WorldWideScience

Sample records for ad hoc wireless

  1. Wireless Ad Hoc Networks

    Hong-Chuan Yang

    2007-01-01

    Full Text Available We study the energy-efficient configuration of multihop paths with automatic repeat request (ARQ mechanism in wireless ad hoc networks. We adopt a cross-layer design approach and take both the quality of each radio hop and the battery capacity of each transmitting node into consideration. Under certain constraints on the maximum tolerable transmission delay and the required packet delivery ratio, we solve optimization problems to jointly schedule the transmitting power of each transmitting node and the retransmission limit over each hop. Numerical results demonstrate that the path configuration methods can either significantly reduce the average energy consumption per packet delivery or considerably extend the average lifetime of the multihop route.

  2. Routing Security in Ad Hoc Wireless Networks

    Pervaiz, Mohammad O.; Cardei, Mihaela; Wu, Jie

    Wireless networks provide rapid, untethered access to information and computing, eliminating the barriers of distance, time, and location for many applications ranging from collaborative, distributed mobile computing to disaster recovery (such as fire, flood, earthquake), law enforcement (crowd control, search, and rescue), and military communications (command, control, surveillance, and reconnaissance). An ad hoc network is a collection of wireless mobile hosts forming a temporary network without the aid of any established infrastructure or centralized administration [11

  3. Enhanced Wireless Network Ad Hoc Pattern

    M. Kamalakannan

    2012-06-01

    Full Text Available Early simulation experience with wireless ad hoc networks suggests that their capacity can be surprisingly low, due to the requirement that nodes forward each others’ packets. The achievable capacity depends on network size, traffic patterns and detailed local radio interactions. This study examines these factors alone and in combination, using simulation and analysis from first principles. Our results include both specific constants and general relationship Scaling helpful in understanding the limitations of wireless ad hoc networks. We examine interactions of the 802.11 MAC and ad hoc forwarding and the effect on capacity for several simple configurations and traffic patterns. While 802.11 discovers reasonably good schedules, we nonetheless observe capacities markedly less than optimal for very simple chain and lattice networks with very regular traffic patterns. We validate some simulation results with experiments. We also show that the traffic pattern determines whether an ad hoc network’s per node capacity will scale to large networks. In particular, we show that for total capacity to scale up with network size the average distance between source and destination nodes must remain small as the network grows. Nonlocal traffic patterns in which this average distance grows with the network size result in a rapid decrease of per node capacity.

  4. Enhanced Wireless Network Ad Hoc Pattern

    M. Kamalakannan; V. Khanaa

    2012-01-01

    Early simulation experience with wireless ad hoc networks suggests that their capacity can be surprisingly low, due to the requirement that nodes forward each others’ packets. The achievable capacity depends on network size, traffic patterns and detailed local radio interactions. This study examines these factors alone and in combination, using simulation and analysis from first principles. Our results include both specific constants and general relationship Scaling helpful in understanding t...

  5. Ad hoc mobile wireless networks principles, protocols, and applications

    Sarkar, Subir Kumar

    2013-01-01

    The military, the research community, emergency services, and industrial environments all rely on ad hoc mobile wireless networks because of their simple infrastructure and minimal central administration. Now in its second edition, Ad Hoc Mobile Wireless Networks: Principles, Protocols, and Applications explains the concepts, mechanism, design, and performance of these highly valued systems. Following an overview of wireless network fundamentals, the book explores MAC layer, routing, multicast, and transport layer protocols for ad hoc mobile wireless networks. Next, it examines quality of serv

  6. Ad hoc mobile wireless networks principles, protocols and applications

    Sarkar, Subir Kumar; Puttamadappa, C

    2007-01-01

    Ad hoc mobile wireless networks have seen increased adaptation in a variety of disciplines because they can be deployed with simple infrastructures and virtually no central administration. In particular, the development of ad hoc wireless and sensor networks provides tremendous opportunities in areas including disaster recovery, defense, health care, and industrial environments. Ad Hoc Mobile Wireless Networks: Principles, Protocols and Applications explains the concepts, mechanisms, design, and performance of these systems. It presents in-depth explanations of the latest wireless technologies

  7. Intrusion detection in wireless ad-hoc networks

    Chaki, Nabendu

    2014-01-01

    Presenting cutting-edge research, Intrusion Detection in Wireless Ad-Hoc Networks explores the security aspects of the basic categories of wireless ad-hoc networks and related application areas. Focusing on intrusion detection systems (IDSs), it explains how to establish security solutions for the range of wireless networks, including mobile ad-hoc networks, hybrid wireless networks, and sensor networks.This edited volume reviews and analyzes state-of-the-art IDSs for various wireless ad-hoc networks. It includes case studies on honesty-based intrusion detection systems, cluster oriented-based

  8. Worm epidemics in wireless ad hoc networks

    A dramatic increase in the number of computing devices with wireless communication capability has resulted in the emergence of a new class of computer worms which specifically target such devices. The most striking feature of these worms is that they do not require Internet connectivity for their propagation but can spread directly from device to device using a short-range radio communication technology, such as WiFi or Bluetooth. In this paper, we develop a new model for epidemic spreading of these worms and investigate their spreading in wireless ad hoc networks via extensive Monte Carlo simulations. Our studies show that the threshold behaviour and dynamics of worm epidemics in these networks are greatly affected by a combination of spatial and temporal correlations which characterize these networks, and are significantly different from the previously studied epidemics in the Internet

  9. Worm epidemics in wireless ad hoc networks

    Nekovee, Maziar

    2007-06-01

    A dramatic increase in the number of computing devices with wireless communication capability has resulted in the emergence of a new class of computer worms which specifically target such devices. The most striking feature of these worms is that they do not require Internet connectivity for their propagation but can spread directly from device to device using a short-range radio communication technology, such as WiFi or Bluetooth. In this paper, we develop a new model for epidemic spreading of these worms and investigate their spreading in wireless ad hoc networks via extensive Monte Carlo simulations. Our studies show that the threshold behaviour and dynamics of worm epidemics in these networks are greatly affected by a combination of spatial and temporal correlations which characterize these networks, and are significantly different from the previously studied epidemics in the Internet.

  10. Implementation and Experimental Evaluation of Wireless Ad hoc Routing Protocols

    Lundgren, Henrik

    2005-01-01

    A wireless ad hoc network consists of a number of mobile nodes that temporarily form a dynamic infrastructure-less network. New routing protocols that can adapt to the frequent topology changes induced by node mobility and varying link qualities are needed. During the last decade dozens of different ad hoc routing protocols have been proposed, optimized and partially compared, mainly through simulation studies. This thesis takes an experimental approach to the evaluation of ad hoc routing pro...

  11. Robust message routing for mobile (wireless) ad hoc networks.

    Goldsby, Michael E.; Johnson, Michael M.; Kilman, Dominique Marie (Sandia National Laboratories, Albuquerque, NM); Bierbaum, Neal Robert; Chen, Helen Y.; Ammerlahn, Heidi R.; Tsang, Rose P.; Nicol, David M. (University of Illinois, Urbana, IL)

    2004-01-01

    This report describes the results of research targeting improvements in the robustness of message transport in wireless ad hoc networks. The first section of the report provides an analysis of throughput and latency in the wireless medium access control (MAC) layer and relates the analysis to the commonly used 802.11 protocol. The second section describes enhancements made to several existing models of wireless MAC and ad hoc routing protocols; the models were used in support of the work described in the following section. The third section of the report presents a lightweight transport layer protocol that is superior to TCP for use in wireless networks. In addition, it introduces techniques that improve the performance of any ad hoc source routing protocol. The fourth section presents a novel, highly scalable ad hoc routing protocol that is based on geographic principles but requires no localization hardware.

  12. Reliable adaptive multicast protocol in wireless Ad hoc networks

    Sun Baolin; Li Layuan

    2006-01-01

    In wireless ad hoc network environments, every link is wireless and every node is mobile. Those features make data lost easily as well as multicasting inefficient and unreliable. Moreover, Efficient and reliable multicast in wireless ad hoc network is a difficult issue. It is a major challenge to transmission delays and packet losses due to link changes of a multicast tree at the provision of high delivery ratio for each packet transmission in wireless ad hoc network environment.In this paper, we propose and evaluate Reliable Adaptive Multicast Protocol (RAMP) based on a relay node concept. Relay nodes are placed along the multicast tree. Data recovery is done between relay nodes. RAMP supports a reliable multicasting suitable for mobile ad hoc network by reducing the number of packet retransmissions. We compare RAMP with SRM (Scalable Reliable Multicast). Simulation results show that the RAMP has high delivery ratio and low end-to-end delay for packet transmission.

  13. Secure and reliable wireless and ad hoc communications

    Nguyen, Son Thanh

    2009-01-01

    Wireless and ad hoc communication systems create additional challenges for the implementation of security and reliability services when compared to fxed networks. On the one hand, the inherent characteristics of wireless environment contribute serious system vulnerabilities if the security requirements are not met. On the other hand, the mobility pattern as well as resource constraints of ad hoc devices make security design more di cult. The principal objective of SWACOM pro...

  14. Easy Wireless: broadband ad-hoc networking for emergency services

    de Graaf,, Dirk C; Berg, van den, C.A.; Boucherie, Richard J.; Brouwer, Frank; Bruin, de, K.; Elfrink, Herman; Fernandez-Diaz, Irene; Heemstra de Groot, Sonia; Haan, de, R.J.; Jongh, de, J.; Nunez, Sindo; Ommeren, van, F.J.; Roijers, Frank; Stemerdink, Jan; Tromp, Erik

    2007-01-01

    Wireless ad-hoc networks will enable emergency services to continuously overview and act upon the actual status of the situation by retrieving and exchanging detailed up-to-date information between the rescue workers. Deployment of high-bandwidth, robust, self-organising ad-hoc networks will enable quicker response to typical what/where/when questions, than the more vulnerable low-bandwidth communication networks currently in use. This paper addresses a number of results of the Easy Wireless ...

  15. IP ADDRESS AUTOCONFIGURATION FOR WIRELESS AD HOC NETWORKS

    阿姆贾德

    2002-01-01

    A novel mechanism was specified by which a node in ad hoc network may autoconfigure an IP address which is unique throughout the mobile ad hoc network. This new algorithm imposes less and constant overhead and delay in obtaining an IP address, and fully utilizes the available addresses space of an ad hoc network, and independent of the existing routing protocol, and less prone to security threats. Moreover, a new Join/Leave mechanism was proposed as an enhancement to the new IP address autoconfiguration algorithm, to support the overall operation of the existing routing protocol of wireless ad hoc networks.

  16. Routing Protocol for Mobile Ad-hoc Wireless Networks

    I. M. B. Nogales

    2007-09-01

    Full Text Available Bluetooth is a cutting-edge technology used for implementing wireless ad hoc networks. In order to provide an overall scheme for mobile ad hoc networks, this paper deals with scatternet topology formation and routing algorithm to form larger ad hoc wireless Networks. Scatternet topology starts by forming a robust network, which is less susceptible to the problems posed by node mobility. Mobile topology relies on the presence of free nodes that create multiple connections with the network and on their subsequently rejoining the network. Our routing protocol is a proactive routing protocol, which is tailor made for the Bluetooth ad hoc network. The connection establishment connects nodes in a structure that simplifies packet routing and scheduling. The design allows nodes to arrive and leave arbitrarily, incrementally building the topology and healing partitions when they occur. We present simulation results that show that the algorithm presents low formation latency and also generates an efficient topology for forwarding packets along ad-hoc wireless networks.

  17. Energy management in wireless cellular and ad-hoc networks

    Imran, Muhammad; Qaraqe, Khalid; Alouini, Mohamed-Slim; Vasilakos, Athanasios

    2016-01-01

    This book investigates energy management approaches for energy efficient or energy-centric system design and architecture and presents end-to-end energy management in the recent heterogeneous-type wireless network medium. It also considers energy management in wireless sensor and mesh networks by exploiting energy efficient transmission techniques and protocols. and explores energy management in emerging applications, services and engineering to be facilitated with 5G networks such as WBANs, VANETS and Cognitive networks. A special focus of the book is on the examination of the energy management practices in emerging wireless cellular and ad hoc networks. Considering the broad scope of energy management in wireless cellular and ad hoc networks, this book is organized into six sections covering range of Energy efficient systems and architectures; Energy efficient transmission and techniques; Energy efficient applications and services. .

  18. An Intrusion Detection Architecture for Clustered Wireless Ad Hoc Networks

    Sen, Jaydip

    2010-01-01

    Intrusion detection in wireless ad hoc networks is a challenging task because these networks change their topologies dynamically, lack concentration points where aggregated traffic can be analyzed, utilize infrastructure protocols that are susceptible to manipulation, and rely on noisy, intermittent wireless communications. Security remains a major challenge for these networks due their features of open medium, dynamically changing topologies, reliance on co-operative algorithms, absence of c...

  19. WIRELESS AD-HOC NETWORK UNDER BLACK-HOLE ATTACK

    Shree Om

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available Wireless Ad-hoc Network is a temporary and decentralized type of wireless network. Due to security vulnerabilities in the routing protocol currently, this type of network is unprotected to network layer attacks. Black-hole attack is such a type of attack and is a Denial-of-Service (DoS attack. Due to its nature, the attack makes the source node send all the data packets to a Black-hole node that ends up dropping all the packets. The aim of this paper is to reflect light on the severe effects of a Black-hole attack in a Wireless Ad-hoc network and the drawbacks of the security mechanisms being used for the mitigation of this attack.

  20. Secure Geographic Routing in Ad Hoc and Wireless Sensor Networks

    Zahariadis Theodore

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available Security in sensor networks is one of the most relevant research topics in resource constrained wireless devices and networks. Several attacks can be suffered in ad hoc and wireless sensor networks (WSN, which are highly susceptible to attacks, due to the limited resources of the nodes. In this paper, we propose innovative and lightweight localization techniques that allow for intrusion identification and isolation schemes and provide accurate location information. This information is used by our routing protocol which additionally incorporates a distributed trust model to prevent several routing attacks to the network. We finally evaluate our algorithms for accurate localization and for secure routing which have been implemented and tested in real ad hoc and wireless sensor networks.

  1. Recent development in wireless sensor and ad-hoc networks

    Li, Xiaolong; Yang, Yeon-Mo

    2015-01-01

    Wireless Sensor Network (WSN) consists of numerous physically distributed autonomous devices used for sensing and monitoring the physical and/or environmental conditions. A WSN uses a gateway that provides wireless connectivity to the wired world as well as distributed networks. There are many open problems related to Ad-Hoc networks and its applications. Looking at the expansion of the cellular infrastructure, Ad-Hoc network may be acting as the basis of the 4th generation wireless technology with the new paradigm of ‘anytime, anywhere communications’. To realize this, the real challenge would be the security, authorization and management issues of the large scale WSNs. This book is an edited volume in the broad area of WSNs. The book covers various chapters like Multi-Channel Wireless Sensor Networks, its Coverage, Connectivity as well as Deployment. It covers comparison of various communication protocols and algorithms such as MANNET, ODMRP and ADMR Protocols for Ad hoc Multicasting, Location Based C...

  2. A Platform for Implementing Secure Wireless Ad Hoc Networks

    Farkas, Gyula; Genge, Bela; Haller, Piroska

    2010-01-01

    We propose a new platform for implementing secure wireless ad hoc networks. Our proposal is based on a modular architecture, with the software stack constructed directly on the Ethernet layer. Within our platform we use a new security protocol that we designed to ensure mutual authentication between nodes and a secure key exchange. The correctness of the proposed security protocol is ensured by Guttman's authentication tests.

  3. Interference in wireless ad hoc networks with smart antennas

    Alabdulmohsin, Ibrahim

    2014-08-01

    In this paper, we show that the use of directional antennas in wireless ad hoc networks can actually increase interference due to limitations of virtual carrier sensing. We derive a simple mathematical expression for interference in both physical and virtual carrier sense networks, which reveals counter-intuitively that receivers in large dense networks with directional antennas can experience larger interference than in omnidirectional networks unless the beamwidth is sufficiently small. Validity of mathematical analysis is confirmed using simulations.

  4. Wireless ad hoc and sensor networks management, performance, and applications

    He, Jing

    2013-01-01

    Although wireless sensor networks (WSNs) have been employed across a wide range of applications, there are very few books that emphasize the algorithm description, performance analysis, and applications of network management techniques in WSNs. Filling this need, Wireless Ad Hoc and Sensor Networks: Management, Performance, and Applications summarizes not only traditional and classical network management techniques, but also state-of-the-art techniques in this area. The articles presented are expository, but scholarly in nature, including the appropriate history background, a review of current

  5. ON THE CAPACITY REGION OF WIRELESS AD HOC RELAY NETWORKS

    Dai Qinyun; Yao Wangsheng; Peng Jianmin; Su Gang

    2006-01-01

    Network capacity is a key characteristic to evaluate the performance of wireless networks. The goal of this paper is to study the capacity of wireless ad hoc relay network. In the model, there is at most ns source nodes transmitting signal simultaneously in the network and the arbitrarily complex network coding is allowed. The upper capacity bound of the network model are derived from the max-flow min-cut theorem and the lower capacity bound are obtained by the rate-distortion function for the Gaussian source. Finally, simulation results show that the upper network capacity will decrease as the number of source nodes is increased.

  6. Capacity of Wireless Ad Hoc Networks with Opportunistic Collaborative Communications

    Simeone O

    2007-01-01

    Full Text Available Optimal multihop routing in ad hoc networks requires the exchange of control messages at the MAC and network layer in order to set up the (centralized optimization problem. Distributed opportunistic space-time collaboration (OST is a valid alternative that avoids this drawback by enabling opportunistic cooperation with the source at the physical layer. In this paper, the performance of OST is investigated. It is shown analytically that opportunistic collaboration outperforms (centralized optimal multihop in case spatial reuse (i.e., the simultaneous transmission of more than one data stream is not allowed by the transmission protocol. Conversely, in case spatial reuse is possible, the relative performance between the two protocols has to be studied case by case in terms of the corresponding capacity regions, given the topology and the physical parameters of network at hand. Simulation results confirm that opportunistic collaborative communication is a promising paradigm for wireless ad hoc networks that deserves further investigation.

  7. Capacity of Wireless Ad Hoc Networks with Opportunistic Collaborative Communications

    O. Simeone

    2007-03-01

    Full Text Available Optimal multihop routing in ad hoc networks requires the exchange of control messages at the MAC and network layer in order to set up the (centralized optimization problem. Distributed opportunistic space-time collaboration (OST is a valid alternative that avoids this drawback by enabling opportunistic cooperation with the source at the physical layer. In this paper, the performance of OST is investigated. It is shown analytically that opportunistic collaboration outperforms (centralized optimal multihop in case spatial reuse (i.e., the simultaneous transmission of more than one data stream is not allowed by the transmission protocol. Conversely, in case spatial reuse is possible, the relative performance between the two protocols has to be studied case by case in terms of the corresponding capacity regions, given the topology and the physical parameters of network at hand. Simulation results confirm that opportunistic collaborative communication is a promising paradigm for wireless ad hoc networks that deserves further investigation.

  8. Defending Wormhole Attack in Wireless Ad-hoc Network

    Nisha S.Raote

    2011-09-01

    Full Text Available The ad-hoc networks are the temporarily established wireless networks which does not require fixedinfrastructure it is also called as infrastructure less network. Because of some flaws of adhoc networksuch as shared wireless medium and lack of any central coordination makes them more prone to attacksin comparison with the wired network. Among all the attacks wormhole attack is the most severe attack.In this attack an attacker capture the packets at one location in the network and send it two anotherattacker at a distant location through tunnels which is established through different ways like packetencapsulation, using high power transmission or by using direct antennas. This tunnel between twocolluding attackers is virtual and it is called as a wormhole. The wormhole attack is possible even if theattacker has not comprised any hosts, and all communication provides authenticity and confidentiality.By using the various approaches for finding the solution over wormhole attack, the dynamic informationof the packets could still be modified. So in order to give more robust protection in some special scenariolike battlefields, which requires highly secured information, there is need of developing some securedmechanism for wormhole detection and prevention. Taking into consideration this problem the proposedscheme is developed. This paper discusses proposed works on wormhole attack along with its availablecounter measures in ad-hoc wireless network.

  9. A Smart Booster Approach In Wireless Ad Hoc Network

    Anzar Ahmad

    2016-02-01

    Full Text Available Wireless Mobile Ad-hoc network is upcoming next generation technology. The foremost reason to be the popularity of MANET is its infrastructure less nature. MANET is a group of wireless mobile nodes which are connected wirelessly. Nodes may be highly mobile because the beauty of wireless network (like MANET or cellular system lies in mobility. But due to this mobility of nodes, the topology of the node and network changed frequently. This frequent change topology affect to the communication between nodes. If nodes are within the range of each other they can communicate properly but if nodes are not in the range of each other, communication will not be possible smoothly or even ongoing communication may be disrupt or lost. So there is a need to develop and design a mechanism or system that can handle such types of situation and prevent communication failure or frequent link failure. In the present work a novel booster mechanism approach is proposed to overcome such situation or Link failure. In the proposed Approach, the level of the Power at both the Transmitter as well as Receiver is measured in order to maintain communication smooth between the nodes. If one node is moving away from the communicating node then both moving node will measure its receiving power with respect to the distance and if its current power level reaches the threshold level it switched “ON” its Booster and at the same time it send a message to source node which contains received power level of moving node due to this ,that source node also “ON” its Booster and thus both nodes connect together to protect the link failure during that mobility. The Booster Approach is a novel concept in the direction of smooth communication in dynamic or wireless environment in Mobile Ad hoc Network.

  10. Wireless sensor and ad hoc networks under diversified network scenarios

    Sarkar, Subir Kumar

    2012-01-01

    Due to significant advantages, including convenience, efficiency and cost-effectiveness, the implementation and use of wireless ad hoc and sensor networks have gained steep growth in recent years. This timely book presents the current state-of-the-art in these popular technologies, providing you with expert guidance for your projects in the field. You find broad-ranging coverage of important concepts and methods, definitions of key terminology, and a look at the direction of future research. Supported with nearly 150 illustrations, the book discusses a variety of critical topics, from topology

  11. An Intrusion Detection Architecture for Clustered Wireless Ad Hoc Networks

    Sen, Jaydip

    2011-01-01

    Intrusion detection in wireless ad hoc networks is a challenging task because these networks change their topologies dynamically, lack concentration points where aggregated traffic can be analyzed, utilize infrastructure protocols that are susceptible to manipulation, and rely on noisy, intermittent wireless communications. Security remains a major challenge for these networks due their features of open medium, dynamically changing topologies, reliance on co-operative algorithms, absence of centralized monitoring points, and lack of clear lines of defense. In this paper, we present a cooperative, distributed intrusion detection architecture based on clustering of the nodes that addresses the security vulnerabilities of the network and facilitates accurate detection of attacks. The architecture is organized as a dynamic hierarchy in which the intrusion data is acquired by the nodes and is incrementally aggregated, reduced in volume and analyzed as it flows upwards to the cluster-head. The cluster-heads of adja...

  12. Distributed Cooperative Caching Strategies in Wireless Ad Hoc Networks

    Banoth, Rajkumar

    Wireless devices have scarcity of resources such as storage capacity and processing power. For WANETs, cooperative caching strategies are proposed in this paper to improve efficiency in information exchange in peer-to-peer fashion. The caching strategies such as small sized caches and large sized...... caches depend on the estimation of density of information being flown in the network. In the former strategy content replacement takes place when new information is received while in the latter a decision is made as to whether the information is to be cached and for how long. In either case every node is...... making expected content diversity and improve performance of information sharing in wireless ad hoc network....

  13. An ad hoc wireless sensor network for tele medicine applications

    Recent advances in embedded computing systems have led to the emergence of wireless sensor networks (SNETs), consisting of small, battery-powered motes with limited computation and radio communication capabilities. SNETs permit data gathering and computation to be deeply embedded in the physical environment. Large scale ad hoc sensor networks (ASNET), when deployed among mobile patients, can provide dynamic data query architecture to allow medical specialists to monitor patients at any place via the web or cellular network. In case of an emergency, doctors and/or nurses will be contacted automatically through their handheld personal digital assistants (PDAs) or cellular phones. In specific, the proposed network consists of sensor nodes at the first layer whose responsibility is to measure, collect and communicate, via wired or wireless interface, readings to a microcontroller presenting the second layer of architecture. Deployed microcontrollers process incoming readings and report to a central system via a wireless interface. The implemented network distinguishes between periodic sensor readings and critical or event driven readings where higher priorities is given for the latter. In this paper we implement 3 special cases for tracking and monitoring patients and doctors using SNETs. In addition, the performance of a large scale of our implementation has been tested by means of mathematical analysis. (author)

  14. Optimizing Local Capacity of Wireless Ad Hoc Networks

    Malik, Salman

    2011-01-01

    In this work, we evaluate local capacity of wireless ad hoc networks with several medium access protocols and identify the most optimal protocol. We define local capacity as the average information rate received by a receiver randomly located in the network. We analyzed grid pattern protocols where simultaneous transmitters are positioned in a regular grid pattern, pure ALOHA protocols where simultaneous transmitters are dispatched according to a uniform Poisson distribution and exclusion protocols where simultaneous transmitters are dispatched according to an exclusion rule such as node coloring and carrier sense protocols. Our analysis allows us to conjecture that local capacity is optimal when simultaneous transmitters are positioned in a grid pattern based on equilateral triangles and our results show that this optimal local capacity is at most double the local capacity of simple ALOHA protocol. Our results also show that node coloring and carrier sense protocols approach the optimal local capacity by an ...

  15. The Evolution of IDS Solutions in Wireless Ad-Hoc Networks To Wireless Mesh Networks

    Novarun Deb

    2011-12-01

    Full Text Available The domain of wireless networks is inherently vulnerable to attacks due to the unreliable wireless medium. Such networks can be secured from intrusions using either prevention or detection schemes. This paper focuses its study on intrusion detection rather than prevention of attacks. As attackers keep onimprovising too, an active prevention method alone cannot provide total security to the system. Here in lies the importance of intrusion detection systems (IDS that are solely designed to detect intrusions in real time. Wireless networks are broadly classified into Wireless Ad-hoc Networks (WAHNs, Mobile Adhoc Networks (MANETs, Wireless Sensor Networks (WSNs and the most recent Wireless Mesh Networks (WMNs. Several IDS solutions have been proposed for these networks. This paper is an extension to a survey of IDS solutions for MANETs and WMNs published earlier in the sense that the present survey offers a comparative insight of recent IDS solutions for all the sub domains of wireless networks.

  16. A Comparision Study of Common Routing Protocols Used In Wireless Ad-Hoc Networks

    Basim Alhadidi

    2013-04-01

    Full Text Available The aim of this study is to analyze and compare performance of both reactive and proactive Mobile Ad hoc Networks (MANETs routing protocols using different environments. Wireless networks are divided into two types: infrastructure and ad hoc network. In wireless ad hoc networks each node can be a sender, router and receiver, so these types of network are less structure compared to infrastructure network. Therefore wireless ad hoc networks need special routing protocols to overcome the limitations of wireless ad hoc networks. Wireless ad hoc networks routing protocols can be categorized into two types: reactive (on demand routing protocols and proactive routing protocols. In proactive routing protocols the nodes periodically send control messages across the network to build routing table. Different routing protocols have been simulated using GloMoSim (Global Mobile Information system simulation library and PARSEC compiler. Five multi-hop wireless ad hoc network routing protocols have been simulated to cover a range of design choices: Wireless Routing Protocol (WRP, Fisheye State Routing (FSR, Dynamic Source Routing (DSR, Ad hoc On-demand Distance Vector (AODV and Location Aided Routing (LAR. The protocols are evaluated in different environments to investigate performance metrics. Performance metric includes the following aspects: packets deliver ratio, end-to-end delay and end-to-end throughput.

  17. DelPHI: wormhole detection mechanism for ad hoc wireless networks

    Chiu, HS; Wong Lui, KS

    2006-01-01

    In mobile ad hoc networks, data transmission is performed within an untrusted wireless environment. Various kinds of attack have been identified and corresponding solutions have been proposed. Wormhole attack is one of the serious attacks which forms a serious threat in the networks, especially against many ad hoc wireless routing protocols and location-based wireless security system. We identify two types of wormhole attacks. In the first type, malicious nodes do not take part in finding rou...

  18. Cluster-based Intrusion Detection in Wireless Ad-Hoc Networks

    Di Wu; Zhisheng Liu; Yongxin Feng; Guangxing Wang

    2004-01-01

    There are inherent vulnerabilities that are not easily preventable in the mobile Ad-Hoc networks.To build a highly secure wireless Ad-Hoc network,intrusion detection and response techniques need to be deployed;The intrusion detection and cluster-based Ad-Hoc networks has been introduced,then,an architecture for better intrusion detection based on cluster using Data Mining in wireless Ad-Hoc networks has been shown. A statistical anomaly detection approach has been used.The anomaly detection and trace analysis have been done locally in each node and possibly through cooperation with clusterhead detection in the network.

  19. Improving the Congestion Control over Stateless Wireless Ad Hoc Network Systems

    Shrikant Pujar; Prof. Vasudev K Parvati

    2013-01-01

    In this Paper, We are dealing with the Current Qos Models for MANETs. We have proposed theExtension of Stateless Wireless Ad Hoc Network (SWAN) in order to improve Qos by using the schedulingModule Stateless network model which uses Rate Control Algorithm to deliver service differentiation inmobile wireless ad hoc network in a simple, scalable manner. In the Results we have shown the CongestionFree Routing between two different nodes of a Network through Router.

  20. Quality of service on ad-hoc wireless networks

    Paoliello Guimaraes, Rafael

    2008-01-01

    Over the last years, Mobile Ad-hoc Networks (MANETs) have captured the attention of the research community. The flexibility and cost savings they provide, due to the fact that no infrastructure is needed to deploy a MANET, is one of the most attractive possibilities of this technology. However, along with the flexibility, lots of problems arise due to the bad quality of transmission media, the scarcity of resources, etc. Since real-time communications will be common in MANETs, there has been ...

  1. Handbook on theoretical and algorithmic aspects of sensor, ad hoc wireless, and peer-to-peer networks

    Wu, Jie

    2005-01-01

    PrefaceAD HOC WIRELESS NETWORKSA Modular Cross Layer Architecture for Ad Hoc Networks, M. Conti, J. Crowcroft, G. Maselli, and G. TuriRouting Scalability in MANETs, J. Eriksson, S. Krishnamurthy and M. FaloutsosUniformly Distributed Algorithm for Virtual Backbone Routing in Ad Hoc Wireless Networks, D.S. KimMaximum Necessary Hop Count for Packet Routing in MANET, X. Chen and J. ShenEfficient Strategyproof Multicast in Selfish Wireless Networks, X.-Yang LiGeocasting in Ad Hoc and Sensor Networks, I. StojmenovicTopology Control for Ad hoc Networks: Present Solutions and Open Issues, C.-C. Shen a

  2. DESAIN ALGORITMA DAN SIMULASI ROUTING UNTUK GATEWAY AD HOC WIRELESS NETWORKS

    Nixson Meok

    2009-12-01

    Full Text Available   Routing protocol to the wireless ad hoc networks is very needed in the communication process between some terminals, to send the data packet through one or several node(s to the destination address where the network typology is always changing. Many previous works that discussed about routing ad hoc both for manet (mobile ad hoc networks and wireless networks, but the emphasis have more focus on comparing the performance of several routing ad hoc. While in this work, there is a bulding of routing algorithm model to gateway in land to the nodes that analogized as a boat that move on the sea. With the assumption that the communication inter terminals to radio band of Very High Frequency, thus algorithm that built in the simulation based on the range gap of the HF frequency. The result of this simulation will be developed as the platform to implement the service development of multiuser communication

  3. Energy-Aware Routing Protocol for Ad Hoc Wireless Sensor Networks

    Mann Raminder P

    2005-01-01

    Full Text Available Wireless ad hoc sensor networks differ from wireless ad hoc networks from the following perspectives: low energy, lightweight routing protocols, and adaptive communication patterns. This paper proposes an energy-aware routing protocol (EARP suitable for ad hoc wireless sensor networks and presents an analysis for its energy consumption in various phases of route discovery and maintenance. Based on the energy consumption associated with route request processing, EARP advocates the minimization of route requests by allocating dynamic route expiry times. This paper introduces a unique mechanism for estimation of route expiry time based on the probability of route validity, which is a function of time, number of hops, and mobility parameters. In contrast to AODV, EARP reduces the repeated flooding of route requests by maintaining valid routes for longer durations.

  4. Routing in wireless ad hoc and sensor network underground with sensor data in real-time

    Odei-Lartey, Emmanuel; Hartmann, Klaus; Ahmadian, Hamidreza

    2012-05-01

    This paper first describes the innovative topology and structure of a wireless ad hoc and sensor network in a so called line-in-the-underground formation and the feasibility of achieving a reliable wireless connection underground with regards to a borehole telemetry system. It further describes a routing algorithm/protocol implementation based on a modification of the ad hoc on-demand distance vector protocol to achieve a reliable underground communication scheme for the wireless ad hoc network deployed underground for sensor data acquisition in real time as applied in the borehole telemetry system. Simulations and experiments are conducted to investigate and verify the effectiveness of this routing technique and the performance results are shown.

  5. Topology-Transparent Transmission Scheduling Algorithms in Wireless Ad Hoc Networks

    MA Xiao-lei; WANG Chun-jiang; LIU Yuan-an; MA Lei-lei

    2005-01-01

    In order to maximize the average throughput and minimize the transmission slot delay in wireless Ad Hoc networks,an optimal topology-transparent transmission scheduling algorithm-multichannel Time-Spread Multiple Access(TSMA)is proposed.Further analysis is shown that the maximum degree is very sensitive to the network performance for a wireless Ad Hoc networks with N mobile nodes.Moreover,the proposed multichannel TSMA can improve the average throughput M times and decrease the average transmission slot delay M times,as compared with singlechannel TSMA when M channels are available.

  6. Mobility Models for Next Generation Wireless Networks Ad Hoc, Vehicular and Mesh Networks

    Santi, Paolo

    2012-01-01

    Mobility Models for Next Generation Wireless Networks: Ad Hoc, Vehicular and Mesh Networks provides the reader with an overview of mobility modelling, encompassing both theoretical and practical aspects related to the challenging mobility modelling task. It also: Provides up-to-date coverage of mobility models for next generation wireless networksOffers an in-depth discussion of the most representative mobility models for major next generation wireless network application scenarios, including WLAN/mesh networks, vehicular networks, wireless sensor networks, and

  7. SVANET: A Smart Vehicular Ad Hoc Network for Efficient Data Transmission with Wireless Sensors

    Prasan Kumar Sahoo; Ming-Jer Chiang; Shih-Lin Wu

    2014-01-01

    Wireless sensors can sense any event, such as accidents, as well as icy roads, and can forward the rescue/warning messages through intermediate vehicles for any necessary help. In this paper, we propose a smart vehicular ad hoc network (SVANET) architecture that uses wireless sensors to detect events and vehicles to transmit the safety and non-safety messages efficiently by using different service channels and one control channel with different priorities. We have developed a data transmissio...

  8. Impact of network structure on the capacity of wireless multihop ad hoc communication

    Krause, Wolfram; Glauche, Ingmar; Sollacher, Rudolf; Greiner, Martin

    2004-07-01

    As a representative of a complex technological system, the so-called wireless multihop ad hoc communication networks are discussed. They represent an infrastructure-less generalization of todays wireless cellular phone networks. Lacking a central control authority, the ad hoc nodes have to coordinate themselves such that the overall network performs in an optimal way. A performance indicator is the end-to-end throughput capacity. Various models, generating differing ad hoc network structure via differing transmission power assignments, are constructed and characterized. They serve as input for a generic data traffic simulation as well as some semi-analytic estimations. The latter reveal that due to the most-critical-node effect the end-to-end throughput capacity sensitively depends on the underlying network structure, resulting in differing scaling laws with respect to network size.

  9. Forming the COUNCIL Based Clusters in Securing Wireless Ad Hoc Networks

    Ojha, Alok; Agrawal, Dharma P; Sanyal, S

    2010-01-01

    In cluster-based routing protocol (CBRP), two-level hierarchical structure is successfully used to reduce over-flooding in wireless Ad Hoc networks. As it is vulnerable to a single point of failure, we propose a new adaptive distributed threshold scheme to replace the cluster head by a group of cluster heads within each cluster, called COUNCIL, and distribute the service of single cluster head to multiple cluster heads using (k,n) threshold secret sharing scheme. An Ad Hoc network formed by COUNCIL based clusters can work correctly when the number of compromised cluster heads is smaller than k. To implement this adaptive threshold scheme in wireless Ad Hoc Networks, membership of the clusters should be defined in an adaptive way. In this paper, we mainly discuss our algorithm for forming COUNCIL based clusters using the concept of dominating set from graph theory.

  10. On the Geometrical Characteristics of Three-Dimensional Wireless Ad Hoc Networks and Their Applications

    2006-01-01

    Full Text Available In a wireless ad hoc network, messages are transmitted, received, and forwarded in a finite geometrical region and the transmission of messages is highly dependent on the locations of the nodes. Therefore the study of geometrical relationship between nodes in wireless ad hoc networks is of fundamental importance in the network architecture design and performance evaluation. However, most previous works concentrated on the networks deployed in the two-dimensional region or in the infinite three-dimensional space, while in many cases wireless ad hoc networks are deployed in the finite three-dimensional space. In this paper, we analyze the geometrical characteristics of the three-dimensional wireless ad hoc network in a finite space in the framework of random graph and deduce an expression to calculate the distance probability distribution between network nodes that are independently and uniformly distributed in a finite cuboid space. Based on the theoretical result, we present some meaningful results on the finite three-dimensional network performance, including the node degree and the max-flow capacity. Furthermore, we investigate some approximation properties of the distance probability distribution function derived in the paper.

  11. Probabilistic Modelling of Information Propagation in Wireless Mobile Ad-Hoc Network

    Schiøler, Henrik; Hansen, Martin Bøgsted; Schwefel, Hans-Peter

    2005-01-01

    In this paper the dynamics of broadcasting wireless ad-hoc networks is studied through probabilistic modelling. A randomized transmission discipline is assumed in accordance with existing MAC definitions such as WLAN with Decentralized Coordination or IEEE-802.15.4. Message reception is assumed to...

  12. A QoS Based MAC Protocol For Wireless Ad-hoc Network

    Vandana khare

    2011-03-01

    Full Text Available Multimedia communication over wireless Ad-hoc networks has become the drivingtechnology for many of the important applications, experiencing dramatic market growth and promisingrevolutionary experiences in personal communication, gaming, entertainment, military, security,environment monitoring, and more. The advances in wireless communications and growth of real-timeapplications have necessitated the development of wireless networks that can support high Quality ofService (QoS and power control. A node in an ad hoc network is normally battery operated which posesa huge constraint on the power consumption of such a node. Hence, designing a power efficient MACprotocol for ad hoc wireless networks is a major challenge. In this paper, we propose a CDMA basedpower controlled medium access protocol for mobile and ad hoc network (MNA. The protocol conservespower and provides QoS guarantees for multimedia traffics. In that network one of the fundamentalchallenger in MANETs is how to increase the overall network throughputs well as reading the delaywhile maintaining how energy consumption for packet processing in communication. simulation resultsshows that the performance of the protocol with increase in traffic while QoS is better in terms of Energyconsumption, throughput, & communication delay than existing protocol.

  13. An Energy-Aware On-Demand Routing Protocol for Ad-Hoc Wireless Networks

    Veerayya, Mallapur

    2008-01-01

    An ad-hoc wireless network is a collection of nodes that come together to dynamically create a network, with no fixed infrastructure or centralized administration. An ad-hoc network is characterized by energy constrained nodes, bandwidth constrained links and dynamic topology. With the growing use of wireless networks (including ad-hoc networks) for real-time applications, such as voice, video, and real-time data, the need for Quality of Service (QoS) guarantees in terms of delay, bandwidth, and packet loss is becoming increasingly important. Providing QoS in ad-hoc networks is a challenging task because of dynamic nature of network topology and imprecise state information. Hence, it is important to have a dynamic routing protocol with fast re-routing capability, which also provides stable route during the life-time of the flows. In this thesis, we have proposed a novel, energy aware, stable routing protocol named, Stability-based QoS-capable Ad-hoc On-demand Distance Vector (SQ-AODV), which is an enhancement...

  14. ENERGY EFFICIENT ROUTING PROTOCOLS FOR WIRELESS AD HOC NETWORKS – A SURVEY

    K. Sankar

    2012-06-01

    Full Text Available Reducing energy consumption, primarily with the goal of extending the lifetime of battery-powered devices, has emerged as a fundamental challenge in wireless communication. The performance of the medium access control (MAC scheme not only has a fairly significant end-result on the behaviour of the routing approach employed, but also on the energy consumption of the wireless network interface card (NIC. We investigate the inadequacies of the MAC schemes designed for ad hoc wireless networks in the context of power awareness herein. The topology changes due to uncontrollable factors such as node mobility, weather, interference, noise, as well as on controllable parameters such as transmission power and antenna direction results in significant amount of energy loss. Controlling rapid topology changes by minimizing the maximum transmission power used in ad hoc wireless networks, while still maintaining networks connectivity can prolong battery life and hence network lifetime considerably. In addition, we systematically explore the potential energy consumption pitfalls of non–power-based and power based routing schemes. We suggest a thorough energy-based performance survey of energy aware routing protocols for wireless mobile ad-hoc networks. We also present the statistical performance metrics measured by our simulations.

  15. MULTICAST ROUTING WITH QUALITY OF SERVICE CONSTRAINTS IN THE AD HOC WIRELESS NETWORKS

    Abdellah Idrissi

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available The recent multimedia applications and services are very demanding in terms of Quality of Service (QoS. This creates new challenges in ensuring QoS when delivering those services over wireless networks. Motivated by the need of supporting high quality multicast applications in wireless ad hoc networks, we propose a network topology that can minimize the power when connecting the source node to the destination nodes in multicast sessions with the respect of the QoS provisions. We formulated the problem as integer linear programming problem with a set of energy and QoS constraints. We minimize the total power of energy used by nodes while satisfying QoS constraints (Bandwidth and maximum delay that are crucial to wireless ad hoc network performance.

  16. Computing Nash Equilibrium in Wireless Ad Hoc Networks

    Bulychev, Peter E.; David, Alexandre; Larsen, Kim G.;

    2012-01-01

    This paper studies the problem of computing Nash equilibrium in wireless networks modeled by Weighted Timed Automata. Such formalism comes together with a logic that can be used to describe complex features such as timed energy constraints. Our contribution is a method for solving this problem...

  17. Address autoconfiguration in wireless ad hoc networks: protocols and techniques

    Cempaka Wangi, N.I.; Prasad, R.V.; Jacobsson, M.; Niemegeers, I.

    2008-01-01

    With the advent of smaller devices having higher computational capacity and wireless communication capabilities, the world is becoming completely networked. Although, the mobile nature of these devices provides ubiquitous services, it also poses many challenges. In this article, we look in depth at

  18. User—dependent Perfect—scheduling Multiple Access (UPMA) for Wireless Ad Hoc Networ

    LIJiandong; LIWeiying; YANGJiawei; WENGJiwei

    2003-01-01

    A new multiple access protocol for wireless Internet access, called user-dependent perfect-scheduling multiple access (UPMA), is proposed. Packet transmis-sions are scheduled according to the number of active users,packet queue length and round-robin service rule. The proposed self-organizing algorithm is used to determine the number of active users. Users in ad h0c network are divided into clusters by the self-organizing algorithm. In each cluster an independent UPMA is used. UPMA al-gorithms for star and ad hoc wireless network are given.Performance analysis shows that UPMA have stable and very high throughnut.

  19. Maximization of Energy Efficiency in Wireless ad hoc and Sensor Networks With SERENA

    Saoucene Mahfoudh

    2009-01-01

    Full Text Available In wireless ad hoc and sensor networks, an analysis of the node energy consumption distribution shows that the largest part is due to the time spent in the idle state. This result is at the origin of SERENA, an algorithm to SchEdule RoutEr Nodes Activity. SERENA allows router nodes to sleep, while ensuring end-to-end communication in the wireless network. It is a localized and decentralized algorithm assigning time slots to nodes. Any node stays awake only during its slot and the slots assigned to its neighbors, it sleeps the remaining time. Simulation results show that SERENA enables us to maximize network lifetime while increasing the number of user messages delivered. SERENA is based on a two-hop coloring algorithm, whose complexity in terms of colors and rounds is evaluated. We then quantify the slot reuse. Finally, we show how SERENA improves the node energy consumption distribution and maximizes the energy efficiency of wireless ad hoc and sensor networks. We compare SERENA with classical TDMA and optimized variants such as USAP in wireless ad hoc and sensor networks.

  20. Wireless Ad-hoc Network Model for Video Transmission in the Tunnel of Mine

    Zhao Xu

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available Wireless ad hoc networks have been widely used for its flexibility and quick development, especially in emergent conditions. Recently they are introduced to coal mines underground for rescuing after disasters such as gas explosions. Significantly, we construct a network model named Chain Model to simulate the special circumstance in the tunnel of the mine. Moreover, for studying effects of different routing protocols used in this model when transmitting video data, Dynamic Destination-Sequenced Distance-Vector (DSDV, Dynamic Source Routing (DSR and Ad hoc On Demand Distance Vector (AODV are compared with each other in the experiment based on our model. The result indicates that AODV performs best among the three protocols in this model in terms of packet loss ratio, end-to-end delay time and throughput, which is significant for our future research on ad hoc networks for rescuing in coal mines underground.

  1. Load Balancing In Wireless Ad-Hoc Networks With Low Forwarding Index

    Reena Dadhich

    2011-02-01

    Full Text Available A wireless ad-hoc network comprises of a set of wireless nodes and requires no fixed infrastructure. Forefficient communication between nodes, ad-hoc networks are typically grouped in to clusters, whereeach cluster has a clusterhead (or Master. In our study, we will take a communication model that isderived from that of BlueTooth. Clusterhead nodes are responsible for the formation of clusters eachconsisting of a number of nodes (analog to cells in a cellular network and maintenance of the topologyof the network. Consequently, the clusterhead tend to become potential points of failures and naturally,there will be load imbalanced. Thus, it is important to consider load balancing in any clusteringalgorithm. In this paper, we consider the situation when each node has some load, given by theparameter forwarding Index.

  2. An Immuno-Inspired Approach to Misbehavior Detection in Ad Hoc Wireless Networks

    Drozda, Martin; Schaust, Sven; Szczerbicka, Helena

    2010-01-01

    We propose and evaluate an immuno-inspired approach to misbehavior detection in ad hoc wireless networks. Node misbehavior can be the result of an intrusion, or a software or hardware failure. Our approach is motivated by co-stimulatory signals present in the Biological immune system. The results show that co-stimulation in ad hoc wireless networks can both substantially improve energy efficiency of detection and, at the same time, help achieve low false positives rates. The energy efficiency improvement is almost two orders of magnitude, if compared to misbehavior detection based on watchdogs. We provide a characterization of the trade-offs between detection approaches executed by a single node and by several nodes in cooperation. Additionally, we investigate several feature sets for misbehavior detection. These feature sets impose different requirements on the detection system, most notably from the energy efficiency point of view.

  3. Upper Bounding Service Capacity in Multihop Wireless SSMA-Based Ad Hoc Networks

    Du, Shirong; Daigle, John N.; Alidaee, Bahram

    Upper bounds on the service carrying capacity of a multihop, wireless, SSMA-based ad hoc network are considered herein. The network has a single radio band for transmission and reception. Each node can transmit to, or receive from, multiple nodes simultaneously. We formulate the scheduling of transmissions and control of transmit powers as a joint, mixed-integer, nonlinear optimization problem that yields maximum return at minimum power subject to SINR constraints. We present an efficient tabu search-based heuristic algorithm to solve the optimization problem and rigorously assess the quality of the results. Through analysis and simulation, we establish upper bounds on the VoIP call carrying capacity of the network as function of various parameters. We discuss the pros and cons of using SSMA as a spectrum sharing technique in wireless ad hoc networks

  4. Performance Evaluation of Distributed Synchronous Greedy Graph Coloring Algorithms on Wireless Ad Hoc and Sensor Networks

    Esra Ruzgar

    2013-04-01

    Full Text Available Graph coloring is a widely used technique for allocation of time and frequency slots to nodes, for formingclusters, for constructing independent sets and dominating sets on wireless ad hoc and sensor networks. Agood coloring approach should produce low color count as possible. Besides, since the nodes of a wirelessad hoc and sensor network operate with limited bandwidth, energy and computing resources, the coloringshould be computed with few message passing and computational steps. In this paper, we provide aperformance evaluation of distributed synchronous greedy graph coloring algorithms on ad hoc and sensornetworks. We provide both theoretical and practical evaluations of distributed largest first and thedistributed version of Brelaz’s algorithm. We showed that although distributed version of Brelaz’salgorithm produces less color count, its resource consumption is worse than distributed largest firstalgorithm.

  5. A survey of medium access control protocols for wireless ad hoc networks

    Elvio João Leonardo; Ailton Akira Shinoda

    2004-01-01

    A number of issues distinguishes Medium Access Control (MAC) protocols for wireless networks from those used in wireline systems. In addition, for ad-hoc networks, the characteristics of the radio channel, the diverse physical-layer technologies available and the range of services envisioned make it a difficult task to design an algorithm to discipline the access to the shared medium that results efficient, fair, power consumption sensitive and delay bound. This article presents the current “...

  6. Energy-balanced multi-hop-aware cooperative geographic routing for wireless ad hoc networks

    Fan, Wentong; Zhang, Song; Ma, Linhua; Ru, Le; Tang, Hong; TIAN, YU

    2016-01-01

    Since the cooperative communication can reduce the transmitted power and extend the transmission coverage, minimum energy routing protocols are considered to reduce the total energy consumption in a multi-hop wireless Ad Hoc network. In this paper, an Energy-balanced Multi-hop-aware Cooperative Geographic Routing (EMCGR) algorithm is proposed. We firstly formulate the outage probability and construct the minimum power route in Multi-hop-aware Cooperative Transmission (MCT) mode. The MCT mode ...

  7. Power-Controlled Data Transmission in Wireless Ad-Hoc Networks: Challenges and Solutions

    Bilgehan Berberoglu; Taner Cevik

    2016-01-01

    Energy scarcity and interference are two important factors determining the performance of wireless ad-hoc networks that should be considered in depth. A promising method of achieving energy conservation is the transmission power control. Transmission power control also contributes to the mitigation of interference thereby promotes throughput by means of rendering multiple hosts to communicate in the same neighborhood simultaneously without impairing each other’s transmissions. However, as ide...

  8. Optimized network structure and routing metric in wireless multihop ad hoc communication

    Krause, Wolfram; Scholz, Jan; Greiner, Martin

    2005-01-01

    Inspired by the Statistical Physics of complex networks, wireless multihop ad hoc communication networks are considered in abstracted form. Since such engineered networks are able to modify their structure via topology control, we search for optimized network structures, which maximize the end-to-end throughput performance. A modified version of betweenness centrality is introduced and shown to be very relevant for the respective modeling. The calculated optimized network structures lead to a...

  9. Detection and Control of Vampire Attacks in Ad-Hoc Wireless Networks

    Anoopa S; Sudha S K

    2014-01-01

    Ad-hoc low-power wireless networks are the most promising research direction in sensing and pervasive computing. Prior security work in this area has focused primarily on denial of service at the routing or medium access control levels. Earlier, the resource depletion attacks are considered only as a routing problem, very recently these are classified in to a new group called “vampire attacks”. This thesis work explores the identification of resource depletion attacks at the r...

  10. HIERARCHICAL DESIGN BASED INTRUSION DETECTION SYSTEM FOR WIRELESS AD HOC SENSOR NETWORK

    Mohammad Saiful Islam Mamun; A.F.M. Sultanul Kabir

    2010-01-01

    In recent years, wireless ad hoc sensor network becomes popular both in civil and military jobs.However, security is one of the significant challenges for sensor network because of their deploymentin open and unprotected environment. As cryptographic mechanism is not enough to protect sensornetwork from external attacks, intrusion detection system needs to be introduced. Though intrusionprevention mechanism is one of the major and efficient methods against attacks, but there might besome atta...

  11. Hierarchical Design Based Intrusion Detection System For Wireless Ad hoc Network

    Mamun, Mohammad Saiful Islam; Kabir, A. F. M Sultanul

    2012-01-01

    In recent years, wireless ad hoc sensor network becomes popular both in civil and military jobs. However, security is one of the significant challenges for sensor network because of their deployment in open and unprotected environment. As cryptographic mechanism is not enough to protect sensor network from external attacks, intrusion detection system needs to be introduced. Though intrusion prevention mechanism is one of the major and efficient methods against attacks, but there might be some...

  12. Fortifying Intrusion Detection Systems in Dynamic Ad Hoc and Wireless Sensor Networks

    Abdelouahid Derhab; Abdelghani Bouras; Mustapha Reda Senouci; Muhammad Imran

    2014-01-01

    We investigate three aspects of dynamicity in ad hoc and wireless sensor networks and their impact on the efficiency of intrusion detection systems (IDSs). The first aspect is magnitude dynamicity, in which the IDS has to efficiently determine whether the changes occurring in the network are due to malicious behaviors or or due to normal changing of user requirements. The second aspect is nature dynamicity that occurs when a malicious node is continuously switching its behavior between normal...

  13. New horizons in mobile and wireless communications, v.4 ad hoc networks and pans

    Prasad, Ramjee

    2009-01-01

    Based on cutting-edge research projects in the field, this book (part of a comprehensive 4-volume series) provides the latest details and covers the most impactful aspects of mobile, wireless, and broadband communications development. These books present key systems and enabling technologies in a clear and accessible manner, offering you a detailed roadmap the future evolution of next generation communications. Other volumes cover Networks, Services and Applications; Reconfigurability; and Ad Hoc Networks.

  14. RHINO: armoured plated networking with intelligent high speed wireless ad hoc capability

    Markarian, Garik; Singh, Farid

    2008-04-01

    This paper describes the concept of an intelligent high speed wireless ad-hoc network, which is currently being developed. The technology aims at, not replacing any of the existing standards, but aims to complement them in urban, military and hazardous environments. Known as Rhino, the technology is a platform independent, IP based network which will provide adequate bandwidth for real time video, audio and data traffic. The technology and specifications described in this paper are based on initial development of the technology.

  15. VoIP Implementation and Experiments on a Mobile Wireless AdHoc Network

    Zhang, Hongqi; Yang, Oliver; Zhao, Jiying

    We have implemented a testbed to study the performance of VoIP in wireless ad hoc networks. The ASNC (Adaptive Source Network-rate Control) scheme is used to battle packet loss by feeding MOS (Mean Opinion Score) and loss information back to the sender. Our different VoIP experiments with measurements on delay, packet loss rate and MOS have validated the feasibility and efficiency of our scheme. It further verifies the simulator we used in the initial investigation.

  16. Asymptotic Capacity of Wireless Ad Hoc Networks with Realistic Links under a Honey Comb Topology

    Asnani, Himanshu

    2007-01-01

    We consider the effects of Rayleigh fading and lognormal shadowing in the physical interference model for all the successful transmissions of traffic across the network. New bounds are derived for the capacity of a given random ad hoc wireless network that reflect packet drop or capture probability of the transmission links. These bounds are based on a simplified network topology termed as honey-comb topology under a given routing and scheduling scheme.

  17. Systematic lossy error protection for video transmission over wireless ad hoc networks

    Zhu, Xiaoqing; Rane, Shantanu; Girod, Bernd

    2005-07-01

    Wireless ad hoc networks present a challenge for error-resilient video transmission, since node mobility and multipath fading result in time-varying link qualities in terms of packet loss ratio and available bandwidth. In this paper, we propose to use a systematic lossy error protection (SLEP) scheme for video transmission over wireless ad hoc networks. The transmitted video signal has two parts-a systematic portion consisting of a video sequence transmitted without channel coding over an error-prone channel, and error protection information consisting of a bitstream generated by Wyner-Ziv encoding of the video sequence. Using an end-to-end video distortion model in conjunction with online estimates of packet loss ratio and available bandwidth, the optimal Wyner-Ziv description can be selected dynamically according to current channel conditions. The scheme can also be applied to choose one path for transmission from amongst multiple candidate routes with varying available bandwidths and packet loss ratios, so that the expected end-to-end video distortion is maximized. Experimental results of video transmission over a simulated ad hoc wireless network shows that the proposed SLEP scheme outperforms the conventional application layer FEC approach in that it provides graceful degradation of received video quality over a wider range of packet loss ratios and is less susceptible to inaccuracy in the packet loss ratio estimation.

  18. Fault Tolerant Mechanism for Multimedia Flows in Wireless Ad Hoc Networks Based on Fast Switching Paths

    Juan R. Diaz

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Multimedia traffic can be forwarded through a wireless ad hoc network using the available resources of the nodes. Several models and protocols have been designed in order to organize and arrange the nodes to improve transmissions along the network. We use a cluster-based framework, called MWAHCA architecture, which optimizes multimedia transmissions over a wireless ad hoc network. It was proposed by us in a previous research work. This architecture is focused on decreasing quality of service (QoS parameters like latency, jitter, and packet loss, but other network features were not developed, like load balance or fault tolerance. In this paper, we propose a new fault tolerance mechanism, using as a base the MWAHCA architecture, in order to recover any multimedia flow crossing the wireless ad hoc network when there is a node failure. The algorithm can run independently for each multimedia flow. The main objective is to keep the QoS parameters as low as possible. To achieve this goal, the convergence time must be controlled and reduced. This paper provides the designed protocol, the analytical model of the algorithm, and a software application developed to test its performance in a real laboratory.

  19. Intelligent Stale-Frame Discards for Real-Time Video Streaming over Wireless Ad Hoc Networks

    Sheu Tsang-Ling

    2009-01-01

    Full Text Available Abstract This paper presents intelligent early packet discards (I-EPD for real-time video streaming over a multihop wireless ad hoc network. In a multihop wireless ad hoc network, the quality of transferring real-time video streams could be seriously degraded, since every intermediate node (IN functionally like relay device does not possess large buffer and sufficient bandwidth. Even worse, a selected relay node could leave or power off unexpectedly, which breaks the route to destination. Thus, a stale video frame is useless even if it can reach destination after network traffic becomes smooth or failed route is reconfigured. In the proposed I-EPD, an IN can intelligently determine whether a buffered video packet should be early discarded. For the purpose of validation, we implement the I-EPD on Linux-based embedded systems. Via the comparisons of performance metrics (packet/frame discards ratios, PSNR, etc., we demonstrate that video quality over a wireless ad hoc network can be substantially improved and unnecessary bandwidth wastage is greatly reduced.

  20. Smart border: ad-hoc wireless sensor networks for border surveillance

    He, Jun; Fallahi, Mahmoud; Norwood, Robert A.; Peyghambarian, Nasser

    2011-06-01

    Wireless sensor networks have been proposed as promising candidates to provide automated monitoring, target tracking, and intrusion detection for border surveillance. In this paper, we demonstrate an ad-hoc wireless sensor network system for border surveillance. The network consists of heterogeneously autonomous sensor nodes that distributively cooperate with each other to enable a smart border in remote areas. This paper also presents energy-aware and sleeping algorithms designed to maximize the operating lifetime of the deployed sensor network. Lessons learned in building the network and important findings from field experiments are shared in the paper.

  1. Protocols for Detection and Removal of Wormholes for Secure Routing and Neighborhood Creation in Wireless Ad Hoc Networks

    Hayajneh, Thaier Saleh

    2009-01-01

    Wireless ad hoc networks are suitable and sometimes the only solution for several applications. Many applications, particularly those in military and critical civilian domains (such as battlefield surveillance and emergency rescue) require that ad hoc networks be secure and stable. In fact, security is one of the main barriers to the extensive use…

  2. Comparison of a Cell-Based Energy Conservation Techniqueand MST Topology Control in Wireless Ad Hoc Networks

    Blough, Douglas; Leoncini, Mauro; Resta, Giovanni; Santi, Paolo

    2003-01-01

    Cooperative strategies and topology control protocols have been recently proposed as effective techniques to reduce energy consumption in wireless ad hoc networks. Although these approaches share the same goal of extending network lifetime, they can be considered as orthogonal approaches.

  3. Dynamic ad hoc networks

    Rashvand, Habib

    2013-01-01

    Motivated by the exciting new application paradigm of using amalgamated technologies of the Internet and wireless, the next generation communication networks (also called 'ubiquitous', 'complex' and 'unstructured' networking) are changing the way we develop and apply our future systems and services at home and on local, national and global scales. Whatever the interconnection - a WiMAX enabled networked mobile vehicle, MEMS or nanotechnology enabled distributed sensor systems, Vehicular Ad hoc Networking (VANET) or Mobile Ad hoc Networking (MANET) - all can be classified under new networking s

  4. A multihop key agreement scheme for wireless ad hoc networks based on channel characteristics.

    Hao, Zhuo; Zhong, Sheng; Yu, Nenghai

    2013-01-01

    A number of key agreement schemes based on wireless channel characteristics have been proposed recently. However, previous key agreement schemes require that two nodes which need to agree on a key are within the communication range of each other. Hence, they are not suitable for multihop wireless networks, in which nodes do not always have direct connections with each other. In this paper, we first propose a basic multihop key agreement scheme for wireless ad hoc networks. The proposed basic scheme is resistant to external eavesdroppers. Nevertheless, this basic scheme is not secure when there exist internal eavesdroppers or Man-in-the-Middle (MITM) adversaries. In order to cope with these adversaries, we propose an improved multihop key agreement scheme. We show that the improved scheme is secure against internal eavesdroppers and MITM adversaries in a single path. Both performance analysis and simulation results demonstrate that the improved scheme is efficient. Consequently, the improved key agreement scheme is suitable for multihop wireless ad hoc networks. PMID:23766725

  5. Constructing Path Efficient and Energy Aware Virtual Multicast Backbones in Static Ad Hoc Wireless Networks

    Tamaghna Acharya

    2010-05-01

    Full Text Available For stationary wireless ad hoc networks, one of the key challenging issues in routing and multicasting isto conserve as much energy as possible without compromising path efficiency measured as end-to-enddelay. In this paper, we address the problem of path efficient and energy aware multicasting in staticwireless ad hoc networks. We propose a novel distributed scalable algorithm for finding a virtualmulticast backbone (VMB. Based on this VMB, we have further developed a multicasting scheme thatjointly improves path efficiency and energy conservation. By exploiting inherent broadcast advantage ofwireless communication and employing a more realistic energy consumption model for wirelesscommunication which not only depends on radio propagation losses but also on energy losses intransceiver circuitry, our simulation results show that the proposed VMB-based multicasting schemeoutperforms existing prominent tree based energy conserving, path efficient multicasting schemes.

  6. Cooperation in Carrier Sense Based Wireless Ad Hoc Networks - Part II: Proactive Schemes

    Munari, Andrea; Zorzi, Michele

    2012-01-01

    This work is the second of a two-part series of papers on the effectiveness of cooperative techniques in non-centralized carrier sense-based ad hoc wireless networks. While Part I extensively discussed reactive cooperation, characterized by relayed transmissions triggered by failure events at the intended receiver, Part II investigates in depth proactive solutions, in which the source of a packet exploits channel state information to preemptively coordinate with relays in order to achieve the optimal overall rate to the destination. In particular, this work shows by means of both analysis and simulation that the performance of reactive cooperation is reduced by the intrinsic nature of the considered medium access policy, which biases the distribution of the available relays, locating them in unfavorable positions for rate optimization. Moreover, the highly dynamic nature of interference that characterizes non-infrastructured ad hoc networks is proved to hamper the efficacy and the reliability of preemptively ...

  7. A Multiobjective Optimization Framework for Routing in Wireless Ad Hoc Networks

    Jaffrès-Runser, Katia; Gorce, Jean-Marie

    2009-01-01

    Wireless ad hoc networks are seldom characterized by one single performance metric, yet the current literature lacks a flexible framework to assist in characterizing the design tradeoffs in such networks. In this work, we address this problem by proposing a new modeling framework for routing in ad hoc networks, which used in conjunction with metaheuristic multiobjective search algorithms, will result in a better understanding of network behavior and performance when multiple criteria are relevant. Our approach is to take a holistic view of network management and control that captures the cross-interactions among interference management techniques implemented at various layers of the protocol stack. We present the Pareto optimal sets for an example sensor network when delay, robustness and energy are considered as performance criteria for the network.

  8. OMNeT++-Based Cross-Layer Simulator for Content Transmission over Wireless Ad Hoc Networks

    Massin R

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available Flexbility and deployment simplicity are among the numerous advantages of wireless links when compared to standard wired communications. However, challenges do remain high for wireless communications, in particular due to the wireless medium inherent unreliability, and to the desired flexibility, which entails complex protocol procedures. In that context simulation is an important tool to understand and design the protocols that manage the wireless networks. This paper introduces a new simulation framework based on the OMNeT++ simulator whose goal is to enable the study of data and multimedia content transmission over hybrid wired/wireless ad hoc networks, as well as the design of innovative radio access schemes. To achieve this goal, the complete protocol stack from the application to the physical layer is simulated, and the real bits and bytes of the messages transferred on the radio channel are exchanged. To ensure that this framework is reusable and extensible in future studies and projects, a modular software and protocol architecture has been defined. Although still in progress, our work has already provided some valuable results concerning cross layer HARQ/MAC protocol performance and video transmission over the wireless channel, as illustrated by results examples.

  9. Optimal Routing and Power Control for a Single Cell, Dense, Ad Hoc Wireless Network

    Ramaiyan, Venkatesh; Altman, Eitan

    2009-01-01

    We consider a dense, ad hoc wireless network, confined to a small region. The wireless network is operated as a single cell, i.e., only one successful transmission is supported at a time. Data packets are sent between sourcedestination pairs by multihop relaying. We assume that nodes self-organise into a multihop network such that all hops are of length d meters, where d is a design parameter. There is a contention based multiaccess scheme, and it is assumed that every node always has data to send, either originated from it or a transit packet (saturation assumption). In this scenario, we seek to maximize a measure of the transport capacity of the network (measured in bit-meters per second) over power controls (in a fading environment) and over the hop distance d, subject to an average power constraint. We first argue that for a dense collection of nodes confined to a small region, single cell operation is efficient for single user decoding transceivers. Then, operating the dense ad hoc wireless network (desc...

  10. A survey of medium access control protocols for wireless ad hoc networks

    Elvio João Leonardo

    2004-01-01

    Full Text Available A number of issues distinguishes Medium Access Control (MAC protocols for wireless networks from those used in wireline systems. In addition, for ad-hoc networks, the characteristics of the radio channel, the diverse physical-layer technologies available and the range of services envisioned make it a difficult task to design an algorithm to discipline the access to the shared medium that results efficient, fair, power consumption sensitive and delay bound. This article presents the current “state-of-art” in this area, including solutions already commercially available as well as those still in study.

  11. Load-balanced broadcast routing in wireless Ad-hoc networks

    2007-01-01

    In wireless Ad-hoc networks, where mobile hosts are powered by batteries, the entire network may be partitioned because of the drainage of a small set of batteries.Therefore, the crucial issue is to improve the energy efficiency, with an objective of balancing energy consumption.A greedy algorithm called weighted minimum spanning tree (WMST) has been proposed, in which time complexity is O(n2).This algorithm takes into account the initial energy of each node and energy consumption of each communication.Simulation has demonstrated that the performance of the proposed algorithm improves the load balance and prolongs the lifetime.

  12. On capacity of wireless ad hoc networks with MIMO MMSE receivers

    Ma, Jing

    2008-01-01

    Widely adopted at home, business places, and hot spots, wireless ad-hoc networks are expected to provide broadband services parallel to their wired counterparts in near future. To address this need, MIMO techniques, which are capable of offering several-fold increase in capacity, hold significant promise. Most previous work on capacity analysis of ad-hoc networks is based on an implicit assumption that each node has only one antenna. Core to the analysis therein is the characterization of a geometric area, referred to as the exclusion region, which quantizes the amount of spatial resource occupied by a link. When multiple antennas are deployed at each node, however, multiple links can transmit in the vicinity of each other simultaneously, as interference can now be suppressed by spatial signal processing. As such, a link no longer exclusively occupies a geometric area, making the concept of "exclusion region" not applicable any more. In this paper, we investigate link-layer throughput capacity of MIMO ad-hoc ...

  13. Bounding Interference in Wireless Ad Hoc Networks with Nodes in Random Position

    Khabbazian, Majid; Haghnegahdar, Alireza

    2011-01-01

    The interference at a wireless node s can be modelled by the number of wireless nodes whose transmission ranges cover s. Given a set of positions for wireless nodes, the interference minimization problem is to assign a transmission radius (equivalently, a power level) to each node such that the resulting communication graph is connected, while minimizing the maximum interference. We consider the model introduced by von Rickenback et al. (2005), in which each transmission range is represented by a ball and edges in the communication graph are symmetric. The problem is NP-complete in two dimensions (Buchin 2008) and no polynomial-time approximation algorithm is known. Furthermore, even in one dimension (the highway model), the problem's complexity is unknown and the maximum interference of a set of n wireless nodes can be as high as Theta(sqrt(n)) (von Rickenback et al. 2005). In this paper we show how to solve the problem efficiently in settings typical for wireless ad hoc networks. In particular, we show that...

  14. HIERARCHICAL DESIGN BASED INTRUSION DETECTION SYSTEM FOR WIRELESS AD HOC SENSOR NETWORK

    Mohammad Saiful Islam Mamun

    2010-07-01

    Full Text Available In recent years, wireless ad hoc sensor network becomes popular both in civil and military jobs.However, security is one of the significant challenges for sensor network because of their deploymentin open and unprotected environment. As cryptographic mechanism is not enough to protect sensornetwork from external attacks, intrusion detection system needs to be introduced. Though intrusionprevention mechanism is one of the major and efficient methods against attacks, but there might besome attacks for which prevention method is not known. Besides preventing the system from someknown attacks, intrusion detection system gather necessary information related to attack technique andhelp in the development of intrusion prevention system. In addition to reviewing the present attacksavailable in wireless sensor network this paper examines the current efforts to intrusion detectionsystem against wireless sensor network. In this paper we propose a hierarchical architectural designbased intrusion detection system that fits the current demands and restrictions of wireless ad hocsensor network. In this proposed intrusion detection system architecture we followed clusteringmechanism to build a four level hierarchical network which enhances network scalability to largegeographical area and use both anomaly and misuse detection techniques for intrusion detection. Weintroduce policy based detection mechanism as well as intrusion response together with GSM cellconcept for intrusion detection architecture.

  15. A Framework for Providing E-Services to the Rural Areas using Wireless Ad Hoc and Sensor Networks

    Pathan, Al-Sakib Khan; Sayeed, Sabit Anjum; Ahmed, Farruk; Hong, Choong Seon

    2007-01-01

    In recent years, the proliferation of mobile computing devices has driven a revolutionary change in the computing world. The nature of ubiquitous devices makes wireless networks the easiest solution for their interconnection. This has led to the rapid growth of several wireless systems like wireless ad hoc networks, wireless sensor networks etc. In this paper we have proposed a framework for rural development by providing various e-services to the rural areas with the help of wireless ad hoc and sensor networks. We have discussed how timely and accurate information could be collected from the rural areas using wireless technologies. In addition to this, we have also mentioned the technical and operational challenges that could hinder the implementation of such a framework in the rural areas in the developing countries.

  16. Improving TCP Performance over Wireless Ad Hoc Networks with Busy Tone Assisted Scheme

    Cai Lin

    2006-01-01

    Full Text Available It is well known that transmission control protocol (TCP performance degrades severely in IEEE 802.11-based wireless ad hoc networks. We first identify two critical issues leading to the TCP performance degradation: (1 unreliable broadcast, since broadcast frames are transmitted without the request-to-send and clear-to-send (RTS/CTS dialog and Data/ACK handshake, so they are vulnerable to the hidden terminal problem; and (2 false link failure which occurs when a node cannot successfully transmit data temporarily due to medium contention. We then propose a scheme to use a narrow-bandwidth, out-of-band busy tone channel to make reservation for broadcast and link error detection frames only. The proposed scheme is simple and power efficient, because only the sender needs to transmit two short messages in the busy tone channel before sending broadcast or link error detection frames in the data channel. Analytical results show that the proposed scheme can dramatically reduce the collision probability of broadcast and link error detection frames. Extensive simulations with different network topologies further demonstrate that the proposed scheme can improve TCP throughput by 23% to 150%, depending on user mobility, and effectively enhance both short-term and long-term fairness among coexisting TCP flows in multihop wireless ad hoc networks.

  17. Detection and Control of Vampire Attacks in Ad-Hoc Wireless Networks

    Anoopa S

    2014-04-01

    Full Text Available Ad-hoc low-power wireless networks are the most promising research direction in sensing and pervasive computing. Prior security work in this area has focused primarily on denial of service at the routing or medium access control levels. Earlier, the resource depletion attacks are considered only as a routing problem, very recently these are classified in to a new group called “vampire attacks”. This thesis work explores the identification of resource depletion attacks at the routing protocol layer and in the application layer, which permanently disable networks by quickly draining nodes’ battery power. These Vampire attacks are not specific to a particular protocol, but rather rely on the properties of many popular classes of routing protocols. It is clear that all examined protocols are susceptible to Vampire attacks, which are devastating, difficult to detect, and are easy to carry out using as few as one malicious insider sending only protocol compliant messages. In the worst case, a single Vampire can increase network-wide energy usage by a factor of O(N, where N in the number of network nodes. In this work a detection and control strategy is proposed for these vampire attacks, along with a secure packet forwarding mechanism, which will save Ad-hoc wireless nodes from power drainage due to vampire packets.

  18. DDoS Attack and Defense Scheme in Wireless Ad hoc Networks

    Arunmozhi, S A; 10.5121/ijnsa.2011.3312

    2011-01-01

    The wireless ad hoc networks are highly vulnerable to distributed denial of service(DDoS) attacks because of its unique characteristics such as open network architecture, shared wireless medium and stringent resource constraints. These attacks throttle the tcp throughput heavily and reduce the quality of service(QoS) to end systems gradually rather than refusing the clients from the services completely. In this paper, we discussed the DDoS attacks and proposed a defense scheme to improve the performance of the ad hoc networks. Our proposed defense mechanism uses the medium access control (MAC) layer information to detect the attackers. The status values from MAC layer that can be used for detection are Frequency of receiving RTS/CTS packets, Frequency of sensing a busy channel and the number of RTS/DATA retransmissions. Once the attackers are identified, all the packets from those nodes will be blocked. The network resources are made available to the legitimate users. We perform the simulation with Network Si...

  19. Cross-Layer QoS Control for Video Communications over Wireless Ad Hoc Networks

    Pei Yong

    2005-01-01

    Full Text Available Assuming a wireless ad hoc network consisting of homogeneous video users with each of them also serving as a possible relay node for other users, we propose a cross-layer rate-control scheme based on an analytical study of how the effective video transmission rate is affected by the prevailing operating parameters, such as the interference environment, the number of transmission hops to a destination, and the packet loss rate. Furthermore, in order to provide error-resilient video delivery over such wireless ad hoc networks, a cross-layer joint source-channel coding (JSCC approach, to be used in conjunction with rate-control, is proposed and investigated. This approach attempts to optimally apply the appropriate channel coding rate given the constraints imposed by the effective transmission rate obtained from the proposed rate-control scheme, the allowable real-time video play-out delay, and the prevailing channel conditions. Simulation results are provided which demonstrate the effectiveness of the proposed cross-layer combined rate-control and JSCC approach.

  20. SVANET: A Smart Vehicular Ad Hoc Network for Efficient Data Transmission with Wireless Sensors

    Sahoo, Prasan Kumar; Chiang, Ming-Jer; Wu, Shih-Lin

    2014-01-01

    Wireless sensors can sense any event, such as accidents, as well as icy roads, and can forward the rescue/warning messages through intermediate vehicles for any necessary help. In this paper, we propose a smart vehicular ad hoc network (SVANET) architecture that uses wireless sensors to detect events and vehicles to transmit the safety and non-safety messages efficiently by using different service channels and one control channel with different priorities. We have developed a data transmission protocol for the vehicles in the highway, in which data can be forwarded with the help of vehicles if they are connected with each other or data can be forwarded with the help of nearby wireless sensors. Our data transmission protocol is designed to increase the driving safety, to prevent accidents and to utilize channels efficiently by adjusting the control and service channel time intervals dynamically. Besides, our protocol can transmit information to vehicles in advance, so that drivers can decide an alternate route in case of traffic congestion. For various data sharing, we design a method that can select a few leader nodes among vehicles running along a highway to broadcast data efficiently. Simulation results show that our protocol can outperform the existing standard in terms of the end to end packet delivery ratio and latency. PMID:25429409

  1. A load-balanced minimum energy routing algorithm for Wireless Ad Hoc Sensor Networks

    2006-01-01

    Wireless Ad Hoc Sensor Networks (WSNs) have received considerable academia research attention at present. The energy-constraint sensor nodes in WSNs operate on limited batteries, so it is a very important issue to use energy efficiently and reduce power consumption. To maximize the network lifetime, it is essential to prolong each individual node's lifetime through minimizing the transmission energy consumption, so that many minimum energy routing schemes for traditional mobile ad hoc network have been developed for this reason. This paper presents a novel minimum energy routing algorithm named Load-Balanced Minimum Energy Routing (LBMER) for WSNs considering both sensor nodes' energy consumption status and the sensor nodes'hierarchical congestion levels, which uses mixture of energy balance and traffic balance to solve the problem of "hot spots" of WSNs and avoid the situation of"hot spots" sensor nodes using their energy at much higher rate and die much faster than the other nodes. The path router established by LBMER will not be very congested and the traffic will be distributed evenly in the WSNs.Simulation results verified that the LBMER performance is better than that of Min-Hop routing and the existing minimum energy routing scheme MTPR (Total Transmission Power Routing).

  2. Effective Beam Width of Directional Antennas in Wireless Ad Hoc Networks

    Zhang, Jialiang

    2007-01-01

    It is known at a qualitative level that directional antennas can be used to boost the capacity of wireless ad hoc networks. Lacking is a measure to quantify this advantage and to compare directional antennas of different footprint patterns. This paper introduces the concept of the effective beam width (and the effective null width as its dual counterpart) as a measure which quantitatively captures the capacity-boosting capability of directional antennas. Beam width is commonly defined to be the directional angle spread within which the main-lobe beam power is above a certain threshold. In contrast, our effective beam width definition lumps the effects of the (i) antenna pattern, (ii) active-node distribution, and (iii) channel characteristics, on network capacity into a single quantitative measure. We investigate the mathematical properties of the effective beam width and show how the convenience afforded by these properties can be used to analyze the effectiveness of complex directional antenna patterns in b...

  3. Transmission Capacity of Wireless Ad Hoc Networks with Energy Harvesting Nodes

    Vaze, Rahul

    2012-01-01

    Transmission capacity of an ad hoc wireless network is analyzed when each node of the network harvests energy from nature, e.g. solar, wind, vibration etc. Transmission capacity is the maximum allowable density of nodes, satisfying a per transmitter-receiver rate, and an outage probability constraint. Energy arrivals at each node are assumed to follow a Bernoulli distribution, and each node stores energy using an energy buffer/battery. For ALOHA medium access protocol (MAP), optimal transmission probability that maximizes the transmission capacity is derived as a function of the energy arrival distribution. Game theoretic analysis is also presented for ALOHA MAP, where each transmitter tries to maximize its own throughput, and symmetric Nash equilibrium is derived. For CSMA MAP, back-off probability and outage probability are derived in terms of input energy distribution, thereby characterizing the transmission capacity.

  4. Real-Time Video Streaming in Multi-hop Wireless Static Ad Hoc Networks

    Even, Guy; Medina, Moti; Shimon,; Shahar,; Zadorojniy, Alexander

    2011-01-01

    We deal with the problem of streaming multiple video streams between pairs of nodes in a multi-hop wireless ad hoc network. The nodes are positioned on a plane, know their locations, and are synchronized (via GPS). We consider a 802.11g WiFi network in which NICs can hop between non-overlapping frequency channels in a synchronous fashion. We design a centralized algorithm that computes a frequency assignment and a schedule whose goal is to maximize the minimum throughput over all the video streams. In addition, we developed a localized flow-control mechanism to stabilize the queue lengths. We simulated traffic scheduled by the algorithm using OMNET++/MixiM (i.e., physical SINR interference model with 802.11g) to test whether the computed throughput is achieved.

  5. On the Optimal Transmission Range in Multi-hop Wireless Ad Hoc Networks

    Malik, Salman; Adjih, Cedric

    2012-01-01

    In wireless ad hoc networks with randomly distributed nodes, we measure the normalized optimum transmission range and the network throughput, which is inversely proportional to the minimized number of transmissions required to reach the destination over multi-hop path, of various medium access schemes. Our objective is to determine the optimum transmission range that achieves the most optimal tradeoff between the progress of packets in desired directions towards their respective destinations and the number of transmissions required to deliver the packets. We analyze the optimum average transmission range with ALOHA based scheme where simultaneous transmitters are dispatched according to a uniform Poisson distribution and compare it with the maximum transmission range with various grid pattern based schemes where simultaneous transmitters are positioned in specific regular grid patterns. It is shown that at typical values of signal-to-interference ratio threshold and attenuation coefficient, the most optimal t...

  6. Power-Controlled Data Transmission in Wireless Ad-Hoc Networks: Challenges and Solutions

    Bilgehan Berberoglu

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Energy scarcity and interference are two important factors determining the performance of wireless ad-hoc networks that should be considered in depth. A promising method of achieving energy conservation is the transmission power control. Transmission power control also contributes to the mitigation of interference thereby promotes throughput by means of rendering multiple hosts to communicate in the same neighborhood simultaneously without impairing each other’s transmissions. However, as identified previously in the literature, traditional hidden terminal problem gets deteriorated when transmission power control mechanism is intended to be applied. In this article, we discuss the primary details about the power usage and throughput deficiency of the traditional 802.11 RTS/CTS mechanism. Improvements by means of power control are introduced as well as the solutions to the challenges likely to emerge because of the usage of diverse power levels throughout the network.

  7. A User Authentication Scheme Based on Elliptic Curves Cryptography for Wireless Ad Hoc Networks.

    Chen, Huifang; Ge, Linlin; Xie, Lei

    2015-01-01

    The feature of non-infrastructure support in a wireless ad hoc network (WANET) makes it suffer from various attacks. Moreover, user authentication is the first safety barrier in a network. A mutual trust is achieved by a protocol which enables communicating parties to authenticate each other at the same time and to exchange session keys. For the resource-constrained WANET, an efficient and lightweight user authentication scheme is necessary. In this paper, we propose a user authentication scheme based on the self-certified public key system and elliptic curves cryptography for a WANET. Using the proposed scheme, an efficient two-way user authentication and secure session key agreement can be achieved. Security analysis shows that our proposed scheme is resilient to common known attacks. In addition, the performance analysis shows that our proposed scheme performs similar or better compared with some existing user authentication schemes. PMID:26184224

  8. An Investigation about Performance Comparison of Multi-Hop Wireless Ad-Hoc Network Routing Protocols in MANET

    S. Karthik

    2010-05-01

    Full Text Available Mobile Ad-Hoc Network (MANET is a collection of wireless mobile hosts forming a temporary network without the aid of any stand-alone infrastructure or centralized administration. Mobile Ad-hoc networks are self-organizing and self-configuring multihop wireless networks where, the structure of the network changes dynamically. This is mainly due to the mobility of nodes. The Nodes in the network not only acts as hosts but also as routers that route data to or from other nodes in network. In mobile ad-hoc networks a routing procedure is always needed to find a path so as to forward the packets appropriately between the source and the destination. The main aim of any ad-hoc network routing protocol is to meet the challenges of the dynamically changing topology and establish a correct and an efficient communication path between any two nodes with minimum routing overhead and bandwidth consumption. The design problem of such a routing protocol is not simple since an ad hoc environment introduces new challenges that are not present in fixed networks. A number of routing protocols have been proposed for this purpose like Ad Hoc On Demand Distance Vector (AODV, Dynamic Source Routing (DSR, Destination- Sequenced Distance Vector (DSDV. In this paper, we study and compare the performance of the following three routing protocols AODV, DSR and DSDV.

  9. A novel unbalanced multiple description coder for robust video transmission over ad hoc wireless networks

    Huang, Feng; Sun, Lifeng; Zhong, Yuzhuo

    2006-01-01

    Robust transmission of live video over ad hoc wireless networks presents new challenges: high bandwidth requirements are coupled with delay constraints; even a single packet loss causes error propagation until a complete video frame is coded in the intra-mode; ad hoc wireless networks suffer from bursty packet losses that drastically degrade the viewing experience. Accordingly, we propose a novel UMD coder capable of quickly recovering from losses and ensuring continuous playout. It uses 'peg' frames to prevent error propagation in the High-Resolution (HR) description and improve the robustness of key frames. The Low-Resolution (LR) coder works independent of the HR one, but they can also help each other recover from losses. Like many UMD coders, our UMD coder is drift-free, disruption-tolerant and able to make good use of the asymmetric available bandwidths of multiple paths. The simulation results under different conditions show that the proposed UMD coder has the highest decoded quality and lowest probability of pause when compared with concurrent UMDC techniques. The coder also has a comparable decoded quality, lower startup delay and lower probability of pause than a state-of-the-art FEC-based scheme. To provide robustness for video multicast applications, we propose non-end-to-end UMDC-based video distribution over a multi-tree multicast network. The multiplicity of parents decorrelates losses and the non-end-to-end feature increases the throughput of UMDC video data. We deploy an application-level service of LR description reconstruction in some intermediate nodes of the LR multicast tree. The principle behind this is to reconstruct the disrupted LR frames by the correctly received HR frames. As a result, the viewing experience at the downstream nodes benefits from the protection reconstruction at the upstream nodes.

  10. Intelligent self-organization methods for wireless ad hoc sensor networks based on limited resources

    Hortos, William S.

    2006-05-01

    A wireless ad hoc sensor network (WSN) is a configuration for area surveillance that affords rapid, flexible deployment in arbitrary threat environments. There is no infrastructure support and sensor nodes communicate with each other only when they are in transmission range. To a greater degree than the terminals found in mobile ad hoc networks (MANETs) for communications, sensor nodes are resource-constrained, with limited computational processing, bandwidth, memory, and power, and are typically unattended once in operation. Consequently, the level of information exchange among nodes, to support any complex adaptive algorithms to establish network connectivity and optimize throughput, not only deplete those limited resources and creates high overhead in narrowband communications, but also increase network vulnerability to eavesdropping by malicious nodes. Cooperation among nodes, critical to the mission of sensor networks, can thus be disrupted by the inappropriate choice of the method for self-organization. Recent published contributions to the self-configuration of ad hoc sensor networks, e.g., self-organizing mapping and swarm intelligence techniques, have been based on the adaptive control of the cross-layer interactions found in MANET protocols to achieve one or more performance objectives: connectivity, intrusion resistance, power control, throughput, and delay. However, few studies have examined the performance of these algorithms when implemented with the limited resources of WSNs. In this paper, self-organization algorithms for the initiation, operation and maintenance of a network topology from a collection of wireless sensor nodes are proposed that improve the performance metrics significant to WSNs. The intelligent algorithm approach emphasizes low computational complexity, energy efficiency and robust adaptation to change, allowing distributed implementation with the actual limited resources of the cooperative nodes of the network. Extensions of the

  11. A Robust Routing Strategy for Density Spanner based Wireless Ad Hoc Networks

    Divi Mydhili1

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available An important problem for wireless ad hoc networks has been to design overlay networks that allow time- and energy-efficient routing. Many local-control strategies for maintaining such overlay networks have already been suggested, but most of them are based on an oversimplified wireless communication model. We address cooperative caching in wireless networks, where the nodes may be mobile and exchange information in a peer-to-peer fashion. We consider both cases of nodes with large and small-sized caches. For large-sized caches, we devise a strategy where nodes, independent of each other, decide whether to cache some content and for how long. In the case of small-sized caches, we aim to design a content replacement strategy that allows nodes to successfully store newly received information while maintaining the good performance of the content distribution system. Under both conditions, each node takes decisions according to its perception of what nearby users may store in their caches and with the aim of differentiating its own cache content from the other nodes’. In this paper, we suggest a model that is much more general than previous models. It allows the path loss of transmissions to significantly deviate from the idealistic unit disk model and does not even require the path loss to form a metric. Also, our model is apparently the first proposed for algorithm designs that does not only model transmission and interference issues but also aims at providing a realistic model for physical carrier sensing. Physical carrier sensing is needed so that our protocols do not require any prior information (not even an estimate on the number of nodes about the wireless network to run efficiently.

  12. A Routing Strategy for Non-Cooperation Wireless Multi-Hop Ad Hoc Networks

    Dung T. Tran

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available Choosing routes such that the network lifetime is maximized in a wireless network with limited energy resources is a major routing problem in wireless multi-hop ad hoc networks. In this paper, we study the problem where participants are rationally selfish and non-cooperative. By selfish we designate the users who are ready to tamper with their source-routing (senders could choose intermediate nodes in the routing paths or next hop selection strategies in order to increase the total number of packets transmitted, but do not try to harm or drop packets of the other nodes. The problem therefore amounts to a non-cooperative game. In the works [2,6,19,23], the authors show that the game admits Nash equilibria [1]. Along this line, we first show that if the cost function is linear, this game has pure-strategy equilibrium flow even though participants have different demands. However, finding a Nash equilibrium for a normal game is computationally hard [9]. In this work, inspired by mixed-strategy equilibrium, we propose a simple local routing algorithm called MIxed Path Routing protocol (MiPR. Using analysis and simulations, we show that MiPR drives the system to an equilibrium state where selfish participants do not have incentive to deviate. Moreover, MiPR significantly improves the network lifetime as compared to original routing protocols.

  13. A System of Umpires for Security of Wireless Mobile Ad Hoc Network

    Ayyaswamy Kathirvel

    2010-06-01

    Full Text Available A mobile ad hoc network (MANET is a self-created self-organized and self-administering set of nodes connectedvia wireless links without the aid of any fixed infrastructure or centralized administrator. Protecting the network layer frommalicious attacks is an important and challenging issue in both wired and wireless networks and the issue becomes even morechallenging in the case of MANET. In this paper we propose a solution of umpiring system (US that provides security forrouting and data forwarding operations. Umpiring system consist of three models, are single umpiring system (SUS, doubleumpiring system (DUS, and triple umpiring system (TUS. In our system each node in the path from source to destination hasdual roles to perform: packet forwarding and umpiring.US does not apply any cryptographic techniques on the routing andpacket forwarding message. In the umpiring role, each node in the path closely monitors the behavior of its succeeding nodeand if any misbehavior is noticed immediately flags off the guilty node. For demonstration, we have implemented the umpiringsystem by modifying the popular AODV protocol.

  14. A Near-Optimal Optimization Algorithm for Link Assignment in Wireless Ad-Hoc Networks

    Heng-Chang Liu; Bao-Hua Zhao

    2006-01-01

    Over the past few years, wireless networking technologies have made vast forays in our daily lives. In wireless ad-hoc networks, links are set up by a number of units without any permanent infrastructures. In this paper, the resource optimization is considered to maximize the network throughput by efficiently using the network capacity, where multi-hop functionality and spatial TDMA (STDMA) access scheme are used. The objective is to find the minimum frame length with given traffic distributions and corresponding routing information. Because of the complex structure of the underlying mathematical problem, previous work and analysis become intractable for networks of realistic sizes. The problem is addressed through mathematical programming approach, the linear integer formulation is developed for optimizing the network throughput, and then the similarity between the original problem and the graph edge coloring problem is shown through the conflict graph concept. A column generation solution is proposed and several enhancements are made in order to fasten its convergence. Numerical results demonstrate that the theoretical limit of the throughput can be efficiently computed for networks of realistic sizes.

  15. A Review and Comparison of Quality of Service Routing in Wireless Ad Hoc Networks

    Sunita Prasad

    2011-02-01

    Full Text Available Quality of Service (QoS guarantees must be supported in a network that intends to carry real time andmultimedia traffic. IETF RFC 2386 defines QoS as a set of service requirements to be met by the networkwhile transporting a packet stream from source to the destination. The dynamic network topology andwireless bandwidth sharing makes QoS provisioning far more challenging in wireless networks ascompared to the wired counterparts. The support for the QoS services is underpinned by QoS routing. AQoS routing protocol selects network routes with sufficient resources for the satisfaction of the requestedQoS parameters. The goal of QoS routing is to satisfy the QoS requirements for each admittedconnection, while achieving global efficiency in resource utilization. The problem of QoS routing withmultiple additive constraints is known to be NP-hard. This requires the QoS dynamics to be fullyunderstood before it can be implemented in wireless ad hoc networks. The paper discusses the issuesinvolved in QoS routing and presents an overview and comparison of some existing QoS routingprotocols. The article concludes with some open issues for further investigation.

  16. The Evolution of IDS Solutions in Wireless Ad-Hoc Networks To Wireless Mesh Networks

    Novarun Deb; Manali Chakraborty; Nabendu Chaki

    2011-01-01

    The domain of wireless networks is inherently vulnerable to attacks due to the unreliable wireless medium. Such networks can be secured from intrusions using either prevention or detection schemes. This paper focuses its study on intrusion detection rather than prevention of attacks. As attackers keep onimprovising too, an active prevention method alone cannot provide total security to the system. Here in lies the importance of intrusion detection systems (IDS) that are solely designed to de...

  17. Distributive routing and congestion control in wireless multihop ad hoc communication networks

    Glauche, Ingmar; Krause, Wolfram; Sollacher, Rudolf; Greiner, Martin

    2004-10-01

    Due to their inherent complexity, engineered wireless multihop ad hoc communication networks represent a technological challenge. Having no mastering infrastructure the nodes have to selforganize themselves in such a way that for example network connectivity, good data traffic performance and robustness are guaranteed. In this contribution the focus is on routing and congestion control. First, random data traffic along shortest path routes is studied by simulations as well as theoretical modeling. Measures of congestion like end-to-end time delay and relaxation times are given. A scaling law of the average time delay with respect to network size is revealed and found to depend on the underlying network topology. In the second step, a distributive routing and congestion control is proposed. Each node locally propagates its routing cost estimates and information about its congestion state to its neighbors, which then update their respective cost estimates. This allows for a flexible adaptation of end-to-end routes to the overall congestion state of the network. Compared to shortest-path routing, the critical network load is significantly increased.

  18. Further Development of Synchronous Array Method for Ad Hoc Wireless Networks

    Yingbo Hua

    2008-09-01

    Full Text Available A further development of the synchronous array method (SAM as a medium access control scheme for large-scale ad hoc wireless networks is presented. Under SAM, all transmissions of data packets between adjacent nodes are synchronized on a frame-by-frame basis, and the spacing between concurrent cochannel transmissions of data packets is properly controlled. An opportunistic SAM (O-SAM is presented which allows concurrent cochannel transmissions to be locally adaptive to channel gain variations. A distributed SAM (D-SAM is discussed that schedules all concurrent cochannel transmissions in a distributed fashion. For networks of low mobility, the control overhead required by SAM can be made much smaller than the payload. By analysis and simulation, the intranetwork throughput of O-SAM and D-SAM is evaluated. The effects of traffic load and multiple antennas on the intranetwork throughput are studied. The throughput of ALOHA is also analyzed and compared with that of O-SAM and D-SAM. By a distance-weighted throughput, a comparison of long distance transmission versus short distance transmission is also presented. The study of D-SAM reveals an important insight into the MSH-DSCH protocol adopted in IEEE 802.16 standards.

  19. Directional Medium Access Control (MAC Protocols in Wireless Ad Hoc and Sensor Networks: A Survey

    David Tung Chong Wong

    2015-06-01

    Full Text Available This survey paper presents the state-of-the-art directional medium access control (MAC protocols in wireless ad hoc and sensor networks (WAHSNs. The key benefits of directional antennas over omni-directional antennas are longer communication range, less multipath interference, more spatial reuse, more secure communications, higher throughput and reduced latency. However, directional antennas lead to single-/multi-channel directional hidden/exposed terminals, deafness and neighborhood, head-of-line blocking, and MAC-layer capture which need to be overcome. Addressing these problems and benefits for directional antennas to MAC protocols leads to many classes of directional MAC protocols in WAHSNs. These classes of directional MAC protocols presented in this survey paper include single-channel, multi-channel, cooperative and cognitive directional MACs. Single-channel directional MAC protocols can be classified as contention-based or non-contention-based or hybrid-based, while multi-channel directional MAC protocols commonly use a common control channel for control packets/tones and one or more data channels for directional data transmissions. Cooperative directional MAC protocols improve throughput in WAHSNs via directional multi-rate/single-relay/multiple-relay/two frequency channels/polarization, while cognitive directional MAC protocols leverage on conventional directional MAC protocols with new twists to address dynamic spectrum access. All of these directional MAC protocols are the pillars for the design of future directional MAC protocols in WAHSNs.

  20. A DRIVEN BACKUP ROUTING TABLE TO FIND ALTERNATIVE DISJOINT PATH IN AD HOC WIRELESS

    Radwan S. Abujassar

    2011-08-01

    Full Text Available The performances of the routing protocols are important since they compute the primary path betweensource and destination. In addition, routing protocols need to detect failure within a short period oftime when nodes move to start updating the routing table in order to find a new primary path tothe destination. Meantime, loss of packets and end-to- end delays will increase thereby reducingthroughput and degrading the performance of the network. This paper proposes a new algorithm,DBRT (Driven Backup Routing Table, to improve the existing proactive protocols such as DSDV(Destination Sequenced Distance Vector protocol by creating a backup routing table to providemultiple alternative routes. The DBRT algorithm identifies adjacent nodes for each node in the samerange and then selects one of these as a backup next hop according to the available path to thedestination. The results show that loss of data packets, throughput and end-to-end delay times betweensource and destination are improved. The results show that the new protocol does not degrade thenetwork’s performance despite sending extra messages to construct and update the new backuprouting table. Simulations (using an NS2 simulator are undertaken to demonstrate the differencebetween using a DSDV protocol with or without the proposed schema.Index Terms; Network Protocols ;( DSDV Destination Sequenced Distance Vector ; DBRT (Driven BackupRouting Table;Wireless Network; Mobile Ad Hoc Network

  1. Analysis of DDoS Attack Effect and Protection Scheme in Wireless Mobile Ad-hoc Network

    Ramratan Ahirwal

    2012-06-01

    Full Text Available In Wireless mobile Ad Hoc Networks (MANET every node functions as transmitter, router and data sink is network without infrastructure. Detecting malicious nodes in an open ad-hoc network in whichparticipating nodes have no previous security associations presents a number of challenges not faced by traditional wired networks. Traffic monitoring in wired networks is usually performed at switches,routers and gateways, but an ad-hoc network does not have these types of network elements where the Intrusion Detection System (IDS can collect and analyse audit data for the entire network. A number ofneighbour-monitoring, trust-building, and cluster-based voting schemes have been proposed in the research to enable the detection and reporting of malicious activity in ad-hoc networks. The resourcesconsumed by ad-hoc network member nodes to monitor, detect, report, and diagnose malicious activity, however, may be greater than simply rerouting packets through a different available path. In this paperwe are trying to protect our network from distributed denial of service attack (DDOS, In this paper we present method for determining intrusion or misbehave in MANET using intrusion detection system and protect the network from distributed denial of service (DDOS and analysis the result on the bases of actual TCP flow monitoring, routing load ,packet delivery ratio and average end-to-end delay in normal , DDOS attack and IDS time .

  2. Two-Way Transmission Capacity of Wireless Ad-hoc Networks

    Vaze, Rahul; Kien T. Truong; Weber, Steven; Heath Jr, Robert W.

    2010-01-01

    The transmission capacity of an ad-hoc network is the maximum density of active transmitters per unit area, given an outage constraint at each receiver for a fixed rate of transmission. Most prior work on finding the transmission capacity of ad-hoc networks has focused only on one-way communication where a source communicates with a destination and no data is sent from the destination to the source. In practice, however, two-way or bidirectional data transmission is required to support contro...

  3. Cross-layer design for intrusion detection and data security in wireless ad hoc sensor networks

    Hortos, William S.

    2007-09-01

    A wireless ad hoc sensor network is a configuration for area surveillance that affords rapid, flexible deployment in arbitrary threat environments. There is no infrastructure support and sensor nodes communicate with each other only when they are in transmission range. The nodes are severely resource-constrained, with limited processing, memory and power capacities and must operate cooperatively to fulfill a common mission in typically unattended modes. In a wireless sensor network (WSN), each sensor at a node can observe locally some underlying physical phenomenon and sends a quantized version of the observation to sink (destination) nodes via wireless links. Since the wireless medium can be easily eavesdropped, links can be compromised by intrusion attacks from nodes that may mount denial-of-service attacks or insert spurious information into routing packets, leading to routing loops, long timeouts, impersonation, and node exhaustion. A cross-layer design based on protocol-layer interactions is proposed for detection and identification of various intrusion attacks on WSN operation. A feature set is formed from selected cross-layer parameters of the WSN protocol to detect and identify security threats due to intrusion attacks. A separate protocol is not constructed from the cross-layer design; instead, security attributes and quantified trust levels at and among nodes established during data exchanges complement customary WSN metrics of energy usage, reliability, route availability, and end-to-end quality-of-service (QoS) provisioning. Statistical pattern recognition algorithms are applied that use observed feature-set patterns observed during network operations, viewed as security audit logs. These algorithms provide the "best" network global performance in the presence of various intrusion attacks. A set of mobile (software) agents distributed at the nodes implement the algorithms, by moving among the layers involved in the network response at each active node

  4. A New Energy Efficient Routing Algorithm Based on a New Cost Function in Wireless Ad hoc Networks

    Lotfi, Mehdi; Shahmirzadi, Majid Asadi

    2010-01-01

    Wireless ad hoc networks are power constrained since nodes operate with limited battery energy. Thus, energy consumption is crucial in the design of new ad hoc routing protocols. In order to maximize the lifetime of ad hoc networks, traffic should be sent via a route that can be avoid nodes with low energy. In addition, considering that the nodes of ad hoc networks are mobile, it is possible that a created path is broken because of nodes mobility and establishment of a new path would be done again. This is because of sending additional control packets, accordingly, energy consumption increases. Also, it should avoid nodes which have more buffered packets. Maybe, because of long queue, some of these packets are dropped and transmitted again. This is the reason for wasting of energy. In this paper we propose a new energy efficient algorithm, that uses a new cost function and avoid nodes with characteristics which mentioned above. We show that this algorithm improves the network energy consumption by using this ...

  5. FRCA: A Fuzzy Relevance-Based Cluster Head Selection Algorithm for Wireless Mobile Ad-Hoc Sensor Networks

    Taegwon Jeong

    2011-05-01

    Full Text Available Clustering is an important mechanism that efficiently provides information for mobile nodes and improves the processing capacity of routing, bandwidth allocation, and resource management and sharing. Clustering algorithms can be based on such criteria as the battery power of nodes, mobility, network size, distance, speed and direction. Above all, in order to achieve good clustering performance, overhead should be minimized, allowing mobile nodes to join and leave without perturbing the membership of the cluster while preserving current cluster structure as much as possible. This paper proposes a Fuzzy Relevance-based Cluster head selection Algorithm (FRCA to solve problems found in existing wireless mobile ad hoc sensor networks, such as the node distribution found in dynamic properties due to mobility and flat structures and disturbance of the cluster formation. The proposed mechanism uses fuzzy relevance to select the cluster head for clustering in wireless mobile ad hoc sensor networks. In the simulation implemented on the NS-2 simulator, the proposed FRCA is compared with algorithms such as the Cluster-based Routing Protocol (CBRP, the Weighted-based Adaptive Clustering Algorithm (WACA, and the Scenario-based Clustering Algorithm for Mobile ad hoc networks (SCAM. The simulation results showed that the proposed FRCA achieves better performance than that of the other existing mechanisms.

  6. FRCA: a fuzzy relevance-based cluster head selection algorithm for wireless mobile ad-hoc sensor networks.

    Lee, Chongdeuk; Jeong, Taegwon

    2011-01-01

    Clustering is an important mechanism that efficiently provides information for mobile nodes and improves the processing capacity of routing, bandwidth allocation, and resource management and sharing. Clustering algorithms can be based on such criteria as the battery power of nodes, mobility, network size, distance, speed and direction. Above all, in order to achieve good clustering performance, overhead should be minimized, allowing mobile nodes to join and leave without perturbing the membership of the cluster while preserving current cluster structure as much as possible. This paper proposes a Fuzzy Relevance-based Cluster head selection Algorithm (FRCA) to solve problems found in existing wireless mobile ad hoc sensor networks, such as the node distribution found in dynamic properties due to mobility and flat structures and disturbance of the cluster formation. The proposed mechanism uses fuzzy relevance to select the cluster head for clustering in wireless mobile ad hoc sensor networks. In the simulation implemented on the NS-2 simulator, the proposed FRCA is compared with algorithms such as the Cluster-based Routing Protocol (CBRP), the Weighted-based Adaptive Clustering Algorithm (WACA), and the Scenario-based Clustering Algorithm for Mobile ad hoc networks (SCAM). The simulation results showed that the proposed FRCA achieves better performance than that of the other existing mechanisms. PMID:22163905

  7. Unsupervised algorithms for intrusion detection and identification in wireless ad hoc sensor networks

    Hortos, William S.

    2009-05-01

    In previous work by the author, parameters across network protocol layers were selected as features in supervised algorithms that detect and identify certain intrusion attacks on wireless ad hoc sensor networks (WSNs) carrying multisensor data. The algorithms improved the residual performance of the intrusion prevention measures provided by any dynamic key-management schemes and trust models implemented among network nodes. The approach of this paper does not train algorithms on the signature of known attack traffic, but, instead, the approach is based on unsupervised anomaly detection techniques that learn the signature of normal network traffic. Unsupervised learning does not require the data to be labeled or to be purely of one type, i.e., normal or attack traffic. The approach can be augmented to add any security attributes and quantified trust levels, established during data exchanges among nodes, to the set of cross-layer features from the WSN protocols. A two-stage framework is introduced for the security algorithms to overcome the problems of input size and resource constraints. The first stage is an unsupervised clustering algorithm which reduces the payload of network data packets to a tractable size. The second stage is a traditional anomaly detection algorithm based on a variation of support vector machines (SVMs), whose efficiency is improved by the availability of data in the packet payload. In the first stage, selected algorithms are adapted to WSN platforms to meet system requirements for simple parallel distributed computation, distributed storage and data robustness. A set of mobile software agents, acting like an ant colony in securing the WSN, are distributed at the nodes to implement the algorithms. The agents move among the layers involved in the network response to the intrusions at each active node and trustworthy neighborhood, collecting parametric values and executing assigned decision tasks. This minimizes the need to move large amounts

  8. Policy-Based Quality of Service Management in Wireless Ad Hoc Networks

    Phanse, Kaustubh Suhas

    2003-01-01

    Managing mobile ad hoc networks (MANETs) presents new challenges due to the need for a distributed management mechanism that can efficiently adapt to the dynamic nature of these networks. In particular, provisioning and management of Quality of Service (QoS) in such networks remains a challenging task. Previous works in this field have focused largely on the monitoring and data collection aspects of network management; literature on the provisioning of devices and protocol support for MANET c...

  9. A Location Service Mechanism for Position-Based Multicasting in Wireless Mobile Ad hoc Networks

    Sasson, Yoav; Cavin, David; Schiper, André

    2005-01-01

    In this paper we propose a novel location management scheme tailored for multicasting in Mobile Ad-hoc Networks (MANETs). We furthermore propose AMDLM, a location-based multicast algorithm relying on the location management service. Such an approach avoids fragile data structures such as trees or DAGs to manage multicast groups, without reverting to more reliable, yet overhead-prone mesh-based algorithms. AMDLM additionally enables us to derive analytical bounds due to its location-base...

  10. A State-of-the-art Survey on IDS for Mobile Ad-Hoc Networks and Wireless Mesh Networks

    Deb, Novarun; Chaki, Nabendu

    2011-01-01

    An Intrusion Detection System (IDS) detects malicious and selfish nodes in a network. Ad hoc networks are often secured by using either intrusion detection or by secure routing. Designing efficient IDS for wireless ad-hoc networks that would not affect the performance of the network significantly is indeed a challenging task. Arguably, the most common thing in a review paper in the domain of wireless networks is to compare the performances of different solutions using simulation results. However, variance in multiple configuration aspects including that due to different underlying routing protocols, makes the task of simulation based comparative evaluation of IDS solutions somewhat unrealistic. In stead, the authors have followed an analytic approach to identify the gaps in the existing IDS solutions for MANETs and wireless mesh networks. The paper aims to ease the job of a new researcher by exposing him to the state of the art research issues on IDS. Nearly 80% of the works cited in this paper are published ...

  11. Design and analysis of medium access control protocols for ad hoc and cooperative wireless networks

    Alonso Zárate, Jesús

    2009-01-01

    La presente tesis doctoral contribuye a la incesante evolución de las comunicaciones inalámbricas. Se centra en el diseño de protocolos de acceso al medio (MAC) para redes ad hoc y redes inalámbricas cooperativas. En una primera parte introductoria se presenta un minucioso estado del arte y se establecen las bases teóricas de las contribuciones presentadas en la tesis. En esta primera parte introductoria se definen las principales motivaciones de la tesis y se plantean los objetivos. Despu...

  12. Optimalization of Beacon Selection for Localization in Wireless AD-HOC Networks

    Martin Matula

    2008-01-01

    Full Text Available In this paper we engage in optimalization of convenient beacons for localization position of a node in the ad-hoc network. An algorithm designed by us localizes position of moving or static node by RSS (Received Signal Strength method and trilateration. At first, localization of unknown node runs by combination of all beacons. Than optimalizating algorithmreduces the number of beacons (and repeats localization, while only three left. Its reduction is based on highest levels of received signal strength. It is only when signals are from the nearest beacons. Position localizating exactness is statistically interpreted from all localization by beacons combination and its repeating.

  13. Adaptive and Fuzzy Approaches for Nodes Affinity Management in Wireless Ad-Hoc Networks

    Essam Natsheh

    2008-01-01

    Full Text Available In most of the ad-hoc routing protocols, a static link lifetime (LL is used for a newly discovered neighbors. Though this works well for networks with fixed infrastructures, it is inadequate for ad-hoc networks due to nodes mobility and frequent breaks of links. To overcome this problem, routing protocols with estimated LL using nodes affinity were introduced. However, these protocols also used the static estimated LL during the connection time. In contrast to that, in this paper two methods are presented to estimate LL based on nodes affinity and then continually update those values depending on changes of the affinity. In the first method, linear function is used to map the relationship between the signal strength fluctuation and LL. In the second method, fuzzy logic system is used to map this relationship in a nonlinear fashion. Significance of the proposed methods is validated using simulation. Results indicate that fuzzy method provides the most efficient and robust LL values for routing protocols.

  14. Greedy data transportation scheme with hard packet deadlines for wireless ad hoc networks.

    Lee, HyungJune

    2014-01-01

    We present a greedy data transportation scheme with hard packet deadlines in ad hoc sensor networks of stationary nodes and multiple mobile nodes with scheduled trajectory path and arrival time. In the proposed routing strategy, each stationary ad hoc node en route decides whether to relay a shortest-path stationary node toward destination or a passing-by mobile node that will carry closer to destination. We aim to utilize mobile nodes to minimize the total routing cost as far as the selected route can satisfy the end-to-end packet deadline. We evaluate our proposed routing algorithm in terms of routing cost, packet delivery ratio, packet delivery time, and usability of mobile nodes based on network level simulations. Simulation results show that our proposed algorithm fully exploits the remaining time till packet deadline to turn into networking benefits of reducing the overall routing cost and improving packet delivery performance. Also, we demonstrate that the routing scheme guarantees packet delivery with hard deadlines, contributing to QoS improvement in various network services. PMID:25258736

  15. Performance Analysis of a Cluster-Based MAC Protocol for Wireless Ad Hoc Networks

    Kartsakli Elli

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available An analytical model to evaluate the non-saturated performance of the Distributed Queuing Medium Access Control Protocol for Ad Hoc Networks (DQMANs in single-hop networks is presented in this paper. DQMAN is comprised of a spontaneous, temporary, and dynamic clustering mechanism integrated with a near-optimum distributed queuing Medium Access Control (MAC protocol. Clustering is executed in a distributed manner using a mechanism inspired by the Distributed Coordination Function (DCF of the IEEE 802.11. Once a station seizes the channel, it becomes the temporary clusterhead of a spontaneous cluster and it coordinates the peer-to-peer communications between the clustermembers. Within each cluster, a near-optimum distributed queuing MAC protocol is executed. The theoretical performance analysis of DQMAN in single-hop networks under non-saturation conditions is presented in this paper. The approach integrates the analysis of the clustering mechanism into the MAC layer model. Up to the knowledge of the authors, this approach is novel in the literature. In addition, the performance of an ad hoc network using DQMAN is compared to that obtained when using the DCF of the IEEE 802.11, as a benchmark reference.

  16. Rate-aware optimal transmission power analysis in wireless ad hoc networks

    Chen Lin; Li Minglu; Yu Jiadi

    2008-01-01

    The problem of transmission power control in a rate-aware way is investigated to improve the through put of wireless ad hoe network.The behavior of basic IEEE 802.11 DCF is approximated by the p-persistent CSMA through a Markov chain model.The throughput model takes hidden terminals, multi-hop flow and concurrent interference into account.Numerical results show that the optimal transmission power derived from this model could balance the tradeoff between spatial reuse and data rate and hence yield maximum throughput.

  17. Statistical-Based Joint Power Control for Wireless Ad Hoc CDMA Networks

    ZHANGShu; RONGMongtian; CHENBo

    2005-01-01

    Current power control algorithm for CDMA-based ad hoc networks contains SIR and interference measurement, which is based on history information. However, for the traffics in today's or future's network, important statistical property is burstiness. As a consequence, the interference at a given receiving node may fluctuate dramatically. So the convergence speed of power control is not fast and the performance degrades. This paper presents a joint power control model. To a receiving node, all transmitting nodes assigned in same time slot adjust their transmitter power based on current information, which takes into account the adjustments of transmitter power of other transmitting nodes. Based on the joint power control model, this paper proposes a statisticalbased power control algorithm. Through this new algorithm, the interference is estimated more exactly. The simulation results indicated that the proposed power control algorithm outperforms the old algorithm.

  18. Topology Discovering and Power saving Mechanism for Routing in a Tree of Ad-hoc Wireless Networks

    Arwa Zabian

    2007-01-01

    Full Text Available Power management in mobile network is an open challenges where the power level in the network influences the network life time. However, there are a trade off between the power consumption and the connectivity in mobile networks. We present a topology control mechanism and a routing protocol for Ad-Hoc wireless networks that chooses the shortest path given the lower power consumption. The power consumption in forwarding a packet in the proposed topology is depends on only two main factors are the number of hops and the packet size. Our analytical results are confirmed by our simulation results where both has give the same results for power consumption in sending a packet taking in consideration only the power consumed in communication.

  19. A Secure Intrusion Detection System against DDOS Attack in Wireless Ad-Hoc Network Using Multi-Hop Routing Algorithm.

    Mr. Dinesh. S. Banabakode,

    2015-10-01

    Full Text Available MANET (Wireless Mobile Ad-hoc Network is a technology which are used in society in daily life an activities such as in traffic surveillance, in building construction or it’s application is used in battlefield also. In MANET there is no control of any node here is no centralized controller that’s why each node has its own routing capability. And each node act as device and its change its connection to other devices. The main problem of today’s MANET is a security, because there is no any centralized controller. Our main aim is that we protect them from DDOS attack in terms of flooding through messages, packet drop, end to end delay and energy dropping etc. For that we are applying many techniques for saving energy of nodes and identifying malicious node and types of DDOS attack and in this paper we are discussing this technique.

  20. Monitoring and classifying animal behavior using ZigBee-based mobile ad hoc wireless sensor networks and artificial neural networks

    S. Nadimi, Esmaeil; Jørgensen, Rasmus Nyholm; Blanes-Vidal, Victoria;

    2012-01-01

    Animal welfare is an issue of great importance in modern food production systems. Because animal behavior provides reliable information about animal health and welfare, recent research has aimed at designing monitoring systems capable of measuring behavioral parameters and transforming them into...... their corresponding behavioral modes. However, network unreliability and high-energy consumption have limited the applicability of those systems. In this study, a 2.4-GHz ZigBee-based mobile ad hoc wireless sensor network (MANET) that is able to overcome those problems is presented. The designed MANET...... showed high communication reliability, low energy consumption and low packet loss rate (14.8%) due to the deployment of modern communication protocols (e.g. multi-hop communication and handshaking protocol). The measured behavioral parameters were transformed into the corresponding behavioral modes using...

  1. A MODEL FOR CONGESTION CONTROL OF TRANSMISSION CONTROL PROTOCOL IN MOBILE WIRELESS AD HOC NETWORKS

    Adib M. Monzer Habbal

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Transmission Control Protocol (TCP is a fundamental protocol in the TCP/IP Protocol Suite.TCP was well designed and optimized to work over wired networks where most packet loss occurs due to network congestion. In theory, TCP should not care whether it is running over wired networks, WLANs, or Mobile Ad hoc Networks (MANETs. In practice, it does matter because most TCP deployments have been carefully designed based on the assumption that congestion is the main factor of network instability. However, MANETs have other dominating factors that cause network instability. Forgetting the impact of these factors violates some design principles of TCP congestion control and open questions for future research to address. This study aims to introduce a model that shows the impact of MANET factors on TCP congestion control. To achieve this aim, Design Research Methodology (DRM proposed by BLESSING was used as a guide to present this model. The proposed model describes the existing situation of TCP congestion control. Furthermore, it points to the factors that are most suitable to be addressed by researchers in order to improve TCP performance. This research proposes a novel model to present the impact of MANET factors on TCP congestion control. The model is expected to serve as a benchmark for any intended improvement and enhancement of TCP congestion control over MANET.

  2. Stochastic Analysis of Non-slotted Aloha in Wireless Ad-Hoc Networks

    Blaszczyszyn, Bartek

    2010-01-01

    In this paper we propose two analytically tractable stochastic models of non-slotted Aloha for Mobile Ad-hoc NETworks (MANETs): one model assumes a static pattern of nodes while the other assumes that the pattern of nodes varies over time. Both models feature transmitters randomly located in the Euclidean plane, according to a Poisson point process with the receivers randomly located at a fixed distance from the emitters. We concentrate on the so-called outage scenario, where a successful transmission requires a Signal-to-Interference-and-Noise Ratio (SINR) larger than a given threshold. With Rayleigh fading and the SINR averaged over the duration of the packet transmission, both models lead to closed form expressions for the probability of successful transmission. We show an excellent matching of these results with simulations. Using our models we compare the performances of non-slotted Aloha to previously studied slotted Aloha. We observe that when the path loss is not very strong both models, when appropri...

  3. On using multiple routing metrics with destination sequenced distance vector protocol for MultiHop wireless ad hoc networks

    Mehic, M.; Fazio, P.; Voznak, M.; Partila, P.; Komosny, D.; Tovarek, J.; Chmelikova, Z.

    2016-05-01

    A mobile ad hoc network is a collection of mobile nodes which communicate without a fixed backbone or centralized infrastructure. Due to the frequent mobility of nodes, routes connecting two distant nodes may change. Therefore, it is not possible to establish a priori fixed paths for message delivery through the network. Because of its importance, routing is the most studied problem in mobile ad hoc networks. In addition, if the Quality of Service (QoS) is demanded, one must guarantee the QoS not only over a single hop but over an entire wireless multi-hop path which may not be a trivial task. In turns, this requires the propagation of QoS information within the network. The key to the support of QoS reporting is QoS routing, which provides path QoS information at each source. To support QoS for real-time traffic one needs to know not only minimum delay on the path to the destination but also the bandwidth available on it. Therefore, throughput, end-to-end delay, and routing overhead are traditional performance metrics used to evaluate the performance of routing protocol. To obtain additional information about the link, most of quality-link metrics are based on calculation of the lost probabilities of links by broadcasting probe packets. In this paper, we address the problem of including multiple routing metrics in existing routing packets that are broadcasted through the network. We evaluate the efficiency of such approach with modified version of DSDV routing protocols in ns-3 simulator.

  4. A REVIEW PAPER ON AD HOC NETWORK SECURITY

    Karan Singh

    2007-06-01

    Full Text Available In this article we present a survey of secure ad hoc routing protocols for wireless networks. Ad hoc network is a collection of nodes that is connected through a wireless medium forming rapidly changing topologies. Attacks on ad hoc network routing protocols disrupt network performance and reliability with there solution. We briefly present the most popular protocols that follow the table-driven and the source-initiated on-demand approaches. The comparison between the proposed solutions and parameters of ad hoc network shows the performance according to secure protocols. We discuss in this paper routing protocol and challenges and also discuss authentication in ad hoc network.

  5. Survivability and Reliability Analysis of the Trusted Link State Routing Protocol for Wireless AD HOC Networks

    Eyad Taqieddin

    2011-05-01

    Full Text Available The nodes in a wireless network are responsible for both sending their traffic as well as relaying thetraffic of other nodes in the network. This form of collaboration between the nodes is essential for theproper delivery of data. Without fair participation of all nodes in the routing process, some nodes maylose their energy reserves at a high rate compared to other nodes in the network. However, bandwidthand energy are not the only issues in wireless networks; survivability and reliability are critical as well.Our focus in this work is on two link state routing protocols; OLSR and TLR. We study the effect of usingthese protocols on the survivability and the reliability of wireless networks. Both analytical andsimulation work show that TLR results in better performance due to the inherent energy aware approachand the traffic partition used to reduce congestions in the network

  6. A topology control algorithm for preserving minimum-energy paths in wireless ad hoc networks

    SHEN Zhong; CHANG Yilin; CUI Can; ZHANG Xin

    2007-01-01

    In this Paper,a distributed topology control algorithm is proposed.By adjusting the transmission power of each node,this algorithm constructs a wireless network topology with minimum-energy property,i.e.,it preserves a minimum-energy path between every pair of nodes.Moreover,the proposed algorithm can be used in both homogenous and heterogeneous wireless networks.and it can also work without an explicit propagation channel model or the position information of nodes.Simulation results show that the proposed algorithm has advantages over the topology control algorithm based on direct-transmission region in terms of average node degree and power efficiency.

  7. Wireless sensor and mobile ad-hoc networks vehicular and space applications

    Al-Fuqaha, Ala

    2015-01-01

    This book describes the practical perspectives in using wireless sensor networks (WSN) to develop real world applications that can be used for space exploration. These applications include sensor interfaces, remote wireless vehicles, space crew health monitoring and instrumentation. The material discusses how applications of WSN originally developed for space travel and exploration are being applied and used in multiple real world applications, allowing for the development of smart systems that have characteristics such as self-healing, self-diagnosis, and emergency healthcare notification. This book also: ·         Discusses how multidisciplinary fields can be implemented in a single application ·         Reviews exhaustively the state-of-the-art research in WSN for space and vehicular applications ·         Covers smart systems that have self-healing, self-diagnosis, and emergency healthcare notification

  8. Improvement in Medium Access Control protocol based on new contention scheme for wireless ad hoc network

    C.Ellammal

    2012-05-01

    Full Text Available In todays wireless networks, stations using the IEEE 802.11 standard contend for the channel using the Distributed Coordination Function (DCF. Research has shown that DCF€™s performance degrades especially with the large number of stations. This becomes more concerning due to the increasing proliferation of wireless devices. In this paper, we present a Medium Access Control (MAC scheme for wireless LANs and compare its performance to DCF . Our scheme, which attempts to resolve the contention in a constant number of slots (or constant time, is called CONSTI. The contention resolution happens over a predefined number of slots. In a slot, the stations probabilistically send a jam signal on the channel. The stations listening retire if they hear a jam signal. The others continue to the next slot. Over several slots, we aim to have one station remaining in the contention, which will then transmit its data. We find the optimal parameters of CONSTI and present an analysis on its performance.

  9. Adaptive Wireless Ad-hoc Sensor Networks for Long-term and Event-oriented Environmental Monitoring

    Bumberger, Jan; Mollenhauer, Hannes; Remmler, Paul; Chirila, Andrei Marian; Mollenhauer, Olaf; Hutschenreuther, Tino; Toepfer, Hannes; Dietrich, Peter

    2016-04-01

    Ecosystems are often characterized by their high heterogeneity, complexity and dynamic. Hence, single point measurements are often not sufficient for their complete representation. The application of wireless sensor networks in terrestrial and aquatic environmental systems offer significant benefits as a better consideration to the local test conditions, due to the simple adjustment of the sensor distribution, the sensor types and the sample rate. Another advantage of wireless ad-hoc sensor networks is their self-organizing behavior, resulting in a major reduction in installation and operation costs and time. In addition, individual point measurements with a sensor are significantly improved by measuring at several points continuously. In this work a concept and realization for Long-term ecosystem research is given in the field monitoring of micrometeorology and soil parameters for the interaction of biotic and abiotic processes. This long term analyses are part of the Global Change Experimental Facility (GCEF), a large field-based experimental platform to assess the effects of climate change on ecosystem functions and processes under different land-use scenarios. Regarding to the adaptive behavior of the network, also a mobile version was developed to overcome the lack of information of temporally and spatially fixed measurements for the detection and recording of highly dynamic or time limited processes. First results of different field campaigns are given to present the potentials and limitations of this application in environmental science, especially for the monitoring of the interaction of biotic and abiotic processes, soil-atmosphere interaction and the validation of remote sensing data.

  10. Combined bio-inspired/evolutionary computational methods in cross-layer protocol optimization for wireless ad hoc sensor networks

    Hortos, William S.

    2011-06-01

    Published studies have focused on the application of one bio-inspired or evolutionary computational method to the functions of a single protocol layer in a wireless ad hoc sensor network (WSN). For example, swarm intelligence in the form of ant colony optimization (ACO), has been repeatedly considered for the routing of data/information among nodes, a network-layer function, while genetic algorithms (GAs) have been used to select transmission frequencies and power levels, physical-layer functions. Similarly, artificial immune systems (AISs) as well as trust models of quantized data reputation have been invoked for detection of network intrusions that cause anomalies in data and information; these act on the application and presentation layers. Most recently, a self-organizing scheduling scheme inspired by frog-calling behavior for reliable data transmission in wireless sensor networks, termed anti-phase synchronization, has been applied to realize collision-free transmissions between neighboring nodes, a function of the MAC layer. In a novel departure from previous work, the cross-layer approach to WSN protocol design suggests applying more than one evolutionary computational method to the functions of the appropriate layers to improve the QoS performance of the cross-layer design beyond that of one method applied to a single layer's functions. A baseline WSN protocol design, embedding GAs, anti-phase synchronization, ACO, and a trust model based on quantized data reputation at the physical, MAC, network, and application layers, respectively, is constructed. Simulation results demonstrate the synergies among the bioinspired/ evolutionary methods of the proposed baseline design improve the overall QoS performance of networks over that of a single computational method.

  11. Computing Nash Equilibrium in Wireless Ad Hoc Networks: A Simulation-Based Approach

    Peter Bulychev

    2012-02-01

    Full Text Available This paper studies the problem of computing Nash equilibrium in wireless networks modeled by Weighted Timed Automata. Such formalism comes together with a logic that can be used to describe complex features such as timed energy constraints. Our contribution is a method for solving this problem using Statistical Model Checking. The method has been implemented in UPPAAL model checker and has been applied to the analysis of Aloha CSMA/CD and IEEE 802.15.4 CSMA/CA protocols.

  12. Solar-powered ad-hoc wireless sensor network for border surveillance

    He, Jun; Norwood, Robert A.; Fallahi, Mahmoud; Peyghambarian, Nasser

    2012-06-01

    Wireless sensor networks (WSNs) have emerged as means of providing automated monitoring, target tracking, and intrusion detection. Solar-powered WSNs that adopt innovative sensors with low power consumption and forefront networking technologies can provide rapidly deployable situational awareness and effective security control at the border at low cost. In our paper, we introduce the prototype of our new solar-powered WSN platform for Border Security. We consider practical issues in WSNs, including sensing environment classification, survivability under harsh weather conditions, and efficient solar energy harvesting. Experimental results demonstrate the performance of our new solar-powered WSN.

  13. Load balancing strategy of heterogeneous wireless networks based on multi-hop routing algorithm of ad hoc network

    Pei Xuebing; Wang Qingping; Zhu Guangxi; Liu Gan

    2009-01-01

    Because of different system capacities of base station (BS) or access point (AP) and ununiformity of traffic distribution in different cells, quantities of new call users may be blocked in overloaded cell in communication hot spots. Whereas in some neighboring under-loaded cells, bandwidth may be superfluous because there are only few users to request services. In order to raise resource utilization of the whole heterogeneous networks, several novel load balancing strategies are proposed, which combine the call admission control policy and multi-hop routing protocol of ad-hoc network for load balancing. These load balancing strategies firstly make a decision whether to admit a new call or not by considering some parameters like load index and route cost, etc.., and then transfer the denied users into neighboring under-loaded cell with surplus channel according to optimum multi-hop routing algorithm. Simulation results show that the proposed load balancing strategies can distribute traffics to the whole heterogeneous wireless networks, improve the load balance index efficiently, and avoid the call block phenomenon almost absolutely.

  14. Information Potential Fields Navigation in Wireless Ad-Hoc Sensor Networks

    Yong Qi

    2011-05-01

    Full Text Available As wireless sensor networks (WSNs are increasingly being deployed in some important applications, it becomes imperative that we consider application requirements in in-network processes. We intend to use a WSN to aid information querying and navigation within a dynamic and real-time environment. We propose a novel method that relies on the heat diffusion equation to finish the navigation process conveniently and easily. From the perspective of theoretical analysis, our proposed work holds the lower constraint condition. We use multiple scales to reach the goal of accurate navigation. We present a multi-scale gradient descent method to satisfy users’ requirements in WSNs. Formula derivations and simulations show that the method is accurately and efficiently able to solve typical sensor network configuration information navigation problems. Simultaneously, the structure of heat diffusion equation allows more flexibility and adaptability in searching algorithm designs.

  15. Opportunistic Routing with Congestion Diversity in Wireless Ad-hoc Networks

    Bhorkar, Abhijeet; Javidi, Tara

    2012-01-01

    We consider the problem of routing packets across a multi-hop network consisting of multiple sources of traffic and wireless links while ensuring bounded expected delay. Each packet transmission can be overheard by a random subset of receiver nodes among which the next relay is selected opportunistically. The main challenge in the design of minimum-delay routing policies is balancing the trade-off between routing the packets along the shortest paths to the destination and distributing traffic according to the maximum backpressure. Combining important aspects of shortest path and backpressure routing, this paper provides a systematic development of a distributed opportunistic routing policy with congestion diversity ({D-ORCD}). {D-ORCD} uses a measure of draining time to opportunistically identify and route packets along the paths with an expected low overall congestion. {D-ORCD} is proved to ensure a bounded expected delay for all networks and under any admissible traffic. Furthermore, this paper proposes a p...

  16. Development of Innovative and Inexpensive Optical Sensors in Wireless Ad-hoc Sensor Networks for Environmental Monitoring

    Mollenhauer, Hannes; Schima, Robert; Assing, Martin; Mollenhauer, Olaf; Dietrich, Peter; Bumberger, Jan

    2015-04-01

    Due to the heterogeneity and dynamic of ecosystems, the observation and monitoring of natural processes necessitate a high temporal and spatial resolution. This also requires inexpensive and adaptive measurements as well as innovative monitoring strategies. To this end, the application of ad-hoc wireless sensor networks holds the potential of creating an adequate monitoring platform. In order to achieve a comprehensive monitoring in space and time with affordability, it is necessary to reduce the sensor costs. Common investigation methods, especially with regard to vegetation processes, are based on optical measurements. In particular, different wavelengths correspond to specific properties of the plants and preserve the possibility to derive information about the ecosystem, e.g. photosynthetic performance or nutrient content. In this context, photosynthetically active radiation (PAR) sensors and hyperspectral sensors are in major use. This work aims the development, evaluation and application of inexpensive but high performance optical sensors for the implementation in wireless sensor networks. Photosynthetically active radiation designates the spectral range from 400 to 700 nanometers that photosynthetic organisms are able to use in the process of photosynthesis. PAR sensors enable the detection of the reflected solar light of the vegetation in the whole PAR wave band. The amount of absorption indicates photosynthetic activity of the plant, with good approximation. Hyperspectral sensors observe specific parts or rather distinct wavelengths of the solar light spectrum and facilitate the determination of the main pigment classes, e.g. Chlorophyll, Carotenoid and Anthocyanin. Due to the specific absorption of certain pigments, a characteristic spectral signature can be seen in the visible part of the electromagnetic spectrum, known as narrow-band peaks. In an analogous manner, also the presence and concentration of different nutrients cause a characteristic spectral

  17. An Intrusion Detection System Framework for Ad Hoc Networks

    Arjun Singh; Surbhi Chauhan; Kamal Kant; Reshma Doknaia

    2012-01-01

    Secure and efficient communication among a set of mobile nodes is one of the most important aspects in ad-hoc wireless networks. Wireless networks are particularly vulnerable to intrusion, as they operate in open medium, and use cooperative strategies for network communications. By efficiently merging audit data from multiple network sensors, we analyze the entire ad hoc wireless network for intrusions and try to inhibit intrusion attempts. This paper presents an intrusion detection system fo...

  18. Vehicular ad hoc network security and privacy

    Lin, X

    2015-01-01

    Unlike any other book in this area, this book provides innovative solutions to security issues, making this book a must read for anyone working with or studying security measures. Vehicular Ad Hoc Network Security and Privacy mainly focuses on security and privacy issues related to vehicular communication systems. It begins with a comprehensive introduction to vehicular ad hoc network and its unique security threats and privacy concerns and then illustrates how to address those challenges in highly dynamic and large size wireless network environments from multiple perspectives. This book is richly illustrated with detailed designs and results for approaching security and privacy threats.

  19. Data Confidentiality in Mobile Ad hoc Networks

    Aldabbas, Hamza; Janicke, Helge; Al-Bayatti, Ali; 10.5121/ijwmn.2012.4117

    2012-01-01

    Mobile ad hoc networks (MANETs) are self-configuring infrastructure-less networks comprised of mobile nodes that communicate over wireless links without any central control on a peer-to-peer basis. These individual nodes act as routers to forward both their own data and also their neighbours' data by sending and receiving packets to and from other nodes in the network. The relatively easy configuration and the quick deployment make ad hoc networks suitable the emergency situations (such as human or natural disasters) and for military units in enemy territory. Securing data dissemination between these nodes in such networks, however, is a very challenging task. Exposing such information to anyone else other than the intended nodes could cause a privacy and confidentiality breach, particularly in military scenarios. In this paper we present a novel framework to enhance the privacy and data confidentiality in mobile ad hoc networks by attaching the originator policies to the messages as they are sent between nod...

  20. A Survey of Vehicular Ad hoc Networks Routing Protocols

    Marwa Altayeb; Imad Mahgoub

    2013-01-01

    In recent years, the aspect of vehicular ad hoc network (VANET) is becoming an interesting research area; VANET is a mobile ad hoc network considered as a special case of mobile ad hoc network (MANET). Similar to MANET, VANET is characterized as autonomous and self-configured wireless network. However, VANET has very dynamic topology, large and variable network size, and constrained mobility; these characteristics led to the need for efficient routing and resource saving VANET protocols, to f...

  1. Geocasting and Multicasting Routing Operation in Mobile Ad Hoc Network

    R.Kruthika

    2013-01-01

    The paper considers, the different multicasting routing protocols in wireless mobile Ad hoc network (MANET).An Ad hoc network is composed of mobile nodes without the presence of a wired support infrastructure .In this environment routing/multicasting protocols are faced with the challenge of producing multihop router under host mobility and band constraints. Various approaches and routing protocol have been proposed to address Ad hoc networking problems and multiple standardization effort wit...

  2. C-LOAD POWER CONTROL PROTOCOL-CROSS-LAYER DESIGN OF A NETWORK LAYER LOAD POWER CONTROL PROTOCOL IN WIRELESS AD HOC NETWORKS

    A. Arivoli

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available In wireless ad hoc network scenario, Cross-layer design is emerging, important in wireless ad hoc network and the power control methods. Power control is the intelligent selection of transmit power in a communication to achieve the better performance within the system. Cross-layer is used to sharing the information between the layers. Physical to Transport layer information are shared in this protocol, due to this cross-layering is designed to optimize the power control. CLD using LOADPOWER (LOADPOW control protocol is reduce the overall end-end delay and the energy consumption using transmission power. The novelty of this work deals with both low and high transmission power control methodologies. So many power control schemes are dealt in MAC layer but this work, Power control protocol was done in network layer and it plays a vital role. A MAC approach to power control only does a local optimization whereas network layer is capable of global optimization. Simulation was done in NS-2 simulator with the performance metrics as improved throughput, energy consumption and end-end delay. The key concept is to improve the throughput, saves energy by sending all the packets with optimal transmission power according to the network load. A comparison of few protocols with Load Power Control Protocol (LPCP was implemented and got the better performances using NS-2 simulator.

  3. TOWARD CALIBRATED MODULAR WIRELESS SYSTEM BASED AD HOC SENSORS FOR IN SITU LAND SURFACE TEMPERATURE MEASUREMENTS AS SUPPORT TO SATELLITE REMOTE SENSING

    ASAAD CHAHBOUN

    2011-06-01

    Full Text Available This paper presents a new method for in situ Land Surface Temperature (LST measurements' campaigns for satellite algorithms validations. The proposed method based on Wireless Sensor Network (WSN is constituted by modules of node arrays. Each of which is constituted by 25 smart nodes scattered throughout a target field. Every node represents a Thermal Infra Red (TIR radiation sensor and keeps a minimum size while ensuring the functions of communication, sensing, and processing. This Wireless-LST (Wi-LST system is convenient to beinstalled on a field pointing to any type of targets (e.g. bare soil, grass, water, etc.. Ad hoc topology is adopted among the TIR nodes with multi-hop mesh routing protocol for communication, acquisition data are transmitted to the client tier wirelessly. Using these emergent technologies, we propose a practical method for Wi-LSTsystem calibration. TIR sensor (i.e. OSM101 from OMEGA society measures temperature, which is conditioned and amplified by an AD595 within a precision of 0.1 °C. Assessed LST is transmitted over thedeveloped ad hoc WSN modules (i.e. MICA2DOT from CROSSBOW society, and collected at in situ base station (i.e. PANASONIC CF19 laptop using an integrated database. LST is evaluated with a polynomialalgorithm structure as part of developed software. Finally, the comparison of the mean values of LST(Wi-LST in each site with the Moderate Resolution Imaging Spectro-radiometer (MODIS sensor, obtained from the daily LST product (MOD11C1 developed by the MODIS-NASA Science Team, on board TERRA satellite during the campaign period is provided.

  4. Flexible Authentication in Vehicular Ad hoc Networks

    Caballero-Gil, P; Molina-Gil, J; Hernández-Goya, C

    2010-01-01

    A Vehicular Ad-Hoc Network (VANET) is a form of Mobile ad-hoc network, to provide communications among nearby vehicles and between vehicles and nearby fixed roadside equipment. The key operation in VANETs is the broadcast of messages. Consequently, the vehicles need to make sure that the information has been sent by an authentic node in the network. VANETs present unique challenges such as high node mobility, real-time constraints, scalability, gradual deployment and privacy. No existent technique addresses all these requirements. In particular, both inter-vehicle and vehicle-to-roadside wireless communications present different characteristics that should be taken into account when defining node authentication services. That is exactly what is done in this paper, where the features of inter-vehicle and vehicle-to-roadside communications are analyzed to propose differentiated services for node authentication, according to privacy and efficiency needs.

  5. A New QoS Management Scheme for VoIP Application over Wireless Ad Hoc Networks

    Said El brak

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Nowadays, mobile ad hoc networks (MANETs have to support new applications including VoIP (voice over IP that impose stringent QoS (quality of service constraints and requirements. However, VoIP applications make a very inefficient use of the MANET resources. Our work represents a first step toward improving aspects at the network layer by addressing issues from the standpoint of adaptation, claiming that effective adaptation of routing parameters can enhance VoIP quality. The most important contribution is the adaptive OLSR-VA algorithm which provides an integrated environment where VoIP activity is constantly detected and routing parameters are adapted in order to meet the application requirements. To investigate the performance advantage achieved by such algorithm, a number of realistic simulations (MANET scenarios are performed under different conditions. The most important observation is that performance is satisfactory in terms of the perceived voice quality.

  6. Gossip Based Routing Protocol Design for Ad Hoc Networks

    Toqeer Mahmood

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available A spontaneously mannered decentralized network with no formal infrastructure and limited in temporal and spatial extent where each node communicate with each other over a wireless channel and is willing to forward data for other nodes is called as Wireless Ad Hoc network. In this research study, we proposed a routing strategy based on gossip based routing approach that follows the proactive routing with some treatment for wireless Ad Hoc network. The analytical verification of our proposed idea shows that it is a better approach based on gossip routing.

  7. Data Confidentiality in Mobile Ad hoc Networks

    Hamza Aldabbas

    2012-03-01

    Full Text Available Mobile ad hoc networks (MANETs are self-configuring infrastructure-less networks comprised of mobile nodes that communicate over wireless links without any central control on a peer-to-peer basis.These individual nodes act as routers to forward both their own data and also their neighbours’ data by sending and receiving packets to and from other nodes in the network. The relatively easy configuration and the quick deployment make ad hoc networks suitable the emergency situations (such as human or natural disasters and for military units in enemy territory. Securing data dissemination between these nodes in such networks, however, is a very challenging task. Exposing such information to anyone else other than the intended nodes could cause a privacy and confidentiality breach, particularly in military scenarios. In this paper we present a novel framework to enhance the privacy and data confidentiality in mobile ad hoc networks by attaching the originator policies to the messages as they are sent between nodes. We evaluate our framework using the Network Simulator (NS-2 to check whether the privacy and confidentiality of the originator are met. For this we implemented the Policy Enforcement Points (PEPs, as NS-2 agents that manage and enforce the policies attached to packets at every node in the MANET.

  8. A Review of Anonymity in Mobile Ad Hoc Networks

    KERNÁCS János; SZILÁGYI Szabolcs

    2010-01-01

    An ad hoc network is a self-organizingnetwork of wireless links connecting mobile nodes.The mobile nodes can communicate without aninfrastructure. They form an arbitrary topology, wherethe nodes play the role of routers and are free to moverandomly. Mobile ad hoc networks requireanonymous communications, in order to thwart newwireless passive attacks, and to protect new assets ofinformation such as nodes’ locations, motion patterns,network topology and traffic patterns in addition toconventio...

  9. IDHOCNET: A Novel ID Centric Architecture for Ad Hoc Networks

    Shahrukh Khalid; Athar Mahboob; Choudhry Fahad Azim; Aqeel Ur Rehman

    2016-01-01

    Ad hoc networks lack support of infrastructure and operate in a shared bandwidth wireless environment. Presently, such networks have been realized by various adaptations in Internet Protocol (IP) architecture which was developed for infrastructure oriented hierarchical networks. The IP architecture has its known problem and issues even in infrastructure settings, like IP address overloading, mobility, multihoming, and so forth. Therefore, when such architecture is implemented in ad hoc scenar...

  10. Routing in Terrestrial Free Space Optical Ad-Hoc Networks

    Dong, Yao; Sadegh Aminian, Mohammad

    2014-01-01

    Terrestrial free-space optical (FSO) communication uses visible or infrared wavelengths to broadcast high speed data wirelessly through the atmospheric channel. The performance of terrestrial FSO channel mainly depends on the local atmospheric conditions. Ad hoc networks offer cost-effective solutions for communications in areas where infrastructure is unavailable, e.g., intelligent transport system, disaster recovery and battlefield scenarios. Traditional ad hoc networks operate in the radio...

  11. Connectivity-driven Attachment in Mobile Cellular Ad Hoc Networks

    Boite, Julien; Leguay, Jérémie

    2014-01-01

    International audience Cellular wireless technologies (e.g. LTE) can be used to build cellular ad hoc networks. In this new class of ad hoc networks, nodes are equipped with two radio interfaces: one being a terminal, the other one being an access point. In this context, attachment decisions based on traditional criteria (e.g. signal quality) may lead to network partitions or suboptimal path lengths, thus making access point selection critical to ensure efficient network connectivity. This...

  12. Hierarchical Approach for Key Management in Mobile Ad hoc Networks

    A, Renuka; Shet, K. C.

    2009-01-01

    Mobile Ad-hoc Network (MANET) is a collection of autonomous nodes or terminals which communicate with each other by forming a multi-hop radio network and maintaining connectivity in a decentralized manner. The conventional security solutions to provide key management through accessing trusted authorities or centralized servers are infeasible for this new environment since mobile ad hoc networks are characterized by the absence of any infrastructure, frequent mobility, and wireless links. We p...

  13. Non DTN Geographic Routing Protocols for Vehicular Ad Hoc Networks

    Ramin Karimi; Norafida Ithnin; Shukor Abd Razak; Sara Najafzadeh

    2011-01-01

    Vehicular Ad Hoc Networks are highly mobile wireless ad hoc networks. Routing of data in VANETs is a challenging task due to rapidly changing topology and high speed mobility of vehicles. Geographic routing protocols are becoming popular due to advancement and availability of GPS devices. In this paper, we review the existing non DTN Geographic Routing Protocols for VANETs and also provide a qualitative comparison of them.

  14. Neural methods based on modified reputation rules for detection and identification of intrusion attacks in wireless ad hoc sensor networks

    Hortos, William S.

    2010-04-01

    Determining methods to secure the process of data fusion against attacks by compromised nodes in wireless sensor networks (WSNs) and to quantify the uncertainty that may exist in the aggregation results is a critical issue in mitigating the effects of intrusion attacks. Published research has introduced the concept of the trustworthiness (reputation) of a single sensor node. Reputation is evaluated using an information-theoretic concept, the Kullback- Leibler (KL) distance. Reputation is added to the set of security features. In data aggregation, an opinion, a metric of the degree of belief, is generated to represent the uncertainty in the aggregation result. As aggregate information is disseminated along routes to the sink node(s), its corresponding opinion is propagated and regulated by Josang's belief model. By applying subjective logic on the opinion to manage trust propagation, the uncertainty inherent in aggregation results can be quantified for use in decision making. The concepts of reputation and opinion are modified to allow their application to a class of dynamic WSNs. Using reputation as a factor in determining interim aggregate information is equivalent to implementation of a reputation-based security filter at each processing stage of data fusion, thereby improving the intrusion detection and identification results based on unsupervised techniques. In particular, the reputation-based version of the probabilistic neural network (PNN) learns the signature of normal network traffic with the random probability weights normally used in the PNN replaced by the trust-based quantified reputations of sensor data or subsequent aggregation results generated by the sequential implementation of a version of Josang's belief model. A two-stage, intrusion detection and identification algorithm is implemented to overcome the problems of large sensor data loads and resource restrictions in WSNs. Performance of the twostage algorithm is assessed in simulations of WSN

  15. The Extended Clustering AD HOC Routing Protocol (ECRP

    Buthayna Al-Sharaa

    2013-06-01

    Full Text Available Ad hoc networks are acollection of mobile nodes communicating via wireless channels without any fixedinfrastructure. Because of their ease and low cost of building, ad hoc networks have a lot of attractiveapplications in different fields. The topology of ad hoc networks changes dynamically, and each node in thenetwork can act as a host or router.With the increase in the number of wirelessdevices andlarge amountof traffic to be exchanged, the demand for scalable routing protocols has increased. This paper presents ascalable routing protocol, based on AODV protocol, called the Extended Clustering Ad Hoc RoutingProtocol (ECRP. This is a hybrid protocol, which combines reactive and proactive approaches in routing.The protocol uses theGlobal PositioningSystem todetermine the position of certain nodesin the network.The evaluation methodology and simulation results obtained showthat the protocol is efficient and scaleswell in large networks

  16. A Survey of Multicast Routing Protocols for Vehicular Ad Hoc Networks

    Waqar Farooq; Khan, Muazzam A.; Saad Rehman; Nazar Abbas Saqib

    2015-01-01

    Vehicular Ad Hoc Networks (VANETs) are autonomous and self-configurable wireless ad hoc networks and considered as a subset of Mobile Ad Hoc Networks (MANETs). MANET is composed of self-organizing mobile nodes which communicate through a wireless link without any network infrastructure. A VANET uses vehicles as mobile nodes for creating a network within a range of 100 to 1000 meters. VANET is developed for improving road safety and for providing the latest services of intelligent transport sy...

  17. Power control algorithms for mobile ad hoc networks

    Nuraj L. Pradhan

    2011-07-01

    We will also focus on an adaptive distributed power management (DISPOW algorithm as an example of the multi-parameter optimization approach which manages the transmit power of nodes in a wireless ad hoc network to preserve network connectivity and cooperatively reduce interference. We will show that the algorithm in a distributed manner builds a unique stable network topology tailored to its surrounding node density and propagation environment over random topologies in a dynamic mobile wireless channel.

  18. DEHAR: a Distributed Energy Harvesting Aware Routing Algorithm for Ad-hoc Multi-hop Wireless Sensor Networks

    Jakobsen, Mikkel Koefoed; Madsen, Jan; Hansen, Michael Reichhardt

    2010-01-01

    that the best energy-wise route is found for each data transfer from a source node to the sink node. We present a new adaptive and distributed routing algorithm for finding energy optimised routes in a wireless sensor network with energy harvesting. The algorithm finds an energy efficient route from...... each source node to a single sink node, taking into account the current energy status of the network. By simulation, the algorithm is shown to be able to adapt to changes in harvested and stored energy. Simulations show that continuous operation is possible.......One of the key design goals in Wireless Sensor Networks is long lasting or even continuous operation. Continuous operation is made possible through energy harvesting. Keeping the network operational imposes a demand to prevent network segmentation and power loss in nodes. It is therefore important...

  19. Power-Aware Hybrid Intrusion Detection System (PHIDS) using Cellular Automata in Wireless AdHoc Networks

    Sree, Pokkuluri Kiran; Babu, Inampudi Ramesh

    2013-01-01

    Adhoc wireless network with their changing topology and distributed nature are more prone to intruders. The network monitoring functionality should be in operation as long as the network exists with nil constraints. The efficiency of an Intrusion detection system in the case of an adhoc network is not only determined by its dynamicity in monitoring but also in its flexibility in utilizing the available power in each of its nodes. In this paper we propose a hybrid intrusion detection system, b...

  20. A WMPLS Based Multicast Mechanism in Mobile Ad hoc Network

    Li Mengyang

    2011-02-01

    Full Text Available Merging MPLS into multicast routing protocol in Mobile Ad hoc network is an elegant method to enhance the network performance and an efficient solution for multicast scalability and control overhead problems. Based on the Wireless MPLS technology, the mechanism and evaluation of a new multicast protocol, the Label Switching Multicast Routing Protocol (LSMRP is presented in this paper.

  1. A survey of TCP over ad hoc networks

    Al Hanbali, Ahmad; Altman, Eitan; Nain, Philippe

    2005-01-01

    The Transmission Control Protocol (TCP) was designed to provide reliable end-to-end delivery of data over unreliable networks. In practice, most TCP deployments have been carefully designed in the context of wired networks. Ignoring the properties of wireless ad hoc networks can lead to TCP implemen

  2. A kind of intrusion detection system of wireless Ad Hoc ethernet based on domain%一种基于域的无线Ad HOC网络入侵检测系统

    龚媛媛

    2012-01-01

    无线Ad Hoc网络因其高度动态的拓扑、无线链路、无固定基础设施的支持等一些特性使得它与其他网络相比是非常脆弱的.现有针对有线网络开发的IDS很难适用于这种网络.提出一种称为ZBIDS(Zone-Based Intrusion Detection System)的入侵检测系统,该系统采用两级层次化结构,属于分布式IDS.ZBIDS系统通过基于马尔可夫链的分类器来检测具有序列化特征的入侵.仿真结果表明,基于马尔可夫链的分类器具有较好的入侵检测性能.%Wireless Ad Hoc ethernet is comparatively vulnerable its characteristics such as dynamic topology, wireless connection and non-fixed foundation. The current IDS which are developed to suit network connection can' t adapt to the wireless one. This essay suggests the Zone-Based Intrusion Detection System (ZBIDS) which adopts two-stage hierarchical structure, belonging to distributive IDS. The ZBIDS can detect the ordered intrusion by the Markov chain classifier. The simulation results show that the Markov chain classifier can better detect the intrusion.

  3. Using Wikipedia categories for ad hoc search

    R. Kaptein; M. Koolen; J. Kamps

    2009-01-01

    In this paper we explore the use of category information for ad hoc retrieval in Wikipedia. We show that techniques for entity ranking exploiting this category information can also be applied to ad hoc topics and lead to significant improvements. Automatically assigned target categories are good sur

  4. Unsupervised learning in persistent sensing for target recognition by wireless ad hoc networks of ground-based sensors

    Hortos, William S.

    2008-04-01

    In previous work by the author, effective persistent and pervasive sensing for recognition and tracking of battlefield targets were seen to be achieved, using intelligent algorithms implemented by distributed mobile agents over a composite system of unmanned aerial vehicles (UAVs) for persistence and a wireless network of unattended ground sensors for pervasive coverage of the mission environment. While simulated performance results for the supervised algorithms of the composite system are shown to provide satisfactory target recognition over relatively brief periods of system operation, this performance can degrade by as much as 50% as target dynamics in the environment evolve beyond the period of system operation in which the training data are representative. To overcome this limitation, this paper applies the distributed approach using mobile agents to the network of ground-based wireless sensors alone, without the UAV subsystem, to provide persistent as well as pervasive sensing for target recognition and tracking. The supervised algorithms used in the earlier work are supplanted by unsupervised routines, including competitive-learning neural networks (CLNNs) and new versions of support vector machines (SVMs) for characterization of an unknown target environment. To capture the same physical phenomena from battlefield targets as the composite system, the suite of ground-based sensors can be expanded to include imaging and video capabilities. The spatial density of deployed sensor nodes is increased to allow more precise ground-based location and tracking of detected targets by active nodes. The "swarm" mobile agents enabling WSN intelligence are organized in a three processing stages: detection, recognition and sustained tracking of ground targets. Features formed from the compressed sensor data are down-selected according to an information-theoretic algorithm that reduces redundancy within the feature set, reducing the dimension of samples used in the target

  5. A Reactive Location Service for Mobile Ad Hoc Networks

    Käsemann, Michael; Füßler, Holger; Hartenstein, Hannes; Mauve, Martin

    2002-01-01

    We present and analyze a reactive location service RLS for mobile ad hoc networks. RLS provides a mobile node in a wireless ad-hoc network with the means to inquire the current geographical position of another node on-demand and can be used as a building block for location-based routing. We provide a comparison of RLS to an ideal omniscient location service as well as to the complex Grid Location Service (GLS). In addition, we compare the performance of greedy location-based routing in combin...

  6. The Adaptive Optimized Routing Protocol for Vehicular Ad-hoc Networks

    Kunal Vikas Patil; M.R. Dhage

    2013-01-01

    The vehicular ad hoc network (VANET) is a superior newtechnology. Vehicular ad hoc network (VANET) is a subclassof MANET that is mobile ad hoc networks. Vehicular ad hocnetwork provides wireless communication among vehicles andvehicles to roadside equipments. The communication betweenvehicles is more important for safety and more probably forentertainment as well. The performance of communicationdepends on how better the routing takes place in the network.Routing of data depends on routing pr...

  7. Security Threats in Mobile Ad Hoc Network

    Biswas, Kamanashis; Ali, Md. Liakat

    2007-01-01

    Mobile Ad Hoc Network (MANET) is a collection of communication devices or nodes that wish to communicate without any fixed infrastructure and pre-determined organization of available links. The nodes in MANET themselves are responsible for dynamically discovering other nodes to communicate. Although the ongoing trend is to adopt ad hoc networks for commercial uses due to their certain unique properties, the main challenge is the vulnerability to security attacks. A number of challenges like o...

  8. AD HOC P2P on Android

    Narayanan, Sathya; Byun, YoungJoon; Cebrowski Institute; CSUMB, C.S.I.T. Program

    2011-01-01

    In conjunction with the NPS C.S. Department MWC Group, this research looks at establishing an Ad Hoc Peer-to-Peer network on cell phones, specifically using the Android OS. Work comprised of Android Device, Library, and Application Design. The Library used was AODV (Ad Hoc on demand Distance Vector) and hardware devices must be controlled directly in addition to application enhancements. A prototype has been created and communication was achieved. Future work to include enhancements to contro...

  9. Selbstorganisierende Systemarchitekturen - Ad-hoc-Netze

    Rabel, Matthias Reinhard

    2007-01-01

    A new in-vehicle network is developed and elaborated. The new protocol hierarchy aims at an ad hoc integration of typical in-vehicle networks, like CAN, IEEE 1394 and others. Therefore several communication protocols are developed. First an overall communication scheme needs to be available to allow end-to-end communication. This is done similar to OSI Layer 5, as session based communication. Sessions allow transitive communication paths without interruption. With this, an ad hoc behavior of ...

  10. Reliable routing algorithm in marine ad hoc networks

    LIN Wei; YANG Yong-Tian

    2004-01-01

    A routing algorithm called DNH for increasing efficiency of mobile ad hoc network is presented, which is based on a new criterion called TSS ( Temporarily Steady State) , combining with wireless transmission theory that makes networks topology correspondingly stabilization. Also the DNH algorithm has the characteristics of giving up queuing in a node, but selecting another idle node instead of the node for forwarding data packets if the node has a full throughput. Simulation evaluation shows that selecting another node is better than queuing in a full throughout node if some conditions are satisfied, especially during a sea battle, every warship in ad hoc network wants to contest time and increase propagation reliability. The DNH algorithm can help decrease routing time, and raise efficiency of marine ad hoc networks.

  11. Hierarchical Approach for Key Management in Mobile Ad hoc Networks

    A., Renuka

    2009-01-01

    Mobile Ad-hoc Network (MANET) is a collection of autonomous nodes or terminals which communicate with each other by forming a multi-hop radio network and maintaining connectivity in a decentralized manner. The conventional security solutions to provide key management through accessing trusted authorities or centralized servers are infeasible for this new environment since mobile ad hoc networks are characterized by the absence of any infrastructure, frequent mobility, and wireless links. We propose a hierarchical group key management scheme that is hierarchical and fully distributed with no central authority and uses a simple rekeying procedure which is suitable for large and high mobility mobile ad hoc networks. The rekeying procedure requires only one round in our scheme and Chinese Remainder Theorem Diffie Hellman Group Diffie Hellmann and Burmester and Desmedt it is a constant 3 whereas in other schemes such as Distributed Logical Key Hierarchy and Distributed One Way Function Trees, it depends on the num...

  12. Energy Consumption Model in Ad Hoc Mobile Network

    Maher HENI

    2012-06-01

    Full Text Available The aim of this work is to model the nodes battery discharge in wireless ad hoc networks. Many work focus on the energy consumption in such networks. Even, the research in the highest layers of the ISO model, takes into account the energy consumption and efficiency. Indeed, thenodes that form such network are mobiles, so no instant recharge of battery. Also with special type of ad hoc networks are wireless sensors networks using non-rechargeable batteries. All nodes with an exhausted battery are considered death and left the network. To consider the energy consumption, in this work we model using a Markov chain, the discharge of the battery considering of instant activation and deactivation distribution function of these nodes.

  13. Similarity-Based Clustering Strategy for Mobile Ad Hoc Multimedia Databases

    Bo Yang; Ali R. Hurson

    2005-01-01

    Multimedia data are becoming popular in wireless ad hoc environments. However, the traditional content-based retrieval techniques are inefficient in ad hoc networks due to the multiple limitations such as node mobility, computation capability, memory space, network bandwidth, and data heterogeneity. To provide an efficient platform for multimedia retrieval, we propose to cluster ad hoc multimedia databases based on their semantic contents, and construct a virtual hierarchical indexing infrast...

  14. A Survey on Trust Management for Mobile Ad Hoc Networks

    K.Seshadri Ramana; A.A. Chari; N.Kasiviswanth

    2010-01-01

    Mobile Ad Hoc Network (MANETs) is a Collection of mobile nodes connected with wireless links.MANET has no fixed topology as the nodes are moving constantly form one place to another place. All the nodes must co-operate with each other in order to route the packets. Cooperating nodes must trust each other. In defining and managing trust in a military MANET, we must consider the interactions between the composite cognitive, social, information and communication networks, and take into account t...

  15. A Survey: variants of TCP in Ad-hoc networks

    Komal Zaman; Muddesar Iqbal; Muhammad Shafiq; Azeem Irshad; Saqib Rasool

    2013-01-01

    MANET (Mobile Ad-hoc network) forms a temporary network of wireless mobile nodes without any infrastructure where all nodes are allowed to move freely, configure themselves and interconnect with its neighbors to perform peer to peer communication and transmission. TCP (Transmission Control Protocol) offers reliable, oriented connection and mechanism of end to end delivery. This article provides the review and comparison of existing variants of TCP for instance: The TCP Tahoe, The TCP Reno, Th...

  16. Mobility Prediction Based Neighborhood Discovery for Mobile Ad Hoc Networks

    Li, Xu; Mitton, Nathalie; Simplot-Ryl, David

    2010-01-01

    Hello protocol is the basic technique for neighborhood discovery in wireless ad hoc networks. It requires nodes to claim their existence/aliveness by periodic `hello' messages. Central to any hello protocol is the determination of `hello' message transmission rate. No fixed optimal rate exists in the presence of node mobility. The rate should in fact adapt to it, high for high mobility and low for low mobility. In this paper, we propose a novel mobility prediction based hello protocol, named ...

  17. Mobility Prediction Based Neighborhood Discovery in Mobile Ad Hoc Networks.

    Li, Xu; Mitton, Nathalie; Simplot-Ryl, David

    2011-01-01

    International audience Hello protocol is the basic technique for neighborhood discovery in wireless ad hoc networks. It requires nodes to claim their existence/ aliveness by periodic 'hello' messages. Central to a hello protocol is the determination of 'hello' message transmission rate. No fixed optimal rate exists in the presence of node mobility. The rate should in fact adapt to it, high for high mobility and low for low mobility. In this paper, we propose a novel mobility prediction bas...

  18. An Analysis of Collaborative Attacks on Mobile Ad hoc Networks

    Vu, Cong Hoan; Soneye, Adeyinka

    2009-01-01

    A Mobile Ad hoc Network (MANET) consists of a set of communicating wireless mobile nodes or devices that do not have any form of fixed infrastructure or centralized authority. The security in MANET has become a significant and active topic within the research community. This is because of high demand in sharing streaming video and audio in various applications, one MANET could be setup quickly to facilitate communications in a hostile environment such as battlefield or emergency situation lik...

  19. 移动Ad Hoc网络的入侵检测研究%Study on Intrusion Detection in Wireless Ad Hoc Network

    刘鲁西; 王志坚

    2005-01-01

    移动Ad Hoc网络是一种特殊的移动网络.目前的入侵检测技术不再适用于这种新的环境.本文在分析Ad Hoc网络的特点和当前的入侵检测技术后,给出了一种适合于Ad Hoc网络的入侵检测系统的结构.

  20. Rethinking Information Theory for Mobile Ad Hoc Networks

    Andrews, Jeff; Haenggi, Martin; Berry, Randy; Jafar, Syed; Guo, Dongning; Shakkottai, Sanjay; Heath, Robert; Neely, Michael; Weber, Steven; Yener, Aylin

    2007-01-01

    The subject of this paper is the long-standing open problem of developing a general capacity theory for wireless networks, particularly a theory capable of describing the fundamental performance limits of mobile ad hoc networks (MANETs). A MANET is a peer-to-peer network with no pre-existing infrastructure. MANETs are the most general wireless networks, with single-hop, relay, interference, mesh, and star networks comprising special cases. The lack of a MANET capacity theory has stunted the development and commercialization of many types of wireless networks, including emergency, military, sensor, and community mesh networks. Information theory, which has been vital for links and centralized networks, has not been successfully applied to decentralized wireless networks. Even if this was accomplished, for such a theory to truly characterize the limits of deployed MANETs it must overcome three key roadblocks. First, most current capacity results rely on the allowance of unbounded delay and reliability. Second, ...

  1. Monitoring of slope-instabilities and deformations with Micro-Electro-Mechanical-Systems (MEMS) in wireless ad-hoc Sensor Networks

    Arnhardt, C.; Fernández-Steeger, T. M.; Azzam, R.

    2009-04-01

    In most mountainous regions, landslides represent a major threat to human life, properties and infrastructures. Nowadays existing landslide monitoring systems are often characterized by high efforts in terms of purchase, installation, maintenance, manpower and material. In addition (or because of this) only small areas or selective points of the endangered zone can be observed by the system. Therefore the improvement of existing and the development of new monitoring and warning systems are of high relevance. The joint project "Sensor based Landslide Early Warning Systems" (SLEWS) deals with the development of a prototypic Alarm- and Early Warning system (EWS) for different types of landslides using low-cost micro-sensors (MEMS) integrated in a wireless sensor network (WSN). Modern so called Ad-Hoc, Multi-Hop wireless sensor networks (WSN) are characterized by a self organizing and self-healing capacity of the system (autonomous systems). The network consists of numerous individual and own energy-supply operating sensor nodes, that can send data packages from their measuring devices (here: MEMS) over other nodes (Multi-Hop) to a collection point (gateway). The gateway provides the interface to central processing and data retrieval units (PC, Laptop or server) outside the network. In order to detect and monitor the different landslide processes (like fall, topple, spreading or sliding) 3D MEMS capacitive sensors made from single silicon crystals and glass were chosen to measure acceleration, tilting and altitude changes. Based on the so called MEMS (Micro-Electro-Mechanical Systems) technology, the sensors combine very small mechanical and electronic units, sensing elements and transducers on a small microchip. The mass production of such type of sensors allows low cost applications in different areas (like automobile industries, medicine, and automation technology). Apart from the small and so space saving size and the low costs another advantage is the energy

  2. Secure Clustering in Vehicular Ad Hoc Networks

    Zainab Nayyar

    2015-09-01

    Full Text Available A vehicular Ad-hoc network is composed of moving cars as nodes without any infrastructure. Nodes self-organize to form a network over radio links. Security issues are commonly observed in vehicular ad hoc networks; like authentication and authorization issues. Secure Clustering plays a significant role in VANETs. In recent years, various secure clustering techniques with distinguishing feature have been newly proposed. In order to provide a comprehensive understanding of these techniques are designed for VANETs and pave the way for the further research, a survey of the secure clustering techniques is discussed in detail in this paper. Qualitatively, as a result of highlighting various techniques of secure clustering certain conclusions are drawn which will enhance the availability and security of vehicular ad hoc networks. Nodes present in the clusters will work more efficiently and the message passing within the nodes will also get more authenticated from the cluster heads.

  3. Enhancement of Mobile Ad-hoc Network Models by Using Realistic Mobility and Access Control Mechanisms

    Sabah, Nasser M. A.

    2012-01-01

    ABSTRACT: A mobile ad-hoc network (MANET) is a collection of wireless mobile nodes forming a temporary network without the need for base stations or any other preexisting network infrastructure. Ad-hoc networking received a great interest due to its low cost, high flexibility, fast network establishment, self-reconfiguration, high speed for data services, rapid deployment and support for mobility. However, in a wireless network without a fixed infrastructure and with nodes’ mobility enabl...

  4. PERFORMANCE EVALUATION OF WORMHOLE SECURITY APPROACHES FOR AD-HOC NETWORKS

    Ismail Hababeh; Issa Khalil; Abdallah Khreishah; Samir Bataineh

    2013-01-01

    Ad-hoc networks are talented but are exposed to the risk of wormhole attacks. However, a wormhole attack can be mounted easily and forms stern menaces in networks, particularly against various ad-hoc wireless networks. The Wormhole attack distorts the network topology and decrease the network systems performance. Therefore, identifying the possibility of wormhole attacks and recognizing techniques to defend them are central to the security of wireless networks as a whole. In this study, we wi...

  5. Performance Evaluation of Two Reactive and Proactive Mobile Ad Hoc Routing Protocols

    Qazi Javed Ahmed; Mirza Aamir Mehmood; Abdul Qudoos

    2012-01-01

    Mobile ad hoc network (MANET) is an organization of static and wireless mobile nodes having no any central administration and fixed infrastructure. In MANET, each node can acts as routing and hosting device. Performance comparison and analysis has been conducted by using four different scenarios in NS2 (Network Simulator) for which two reactive (AODV, DSR) and two proactive (OLSR, DSDV) ad hoc routing protocols have been selected by utilizing 802.11 wireless standard. The main goal is to find...

  6. An Agent Based Intrusion Detection Model for Mobile Ad Hoc Networks

    Reshmi, B. M.; Manvi, S. S.; Bhagyavati

    2006-01-01

    Intrusion detection has over the last few years, assumed paramount importance within the broad realm of network security, more so in case of wireless mobile ad hoc networks. The inherently vulnerable characteristics of wireless mobile ad hoc networks make them susceptible to attacks in-spite of some security measures, and it may be too late before any counter action can take effect. As such, there is a need to complement traditional security mechanisms with efficient intrusion detection and r...

  7. Protection of an intrusion detection engine with watermarking in ad hoc networks

    Mitrokotsa, A.; Komninos, N.; Douligeris, C.

    2010-01-01

    Mobile ad hoc networks have received great attention in recent years, mainly due to the evolution of wireless networking and mobile computing hardware. Nevertheless, many inherent vulnerabilities exist in mobile ad hoc networks and their applications that affect the security of wireless transactions. As intrusion prevention mechanisms, such as encryption and authentication, are not sufficient we need a second line of defense, Intrusion Detection. In this pa-per we present an intrusion detecti...

  8. Ad hoc networks telecommunications and game theory

    Benslama, Malek; Batatia, Hadj

    2015-01-01

    Random SALOHA and CSMA protocols that are used to access MAC in ad hoc networks are very small compared to the multiple and spontaneous use of the transmission channel. So they have low immunity to the problems of packet collisions. Indeed, the transmission time is the critical factor in the operation of such networks. The simulations demonstrate the positive impact of erasure codes on the throughput of the transmission in ad hoc networks. However, the network still suffers from the intermittency and volatility of its efficiency throughout its operation, and it switches quickly to the satura

  9. TRUST ORIENTED SECURITY FRAMEWORK FOR AD HOC NETWORK

    Amandeep Verma

    2012-05-01

    Full Text Available An ad hoc network is a group of wireless mobile hosts that are connected momentarily through wireless connections in the dearth of any centralized control or some supporting services. The mobile ad hoc network is at risk by its environment because of the vulnerabilities at channel and node level. The conventional security mechanisms deals with only protecting resources from unauthorized access, but are not capable to safeguard the network from who offer resources. Adding trust to the on hand security infrastructures would improvise the security of these environments. A trust oriented security framework for adhoc network using ontological engineering approach is proposed by modeling ad hoc network, the OLSR (Optimized Link State Routing protocol and trust model as OWL (Ontology Web language ontologies, which are integrated using Jena. In this model, a trustor can calculate its trust about trustee and use the calculated trust values to make decisions depending on the context of the application or interaction about granting or rejecting it. A number of experiments with a potential implementation of suggested framework are performed to validate the characteristics of a trust oriented model suggested by the literature by this framework

  10. Node Disjoint-Virtual Circuit Approach in Ad Hoc On-Demand Multipath Distance Vector Routing to offer Quality of Service in Ad Hoc Networks

    B.SREEDEVI,

    2011-04-01

    Full Text Available Multi-path routing represents a promising routing method for wireless mobile ad hoc networks. Multipath routing achieves load balancing and is more resilient to route failures. Numerous multipath routing protocols have been proposed for wireless ad hoc networks and the most important among them is Ad hoc On-demand Multipath Distance Vector (AOMDV. By virtual circuit approach, using the property of node disjointness, its performance is evaluated. The simulation in Network Simulator (ns2 shows that it is good in its throughput with packet delivery ratio with less delay. The results conclude that AOMDV performs well than Ad hoc On-demand Distance Vector (AODV in all above said aspects.

  11. Cognitive radio ad hoc networks (CRAHNs): Cognitive radio ad hoc networks (CRAHNs): Resource allocation techniques based on Bio-inspired computing

    Singh, Santosh Kumar

    2010-01-01

    Spectrum is a scarce commodity, and considering the spectrum scarcity faced by the wireless-based service providers led to high congestion levels. Technical inefficiencies from pooled spectrum (this is nothing but the "common carrier principle" adopted in oil/gas/electricity pipelines/networks.), since all ad hoc networks share a common pool of channels, exhausting the available channels will force ad hoc networks to block the services. Researchers found that cognitive radio (CR) technology may resolve the spectrum scarcity. CR network proved to next generation wireless communication system that proposed as a way to reuse under-utilised spectrum of licensee user (primary network) in an opportunistic and non-interfering basis. A CR is a self-configuring entity in a wireless networking that senses its environment, tracks changes, and frequently exchanges information with their networks. Adding this layer of such intelligence to the ad hoc network by looking at the overall geography of the network known as cogni...

  12. Cognitive radio ad hoc networks (CRAHNs): Cognitive radio ad hoc networks (CRAHNs): Resource allocation techniques based on Bio-inspired computing

    Singh, Santosh Kumar

    2010-01-01

    Spectrum is a scarce commodity, and considering the spectrum scarcity faced by the wireless-based service providers led to high congestion levels. Technical inefficiencies from pooled spectrum (this is nothing but the "common carrier principle" adopted in oil/gas/electricity pipelines/networks.), since all ad hoc networks share a common pool of channels, exhausting the available channels will force ad hoc networks to block the services. Researchers found that cognitive radio (CR) technology m...

  13. Probabilistic Models and Process Calculi for Mobile Ad Hoc Networks

    Song, Lei

    Due to the wide use of communicating mobile devices, mobile ad hoc networks (MANETs) have gained in popularity in recent years. In order that the devices communicate properly, many protocols have been proposed working at different levels. Devices in an MANET are not stationary but may keep moving......, thus the network topology may undergo constant changes. Moreover the devices in an MANET are loosely connected not depending on pre-installed infrastructure or central control components, they exchange messages via wireless connections which are less reliable compared to wired connections. Therefore...... issues in MANETs e.g. mobility and unreliable connections. Specially speaking, 1. We first propose a discrete probabilistic process calculus with which we can model in an MANET that the wireless connection is not reliable, and the network topology may undergo changes. We equip each wireless connection...

  14. Security Issues Pertaining to Ad-Hoc Networks - A Survey

    Rishu Bhatia

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available A mobile ad-hoc network (MANET is a self-configuring network of mobile routers (and associated hosts connected by wireless links—the union of which form an arbitrary topology. The routers are free to move randomly and organize themselves arbitrarily; thus, the network's wireless topology may change rapidly and unpredictably. MANETs are usually set up in situations of emergency for temporaryoperations or simply if there are no resources to set up elaborate networks. These types of networks operate in the absence of any fixed infrastructure, which makes them easy to deploy, at the same time however, due to the absence of any fixed infrastructure, it becomes difficult to make use of the existing routing techniques for network services, and this poses a number of challenges in ensuring the security of the communication, something that is not easily done as many of the demands of network security conflict with thedemands of mobile networks, mainly due to the nature of the mobile devices (e.g. low power consumption, low processing load. Many of the ad hoc routing protocols that address security issues rely on implicit trust relationships to route packets among participating nodes. Besides the general security objectives like authentication,confidentiality, integrity, availability and non-repudiation, the ad hoc routing protocols should also address location confidentiality, cooperation fairness and absence of traffic diversion. In this paper we attempt to analyze threats faced by the ad hoc network environment and provide a classification of the various security mechanisms. We analyzed the respective strengths and vulnerabilities of the existing routing protocols and suggest a broad and comprehensive framework that can provide a tangible solution.

  15. Monitoring of slope-instabilities and deformations with Micro-Electro-Mechanical-Systems (MEMS) in wireless ad-hoc Sensor Networks

    Arnhardt, C.; Fernández-Steeger, T. M.; Azzam, R.

    2009-04-01

    In most mountainous regions, landslides represent a major threat to human life, properties and infrastructures. Nowadays existing landslide monitoring systems are often characterized by high efforts in terms of purchase, installation, maintenance, manpower and material. In addition (or because of this) only small areas or selective points of the endangered zone can be observed by the system. Therefore the improvement of existing and the development of new monitoring and warning systems are of high relevance. The joint project "Sensor based Landslide Early Warning Systems" (SLEWS) deals with the development of a prototypic Alarm- and Early Warning system (EWS) for different types of landslides using low-cost micro-sensors (MEMS) integrated in a wireless sensor network (WSN). Modern so called Ad-Hoc, Multi-Hop wireless sensor networks (WSN) are characterized by a self organizing and self-healing capacity of the system (autonomous systems). The network consists of numerous individual and own energy-supply operating sensor nodes, that can send data packages from their measuring devices (here: MEMS) over other nodes (Multi-Hop) to a collection point (gateway). The gateway provides the interface to central processing and data retrieval units (PC, Laptop or server) outside the network. In order to detect and monitor the different landslide processes (like fall, topple, spreading or sliding) 3D MEMS capacitive sensors made from single silicon crystals and glass were chosen to measure acceleration, tilting and altitude changes. Based on the so called MEMS (Micro-Electro-Mechanical Systems) technology, the sensors combine very small mechanical and electronic units, sensing elements and transducers on a small microchip. The mass production of such type of sensors allows low cost applications in different areas (like automobile industries, medicine, and automation technology). Apart from the small and so space saving size and the low costs another advantage is the energy

  16. Vehicular Ad Hoc and Sensor Networks; Principles and Challenges

    Piran, Mohammad Jalil; Babu, G Praveen

    2011-01-01

    The rapid increase of vehicular traffic and congestion on the highways began hampering the safe and efficient movement of traffic. Consequently, year by year, we see the ascending rate of car accidents and casualties in most of the countries. Therefore, exploiting the new technologies, e.g. wireless sensor networks, is required as a solution of reduction of these saddening and reprehensible statistics. This has motivated us to propose a novel and comprehensive system to utilize Wireless Sensor Networks for vehicular networks. We coin the vehicular network employing wireless Sensor networks as Vehicular Ad Hoc and Sensor Network, or VASNET in short. The proposed VASNET is particularly for highway traffic .VASNET is a self-organizing Ad Hoc and sensor network comprised of a large number of sensor nodes. In VASNET there are two kinds of sensor nodes, some are embedded on the vehicles-vehicular nodes- and others are deployed in predetermined distances besides the highway road, known as Road Side Sensor nodes (RSS...

  17. Supporting Dynamic Ad hoc Collaboration Capabilities

    Agarwal, Deborah A. [Lawrence Berkeley National Lab. (LBNL), Berkeley, CA (United States); Berket, Karlo [Lawrence Berkeley National Lab. (LBNL), Berkeley, CA (United States)

    2003-07-14

    Modern HENP experiments such as CMS and Atlas involve as many as 2000 collaborators around the world. Collaborations this large will be unable to meet often enough to support working closely together. Many of the tools currently available for collaboration focus on heavy-weight applications such as videoconferencing tools. While these are important, there is a more basic need for tools that support connecting physicists to work together on an ad hoc or continuous basis. Tools that support the day-to-day connectivity and underlying needs of a group of collaborators are important for providing light-weight, non-intrusive, and flexible ways to work collaboratively. Some example tools include messaging, file-sharing, and shared plot viewers. An important component of the environment is a scalable underlying communication framework. In this paper we will describe our current progress on building a dynamic and ad hoc collaboration environment and our vision for its evolution into a HENP collaboration environment.

  18. Supporting Dynamic Ad hoc Collaboration Capabilities

    Modern HENP experiments such as CMS and Atlas involve as many as 2000 collaborators around the world. Collaborations this large will be unable to meet often enough to support working closely together. Many of the tools currently available for collaboration focus on heavy-weight applications such as videoconferencing tools. While these are important, there is a more basic need for tools that support connecting physicists to work together on an ad hoc or continuous basis. Tools that support the day-to-day connectivity and underlying needs of a group of collaborators are important for providing light-weight, non-intrusive, and flexible ways to work collaboratively. Some example tools include messaging, file-sharing, and shared plot viewers. An important component of the environment is a scalable underlying communication framework. In this paper we will describe our current progress on building a dynamic and ad hoc collaboration environment and our vision for its evolution into a HENP collaboration environment

  19. Aeronautical Ad Hoc Network for Civil Aviation

    Vey, Quentin; Pirovano, Alain; Radzik, José; Garcia, Fabien

    2014-01-01

    Aeronautical communication systems are constantly evolving in order to handle the always increasing flow of data generated by civil aviation. In this article we first present communication systems currently used for en-route aircraft. We then propose Aeronautical Ad hoc NETwork (AANET) as a complementary communication system and demonstrate its connectivity and assess the throughput by simulations based on real aircraft trajectories over the French sky and over the Atlantic ocean.

  20. MobileMAN: Mobile Metropolitan Ad hoc Networks

    Conti, Marco

    2003-01-01

    The project aims to define and develop a metropolitan area, self-organizing and totally wireless network that we call Mobile Metropolitan Ad-hoc Network (MobileMAN). In a MobileMAN the users device are the network, no infrastructure is strictly required. A MobileMAN is finalized at providing, at a low cost and where and when is needed, the communication and interaction platform for people inside a man. It will support a kind of citizens network by which people could avoid the operators infras...

  1. Studies on urban vehicular ad-hoc networks

    Zhu, Hongzi

    2013-01-01

    With the advancement of wireless technology, vehicular ad hoc networks (VANETs) are emerging as a promising approach to realizing 'smart cities' and addressing many important transportation problems such as road safety, efficiency, and convenience.This brief provides an introduction to the large trace data set collected from thousands of taxis and buses in Shanghai, the largest metropolis in China. It also presents the challenges, design issues, performance modeling and evaluation of a wide spectrum of VANET research topics, ranging from realistic vehicular mobility models and opportunistic ro

  2. GPS Based Secure Communication Strategy For Vehicular Ad Hoc Networks

    Riyaz Shaik, P. Prasanna MuraliKrishna, DR. M.V. Subhramanyam

    2012-10-01

    Full Text Available Now a day, one of the most attractive research topics in the area of Intelligent Traffic Control is Inter vehicle communication. In V2V communication or we can also call VANET i.e. Vehicular ad-hoc network; a vehicle can communicate with its neighboring vehicles even in the absence of a central Base Station. The concept of this shortest communication is to send vehicle safety messages one-to-one or one too-many vehicles via wireless connection. Such messages are generally short in length and have very short lifetime in which they have to reach at the target. The Inter-vehicle communication system is an adhoc network with high mobility and changing number of nodes, where mobile nodes animatedly create temporary networks and transferring messages from one node to others by using multiple hops due to restriction of tiny range. The routing in vehicular Ad hoc Networks (VANET has attracted many attentions during the last few years. So in this thesis we are focusing on the routing concept for the VANET i.e. Principles for routing, disintegration of the routing function and obligation. The data delivery through Vehicular Ad-hoc Networks is challenging since it must efficiently handle rapid topology changes and a fragmented network.

  3. Indoor Positioning - An Ad-Hoc Positioning System

    Mautz, Rainer

    2008-06-01

    The aim of this paper is to discuss the development of an automatic, low-cost system that exploits current or near future wireless communications technology to enable continuous tracking of the location of devices in all environments. The development of such a wireless sensor network involves system design, digital signal processing, protocol development, extraction of ranges and localisation. This paper focuses on the user requirements, system architecture and network positioning. The user requirements are presented with a focus on applications in geodesy. A high level strategy for the positioning function is presented based on an ad-hoc geodetic network positioning method including issues of accuracy, quality and reliability of the node positions. Results show that it is possible to achieve a position deviation that is of the size of the ranging error.

  4. A Channel Access Mechanism Based on Evolutionary Game in Wireless Ad Hoc Networks%无线AdHoc网络中一种基于演化博弈的信道接入机制

    李方伟; 袁迎慧; 朱江

    2015-01-01

    针对多个有限理性用户接入多个信道的无线Ad hoc网络中,如何实现系统容量最大化问题,提出了一种基于演化博弈的信道接入机制。在该机制中,为了确保用户以分布式的行为方式实现系统容量最大化,推导并定义了一种新的收益函数,并在此基础上设计了一种能以较快的速度收敛到Nash均衡解的动态信道接入算法和与之对应的动态方程。理论分析和仿真结果表明,所提出的收益函数能在基于博弈的框架下实现系统容量最大化,且与之对应的动态方程具有全局逐步稳定性,当用户发生局部的理性偏移时能保证较快收敛和较小性能偏离。%How to realize the problem of maximizing system throughput for multiple bounded rationality users accessing multiple channels in wireless Ad hoc networks, a channel access mechanism based on ev-olutionary game was proposed. In the mechanism, in order to ensure realizing the maximization of system throughput for users in a distributed behavior manner, a new reward function was deduced and defined, on this basis a dynamic channel access algorithm and corresponding dynamic equation were designed for the mechanism, which converged to Nash equilibrium with faster speed. Theoretical analysis and simula-tion results show that the proposed reward function can realize the maximization of system throughput un-der the framework of game, and the corresponding dynamic equation was globally asymptotically stable, and when user deviated because of bounded rationality, it was still able to guarantee faster convergence and smaller performance deviation.

  5. An investigation of self-organization in ad-hoc networks

    Akl, Ahmed; Gayraud, Thierry; Berthou, Pascal

    2011-01-01

    International audience Wireless Sensor Network (WSN) is an emerging special type of ad-hoc wireless networks technology. It is usually designed for special purpose applications. WSN has its own special characteristics that differentiate it from other types of wireless networks. These differences raise new challenges to be overcome; one of them is self-organization. As in any rising domain, it is essential to specifically define the meaning of new terminologies. The terms self-organizing an...

  6. Vehicular Ad Hoc and Sensor Networks: Principles and Challenges

    Mohammad Jalil Piran

    2011-06-01

    Full Text Available The rapid increase of vehicular traffic and congest ion on the highways began hampering the safe and efficient movement of traffic. Consequently, year b y year, we see the ascending rate of car accidents and casualties in most of the countries. Therefore, exp loiting the new technologies, e.g. wireless sensor networks, is required as a solution of reduction of these sad dening and reprehensible statistics. This has motiv ated us to propose a novel and comprehensive system to utilize Wireless Sensor Networks for vehicular networks. W e coin the vehicular network employing wireless Senso r networks as Vehicular Ad Hoc and Sensor Network, or VASNET in short. The proposed VASNET is particularl y for highway traffic .VASNET is a self-organizing Ad Hoc and sensor network comprised of a large number of sensor nodes. In VASNET there are two kinds of sensor nodes, some are embedded on the vehicles-veh icular nodes- and others are deployed in predetermi ned distances besides the highway road, known as Road S ide Sensor nodes (RSS. The vehicular nodes are use d to sense the velocity of the vehicle for instance. We can have some Base Stations (BS such as Police Tra ffic Station, Firefighting Group and Rescue Team. The ba se stations may be stationary or mobile. VASNET provides capability of wireless communication betwe en vehicular nodes and stationary nodes, to increas e safety and comfort for vehicles on the highway road s. In this paper we explain main fundamentals and challenges of VASNET

  7. Inter-vehicle-communications based on ad hoc networking principles. The FleetNet Project

    Franz, Walter; Hartenstein, Hannes; Mauve, Martin

    2005-01-01

    Vehicular Ad Hoc Networks (VANETs) represent an emerging topic in wireless communication and networking. VANETs are currently receiving a lot of attention due to their promise of considerably increasing safety and comfort while being on the road. High mobility, adverse channel conditions, and market introduction are some of the key challenges one has to deal with when designing these spontaneous networks. Inter-Vehicle-Communications Based on Ad Hoc Networking Principles covers results and ac...

  8. PERFORMANCE EVALUATION AND COMPARATIVE ANALYSIS OF ROUTING PROTOCOLS IN MOBILE AD-HOC NETWORK

    Chirag Jain; Vikas Raghuwanshi

    2016-01-01

    A Network which is form spontaneously by the collection of wireless nodes without any centralized administration or already existing network infrastructure called Mobile Ad-hoc Network (MANET). Performance evaluation of different Ad-Hoc networks routing protocols viz. DSDV, AODV & DSR on the basis of four parameter such as Packet delivery ratio, throughput, packet drop and routing overhead is main objective of this paper. NS-2, which is a discrete event simulation tool, is used in which T...

  9. Simulation-Based Performance Evaluation of Routing Protocols in Vehicular Ad-hoc Network

    Vaishali D. Khairnar; Kotecha, Dr. Ketan

    2013-01-01

    A Vehicular Ad-hoc Network (VANET) is a collection of wireless vehicle nodes forming a temporary network without using any centralized Road Side Unit (RSU). VANET protocols have to face high challenges due to dynamically changing topologies and symmetric links of networks. A suitable and effective routing mechanism helps to extend the successful deployment of vehicular ad-hoc networks. An attempt has been made to compare the performance of two On-demand reactive routing protocols namely AODV ...

  10. An Optimal Path Management Strategy in Mobile Ad Hoc Network Using Fuzzy and Rough Set Theory

    P. Seethalakshmi; M. J.A. Jude; Rajendran, G

    2011-01-01

    Problem statement: Mobile Ad Hoc Network (MANET) is a collection of wireless mobile nodes that dynamically forms a network. Most of the existing ad-hoc routing algorithms select the shortest path using various resources. However the selected path may not consider all the network parameters and this would result in link instability in the network. The problems with existing methods are frequent route change with respect to change in topology, congestion as result of traffic and battery limitat...

  11. Simulation study for Mobile Ad hoc Networks Using DMAC Protocol

    Vikas Sejwar

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available This paper addresses the issue of deafness problem in Mobile Ad Hoc Networks (MANETs using directional antennas. Directional antennas arebeneficial for wireless ad hoc networks consisting of a collection of wireless hosts. A suitable Medium Access Control (MAC protocol must be designed to best utilize directional antennas. Deafness is caused whentwo nodes are in ongoing transmission and a third node (Deaf Node wants to communicate with one of that node. But it get no response because transmission of two nodes are in process. Though directional antennas offer better spatial reuse, but this problem can have a serious impact on network performance. A New DMAC (Directional Medium Access Control protocol uses flags in DNAV (Directional Network Allocation Vector tables to maintain information regarding the transmissionbetween the nodes in the network and their neighbor’s location. Two performance matrices have been used to show the impact of New DMAC algorithm on Deafness problem using simulator. These are RTS Failure Ratio and RTS Retransmission due to timeout

  12. A Simulation Study: The Impact of Random and Realistic Mobility Models on the Performance of Bypass-AODV in Ad Hoc Wireless Networks

    Baroudi Uthman

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available To bring VANET into reality, it is crucial to devise routing protocols that can exploit the inherited characteristics of VANET environment to enhance the performance of the running applications. Previous studies have shown that a certain routing protocol behaves differently under different presumed mobility patterns. Bypass-AODV is a new optimization of the AODV routing protocol for mobile ad-hoc networks. It is proposed as a local recovery mechanism to enhance the performance of the AODV routing protocol. It shows outstanding performance under the Random Waypoint mobility model compared with AODV. However, Random Waypoint is a simple model that may be applicable to some scenarios but it is not sufficient to capture some important mobility characteristics of scenarios where VANETs are deployed. In this paper, we will investigate the performance of Bypass-AODV under a wide range of mobility models including other random mobility models, group mobility models, and vehicular mobility models. Simulation results show an interesting feature that is the insensitivity of Bypass-AODV to the selected random mobility model, and it has a clear performance improvement compared to AODV. For group mobility model, both protocols show a comparable performance, but for vehicular mobility models, Bypass-AODV suffers from performance degradation in high-speed conditions.

  13. Proximity Aware Routing in Ad Hoc Networks

    Valerie Alandzi

    2007-01-01

    Full Text Available Most of the existing routing protocols for ad hoc networks are designed to scale in networks of a few hundred nodes. They rely on state concerning all links of the network or links on the route between a source and a destination. This may result in poor scaling properties in larger mobile networks or when node mobility is high. Using location information to guide the routing process is one of the most often proposed means to achieve scalability in large mobile networks. However, location-based routing is difficult when there are holes in the network topology. We propose a novel position-based routing protocol called Proximity Aware Routing for Ad-hoc networks (PARA to address these issues. PARA selects the next hop of a packet based on 2-hops neighborhood information. We introduce the concept of “proximity discovery”. The knowledge of a node’s 2-hops neighborhood enables the protocol to anticipate concave nodes and helps reduce the risks that the routing protocol will reach a concave node in the network. Our simulation results show that PARA’s performance is better in sparse networks with little congestion. Moreover, PARA significantly outperforms GPSR for delivery ratio, transmission delay and path length. Our results also indicate that PARA delivers more packets than AODV under the same conditions.

  14. An implementation of traffic light system using multi-hop Ad hoc networks

    Ansari, Imran Shafique

    2009-08-01

    In ad hoc networks nodes cooperate with each other to form a temporary network without the aid of any centralized administration. No wired base station or infrastructure is supported, and each host communicates via radio packets. Each host must act as a router, since routes are mostly multi-hop, due to the limited power transmission set by government agencies, (e.g. the Federal Communication Commission (FCC), which is 1 Watt in Industrial Scientific and Medical (ISM) band. The natures of wireless mobile ad hoc networks depend on batteries or other fatiguing means for their energy. A limited energy capacity may be the most significant performance constraint. Therefore, radio resource and power management is an important issue of any wireless network. In this paper, a design for traffic light system employing ad hoc networks is proposed. The traffic light system runs automatically based on signals sent through a multi-hop ad hoc network of \\'n\\' number of nodes utilizing the Token Ring protocol, which is efficient for this application from the energy prospective. The experiment consists of a graphical user interface that simulates the traffic lights and laptops (which have wireless network adapters) are used to run the graphical user interface and are responsible for setting up the ad hoc network between them. The traffic light system has been implemented utilizing A Mesh Driver (which allows for more than one wireless device to be connected simultaneously) and Java-based client-server programs. © 2009 IEEE.

  15. An Incentive-Cooperative Forwarding Model Based on Punishment Mechanism in Wireless Ad Hoc Networks%Ad Hoc网络中基于惩罚机制的激励合作转发模型

    王博; 黄传河; 杨文忠; 但峰; 徐利亚

    2011-01-01

    Due to the limited processing ability, storage and energy of mobile nodes in wireless Ad hoc networks, nodes always conserve their scare resources to show the selfish behavior. So stimulating the cooperation behaviors among nodes to actively forward packets is becoming an important research topic. According to the idea of classic game theory, this paper firstly proposes a one-step game model to analyze the payoff matrix between neighbor nodes, and extends the model to an infinite-repeated game on cooperated forwarding packets to enhance the collaboration behavior, and illustrates three punishment strategies towards behaviors of selfish nodes (one-step punishment strategy, severe punishment strategy and a general punishment strategy), and then derives the corresponding incentive cooperation forwarding conditions. Nevertheless, in this paper, we focus on the general punishment mechanism for consideration. Finally, to verify the correctness and effectiveness of the scheme and mechanism mentioned above, this paper implements this scheme and compares its performance with classic AODV protocol by using NS2, Moreover, displays the incentive-cooperative executing process of different utilities of selfish nodes during the simulation time. Simulation results show that this scheme can enhance cooperation effectively, improve throughput among the nodes, prolong the lifetime of the network and increase the expected total payoff of all nodes.%由于Ad hoc网络中的节点受到自身处理能力、存储空间和电池能量等各种资源的限制,节点为了节省自身的宝贵资源经常会表现出自私性,因此激励自私节点之间合作转发成为Ad hoe网络重要的研究内容.为此,结合重复博弈理论的思想,首先建立邻居节点之间的单阶段博弈模型,得到对应的支付策略,并对该模型进行延伸,建立了无限重复博弈模型来增强自私节点的合作行为,提出了3种激励自私节点的惩罚策略,分析了各自激

  16. Performance Analysis of TORA & DSR Routing Protocols in Mobile Ad-hoc Networks

    Geetha, D; T SARIKA

    2013-01-01

    Mobile ad hoc network (MANET) is an autonomous system of mobile nodes connected by wireless links. Each node operates not only as an end system, but also as a router to forward packets. The nodes are free to move about and organize themselves into a network. These nodes change position frequently. The main classes of routing protocols are Proactive, Reactive and Hybrid. A Reactive (on-demand) routing strategy is a popular routing category for wireless ad hoc routing. It is a relatively new ro...

  17. Dynamic Connectivity in ALOHA Ad Hoc Networks

    Ganti, RadhaKrishna

    2008-01-01

    We consider an ad hoc network which uses multihop routing and slotted ALOHA for its MAC contention. We show that the minimum time required for a packet to reach the destination from the origin scales linearly with the distance. We define this delay as the minimum time required for a causal path to form between the source and destination. We derive the distributional properties of the connection time using ideas from first passage percolation and epidemic processes. We show that the delay scales linearly with the distance and also provide asymptotic results (with respect to time) for the positions of the nodes which are able to receive information from a transmitter located at the origin. We also provide simulation results to support the theoretical results.

  18. COMPARATIVE REVIEW FOR ROUTING PROTOCOLS IN MOBILE AD-HOC NETWORKS

    Hatem S. A. Hamatta

    2016-04-01

    Full Text Available Wireless Mobile Ad-Hoc Networks is one of the attractive research field that growing exponentially in the last decade. it surrounded by much challenges that should be solved the improve establishment of such networks. Failure of wireless link is considered as one of popular challenges faced by Mobile Ad-Hoc Networks (MANETs. As this type of networks does not require any pre-exist hardware. As well as, every node have the ability of roaming where it can be connected to other nodes dynamically. Therefore, the network internal structure will be unpredictably changed frequently according to continuous activities between nodes that simultaneously update network topology in the basis of active ad-hoc nature. This model puts the functionality of routing operation in crucial angle in the area of research under mobile adhoc network field due to highly dynamic nature. Adapting such kernel makes MANET indigence new routing techniques to settle these challenges. Thereafter, tremendous amount of routing protocols proposed to argue with ad-hoc nature. Thus, it is quite difficult to specify which protocols operate efficiently under different mobile ad-hoc scenarios. This paper examines some of the prominent routing protocols that are designed for mobile ad-hoc networks by describing their structures, operations, features and then comparing their various characteristics.

  19. TCP Issues in Mobile Ad Hoc Networks: Challenges and Solutions

    Wei-Qiang Xu; Tie-Jun Wu

    2006-01-01

    Mobile ad hoc networks (MANETs) are a kind of very complex distributed communication systems with wireless mobile nodes that can be freely and dynamically self-organized into arbitrary and temporary network topologies. MANETs inherit several limitations of wireless networks, meanwhile make new challenges arising from the specificity of MANETs, such as route failures, hidden terminals and exposed terminals. When TCP is applied in a MANET environment, a number of tough problems have to be dealt with. In this paper, a comprehensive survey on this dynamic field is given. Specifically, for the first time all factors impairing TCP performance are identified based on network protocol hierarchy, I.e., lossy wireless channel at the physical layer; excessive contention and unfair access at the MAC layer; frail routing protocol at the network layer, the MAC layer and the network layer related mobile node; unfit congestion window size at the transport layer and the transport layer related asymmetric path. How these factors degrade TCP performance is clearly explained. Then, based on how to alleviate the impact of each of these factors listed above, the existing solutions are collected as comprehensively as possible and classified into a number of categories, and their advantages and limitations are discussed. Based on the limitations of these solutions, a set of open problems for designing more robust solutions is suggested.

  20. Ad Hoc Protocols Via Multi Agent Based Tools

    Ali Bazghandi; Mehdi Bazghandi

    2011-01-01

    The purpose of this paper is investigating behaviors of Ad Hoc protocols in Agent-based simulation environments. First we bring brief introduction about agents and Ad Hoc networks. We introduce some agent-based simulation tools like NS-2. Then we focus on two protocols, which are Ad Hoc On-demand Multipath Distance Vector (AODV) and Destination Sequenced Distance Vector (DSDV). At the end, we bring simulation results and discuss about their reasons.

  1. Policy Enforcing and Revoking Mechanism on Trusted Ad Hoc Networks

    Sujatha J; Mr. Manoj Challa

    2013-01-01

    In ad hoc networking the polices are vulnerable to a wide range of security in network attacks.The design of enforcing and revoking policy mechanisms is a challenging task, especially in comparison tosecuring the ad hoc network. In this paper, the designed and implemented mechanism to provide a trustedcommunication for file sharing in ad-hoc network is explained, where the mechanism has been developedwith the help of polices where each policy is a combination of set of parameters. Simulation ...

  2. A Comparison of Routing Strategies for Vehicular Ad Hoc Networks

    Füßler, Holger; Mauve, Martin; Hartenstein, Hannes; Käsemann, Michael; Vollmer, Dieter

    2002-01-01

    On this paper we investigate the use of ad-hoc routing algorithms for the exchange of data between vehicles. There are two main aspects that are of interest in this context: the specific characteristics of ad-hoc networks formed by vehicles and the applicability of existing ad-hoc routing schemes to networks that display these characteristics. In order to address both aspects we generate realistic vehicular movement patterns of highway traffic scenarios using a well validated traffic simulati...

  3. Mobility Models for Vehicular Ad-hoc Network Simulation

    Vaishali D. Khairnar; Pradhan, S. N.

    2013-01-01

    One of the emerging applications that belong to ambient systems is to transparently and directly interconnect vehicles on roads, making an ad hoc network that enables a variety of applications through distributed software without the need of any fixed and dedicated infrastructure. The network as well as the embedded computers and sensors in the vehicle will be invisible to the driver, who will get the required services during his journey. New type of ad hoc network is the Vehicular Ad hoc Net...

  4. A mobile ad-hoc network (MANET) implementation on android

    Mohammed, Mohammed Khalid Hassan

    2014-01-01

    The continual changing of self-organizing nodes located in an infrastructure-less mesh network is called ad hoc network. The recent years have witnessed a rapid growth of interest in ad hoc networking. This research with the aid of Java Native Interface (JNI) and UNIX kernel tools for network, a method to build a Mobile Ad hoc Network (MANET) has been implemented for Android devices to provide supplementary way of communication in certain situations where network infrastructure does not exist...

  5. Distributed intrusion detection for mobile ad hoc networks

    Yi Ping; Jiang Xinghao; Wu Yue; Liu Ning

    2008-01-01

    Mobile ad hoc networking(MANET)has become an exciting and important technology in recent years,because of the rapid proliferation of wireless devices.Mobile ad hoc networks is highly vulnerable to attacks due to the open medium,dynamically changing network topology,cooperative algorithms,and lack of centralized monitoring and management point.The traditional way of protecting networks with firewalls and encryption software is no longer sufficient and effective for those features.A distributed intrusion detection approach based on timed automata is given.A cluster-based detection scheme is presented,where periodically a node is elected as the monitor node for a cluster.These monitor nodes can not only make local intrusion detection decisions,but also cooperatively take part in global intrusion detection.And then the timed automata is constructed by the way of manually abstracting the correct behaviours of the node according to the routing protocol of dynamic source routing(DSR).The monitor nodes can verify the behaviour of every nodes by timed automata,and validly detect real-time attacks without signatures of intrusion or trained data.Compared with the architecture where each node is its own IDS agent,the approach is much more efficient while maintaining the same level of effectiveness.Finally,the intrusion detection method is evaluated through simulation experiments.

  6. Scalable Overlay Multicasting in Mobile Ad Hoc Networks (SOM

    Pariza Kamboj

    2010-10-01

    Full Text Available Many crucial applications of MANETs like the battlefield, conference and disaster recovery defines the needs for group communications either one-to-many or many-to-many form. Multicast plays an important role in bandwidth scarce multihop mobile ad hoc networks comprise of limited battery power mobile nodes. Multicast protocols in MANETs generate many controls overhead for maintenance of multicast routingstructures due to frequent changes of network topology. Bigger multicast tables for the maintenance of network structures resultsin inefficient consumption of bandwidth of wireless links andbattery power of anemic mobile nodes, which in turn, pose thescalability problems as the network size is scaled up. However,many MANET applications demands scalability from time to time. Multicasting for MANETs, therefore, needs to reduce the state maintenance. As a remedy to these shortcomings, this paper roposes an overlay multicast protocol on application layer. In the proposed protocol titled “Scalable Overlay Multicasting in Mobile Ad Hoc Networks (SOM” the network nodes construct overlay hierarchical framework to reduce the protocols states and constrain their distribution within limited scope. Based on zone around each node, it constructs a virtual structure at application layer mapped with the physical topology at network layer, thus formed two levels of hierarchy. The concept of two level hierarchies reduces the protocol state maintenance and hence supports the vertical scalability. Protocol depends on the location information obtained using a distributed location service, which effectively reduces the overhead for route searching and updating the source based multicast tree.

  7. A Survey on Trust Management for Mobile Ad Hoc Networks

    K.Seshadri Ramana

    2010-04-01

    Full Text Available Mobile Ad Hoc Network (MANETs is a Collection of mobile nodes connected with wireless links.MANET has no fixed topology as the nodes are moving constantly form one place to another place. All the nodes must co-operate with each other in order to route the packets. Cooperating nodes must trust each other. In defining and managing trust in a military MANET, we must consider the interactions between the composite cognitive, social, information and communication networks, and take into account the severe resource constraints (e.g., computing power, energy, bandwidth, time, and dynamics (e.g., topology changes, mobility, node failure, propagation channel conditions. Therefore trust is important word which affects the performance of MANET. There are several protocols proposed based on the trust. This paper is a survey of trust based protocols and it proposes some new techniques on trust management in MANETs

  8. Integrating Mobile Ad Hoc Network to the Internet

    WANG Mao-ning

    2005-01-01

    A novel scheme is presented to integrate mobile ad hoc networks (MANETs) with the Internet and support mobility across wireless local area networks (WLANs) and MANETs. The mobile nodes, connected as a MANET, employ the optimize d link state routing (OLSR) protocol for routing within the MANET. Mobility management across WLANs and MANETs is achieved through the hierarchical mobile IPv6 (HMIPv6) protocol. The performance is evaluated on a HMIPv6 based test-bed composed of WLANs and MANETs. The efficiency gain obtained from using HMIPv6 in such a hybrid network is investigated. The investigation result shows that the use of HMIPv6 can achieve up to 27% gain on reducing the handoff latency when a mobile roams within a domain. Concerning the reduction of the signaling load on the Internet, the use of HMIPv6 can achieve at least a 54% gain and converges to 69%.

  9. A Survey: variants of TCP in Ad-hoc networks

    Komal Zaman

    2013-11-01

    Full Text Available MANET (Mobile Ad-hoc network forms a temporary network of wireless mobile nodes without any infrastructure where all nodes are allowed to move freely, configure themselves and interconnect with its neighbors to perform peer to peer communication and transmission. TCP (Transmission Control Protocol offers reliable, oriented connection and mechanism of end to end delivery. This article provides the review and comparison of existing variants of TCP for instance: The TCP Tahoe, The TCP Reno, The TCP New Reno, The Lite, The Sack, The TCP Vegas, Westwood and The TCP Fack. TCP’s performance depends on the type of its variants due to missing of congestion control or improper activation procedures such as Slow Start, Fast Retransmission, and Congestion Avoidance, Retransmission, Fast Recovery, Selective Acknowledgement mechanism and Congestion Control. This analysis is essential to be aware about a better TCP implementation for a specific scenario and then nominated a suitable one.

  10. Mobile Advertisement in Vehicular Ad-Hoc Networks

    Dobre, Ciprian

    2012-01-01

    Mobile Advertisement is a location-aware dissemination solution built on top of a vehicular ad-hoc network. We envision a network of WiFi access points that dynamically disseminate data to clients running on the car's smart device. The approach can be considered an alternative to the static advertisement billboards and can be useful to business companies wanting to dynamically advertise their products and offers to people driving their car. The clients can subscribe to information based on specific topics. We present design solutions that use access points as emitters for transmitting messages to wireless-enabled devices equipped on vehicles. We also present implementation details for the evaluation of the proposed solution using a simulator designed for VANET application. The results show that the application can be used for transferring a significant amount of data even under difficult conditions, such as when cars are moving at increased speeds, or the congested Wi-Fi network causes significant packet loss...