Pattern

    2001-01-01

    Ada provides full capacities of supporting object-orientation,but the diversified objects patterned in Ada are so intricate that Ada95's aim would be demolished. In order to complement the disfigurement that Ada does lack for a pr istine notion of class, this paper presents a remolded object pattern known as A -object, an Ada-based class description language A-ObjAda aiming at support f or A-object pattern and the related approach for key algorithms and implementation . In consequent, A-ObjAda hereby promotes Ada with highlighted object-orientati on , which not only effectively exploits the capacities in Ada95, but also rational ly hides befuddling concepts from Ada95.

  10. Inhibition of adenosine deaminase (ADA)-mediated metabolism of cordycepin by natural substances

    Li, Gen; Nakagome, Izumi; Hirono, Shuichi; Itoh, Tomoo; Fujiwara, Ryoichi

    2015-01-01

    Cordycepin, which is an analogue of a nucleoside adenosine, exhibits a wide variety of pharmacological activities including anticancer effects. In this study, ADA1- and ADA2-expressing HEK293 cells were established to determine the major ADA isoform responsible for the deamination of cordycepin. While the metabolic rate of cordycepin deamination was similar between ADA2-expressing and Mock cells, extensive metabolism of cordycepin was observed in the ADA1-expressing cells with K m and V max v...

  11. ADA1 and NET1 Genes of Yeast Mediate Both Chromosome Maintenance and Mitochondrial $\\rho^{-}$ Mutagenesis

    Koltovaya, N A; Tchekhouta, I A; Devin, A B

    2002-01-01

    An increase in the mitochondrial (mt) rho^- mutagenesis is a well-known respose of yeast cells to mutations in the numerous nuclear genes as well as to various kinds of stress. Notwithstanding the extensive studies during several decades the biological significance of this response is not yet fully understood. The genetic approach to solution of this subject includes the study of genes that are required for the high incidence of spontaneous rho^- mutants. Previously we found that mutations in certain nuclear genes including CDC28, the central cell-cycle regulation gene, may decrease the spontaneous rho^- mutability and simultaneously affect maintenance of the yeast chromosomes and plasmids. The present work provides data on identification of two more genes, resembling CDC28 in this respect. These genes NET1 and ADA1 mediate important regulatory protein-protein interactions in the yeast cell. The effects of net1 and ada1 mutations on the maintenance of yeast mt genome, chromosomes and plasmids as well as on ce...

  12. ADA1 and NET1 genes of yeast mediate both chromosome maintenance and mitochondrial rho- mutagenesis

    An increase in the mitochondrial (mt) rho- mutagenesis is a well-known response of yeast cells to mutations in the numerous nuclear genes as well as to various kinds of stress. Notwithstanding the extensive studies during several decades the biological significance of this response is not yet fully understood. The genetic approach to solution of this subject includes the study of genes that are required for the high incidence of spontaneous rho- mutants. Previously we found that mutations in certain nuclear genes including CDC28, the central cell-cycle regulation gene, may decrease the spontaneous rho- mutability and simultaneously affect maintenance of the yeast chromosomes and plasmids. The present work provides data on identification of two more genes, resembling CDC28 in this respect. These genes NET1 and ADA1 mediate important regulatory protein-protein interactions in the yeast cell. The effects of net1 and ada1 mutations on the maintenance of yeast mt genome, chromosomes and plasmids as well on cell sensitivity to ionizing radiation are also described. (author)

  13. PRODUKSI L-LISIN OLEH GALUR MUTAN Corynebacterium glutamicum DENGAN MEMANFAATKAN MOLASE L-LYSINE PRODUCTION BY MUTANT STRAINS OF Corynebacterium glutamicum USING MOLASSES

    Budiatman Satiawihardja 1

    2000-04-01

    Full Text Available The objective of this study was to obtain fermentation process for producing l-lysine using two mutans of Corynebacterium glutamicum. The process used a low cost natural raw material molasses as a carbon source which underwent a special treatment before its application for fermentation medium. Strain Corynebacterium glutamicum ATCC 21543 produced higher L-lysine as compared to Corynebacterium glutamicum ATCC 21513. ATCC strain 21543 produced using a 10.98 g/l L-lysine modified basal B medium containing molasses which was equivalent to 20 % of original molasses in terms of its sugar content.

  14. Analysis of canthaxanthin and related pigments from Gordonia jacobaea mutants.

    de Miguel, T; Sieiro, C; Poza, M; Villa, T G

    2001-03-01

    A collection of 43 mutant strains of the bacterium Gordonia jacobaea was obtained by means of ethyl methanesulfonate treatment, and the strains were selected for their different pigmentation with respect to the wild-type strain. None of the mutants showed auxotrophy. They all showed good genetic stability and a growth rate similar to that of the parental strain. Canthaxanthin and other carotenoids from these mutants were extracted with acetone and ethanol and separated by high-performance liquid chromatography (HPLC). These HPLC analyses, together with spectrophotometric detection at 480 nm, revealed variations in the pigment contents of the different mutant strains. PMID:11312835

  15. Use of flow cytometry for the adhesion analysis of Streptococcus pyogenes mutant strains to epithelial cells: investigation of the possible role of surface pullulanase and cysteine protease, and the transcriptional regulator Rgg

    Finne Jukka

    2006-02-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Flow cytometry based adherence assay is a potentially powerful but little used method in the study of bacterial binding to host structures. We have previously characterized a glycoprotein-binding activity in Streptococcus pyogenes called 'strepadhesin' binding to thyroglobulin, submaxillar mucin, fetuin and asialofetuin. We have identified surface-associated pullulanase (PulA and cysteine protease (SpeB as carriers of strepadhesin activity. In the present paper, we investigated the use of flow cytometry as a method to study the binding of Rgg, SpeB and PulA knock-out strains to cultured human epithelial cells. Results Streptococcal mutants were readily labelled with CFDA-SE and their binding to epithelial cells could be effectively studied by flow cytometry. A strain deficient in Rgg expression showed increased binding to the analyzed epithelial cell lines of various origin. Inactivation of SpeB had no effect on the adhesion, while PulA knock-out strains displayed decreased binding to the cell lines. Conclusion These results suggest that the flow cytometric assay is a valuable tool in the analysis of S. pyogenes adherence to host cells. It appears to be an efficient and sensitive tool for the characterization of interactions between the bacteria and the host at the molecular level. The results also suggest a role for Rgg regulated surface molecules, like PulA, in the adhesion of S. pyogenes to host cells.

  16. 红花大金元巨型变异株系栽培因子的正交试验%Orthogonal Test on Cultural Factors for Giant Strains Originating from Hongda( Nicotiana tabacum) Mutant

    徐兴阳; 卢秀萍; 许龙; 肖炳光; 高福宏; 王明钰

    2012-01-01

    [目的]研究主要栽培因子对红花大金元(Nicotiana tabacum)巨型变异株系的影响.[方法]选择影响烤烟产质量的施氮量、留叶数和种植密度3个主要因素,每个因素设置4个水平,采用L16(45)正交设计进行田间试验.[结果]红花大金元巨型变异株系产量与产值栽培因子的影响权重是种植密度>施氯量>留叶数,以种植密度16 500株/hm2、施氮量90.0 kg/hm2、单株留叶数30片为最优组合,比对照增产37.2%以上,增值24.8%以上.栽后70d,红花大金元巨型变异株系多数“巨型”特征已初步显现,此时株高91.1 cm,单株叶数27.5片,茎围13.3 cm,最大腰叶长宽72.6 cm × 30.7 cm,主要农艺性状稳定,具有实现“高产、稳产”的生物学基础.[结论]该研究可为红花大金元巨型变异株系的进一步开发利用提供参考依据.%[Objective] The purpose was to study the effects of main cultural factors on giant strains originating from Hongda mutant. [ Method] Field experiment on the cultural factors of nitrogen application dosage, remained leaf number and planting density for giant mutant strains originating from Hongda of flue-cured tobacco variety was carried out through orthogonal design L16(45 )) with four levels. [ Result] The results showed that effects of three cultural factors affecting tobacco leaf yield and output value was in order: planting density > nitrogen application dosage > remained leaf number. The optimal cultivation combination obtained high yield and output value was as follows; planting density 16500 plants per ha, nitrogen application dosage 90 kg per ha and remained leaf number 30 leaves per plant, its yield increased more than 37. 2% and output value more than 24. 8% compared with control. The major "giant" features had emerged for the mutant lines after being transplanted 70 d. As this time, the average natural plant height was 91.1 cm, total leaves number per plant was 27.5, stalk circumference was 13

  17. Induction of Unconventional T Cells by a Mutant Mycobacterium bovis BCG Strain Formulated in Cationic Liposomes Correlates with Protection against Mycobacterium tuberculosis Infections of Immunocompromised Mice.

    Derrick, Steven C; Yabe, Idalia; Morris, Sheldon; Cowley, Siobhan

    2016-07-01

    Earlier studies aimed at defining protective immunity induced by Mycobacterium bovis BCG immunization have largely focused on the induction of antituberculosis CD4(+) and CD8(+) T cell responses. Here we describe a vaccine consisting of a BCGΔmmaA4 deletion mutant formulated in dimethyl dioctadecyl-ammonium bromide (DDA) with d-(+)-trehalose 6,6'-dibehenate (TDB) (DDA/TDB) adjuvant (A4/Adj) that protected TCRδ(-/-) mice depleted of CD4(+), CD8(+), and NK1.1(+) T cells against an aerosol challenge with M. tuberculosis These mice were significantly protected relative to mice immunized with a nonadjuvanted BCGΔmmaA4 (BCG-A4) mutant and nonvaccinated controls at 2 months and 9 months postvaccination. In the absence of all T cells following treatment with anti-Thy1.2 antibody, the immunized mice lost the ability to control the infection. These results indicate that an unconventional T cell population was mediating protection in the absence of CD4(+), CD8(+), NK1.1(+), and TCRγδ T cells and could exhibit memory. Focusing on CD4(-) CD8(-) double-negative (DN) T cells, we found that these cells accumulated in the lungs postchallenge significantly more in A4/Adj-immunized mice and induced significantly greater frequencies of pulmonary gamma interferon (IFN-γ)-producing cells than were seen in the nonvaccinated or nonadjuvanted BCG control groups. Moreover, pulmonary DN T cells from the A4/Adj group exhibited significantly higher IFN-γ integrated median fluorescence intensity (iMFI) values than were seen in the control groups. We also showed that enriched DN T cells from mice immunized with A4/Adj could control mycobacterial growth in vitro significantly better than naive whole-spleen cells. These results suggest that formulating BCG in DDA/TDB adjuvant confers superior protection in immunocompromised mice and likely involves the induction of long-lived memory DN T cells. PMID:27226281

  18. ADA plaintiff must show AIDS limits major life activities.

    1998-05-15

    In a rare case, a Federal court ruled that AIDS does not automatically qualify a plaintiff for legal protection under the Americans with Disabilities Act (ADA). [Name removed], an Illinois Wal-Mart stock clerk, was fired weeks after telling the store's general manager of his HIV status. [Name removed] alleges that the firing was due solely to his disease. Wal-Mart contends that [name removed] was fired for sexually harassing a co-worker, and says that since [name removed] was asymptomatic and asked for no accommodations, he does not qualify for ADA protection. Magistrate Morton Denlow agreed, saying that [name removed] raised no genuine issues about whether the ADA should protect him. A trial is scheduled for May. PMID:11365337

  19. An automated quality assessor for Ada object-oriented designs

    Bailin, Sidney C.

    1988-01-01

    A tool for evaluating object-oriented designs (OODs) for Ada software is described. The tool assumes a design expressed as a hierarchy of object diagrams. A design of this type identifies the objects of a system, an interface to each object, and the usage relationships between objects. When such a design is implemented in Ada, objects become packages, interfaces become package specifications, and usage relationships become Ada `with' clauses and package references. An automated quality assessor has been developed that is based on flagging undesirable design constructs. For convenience, distinctions are made among three levels of severity: questionable, undesirable, and hazardous. A questionable construct is one that may well be appropriate. An undesirable construct is one that should be changed because it is potentially harmful to the reliability, maintainability, or reusability of the software. A hazardous construct is one that is undesirable and that introduces a high level of risk.

  20. Cellulase production by two mutant strain of Trichoderma longibranchiatum QM9414 and Rut C30; Produccion de celulasas a partir de dos cepas hiperproductoras de trichoderma longibranchiatum Qm9-41 4 y Rut C30

    Blanco, M. J.

    1991-07-01

    Native or pretreated biomass from Onopordum nervosum Boiss, has been examined as candidate feedstock for cellulase production by two mutant strain of Trichoderma Ionqibrachiatum QM9414 and Rut C30. Batch cultivation methods were evaluated and compared with previous experiments using ball-milled, crystalline cellulose (Solka floc). Batch cultivation of T. Ionqibrachiatum Rut C30 on 5% (w/v) acid pretreated O. nervosum biomass yielded enzyme productivities and activities comparable to those obtained on Solka floc. However, the overall enzyme production performance was lower than on Solka floc at comparable cellulose concentrations. This fact may be due to the accumulation of pretreated by products and lignin in the ferment. (Author) 40 refs.

  1. Breeding high yield mutant strains producing antifungal antibiotic CA-SD07%新型抗真菌抗生素CA-SD07高产菌株的诱变育种初探

    金建玲; 郝召; 王伟; 韩文志; 游哲荣; 李成志; 徐佩文

    2011-01-01

    Objective To screen high yield broad-spectrum antifungal antibiotic breeding CA-SD07 producing strain. Methods Two kinds of breeding methods ultraviolet radiation (UV) and high concentration of phosphate screening after ultraviolet radiation (UV+Pi) were conducted. Inhibition zone method, fermentation with flash shaking and with small fermentor were applied in screening high yield strains. Results 25 strains were isolated from UV group, 12 strains were isolated from UV+Pi group, during the first round flash shaking screening. The relative yield of antibiotic CA-SD07 of all these 37 strains increased by 50% or more than that of the original strain SD-07. 6 strains were screened during the second round flash shaking screening from the above 37 strains, their relative yield of antibiotic CA-SD07 increased by 100% or more than that of the original strain SD-07. Finally, 1 mutant strain was isolated by the fermentation characteristics: Its relative yield of antibiotic CA-SD07 stably increased by 100% or more than that of the original strain SD-07, and its fermentation period reduced more than 24 hours. Conclusion UV and UV+Pi got similar breeding results, high concentration phosphate screening did not significantly improve the antibiotic production of the isolated strains, but could improve the ratio of high antibiotic yield isolates to the whole ones. This suggested: In order to improve production of antibiotics, it needed improve the existing methods for high concentration phosphate screening.%目的 拟通过紫外线诱变结合耐高浓度磷酸盐筛选广谱抗真菌抗生素CA-SD07的高产菌株.方法 采用两种育种方式:紫外线诱变(UV),紫外线诱变后进行高浓度磷酸盐抗性筛选(UV+Pi).筛选方法采用抑菌圈法、摇瓶发酵和小型发酵罐发酵.结果 经过摇瓶初筛和复筛,从UV组和UV+Pi组共筛选到6株抗生素相对产量比原始菌株提高100%以上的高产菌.通过发酵罐发酵试验,选出1株抗

  2. An organic acid-tolerant HAA1-overexpression mutant of an industrial bioethanol strain of Saccharomyces cerevisiae and its application to the production of bioethanol from sugarcane molasses

    Inaba, Takuya; Watanabe, Daisuke; Yoshiyama, Yoko; Tanaka,Koichi; Ogawa, Jun; Takagi, Hiroshi; Shimoi, Hitoshi; Shima, Jun

    2013-01-01

    Bacterial contamination is known as a major cause of the reduction in ethanol yield during bioethanol production by Saccharomyces cerevisiae. Acetate is an effective agent for the prevention of bacterial contamination, but it negatively affects the fermentation ability of S. cerevisiae. We have proposed that the combined use of organic acids including acetate and lactate and yeast strains tolerant to organic acids may be effective for the elimination of principally lactic acid bacterial (LAB)...

  3. Experimental infection of commercial layers with wild or attenuated Salmonella Gallinarum mutant strains: anatomic pathology, total blood cell count and serum protein levels

    KO Garcia

    2013-06-01

    Full Text Available The aim of the present study was to comparatively evaluate hemogram, blood serum components and anatomopathologic alterations in commercial layers experimentally challenged with an attenuated vaccine candidate strain (SG∆cobS∆cbiA and other two pathogenic strains (SGDcobS and SGNalr of Gallinarum (SG. In total, 280 commercial layers were randomly divided into 4 groups (G1, G2, G3 and G4. At five days of age, birds from groups G1 received approximately 107 colony forming units (CFU of SGDcobS; meanwhile birds from group G2 and G3 received the same dose of SGNalr and SG∆cobS∆cbiA, respectively. Birds from G4 were not infected. At 24 hours before (DBI and 24 hours after (1 DAI, and three (3 DAI, five (5 DAI, seven (7 DAI ten (10 DAI, and fifteen (15 DAI days after the infection, 10 birds of each group were humanely killed and blood samples collected to hematological and serum tests. Samples of liver, spleen, thymus, bursa of Fabricius, kidney and heart were also collected for the histological examination. Birds inoculated with SGDcobS and SGNalr showed similar alterations in hemogram, blood serum components and anatomopathologic exams. On the other hand, the exams of birds inoculated with SG∆cobS∆cbiA strain were similar to those of the uninfected birds. However, changes could be noticed in levels of uric acid and cholesterol during the course of the infection of birds from G3. Decrease in levels of light IgG 3 DAI was also observed in birds from this group. Pyknosis in kidney cells was a microscopic alteration found in birds from G3. Further studies must be done to verify if these alterations will not interfere in the performance of the vaccinate birds with SG∆cobS∆cbiA strain.

  4. V Olimpíada Brasileira de Astronomia

    Villas da Rocha, J. F.; Canalle, J. B. G.; Wuesnche, C. A.; de Medeiros, J. R., Silva, A. V. R.; Lavouras, D. F.; Dottori, H. A.; Maia, M. A. G.; Vieira Martins, R.; Poppe, P. C. R.

    2003-08-01

    Neste trabalho apresentamos os resultados da V Olimpíada Brasileira de Astronomia, a qual ocorreu em 11/05/2002 em todos os estabelecimentos de ensino fundamental ou médio previamente cadastrados. Participaram do evento 60.338 alunos distribuídos por 1469 escolas pertencentes a todos os Estados brasileiros. Uma equipe de 5 alunos foi escolhida para representar o Brasil na VII Olimpíada Internacional de Astronomia que ocorreu na Rússia em 2002 e dois de nossos alunos ganharam a medalha de bronze naquele evento.

  5. GRASP/Ada (Graphical Representations of Algorithms, Structures, and Processes for Ada): The development of a program analysis environment for Ada. Reverse engineering tools for Ada, task 1, phase 2

    Cross, James H., II

    1990-01-01

    The study, formulation, and generation of structures for Ada (GRASP/Ada) are discussed in this second phase report of a three phase effort. Various graphical representations that can be extracted or generated from source code are described and categorized with focus on reverse engineering. The overall goal is to provide the foundation for a CASE (computer-aided software design) environment in which reverse engineering and forward engineering (development) are tightly coupled. Emphasis is on a subset of architectural diagrams that can be generated automatically from source code with the control structure diagram (CSD) included for completeness.

  6. Comparison of the Exposure Time Dependence of the Activities of Synthetic Ozonide Antimalarials and Dihydroartemisinin against K13 Wild-Type and Mutant Plasmodium falciparum Strains

    Yang, Tuo; Xie, Stanley C.; Cao, Pengxing; Giannangelo, Carlo; McCaw, James; Creek, Darren J.; Charman, Susan A.; Klonis, Nectarios

    2016-01-01

    Fully synthetic endoperoxide antimalarials, namely, OZ277 (RBx11160; also known as arterolane) and OZ439 (artefenomel), have been approved for marketing or are currently in clinical development. We undertook an analysis of the kinetics of the in vitro responses of Plasmodium falciparum to the new ozonide antimalarials. For these studies we used a K13 mutant (artemisinin resistant) isolate from a region in Cambodia and a genetically matched (artemisinin sensitive) K13 revertant. We used a pulsed-exposure assay format to interrogate the time dependence of the response. Because the ozonides have physicochemical properties different from those of the artemisinins, assay optimization was required to ensure that the drugs were completely removed following the pulsed exposure. Like that of artemisinins, ozonide activity requires active hemoglobin degradation. Short pulses of the ozonides were less effective than short pulses of dihydroartemisinin; however, when early-ring-stage parasites were exposed to drugs for periods relevant to their in vivo exposure, the ozonide antimalarials were markedly more effective. PMID:27161632

  7. Techniques and implementation of the embedded rule-based expert system using Ada

    Liberman, Eugene M.; Jones, Robert E.

    1991-01-01

    Ada is becoming an increasingly popular programming language for large Government-funded software projects. Ada with its portability, transportability, and maintainability lends itself well to today's complex programming environment. In addition, expert systems have also assured a growing role in providing human-like reasoning capability and expertise for computer systems. The integration of expert system technology with Ada programming language, specifically a rule-based expert system using an ART-Ada (Automated Reasoning Tool for Ada) system shell is discussed. The NASA Lewis Research Center was chosen as a beta test site for ART-Ada. The test was conducted by implementing the existing Autonomous Power EXpert System (APEX), a Lisp-base power expert system, in ART-Ada. Three components, the rule-based expert system, a graphics user interface, and communications software make up SMART-Ada (Systems fault Management with ART-Ada). The main objective, to conduct a beta test on the ART-Ada rule-based expert system shell, was achieved. The system is operational. New Ada tools will assist in future successful projects. ART-Ada is one such tool and is a viable alternative to the straight Ada code when an application requires a rule-based or knowledge-based approach.

  8. Supreme Court to hear ADA suit involving arbitration clause.

    1998-03-20

    The U.S. Supreme Court agreed to review a third case under the Americans with Disabilities Act (ADA) this year. The Supreme Court previously agreed to hear [name removed] v. [Name removed], involving a dentist who refused to treat an HIV-positive patient in his office. The second case is Pennsylvania Department of Corrections v. [Name removed], in which the State asserts that the ADA does not apply to prisons. The third involves whether an arbitration clause in a labor union's collective bargaining agreement prevents a court from hearing a union member's discrimination claim. [Name removed] longshoreman [name removed] alleges that the [name removed] and several employers violated the ADA when they refused to help him for employment referral. [Name removed] previously settled a workers' compensation disability claim with [name removed] and Terminal Co., his employer. Three years later he applied for work at the International Longshoreman's Association hiring hall and was referred to four different employers. The employers discovered he had received a worker's compensation settlement and would no longer accept [name removed] for employment referral. The case is important because union members can continue to file ADA charges with the EEOC and the outcomes will vary depending on the circuit where the union member happens to file the claim. PMID:11365192

  9. 单核细胞增生性李斯特菌prfA基因缺失株的构建及其生物学特性%Construction and characterization of Listeria monocytogenes ΔprfA mutant strains

    白春光; 殷月兰; 贾艳艳; 付红; 高云飞; 焦新安

    2011-01-01

    [目的]单核细胞增生性李斯特菌(Lm)是人兽共患李斯特菌病的病原菌,其致病性与调控因子PrfA蛋白作用下毒力基因的表达有着密切关系,本文初步探讨了PrfA蛋白对细菌毒力因子的调控作用.[方法]利用同源重组技术对血清型分别为1/2a和4b的LM4、F4636进行prfA基因的敲除,并构建其回复突变株,对获得的突变株LM4ΔprfA、F4636ΔprfA进行生物学特性研究.[结果]实验结果表明:两株缺失株的溶血活性丧失、回复突变株的溶血活性得到恢复,突变株还丧失磷脂酶活性,黏附和侵袭特性显著下降(P<0.05),对BALB/c小鼠的半数致死剂量提高了105个数量级.[结论]由此表明,PrfA蛋白对hly、plcB、inl家族基因的表达及细菌毒力具有重要的调控作用.prfA基因缺失株的构建为进一步研究PrfA蛋白的调控功能提供了材料,为研究其在Lm致病性中的作用奠定了基础.%[Objective] Listeria monocytogenes ( Lm) is an important pathogen that can cause serious listeriosis in humans and animals. The pathogenicity of Lm has a close relationship with the PrfA protein regulating the expression of virulence genes. Therefore, we studied the regulation functions of PrfA and its role on Lm's virulence. [Methods] The prfA genes of LM4, serotype l/2a, and F4636, serotype 4b, were deleted by homologous recombination technology, and the biological characteristics of the mutants were further studied. [ Results ] The prfA gene deleted strains LM4△prfA and F4636△prfA and their back mutation strains were successfully constructed. The results show that the hemolysis activity was lost in prfA deleted strains and was recovered in the reverse mutant strains. The prfA deleted strains lost phospholipase activity; their adhesion and invasion ability significantly decreased. Furthermore, their 50% lethal doses ( LD50) were 5 logs higher comparing with wild type strains. [Conclusion] PrfA regulates hly, plcB and inl gene

  10. Autoimmune dysregulation and purine metabolism in adenosine deaminase (ADA)-deficiency

    Aisha Vanessa Sauer; Immacolata eBrigida; Nicola eCarriglio; Alessandro eAiuti

    2012-01-01

    Genetic defects in the adenosine deaminase (ADA) gene are among the most common causes for severe combined immunodeficiency (SCID). ADA-SCID patients suffer from lymphopenia, severely impaired cellular and humoral immunity, failure to thrive and recurrent infections. Currently available therapeutic options for this otherwise fatal disorder include bone marrow transplantation (BMT), enzyme replacement therapy with bovine ADA (PEG-ADA) or hematopoietic stem cell gene therapy (HSC-GT). Although ...

  11. A Pre-Allocation Strategy for Implement ADA95's Distrbuted Computing

    2000-01-01

    In order to realize distributed computing of Ada95, this paper discusses Ada95's distributed system model and an implement model of Ada95's distributed computing—workstation cluster model. Under this model, we presents a pre-allocation strategy for allocating the computation quantity of distributed units evenly among workstations and also reducing the communication expense between those distributed units.

  12. Self-Advocacy Preparation of Consumers with Disabilities: A National Perspective of ADA Training Efforts.

    Wolfe, Pamela S.; And Others

    1996-01-01

    A survey of personnel representing mental health/mental retardation/developmental disabilities agencies in 50 states investigated the self-advocacy needs of clients, training in the Americans with Disabilities Act (ADA), and impact of the ADA. Results indicated that clients needed training in advocacy-related skills and that the ADA had a minimal…

  13. Plaintiff cannot sue under ADA if he seeks disability benefits.

    1996-08-23

    [Name removed] sued a New Jersey Disney store for AIDS discrimination under the Americans with Disabilities Act (ADA). At the same time, [name removed] applied for disability benefits. A U.S. Circuit Court of Appeals ruled that a plaintiff who applies for disability benefits is no longer a qualified individual with a disability and therefore cannot sue for employment discrimination under the Americans with Disabilities Act (ADA). Disney fired [name removed] on November 18, 1993, after he took $2 from the cash register to buy cigarettes. Confronted with the accusation, [name removed] told his supervisor he had AIDS. He was fired immediately. Although [name removed] alleged Disney used the $2 cash transaction as a pretext to fire him, a Federal judge said [name removed] was barred from suing because of the inconsistency between his statements on the disability applications and on the lawsuit. PMID:11363731

  14. AdaBoost for Improved Voice-Band Signal Classification

    2007-01-01

    A good voice-band signal classification can not only enable the safe application of speech coding techniques,the implementation of a Digital Signal Interpolation (DSI)system, but also facilitate network administration and planning by providing accurate voice-band traffic analysis.A new method is proposed to detect and classify the presence of various voice-band signals on the General Switched Telephone Network ( GSTN ). The method uses a combination of simple base classifiers through the AdaBoost algorithm. The conventional classification features for voiceband data classification are combined and optimized by the AdaBoost algorithm and spectral subtraction method.Experiments show the simpleness, effectiveness, efficiency and flexibility of the method.

  15. Olimpíadas e geopolítica

    João Fábio Bertonha

    2008-09-01

    Full Text Available

    o artigo trata de competições esportivas,

    em especial as olimpíadas. Nelas, valorizam-se o

    nacionalismo e o poder dos países.

  16. Bernoulli Numbers: from Ada Lovelace to the Debye Functions

    Sparavigna, Amelia Carolina

    2016-01-01

    Jacob Bernoulli owes his fame for the numerous contributions to calculus and for his discoveries in the field of probability. Here we will discuss one of his contributions to the theory of numbers, the Bernoulli numbers. They were proposed as a case study by Ada Lovelace in her analysis of Menabrea's report on Babbage Analytical Engine. It is probable that it was this Lovelace's work, that inspired Hans Thirring in using the Bernoulli numbers in the calculus of the Debye functions.

  17. AN ADA LINEAR ALGEBRA PACKAGE MODELED AFTER HAL/S

    Klumpp, A. R.

    1994-01-01

    This package extends the Ada programming language to include linear algebra capabilities similar to those of the HAL/S programming language. The package is designed for avionics applications such as Space Station flight software. In addition to the HAL/S built-in functions, the package incorporates the quaternion functions used in the Shuttle and Galileo projects, and routines from LINPAK that solve systems of equations involving general square matrices. Language conventions in this package follow those of HAL/S to the maximum extent practical and minimize the effort required for writing new avionics software and translating existent software into Ada. Valid numeric types in this package include scalar, vector, matrix, and quaternion declarations. (Quaternions are fourcomponent vectors used in representing motion between two coordinate frames). Single precision and double precision floating point arithmetic is available in addition to the standard double precision integer manipulation. Infix operators are used instead of function calls to define dot products, cross products, quaternion products, and mixed scalar-vector, scalar-matrix, and vector-matrix products. The package contains two generic programs: one for floating point, and one for integer. The actual component type is passed as a formal parameter to the generic linear algebra package. The procedures for solving systems of linear equations defined by general matrices include GEFA, GECO, GESL, and GIDI. The HAL/S functions include ABVAL, UNIT, TRACE, DET, INVERSE, TRANSPOSE, GET, PUT, FETCH, PLACE, and IDENTITY. This package is written in Ada (Version 1.2) for batch execution and is machine independent. The linear algebra software depends on nothing outside the Ada language except for a call to a square root function for floating point scalars (such as SQRT in the DEC VAX MATHLIB library). This program was developed in 1989, and is a copyrighted work with all copyright vested in NASA.

  18. Software tools to aid Pascal and Ada program design

    Jankowitz, H.T.

    1987-01-01

    This thesis describes a software tool which analyses the style and structure of Pascal and Ada programs by ensuring that some minimum design requirements are fulfilled. The tool is used in much the same way as a compiler is used to teach students the syntax of a language, only in this case issues related to the design and structure of the program are of paramount importance. The tool operates by analyzing the design and structure of a syntactically correct program, automatically generating a report detailing changes that need to be made in order to ensure that the program is structurally sound. The author discusses how the model gradually evolved from a plagiarism detection system which extracted several measurable characteristics in a program to a model that analyzed the style of Pascal programs. In order to incorporate more-sophistical concepts like data abstraction, information hiding and data protection, this model was then extended to analyze the composition of Ada programs. The Ada model takes full advantage of facilities offered in the language and by using this tool the standard and quality of written programs is raised whilst the fundamental principles of program design are grasped through a process of self-tuition.

  19. Recombination-deficient mutant of Streptococcus faecalis.

    Yagi, Y; Clewell, D B

    1980-01-01

    An ultraviolet radiation-sensitive derivative of Streptococcus faecalis strain JH2-2 was isolated and found to be deficient in recombination, using a plasmid-plasmid recombination system. The strain was sensitive to chemical agents which interact with deoxyribonucleic acid and also underwent deoxyribonucleic acid degradation after ultraviolet irradiation. Thus, the mutant has properties similar to those of recA strains of Escherichia coli.

  20. Methods of producing protoporphyrin IX and bacterial mutants therefor

    Zhou, Jizhong; Qiu, Dongru; He, Zhili; Xie, Ming

    2016-03-01

    The presently disclosed inventive concepts are directed in certain embodiments to a method of producing protoporphyrin IX by (1) cultivating a strain of Shewanella bacteria in a culture medium under conditions suitable for growth thereof, and (2) recovering the protoporphyrin IX from the culture medium. The strain of Shewanella bacteria comprises at least one mutant hemH gene which is incapable of normal expression, thereby causing an accumulation of protoporphyrin IX. In certain embodiments of the method, the strain of Shewanella bacteria is a strain of S. loihica, and more specifically may be S. loihica PV-4. In certain embodiments, the mutant hemH gene of the strain of Shewanella bacteria may be a mutant of shew_2229 and/or of shew_1140. In other embodiments, the presently disclosed inventive concepts are directed to mutant strains of Shewanella bacteria having at least one mutant hemH gene which is incapable of normal expression, thereby causing an accumulation of protoporphyrin IX during cultivation of the bacteria. In certain embodiments the strain of Shewanella bacteria is a strain of S. loihica, and more specifically may be S. loihica PV-4. In certain embodiments, the mutant hemH gene of the strain of Shewanella bacteria may be a mutant of shew_2229 and/or shew_1140.

  1. Construction of the Gene Deleted Attenuated Mutant Strain apxIIC -/kanr + of Actinobacillus pleuropneumoniae%胸膜肺炎放线杆菌apxlIC7kanr+基因缺失减毒株的构建

    李建; 曹三杰; 文心田; 黄小波; 都启晶; 张明; 余慧

    2012-01-01

    The recombinant transfer vector pBSKA was electroporated into parent strain Actinobacillus pleuropneumoniae serovar 7 (APP -7 ) strain WF83. Product of the electroporation was plated onto TSB agar containing kanamyeine (Kan). After 2 days the recombinant strains were selected. Resistance of kanamycine experiment confirmed that mutant strain can counteract kanamycine. Dependence experiment of NAD confirmed that mutant strain needed NAD in growth. Identification of PCR confirmed that complete apxIIC gene was substitute for kanamycine resistance gene and there was no presence of pBSKA. Hemolytic experiment confirmed that mutant strain had no ability of haemolysis. Cytotoxicity test confirmed that mutant strain had no cytotoxieity. Safety experiment of injected mice confirmed that eytotoxicity and haemolysis of mutant was attenuated significantly so that mutant was safe to mice. Experiment of genetic stability confirmed that kanamycine resistance of mutant was stable 30 successive generations in vitro and 10 generations in vivo. All of the above - mentioned tests indicated that the gene deleted attenuated strain was constructed successfully, which provided certain basis for further genetic live vaccine research with mutant strain.%重组转移载体pBSKA通过电转化导入亲本菌胸膜肺炎放线杆菌血清7型(APP-7)WF83株,电转化后的产物涂布于TSB/Kan平板,2d获得突变株。卡那霉素抗性实验证实突变株有卡那霉素抗性;NAD依赖性实验证实突变株依赖NAD生长;PCR鉴定证实了卡那霉素抗性基因置换了apxlIC基因,并证实突变株中无pBSKA质粒的存在;溶血活性实验证实突变株完全失去了溶血活性;细胞毒性实验证实突变株的细胞毒性完全丧失;对小鼠的安全性实验证实突变株的毒力显著减弱,突变株对小鼠是安全的;遗传稳定性实验证实,突变株在体外连续传30代和在体内传10代均不会发生卡

  2. Monogenic polyarteritis: the lesson of ADA2 deficiency.

    Caorsi, Roberta; Penco, Federica; Schena, Francesca; Gattorno, Marco

    2016-01-01

    The deficiency of Adenosine Deaminase 2 (DADA2) is a new autoinflammatory disease characterised by an early onset vasculopathy with livedoid skin rash associated with systemic manifestations, CNS involvement and mild immunodeficiency.This condition is secondary to autosomal recessive mutations of CECR1 (Cat Eye Syndrome Chromosome Region 1) gene, mapped to chromosome 22q11.1, that encodes for the enzymatic protein adenosine deaminase 2 (ADA2). By now 19 different mutations in CECR1 gene have been detected.The pathogenetic mechanism of DADA2 is still unclear. ADA2 in a secreted protein mainly expressed by cells of the myeloid lineage; its enzymatic activity is higher in conditions of hypoxia, inflammation and oncogenesis. Moreover ADA2 is able to induce macrophages proliferation and differentiation; it's deficiency is in fact associated with a reduction of anti-inflammatory macrophages (M2). The deficiency of ADA2 is also associated with an up-regulation of neutrophils-expressed genes and an increased secretion of pro-inflammatory cytokines. The mild immunodeficiency detected in many DADA2 patients suggests a role of this protein in the adaptive immune response; an increased mortality of B cells and a reduction in the number of memory B cells, terminally differentiated B cells and plasmacells has been described in many patients. The lack of the protein is associated with endothelium damage; however the function of this protein in the endothelial homeostasis is still unknown.From the clinical point of view, this disease is characterized by a wide spectrum of severity. Chronic or recurrent systemic inflammation with fever, elevation of acute phase reactants and skin manifestations (mainly represented by livedo reticularis) is the typical clinical picture. While in some patients the disease is mild and skin-limited, others present a severe, even lethal, disease with multi-organ involvement; the CNS involvement is rather common with ischemic or hemorrhagic strokes. In

  3. ADaPPT: Enterprise Architecture Thinking for Information Systems Development

    Hanifa Shah

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available Enterprises have architecture: whether it is visible or invisible is another matter. An enterprises' architecture determines the way in which it works to deliver its business objectives and the way in which it can change to continue to meet its evolving business objectives. Enterprise architectural thinking can facilitate effective strategic planning and information systems development. This paper reviews enterprise architecture (EA and its concepts. It briefly considers EA frameworks. It describes the ADaPPT (Aligning Data, People, Processes and Technology EA approach as a means to managing organisational complexity and change. Future research directions are discussed.

  4. Event-based Implicit Invocation Decentralized in Ada

    2001-01-01

    Nowadays more and more attraction is drawn by the event-basedimplicit invocation - one of useful architectural patterns, because of its loose couplin g between components in the architecture and reactive integration in software sys tems. Analyzing object-oriented interaction with objects, this paper, based upo n the principle of software architecture, presents an approach on event-based ob j ect model with Ada exception handler. Consequently it is possible for us to impr ove, with adding specific architectural patterns, traditional programming langua ges into architectural description languages.

  5. Towards a Mobile-based ADAS Simulation Framework

    Gonçalves, João S. V.; Jacob, João; Rossetti, Rosaldo J. F.; Coelho, António; Rodrigues, Rui

    2014-01-01

    In this paper we propose a multi-agent-based driving simulator which integrates a test-bed that allows ADAS developers to compress testing time and carry out tests in a controlled environment while using a low-cost setup. We use the SUMO microscopic simulator and a serious-game-based driving simulator which has geodata provided from standard open sources. This simulator connects to an Android device and sends data such as the current GPS coordinates and transportation network data. One import...

  6. TCP-ADaLR: TCP with adaptive delay and loss response for broadband GEO satellite networks

    Omueti, Modupe Omogbohun

    2007-01-01

    Transmission Control Protocol (TCP) performance degrades in broadband geostationary satellite networks due to long propagation delays and high bit error rates. In this thesis, we propose TCP with algorithm modifications for adaptive delay and loss response (TCP-ADaLR) to improve TCP performance. TCP-ADaLR incorporates delayed acknowledgement mechanism recommended for Internet hosts. We evaluate and compare the performance of TCP-ADaLR, TCP SACK, and TCP NewReno, with and without delayed ackno...

  7. Disfungsi Keluarga dalam Novel Cinta Masih Ada Karya Embart Nugroho: Suatu Tinjauan Sosiologi Sastra

    Lestari, Aprillia

    2015-01-01

    Sastra adalah Karya sastra merupakan ungkapan ide manusia dari pengalaman pribadi. Salah satu karya sastra yang dianggap sebagai cerminan kehidupan nyata adalah novel. Penelitian ini membahas tentang penyebab dan dampak disfungsi keluarga pada novel Cinta Masih Ada. Tujuan penelitian ini adalah untuk Mendeskripsikan penyebab disfungsi keluarga yang terdapat pada novel Cinta Masih Ada dan Mendeskripsikan dampak-dampak disfungsi keluarga yang terdapat pada novel Cinta Masih Ada karya Embart Nug...

  8. Efficient Ada multitasking on a RISC register window architecture

    Kearns, J. P.; Quammen, D.

    1987-01-01

    This work addresses the problem of reducing context switch overhead on a processor which supports a large register file - a register file much like that which is part of the Berkeley RISC processors and several other emerging architectures (which are not necessarily reduced instruction set machines in the purest sense). Such a reduction in overhead is particularly desirable in a real-time embedded application, in which task-to-task context switch overhead may result in failure to meet crucial deadlines. A storage management technique by which a context switch may be implemented as cheaply as a procedure call is presented. The essence of this technique is the avoidance of the save/restore of registers on the context switch. This is achieved through analysis of the static source text of an Ada tasking program. Information gained during that analysis directs the optimized storage management strategy for that program at run time. A formal verification of the technique in terms of an operational control model and an evaluation of the technique's performance via simulations driven by synthetic Ada program traces are presented.

  9. Rationale for the proposed standard for a generic package of primitive functions for Ada

    Dritz, K.W.

    1990-12-01

    This paper supplements the Proposed Standard for a Generic Package of Primitive Functions for Ada,'' written by the ISO- IEC/JTC1/SC22/WG9 (Ada) Numerics Rapporteur Group. Based on recommendations made jointly by the ACM SIGAda Numerics Working Group and the Ada-Europe Numerics Working Group, the proposed primitive functions standard is the second of several anticipated secondary standards to address the interrelated issues of portability, efficiency, and robustness of numerical software written in Ada. Its purpose, features, and developmental history are outlined in this commentary. 16 refs.

  10. The Impact of Ada and Object-Oriented Design in NASA Goddard's Flight Dynamics Division

    Waligora, Sharon; Bailey, John; Stark, Mike

    1996-01-01

    This paper presents the highlights and key findings of 10 years of use and study of Ada and object-oriented design in NASA Goddard's Flight Dynamics Division (FDD). In 1985, the Software Engineering Laboratory (SEL) began investigating how the Ada language might apply to FDD software development projects. Although they began cautiously using Ada on only a few pilot projects, they expected that, if the Ada pilots showed promising results, the FDD would fully transition its entire development organization from FORTRAN to Ada within 10 years. However, 10 years later, the FDD still produced 80 percent of its software in FORTRAN and had begun using C and C++, despite positive results on Ada projects. This paper presents the final results of a SEL study to quantify the impact of Ada in the FDD, to determine why Ada has not flourished, and to recommend future directions regarding Ada. Project trends in both languages are examined as are external factors and cultural issues that affected the infusion of this technology. The detailed results of this study were published in a formal study report in March of 1995. This paper supersedes the preliminary results of this study that were presented at the Eighteenth Annual Software Engineering Workshop in 1993.

  11. nitrate non-utilizing (nit mutants

    D. Aiuchi

    2008-01-01

    Full Text Available Mycotal and Vertalec are mass-produced fungal strains for insect control. Strain B-2, which was isolated in Japan, has high epiphytic ability on cucumber leaves. Protoplast fusion was performed using these strains of Verticillium lecanii to obtain new strains possessing useful characteristics as biological control agents (BCAs. We used nit mutants for visually selecting the protoplasts. Hybrid strains were subjected to molecular analysis using the polymerase chain reaction-restriction fragment length polymorphisms (PCR-RFLPs and arbitrarily primed-PCR (AP-PCR in order to determine protoplast fusion and/or genetic recombination. We detected 126, 44, and 4 hybrid strains from the combinations of Vertalec × Mycotal, B-2 × Mycotal, and B-2 × Vertalec, respectively. Morphological characteristics of hybrid strains differed from those of their parental nit mutants. Protoplast fusion of hybrid strains was confifi rmed in genomic DNA, but not in mitochondrial DNA (mtDNA. A uniform biased tendency of the DNA banding pattern was observed depending on the combination of parental strains. The molecular analysis also revealed genetic recombination. These results showed a novel method for producing hybrid strains of the entomopathogenic fungus V. lecanii.

  12. Autoimmune dysregulation and purine metabolism in adenosine deaminase (ADA-deficiency

    Aisha Vanessa Sauer

    2012-08-01

    Full Text Available Genetic defects in the adenosine deaminase (ADA gene are among the most common causes for severe combined immunodeficiency (SCID. ADA-SCID patients suffer from lymphopenia, severely impaired cellular and humoral immunity, failure to thrive and recurrent infections. Currently available therapeutic options for this otherwise fatal disorder include bone marrow transplantation (BMT, enzyme replacement therapy with bovine ADA (PEG-ADA or hematopoietic stem cell gene therapy (HSC-GT. Although varying degrees of immune reconstitution can be achieved by these treatments, breakdown of tolerance is a major concern in ADA-SCID. Immune dysregulation such as autoimmune hypothyroidism, diabetes mellitus, hemolytic anemia, and immune thrombocytopenia are frequently observed in milder forms of the disease. However, several reports document similar complications also in patients on long-term PEG-ADA and after BMT or GT treatment.A skewed repertoire and decreased immune functions have been implicated in autoimmunity observed in certain B-cell and/or T-cell immunodeficiencies, but it remains unclear to what extent specific mechanisms of tolerance are affected in ADA deficiency. Herein we provide an overview about ADA-SCID and the autoimmune manifestations reported in these patients before and after treatment. We also assess the value of the ADA-deficient mouse model as a useful tool to study both immune and metabolic disease mechanisms. With focus on regulatory T and B cells we discuss the lymphocyte subpopulations particularly prone to contribute to the loss of self-tolerance and onset of autoimmunity in ADA deficiency. Moreover we address which aspects of immune dysregulation are specifically related to alterations in purine metabolism caused by the lack of ADA and the subsequent accumulation of metabolites with immunomodulatory properties.

  13. Biochemical characterization of a fructokinase mutant of Rhizobium meliloti.

    Gardiol, A; Arias, A.; Cerveñansky, C; Gaggero, C; Martínez-Drets, G

    1980-01-01

    A double mutant strain (UR3) of Rhizobium meliloti L5-30 was isolated from a phosphoglucose isomerase mutant (UR1) on the basis of its resistance to fructose inhibition when grown on fructose-rich medium. UR3 lacked both phosphoglucose isomerase and fructokinase activity. A mutant strain (UR4) lacking only the fructokinase activity was derived from UR3; it grew on the same carbon sources as the parent strain, but not on fructose, mannitol, or sorbitol. A spontaneous revertant (UR5) of normal ...

  14. Inclusion of geriatric nutrition in ADA-approved undergraduate programs.

    Shoaf, L R; Jensen, H M

    1989-09-01

    All ADA Plan IV programs were surveyed to determine whether geriatric nutrition was included in their curriculums. Of the 268 Plan IV programs, 66% responded. Less than one-fifth of the programs offered or planned to offer a specific geriatric nutrition course. An overview of geriatric nutrition occurred most frequently in a human nutrition course. A practicum/clinical experience or a course other than nutrition most frequently provided in-depth study, if such was available. Nursing homes and congregate meal sites were the primary locations for experiences with the geriatric population. Major activities with that age group included (a) taking diet histories, (b) making nutrition assessments, and (c) providing diet instruction. In some programs, didactic and experiential training with the geriatric population may not be adequate to prepare dietetic undergraduate students to meet the health care needs of that growing segment of society. PMID:2768741

  15. Large distributed control system using Ada in fusion research

    Van Arsdall, P J; Woodruff, J P

    1998-08-11

    Construction of the National Ignition Facility laser at Lawrence Livermore National Laboratory features a distributed control system that uses object-oriented software engineering techniques. Control of 60,000 devices is effected using a network of some 500 computers. The software is being written in Ada and communicates through CORBA. Software controls are implemented in two layers: individual device controllers and a supervisory layer. The software architecture provides services in the form of frameworks that address issues common to event-driven control systems. Those services are allocated to levels that strictly prescribe their interdependency so the levels are separately reusable. The project has completed its final design review. The delivery of the first increment takes place in October 1998. Keywords Distributed control system, object-oriented development, CORBA, application frameworks, levels of abstraction

  16. Large distributed control system using Ada in fusion research

    Construction of the National Ignition Facility laser at Lawrence Livermore National Laboratory features a distributed control system that uses object-oriented software engineering techniques. Control of 60,000 devices is effected using a network of some 500 computers. The software is being written in Ada and communicates through CORBA. Software controls are implemented in two layers: individual device controllers and a supervisory layer. The software architecture provides services in the form of frameworks that address issues common to event-driven control systems. Those services are allocated to levels that strictly prescribe their interdependency so the levels are separately reusable. The project has completed its final design review. The delivery of the first increment takes place in October 1998. Keywords Distributed control system, object-oriented development, CORBA, application frameworks, levels of abstraction

  17. Capacitació digital avançada, setembre 2010

    Padrós Rodríguez, Joan; Gil Martínez, Jaume; Profitós Punciano, Àlex; Ros Sabaté, Jordi; Ramón, Manel

    2010-01-01

    Aquest material forma part d'un conjunt de materials didàctics multimèdia que pretén dotar els usuaris d'un conjunt d'habilitats que us permeti aplicar i utilitzar amb facilitat i autonomia les tecnologies de la informació i la comunicació en la vida personal i professional. En el nivell de Capacitació Avançada s'aprofundirà en els continguts referents als mòduls de Tractament de text, Tractament multimèdia, Tractament de dades, Tractament numèric i Presentació de la informació. El material t...

  18. 76 FR 79065 - Recordkeeping and Reporting Requirements Under Title VII, the ADA and GINA

    2011-12-21

    ... Employment Opportunity Commission 29 CFR Part 1602 Recordkeeping and Reporting Requirements Under Title VII..., revised as of July 1, 2011, in Part 1602, remove the words ``section 709(c) of title VII or section 107 of the ADA'' and add in their place the words ``section 709(c) of title VII, section 107 of the ADA,...

  19. The implementation and use of Ada on distributed systems with reliability requirements

    Reynolds, P. F.; Knight, J. C.; Urquhart, J. I. A.

    1983-01-01

    The issues involved in the use of the programming language Ada on distributed systems are discussed. The effects of Ada programs on hardware failures such as loss of a processor are emphasized. It is shown that many Ada language elements are not well suited to this environment. Processor failure can easily lead to difficulties on those processors which remain. As an example, the calling task in a rendezvous may be suspended forever if the processor executing the serving task fails. A mechanism for detecting failure is proposed and changes to the Ada run time support system are suggested which avoid most of the difficulties. Ada program structures are defined which allow programs to reconfigure and continue to provide service following processor failure.

  20. Storage management in Ada. Three reports. Volume 1: Storage management in Ada as a risk to the development of reliable software. Volume 2: Relevant aspects of language. Volume 3: Requirements of the language versus manifestations of current implementations

    Auty, David

    1988-01-01

    The risk to the development of program reliability is derived from the use of a new language and from the potential use of new storage management techniques. With Ada and associated support software, there is a lack of established guidelines and procedures, drawn from experience and common usage, which assume reliable behavior. The risk is identified and clarified. In order to provide a framework for future consideration of dynamic storage management on Ada, a description of the relevant aspects of the language is presented in two sections: Program data sources, and declaration and allocation in Ada. Storage-management characteristics of the Ada language and storage-management characteristics of Ada implementations are differentiated. Terms that are used are defined in a narrow and precise sense. The storage-management implications of the Ada language are described. The storage-management options available to the Ada implementor and the implications of the implementor's choice for the Ada programmer are also described.

  1. Carrier frequency of a nonsense mutation in the adenosine deaminase (ADA) gene implies a high incidence of ADA-deficient severe combined immunodeficiency (SCID) in Somalia and a single, common haplotype indicates common ancestry

    Sanchez Sanchez, Juan Jose; Monaghan, Gemma; Børsting, Claus; Norbury, Gail; Morling, Niels; Gaspar, H Bobby

    , with severe ADA-SCID, were registered in the Greater London area. Patients and their parents were investigated for the nonsense mutation Q3X (ADA c7C>T), two missense mutations K80R (ADA c239A>G) and R142Q (ADA c425G>A), and a TAAA repeat located at the 3' end of an Alu element (AluVpA) positioned 1...

  2. Over-expression of gluconic acid in Aspergillus oryzae RP-21 mutants generated by a random mutagenesis approach

    Raksha, Sunhare; Srinivasan, Sharmila; Prasant, Garima; Prabu, Rajagopalan

    2012-01-01

    Random mutagenesis with N-methyl-N′ nitro-N-nitrosoguanidine (NTG) was used to mutate Aspergillus oryzae RP-21 to develop high gluconic acid-producing mutants. Forty mutant colonies (designated as A. oryzae strains RP-NTG-01 to RP-NTG-40) screened for gluconic acid, glucose dehydrogenase and glucose oxidase production using a 12-well plate method showed that 17 strains (positive mutants) produced high concentrations of these three products, whereas 12 strains (negative mutants) showed low con...

  3. Selection and properties of Escherichia coli mutants defective in the synthesis of cyclopropane fatty acids.

    Taylor, F; Cronan, J E

    1976-01-01

    Mutants of Escherichia coli K-12 defective in the synthesis of cyclopropane fatty acids (CFA) have been selected and isolated by a L-[methyl-3H]methionine suicide procedure. Two mutants were isolated. Stationary-phase cultures of both mutants contain less than 0.7% of the CFA content found in the parental strain. The CFA deficiency is attributed to a deficiency of CFA synthetase activity. Extracts of both mutants contain less than 10% of the CFA synthetase activity found in extracts of the parental strain. Experiments in which parental and mutant extracts were mixed indicate that the lack of activity in the mutant strains is not due to an inhibitor of CFA synthetase present in the mutant extracts. We have not yet detected a physiological phenotype for these mutants. These strains grow normally at various temperatures in a variety of media. We have tested survival (colony-forming ability) in response to (i) prolonged incubation in stationary phase, (ii) exposure to drying, and (iii) exposure to detergents, heavy metals, low pH, high salt concentration, and a variety of other environmental conditions. The survival of both mutants is identical to that of the parental strain under all conditions tested. The compositions (excepting the CFA deficiency) and metabolic turnover rates of the phospholipids of both mutant strains are indistinguishable from those of the wild-type strain. The transport of several amino acids also seems normal in these mutants. PMID:1107324

  4. Digital data sets that describe aquifer characteristics of the Vamoosa-Ada aquifer in east-central Oklahoma

    U.S. Geological Survey, Department of the Interior — This data set consists of digitized polygons of constant recharge values for the Vamoosa-Ada aquifer, in east-central Oklahoma. The Vamoosa-Ada aquifer is an...

  5. Digital data sets that describe aquifer characteristics of the Vamoosa-Ada aquifer in east-central Oklahoma

    U.S. Geological Survey, Department of the Interior — This data set consists of digitized aquifer boundaries for the Vamoosa-Ada aquifer in east-central Oklahoma. The Vamoosa-Ada aquifer is an important source of water...

  6. Digital data sets that describe aquifer characteristics of the Vamoosa-Ada aquifer in east-central Oklahoma

    U.S. Geological Survey, Department of the Interior — This data set consists of digitized polygons of constant hydraulic conductivity values for the Vamoosa-Ada aquifer in east-central Oklahoma. The Vamoosa-Ada aquifer...

  7. Digital data sets that describe aquifer characteristics of the Vamoosa-Ada aquifer in east-central Oklahoma

    U.S. Geological Survey, Department of the Interior — This data set consists of digitized water-level elevation contours for the Vamoosa-Ada aquifer in east-central Oklahoma. The Vamoosa-Ada aquifer is an important...

  8. Hydrocarbon assimilation and biosurfactant production in Pseudomonas aeruginosa mutants.

    Koch, A K; Käppeli, O; Fiechter, A; Reiser, J.

    1991-01-01

    We isolated transposon Tn5-GM-induced mutants of Pseudomonas aeruginosa PG201 that were unable to grow in minimal media containing hexadecane as a carbon source. Some of these mutants lacked extracellular rhamnolipids, as shown by measuring the surface and interfacial tensions of the cell culture supernatants. Furthermore, the concentrated culture media of the mutant strains were tested for the presence of rhamnolipids by thin-layer chromatography and for rhamnolipid activities, including hem...

  9. Isolation and characterization of Klebsiella pneumoniae unencapsulated mutants

    Klebsiella pneumoniae mutants were obtained after UV irradiation and negative selection with anticapsular serum. Unencapsulation, rather than expression of a structurally altered capsule, was found in the mutants. The mutant strains showed no alterations in their outer membrane proteins and lipopolysaccharide, and a great similarity with the wild type in the properties tested (serum resistance, antimicrobial sensitivity, and lipopolysaccharide-specific bacteriophage sensitivity), with the exception of a higher cell surface hydrophobicity and resistance to bacteriophage FC3-9

  10. Characterization of Glutamine-Requiring Mutants of Pseudomonas aeruginosa

    Janssen, Dick B.; Joosten, Han M.L.J.; Herst, Patricia M.; Drift, Chris van der

    1982-01-01

    Revertants were isolated from a glutamine-requiring mutant of Pseudomonas aeruginosa PAO. One strain showed thermosensitive glutamine requirement and formed thermolabile glutamine synthetase, suggesting the presence of a mutation in the structural gene for glutamine synthetase. The mutation conferri

  11. A porcine circovirus type 2 (PCV2 mutant with 234 amino acids in capsid protein showed more virulence in vivo, compared with classical PCV2a/b strain.

    Longjun Guo

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: Porcine circovirus type 2 (PCV2 is considered to be the primary causative agent of postweaning multisystemic wasting syndrome (PMWS, which has become a serious economic problem for the swine industry worldwide. The major genotypes, PCV2a and PCV2b, are highly prevalent in the pig population and are present worldwide. However, another newly emerging PCV2b genotype mutant, which has a mutation in its ORF2-encoded capsid protein, has been sporadically present in China, as well as in other countries. It is therefore important to determine the relative virulence of the newly emerging PCV2b genotype mutant, compared with the existing PCV2a and PCV2b genotypes, and to investigate whether the newly emerging mutant virus induces more severe illness. METHODOLOGY/PRINCIPAL FINDINGS: Twenty healthy, 30-day-old, commercial piglets served as controls or were challenged with PCV2a, PCV2b and the newly emerging mutant virus. A series of indexes representing different parameters were adopted to evaluate virulence, including clinical signs, serological detection, viral load and distribution, changes in immune cell subsets in the peripheral blood, and evaluation of pathological lesions. The newly emerging PCV2 mutant demonstrated more severe signs compatible with PMWS, characterized by wasting, coughing, dyspnea, diarrhea, rough hair-coat and depression. Moreover, the pathological lesions and viremia, as well as the viral loads in lymph nodes, tonsils and spleen, were significantly more severe (P<0.05 for piglets challenged with the newly emerging mutant compared with those in the groups challenged with PCV2a and PCV2b. In addition, a significantly lower average daily weight gain (P<0.05 was recorded in the group challenged with the newly emerging PCV2 mutant than in the groups challenged with the prevailing PCV2a and PCV2b. CONCLUSIONS: This is believed to be the first report to confirm the enhanced virulence of the newly emerging PCV2 mutant in vivo.

  12. Ada compiler evaluation on the Space Station Freedom Software Support Environment project

    Badal, D. L.

    1989-01-01

    This paper describes the work in progress to select the Ada compilers for the Space Station Freedom Program (SSFP) Software Support Environment (SSE) project. The purpose of the SSE Ada compiler evaluation team is to establish the criteria, test suites, and benchmarks to be used for evaluating Ada compilers for the mainframes, workstations, and the realtime target for flight- and ground-based computers. The combined efforts and cooperation of the customer, subcontractors, vendors, academia and SIGAda groups made it possible to acquire the necessary background information, benchmarks, test suites, and criteria used.

  13. Symbiotic N fixation of several soybean varieties and mutants

    Symbiotic N fixation of several soybean varieties and mutants. Research activities comprising of three experiments were carried out to screen several soybean varieties and mutants for symbiotic N fixation potential. The first two experiments involved screening of seven rhizobium strains/isolate for effective N fixation. Depending on the medium used, plant response to strains was different. In sterile medium, rhizobium strain USDA 136, 142 and TAL 102 showed a high nitrogen fixation potential. In soil only rhizobium strain USDA 110 had better performance and proved to be competitive to the native strains. Nitrogen-15 dilution method was used to screen nitrogen fixing ability of several soybean varieties and mutants. Guntur variety showed a better response to high dose of N fertilizer without disturbance in its fixing ability. This variety then was considered good to be introduced in the cropping system. (author). 8 refs

  14. The implementation and use of Ada on distributed systems with high reliability requirements

    Knight, J. C.

    1987-01-01

    Performance analysis was begin on the Ada implementations. The goal is to supply the system designer with tools that will allow a rational decision to be made about whether a particular implementation can support a given application early in the design cycle. Primary activities were: analysis of the original approach to recovery in distributed Ada programs using the Advanced Transport Operating System (ATOPS) example; review and assessment of the original approach which was found to be capable of improvement; preparation and presentation of a paper at the 1987 Washington DC Ada Symposium; development of a refined approach to recovery that is presently being applied to the ATOPS example; and design and development of a performance assessment scheme for Ada programs based on a flexible user-driven benchmarking system.

  15. JOB OPPORTUNITIES (SUBSURFACE PROTECTION AND REMEDIATION DIVISION, ADA, OKLAHOMA, NATIONAL RISK MANAGEMENT RESEARCH LABORATORY)

    This page lists job opportunities at NRMRL's Subsurface Protection and Remediation Division (SPRD) located in Ada, Oklahoma. These include both EPA Postdoctoral Positions and National Research Council Postdoctoral Positions.SPRD's research programs include basic studies to enha...

  16. The implications of the ADA Amendments Act of 2008 for residency training program administration.

    Regenbogen, Alexandra; Recupero, Patricia R

    2012-01-01

    The Americans with Disabilities Act (ADA) is rarely invoked by medical residents in training. Dr. Martin Jakubowski, a family medicine resident with Asperger's disorder, was dismissed for communicating poorly with patients, peers, and supervisors and for issuing dangerous medical orders. In an attempt to become reinstated, he sued under the ADA (Jakubowski v. The Christ Hospital), arguing that the program had failed to make reasonable accommodation for his disability. The Sixth Circuit Court of Appeals ruled in favor of the hospital, finding that although the doctor was disabled under the ADA, he had failed to demonstrate that he was otherwise qualified for the position. This article comments on the ADA Amendments Act of 2008, the Equal Employment Opportunity Commission (EEOC) guidelines from 2011 and their application to medical residency training, and the Accreditation Council for Graduate Medical Education (ACGME) core competencies as essential job functions. PMID:23233478

  17. Prototyping hard real-time Ada systems in a classroom environment

    Barnes, P.; Hughes, G; Luqg; Shing, Man-Tak

    1992-01-01

    Teaching graduate students how to develop hard real-time Ada software for embedded systems is a challenging task. We successfully used Ada in a series of software engineering courses to teach graduate students the charac of hard real-time software and fundamental skills to develop and validate complex systems and timing re through software prototypes of the systems. A research tool, called CAPS (Computer Aided Prototype System), was used by the student software designers to construct software...

  18. Soil microorganisms numbers in the tailing deposition ModADA areas of Freeport Indonesia, Timika, Papua

    IRNANDA AIKO FIFI DJUUNA; MARIA MASORA; PRATITA PURADYATMIKA

    2011-01-01

    Djuuna IAF, Masora M, Puradyatmika P (2011) Soil microorganisms numbers in the tailing deposition ModADA areas of Freeport Indonesia, Timika, Papua. Biodiversitas 12: 198-203. The objective of this study was to examine the number and distribution of bacteria, fungi and actinomycetes in the inactive tailing deposition areas of Freeport Indonesia Mining and Gold Company, Timika. One hundred ninety eight composite samples (0-20 cm) were taken from four location of inactive tailing ModADA (Modifi...

  19. Software fault tree analysis of an automated control system device written in Ada

    Winter, Mathias William.

    1995-01-01

    Software Fault Tree Analysis (SFTA) is a technique used to analyze software for faults that could lead to hazardous conditions in systems which contain software components. Previous thesis works have developed three Ada-based, semi-automated software analysis tools, the Automated Code Translation Tool (ACm) an Ada statement template generator, the Fault Tree Editor (Fm) a graphical fault tree editor, and the Fault Isolator (Fl) an automated software fault tree isolator. These previous works d...

  20. ADAS on COTS with OpenCL: A Case Study with Lane Detection

    Kai Huang, Biao Hu, Long Chen, Alois Knoll, Zhihua Wang

    2016-01-01

    The concept of autonomous cars is driving a boost for car electronics and the size of automotive semiconductor market is foreseen to double by 2025. How to benefit from this boost is an interesting question. This article presents a case study to test the feasibility of using OpenCL as the programming language and COTS components as the underlying platforms for ADAS development. For representative ADAS applications, a scalable lane detection is developed that can tune the trade-off be...

  1. Improved production of rhamno lipids by a pseudomonas aeruginosa mutant

    A pseudomonas aeruginosa mutant derived by random mutagenesis with N-methyl-N'-nitro-N-nitrosoguanidine, producing high level of the rhamno lipid bio surfactants was selected on Sigmund Wagner plates. The mutant designated P. aeruginosa Persian Type Culture Collection 1637 produces rhamno lipids at concentration 10 times more than present strain. Nuclear Magnetic Resonance analysis and surface tension measurement showed that the bio surfactants produced by the mutant were identical to those produced by the wild type strain. The bio surfactants exhibited a low surface tension of 28.0 mn m-1 and a low critical micelle concentration of 9 mg l-1. Similar to the wild type strain, the mutant produced bio surfactants at the stationary phase

  2. Constructing a working taxonomy of functional Ada software components for real-time embedded system applications

    Wallace, Robert

    1986-01-01

    A major impediment to a systematic attack on Ada software reusability is the lack of an effective taxonomy for software component functions. The scope of all possible applications of Ada software is considered too great to allow the practical development of a working taxonomy. Instead, for the purposes herein, the scope of Ada software application is limited to device and subsystem control in real-time embedded systems. A functional approach is taken in constructing the taxonomy tree for identified Ada domain. The use of modular software functions as a starting point fits well with the object oriented programming philosophy of Ada. Examples of the types of functions represented within the working taxonomy are real time kernels, interrupt service routines, synchronization and message passing, data conversion, digital filtering and signal conditioning, and device control. The constructed taxonomy is proposed as a framework from which a need analysis can be performed to reveal voids in current Ada real-time embedded programming efforts for Space Station.

  3. An Ada-based preprocessor language for concurrent object oriented programming

    In this paper, implementation issues of concurrent-objected programming using Ada 95 are addressed. Ada is not a pure object-oriented language; in order to make it so, a uniform template for structuring object classes is proposed. The template constitutes a basis for an Ada-based preprocessor language that handles concurrent object-oriented programming. The preprocessor accepts Ada-like object-oriented programs (object classes, subclasses and main program) as input and produces Ada 95 concurrent object-oriented program units as output. The preprocessor language has the advantage of adding a new component to the class specification called the protocol, which specifies the order for requesting methods f an object. The preprocessor also touches on the extensibility of object classes issue. It supports defining class hierarchies by inheritance and aggregation. In addition, the preprocessor language supports the re-use of Ada packages, which are not necessarily written according to the object-oriented approach. The paper also investigates the definition of circular dependent object classes and proposes a solution for introducing a collection of classes. (author)

  4. Vector-matrix-quaternion, array and arithmetic packages: All HAL/S functions implemented in Ada

    Klumpp, Allan R.; Kwong, David D.

    1986-01-01

    The HAL/S avionics programmers have enjoyed a variety of tools built into a language tailored to their special requirements. Ada is designed for a broader group of applications. Rather than providing built-in tools, Ada provides the elements with which users can build their own. Standard avionic packages remain to be developed. These must enable programmers to code in Ada as they have coded in HAL/S. The packages under development at JPL will provide all of the vector-matrix, array, and arithmetic functions described in the HAL/S manuals. In addition, the linear algebra package will provide all of the quaternion functions used in Shuttle steering and Galileo attitude control. Furthermore, using Ada's extensibility, many quaternion functions are being implemented as infix operations; equivalent capabilities were never implemented in HAL/S because doing so would entail modifying the compiler and expanding the language. With these packages, many HAL/S expressions will compile and execute in Ada, unchanged. Others can be converted simply by replacing the implicit HAL/S multiply operator with the Ada *. Errors will be trapped and identified. Input/output will be convenient and readable.

  5. Reduced virulence of Candida albicans mutants affected in multidrug resistance.

    Becker, J. M.; Henry, L K; Jiang, W; Koltin, Y.

    1995-01-01

    Disruption of a multidrug resistance gene (CaMDR1) in Candida albicans resulted in mutant strains that colonized mouse kidneys to very high levels but were markedly reduced in their virulence. No obvious differences in several properties related to colonization and dissemination were noted among MDR+ or mdr- strains. These results suggest that specific fungal efflux pumps play a role in fungal pathogenicity.

  6. BIOSORPTION OF CHROMIUM (VI) FROM INDUSTRIAL EFFLUENT BY WILD ANDMUTANT TYPE STRAIN OF SACCHAROMYCES CEREVISIAE AND ITS IMMOBILIZED FORM

    K Selvam, K Arungandhi, B Vishnupriya, T Shanmuga priya and M Yamuna

    2013-01-01

    Biosorption of chromium was studied by wild type Saccharomyces cerevisiae strain, mutant strain, immobilized-wild type and mutant strain. Chromium absorption pattern was observed in all experimental conditions. Hexavalent chromium (VI) was analyzed by diphenyl carbazide method, by oxidizing the trivalent chromium (III). The percentage efficiency of wild type S. cerevisiae and its mutant strain, immobilized-wild type and mutant strain were 94.8%, 98.7%, 97.4% and 100% respectively. S. cerevisi...

  7. Amphid defective mutant of Caenorhabditis elegans.

    De Riso, L; Ristoratore, F; Sebastiano, M; Bazzicalupo, P

    1994-01-01

    Studies are reported on a chemoreception mutant which arose in a mutator strain. The mutant sensory neurons do not stain with fluoresceine isothiocyanate (Dyf phenotype), hence the name, dyf-1, given to the gene it identifies. The gene maps on LGI, 0.4 map units from dpy-5 on the unc-11 side. The response of mutant worms to various repellents has been studied and shown to be partially altered. Other chemoreception based behaviors are less affected. The cilia of the sensory neurons of the amphid are shorter than normal and the primary defect may be in the capacity of the sheath cells to secrete the matrix material that fills the space between cilia in the amphid channel. Progress toward the molecular cloning of the gene is also reported. Relevant results from other laboratories are briefly reviewed. PMID:7896139

  8. Antifungal activity of mutant strains of Streptomyces sampsonii and their control effects on poplar purple root disease in potted experiment%桑氏链霉菌突变株的抑菌活性及对杨树紫纹羽病的盆栽防效

    李姝江; 朱天辉; 余琴; 谯天敏; 韩珊

    2015-01-01

    本文在平板对峙法测定桑氏链霉菌突变株 MV-2和 MV-4拮抗活性的基础上,用不同有机溶剂对其发酵液和菌丝体进行萃取,采用孔洞法测定发酵液萃取物和菌丝体浸出物的抑菌活性,并分析活性物质的热、酸碱、光稳定性,耐储藏性和对福美双的耐受性;通过盆栽试验,探索突变株抑菌物质和福美双对杨树紫纹羽病的防治效果。结果表明,两株突变株和原始菌株 KJ40对除终极腐霉外的7种植物病原真菌均有拮抗作用,对紫纹羽丝核菌作用最强。乙酸乙酯的发酵液萃取物和菌丝体浸出物的抑菌效果最明显;突变株 MV-2的抑菌效果略好于 MV-4和KJ40。在稳定性检测中,突变株比原始菌株具有更好的热、酸碱、光、储藏稳定性,对福美双耐受性更强。说明突变株更适宜于生产,具有较大的开发潜力。在盆栽防效试验中,抑菌物质和福美双混合施用比单独施用效果更好,其中 MV-2和福美双混合施用预防杨树紫纹羽病的效果最好,防治效果超过80%;原始菌株的抑菌物质无论和福美双混合还是单独施用,效果都不如突变株。%On the basis of antagonistic activity of Streptomyces sampsonii mutant strains tested with dual culture method,the fermentation liquid was extracted by different organic solvents.The antifungal activities of fermentation liquid extract and mycelium extract were studied by hole method,and the thermal,pH,ultraviolet light,storage stabili-ty,and tolerance to thiram of the active antifungal substances were analyzed.The control effect of the active substances of mutant strain and thiram was explored in potted experiments.The results showed that two mutant strains (MV-2 and MV-4)and original strain KJ40 had antagonistic effects on seven species of pathogens except Pythium ultimum ,and the effect was strongest on Rhizoctonia crocorum .The antifungal effects of liquid extract and

  9. Occurrence of toxicity among protease, amylase, and color mutants of a nontoxic soy sauce koji mold

    Kalayanamitr, A.; Bhumiratana, A.; Flegel, T.W.; Glinsukon, T.; Shinmyo, A.

    1987-08-01

    A soy sauce koji mold, Aspergillus flavus var. columnaris Raper and Fennel (ATCC 44310), was treated with UV irradiation to obtain mutant strains possessing high protease activities, high amylase activities, and light-colored conidia. Selected mutant strains were tested for toxicity, and some were found acutely toxic to weanling rats, although all were negative for aflatoxin production.

  10. Occurrence of toxicity among protease, amylase, and color mutants of a nontoxic soy sauce koji mold

    A soy sauce koji mold, Aspergillus flavus var. columnaris Raper and Fennel (ATCC 44310), was treated with UV irradiation to obtain mutant strains possessing high protease activities, high amylase activities, and light-colored conidia. Selected mutant strains were tested for toxicity, and some were found acutely toxic to weanling rats, although all were negative for aflatoxin production

  11. Absence of correlation between rates of cell wall turnover and autolysis shown by Bacillus subtilis mutants.

    Vitković, L; Cheung, H. Y.; Freese, E

    1984-01-01

    Bacillus subtilis mutants with reduced rates of cell wall autolysis reached a constant rate of wall turnover after a longer lag than the standard strain but eventually showed the same turnover rate. In reverse, a turnover-deficient mutant autolysed at a slightly higher rate than the standard strain. Consequently, there is no correlation between the rates of cell wall turnover and autolysis.

  12. PERBANDINGAN EFEK APLIKASI ADAS MANIS SEGAR TUMBUK DAN ADAS MANIS SEGAR DISTELASI PADA MUKOSA MULUT TIKUS WISTAR STRAIN LMR YANG MENGALAMI PERADANGAN (PENELITIAN LABORATORIK

    Tut Wuri Andajani

    2015-07-01

    Full Text Available Oral mucous inflammation is common in our community. Therefore we need an antiinflammotory medicine with affordable price, relative low adverse effects and easily obtained in our environment. Sweet fennel is a plant that is widely used in our community as a decorating plant, food flavouring and herbal medicine for various diseases. The effectivity for fennel has not been clinically examined. The aim of this research is to examine and compare reactions of both crushed and distilled fennel fruit on inflamed oral mucosa caused by hydrogen peroxide 10%. 14 rats were used and divided into 4 groups and crontrol (6 rats. The received hydrogen peroxide 10% application on vestibulum mucosa for three days to make the inflammation. After that they received crush and distilled fennel. Three days later they were killed and the vestibulum mucosa was excised for microscopic slides. The results showed that the crushed the redness of oral mucosa. The conclusion is fennel could reduce an inflammation and there is nodifference of healing either by crushed or distilled water.

  13. 基于Online AdaBoost的偏振图像目标跟踪%Polarization image object tracking based on Online AdaBoost

    邢晨; 薛模根; 袁广林; 王峰

    2011-01-01

    根据偏振图像的特点,文章提出一种基于在线AdaBoost的目标跟踪方法.该方法以最小二乘回归作为弱分类器,以强度、偏振度和边缘方向特征组成的向量为其输入;通过AdaBoost算法将多个弱分类器集成为强分类器,并在跟踪过程中利用AdaBoost算法对强分类器进行在线更新,以适应目标与背景的变化;利用强分类器生成当前置信图,在置信图上利用粒子滤波估计目标的状态.实验结果表明,该方法能够在复杂背景下稳定地跟踪目标.%A polarization image object tracking method is proposed based on Online Adaboost. The least square regression is used as the weak classifier, with feature vectors of intensity, polarization degree and margin direction chosen for the input. The ensemble of weak classifiers is integrated into a strong classifier by AdaBoost algorithm, and this strong classifier is updated online by AdaBoost algorithm during tracking in order to adapt to the change of the object or the background. Current confidence map is given by using the strong classifier, and based on this map the new state of the object is estimated by using particle filter. Experimental results show that the proposed method is robust and efficient in polarization image object tracking on complex background.

  14. A Porcine Circovirus Type 2 (PCV2) Mutant with 234 Amino Acids in Capsid Protein Showed More Virulence In Vivo, Compared with Classical PCV2a/b Strain

    Guo, Longjun; Fu, Yujie; Wang, Yiping; Lu, Yuehua; Wei, Yanwu; Tang, Qinghai; Fan, Peihu; Liu, Jianbo; Zhang, Long; Zhang, Feiyan; Huang, Liping; Liu, Dan; Li, Shengbin; Wu, Hongli; Liu, Changming

    2012-01-01

    Background Porcine circovirus type 2 (PCV2) is considered to be the primary causative agent of postweaning multisystemic wasting syndrome (PMWS), which has become a serious economic problem for the swine industry worldwide. The major genotypes, PCV2a and PCV2b, are highly prevalent in the pig population and are present worldwide. However, another newly emerging PCV2b genotype mutant, which has a mutation in its ORF2-encoded capsid protein, has been sporadically present in China, as well as in...

  15. Brucella abortus Cyclic β-1,2-Glucan Mutants Have Reduced Virulence in Mice and Are Defective in Intracellular Replication in HeLa Cells

    Briones, Gabriel; Iñón de Iannino, Nora; Roset, Mara; VIGLIOCCO, ANA; Paulo, Patricia Silva; Ugalde, Rodolfo A.

    2001-01-01

    Null cyclic β-1,2-glucan synthetase mutants (cgs mutants) were obtained from Brucella abortus virulent strain 2308 and from B. abortus attenuated vaccinal strain S19. Both mutants show greater sensitivity to surfactants like deoxycholic acid, sodium dodecyl sulfate, and Zwittergent than the parental strains, suggesting cell surface alterations. Although not to the same extent, both mutants display reduced virulence in mice and defective intracellular multiplication in HeLa cells. The B. abort...

  16. 基于PTS缺陷型大肠杆菌构建莽草酸生产菌%Construction of shikimic acid-producing engineered Escherichia coli strains based on ptsHIcrr mutants

    邹永康; 周军智; 孙旭; 蔡亚非; 戴红梅; 李树龙; 周长林; 方宏清

    2011-01-01

    对大肠杆菌芳香族氨基酸合成途径进行代谢流改造,以实现高效的生物制备莽草酸.以磷酸烯醇式丙酮酸-糖磷酸转移酶系统(PTS系统)敲除菌DH5αΔptsHIcrr(DHP)为基础,特异性敲除aroL,ydiB基因并转入受阿拉伯糖诱导表达的T7-RNA聚合酶基因,最终构建一系列产莽草酸宿主菌.再将aroE、aroB、tktA、glk、aroF组成的系列基因串联起来置于质粒上,在T7启动子控制下表达,经摇瓶培养检测得知,不同重组菌产莽草酸能力与对照相比均有明显提高,其中DHPYA-T7/pAOC-TGEFB菌株产量最高,可达到392 mg/L.为进一步构建高表达莽草酸工程菌奠定基础.%Metabolic engineering for aromatic amino acid biosynthesis pathway in Escherichia coli to acquire high-level biosynthesis of shikimic acid was reported. Knockout of aroL, ydiB genes and knock-in of T7-RNA-Polymerase gene which expression was controlled by L-arabinose based on the initial strain DH5α△ptsHlcrr (DHP), resulted in a series of shikimic acid-producing host strains. A series of tandem genes consisting of aroE, aroB, tktA, glk or aroFfbr were controlled by T7 promoter on plasmids were transformed into these host strains. According to the concentration of shikimic acid in shake-flask culture, all the engineered strains displayed high-potentiality compared to the control strain DHP, and the strain DHPYA-T7/pAOC-TGEFB synthesized the highest yield of 392 mg/L of shikimic acid. This study layed a strong foundation for constructing a high-level shikimic acid-producing engineered strain.

  17. Productive mutants of niger

    Seeds of six niger (Guizotia abyssinica Cass.) varieties ('GA-10', 'ONS-8', 'IGP-72', 'N-71', 'NB-9' and 'UN-4') were treated with 0.5, 0.75 and 1% ethyl methanesulphonate. After four generations of selection, 29 mutant lines were developed and those were evaluated from 1990-92 during Kharif (July to October) and Rabi (December to March) seasons. Average plant characteristics and yield data of four high yielding mutants along with 'IGP-76' (National Check), GA-10 (Zonal Check) and 'Semiliguda Local' (Local Check) are presented

  18. Platelet aggregation and serum adenosine deaminase (ADA) activity in pregnancy associated with diabetes, hypertension and HIV.

    Leal, Claudio A M; Leal, Daniela B R; Adefegha, Stephen A; Morsch, Vera M; da Silva, José E P; Rezer, João F P; Schrekker, Clarissa M L; Abdalla, Faida H; Schetinger, Maria R C

    2016-07-01

    Platelet aggregation and adenosine deaminase (ADA) activity were evaluated in pregnant women living with some disease conditions including hypertension, diabetes mellitus and human immunodeficiency virus infection. The subject population is consisted of 15 non-pregnant healthy women [control group (CG)], 15 women with normal pregnancy (NP), 7 women with hypertensive pregnancy (HP), 10 women with gestational diabetes mellitus (GDM) and 12 women with human immunodeficiency virus-infected pregnancy (HIP) groups. The aggregation of platelets was checked using an optical aggregometer, and serum ADA activity was determined using the colorimetric method. After the addition of 5 µM of agonist adenosine diphosphate, the percentage of platelet aggregation was significantly (p pregnancy and pregnancy-associated diseases suggest that platelet aggregation and ADA activity could serve as peripheral markers for the development of effective therapy in the maintenance of homeostasis and some inflammatory process in these pathophysiological conditions. Copyright © 2016 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd. PMID:27273565

  19. A New Method of Cloud Detection Based on Cascaded AdaBoost

    Cloud detection of remote sensing image is a critical step in the processing of the remote sensing images. How to quickly, accurately and effectively detect cloud on remote sensing images, is still a challenging issue in this area. In order to avoid disadvantages of the current algorithms, the cascaded AdaBoost classifier algorithm is successfully applied to the cloud detection. A new algorithm combined cascaded AdaBoost classifier and multi-features, is proposed in this paper. First, multi-features based on the color, texture and spectral features are extracted from the remote sensing image. Second, the automatic cloud detection model is obtained based on the cascaded AdaBoost algorithm. In this paper, the results show that the new algorithm can determine cloud detection model and threshold values adaptively for different resolution remote sensing training data. The accuracy of cloud detection is improved. So it is a new effective algorithm for the cloud detection of remote sensing images

  20. An enhanced Ada run-time system for real-time embedded processors

    Sims, J. T.

    1991-01-01

    An enhanced Ada run-time system has been developed to support real-time embedded processor applications. The primary focus of this development effort has been on the tasking system and the memory management facilities of the run-time system. The tasking system has been extended to support efficient and precise periodic task execution as required for control applications. Event-driven task execution providing a means of task-asynchronous control and communication among Ada tasks is supported in this system. Inter-task control is even provided among tasks distributed on separate physical processors. The memory management system has been enhanced to provide object allocation and protected access support for memory shared between disjoint processors, each of which is executing a distinct Ada program.

  1. Phanerochaete mutants with enhanced ligninolytic activity

    In addition to lignin, the white rot fungus Phanerochaete chrysosporium has the ability to degrade a wide spectrum of recalcitrant organo pollutants in soils and aqueous media. Most of the organic compounds are degraded under ligninolytic conditions with the involvement of the extracellular enzymes, lignin peroxidases, and manganese-dependent peroxidases, which are produced as secondary metabolites triggered by conditions of nutrient starvation (e.g., nitrogen limitation). The fungus and its enzymes can thus provide alternative technologies for bioremediation, bio pulping, bio bleaching, and other industrial applications. The efficiency and effectiveness of the fungus can be enhanced by increasing production and secretion of the important enzymes in large quantities and as primary metabolites under enriched conditions. One way this can be achieved is through isolation of mutants that are deregulated, or are hyper producers or super secretors of key enzymes under enriched conditions. Through UV-light and γ-ray mutagenesis, we have isolated a variety of mutants, some of which produce key enzymes of the ligninolytic system under high-nitrogen growth conditions. One of the mutants, 76UV, produced 272 U of lignin peroxidases enzyme activity/L after 9 d under high nitrogen (although the parent strain does not produce this enzyme under these conditions). The mutant and the parent strains produced up to 54 and 62 U/L, respectively, of the enzyme activity under low nitrogen growth conditions during this period. In some experiments, the mutant showed 281 U/L of enzyme activity under high nitrogen after 17 d

  2. Transplantation and optimization of AdaBoost face detection algorithm on DSP%AdaBoost人脸检测算法在DSP上的移植与优化

    朱明; 陆小锋; 陆亨立; 李莹娇; 张东升

    2014-01-01

    This paper transplants the AdaBoost algorithm proposed by Viola from PC platform to TMS320DM642 platform. The transplantation solves the compile problem caused by the difference between PC and DSP platform. The algorithm optimization is proceeding in CCS compiler which is provided by Texas Instruments. The paper optimizes the AdaBoost algorithm by the optimization of C code and the project settings, and a lot of experiments are done to give out the optimi-zation solution. It plays a guiding role in the implementation of real-time feature in embedded DM642 platform.%将Viola等人提出的AdaBoost人脸检测算法由PC机移植到TMS320DM642嵌入式平台,采用EMCV (Embedded Computer Vision Library)移植方案,将PC平台的OpenCV(Open Source Computer Vision Library)视觉库中有关AdaBoost算法的模块修改使之适应嵌入式DSP平台。该移植工作主要解决了OpenCV在嵌入式平台的不兼容问题以及不同体系架构的编译器环境和库文件导致的编译和链接错误。优化工作在TI的编译器CCS中进行,在编译器平台下进行C语言的项目及程序优化,并进行了大量实验数据的对比,给出了优化的方案,对实现系统的实时性有指导性作用。

  3. AdaBoost人脸检测算法在DSP上的移植与优化%Transplantation and optimization of AdaBoost face detection algorithm on DSP

    朱明; 陆小锋; 陆亨立; 李莹娇; 张东升

    2014-01-01

    将Viola等人提出的AdaBoost人脸检测算法由PC机移植到TMS320DM642嵌入式平台,采用EMCV (Embedded Computer Vision Library)移植方案,将PC平台的OpenCV(Open Source Computer Vision Library)视觉库中有关AdaBoost算法的模块修改使之适应嵌入式DSP平台。该移植工作主要解决了OpenCV在嵌入式平台的不兼容问题以及不同体系架构的编译器环境和库文件导致的编译和链接错误。优化工作在TI的编译器CCS中进行,在编译器平台下进行C语言的项目及程序优化,并进行了大量实验数据的对比,给出了优化的方案,对实现系统的实时性有指导性作用。%This paper transplants the AdaBoost algorithm proposed by Viola from PC platform to TMS320DM642 platform. The transplantation solves the compile problem caused by the difference between PC and DSP platform. The algorithm optimization is proceeding in CCS compiler which is provided by Texas Instruments. The paper optimizes the AdaBoost algorithm by the optimization of C code and the project settings, and a lot of experiments are done to give out the optimi-zation solution. It plays a guiding role in the implementation of real-time feature in embedded DM642 platform.

  4. Characterization of a Bradyrhizobium japonicum ferrochelatase mutant and isolation of the hemH gene.

    Frustaci, J M; O'Brian, M R

    1992-01-01

    A Tn5-induced mutant of Bradyrhizobium japonicum, strain LORBF1, was isolated on the basis of the formation of fluorescent colonies, and stable derivatives were constructed in backgrounds of strains LO and I110. The stable mutant strains LOek4 and I110ek4 were strictly dependent upon the addition of exogenous hemin for growth in liquid culture and formed fluorescent colonies. The fluorescent compound was identified as protoporphyrin IX, the immediate precursor of protoheme. Cell extracts of s...

  5. Protection against infection in mice vaccinated with a Brucella abortus mutant.

    Boschiroli, M L; Cravero, S L; Arese, A I; Campos, E.; Rossetti, O L

    1997-01-01

    This study determines whether a genetically engineered mutant of Brucella abortus, strain M-1, possesses differences in protective properties compared to the parental strain, vaccine S19. M-1 is a mutant unable to express BP26, a periplasmic protein with potential use in diagnosis. Mice vaccinated with S19 developed antibodies against BP26, while those vaccinated with M-1 did not. However, mice vaccinated with S19 or M-1 were similarly protected against challenge with pathogenic strain 2308, ...

  6. Isolation and characterization of coaggregation-defective mutants of Actinomyces viscosus, Actinomyces naeslundii, and Streptococcus sanguis.

    Kolenbrander, P. E.

    1982-01-01

    Spontaneously occurring coaggregation-defective (COG-) mutants of oral actinomycetes and streptococci were isolated and used to study interactions between cells of these two kinds of bacteria. COG- mutants of each kind of bacteria were isolated by a simple enrichment scheme. Parent strains were mixed with a coaggregating partner strain, coaggregated cells were removed by low-speed centrifugation, and non-coaggregated cells were recycled by the addition of more partner strain cells. COG- mutan...

  7. Methyl phosphotriesters in alkylated DNA are repaired by the Ada regulatory protein of E. coli.

    McCarthy, T.V.; Lindahl, T

    1985-01-01

    The E. coli ada+ gene product that controls the adaptive response to alkylating agents has been purified to apparent homogeneity using an overproducing expression vector system. This 39 kDa protein repairs 0(6)-methylguanine and 0(4)-methylthymine residues in alkylated DNA by transfer of the methyl group from the base to a cysteine residue in the protein itself. The Ada protein also corrects one of the stereoisomers of methyl phosphotriesters in DNA by the same mechanism, while the other isom...

  8. ADA, the Programming Language of Choice for the UPMSat-2 Satellite

    Garrido, Jorge; Zamorano, Juan; de la Puente, Juan A.; Alonso, Alejandro; Salazar, Emilio

    2015-09-01

    The proper selection of development mechanisms and tools is essential for the final success of any engineering project. This is also true when it comes to software development. Furthermore, when the system shows very specific and hard to meet requirements, as it happens for high-integrity real-time systems, the appropriate selection is crucial. For this kind of systems, Ada has proven to be a successful companion, and satellites are not an exception. The paper presents the reasons behind the selection of Ada for the UPMSat-2 development, along with the experience and examples on its usage.

  9. The Spectrum Sensing Algorithm Based AdaBoost in Cognitive Radio

    Tian, Deyong; Wang, Xin

    To solve the low detection rate of the primary user in the cognitive radio environment, we propose a spectrum sensing method based on AdaBoost in the case of low SNR. In this paper, a set of received signal spectrum features are first calculated and extracted the discriminant feature vector as training samples and testing samples for classification. Finally, we utilize the trained AdaBoost to detect the primary user. Test result shows that the proposed algorithm is not affected by uncertainty factors of noise and has high performance to classification detection compared with ANN, SVM and maximum-minimum eigenvalue (MME).

  10. Molecular analysis of mutants of the Neurospora adenylosuccinate synthetase locus

    A. Wiest; A. J. McCarthy; R. Schnittker; K. McCluskey

    2012-08-01

    The ad-8 gene of Neurospora crassa, in addition to being used for the study of purine biology, has been extensively studied as a model for gene structure, mutagenesis and intralocus recombination. Because of this there is an extensive collection of well-characterized N. crassa ad-8 mutants in the Fungal Genetics Stock Center collection. Among these are spontaneous mutants and mutants induced with X-ray, UV or chemical mutagens. The specific lesions in these mutants have been genetically mapped at high resolution. We have sequenced the ad-8 locus from 13 of these mutants and identified the molecular nature of the mutation in each strain. We compare the historical fine-structure map to the DNA and amino acid sequence of each allele. The placement of the individual lesions in the fine-structure map was more accurate at the 5′ end of the gene and no mutants were identified in the 3′ untranslated region of this gene. We additionally analysed ad-8+ alleles in 18 N. crassa strains subjected to whole-genome sequence analysis and describe the variability among Neurospora strains and among fungi and other organisms.

  11. [Production of mutants with an increased alpha-amylase synthesis].

    Ostrikova, N A; Konovalov, S A

    1978-01-01

    A mutant characterized by elevated biosynthesis of alpha-amylase was obtained as a result of a three-stage induced selection using nitroso compounds. Changes of mutagens in the course of selection stages and the establishment of their effective doses causing the maximum accumulation of mutations yielded the mutant which produced 2.5 times more alpha-amylase than the parent strain of Aspergillus oryzae 762. The induced variability of the mutant can be registered on a solid growth medium and provides the high activity of alpha-amylase. PMID:309059

  12. Genetics of Ustilago violacea. I. Carotenoid mutants and carotenogenesis

    Wild-type strains of Ustilago violacea produce pink colonies on laboratory medium and yield white, orange, pumpkin, and yellow colonies after uv mutagenesis. The wild-type strains contain neurosporene and lycopene; one orange mutant, γ-carotene; and one yellow mutant, β-carotene. One white mutant had no detectable carotenoids. Diploid colonies heterozygous for wild type and orange, pumpkin, yellow, or white are phenotypically wild type. Diploid colonies heterozygous for yellow and orange are also phenotypically wild type. Diploid colonies heterozygous for white and orange; white and yellow; and white, yellow, and orange are phenotypically light orange, light yellow, and orange-yellow, respectively. The white mutants give a circular complementation map; the color mutants fit a linear complementation map. We propose a multienzyme of four identical dehydrogenases and one or two identical cyclases for carotenogenesis in this species. The white and color mutants represent structural mutations altering the conformation of the dehydrogenase or cyclase, respectively. Furthermore, cyclases may or may not aggregate in association with the dehydrogenase aggregate to form the multienzyme aggregate responsible for the color mutants

  13. BIOSORPTION OF CHROMIUM (VI FROM INDUSTRIAL EFFLUENT BY WILD ANDMUTANT TYPE STRAIN OF SACCHAROMYCES CEREVISIAE AND ITS IMMOBILIZED FORM

    K Selvam, K Arungandhi, B Vishnupriya, T Shanmuga priya and M Yamuna

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Biosorption of chromium was studied by wild type Saccharomyces cerevisiae strain, mutant strain, immobilized-wild type and mutant strain. Chromium absorption pattern was observed in all experimental conditions. Hexavalent chromium (VI was analyzed by diphenyl carbazide method, by oxidizing the trivalent chromium (III. The percentage efficiency of wild type S. cerevisiae and its mutant strain, immobilized-wild type and mutant strain were 94.8%, 98.7%, 97.4% and 100% respectively. S. cerevisiae mutant strain and their immobilized form was found to be effective in biosorption of chromium (VI than the wild type forms.

  14. Mutants of Streptomyces coeruleorubidus impaired in the biosynthesis of daunomycinone glycosides and related metabolites

    Mutants of Streptomyces coeruleorubidus, blocked in the biosynthesis of anthracycline antibiotics of the daunomycine complex, were isolated from the production strains after treatment with UV light, γ-radiation, nitrous acid, and after natural selection; according to their different biosynthetic activity the mutants were divided into five phenotypic groups. Mutants of two of these groups produced compounds that had not yet been described in Streptomyces coeruleorubidus (aklavinone, 7-deoxyaklavinone, zeta-rhodomycinone and glycosides of epsilon-rhodomycinone). The mutants differed from the parent strains and also mutually in morphological characteristics but no direct correlation between these changes and the biosynthetic activity could be observed in most cases. (author)

  15. Anemia nos pacientes com insuficiência cardíaca avançada

    Juliano Cardoso

    2010-10-01

    Full Text Available FUNDAMENTO: Anemia está associada à pior evolução nos pacientes com insuficiência cardíaca (IC. Entretanto, há poucos estudos sobre a anemia nos pacientes com IC avançada. OBJETIVO: Avaliar as características da anemia na IC em fase avançada. MÉTODOS: Foram incluídos 99 pacientes hospitalizados para compensação de IC (CF IV/NYHA, com idade > 18 anos e FEVE 12 g/dl. A anemia foi marcador independente de mau prognóstico na análise multivariada (mortalidade 47% vs 24,6%, p = 0,016, risco relativo 2,54. CONCLUSÃO: Anemia acomete, aproximadamente, 1/3 dos pacientes com IC avançada, e a deficiência de ferro é uma importante etiologia. Pacientes anêmicos são mais idosos e apresentaram função renal mais deteriorada. A melhora da congestão não foi suficiente para melhorar a anemia na maioria dos casos. Nos pacientes com IC avançada, a anemia é marcador independente de mau prognóstico.

  16. 76 FR 57013 - Recordkeeping and Reporting Requirements Under Title VII, the ADA, and GINA

    2011-09-15

    ... proposed modifications of its recordkeeping and reporting provisions under title VII, the ADA, and GINA. (76 FR 31892, June 2, 2011). No requests to present oral testimony at a hearing concerning the... COMMISSION 29 CFR Part 1602 RIN 3046-AA89 Recordkeeping and Reporting Requirements Under Title VII, the...

  17. 76 FR 38124 - Applications for New Awards; Americans With Disabilities Act (ADA) National Network Regional...

    2011-06-29

    ... and Centers Program, published in the Federal Register on April 28, 2006 (71 FR 25472). The priorities... 350. (c) The notice of final priorities published in the Federal Register on April 28, 2006 (71 FR... Applications for New Awards; Americans With Disabilities Act (ADA) National Network Regional Centers and...

  18. Characterization of a Mutant of Alteromonas aurantia A18 and Its Application in Mariculture

    2008-01-01

    Mutant J61321 with enhanced siderophore production of Alteromonas aurantia A18 was obtained after a series of chemical-physical mutageneses. It was found that the antibacterial activity against Vibrio anguillarum W-1 and siderophore production of the mutant were higher than those by the original strain A18 which had been used in mariculture. The results of the specific J61321 and the original strain A18, respectively, while the siderophore with catechol group was yielded by strain W-1 (Aibrio anguillarum). Meanwhile, the siderophore yield, antibacterial activity and anti-chelator activity of strain J61321 were higher than those of its parent strain A18.

  19. Morphological mutants of garlic

    Choudhary, A.D.; Dnyansagar, V.R. (Nagpur Univ. (India). Dept. of Botany)

    1982-01-01

    Cloves of garlic (Allium sativuum Linn.) were exposed to gamma rays with various doses and different concentrations of ethylmethane sulphonate (EMS), diethyl sulphate (dES) and ethylene imine (EI). In the second and third generations, 16 types of morphological mutants were recorded with varied frequencies. Of all the mutagens used, gamma rays were found to be the most effective in inducing the maximum number of mutations followed EI, EMS and dES in that order.

  20. Morphological mutants of garlic

    Cloves of garlic (Allium sativuum Linn.) were exposed to gamma rays with various doses and different concentrations of ethylmethane sulphonate (EMS), diethyl sulphate (dES) and ethylene imine (EI). In the second and third generations, 16 types of morphological mutants were recorded with varied frequencies. Of all the mutagens used, gamma rays were found to be the most effective in inducing the maximum number of mutations followed EI, EMS and dES in that order. (author)

  1. Construction of mutant Brucella Abortus S19 strain and evaluation of immunization in mice%流产布氏杆菌S19突变株构建及在小鼠感染模型中的免疫保护评估

    郑孝辉; 胡森; 王加兰; 刘林涛; 高红霞; 步志高

    2009-01-01

    通过构建标记疫苗株来解决流产布氏杆菌(B.abortus)鉴别诊断方面的缺陷,本研究以bp26基因作为重组靶住点,S19为亲本,利用bp26基因ORF外侧序列作为同源重组序列,卡那霉素抗性基因(Kanr)为抗性筛选标记,通过双交叉重组筛选获得bp26基因缺失突变的重组S19株,命名为S19-△26.小鼠感染结果表明,突变株S19-△26的残留毒力与亲本株S19相比较没有发生明显改变,康复时间约为15周,突变株S19-△26、亲本株S19和B.abortus强毒株S544接种小鼠后的第3周能检测出"O"抗原的特异性抗体,而第6周开始S19和S544接种小鼠BP26特异性抗体明显升高,S19-△26接种的小鼠一直没检测到BP26特异性抗体.小鼠免疫保护试验显示,脾脏分离CFU数比空白对照要低310g10,S544攻击后脾脏细菌分离数表明突变株具有与亲本疫苗株免疫保护性无明显差异.结果表明,S19-△26免疫能够通过血清学方法与野生型B.abortus感染后的免疫反应相区别,具备作为标记疫苗的潜力.%Brucella abortus strain S19 played an important role in preventing and monitoring brucellosis with high protective rate. S19-△26, a Mutant bp26 gene of B. Abortus S19 strain was constructed by replacing the bp26 gene of attenuated S19 with kanamycin resistence gene. Compared with Si9, mutant S19-△26 possessed the same recover time (15 weeks) and residual virulence in mice, However it did not induce anti-bp26 antibody production in Mice, which would differentiate animals infected with S19-△26 from those infected by S19 and S544. The mutant S19-△26 possesses the same protective ability as S19, which could reduce CFU number of strain S544 infection in mice by 31og10. Altogether, these results indicate that B. Abortus S19-△26 could be a promising vaccine strain in preventing brucellosis.

  2. Irradiation of mutants of rose

    Radiation-induced Reddish-orange (R) and Pink (P) flowered mutants of the rose cultivar Montezuma were subjected to a second treatment of gamma radiation. Effects of this treatment were recorded on bud-take, growth, survival, flowering and essential oil content. The P mutant was more radiosensitive than the R mutant. The occurrence of certain early flowering and flower yielding plants in the latter mutant proved the efficiency of this technique for inducing genetic variability in garden roses. (author)

  3. Connexin mutants and cataracts

    EricCBeyer

    2013-04-01

    Full Text Available The lens is a multicellular, but avascular tissue that must stay transparent to allow normal transmission of light and focusing of it on the retina. Damage to lens cells and/or proteins can cause cataracts, opacities that disrupt these processes. The normal survival of the lens is facilitated by an extensive network of gap junctions formed predominantly of connexin46 and connexin50. Mutations of the genes that encode these connexins (GJA3 and GJA8 have been identified and linked to inheritance of cataracts in human families and mouse lines. In vitro expression studies of several of these mutants have shown that they exhibit abnormalities that may lead to disease. Many of the mutants reduce or modify intercellular communication due to channel alterations (including loss of function or altered gating or due to impaired cellular trafficking which reduces the number of gap junction channels within the plasma membrane. However, the abnormalities detected in studies of other mutants suggest that they cause cataracts through other mechanisms including gain of hemichannel function (leading to cell injury and death and formation of cytoplasmic accumulations (that may act as light scattering particles. These observations and the anticipated results of ongoing studies should elucidate the mechanisms of cataract development due to mutations of lens connexins and abnormalities of other lens proteins. They may also contribute to our understanding of the mechanisms of disease due to connexin mutations in other tissues.

  4. Efficient production of lignocellulolytic enzymes xylanase, β-xylosidase, ferulic acid esterase and β-glucosidase by the mutant strain Aspergillus awamori 2B.361 U2/1

    Leda Maria Fortes Gottschalk

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available The production of xylanase, β-xylosidase, ferulic acid esterase and β-glucosidase by Aspergillus awamori 2B.361 U2/1, a hyper producer of glucoamylase and pectinase, was evaluated using selected conditions regarding nitrogen nutrition. Submerged cultivations were carried out at 30 ºC and 200 rpm in growth media containing 30 g wheat bran/L as main carbon source and either yeast extract, ammonium sulfate, sodium nitrate or urea, as nitrogen sources; in all cases it was used a fixed molar carbon to molar nitrogen concentration of 10.3. The use of poor nitrogen sources favored the accumulation of xylanase, β-xylosidase and ferulic acid esterase to a peak concentrations of 44,880; 640 and 118 U/L, respectively, for sodium nitrate and of 34,580, 685 and 170 U/L, respectively, for urea. However, the highest β-glucosidase accumulation of 10,470 U/L was observed when the rich organic nitrogen source yeast extract was used. The maxima accumulation of filter paper activity, xylanase, β-xylosidase, ferulic acid esterase and β-glucosidase by A. awamori 2B.361 U2/1 was compared to that produced by Trichoderma reesei Rut-C30. The level of β-glucosidase was over 17-fold higher for the Aspergillus strain, whereas the levels of xylanase and β-xylosidase were over 2-fold higher. This strain also produced ferulic acid esterase (170 U/L, which was not detected in the T. reesei culture.

  5. COMPARISION OF ADENOSINE DEAMINASE [ADA] LEVELS WITH CYTO-CHEMICAL ANALYSIS OF PLEURAL FLUIDS TO DIFFERENTIATE TUBERCULAR AND NON â TUBERCULAR EFFUSIONS

    Choukimath M Sharanabasav

    2013-12-01

    Full Text Available This study is intended to utilize biochemical parameters like ADA and protein levels in comparison with cell count and cell type in pleural fluid to differentiate tubercular and non-tubercular effusions. We have analyzed a total of 208 cases and among them 59.61% cases were ADA positive and 40.39% cases were ADA negative, and 156 cases were exudates and 52 cases were transudates. Categorized these effusions into 4 groups taking consideration of ADA, cell count, lymphocyte and protein levels as exudate with ADA positive, exudate with ADA negative, transudate with ADA positive and transudate with ADA negative. This study has shown promising results to diagnose tuberculosis with immediate and cost effectiveness that can be undertaken by any basic laboratory, in a endemic areas and developing countries like India

  6. 人egf基因在突变枯草芽孢杆菌WYBS2001中的转化、分泌表达及其产物功能研究%Transforming and Secreting Expression of Human egf in Mutant Strain WYBS2001 of Bacillas and Its Functions

    王关林; 易庆; 方宏筠

    2003-01-01

    通过紫外线突变诱导获得了对感染致病菌具有显著抑菌作用的枯草芽孢杆菌突变株WYBS2001.采用PCR技术人工合成了175 bp的人表皮生长因子(hEGF)的基因片段,并引入Pst Ⅰ、HindⅢ酶切位点、起始密码子及pUS186载体信号肽序列CTTAGA.经DNA测序分析,合成的片段与人egf基因序列完全一致.然后将其克隆至枯草杆菌分泌型质粒载体pUS186上构建成重组质粒pUSE,并转化枯草杆菌突变菌株WYBS2001,获得转人egf基因的枯草杆菌生态工程菌WYBS2001T.RIA检测结果表明,WYBS2001T阳性工程菌培养的上清液中可检测到hEGF,含量为7.6 ng/ml.如果培养液中添加蛋白酶抑制剂可提高hEGF检测量.通过多代的培养仍然能够稳定地分泌表达hEGF.生物学功能实验表明,分泌的hEGF对人K562体外培养细胞的增殖和生长具有明显生物学活性.对烧伤动物模型的功能性实验观察到,WYBS2001T工程菌制剂对动物的烧伤有明显的治疗作用.该研究表明,微生态基因工程菌有很好的应用前景.%Mutant strain WYBS2001 of B. subtilis with strong anti-pathgenic activity was obtained by mutagenic ultraviolet rays. The gene fragment of Human Epidermal Growth Factor(hegf) of 175 bp was synthesized by PCR and the restriction sites Pst Ⅰ and Hind Ⅲ , original code and the signal sequence CTTAGA of secreting vector pUS186 were induced in the fragment. The DNA sequencing result revealed that the synthesized fragment was identical with that of human egf. Then the biological engineering strain WYBS2001T with human egf was obtained by transforming pUSE which was constructed by cloning egf into the secreting plasmid pUS186, into mutant strain WYBS2001. The result of RIA showed that hEGF can be found in the supernatant of the cultures and its content was 7.6 ng/ml. And the content can be increased if the proteinase inhibitor was added into the medium. After several generations' culturing, WYBS2001T positive

  7. Spt-Ada-Gcn5-Acetyltransferase (SAGA Complex in Plants: Genome Wide Identification, Evolutionary Conservation and Functional Determination.

    Rakesh Srivastava

    Full Text Available The recruitment of RNA polymerase II on a promoter is assisted by the assembly of basal transcriptional machinery in eukaryotes. The Spt-Ada-Gcn5-Acetyltransferase (SAGA complex plays an important role in transcription regulation in eukaryotes. However, even in the advent of genome sequencing of various plants, SAGA complex has been poorly defined for their components and roles in plant development and physiological functions. Computational analysis of Arabidopsis thaliana and Oryza sativa genomes for SAGA complex resulted in the identification of 17 to 18 potential candidates for SAGA subunits. We have further classified the SAGA complex based on the conserved domains. Phylogenetic analysis revealed that the SAGA complex proteins are evolutionary conserved between plants, yeast and mammals. Functional annotation showed that they participate not only in chromatin remodeling and gene regulation, but also in different biological processes, which could be indirect and possibly mediated via the regulation of gene expression. The in silico expression analysis of the SAGA components in Arabidopsis and O. sativa clearly indicates that its components have a distinct expression profile at different developmental stages. The co-expression analysis of the SAGA components suggests that many of these subunits co-express at different developmental stages, during hormonal interaction and in response to stress conditions. Quantitative real-time PCR analysis of SAGA component genes further confirmed their expression in different plant tissues and stresses. The expression of representative salt, heat and light inducible genes were affected in mutant lines of SAGA subunits in Arabidopsis. Altogether, the present study reveals expedient evidences of involvement of the SAGA complex in plant gene regulation and stress responses.

  8. Eficiência e competitividade de variantes espontâneos isolados de estirpes de Bradyrhizobium spp recomendadas para a cultura da soja (Glycine max Effectiveness and competitiveness of spontaneous mutants isolated from Bradyrhizobium spp strains recommended for soybean crop (Glycine max

    Fabíola Gomes de Carvalho

    2005-12-01

    Full Text Available O cultivo sucessivo de soja inoculada numa mesma área proporcionou a adaptação de uma população de rizóbios, que podem não ser tão eficientes quanto à capacidade de fixação de N2, mas apresentam alta competitividade, dificultando a introdução de novas estirpes mais eficientes. Com a finalidade de avaliar o desempenho simbiótico (eficiência e competitividade de variantes espontâneos isolados de estirpes de B. japonicum (SEMIA 5079 e SEMIA 5080 e B. elkanii (SEMIA 587 e SEMIA 5019, realizou-se um experimento em casa de vegetação onde os variantes foram inoculados isoladamente e em diferentes combinações entre os variantes e uma estirpe comprovadamente mais competitiva (SEMIA 587 ou SEMIA 5019 a partir da adição de inóculos mistos (1/1; v/v no cultivar de soja BR-16. Por meio da avaliação das variáveis analisadas (nodulação, produção de matéria de seca da parte aérea, N total acumulado na parte aérea e ocupação nodular, foi possível constatar que o determinante da maior eficiência em tratamentos co-inoculados não foi a ocupação nodular de determinada estirpe ou variante presente no inóculo, mas, sim, o tipo de interação (sinérgica ou antagônica predominante no tratamento co-inoculado e que é possível selecionar variantes eficientes e competitivos para a cultura da soja a partir de estirpes parentais que já apresentam características desejáveis para utilização em inoculantes comerciais.The continuous cultivation of inoculated soybean in the same area can determine the soil colonization with a rhizobia population presenting low nitrogen fixation effectiveness. This fact can be a problem for the establishment of a more effective population. A greenhouse experiment was carried out to evaluate the symbiotic effectiveness and competitiveness of spontaneous mutants isolated from B. japonicum (SEMIA 5079 and SEMIA 5080 and B. elkanii (SEMIA 587 and SEMIA 5019 strains. The soybean biovar BR 16 was

  9. Enrichment of Auxotrophic Mutants in Streptomyces griseus

    Werner, Rolf G.; Demain, Arnold L.

    1980-01-01

    A method for the isolation and enrichment of tryptophan auxotrophic mutants of the indolmycin-producing strain Streptomyces griseus ATCC 12648 was developed, using penicillin selection. With UV irradiation of 2.2 × 104 μW cm−2, a mutation rate to tryptophan auxotrophy of 5.6 × 10−4 was achieved. With 300 μg ml−1 of penicillin G, an enrichment of tryptophan auxotrophs of about 1,000-fold was attained. Approximately 40% of all survivors were tryptophan auxotrophs.

  10. Control estructural en el emplazamiento del volcanismo y mineralizaciones neógenas, distrito Cañada Honda, San Luis Structural control on Neogene volcanism and related ore deposits at Cañada Honda district, San Luis province

    María Silvia Japas

    2010-12-01

    Tertiary volcanic belt records the eastward migration of the Andean volcanic arc due to the flattening of the Nazca Plate in Mio-Pliocene times. The tertiary volcanic belt encompasses several very important metallogenetic districts in the San Luis Pampean Ranges. Volcanic rocks and associated ore-deposits crop out following a NW-WNW trending belt at La Carolina, Cañada Honda - Cerros Largos, Cerros del Rosario and El Morro volcanic fields. The available geochronological data indicate that the volcanic activity began early at the western end of the belt and ended ~ 10 Ma later at its eastern border. Cañada Honda district represents the oldest and longest-lived volcanic field of the tertiary volcanic belt. It records eruptive events and related hydrothermal alteration from 12-13 Ma to 7.3 Ma, including lavas and volcaniclastic products. Preliminary structural analysis shows that previous structures have strongly controlled, either directly or indirectly, the emplacement of volcanic rocks and related mineral deposits. Kinematic and strain fabric analyses allow to recognize two volcano-tectonic associations. One of these associations would be related to dextral reactivations of structures parallel to basement foliation. On the other hand, the main one would be linked with the generation of two volcano-tectonic depressions which are aligned in a NW-WNW direction. Their dominant structures trend NW-WNW and reveal sinistral-normal motions, both at local and Tertiary volcanic belt scales.

  11. Effect of salt stress and phosphorus deficiency in mutants of rhizobium obtained by gamma irradiation

    Two strains of Rhizobium: Rhizobium Tropici and Mesorhizobium Ciceri nodulating respectively common bean and chickpea were treated by gamma irradiation (60Co) source. Radiosensibility analysis showed that 800 Gy was the biggest dose supported by these two strains. We isolated gamma irradiated resistant strain in order to select mutant of them which can supported salt stress and phosphorus deficiency. Salinity analysis showed that Mesorhizobium Ciceri 835 strain, can tolerate up to 18g/l (273 mM NaCl) of salt, whereas, their irradiation mutants tolerate salinity up to 33g/l (564mM. NaCl) Rhizobium Tropici CIAT899 can survive at 20g/l (342 mM) either for control strain or mutants. Analysis of phosphorus deficiency showed that either Rhizobium Tropici CIAT899, or Mesorhizobium Ciceri 835 can survive in medium without phosphore. Our results permit us to screen mutants tolerant to these stresses wide spread in Mediterranean soil. In this study, we choose two mutants strains irradiated by 700Gy and two mutants irradiated by 800Gy in each species, these mutants were characterized by their best growth compared with their reference strains. Our results showed that Gamma irradiation modified antibiotic resistance, such as kanamicyne, tetracycline, vancomicyne, streptomicyne, penicilline, either at 700Gy or at 800Gy, we obtained significant modification of response and persistence of penicilline resistance. Biochemical analysis showed that these strains had a variable superoxide dismutase (SOD, E.C. 1.15.1.1) and catalase (CAT, E.C. 1.11.1.6) activities essentially in Mesorhizobium Ciceri 835 mutant strains, these two enzymatic antioxidants was suggested to play an important role in environmental stress tolerance. (author)

  12. Effect of Cultural Factors on Main Agronomic Characters for Flue-cured Tobacco Giant Mutant Strains of YK01%栽培因子对烤烟巨型变异株系YK01主要农艺性状的影响

    徐兴阳; 朱山; 端永明; 王胱霖; 李跃平; 朱桥云

    2011-01-01

    为探索施氮量及种植密度对烤烟巨型变异株系YK01农艺性状的影响,借助L16(4^5)正交设计表安排正交试验,于栽后70d测量未打顶的主要农艺性状.通过多元统计分析表明:1)施氮量是影响株高的主要因子,而叶数、茎围、最大腰叶的长和宽4项指标则主要受种植密度影响,且最大腰叶长受两个因子的影响均达到0.01极显著水平,其余指标的主要因子影响均达到0.08及以上的显著或极显著水平;2)株高、最大腰叶长随施氮量的增加而增加,叶数、最大腰叶长、宽和茎围均随种植密度的增加而减少,节距与施氮量或种植密度之间无明显规律性.%To explore the main agronomic characters for flue-cured tobacco giant mutant strains of YK01 affected by the cultural factors of nitrogen application dosage and planting density under the help of the orthogonal design El6 (45 ) for the giant mutant strains, and the main agronomic characters were measured after transplanting for 70 d under the plants being no topped. The results showed : 1 ) Nitrogen was the main factor affecting plant height, while 4 indexes of leaf number, stern girth, and length and width of maximum waist leaf were mainly affected by planting density. The significant level reached 0.01 for maximum waist leaf length was affected by nitrogen and planting density, and reached at least 0.08 for the others ; 2 ) Plant height and maximum waist leaf length increased with the raised nitrogen application dosage. 4 indexes of leaf number, stem girth, length and width of maximum waist leaf decreased with raised planting density but there was no obvious regularity pitch and nitrogen or planting density.

  13. Lactobacillus crispatus and its nonaggregating mutant in human colonization trials.

    Cesena, C; Morelli, L; Alander, M; Siljander, T; Tuomola, E; Salminen, S; Mattila-Sandholm, T; Vilpponen-Salmela, T; von Wright, A

    2001-05-01

    A wild-type Lactobacillus crispatus, showing a cell aggregation phenotype and its spontaneous nonaggregating mutant were compared for their in vitro adhesion properties to human ileal mucus and to a cultured human colonic cell line (Caco2) and for their in vivo colonization and adhesion potential with colonoscopy patients as volunteers in feeding trials. The wild-type strain adhered better to mucus or to Caco2 cells than did the mutant. Altogether, three human trials with the wild type and two with the mutant strain were performed. In two of the trials, the wild type could be recovered from either fecal samples or biopsies taken from the colon, while the mutant strain could not be demonstrated in either of the trials where it was used. The L. crispatus colonies recovered from the trials were often mixed, and several enterococci and lactobacillus strains coaggregating with L. crispatus wild type could be isolated. The results indicate that the surface-mediated properties, such as aggregation, of lactobacilli can have a role in adhesion and colonization. PMID:11384025

  14. Photorepair mutants of Arabidopsis

    UV radiation induces two major DNA damage products, the cyclobutane pyrimidine dimer (CPD) and, at a lower frequency, the pyrimidine (6-4) pyrimidinone dimer (6-4 product). Although Escherichia coli and Saccharomyces cerevisiae produce a CPD-specific photolyase that eliminates only this class of dimer, Arabidopsis thaliana, Drosophila melanogaster, Crotalus atrox, and Xenopus laevis have recently been shown to photoreactivate both CPDs and 6-4 products. We describe the isolation and characterization of two new classes of mutants of Arabidopsis, termed uvr2 and uvr3, that are defective in the photoreactivation of CPDs and 6-4 products, respectively. We demonstrate that the CPD photolyase mutation is genetically linked to a DNA sequence encoding a type II (metazoan) CPD photolyase. In addition, we are able to generate plants in which only CPDs or 6-4 products are photoreactivated in the nuclear genome by exposing these mutants to UV light and then allowing them to repair one or the other class of dimers. This provides us with a unique opportunity to study the biological consequences of each of these two major UV-induced photoproducts in an intact living system

  15. Gamma and MNNG mutants for bioconversion of apple distillery waste

    The mutation of Aspergillus niger by gamma irradiation and MNNG treatment for gaining hyperenzyme producing strains was continued. Potentially useful mutants were evaluated in fermentation tests for enhanced hydrolytic activities and also improved technological properties e.g. improved filtration. Enhanced cellulase activities (endoglucanase, FP activity, aryl-beta-glucosidase) were found. Amylolytic and pectolytic activities also increased. Trichoderma sp. was mutated by gamma rays and MNNG. Mutants were screened for their cellulolytic activities and more active mutants tested in fermentation tests. The selected A. niger and Trichoderma sp. mutants were used together in mixed culture and certain improvements of the bioconversion of apple distillery waste gained. (author). 17 refs, 3 figs, 6 tabs

  16. Colletotrichum sublineolum genetic instability assessed by mutants resistant to chlorate.

    Cecília de Lima Fávaro, Léia; Luiz Araújo, Welington; Aparecida de Souza-Paccola, Ednéia; Lúcio Azevedo, João; Paccola-Meirelles, Luzia Doretto

    2007-01-01

    The fungus Colletotrichum sublineolum, causal agent of sorghum anthracnose, presents high variability, genetic instability and host specialization. The aims of the present work were to investigate the mechanisms involved in the genetic instability in this species. Mutants resistant to chlorate and unable to use nitrate (Nit mutants), were obtained spontaneously, isolated and characterized for complementation pattern, reversion frequency and RAPD profile. The results showed that chlorate-resistant mutants could be divided into six phenotypic classes that probably represented mutations in the structural nitrate reductase locus (nit1), in the structural nitrite reductase locus (nit6 and niiA of Neurospora and Aspergillus, respectively), in the specific regulator locus (nit3), in the main regulator locus (nit2), in loci that codified the cofactor containing molybdenum necessary for nitrate reductase activity (NitM), and one or more genes responsible for nitrate intake (crn). In addition, the genetic control of this metabolism in C. sublineolum seems to be similar to other fungi species such as Aspergillus, Neurospora and Fusarium. The high reversion frequency (10(-4) to 10(-5)) presented by nit1 mutants suggests that the instability in evaluated strains could be a result of transposable elements activity. The RAPD analysis enabled confirmation that the Nit mutants have a similar genetic background to original strain, and that polymorphism exists among wild-type strains, nit1 mutants and revertants of C. sublineolum. These are important aspects for the later direction of molecular analysis, where these mutants will be used as a tool to isolate the active transposable elements in the C. sublineolum genome. PMID:17158042

  17. The Isolation of Staphylococcus aureus Tea Tree Oil-Reduced Susceptibility Mutants

    Cuaron, Jesus A.; Dulal, Santosh; Cooke, Peter H.; Torres, Nathaniel; Gustafson, John E.

    2014-01-01

    Tea tree oil-reduced susceptibility (TTORS) mutants of two Staphylococcus aureus laboratory strains were isolated utilizing TTO gradient plates. Attempts to isolate TTORS mutants employing agar plates containing single TTO concentrations failed. All TTORS mutants demonstrated a small colony variant (SCV) phenotype and produced cells with a smaller diameter, as determined by scanning electron microscopy. The addition of SCV auxotrophic supplements to media did not lead to an increase in TTORS ...

  18. A comparative study of some barley (Hordeum Vulgare L.) lines and mutants under local environmental condition

    Yield, 1000 grain weight and other agronomical traits were studied under the rain fed condition. Nineteen pure lines (doubled haploid) and mutants and two controls were grown in the field. Net blotch resistance in 150 (Dh), mutants, and their parental genotype were used to determine their resistance level against three strains of net bloch. Differences were found among the genotypes. Five lines (Dh) and mutants resistant to net blotch with good agronomic performance were selected for further investigation. (author)

  19. The Biocide Triclosan Selects Stenotrophomonas maltophilia Mutants That Overproduce the SmeDEF Multidrug Efflux Pump

    Sanchez, Patricia; Moreno, Eduardo; Jose L Martinez

    2005-01-01

    The possibility that triclosan selects Stenotrophomonas maltophilia mutants overexpressing the multidrug resistance pump SmeDEF is analyzed. Five out of 12 triclosan-selected mutants were less susceptible to antibiotics than the wild-type strain and overproduced SmeDEF. Results are discussed in relation to current debates on the potential selection of antibiotic-resistant bacteria by household biocides.

  20. Reinforced AdaBoost Learning for Object Detection with Local Pattern Representations

    Younghyun Lee; Han, David K.; Hanseok Ko

    2013-01-01

    A reinforced AdaBoost learning algorithm is proposed for object detection with local pattern representations. In implementing Adaboost learning, the proposed algorithm employs an exponential criterion as a cost function and Newton’s method for its optimization. In particular, we introduce an optimal selection of weak classifiers minimizing the cost function and derive the reinforced predictions based on a judicial confidence estimate to determine the classification results. The weak classifie...

  1. VIII Olimpíada Brasileira de Astronomia e Astronáutica

    Garcia Canalle, João Batista; Villas da Rocha, Jaime Fernando; Wuensche de Souza, Carlos Alexandre; Pereira Ortiz, Roberto; Aguilera, Nuricel Villalonga; Padilha, Maria De Fátima Catta Preta; Pessoa Filho, José Bezerra; Soares Rodrigues, Ivette Maria

    2007-07-01

    Neste trabalho apresentamos as motivações pelas quais organizamos, em conjunto, pela primeira vez, a Olimpíada Brasileira de Astronomia incluindo a Astronáutica, em colaboração com a Agência Espacial Brasileira. Esta ampliação contribuiu para atrair ainda mais alunos, professores, escolas e patrocinadores para participarem desta Olimpíada. Em 2005 participaram da VIII Olimpíada Brasileira de Astronomia e Astronáutica (VIII OBA) 187.726 alunos distribuídos por 3.229 escolas, pertencentes a todos os estados brasileiros, incluindo o Distrito Federal. O crescimento em número de alunos participantes foi 52,4% maior do que em 2004. Em abril de 2005 organizamos, em Itapecerica da Serra, SP, um curso para os 50 alunos previamente selecionados e participantes da VII OBA e ao final selecionamos, dentre eles, uma equipe de 5 alunos, os quais representaram o Brasil na X Olimpíada Internacional de Astronomia, na China, em outubro de 2005. Ganhamos, pela primeira vez, uma medalha de ouro naquele evento. Em Agosto de 2005, organizamos a VIII Escola de Agosto para 50 alunos e respectivos professores, em Águas de Lindóia, SP, juntamente com a XXXI reunião anual da Sociedade Astronômica Brasileira (SAB). Em novembro de 2005 realizamos a I Jornada Espacial, em São José dos Campos, com 22 alunos e 22 professores selecionados dentre os participantes que melhores resultados obtiveram nas questões de Astronáutica da VIII OBA. Neste trabalho detalhamos os resultados da VIII OBA bem como as ações subseqüentes.

  2. Model-Based Software Engineering and Ada: Synergy for the Development of Safety-Critical Systems

    Blotz, Andree; Huber, Franz; Loetzbeyer, Heiko; Pretschner, Alexander; Slotosch, Oscar; Zaengerl, Hans-Peter

    2002-01-01

    In this paper we outline a software development process for safety-critical systems that aims at combining some of the specific strengths of model-based development with those of programming language based development using safety-critical subsets of Ada. Model-based software development and model-based test case generation techniques are combined with code generation techniques and tools providing a transition from model to code both for a system itself and for its test cases. This allows de...

  3. Introducing New AdaBoost Features for Real-Time Vehicle Detection

    Stanciulescu, Bogdan; Moutarde, Fabien

    2009-01-01

    This paper shows how to improve the real-time object detection in complex robotics applications, by exploring new visual features as AdaBoost weak classifiers. These new features are symmetric Haar filters (enforcing global horizontal and vertical symmetry) and N-connexity control points. Experimental evaluation on a car database show that the latter appear to provide the best results for the vehicle-detection problem.

  4. 野生型与L10P突变型DJ-1蛋白稳定表达单克隆细胞株的基因表达谱分析%Expression profiles of genes in wild-type DJ-1 and L10P mutant DJ-1 in monoclonal cell strains

    刘振华; 唐北沙; 严新翔; 郭纪锋

    2013-01-01

    Background DJ-1 gene is a causative gene which contributes to the onset of autosomal recessive early-onset parkinsonism (AREP).Many research suggest that DJ-1 protein may change expression of certain genes through regulate its transcriptional activity,which play a role in the pathogenesis of Parkinson's disease (PD).In our previous study,we found a new mutation of DJ-1 which we named as L10P.DJ-1 gene encodes the first frame 29 bp from the thymine (T)→cytosine (C),so that the leucine on the 10th locus of DJ-1 protein was replaced by proline (L10P).To elucidate the effect of the L10P mutation,we identify genes for which expressions are abnormally regulated by L10P mutant DJ-1 protein using DNA microarray analysis.Methods Human embryonic kidney cell 293 (HEK293) monoclonal cell strains which can stably express pCMV-Tag2A-Flag,pCMV-Tag2A-Flag-DJ-1 and pCMVTag2A-Flag-DJ-1-L10P were selected by screening,and identified on the basis of DNA,RNA and protein levels to confirm whether the acquired HEK293 monoclonal cell strains can stably express empty vector,wild-type DJ-1 protein and L10P mutant DJ-1 protein.Gene chip technique was used to perform differential gene screening for different groups of HEK293 monoclonal cell strains.Results Compared with the expression in empty vector group,the expression of 14 genes was up-regulated and 28 genes was down-regulated in wild-type group; and the expression of 14 genes was up-regulated and 9 down-regulated in expressing L10P mutant group respectively.Comparison of the expression in wild-type group,expression of 59 genes was up-regulated and 27 genes down-regulated in L10P mutant group.These differential genes all took part in the biological processes including signal transduction,transcriptional regulation,cell cycle,apoptosis,oxidative stress and so on.Conclusion L10P mutant DJ-1 protein may directly or indirectly influence the singal transduction and play a role in the mechanism of PD.%研究背景 DJ-1基因是常染色体

  5. Isolation and analysis of Escherichia coli mutants that allow increased replication of bacteriophage lambda.

    Keller, J A; Simon, L D

    1987-01-01

    Escherichia coli mutants were isolated that supported the growth of a lambda Ots and, in at least one case, a lambda Bts phage at the normally nonpermissive temperature of 39 degrees C. In one such strain, Ots and Bts suppression ability appeared to be a function of the guaB gene. Ots suppression by the mutant guaB strain was prevented if high levels of guanine or xanthine were present in the medium. No other base had any effect on Ots suppression in this strain. Other strains carrying sponta...

  6. ADA2 deficiency: case report of a new phenotype and novel mutation in two sisters

    Uettwiller, F; Sarrabay, G; Rodero, M P; Rice, G I; Lagrue, E; Marot, Y; Deiva, K; Touitou, I; Crow, Y J; Quartier, P

    2016-01-01

    The objective of this paper is to: describe the phenotype compound heterozygote for mutations in CECR1 in two children. We describe the clinical and immunological phenotype, including the assessment of ADA2 activity, cytokine expression, interferon-stimulated and neutrophil-stimulated gene signatures, and the results of CECR1 sequencing. The first patient presented with intermittent fever, cutaneous vasculitis, myalgia and muscle inflammation on MRI leading to a provisional diagnosis of periarteritis nodosa. Subsequently, two cerebral lacunar lesions were identified following a brain stroke. Clinical features improved on anti-tumour necrosis factor therapy. The first patient's sister demonstrated early-onset, long-lasting anaemia with mild biological inflammation; at the ages of 3 and 5 years, she had presented 2 acute, transient neurological events with lacunar lesions on MRI. CECR1 sequencing identified both sisters to be compound heterozygous for a p.Tyr453Cys mutation and a previously undescribed deletion of exon 7. ADA2 activity was reduced by 50%. Neutrophil-stimulated genes were not overexpressed, but interferon-stimulated genes were. The expression of a panel of other cytokine transcripts was not significantly altered. In conclusion, searching for CECR1 mutation or assessing ADA2 activity should be considered in patients with an atypical presentation of inflammatory disease. PMID:27252897

  7. Ada (R) assessment: An important issue within European Columbus Support Technology Programme

    Vielcanet, P.

    1986-01-01

    Software will be more important and more critical for Columbus than for any ESA previous project. As a simple comparison, overall software size has been in the range of 100 K source statements for EXOSAT, 500 K for Spacelab, and will probably reach several million lines of code for Columbus (all element together). Based on past experience, the total development cost of software can account for about 10 pct to 15 pct of the total space project development cost. The Ada technology may support the strong software engineering principles needed for Columbus, provided that technology is sufficiently mature and industry plans are meeting the Columbus project schedule. Over the past 3 years, Informatique Internationale has conducted a coherent program based on Ada technology assessment studies and experiments, for ESA and CNES. This specific research and development program benefits from 15 years experience in the field of space software development and is supported by the overall software engineering expertise of the company. The assessment and experiments of Ada software engineering by Informatique Internationale are detailed.

  8. An object-oriented classification method of high resolution imagery based on improved AdaTree

    With the popularity of the application using high spatial resolution remote sensing image, more and more studies paid attention to object-oriented classification on image segmentation as well as automatic classification after image segmentation. This paper proposed a fast method of object-oriented automatic classification. First, edge-based or FNEA-based segmentation was used to identify image objects and the values of most suitable attributes of image objects for classification were calculated. Then a certain number of samples from the image objects were selected as training data for improved AdaTree algorithm to get classification rules. Finally, the image objects could be classified easily using these rules. In the AdaTree, we mainly modified the final hypothesis to get classification rules. In the experiment with WorldView2 image, the result of the method based on AdaTree showed obvious accuracy and efficient improvement compared with the method based on SVM with the kappa coefficient achieving 0.9242

  9. ADA2 deficiency: case report of a new phenotype and novel mutation in two sisters.

    Uettwiller, F; Sarrabay, G; Rodero, M P; Rice, G I; Lagrue, E; Marot, Y; Deiva, K; Touitou, I; Crow, Y J; Quartier, P

    2016-01-01

    The objective of this paper is to: describe the phenotype compound heterozygote for mutations in CECR1 in two children. We describe the clinical and immunological phenotype, including the assessment of ADA2 activity, cytokine expression, interferon-stimulated and neutrophil-stimulated gene signatures, and the results of CECR1 sequencing. The first patient presented with intermittent fever, cutaneous vasculitis, myalgia and muscle inflammation on MRI leading to a provisional diagnosis of periarteritis nodosa. Subsequently, two cerebral lacunar lesions were identified following a brain stroke. Clinical features improved on anti-tumour necrosis factor therapy. The first patient's sister demonstrated early-onset, long-lasting anaemia with mild biological inflammation; at the ages of 3 and 5 years, she had presented 2 acute, transient neurological events with lacunar lesions on MRI. CECR1 sequencing identified both sisters to be compound heterozygous for a p.Tyr453Cys mutation and a previously undescribed deletion of exon 7. ADA2 activity was reduced by 50%. Neutrophil-stimulated genes were not overexpressed, but interferon-stimulated genes were. The expression of a panel of other cytokine transcripts was not significantly altered. In conclusion, searching for CECR1 mutation or assessing ADA2 activity should be considered in patients with an atypical presentation of inflammatory disease. PMID:27252897

  10. Using Ada to implement the operations management system in a community of experts

    Frank, M. S.

    1986-01-01

    An architecture is described for the Space Station Operations Management System (OMS), consisting of a distributed expert system framework implemented in Ada. The motivation for such a scheme is based on the desire to integrate the very diverse elements of the OMS while taking maximum advantage of knowledge based systems technology. Part of the foundation of an Ada based distributed expert system was accomplished in the form of a proof of concept prototype for the KNOMES project (Knowledge-based Maintenance Expert System). This prototype successfully used concurrently active experts to accomplish monitoring and diagnosis for the Remote Manipulator System. The basic concept of this software architecture is named ACTORS for Ada Cognitive Task ORganization Scheme. It is when one considers the overall problem of integrating all of the OMS elements into a cooperative system that the AI solution stands out. By utilizing a distributed knowledge based system as the framework for OMS, it is possible to integrate those components which need to share information in an intelligent manner.

  11. Isolation and characterization of an Ashbya gossypii mutant for improved riboflavin production

    Wei, Shiping; Hurley, James; Jiang, Zhenglong; Wang, Siwen; Wang, Yuanyuan

    2012-01-01

    The use of the filamentous fungus, Ashbya gossypii, to improve riboflavin production at an industrial scale is described in this paper. A riboflavin overproducing strain was isolated by ultraviolet irradiation. Ten minutes after spore suspensions of A. gossypii were irradiated by ultraviolet light, a survival rate of 5.5% spores was observed, with 10% of the surviving spores giving rise to riboflavin-overproducing mutants. At this time point, a stable mutant of the wild strain was isolated. R...

  12. L-Tryptophan Production by Auxotrophic and Analogue Resistant Mutants of Aureobacterium flavescens

    Roy, A; S.K. Mukhopadhyay

    2011-01-01

    A number of tyrosine plus phenylalanine double auxotrophic mutants were isolated by N-methyl-N-nitro-N-nitrosoguanidine (MNNG) treatment of a locally isolated strain of Aureobacterium flavescens of which 11A39 and 11A17 were selected on the basis of their tryptophan production in a mineral salt medium over other isolated mutant strains. The mutational block in the aromatic amino acid biosynthetic pathway of the selected double auxotrophs were determined. By controlling pH of the production me...

  13. Mutant radiation-resistance alleles from the Escherichia coli Gamr444 mutant: Cloning and preliminary characterization

    Mutant alleles Gamr, which are able to increase the resistance to radiation of Escherichia coli wild-type cells, were cloned from the hyperradioresistant mutant Gamr444 on plasmid mini-Mu-vector MudII4042. The influence of recombinant plasmids on the sensitivity of wild-type and mutant (recA and htpR) cells to γ-irradiation was studied. It was shown that the enhanced resistance of the Gamr444 strain to radiation was caused by mutations of two different classes, dominant and recessive. The cloned recessive mutation gamr12 increases resistance to radiation only after homogenotization, that is, radiation-induced transfer from the plasmid to the chromosome, and it imposes constitutive expression of the heat-shock promoter htpG. Dominant mutant gamr alleles are active in the trans-position. A mutation-insertion into a chromosomal gene impaired by one of the dominant mutations, gamr18, was constructed. The insertion causes drastic cell radiosensitization on the recBC sbcB background and probably disturbs the RecF pathway of recombination and repair. Dominant plasmids of the second type lead to the RecA-independent inhibition of DNA postirradiation degradation. The radioprotective action of recessive and dominant gamr mutations is additive

  14. Rezension: Ada Lovelace. Die Pionierin der Computertechnik und ihre Nachfolgerinnen von Sybille Krämer (Hg.)

    Bettina Schabschneider

    2015-01-01

    Ein aktueller von Sybille Krämer herausgegebener Sammelband beleuchtet die Bedeutung der Computertechnik-Pionierin Ada Lovelace. Bettina Schabschneider hat den Band einer detaillierten Lektüre unterzogen und für die MEDIENIMPULSE rezensiert …

  15. Genetic and molecular characterization of radiation-sensitive mutants of the slime mold, Dictyostelium discoideum

    Several radiation-sensitive mutants of Dictyostelium discoideum, isolated on the basis of sensitivity to either 60Co gamma rays or 254 nm ultraviolet light (uv), were genetically characterized. The mutations studied can be classified into three types on the basis of their radiation-sensitive phenotype. Type one mutants are very sensitive compared to their parental radiation-resistant strains to both uv and gamma rays with no shoulder on their survival curves. Type two mutants have a sensitivity to both uv and gamma rays intermediate between that of the type one mutants and that of their parental strains; type two mutants have shoulders on both uv and gamma ray survival curves. Type three mutant are sensitive only to uv and are as resistant as their parental strains to gamma rays. The type three mutants have intermediate sensitivities to uv like the type two mutants and have shoulders on their survival curves. Linkage and complementation studies indicate that the ten radiation-sensitive mutations studied identify at least six but probably eight loci involved with DNA repair in D. discoideum. Alkaline sucrose gradient sedimentation profiles of DNA from cells following uv irradiation (15 J/m2) indicate that all type one and type two uv- and gamma-ray-sensitive mutants studied can make and repair single strand breaks. However the type three mutants (radC strains) made few single strand breaks under identical conditions, suggesting that these mutants are defective in excision repair. The evidence obtained indicates that D. discoideum has at least two pathways involved with the repair of uv-induced DNA damage

  16. Characterization of a mutant glucose isomerase from Thermoanaerobacterium saccharolyticum.

    Xu, Heng; Shen, Dong; Wu, Xue-Qiang; Liu, Zhi-Wei; Yang, Qi-He

    2014-10-01

    A series of site-directed mutant glucose isomerase at tryptophan 139 from Thermoanaerobacterium saccharolyticum strain B6A were purified to gel electrophoretic homogeneity, and the biochemical properties were determined. W139F mutation is the most efficient mutant derivative with a tenfold increase in its catalytic efficiency toward glucose compared with the native GI. With a maximal activity at 80 °C of 59.58 U/mg on glucose, this mutant derivative is the most active type ever reported. The enzyme activity was maximal at 90 °C and like other glucose isomerase, this mutant enzyme required Co(2+) or Mg(2+) for enzyme activity and thermal stability (stable for 20 h at 80 °C in the absence of substrate). Its optimum pH was around 7.0, and it had 86 % of its maximum activity at pH 6.0 incubated for 12 h at 60 °C. This enzyme was determined as thermostable and weak-acid stable. These findings indicated that the mutant GI W139F from T. saccharolyticum strain B6A is appropriate for use as a potential candidate for high-fructose corn syrup producing enzyme. PMID:25139657

  17. Research on Classification of Neuron Morphology Based on AdaBoost%基于AdaBoost的神经元形态分类的研究

    陆良虎; 毕硕本; 葛荐; 闫荞荞; 颜坚

    2011-01-01

    根据神经元形态的几何特征,使用AdaBoost算法对其进行分类,采用决策树、贝叶斯和关联规则分类模型作为基分类器。算法首先采用直接面向纽舍分类器分类精度提升的集成学刁算法选取基分类器,其次利用分类过程中生成样本的孱升权值来调整前K次(K〉1)被错误分类样本的权重,并提留双重阎值法对样本的最终投票表决结果进行判定。对20个测试样本进行分类,得出高可信度分类数为18个。%According to the geometric characteristics of neuron morphology, neurons were classified by AdaBoost algorithm, in which the decision tree, Bayesian and association rules classification model were used as base classifiers Firstly, the improvement of the classification precision of combined classifier directly oriented ensemble learning algorithms were adopted to select the base classifier. Secondly, cumulative weights of the sample generated during the classification were used to adjust the weights of misclassified samples in the former K (K〉 1) classification processes, and the dual threshold values for final voting results of samples were set. The 20 test samples were classified by AadBoost algorithm, and the results show that the number of highly reliable classification is 18.

  18. Effect of P39 Gene Deletion in Live Brucella Vaccine Strains on Residual Virulence and Protective Activity in Mice

    Tibor, Anne; Jacques, Isabelle; Guilloteau, Laurence; Verger, Jean-Michel; Grayon, Maggy; Wansard, Valerie; Letesson, Jean-Jacques

    1998-01-01

    The 39-kilodalton protein (P39) has previously been shown to be an immunodominant protein in Brucella infections. P39 gene deletion mutants of vaccine strains Brucella abortus S19 and Brucella melitensis Rev.1 were constructed by gene replacement. This deletion did not significantly modify the residual virulence of both vaccine strains in CD-1 mice. CD-1 mice vaccinated with the parent or mutant strains were protected against a virulent challenge. Mutant vaccine strains devoid of P39 could pr...

  19. Rhodobacter sphaeroides mutants which accumulate 5-aminolevulinic acid under aerobic and dark conditions.

    Nishikawa, S; Watanabe, K; Tanaka, T; Miyachi, N; Hotta, Y; Murooka, Y

    1999-01-01

    The photosynthetic bacterium Rhodobacter sphaeroides accumulates 5-aminolevulinic acid (ALA), which is a precursor in tetrapyrrole biosynthesis, under light illumination and upon addition of levulinic acid as an inhibitor of ALA dehydratase. To generate an industrial strain which produces ALA in the absence of light, we sequentially mutated R. sphaeroides CR-286 using N-methyl-N'-nitro-N-nitrosoguanidine (NTG). The mutant strains were screened by cultivating in the absence of light and assayed for ALA by the Ehrlich reaction in a 96-well microtiter plate. The mutant strain CR-386, derived from R. sphaeroides CR-286, was selected as a mutant that exhibited significant ALA accumulation. While CR-286 required light illumination for ALA production, CR-386 was able to accumulate 1.5 mM ALA in the presence of 50 mM glucose, 60 mM glycine, 15 mM levulinic acid and 1.0% (w/v) yeast extract under conditions of agitation in the absence of light. The mutant strain CR-450, derived from strain CR-386, was selected further as a mutant that exhibited significant ALA accumulation but no accumulation of aminoacetone, analogue of ALA. CR-450 accumulated 3.8 mM ALA under the same conditions. In the presence of 50 mM glucose, 60 mM glycine, 5 mM levulinic acid and 1.0% (w/v) yeast extract, the mutant strain CR-520, derived from strain CR-450, and strain CR-606, derived from strain CR-520, accumulated 8.1 mM and 11.2 mM ALA, respectively. In batch fermentation, the strain CR-606 accumulated 20 mM ALA over 18 h after the addition of glycine, levulinic acid, glucose and yeast extract. PMID:16232557

  20. The Electrogenic Bacterium Shewanella Oneidensis MR-1 and its Mutants with Increased Reducing Capacity

    Voeikova, T. A.; Emelyanova, L. K.; Novikova, L. M.; Mordkovich, N. N.; Shakulov, R. S.; Debabov, V. G.

    2013-02-01

    Mutants of Shewanella oneidensis MR-1 resistant to fosfomycin, a toxic analogue of phosphoenolpyruvate, were obtained. The mutants exhibited an increased reducing activity and a higher rate of lactate utilization. A correlation was shown between the rates of metabolism of oxidized substrates and the rate of reduction of methylene blue, a mediator of electron transport. The mutants of S.oneidensis MR-1 will be used in microbial fuel cells (MFC) to enhance energy production from organic compounds. The strain S. oneidensis MR-1 and its mutants with an increased electron production will be used as a good source of bioelectricity in MFC in the experiments on the International Space Station.

  1. Isolation and characterization of stable mutants of Streptomyces peucetius defective in daunorubicin biosynthesis

    K. S. Vetrivel; K. Dharmalingam

    2001-04-01

    Daunorubicin and its derivative doxorubicin are antitumour anthracycline antibiotics produced by Streptomyces peucetius. In this study we report isolation of stable mutants of S. peucetius blocked in different steps of the daunorubicin biosynthesis pathway. Mutants were screened on the basis of colony colour since producer strains are distinctively coloured on agar plates. Different mutants showed accumulation of aklaviketone, -rhodomycinone, maggiemycin or 13-dihydrocarminomycin in their culture filtrates. These results indicate that the mutations in these isolates affect steps catalysed by dnrE (mutants SPAK and SPMAG), dnrS (SPFS and SPRHO) and doxA (SPDHC) gene products.

  2. Study on the induction and selection of rice mutant R917 for blast disease (Piricularia oryzae) resistance

    Rice F0 seeds were treated with 10 krad of 60Co γ-rays, and blast resistance mutant R917 was selected in the following generations. The blast resistance was tested by inoculating the mutant with 138 strains of Piricularia oryzae artificially from nine blast regions in Zhejiang Province, scale of blast resistance was only 0.89 and 1.0 in 1991 and 1992 respectively. The rice mutant R917 was resistant to 136 blast fungus strains. The rate of blast resistance for R917 was higher than that of its parents. The mutant is likely to be used in rice breeding for variety improvement

  3. Use of X-ray and gamma-induced mutants of lactic acid bacteria in the manufacture of dairy products

    With the aid of X-ray and gamma irradiation were got mutants of lactic acid bacteria, which steadily retain acquired properties. Use of proteolytically active mutant strains in the production of armianski and sovetski cheeses shortened the time of their ripening and increased their quality. Gamma-mutant strain L. lactis 1621/I-M with high phenolstability was received and antibiotic activity with respect to some representatives of pathogenic microflora of the bowels. Use of this mutant in starters for sour milk products will raise their therapeutic effect against intestinal diseases. Deep morphological changes are taking place in lactic acid bacteria under the influence of ionizing radiation. (orig.)

  4. Characterization of epitopes on the rabies virus glycoprotein by selection and analysis of escape mutants.

    Fallahi, Firouzeh; Wandeler, Alexander I; Nadin-Davis, Susan A

    2016-07-15

    The glycoprotein (G) is the only surface protein of the lyssavirus particle and the only viral product known to be capable of eliciting the production of neutralizing antibodies. In this study, the isolation of escape mutants resistant to monoclonal antibody (Mab) neutralization was attempted by a selection strategy employing four distinct rabies virus strains: the extensively passaged Evelyn Rokitnicki Abelseth (ERA) strain and three field isolates representing two bat-associated variants and the Western Canada skunk variant (WSKV). No escape mutants were generated from either of the bat-associated viral variants but two neutralization mutants were derived from the WSKV isolate. Seven independent ERA mutants were recovered using Mabs directed against antigenic sites I (four mutants) and IIIa (three mutants) of the glycoprotein. The cross-neutralization patterns of these viral mutants were used to determine the precise location and nature of the G protein epitopes recognized by these Mabs. Nucleotide sequencing of the G gene indicated that those mutants derived using Mabs directed to antigenic site (AS) III all contained amino acid substitutions in this site. However, of the four mutants selected with AS I Mabs, two bore mutations within AS I as expected while the remaining two carried mutations in AS II. WSKV mutants exhibited mutations at the sites appropriate for the Mabs used in their selection. All ERA mutant preparations were more cytopathogenic than the parental virus when propagated in cell culture; when in vivo pathogenicity in mice was examined, three of these mutants exhibited reduced pathogenicity while the remaining four mutants exhibited comparable pathogenic properties to those of the parent virus. PMID:27132040

  5. Isolation and characterization of selenate resistant mutants of Acremonium chrysogenum

    Airton Vialta

    1999-01-01

    Full Text Available Mutants unable to convert exogenous sulfate to sulfite were isolated using the toxic analogue selenate. Three of twenty-eight isolated mutants were chromate sensitive. They showed a possible lesion in the gene that codes the ATP sulfurylase. The others were chromate resistant, and probably had a lesion in one or both of the genes that code the sulfate permease. Methionine increased the resistance levels to selenate. In addition, the frequency of spontaneous mutants obtained in a medium containing methionine was higher (between 2.4 x 10-6 and 18.0 x 10-6 than that obtained using a medium without any intentional source of sulfur (between 0.7 x 10-6 and 5.0 x 10-6. The original strain, as well as the mutants, were able to grow in a sulfur-free liquid medium even after 4 consecutive inoculation procedures. These results indicated the existence of sulfur traces in the medium and/or an efficient intracellular storage system. There was no significant difference between cephalosporin C production in mutants and the original strain.Mutantes incapazes de converter o sulfato extracelular em sulfito foram isolados utilizando o análogo tóxico selenato. De 28 mutantes isolados, apenas 3 foram sensíveis ao cromato, provavelmente apresentando lesão no gene que codifica a ATP sulfurilase. Os demais foram resistentes ao cromato e devem conter lesão no gene sB ou também no gene sC. A metionina elevou os níveis de resistência ao selenato e a freqüência de mutantes espontâneos obtida em meio contendo este aminoácido foi maior (entre 2,42 x 10-6 e 18,04 x 10-6 do que a obtida no meio sem a adição de qualquer fonte intencional de enxofre (entre 0,71 x 10-6 e 5,0 x 10-6. A linhagem original e os mutantes foram capazes de crescer, mesmo depois de quatro etapas de inóculo, fato que pode ser explicado pela existência de traços do referido elemento no meio e/ou a presença de um sistema eficiente de estocagem intracelular. A produção de cefalosporina C

  6. Skin morphology of the mutant hairless USP mouse

    Massironi S.M.G.

    2005-01-01

    Full Text Available The morphology of the skin of the mutant hairless USP mouse was studied by histological, histochemical and immunohistochemical methods and compared to the skin of BALB/c mice. Representative sections of the dorsal skin from mice of both strains aged 18 days, and 1, 3, 6, and 8 months were studied. Sections stained with hematoxylin and eosin showed cystic formations called utricles and dermal cysts in the dermis that increased in size and number during growth. Skin thickness increased significantly at 8 months. Sections stained with picrosirius and examined with polarized light, displayed different colors, suggesting different thicknesses of dermal collagen fibers (probably types I and III. Weigert, Verhoeff and resorcin-fuchsin stains revealed fibers of the elastic system. The PAS and Alcian blue methods revealed neutral and acid glycosaminoglycans in the skin ground substance of both mouse strains. Immunohistochemical staining for fibronectin and laminin did not show differences between the mutant and BALB/c mice. Mast cells stained by the Gomori method and macrophages positive for HAM 56 antibodies were observed in both mouse strains. Except for the presence of enlarged cysts in the hairless strain, no qualitative differences were found during development of the skin of BALB/c and the mutant hairless mice.

  7. The Swedish mutant barley collection

    Full text: The Swedish mutation research programme in barley began about 50 years ago and has mainly been carried out at Svaloev in co-operation with the institute of Genetics at the University of Lund. The collection has been produced from different Swedish high-yielding spring barley varieties, using the following mutagens: X-rays, neutrons, several organic chemical compounds such as ethyleneimine, several sulfonate derivatives and the inorganic chemical mutagen sodium azide. Nearly 10,000 barley mutants are stored in the Nordic Gene Bank and documented in databases developed by Udda Lundquist, Svaloev AB. The collection consists of the following nine categories with 94 different types of mutants: 1. Mutants with changes in the spike and spikelets; 2. Changes in culm length and culm composition; 3. Changes in growth types; 4. Physiological mutants; 5. Changes in awns; 6. Changes in seed size and shape; 7. Changes in leaf blades; 8. Changes in anthocyanin and colour; 9. Resistance to barley powdery mildew. Barley is one of the most thoroughly investigated crops in terms of induction of mutations and mutation genetics. So far, about half of the mutants stored at the Nordic Gene Bank, have been analysed genetically; They constitute, however, only a minority of the 94 different mutant types. The genetic analyses have given valuable insights into the mutation process but also into the genetic architecture of various characters. A number of mutants of two-row barley have been registered and commercially released. One of the earliest released, Mari, an early maturing, daylength neutral, straw stiff mutant, is still grown in Iceland. The Swedish mutation material has been used in Sweden, but also in other countries, such as Denmark, Germany, and USA, for various studies providing a better understanding of the barley genome. The collection will be immensely valuable for future molecular genetical analyses of clone mutant genes. (author)

  8. Detección de fatiga en conductores mediante fusión de sistemas ADAS

    García Daza, Iván

    2011-01-01

    Se ha identificado la somnolencia como una de las causas más importante de accidentes de tráfico, ya que se encuentra implicada en el 20% de los mismos, por lo que existe un interés creciente en encontrar sistemas ADAS (Advanced Driver Assistance Systems) capaces de detectar el estado de fatiga del conductor para prevenir posibles accidentes. En esta tesis se propone una técnica, basada en el procesado de imágenes monoculares consistente en la detección, seguimiento y caracterización de la ap...

  9. An Ada Linear-Algebra Software Package Modeled After HAL/S

    Klumpp, Allan R.; Lawson, Charles L.

    1990-01-01

    New avionics software written more easily. Software package extends Ada programming language to include linear-algebra capabilities similar to those of HAL/S programming language. Designed for such avionics applications as Space Station flight software. In addition to built-in functions of HAL/S, package incorporates quaternion functions used in Space Shuttle and Galileo projects and routines from LINPAK solving systems of equations involving general square matrices. Contains two generic programs: one for floating-point computations and one for integer computations. Written on IBM/AT personal computer running under PC DOS, v.3.1.

  10. Addressing the Regression Test Problem with Change Impact Analysis for Ada

    Jones, Andrew V.

    2016-01-01

    The regression test selection problem--selecting a subset of a test-suite given a change--has been studied widely over the past two decades. However, the problem has seen little attention when constrained to high-criticality developments and where a "safe" selection of tests need to be chosen. Further, no practical approaches have been presented for the programming language Ada. In this paper, we introduce an approach to solving the selection problem given a combination of both static and dyn...

  11. A razão comunicativa nas sociedades avançadas

    Martins, Moisés de Lemos

    2005-01-01

    O desenvolvimento das indústrias culturais (produtos informáticos, multimedia -televisão, telefone e computador integrados -, publicidade, moda, música, dança, turismo e férias) tomou hegemónica no nosso tempo a cultura de massas. A culminação deste processo, que inclui os media, fez confluir num mesmo sentido a comunicação, o consumo e o lazer, fechando deste modo o ciclo da estruturação da sociedade moderna. É meu intuito analisar o modo como nas sociedades avançadas a comunicação ...

  12. Novos materiais de construção com tecnologias avançadas

    Lucas, S.; Cunha, Sandra Raquel Leite; Senff, L.; Paiva, H.; Aguiar, J. L. Barroso de; J. A. Labrincha; Ferreira, V. M.

    2014-01-01

    Este artigo pretende apenas dar um contributo, assinalando alguns exemplos em que se tem vindo a trabalhar e que refletem o uso de tecnologias avançadas na formulação e funcionalidade de materiais de construção tradicionais. Um exemplo claro é o uso de aditivos que induzem novas funções e que muitos deles pertencem ao grupo denominado como nanomateriais. A sua adição coloca quase sempre problemas de incorporação e que requerem um trabalho de ajuste das formulações e comportamen...

  13. Development of Ada language control software for the NASA power management and distribution test bed

    Wright, Ted; Mackin, Michael; Gantose, Dave

    1989-01-01

    The Ada language software developed to control the NASA Lewis Research Center's Power Management and Distribution testbed is described. The testbed is a reduced-scale prototype of the electric power system to be used on space station Freedom. It is designed to develop and test hardware and software for a 20-kHz power distribution system. The distributed, multiprocessor, testbed control system has an easy-to-use operator interface with an understandable English-text format. A simple interface for algorithm writers that uses the same commands as the operator interface is provided, encouraging interactive exploration of the system.

  14. ADA Congress 2015 in Boston (USA - an overview of the main topics

    Tatiana Vasil'evna Nikonova

    2015-09-01

    Full Text Available From July 5 to July 9, 2015 in Convention Center in Boston (USA there took place anniversary 75th session of the annual congress of the American Diabetic Association (ADA. The congress united more than 14000 participants from 124 countries. Programs of scientific sessions of the congress included the most topical issues of diabetology: modern approaches to diagnostics, prevention and treatment of DM and its complications, the results of the international researches of anti-diabetic preparations, problems connected with diabetes 2 types and obesity and many others.

  15. 烤烟红花大金元巨型变异株系的发现、选育及可用性研究%On Discovery Breeding and Utilization of Tobacco Giant Mutant Strains from HongDa of Flue-Cured Tobacco Variety

    徐兴阳; 肖炳光; 端永明; 焦芳婵; 许龙; 郑志新

    2011-01-01

    2006年9月在昆明市安宁禄脿乡种植的红花大金元品种田间发现了一棵巨型变异株,经培育次年获得首批种子,2008~2010年在昆明烟区多点多年开展了系统选育、性状考察、区域试验、配套生产技术及烘烤特性探索、抗病性鉴定、生产示范和种子繁殖技术等一系列试验研究.经过多年系统选育,该新品系性状独特优异、适应性较广、农艺性状可调控阈值大、产量产值高、烟叶品质良好、可用性强,多项指标已近似或超过其亲本红花大金元,被命名为YK01.根据其研究利用现状,重点探讨了品种特征特性、烟叶质量、栽培烘烤技术、植保技术和种子繁殖技%In September of 2006,a giant mutant strain of HongDa planted in Lvpiao village Anning Kunming City was found.After breeding the seeds were acquired the next year.From 2008 to 2010,in the tobacco planting areas of Kunming the systematic breeding,properties

  16. Mutant selection from Monascus purpureus by aerospace flight in recoverable airship

    Monascus purpureus was carried into aerospace by the return airship 'Shenzhou No. 3'. After flight, the strain was rejuvenized, segregated and selected. 8 strains with high productivity of lovastatin and Selenium tolerance were obtained. A series of tests showed that the acquired character of the mutants is stable

  17. Characterization of a Salmonella typhimurium mutant defective in phosphoribosylpyrophosphate synthetase

    Jochimsen, Bjarne U.; Hove-Jensen, Bjarne; Garber, Bruce B.;

    1985-01-01

    This study describes the isolation and characterization of a mutant (strain GP122) of Salmonella typhimurium with a partial deficiency of phosphoribosylpyrophosphate (PRPP) synthetase activity. This strain was isolated in a purE deoD gpt purine auxotroph by a procedure designed to select guanosin...

  18. Production of astaxanthin from cellulosic biomass sugars by mutants of the yeast Phaffia rhodozyma

    Astaxanthin is a carotenoid of high value to the aquaculture, nutraceutical, and pharmaceutical industries. Three mutant strains of the astaxanthin-producing yeast Phaffia rhodozyma, which were derived from the parent strain ATCC 24202 (UCD 67-210) and designated JTM166, JTM185, and SSM19, were test...

  19. Repressor Mutant Forms of the Azospirillum brasilense NtrC Protein

    Huergo, Luciano F.; Assumpção, Marcelo C.; Emanuel M. Souza; Steffens, M. Berenice R.; Yates, M. Geoffrey; Chubatsu, Leda S; Pedrosa, Fábio O.

    2004-01-01

    The Azospirillum brasilense mutant strains FP8 and FP9, after treatment with nitrosoguanidine, showed a null Nif phenotype and were unable to use nitrate as their sole nitrogen source. Sequencing of the ntrC genes revealed single nucleotide mutations in the NtrC nucleotide-binding site. The phenotypes of these strains are discussed in relation to their genotypes.

  20. Isolation of pigmentation mutants of the green filamentous photosynthetic bacterium Chloroflexus aurantiacus

    Mutants deficient in the production of bateriochlorophyll c (Bchl c) and one mutant lacking colored carotenoids were isolated from the filamentous gliding bacterium Chloroflexus aurantiacus, Mutagenesis was achieved by using UV radiation or N-methyl-N'-nitro-N-nitrosoguanidine. Several clones were isolated that were deficient in Bchl c synthesis. All reverted. One double mutant deficient both in Bchl c synthesis and in the synthesis of colored carotenoids under anaerobic conditions was isolated. Isolation of a revertant in Bchl c synthesis from this double mutant produced a mutant strain of Chloroflexus that grew photosynthetically under anaerobic conditions and lacked colored carotenoids. Analysis of pigment contents and growth rates of the mutants revealed a positive association between growth rate and content of Bchl c under light-limiting conditions. 11 references, 4 figures, 3 tables

  1. Some enzyme activities of acetate mutants of Yarrowia lypolytica

    Robak, M.; Wojtatowicz, M.; Rymowicz, W. [Akademia Rolnicza, Wroclaw (Poland)

    1994-12-31

    Activity at the following enzymes: CS (oxaloacetate-lyase citrate), AH (citrate (isocitrate) hydrolyase), ICDH (threo-Ds-isocitrate: NADP oxidoreductase) and ICL (threo-Ds-isocitrate glyoxyglate-lyase) was measured at subsequent stages of citrate fermentation on glucose by wild type strain `Y, lipolytica A-101` and 2 acetate defective mutants, in order to recognize metabolic disorders in those mutants, which resulted in markedly improved homogeneity of citric acid production. Mutants did not show significant changes in activity of TCA cycle enzymes and ICL. Thus suggests that the control of citric:isocitric acid ratio is more difficult and it can also depend on transportation systems of both acids. (author). 19 refs, 3 figs, 2 tabs.

  2. Some enzyme activities of acetate mutants of Yarrowia lypolytica

    Activity at the following enzymes: CS (oxaloacetate-lyase citrate), AH (citrate (isocitrate) hydrolyase), ICDH (threo-Ds-isocitrate: NADP oxidoreductase) and ICL (threo-Ds-isocitrate glyoxyglate-lyase) was measured at subsequent stages of citrate fermentation on glucose by wild type strain 'Y, lipolytica A-101' and 2 acetate defective mutants, in order to recognize metabolic disorders in those mutants, which resulted in markedly improved homogeneity of citric acid production. Mutants did not show significant changes in activity of TCA cycle enzymes and ICL. Thus suggests that the control of citric:isocitric acid ratio is more difficult and it can also depend on transportation systems of both acids. (author). 19 refs, 3 figs, 2 tabs

  3. A photorespiratory mutant of Chlamydomonas reinhardtii

    A mutant strain of Chlamydomonas reinhardtii, designated 18-7F, has been isolated and characterized. 18-7F requires a high CO2 concentration for photoautrophic growth in spite of the apparent induction of a functional CO2 concentrating mechanism in air-adapted cells. In 2% O2 the photosynthetic characteristics of 18-7F and wild type are similar. In 21% O2, photosynthetic O2 evolution is severely inhibited in the mutant by preillumination in limiting CO2, although the apparent photosynthetic affinity for inorganic carbon is similar in preilluminated cells and in cells incubated in the dark prior to O2 evolution measurements. Net CO2 uptake is also inhibited when the cells are exposed to air (21% O2, 0.035% CO2, balance N2) for longer than a few minutes. [14C]Phosphoglycolate accumulates within 5 minutes of photosynthetic 14CO2 fixation in cells of 18-7F. Phosphoglycolate does not accumulate in wild type. Phosphoglycolate phosphatase activity in extracts from air-adapted cells of 18-7F is 10 to 20% of that in wild-type Chlamydomonas. The activity of phosphoglycolate phosphatase in heterozygous diploids is intermediate between that of homozygous mutant and wild-type diploids. It was concluded that the high-CO2 requiring phenotype in 18-7F results from a phosphoglycolate phosphatase deficiency. Genetic analyses indicate that this deficiency results from a single-gene, nuclear mutation. We have named the locus pgp-1

  4. Neonatal bone marrow transplantation of ADA-deficient SCID mice results in immunologic reconstitution despite low levels of engraftment and an absence of selective donor T lymphoid expansion

    Carbonaro, Denise A.; Jin, Xiangyang; Cotoi, Daniel; Mi, Tiejuan; Yu, Xiao-Jin; Skelton, Dianne C.; Dorey, Frederick; Kellems, Rodney E.; Blackburn, Michael R.; Kohn, Donald B.

    2008-01-01

    Adenosine deaminase (ADA)–deficient severe combined immune deficiency (SCID) may be treated by allogeneic hematopoietic stem cell transplantation without prior cytoreductive conditioning, although the mechanism of immune reconstitution is unclear. We studied this process in a murine gene knockout model of ADA-deficient SCID. Newborn ADA-deficient pups received transplants of intravenous infusion of normal congenic bone marrow, without prior cytoreductive conditioning, which resulted in long-t...

  5. Root hair mutants of barley

    Barley mutants without root hairs or with short or reduced root hairs were isolated among M2 seeds of 'Lux' barley (Hordeum vulgare L.) after acidified sodium azide mutagenesis. Root hair mutants are investigated intensively in Arabidopsis where about 40 genes are known. A few root hair mutants are known in maize, rice, barley and tomato. Many plants without root hairs grow quite well with good plant nutrition, and mutants have been used for investigations of uptake of strongly bound nutrients like phosphorus, iron, zinc and silicon. Seed of 'Lux' barley (Sejet Plant Breeding, Denmark) were soaked overnight, and then treated with 1.5-millimolarsodium azide in 0.1 molar sodium phosphate buffer, pH 3, for 2.5 hours according to the IAEA Manual on Mutation Breeding (2nd Ed.). After rinsing in tap water and air-drying, the M2 seeds were sown in the field the same day. Spikes, 4-6 per M1 plant, were harvested. The mutation frequency was similar to that obtained with other barley cultivars from which low-phytate mutants were isolated [5]. Seeds were germinated on black filter paper in tap water for 3 or 4 days before scoring for root hair mutants

  6. Mutants of alfalfa mosaic virus

    In this thesis the isolation and characterization of a number of mutants of alfalfa mosaic virus, a plant virus with a coat protein dependent genome, is described. Thermo-sensitive (ts) mutants were selected since, at least theoretically, ts mutations can be present in all virus coded functions. It was found that a high percentage of spontaneous mutants, isolated because of their aberrant symptoms, were ts. The majority of these isolates could grow at the non-permissive temperature in the presence of a single wild type (wt) component. To increase the mutation rate virus preparations were treated with several mutagens. After nitrous acid treatment or irradiation with ultraviolet light, an increase in the level of mutations was observed. UV irradiation was preferred since it did not require large amounts of purified viral components. During the preliminary characterization of potential ts mutants the author also obtained one structural and several symptom mutants which were analysed further (chapter 7, 8 and 9). The properties of the ts mutants are described in chapter 3-7. (Auth.)

  7. Generic Ada code in the NASA space station command, control and communications environment

    Mcdougall, D. P.; Vollman, T. E.

    1986-01-01

    The results of efforts to apply powerful Ada constructs to the formatted message handling process are described. The goal of these efforts was to extend the state-of-technology in message handling while at the same time producing production-quality, reusable code. The first effort was initiated in September, 1984 and delivered in April, 1985. That product, the Generic Message Handling Facility, met initial goals, was reused, and is available in the Ada Repository on ARPANET. However, it became apparent during its development that the initial approach to building a message handler template was not optimal. As a result of this initial effort, several alternate approaches were identified, and research is now on-going to identify an improved product. The ultimate goal is to be able to instantly build a message handling system for any message format given a specification of that message format. The problem lies in how to specify the message format, and one that is done, how to use that information to build the message handler. Message handling systems and message types are described. The initial efforts, its results and its shortcomings are detailed. The approach now being taken to build a system which will be significantly easier to implement, and once implemented, easier to use, is described. Finally, conclusions are offered.

  8. Integrating automated structured analysis and design with Ada programming support environments

    Hecht, Alan; Simmons, Andy

    1986-01-01

    Ada Programming Support Environments (APSE) include many powerful tools that address the implementation of Ada code. These tools do not address the entire software development process. Structured analysis is a methodology that addresses the creation of complete and accurate system specifications. Structured design takes a specification and derives a plan to decompose the system subcomponents, and provides heuristics to optimize the software design to minimize errors and maintenance. It can also produce the creation of useable modules. Studies have shown that most software errors result from poor system specifications, and that these errors also become more expensive to fix as the development process continues. Structured analysis and design help to uncover error in the early stages of development. The APSE tools help to insure that the code produced is correct, and aid in finding obscure coding errors. However, they do not have the capability to detect errors in specifications or to detect poor designs. An automated system for structured analysis and design TEAMWORK, which can be integrated with an APSE to support software systems development from specification through implementation is described. These tools completement each other to help developers improve quality and productivity, as well as to reduce development and maintenance costs. Complete system documentation and reusable code also resultss from the use of these tools. Integrating an APSE with automated tools for structured analysis and design provide capabilities and advantages beyond those realized with any of these systems used by themselves.

  9. Analysis on the DNA Fingerprinting of Aspergillus Oryzae Mutant Induced by High Hydrostatic Pressure

    Wang, Hua; Zhang, Jian; Yang, Fan; Wang, Kai; Shen, Si-Le; Liu, Bing-Bing; Zou, Bo; Zou, Guang-Tian

    2011-01-01

    The mutant strains of aspergillus oryzae (HP300a) are screened under 300 MPa for 20 min. Compared with the control strains, the screened mutant strains have unique properties such as genetic stability, rapid growth, lots of spores, and high protease activity. Random amplified polymorphic DNA (RAPD) and inter simple sequence repeats (ISSR) are used to analyze the DNA fingerprinting of HP300a and the control strains. There are 67.9% and 51.3% polymorphic bands obtained by these two markers, respectively, indicating significant genetic variations between HP300a and the control strains. In addition, comparison of HP300a and the control strains, the genetic distances of random sequence and simple sequence repeat of DNA are 0.51 and 0.34, respectively.

  10. Analysis on the DNA Fingerprinting of Aspergillus Oryzae Mutant Induced by High Hydrostatic Pressure

    The mutant strains of aspergillus oryzae (HP300a) are screened under 300 MPa for 20 min. Compared with the control strains, the screened mutant strains have unique properties such as genetic stability, rapid growth, lots of spores, and high protease activity. Random amplified polymorphic DNA (RAPD) and inter simple sequence repeats (ISSR) are used to analyze the DNA fingerprinting of HP300a and the control strains. There are 67.9% and 51.3% polymorphic bands obtained by these two markers, respectively, indicating significant genetic variations between HP300a and the control strains. In addition, comparison of HP300a and the control strains, the genetic distances of random sequence and simple sequence repeat of DNA are 0.51 and 0.34, respectively. (general)

  11. Analysis on the DNA Fingerprinting of Aspergillus Oryzae Mutant Induced by High Hydrostatic Pressure

    WANG Hua; ZHANG Jian; YANG Fan; WANG Kai; SHEN Si-Le; LIU Bing-Bing; ZOU Bo; ZOU Guang-Tian

    2011-01-01

    The mutant strains of aspergillus oryzae (HP300a) are screened under 300 Mpa for 20min. Compared with the control strains, the screened mutant strains have unique properties such as genetic stability, rapid growth, lots of spores, and high protease activity. Random amplified polymorphic DNA (RAPD) and inter simple sequence repeats (ISSR) are used to analyze the DNA fingerprinting of HP300a and the control strains. There are 67.9% and 51.3% polymorphic bands obtained by these two markers, respectively, indicating significant genetic variations between HP300a and the control strains. In addition, comparison of HP300a and the control strains, the genetic distances of random sequence and simple sequence repeat of DNA are 0.51 and 0.34, respectively.

  12. Construction and immunogenicity of a ∆apxIC/ompP2 mutant of Actinobacillus pleuropneumoniae and Haemophilus parasuis

    Qiong Liu

    2013-03-01

    Full Text Available The apxIC genes of the Actinobacillus pleuropneumoniae serovar 5 (SC-1, encoding the ApxIactivating proteins, was deleted by a method involving sucrose counter-selection. In this study, a mutant strain of A. pleuropneumoniae (SC-1 was constructed and named DapxIC/ ompP2. The mutant strain contained foreign DNA in the deletion site of ompP2 gene of Haemophilus parasuis. It showed no haemolytic activity and lower virulence of cytotoxicity in mice compared with the parent strain, and its safety and immunogenicity were also evaluated in mice. The LD50 data shown that the mutant strain was attenuated 30-fold, compared with the parent strain (LD50 of the mutant strain and parent strain in mice were determined to be 1.0 × 107 CFU and 3.5 × 105 CFU respectively. The mutant strain that was attenuated could secrete inactivated ApxIA RTX toxins with complete antigenicity and could be used as a candidate live vaccine strain against infections of A. pleuropneumoniae and H. parasuis.

  13. Ultra-violet-resistant mutants of Bacillus thuringiensis

    One of the main disadvantages of using Bacillus thuringiensis as an insecticide is that the spore and crystal preparations applied to foliage are readily washed away by rain and are inactivated by sunlight. Spores from some strains of B. thuringiensis have been shown to be highly sensitive to u.v. light. This study has demonstrated how mutants with increased resistance to u.v., isolated by successive rounds of u.v. irradiation, and additionally with increased specific pathogenicity can be isolated. These techniques should be applied to strains that are frequently used in the industrial production of B.thuringiensis toxin. (author)

  14. Behaviour of UV-sensitive mutants of Proteus mirabilis to repair incision breaks

    In U.V.-sensitive mutants of P. mirabilis with the phenotype HCR, REC and EXR single-strand breaks appeared immediately after UV-irradiation. The behaviour of REC- and EXR-mutants was similar to the wildtype. The number of incision breaks observed by sedimentation analysis in these strains was very low. They could be joined during the excision repair process. From the ability of REC- and EXR-strains to rejoin most of the induced single-strand breaks it can be concluded that these strains have approximately the same capacity for excision repair as the wildtype. HCR-mutants of P. mirabilis produced single-strand breaks after UV-irradiation in contrast to HCR-mutants of E. coli. Therefore we suggest that HCR-mutants of P. mirabilis are not completely inhibited in the incision step. The single-strand breaks introduced in the DNA at the beginning of the repair process were not rejoined during further incubation. Experiments with toluenized cells led to the same results. The newly synthesized daughter DNA-strands of UV-irradiated HCR-mutants were of low molecular weight in comparison with those from unirradiated control cells during the repair period. This result is in agreement with the incapability of HCR-mutants to remove the pyrimidine dimers from the parental template strand. (author)

  15. Skin morphology of the mutant hairless USP mouse

    Massironi S.M.G.; Giacóia M.R.; Maiorka P.C.; Kipnis T.L.; Dagli M.L.Z.

    2005-01-01

    The morphology of the skin of the mutant hairless USP mouse was studied by histological, histochemical and immunohistochemical methods and compared to the skin of BALB/c mice. Representative sections of the dorsal skin from mice of both strains aged 18 days, and 1, 3, 6, and 8 months were studied. Sections stained with hematoxylin and eosin showed cystic formations called utricles and dermal cysts in the dermis that increased in size and number during growth. Skin thickness increased signific...

  16. Screening of Toxin Mutant of Dickeya zeae and Its Biological Characters

    Jingyi ZHANG; Yutao WANG; Yanchang LI; Qiongguang LIU

    2013-01-01

    [Objective] This study aimed to screen toxin mutant of Dickeya zeae (Er-winia chrysanthemi pv. zeae) and investigate its biological characters. [Method] We obtained a toxin mutant strain D. zeae Ech7-3-42 by using acridine orange as a mutagenic agent and compared their biological characteristics and virulence between the toxin mutant and wild strain. [Result] There was no significant difference in pectin lyase, protease, cellulase and the production of extracellular polysaccharide and lipopolysaccharide, but significant difference in toxin biological activities and vir-ulence. Ech7-3-42 mutant did not produce toxin, as wel as the loss of virulence on rice and HR on tobacco, but did not lose the ability to soft rot on potato. Mutant strain Ech7-3-42 can infect rice root and then enriched in the root neck and stalk, but it could not cause rice foot rot. Dickeya zeae (wild and mutant strain) could be detected by PCR in the root neck and below the 1-2 cm long stem area, but could not be detected in the leaves. [Conclusion] We believed that toxin may be one of the important factors for D. zeae virulence on rice.

  17. [Genetical analysis and characterization of a new mutant, black tremor appearing in the Syrian hamster].

    Mizutani, M; Katsuie, Y; Umezawa, H; Kuramasu, S

    1986-04-01

    A black coat-color mutant with tremor was discovered in babies of 61 generations of an inbred strain APG of Syrian hamster which had been maintained in the Nippon Institute for Biological Science, Laboratory Animal Research Station. The genetical analysis by matings between four inbred strains which had different genes in the E and B loci and four mutant strains which were introduced the mutant gene into the four inbred strains and characterization were carried out on the mutant. The results obtained are summarized as follows: 1) The mutation occurred in a different locus with E and B loci. 2) The mutant was controlled by an autosomal recessive gene designated as "bt", and it was thought that both tremor and black coat-color were the pleiotropic effect of bt gene. 3) At least one E gene in the E locus was necessary for the appearance of black coat color. Therefore, the coat-color remained cream in ee (cream) hamsters showing only trembling. 4) The degree of blackness of the coat-color of EE hamsters differed from Ee ones. The former was darker than the latter. 5) The mutant may be a useful animal model for studying abnormal myelogenesis and biosynthesis of melanin. PMID:3732409

  18. Survival, growth, and localization of epiphytic fitness mutants of pseudomonas syringae on leaves

    Beattie, G.A.; Lindow, S.E. (Univ. of California, Berkeley, CA (United States))

    1994-10-01

    Among 82 epiphytic fitness mutants of a Pseudomonas syringae pv. syringae strain that were characterized in a previous study, 4 mutants were particularly intolerant of the stresses associated with dry leaf surfaces. These four mutants each exhibited distinctive behaviors when inoculated into and into plant leaves. For example, while non showed measurable growth on dry potato leaf surfaces, they grew to different population sizes in the intercellular space of bean leaves and on dry bean leaf surfaces, and one mutant appeared incapable of growth in both environments although it grew well on moist bean leaves. The presence of the parental strain did not influence the survival of the mutants immediately following exposure of leaves to dry, high-light incubation conditions, suggesting that the reduced survival of the mutants did not result from an inability to produce extracellular factors in planta. On moist bean leaves that were colonized by either a mutant or the wild type, the proportion of the total epiphytic population that was located in sizes protected from a surface sterilant was smaller for the mutants than for the wild type, indicating that the mutants were reduced in their ability to locate, multiply in, and/or survive in such protected sites. This reduced ability was only one of possible several factors contributing to the reduced epiphytic fitness of each mutant. Their reduced fitness was not specific to the host plant bean, since they also exhibited reduced fitness on the nonhost plant potato; the functions altered in these strains are thus of interest for their contribution to the general fitness of bacterial epiphytes. 52 refs., 6 figs., 1 tab.

  19. Flexibility in Anaerobic Metabolism as Revealed in a Mutant of Chlamydomonas reinhardtii Lacking Hydrogenase Activity*S⃞

    Dubini, Alexandra; Mus, Florence; Seibert, Michael; Grossman, Arthur R.; Posewitz, Matthew C.

    2009-01-01

    The green alga Chlamydomonas reinhardtii has a network of fermentation pathways that become active when cells acclimate to anoxia. Hydrogenase activity is an important component of this metabolism, and we have compared metabolic and regulatory responses that accompany anaerobiosis in wild-type C. reinhardtii cells and a null mutant strain for the HYDEF gene (hydEF-1 mutant), which encodes an [FeFe] hydrogenase maturation protein. This mutant has no hydrogenase activity...

  20. Study on Several Characteristics of Agaricus blazei Murril Strain J3 Irradiated by 60Co

    WENG Bo-qi; JIANG Zhi-he; HUANG Ting-jun; CHEN Jian; ZHENG Wei-wen

    2003-01-01

    A new mutant strain J3 from Agaricus blazei Murril was obtained by 60Co irradiation. The yields of successive generations were increased more than 70% to compare with their original strain. The component analysis on amino acids and fatty acid illuminated that the nutrient value of strain J3 fruiting body was better than the original strain. The apparent nodule structure was found in the hyphea of J3 strain through the observation by scanning electron microscope. RAPD analysis showed the great difference of PCR fingerprints between J3 and its original strain. It is a promising mutant strain for further commercial development in the future.

  1. Replication of Chinese hamster embryo cells transformed by temperature-sensitive T-antigen mutants of simian virus 40.

    Robinson, C C; Swartzendruber, D E; Lehman, J M

    1980-01-01

    Chinese hamster embryo cells transformed by simian virus 40 temperature-sensitive T-antigen mutants replicated when confluent at 40.5 degrees C, regardless of the selection method, selection temperature, or virus strain used.

  2. Isolation and characterization of radioresistant mutants in Bacillus subtilis and Bacillus thuringiensis

    Vegetative cells of Bac. thuringiensis var. galleriae (the wild-type strain 351) are much more sensitive to lethal effects of UV light and 60Co-γ-rays than those of Bac. subtilis (the wild-type strain 168). This difference is less pronounced for spores of these strains. By means of repeated γ-irradiation-regrowth cycles radioresistant mutants Bac. thuringiensis Gamsup(r) 14 and Bac. subtilis Gamsup(r) 9 were selected. The vegetative cells of these mutants are correspondingly 19 times and 3.9 times more resistant to lethal effects of γ-radiation than the cells of the parental strains. The resistance of the Gamsup(r) mutant cells to lethal effects of UV light and H2O2 is also increased. The spores of the Gamsup(r) 14 mutant are 1.5-1.7 times more resistant to γ-radiation and UV light than the wild-type spores. The radioresistant mutants and the parental strains do not vary in their capacity for host-cell reactivation of UV- or γ-irradiated phages Tg13 and 105

  3. Branched-chain fatty acid biosynthesis in a branched-chain amino acid aminotransferase mutant of Staphylococcus carnosus

    Beck, Hans Christian

    2005-01-01

    Fatty acid biosynthesis by a mutant strain of Staphylococcus carnosus deficient in branched-chain amino acid aminotransferase (IlvE) activity was analysed. This mutant was unable to produce the appropriate branched-chain alpha-ketoacid precursors for branched-chain fatty acid biosynthesis from th...

  4. Development and selection of fungal and bacterial mutants using ionizing radiation and radioisotopes for improved enzyme production (cellulase and coagulase)

    Ultraviolet and gamma radiations, chemical mutagens, and combinations of chemical and physical mutagens were used in order to obtain mutants of Bacillus mesentericus and Trichoderma viridae with a higher production of coagulase and cellulase, respectively. It was possible to isolate mutant strains, with enzyme activity increased by a factor of 2 and 3

  5. In vitro characterization of felid herpesvirus 1 (FHV-1) mutants generated by recombineering in a recombinant BAC vector.

    Tai, S-H Sheldon; Holz, Carine; Engstrom, Michael D; Cheng, Hans H; Maes, Roger K

    2016-08-01

    Felid herpesvirus 1 (FHV-1) mutants were constructed using two-step Red-mediated recombination techniques based on a virulent full-length FHV-1 BAC clone. The individual mutant viruses generated were deficient in glycoprotein C (gC), glycoprotein E (gE), US3 serine/threonine protein kinase (PK), or both gE and thymidine kinase (TK). The gC- mutant virus produced plaques that were similar in size to those resulting from infection with the C-27 parent strain. In contrast, the gE(-), PK(-), and gE(-)PK(-) deletion mutants produced plaques that were significantly smaller. Multistep in vitro growth kinetics of the gE(-), PK(-), and gE(-)PK(-) viruses were slightly delayed compared to those of the C-27 parent strain. Peak progeny titers of these three mutants were approximately 10-fold lower than those generated with the C-27 strain. There was no delay in the growth kinetics of the gC- mutant, but the progeny virus titer obtained with this mutant was at least 3 logs lower compared to the parental strain titer. Based upon their in vitro characteristics, these mutants will be useful for the development of novel immunization strategies against this important feline pathogen. PMID:27157860

  6. Extract from a mutant Rhodobacter sphaeroides as an enriched carotenoid source

    Chih-Chiang Wang

    2016-03-01

    Full Text Available Background: The extract Lycogen™ from the phototrophic bacterium Rhodobacter sphaeroides (WL-APD911 has attracted significant attention because of its promising potential as a bioactive mixture, attributed in part to its anti-inflammatory properties and anti-oxidative activity. Objective: This study aims to investigate the components of Lycogen™ and its anti-inflammatory properties and anti-oxidative activity. Design and results: The mutant strain R. sphaeroides (WL-APD911 whose carotenoid 1,2-hydratase gene has been altered by chemical mutagenesis was used for the production of a new carotenoid. The strain was grown at 30°C on Luria–Bertani (LB agar plates. After a 4-day culture period, the mutant strain displayed a 3.5-fold increase in carotenoid content, relative to the wild type. In the DPPH test, Lycogen™ showed more potent anti-oxidative activity than lycopene from the wild-type strain. Primary skin irritation test with hamsters showed no irritation response in hamster skins after 30 days of treatment with 0.2% Lycogen™. Chemical investigations of Lycogen™ using nuclear magnetic resonance (NMR 1H, 13C, and COSY/DQCOSY spectra have identified spheroidenone and methoxyneurosporene. Quantitative analysis of these identified compounds based on spectral intensities indicates that spheroidenone and methoxyneurosporene are major components (approximately 1:1; very small quantities of other derivatives are also present in the sample. Conclusions: In this study, we identified the major carotenoid compounds contained in Lycogen™, including spheroidenone and methoxyneurosporene by high-resolution NMR spectroscopy analysis. The carotenoid content of this mutant strain of R. sphaeroides was 3.5-fold higher than that in normal strain. Furthermore, Lycogen™ from the mutant strain is more potent than lycopene from the wild-type strain and does not cause irritation in hamster skins. These findings suggest that this mutant strain has the

  7. Extract from a mutant Rhodobacter sphaeroides as an enriched carotenoid source

    Wang, Chih-Chiang; Ding, Shangwu; Chiu, Kuo-Hsun; Liu, Wen-Sheng; Lin, Tai-Jung; Wen, Zhi-Hong

    2016-01-01

    Background The extract Lycogen™ from the phototrophic bacterium Rhodobacter sphaeroides (WL-APD911) has attracted significant attention because of its promising potential as a bioactive mixture, attributed in part to its anti-inflammatory properties and anti-oxidative activity. Objective This study aims to investigate the components of Lycogen™ and its anti-inflammatory properties and anti-oxidative activity. Design and results The mutant strain R. sphaeroides (WL-APD911) whose carotenoid 1,2-hydratase gene has been altered by chemical mutagenesis was used for the production of a new carotenoid. The strain was grown at 30°C on Luria–Bertani (LB) agar plates. After a 4-day culture period, the mutant strain displayed a 3.5-fold increase in carotenoid content, relative to the wild type. In the DPPH test, Lycogen™ showed more potent anti-oxidative activity than lycopene from the wild-type strain. Primary skin irritation test with hamsters showed no irritation response in hamster skins after 30 days of treatment with 0.2% Lycogen™. Chemical investigations of Lycogen™ using nuclear magnetic resonance (NMR) 1H, 13C, and COSY/DQCOSY spectra have identified spheroidenone and methoxyneurosporene. Quantitative analysis of these identified compounds based on spectral intensities indicates that spheroidenone and methoxyneurosporene are major components (approximately 1:1); very small quantities of other derivatives are also present in the sample. Conclusions In this study, we identified the major carotenoid compounds contained in Lycogen™, including spheroidenone and methoxyneurosporene by high-resolution NMR spectroscopy analysis. The carotenoid content of this mutant strain of R. sphaeroides was 3.5-fold higher than that in normal strain. Furthermore, Lycogen™ from the mutant strain is more potent than lycopene from the wild-type strain and does not cause irritation in hamster skins. These findings suggest that this mutant strain has the potential to be used

  8. STRAIN IMPROVEMENT OF CANDIDA TROPICALIS OVC5 FOR XYLITOLPRODUCTION BY RANDOM MUTAGENESIS.

    Sama. Jagadish Kumar, Marrivada. Sudhakara Reddy and Linga.Venkateswar Rao

    2010-01-01

    Candida tropicalis OVC 5 was subjected to ultraviolet (UV) rays and the mutants obtained were screened for xylitol production. One of the mutant strain CT-UV20, produced 0.78 g xylitol/ g xylose. To isolate high xylitol yielding, Xylitol de hydrogenase enzyme (XDH) defective mutant strain, CT-UV20 was further treated with N-methyl-N-nitro-N-nitroso guanidine (MNNG) and five mutants were selected based on difference in colony morphology. Xylitol production of these MNNG treated mutants were co...

  9. Construction and Verification of LuxS-negative Mutants of Streptococcus Mutans and the Effect of the Absence of LuxS Gene on the Acid Tolerance

    YU Dan-ni; CHEN Jie; ZHANG Yao-chao; HAN Yu-zhi

    2009-01-01

    Objective: To knock out the entire Luxs gene of Streptococcus mutans(S.mutans) UA159 strain via homologous recombination and construct a Luxs-deleted mutant strain of S. Mutans. To study the difference between the acid resistance of S. Mutans Ingbritt C international standard strain and the acid resistance of LuxS mutant strain. Methods: Two DNA fragments locating in the upper and downstream of Luxs gene were amplified and a erythromycin resistance gene of PJT10 between them were engineered into PUC19 plasmid for constructing the recombination plasmid pUCluxKO. Electrotransformation of S.mutans cells with pUCluxKO-mutant resulted in isolation of erythromycin resistant S. Mutans transformants, which was identified by polymerase chain reaction, V.harveyi BB170 luminescence bioassay and sequencing analysis. Solutions of S. Mutans standard strain and LuxS mutant strain with same density were made and cultured at pH 3.5 to 7.0 BHI liquid for the same period.Terminal growth situation was compared.Firstly acidized in pH 5.5 BHI liquid,the two strains were cultured at pH 3.0 BHI liquid. The acid tolerance responses of the two strains were compared.Results:Restriction endonuclease analyses showed that pUCluxKO-mutant vector had been successfully recombined. The Luxs-deleted status of S.mutans mutants was confirmed by PCR with primers which were specific for the genes of Luxs and Erythromycin resistance. S.mutans mutant can not induce bioluminescence, indiating the mutant had been successfully recombined. After twenty generations of culture, the constructed Chinese S.mutans mutants were confirmed to be stable. Significant difference of aciduricity was observed between S.mutans standard strain and LuxS mutant strain.The acid resistance of standard strain was stronger than that of LuxS mutant strain.The two strains both displayed the capability of acid tolerance responses. Conclusion:The S.mutans gene allelic exchange plasmid is constructed correctively and a Luxs

  10. Mutant Varieties of Crop Plants

    Since 1969, the Joint PAO/IAEA Division undertakes to collect and publish information on varieties of crop plants that were developed directly from induced mutants or by using mutants in cross breeding (Micke 1972 and Sigurbjörnsson and Micke (1969, 1974). The purpose of this undertaking is to assess realistically the potential of induced mutation techniques to contribute towards progress in plant breeding. Varieties which have successfully passed official trials and were approved or recommended by national governmental authorities for cultivation, appear to be good indicators of practical success. By 1 October 1978, we know about 195 of such varieties in agricultural crop plants). They belong to 37 different plant species and come from 30 different countries. In addition, there are more than 120 mutant cultivars of ornamental plants known, which represent a considerable economic value for countries with developed horticulture (Broertjes and van Harten 1978)

  11. Biocontrol potential of salinity tolerant mutants of Trichoderma harzianum against Fusarium oxysporum Potencial de biocontrole de mutantes sal-tolerantes de Trichoderma harzianum contra Fusarium oxysporum

    Hassan Abdel-Latif A. Mohamed

    2006-06-01

    Full Text Available Exposing a wild-type culture of Trichoderma harzianum to gamma irradiation induced two stable salt-tolerant mutants (Th50M6 and Th50M11. Under saline conditions, both mutants greatly surpassed their wild type strain in growth rate, sporulation and biological proficiency against Fusarium oxysporum, the causal agent of tomato wilt disease. Tolerant T. harzianum mutants detained a capability to grow and convinced sporulation in growth media containing up to 69 mM NaCl. In comparison with their parent strain, characterization of both mutants confirmed that they have reinforced contents of proline and hydroxyproline, relatively higher sodium content compared to potassium, calcium or magnesium contents, higher level of total phenols. Electrophoretic analysis of total soluble proteins in the salt tolerance mutant Th50M6 showed different bands accumulated in response to 69 mM NaCl. Data also showed that mutants produce certain active metabolites, such as chitinases, cellulases, beta-galactosidases, as well as, some antibiotics i.e., trichodermin, gliotoxin and gliovirin. Trichoderma mutants significantly reduced wilt disease incidence and improved yield and mineral contents of tomato plants under both saline and non-saline soil conditions, as well as, under infested and natural conditions. T. harzianum mutants were also more efficient in dropping the F. oxysporum growth in rhizosphere compared to the wild type strain. Population density of both mutants in rhizosphere far exceeded that of T. harzianum wild type strain.A exposição de uma cepa selvagem de Trichoderma harzianum à irradiação gama induziu dois mutantes tolerantes a sal (Th50M6 e Th50M11. Em condições salinas, os dois mutantes foram muito superiores à cepa selvagem em relação à velocidade de multiplicação, esporulação e eficiência contra Fusarium oxysporum, o agente causador da doença wilt do tomate. Os mutantes tolerantes foram capazes de multiplicação e esporulação em

  12. Lessons learned applying CASE methods/tools to Ada software development projects

    Blumberg, Maurice H.; Randall, Richard L.

    1993-01-01

    This paper describes the lessons learned from introducing CASE methods/tools into organizations and applying them to actual Ada software development projects. This paper will be useful to any organization planning to introduce a software engineering environment (SEE) or evolving an existing one. It contains management level lessons learned, as well as lessons learned in using specific SEE tools/methods. The experiences presented are from Alpha Test projects established under the STARS (Software Technology for Adaptable and Reliable Systems) project. They reflect the front end efforts by those projects to understand the tools/methods, initial experiences in their introduction and use, and later experiences in the use of specific tools/methods and the introduction of new ones.

  13. Determination of Gender and Age Based on Pattern of Human Motion Using AdaBoost Algorithms

    Handri, Santoso; Nomura, Shusaku; Nakamura, Kazuo

    Automated human identification by their walking behavior is a challenge attracting much interest among machine vision researchers. However, practical systems for such identification remain to be developed. In this study, a machine learning approach to understand human behavior based on motion imagery was proposed as the basis for developing pedestrian safety information systems. At the front end, image and video processing was performed to separate foreground from background images. Shape-width was then analyzed using 2D discrete wavelet transformation to extract human motion features. Finally, an adaptive boosting (AdaBoost) algorithm was performed to classify human gender and age into its class. The results demonstrated capability of the proposed systems to classify gender and age highly accurately.

  14. «Os Lusíadas» e o Antigo Testamento

    Carreira, José Nunes

    1981-01-01

    “Concordo que seja «mais que tempo de ler Os Lusíadas como um poema e não como um repositório devoto de verdades patrióticas, morais, políticas, ideológicas, filosóficas, religiosas, ou místicas sumptuosas versificadas. Não porque essas ‘verdades’ de algum modo não se possam encontrar lá ou pelo menos o reflexo e eco delas, mas porque estão inseridas e envolvidas por algo bem mais decisivo e radical que é o ‘eu profundo’ do poeta e sob ele o inconsciente de uma época particularmente complexa ...

  15. Face detection at a distance with AdaBoost filtering and color-shape information

    Yeom, Seokwon; Lee, Dong-Su

    2013-05-01

    Face detection at a distance is very challenging because the image quality becomes low. This paper discusses a face detection method in the long distance with AdaBoost filtering and a false alarm reduction scheme. The false alarm reduction scheme is based on skin-color testing and variable edge mask filtering. The skin-color test involves the average RGB components of the window, followed by the binary cluster image generation. The binary cluster is composed of the alternative and null pixels according to color. The size of the edge mask is determined by the ellipse covering the binary cluster. The edge mask filters out false alarms by evaluating the contour shape of the object in the window. In the experiments, the false alarm reduction scheme is shown to be effective for face detection in images captured at a distance.

  16. Temperature-sensitive mutants of fowl plague virus: isolation and genetic characterization

    Forty-nine temperature-sensitive mutants of fowl plague virus (FPV) strain Rostock and four ts mutants of FPV-strain Dobson were isolated by utilizing two methods of plaque screening, after either spontaneous or chemically induced mutagenesis. Twenty-nine of the FPV-Rostock mutants were further characterized by genetic recombination studies and were found to fall into six high frequency recombination groups. The genome segment carrying the ts mutation in each group was identified by analyzing the gene composition of ts+ recombinants generated from crosses between representatives of each group and ts mutants of FPV-Dobson. It was concluded that the six groups correspond to mutations in six different genome segments, namely, those coding for the P1, P2, P3, HA, NP, and NS proteins

  17. Mutantes letais termossensíveis em Aspergillus nidulans Temperature sensitive lethal mutants in Aspergillus nidulans

    P. C. de Oliveira

    1975-01-01

    Full Text Available Amostras termossensíveis (42ºC de A. nidulans foram obtidas pela irradiação com U.V. Dentre 18 mutantes termossensíveis, 3 demonstraram que o determinante da termossensibilidade era causado por efeitos associados com o núcleo e foram selecionados para estudos posteriores. Foram sintetizados diplóides entre amostras normais e os três mutantes (mais um exibindo letalidade 42ºC e foi verificada uma completa recessividade em todos os casos. Para fins comparativos forma feitas tentativas para o alelo correspondente, mostraram resultados bastante diferentes quando experimentados em diferentes tempos de incubação inicial a 37ºC e depois transferidos para 41ºC. Os herocários praticamente não apresentaram resposta adaptativa às mudanças de temperatura. A ligeira diferença de comportamento heterocários: heterozigoto provavelmente é resultante do efeito de dosagem. Os resultados reafirmam e oferecem confiança na estabilidade dos heterocários quando em condições constantes de meio.Temperature sensitive strains (42ºC of Aspergillus nidulans were obtaines by U.V. irradiation. The mutant alleles had not been located and among 18 thermosensitive mutants theree gave clear evidence that the determinant of thermosensitivity was caused by effects associated with the nucleus and were selected for further studies. Diploids have been synthesised between normal straisn and the three latter variants eschibiting lethality at 42ºC and a complete recessivity of the character in each case was shown. For comparative purposes attempts were made to find instances of "adaptation". Nutritionally balanced heterokaryons, between tsl and the wild tipe strains for the corresponding alleles had show quite different results when experience on increasing initial incutation time at 37ºC ant then were transfered to 41ºC. Heterokaryons had not showed adaptative reponse to the changes of temperature. The heterokaryon: heterozygote slight difference of behavior

  18. Bacteriocin-resistant mutants of Erwinia chrysanthemi: possible involvement of iron acquisition in phytopathogenicity.

    Expert, D; A. Toussaint

    1985-01-01

    A series of bacteriocin-resistant mutants of Erwinia chrysanthemi 3937JRH were unable to elicit soft-rot symptoms on saintpaulia plants. The loss of pathogenicity was correlated with the disappearance of one to three outer membrane polypeptides (molecular weights, about 80,000 to 90,000) whose production in wild-type strains was greatly enhanced under iron-limited growth conditions. The mutants did not exhibit altered extracellular pectinolytic or cellulolytic activities.

  19. Development of thiosine-resistant mutant of corynebacterium glutamicum and its potency for lysine production

    A new strain of corynebacterium glutamicum was isolated and treatment by UV (Ultraviolet) radiation for 30 second at 15 cm from UV germicidal lamp. As a result, thiosine-resistant mutants were isolated and screened for lysine production. The potent mutant produced 22 g/L L. lysine in glucose salt medium, 20 g/L L. lysine in molasses and 15 g/L L. lysine in starch hydrolyzates medium, in stirred tank fermenter at 30 degree centigrade after 4 days. (author)

  20. Development of thiosine-resistant mutant of corynebacterium glutamicum and its potency for lysine production

    A new strain of corynebacterium glutamicum was isolated and treated by UV (Ultraviolet) radiation for 30 second at 15 cm from UV germicidal lamp. As a result, thiosine-resistant mutants were isolated and screened for lysine production. The potent mutant produced 22 g/L L. lysine in glucose salt medium, 20 g/L L. lysine in molasses and 15 g/L L. lysine in starch hydrolyzate medium, in stirred tank fermenter at 30 degree centigrade after 4 days. (author)

  1. Bacteriocin-resistant mutants of Erwinia chrysanthemi: possible involvement of iron acquisition in phytopathogenicity.

    Expert, D; Toussaint, A

    1985-07-01

    A series of bacteriocin-resistant mutants of Erwinia chrysanthemi 3937JRH were unable to elicit soft-rot symptoms on saintpaulia plants. The loss of pathogenicity was correlated with the disappearance of one to three outer membrane polypeptides (molecular weights, about 80,000 to 90,000) whose production in wild-type strains was greatly enhanced under iron-limited growth conditions. The mutants did not exhibit altered extracellular pectinolytic or cellulolytic activities. PMID:4008442

  2. Production, purification, and characterization of a-amylase by Bacillus subtilis and its mutant derivates

    DEMİRKAN, Elif

    2011-01-01

    The effects of various carbon and nitrogen sources on production of a-amylase by Bacillus subtilis and its mutant derivates were investigated. The maximum production of a-amylase by all strains was obtained in the presence of mesoinositol as the carbon source. There was no more significant increase in enzyme yield in the case of the supplementation of nitrogen sources, whereas malt extract and tryptone were preferred nitrogen sources for amylase production by Bacillus subtilis and mutant U 2-...

  3. Exopolysaccharide-Deficient Mutants of Rhizobium fredii HH303 Which Are Symbiotically Effective

    Kim, Choong-Hyun; Tully, Raymond E.; Keister, Donald L.

    1989-01-01

    Nineteen Tn5-induced mutants of Rhizobium fredii HH303 defective in acidic exopolysaccharide synthesis were isolated by screening for lack of Calcofluor fluorescence. They were grouped by complementation analysis by using Rhizobium meliloti cosmids carrying exo genes. All of the 19 mutants were symbiotically effective or partially effective, indicating that the major bacterial acidic exopolysaccharide of this strain of R. fredii may not be required for symbiotic development in the soybean.

  4. Clavulanic acid production by the MMS 150 mutant obtained from wild type Streptomyces clavuligerus ATCC 27064

    Eliton da Silva Vasconcelos

    2013-12-01

    Full Text Available Clavulanic acid (CA is a powerful inhibitor of the beta-lactamases, enzymes produced by bacteria resistants to penicillin and cefalosporin. This molecule is produced industrially by strains of Streptomyces clavuligerus in complex media which carbon and nitrogen resources are supplied by inexpensive compounds still providing high productivity. The genetic production improvement using physical and chemical mutagenic agents is an important strategy in programs of industrial production development of bioactive metabolites. However, parental strains are susceptible to loss of their original productivity due genetic instability phenomenona. In this work, some S. clavuligerus mutant strains obtained by treatment with UV light and with MMS are compared with the wild type (Streptomyces clavuligerus ATCC 27064. The results indicated that the random mutations originated some strains with different phenotypes, most divergent demonstrated by the mutants strains named AC116, MMS 150 and MMS 54, that exhibited lack of pigmentation in their mature spores. Also, the strain MMS 150 presented a larger production of CA when cultivated in semi-synthetics media. Using other media, the wild type strain obtained a larger CA production. Besides, using the modifed complex media the MMS 150 strain showed changes in its lipolitic activity and a larger production of CA. The studies also allowed finding the best conditions for a lipase activity exhibited by wild type S. clavuligerus and the MMS150 mutant.

  5. HIV-1逆转录酶H221Y突变对Y181C突变株复制能力影响研究%Impact of HIV-1 reverse transcriptase H221Y mutation on replication capacity of Y181C mutant viral strain

    殷丽丽; 韩晓旭; 赵彬; 张旻; 安明晖; 吉阳涛; 欧阳金鸣; 尚红

    2013-01-01

    Objective To explore the development of Y181C and H221Y mutations among HIV-1 infected patients upon antiretroviral therapy in China and to investigate the impact of H221Y mutation on replication capacity of Y181C mutant.Methods Three HIV-1 subtype B' infected patients with Y181C and H221Y mutations upon highly active antiretroviral therapy from Henan province were enrolled in this study.Follow-up blood samples collected every six months from the patients after therapy between 2004 to 2006 were detected for viral load evaluation.Fragments of pol gene were amplified by nested PCR.The purified PCR products were ligated into pMD18-T vector to construct recombinant plasmids,which were further sequenced and compared with the HIV reference strain from Stanford HIVDB for analyzing the development of Y181C and H221Y mutations.Plasmids containing Y181C mutation alone and plasmids containing Y181C and H221Y double mutations were constructed and cotransfected respectively with envelope-expression plasmid pVSV-G into HEK 293T cells to obtain HIV-1 pseudotyped viruses.Replication capacity of each pseudotyped virus was analyzed after a single-cycle infection in TZM-bl cells.Results A total of 57 TA cloned sequences from six follow-up blood samples of three patients were obtained.Y181C mutation alone was found in 46 clones and Y181C and H221Y mutations were found in 35 clones.Moreover,H221Y mutation was only found in clones in which Y181C mutation had already developed.Between two pairs of pseudotyped virus from two patients,replication capacity of those viruses containing Y181C and H221Y mutations were 1.42 and 1.62 fold higher than the viruses containing Y181C mutation alone,respectively.Conclusion H221Y mutation might be a compensatory mutation of Y181C mutation occurred to improve the replication capacity of viral strains with Y181C mutant in HIV-1 subtype B' infected patients upon antiretroviral therapy.The finding suggests that it's significantly important to further

  6. La tríada oscura de la personalidad: maquiavelismo, narcisismo y psicopatía. Una mirada evolutiva

    Fernando Renee González Moraga

    2015-08-01

    Full Text Available Se aborda la denominada Tríada Oscura de la Personalidad -Tríada- (maquiavelismo, narcisismo subclínico y psicopatía subclínica desde una mirada evolutiva. El objetivo de esta investigación es revisar la evidencia que han presentado los teóricos evolucionistas sobre la Tríada, desde un acercamiento a la mirada evolutiva. Para esto, se indaga en las principales características de cada uno de estos rasgos, los instrumentos que se han utilizado para evaluarlos y las principales áreas en donde se han estudiado. La mirada evolutiva plantea que los rasgos de la Tríada son dimensionales y varían de acuerdo con las diversas estrategias que utilizan los sujetos para adaptarse a las características socioambientales en las que se desarrollan. Estos rasgos se caracterizan por presentar violencia psicológica, inhibición moral, manipulación, baja amabilidad, insensibilidad, egoísmo y dificultad para mentalizar en contextos de interacción interpersonal y social.

  7. 77 FR 45962 - Approval and Promulgation of State Implementation Plans: Idaho; Boise-Northern Ada County Air...

    2012-08-02

    ... County Air Quality Maintenance Area Second 10-Year Carbon Monoxide Maintenance Plan AGENCY: Environmental... County Air Quality Maintenance Area Second 10- year Carbon Monoxide Limited Maintenance Plan submitted by... Maintenance Area. The Northern Ada County Area attained the CO national ambient air quality standards...

  8. Reliability prediction for the vehicles equipped with advanced driver assistance systems (ADAS and passive safety systems (PSS

    Balbir S. Dhillon

    2012-10-01

    Full Text Available The human error has been reported as a major root cause in road accidents in today’s world. The human as a driver in road vehicles composed of human, mechanical and electrical components is constantly exposed to changing surroundings (e.g., road conditions, environmentwhich deteriorate the driver’s capacities leading to a potential accident. The auto industries and transportation authorities have realized that similar to other complex and safety sensitive transportation systems, the road vehicles need to rely on both advanced technologies (i.e., Advanced Driver Assistance Systems (ADAS and Passive Safety Systems (PSS (e.g.,, seatbelts, airbags in order to mitigate the risk of accidents and casualties. In this study, the advantages and disadvantages of ADAS as active safety systems as well as passive safety systems in road vehicles have been discussed. Also, this study proposes models that analyze the interactions between human as a driver and ADAS Warning and Crash Avoidance Systems and PSS in the design of vehicles. Thereafter, the mathematical models have been developed to make reliability prediction at any given time on the road transportation for vehicles equipped with ADAS and PSS. Finally, the implications of this study in the improvement of vehicle designs and prevention of casualties are discussed.

  9. Dynamic Allocation Strategy Based on Pre-allocation and Agent to Implement Ada95's Distributed Computing

    ZhuFu-xi; FuJian-ming; WuChan-le; CaoZheng

    2003-01-01

    This paper discusses the model of how the Agent is applied to implement distributed computing of Ada95 and presents a dynamic allocation strategy for distributed computing that based on pre-allocationand Agent. The aim of this strategy is realizing dynamic equilibrium allocation.

  10. Rezension: Ada Lovelace. Die Pionierin der Computertechnik und ihre Nachfolgerinnen von Sybille Krämer (Hg.

    Bettina Schabschneider

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available Ein aktueller von Sybille Krämer herausgegebener Sammelband beleuchtet die Bedeutung der Computertechnik-Pionierin Ada Lovelace. Bettina Schabschneider hat den Band einer detaillierten Lektüre unterzogen und für die MEDIENIMPULSE rezensiert …

  11. Wild Accessions and Mutant Resources

    Kawaguchi, Masayoshi; Sandal, Niels Nørgaard

    2014-01-01

    Lotus japonicus, Lotus burttii, and Lotus filicaulis are species of Lotus genus that are utilized for molecular genetic analysis such as the construction of a linkage map and QTL analysis. Among them, a number of mutants have been isolated from two wild accessions: L. japonicus Gifu B-129 and Miy...

  12. Increased expression of keratinase and other peptidases by Candida parapsilosis mutants

    T.R. Duarte

    2011-03-01

    Full Text Available Keratinases are enzymes of great importance involved in pathogenic processes of some fungi. They also have a widespread ecological role since they are responsible for the degradation and recycling of keratin. On the one hand, studying them furthers our knowledge of pathogenicity mechanisms, which has important implications for human health, and on the other hand, understanding their ecological role in keratin recycling has biotechnological potential. Here, a wild-type keratinolytic Candida parapsilosis strain isolated from a poultry farm was treated with ethyl methanesulfonate in order to generate mutants with increased keratinase activity. Mutants were then cultured on media with keratin extracted from chicken feathers as the sole source of nitrogen and carbon. Approximately 500 mutants were screened and compared with the described keratinolytic wild type. Three strains, H36, I7 and J5, showed enhanced keratinase activity. The wild-type strain produced 80 U/mL of keratinolytic activity, strain H36 produced 110 U/mL, strain I7, 130 U/mL, and strain J5, 140 U/mL. A 70% increase in enzyme activity was recorded for strain J5. Enzymatic activity was evaluated by zymograms with proteic substrates. A peptidase migrating at 100 kDa was detected with keratin, bovine serum albumin and casein. In addition, a peptidase with a molecular mass of 50 kDa was observed with casein in the wild-type strain and in mutants H36 and J5. Gelatinase activity was detected at 60 kDa. A single band of 35 kDa was found in wild-type C. parapsilosis and in mutants with hemoglobin substrate.

  13. [Biofilm Formation by the Nonflagellated flhB1 Mutant of Azospirillum brasilense Sp245].

    Shelud'ko, A V; Filip'echeva, Yu A; Shumiliva, E M; Khlebtsov, B N; Burov, A M; Petrova, L P; Katsy, E I

    2015-01-01

    Azospirillum brasilense Sp245 with mixed flagellation are able to form biofilms on various surfaces. A nonflagellated mutant of this strain with inactivated chromosomal copy of the flhB gene (flhB1) was shown to exhibit specific traits at the later stages of biofilm formation on a hydrophilic (glass) surface. Mature biofilms of the flhB1::Omegon-Km mutant Sp245.1063 were considerably thinner than those of the parent strain Sp245. The biofilms of the mutant were more susceptible to the forces of hydrodynamic shear. A. brasilense Sp245 cells in biofilms were not found to possess lateral flagella. Cells with polar flagella were, however, revealed by atomic force microscopy of mature native biofilms of strain Sp245. Preservation of a polar flagellum (probably nonmotile) on the cells of A. brasilense Sp245 may enhance the biofilm stability. PMID:26263623

  14. N-methyl-N'-nitro-N-nitrosoguanidine and uv induced mutants of the dinoflagellate Crypthecodinium cohnii

    Mutant strains were chemically induced by treatment with N-methyl-N'-nitro-N-nitrosoguanidine (NTG) and UV irradiation. UV and NTG mutation rates were obtained that were both consistent with the organism being haploid. Three types of mutants were produced: strains deficient in both beta- and gamma-carotene, the only carotenoids found in the wild type; phenotypes include albinos (translucent, dull white, snow white) and cream-colored on agar as compared to the yellow-orange color of wild type colonies; strains requiring adenine, guanine or cytosine in addition to the minimal medium for growth; mutants that grow at a rate less than 40% of the wild type in minimal medium

  15. Comparison of the behavior of epiphytic fitness mutants of pseudomonas syringae under controlled and field conditions

    Beattie, G.A.; Lindow, S.E. (Univ. of California, Berkeley, CA (United States))

    1994-10-01

    The epiphytic fitness of four Tn5 of Pseudomonas syringae that exhibited reduced epiphytic fitness in the laboratory was evaluated under field conditions. The mutants differed more from the parental strain under field conditions than under laboratory conditions, in their survival immediately following inoculation onto bean leaves and in the size of the epiphytic populations that they established at near-wild type rates, while the others exhibited reduced survival only in the warmest, driest conditions tested and grew epiphytically at reduced rates or, in the case of one mutant, not at all. The presence of the parental strain, B728a, did not influence the survival or growth of three of the mutants under field conditions; however, one mutant, an auxotroph, established larger populations in the presence of B728a than in its absence, possibly because of cross-feeding by By28a in planta. Experiments with B728a demonstrated that established epiphytic populations survived exposure of leaves to dry conditions better than newly inoculated cells did and that epiphytic survival was not dependent on the cell density in the inoculum. Three of the mutants behaved similarly to two nonpathogenic strains of P. syringae, suggesting that the mutants may be altered in traits that are missing or poorly expressed in naturally occurring nonpathogenic epiphytes. 58 refs., 5 figs., 3 tabs.

  16. Microbial Fe (III) reduction and hydrogen production by a transposon-mutagenized strain of Pantoea agglomerans BH18

    Based on the transposon-mutagenized library of Pantoea agglomerans BH18, mutant screens were conducted to obtain the strain with the highest Fe (III) reduction and hydrogen production. Of these transposon-mutagenized mutants, the mutant strain TB230 was screened for high Fe (III)-reducing efficiency and hydrogen production. The PCR amplification and kanamycin resistance selection results indicated that the transposon insertion of the mutant strain TB230 was stable. Hydrogen production of the mutant strain TB230 was (2.21 ± 0.34) mol H2/mol glucose, which increased hydrogen production by over 40% compared with that of the wild type strain. The accumulation concentration of Fe (II) in the medium of the mutant strain TB230 with Fe (OH)3 as the sole electron acceptor was (7.39 ± 0.49) mmol/l, which was approximately 3-fold greater than that of the wild type strain. The mutant strain TB230 showed high Fe (III)-reducing activity and hydrogen production by adopting glucose and pyruvate as the carbon source. In addition, the mutant strain TB230 was capable of Fe (III) reduction and hydrogen production under fresh or marine conditions. This result indicates that the mutant strain with high microbial Fe (III) reduction and hydrogen production is beneficial for the improvement of anaerobic performance. - Highlights: • The mutant strain TB230 was a transposon-mutagenized strain of Pantoea agglomerans BH18. • Strain TB230 was screened for high Fe (III)-reducing efficiency and hydrogen production. • H2 yield and Fe (III)-reducing activity were 2.21 ± 0.34 and 7.39 ± 0.49 in marine condition. • Strain TB230 was capable of Fe (III) reduction and hydrogen production in fresh or marine condition

  17. Properties of mutants of haemophilus influenzae deficient in ATP-dependent deoxyribonuclease

    Setlow, J.K.

    1976-01-01

    Eight isogenic Haemophilus influenzae strains whose extracts lack ATP-dependent deoxyribonuclease activity (Add/sup -/ mutants) form three complementation and genetic linkage groups. Since there are known to be three subunits of the enzyme, these data suggest that each of the three genes specifies a different subunit. Gel electrophoresis of partially purified mutant extracts indicates that the smallest subunit is missing in one of the groups but is present in all the other mutants. The mutants are more sensitive to a variety of chemical agents than the wild type. The most sensitive mutants lack the ATPase activity associated with the enzyme. These strains exhibit aberrant incorporation of tritiated thymidine, which starts up more rapidly and shuts off sooner than in the wild type. An extracellular compound is responsible for most of this effect, in that wild type cells put into medium in which Add/sup -/ cells have been growing show a similar aberrant incorporation. The effect of these media can be mimicked by cyclic AMP and cyclic GMP, although millimolar concentrations are required. It is postulated that the Add/sup -/ mutants are more permeable to many substances than the wild type, partly because of the extracellular compound usually surrounding them, and the increased permeability might be responsible for the mutants' nonviability.

  18. Cranial bone morphometric study among mouse strains

    Yamamura Ken-ichi; Kawakami Minoru

    2008-01-01

    Abstract Background Little is known about the molecular mechanism which regulates how the whole cranium is shaped. Mouse models currently available for genetic research include several hundreds of unique inbred strains and genetically engineered mutants. By cross comparing their genomic structures, we can elucidate the cause of any differences in the phenotype between two strains. The craniometry of subspecies, or closely related species, of mice provide a good systemic model to study the rel...

  19. Characterization of new radioresistant strains of Chlamydomonas reinhardtii

    The purpose of this work is to investigate 4 new mutant strains of Chlamydomonas reinhardtii induced in respect to their radioresistance at different levels: cellular, molecular and biochemical. A comparison between radioresistance of the strains, DNA-ssb repair activity and pigment contents (chl 'a', chl 'b' and carotenoids) is made. Strain 137C(+) and mutant strains GK-1(+), GK-2(+), GK-3(+), and AKK-9-9(-) are used. The radioresistance has been assessed according to colony forming ability of the strains after irradiation with gamma rays (60C0, I=12.4 rads-1 doses 10, 50, 100, 150, 200 and 250 Gy). The data obtained reveal that there is a relationship between radioresistance, DNA-ssb repair efficiency and plastid pigment content in the tested Chlamydomonas reinhardtii strains. This relationship is most pronounced in strain AK-9-9 which displays the highest level of radioresistance. On the basis of data obtained the authors propose mutant strain AK-9-9 to be included in the existing collection of mutant strains of Chlamydomonas reinhardtii

  20. Mutants with Enhanced Nitrogenase Activity in Hydroponic Azospirillum brasilense-Wheat Associations

    Pereg Gerk, Lily; Gilchrist, Kate; Kennedy, Ivan R.

    2000-01-01

    The effect of a mutation affecting flocculation, differentiation into cyst-like forms, and root colonization on nitrogenase expression by Azospirillum brasilense is described. The gene flcA of strain Sp7 restored these phenotypes in spontaneous mutants of both strains Sp7 and Sp245. Employing both constitutive pLA-lacZ and nifH-lacZ reporter fusions expressed in situ, the colony morphology, colonization pattern, and potential for nitrogenase activity of spontaneous mutants and flcA Tn5-induce...

  1. Isolation of behavioral mutants of Azospirillum brasilense by using Tn5 lacZ.

    van Rhijn, P; Vanstockem, M; Vanderleyden, J.; De Mot, R

    1990-01-01

    Tn5 lacZ mutants were generated with Azospirillum brasilense 7030 by mating that strain with Escherichia coli strains carrying suicide plasmid pCIB100 or pCIB110. Kanamycin-resistant Azospirillum colonies were obtained with a maximum frequency of 10(-6) per recipient cell. The potential of Tn5 lacZ for random transposon mutagenesis coupled to transcription analysis in A. brasilense 7030 was demonstrated. Sixty percent of all Kmr A. brasilense 7030 mutants expressed beta-galactosidase activity...

  2. Screening of Bacillus subtilis transposon mutants with altered riboflavin production.

    Tännler, Simon; Zamboni, Nicola; Kiraly, Csilla; Aymerich, Stéphane; Sauer, Uwe

    2008-09-01

    To identify novel targets for metabolic engineering of riboflavin production, we generated about 10,000 random, transposon-tagged mutants of an industrial, riboflavin-producing strain of Bacillus subtilis. Process-relevant screening conditions were established by developing a 96-deep-well plate method with raffinose as the carbon source, which mimics, to some extent, carbon limitation in fed batch cultures. Screening in raffinose and complex LB medium identified more efficiently riboflavin overproducing and underproducing mutants, respectively. As expected for a "loss of function" analysis, most identified mutants were underproducers. Insertion mutants in two genes with yet unknown function, however, were found to attain significantly improved riboflavin titers and yields. These genes and possibly further ones that are related to them are promising candidates for metabolic engineering. While causal links to riboflavin production were not obvious for most underproducers, we demonstrated for the gluconeogenic glyceraldehyde-3-phosphate dehydrogenase GapB how a novel, non-obvious metabolic engineering strategy can be derived from such underproduction mutations. Specifically, we improved riboflavin production on various substrates significantly by deregulating expression of the gluconeogenic genes gapB and pckA through knockout of their genetic repressor CcpN. This improvement was also verified under the more process-relevant conditions of a glucose-limited fed-batch culture. PMID:18582593

  3. Induced High Lysine Mutants in Barley

    Doll, Hans; Køie, B.; Eggum, B. O.

    1974-01-01

    Screening of mutagenically treated materials by combined Kjeldahl nitrogen and dye-binding capacity determinations disclosed fourteen barley mutants, which have from a few to about 40 per cent more lysine in the protein and one mutant with 10 per cent less lysine in the protein than the parent...... variety. Comparisons of six high lysine mutants with the parent variety showed that grain yield and seed size of the mutants are reduced between 10 and 30 per cent. However, the most promising mutant had the lowest reduction in grain yield, and the absolute lysine yield of this mutant was some 30 per cent...... above that of the parent variety. Feeding tests with rats revealed substantial increases in the biological value of the high lysine mutant protein. Also the net protein utilization was improved but less so because of a somewhat reduced digestibility of the mutant protein....

  4. Characterization of mutant histidine-containing proteins of the phosphoenolpyruvate:sugar phosphotransferase system of Escherichia coli and Salmonella typhimurium

    Waygood, E.B.; Reiche, B.; Hengstenberg, W.; Lee, J.S.

    1987-06-01

    Histidine-containing phosphocarrier protein (HPr) is common to all of the phosphoenolpyruvate:sugar phosphotransferase systems (PTS) in Escherichia coli and Salmonella typhimurium, except the fructose-specific PTS. Strains which lack HPr activity (ptsH) have been characterized in the past, and it has proved difficult to delineate between tight and leaky mutants. In this study four different parameters of ptsH strains were measured: in vitro sugar phosphorylation activity of the mutant HPr; detection of /sup 32/P-labeled P-HPr; ability of monoclonal antibodies to bind mutant HPr; and sensitivity of ptsH strains to fosfomycin. Tight ptsH strains could be defined; they were fosfomycin resistant and produced no HPr protein or completely inactive mutant HPr. All leaky ptsH strains were fosfomycin sensitive, Usually produced normal amounts of mutant HPr protein, and had low but measurable activity, and HPr was detectable as a phosphoprotein. This indicates that the regulatory functions of the PTS require a very low level of HPr activity (about 1%). The antibodies used to detect mutant HPr in crude extracts were two monoclonal immunoglobulin G antibodies Jel42 and Jel44. Both antibodies, which have different pIs, inhibited PTS sugar phosphorylation assays, but the antibody-JPr complex could still be phosphorylated by enzyme I. Preliminary evidence suggests that the antibodies bind to two different epitopes which are in part located in a ..beta..-sheet structure.

  5. Phenotypic classes of phenoloxidase-negative mutants of the lignin-degrading fungus Phanerochaete chrysosporium

    This paper reports the isolation of phenoloxidase-negative mutants of the white-rot fungus Phanerochaete chrysosporium and the results of a survey of idiophasic functions among these mutants. The mutant strains were isolated from a medium containing o-anisidine after gamma irradiation of wild-type spores and fell into four classes, divided by the manner in which they mineralized 14C-lignin wheat lignocellulose. Examples are strain LMT7, which degraded lignin at a rate similar to that of the wild type; strain LMT26, in which degradation was enhanced; strain LMT16, whose degradation rate was apparently unaffected, although the onset of lignin attack was delayed compared with that in the wild type; and strain LMT24, which was unable to evolve significant amounts of 14CO2 from the radiolabeled substrate. The mutants were not necessarily defective in other functions associated with idiophasic activities (intracellular cyclic AMP levels, sporulation, extracellular glucan production, veratryl alcohol synthesis). The authors conclude that phenoloxidase activity as detected by the o-anisidine plate test is not necessary for lignin degradation. In addition, mutations resulting in the loss of lignin-degrading ability were not necessarily pleiotropic with other idiophasic functions

  6. Purification and Activation In Vitro of MoFe Protein from a nifE Deleted Mutant Strain of Azotobacter vinelandii%缺失nifE的棕色固氮菌突变种MoFe蛋白的纯化及体外激活

    赵剑峰; 赵颖; 汪志平; 吕玉兵; 潜中兴; 黄巨富

    2003-01-01

    The △ nif E MoFe protein ( △ nif EAv1) was obtained by a chromatography on DE52, SephacrylS-300 and Q-Sepharose columns from the unheated crude extract of nifE-deleted mutant strain (DJ35)of Azotobacter vinelandii Lipmann. The analysis by SDS-PAGE showed that the △ nifEAv1 was similar toOP MoFe protein (Av1) of A. vinelandii in the kinds and molecular weights of subunits (α and β subunit).When complemented with nitrogenase Fe protein (Av2), the △ nif EAv1 had hardly any proton-reductionactivity, but could be significantly activated by FeMoco extracted from OP Av1. After the △ nif E Av1 wastreated with an excess o-phenanthroline (o-phen) and chromatographied on Sephadex G-25 column underatmosphere of Ar, △ nif EAv1 was obtained. In the presence of both Av2 and MgATP regenerationsystem, the △ nif E Av1 , rather than △ nif E Av1, was significantly activated in vitro by a reconstituentsolution containing Mn which composed of KMnO4, ferric homocitrate, Na2S, Na2S2O4 (DT) and dithiothreitol(DTT). But in the absence of MgATP or Av2, the activation of △nifE Av1 did not happen. It indicates thatactivation of △ nif E Av1 by RS-Mn requires the pretreatment with o-phen and the simultaneous presenceof Av2 and MgATP.%经DEAE纤维素、Sephacryl S-300和Q-Sepharose柱层析分离纯化,从缺失nifE的棕色固氮菌(Azotobactervinelandii Lipmann)突变种(DJ35)的无细胞粗提物中得到△nifE MoFe蛋白(△nifE Av1).SDS凝胶电泳分析表明,△nifE Av1的亚单位种类和分子量分别与棕色固氮菌野生型(OP)MoFe蛋白(Av1)的α和β亚单位相似.当与固氮酶Fe蛋白(Av2)活性互补时,△nifE Av1不具有还原质子的能力,但从OP Av1中抽提的FeMoco却可使其激活.经过量的邻菲啰啉(o-phen)厌氧处理并经Sephadex G-25柱层析分离后,便得到△nifE Av1 .在同时存在Av2和MgATP发生系统的条件下,△nifE Av1 ,而不是△nifE Av1,可为由KMnO4、高柠檬酸铁、Na2S、Na2S2O4和二硫苏糖醇组成

  7. Yeast mutants auxotrophic for choline or ethanolamine.

    Atkinson, K D; Jensen, B.; Kolat, A I; Storm, E M; Henry, S. A.; Fogel, S

    1980-01-01

    Three mutants of the yeast Saccharomyces cerevisiae which require exogenous ethanolamine or choline were isolated. The mutants map to a single locus (cho1) on chromosome V. The lipid composition suggests that cho1 mutants do not synthesize phosphatidylserine under any growth conditions. If phosphatidylethanolamine or phosphatidylcholine, which are usually derived from phosphatidylserine, were synthesized from exogenous ethanolamine or choline, the mutants grew and divided relatively normally....

  8. Establishment of pseudomonas putida strains for sensitive detection of heavy metals in effluents

    The objective of this study was to isolate a mutant of Pseudomonas putida that is more sensitive to heavy metal toxicants in water than the wild type. P. putida was the organism chosen in this study as it occurs naturally in unpolluted waters, is nonpathogenic, aerobic and because it is commonly applied in bacterial toxicity assays due to its sensitivity to toxicants. Three methods of mutagenesis were employed, which included N-methyl-N'-nitro-N-nitrosoguanidine (NG) ; ultraviolet light and transposon-mediated mutagenesis in order to generate as wide a range of mutants as possible. Four mutants, which were more sensitive to mercury, copper, lead, zinc, cadmium and silver were isolated using the NG method of mutagenesis. These mutants were designated strains 53, 56, 60 and 61 and were characterized as P. putida strains on the basis of Gram staining, biochemical reactions and immunological properties. The sensitivity of the mutants to a variety of industrial effluents was compared to that of the parent strain using a bacterial growth test. Using industrial effluents, one of the mutants, namely strain 56 was found to be more sensitive than the parent strain on 71.4% of the tests. Strains 60 and 61 were also both more sensitive than the parent strain on 42.9% of the occasions using industrial effluents. The uptake rates of radioactive mercury were measured for the parent strain of P. putida and the mutants that were found to be more sensitive to mercury

  9. The phenotype of a phospholipase C (plc-1) mutant in a filamentous fungus, Neurospora crassa.

    Lew, Roger R; Giblon, Rachel E; Lorenti, Miranda S H

    2015-09-01

    In the filamentous fungus Neurospora crassa, phospholipase C may play a role in hyphal extension at the growing tips as part of a growth-sensing mechanism that activates calcium release from internal stores to mediate continued expansion of the hyphal tip. One candidate for a tip-localized phospholipase C is PLC-1. We characterized morphology and growth characteristics of a knockout mutant (KO plc-1) and a RIP mutated strain (RIP plc-1) (missense mutations and a nonsense mutation render the gene product non-functional). Growth and hyphal cytology of wildtype and KO plc-1 were similar, but the RIP plc-1 mutant grew slower and exhibited abnormal membrane structures at the hyphal tip, imaged using the fluorescence dye FM4-64. To test for causes of the slower growth of the RIP plc-1 mutant, we examined its physiological poise compared to wildtype and the KO plc-1 mutant. The electrical properties of all three strains and the electrogenic contribution of the plasma membrane H(+)-ATPase (identified by cyanide inhibition) were the same. Responses to high osmolarity were also similar. However, the RIP plc-1 mutant had a significantly lower turgor, a possible cause of its slower growth. While growth of all three strains was inhibited by the phospholipase C inhibitor 3-nitrocoumarin, the RIP plc-1 mutant did not exhibit hyphal bursting after addition of the inhibitor, observed in both wildtype and the KO plc-1 mutant. Although the plc-1 gene is not obligatory for tip growth, the phenotype of the RIP plc-1 mutant - abnormal tip cytology, lower turgor and resistance to inhibitor-induced hyphal bursting - suggest it does play a role in tip growth. The expression of a dysfunctional plc-1 gene may cause a shift to alternative mechanism(s) of growth sensing in hyphal extension. PMID:26212074

  10. Mutants with enhanced nitrogenase activity in hydroponic Azospirillum brasilense-wheat associations.

    Pereg Gerk, L; Gilchrist, K; Kennedy, I R

    2000-05-01

    The effect of a mutation affecting flocculation, differentiation into cyst-like forms, and root colonization on nitrogenase expression by Azospirillum brasilense is described. The gene flcA of strain Sp7 restored these phenotypes in spontaneous mutants of both strains Sp7 and Sp245. Employing both constitutive pLA-lacZ and nifH-lacZ reporter fusions expressed in situ, the colony morphology, colonization pattern, and potential for nitrogenase activity of spontaneous mutants and flcA Tn5-induced mutants were established. The results of this study show that the ability of Sp7 and Sp245 mutant strains to remain in a vegetative form improved their ability to express nitrogenase activity in association with wheat in a hydroponic system. Restoring the cyst formation and colonization pattern to the spontaneous mutant Sp7-S reduced nitrogenase activity rates in association with plants to that of the wild-type Sp7. Although Tn5-induced flcA mutants showed higher potentials for nitrogenase expression than Sp7, their potentials were lower than that of Sp7-S, indicating that other factors in this strain contribute to its exceptional nitrogenase activity rates on plants. The lack of lateral flagella is not one of these factors, as Sp7-PM23, a spontaneous mutant impaired in swarming and lateral-flagellum production but not in flocculation, showed wild-type nitrogenase activity and expression. The results also suggest factors of importance in evolving an effective symbiosis between Azospirillum and wheat, such as increasing the availability of microaerobic niches along the root, increased supply of carbon sources by the plant, and the retention of the bacterial cells in vegetative form for faster metabolism. PMID:10788397

  11. An extra early mutant of pigeonpea

    The redgram (Cajanus cajan (L.) Huth) variety 'Prabhat DT' was gamma irradiated with 100, 200, 300 and 400 Gy doses. Several mutants have been identified viz., extra early mutants, monostem mutants, obcordifoliate mutants and bi-stigmatic mutants. The extra early mutant was obtained when treated with 100 Gy dose. The mutant was selfed and forwarded from M2 to M4 generation. In the M4 generation the mutant line was raised along with the parental variety. Normal cultural practices were followed and the biometrical observations were recorded. It was observed that for the characters viz., total number of branches per plant, number of pods per plants, seeds per pod, 100 seed weight and seed yield per plant there was no difference between the mutant and parent variety. Whereas, regarding the days to flowering and maturity the mutants were earlier than the parents. The observation was recorded from two hundred plants each. The mutant gives the same yield in 90 days as that of the parent variety in 107 days, which make it an economic mutant

  12. Problem-Solving Test: Tryptophan Operon Mutants

    Szeberenyi, Jozsef

    2010-01-01

    This paper presents a problem-solving test that deals with the regulation of the "trp" operon of "Escherichia coli." Two mutants of this operon are described: in mutant A, the operator region of the operon carries a point mutation so that it is unable to carry out its function; mutant B expresses a "trp" repressor protein unable to bind…

  13. Software architecture for a distributed real-time system in Ada, with application to telerobotics

    Olsen, Douglas R.; Messiora, Steve; Leake, Stephen

    1992-01-01

    The architecture structure and software design methodology presented is described in the context of telerobotic application in Ada, specifically the Engineering Test Bed (ETB), which was developed to support the Flight Telerobotic Servicer (FTS) Program at GSFC. However, the nature of the architecture is such that it has applications to any multiprocessor distributed real-time system. The ETB architecture, which is a derivation of the NASA/NBS Standard Reference Model (NASREM), defines a hierarchy for representing a telerobot system. Within this hierarchy, a module is a logical entity consisting of the software associated with a set of related hardware components in the robot system. A module is comprised of submodules, which are cyclically executing processes that each perform a specific set of functions. The submodules in a module can run on separate processors. The submodules in the system communicate via command/status (C/S) interface channels, which are used to send commands down and relay status back up the system hierarchy. Submodules also communicate via setpoint data links, which are used to transfer control data from one submodule to another. A submodule invokes submodule algorithms (SMA's) to perform algorithmic operations. Data that describe or models a physical component of the system are stored as objects in the World Model (WM). The WM is a system-wide distributed database that is accessible to submodules in all modules of the system for creating, reading, and writing objects.

  14. BASIC CRITERIA OF IRANIAN COMMERCIAL TOOTHPASTES AND AN ADA APPROVED BRAND (CREST

    N NOUR BAKHSH

    2003-03-01

    Full Text Available Introduction: The effectiveness of fluorided toothpastes in reducing dental caries is well-documented, However not all fluorided toothpastes are equally effective. The objective of this study was to compare some essential criteria of six different toothpastes manufactured in Iran with one brand of ADA approved toothpaste (Crest. Methods. Six commercial toothpastes produced in Iran named as Paveh, Puneh, Nasim, Darugar, golpasand and saviz were compared with Crest in three subjects as follows: 1. Amount of fluoride concentration 2. Amount of releasing fluoride 3. Cleaning efficiency. Two first criteria were tested using the potentiometric method with F- Ion specific electrode, and Cleaning efficiency was done by O'Leary index on 60 volunteers (10 for each toothpaste. Results: Fluoride Concentration in Paveh, Puneh, Nasim toothpastes were nearly700PPM,while in three others were much lower. The highest amount of fluoride was seen in Crest (1450 PPM. Cleaning efficiency of Darugar was better than Crest, Paveh, Puneh. Cleaning efficiency of Nasim was the same as Crest and Golpasand and Saviz were weaker than Crest. Discussion: Since at the present time, the most effective, Cost-benefit method for preventive aspects of fluoride, especially in developing countries is obtained by fluoride toothpastes. Manufactures should improve quality of fluoride toothpastes, ensure that all pates maximize Fluoride bioavailability, develop active agents to help better cleaning efficiency and label products clearly with containig fluoride in PPM.

  15. MULTISTEP MUTAGENIC STRAIN IMPROVEMENT IN ASPERGILLUS CARBONARIUS TO ENHANCE PECTINASE PRODUCTION POTENTIAL

    Sabika Akbar

    2013-06-01

    Full Text Available Pectinase is one of the most important commercially synthesised enzyme having its application in several industrial sectors like food and beverages, fruit clarifications etc. A.carbonarius has the capacity to produce Exo-pectinase 50 U/ml by submerged fermentation process as per the previous study. The present study describes the improvement of previously identified fungal strain Aspergillus carbonarius for enhancement of pectinase production by inducing mutations using physical and chemical mutagens. Aiming to increase the potentiality in pectinase production, the parental strain was treated for three times with four mutagens - UV irradiation, Colchicine, Hydrogen peroxide and Ethidium bromide to obtain mutants. Mutants were selected based on higher enzyme activity, improved growth rates and varied morphology with increased pectinase production. All the surviving mutants were assessed quantitatively after first mutagenic treatment. The stability of the best mutants was tested by repeating the exposures for two times to obtain 3rd generation mutants. These mutants were tested quantitatively to assess the pectinase production. Of all the best mutants E8 showed maximum activity producing 65U/ml pectinase enzyme compared to wild and sister mutants. The wild strain of A. carbonarius is a low pectinase producing organism as per literature. This strain was successfully mutated to increase the productivity rate to 1.8 fold in comparison to wild strain. This overproduction and strain stability may be due to repeated mutagenic treatments.

  16. Astaxanthin Synthesis by Yeast Xanthophyllomyces dendrorhous and its Mutants on Media Based on Plant Extracts

    Stachowiak, Barbara

    2012-01-01

    The study evaluated the effect of media based on plant extracts: potato, carrot and barley malt broth, on growth and astaxanthin synthesis by yeast Xanthophyllomyces dendrorhous DSM 5626 and its mutants. The carrot medium promoted carotenogenesis most effectively. In cultures on this medium the highest volumetric and cellular concentrations of astaxanthin were recorded for four out of five tested strains. Also the share of astaxanthin in the total carotenoids produced by the tested strains wa...

  17. Aquifer Recharge Estimation through Atmospheric Chloride Mass Balance at Las Cañadas Caldera, Tenerife, Canary Islands, Spain

    Rayco Marrero-Diaz; Alcalá, Francisco J.; Nemesio M. Pérez; Dina L. López; Gladys V. Melián; Eleazar Padrón; Germán D. Padilla

    2015-01-01

    The atmospheric chloride mass balance (CMB) method was used to estimate net aquifer recharge in Las Cañadas Caldera, an endorheic summit aquifer area about 2000 m a.s.l. with negligible surface runoff, which hosts the largest freshwater reserve in Tenerife Island, Canary Islands, Spain. The wet hydrological year 2005–2006 was selected to compare yearly atmospheric chloride bulk deposition and average chloride content in recharge water just above the water table, both deduced from periodical...

  18. Enhanced production of alkaline protease by a mutant of Bacillus licheniformis N-2 for dehairing

    Muhammad Nadeem

    2010-10-01

    Full Text Available The purpose of the present investigations was to improve the yield of alkaline protease for leather dehairing by subjecting the indigenous proteolytic strain Bacillus licheniformis N-2 to various mutagenic treatments viz. UV irradiations, NTG (N-methyl-N-nitro-N-nitrosoguinidine and MMS (methyl methane sulfonate. After screening on skim milk agar plates, a total of nine positive mutants were selected for shake flask experiments. Among these, the best proteolytic mutant designated as UV-9 showed 1.4 fold higher alkaline protease activity in preoptimized growth medium than the parent strain. The fermentation profile and kinetic parameters such u(h-1, Yp/s, Yp/x, Yx/s, q s, Qs, q p and Qp also indicated the superiority of the selected mutant UV-9 for alkaline protease production over the parent strain and rest of the mutants. The dehairing capability of mutant UV-9 alkaline protease was analyzed by soaking goat skin pieces for different time intervals (3-15 h at 40 º C. A complete dehairing without degradation of collagen was achieved after 12 h, indicating its commercial exploitation in leather industry.

  19. Construction and Virulence of Filamentous Hemagglutinin Protein B1 Mutant of Pasteurella multocida in Chickens

    GUO Dong-chun; QU Lian-dong; SUN Yan; ZHANG Ai-qin; LIU Jia-sen; LU Yan; LIU Pei-xin; YUAN Dong-wei; JIANG Qian; SI Chang-de

    2014-01-01

    Pasteurella multocida, a Gram-negative nonmotile coccobacillus, is the causative agent of fowl cholera, bovine hemorrhagic septicemia, enzoonotic pneumonia and swine atropic rhinitis. Two iflamentous hemagglutinin genes, fhaB1 and fhaB2, are the potential virulence factors. In this study, an inactivation fhaB1 mutant of P. multocida in avian strain C48-102 was constructed by a kanamycin-resistance cassette. The virulence of the fhaB1 mutant and the wild type strain was assessed in chickens by intranasal and intramuscular challenge. The inactivation of fhaB1 resulted in a high degree of attenuation when the chickens were challenged intranasally and a lesser degree when challenged intramuscularly. The fhaB1 mutant and the wild type strain were investigated their sensitivity to the antibody-dependent classical complement-mediated killing pathway in 90%convalescent chicken serum. The fhaB1 mutant was serum sensitive as the viability has reduced between untreated serum and heat inactivated chicken serum (P<0.007). These results conifrmed that FhaB1 played the critical roles in the bacterial pathogenesis and further studies were needed to investigate the mechanism which caused reduced virulence of the fhaB1 mutant.

  20. Isolation and characterization of an Ashbya gossypii mutant for improved riboflavin production.

    Wei, Shiping; Hurley, James; Jiang, Zhenglong; Wang, Siwen; Wang, Yuanyuan

    2012-04-01

    The use of the filamentous fungus, Ashbya gossypii, to improve riboflavin production at an industrial scale is described in this paper. A riboflavin overproducing strain was isolated by ultraviolet irradiation. Ten minutes after spore suspensions of A. gossypii were irradiated by ultraviolet light, a survival rate of 5.5% spores was observed, with 10% of the surviving spores giving rise to riboflavin-overproducing mutants. At this time point, a stable mutant of the wild strain was isolated. Riboflavin production of the mutant was two fold higher than that of the wild strain in flask culture. When the mutant was growing on the optimized medium, maximum riboflavin production could reach 6.38 g/l. It has even greater promise to increase its riboflavin production through dynamic analysis of its growth phase parameters, and riboflavin production could reach 8.12 g/l with pH was adjusted to the range of 6.0-7.0 using KH2PO4 in the later growth phase. This mutant has the potential to be used for industrial scale riboflavin production. PMID:24031850

  1. Isolation and characterization of an Ashbya gossypii mutant for improved riboflavin production

    Shiping Wei

    2012-06-01

    Full Text Available The use of the filamentous fungus, Ashbya gossypii, to improve riboflavin production at an industrial scale is described in this paper. A riboflavin overproducing strain was isolated by ultraviolet irradiation. Ten minutes after spore suspensions of A. gossypii were irradiated by ultraviolet light, a survival rate of 5.5% spores was observed, with 10% of the surviving spores giving rise to riboflavin-overproducing mutants. At this time point, a stable mutant of the wild strain was isolated. Riboflavin production of the mutant was two fold higher than that of the wild strain in flask culture. When the mutant was growing on the optimized medium, maximum riboflavin production could reach 6.38 g/l. It has even greater promise to increase its riboflavin production through dynamic analysis of its growth phase parameters, and riboflavin production could reach 8.12 g/l with pH was adjusted to the range of 6.0-7.0 using KH2PO4 in the later growth phase. This mutant has the potential to be used for industrial scale riboflavin production.

  2. Development mutants of anabaena doliolum defective in repair of UV-damage

    Nitrosoguanidine induced 'blue' pigment mutants of the blue-green alga anabaena doliolum were isolated. The blue-mutants on further characterization were grouped into three developmental phenotypes - (i) those forming doli-form blue-spores of heterogenous size i.e., Ad 011, (ii) those forming spheroidal cells in the stationary phase, some of which behave like spores on transfer to fresh medium i.e., Ad 012, and (iii) those showing no sporulation and conditionally producing abnormal cells in the presence of combined nitrogen only i.e., Ad 007. The former two classes of mutants showed the formation of abnormal cells irrespective of the presence or absence of combined nitrogen sources in the medium. The formation of abnormal cells in the filaments of the above mutants were distinguished by their larger size and irregular mode of division leading to true-branch formation. The comparative characterization of these mutant strains with the parental one showed sluggish growth, increased UV-sensitivity, almost unchanged photorepair capacity, a marked change in the pigment composition and relative resistance to nitrosoguanidine. Irregular cell division in both space and time in the mutant strains and their increased sensitivity to ultraviolet irradiation indicate the possible involvement of dark repair system in maintaining the precision of cell cylce in this alga. (orig.) 891 AJ/orig. 892 HIS

  3. Extended region of nodulation genes in Rhizobium meliloti 1021. I. Phenotypes of Tn5 insertion mutants

    Rhizobium meliloti Nod- mutant WL131, a derivative of wild-type strain 102F51, was complemented by a clone bank of wild-type R. meliloti 1021 DNA, and clone pRmJT5 was recovered. Transfer of pRmJT5 conferred alfalfa nodulation on other Rhizobium species, indicating a role in host range determination for pRmJT5. Mutagenesis of pRmJT5 revealed several segments in which transposon insertion causes delay in nodulation, and/or marked reduction of the number of nodules formed on host alfalfa plants. The set of mutants indicated five regions in which nod genes are located; one mutant, nod-216, is located in a region not previously reported to encode a nodulation gene. Other mutant phenotypes correlated with the positions of open reading frames for nodH, nodF and nodE, and with a 2.2-kb EcoRI fragment. A mutant in nodG had no altered phenotype in this strain. One nodulation mutant was shown to be a large deletion of the common nod gene region. The authors present a discussion comparing the various studies made on this extended nod gene region

  4. Using vertical electrical soundings for characterizing hydrogeological and tectonic settings in Deir El-Adas area, Yarmouk Basin, Syria

    Al-Fares, Walid

    2016-06-01

    The present study is aimed at characterizing the subsurface geological and tectonic structure in Deir El-Adas area, by using Vertical Electrical Sounding survey (VES) and hydrogeological investigations, in order to determine the causes of the failure for the majority of the wells drilled in the area. The survey data was treated in three different approaches including direct VES inversion, pseudo-2D method and horizontal profiling, in order to maximize the reliability of the data interpretation. The results revealed the presence of a local faulted anticline structure at the top of the Paleogene formation, underneath the basaltic outcrops where Deir El-Adas village is situated. The appearance of this subsurface anticline structure has complicated the local hydrogeological situation, and most likely led to limitation of the groundwater recharge in the area. Moreover, the performed piezometric and discharge maps indicated the presence of a notable groundwater watershed, in addition to feeble water productivity of the wells drilled adjacent to Deir El-Adas, mostly related to the subsurface geological and tectonic settings in the area.

  5. Prion Propagation in Cells Expressing PrP Glycosylation Mutants

    Salamat, Muhammad Khalid; Dron, Michel; Chapuis, Jerome; Langevin, Christelle; Laude, Hubert

    2011-01-01

    Infection by prions involves conversion of a host-encoded cell surface protein (PrPC) to a disease-related isoform (PrPSc). PrPC carries two glycosylation sites variably occupied by complex N-glycans, which have been suggested by previous studies to influence the susceptibility to these diseases and to determine characteristics of prion strains. We used the Rov cell system, which is susceptible to sheep prions, to generate a series of PrPC glycosylation mutants with mutations at one or both a...

  6. Reverse genetics in Chlamydomonas: a platform for isolating insertional mutants

    de Montaigu Amaury

    2011-07-01

    Full Text Available Abstract A method was developed to identify insertional mutants of Chlamydomonas reinhardtii disrupted for selected target genes. The approach relies on the generation of thousands of transformants followed by PCR-based screenings that allow for identification of strains harboring the introduced marker gene within specific genes of interest. Our results highlight the strengths and limitations of two independent screens that differed in the nature of the marker DNA used (PCR-amplified fragment containing the plasmid-free marker versus entire linearized plasmid with the marker and in the strategies used to maintain and store transformants.

  7. TagSmart: analysis and visualization for yeast mutant fitness data measured by tag microarrays

    Xie Dan

    2007-04-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background A nearly complete collection of gene-deletion mutants (96% of annotated open reading frames of the yeast Saccharomyces cerevisiae has been systematically constructed. Tag microarrays are widely used to measure the fitness of each mutant in a mutant mixture. The tag array experiments can have a complex experimental design, such as time course measurements and drug treatment with multiple dosages. Results TagSmart is a web application for analysis and visualization of Saccharomyces cerevisiae mutant fitness data measured by tag microarrays. It implements a robust statistical approach to assess the concentration differences among S. cerevisiae mutant strains. It also provides an interactive environment for data analysis and visualization. TagSmart has the following advantages over previously described analysis procedures: 1 it is user-friendly software rather than merely a description of analytical procedure; 2 It can handle complicated experimental designs, such as multiple time points and treatment with multiple dosages; 3 it has higher sensitivity and specificity; 4 It allows users to mask out "bad" tags in the analysis. Two biological tests were performed to illustrate the performance of TagSmart. First, we generated titration mixtures of mutant strains, in which the relative concentration of each strain was controlled. We used tag microarrays to measure the numbers of tag copies in each titration mixture. The data was analyzed with TagSmart and the result showed high precision and recall. Second, TagSmart was applied to a dataset in which heterozygous deletion strain mixture pools were treated with a new drug, Cincreasin. TagSmart identified 53 mutant strains as sensitive to Cincreasin treatment. We individually tested each identified mutant, and found 52 out of the 53 predicted mutants were indeed sensitive to Cincreasin. Conclusion TagSmart is provided "as is" to analyze tag array data produced by Affymetrix and Agilent

  8. Hypersensitivity to mutation and sister-chromatid-exchange induction in CHO cell mutants defective in incising DNA containing UV lesions

    Five UV-sensitive mutant strains of CHO cells representing different genetic complementation groups were analyzed for their ability to perform the incision step of nucleotide excision repair after UV exposure. The assay utilized inhibitors of DNA synthesis to accumulate the short-lived strand breaks resulting from repair incisions. After 6 J/m2, each of the mutants showed 2, the rate in AA8 was similar to that at 6 J/m2, but the rates in the mutants were significantly higher (approx. 20% of the rate of AA8). Thus by this incision assay the mutants were phenotypically indistinguishable. Each of the mutants were hypersensitive to mutation induction at both the hprt and aprt loci by a factor of 10, and in the one strain tested ouabain resistance was induced sevenfold more efficiently than in AA8 cells. Sister chromatid exchange was also induced with sevenfold increased efficiency in the two mutant strains examined. Thus, here CHO mutants resemble xeroderma pigmentosum cells in terms of their incision defects and their hypersensitivity to DNA damage by UV

  9. Adding delayed recall to the ADAS-cog improves measurement precision in mild Alzheimer's disease: Implications for predicting instrumental activities of daily living.

    Lowe, Deborah A; Balsis, Steve; Benge, Jared F; Doody, Rachelle S

    2015-12-01

    As research increasingly focuses on preclinical stages of Alzheimer's disease (AD), instruments must be retooled to identify early cognitive markers of AD. A supplemental delayed recall subtest for the Alzheimer's Disease Assessment Scale-cognitive (ADAS-cog; Mohs, Rosen, & Davis, 1983; Rosen, Mohs, & Davis, 1984) is commonly implemented, but it is not known precisely where along the spectrum of cognitive dysfunction this subtest yields incremental information beyond what is gained from the standard ADAS-cog, or whether it can improve prediction of functional outcomes. An item response theory approach can analyze this in a psychometrically rigorous way. Seven hundred eighty-eight patients with AD or amnestic complaints or impairment completed a battery including the ADAS-cog and 2 activities of daily living measures. The delayed recall subtest slightly improved the ADAS-cog's measurement precision in the mild range of cognitive dysfunction and increased prediction of instrumental activities of daily living for individuals with subjective memory impairment. PMID:25938338

  10. Stabilization of a histidine-producing strain of Serratia marcescens.

    Sugiura, M; Kisumi, M

    1984-01-01

    A decrease in histidine productivity was observed during subculture of a histidine-producing strain of Serratia marcescens. The decrease was accompanied by an increase in the number of wild-type revertants. Adenine accelerated the growth of producing strain HT-2892 to nearly equal that of revertants, and histidine production was stable because the depletion of ATP in strain HT-2892 was restored by adenine. To increase the intracellular ATP content, mutants resistant to 6-methylpurine, an anta...

  11. Sensitivity of Escherichia coli acrA mutants to psoralen plus near-ultraviolet radiation

    The sensitivity to psoralen plus near-ultraviolet radiation (PUVA) was compared in a pair of E. coli strains differing at the acrA locus. Survival was determined for both bacteria and phage lambda. AcrA mutant cells were 40 times more sensitive than wild type to the lethal effect of PUVA. Free lambda phage exposed to PUVA survived as well when plated on acrA mutants as on wild type. In contrast, prophage lambda C1857 ind- carried in lysogenic acrA strains was hypersensitive to PUVA. The enhanced sensitivity of bacterial and lambda DNA, when inside acrA cells, was parallel by an increased photobinding of radiolabelled psoralens in the mutant. Binding was increased specifically to DNA rather than to nucleic acids in general. The difference in psoralen-binding ability determined by the acrA gene persisted after permeabilizing treatment of the cells. (orig./AJ)

  12. Changes in photosynthesis and pigmentation in an agp deletion mutant of the cyanobacterium Synechocystis sp.

    Miao, Xiaoling; Wu, Qingyu; Wu, Guifang; Zhao, Nanming

    2003-03-01

    The agp gene encoding ADP-glucose pyrophosphorylase is involved in cyanobacterial glycogen synthesis. By in vitro DNA recombination technology, agp deletion mutant (agp-) of cyanobacterium Synechocystis sp. PCC 6803 was constructed. This mutation led to a complete absence of glycogen biosynthesis. As compared with WT (wild type), a 60% decrease in ratio of the c-phycocyanine/chlorophyll a and no significant change in the carotenoid/chlorophyll a were observed in agp- cells. The agp- mutant had 38% less photosynthetic capacity when grown in light over 600 micromol m(-2) s(-1). Under lower light intensity, the final biomass of the mutant strain was only 1.1 times of that of the WT strain under mixotrophic condition after 6 d culture. Under higher light intensity, however, the final biomass of the WT strain under mixotrophic conditions was 3 times that of the mutant strain after 6 d culture and 1.5 times under photoautotrophic conditions. The results indicate that there is a minimum requirement for glycogen synthesis for normal growth and development in cyanobacteria. PMID:12882559

  13. Novel dnaG mutation in a dnaP mutant of Escherichia coli.

    Murakami, Y.; Nagata, T; Schwarz, W.; Wada, C.; Yura, T

    1985-01-01

    Reexamination of the dnaP18 mutant strain of Escherichia coli revealed that the mutation responsible for the arrest of DNA replication and cell growth at high temperatures resides in the dnaG gene rather than in the dnaP locus as previously thought; this mutation has been designated dnaG2903.

  14. An iron-acquisition-deficient mutant of Corynebacterium pseudotuberculosis efficiently protects mice against challenge.

    Ribeiro, Dayana; Rocha, Flávia de Souza; Leite, Kátia Morais Costa; Soares, Siomar de Castro; Silva, Artur; Portela, Ricardo Wagner Dias; Meyer, Roberto; Miyoshi, Anderson; Oliveira, Sérgio Costa; Azevedo, Vasco; Dorella, Fernanda Alves

    2014-01-01

    Caseous lymphadenitis (CLA) is a chronic disease that affects sheep and goats worldwide, and its etiological agent is Corynebacterium pseudotuberculosis. Despite the economic losses caused by CLA, there is little information about the molecular mechanisms of bacterial pathogenesis, and current immune prophylaxis against infection has been unable to reduce the incidence of CLA in goats. Recently, 21 different mutant strains of C. pseudotuberculosis were identified by random mutagenesis. In this study, these previously generated mutants were used in mice vaccination trials to develop new immunogens against CLA. Based on this analysis, CZ171053, an iron-acquisition-deficient mutant strain, was selected. After challenge with a virulent strain, 80% of the animals that were immunized with the CZ171053 strain survived. Furthermore, this vaccination elicited both humoral and cellular responses. Intracellular survival of the bacterium was determined using murine J774 cells; in this assay, the CZ171053 had reduced intracellular viability. Because iron acquisition in intracellular bacteria is considered one of their most important virulence factors during infection, these results demonstrate the immunogenic potential of this mutant against CLA. PMID:24597857

  15. Sensitivity of Escherichia coli acrA Mutants to Psoralen plus Near-Ultraviolet Radiation

    Hansen, M. Trier

    1982-01-01

    The sensitivity to psoralen plus near-ultraviolet radiation (PUVA) was compared in a pair of E. coli strains differing at the acrA locus. Survival was determined for both bacteria and phage λ. AcrA mutant cells were 40 times more sensitive than wild type to the lethal effect of PUVA. Free λ phage...

  16. Mutant breeding of Aspergillus niger irradiated by 12C6+ for hyper citric acid

    In this study, strains of Aspergillus niger No.4 for hyper citric acid were irradiated to different doses by 80 MeV/u 12C6+ ion beams. Seven mutant strains showed marked citric acid over-production records and faster productivity than initial Aspergillus niger No.4 by shaking flash fermentation. The maximum product yield was 132.8 gL-1 (the H4002 strain) being a 8.8% increase to the initial strain. The scale-up experiment was carried out in a 100 L bioreactor. The mutant H4002 can accumulate 187gL-1 product yield of citric acid from starch liquefying supernatant. The productivity of citric acid was 2.75 g L-1 h-1. So, the mutant H4002 possesses rapid sugar katabolism for producing citric acid. Meanwhile, the pellet morphology kept compact and round during the whole submerged fermentation, which was suited to produce citric acid. The results indicate that mutant H4002 has potential ability to produce citric acid rapidly. (authors)

  17. PNRI mutant variety: Cordyline 'Afable'

    Cordyline 'Afable', registered by the Philippine Nuclear Research Institute as NSIC 2009 Or-83, is an induced mutant developed from Cordyline 'Kiwi' by treating stem cuttings with acute gamma radiation from a Cobalt-60 source. The new mutant is identical to Cordyline 'Kiwi' in growth habit but differs in foliage color, and exhibits field resistance to Phytophthora sp., a fungus that causes leaf blight and rot in Ti plants. Results of this mutation breeding experiment showed that leaf color was altered by gamma irradiation and resistance to fungal diseases was improved. It also demonstrated how mutations that occur in nature may be generated artificially. Propagation of cordyline 'Afable' is true-to-type by vegetative propagation methods, such as separation of suckers and offshoots, shoot tip cutting, and top cutting. Aside from landscaping material, terrarium or dish-garden plant, it is ideal as containerized plant for indoor and outdoor use. The leaves or shoots may be harvested as cut foliage for flower arrangements. (author)

  18. The Spt-Ada-Gcn5 Acetyltransferase (SAGA complex in Aspergillus nidulans.

    Paraskevi Georgakopoulos

    Full Text Available A mutation screen in Aspergillus nidulans uncovered mutations in the acdX gene that led to altered repression by acetate, but not by glucose. AcdX of A. nidulans is highly conserved with Spt8p of Saccharomyces cerevisiae, and since Spt8p is a component of the Spt-Ada-Gcn5 Acetyltransferase (SAGA complex, the SAGA complex may have a role in acetate repression in A. nidulans. We used a bioinformatic approach to identify genes encoding most members of the SAGA complex in A. nidulans, and a proteomic analysis to confirm that most protein components identified indeed exist as a complex in A. nidulans. No apparent compositional differences were detected in mycelia cultured in acetate compared to glucose medium. The methods used revealed apparent differences between Yeast and A. nidulans in the deubiquitination (DUB module of the complex, which in S. cerevisiae consists of Sgf11p, Sus1p, and Ubp8p. Although a convincing homologue of S. cerevisiae Ubp8p was identified in the A. nidulans genome, there were no apparent homologues for Sus1p and Sgf11p. In addition, when the SAGA complex was purified from A. nidulans, members of the DUB module were not co-purified with the complex, indicating that functional homologues of Sus1p and Sgf11p were not part of the complex. Thus, deubiquitination of H2B-Ub in stress conditions is likely to be regulated differently in A. nidulans compared to S. cerevisiae.

  19. Gamma ray induced mutants in Coleus

    The germplasm collection of Chinese potato (Coleus parviflorus Benth) contains almost no variation for yield contributing traits. The crop does not produce seeds. Treatment of underground tubers with 1 kR, 2 kR, 3 kR and 4 kR gamma rays resulted in 50 morphologically different mutants which are maintained as mutant clones. In the M1V1 generation, suspected mutant sprouts, were carefully removed and grown separately. The most interesting mutant types are the following: (i) erect mutant with spoon shaped light green leaves, 30 cm long inflorescences against 20 cm in the control, cylindrical tubers measuring ca. 7.0 cm long and 3 cm girth against 4 cm and 2.5 cm in the control (ii) early mutants 1 and 2, one having less leaf serration, the other having light green small leaves and dwarf type (iii) fleshy leaf mutant, dark green, thick and smooth leaves. Control plants spread almost in 1 m2 area and bear tubers from the nodes of branches. In the early mutants tuber formation is mainly restricted to the base of the plant, which makes harvest easier. The crop usually matures within 150 - 160 days, the early mutants are ready for harvest 100 days after planting. As the mutants are less spreading, the yield could be increased by closer spacing

  20. Protective properties of rifampin-resistant rough mutants of Brucella melitensis.

    Adone, R; Ciuchini, F; Marianelli, C; Tarantino, M; Pistoia, C; Marcon, G; Petrucci, P; Francia, M; Riccardi, G; Pasquali, P

    2005-07-01

    Vaccination against Brucella infections in animals is usually performed by administration of live attenuated smooth B. abortus strain S19 and B. melitensis strain Rev1. They are proven effective vaccines against B. abortus in cattle and against B. melitensis and B. ovis in sheep and goats, respectively. However, both vaccines have the main drawback of inducing O-polysaccharide-specific antibodies that interfere with serologic diagnosis of disease. In addition, they retain residual virulence, being a cause of abortion in pregnant animals and infection in humans. To overcome these problems, one approach is to develop defined rough mutant Brucella strains lacking O antigen of lipopolysaccharide. B. abortus rough strain RB51, a rifampin-resistant mutant of virulent strain B. abortus 2308, is used as a vaccine against B. abortus infection in cattle in some countries. However, RB51 is not effective in sheep, and there is only preliminary evidence that it is effective in goats. In this study, we tested the efficacies of six rifampin-resistant rough strains of B. melitensis in protecting BALB/c mice exposed to B. melitensis infection. The protective properties, as well as both humoral and cellular immune responses, were assessed in comparison with those provided by B. melitensis Rev1 and B. abortus RB51 vaccines. The results indicated that these rough mutants were able to induce a very good level of protection against B. melitensis infection, similar to that provided by Rev1 and superior to that of RB51, without inducing antibodies to O antigen. In addition, all B. melitensis mutants were able to stimulate good production of gamma interferon. The characteristics of these strains encourage further evaluation of them as alternative vaccines to Rev1 in primary host species. PMID:15972510

  1. Hepatitis B surface gene 145 mutant as a minor population in hepatitis B virus carriers

    Komatsu Haruki

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Hepatitis B virus (HBV can have mutations that include the a determinant, which causes breakthrough infection. In particular, a single mutation at amino acid 145 of the surface protein (G145 is frequently reported in the failure of prophylactic treatment. The aim of this study was to evaluate the frequency of the a determinant mutants, especially the G145 variant, in Japan, where universal vaccination has not been adopted. Methods The present study was a retrospective study. The study cohorts were defined as follows: group 1, children with failure to prevent mother-to-child transmission despite immunoprophylaxis (n = 18, male/female = 8/10, age 1-14 years; median 6 years; group 2, HBV carriers who had not received vaccination or hepatitis B immunoglobulin (n = 107, male/female = 107, age 1-52 years; median 16 years. To detect the G145R and G145A mutants in patients, we designed 3 probes for real-time PCR. We also performed direct sequencing and cloning of PCR products. Results By mutant-specific real-time PCR, one subject (5.6% was positive for the G145R mutant in group 1, while the G145 mutant was undetectable in group 2. The a determinant mutants were detected in one (5.6% of the group 1 subjects and 10 (9.3% of the group 2 subjects using direct sequencing, but direct sequencing did not reveal the G145 mutant as a predominant strain in the two groups. However, the subject who was positive according to the mutant-specific real-time PCR in group 1 had overlapped peaks at nt 587 in the electropherogram. In group 2, 11 patients had overlapped peaks at nt 587 in the electropherogram. Cloning of PCR products allowed detection of the G145R mutant as a minor strain in 7 (group 1: 1 subject, group 2: 6 subjects of 12 subjects who had overlapped peaks at nt 587 in the electropherogram. Conclusions The frequency of the a determinant mutants was not high in Japan. However, the G145R mutant was often present as a minor population in

  2. The Effect of Vitamin E on the Survival Rate of unc-13 Caenorhabditis elegans mutants under Oxidative Stress

    Jessica Porcelan

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available Caenorhabditis elegans unc-13 mutants express decreased neuronal activity and thus are a good model strain for examining defective nervous systems. These unc-13 mutants as well as wild type N2 strains, show rapid mortality when under oxidative stress. However, the antioxidant vitamin E may prolong survival in unc-13 mutant and N2 strains under oxidative stress. The addition of vitamin E to organisms under oxidative stress has a protective effect in both N2 and unc-13 C. elegans strains. Interestingly, vitamin E resulted in a greater increase in survival rate in N2 worms than with unc-13 mutant worms. While both strains displayed lower mortality rates with the addition of vitamin E, this finding suggests that vitamin E more efficiently increases survival rates of C. elegans with typical nervous system function. The efficacy of vitamin E implies that use of antioxidants may lessen the damage caused by oxidative stress in both N2 and mutant worms.

  3. Isolation of Escherichia coli rpoB mutants resistant to killing by lambda cII protein and altered in pyrE gene attenuation

    Hammer, Karin; Jensen, Kaj Frank; Poulsen, Peter;

    1987-01-01

    Escherichia coli mutants simultaneously resistant to rifampin and to the lethal effects of bacteriophage lambda cII protein were isolated. The sck mutant strains carry alterations in rpoB that allow them to survive cII killing (thus the name sck), but that do not impair either the expression of c...

  4. Cariogenicity of a lactate dehydrogenase-deficient mutant of Streptococcus mutans serotype c in gnotobiotic rats.

    Fitzgerald, R J; Adams, B O; Sandham, H J; Abhyankar, S

    1989-01-01

    A lactate dehydrogenase-deficient (Ldh-) mutant of a human isolate of Streptococcus mutans serotype c was tested in a gnotobiotic rat caries model. Compared with the wild-type Ldh-positive (Ldh+) strains, it was significantly (alpha less than or equal to 0.005) less cariogenic in experiments with two different sublines of Sprague-Dawley rats. The Ldh- mutant strain 044 colonized the oral cavity of the test animals to the same extent as its parent strain 041, although its initial implantation was slightly but not significantly (P greater than or equal to 0.2) less. Multiple oral or fecal samples plated on 2,3,5-triphenyltetrazolium indicator medium revealed no evidence of back mutation from Ldh- to Ldh+ in vivo. Both Ldh+ strain 041 and Ldh- strain 044 demonstrated bacteriocinlike activity in vitro against a number of human strains of mutans streptococci representing serotype a (S. cricetus) and serotypes c and e (S. mutans). Serotypes b (S. rattus) and f (S. mutans) and strains of S. mitior, S. sanguis, and S. salivarius were not inhibited. Thus, Ldh mutant strain 044 possesses a number of desirable traits that suggest it should be investigated further as a possible effector strain for replacement therapy of dental caries. These traits include its stability and low cariogenicity in the sensitive gnotobiotic rat caries model, its bacteriocinlike activity against certain other cariogenic S. mutans (but not against more inocuous indigenous oral streptococci), and the fact that it is a member of the most prevalent human serotype of cariogenic streptococci. PMID:2917788

  5. Metabolism of the chemo antibiotic combination sulphamethoxazol and trimethoprim by some radioresistant strains

    The radioresistant mutants B. Firmus, B. Laterosporus, B. Megaterium, M. Roseus and M. Luteus were tested microbiologically for their sensitivity to a drug consisting of the chemo antibiotic combination of sulphamethoxazole (SMZ) and trimethoprim (TMP) in a ratio of 20:1. All the studied mutant strains were found to be insensitive to this combination of antibiotics except the radioresistant mutant strain of M.roseus. The mechanism of the inactivation of both SMZ and TMP by the radioresistant mutants of B. Laterosporus, B. Firmus, and M.Luteus was studied. The drug was incubated with each of these mutants for different periods of time to study its degradation. High performance liquid chromatography and microbiological assay techniques were used to determine the activity and the pathway of the consumption of the drug after its incubation with these three mutants for time. The results indicated that the drug acts in a synergistic effect on all the studied mutants. Only a part of both molecules of SMZ and TMP was utilized by the studied mutant strains. The ratio of the left over of SMZ/TMP were found to be 6,6 and 8 after seven days incubation periods and 12, 7.5 and 19 after two weeks incubation periods with B. Laterosporus, B. Firmus, and M. Luteus mutants respectively. The microbial activity of the extracted drug for bacilli strains isolated from clean environment had not changed significantly due to incubation with the mutants, but it was decreased for M. Luteus strain. The drug inactivation by the studied mutant strains seemed to be due to decreased affinities to SMZ and TMP, and to formation of an altered 7,8 dihydropteroate synthetase and dihydrofolate reductase

  6. Pattern formation mechanisms in motility mutants of Myxococcus xanthus

    Starruss, Joern; Jakovljevic, Vladimir; Sogaard-Andersen, Lotte; Deutsch, Andreas; Baer, Markus

    2016-01-01

    Formation of spatial patterns of cells is a recurring theme in biology and often depends on regulated cell motility. Motility of M. xanthus depends on two motility machineries: the S-engine and A-engine. Moving M. xanthus cells can organize into spreading colonies or spore-filled fruiting bodies depending on their nutritional status. To understand these two pattern formation processes and the contributions by the two motility machineries, as well as cell reversal, we analyze spatial self-organization in 3 strains: i) a mutant that moves unidirectionally without reversing by the A-motility system only, ii) a unidirectional mutant that is also equipped with the S-motility system, and iii) the wild-type that, in addition to the two motility systems, reverses its direction of movement. The mutant moving by the A-engine illustrates that collective motion in the form of large moving clusters can arise in gliding bacteria due to steric interactions of the rod-shaped cells, without the need of invoking any biochemica...

  7. Isolation and partial characterization of a mutant of Bacillus thuringiensis producing melanin Isolamento e caracterização parcial de um mutante de Bacillus thuringiensis produtor de melanina

    Gislayne T. Vilas-Bôas

    2005-09-01

    Full Text Available A mutant (407-P of Bacillus thuringiensis subsp. thuringiensis strain 407 producing a melanin was obtained after treatment with the mutagenic agent ethyl-methane-sulfonate. Several microbiological and biochemical properties of the two strains were analyzed and the results were similar. The mutant 407-P was also incorporated into non-sterilized soil samples, recovered, easily identified, and quantified, what enables its use in ecology of B. thuringiensis.Um mutante (407-P da linhagem Bacillus thuringiensis subsp. thuringiensis 407 produtor de melanina foi obtido após tratamento com o agente mutagênico etil-metano-sulfonato. Diversas propriedades microbiológicas e bioquímicas das duas linhagens foram analisadas e os resultados foram similares. O mutante 407-P foi incorporado em amostras de solo não esterilizado, recuperado, facilmente identificado e quantificado, possibilitando seu uso em estudos de ecologia de B. thuringiensis.

  8. Rice mutant cultivar SCS114 Andosan

    The development process and its yield, quality performance of the mutant rice variety SCS Andosan 114 was described. SCS Andosan 114 was selected from the mutant progeny of IR 841 after treatment of 150 Gy gamma rays; It had a 7.4 ∼ 9.6% yield increase over IR 841 and a higher amylase content (28%) than IR 841 (19%). The mutant variety also showed high tolerance to iron toxicity and resistance to blast disease. (author)

  9. Regulation of Mutant p53 Protein Expression

    Vijayakumaran, Reshma; Tan, Kah Hin; Miranda, Panimaya Jeffreena; Haupt, Sue; Haupt, Ygal

    2015-01-01

    For several decades, p53 has been detected in cancer biopsies by virtue of its high protein expression level which is considered indicative of mutation. Surprisingly, however, mouse genetic studies revealed that mutant p53 is inherently labile, similar to its wild type (wt) counterpart. Consistently, in response to stress conditions, both wt and mutant p53 accumulate in cells. While wt p53 returns to basal level following recovery from stress, mutant p53 remains stable. In part, this can be e...

  10. Allele Specific p53 Mutant Reactivation

    Yu, Xin; Vazquez, Alexei; Levine, Arnold J.; Carpizo, Darren R.

    2012-01-01

    Rescuing the function of mutant p53 protein is an attractive cancer therapeutic strategy. Using the NCI anticancer drug screen data, we identified two compounds from the thiosemicarbazone family that manifest increased growth inhibitory activity in mutant p53 cells, particularly for the p53R175 mutant. Mechanistic studies reveal that NSC319726 restores WT structure and function to the p53R175 mutant. This compound kills p53R172H knock-in mice with extensive apoptosis and inhibits xenograft tu...

  11. Biochemical and histological characterization of tomato mutants

    Carolina C. Monteiro

    2012-06-01

    Full Text Available Biochemical responses inherent to antioxidant systems as well morphological and anatomical properties of photomorphogenic, hormonal and developmental tomato mutants were investigated. Compared to the non-mutant Micro-Tom (MT, we observed that the malondialdehyde (MDA content was enhanced in the diageotropica (dgt and lutescent (l mutants, whilst the highest levels of hydrogen peroxide (H2O2 were observed in high pigment 1 (hp1 and aurea (au mutants. The analyses of antioxidant enzymes revealed that all mutants exhibited reduced catalase (CAT activity when compared to MT. Guaiacol peroxidase (GPOX was enhanced in both sitiens (sit and notabilis (not mutants, whereas in not mutant there was an increase in ascorbate peroxidase (APX. Based on PAGE analysis, the activities of glutathione reductase (GR isoforms III, IV, V and VI were increased in l leaves, while the activity of superoxide dismutase (SOD isoform III was reduced in leaves of sit, epi, Never ripe (Nr and green flesh (gf mutants. Microscopic analyses revealed that hp1 and au showed an increase in leaf intercellular spaces, whereas sit exhibited a decrease. The au and hp1 mutants also exhibited a decreased in the number of leaf trichomes. The characterization of these mutants is essential for their future use in plant development and ecophysiology studies, such as abiotic and biotic stresses on the oxidative metabolism.Neste trabalho, analisamos as respostas bioquímicas inerentes ao sistema antioxidante, assim como propriedades morfológicas e anatômicas de mutantes fotomorfogenéticos e hormonais de tomateiro. Comparados ao não mutante Micro-Tom (MT, observamos que o conteúdo de malondialdeído (MDA aumentou nos mutantes diageotropica (dgt e lutescent (l, enquanto os maiores níveis de H2O2 foram encontrados nos mutantes high pigment 1 (hp1 e aurea (au. Análises de enzimas antioxidantes mostraram que todos os mutantes reduziram a atividade de catalase (CAT quando comparado a MT. A

  12. Characterization of genome-wide ordered sequence-tagged Mycobacterium mutant libraries by Cartesian Pooling-Coordinate Sequencing

    Vandewalle, Kristof; Festjens, Nele; Plets, Evelyn; Vuylsteke, Marnik; Saeys, Yvan; Callewaert, Nico

    2015-01-01

    Reverse genetics research approaches require the availability of methods to rapidly generate specific mutants. Alternatively, where these methods are lacking, the construction of pre-characterized libraries of mutants can be extremely valuable. However, this can be complex, expensive and time consuming. Here, we describe a robust, easy to implement parallel sequencing-based method (Cartesian Pooling-Coordinate Sequencing or CP-CSeq) that reports both on the identity as well as on the location of sequence-tagged biological entities in well-plate archived clone collections. We demonstrate this approach using a transposon insertion mutant library of the Mycobacterium bovis BCG vaccine strain, providing the largest resource of mutants in any strain of the M. tuberculosis complex. The method is applicable to any entity for which sequence-tagged identification is possible. PMID:25960123

  13. Kinetics Studies on citric acid production by gamma ray induced mutant of Aspergillus niger

    Effect of cultural pH and incubation temperature on citric acid yield and kinetic patterns of citric acid fermentation by a natural isolate of aspergillus niger as CA16 and one of its gamma ray induced mutants were studied using cane molasses as growth and fermentation substrate. Mutant strain, 277/30 gave maximum citric acid yield of 85 g/l at pH 3.5 and 28 degree centigrade in molasses medium adjusted to 16% sugar and 25% prescott salt in the medium. Parent strain, CA16 gave a maximum yield of 34 g/l at pH 4.0 and 26 degree centigrade in molasses medium adjusted to 16% sugar and 100% prescott salt in the medium. In kinetic studies, strains showed combination kinetics of citric acid fermentation where product formation is directly related to growth and cell mass and indirectly related to carbohydrate uptake

  14. DeltaznuADeltapurE Brucella abortus 2308 mutant as a live vaccine candidate.

    Yang, Xinghong; Thornburg, Theresa; Walters, Nancy; Pascual, David W

    2010-01-22

    To create a new, safe brucellosis live vaccine, a double mutant strain was constructed from Brucella abortus 2308. Using the DeltaznuA B. abortus 2308 mutant, a second mutation was introduced by deleting purE gene. The DeltaznuA DeltapurE B. abortus 2308 strain was less capable of surviving in macrophages. When evaluated in vivo, it was cleared within 8 weeks (wks) from mice, causing significantly less inflammation than spleens obtained from wild-type B. abortus 2308-infected mice. Furthermore, two doses of DeltaznuA DeltapurE B. abortus 2308 conferred 0.79 log protection, similar to S19 as did a single dose of DeltaznuA B. abortus 2308. Thus, this study shows the DeltaznuA DeltapurE B. abortus 2308 strain to be a potential livestock vaccine candidate. PMID:19914192

  15. Otolith Formation in A Mutant Medaka Fish with A Deficiency in Gravity- Sensing

    Mizuno, R.; Ijiri, K.

    Formation of otoliths in Medaka fish (Oryzias latipes) were studied in the normal (wild-type) fish and in a mutant strain called ha. In the normal fish, two pairs of otoliths (Lapillus and Sagitta) are formed during embryonic development, and the most posterior otolith (Asteriscus) are formed later (about 30 days after hatching). In the mutant strain ha, though Sagittae are formed, Lapilli are absent at hatching. Asterisca are formed normally. Various abnormalities in the formation of Sagittae were detected in ha strain, however, they eventually took normal shapes and positions on the maculae. After hatching, in some ha fish, Lapilli are formed. On 30 days and 40 days after hatching, the appearance of Lapilli were examined by X-ray photography. The results showed that some fis h had a complete pair, some had only one otolith either at the right or left side, and the rest of fish lacked Lapilli completely.

  16. Improved ethanol fermentation of a yeast mutant by C-12 ion beam irradiation

    The yeast Saccharomyces cerevisiae YY was irradiated with 100 MeV/u 12C6+ ion beams. After screening,we obtained the mutant strain C03A of high ethanol yield. The influence of fermentation temperature, pH and concentration of sugar on ethanol fermentation were studied. The range analysis and analysis of variance were applied for the result of orthogonal experiments. The optimal ethanol fermentation conditions are: fermentation temperature 35 degree C, pH value 5.0, and sugar concentration 24%. The results of fermentation in the 10 L bioreactor showed that the ethanol fermentation of the mutant strain could be completed in 36 hours, the production of ethanol was to 13.2%(V/V), which means 12 hours faster and 1.6%(V /V) ethanol yield higher than original strain. (authors)

  17. Potential for wind energy generation and conversion for rural application: a case study for Ada

    One major indicator of achieving the goals of Vision 2020 is an increased energy use per head, which had a 1993 value of 93 koe (kilograms of oil equivalent) as compared to 299 koe for the least developed middle income nation, and 5,563 koe for Singapore. To satisfy this energy requirement, all potential sources of energy must be harnessed and most importantly, the private sector's involvement in off-grid electric power generation must be encouraged. A cost-benefit analysis, energy payback time and energy ratios have been determined to assess the potential of wind energy generation and conversation at Ada; which has a mean monthly wind speed of 6.23 m/s at a height of 30 m and considered to be adequate to run a small to medium sized wind turbine to generate about 28 kW. The proposal is to install a prototype aero generation system for a small community isolated from the national grid line, and is aimed at demonstrating how a renewable, non-pollutant and independent power source, transformed by means of advanced technology can achieve energy self sufficiency for the community, while avoiding negative impacts on the environment and ensuring cost-effectiveness. The system will consist of an aero-generation unit, storage system and demand electric consumption. The generator will supply the power to batteries through a load rectifier/governor for storage. The demand in electric consumption can be supplied in DC by accumulators or AC by current inverter. The technical features proposed for the aero generation system is a 20 - 30 kW maximum power turbine, a 24 V capacity battery delivery 1625 Ah in 100 h, two charger inverter units connected in parallel with AC synchronized outlet for consumption. The outlet power of each inverter will be 2400 W DC and the estimated time to complete battery load power unit will be 12 h. The projected cost of electricity generated by an optimized scheme is estimated to be 9 cents/kWh, as compared with photovoltaic generation at 5 - 14

  18. Da Rio+20 a Rio-2016: caminhos da sustentabilidade nas olimpíadas

    Maureen Flores

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available This article seeks to analyze the way the Olympic Games have incorporated the main sustainability commitments agreed upon during the Rio 92, Rio + 10 and Rio + 20 Conferences, both in their planning and their operational processes, thus influencing host cities in the construction of the Games’ legacy. Tourism is one of the mainstays of Rio’s economy, and the link between the Games and the city’s images will be lasting. The Olympic games will influence the quantity and the quality of the touristic demand during, but especially after the event. They will showcase the city’s innovative initiatives for sustainability. The IOC can play a vital role orienting those initiatives. The Games’sustainability legacy may constitute an opportunity for the city to change its image for ever. We still have three years ahead of us to advance, but the basis need to be settled now.Este artigo busca analisar a maneira como os Jogos Olímpicos têm incorporado os principais compromissos da sustentabilidade acordados nas Conferencias Rio 92, Rio+10 e Rio+20 nos seus processos de planejamento e operação, influenciando as cidades anfitriãs na construção do legado dos Jogos. O turismo é um dos carros-chefes da economia do Rio, e a ligação entre os Jogos e a imagem da cidade que vai ficar. Os Jogos irão refletir na quantidade e qualidade da demanda turística durante, mas principalmente depois das Olimpíadas. Eles podem ser uma vitrine para iniciativas inovadoras na área de sustentabilidade que a cidade introduzir. O papel do COI pode ser fundamental para direcionar as ações de sustentabilidade na cidade. O legado de sustentabilidade pode ter nos Jogos seu “ponto de inflexão” para mudar definitivamente a imagem da cidade. Ainda temos um pouco mais de três anos para avançar, mas as bases precisam ser criadas agora.

  19. Study on yeast mutant with high alcohol yield fermented in sweet sorghum juice using carbon ion irradiation

    Five mutants with high ability of producing alcohol were selected out by using TTC as an indicator after irradiation of the alcohol yeast with 100 MeV/u carbon ions. The fermentation experiment in sweet sorghum juice showed that the alcohol production ability of mutant T4 strain increased 18.6% compared to the control strain. The residual sugar content in the juice was decreased too. After that,the optimum fermentation conditions of the T4 strain in sweet sorghum juice were investigated. The results showed that the optimum temperature and pH value for fermentation were 30 degree C and 4.5, respectively. The verification experiment was fermented in a 10 l bio-reactor and the obtained data indicated that the fermentative rate and the ability of producing alcohol in T4 strain was higher than that in the control strain under the same fermentation condition. (authors)

  20. Prion propagation in cells expressing PrP glycosylation mutants.

    Salamat, Muhammad K; Dron, Michel; Chapuis, Jérôme; Langevin, Christelle; Laude, Hubert

    2011-04-01

    Infection by prions involves conversion of a host-encoded cell surface protein (PrP(C)) to a disease-related isoform (PrP(Sc)). PrP(C) carries two glycosylation sites variably occupied by complex N-glycans, which have been suggested by previous studies to influence the susceptibility to these diseases and to determine characteristics of prion strains. We used the Rov cell system, which is susceptible to sheep prions, to generate a series of PrP(C) glycosylation mutants with mutations at one or both attachment sites. We examined their subcellular trafficking and ability to convert into PrP(Sc) and to sustain stable prion propagation in the absence of wild-type PrP. The susceptibility to infection of mutants monoglycosylated at either site differed dramatically depending on the amino acid substitution. Aglycosylated double mutants showed overaccumulation in the Golgi compartment and failed to be infected. Introduction of an ectopic glycosylation site near the N terminus fully restored cell surface expression of PrP but not convertibility into PrP(Sc), while PrP(C) with three glycosylation sites conferred cell permissiveness to infection similarly to the wild type. In contrast, predominantly aglycosylated molecules with nonmutated N-glycosylation sequons, produced in cells expressing glycosylphosphatidylinositol-anchorless PrP(C), were able to form infectious PrP(Sc). Together our findings suggest that glycosylation is important for efficient trafficking of anchored PrP to the cell surface and sustained prion propagation. However, properly trafficked glycosylation mutants were not necessarily prone to conversion, thus making it difficult in such studies to discern whether the amino acid changes or glycan chain removal most influences the permissiveness to prion infection. PMID:21248032

  1. Twin-arginine Translocation System (tat) Mutants of Salmonella are Attenuated Due to Envelope Defects, not Respiratory Defects

    Craig, Maureen; Sadik, Adam Y.; Golubeva, Yekaterina A.; Tidhar, Avital; Slauch, James M.

    2013-01-01

    The twin-arginine translocation system (Tat) transports folded proteins across the cytoplasmic membrane and is critical to virulence in Salmonella and other pathogens. Experimental and bioinformatic data indicate that 30 proteins are exported via Tat in Salmonella Typhimurium. However, there are no data linking specific Tat substrates with virulence. We inactivated every Tat-exported protein and determined the virulence phenotype of mutant strains. Though a tat mutant is highly attenuated, no...

  2. A mutant human proinsulin is secreted from islets of Langerhans in increased amounts via an unregulated pathway.

    Carroll, R. J.; Hammer, R. E.; Chan, S J; Swift, H H; Rubenstein, A H; Steiner, D F

    1988-01-01

    A coding mutation in the human insulin gene (His-B10----Asp) is associated with familial hyperproinsulinemia. To model this syndrome, we have produced transgenic mice that express high levels of the mutant prohormone in their islets of Langerhans. Strain 24-6 mice, containing about 100 copies of the mutant gene, were normoglycemic but had marked increases of serum human proinsulin immunoreactive components. Biosynthetic studies on isolated islets revealed that approximately 65% of the proinsu...

  3. Characterization of a Lignified Secondary Phloem Fibre‐deficient Mutant of Jute (Corchorus capsularis)

    SENGUPTA, GARGI; PALIT, P.

    2004-01-01

    • Background and Aims High lignin content of lignocellulose jute fibre does not favour its utilization in making finer fabrics and other value‐added products. To aid the development of low‐lignin jute fibre, this study aimed to identify a phloem fibre mutant with reduced lignin. • Methods An x‐ray‐induced mutant line (CMU) of jute (Corchorus capsularis) was morphologically evaluated and the accession (CMU 013) with the most undulated phenotype was compared with its normal parent (JRC 212) for its growth, secondary fibre development and lignification of the fibre cell wall. • Key Results The normal and mutant plants showed similar leaf photosynthetic rates. The mutant grew more slowly, had shorter internodes and yielded much less fibre after retting. The fibre of the mutant contained 50 % less lignin but comparatively more cellulose than that of the normal type. Differentiation of primary and secondary vascular tissues throughout the CMU 013 stem was regular but it did not have secondary phloem fibre bundles as in JRC 212. Instead, a few thin‐walled, less lignified fibre cells formed uni‐ or biseriate radial rows within the phloem wedges of the middle stem. The lower and earliest developed part of the mutant stem had no lignified fibre cells. This developmental deficiency in lignification of fibre cells was correlated to a similar deficiency in phenylalanine ammonia lyase activity, but not peroxidase activity, in the bark tissue along the stem axis. In spite of severe reduction in lignin synthesis in the phloem cells this mutant functioned normally and bred true. • Conclusions In view of the observations made, the mutant is designated as deficient lignified phloem fibre (dlpf). This mutant may be utilized to engineer low‐lignin jute fibre strains and may also serve as a model to study the positional information that coordinates secondary wall thickening of fibre cells. PMID:14707004

  4. Isolation and characterization of a Lactobacillus amylovorus mutant depleted in conjugated bile salt hydrolase activity: relation between activity and bile salt resistance.

    Grill, J P; Cayuela, C; Antoine, J M; Schneider, F

    2000-10-01

    Growth experiments were conducted on Lactobacillus amylovorus DN-112 053 in batch culture, with or without pH regulation. Conjugated bile salt hydrolase (CBSH) activity was examined as a function of culture growth. The CBSH activity increased during growth but its course depended on bile salts type and culture conditions. A Lact. amylovorus mutant was isolated from the wild-type strain of Lact. amylovorus DN-112 053 after mutagenesis with N-methyl-N'-nitro-N-nitrosoguanidine. An agar plate assay was used to detect mutants without CBSH activity. In resting cell experiments, the strain showed reduced activity. Differences between growth parameters determined for wild-type and mutant strains were not detected. Comparative native gel electrophoresis followed by CBSH activity staining demonstrated the loss of proteins harbouring this activity in the mutant. Four protein bands corresponding to CBSH were observed in the wild-type strain but only one was detected in the mutant. The specific growth rate of the mutant strain was affected more by bile salts than the wild-type strain. Nevertheless, bile was more toxic for the wild-type strain. In viability studies in the presence of nutrients, it was demonstrated that glycodeoxycholic acid exerted a higher toxicity than taurodeoxycholic acid in a pH-dependent manner. No difference was apparent between the two strains. In the absence of nutrients, the wild-type strain died after 2 h whereas no effect was observed for the mutant. The de-energization experiments performed using the ionophores nigericin and valinomycin suggested that the chemical potential of protons (ZDeltapH) was involved in Lactobacillus bile salt resistance. PMID:11054157

  5. Factors contributing to the biofilm-deficient phenotype of Staphylococcus aureus sarA mutants.

    Laura H Tsang

    Full Text Available Mutation of sarA in Staphylococcus aureus results in a reduced capacity to form a biofilm, but the mechanistic basis for this remains unknown. Previous transcriptional profiling experiments identified a number of genes that are differentially expressed both in a biofilm and in a sarA mutant. This included genes involved in acid tolerance and the production of nucleolytic and proteolytic exoenzymes. Based on this we generated mutations in alsSD, nuc and sspA in the S. aureus clinical isolate UAMS-1 and its isogenic sarA mutant and assessed the impact on biofilm formation. Because expression of alsSD was increased in a biofilm but decreased in a sarA mutant, we also generated a plasmid construct that allowed expression of alsSD in a sarA mutant. Mutation of alsSD limited biofilm formation, but not to the degree observed with the corresponding sarA mutant, and restoration of alsSD expression did not restore the ability to form a biofilm. In contrast, concomitant mutation of sarA and nuc significantly enhanced biofilm formation by comparison to the sarA mutant. Although mutation of sspA had no significant impact on the ability of a sarA mutant to form a biofilm, a combination of protease inhibitors (E-64, 1-10-phenanthroline, and dichloroisocoumarin that was shown to inhibit the production of multiple extracellular proteases without inhibiting growth was also shown to enhance the ability of a sarA mutant to form a biofilm. This effect was evident only when all three inhibitors were used concurrently. This suggests that the reduced capacity of a sarA mutant to form a biofilm involves extracellular proteases of all three classes (serine, cysteine and metalloproteases. Inclusion of protease inhibitors also enhanced biofilm formation in a sarA/nuc mutant, with the combined effect of mutating nuc and adding protease inhibitors resulting in a level of biofilm formation with the sarA mutant that approached that of the UAMS-1 parent strain. These results

  6. Rhizobium meliloti mutants that overproduce the R. meliloti acidic Calcofluor-binding exopolysaccharide

    The acidic Calcofluor-binding exopolysaccharide of Rhizobium meliloti Rm1021 plays one or more critical roles in nodule invasion and possible in nodule development. Two loci, exoR and exoS, that effect the regulation of synthesis of this exopolysaccharide were identified by screening for derivatives of strain Rm1021 that formed mucoid colonies that fluoresced extremely brightly under UV light when grown on medium containing Calcofluor. The exopolysaccharide produced in large quantities by the exoR95::Tn5 and exoS96::Tn5 strains was indistinguishable from that produced by the parental strain Rm1021, and its synthesis required the function of at least the exoA, exoB, and exoF genes. Both the exoR and exoS loci were located on the chromosome, and the exo96::Tn5 mutation was 84% linked to the trp-33 mutation by ΦM12 transduction. Synthesis of the Calcofluor-binding exopolysaccharide by strain Rm1021 was greatly stimulated by starvation for ammonia. In contrast, the exoR95::Tn5 mutant produced high levels of exopolysaccharide regardless of the presence or absence of ammonia in the medium. The exoS96::Tn5 mutant produced elevated amounts of exopolysaccharide in the presence of ammonia, but higher amounts were observed after starvation for ammonia. The presence of either mutation increased the level of expression of exoF::TnphoA and exoP::TnphoA fusions. Analyses of results obtained when alfalfa seedlings were inoculated with the exoR95::Tn5 strain indicated that the mutant strain could not invade nodules. However, pseudorevertants that retained the original exoR95::Tn5 mutant but acquired unlinked suppressors so that they produced an approximately normal amount of exopolysaccharide were able to invade nodules and fix nitrogen

  7. Increasing the Triacylglycerol Content in Dunaliella tertiolecta through Isolation of Starch-Deficient Mutants.

    Sirikhachornkit, Anchalee; Vuttipongchaikij, Supachai; Suttangkakul, Anongpat; Yokthongwattana, Kittisak; Juntawong, Piyada; Pokethitiyook, Prayad; Kangvansaichol, Kunn; Meetam, Metha

    2016-05-28

    The production cost of biodiesel from microalgae is still not competitive, compared with that of petroleum fuels. The genetic improvement of microalgal strains to increase triacylglycerol (TAG) accumulation is one way to reduce production costs. One of the most promising approaches is the isolation of starch-deficient mutants, which have been reported to successfully increase TAG yields. To date, such a stable mutant is not available in an oleaginous marine microalga, despite several advantages of using marine species for biodiesel production. Algae in the genus Dunaliella are known to tolerate high salt concentration and other environmental stresses. In addition, the cultivation processes for large-scale outdoor commercialization have been well established for this genus. In this study, Dunaliella tertiolecta was used to screen for starch-deficient mutants, using an iodine vapor-staining method. Four out of 20,016 UV-mutagenized strains showed a substantial reduction of starch content. A significantly higher TAG content, up to 3-fold of the wild-type level, was observed in three of the mutants upon induction by nitrogen depletion. The carotenoid production and growth characteristics of these mutants, under both normal and oxidative stress conditions, were not compromised, suggesting that these processes are not necessarily affected by starch deficiency. The results from this work open up new possibilities for exploring Dunaliella for biodiesel production. PMID:26869603

  8. Surveying the lipogenesis landscape in Yarrowia lipolytica through understanding the function of a Mga2p regulatory protein mutant.

    Liu, Leqian; Markham, Kelly; Blazeck, John; Zhou, Nijia; Leon, Dacia; Otoupal, Peter; Alper, Hal S

    2015-09-01

    Lipogenic organisms represent great starting points for metabolic engineering of oleochemical production. While previous engineering efforts were able to significantly improve lipid production in Yarrowia lipolytica, the lipogenesis landscape, especially with respect to regulatory elements, has not been fully explored. Through a comparative genomics and transcriptomics approach, we identified and validated a mutant mga2 protein that serves as a regulator of desaturase gene expression and potent lipogenesis factor. The resulting strain is enriched in unsaturated fatty acids. Comparing the underlying mechanism of this mutant to other previously engineered strains suggests that creating an imbalance between glycolysis and the TCA cycle can serve as a driving force for lipogenesis when combined with fatty acid catabolism overexpressions. Further comparative transcriptomics analysis revealed both distinct and convergent rewiring associated with these different genotypes. Finally, by combining metabolic engineering targets, it is possible to further engineer a strain containing the mutant mga2 gene to a lipid production titer of 25g/L. PMID:26219673

  9. Identification of Yeast V-ATPase Mutants by Western Blots Analysis of Whole Cell Lysates

    Parra-Belky, Karlett

    2002-11-01

    A biochemistry laboratory was designed for an undergraduate course to help students better understand the link between molecular engineering and biochemistry. Students identified unknown yeast strains with high specificity using SDS-PAGE and Western blot analysis of whole cell lysates. This problem-solving exercise is a common application of biochemistry in biotechnology research. Three different strains were used: a wild-type and two mutants for the proton pump vacuolar ATPase (V-ATPase). V-ATPases are multisubunit enzymes and the mutants used were deletion mutants; each lacked one structural gene of the complex. After three, three-hour labs, mutant strains were easily identified by the students and distinguished from wild-type cells analyzing the pattern of SDS-PAGE distribution of proteins. Identifying different subunits of one multimeric protein allowed for discussion of the structure and function of this metabolic enzyme, which captured the interest of the students. The experiment can be adapted to other multimeric protein complexes and shows improvement of the described methodology over previous reports, perhaps because the problem and its solution are representative of the type of techniques currently used in research labs.

  10. High-throughput transformation method for Yarrowia lipolytica mutant library screening.

    Leplat, Christophe; Nicaud, Jean-Marc; Rossignol, Tristan

    2015-09-01

    As a microorganism of major biotechnological importance, the oleaginous yeast Yarrowia lipolytica is subjected to intensive genetic engineering and functional genomic analysis. Future advancements in this area, however, require a system that will generate a large collection of mutants for high-throughput screening. Here, we report a rapid and efficient method for high-throughput transformation of Y. lipolytica in 96-well plates. We developed plasmids and strains for the large-scale screening of overexpression mutant strains, using Gateway® vectors that were adapted for specific locus integration in Y. lipolytica. As an example, a collection of mutants that overexpressed the alkaline extracellular protease (AEP) was obtained in a single transformation experiment. The platform strain that we developed to receive the overexpression cassette was designed to constitutively express a fluorescent protein as a convenient growth reporter for screening in non-translucid media. An example of growth comparison in skim milk-based medium between AEP overexpression and deletion mutants is provided. PMID:26100263

  11. Radiation-sensitive mutants of yeast

    Nomenclature for various radiosensitive mutants of Saccharomyces cerevisiae is briefly discussed. Tables are presented to show results of allelism tests of most of the radiosensitive mutants isolated by various investigators together with a standardized rad locus designation and map positions of a number of rad loci in yeast

  12. Absence of Malolactic Activity Is a Characteristic of H+-ATPase-Deficient Mutants of the Lactic Acid Bacterium Oenococcus oeni

    Galland, Delphine; Tourdot-Maréchal, Raphaëlle; Abraham, Maud; Chu, Ky Son; Guzzo, Jean

    2003-01-01

    The lack of malolactic activity in H+-ATPase-deficient mutants of Oenococcus oeni selected previously was analyzed at the molecular level. Western blot experiments revealed a spot at 60 kDa corresponding to the malolactic enzyme only in the parental strain. Moreover, the mleA transcript encoding the malolactic enzyme was not detected by reverse transcription (RT)-PCR analysis of mutants. These results suggest that the malolactic operon was not transcribed in ATPase-deficient mutants. The mleR...

  13. Isolation and characterization of Candida albicans morphological mutants derepressed for the formation of filamentous hypha-type structures

    Several Candida albicans morphological mutants were obtained by a procedure based on a combined treatment with nitrous acid plus UV irradiation and a double-enrichment step to increase the proportion of mutants growing as long filamentous structures. Altered cell morphogenesis in these mutants correlated with an altered colonial phenotype. Two of these mutants, C. albicans NEL102 and NEL103, were selected and characterized. Mutant blastoconidia initiated budding but eventually gave rise to filamentous hypha-type formations. These filaments were long and septate, and they branched very regularly at positions near septa. Calcofluor white (which is known to bind chitin-rich areas) stained septa, branching zones, and filament tips very intensely, as observed under the fluorescence microscope. Wild-type hybrids were obtained by fusing protoplasts of strain NEL102 with B14, another morphological mutant previously described as being permanently pseudomycelial, indicating that genetic determinants responsible for the two altered phenotypes are different. The mutants characterized in this work seemed to sequentially express the morphogenic characteristics of C. albicans, from blastoconidia to hyphae, in the absence of any inducer. Further characterization of these strains could be relevant to gain understanding of the genetic control of dimorphism in this species

  14. In Vivo Differences in the Virulence, Pathogenicity, and Induced Protective Immunity of wboA Mutants from Genetically Different Parent Brucella spp.

    Wang, Zhen; Niu, Jianrui; Wang, Shuangshan; Lv, Yanli; Wu, Qingmin

    2013-01-01

    To explore the effects of the genetic background on the characteristics of wboA gene deletion rough mutants generated from different parent Brucella sp. strains, we constructed the rough-mutant strains Brucella melitensis 16 M-MB6, B. abortus 2308-SB6, B. abortus S19-RB6, and B. melitensis NI-NB6 and evaluated their survival, pathogenicity, and induced protective immunity in mice and sheep. In mice, the survival times of the four mutants were very different in the virulence assay, from less t...

  15. Intracellular survival of wild-type Salmonella typhimurium and macrophage-sensitive mutants in diverse populations of macrophages.

    Buchmeier, N A; Heffron, F

    1989-01-01

    Salmonella typhimurium survives within macrophages and causes a fatal infection in susceptible strains of mice. A number of S. typhimurium mutants that contain Tn10 insertions in genes which are necessary for survival within the macrophage have been isolated. To demonstrate the importance of each gene in intracellular survival, the mutations were transduced into a smooth-strain background and the ability to survive intracellularly was assayed in five different populations of macrophages. The majority of the original macrophage-sensitive mutants retained the macrophage-sensitive phenotype in the smooth-strain background. The ability to survive or grow within macrophages varied with both the source of macrophages and the individual mutants. S. typhimurium grew best in the macrophage-like cell line J774, survived at moderate levels in splenic and bone marrow-derived macrophages, and was killed most efficiently in peritoneal macrophages. Macrophage-sensitive mutants transduced into a smooth background were also less virulent than the parent, with a 50% lethal dose of 2 to 5 logs greater than that of the parental strain. These experiments demonstrate that survival of S. typhimurium within macrophages varies with the source of cells, with a distinct ability to survive in macrophages from mouse spleens, where S. typhimurium grows rapidly. These experiments also demonstrate the heterogeneity in intracellular survival among the various macrophage-sensitive mutants, which may reflect the relative importance of the individual mutated genes in survival within macrophages. PMID:2642463

  16. Characterization of a mutant from Lactobacillus amylovorus JCM 1126(T) with improved utilization of sucrose.

    Oda, Y; Ito, M

    2000-12-01

    A strain YF43, which can grow on sucrose as rapidly as glucose, was isolated by mutation from Lactobacillus amylovorus JCM 1126, the type strain defective in sucrose utilization. Exogenous sucrose stimulated the production of invertase by strains YF43 and JCM 1126 simultaneously. In a medium containing fructooligosaccharide as the sole carbon source, the cells of strain YF43 showed high invertase activity in spite of poor growth. The two invertases produced in the cells grown on sucrose and fructooligosaccharide were an identical beta-fructofuranosidase, as judged from properties of partially purified enzymes. These observations indicated that strain YF43 is a mutant improved for permeation of sucrose and not derepressed for the synthesis of invertase. PMID:11080387

  17. Lignocellulolytic mutants of Pleurotus ostreatus induced by gamma-ray radiation and their genetic similarities

    To induce the lignocellulolytic mutants of Pleurotus ostreatus, the mycelia were irradiated by gamma-ray radiation to doses of 1-2 kGy. Five strains were isolated by the criteria of clamp connection, fruiting body formation, growth rate and activities of extracellular enzymes. All isolated strains were able to form the fruiting bodies and grew similarly to the control. The extracellular enzymes activities in liquid media of isolated strains were up to 10 times higher than the control. Genetic similarities of the isolated strains ranged from 64.4% to 93.3% of the control. From these results, it seems that the genetic diversity of P. ostreatus could be changed and useful strains be induced by gamma-ray radiation to recycle or reuse biowastes. (author)

  18. Furfural and hydroxymethylfurfural tolerance in Escherichia coli ΔacrR regulatory mutants.

    Luhe, Annette Lin; Lim, Chan Yuen; Gerken, Henri; Wu, Jinchuan; Zhao, Hua

    2015-01-01

    The presence of the highly toxic furfural and hydroxymethylfurfural (HMF) in the hydrolysate of lignocellulosic biomass prompted the investigation of the Escherichia coli ΔacrR regulatory mutant for higher tolerance to these compounds, to facilitate the production of biofuels and biochemicals, and further biocatalytic conversions. In comparison with the parental strain, the regulatory mutant with the upregulated efflux pump AcrAB-TolC produced moderately better growth and higher tolerance to concentrations of furfural and HMF between 1 and 2 g L(-1) . PMID:24716991

  19. Expression of native and mutant extracellular lipases fromYarrowia lipolytica in Saccharomyces cerevisiae

    Darvishi, Farshad

    2012-01-01

    Summary Saccharomyces cerevisiae cannot produce extracellular lipase and utilize low‐cost lipid substrates. This study aimed to express extracellular lipase from Yarrowia lipolytica in S. cerevisiae, construct recombinant oily substrate consumer strains, and compare the roles of native and mutant Y. lipolytica extracellular lipases in S. cerevisiae. The LIP2 gene of Y. lipolytica DSM3286 and its mutant Y. lipolytica U6 were isolated and cloned by expression vector in S. cerevisiae. New recomb...

  20. Identification and expression of a gfpK79R mutant of green fluorescent protein

    2002-01-01

    A mutant strain of E.coli showing strong green fluorescence is obtained during the study of cloning and expression of blue fluorescent protein gene bfp. A recombinant plasmid pHN122 has been isolated. It is demonstrated by enzyme digestion, subcloning and sequence analysis that it contains both of bfp and gfpK79R mutant genes. The results of spectrometric analysis show that GFPK79R expressed by pHN122 is the same as the wild type GFP, but its fluorescent intensity is increased 1.25~2.44-fold.

  1. Comparing Platforms for C. elegans Mutant Identification Using High-Throughput Whole-Genome Sequencing

    Shen, Yufeng; Sarin, Sumeet; Liu, Ye; Hobert, Oliver; Pe'er, Itsik

    2008-01-01

    Background Whole-genome sequencing represents a promising approach to pinpoint chemically induced mutations in genetic model organisms, thereby short-cutting time-consuming genetic mapping efforts. Principal Findings We compare here the ability of two leading high-throughput platforms for paired-end deep sequencing, SOLiD (ABI) and Genome Analyzer (Illumina; “Solexa”), to achieve the goal of mutant detection. As a test case we used a mutant C. elegans strain that harbors a mutation in the lsy...

  2. Production of Coenzyme A by a Mutant of Brevibacterium ammoniagenes Resistant to Oxypantetheine

    Shimizu, Sakayu; Esumi, Akihiko; Komaki, Ryohei; Yamada, Hideaki

    1984-01-01

    For improved production of coenzyme A (CoA), a mutant of Brevibacterium ammoniagenes IFO127071 resistant to oxypantetheine, the corresponding oxygen analog of pantetheine, was obtained. In the mutant, activity of pantothenate kinase (EC 2.7.1.33), the first-step enzyme for the biosynthesis of CoA from pantothenic acid, l-cysteine, and ATP, was about threefold higher than that in the parent strain. As the main regulation mechanism of CoA biosynthesis in this bacterium is negative feedback inhi...

  3. Repair of UV-irradiated plasmid DNA in excision repair deficient mutants of Saccharomyces cerevisiae

    The repair of UV-irradiated DNA of plasmid YEp13 was studied in the incision defective strains by measurement of cell transformation frequency. In Saccharomyces cerevisiae, rad1,2,3 and 4 mutants could repair UV-damaged plasmid DNA. In Escherichia coli, uvrA mutant was unable to repair UV-damaged plasmid DNA; however, pretreatment of the plasmid with Micrococcus luteus endonuclease increased repair. It was concluded that all the mutations of yeast were probably limited only to the nuclear DNA. (author)

  4. Enhanced Carotenoid Production by a Mutant of the Marine Yeast Rhodotorula sp. hidai

    CONG Li; CHI Zhenming; LI Jing; WANG Xianghong

    2007-01-01

    After a serial of UV, EMS and NTG mutagenesis, a mutant named MM of the red marine yeast strain Rhodotorula sp.hidai was obtained. The mutant MM could produce 603.93 μg g-1 of carotenoid within 5 days in the medium containing 4.0 g sucrose,1.5 g yeast extract, 0.1 g MgSO4, and 100 mL of sea water, with pH 6.0 and at 30 ℃, while only 213.18 μg g-1 of carotenoid was produced by the wild type under the same conditions.

  5. Long repair replication patches are produced by the short-patch pathway in a uvrD252 (recL152) mutant of Escherichia coli K-12.

    Rothman, R H; Fried, B

    1984-01-01

    The uvrD252 mutation leads to increased UV sensitivity, diminished dimer excision and host cell reactivation capacity, and an increase in the average patch size after repair replication. A recA56 uvrD252 double mutant was far more resistant to UV than was a recA56 uvrB5 double mutant. Its host cell reactivation capacity was identical to that of uvrD252 single mutant and was far greater than that of the uvrB5 single mutant. The strain showed no Weigle reactivation. From these results, we concl...

  6. Rapid Purification and Characterization of Mutant Origin Recognition Complexes in Saccharomyces cerevisiae

    Kawakami, Hironori; Ohashi, Eiji; Tsurimoto, Toshiki; Katayama, Tsutomu

    2016-01-01

    Purification of the origin recognition complex (ORC) from wild-type budding yeast cells more than two decades ago opened up doors to analyze the initiation of eukaryotic chromosomal DNA replication biochemically. Although revised methods to purify ORC from overproducing cells were reported later, purification of mutant proteins using these systems still depends on time-consuming processes including genetic manipulation to construct and amplify mutant baculoviruses or yeast strains as well as several canonical protein fractionations. Here, we present a streamlined method to construct mutant overproducers, followed by purification of mutant ORCs. Use of mammalian cells co-transfected with conveniently mutagenized plasmids bearing a His tag excludes many of the construction and fractionation steps. Transfection is highly efficient. All the six subunits of ORC are overexpressed at a considerable level and isolated as a functional heterohexameric complex. Furthermore, use of mammalian cells prevents contamination of wild-type ORC from yeast cells. The method is applicable to wild-type and at least three mutant ORCs, and the resultant purified complexes show expected biochemical activities. The rapid acquisition of mutant ORCs using this system will boost systematic biochemical dissection of ORC and can be even applied to the purification of protein complexes other than ORC. PMID:27148210

  7. Impaired incision of ultraviolet-irradiated deoxyribonucleic acid in uvrC mutants of Escherichia coli

    The production of single-strand breaks in the deoxyribonucleic acid of irradiated uvrC mutants of Escherichia coli K-12 was studied both in vivo and in vitro. In vivo, uvrC mutants displayed a slow accumulation of breaks after irradiation, and in this respect appeared different from uvrA mutants, in which very few breaks could be detected. The breakage observed in uvrC mutants differed from that observed in wild-type strains in both the slow rate of break accumulation and the very limited dose response. In toluene-treated cells, we studied the effect of the ligase inhibitor nicotinomide mononucleotide on strand incision. Whereas uvrC mutants displayed more strand breakage in the presence of this inhibitor, the same amount of breakage was seen in uvrA mutants. Experiments using a cell-free system comprising the partially purified uvr+ gene products demonstrated clearly that there is a requirement for the uvrC+ gene product for strand incision. We suggest that in vivo in the absence of the uvrC+ gene product, a partial analog of this protein may allow some abnormal incision

  8. Inactivation of cephapirin sodium by the radiation-resistant strain micrococcus roseus

    The susceptibility of the radioresistant mutants B. firmus, B.megaterium, B, laterosporus, M. roseus and M. luteus to the betalactam antibiotic cephapirin sodium was estimated using the microbiological assay technique. All the studied species were found to be sensitive to the concerned antibiotic except the radioresistant mutant M. rosues. Accordingly, the inactivation of betalactam, antibiotic cephapirin sodium, by this mutant strain was interesting to be investigated. A microbiological assay was used to determine the potency of the studied antibiotic and its degraded compound produced after its incubation with the above mentioned mutant strain for different periods of time in basal salt mineral medium.Results obtained for antibiotic samples extracted after 7-day incubation with the mutant strain indicated that the antibiotic was metabolized by this mutant strain to inactive products. These results were confirmed by chromatograms of the antibiotic samples, extracted from cultures with the mutant incubated for zero, 7 and 14 days. Degraded products were eluted at retention time values different from those observed for the noninucubated antibiotic samples. The inactivation of the antibiotic by the studied mutant starin seems to be due to extracellular enzymes in the surrounding medium.1 tab

  9. Effect of temperature on the production of cellulases, xylanases and lytic enzymes by selected Trichoderma reesei mutants

    Piotr Janas; Zdzisław Targoński

    2014-01-01

    The effect of temperature in the rangę of 26-38°C on the production of cellulases, xylanases and lytic enzymes by four mutant strains of Trichoderma reesei was analysed. On the basis of these investigations three thermosensitive strains (M-7. RUT C 30 and VTT-D-78085) which showed reduced excretion of the above mentioned enzymes as well as protein and a thermoresistant mutant (VTT-D-79I24) which grew within a temperature range of 26-34°C were characterized. Higher temperature caused an increa...

  10. An AdaBoost Using a Weak-Learner Generating Several Weak-Hypotheses for Large Training Data of Natural Language Processing

    Iwakura, Tomoya; Okamoto, Seishi; Asakawa, Kazuo

    AdaBoost is a method to create a final hypothesis by repeatedly generating a weak hypothesis in each training iteration with a given weak learner. AdaBoost-based algorithms are successfully applied to several tasks such as Natural Language Processing (NLP), OCR, and so on. However, learning on the training data consisting of large number of samples and features requires long training time. We propose a fast AdaBoost-based algorithm for learning rules represented by combination of features. Our algorithm constructs a final hypothesis by learning several weak-hypotheses at each iteration. We assign a confidence-rated value to each weak-hypothesis while ensuring a reduction in the theoretical upper bound of the training error of AdaBoost. We evaluate our methods with English POS tagging and text chunking. The experimental results show that the training speed of our algorithm are about 25 times faster than an AdaBoost-based learner, and about 50 times faster than Support Vector Machines with polynomial kernel on the average while maintaining state-of-the-art accuracy.

  11. Synthesis of an A-D-A type of molecule used as electron acceptor for improving charge transfer in organic solar cells

    Zhang, Chao-Zhi; Gu, Shu-Duo; Shen, Dan; Yuan, Yang; Zhang, Mingdao

    2016-08-01

    Electron-accepting molecules play an important role in developing organic solar cells. A new type of A-D-A molecule, 3,6-di([7-(5-bromothiophen-2-yl)-1,5,2,4,6,8-dithiotetrazocin-3-yl]thiophen-2-yl)-9-(2-ethylhexyl)carbazole, was synthesized. The lowest unoccupied molecular orbital (LUMO) and highest occupied molecular orbital (HOMO) energy levels are -3.55 and -5.85 eV, respectively. Therefore, the A-D-A type of compound could be used as electron acceptor for fabricating organic solar cell with a high open circuit voltage. Gibbs free energy (-49.2 kJ/mol) reveals that the process of A-D-A acceptor accepting an electron from poly(3-hexylthiophene) at excited state is spontaneous. The value of entropy (118 J/mol) in the process of an electron transferring from P3HT to the A-D-A acceptor at organic interface suggests that electrons generated from separation of electron-hole pairs at donor/acceptor interface would be delocalized efficiently. Therefore, the A-D-A molecule would be a potential acceptor for efficient organic BHJ solar cells.

  12. Altered E-NTPDase/E-ADA activities and CD39 expression in platelets of sickle cell anemia patients.

    Castilhos, Lívia G; Doleski, Pedro H; Adefegha, Stephen A; Becker, Lara V; Ruchel, Jader B; Leal, Daniela B R

    2016-04-01

    Sickle cell anemia (SCA) is a hemoglobinopathy characterized by hemolysis and vaso-occlusions caused by rigidly distorted red blood cells. Sickle cell crisis is associated with extracellular release of nucleotides and platelets, which are critical mediators of hemostasis participating actively in purinergic thromboregulatory enzymes system.This study aimed to investigate the activities of purinergic system ecto-enzymes present on the platelet surface as well as CD39 and CD73 expressions on platelets of SCA treated patients. Fifteen SCA treated patients and 30 health subjects (control group) were selected. Ecto-nucleoside triphosphate diphosphohydrolase (E-NTPDase), ecto-5'-nucleotidase (E-5'-NT) and ecto-adenosine deaminase (E-ADA) activities were measured in platelets isolated from these individuals. Results demonstrated an increase of 41 % in the E-NTPDase for ATP hydrolysis, 52% for ADP hydrolysis and 60 % in the E-ADA activity in SCA patients (P<0.05); however, a two folds decrease in the CD39 expression in platelets was observed in the same group (P<0.01). The increased E-NTPDase activity could be a compensatory mechanism associated with the low expression of CD39 in platelets. Besides, alteration of these enzymes activities suggests that the purinergic system could be involved in the thromboregulatory process in SCA patients. PMID:27044834

  13. Modeling and Implementing Two-Stage AdaBoost for Real-Time Vehicle License Plate Detection

    Moon Kyou Song

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available License plate (LP detection is the most imperative part of the automatic LP recognition system. In previous years, different methods, techniques, and algorithms have been developed for LP detection (LPD systems. This paper proposes to automatical detection of car LPs via image processing techniques based on classifier or machine learning algorithms. In this paper, we propose a real-time and robust method for LPD systems using the two-stage adaptive boosting (AdaBoost algorithm combined with different image preprocessing techniques. Haar-like features are used to compute and select features from LP images. The AdaBoost algorithm is used to classify parts of an image within a search window by a trained strong classifier as either LP or non-LP. Adaptive thresholding is used for the image preprocessing method applied to those images that are of insufficient quality for LPD. This method is of a faster speed and higher accuracy than most of the existing methods used in LPD. Experimental results demonstrate that the average LPD rate is 98.38% and the computational time is approximately 49 ms.

  14. Strain improvement in Streptomyces galilaeus, a producer of anthracycline antibiotics galirubins

    The production of epsilon-pyrromycinone glycosides in Streptomyces galilaeus increased 12-fold, with respect to the wild strain, as a result of a sequential procedure including both natural selection and treatment with mutagens (nitrous acid, UV light and γ irradiation). Nitrous acid exhibited the highest mutagenic effect, both in increasing the productivity and in inducing blocked mutants. A mutant strain blocked in the biosynthesis of glycosides and accumulating free epsilon-pyrromycinone as the principal metabolite was obtained. (author)

  15. Use of an otolith-deficient mutant in studies of fish behavior in microgravity

    Ijiri, K.; Mizuno, R.; Eguchi, H.

    2003-10-01

    The mutant strain ( ha) of medaka ( Oryzias latipes) lack utricular otoliths as fry, and some never form otoliths for life. The cross (Fl generation) between the strain having good eyesight and another strain having ordinary eyesight augmented visual acuity of the Fl generation. Crossing the good eyesight strain and ha mutant produced fish having good eyesight and less sensitivity to gravity in the F2 population. Their tolerance to microgravity was tested by parabolic flight using an airplane. The fish exhibited less looping and no differences in degree of looping between light and dark conditions, suggesting that loss of eyesight (in darkness) is not a direct cause for looping behavior in microgravity. The ha embryos could not form utricular otoliths. They did form saccular otoliths, but with a delay. Fry of the mutant fish lacking the utricular otoliths are highly dependent on light upon hatching and exhibit a perfect dorsal-light response (DLR). As they grow, they eventually shift from being light-dependent to being gravity-dependent. Continuous treatment of the fry with altered light direction suppressed this shift to gravity dependence. Being less dependent on gravity, these fish can serve as models in studying the differences expected for the vestibular system of fish reared in microgravity. When these fish were exposed to microgravity (parabolic flights) of an airplane, they spent far less time looping than fish reared in an ordinary light regimen.

  16. Transcriptomic analyses of space-induced rice mutants with enhanced susceptibility to rice blast

    Cheng, Zhenlong; Liu, Ming; Zhang, Meng; Hang, Xiaoming; Lei, Cailin; Sun, Yeqing

    Mutagenic factors of the space environment influence organisms in different aspects. To elucidate the transcriptomic effects of space flight, a space flight-induced rice mutant, 972-4, and its on-ground control, 972ck, were inoculated with rice blast pathogens. Compared to the control, the mutant exhibited reduced resistance to the rice blast pathogen CH45. Microarray technique was employed to analyze affected genes and revealed that 481 genes were expressed at higher levels in the mutant strain and 188 genes were expressed at higher levels in the control strain under normal growth conditions, indicating that transcriptomic changes of rice seeds are induced by the space environment. After inoculation with the rice blast pathogen CH45, however, 2680 genes were differentially expressed in 972ck and 1863 genes were differentially expressed in 972-4. In addition, disease evaluation indicated that the control strain 972ck is more resistant to the rice blast pathogen CH45 than mutant strain 972-4. In addition, genes in both strains that were co-regulated after blast inoculation account for only 36.8% and 53.3% of the genes expressed in 972ck and 972-4, respectively. A large percentage of blast-regulated genes were not consistently expressed in 972-4 and 972ck, and the mutant and control strains exhibit different gene expression patterns after blast inoculation. Interestingly, 84 genes constitutively expressed higher in 972ck were up-regulated by blast inoculation, and 105 genes that were expressed at constitutively higher levels in 972-4 were down-regulated by blast inoculation. Of the differentially expressed, 7 encoded genes associated with pathogen resistance. Taken together, our results suggest that gene expression patterns are different between a space flight-induced rice mutant and its on-ground control, and the differential expression of resistance genes may be a potential mechanism that modulates the resistance of 972-4 to rice blast. Our results also suggest

  17. Temperature-sensitive rubisco mutant of Chlamydomonas

    The Chlamydomonas reinhardtii mutant 68-4PP is a temperature-sensitive mutant that lacks photosynthetic ability at 350C, but is able to grow photosynthetically at 250C. Genetic analysis indicated that 68-4PP is a chloroplast mutant that is allelic with known Rubisco large-subunit structural-gene mutants, implying that 68-4PP also resulted from a mutation in the large-subunit gene. The 68-4PP mutant has about 35% of the wild-type level of Rubisco holoenzyme and carboxylase activity when grown at 250C, but it has less than 10% of normal holoenzyme and carboxylase activity when grown at 350C. However, [35S]-sulfate pulse labeling showed that Rubisco subunits were synthesized at normal rates at both temperatures. More significantly, the ratio of carboxylase activity in the absence and presence of oxygen at a limiting CO2 concentration (6.6 μM) was about 2.2 for the mutant enzyme, as compared to about 3.0 for the wild-type enzyme. The decreased ratio of the mutant enzyme is maternally inherited, indicating that this reduced oxygen sensitivity results from a mutation in chloroplast DNA. The authors have recently cloned the 68-4PP Rubisco large-subunit gene, and DNA sequencing is in progress

  18. Induction of Mutants in Durum Wheat

    This investigation presents a breeding program for induction and development of a new genotype of durum wheat, resistant to lodging with high yield, by irradiation durum wheat hybrids (F2) with gamma rays 100 Gy, during 1990-1997 cultivation seasons. This program involves: induction of variability, selection evaluation of the mutants at three locations: Twaitha (Baghdad) Latifya ( Babylon) and Swari (Kutt). All mutants showed resistance to lodging and there was a significant reduction in plant height. Mutant SIXIZ-22 surpassed other mutants and its origin in lodging resistance and plant height (83.5,82.8 and 89.4 cm) in the three locations at generation M5 and M6, respectively. Also, there were significant differences between mutant and their origin in the number of spikes/M2 and grain yild during the two successive generation. On the other hand, mutant IZxCO-105 surpassed other mutants in the number of spikes/M2 (231.8,242.3 and 292) and grain yield (4336,3376 and 5232 kg/ha) in all testing location, respectively . (authors) 14 refs., 4 tabs

  19. Isolation of mutants with altered pigments after irradiating haploid protoplasts from Datura innoxia Mill. with X-rays

    Ten different mutants with altered pigment patterns were isolated following X-irradiation of approximately 105 haploid protoplasts of Datura innoxia Mill. Seven of the selected strains gave rise to shoots and 3 to leaves only. The mutants were selected from light green or white calli, which had developed 4 weeks after transfer of developing cell clusters onto B5 agar medium containing 0.5 mg/1 BAP. Of the 10 mutant strains 5 were light green, two were yellow, one was pale yellow and one was white. One additional strain does not posses anthocyanin in its stems; a feature characteristic of the wildtype is the possession of anthocyanin. This strain is able to grow in soil and has now flowered. None of the mutants obtained is haploid. Nine are diploid and the other is tetraploid. The chlorophyll deficient strains can be propagated on B5 agar medium supplemented with higher concentration of sucrose than normally required for the growth of the wild-type. (orig.)

  20. Defective DNA cross-link removal in Chinese hamster cell mutants hypersensitive to bifunctional alkylating agents

    DNA repair-deficient mutants from five genetic complementation groups isolated previously from Chinese hamster cells were assayed for survival after exposure to the bifunctional alkylating agents mitomycin C or diepoxybutane. Groups 1, 3, and 5 exhibited 1.6- to 3-fold hypersensitivity compared to the wild-type cells, whereas Groups 2 and 4 exhibited extraordinary hypersensitivity. Mutants from Groups 1 and 2 were exposed to 22 other bifunctional alkylating agents in a rapid assay that compared cytotoxicity of the mutants to the wild-type parental strain, AA8. With all but two of the compounds, the Group 2 mutant (UV4) was 15- to 60-fold more sensitive than AA8 or the Group 1 mutant (UV5). UV4 showed only 6-fold hypersensitivity to quinacrine mustard. Alkaline elution measurements showed that this compound produced few DNA interstrand cross-links but numerous strand breaks. Therefore, the extreme hypersensitivity of mutants from Groups 2 and 4 appeared specific for compounds the main cytotoxic lesions of which were DNA cross-links. Mutant UV5 was only 1- to 4-fold hypersensitive to all the compounds. Although the initial number of cross-links was similar for the three cell lines, the efficiency of removal of cross-links was lowest in UV4 and intermediate in UV5. These results suggest that the different levels of sensitivity are specifically related to different efficiencies of DNA cross-link removal. The phenotype of hypersensitivity to both UV radiation and cross-link damage exhibited by the mutants in Groups 2 and 4 appears to differ from those of the known human DNA repair syndromes