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Sample records for acutely sivagm-infected african

  1. Innate immune responses and rapid control of inflammation in African green monkeys treated or not with interferon-alpha during primary SIVagm infection.

    Béatrice Jacquelin

    2014-07-01

    Full Text Available Chronic immune activation (IA is considered as the driving force of CD4(+ T cell depletion and AIDS. Fundamental clues in the mechanisms that regulate IA could lie in natural hosts of SIV, such as African green monkeys (AGMs. Here we investigated the role of innate immune cells and IFN-α in the control of IA in AGMs. AGMs displayed significant NK cell activation upon SIVagm infection, which was correlated with the levels of IFN-α. Moreover, we detected cytotoxic NK cells in lymph nodes during the early acute phase of SIVagm infection. Both plasmacytoid and myeloid dendritic cell (pDC and mDC homing receptors were increased, but the maturation of mDCs, in particular of CD16+ mDCs, was more important than that of pDCs. Monitoring of 15 cytokines showed that those, which are known to be increased early in HIV-1/SIVmac pathogenic infections, such as IL-15, IFN-α, MCP-1 and CXCL10/IP-10, were significantly increased in AGMs as well. In contrast, cytokines generally induced in the later stage of acute pathogenic infection, such as IL-6, IL-18 and TNF-α, were less or not increased, suggesting an early control of IA. We then treated AGMs daily with high doses of IFN-α from day 9 to 24 post-infection. No impact was observed on the activation or maturation profiles of mDCs, pDCs and NK cells. There was also no major difference in T cell activation or interferon-stimulated gene (ISG expression profiles and no sign of disease progression. Thus, even after administration of high levels of IFN-α during acute infection, AGMs were still able to control IA, showing that IA control is independent of IFN-α levels. This suggests that the sustained ISG expression and IA in HIV/SIVmac infections involves non-IFN-α products.

  2. Functional cure of SIVagm infection in rhesus macaques results in complete recovery of CD4+ T cells and is reverted by CD8+ cell depletion.

    Ivona Pandrea

    2011-08-01

    Full Text Available Understanding the mechanism of infection control in elite controllers (EC may shed light on the correlates of control of disease progression in HIV infection. However, limitations have prevented a clear understanding of the mechanisms of elite controlled infection, as these studies can only be performed at randomly selected late time points in infection, after control is achieved, and the access to tissues is limited. We report that SIVagm infection is elite-controlled in rhesus macaques (RMs and therefore can be used as an animal model for EC HIV infection. A robust acute infection, with high levels of viral replication and dramatic mucosal CD4(+ T cell depletion, similar to pathogenic HIV-1/SIV infections of humans and RMs, was followed by complete and durable control of SIVagm replication, defined as: undetectable VLs in blood and tissues beginning 72 to 90 days postinoculation (pi and continuing at least 4 years; seroreversion; progressive recovery of mucosal CD4(+ T cells, with complete recovery by 4 years pi; normal levels of T cell immune activation, proliferation, and apoptosis; and no disease progression. This "functional cure" of SIVagm infection in RMs could be reverted after 4 years of control of infection by depleting CD8 cells, which resulted in transient rebounds of VLs, thus suggesting that control may be at least in part immune mediated. Viral control was independent of MHC, partial APOBEC restriction was not involved in SIVagm control in RMs and Trim5 genotypes did not impact viral replication. This new animal model of EC lentiviral infection, in which complete control can be predicted in all cases, permits research on the early events of infection in blood and tissues, before the defining characteristics of EC are evident and when host factors are actively driving the infection towards the EC status.

  3. Human rhinovirus infection in young African children with acute wheezing

    Zar Heather J

    2011-03-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Infections caused by human rhinoviruses (HRVs are important triggers of wheezing in young children. Wheezy illness has increasingly been recognised as an important cause of morbidity in African children, but there is little information on the contribution of HRV to this. The aim of this study was to determine the role of HRV as a cause of acute wheezing in South African children. Methods Two hundred and twenty children presenting consecutively at a tertiary children's hospital with a wheezing illness from May 2004 to November 2005 were prospectively enrolled. A nasal swab was taken and reverse transcription PCR used to screen the samples for HRV. The presence of human metapneumovirus, human bocavirus and human coronavirus-NL63 was assessed in all samples using PCR-based assays. A general shell vial culture using a pool of monoclonal antibodies was used to detect other common respiratory viruses on 26% of samples. Phylogenetic analysis to determine circulating HRV species was performed on a portion of HRV-positive samples. Categorical characteristics were analysed using Fisher's Exact test. Results HRV was detected in 128 (58.2% of children, most (72% of whom were under 2 years of age. Presenting symptoms between the HRV-positive and negative groups were similar. Most illness was managed with ambulatory therapy, but 45 (35% were hospitalized for treatment and 3 (2% were admitted to intensive care. There were no in-hospital deaths. All 3 species of HRV were detected with HRV-C being the most common (52% followed by HRV-A (37% and HRV-B (11%. Infection with other respiratory viruses occurred in 20/128 (16% of HRV-positive children and in 26/92 (28% of HRV-negative samples. Conclusion HRV may be the commonest viral infection in young South African children with acute wheezing. Infection is associated with mild or moderate clinical disease.

  4. [Transitory acute atrioventricular block in an African patient: consider sickle cell anemia].

    Gacon, P-H; Jourdain, P; Funck, F; Amara, W

    2012-11-01

    This case report shows a rare cardiac complication of sickle cell anemia in a young African patient which was an acute paroxysmal atrio-ventricular block. Acute paroxysmal atrioventricular block is a rare complication of polymerization of hemoglobin S during sickle cell disease. Hence, sickle cell anemia should be considered as a cause of auriculoventricular block in black African patients. Cardiac complications of sickle cell anemia are presented in this article. PMID:22980397

  5. Insuficiencia renal aguda asociada a picadura de abeja africanizada Acute renal failure secondary to africanized bee stings

    Verny Huertas-Franco

    2008-03-01

    Full Text Available Se presenta el caso de un adulto mayor diabético tipo 2, que sufrió un ataque masivo de abejas africanizadas, y llegó a la sala de emergencias tres horas después del inicio del ataque. El paciente presentó insuficiencia renal aguda por combinación de factores, y se recuperó con tratamiento de diálisis temprana. Se discuten los problemas que refieren estos pacientes, y cuál sería el manejo ideal de tales casos.This is the case of an elderly patient who suffered multiple Africanized bee stings. He developed acute renal failure as a complication. He however recovered completely after treatment with peritoneal dialysis and hemodialysis.

  6. Acute respiratory infection as a cause of non-malarial febrile illness in African children.

    Florida Muro

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available The replacement of “presumptive treatment for malaria” by “test before treat” strategies for the management of febrile illness is raising awareness of the importance of knowing more about the causes of illness in children who are suspected to have malaria but return a negative parasitological test. The most common cause of non-malarial febrile illness (NMFI in African children is respiratory tract infection. Whilst the bacterial causes of NMFI are well known, the increasing use of sensitive techniques such as polymerase chain reaction (PCR tests is revealing large numbers of viruses that are potential respiratory pathogens. However, many of these organisms are commonly present in the respiratory tract of healthy children so causality and risk factors for pneumonia remain poorly understood. Infection with a combination of viral and bacterial pathogens is increasingly recognised as important in the pathogenesis of pneumonia. Similarly, blood stream infections with organisms typically grown by aerobic culture are well known but a growing number of organisms that can be identified only by PCR, viral culture, or serology are now recognised to be common pathogens in African children. The high mortality of hospitalised children on the first or second day of admission suggests that, unless results are rapidly available, diagnostic tests to identify specific causes of illness will still be of limited use in guiding the potentially life‑saving decisions relating to initial treatment of children admitted to district hospitals in Africa with severe febrile illness and a negative test for malaria. Malaria control and the introduction of vaccines against Haemophilus influenzae type b and pneumococcal disease are contributing to improved child survival in Africa. However, increased parasitological testing for malaria is associated with increased use of antibiotics to which resistance is already high.

  7. Acute toxicity of water soluble fraction of crude oil to the early life stages of the african catfish (clarias gariepinus)

    Acute toxicity bioassay of water soluble fraction of crude oil (Escravos blend), was conducted to evaluate the toxicity on the early life stages of the African catfish (Clarias gariepinus) under static bioassay conditions. Five concentrations of water soluble fraction (WSF) of the crude oil (0, 1.25, 2.5, 5, 10 and 20%) were constituted in glass aquaria (25 cm 24 cm 10 cm). Twenty laboratory-reared frys were introduced in triplicate in each of the test aquaria and exposure conducted for 96 h. The median lethal concentration (LC/sub 50/) and the 95% confidence interval was estimated using Trimmed Spearman-Karber method. The physicochemical characteristic of the test media was also evaluated. The 96 h median lethal concentration (LC/sub 50/) at 95% confidence interval was estimated to give 2.84% (upper and lower confidence interval of 3.83% and 2.10%) of the water soluble fraction. There was no marked change in pH of the test media compared to the control. However, the dissolved oxygen content and the conductivity showed a concentration dependent decline in the test media when compared to the control. The frys were observed to be weak and swimming activities were reduced. It can be concluded from the study that the water soluble fraction of crude oil (Escravos blend) is toxic to early life stages of C. gariepinus. (author)

  8. Acute phenanthrene toxicity to juvenile diploid and triploid African catfish (Clarias gariepinus): Molecular, biochemical, and histopathological alterations.

    Karami, Ali; Romano, Nicholas; Hamzah, Hazilawati; Simpson, Stuart L; Yap, Chee Kong

    2016-05-01

    Information on the biological responses of polyploid animals towards environmental contaminants is scarce. This study aimed to compare reproductive axis-related gene expressions in the brain, plasma biochemical responses, and the liver and gill histopathological alterations in diploid and triploid full-sibling juvenile African catfish (Clarias gariepinus). Fish were exposed for 96 h to one of the two waterborne phenanthrene (Phe) concentrations [mean measured (SD): 6.2 (2.4) and 76 (4.2) μg/L]. In triploids, exposure to 76 μg/L Phe increased mRNA level of fushi tarazu-factor 1 (ftz-f1). Expression of tryptophan hydroxylase2 (tph2) was also elevated in both ploidies following the exposure to 76 μg/L Phe compared to the solvent control. In triploids, 76 μg/L Phe increased plasma alkaline phosphatase (ALP) and lactate dehydrogenase (LDH) levels compared to the other Phe-exposed group. It also elevated lactate and glucose contents relative to the other groups. In diploids, however, biochemical biomarkers did not change. Phenanthrene exposures elevated glycogen contents and the prevalence of histopathological lesions in the liver and gills of both ploidies. This study showed substantial differences between diploids and triploids on biochemical and molecular biomarker responses, but similar histopathological alterations following acute Phe exposures. PMID:26845363

  9. Experimentally-induced immune activation in natural hosts of SIV induces significant increases in viral replication and CD4+ T cell depletion

    Ribeiro, Ruy M [Los Alamos National Laboratory

    2008-01-01

    Chronically SIVagm-infected African green monkeys (AGMs) have a remarkably stable non-pathogenic disease course, with levels of immune activation in chronic SIVagm infection similar to those observed in uninfected monkeys and stable viral loads (VLs) for long periods of time. In vivo administration of lipopolysaccharide (LPS) or an IL-2/diphtheria toxin fusion protein (Ontak) to chronically SIVagm-infected AGMs triggered increases in immune activation and subsequently of viral replication and depletion of intestinal CD4{sup +} T cells. Our study indicates that circulating microbial products can increase viral replication by inducing immune activation and increasing the number of viral target cells, thus demonstrating that immune activation and T cell prolifeation are key factors in AIDS pathogenesis.

  10. Sickle cell disease patients in eastern province of Saudi Arabia suffer less severe acute chest syndrome than patients with African haplotypes

    Alabdulaali M

    2007-01-01

    Full Text Available Background and Objectives : Genetic studies suggest that the sickle cell mutation has arisen on at least four separate occasions in Africa and as a fifth independent mutation in the Eastern Province of Saudi Arabia or India. The pathophysiology of sickle cell disease (SCD is essentially similar in these different areas although the frequency and severity of complications may vary between areas. The aim of this study was to evaluate the prevalence and outcome of acute chest syndrome (ACS in SCD patients from Eastern province of Saudi Arabia in comparison with patients with African haplotypes. Materials and Methods : This was a retrospective study involving 317 SCD patients who were two years or older, admitted to King Fahad Hospital Hofuf between January-May 2003 for different etiologies. Twenty six patients presented with different causes of ACS; 11 patients presented with different pathologies other than ACS, but had past history of ACS; 280 patients presented with different pathologies and never presented with ACS. Clinical features, CBC, Hb-electrophoresis, G6PD activity, cultures, chest X-ray, arterial oxygen saturation, blood transfusion rates and outcome were studied. Univariate and multiple regression analysis were carried out to evaluate influence on ACS. Comparison between SCD patients with ACS from this study and from Eastern province of Saudi Arabia to patients with African haplotypes were carried out, using data reported in the literature. Results : During the period of this study, 37 patients with new or previous episodes of ACS were studied (accounting for 11.67% of admitted SCD patients. Most of the patients with ACS had only one episode, but five patients (13.51% had had episodes or more. One patient died giving an in-hospital mortality rate of 1/26 (3.85%. Comparison of recurrence of ACS and mortality between SCD patients in Eastern province of Saudi Arabia to that of patients with African haplotype showed that recurrence is

  11. Challenges of Diagnosing Acute HIV-1 Subtype C Infection in African Women: Performance of a Clinical Algorithm and the Need for Point-of-Care Nucleic-Acid Based Testing

    Mlisana, Koleka; Sobieszczyk, Magdalena; Werner, Lise; Feinstein, Addi; van Loggerenberg, Francois; NAICKER, Nivashnee; Williamson, Carolyn; Garrett, Nigel

    2013-01-01

    Background Prompt diagnosis of acute HIV infection (AHI) benefits the individual and provides opportunities for public health intervention. The aim of this study was to describe most common signs and symptoms of AHI, correlate these with early disease progression and develop a clinical algorithm to identify acute HIV cases in resource limited setting. Methods 245 South African women at high-risk of HIV-1 were assessed for AHI and received monthly HIV-1 antibody and RNA testing. Signs and symp...

  12. Acute respiratory infection and bacteraemia as causes of non-malarial febrile illness in African children: a narrative review.

    Florida Muro; Rita Reyburn; Hugh Reyburn

    2015-01-01

    The replacement of “presumptive treatment for malaria” by “test before treat” strategies for the management of febrile illness is raising awareness of the importance of knowing more about the causes of illness in children who are suspected to have malaria but return a negative parasitological test. The most common cause of non-malarial febrile illness (NMFI) in African children is respiratory tract infection. Whilst the bacterial causes of NMFI are well known, the increasing use of sensitive ...

  13. Differences in Clinical Manifestations of Acute and Early HIV-1 Infection between HIV-1 Subtypes in African Women

    Lemonovich, Tracy L.; Watkins, Richard R.; Morrison, Charles S.; Kwok, Cynthia; Chipato, Tsungai; Musoke, Robert; Arts, Eric J; Nankya, Immaculate; Salata, Robert A.

    2015-01-01

    Little is known about the differences in clinical manifestations between women with various HIV-1 subtypes during acute (AI) and early (EI) HIV infection. In a longitudinal cohort study, clinical signs and symptoms among Uganda and Zimbabwe women with AI and EI were compared with HIV-negative controls; symptoms were assessed quarterly for 15 to 24 months. Early HIV infection was defined as the first visit during which a woman tested HIV antibody positive. Women who were HIV negative serologic...

  14. Clinical Characteristics and 30-Day Outcomes of Intermittent Hemodialysis for Acute Kidney Injury in an African Intensive Care Unit

    Arthur Kwizera; Janat Tumukunde; Lameck Ssemogerere; Emmanuel Ayebale; Peter Agaba; Jamali Yakubu; Aggrey Lubikire; Mary Nabukenya; Robert Kalyesubula

    2016-01-01

    Introduction. Acute kidney injury (AKI) is a common occurrence in the intensive care unit (ICU). Studies have looked at outcomes of renal replacement therapy using intermittent haemodialysis (IHD) in ICUs with varying results. Little is known about the outcomes of using IHD in resource-limited settings where continuous renal replacement therapy (CRRT) is limited. We sought to determine outcomes of IHD among critically ill patients admitted to a low-income country ICU. Methods. A retrospective...

  15. Clinical Characteristics and 30-Day Outcomes of Intermittent Hemodialysis for Acute Kidney Injury in an African Intensive Care Unit

    Tumukunde, Janat; Ssemogerere, Lameck; Ayebale, Emmanuel; Agaba, Peter; Yakubu, Jamali; Lubikire, Aggrey; Nabukenya, Mary

    2016-01-01

    Introduction. Acute kidney injury (AKI) is a common occurrence in the intensive care unit (ICU). Studies have looked at outcomes of renal replacement therapy using intermittent haemodialysis (IHD) in ICUs with varying results. Little is known about the outcomes of using IHD in resource-limited settings where continuous renal replacement therapy (CRRT) is limited. We sought to determine outcomes of IHD among critically ill patients admitted to a low-income country ICU. Methods. A retrospective review of patient records was conducted. Patients admitted to the ICU who underwent IHD for AKI were included in the study. Patients' demographic and clinical characteristics, cause of AKI, laboratory parameters, haemodialysis characteristics, and survival were interpreted and analyzed. Primary outcome was mortality. Results. Of 62 patients, 40 had complete records. Median age of patients was 38.5 years. Etiologic diagnoses associated with AKI included sepsis, malaria, and ARDS. Mortality was 52.5%. APACHE II (OR 4.550; 95% CI 1.2–17.5, p = 0.028), mechanical ventilation (OR 13.063; 95% CI 2.3–72, p = 0.003), and need for vasopressors (OR 16.8; 95% CI 3.4–82.6, p = 0.001) had statistically significant association with mortality. Conclusion. IHD may be a feasible alternative for RRT in critically ill haemodynamically stable patients in low resource settings where CRRT may not be available. PMID:27042657

  16. Cooking and season as risk factors for acute lower respiratory infections in African children: a cross-sectional multi-country analysis.

    Hannes Buchner

    Full Text Available Acute lower respiratory infections (ALRI are a leading cause of death among African children under five. A significant proportion of these are attributable to household air pollution from solid fuel use.We assessed the relationship between cooking practices and ALRI in pooled datasets of Demographic and Health Surveys conducted between 2000 and 2011 in countries of sub-Saharan Africa. The impacts of main cooking fuel, cooking location and stove ventilation were examined in 18 (n = 56,437, 9 (n = 23,139 and 6 countries (n = 14,561 respectively. We used a causal diagram and multivariable logistic mixed models to assess the influence of covariates at individual, regional and national levels.Main cooking fuel had a statistically significant impact on ALRI risk (p<0.0001, with season acting as an effect modifier (p = 0.034. During the rainy season, relative to clean fuels, the odds of suffering from ALRI were raised for kerosene (OR 1.64; CI: 0.99, 2.71, coal and charcoal (OR 1.54; CI: 1.21, 1.97, wood (OR 1.20; CI: 0.95, 1.51 and lower-grade biomass fuels (OR 1.49; CI: 0.93, 2.35. In contrast, during the dry season the corresponding odds were reduced for kerosene (OR 1.23; CI: 0.77, 1.95, coal and charcoal (OR 1.35; CI: 1.06, 1.72 and lower-grade biomass fuels (OR 1.07; CI: 0.69, 1.66 but increased for wood (OR 1.32; CI: 1.04, 1.66. Cooking location also emerged as a season-dependent statistically significant (p = 0.0070 determinant of ALRI, in particular cooking indoors without a separate kitchen during the rainy season (OR 1.80; CI: 1.30, 2.50. Due to infrequent use in Africa we could, however, not demonstrate an effect of stove ventilation.We found differential and season-dependent risks for different types of solid fuels and kerosene as well as cooking location on child ALRI. Future household air pollution studies should consider potential effect modification of cooking fuel by season.

  17. Benefiting Africans

    ZHANG ZHIPING

    2011-01-01

    Along with thriving Sino-African economic and trade ties,Chinese companies have attached greater importance to their social responsibility to Africans.More than 2,000 sweaters woven by Chinese mothers were sent to orphans and disabled children in Kenya and four other African countries in September.This activity was launched by Hengyuanxiang,a leading Chinese wool manufacturer.

  18. Benefiting Africans

    2011-01-01

    Along with thriving Sino-African economic and trade ties,Chinese companies have attached greater importance to their social responsibility to Africans.More than 2,000 sweaters woven by Chinese mothers were sent to orphans and disabled children in Kenya and four other African countries in September. This activity was launched by Hengyuanxiang,aleading Chinese wool manufacturer.

  19. Cancer and African Americans

    ... Population Profiles > Black/African American > Cancer Cancer and African Americans African Americans have the highest mortality rate ... 65MB] At a glance – Top Cancer Sites for African Americans (2008-2012) Cancer Incidence Rates per 100, ...

  20. Effects of acute stress on aggression and the cortisol response in the African sharptooth catfish Clarias gariepinus: differences between day and night.

    Manuel, R; Boerrigter, J G J; Cloosterman, M; Gorissen, M; Flik, G; van den Bos, R; van de Vis, H

    2016-06-01

    African sharptooth catfish Clarias gariepinus were housed under continuous dim light (1 lx) or 12L:12D (350-0 lx) cycles. The number of skin lesions, as indicator of aggressive acts, and plasma cortisol levels, as indicator of stress-axis activity, were measured at baseline as well as following a stressor (given in the light or dark phase). Results showed that (1) baseline plasma cortisol levels were not different between photoperiods, (2) the number of baseline skin lesions was highest for C. gariepinus housed under continuous dim light, (3) stressor-induced peak levels of plasma cortisol were highest in the light phase and (4) the number of skin lesions following a stressor was highest in the dark phase. The higher number of stressor-related skin lesions in the dark (active) phase suggests increased stressor-induced aggression while in the active phase. In addition, the data suggest that housing under continuous dim light does not result in higher stress-axis activity, as measured by baseline levels of cortisol, but does result in more stressor-induced aggression, as measured by the higher number of skin lesions. The latter may be related to the fact that the continuous dim light photoperiod has twice the number of dark-phase (active) hours in which stressor-induced aggression is stronger compared to the 12L:12D photoperiod, which has a light phase in which stressor-induced aggression is lower. PMID:27125325

  1. African dance

    Mumberson, Stephen

    2012-01-01

    The RE Open will be shown at the Mall Gallery London and the international section was judged by major practitioners and educators, print dealers and collectors, President of RE and Keeper of the Ashmolean Museum Dr Bren Unwin, John Purcell, Deborah Roslund, Colin Harrison, Dave Ferry, and Mark Hampson. Piece selected "African Dance" print.

  2. Challenges of diagnosing acute HIV-1 subtype C infection in African women: performance of a clinical algorithm and the need for point-of-care nucleic-acid based testing.

    Koleka Mlisana

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: Prompt diagnosis of acute HIV infection (AHI benefits the individual and provides opportunities for public health intervention. The aim of this study was to describe most common signs and symptoms of AHI, correlate these with early disease progression and develop a clinical algorithm to identify acute HIV cases in resource limited setting. METHODS: 245 South African women at high-risk of HIV-1 were assessed for AHI and received monthly HIV-1 antibody and RNA testing. Signs and symptoms at first HIV-positive visit were compared to HIV-negative visits. Logistic regression identified clinical predictors of AHI. A model-based score was assigned to each predictor to create a risk score for every woman. RESULTS: Twenty-eight women seroconverted after a total of 390 person-years of follow-up with an HIV incidence of 7.2/100 person-years (95%CI 4.5-9.8. Fifty-seven percent reported ≥1 sign or symptom at the AHI visit. Factors predictive of AHI included age <25 years (OR = 3.2; 1.4-7.1, rash (OR = 6.1; 2.4-15.4, sore throat (OR = 2.7; 1.0-7.6, weight loss (OR = 4.4; 1.5-13.4, genital ulcers (OR = 8.0; 1.6-39.5 and vaginal discharge (OR = 5.4; 1.6-18.4. A risk score of 2 correctly predicted AHI in 50.0% of cases. The number of signs and symptoms correlated with higher HIV-1 RNA at diagnosis (r = 0.63; p<0.001. CONCLUSIONS: Accurate recognition of signs and symptoms of AHI is critical for early diagnosis of HIV infection. Our algorithm may assist in risk-stratifying individuals for AHI, especially in resource-limited settings where there is no routine testing for AHI. Independent validation of the algorithm on another cohort is needed to assess its utility further. Point-of-care antigen or viral load technology is required, however, to detect asymptomatic, antibody negative cases enabling early interventions and prevention of transmission.

  3. Obesity and African Americans

    ... Data > Minority Population Profiles > Black/African American > Obesity Obesity and African Americans African American women have the ... ss6304.pdf [PDF | 3.38MB] HEALTH IMPACT OF OBESITY More than 80 percent of people with type ...

  4. Heart Disease and African Americans

    ... Minority Population Profiles > Black/African American > Heart Disease Heart Disease and African Americans Although African American adults are ... were 30 percent more likely to die from heart disease than non-Hispanic whites. African American women are ...

  5. Infant Mortality and African Americans

    ... African American > Infant Heath & Mortality Infant Mortality and African Americans African Americans have 2.2 times the infant mortality rate ... birthweight as compared to non-Hispanic white infants. African Americans had almost twice the sudden infant death syndrome ...

  6. African Americans and Glaucoma

    ... Involved News About Us Donate In This Section African Americans and Glaucoma email Send this article to ... glaucoma is the leading cause of blindness in African Americans. Half of those with glaucoma don't ...

  7. Diabetes in African Americans

    Marshall, M.

    2005-01-01

    African Americans have a high risk for type 2 diabetes. Genetic traits, the prevalence of obesity, and insulin resistance all contribute to the risk of diabetes in the African American community. African Americans have a high rate of diabetic complications, because of poor glycaemic control and racial disparities in health care in the USA. African Americans with diabetes may have an atypical presentation that simulates type 1 diabetes, but then their subsequent clinical course is typical of t...

  8. African American Suicide

    African American Suicide Fact Sheet Based on 2012 Data (2014) Overview • In 2012, 2,357 African Americans completed suicide in the U.S. Of these, ... 46 per 100,000. • The suicide rate for African Americans ages 10-19 was 2.98 per ...

  9. Acute Bronchitis

    ... of bronchitis: acute and chronic. Most cases of acute bronchitis get better within several days. But your cough ... that cause colds and the flu often cause acute bronchitis. These viruses spread through the air when people ...

  10. African Otter Workshop

    Jan Reed-Smith; Hughes Akpona; Grace Yoxon

    2016-01-01

    All concerned thought this was an excellent workshop with important progress made towards creating a viable beginning of an African Otter Network. There is a long road ahead but the 2015 African Otter Workshop is a start on developing range country partners, activists and researchers as well as collaborating on issue identification and resolution which will assist in preserving at least some refugia for Africa’s otters. A list of actions was agreed on, including the creation of an African Ott...

  11. African and non-African admixture components in African Americans and an African Caribbean population.

    Murray, Tanda; Beaty, Terri H; Mathias, Rasika A; Rafaels, Nicholas; Grant, Audrey Virginia; Faruque, Mezbah U; Watson, Harold R; Ruczinski, Ingo; Dunston, Georgia M; Barnes, Kathleen C

    2010-09-01

    Admixture is a potential source of confounding in genetic association studies, so it becomes important to detect and estimate admixture in a sample of unrelated individuals. Populations of African descent in the US and the Caribbean share similar historical backgrounds but the distributions of African admixture may differ. We selected 416 ancestry informative markers (AIMs) to estimate and compare admixture proportions using STRUCTURE in 906 unrelated African Americans (AAs) and 294 Barbadians (ACs) from a study of asthma. This analysis showed AAs on average were 72.5% African, 19.6% European and 8% Asian, while ACs were 77.4% African, 15.9% European, and 6.7% Asian which were significantly different. A principal components analysis based on these AIMs yielded one primary eigenvector that explained 54.04% of the variation and captured a gradient from West African to European admixture. This principal component was highly correlated with African vs. European ancestry as estimated by STRUCTURE (r(2)=0.992, r(2)=0.912, respectively). To investigate other African contributions to African American and Barbadian admixture, we performed PCA on approximately 14,000 (14k) genome-wide SNPs in AAs, ACs, Yorubans, Luhya and Maasai African groups, and estimated genetic distances (F(ST)). We found AAs and ACs were closest genetically (F(ST)=0.008), and both were closer to the Yorubans than the other East African populations. In our sample of individuals of African descent, approximately 400 well-defined AIMs were just as good for detecting substructure as approximately 14,000 random SNPs drawn from a genome-wide panel of markers. PMID:20717976

  12. Keeping African Masks Real

    Waddington, Susan

    2012-01-01

    Art is a good place to learn about our multicultural planet, and African masks are prized throughout the world as powerfully expressive artistic images. Unfortunately, multicultural education, especially for young children, can perpetuate stereotypes. Masks taken out of context lose their meaning and the term "African masks" suggests that there is…

  13. Empowering African States

    2011-01-01

    China helps bring lasting peace and stability to Africa African think tanks expressed a high opinion of China’s role in helping build African peace and security at the first meeting of the China-Africa Think Tanks Forum. The

  14. African Literature as Celebration.

    Achebe, Chinua

    1989-01-01

    Describes the Igbo tradition of "Mbari," a communal creative enterprise that celebrates the world and the life lived in it through art. Contrasts the cooperative, social dimension of pre-colonial African culture with the exclusion and denial of European colonialism, and sees new African literature again celebrating human presence and dignity. (AF)

  15. Acute Pancreatitis and Pregnancy

    ... Acute Pancreatitis > Acute Pancreatitis and Pregnancy test Acute Pancreatitis and Pregnancy Timothy Gardner, MD Acute pancreatitis is ... of acute pancreatitis in pregnancy. Reasons for Acute Pancreatitis and Pregnancy While acute pancreatitis is responsible for ...

  16. Bronchitis - acute

    ... sharing features on this page, please enable JavaScript. Acute bronchitis is swelling and inflammation in the main passages ... present only for a short time. Causes When acute bronchitis occurs, it almost always comes after having a ...

  17. Bronchitis - acute

    Acute bronchitis is swelling and inflammation in the main passages that carry air to the lungs. The swelling narrows ... makes it harder to breathe. Another symptom of bronchitis is a cough. Acute means the symptoms have ...

  18. Acute Bronchitis

    Bronchitis is an inflammation of the bronchial tubes, the airways that carry air to your lungs. It ... chest tightness. There are two main types of bronchitis: acute and chronic. Most cases of acute bronchitis ...

  19. African Peacekeepers in Africa

    Emmanuel, Nikolas G.

    2015-01-01

    peacekeeping operations in the region. It is important to add that the international community has frequently tried to facilitate the deployment of African armed forces with aid and training. From this reality, the following study goes beyond the current literature by focusing on the international factors...... behind African participation in United Nations (UN) peacekeeping operations in Africa. In doing so, this research focuses on US military aid and foreign troop training from 2002 to 2012, and its impact on African deployments into UN peacekeeping missions in Africa. As can be expected, such third...

  20. Reading the African context

    Musonda Bwalya

    2012-01-01

    There is so much alienation, pain and suffering in our today�s world. In this vein, African Christianity, a voice amongst many voices, should seek to be a transformational religion for the whole of life, affecting all facets of human life towards a fuller life of all in Africa. This article sought to highlight and point to some of the major societal challenges in the African context which African Christianity, as a life-affirming religion, should continue to embrace, re-embrace and engag...

  1. Acute pancreatitis

    Bo-Guang Fan; Åke Andrén-Sandberg

    2010-01-01

    Background : Acute pancreatitis continues to be a serious illness, and the patients with acute pancreatitis are at risk to develop different complications from ongoing pancreatic inflammation. Aims : The present review is to highlight the classification, treatment and prognosis of acute pancreatitis. Material & Methods : We reviewed the English-language literature (Medline) addressing pancreatitis. Results : Acute pancreatitis is frequently caused by gallstone disease or excess alcohol ingest...

  2. Acute pancreatitis

    Bo-Guang Fan; Åke Andrén-Sandberg

    2010-01-01

    Background: Acute pancreatitis continues to be a serious illness, and the patients with acute pancreatitis are at risk to develop different complications from ongoing pancreatic inflammation. Aims: The present review is to highlight the classification, treatment and prognosis of acute pancreatitis. Material & Methods: We reviewed the English-language literature (Medline) addressing pancreatitis. Results: Acute pancreatitis is frequently caused by gallstone disease or excess alcohol ingestion....

  3. Capitalism and African business cultures

    Taylor, Scott D.

    2014-01-01

    Scholars and practitioners once commonly linked 'African culture' to a distinctive 'African capitalism', at odds with genuine capitalism and the demands of modern business. Yet contemporary African business cultures reveal that a capitalist ethos has taken hold within both state and society. The success and visibility of an emergent, and celebrated, class of African big business reveals that business and profit are culturally acceptable. Existing theories of African capitalism are ill-equippe...

  4. Acute pancreatitis

    Bo-Guang Fan

    2010-05-01

    Full Text Available Background: Acute pancreatitis continues to be a serious illness, and the patients with acute pancreatitis are at risk to develop different complications from ongoing pancreatic inflammation. Aims: The present review is to highlight the classification, treatment and prognosis of acute pancreatitis. Material & Methods: We reviewed the English-language literature (Medline addressing pancreatitis. Results: Acute pancreatitis is frequently caused by gallstone disease or excess alcohol ingestion. There are a number of important issues regarding clinical highlights in the classification, treatment and prognosis of acute pancreatitis, and treatment options for complications of acute pancreatitis including pancreatic pseudocysts. Conclusions: Multidisciplinary approach should be used for the management of the patient with acute pancreatitis.

  5. Acute pancreatitis

    Bo-Guang Fan

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available Background : Acute pancreatitis continues to be a serious illness, and the patients with acute pancreatitis are at risk to develop different complications from ongoing pancreatic inflammation. Aims : The present review is to highlight the classification, treatment and prognosis of acute pancreatitis. Material & Methods : We reviewed the English-language literature (Medline addressing pancreatitis. Results : Acute pancreatitis is frequently caused by gallstone disease or excess alcohol ingestion. There are a number of important issues regarding clinical highlights in the classification, treatment and prognosis of acute pancreatitis, and treatment options for complications of acute pancreatitis including pancreatic pseudocysts. Conclusions : Multidisciplinary approach should be used for the management of the patient with acute pancreatitis.

  6. The uncoupling protein 1 gene, UCP1, is expressed in mammalian islet cells and associated with acute insulin response to glucose in African American families from the IRAS Family Study

    Sharma Arun J

    2007-03-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Variants of uncoupling protein genes UCP1 and UCP2 have been associated with a range of traits. We wished to evaluate contributions of known UCP1 and UCP2 variants to metabolic traits in the Insulin Resistance and Atherosclerosis (IRAS Family Study. Methods We genotyped five promoter or coding single nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs in 239 African American (AA participants and 583 Hispanic participants from San Antonio (SA and San Luis Valley. Generalized estimating equations using a sandwich estimator of the variance and exchangeable correlation to account for familial correlation were computed for the test of genotypic association, and dominant, additive and recessive models. Tests were adjusted for age, gender and BMI (glucose homeostasis and lipid traits, or age and gender (obesity traits, and empirical P-values estimated using a gene dropping approach. Results UCP1 A-3826G was associated with AIRg in AA (P = 0.006 and approached significance in Hispanic families (P = 0.054; and with HDL-C levels in SA families (P = 0.0004. Although UCP1 expression is reported to be restricted to adipose tissue, RT-PCR indicated that UCP1 is expressed in human pancreas and MIN-6 cells, and immunohistochemistry demonstrated co-localization of UCP1 protein with insulin in human islets. UCP2 A55V was associated with waist circumference (P = 0.045 in AA, and BMI in SA (P = 0.018; and UCP2 G-866A with waist-to-hip ratio in AA (P = 0.016. Conclusion This study suggests a functional variant of UCP1 contributes to the variance of AIRg in an AA population; the plausibility of this unexpected association is supported by the novel finding that UCP1 is expressed in islets.

  7. Characterizing the admixed African ancestry of African Americans

    Zakharia, Fouad; Basu, Analabha; Absher, Devin; Assimes, Themistocles L.; Go, Alan S.; Hlatky, Mark A.; Iribarren, Carlos; Knowles, Joshua W.; Li, Jun; Narasimhan, Balasubramanian; Sidney, Steven; Southwick, Audrey; Myers, Richard M.; Quertermous, Thomas; Risch, Neil

    2009-01-01

    Abstract Background Accurate, high-throughput genotyping allows the fine characterization of genetic ancestry. Here we applied recently developed statistical and computational techniques to the question of African ancestry in African Americans by using data on more than 450,000 single-nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs) genotyped in 94 Africans of diverse geographic origins included in the...

  8. Cardiomyopathy in captive African hedgehogs (Atelerix albiventris).

    Raymond, J T; Garner, M M

    2000-09-01

    From 1994 to 1999, 16 captive African hedgehogs (Atelerix albiventris), from among 42 necropsy cases, were diagnosed with cardiomyopathy. The incidence of cardiomyopathy in this study population was 38%. Fourteen of 16 hedgehogs with cardiomyopathy were males and all hedgehogs were adult (>1 year old). Nine hedgehogs exhibited 1 or more of the following clinical signs before death: heart murmur, lethargy, icterus, moist rales, anorexia, dyspnea, dehydration, and weight loss. The remaining 7 hedgehogs died without premonitory clinical signs. Gross findings were cardiomegaly (6 cases), hepatomegaly (5 cases), pulmonary edema (5 cases), pulmonary congestion (4 cases), hydrothorax (3 cases), pulmonary infarct (1 case), renal infarcts (1 case), ascites (1 case), and 5 cases showed no changes. Histologic lesions were found mainly within the left ventricular myocardium and consisted primarily of myodegeneration, myonecrosis, atrophy, hypertrophy, and disarray of myofibers. All hedgehogs with cardiomyopathy had myocardial fibrosis, myocardial edema, or both. Other common histopathologic findings were acute and chronic passive congestion of the lungs, acute passive congestion of the liver, renal tubular necrosis, vascular thrombosis, splenic extramedullary hematopoiesis, and hepatic lipidosis. This is the first report of cardiomyopathy in African hedgehogs. PMID:11021439

  9. African-Americans and Alzheimer's

    ... Share Plus on Google Plus African-Americans and Alzheimer's alz.org | IHaveAlz Introduction 10 Warning Signs Brain ... African-Americans are at a higher risk for Alzheimer's disease. Many Americans dismiss the warning signs of ...

  10. African Cultural Astronomy

    Holbrook, Jarita C; Medupe, R. Thebe; Current Archaeoastronomy and Ethnoastronomy research in Africa

    2008-01-01

    Astronomy is the science of studying the sky using telescopes and light collectors such as photographic plates or CCD detectors. However, people have always studied the sky and continue to study the sky without the aid of instruments this is the realm of cultural astronomy. This is the first scholarly collection of articles focused on the cultural astronomy of Africans. It weaves together astronomy, anthropology, and Africa. The volume includes African myths and legends about the sky, alignments to celestial bodies found at archaeological sites and at places of worship, rock art with celestial imagery, and scientific thinking revealed in local astronomy traditions including ethnomathematics and the creation of calendars. Authors include astronomers Kim Malville, Johnson Urama, and Thebe Medupe; archaeologist Felix Chami, and geographer Michael Bonine, and many new authors. As an emerging subfield of cultural astronomy, African cultural astronomy researchers are focused on training students specifically for do...

  11. African names for American plants

    Andel, van T.R.

    2015-01-01

    African slaves brought plant knowledge to the New World, sometimes applying it to related plants they found there and sometimes bringing Old World plants with them. By tracing the linguistic parallels between names for plants in African languages and in communities descended from African slaves, pie

  12. The Struggles over African Languages

    Maseko, Pam; Vale, Peter

    2016-01-01

    In this interview, African Language expert Pam Maseko speaks of her own background and her first encounter with culture outside of her mother tongue, isiXhosa. A statistical breakdown of South African languages is provided as background. She discusses Western (originally missionary) codification of African languages and suggests that this approach…

  13. African agricultural trade

    Jensen, Hans Grinsted; Sandrey, Ron

    2015-01-01

    This article starts with a profile of African agricultural trade. Using the pre-release version 9.2 of the GTAP database, we then show that the results for tariff elimination on intra-African trade are promising, but these tariff barriers are not as significant as the various trade-related barriers...... elimination, non-tariff barrier reductions and time in transit cost reductions are likely to be cumulative and would generate very large gains to Africa. The policy implications are clear: while cooperation will enhance the gains, much of the benefits will result from unilateral actions and regional...

  14. African Stock Market Performance Dynamics: A Multidimensional Convergence Assessment

    Simplice A, Asongu

    2012-01-01

    This paper dissects with great acuteness, the issues of convergence in financial performance dynamics in the African continent through the lenses of stock market capitalization, value traded, turnover and number of listed companies. The empirical evidence is premised on 11 homogenous panels based on regions (sub-Saharan and North Africa), income-levels (Low, Middle, Lower-middle and Upper-middle), legal-origins (English common-law and French civil-law) and religious dominations (Christianity ...

  15. Deepening African Ties

    2007-01-01

    Chinese President Hu Jintao has just embarked on his state visits to eight African countries that will take him to both the northern and southern tips of the continent. This is his first trip abroad this year, and also his third visit to Africa

  16. East African institutions

    Nordby, Johannes Riber; Jacobsen, Katja

    For the past decade security in East Africa has gained focus internationally. However there is a growing ambition among African states to handle such issues by themselves, sometimes through regional institutions. This has been supported by many Western states but potential risks are often forgotten....

  17. African Women Writing Resistance

    Jennifer Browdy de Hernandez; Pauline Dongala; Omotayo; Jolaosho; Anne Serafin

    2011-01-01

    AFRICAN Women Writing Resistance is the first transnational anthology to focus on women's strategies of resistance to the challenges they face in Africa today.The anthology brings together personal narratives,testimony,interviews,short stories,poetry,performance scripts,folktales and lyrics.

  18. African Women Writing Resistance

    Jennifer; Browdy; de; Hernandez; Pauline; Dongala; Omotayo; Jolaosho; Anne; Serafin

    2011-01-01

    An Anthology of Contemporary Voices AFRICAN Women Writing Resistance is the first transnational anthology to focus on women’s strategies of resistance to the challenges they face in Africa today.The anthology brings together personal narratives,testimony,interviews, short stories,po-

  19. West African Antislavery Movements

    Hahonou, Eric Komlavi; Pelckmans, Lotte

    2011-01-01

    In the context of liberalization of West African political regimes, the upsurge of audacious political entrepreneurs who want to end chattel slavery in their nation-state, resulted in the legal criminalisation of slavery in both Mauritania (2007) and Niger (2003) and in a proposal to revise the...... cultures (or ‘mentalities’) go hand in hand....

  20. Immunizations and African Americans

    ... Program Grants Other Grants Planning and Evaluation Grantee Best Practices Black/African American Asthma Cancer Chronic Liver Disease ... 13 to 17 years who ever received the human papillomavirus (HPV) vaccination, 2014 - Males # doses ... 240-453-2882 Office of Minority Health Resource Center Toll Free: 1-800-444-6472 / Fax: ...

  1. The African Union

    Mandrup, Thomas; Mandrup, Bjørn

    2009-01-01

    . Moreover, the ‘African Security Architecture’, of which it is the central component, also includes sub-regional organisations to which responsibility is to be devolved for dealing with armed confl ict and other matters. These so-called Regional Economic Communities (RECs) are, likewise, constantly changing...

  2. African tick bite fever

    Johansen, Jakob Aaquist; Thybo, Søren

    2011-01-01

    The incident of spotted fever imported to Denmark is unknown. We present a classic case of African Tick Bite Fever (ATBF) to highlight a disease, which frequently infects wildlife enthusiasts and hunters on vacation in South Africa. ATBF has a good prognosis and is easily treated with doxycyclin...

  3. Female genital mutilation in African and African American women's literature

    Darja Marinšek

    2007-12-01

    Full Text Available The article builds on the existing dispute between African and African American women writers on the competence of writing about female genital mutilation (FGM, and tries to determine the existence and nature of the differences between the writings of these two groups. The author uses comparative analysis of two popular African and African American novels, comparing their ways of describing FGM, its causes and consequences, the level ob objectivity and the style of the narrations.This is followed by a discussion on the reasons for such differences, incorporating a larger circle of both African and African American women authors, at the same time analysing the deviance within the two groups. While the differences between African American writers are not that great, as they mostly fail to present the issue from different points of view, which is often the result of their lack of direct knowledge of the topic, African authors' writing is in itself discovered to be ambivalent and not at all invariable. The reasons for such ambivalence are then discussed in greater context, focusing on the effect of the authors' personal contact with circumcision as well as their knowledge and acceptance of Western values. The author concludes by establishing the African ambivalent attitude towards FGM, which includes different aspects of the issue, as the most significant difference between their and African American writers' description of this practice.

  4. Acute pancreatitis

    ... page: //medlineplus.gov/ency/article/000287.htm Acute pancreatitis To use the sharing features on this page, ... fatty foods after the attack has improved. Outlook (Prognosis) Most cases go away in a week. However, ...

  5. Acute Pericarditis

    ... Sugar Control Helps Fight Diabetic Eye Disease Are 'Workaholics' Prone to OCD, Anxiety? ALL NEWS > Resources First ... cancer, or heart surgery, the fluid is blood. Causes Acute pericarditis usually results from infection or other ...

  6. Acute dyspnea

    Radiodiagnosis is applied to determine the causes of acute dyspnea. Acute dyspnea is shown to aggravate the course of pulmonary diseases (bronchial asthma, obstructive bronchitis, pulmonary edema, throboembolism of pulmonary arteries etc) and cardiovascular diseases (desiseas of myocardium). The main tasks of radiodiagnosis are to determine volume and state of the lungs, localization and type of pulmonary injuries, to verify heart disease and to reveal concomitant complications

  7. Bronchitis (acute)

    Wark, Peter

    2008-01-01

    Acute bronchitis, with transient inflammation of the trachea and major bronchi, affects over 40/1000 adults a year in the UK. The causes are usually considered to be infective, but only around half of people have identifiable pathogens.The role of smoking or environmental tobacco smoke inhalation in predisposing to acute bronchitis is unclear.A third of people may have longer-term symptoms or recurrence.

  8. Leadership in the African context

    M. Masango

    2002-08-01

    Full Text Available The Western world has always viewed the African continent as plagued by corruption; dictatorship; military coups; rebellious leaders; greediness; misuse of power; and incompetent, politically unstable leaders - in effect, suspicious leaders who undermine their own democracies. This paper analyzes African leadership and its impact by concentrating on three historical eras, namely; the African Religious era; the Christian era, and the era of Globalization. These affected African leadership. In addition, many brilliant minds left the continent in search of greener pastures. A review of these three eras will help us understand how leadership shifted from African values into Western concepts. The role of missionaries lead African people to live with both an African and a Western concept of life. In spite of the above problems, our past leaders did their best in addressing the difficulties they faced during the three eras. African concepts of leadership were often regarded as barbaric and uncultured. Structures were evaluated by Western standards. Due to globalisation, African leaders, through programmes like NEPAD, are going back to basics, drawing on African concepts of unity among its leadership. Effectiveness or life-giving leadership is emerging and empowering villagers/communities in the continent. This type of leadership is innovative and has brought new hope for the continent.

  9. The genetic structure and history of Africans and African Americans

    Tishkoff, Sarah A; Reed, Floyd A; Friedlaender, Françoise R; Ehret, Christopher; Ranciaro, Alessia; Froment, Alain; Hirbo, Jibril B.; Awomoyi, Agnes A; Bodo, Jean-Marie; Doumbo, Ogobara; Ibrahim, Muntaser; Juma, Abdalla T; Kotze, Maritha J.; Lema, Godfrey; Moore, Jason H.

    2009-01-01

    Africa is the source of all modern humans, but characterization of genetic variation and of relationships among populations across the continent has been enigmatic. We studied 121 African populations, four African American populations, and 60 non-African populations for patterns of variation at 1327 nuclear microsatellite and insertion/deletion markers. We identified 14 ancestral population clusters in Africa that correlate with self-described ethnicity and shared cultural and/or linguistic p...

  10. Steps to African Development

    2011-01-01

    The development of Africa is vital to the world’s sustainable development.However,African countries still face key challenges in achieving the meaningful expansion of their economies.At the High-Level Symposium on China-Africa Investment Cooperation in Xiamen,southeast China’s Fujian Province,held from September 8 to 10,Chen Deming,Minister of Commerce of China,elaborates on these challenges and sees

  11. Biofuels: The African experience

    Carrillo, L.A.; Nkolo, M. [German Agency for Technical Cooperation GTZ, Delegation Regionale des Eaux et Forets, Bertoua (Cameroon)

    2009-07-01

    In July 2006, the African Non-Petroleum Producers Association was formed in Senegal, Africa to develop alternative energy sources. It involved 13 of Africa's poorest nations, who joined forces to become global suppliers of biofuels, and some have set mandatory mixing of ethanol into gasoline. Although several biofuel production projects have been launched in western Africa, many of the new projects and plantations have not yet reached maturity due to the time lag between plantation and full-scale production, which is about 6 years. Major projects that could be producing significant quantities of biofuels in the next few years are not yet reflected in production statistics. Although ethanol is not yet being produced in large quantities in Africa, short-term opportunities exist. Countries in the South African Development Community are using molasses from the sugar can industry to produce ethanol. Biodiesel is also not currently produced on a significant scale in western Africa, but several other countries are gaining experience with cotton and palm oil resources, and Jatropha. Biomass residue also represents a large potential for all African countries involved in timber production. Unlike biodiesel production, land use conflicts are not an issue with biomass residue production.

  12. Diversity among African pygmies.

    Fernando V Ramírez Rozzi

    Full Text Available Although dissimilarities in cranial and post-cranial morphology among African pygmies groups have been recognized, comparative studies on skull morphology usually pull all pygmies together assuming that morphological characters are similar among them and different with respect to other populations. The main aim of this study is to compare cranial morphology between African pygmies and non-pygmies populations from Equatorial Africa derived from both the Eastern and the Western regions in order to test if the greatest morphological difference is obtained in the comparison between pygmies and non-pygmies. Thirty three-dimensional (3D landmarks registered with Microscribe in four cranial samples (Western and Eastern pygmies and non-pygmies were obtained. Multivariate analysis (generalized Procrustes analysis, Mahalanobis distances, multivariate regression and complementary dimensions of size were evaluated with ANOVA and post hoc LSD. Results suggest that important cranial shape differentiation does occur between pygmies and non-pygmies but also between Eastern and Western populations and that size changes and allometries do not affect similarly Eastern and Western pygmies. Therefore, our findings raise serious doubt about the fact to consider African pygmies as a homogenous group in studies on skull morphology. Differences in cranial morphology among pygmies would suggest differentiation after divergence. Although not directly related to skull differentiation, the diversity among pygmies would probably suggest that the process responsible for reduced stature occurred after the split of the ancestors of modern Eastern and Western pygmies.

  13. Acute myelogenous leukemia (AML) - children

    Acute myelogenous leukemia - children; AML; Acute myeloid leukemia - children; Acute granulocytic leukemia - children; Acute myeloblastic leukemia - children; Acute non-lymphocytic leukemia (ANLL) - children

  14. Institution Building for African Regionalism

    Khadiagala, Gilbert M.

    2011-01-01

    Since the 1960s, African states have embraced regional integration as a vital mechanism for political cooperation and for pooling resources to overcome problems of small and fragmented economies. In building meaningful institutions for regionalism, however, Africans have faced the challenges of reconciling the diversities of culture, geography, and politics. As a result, African regional institutions are characterized by multiple and competing mandates and weak institutionalization. This stud...

  15. African-Americans and Heart Disease, Stroke

    ... Pressure High Blood Pressure Tools & Resources Stroke More African-Americans and Heart Disease, Stroke Updated:Apr 18, ... of getting those diseases are even higher for African-Americans. The good news is, African-Americans can ...

  16. Chronic Liver Disease and African Americans

    ... American > Chronic Liver Disease Chronic Liver Disease and African Americans Among African Americans, chronic liver disease is a ... white women. At a glance – Cancer Rates for African Americans (2008-2012) Cancer Incidence Rates per 100,000 – ...

  17. The African Diaspora, Civil Society and African Integration

    Opoku-Mensah, Paul Yaw

    This paper, a work-in-progress, makes a contribution to the discussions on the appropriate modalities for incorporating the African diaspora in the African integration project.  It argues that the most appropriate entry points for incorporating the African diaspora into the integration project...... might not, necessarily, be in the formal political structures, although this is important. To the contrary, the most effective and sustainable might be within civil society---that is the links between the peoples and organizations of Africa and the diaspora. Using the case of the African academy-- as an...... institution of civil society--- the paper outlines a conceptual framework for incorporating the diaspora into the African integration project....

  18. Phytogeography of African Commelinaceae

    R. B. Faden

    1983-12-01

    Full Text Available Africa (including Madagascar has nearly twice as many species of Commelinaceae as any other continent (approximately 270 species, or about 40% of the total in the family. Of the 17 genera which are native, seven (Anthericopsis, Coleotrype, Palisota, Polyspatha, Pseudoparis, Stanfieldiella and  Triceratella are endemic, the highest percentage generic endemism of any continent. Within Africa gcneric diversity is slightly higher in western than in eastern tropical floras. Species richness, however, is greatest in eastern Africa, mainly due to a high diversity of species of Commelina and Aneilema. Africa shares more genera with Asia (nine than with any other continent. Only one African genus, Buforrestia, is neither endemic nor shared with Asia. Its western African/northeastern South American distribution is unique in the family. Besides Buforrestia, only five other genera of Commelinaceae (out of a total of 50 in the family, occur in both the Old and New Worlds. These genera.  Aneilema, Commelina, Floscopa, Murdannia and  Pollia are all very widespread in the Old World, occurring in Australia and Asia in addition to Africa (both continental and Madagascar. Madagascar is relatively poor in species (31. but these include the endemic Madagascan genus Pseudoparis, the sole African species of Rhopalephora, and the largest number of species of the Afro-Malagasy endemic genus Coleotrype. The high rate of generic endemism of Commelinaceae in Africa probably indicates that Africa was one of the ancient centres of diversity for the family. The high species diversity is more likely due to relatively recent radiations by genera pre-adapted to survival in non-forest habitats. The occurrence of only a small number of genera on both sides of the Atlantic suggests that the Commelinaceae have been evolving independently in the eastern and western hemispheres for a long period.

  19. Booster for African Economy

    2011-01-01

    China’s investment is fueling African growth SINCE 2000,driven by the Forum on China-Africa Cooperation,China’s foreign direct investment(FDI) in Africa has been growing rapidly.In the face of the global financial crisis,which led to global FDI flows falling,China’s investment in Africa has been on a steady, upbeat rise without any interruption.In 2009,China’s direct investment in Africa reached $1.44 billion,of which nonfinancial direct investment soared by 55.4 percent from the previous year.Africa

  20. African Conservation Tillage Network Website

    African Conservation Tillage Network (ACT)

    2009-01-01

    Metadata only record Maintained by the African Conservation Tillage Network (ACT), this website provides information on Conservation Agriculture in an African context and gathered by stakeholders (NGOs) native to the continent. Resources on projects, practices, reports, and training courses are provided.

  1. A Call to African Unity

    Muchie, Mammo

    This month's paper, written by Professor Mammo Muchie, examines the necessity for a pan-African monetary union.  Professor Muchie argues for the "the creation of a unified African strategy and unified approach to dealing with the outside donor world by neutralising the poison of money as honey th...

  2. African Diaspora Associations in Denmark

    Vammen, Ida Marie; Trans, Lars Ove

    2011-01-01

    Since the early 1990s, an increasing number of African migrants have come to Denmark, where they have formed a large number of migrant associations. This chapter presents selected findings from a comprehensive survey of African diaspora associations in Denmark and focuses specifically on their...

  3. Bioenergy and African transformation.

    Lynd, Lee R; Sow, Mariam; Chimphango, Annie Fa; Cortez, Luis Ab; Brito Cruz, Carlos H; Elmissiry, Mosad; Laser, Mark; Mayaki, Ibrahim A; Moraes, Marcia Afd; Nogueira, Luiz Ah; Wolfaardt, Gideon M; Woods, Jeremy; van Zyl, Willem H

    2015-01-01

    Among the world's continents, Africa has the highest incidence of food insecurity and poverty and the highest rates of population growth. Yet Africa also has the most arable land, the lowest crop yields, and by far the most plentiful land resources relative to energy demand. It is thus of interest to examine the potential of expanded modern bioenergy production in Africa. Here we consider bioenergy as an enabler for development, and provide an overview of modern bioenergy technologies with a comment on application in an Africa context. Experience with bioenergy in Africa offers evidence of social benefits and also some important lessons. In Brazil, social development, agricultural development and food security, and bioenergy development have been synergistic rather than antagonistic. Realizing similar success in African countries will require clear vision, good governance, and adaptation of technologies, knowledge, and business models to myriad local circumstances. Strategies for integrated production of food crops, livestock, and bioenergy are potentially attractive and offer an alternative to an agricultural model featuring specialized land use. If done thoughtfully, there is considerable evidence that food security and economic development in Africa can be addressed more effectively with modern bioenergy than without it. Modern bioenergy can be an agent of African transformation, with potential social benefits accruing to multiple sectors and extending well beyond energy supply per se. Potential negative impacts also cut across sectors. Thus, institutionally inclusive multi-sector legislative structures will be more effective at maximizing the social benefits of bioenergy compared to institutionally exclusive, single-sector structures. PMID:25709714

  4. Court stories in selected African short narratives

    E. Yewah

    1994-01-01

    This article attempts to cross-examine African Literature and African costumary, Islamic and inherited colonial laws. It opens a new topic in the study of African literature by showing how legal discourses are inscribed in certain African narratives and how these discourses link the narratives to the overall context of their production.

  5. 2002 Sino-African SHP Training Workshop

    2002-01-01

    The 2002 Sino-African SHP Training Workshop was held from 10 May to 18 June 2002 at Hangzhou Regional Center for Small Hydro Power(HRC). Attended altogether 9 participants from 5 African countries, i.e. Burundi, Nigeria, South African, Tanzania and Tunisia. This is the second training workshop on SHP that HRC conducted for African countries.

  6. Assimilation Differences among Africans in America.

    Dodoo, F. Nii-Amoo

    1997-01-01

    Census data (1990) indicate that male African immigrants earn more than their Caribbean-born counterparts or native-born African Americans, but controlling for relevant earnings-related endowments erases the African advantage and elevates Caribbean earnings above those of the other groups. Also, African (but not Caribbean) university degree…

  7. Acute pancreatitis

    Al Mofleh Ibrahim

    1997-01-01

    Full Text Available The past few years have witnessed a tremendous progress in our knowledge regarding the pathogenesis, diagnosis, prognostic evaluation and classification of acute pancreatitis. The role of ischemia, lysosomal enzymes, oxygen free radicals, polymorphnuclear cells-byproducts and inflammatory mediators in the pathogenesis of pancreatic necrosis and multiple organ failure has been emphasized. Furthermore, the recent knowledge about agents infecting pancreatic necrosis, routes of infection, bacteriological examination of fine needle aspirate and appropriate antibiotics have changed the concept of acute pancreatitis. New diagnostic tests such as rapid urinary trypsinogen-2 test and inflammatory mediators including polymorphnuclear elastase, C-reactive protein and interleukin-6 contribute to early diagnosis, prognostic evaluation and initiation of an appropriate therapy.

  8. How student teachers understand African philosophy

    Matsephe M. Letseka; Elza Venter

    2012-01-01

    The question ‘What constitutes African philosophy?’ was first raised with the publication of Placide Tempels’s seminal work Bantu philosophy in 1959. Tempels’s book inevitably elicited considerable critical response from African philosophers, which culminated in a wide range of publications such as Wiredu’s (1980) Philosophy and an African culture, Hountondji’s (1983) African philosophy: Myth and reality, Oruka’s (1990) Sage philosophy: Indigenous thinkers and modern debate on African philoso...

  9. African Ethnobotany in the Americas

    Zent, Egleé L

    2013-01-01

    Review of African Ethnobotany in the Americas. Edited by Robert Voeks and John Rashford. 2013. Springer. Pp. 429, 105 illustrations, 69 color illustrations. $49.95 (paperback). ISBN 978‐1461408352.

  10. Mental Health and African Americans

    ... Program Grants Other Grants Planning and Evaluation Grantee Best Practices Black/African American Asthma Cancer Chronic Liver Disease Diabetes Heart Disease Hepatitis HIV/AIDS Immunizations Infant Heath & Mortality Mental Health Obesity Organ and Tissue Donation Stroke Stay Connected ...

  11. African Ethnobotany in the Americas

    Egleé L. Zent

    2013-10-01

    Full Text Available Review of African Ethnobotany in the Americas. Edited by Robert Voeks and John Rashford. 2013. Springer. Pp. 429, 105 illustrations, 69 color illustrations. $49.95 (paperback. ISBN 978‐1461408352.

  12. Acute abdomen

    Acute abdomen may be connected with the injury of one of the internal organs, injury of large blood vessels, with the spreading of pains from some other area. It may also be a manifestation of systemic disease or poisoning. The main purposes of radiodiagnosis are: determination of the cause of clinical syndrome; determination of the localization and spreading of pathological changes in abdominal organs; finding out the character of complications. If the data of the ordinary roentgenological investiagtion and isn't complete, the computer tomography of abdominal and pelvic cavities is needed

  13. Twin Sessions Through African Eyes

    Ni Yanshuo

    2012-01-01

    Every year journalists from around China and the world flock to Beijing in March to cover the sessions of the National People's Congress (NPC) and the Chinese People's Political Consultative Conference (CPPCC), known as the lianghui, or twin sessions. With the deepening of Sino-African relations in the past decades, an increasing number of African journalists are involved in reporting China's lianghui to their audiences in Africa.

  14. The Good African Society Index

    Ferdi Botha

    2014-01-01

    This paper constructs a Good Society Index for 45 African countries, termed the Good African Society Index (GASI). The GASI consists of nine main indexes: (i) economic sustainability, (ii) democracy and freedom, (iii) child well-being, (iv) environment and infrastructure, (v) safety and security, (vi) health and health systems, (vii) integrity and justice, (viii) education, and (xi) social sustainability and social cohesion. Each component is split into four sub-components for a total of 36 i...

  15. Training in African aquaculture development

    Brummett, R. E.

    1994-01-01

    The article focuses on the types of training needed in African aquaculture development. The author suggested that rather than needing less training, extension agents and others who operate in the idiosyncratic world of the poor African farmer, need a far deeper understanding of fish culture (particularly the basics of pond dynamics and ecology) than do those who can take advantage of industrialized-country infrastructure.

  16. [Acute myocarditis].

    Combes, Alain

    2013-05-01

    Myocarditis is defined as inflammation of the myocardium accompanied by myocellular necrosis. Acute myocarditis must be considered in patients who present with recent onset of cardiac failure or arrhythmia. Fulminant myocarditis is a distinct entity characterized by sudden onset of severe congestive heart failure or cardiogenic shock, usually following a flu-like illness, parvovirus B19, human herpesvirus 6, coxsackievirus and adenovirus being the most frequently viruses responsible for the disease. Treatment of myocarditis remains largely supportive, since immunosuppression has not been proven to be beneficial for acute lymphocytic myocarditis. Trials of antiviral therapies, or immunostimulants such as interferons, suggest a potential therapeutic role but require further investigation. Lastly, early recognition of patients rapidly progressing to refractory cardiac failure and their immediate transfer to a medical-surgical center experienced in mechanical circulatory support is warranted. In this setting, ECMO should be the first-line mechanical assistance. For highly unstable patients, a Mobile Cardiac Assistance Unit, that rapidly travels to primary care hospitals with a portable ECMO system and hooks it up before refractory multiorgan failure takes hold, is the preferred option. PMID:23789482

  17. South African food allergy consensus document 2014.

    Levin, M E; Gray, C L; Goddard, E; Karabus, S; Kriel, M; Lang, A C; Manjra, A I; Risenga, S M; Terblanche, A J; van der Spuy, D A

    2015-01-01

    The prevalence of food allergy is increasing worldwide and is an important cause of anaphylaxis. There are no local South African food allergy guidelines. This document was devised by the Allergy Society of South Africa (ALLSA), the South African Gastroenterology Society (SAGES) and the Association for Dietetics in South Africa (ADSA). Subjects may have reactions to more than one food, and different types and severity of reactions to different foods may coexist in one individual. A detailed history directed at identifying the type and severity of possible reactions is essential for every food allergen under consideration. Skin-prick tests and specific immunoglobulin E (IgE) (ImmunoCAP) tests prove IgE sensitisation rather than clinical reactivity. The magnitude of sensitisation combined with the history may be sufficient to ascribe causality, but where this is not possible an incremental oral food challenge may be required to assess tolerance or clinical allergy. For milder non-IgE-mediated conditions a diagnostic elimination diet may be followed with food re-introduction at home to assess causality. The primary therapy for food allergy is strict avoidance of the offending food/s, taking into account nutritional status and provision of alternative sources of nutrients. Acute management of severe reactions requires prompt intramuscular administration of adrenaline 0.01 mg/kg and basic resuscitation. Adjunctive therapy includes antihistamines, bronchodilators and corticosteroids. Subjects with food allergy require risk assessment and those at increased risk for future severe reactions require the implementation of risk-reduction strategies, including education of the patient, families and all caregivers (including teachers), the provision of a written emergency action plan, a MedicAlert necklace or bracelet and injectable adrenaline (preferably via auto-injector) where necessary. PMID:26046164

  18. RECURRENT SEASONAL ACUTE PSYCHOSIS

    Agarwal, Vivek

    1999-01-01

    Acute psychoses have been reported to occur more frequently in summer. This is a report of seasonal recurrence of acute psychosis in a patient. This case report emphasizes towards the biological etiology of acute psychoses.

  19. Acute cerebellar ataxia

    Cerebellar ataxia; Ataxia - acute cerebellar; Cerebellitis; Post-varicella acute cerebellar ataxia; PVACA ... Acute cerebellar ataxia in children, especially younger than age 3, may occur several weeks after an illness caused by a virus. ...

  20. The New African Civil-Military Relations

    the lead author accorded the responsibility of organizing a Session on ACMR. From amongst some of the exciting Abstracts presented, authors submitted these as full chapters for this book which captures International African Studies Perspectives, managed by the African Public Policy & Research...... on the African continent to embark upon the New African Civil Military Relations (ACMR). In the last decade and half, the implosion of African states exposed to forces of democratization has escalated, manifest in Algeria, Egypt, Mali, Madagascar, Somalia, South Sudan, Central African Republic and...

  1. Disarmament: the African perspective

    Disarmament is now generally accepted as the process of reduction in the size of, and expenditures on, armed forces, the destruction or dismantling of weapons, whether deployed or stockpiled, the progressive elimination of the capacity to produce new weapons and the release and integration into civilian life of military personnel. To realize this objective, the nations of the world have been advocating such measures as the establishment of nuclear weapon-free zones, non-proliferation, limitation of the arms trade, reduction of military budgets, and confidence-building measures. To ensure general and complete elimination of arms, there has been widespread recognition of the need to link the disarmament process with other political as well as socio-economic problems of the world such as the need for security, good relations between states and development of a system of peaceful settlement of disputes. Other measures that have been considered to be relevant in boosting the disarmament process include the role of the general public in putting pressure on their respective governments with a view to accelerating and realizing disarmament objectives. Africans have presented to the world a strong case for global disarmament

  2. East African Rift

    2008-01-01

    Places where the earth's crust has formed deep fissures and the plates have begun to move apart develop rift structures in which elongate blocks have subsided relative to the blocks on either side. The East African Rift is a world-famous example of such rifting. It is characterized by 1) topographic deep valleys in the rift zone, 2) sheer escarpments along the faulted walls of the rift zone, 3) a chain of lakes within the rift, most of the lakes highly saline due to evaporation in the hot temperatures characteristic of climates near the equator, 4) voluminous amounts of volcanic rocks that have flowed from faults along the sides of the rift, and 5) volcanic cones where magma flow was most intense. This example in Kenya displays most of these features near Lake Begoria. The image was acquired December 18, 2002, covers an area of 40.5 x 32 km, and is located at 0.1 degrees north latitude, 36.1 degrees east longitude. The U.S. science team is located at NASA's Jet Propulsion Laboratory, Pasadena, Calif. The Terra mission is part of NASA's Science Mission Directorate.

  3. Evidence of physiotherapeutic interventions for acute LBP patients

    Q. Louw

    2007-02-01

    Full Text Available Objective: To identify the current evidence for acute low back pain (LBP treatment techniques and to amalgamate this information into a clinically applicable algorithm for South African physiotherapists.Study design: Systematic review.Methods: Computerized bibliographical databases were systematically searched during September 2006 and October 2006 for primary and secondary research reporting on the efficacy of various physiotherapeutic treatment techniques for acute LBP. A search for clinical guidelines regarding acute LBP was also undertaken. Evidence levels were allocated to the primary and secondary research retrieved. Results: Twenty-one systematic reviews, four randomized controlled trials and eleven clinical guidelines were included in this review. There is Level 1 evidence that advice to stay active, McKenzie preferential exercises and spinal manipulative therapy (up to six weeks is beneficial in the initial treatment of acute LBP. There is level 2 evidence that stability exercises, dry needling, heat wrap with exercises, cognitive behavioural therapy, printed patient education, massage (with education and exercises, and lifestyle modification might be potentially beneficial in the treatment of acute LBP. There is level 1 evidence that bed rest should not be recommended for simple acute LBP.  Should a patient not resolve in six weeks, red and yellow flags should be re-assessed, or patient should be referred to a specialist. Outcome: Based on the current evidence, a composite algorithm was developed to assist South African physiotherapists when making treatment decisions for acute LBP. Conclusion: There seems to be a lack of evidence for the efficacy of common treatment techniques used by physiotherapists in the management of acute LBP, indicating an urgent need for physiotherapy-specific, high-quality clinical trials. It is suggested that the evidence-based algorithm that has been developed, be used in the management of acute LBP to

  4. Acute Myopericarditis Mimicking Acute Myocardial Infarction

    Seval İzdeş; Neriman Defne Altıntaş; Gülin Karaaslan; Recep Uygun; Abdulkadir But

    2011-01-01

    Acute coronary syndromes among young adults are relatively low when compared with older population in the intensive care unit. Electrocardiographic abnormalities mimicking acute coronary syndromes may be caused by non-coronary syndromes and the differential diagnosis requires a detailed evaluation. We are reporting a case of myopericarditis presenting with acute ST elevation and elevated cardiac enzymes simulating acute coronary syndrome. In this case report, the literature is reviewed to dis...

  5. Developing programs for african families, by african families

    Halliday, Jennifer A; Green, Julie; Mellor, David;

    2013-01-01

    Obesity is an emerging problem for African migrants in Australia, but few prevention programs incorporate their cultural beliefs and values. This study reports on the application of community capacity-building and empowerment principles in 4 workshops with Sudanese families in Australia. Workshop...... effects of physical activity and nutrition to improve health within communities while reducing intergenerational and gender role family conflicts.......Obesity is an emerging problem for African migrants in Australia, but few prevention programs incorporate their cultural beliefs and values. This study reports on the application of community capacity-building and empowerment principles in 4 workshops with Sudanese families in Australia. Workshop...

  6. Understanding the Rise of African Business

    Jorem, Kaja Tvedten; Jeppesen, Søren; Hansen, Michael W.

    latter suggests that profound improvements in African business performance are indeed under way: with the private sector playing a more important role as an engine of growth, with the rise of a capable African entrepreneurial class, and with the emergence of dynamic and competitive African enterprises......In light of recent enthusiasm over the African private sector, this paper reviews the existing empirical literature on successful African enterprises and proposes an analytical framework for understanding African firm success. Overall, it is argued that we need to develop an understanding of....... The paper proceeds to review the limited research on factors shaping the performance of African enterprises. It is observed that particularly the strategic component is often overlooked as is the role of internal capabilities and resources of African enterprises. Based on this identification of voids...

  7. African N Assessment

    Bekunda, M.; Galford, G. L.; Hickman, J. E.; Palm, C.

    2011-12-01

    Africa's smallholder agricultural systems face unique challenges in planning for reducing poverty, concurrent with adaptation and mitigation to climate change. At continental level, policy seeks to promote a uniquely African Green Revolution to increase crop yields and food production, and improve local livelihoods. However, the consequences on the environment and climate are not clear; these pro-economic development measures should be linked to climate change adaptation and mitigation measures, and research is required to help achieve these policy proposals by identifying options, and testing impacts. In particular, increased nitrogen (N) inputs are essential for increasing food production in Africa, but are accompanied by inevitable increases in losses to the environment. These losses appear to be low at input levels promoted in agricultural development programs, while the increased N inputs both increase current food production and appear to reduce the vulnerability of food production to changes in climate. We present field and remote sensing evidence from Malawi that subsidizing improved seed and fertilizers increases resilience to drought without adding excess N to the environment. In Kenya, field research identified thresholds in N2O losses, where emissions are very low at fertilization rates of less than 200 kg ha-1. Village-scale models have identified potential inefficiencies in the food production process where the largest losses of reactive N occur, and which could be targeted to reduce the amount of N released to the environment. We further review some on-going research activities and progress in Africa that compare different methods of managing resources that target resilience in food production and adaptation to climate change, using nutrient N as an indicator, while evaluating the effects of these resource management practices on ecosystems and the environment.

  8. The transmission of African culture to children

    Michele Tanon Lora

    2014-01-01

    African ancient traditions suffered a major historical change as a result of colonization. Several decades after decolonization and access to independence, what is the situation and place of the African culture in Africa and outside Africa? Does African culture perpetuate effectively today? What are the obstacles to the transmission of African culture to our children? What are the beliefs or elements that have influenced the transmission of our culture after the period of independence? Roughl...

  9. Translating Culture: Contemporary African American Poetry

    Kristina Kočan Šalamon

    2015-01-01

    The paper interrogates cultural specifics of contemporary African American poetry and exhibits translation problems when translating this poetic work. African American writers have always included much of their cultural heritage in their writing and this is immediately noticed by a translator. The cultural elements, such as African American cuisine, attire and style in general, as well as spiritual and religious practices, often play a significant role for African American poets who are procl...

  10. Urbanism beyond Architecture : African cities as Infrastructure

    Rao, Vyjayanthi; De Boeck, Filip; Simone, Abdou Maliq

    2009-01-01

    About African Cities Reader(A creation of the African Centre for Cities & Chimurenga Magazine ) In many senses African cities are amongst the most generative and vibrant places on the planet. Yet, we know next to nothing about what goes on in the places. Not that there is any shortage of caricature, hyperbole or opinion about what makes African cities such quintessential spaces of dystopia and atrophy. We believe that a range of interventions that seek to engage the shape-shifting essenc...

  11. MORE CHINESE CARS ON AFRICAN ROADS

    2006-01-01

    China drives into the African vehicle market and meets the challenges head on with some advantages of its own High-quality but inexpensive Chinese automobiles have gradually won the confidence of the African market and are becoming a bright new link in Sino-African economic ties. On September 4, a total of 400 Polarsun minibuses, made in Shenyang, capital of northeast

  12. Engaging African Americans in Smoking Cessation Programs

    Wallen, Jacqueline; Randolph, Suzanne; Carter-Pokras, Olivia; Feldman, Robert; Kanamori-Nishimura, Mariano

    2014-01-01

    Background: African Americans are disproportionately exposed to and targeted by prosmoking advertisements, particularly menthol cigarette ads. Though African Americans begin smoking later than whites, they are less likely to quit smoking than whites. Purpose: This study was designed to explore African American smoking cessation attitudes,…

  13. Acute abdomen

    The book first presents the anatomy and physiology of the abdomen and continues with chapters discussing clinical and laboratory aspects and a suitable order of diagnostic examinations with reference to the acute processes, explaining the diagnostic tools: ultrasonography, radiography including angiography and CT, tapping techniques and endoscopy together with their basic principles, examination techniques, and diagnosis. One chapter presents a complete survey of the processes involving the entire abdomen - as e.g. peritonitis, ileus, abdominal trauma, intraperitoneal hemorrage. This chapter profoundly discusses the diagnostics and therapies including emergency measures and surgery. Problems requiring consultation among varous specialists, in internal medicine, gynecology, urology, or pediatrics, are discussed in great detail. Information for the anesthetist is given for cases of emergency. More than one third of the book is devoted to organ-specific information, dicussing the pathogenesis, diagnostics, and therapy of the oesophagus, stomach, large and small intestine, bile ducts, pankreas, liver, spleen, and the abdominal vessels and the abdominal wall. (orig.) With 153 figs., 90 tabs

  14. Acute pancreatitis

    A prospective study was performed on the relationship of CT findings to the clinical course of 148 patients with acute pancreatitis. The type of pancreatic inflammation seen on CT was classified into six categories based on an overall assessment of size, contour and density of the gland, and peripancreatic abnormalities. The majority (94%) of patients in whom CT showed mild pancreatic changes (grades A, B and C) had two or less positive clinical indicaters of severe pancreatitis (Ranson's signs). In contrast, 92% of patients in whom CT showed more severe changes of pancreatitis (grades D, E or F) had three or more positive signs. The nine patients who died with pancreatitis-related complications were in grades D, E or F. We wish to draw attention to a CT appearance which we have called 'fat islets' (low density intrapancreatic or peripancreatic areas, the contents of which approach fat in attenuation values); there was a strong correlation between this appearance and subsequent infection. (author). 24 refs.; 7 figs.; 4 tabs

  15. How student teachers understand African philosophy

    Matsephe M. Letseka

    2012-10-01

    Full Text Available The question ‘What constitutes African philosophy?’ was first raised with the publication of Placide Tempels’s seminal work Bantu philosophy in 1959. Tempels’s book inevitably elicited considerable critical response from African philosophers, which culminated in a wide range of publications such as Wiredu’s (1980 Philosophy and an African culture, Hountondji’s (1983 African philosophy: Myth and reality, Oruka’s (1990 Sage philosophy: Indigenous thinkers and modern debate on African philosophy, Shutte’s (1993 Philosophy for Africa, Masolo’s (1994 African philosophy in search of identity and Gyekye’s (1995 An essay of African philosophical thought: The Akan conceptual scheme. It has been over 60 years since the publication of Temples’s book and there continues to be serious debate about African philosophy. This article sought to contribute to the debate on the various conceptions of African philosophy, but with a focus on the challenges of teaching African philosophy to Philosophy of Education students at an open distance learning institution in South Africa. This article discussed the tendency amongst undergraduate Philosophy of Education students to conflate and reduce African philosophy to African cultures and traditions, and to the notion of ubuntu, and sought to understand the reasons for students’ inclination to treat African philosophy in this way. It examined students’ background knowledge of African philosophy, their critical thinking skills and whether their official study materials are selected and packaged in a manner that, in fact, adds to the challenges they face. Finally, the article explored the ways in which Philosophy of Education lecturers can adapt their pedagogy to provide students with a better understanding of African philosophy.

  16. Insulin Clearance and the Incidence of Type 2 Diabetes in Hispanics and African Americans

    Lee, C. Christine; Haffner, Steven M.; Wagenknecht, Lynne E.; Lorenzo, Carlos; Norris, Jill M.; Bergman, Richard N.; Stefanovski, Darko; Anderson, Andrea M.; Jerome I Rotter; Goodarzi, Mark O; Hanley, Anthony J.

    2013-01-01

    OBJECTIVE We aimed to identify factors that are independently associated with the metabolic clearance rate of insulin (MCRI) and to examine the association of MCRI with incident type 2 diabetes in nondiabetic Hispanics and African Americans. RESEARCH DESIGN AND METHODS We investigated 1,116 participants in the Insulin Resistance Atherosclerosis Study (IRAS) Family Study with baseline examinations from 2000 to 2002 and follow-up examinations from 2005 to 2006. Insulin sensitivity (SI), acute i...

  17. African women, literature, language and culture

    Rosamond S. King

    2014-01-01

    This essay will link African women’s writing to culture, including literary culture and the politics of literature. It describes how African women’s literature can act as a mirror, reflecting African cultures to Africans, and how it can serve as a window and a door, revealing African cultures to those outside of them in whole or in part. It ends with a description of “communal agency,” an example of how scholarly writing can act as a door for both those who are and are not a part of a literat...

  18. East African odontopygid millipedes 1

    Frederiksen, Sara B.; Enghoff, Henrik

    2012-01-01

    Five new species of the endemic East African genus Xystopyge are described: X. pelecys, X. frontieri, X. proplicatus, X. biacanthus, and X. zanzibarensis. Three are from the Eastern Arc Mountains, Tanzania, two are from the Usambara Mtns. and one is from the Uluguru Mtns. One further species is...

  19. Wellness among African American Counselors

    Day-Vines, Norma L.; Holcomb-McCoy, Cheryl

    2007-01-01

    Although there are various definitions of wellness, few conceptual definitions have addressed the contextual dimensions of wellness relative to African American counselors. The authors present an overview of generic models of wellness, discuss factors that both inhibit and promote wellness, offer some culture-specific models of wellness, and…

  20. Quo vadis South African universities?

    Johann RE lutjeharms

    2007-01-01

    The Economist has recently identified some specific factors that explain why European universities are not competing adequately with their American counterparts. These factors are used here to evaluate South African government policy for universities. It is demonstrated that this current policy is directly contrary to what is now internationally considered best for universities in a knowledge economy.

  1. Vitamin D and African Americans

    Vitamin D insufficiency is more prevalent among African Americans than other Americans and, in North America, most young, healthy blacks do not achieve optimal 25-hydroxyvitamin D [25(OH)D] concentrations at any time of the year. This is primarily due to the fact that pigmentation reduces vitamin D...

  2. Acute chylous peritonitis due to acute pancreatitis

    2012-01-01

    We report a case of acute chylous ascites formation presenting as peritonitis (acute chylous peritonitis) in a patient suffering from acute pancreatitis due to hypertriglyceridemia and alcohol abuse. The development of chylous ascites is usually a chronic process mostly involving malignancy, trauma or surgery, and symptoms arise as a result of progressive abdominal distention. However, when accumulation of “chyle” occurs rapidly, the patient may present with signs of peritonitis. Preoperative...

  3. Attenuated NOx responses and myocardial ischemia, a possible risk for structural vascular disease in African men: the SABPA study.

    Uys, A S; Malan, L; van Rooyen, J M; Steyn, H S; Reimann, M; Ziemssen, T

    2014-07-01

    Chronically elevated blood pressure has been associated with impaired NO-mediated vasodilation and structural vascular disease risk. This study aimed to determine whether significant associations exist regarding NO metabolite (NOx) responses, cardiovascular function and structural vascular disease in a cohort of African and Caucasian men. The study included 81 African and 94 Caucasian male teachers stratified via median splits into low and high NOx ethnic groups. Ambulatory blood pressure, electrocardiogram monitoring and ultrasound carotid intima-media thickness (CIMT) images were obtained. Cardiovascular measurements and fasting blood for NOx responses were measured during rest and on challenging the cardiovascular system with the Stroop colour-word conflict test. African men displayed significantly higher resting NOx as well as higher number of 24 h silent ischemic events than their Caucasian counterparts. Low NOx African men displayed enhanced α-adrenergic and ECG ST segment depression acute mental stress responses as well as 24 h silent ischemic events associated with CIMT (adjusted R(2) = 0.47; β = 0.25; confidence interval (CI) = 0.13, 0.41). African men demonstrated a vulnerable cardiovascular profile. Novel findings revealed α-adrenergic-driven blood pressure responses and less NO bioavailability during acute stress. The association between myocardial ischemia and CIMT in this group emphasized their risk for future coronary artery disease and cerebrovascular events. PMID:24401953

  4. Acute arterial occlusion - kidney

    ... arterial thrombosis; Renal artery embolism; Acute renal artery occlusion; Embolism - renal artery ... often result in permanent kidney failure. Acute arterial occlusion of the renal artery can occur after injury ...

  5. Acute Pancreatitis in Children

    ... a feeding tube or an IV to prevent malnutrition and improve healing. Does my child have to ... intestines. Can my child die from acute pancreatitis? Death from acute pancreatitis is quite rare in children– ...

  6. Diagnosing and Treating Acute Bronchitis

    ... Lung Disease Lookup > Acute Bronchitis Diagnosing and Treating Acute Bronchitis It is important to get your questions about ... Symptoms that last a few weeks How Is Acute Bronchitis Diagnosed? Healthcare providers diagnose acute bronchitis by asking ...

  7. The UCAR Africa Initiative: Enabling African Solutions to African Needs

    Pandya, R.; Bruintjes, R.; Foote, B.; Heck, S.; Hermann, S.; Hoswell, L.; Konate, M.; Kucera, P.; Laing, A.; Lamptey, B.; Moncrieff, M.; Ramamurthy, M.; Roberts, R.; Spangler, T.; Traoré, A.; Yoksas, T.; Warner, T.

    2007-12-01

    The University Corporation for Atmospheric Research (UCAR) Africa Initiative (AI) is a coordinated effort aimed at building sustainable partnerships between UCAR and African institutions in order to pursue research and applications for the benefit of the African people. The initiative is based on four fundamental operating principles, concisely summarized by the overall philosophy of enabling African solutions to African needs. The four principles are: • Collaborate with African institutions • Focus on institutional capacity building and research support • Explore science research themes critical to Africa and important for the world • Leverage the research infrastructure in UCAR to add value These principles are realized in a set of pilot activities, chosen for their high probability of short-term results and ability to set the stage for longer-term collaboration. The three pilot activities are listed below. 1. A modest radar network and data-distribution system in Mali and Burkina Faso, including a data-sharing MOU between the Mail and Burkina Faso Weather Services. 2. A partnership among UCAR, the Ghana Meteorological Agency, and the Ghana university community to develop an operational Weather Research and Forecasting (WRF) model for West Africa. The output is used by researchers and operational forecasters in Africa. Model output is also part of a demonstration project that aims to allow humanitarian agencies to share geo-referenced information in Africa via a web portal. 3. A workshop in Ouagadougou, Burkina Faso from April 2-6, 2007, with the theme Improving Lives by Understanding Weather. The workshop, co-organized with Programme SAAGA and the Commité Permanent Inter-Etats de Lutte Contre la Sécheresse dans le Sahel (CILSS), included over 80 participants from 18 countries, and produced a set of recommendations for continued collaboration. Our presentation will provide an update of these pilot activities and point to future directions. Recognizing

  8. Metformin induced acute pancreatitis

    Alsubaie, Sadeem; Almalki, Mussa H.

    2013-01-01

    Acute pancreatitis frequently presents with abdomen pain but may presents with various skin manifestations as rash and rarely, pancreatic panniculitis. Metformin, one of the most effective and valuable oral hypoglycemic agents in the biguanide class was linked to acute pancreatitis in few cases. Here, we report a case of metformin induce acute pancreatitis in young healthy man with normal renal function.

  9. Acute mastoiditis in children

    Anthonsen, Kristian; Høstmark, Karianne; Hansen, Søren;

    2013-01-01

    Conservative treatment of acute otitis media may lead to more complications. This study evaluates changes in incidence, the clinical and microbiological findings, the complications and the outcome of acute mastoiditis in children in a country employing conservative guidelines in treating acute ot...

  10. Recurrent acute renal failure

    Satish, S.; Rajesh, R.; Kurian, G.; Seethalekshmi, N. V.; Unni, M.; Unni, V. N.

    2010-01-01

    While acute renal failure secondary to intravascular hemolysis is well described in hemolytic anemias, recurrent acute renal failure as the presenting manifestation of a hemolytic anemia is rare. We report a patient with recurrent acute renal failure who was found to have paroxysmal nocturnal hemoglobinuria (PNH), on evaluation.

  11. The African Financial Development Gap

    Allen, Franklin; Carletti, Elena; Cull, Robert; Qian, Jun; Senbet, Lemma

    2010-01-01

    Economic growth in Africa has long been disappointing. We document that the financial sectors of most sub-Saharan African countries remain significantly underdeveloped by the standards of other developing countries. We examine the factors that are associated with financial development in Africa and compare them with those in other developing countries. Population density appears to be considerably more important for banking sector development in Africa than elsewhere. Given the high costs of ...

  12. Recent growth in African cassava

    Nweke, Felix; Haggblade, Steven; Zulu, Ballard

    2004-01-01

    According to the authors, "Cassava serves as a staple food for 200 million Africans, second only to maize in its calorie contribution. In response to a series of devastating attacks by cassava diseases and pests over the past several decades, the International Institute of Tropical Agriculture (IITA) and several national agricultural research services have launched successful cassava research programs... " This brief describes some of the programs, their impact and the drivers of change. It c...

  13. Financial Liberalization: The African Experience

    Reinhart, Carmen; Tokatlidis, Ioannis

    2000-01-01

    Almost a decade after their initiation, financial reforms appear to have had little effect on the economies of Sub-Sahara Africa. Whether the blame is to fall on their initial design itself, or on the partial nature of their implementation, liberalization policies have not mobilized savings, deepened intermediation or raised investment. Yet, Africa needs properly functioning financial markets for a more efficient allocation of resources for growth and risk diversification. How can African go...

  14. Understanding the Rise of African Business

    Jorem, Kaja Tvedten; Hansen, Michael Wendelboe; Jeppesen, Søren

    2014-01-01

    enterprises, observing that while much research is focusing on the role of the African business environments for enterprise development, much less attention has been devoted to the role of firm-specific capabilities, strategies and management. The paper concludes by advocating a contingency approach to...... research on African enterprise development that emphasizes the interplay between firm-specific factors and the specificities of the African business environment. Originality/value: The paper provides a comprehensive literature review on African enterprise development and presents a novel framework for......Purpose: In light of recent enthusiasm over African private sector development, the purpose of this paper is to review the business literature on African enterprise development with a view of identifying lacunas in the literature and of developing an analytical framework that may guide future...

  15. Ideology and the possibility of African political theory: African socialism and “ubuntu” compared

    Gil, Manuel

    2011-01-01

    This article explores the lack of investigation into African political theory in the postcolonial period. After discussing the epistemological problems in the study of African political thought, the paper then adopts Michael Freeden’s methodology for the analysis of political ideologies. Through this approach a comparison is made between African Socialism and ubuntu. African Socialism – as developed by Cabral, Nkrumah, Nyerere and Senghor – is defined by its core commitment to freedom from co...

  16. Ectomycorrhizal symbiosis of tropical African trees

    Bâ, Amadou; Duponnois, Robin; Moyersoen, B.; Diédhiou, A.G.

    2012-01-01

    The diversity, ecology and function of ectomycorrhizal (EM) fungi and ectomycorrhizas (ECMs) on tropical African tree species are reviewed here. While ECMs are the most frequent mycorrhizal type in temperate and boreal forests, they concern an economically and ecologically important minority of plants in African tropical forests. In these African tropical forests, ECMs are found mainly on caesalpionioid legumes, Sarcolaenaceae, Dipterocarpaceae, Asterpeiaceae, Phyllantaceae, Sapotaceae, Papil...

  17. 21st Century South African Science Fiction

    CARAIVAN LUIZA

    2014-01-01

    The paper analyses some aspects of South African science fiction, starting with its beginnings in the 1920s and focusing on some 21st century writings. Thus Lauren Beukes’ novels Moxyland (2008) and Zoo City (2010) are taken into consideration in order to present new trends in South African literature and the way science fiction has been marked by Apartheid. The second South African science fiction writer whose writings are examined is Henrietta Rose-Innes (with her novel Nineveh, published i...

  18. African Music: Source of the Blues

    Bayer, Konrad Sidney

    2010-01-01

    [Abstract] African music is the primary source for the blues. Scholars have supplied ample evidence to support this assertion. However, the African retentions still present in the blues are not immediately apparent. African music and the blues share many similarities, including the predominance of rhythm, the uses of music as social commentary and critique, types of instruments, and musical structure. Slaves brought their culture with them to the New World when they were forcibly taken from t...

  19. Representation of African Heritage in Trinidad Carnival

    三吉, 美加

    2016-01-01

    This paper focuses on the cultural representation of African Trinidadian or African creole in Trinidad Carnival. The Republic of Trinidad and Tobago is the most ethnically and culturally diverse society in the East Caribbean. This diversity comprises of 40 percent of East Indians, 40 percent of Africans, and 20 percent of mixed race such as Chinese, Syrians, Lebanese, and Europeans. In the course of making tourism a national agenda, Carnival has gained commercial values, diversifying particip...

  20. Management Of Acute Migraine

    Mehndiratta M

    2002-01-01

    Full Text Available Pharmacotherapy for migraine involves treatment for the acute attack as well as using long-term prophylaxis in order to reduce the frequency and severity of the attacks. Based on severity, there are a number of drugs available to treat the acute attacks. For mild to moderate attacks, analgesics, NSAIDs and Ergotamine are effective but severe attacks may need Dihydroergotamine (DHE or a triptan. Sumatriptan and the second generation triptans have revolutionized the acute treatment of migraine. Early and appropriate treatment holds the key to successful therapy of the acute attack. This article discusses the various acute treatment options available.

  1. 75 FR 45600 - African Development Foundation, Board of Directors Meeting

    2010-08-03

    ...; ] AFRICAN DEVELOPMENT FOUNDATION African Development Foundation, Board of Directors Meeting Time: Tuesday, August 17, 2010, 8:30 a.m. to 1 p.m. Place: African Development Foundation, Conference Room, 1400...

  2. 75 FR 2844 - African Development Foundation, Board of Directors Meeting

    2010-01-19

    ...; ] AFRICAN DEVELOPMENT FOUNDATION African Development Foundation, Board of Directors Meeting Time: Tuesday, January 26, 2010, 8:30 a.m. to 1 p.m. Place: African Development Foundation, Conference Room, 1400...

  3. 75 FR 14418 - African Development Foundation, Board of Directors Meeting

    2010-03-25

    ...; ] AFRICAN DEVELOPMENT FOUNDATION African Development Foundation, Board of Directors Meeting Time: Tuesday, April 13, 2010, 9:30 a.m. to 1 p.m. Place: African Development Foundation, Conference Room, 1400...

  4. The State of African Stock Markets

    Mahama, Adnan

    2013-01-01

    The paper looks at the state of African stock markets during and after the global economic crisis of 2008. The research focuses on the market performance of 15 African stock exchanges from 2007-2012. The size and liquidity of stock markets in the African region is discussed in this thesis. In addition, it compares the performances of a few indexes in the emerging and developed markets to that of African indexes. Data is gathered from individual stock markets as well as notable institutions su...

  5. Race, health, and the African Diaspora.

    Spigner, Clarence

    Health inequalities exist throughout the African Diaspora and are viewed in this article as largely color-coded. In developed, developing, and undeveloped nations today, "racial" stratification is consistently reflected in an inability to provide adequate health regardless of national policy or ideology. For instance, African Americans experience less than adequate health care very similar to Blacks in Britain, in spite of each nations differing health systems. Latin America's Africana Negra communities experience poorer health similar to Blacks throughout the Caribbean. The African continent itself is arguably the poorest on earth. A common history of racism correlates with health disparities across the African Diaspora. PMID:18364304

  6. Suspected cervical spinal cord vascular anomaly in an African warthog (Phacochoerus africanus).

    Whiteside, Douglas P; Shury, Todd K; Black, Sandra R; Raverty, Stephen

    2006-09-01

    Vascular myelopathies of the spinal cord have not been described in Suidae, and are a rare finding in companion animals. An 8.5-yr female African warthog (Phacochoerus africanus) presented with an acute onset of tetraparesis. Based on neurologic findings, a cervical spinal cord lesion between C7-T2 was suspected. Magnetic resonance imaging revealed severe intramedullary hemorrhage with suspected abnormal vessels in the spinal cord at the level of the seventh cervical vertebrae. The acute onset of clinical signs and rapid deterioration of neurological status precluded surgical managements. A vascular anomaly was suspected on gross pathology and histology. Immunohistochemistry identified the lesion as a spontaneous intramedullary hematoma. Spontaneous intramedullary hematomyelia should be considered as a differential for acute onset of paresis in suid species. PMID:17319141

  7. Acute loss of consciousness.

    Tristán, Bekinschtein; Gleichgerrcht, Ezequiel; Manes, Facundo

    2015-01-01

    Acute loss of consciousness poses a fascinating scenario for theoretical and clinical research. This chapter introduces a simple yet powerful framework to investigate altered states of consciousness. We then explore the different disorders of consciousness that result from acute brain injury, and techniques used in the acute phase to predict clinical outcome in different patient populations in light of models of acute loss of consciousness. We further delve into post-traumatic amnesia as a model for predicting cognitive sequels following acute loss of consciousness. We approach the study of acute loss of consciousness from a theoretical and clinical perspective to conclude that clinicians in acute care centers must incorporate new measurements and techniques besides the classic coma scales in order to assess their patients with loss of consciousness. PMID:25702218

  8. Southern African Power Pool: Planning and Prospects for Renewable Energy

    Miketa, Asami [IRENA, Bonn (Germany); Merven, Bruno [Energy Research Centre, Univ. of Cape Town (South Africa)

    2013-06-25

    With the energy systems of many African countries dominated by fossil-fuel sources that are vulnerable to global price volatility, regional and intra-continental power systems with high shares of renewable energy can provide least-cost option to support continued economic growth and address the continent’s acute energy access problem. Unlocking Africa’s huge renewable energy potential could help to take many people out of poverty, while ensuring the uptake of sustainable technologies for the continent’s long-term development. The report examines the ''renewable scenario'' based on a modelling tool developed by IRENA and tested in cooperation with the South African National Energy Development Institute (SANEDI) and the Southern African Development Community (SADC). Initial results from the System Planning and Test (SPLAT) model show that the share of renewable technologies in Southern Africa could increase from the current 10% to as much as 46% in 2030, with 20% of decentralised capacity coming from renewable sources and nearly 80% of the envisaged capacity additions between 2010 and 2030 being provided by renewable energy technologies. Deployment and export of hydropower from the Democratic Republic of Congo’s Inga hydropower project to the SADC region would significantly reduce average electricity generation costs. Analysis using SPLAT – along with a similar model developed for West Africa – can provide valuable input for regional dialogue and energy projects such as the East and Southern Africa Clean Energy Corridor and the Programme for Infrastructure and Development in Africa (PIDA). IRENA, together with partner organisations, has started plans to set up capacity building and development support for energy system modelling and planning for greater integration of renewables in Africa. IRENA is also completing a similar model and study for East Africa and intends to extend this work to Central and North Africa.

  9. Why Give?: Exploring Social Exchange and Organization Identification Theories in the Promotion of Philanthropic Behaviors of African-American Millennials at Private-HBCUs

    Drezner, Noah D.

    2009-01-01

    African Americans give a larger percentage of their disposable income to non-profits than any other racial group, including Whites. However, there is a lack of literature on Black giving to higher education. This lack of research is particularly acute in our current state of decreased funding to higher education. This case study of the United…

  10. LGBT African-American Individuals and African-American Same-Sex Couples

    Gates, Gary J.; Kastanis, Angel

    2013-01-01

    An estimated 1,018,700 or 3.7 percent of African-American adults consider themselves lesbian, gay, bisexual or transgender (LGBT) and 34 percent of African-American same-sex couples are raising children. Currently, the estimated 84,000 African-American individuals in same-sex couples tend to live in areas where there are higher proportions of African-Americans. For example, a quarter of African-American same-sex couples live in Georgia, New York, North Carolina, and Maryland. The rep...

  11. The African agent discovered: The recognition and involvement of the African biblical interpreter in Bible translation

    S V Coertze

    2008-05-01

    Full Text Available This article explores the extent to which the role of the African biblical interpreter is acknowledged in the process of Bible translation, as the Bible and Bible translation form an important part of the establishment of the African church on the continent of Africa. It points out that even though foreign discovery of African agency in Bible translation is evident, indigenous discovery of the same is largely absent. Part of the relevance of this article is for the African church to own and be actively involved in the translation of the Bible into the remaining African languages that are in need of a translation of the Bible.

  12. Acute pancreatitis in acute viral hepatitis

    2007-01-01

    AIM: To elucidate the frequency and characteristics of pancreatic involvement in the course of acute (nonfulminant) viral hepatitis.METHODS: We prospectively assessed the pancreatic involvement in patients with acute viral hepatitis who presented with severe abdomimanl pain.RESULTS: We studied 124 patients with acute viral hepatitis, of whom 24 presented with severe abdominal pain. Seven patients (5.65%) were diagnosed to have acute pancreatitis. All were young males. Five patients had pancreatitis in the first week and two in the fourth week after the onset of jaundice. The pancreatitis was mild and all had uneventful recovery from both pancreatitis and hepatitis on conservative treatment.The etiology of pancreatitis was hepatitis E virus in 4,hepatitis A virus in 2, and hepatitis B virus in 1 patient.One patient had biliary sludge along with HEV infection.The abdominal pain of remaining seventeen patients was attributed to stretching of Glisson's capsule.CONCLUSION: Acute pancreatitis occurs in 5.65% of patients with acute viral hepatitis, it is mild and recovers with conservative management.

  13. Acute chylous peritonitis due to acute pancreatitis.

    Georgiou, Georgios K; Harissis, Haralampos; Mitsis, Michalis; Batsis, Haralampos; Fatouros, Michalis

    2012-04-28

    We report a case of acute chylous ascites formation presenting as peritonitis (acute chylous peritonitis) in a patient suffering from acute pancreatitis due to hypertriglyceridemia and alcohol abuse. The development of chylous ascites is usually a chronic process mostly involving malignancy, trauma or surgery, and symptoms arise as a result of progressive abdominal distention. However, when accumulation of "chyle" occurs rapidly, the patient may present with signs of peritonitis. Preoperative diagnosis is difficult since the clinical picture usually suggests hollow organ perforation, appendicitis or visceral ischemia. Less than 100 cases of acute chylous peritonitis have been reported. Pancreatitis is a rare cause of chyloperitoneum and in almost all of the cases chylous ascites is discovered some days (or even weeks) after the onset of symptoms of pancreatitis. This is the second case in the literature where the patient presented with acute chylous peritonitis due to acute pancreatitis, and the presence of chyle within the abdominal cavity was discovered simultaneously with the establishment of the diagnosis of pancreatitis. The patient underwent an exploratory laparotomy for suspected perforated duodenal ulcer, since, due to hypertriglyceridemia, serum amylase values appeared within the normal range. Moreover, abdominal computed tomography imaging was not diagnostic for pancreatitis. Following abdominal lavage and drainage, the patient was successfully treated with total parenteral nutrition and octreotide. PMID:22563182

  14. Acute chylous peritonitis due to acute pancreatitis

    Georgios K Georgiou; Haralampos Harissis; Michalis Mitsis; Haralampos Batsis; Michalis Fatouros

    2012-01-01

    We report a case of acute chylous ascites formation presenting as peritonitis (acute chylous peritonitis) in a patient suffering from acute pancreatitis due to hypertriglyceridemia and alcohol abuse.The development of chylous ascites is usually a chronic process mostly involving malignancy,trauma or surgery,and symptoms arise as a result of progressive abdominal distention.However,when accumulation of "chyle" occurs rapidly,the patient may present with signs of peritonitis.Preoperative diagnosis is difficult since the clinical picture usually suggests hollow organ perforation,appendicitis or visceral ischemia.Less than 100 cases of acute chylous peritonitis have been reported.Pancreatitis is a rare cause of chyloperitoneum and in almost all of the cases chylous ascites is discovered some days (or even weeks) after the onset of symptoms of pancreatitis.This is the second case in the literature where the patient presented with acute chylous peritonitis due to acute pancreatitis,and the presence of chyle within the abdominal cavity was discovered simultaneously with the establishment of the diagnosis of pancreatitis.The patient underwent an exploratory laparotomy for suspected perforated duodenal ulcer,since,due to hypertriglyceridemia,serum amylase values appeared within the normal range.Moreover,abdominal computed tomography imaging was not diagnostic for pancreatitis.Following abdominal lavage and drainage,the patient was successfully treated with total parenteral nutrition and octreotide.

  15. An unusual cause of acute kidney injury due to oxalate nephropathy in systemic scleroderma.

    Mascio, Heather M; Joya, Christie A; Plasse, Richard A; Baker, Thomas P; Flessner, Michael F; Nee, Robert

    2015-08-01

    Oxalate nephropathy is an uncommon cause of acute kidney injury. Far rarer is its association with scleroderma, with only one other published case report in the literature. We report a case of a 75-year-old African-American female with a history of systemic scleroderma manifested by chronic pseudo-obstruction and small intestinal bacterial overgrowth (SIBO) treated with rifaximin, who presented with acute kidney injury with normal blood pressure. A renal biopsy demonstrated extensive acute tubular injury with numerous intratubular birefringent crystals, consistent with oxalate nephropathy. We hypothesize that her recent treatment with rifaximin for SIBO and decreased intestinal transit time in pseudo-obstruction may have significantly increased intestinal oxalate absorption, leading to acute kidney injury. Oxalate nephropathy should be considered in the differential diagnosis of acute kidney injury in scleroderma with normotension, and subsequent evaluation should be focused on bowel function to include alterations in gut flora due to antibiotic administration. PMID:25500295

  16. Population genetics of African ungulates

    Lorenzen, Eline

    Molecular genetic techniques were used to gain insights into the evolutionary forces that have shaped the present day diversity of African savannah ungu-lates, which constitute the most species-rich mega faunal assemblage on earth. The studies included in this thesis represent individual species......-specific data sets, which are used to elucidate evolutionary processes of importance to the savannah ungulate community. Patterns of DNA variation were analyzed to assess the genetic signatures of Pleistocene refugia and investigate aspects of speciation, intraspecific structuring, hybridization, and historic...

  17. Environmental sensing by African trypanosomes.

    Roditi, Isabel; Schumann, Gabriela; Naguleswaran, Arunasalam

    2016-08-01

    African trypanosomes, which divide their life cycle between mammals and tsetse flies, are confronted with environments that differ widely in temperature, nutrient availability and host responses to infection. In particular, since trypanosomes cannot predict when they will be transmitted between hosts, it is vital for them to be able to sense and adapt to their milieu. Thanks to technical advances, significant progress has been made in understanding how the parasites perceive external stimuli and react to them. There is also a growing awareness that trypanosomes use a variety of mechanisms to exchange information with each other, thereby enhancing their chances of survival. PMID:27131101

  18. Depression, Sociocultural Factors, and African American Women

    Hunn, Vanessa Lynn; Craig, Carlton David

    2009-01-01

    The authors discuss depression in African American women from a sociocultural perspective, including aspects of oppression and racism that affect symptom manifestation. The authors highlight John Henryism as a coping mechanism, the history and continuing role of the African American church as a safe haven, and strategies for culturally competent…

  19. Cancer and the African American Experience

    The first plenary of the EPEC-O (Education in Palliative and End-of-Life Care for Oncology) Self-Study: Cultural Considerations When Caring for African Americans explores the many factors that lead to inequalities in cancer care outcomes for African Americans.

  20. African Americans in the Early Republic.

    Nash, Gary B.

    2000-01-01

    Discusses five topics on African Americans that are essential to studying United States History in the years between 1760 and 1830: (1) African Americans in the Revolutionary War ; (2) the rise of free black communities; (3) early abolitionism; (4) the spread of slavery; and (5) black resistance to slavery. (CMK)

  1. African-American Student Achievement Research Project.

    Wagstaff, Mark; Melton, Jerry; Lawless, Brenda; Combs, Linda

    Data from the Texas Assessment of Academic Skills (TAAS) reveal that gains in performance for the African American student population of Region VII of the state's educational system were not keeping pace with the performance of African Americans in the rest of Texas. This study investigated practices in school districts in the region in which…

  2. New data on African health professionals abroad

    Clemens Michael A

    2008-01-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background The migration of doctors and nurses from Africa to developed countries has raised fears of an African medical brain drain. But empirical research on the causes and effects of the phenomenon has been hampered by a lack of systematic data on the extent of African health workers' international movements. Methods We use destination-country census data to estimate the number of African-born doctors and professional nurses working abroad in a developed country circa 2000, and compare this to the stocks of these workers in each country of origin. Results Approximately 65,000 African-born physicians and 70,000 African-born professional nurses were working overseas in a developed country in the year 2000. This represents about one fifth of African-born physicians in the world, and about one tenth of African-born professional nurses. The fraction of health professionals abroad varies enormously across African countries, from 1% to over 70% according to the occupation and country. Conclusion These numbers are the first standardized, systematic, occupation-specific measure of skilled professionals working in developed countries and born in a large number of developing countries.

  3. British African Caribbean Women and Depression

    Adkison-Bradley, Carla; Maynard, Donna; Johnson, Phillip; Carter, Stephaney

    2009-01-01

    Depression is a common condition among women in the United Kingdom. However, little is known about the context of depression among British African Caribbean women. This article offers a preliminary discussion regarding issues and information pertaining to depression among British African Caribbean women. Characteristics and symptoms of depression…

  4. Acute renal failure associated with nonfulminant acute viral hepatitis A

    Sarawgi, S.; Gupta, A. K.; Arora, D S; Jasuja, S.

    2008-01-01

    Hepatitis A runs a benign course in children, but may have atypical presentations in adults. Very rarely acute renal failure complicates nonfulminant hepatitis A. We report a patient with nonfulminant acute viral hepatitis A with multiorgan involvement. Patient had biopsy proven acute interstitial nephritis, acute pancreatitis, acute myocarditis and required hemodialysis for 6 weeks.

  5. An African VLBI network of radio telescopes

    Gaylard, M J; Combrinck, L; Booth, R S; Buchner, S J; Fanaroff, B L; MacLeod, G C; Nicolson, G D; Quick, J F H; Stronkhorst, P; Venkatasubramani, T L

    2014-01-01

    The advent of international wideband communication by optical fibre has produced a revolution in communications and the use of the internet. Many African countries are now connected to undersea fibre linking them to other African countries and to other continents. Previously international communication was by microwave links through geostationary satellites. These are becoming redundant in some countries as optical fibre takes over, as this provides 1000 times the bandwidth of the satellite links. In the 1970's and 1980's some two dozen large (30 m diameter class) antennas were built in various African countries to provide the satellite links. Twenty six are currently known in 19 countries. As these antennas become redundant, the possibility exists to convert them for radio astronomy at a cost of roughly one tenth that of a new antenna of similar size. HartRAO, SKA Africa and the South African Department of Science and Technology (DST) have started exploring this possibility with some of the African countries...

  6. Acute myocardial infarction at a university hospital: effect of race on short-term mortality.

    Williams, M L; Hill, G; Jackson, M

    2000-01-01

    Several studies have shown that African Americans who have an acute myocardial infarction (AMI) have a higher mortality rate and receive less aggressive cardiac intervention compared with whites. This observational study reports on the in-hospital mortality rate for AMI by race at a university tertiary referral hospital. Racial variation in clinical outcomes and treatment in the area of thrombolysis and acute revascularization was assessed. Data were retrieved from the National Registry on Myocardial Infarction (NRMI) for all 521 patients with AMI admitted to the critical care unit at the University of North Carolina between January 1991 and December 1994. Information collected included age, gender, race, cardiac catheterization results, thrombolytic therapy, coronary bypass surgery, mortality, and arrhythmia. African Americans had a lower in-hospital mortality rate compared with whites (2% versus 8% P < or = 0.03) and were also younger (61 +/- 13 SD versus 64 +/- 12 P = 0.02). Hypertension, diabetes mellitus, or prior myocardial infarction were similar in both groups. Of the 323 patients who received a cardiac catheterization, the extent of coronary disease and left ventricular ejection fraction was similar in both races. Finally, the use of thrombolysis, PTCA, or CABG was not influenced by race. In conclusion, the in-hospital mortality for African Americans at this university tertiary referral center was lower than for whites. This occurred despite a similar incidence in cardiac risk factors and similarly aggressive acute cardiac interventions in both white and African American patients. While African Americans experienced lower in-hospital mortality, this study does not address the pre-hospital and post-hospital risk. It does suggest that African Americans with AMI, who are comparably matched to whites for risk and receive similar cardiac interventions, may have a favorable in-hospital mortality. PMID:11852649

  7. Imaging of acute pancreatitis

    Merkle, Elmar M.; Goerich, Johannes [Department of Radiology, University Hospitals of Ulm, Steinhoevel Strasse 9, 89075 Ulm (Germany)

    2002-08-01

    Acute pancreatitis is defined as an acute inflammatory process of the pancreas with variable involvement of peripancreatic tissues or remote organ systems. This article reports the current classification, definition and terminology, epidemiology and etiology, pathogenesis and pathological findings, clinical and laboratory findings, and finally imaging findings of acute pancreatitis with emphasis on cross-sectional imaging modalities such as ultrasound, computed tomography, and magnetic resonance imaging. (orig.)

  8. Streptococcal acute pharyngitis

    2014-01-01

    Acute pharyngitis/tonsillitis, which is characterized by inflammation of the posterior pharynx and tonsils, is a common disease. Several viruses and bacteria can cause acute pharyngitis; however, Streptococcus pyogenes (also known as Lancefield group A β-hemolytic streptococci) is the only agent that requires an etiologic diagnosis and specific treatment. S. pyogenes is of major clinical importance because it can trigger post-infection systemic complications, acute rheumatic fever, and post-s...

  9. Acute generalized exanthematous pustulosis

    K.S. Dhillon

    2012-10-01

    Full Text Available Acute generalized exanthematous pustulosis (AGEP is a rare reaction pattern with a typical morphology and a short clinical course that in majority of cases is related to medication administration. It is an acute pustular eruption with unique clinical features, a rapid clinical course and a typical histopathology. Herein, we report the case of a patient with acute generalized exanthematous pustulosis for its classical presentation.

  10. Acute recurrent polyhydramnios

    Rode, Line; Bundgaard, Anne; Skibsted, Lillian;

    2007-01-01

    Acute recurrent polyhydramnios is a rare occurrence characterized by a poor fetal outcome. This is a case report describing a 34-year-old woman presenting with acute recurrent polyhydramnios. Treatment with non-steroidal anti-inflammatory drugs (NSAID) and therapeutic amniocenteses was initiated...... an enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay. As in normal pregnancies, amniotic prolactin levels decreased by 80% from highest to lowest value in this case of resolving acute recurrent polyhydramnios....

  11. Management Of Acute Migraine

    Mehndiratta M

    2002-01-01

    Pharmacotherapy for migraine involves treatment for the acute attack as well as using long-term prophylaxis in order to reduce the frequency and severity of the attacks. Based on severity, there are a number of drugs available to treat the acute attacks. For mild to moderate attacks, analgesics, NSAIDs and Ergotamine are effective but severe attacks may need Dihydroergotamine (DHE) or a triptan. Sumatriptan and the second generation triptans have revolutionized the acute treatment of migra...

  12. Atrial fibrillation (acute onset)

    Lip, Gregory Y. H.; Watson, Timothy

    2008-01-01

    Acute atrial fibrillation is rapid, irregular, and chaotic atrial activity of less than 48 hours' duration. It resolves spontaneously within 24 to 48 hours in over 50% of people. In this review we have included studies on patients with onset up to 7 days previously. Risk factors for acute atrial fibrillation include increasing age, CVD, alcohol abuse, diabetes, and lung disease.Acute atrial fibrillation increases the risk of stroke and heart failure.

  13. Mixed phenotype acute leukemia

    Ye Zixing; Wang Shujie

    2014-01-01

    Objective To highlight the current understanding of mixed phenotype acute leukemia (MPAL).Data sources We collected the relevant articles in PubMed (from 1985 to present),using the terms "mixed phenotype acute leukemia","hybrid acute leukemia","biphenotypic acute leukemia",and "mixed lineage leukemia".We also collected the relevant studies in WanFang Data base (from 2000 to present),using the terms "mixed phenotype acute leukemia" and "hybrid acute leukemia".Study selection We included all relevant studies concerning mixed phenotype acute leukemia in English and Chinese version,with no limitation of research design.The duplicated articles are excluded.Results MPAL is a rare subgroup of acute leukemia which expresses the myeloid and lymphoid markers simultaneously.The clinical manifestations of MPAL are similar to other acute leukemias.The World Health Organization classification and the European Group for Immunological classification of Leukaemias 1998 cdteria are most widely used.MPAL does not have a standard therapy regimen.Its treatment depends mostly on the patient's unique immunophenotypic and cytogenetic features,and also the experience of individual physician.The lack of effective treatment contributes to an undesirable prognosis.Conclusion Our understanding about MPAL is still limited.The diagnostic criteria have not been unified.The treatment of MPAL remains to be investigated.The prognostic factor is largely unclear yet.A better diagnostic cdteria and targeted therapeutics will improve the therapy effect and a subsequently better prognosis.

  14. South African AIDS plan criticised.

    Sidley, P

    1998-10-17

    In a television broadcast, Deputy President Mbeki of South Africa announced a campaign against HIV/AIDS that would involve coordination between various government departments and nongovernmental organizations. Mbeki, who is associated with Virodene (a drug treatment for AIDS that is considered a scam), replaced President Mandela at the last minute in the broadcast. Two days after the broadcast, the government refused to support treatment of pregnant women infected with HIV with zidovudine to prevent transmission of the virus to the baby. The treatment is considered cost-effective by AIDS workers and public health officials. According to Mark Heywood of the AIDS law project at Witwatersrand University, 16% of pregnant women attending antenatal clinics were HIV-positive in 1997; this means that about 3 million South Africans (8% of the population) were living with HIV. Heywood said that the government believes there are 1500 new cases daily. By the end of 1998, 3.5 million South Africans will be living with HIV. Although the government is asking other sectors to join in the campaign, what the government is doing is unclear. Mother-to-child transmission of HIV is second only to transmission of the virus through heterosexual sex in South Africa. PMID:9841037

  15. Fatal herpes simplex infection in a pygmy African hedgehog (Atelerix albiventris).

    Allison, N; Chang, T C; Steele, K E; Hilliard, J K

    2002-01-01

    An adult pygmy African hedgehog developed acute posterior paresis attributed to a prolapsed intervertebral disc diagnosed by C-T scan. Corticosteroid therapy resulted in prompt resolution of the ataxia, but 2 weeks later the animal became anorexic and died. Macroscopically, the liver was stippled with punctate off-white foci which were confirmed microscopically to be foci of necrosis. Numerous hepatocytes contained intranuclear inclusions and syncytial cell formation was also present. A herpes virus was isolated and identified by fluorescent antibody and polymerase chain reaction studies as herpesvirus simplex type 1. To our knowledge, this is the first report of herpes infection in the African hedgehog and the first time herpes simplex has been identified as a cause of disease in insectivores. PMID:11814325

  16. Surgical and medical management of a uterine spindle cell tumor in an African hedgehog (Atelerix albiventris).

    Done, Lisa B; Deem, Sharon L; Fiorello, Christine V

    2007-12-01

    A 5-yr-old female African hedgehog (Ateleris albiventris) presented with hematuria. Vulvar culture results revealed a 4+ growth of Enterococcus sp. and gamma-Streptococcus sp. susceptible to trimethoprim sulfa and enrofloxacin. Ultrasound evaluation of the abdomen revealed an unidentifiable tubular structure in the region of the reproductive tract. An exploratory laparotomy and ovariohysterectomy were performed. Pathologic studies of the uterus showed a uterine spindle cell tumor, uterine endometrial polyp, uterine adenomyosis, and a possible acute infarct resulting in uterine wall necrosis. Hematuria did not reoccur, and the hedgehog lived for another 19 mo until she died from an oral squamous cell carcinoma. To date, this is the first report of a uterine spindle cell tumor in an African hedgehog. PMID:18229871

  17. Educational Adaptation and Pan-Africanism: Trends in Africa.

    Marah, John Karefah

    1987-01-01

    European colonialists believed that Africans should be educated in African traditional values, and that Africans should be made into dedicated workers, not holders of power. The African nationalists of the 1960s, in contrast, rejected most of the arduous aspects of European education as instruments of domination, and lay the foundation for the…

  18. 76 FR 6519 - National African American History Month, 2011

    2011-02-04

    ... imagined, African Americans have strengthened our Nation by leading reforms, overcoming obstacles, and... of African Americans to our Nation's history and identity. This year's theme, ``African Americans and... enslaved within rebellious areas, he also opened the door for African Americans to join the Union...

  19. African widows: anthropological and historical perspectives.

    Cattell, Maria G

    2003-01-01

    Variety characterizes widows' experiences around the world and in Africa south of the Sahara. This article explores the socioeconomic and cultural contexts of African widowhood, using anthropological studies in a number of African societies, including the author's research among Abaluyia of western Kenya. Some features of African widowhood are characteristic of African women's lives regardless of their marital status: their embeddedness in kinship systems and dependence on those systems for claims to productive resources, their economic self-reliance (which does not mean prosperity), strongly gendered divisions of labor, and the pervasiveness of patriarchal gender relations. Other features are specific to widowhood, including remarriage, issues of personal autonomy, and loss of status, access to productive resources and social support. Colonial and postcolonial historical transformations, including Africa's current dire economic situation and the AIDS epidemic, are considered in relation to widows' lives. An interesting question (given the theme of this edited volume) is whether a husband' s death puts African widows "on their own again," and whether, given African systems of kinship and marriage, most African women (and indeed men, too) can ever be said to be "on their own." PMID:14604001

  20. Acute myopericarditis masquerading as acute myocardial infarction

    Wen Tian; Zixin Zhang; Xiaojuan Bai; Dingyin Zeng; Guoxian Qi

    2008-01-01

    Patients with abrupt onset of chest pain, ischemic ECG abnormalities and elevated levels of cardiac markers could be given a diagnosis of acute myocardial infarction. However, some other diseases should be taken into consideration in this clinical setting when coronary arteries are proven to be normal. Here we report a case of acute myopericarditis with clinical presentation of myocardial infarction and normal coronary anatomy. The Herpes Simplex Virus Ⅱ was considered as the organism causing myopericarditis and the patient was recovered by the treatment with valacicloavir. A precise diagnosis is a prerequisite of successful treatment and favorable prognosis.

  1. Leukocytosis in acute stroke

    Kammersgaard, L P; Jørgensen, H S; Nakayama, H;

    1999-01-01

    Leukocytosis is a common finding in the acute phase of stroke. A detrimental effect of leukocytosis on stroke outcome has been suggested, and trials aiming at reducing the leukocyte response in acute stroke are currently being conducted. However, the influence of leukocytosis on stroke outcome has...

  2. Poznan acute Astronomical Observatory

    Murdin, P.

    2000-11-01

    This Poznan acute Astronomical Observatory is a unit of the Adam Mickiewicz University, located in Poznan acute, Poland. From its foundation in 1919, it has specialized in astrometry and celestial mechanics (reference frames, dynamics of satellites and small solar system bodies). Recently, research activities have also included planetary and stellar astrophysics (asteroid photometry, catalysmic b...

  3. Acute Otitis Media

    A Joshan

    2000-07-01

    Full Text Available Acute Otitis Media is a common problem of childhood. It is characterized by otalgia, fever, irritability, anorexia and vomiting or diarrhea. Diagnosis is most often made by pneumatic otoscopy. Acute Otitis Media is mostly caused by S.pneumonia or H.influenza there are sensitive to penicillins.

  4. Acute kidney injury.

    Lang, Joanna; Zuber, Kim; Davis, Jane

    2016-04-01

    Acute kidney injury (AKI) complicates up to 20% of all hospital admissions. Responding to the increase in admissions, complications, mortality, morbidity, and cost of AKI, Kidney Disease: Improving Global Outcomes convened an expert panel to study the issue, review the literature, and publish guidelines to evaluate and treat patients with AKI in the acute setting. This article reviews those guidelines. PMID:27023656

  5. Acute dysautonomia following mumps.

    Mathuranath P

    1999-04-01

    Full Text Available Pure acute or subacute dysautonomia is a rare entity. Its etiology is as yet unknown. However, majority of these cases have a preceding viral infection such as herpes simplex, infectious mononucleosis, rubella or coxsackie B. A unique patient in whom acute dysautonomia followed mumps is reported.

  6. Acute dysautonomia following mumps.

    Mathuranath P; Duralpandian J; Kishore A

    1999-01-01

    Pure acute or subacute dysautonomia is a rare entity. Its etiology is as yet unknown. However, majority of these cases have a preceding viral infection such as herpes simplex, infectious mononucleosis, rubella or coxsackie B. A unique patient in whom acute dysautonomia followed mumps is reported.

  7. The Economics of the African Media

    Cage, Julia

    2014-01-01

    The focus of this chapter is on the economics of sub-Saharan African media. Using the history of sub-Saharan African newspapers as well as historical evidence from Europe and the United States, I study the emergence of market-oriented journalism and of an independent and informative press in sub-Saharan Africa. I document the extent to which sub-Saharan African newspapers have followed the same development steps than newspapers in other countries, moving from living off patronage and governme...

  8. MISCONCEPTIONS OF DEPRESSION IN AFRICAN AMERICANS

    Zohaib eSohail

    2014-06-01

    Full Text Available Major depression is a very common disabling disorder. Although the relationship between race and depression is complex, depression affects all races, all ethnic and geographic locations as well as all age groups. The prevalence of depression in African Americans is controversial, due to the paucity of research. The deficit in the knowledge and skills in treating depression in African Americans have not been adequately addressed so far. Inadequate and insufficient data on African Americans contributes to the problems of under diagnoses, misdiagnosis and under treatment of depression. This article will highlight the existing problem of depression in Afro American with a focus on diagnostic and treatment issues.

  9. The African concept of caring for life

    Maake Masango

    2005-10-01

    Full Text Available This article analyses the village concept of caring among African people. The old pattern of caring was based on the concept of ubuntu (humanity which respects people, because they are created in the imago Dei. Then the article compares the western concept of caring, which is based on individualism and people's privacy. Finally, economy, globalisation and this western concept are analysed. The impact of the above concepts affects Africans in urban areas, who are caught up in the two worlds, namely the African and western worlds.

  10. Mandela’s Favourite African Folktales

    Carmen Concilio

    2014-01-01

    In this essay I would like to examine the selection of African tales that Nelson Mandela took care to leave as heritage to the future generations, not only to children, and not only to African children. The fact that a political leader, ex freedom fighter and political prisoner dedicated his time to the collection and editing of stories from all over the African continent to be addressed to new readers as simple entertainment or as educational tools clearly testifies to the great humanity, cu...

  11. AFRA. African Regional Co-operative Agreement

    This publication provides an outline of the African Regional Co-operation Agreement for research, development and training related to nuclear science and technology (AFRA). The agreement stems from an initiative of several African member states of the IAEA to get the agency to help establish an African regional arrangement which would be similar to arrangements which were already in place in the Asian and Latin American regions. Through this regional approach to development, AFRA seeks to accelerate moves toward self-sufficiency in scientific disciplines and appropriate technologies by coordinating intellectual and physical resources and disseminating innovative methods and practices in a cost-effective manner

  12. 21st Century South African Science Fiction

    CARAIVAN LUIZA

    2014-12-01

    Full Text Available The paper analyses some aspects of South African science fiction, starting with its beginnings in the 1920s and focusing on some 21st century writings. Thus Lauren Beukes’ novels Moxyland (2008 and Zoo City (2010 are taken into consideration in order to present new trends in South African literature and the way science fiction has been marked by Apartheid. The second South African science fiction writer whose writings are examined is Henrietta Rose-Innes (with her novel Nineveh, published in 2011 as this consolidates women's presence in the SF world.

  13. The African American Wellness Village in Portland, Ore

    McKeever, Corliss; Koroloff, Nancy; Faddis, Collaine

    2006-01-01

    More than 80% of African Americans in Oregon reside in the Portland metropolitan area; African Americans comprise 1.7% of the state's population. Although relatively small, the African American population in the state experiences substantial health disparities. The African American Health Coalition, Inc was developed to implement initiatives that would reduce these disparities and to promote increased communication and trust between the African American community and local institutions and or...

  14. Palaearctic-African Bird Migration

    Iwajomo, Soladoye Babatola

    -Saharan migrants than autumn migration. Information about the behavior and interactions of migrants during the nonbreeding season in sub-Saharan Africa is also scarce for many species. Furthermore, very little is known about intra-African migration. This thesis summarizes my research on the autumn migration of...... still unknown. The fourth paper and one manuscript investigate the behavior of garden warblers Sylvia borin, during the non-breeding season in Nigeria. The first paper shows that the species also utilizes habitats south of the savannah region, presumably on its way to the final goal area. Individuals...... also molt their flight feathers at this location and intraspecific interactions are non-aggressive. The second manuscript investigates whether variations in the timing of migration of wader species at a stopover site in southeast Sweden is influence by local or regional climatic variables. The...

  15. African diatom palaeoecology and biostratigraphy

    Gasse, F.; Fourtanier, E.

    This paper illustrates the different types of information which can be deduced from African diatoms studies. The first section is devoted to the reconstruction of palaeoenvironments. The accuracy of ecological data (estimates of ecological variables e.g. types of habitats, water chemistry…) depends on the times scale and on the spatial scale considered: short-term environments in a given waterbody, environmental evolution during individual humid episodes considered locally or regionally, long-term changes in diatom flora induced by major climatic tendencies at a regional or continental scale. One then summarizes our present state of knowledge in diatom biostratigraphy in Africa. Several centric taxa, belonging to the genera Aulacoseira, Mesodictyon, Cyclotella, Stephanodiscus and Cyclostephanos appear to have limited stratigraphical ranges and to be good chronological markers.

  16. Africa Pentecostalized? Understanding the African appropriation of Pentecostalism in light of African perspectives

    Østhassel, Ole Aleksander

    2013-01-01

    I want to prepare an understanding of why Pentecostalism seems to be so attractive in Africa. I will outline Ogbu Kalu's understanding of a resonance between African traditional culture and Pentecostalism, and then add perspectives from other African scholars. And the research problem follows: How can we understand the appropriation of Pentecostalism in Africa in light of Ogbu Kalu? Research questions will be: In what way do Pentecostalism and African traditional cult...

  17. Enhancing the African bioethics initiative

    Ogundiran Temidayo O

    2004-10-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Medical ethics has existed since the time of Hippocrates. However, formal training in bioethics did not become established until a few decades ago. Bioethics has gained a strong foothold in health sciences in the developed world, especially in Europe and North America. The situation is quite different in many developing countries. In most African countries, bioethics – as established and practiced today in the west- is either non-existent or is rudimentary. Discussion Though bioethics has come of age in the developed and some developing countries, it is still largely "foreign" to most African countries. In some parts of Africa, some bioethics conferences have been held in the past decade to create research ethics awareness and ensure conformity to international guidelines for research with human participants. This idea has arisen in recognition of the genuine need to develop capacity for reviewing the ethics of research in Africa. It is also a condition required by external sponsors of collaborative research in Africa. The awareness and interest that these conferences have aroused need to be further strengthened and extended beyond research ethics to clinical practice. By and large, bioethics education in schools that train doctors and other health care providers is the hook that anchors both research ethics and clinical ethics. Summary This communication reviews the current situation of bioethics in Africa as it applies to research ethics workshops and proposes that in spite of the present efforts to integrate ethics into biomedical research in Africa, much still needs to be done to accomplish this. A more comprehensive approach to bioethics with an all-inclusive benefit is to incorporate formal ethics education into health training institutions in Africa.

  18. Acute appendicitis caused by acute myeloid leukemia

    Zhang, Shanxiang; Chen, Shaoxiong

    2014-01-01

    Key Clinical Message A case of appendiceal involvement by acute myeloid leukemia (AML) in an adult with recent history of AML transformed from myelodysplastic syndrome (MDS) was presented. Being aware of this rare presentation in particular in a patient with history of MDS and/or AML is important for prompt clinical diagnosis and management.

  19. Outcomes of acute kidney injury in children and adults in sub-Saharan Africa: a systematic review

    Prof. Wasiu A Olowu, MBBS; Prof. Abdou Niang, MD; Charlotte Osafo, MBChB; Prof. Gloria Ashuntantang, MD; Prof. Fatiu A Arogundade, MBBS; Prof. John Porter, MD; Prof. Saraladevi Naicker, MBChB; Dr. Valerie A Luyckx, MBBCh

    2016-01-01

    Background: Access to diagnosis and dialysis for acute kidney injury can be life-saving, but can be prohibitively expensive in low-income settings. The burden of acute kidney injury in sub-Saharan Africa is presumably high but remains unknown. We did a systematic review to assess outcomes of acute kidney injury in sub-Saharan Africa and identify barriers to care. Methods: We searched PubMed, African Journals Online, WHO Global Health Library, and Web of Science for articles published betwe...

  20. Extraordinary life history in African annual fishes

    Blažek, Radim; Polačik, Matej; Reichard, Martin

    Bujumbura: University of Burundi, 2013. s. 52-53. [International Conference of the Pan African Fish and Fisheries Association (PAFFA) /5./. 16.09.2013-20.09.2013, Bujumbura] Institutional support: RVO:68081766 Keywords : Nothobranchius * Mozambique Subject RIV: EG - Zoology

  1. African Studies Abstracts Online: number 28, 2009

    African Studies Centre

    2009-01-01

    ASA Online provides a quarterly overview of journal articles and edited works on Africa in the field of the social sciences and the humanities available in the ASC library. Issue 28 (2009). African Studies Centre, Leiden.

  2. African Studies Abstracts Online: number 25, 2009

    African Studies Centre

    2009-01-01

    ASA Online provides a quarterly overview of journal articles and edited works on Africa in the field of the social sciences and the humanities available in the ASC library. Issue 25 (2009). African Studies Centre, Leiden.

  3. African Studies Abstracts Online: number 10, 2005

    African Studies Centre

    2005-01-01

    ASA Online provides a quarterly overview of journal articles and edited works on Africa in the field of the social sciences and the humanities available in the ASC library. Issue 10 (2005). African Studies Centre, Leiden.

  4. African Studies Abstracts Online: number 36, 2011

    African Studies Centre

    2011-01-01

    ASA Online provides a quarterly overview of journal articles and edited works on Africa in the field of the social sciences and the humanities available in the ASC library. Issue 36 (2011). African Studies Centre, Leiden.

  5. African Studies Abstracts Online: number 23, 2008

    African Studies Centre

    2008-01-01

    ASA Online provides a quarterly overview of journal articles and edited works on Africa in the field of the social sciences and the humanities available in the ASC library. Issue 23 (2008). African Studies Centre, Leiden.

  6. African Studies Abstracts Online: number 30, 2010

    African Studies Centre

    2010-01-01

    ASA Online provides a quarterly overview of journal articles and edited works on Africa in the field of the social sciences and the humanities available in the ASC library. Issue 30 (2010). African Studies Centre, Leiden.

  7. African Studies Abstracts Online: number 20, 2007

    African Studies Centre

    2007-01-01

    ASA Online provides a quarterly overview of journal articles and edited works on Africa in the field of the social sciences and the humanities available in the ASC library. Issue 20 (2007). African Studies Centre, Leiden.

  8. African Studies Abstracts Online: number 50, 2015

    African Studies Centre

    2015-01-01

    ASA Online provides a quarterly overview of journal articles and edited works on Africa in the field of the social sciences and the humanities available in the ASC library. Issue 50 (2015). African Studies Centre, Leiden.

  9. African Studies Abstracts Online: number 34, 2011

    African Studies Centre

    2011-01-01

    ASA Online provides a quarterly overview of journal articles and edited works on Africa in the field of the social sciences and the humanities available in the ASC library. Issue 34 (2011). African Studies Centre, Leiden.

  10. African Studies Abstracts Online: number 11, 2005

    African Studies Centre

    2005-01-01

    ASA Online provides a quarterly overview of journal articles and edited works on Africa in the field of the social sciences and the humanities available in the ASC library. Issue 11 (2005). African Studies Centre, Leiden.

  11. African Studies Abstracts Online: number 52, 2015

    African Studies Centre

    2015-01-01

    ASA Online provides a quarterly overview of journal articles and edited works on Africa in the field of the social sciences and the humanities available in the ASC library. Issue 52 (2015). African Studies Centre, Leiden.

  12. African Studies Abstracts Online: number 15, 2006

    African Studies Centre

    2006-01-01

    ASA Online provides a quarterly overview of journal articles and edited works on Africa in the field of the social sciences and the humanities available in the ASC library. Issue 15 (2006). African Studies Centre, Leiden.

  13. African Studies Abstracts Online: number 48, 2014

    African Studies Centre

    2014-01-01

    ASA Online provides a quarterly overview of journal articles and edited works on Africa in the field of the social sciences and the humanities available in the ASC library. Issue 48 (2014). African Studies Centre, Leiden.

  14. African Studies Abstracts Online: number 22, 2008

    African Studies Centre

    2008-01-01

    ASA Online provides a quarterly overview of journal articles and edited works on Africa in the field of the social sciences and the humanities available in the ASC library. Issue 22 (2008). African Studies Centre, Leiden.

  15. African Studies Abstracts Online: number 43, 2013

    African Studies Centre

    2013-01-01

    ASA Online provides a quarterly overview of journal articles and edited works on Africa in the field of the social sciences and the humanities available in the ASC library. Issue 43 (2013). African Studies Centre, Leiden.

  16. African Studies Abstracts Online: number 17, 2007

    African Studies Centre

    2007-01-01

    ASA Online provides a quarterly overview of journal articles and edited works on Africa in the field of the social sciences and the humanities available in the ASC library. Issue 17 (2007). African Studies Centre, Leiden.

  17. African Studies Abstracts Online: number 18, 2007

    African Studies Centre

    2007-01-01

    ASA Online provides a quarterly overview of journal articles and edited works on Africa in the field of the social sciences and the humanities available in the ASC library. Issue 18 (2007). African Studies Centre, Leiden.

  18. African Studies Abstracts Online: number 38, 2012

    African Studies Centre

    2012-01-01

    ASA Online provides a quarterly overview of journal articles and edited works on Africa in the field of the social sciences and the humanities available in the ASC library. Issue 38 (2012). African Studies Centre, Leiden.

  19. African Studies Abstracts Online: number 9, 2005

    African Studies Centre

    2005-01-01

    ASA Online provides a quarterly overview of journal articles and edited works on Africa in the field of the social sciences and the humanities available in the ASC library. Issue 9 (2005). African Studies Centre, Leiden.

  20. African Studies Abstracts Online: number 31, 2010

    African Studies Centre

    2010-01-01

    ASA Online provides a quarterly overview of journal articles and edited works on Africa in the field of the social sciences and the humanities available in the ASC library. Issue 31 (2010). African Studies Centre, Leiden.

  1. African Studies Abstracts Online: number 40, 2012

    African Studies Centre

    2012-01-01

    ASA Online provides a quarterly overview of journal articles and edited works on Africa in the field of the social sciences and the humanities available in the ASC library. Issue 40 (2012). African Studies Centre, Leiden.

  2. African Studies Abstracts Online: number 27, 2009

    African Studies Centre

    2009-01-01

    ASA Online provides a quarterly overview of journal articles and edited works on Africa in the field of the social sciences and the humanities available in the ASC library. Issue 27 (2009). African Studies Centre, Leiden.

  3. African Studies Abstracts Online: number 37, 2012

    African Studies Centre

    2012-01-01

    ASA Online provides a quarterly overview of journal articles and edited works on Africa in the field of the social sciences and the humanities available in the ASC library. Issue 37 (2012). African Studies Centre, Leiden.

  4. African Studies Abstracts Online: number 26, 2009

    African Studies Centre

    2009-01-01

    ASA Online provides a quarterly overview of journal articles and edited works on Africa in the field of the social sciences and the humanities available in the ASC library. Issue 26 (2009). African Studies Centre, Leiden.

  5. African Studies Abstracts Online: number 29, 2010

    African Studies Centre

    2010-01-01

    ASA Online provides a quarterly overview of journal articles and edited works on Africa in the field of the social sciences and the humanities available in the ASC library. Issue 29 (2010). African Studies Centre, Leiden.

  6. African Studies Abstracts Online: number 33, 2011

    African Studies Centre

    2011-01-01

    ASA Online provides a quarterly overview of journal articles and edited works on Africa in the field of the social sciences and the humanities available in the ASC library. Issue 33 (2011). African Studies Centre, Leiden.

  7. African Studies Abstracts Online: number 42, 2013

    African Studies Centre

    2013-01-01

    ASA Online provides a quarterly overview of journal articles and edited works on Africa in the field of the social sciences and the humanities available in the ASC library. Issue 42 (2013). African Studies Centre, Leiden.

  8. African Studies Abstracts Online: number 45, 2014

    African Studies Centre

    2014-01-01

    ASA Online provides a quarterly overview of journal articles and edited works on Africa in the field of the social sciences and the humanities available in the ASC library. Issue 45 (2014). African Studies Centre, Leiden.

  9. African Studies Abstracts Online: number 19, 2007

    African Studies Centre

    2007-01-01

    ASA Online provides a quarterly overview of journal articles and edited works on Africa in the field of the social sciences and the humanities available in the ASC library. Issue 19 (2007). African Studies Centre, Leiden.

  10. African Studies Abstracts Online: number 46, 2014

    African Studies Centre

    2014-01-01

    ASA Online provides a quarterly overview of journal articles and edited works on Africa in the field of the social sciences and the humanities available in the ASC library. Issue 46 (2014). African Studies Centre, Leiden.

  11. African Studies Abstracts Online: number 32, 2010

    African Studies Centre

    2010-01-01

    ASA Online provides a quarterly overview of journal articles and edited works on Africa in the field of the social sciences and the humanities available in the ASC library. Issue 32 (2010). African Studies Centre, Leiden.

  12. African Studies Abstracts Online: number 51, 2015

    African Studies Centre

    2015-01-01

    ASA Online provides a quarterly overview of journal articles and edited works on Africa in the field of the social sciences and the humanities available in the ASC library. Issue 51 (2015). African Studies Centre, Leiden.

  13. African Studies Abstracts Online: number 16, 2006

    African Studies Centre

    2006-01-01

    ASA Online provides a quarterly overview of journal articles and edited works on Africa in the field of the social sciences and the humanities available in the ASC library. Issue 16 (2006). African Studies Centre, Leiden.

  14. African Studies Abstracts Online: number 24, 2008

    African Studies Centre

    2008-01-01

    ASA Online provides a quarterly overview of journal articles and edited works on Africa in the field of the social sciences and the humanities available in the ASC library. Issue 24 (2008). African Studies Centre, Leiden.

  15. African Studies Abstracts Online: number 39, 2012

    African Studies Centre

    2012-01-01

    ASA Online provides a quarterly overview of journal articles and edited works on Africa in the field of the social sciences and the humanities available in the ASC library. Issue 39 (2012). African Studies Centre, Leiden.

  16. African Studies Abstracts Online: number 54, 2016

    African Studies Centre Leiden

    2016-01-01

    ASA Online provides a quarterly overview of journal articles and edited works on Africa in the field of the social sciences and the humanities available in the ASC library. Issue 54 (2016). African Studies Centre, Leiden.

  17. African Studies Abstracts Online: number 47, 2014

    African Studies Centre

    2014-01-01

    ASA Online provides a quarterly overview of journal articles and edited works on Africa in the field of the social sciences and the humanities available in the ASC library. Issue 47 (2014). African Studies Centre, Leiden.

  18. African Studies Abstracts Online: number 21, 2008

    African Studies Centre

    2008-01-01

    ASA Online provides a quarterly overview of journal articles and edited works on Africa in the field of the social sciences and the humanities available in the ASC library. Issue 21 (2008). African Studies Centre, Leiden.

  19. African Studies Abstracts Online: number 35, 2011

    African Studies Centre

    2011-01-01

    ASA Online provides a quarterly overview of journal articles and edited works on Africa in the field of the social sciences and the humanities available in the ASC library. Issue 35 (2011). African Studies Centre, Leiden.

  20. African Studies Abstracts Online: number 44, 2013

    African Studies Centre

    2013-01-01

    ASA Online provides a quarterly overview of journal articles and edited works on Africa in the field of the social sciences and the humanities available in the ASC library. Issue 44 (2013). African Studies Centre, Leiden.

  1. African Studies Abstracts Online: number 53, 2016

    African Studies Centre

    2016-01-01

    ASA Online provides a quarterly overview of journal articles and edited works on Africa in the field of the social sciences and the humanities available in the ASC library. Issue 53 (2016). African Studies Centre, Leiden.

  2. African Studies Abstracts Online: number 49, 2015

    African Studies Centre

    2015-01-01

    ASA Online provides a quarterly overview of journal articles and edited works on Africa in the field of the social sciences and the humanities available in the ASC library. Issue 49 (2015). African Studies Centre, Leiden.

  3. African Studies Abstracts Online: number 41, 2013

    African Studies Centre

    2013-01-01

    ASA Online provides a quarterly overview of journal articles and edited works on Africa in the field of the social sciences and the humanities available in the ASC library. Issue 41 (2013). African Studies Centre, Leiden.

  4. Cardiac assessment of African hedgehogs (Atelerix albiventris).

    Black, Peter A; Marshall, Cecilia; Seyfried, Alice W; Bartin, Anne M

    2011-03-01

    Cardiomyopathy is a common finding in captive African hedgehogs (Atelerix albiventris) at postmortem exam. To date, treatment attempts have been mostly empirical and unrewarding. The objective of this study was to determine reference cardiac values for captive African hedgehogs based on echocardiogram, electrocardiogram (ECG), and radiographs. Adult African hedgehogs with no clinical signs of cardiac disease (n = 13) were selected. Each animal was anesthetized with isoflurane via facemask and an echocardiogram, ECG, and radiographs were performed. Standard measurements were taken and the descriptive statistics performed. Values were comparable to limited data available in other hedgehog species and other similar-sized exotic species. Two animals were removed from consideration of reference values due to valvular defects that were considered significant. These data are the first establishing cardiac parameters in normal African hedgehogs using radiographic cardiac measurement, echocardiogram, and ECG. Evaluating animals with possible cardiomyopathy may allow for earlier diagnosis and more successful treatment. PMID:22946370

  5. African American Men and Prostate Cancer

    Full Text Available ... the African-American that we treat this as what it is -- an epidemic. Winston Dyer: My introduction ... being ignorant to prostate cancer -- and not knowing what it was -- that was my first, first, first- ...

  6. African American Men and Prostate Cancer

    Full Text Available ... runs higher. We really don't know. But I would strongly suggest to the African-American that ... then my dad four months later. And then I was told by doctors that I should be ...

  7. Development of 'Serunding' from African catfish

    Juhari, Nurul Hanisah Binti; MK, Zainol; MM, Masduki

    This research was conducted to develop serunding from African catfish (Clarias gariepinus). Proximate analysis, physical analysis, ascorbic acid analysis, mineral analysis and sensory evaluation were carried out to determine the nutrient compositions and consumer acceptance towards the products. ...

  8. The innovative African kilowatt-hour

    There is a worldwide resurgence of interest in pricing electricity. Whether motivated by deregulation and the treat of competition (as in England and New Zealand) or by restructuring of regulatory goals to encourage competition or conservation (as in the United States), electricity suppliers and distributors are seeing pricing as a means of safeguarding, maintaining, increasing sales. South Africa is no exception in this regard. Past and proposed new developments in electricity pricing in the South African electricity supply industry are discussed, in response to pressures across several fronts: pressures from customers to reduce electricity prices to facilitate growth and survival in the South African economy; the national electrification program; the appointment of the National Electricity Regulator; moves by Southern African electricity utilities to establish a Southern African grid. The current status of electricity pricing, metering, demand profile research and demand management in South Africa are overviewed. (author)

  9. The innovative African kilowatt-hour

    Calitz, A.C. [ESKOM, Johannesburg (South Africa)

    1996-12-31

    There is a worldwide resurgence of interest in pricing electricity. Whether motivated by deregulation and the treat of competition (as in England and New Zealand) or by restructuring of regulatory goals to encourage competition or conservation (as in the United States), electricity suppliers and distributors are seeing pricing as a means of safeguarding, maintaining, increasing sales. South Africa is no exception in this regard. Past and proposed new developments in electricity pricing in the South African electricity supply industry are discussed, in response to pressures across several fronts: pressures from customers to reduce electricity prices to facilitate growth and survival in the South African economy; the national electrification program; the appointment of the National Electricity Regulator; moves by Southern African electricity utilities to establish a Southern African grid. The current status of electricity pricing, metering, demand profile research and demand management in South Africa are overviewed. (author).

  10. African American Men and Prostate Cancer

    Full Text Available ... Walker: The researchers don't know exactly why. It is suggested that maybe our diet, maybe our ... African-American that we treat this as what it is -- an epidemic. Winston Dyer: My introduction to ...

  11. Development of West African Rainy Seasons (Invited)

    Cook, K. H.

    2013-12-01

    The development of West African rainy seasons in the observed climatology can be understood in terms of two factors: continentality, i.e., the shape and placement of the African continent, and solar forcing. First, the observed features of the West African spring and summer precipitation climatology that distinguish it from the precipitation climatology of the tropical Atlantic to the east and Central/Eastern Africa to the west are presented. These include a lingering of the precipitation maximum along the Guinean coast in June and the apparent sudden movement of the precipitation maximum into the Sahel in early July. Then, these distinguishing features of the West Africa precipitation climatology are explained in terms of the regional dynamics and, finally, related to continentality and solar forcing through the roles of the African easterly jet, land surface temperature, and seasonally-varying SSTs.

  12. ERCP in acute pancreatitis

    Jijo V Cherian; Joye Varghese Selvaraj; Rajesh Natrayan; Jayanthi Venkataraman

    2007-01-01

    BACKGROUND:The role of endoscopic retrograde cholangiopancreatography (ERCP) in the management of acute pancreatitis has evolved over years since its introduction in 1968. Its importance in diagnosing the etiology of pancreatitis has steadily declined with the advent of less invasive diagnostic tools. The therapeutic implications of ERCP in acute pancreatitis are many fold and are directed towards management of known etiological factors or its related complications. This article highlights the current status of ERCP in acute pancreatitis. DATA SOURCES:An English literature search using PubMed database was conducted on ERCP in acute pancreatitis, the etiologies and complications of pancreatitis amenable to endotherapy and other related subjects, which were reviewed. RESULTS: ERCP serves as a primary therapeutic modality for management of biliary pancreatitis in speciifc situations, pancreatitis due to microlithiasis, speciifc types of sphincter of Oddi dysfunction, pancreas divisum, ascariasis and malignancy. In recurrent acute pancreatitis and smoldering pancreatitis it has a deifnite therapeutic utility. Complications of acute pancreatitis including pancreatic-duct disruptions or leaks, benign pancreatic-lfuid collections and pancreatic necrosis can be beneifcially dealt with. Intraductal ultrasound and pancreatoscopy during ERCP are useful in detecting pancreatic malignancy. CONCLUSIONS:The role of ERCP in acute pancreatitis is predominantly therapeutic and occasionally diagnostic. Its role in the management continues to evolve and advanced invasive procedures should be undertaken only in centers dedicated to pancreatic care.

  13. Development of 'Serunding' from African catfish

    Juhari, Nurul Hanisah Binti; MK, Zainol; MM, Masduki

    2009-01-01

    This research was conducted to develop serunding from African catfish (Clarias gariepinus). Proximate analysis, physical analysis, ascorbic acid analysis, mineral analysis and sensory evaluation were carried out to determine the nutrient compositions and consumer acceptance towards the products. samples of serunding were prepared with 3 different sizes (30-40cm, 40-50cm, 50-60cm) of African catfish and control was prepared using round scad fish ('ikan selayang') with same amount of fish flesh...

  14. Glimmering Utopias: 50 Years of African Film

    Cassis Kilian

    2011-01-01

    The history of African film began in the 1960s with the independence of the colonies. Despite all kinds of political and economic difficulties, numerous films have been made since then, featuring wide-ranging processes of consolidation, differentiation and transformation which were characteristic of post-colonial sub-Saharan Africa. However, these feature films should not merely be viewed as back references to specifically African problems. The glimmering fictions are imagination spaces. They...

  15. Informed consent comprehension in African research settings

    Afolabi, M.; Okebe, J.; McGrath, N.; Larson, H; Bojang, K.; Chandramohan, D.

    2014-01-01

    Objective Previous reviews on participants' comprehension of informed consent information have focused on developed countries. Experience has shown that ethical standards developed on Western values may not be appropriate for African settings where research concepts are unfamiliar. We undertook this review to describe how informed consent comprehension is defined and measured in African research settings. Methods We conducted a comprehensive search involving five electronic databa...

  16. Corynebacterial pneumonia in an African hedgehog.

    Raymond, J T; Williams, C; Wu, C C

    1998-04-01

    A 3-mo-old, male African hedgehog (Atelerix albiventris) was anorectic and lethargic for a period of 3 days prior to death. Necropys revealed lungs that were diffusely firm, dark red, and dorsally adhered by fibrinous tags to the pericardial sac. Histopathology revealed necrosuppurative bronchopneumonia with pulmonary abscesses and suppurative pericarditis and myocarditis. A Corynebacterium sp. was isolated from the lungs. We believe this is the first reported case of corynebacterial pneumonia in an African hedgehog. PMID:9577794

  17. Intestinal lymphosarcoma in captive African hedgehogs.

    Raymond, J T; Clarke, K A; Schafer, K A

    1998-10-01

    Two captive adult female African hedgehogs (Atelerix albiventris) had inappetance and bloody diarrhea for several days prior to death. Both hedgehogs had ulceration of the small intestine and hepatic lipidosis. Histopathology revealed small intestinal lymphosarcoma with metastasis to the liver. Extracellular particles that had characteristics of retroviruses were observed associated with the surface of some neoplastic lymphoid cells by transmission electron microscopy. These are the first reported cases of intestinal lymphosarcoma in African hedgehogs. PMID:9813852

  18. South African coal statistics 2006. Marketing manual

    NONE

    2006-08-15

    The report shows that South African thermal exports increased 5% from 66.6Mt to 69.9Mt in 2005 and that the country was the world's third largest seaborne exporter of thermal coal last year. Covering local coal consumption, South African coal imports, exports, prices and qualities, the report offers a complete statistical review of 2005. The report also includes details on labour, individual collieries, export and rail infrastructure and Black Empowerment (BEE) companies.

  19. Contemporary Literature in the African Diaspora

    Barrios Herrero, Olga; Bell, Bernard W.

    1997-01-01

    [ES] El libro es una colección de ensayos divididos entre las tres grandes secciones del libro: Literatura afroamericana, Literatura Afro-caribeña y Afro-latinoamericana y Literatura africana en inglés. [EN] The book is a collection of essays included in the three sections of the book: on African American Literature, Afro-Caribbean and Afro-Latin American Literature and African Literature in English.

  20. Coinfections in East African Shorthorn Zebu

    Callaby, Rebecca

    2015-01-01

    The Infectious Diseases of East African Livestock (IDEAL) project followed 548 East African Shorthorn Zebu (EASZ) calves in Western Kenya for the first year of life and monitored the sequelae of infections by multiple parasites. More than 50 different parasites were identified during this time. The IDEAL project also gathered environmental information about the farm and collected phenotypic data on the calf and its dam. Calves were also genotyped for 55,777 single nucleotide po...

  1. The african protoproverbial in a multipolar world

    Taiwo, Ọlọruntọba-Oju

    2014-01-01

    The proverb is a rhetorical universal and as such shares features across linguistic, ethnic and culture boundaries, thus making typological distinctions along ethnic or regional lines a daunting task. Further complicating this scenario within the African context is the relentless hybridization and subversion of the African proverb consequent on colonial contact and sundry postcolonial interventions. This twin trajectory, the conceptual universalism of the proverb and the relent...

  2. African American Culture and Hypertension Prevention

    Peters, Rosalind M.; Aroian, Karen J.; Flack, John M.

    2006-01-01

    A qualitative study was done to explore attitudes and beliefs of African Americans regarding hypertension-preventive self-care behaviors. Five focus groups, with 34 participants, were held using interview questions loosely based on the Theory of Planned Behavior (TPB). Analysis revealed themes broadly consistent with the TPB, and also identified an overarching theme labeled “circle of culture.” The circle is a metaphor for ties that bind individuals within the larger African American communit...

  3. Language and Culture in African Postcolonial Literature

    Asante-Darko, Kwaku

    2000-01-01

    In his article, "Language and Culture in African Postcolonial Literature," Kwaku Asante-Darko offers both conceptual basis and empirical evidence in support of the fact that critical issues concerning protest, authenticity, and hybridity in African post-colonial literature have often been heavily laden with nationalist and leftist ideological encumbrances, which tended to advocate the rejection of Western standards of aesthetics. One of the literary ramifications of nationalist/anti-colonial ...

  4. Demographics of South African Households - 1995

    Rantho, Lillian

    2003-01-01

    This paper provides an overview of the demographics of the South African population based on the October Household Survey (OHS) and the Income and Expenditure Survey (IES), both conducted by Statistics South Africa in 1995. Figures and tables are used throughout to paint a picture of the structure of the South African population, both at household level (IES data) and individual level (OHS data). Specific reference is made to the racial and spatial composition of households and individuals, t...

  5. Economic Key to Sino-African Ties

    2006-01-01

    Following Chinese President Hu Jintao's visit to Africa's Morocco, Nigeria and Kenya in April, Chinese Premier Wen Jiabao is currently visiting seven African countries-Egypt, Ghana, Republic of Congo, Angola, South Africa, Tanzania and Uganda. Haile-Kiros Gessesse, Ethiopia's Ambassador to China, discussed with Beijing Review reporter Ni Yanshuo the future of the Sino-African relationship. As special envoy for the Forum on China-Africa Cooperation, he also expressed his expectations of the forum summit t...

  6. Weak interaction in the African Easterly Jet

    A. Lenouo; F. Nkankam Kamga; Yepdjuo, E.

    2005-01-01

    Low-frequency, African Easterlies Waves (AEW) are examined as disturbances embedded in the mid-tropospheric easterly jet of the African low troposphere. The solution to the nonlinear vorticity equation relevant to the description of waves is sought in the form of triplet waves. The latest suggest a unified method to determine their kinetics characteristic and to explain the mechanism of energy exchange between their different modes. The period of energy interaction between different modes of ...

  7. Acute pancreatitis; Pancreatite aigue

    Mehdi, M.; Deutsch, J.P.; Arrive, L.; Ayadi, K.; Ladeb, M.F.; Tubiana, J.M. [Centre Hospitalier Universitaire Saint-Antoine, 75 - Paris (France)

    1996-12-31

    The diagnosis of acute pancreatitis is based on clinical examination and basic laboratory tests. The main role of sonography in acute pancreatitis is to evaluate gallstones and small fluid collections. However, sonography is frequently difficult due to intestinal ileus related to pancreatitis. CT is indicated early in the clinical course of acute severe pancreatitis when the diagnosis is uncertain or when complications such as abscess, hemorrhage, or necrosis, are suspected. In addition, CT may be used to assess the prognosis and follow-up of patients. (authors). 20 refs., 12 figs., 4 tabs.

  8. Acute oncological emergencies.

    Gabriel, J

    2012-01-01

    The number of people receiving systemic anti-cancer treatment and presenting at emergency departments with treatment-related problems is rising. Nurses will be the first point of contact for most patients and need to be able to recognise oncological emergencies to initiate urgent assessment of patients and referral to the acute oncology team so that the most appropriate care can be delivered promptly. This article discusses the role of acute oncology services, and provides an overview of the most common acute oncological emergencies.

  9. Acute Disseminated Encephalomyelitis

    Kambiz Sotoudeh

    Full Text Available Acute disseminated encephalomyelitis (ADEM is an acute, inflammatory, monophasic, demyelinating and immune-mediated disorder of central nervous system; occurs mostly in children after systemic viral infections or vaccinations. Acute polysymptomatic neurologic signs such as encephalopathy, paralysis of limbs, cranial nerve involvement, ataxia and optic neuritis are common manifestations. Brain magnetic resonance imaging study is essential for diagnosis and enabling prompt diagnosis and treatment. Evidence of multifocal lesions of demyelination in subcortical white matter are seen. They are usually bilateral and asymmetrical. Treatment optins have included steroids, immunoglobulins, and plasmapheresis. ADEM is treatable and prognosis is good.

  10. Acute genital ulcers

    Delgado-García, Silvia; Palacios-Marqués, Ana; Martínez-Escoriza, Juan Carlos; Martín-Bayón, Tina-Aurora

    2014-01-01

    Acute genital ulcers, also known as acute vulvar ulcers, ulcus vulvae acutum or Lipschütz ulcers, refer to an ulceration of the vulva or lower vagina of non-venereal origin that usually presents in young women, predominantly virgins. Although its incidence is unknown, it seems a rare entity, with few cases reported in the literature. Their aetiology and pathogenesis are still unknown. The disease is characterised by an acute onset of flu-like symptoms with single or multiple painful ulcers on...

  11. Acute acalculous cholecystitis complicating chemotherapy for acute myeloblastic leukemia

    Olfa Kassar

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Acute acalculous cholecystitis is a rare complication in the treatment of acute myeloblastic leukemia. Diagnosis of acute acalculous cholecystitis remains difficult during neutropenic period. We present two acute myeloblastic leukemia patients that developed acute acalculous cholecystitis during chemotherapy-induced neutropenia. They suffered from fever, vomiting and acute pain in the epigastrium. Ultrasound demonstrated an acalculous gallbladder. Surgical management was required in one patient and conservative treatment was attempted in the other patient. None treatment measures were effective and two patients died. Acute acalculous cholecystitis is a serious complication in neutropenic patients. Earlier diagnosis could have expedited the management of these patients.

  12. Acute Splenic Sequestration Crisis in a 70-Year-Old Patient With Hemoglobin SC Disease.

    Squiers, John J; Edwards, Anthony G; Parra, Alberto; Hofmann, Sandra L

    2016-01-01

    A 70-year-old African American female with a past medical history significant for chronic bilateral shoulder pain and reported sickle cell trait presented with acute-onset bilateral thoracolumbar pain radiating to her left arm. Two days after admission, Hematology was consulted for severely worsening microcytic anemia and thrombocytopenia. Examination of the patient's peripheral blood smear from admission revealed no cell sickling, spherocytes, or schistocytes. Some targeting was noted. A Coombs test was negative. The patient was eventually transferred to the medical intensive care unit in respiratory distress. Hemoglobin electrophoresis confirmed a diagnosis of hemoglobin SC disease. A diagnosis of acute splenic sequestration crisis complicated by acute chest syndrome was crystallized, and red blood cell exchange transfusion was performed. Further research is necessary to fully elucidate the pathophysiology behind acute splenic sequestration crisis, and the role of splenectomy to treat hemoglobin SC disease patients should be better defined. PMID:27047980

  13. West African Power Pool: Planning and Prospects for Renewable Energy

    Miketa, Asami [IRENA, Bonn (Germany); Merven, Bruno [Energy Research Centre, Univ. of Cape Town (South Africa)

    2013-06-25

    With the energy systems of many African countries dominated by fossil-fuel sources that are vulnerable to global price volatility, regional and intra-continental power systems with high shares of renewable energy can provide least-cost option to support continued economic growth and address the continent’s acute energy access problem. Unlocking Africa’s huge renewable energy potential could help to take many people out of poverty, while ensuring the uptake of sustainable technologies for the continent’s long-term development. The report examines a ''renewable scenario'' based on a modelling tool developed by IRENA and tested with assistance from the Economic Community of West African States (ECOWAS). Initial results from the ECOWAS Renewable Energy Planning (EREP) model for continental ECOWAS countries show that the share of renewable technologies in the region could increase from the current 22% of electricity generation to as much as 52% in 2030, provided that the cost of these technologies continues to fall and fossil fuel prices continue to rise. In this scenario, nearly half of the envisaged capacity additions between 2010 and 2030 would be with renewable technologies. Analysis using EREP – along with a similar model developed for Southern Africa – can provide valuable input for regional dialogue and energy projects such as the East and Southern Africa Clean Energy Corridor and the Programme for Infrastructure and Development in Africa (PIDA). IRENA, together with partner organisations, has started plans to set up capacity building and development support for energy system modelling and planning for greater integration of renewables in Africa. IRENA is also completing a similar model and study for East Africa and intends to extend this work to Central and North Africa.

  14. The East African rift system

    Chorowicz, Jean

    2005-10-01

    This overview paper considers the East African rift system (EARS) as an intra-continental ridge system, comprising an axial rift. It describes the structural organization in three branches, the overall morphology, lithospheric cross-sections, the morphotectonics, the main tectonic features—with emphasis on the tension fractures—and volcanism in its relationships with the tectonics. The most characteristic features in the EARS are narrow elongate zones of thinned continental lithosphere related to asthenospheric intrusions in the upper mantle. This hidden part of the rift structure is expressed on the surface by thermal uplift of the rift shoulders. The graben valleys and basins are organized over a major failure in the lithospheric mantle, and in the crust comprise a major border fault, linked in depth to a low angle detachment fault, inducing asymmetric roll-over pattern, eventually accompanied by smaller normal faulting and tilted blocks. Considering the kinematics, divergent movements caused the continent to split along lines of preexisting lithospheric weaknesses marked by ancient tectonic patterns that focus the extensional strain. The hypothesis favored here is SE-ward relative divergent drifting of a not yet well individualized Somalian plate, a model in agreement with the existence of NW-striking transform and transfer zones. The East African rift system comprises a unique succession of graben basins linked and segmented by intracontinental transform, transfer and accommodation zones. In an attempt to make a point on the rift system evolution through time and space, it is clear that the role of plume impacts is determinant. The main phenomenon is formation of domes related to plume effect, weakening the lithosphere and, long after, failure inducing focused upper mantle thinning, asthenospheric intrusion and related thermal uplift of shoulders. The plume that had formed first at around 30 Ma was not in the Afar but likely in Lake Tana region (Ethiopia

  15. Nutrition, Inflammation, and Acute Pancreatitis

    Max Petrov

    2013-01-01

    Acute pancreatitis is acute inflammatory disease of the pancreas. Nutrition has a number of anti-inflammatory effects that could affect outcomes of patients with pancreatitis. Further, it is the most promising nonspecific treatment modality in acute pancreatitis to date. This paper summarizes the best available evidence regarding the use of nutrition with a view of optimising clinical management of patients with acute pancreatitis.

  16. Organophosphorus poisoning (acute)

    Eddleston, Michael; Singh, Surjit; Buckley, Nick

    2007-01-01

    Acetylcholinesterase inhibition by organophosphorus pesticides or nerve gases can cause acute parasympathetic system dysfunction, muscle weakness, seizures, coma, and respiratory failure. Prognosis depends on the dose and relative toxicity of the specific compound, as well as pharmacokinetic factors.

  17. Organophosphorus poisoning (acute)

    Blain, Peter G

    2011-01-01

    Acetylcholinesterase inhibition by organophosphorus pesticides or organophosphate nerve agents can cause acute parasympathetic system dysfunction, muscle weakness, seizures, coma, and respiratory failure. Prognosis depends on the dose and relative toxicity of the specific compound, as well as pharmacokinetic factors.

  18. Acute respiratory distress syndrome

    ... chap 33. Lee WL, Slutsky AS. Acute hypoxemic respiratory failure and ARDS. In: Broaddus VC, Mason RJ, Ernst JD, et al, eds. Murray and Nadel's Textbook of Respiratory Medicine . 6th ed. Philadelphia, PA: Elsevier Saunders; 2016: ...

  19. Acute lymphoblastic leukemia (ALL)

    Jeha S, Pui CH. Clinical manifestations and treatment of acute lymphoblastic leukemia in children. In: Hoffman R, Benz EJ Jr, Silberstein LE, Weitz JI, Anastasi J, eds. Hematology: Basic Principles and Practice. 6th ed. ...

  20. Acute Mesenteric Ischemia

    ... 2 Diabetes, Heart Disease a Dangerous Combo Are 'Workaholics' Prone to OCD, Anxiety? ALL NEWS > Resources First ... surgery is needed. Acute mesenteric ischemia has multiple causes. The most common are Arterial embolism Arterial thrombus ...

  1. Acute respiratory distress syndrome

    ... chap 33. Lee WL, Slutsky AS. Acute hypoxemic respiratory failure and ARDS. In: Broaddus VC, Mason RJ, Ernst ... A.M. Editorial team. Related MedlinePlus Health Topics Respiratory Failure Browse the Encyclopedia A.D.A.M., Inc. ...

  2. Acute mountain sickness

    High altitude cerebral edema; Altitude anoxia; Altitude sickness; Mountain sickness; High altitude pulmonary edema ... Acute mountain sickness is caused by reduced air pressure and lower oxygen levels at high altitudes. The faster you ...

  3. Acute interstitial pneumonia

    The paper refers to a 71 year-old patient, to who is diagnosed acute interstitial pneumonia; with square of 20 days of evolution of cough dry emetizant, fever, general uneasiness, migraine, progressive dyspnoea and lost of weight

  4. Acute genital ulcers.

    Delgado-García, Silvia; Palacios-Marqués, Ana; Martínez-Escoriza, Juan Carlos; Martín-Bayón, Tina-Aurora

    2014-01-01

    Acute genital ulcers, also known as acute vulvar ulcers, ulcus vulvae acutum or Lipschütz ulcers, refer to an ulceration of the vulva or lower vagina of non-venereal origin that usually presents in young women, predominantly virgins. Although its incidence is unknown, it seems a rare entity, with few cases reported in the literature. Their aetiology and pathogenesis are still unknown. The disease is characterised by an acute onset of flu-like symptoms with single or multiple painful ulcers on the vulva. Diagnosis is mainly clinical, after exclusion of other causes of vulvar ulcers. The treatment is mainly symptomatic, with spontaneous resolution in 2 weeks and without recurrences in most cases. We present a case report of a 13-year-old girl with two episodes of acute ulcers that fit the clinical criteria for Lipschütz ulcers. PMID:24473429

  5. Acute liver failure

    Larsen, Fin Stolze; Bjerring, Peter Nissen

    2011-01-01

    Acute liver failure (ALF) results in a multitude of serious complications that often lead to multi-organ failure. This brief review focuses on the pathophysiological processes in ALF and how to manage these.......Acute liver failure (ALF) results in a multitude of serious complications that often lead to multi-organ failure. This brief review focuses on the pathophysiological processes in ALF and how to manage these....

  6. Feigning Acute Intermittent Porphyria

    Rania Elkhatib; Modupe Idowu; Gregory S. Brown; Jaber, Yasmeen M.; Reid, Matthew B.; Cheryl Person

    2014-01-01

    Acute intermittent porphyria (AIP) is an autosomal dominant genetic defect in heme synthesis. Patients with this illness can have episodic life-threatening attacks characterized by abdominal pain, neurological deficits, and psychiatric symptoms. Feigning this illness has not been reported in the English language literature to date. Here, we report on a patient who presented to the hospital with an acute attack of porphyria requesting opiates. Diligent assessment of extensive prior treatment r...

  7. Acute management of stones

    Jung, Helene; Osther, Palle J S

    2015-01-01

    INTRODUCTION: Stone management is often conservative due to a high spontaneous stone passage rate or non-symptomatic calyceal stones that do not necessarily require active treatment. However, stone disease may cause symptoms and complications requiring urgent intervention. MATERIAL AND METHODS......: In this review, we update latest research and current recommendations regarding acute management of stones, with particular focus on imaging, pain management, active stone interventions, medical expulsive therapy, and urolithiasis in pregnancy and childhood. RESULTS: Acute stone management should be planned...

  8. Perceptions of African American and European American Teachers on the Education of African American Boys

    Bacon, Ellen; Banks, Joy; Young, Kathryn; Jackson, Francesina R.

    2007-01-01

    The authors interviewed 27 teachers (16 African American and 11 European American) on instructional factors contributing to overidentification of behavior problems in African American boys. Interviews focused on teachers' perspectives of effective teachers, teacher-student relationships, and communication styles. Analysis of the interviews showed…

  9. Fat, fibre and cancer risk in African Americans and rural Africans

    O'Keefe, S.J.; Li, J.V.; Lahti, Leo; Ou, J.; Carbonero, F.; Khaled, M.; Postma, J.M.; Kinross, J.; Wahl, E.; Ruder, E.; Vipperla, K.; Naidoo, V.; Mtshali, L.; Tims, S.; Puylaert, P.G.B.; DeLany, J.; Krasinskas, A.; Benefiel, A.C.; Kaseb, H.O.; Newton, K.; Nicholson, J.K.; Vos, De W.M.; Gaskins, H.R.; Zoetendal, E.G.

    2015-01-01

    Rates of colon cancer are much higher in African Americans (65:100,000) than in rural South Africans (<5:100,000). The higher rates are associated with higher animal protein and fat, and lower fibre consumption, higher colonic secondary bile acids, lower colonic short-chain fatty acid quantities and

  10. Changing Fatherhood: An Exploratory Qualitative Study with African and African Caribbean Men in England

    Williams, Robert; Hewison, Alistair; Wildman, Stuart; Roskell, Carolyn

    2013-01-01

    This paper presents findings from a qualitative study undertaken with 46 African and African Caribbean men exploring their experiences of fatherhood. Data analysis was informed by Connell's theoretical work on changing gender relations. Findings indicate that fathers' lives were mediated by masculinities, racism, gender, migration and…

  11. A SNP test to identify Africanized honeybees via proportion of 'African' ancestry.

    Chapman, Nadine C; Harpur, Brock A; Lim, Julianne; Rinderer, Thomas E; Allsopp, Michael H; Zayed, Amro; Oldroyd, Benjamin P

    2015-11-01

    The honeybee, Apis mellifera, is the world's most important pollinator and is ubiquitous in most agricultural ecosystems. Four major evolutionary lineages and at least 24 subspecies are recognized. Commercial populations are mainly derived from subspecies originating in Europe (75-95%). The Africanized honeybee is a New World hybrid of A. m. scutellata from Africa and European subspecies, with the African component making up 50-90% of the genome. Africanized honeybees are considered undesirable for bee-keeping in most countries, due to their extreme defensiveness and poor honey production. The international trade in honeybees is restricted, due in part to bans on the importation of queens (and semen) from countries where Africanized honeybees are extant. Some desirable strains from the United States of America that have been bred for traits such as resistance to the mite Varroa destructor are unfortunately excluded from export to countries such as Australia due to the presence of Africanized honeybees in the USA. This study shows that a panel of 95 single nucleotide polymorphisms, chosen to differentiate between the African, Eastern European and Western European lineages, can detect Africanized honeybees with a high degree of confidence via ancestry assignment. Our panel therefore offers a valuable tool to mitigate the risks of spreading Africanized honeybees across the globe and may enable the resumption of queen and bee semen imports from the Americas. PMID:25846634

  12. African Self-Consciousness and Health-Promoting Behaviors among African American College Students.

    Thompson, Shawn N.; Chambers, John W., Jr.

    2000-01-01

    Investigated three models of relationships between African self-consciousness, health consciousness, and health-promoting behaviors among African American college students. The models included the mediator model, moderator model, and independent model. Surveys of 80 students supported the independent model, suggesting that African…

  13. African American Pastors' Beliefs and Actions Regarding Childhood Incest in the African American Community

    Wells, Tesia Denis

    2012-01-01

    This quantitative study sought to explore African American pastors' beliefs and actions regarding childhood incest in the African American community and their decisions to inform the proper authorities. This exploratory study was developed in order to draw both public and academic attention to the understudied phenomenon of childhood incest…

  14. Acute lymphocytic Leukemia masquerading as acute osteomyelitis

    Two children each developed a focal destructive bone lesion accompanied by intermittent fever, swelling, tenderness and elevated ESR. Blood counts were normal; bone marrow aspiration showed acute leukemia. The bone lesions healed in both patients after anti-leukemic therapy. We suggest that the similar roentgenographic appearance of osteomyelitis, bone infarction and focal destructive lesions in leukemia probably reflects a common, basically ischemic process of bone. (orig.)

  15. Acute Myeloid Leukemia Presenting as Acute Appendicitis

    Sherri Rauenzahn

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Appendicitis in leukemic patients is uncommon but associated with increased mortality. Additionally, leukemic cell infiltration of the appendix is extremely rare. While appendectomy is the treatment of choice for these patients, diagnosis and management of leukemia have a greater impact on remission and survival. A 59-year-old Caucasian female was admitted to the surgical service with acute right lower quadrant pain, nausea, and anorexia. She was noted to have leukocytosis, anemia, and thrombocytopenia. Abdominal imaging demonstrated appendicitis with retroperitoneal and mesenteric lymphadenopathy for which she underwent laparoscopic appendectomy. Peripheral smear, bone marrow biopsy, and surgical pathology of the appendix demonstrated acute myeloid leukemia (AML with nonsuppurative appendicitis. In the setting of AML, prior cases described the development of appendicitis with active chemotherapy. Of these cases, less than ten patients had leukemic infiltration of the appendix, leading to leukostasis and nonsuppurative appendicitis. Acute appendicitis with leukemic infiltration as the initial manifestation of AML has only been described in two other cases in the literature with an average associated morbidity of 32.6 days. The prompt management in this case of appendicitis and AML resulted in an overall survival of 185 days.

  16. 77 FR 37886 - Notice of Intent To Obtain Information Regarding Organizations Who Are Assisting African...

    2012-06-25

    ... African Governments To Increase Healthcare Institution Capacity To Maintain Complex Medical Equipment..., which are currently helping African government hospitals, clinics, laboratories, and other African... involved in enhancing the long term ability of African government health institutions to maintain...

  17. Acute Hepatocellular Drug-Induced Liver Injury From Bupropion and Doxycycline

    Derek M Tang; Koh, Christopher; Twaddell, William S.; von Rosenvinge, Erik C; Han, Hyosun

    2015-01-01

    The management and diagnosis of drug-induced liver injury (DILI) is often challenging, particularly when patients are taking multiple medications. We present a 29-year-old African American man who presented with jaundice and malaise after starting bupropion and doxycycline 2 weeks prior. He was found to have acute hepatocellular drug-induced liver injury with autoimmune features, and made a complete recovery with prednisone. Although bupropion and doxycycline are both known to cause liver tox...

  18. Acute Oral Toxicity and Brine Shrimp Lethality of Elaeis guineensis Jacq., (Oil Palm Leaf) Methanol Extract

    Yeng Chen; Lai Ngit Shin; Yee Ling Lau; Sreenivasan Sasidharan; Yuet Ping Kwan; Lachimanan Yoga Latha; Soundararajan Vijayarathna; Abdul Rani Muhamad Syahmi

    2010-01-01

    Elaeis guineensis (Arecaceae) is widely used in West African traditional medicine for treating various ailments. An evaluation on the toxicity of extracts of this plant is crucial to support the therapeutic claims. The acute oral toxicity and brine shrimp lethality of a methanolic extract of this plant was tested. Oral administration of crude extract at the highest dose of 5,000 mg/kg resulted in no mortalities or evidence of adverse effects, implying that E. guineensis is nontoxic. Normal be...

  19. Ethnoracial Variations in Acute PTSD Symptoms Among Hospitalized Survivors of Traumatic Injury

    Stephens, Kari A.; Sue, Stanley; Roy-Byrne, Peter; Unützer, Jürgen; Wang, Jin; Rivara, Frederick P.; Jurkovich, Gregory J.; Zatzick, Douglas F.

    2010-01-01

    Ethnoracial minority status contributes to an increased risk for posttraumatic stress disorder (PTSD) after trauma exposure, beyond other risk factors. A population-based sampling frame was used to examine the associations between ethnoracial groups and early PTSD symptoms while adjusting for relevant clinical and demographic characteristics. Acutely injured trauma center inpatients (N = 623) were screened with the PTSD Checklist. American Indian and African American patients reported the hig...

  20. Khat Use and Trait Anger: Effects on Affect Regulation during an Acute Stressful Challenge

    Bongard, Stephan; al'Absi, Mustafa; Khalil, Najat Sayem; Al Habori, Molham

    2011-01-01

    Khat (Catha edulis) is a widely used stimulating drug often consumed in daily routine in Yemen and East African countries. Chewing khat acutely elicits states of euphoria and feelings of well-being which later shift into emotional instability and low mood. Little is known about emotional regulation in habitual khat chewers. In this study, we compared self-reports on trait anger as well as positive and negative affect responses to a mental arithmetic challenge. Participants included 135 men an...

  1. Functional morphology of the brain of the African giant pouched rat (Cricetomys gambianus) Waterhouse, 1840).

    Ibe, Chikera S; Onyeanusi, Barth I; Hambolu, Joseph O

    2014-01-01

    A gross morphological study of the brain of the African giant pouched rat (Cricetomys gambianus Waterhouse, 1840) was undertaken in order to document its normal features and assess the structure-function paradigm. The study was conducted by direct observation of 29 adult African giant pouched rats' brains. In the telencephalon, the cerebral cortex was devoid of prominent gyri and sulci, but the large olfactory bulb and tract relaying impulses to the olfactory cortex were very prominent. The large size of the olfactory bulb correlated with the established sharp olfactory acuity of the rodent. In the mesencephalic tectum, the caudal colliculi were bigger than the rostral colliculi, indicating a more acute sense of hearing than sight. In the metencephalon, the cerebellar vermis, the flocculus and the paraflocculus were highly coiled and, thus, well developed. The myelencephalon revealed a better organised ventral surface than dorsal surface; the cuneate fascicle, the intermediate sulcus and the lateral sulcus were not evident on the dorsal surface, but there were clearly visible pyramids and olivary prominence on the ventral surface. In conclusion, the highly coiled cerebellar vermis, flocculus and paraflocculus, as well as the conspicuous pyramids and olivary prominence are indicative of a good motor coordination and balance in the African giant pouched rat. PMID:24832847

  2. The moderating effects of parenting styles on African-American and Caucasian children's suicidal behaviors.

    Greening, Leilani; Stoppelbein, Laura; Luebbe, Aaron

    2010-04-01

    Given that parenting practices have been linked to suicidal behavior in adolescence, examining the moderating effect of parenting styles on suicidal behavior early in development could offer potential insight into possible buffers as well as directions for suicide prevention and intervention later in adolescence. Hence, the moderating effects of parenting styles, including authoritarian, permissive, and features of authoritative parenting, on depressed and aggressive children's suicidal behavior, including ideation and attempts, were evaluated with young children (N = 172; 72% male, 28% female) ranging from 6 to 12 years of age. African American (69%) and Caucasian (31%) children admitted for acute psychiatric inpatient care completed standardized measures of suicidal behavior, depressive symptoms, and proactive and reaction aggression. Their parents also completed standardized measures of parental distress and parenting style. Hierarchical regression analyses revealed that, while statistically controlling for age and gender, children who endorsed more depressive symptoms or reactive aggression reported more current and past suicidal behavior than children who endorsed fewer depressive or aggressive symptoms. The significant positive relationship observed between depressive symptoms and childhood suicidal behavior, however, was attenuated by parental use of authoritarian parenting practices for African-American and older children but not for younger and Caucasian children. The ethnic/racial difference observed for the buffering effect of authoritarian parenting practices offers potential theoretical and clinical implications for conceptualizing the moderating effects of parenting styles on African-American and Caucasian children's suicidal behavior. PMID:19806443

  3. In vitro effects of thiamethoxam on larvae of Africanized honey bee Apis mellifera (Hymenoptera: Apidae).

    Tavares, Daiana Antonia; Roat, Thaisa Cristina; Carvalho, Stephan Malfitano; Silva-Zacarin, Elaine Cristina Mathias; Malaspina, Osmar

    2015-09-01

    Several investigations have revealed the toxic effects that neonicotinoids can have on Apis mellifera, while few studies have evaluated the impact of these insecticides can have on the larval stage of the honeybee. From the lethal concentration (LC50) of thiamethoxam for the larvae of the Africanized honeybee, we evaluated the sublethal effects of this insecticide on morphology of the brain. After determine the LC50 (14.34 ng/μL of diet) of thiamethoxam, larvae were exposed to a sublethal concentration of thiamethoxam equivalent to 1.43 ng/μL by acute and subchronic exposure. Morphological and immunocytochemistry analysis of the brains of the exposed bees, showed condensed cells and early cell death in the optic lobes. Additional dose-related effects were observed on larval development. Our results show that the sublethal concentrations of thiamethoxam tested are toxic to Africanized honeybees larvae and can modulate the development and consequently could affect the maintenance and survival of the colony. These results represent the first assessment of the effects of thiamethoxam in Africanized honeybee larvae and should contribute to studies on honey bee colony decline. PMID:25985214

  4. Functional morphology of the brain of the African giant pouched rat (Cricetomys gambianus Waterhouse, 1840

    Chikera S. Ibe

    2014-02-01

    Full Text Available A gross morphological study of the brain of the African giant pouched rat (Cricetomys gambianus Waterhouse, 1840 was undertaken in order to document its normal features and assess the structure-function paradigm. The study was conducted by direct observation of 29 adult African giant pouched rats’ brains. In the telencephalon, the cerebral cortex was devoid of prominent gyri and sulci, but the large olfactory bulb and tract relaying impulses to the olfactory cortex were very prominent. The large size of the olfactory bulb correlated with the established sharp olfactory acuity of the rodent. In the mesencephalic tectum, the caudal colliculi were bigger than the rostral colliculi, indicating a more acute sense of hearing than sight. In the metencephalon, the cerebellar vermis, the flocculus and the paraflocculus were highly coiled and, thus, well developed. The myelencephalon revealed a better organised ventral surface than dorsal surface; the cuneate fascicle, the intermediate sulcus and the lateral sulcus were not evident on the dorsal surface, but there were clearly visible pyramids and olivary prominence on the ventral surface. In conclusion, the highly coiled cerebellar vermis, flocculus and paraflocculus, as well as the conspicuous pyramids and olivary prominence are indicative of a good motor coordination and balance in the African giant pouched rat.

  5. Seroprevalence of Leptospira hardjo in cattle and African buffalos in southwestern Uganda.

    Atherstone, Christine; Picozzi, Kim; Kalema-Zikusoka, Gladys

    2014-02-01

    Leptospirosis, caused by the spirochete bacterium Leptospira spp. is a zoonosis, distributed worldwide and classified as an emerging infectious disease. Fatal outcomes to leptospiral infection do occur and the disease can cause abortion and other reproductive problems in cattle, goats, and pigs. In humans the symptoms range from subclinical infection to acute febrile illness, pulmonary hemorrhage and renal failure. Leptospirosis has never been officially reported to the World Health Organization (WHO) or the World Animal Health Organization in animals or humans in Uganda. However, favorable ecological conditions and suitable animal hosts can be found within the country. A commercially available enzyme-linked immunosorbent (ELISA) kit was used to screen sera samples from domesticated cattle and African buffalo (Syncerus caffer) at two locations in southwestern Uganda, collected over a 4-year period. Positive samples were found in both cattle and African buffalo samples, from both locations and across the sampling period. Overall seroprevalence was 42.39% in African buffalo and 29.35% in cattle. PMID:24323512

  6. Africans and Black Americans in the United States: Social Distance and Differential Acculturation.

    Emoungu, Paul-Albert

    1992-01-01

    Presents an exploratory examination of the causes of social distance characterizing the association between Africans and African Americans. African American's perceptions about Africa and Africans are assessed through anecdotes and impressions, and thoughts and criticisms of Africans about African Americans are considered. A social science…

  7. Cytokine Profiles during Invasive Nontyphoidal Salmonella Disease Predict Outcome in African Children.

    Gilchrist, James J; Heath, Jennifer N; Msefula, Chisomo L; Gondwe, Esther N; Naranbhai, Vivek; Mandala, Wilson; MacLennan, Jenny M; Molyneux, Elizabeth M; Graham, Stephen M; Drayson, Mark T; Molyneux, Malcolm E; MacLennan, Calman A

    2016-07-01

    Nontyphoidal Salmonella is a leading cause of sepsis in African children. Cytokine responses are central to the pathophysiology of sepsis and predict sepsis outcome in other settings. In this study, we investigated cytokine responses to invasive nontyphoidal Salmonella (iNTS) disease in Malawian children. We determined serum concentrations of 48 cytokines with multiplexed immunoassays in Malawian children during acute iNTS disease (n = 111) and in convalescence (n = 77). Principal component analysis and logistic regression were used to identify cytokine signatures of acute iNTS disease. We further investigated whether these responses are altered by HIV coinfection or severe malnutrition and whether cytokine responses predict inpatient mortality. Cytokine changes in acute iNTS disease were associated with two distinct cytokine signatures. The first is characterized by increased concentrations of mediators known to be associated with macrophage function, and the second is characterized by raised pro- and anti-inflammatory cytokines typical of responses reported in sepsis secondary to diverse pathogens. These cytokine responses were largely unaltered by either severe malnutrition or HIV coinfection. Children with fatal disease had a distinctive cytokine profile, characterized by raised mediators known to be associated with neutrophil function. In conclusion, cytokine responses to acute iNTS infection in Malawian children are reflective of both the cytokine storm typical of sepsis secondary to diverse pathogens and the intramacrophage replicative niche of NTS. The cytokine profile predictive of fatal disease supports a key role of neutrophils in the pathogenesis of NTS sepsis. PMID:27170644

  8. Cytokine Profiles during Invasive Nontyphoidal Salmonella Disease Predict Outcome in African Children

    Gilchrist, James J.; Heath, Jennifer N.; Msefula, Chisomo L.; Gondwe, Esther N.; Naranbhai, Vivek; Mandala, Wilson; MacLennan, Jenny M.; Molyneux, Elizabeth M.; Graham, Stephen M.; Drayson, Mark T.; Molyneux, Malcolm E.

    2016-01-01

    Nontyphoidal Salmonella is a leading cause of sepsis in African children. Cytokine responses are central to the pathophysiology of sepsis and predict sepsis outcome in other settings. In this study, we investigated cytokine responses to invasive nontyphoidal Salmonella (iNTS) disease in Malawian children. We determined serum concentrations of 48 cytokines with multiplexed immunoassays in Malawian children during acute iNTS disease (n = 111) and in convalescence (n = 77). Principal component analysis and logistic regression were used to identify cytokine signatures of acute iNTS disease. We further investigated whether these responses are altered by HIV coinfection or severe malnutrition and whether cytokine responses predict inpatient mortality. Cytokine changes in acute iNTS disease were associated with two distinct cytokine signatures. The first is characterized by increased concentrations of mediators known to be associated with macrophage function, and the second is characterized by raised pro- and anti-inflammatory cytokines typical of responses reported in sepsis secondary to diverse pathogens. These cytokine responses were largely unaltered by either severe malnutrition or HIV coinfection. Children with fatal disease had a distinctive cytokine profile, characterized by raised mediators known to be associated with neutrophil function. In conclusion, cytokine responses to acute iNTS infection in Malawian children are reflective of both the cytokine storm typical of sepsis secondary to diverse pathogens and the intramacrophage replicative niche of NTS. The cytokine profile predictive of fatal disease supports a key role of neutrophils in the pathogenesis of NTS sepsis. PMID:27170644

  9. Afro-Americans and Early Pan-Africanism

    Contee, Clarence G.

    1970-01-01

    History of the Pan-African movement, the roles of W.E.B.Du Bois and Marcus Garvey in the movement activities, and the shift to African based leadership of the movement in the 1940's are discussed. (KG)

  10. What about African Americans and High Blood Pressure?

    ANSWERS by heart Lifestyle + Risk Reduction High Blood Pressure What About African Americans and High Blood Pressure? The prevalence of high blood pressure in African Americans is among the highest in ...

  11. Sculpture of decorative candlestick based on African totem masks

    Sofronova Nadezhda

    2015-04-01

    Full Text Available The paper deals with the decorative small sculptures and African totem masks, their artistic and stylistic fea-tures, analysis of the works of sculptors and steps for creating a decorative candlestick based on African totem masks.

  12. Men of African Descent and Carcinoma of the Prostate Consortium

    The Men of African Descent and Carcinoma of the Prostate Consortium collaborates on epidemiologic studies to address the high burden of prostate cancer and to understand the causes of etiology and outcomes among men of African ancestry.

  13. Metabolic Syndrome in African Americans: Views on Making Lifestyle Changes

    Kirkendoll, Kenya D.; Clark, Patricia C.; Grossniklaus, Daurice A.; Igho-Pemu, Priscilla; Mullis, Rebecca M.; Dunbar, Sandra B.

    2010-01-01

    This study explores African American adults’ understanding of metabolic syndrome (MetS) and their motivations for making lifestyle changes. African Americans have a greater risk for components of MetS, such as hypertension.

  14. Acute bronchial asthma.

    Grover, Sudhanshu; Jindal, Atul; Bansal, Arun; Singhi, Sunit C

    2011-11-01

    Acute asthma is the third commonest cause of pediatric emergency visits at PGIMER. Typically, it presents with acute onset respiratory distress and wheeze in a patient with past or family history of similar episodes. The severity of the acute episode of asthma is judged clinically and categorized as mild, moderate and severe. The initial therapy consists of oxygen, inhaled beta-2 agonists (salbutamol or terbutaline), inhaled budesonide (three doses over 1 h, at 20 min interval) in all and ipratropium bromide and systemic steroids (hydrocortisone or methylprednisolone) in acute severe asthma. Other causes of acute onset wheeze and breathing difficulty such as pneumonia, foreign body, cardiac failure etc. should be ruled out with help of chest radiography and appropriate laboratory investigations in first time wheezers and those not responding to 1 h of inhaled therapy. In case of inadequate response or worsening, intravenous infusion of magnesium sulphate, terbutaline or aminophylline may be used. Magnesium sulphate is the safest and most effective alternative among these. Severe cases may need ICU care and rarely, ventilatory support. PMID:21769523

  15. African Union in the Maintenance of Peace and Security of African Countries: Challenges and Prospects

    Wilson, O. S.

    2012-04-01

    Full Text Available The African Union by its declaration is committed to the total integration of all African states and unity of action based on shared values and common, development interests and goals. To this end, the challenges facing the African Union include the problems of infrastructures and inadequate social services. The African states are plagued by political instability, ethnic conflicts, refugees/ internally displaced persons and fragile civil institutions. These problems are compounded by globalization, New World Order and heavy burden of external debts that make life difficult and the future dim and gloomy. These challenges and struggles by the African leaders to face up to them have precipitated the writing of this research paper. In doing so, the study traced the historical concept, evolution and final emergence of the union. The research project carefully looked into the act establishing the AU and compared with the charter of the Organization of African Unity (OAU and appreciated the necessity of its establishment. The study has noted that AU was modelled after the European Union (EU and therefore, efforts have been made to study the two unions so that the AU will benefit from the experience of the EU. In concluding the study, it is recommended inter alia that African Union make peace and security a priority and harmonize general policies and Infrastructural development. The hope that this study will contribute its widow's might to the development of AU is imperative. We cannot afford to fail this time, as the consequences are better imagined than experienced.

  16. The Dictionary Unit for South African English. South African Concise Oxford Dictionary

    Rajend Mesthrie

    2011-10-01

    Full Text Available The South African Concise Oxford Dictionary (henceforth SACOD is a South Af-rican version of the Concise Oxford Dictionary, the first time that this particular hybrid has been prepared. It is testimony to the enduring success of the work of the Dictionary Unit for South African English at Rhodes University, headed by teams that included Jean and William Branford in the 1970s, Penny Silva in the 1990s and now, Kathryn Kavanagh. The lexicographical work from the unit saw the publication of four editions of the Dictionary of Southern African English (1978, 1980, 1987, 1991, a South African Pocket Oxford Dictionary (SAPOD and the Dictionary of South African English on Historical Principles (DOSAEHP (1995. SACOD differs from the rest in several ways. It is larger in scope than SAPOD, smaller than DOSAEHP, and unlike DOSAE and DOSAEHP, does not deal with South African words alone. Based on the 10th edition of the Concise Oxford Dictionary SACOD has excised some words from the parent, whilst adding many new words of general English as well as of South Africa.

  17. Haplotype variation and genotype imputation in African populations

    Huang, Lucy; Jakobsson, Mattias; Pemberton, Trevor J.; Ibrahim, Muntaser; Nyambo, Thomas; Omar, Sabah; Pritchard, Jonathan K.; Tishkoff, Sarah A; Rosenberg, Noah A.

    2011-01-01

    Sub-Saharan Africa has been identified as the part of the world with the greatest human genetic diversity. This high level of diversity causes difficulties for genome-wide association (GWA) studies in African populations—for example, by reducing the accuracy of genotype imputation in African populations compared to non-African populations. Here, we investigate haplotype variation and imputation in Africa, using 253 unrelated individuals from 15 Sub-Saharan African populations. We identify the...

  18. African Trypanosomiasis Detection using Dempster-Shafer Theory

    2012-01-01

    World Health Organization reports that African Trypanosomiasis affects mostly poor populations living in remote rural areas of Africa that can be fatal if properly not treated. This paper presents Dempster-Shafer Theory for the detection of African trypanosomiasis. Sustainable elimination of African trypanosomiasis as a public-health problem is feasible and requires continuous efforts and innovative approaches. In this research, we implement Dempster-Shafer theory for detecting African trypan...

  19. On Cultural and Academic Exchanges Between China and African Countries

    Charles Kabwete Mulinda

    2015-01-01

    Cooperation between China and African countries has often been portrayed as an economic one. Despite multiple exchanges in the area of culture and knowledge production, not much is written about chinese culture in Africa or knowledge production interaction between both China and African countries. Just to give an example, each African major town has chinese restaurants and Africans like chinese food. But food is seen as an economic asset, not a cultural one. Chinese cuisine is not enough take...

  20. Psychology and Ubuntu : therapeutic meetings in a South African context

    2008-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to explore therapeutic meetings in a South African context. Utilising a qualitative research method, I have examined how South African therapists work in a multicultural context, asking questions regarding challenges the therapists met, what elements existed in the African context that influence healing. I proposed that the concept of Ubuntu could provide an African perspective to balance the western notion of psychotherapy. I also explored what adjustments thera...

  1. Attempts at a web presence inventory of African minority languages

    Gee, Quintin

    2006-01-01

    Making an inventory of minority languages that have web sites is difficult. We show that, even if we define “minority” as African languages, then this is of little use since the appearance of web sites in any African languages are few. Many African web sites are hosted outside the continent, and few have totally indigenous languages displayed; rather, it contains a mixture of ex-colonial language illustrating documents in the African language concerned. In addition, many countries have more t...

  2. South African Artillery in the Eighties

    A. C. Lillie

    2012-02-01

    Full Text Available Emerging from the Second World War armed with the then completely adequate 25 pounder and BL 5.5" guns, the South African Field Artillery continued to use the same guns operationally over thirty years later.When the armed forces of South Africa were thrown into a conventional conflict during the Angolan Civil War in 1975, the gunners found their equipment to be woefully inadequate. Soviet made artillery systems in the hands of the Russian-backed forces possessed ranges far in excess of the Second World War vintage South African systems and brought home in a very real way the need for drastic modernisation of the artillery branch of the South African Army.

  3. IDEAL Symposium on the East African Lakes

    Johnson, T. C.; Kelts, K.; Lehman, J. T.; Wuest, A.

    A vast array of interdisciplinary problems presented by the African Great Lakes were highlighted at the International Symposium on the Limnology, Climatology and Paleoclimatology of the East African Lakes, organized by the International Decade for the East African Lakes (IDEAL) February 17-21 in Jinja, Uganda. Approximately 125 scientists attended from North America, Europe, Africa, and New Zealand. Jinja is located on the northern shore of Lake Victoria at the head-waters of the Nile and is the site of the host institution for the symposium, the Uganda Freshwater Fisheries Research Organization (UFFRO). The conveners of the symposium were Tom Johnson of Duke University, George Kitaka of UNESCO-ROSTA, and Eric Odada of the University of Nairobi.

  4. Treatment of acute pancreatitis

    Al-Mofleh Ibrahim

    1998-01-01

    Full Text Available There is no specific treatment for acute pancreatitis. Majority of patients with acute pancreatitis respond to medical therapy. Supportive measures and close observations represent the cornerstone of the medical therapy. Failure to respond to medical treatment may indicate choledocholithiasis or infected necrosis. Endoscopic papillotomy with stone retrieval is beneficial in patients with severe biliary pancreatitis. Image-guided fine needle aspiration and bacteriological examination of aspirate is reliable in detecting infection and deliniating causative pathogen. Surgical debridement is the method of choice for treatment of infected necrosis. In contrast, in pancreatic abscess, surgery is preserved for those, who do not respond to percutaneous drainage combined with antibiotics. The benefit of antisecretory and antiproteolytic agents is debatable. A combination of antioxidants, calcium channel antagonists and antibiotics may play a major role in the treatment of acute pancreatitis in the future.

  5. The Dictionary Unit for South African English. South African Concise Oxford Dictionary

    Rajend Mesthrie

    2011-01-01

    The South African Concise Oxford Dictionary (henceforth SACOD) is a South Af-rican version of the Concise Oxford Dictionary, the first time that this particular hybrid has been prepared. It is testimony to the enduring success of the work of the Dictionary Unit for South African English at Rhodes University, headed by teams that included Jean and William Branford in the 1970s, Penny Silva in the 1990s and now, Kathryn Kavanagh. The lexicographical work from the unit saw the publication of fou...

  6. What is Ubuntu? Different Interpretations among South Africans of African Descent

    Gade, Christian B.N.

    2012-01-01

    In this article, I describe and systematize the different answers to the question 'What is Ubuntu?' that I have been able to identify among South Africans of African descent (SAADs). I show that it is possible to distinguish between two clusters of answers. The answers of the first cluster all...... define ubuntu as a moral quality of a person, while the answers of the second cluster all define ubuntu as a phenomenon (for instance a philosophy, an ethic, African humanism, or, a wordview) according to which persons are interconnected. The concept of a person is of central importance to all the...

  7. Assessing the contributions of East African and West Pacific warming to the 2014 boreal spring East African drought

    Funk, Christopher C.; Shukla, Shraddhanand; Hoell, Andrew; Livneh, Ben

    2015-01-01

    Anthropogenic warming contributed to the 2014 East African drought by increasing East African and west Pacific temperatures, and increasing the gradient between standardized western and central Pacific SST causing reduced rainfall, evapotranspiration, and soil moisture.

  8. Student-Centered Designs of Pan-African Literature Courses

    M'Baye, Babacar

    2010-01-01

    A student-centered teaching methodology is an essential ingredient of a successful Pan-African literary course. In this article, the author defines Pan-Africanism and how to go about designing a Pan-African literature course. The author combines reading assignments with journals, film presentations, and lectures in a productive learning…

  9. Perceived Attractiveness, Facial Features, and African Self-Consciousness.

    Chambers, John W., Jr.; And Others

    1994-01-01

    Investigated relationships between perceived attractiveness, facial features, and African self-consciousness (ASC) among 149 African American college students. As predicted, high ASC subjects used more positive adjectives in descriptions of strong African facial features than did medium or low ASC subjects. Results are discussed in the context of…

  10. African American Educational Leadership in the School Superintendency

    Smith, Eva C.

    2013-01-01

    African American educational leadership has long been part of American education and African American activism to resist oppression. However, the field of educational leadership has rarely included the contributions of African American leaders, particularly women leaders, into mainstream leadership theory and practices. This omission is difficult…

  11. Situational Stability and Variability in African American Racial Identity.

    Shelton, J. Nicole; Sellers, Robert M.

    2000-01-01

    Investigated the stable and situational properties of African American racial identity using the Multidimensional Model of Racial Identity (MMRI). African American undergraduate students completed the Multidimensional Inventory of Black Identity, which assessed dimensions of the MMRI. African American racial identity had stable and situational…

  12. An Exploration of African American Students' Attitudes toward Online Learning

    Okwumabua, Theresa M.; Walker, Kristin M.; Hu, Xiangen; Watson, Andrea

    2011-01-01

    The current work presents exploratory research findings concerning African American students' attitudes toward online learning. The Online Tutoring Attitudes Scale (OTAS; Graff, 2003) was administered to 124 African American students in a positive youth development program. Findings suggest that African American students' attitudes toward…

  13. Seeing African Americans as Competent Parents: Implications for Family Counselors

    Adkison-Bradley, Carla

    2011-01-01

    One of the primary roles of parents is to guide and socialize children to make meaningful life choices. African American parents, in particular, have the additional tasks of preparing their children to thrive in an environment that has historically been hostile toward African Americans. Yet, many African American parents are often depicted as…

  14. Disease Management to Promote Blood Pressure Control Among African Americans

    Brennan, Troyen; Spettell, Claire; Villagra, Victor; Ofili, Elizabeth; McMahill-Walraven, Cheryl; Lowy, Elizabeth J.; Daniels, Pamela; Quarshie, Alexander; Mayberry, Robert

    2010-01-01

    African Americans have a higher prevalence of hypertension and poorer cardiovascular and renal outcomes than white Americans. The objective of this study was to determine whether a telephonic nurse disease management (DM) program designed for African Americans is more effective than a home monitoring program alone to increase blood pressure (BP) control among African Americans enrolled in a national health plan.

  15. North African populations carry the signature of admixture with Neandertals

    Sánchez-Quinto, Federico; Botigué, Laura R; Civit, Sergi;

    2012-01-01

    One of the main findings derived from the analysis of the Neandertal genome was the evidence for admixture between Neandertals and non-African modern humans. An alternative scenario is that the ancestral population of non-Africans was closer to Neandertals than to Africans because of ancient popu...

  16. Contrastive Studies - African Languages and English. Specialised Bibliography C9.

    British Council, London (England). English-Teaching Information Centre.

    This selective bibliography lists 8 books and 19 journal articles dealing with contrastive studies of African languages and English. The entries range in date from 1953 to 1972 with the majority published since 1965. The books cited are African and British publications and the articles appeared in well-known African, European or American…

  17. Exposure of African-American Youth to Alcohol Advertising.

    2003

    The marketing of alcohol products in African-American communities has, on occasion, stirred national controversy and met with fierce resistance from African Americans and others. Despite occasional media and community spotlights on the marketing of alcohol products in the African-American community, there has been no systematic review of the…

  18. Some Growth Points in African Child Development Research

    Serpell, Robert; Marfo, Kofi

    2014-01-01

    We reflect on ways in which research presented in earlier chapters responds to challenges of generating an African child development field and identify additional issues calling for the field's attention. The chapters collectively display a variety of African contexts and reflexive evidence of the authors' African cultural roots.…

  19. Engaging Youth through African-Derived Dance and Culture

    Franklin, Kikora

    2013-01-01

    This article provides a brief history of African and African-derived dance and culture and highlights the physical health, dance education, historical, and cultural benefits of a school-based program that incorporates African dance as its core component. The article also includes the phases of the programming and brings attention to potential…

  20. African American Single Mothers Raising Sons: Implications for Family Therapy

    Gantt, Ann L.; Greif, Geoffrey L.

    2009-01-01

    Being raised by a single mother is one factor that has been suggested as contributing to the plight of African American males. Yet few studies have focused specifically on African American single mothers' experiences with raising sons. This qualitative study explored the following questions: (1) What are the experiences of African American single…

  1. Oral Cancer in African Americans: Addressing Health Disparities

    Dodd, Virginia J.; Watson, Jennifer M.; Choi, Youjin; Tomar, Scott L.; Logan, Henrietta L.

    2008-01-01

    Objectives: To explore factors underlying African Americans' perceptions of oral cancer and the oral cancer exam. Study findings were used to guide development of oral cancer messages designed to increase oral cancer exams among African Americans. Methods: Focus groups were conducted to understand African Americans' attitudes and expectations…

  2. Acute acalculous cholecystitis.

    Barie, Philip S; Eachempati, Soumitra R

    2003-08-01

    Acute cholecystitis can develop without gallstones in critically ill or injured patients. However, the development of acute acalculous cholecystitis is not limited to surgical or injured patients, or even to the intensive care unit. Diabetes, malignant disease, abdominal vasculitis, congestive heart failure, cholesterol embolization, and shock or cardiac arrest have been associated with acute acalculous cholecystitis. Children may also be affected, especially after a viral illness. The pathogenesis of acute acalculous cholecystitis is a paradigm of complexity. Ischemia and reperfusion injury, or the effects of eicosanoid proinflammatory mediators, appear to be the central mechanisms, but bile stasis, opioid therapy, positive-pressure ventilation, and total parenteral nutrition have all been implicated. Ultrasound of the gallbladder is the most accurate diagnostic modality in the critically ill patient, with gallbladder wall thickness of 3.5 mm or greater and pericholecystic fluid being the two most reliable criteria. The historical treatment of choice for acute acalculous cholecystitis has been cholecystectomy, but percutaneous cholecystostomy is now the mainstay of therapy, controlling the disease in about 85% of patients. Rapid improvement can be expected when the procedure is performed properly. The mortality rates (historically about 30%) for percutaneous and open cholecystostomy appear to be similar, reflecting the severity of illness, but improved resuscitation and critical care may portend a decreased risk of death. Interval cholecystectomy is usually not indicated after acute acalculous cholecystitis in survivors; if the absence of gallstones is confirmed and the precipitating disorder has been controlled, the cholecystostomy tube can be pulled out after the patient has recovered. PMID:12864960

  3. Acute P. falciparum malaria induces a loss of CD28- T IFN-¿ producing cells

    Kemp, Kåre; Akanmori, Bartholomew D; Kurtzhals, Jørgen A L;

    2002-01-01

    P. falciparum malaria is associated with increased activation among peripheral lymphocytes. In the present study, we investigated markers of susceptibility to apoptosis and expression of IFN-gamma and IL-4 by CD28-and CD28+T cells in West African children with acute P. falciparum malaria. The stu...

  4. Differential responses of Africanized and European honey bees (Apis mellifera) to viral replication following mechanical transmission or Varroa destructor parasitism.

    Hamiduzzaman, Mollah Md; Guzman-Novoa, Ernesto; Goodwin, Paul H; Reyes-Quintana, Mariana; Koleoglu, Gun; Correa-Benítez, Adriana; Petukhova, Tatiana

    2015-03-01

    For the first time, adults and brood of Africanized and European honey bees (Apis mellifera) were compared for relative virus levels over 48 h following Varroa destructor parasitism or injection of V. destructor homogenate. Rates of increase of deformed wing virus (DWV) for Africanized versus European bees were temporarily lowered for 12h with parasitism and sustainably lowered over the entire experiment (48 h) with homogenate injection in adults. The rates were also temporarily lowered for 24h with parasitism but were not affected by homogenate injection in brood. Rates of increase of black queen cell virus (BQCV) for Africanized versus European bees were similar with parasitism but sustainably lowered over the entire experiment with homogenate injection in adults and were similar for parasitism and homogenate injection in brood. Analyses of sac brood bee virus and Israeli acute paralysis virus were limited as detection did not occur after both homogenate injection and parasitism treatment, or levels were not significantly higher than those following control buffer injection. Lower rates of replication of DWV and BQCV in Africanized bees shows that they may have greater viral resistance, at least early after treatment. PMID:25527405

  5. Mammary gland tumors in captive African hedgehogs.

    Raymond, J T; Gerner, M

    2000-04-01

    From December 1995 to July 1999, eight mammary gland tumors were diagnosed in eight adult captive female African hedgehogs (Atelerix albiventris). The tumors presented as single or multiple subcutaneous masses along the cranial or caudal abdomen that varied in size for each hedgehog. Histologically, seven of eight (88%) mammary gland tumors were malignant. Tumors were classified as solid (4 cases), tubular (2 cases), and papillary (2 cases). Seven tumors had infiltrated into the surrounding stroma and three tumors had histologic evidence of neoplastic vascular invasion. Three hedgehogs had concurrent neoplasms. These are believed to be the first reported cases of mammary gland tumors in African hedgehogs. PMID:10813628

  6. AIDS in Africans living in London.

    O'Farrell, N.; Lau, R.; Yoganathan, K; Bradbeer, C S; Griffin, G E; Pozniak, A L

    1995-01-01

    OBJECTIVES--To investigate the presentation of HIV infection and AIDS amongst Africans diagnosed with AIDS living in London. METHODS--Identification of all AIDS cases of African origin attending four HIV specialist centres in South London--Guy's, King's, St George's and St Thomas' Hospitals--up to March 1994, by retrospective review of case notes of all HIV positive patients. RESULTS--Of 86 patients (53 women, 33 men) studied, 59 (69%) were from Uganda. The most frequent AIDS-defining diagnos...

  7. The landscape of recombination in African Americans

    Anjali G Hinch; Tandon, Arti; Patterson, Nick; Song, Yunli; Rohland, Nadin; Palmer, Cameron D; Chen, Gary K.; Wang, Kai; Buxbaum, Sarah G.; Akylbekova, Meggie; Aldrich, Melinda C.; Ambrosone, Christine B.; Amos, Christopher; Bandera, Elisa V.; Berndt, Sonja I.

    2011-01-01

    Recombination, together with mutation, is the ultimate source of genetic variation in populations. We leverage the recent mixture of people of African and European ancestry in the Americas to build a genetic map measuring the probability of crossing-over at each position in the genome, based on about 2.1 million crossovers in 30,000 unrelated African Americans. At intervals of more than three megabases it is nearly identical to a map built in Europeans. At finer scales it differs significantl...

  8. 'Great power' intervention in African armed conflicts

    Olsen, Gorm Rye

    2015-01-01

    This paper asks why the United States (US), China and the European Union (EU) have intervened in a number of armed conflicts in Africa in the twenty-first century. Scrutiny and comparison of the motivations and interests of the three non-African actors in intervening in African crises are assumed...... to contribute to understanding the changing geopolitical environment and the current conditions for conflict management in Africa. The focus is not on trade and aid. The paper launches the hypothesis that the explanations why the US, China and the EU have intervened are basically identical. In spite...

  9. Cryptosporidium and cryptosporidiosis: the African perspective.

    Aldeyarbi, Hebatalla M; Abu El-Ezz, Nadia M T; Karanis, Panagiotis

    2016-07-01

    The present overview discusses the findings of cryptosporidiosis research conducted in Africa and highlights the currently available information on Cryptosporidium epidemiology, genetic diversity, and distribution on the African continent, particularly among vulnerable populations, including children. It also emphasizes the burden of cryptosporidiosis, which is underestimated due to the presence of many silent asymptomatic carriers.Cryptosporidiosis is recognized as one of the leading causes of childhood diarrhea in African countries. It has dramatic adverse effects on child growth and development and causes increased mortality on a continent where HIV, poverty, and lack of sanitation and infrastructure increase the risk of cryptosporidial waterborne infection. PMID:27126869

  10. African agricultural trade: Recent and the future

    Jensen, Hans Grinsted; Sandrey, Ron

    2015-01-01

    This article starts with a profile of African agricultural trade. Using the pre-release version 9.2 of the GTAP database, we then show that the results for tariff elimination on intra-African trade are promising, but these tariff barriers are not as significant as the various trade-related barriers outside of tariffs. Impressive results were forecast by simulating both a 50% reduction in what can be considered traditional non-tariff barriers and a modest 20% reduction in the costs associated ...

  11. Acute pancreatitis: Manifestation of acute HIV infection in an adolescent

    Bitar, Anas; Altaf, Muhammad; Sferra, Thomas J.

    2012-01-01

    Summary Background: Pancreatitis in the pediatric age group is not as common as in adults. Etiologies are various and differ from those in adults. Although infectious etiology accounts for a significant number of cases of pancreatitis, acute infection with Human Immunodeficiency Virus (HIV) was rarely reported as a possible etiology for acute pancreatitis in adults. Acute pancreatitis has never been reported as a presenting manifestation of acute HIV infection in children. Case Report: We des...

  12. Lassa fever in West African sub-region: an overview

    O. Ogbu

    2007-01-01

    Full Text Available Lassa fever is an acute viral zoonotic illness caused by Lassa virus, an arenavirus known to beresponsible for a severe haemorrhagic fever characterised by fever, muscle aches, sore throat, nausea,vomiting and, chest and abdominal pain. The virus exhibits persistent, asymptomatic infection withprofuse urinary virus excretion in the ubiquitous rodent vector, Mastomys natalensis. Lassa fever isendemic in West Africa and has been reported from Sierra Leone, Guinea, Liberia, and Nigeria. Somestudies indicate that 300,000 to 500,000 cases of Lassa fever and 5000 deaths occur yearly across WestAfrica. Studies reported in English, that investigated Lassa fever with reference to West Africa wereidentified using the Medline Entrez-PubMed search and were used for this review. The scarcity ofresources available for health care delivery system and the political instability that characterise theWest African countries would continue to impede efforts for the control of Lassa fever in the sub-region.There is need for adequate training of health care workers regarding diagnostics, intensive care ofpatients under isolation, contact tracing, adequate precautionary measures in handling infectiouslaboratory specimens, control of the vector as well as care and disposal of infectious waste.

  13. Lassa fever in West African sub-region: an overview.

    Ogbu, O; Ajuluchukwu, E; Uneke, C J

    2007-03-01

    Lassa fever is an acute viral zoonotic illness caused by Lassa virus, an arenavirus known to be responsible for a severe haemorrhagic fever characterised by fever, muscle aches, sore throat, nausea, vomiting and, chest and abdominal pain. The virus exhibits persistent, asymptomatic infection with profuse urinary virus excretion in the ubiquitous rodent vector, Mastomys natalensis. Lassa fever is endemic in West Africa and has been reported from Sierra Leone, Guinea, Liberia, and Nigeria. Some studies indicate that 300,000 to 500,000 cases of Lassa fever and 5000 deaths occur yearly across West Africa. Studies reported in English, that investigated Lassa fever with reference to West Africa were identified using the Medline Entrez-PubMed search and were used for this review. The scarcity of resources available for health care delivery system and the political instability that characterise the West African countries would continue to impede efforts for the control of Lassa fever in the sub-region. There is need for adequate training of health care workers regarding diagnostics, intensive care of patients under isolation, contact tracing, adequate precautionary measures in handling infectious laboratory specimens, control of the vector as well as care and disposal of infectious waste. PMID:17378212

  14. Acute acalculous cholecystitis

    Fox, M.S.; Wilk, P.J.; Weissmann, H.S.; Freeman, L.M.; Gliedman, M.L.

    1984-07-01

    Sixty-eight patients with acute acalculous cholecystitis were reviewed. The results of history and physical examinations were usually nondiagnostic. IDA cholescintigraphy (93 per cent accuracy rate) was the only reliable diagnostic modality. The results of oral cholecystography, intravenous cholangiography and ultrasonography were considerably less reliable. One-half of the patients had gangrenous cholecystitis. Cholecystectomy was the preferred operation with an over-all mortality of 9 per cent. IDA cholescintigraphy is an important new modality for the diagnosis of acute acalculous cholecystitis which, in the past, has often been difficult to diagnose.

  15. Congenital acute megakaryocytic leukemia

    N B Mathur

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available Congenital leukemia (CL is an extremely rare disorder in the newborn, significant proportion of which is of myeloid origin, primarily of M4 or M5 morphology. As compared to pediatric leukemia, CL is a more aggressive disease. Acute myeloid leukemia (AML-M7 or acute megakaryocytic leukemia is a rare type of AML with an incidence of 0.5 per million per year. Median age of presentation is 6 years, and children may present with a broad variety of symptoms including low-grade fever, diarrhea, easy bruising, failure to gain weight and life-threatening conditions.

  16. Acute Gynecologic Disorders.

    Donaldson, Carolyn K

    2015-11-01

    Premenopausal women with acute pelvic pain comprise a significant percentage of patients who present to the emergency room. Etiologies can be gynecologic, urologic, gastrointestinal, or vascular. Signs and symptoms are often nonspecific and overlapping. The choice of imaging modality is determined by the clinically suspected differential diagnosis. Ultrasound (US) is the preferred imaging modality for suspected obstetric or gynecologic disorders. CT is more useful when gastrointestinal or urinary tract pathology is likely. MR imaging is rarely used in the emergent setting, except to exclude appendicitis in pregnant women. This article presents a comprehensive review of imaging of acute gynecologic disorders. PMID:26526439

  17. Acute calcific retropharyngeal tendinitis

    Acute calcific tendinitis results from the deposition of calcium hydroxyapatite crystals in peri articular muscular attachments. It usually develops in extremities, most often in shoulders and hips. Although the incidence is much lower, it has been reported to occur in the neck region, where it involves the tendons insertion of the longs colli muscle. We present a case of acute neck pain caused by a calcareous deposition in the tendon of the longs colli muscle, producing inflammation. We describe the clinical and radiologic features (plain radiography, CT,MRI) associated with this entire. (Author) 7 refs

  18. Acute myocardial infarct imaging

    A brief review is presented of radiopharmaceuticals used for imaging acute myocardial infarction and instrumentation using the rectilinear scanner and the scintillation camera. Clinical experience indicates that myocardial imaging with /sup 99 m/Tc pyrophosphate is a useful adjunct to the electrocardiogram and serum enzyme activity in managing patients with myocardial infarction. The technique allows rapid diagnosis, accurate localization, and an estimate of the size of acute infarcts. It can also be used to document infarct extension and in association with myocardial perfusion imaging can help differentiate fresh from old myocardial infarction

  19. A first case of congenital TTP on the African continent due to a new homozygous mutation in the catalytic domain of ADAMTS13.

    Meyer, Sara C; Jeddi, Ramzi; Meddeb, Balkis; Gouider, Emna; Lämmle, Bernhard; Kremer Hovinga, Johanna A

    2008-08-01

    Hereditary thrombotic thrombocytopenic purpura (TTP) is a rare disorder characterized by occlusive microvascular thrombosis, consumptive thrombocytopenia, and microangiopathic hemolytic anemia. Homozygous or compound heterozygous mutations in the ADAMTS13 gene result in a congenital severe ADAMTS13 deficiency and subsequent accumulation of ultra-large von Willebrand factor multimers, which tend to form platelet thrombi in the microcirculation. We report a first case of congenital TTP on the African continent with a new, homozygous mutation in the metalloprotease domain of ADAMTS13. An initially oligo-symptomatic presentation was followed by acute exacerbation with ischemic stroke and acute renal failure highlighting the severity of this syndrome. PMID:18443791

  20. The African VLBI network project

    Loots, Anita

    2015-01-01

    larger teams in science, engineering and technology issues and collaborate with the broader global science community to develop new African radio astronomy science communities.

  1. African Easterly Waves and Superparameterization

    McCrary, Rachel; Randall, David; Stan, Cristiana

    2013-04-01

    This study examines the dynamics of African easterly wave (AEW) in the Superparameterized Community Climate System Model (SP-CCSM). Conventional general circulation models (GCMs) have difficulty representing AEW dynamics over West Africa. One reason is that the coarse resolution of these models limits their ability to represent the multi-scale interactions between the large-scale dynamics and individual convective systems, which are important for the origin and development of AEWs. The SP-CCSM has been designed to better simulate the interactions between small-scale circulations and large-scale dynamics, by replacing the conventional parameterizations with a 2D cloud resolving model embedded within each GCM grid column. With this approach we are able to capture the interactions between clouds and the global circulation of the atmosphere. The goal of our work is to improve our understanding of the multi-scale interactions that occur between AEWs and convection over West Africa. The implementation of the superparameterization into the CCSM improves the overall representation of monsoon precipitation over West Africa. Most notably, the region of maximum precipitation is shifted from the Gulf of Guinea in CCSM (not realistic), to over the continent in SP-CCSM. The biases found in precipitation for both models are thought to be linked to anomalously warm sea surface temperatures in the Gulf of Guinea and a misrepresentation of the equatorial Atlantic cold tongue (a common problem for coupled GCMs). AEWs and their relationship with convection are also improved in the SP-CCSM. In the standard model, little to no easterly wave activity is found over West Africa, and the relationship with convection is tenuous at best. SP-CCSM on the other hand produces strong AEWs over the region that exhibit similar horizontal and vertical structures to observations. The simulated waves are also shown to be strongly coupled to convection, and results suggest that barotropic and baroclinic

  2. The African Proverbs Project and After

    John S. Mbiti

    2011-10-01

    Full Text Available

    Abstract: The Pew Charitable Trusts financed the African Proverbs Project with Dr Stan Nussbaum as co-ordinator, for three years (1993?1996. He assembled a number of scholars who had collected and studied proverbs. The purpose of the Project was to encourage further work of collecting, studying and publishing proverbs. It organised international and interdisciplinary symposia and embarked on three types of publications. One kind of publication was the African Proverbs Series, with Prof. John Mbiti as editor. Five volumes were published in 1997, each with proverbs from respectively Ethiopia, Uganda, Lesotho, Burkina Faso and Ghana. Their size ranged from 584 to 1 497 proverbs in African languages, with translations into English or French. Another set of publications with the Rev. Joshua Kudadjie as editor, covered proverbs for preaching and teaching purposes. Three volumes have come from Malawi, Ghana and Liberia. The Project also published an annotated bibliography by Prof. Wolfgang Mieder. The report from one of the symposia appeared in 1997. The third manner of publication is in the form of a CD-ROM edited by Dr Stan Nussbaum and published in 1996. This is a very comprehensive collection and source of material that includes, inter alia, books from the Project, some 28 000 proverbs, a bibliography with 1 000 items, summaries and extracts from published collections, and a language survey of work on proverbs. The Project has generated both local and international interest in African paremiography and paremiology. Four academic institutions in South Africa, Kenya, Ghana and the Ivory Coast, with links to others in Africa, Europe and America, are continuing this work on proverbs.

    Keywords: AFRICAN PROVERBS PROJECT, AFRICAN PROVERBS SERIES, PROVERB, PAREMIOGRAPHY, PAREMIOLOGY

    Opsomming: Die African Proverbs Project en daarna. Die Pew Charitable Trusts het die African Proverbs Project, met dr. Stan Nussbaum as ko?rdineerder, vir drie

  3. Loperamide-Induced Acute Pancreatitis

    Halla Vidarsdottir; Hanna Vidarsdottir; Pall Helgi Moller; Einar Stefan Bjornsson

    2013-01-01

    Acute pancreatitis is a common disease leading to hospitalizations, most often caused by gallstones or alcohol. We present a case of a patient diagnosed with acute pancreatitis considered to be due to loperamide treatment for diarrhea.

  4. Causes of acute bronchitis (image)

    ... the respiratory system that leads into the lungs. Acute bronchitis has a sudden onset and usually appears after ... and the production of thick yellow mucus. If acute bronchitis occurs because of a bacterial infection antibiotics are ...

  5. "Brothers Gonna Work It Out:" Understanding the Pedagogic Performance of African American Male Teachers Working with African American Male Students

    Brown, Anthony L.

    2009-01-01

    Drawing from ethnographic data, this paper explores how African American male teachers working with African American male students performed their pedagogy. This paper highlights how teachers' understanding of African American males social and educational needs shaped their pedagogical performance. Interestingly however, teachers' performance was…

  6. Drug-induced acute pancreatitis

    Eland, I.A.

    2008-01-01

    textabstractAcute pancreatitis is an inflammatory disease of the pancreas with sudden onset. The severity of acute pancreatitis may vary from mild to life threatening. There are many risk factors for acute pancreatitis, among which gallstones and alcohol abuse are most widely known. Drugs are considered as potential risk factors for acute pancreatitis, but have received relatively little attention in the medical literature. In this thesis, several epidemiological studies were performed to ass...

  7. Lung Injury in Acute Pancreatitis

    Raffaele Pezzilli; Lara Bellacosa; Cristina Felicani

    2009-01-01

    Most knowledge has been accumulated on the mechanisms involved in the development of distant organ injuries during the course of severe acute pancreatitis. Among the various distant organ dysfunctions, both the development of acute lung injury and acute respiratory distress syndrome represent serious complications. In the following paragraphs the pathophysiological mechanisms capable of determining lung injury during the course of acute pancreatitis will be reviewed. Pancreatic Enzymes and...

  8. African-American mitochondrial DNAs often match mtDNAs found in multiple African ethnic groups

    Jackson Fatimah

    2006-10-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Mitochondrial DNA (mtDNA haplotypes have become popular tools for tracing maternal ancestry, and several companies offer this service to the general public. Numerous studies have demonstrated that human mtDNA haplotypes can be used with confidence to identify the continent where the haplotype originated. Ideally, mtDNA haplotypes could also be used to identify a particular country or ethnic group from which the maternal ancestor emanated. However, the geographic distribution of mtDNA haplotypes is greatly influenced by the movement of both individuals and population groups. Consequently, common mtDNA haplotypes are shared among multiple ethnic groups. We have studied the distribution of mtDNA haplotypes among West African ethnic groups to determine how often mtDNA haplotypes can be used to reconnect Americans of African descent to a country or ethnic group of a maternal African ancestor. The nucleotide sequence of the mtDNA hypervariable segment I (HVS-I usually provides sufficient information to assign a particular mtDNA to the proper haplogroup, and it contains most of the variation that is available to distinguish a particular mtDNA haplotype from closely related haplotypes. In this study, samples of general African-American and specific Gullah/Geechee HVS-I haplotypes were compared with two databases of HVS-I haplotypes from sub-Saharan Africa, and the incidence of perfect matches recorded for each sample. Results When two independent African-American samples were analyzed, more than half of the sampled HVS-I mtDNA haplotypes exactly matched common haplotypes that were shared among multiple African ethnic groups. Another 40% did not match any sequence in the database, and fewer than 10% were an exact match to a sequence from a single African ethnic group. Differences in the regional distribution of haplotypes were observed in the African database, and the African-American haplotypes were more likely to match haplotypes

  9. The African Renaissance and its relation to the geosciences: a South African perspective

    Mtimkulu, M. N.; Motloung, M.; Graham, I. T.; Eriksson, P. G.; Bumby, A. J.

    2001-08-01

    Implicit in the African Renaissance is the synergy between government, the private sector, the educated minority and the disadvantaged majority. For this concept to work, belief and commitment must arise first from the African individual, whatever his or her potential contribution may be. The geosciences in South Africa provide a currently vibrant example of such cooperation, which has the potential to contribute significantly to the upliftment of the country and its neighbouring states. Based largely on personal interviews with various role players, from the Presidency of South Africa, through ministerial levels, the corporate sector and down to the individual, we present a spectrum of viewpoints and initiatives which are starting to result in practical implementation of the African revival. An end to conflict and xenophobia, the entrenchment of democratic government and corporate expression of the entrepreneurial spirit are essential to provide the framework within which the individual African can become a "Renaissance Man or Woman".

  10. Acute Intermittent Porphyria (AIP)

    ... sold as Panhematin ® , from Recordati Rare Diseases. Most hospitals do not stock it. Therefore the pharmacy must be notified at the time the patient’s ... the Acute Porphyrias - Clarification of Testing Results** Important Update ... & Immunology, University Hospital of Wales, for assistance in the preparation of ...

  11. Acute hemiplegia in childhood

    Okuno, Takehiko; Takao, Tatsuo; Itoh, Masatoshi; Konishi, Yukuo; Nakano, Shozo (Kyoto Univ. (Japan). Faculty of Medicine)

    1983-04-01

    The results of CT in 100 patients with acute hemiplegia in childhood are reported here. The etiology was various: 2 patients had infratentorial brain tumors, 56 had cerebral vascular diseases, 3 had head injuries, 16 had intracranial infectious diseases, one had postinfectious encephalomyelitis, one had multiple sclerosis, 2 had epilepsy, and the diagnosis of 19 were unknown. Eleven patients had a normal CT and a good prognosis. As for the type of onset, there were patients of type 1 with fever and 42 with convulsions and unconsciousness; those of type 2 with convulsions and unconsciousness were 12, and those of type 3 without fever and convulsions were 46. This classification is assumed to be useful, as the type of onset is characteristic of the etiology. Six patients were diagnosed correctly by repeated examinations, although the first CT did not reveal any remarkable findings. Capsular infarction, occlusion of the posterior cerebral artery in acute hemiplegia in childhood, abnormal findings of the internal capsule, thalamus, and midbrain in a patient with postinfectious encephalomyelitis, and a diffuse low density in the CT of the unilateral hemisphere in the patients with acute encephalopathy and acute hemiplegia of an obscure origin have been found after the introduction of computerized tomography.

  12. Childhood Acute Lymphoblastic Leukemia

    Pui, Ching-Hon; Yang, Jun J; Hunger, Stephen P;

    2015-01-01

    PURPOSE: To review the impact of collaborative studies on advances in the biology and treatment of acute lymphoblastic leukemia (ALL) in children and adolescents. METHODS: A review of English literature on childhood ALL focusing on collaborative studies was performed. The resulting article was...

  13. Acute cough in adults

    Jochen W L Cals; Nick A Francis

    2010-01-01

    @@ A healthy, non-smoking 54 year old woman consults with a severe acute cough. It started two weeks ago with symptoms of a common cold, but she is worried about its duration and would like something to "clear it up. "

  14. Acute radiation disease

    Features of clinical trends in acute period of radiation disease at personnel who suffered from Chernobyl accident are considered. The main attention is paid to the results of 10 year observation of organs, systems and metabolic processes in patients. Used therapeutic, rehabilitation and preventive actions in stationary, ambulatory and sanatorium - health resort stages are described

  15. [Acute pancreatitis and pregnancy].

    Scollo, P; Licitra, G

    1993-12-01

    Aetiologic factors (gallstones, hyperlipidemia I-IV, hypertriglyceridaemia) make their occurrence, mainly, in the third trimester of gestation. Two cases of acute pancreatitis in pregnancy are described; in both cases patients referred healthy diet, no habit to smoke and no previous episode of pancreatitis. An obstructive pathology of biliary tract was the aetiologic factor. Vomiting, upper abdominal pain are aspecific symptoms that impose a differential diagnosis with acute appendicitis, cholecystitis and obstructive intestinal pathology. Laboratory data (elevated serum amylase and lipase levels) and ultrasonography carry out an accurate diagnosis. The management of acute pancreatitis is based on the use of symptomatic drugs, a low fat diet alternated to the parenteral nutrition when triglycerides levels are more than 28 mmol/L. Surgical therapy, used only in case of obstructive pathology of biliary tract, is optimally collected in the third trimester or immediately after postpartum. Our patients, treated only medically, delivered respectively at 38th and 40th week of gestation. Tempestivity of diagnosis and appropriate therapy permit to improve prognosis of a pathology that, although really associated with pregnancy, presents high maternal mortality (37%) cause of complications (shock, coagulopathy, acute respiratory insufficiency) and fetal (37.9%) by occurrence of preterm delivery. PMID:8139793

  16. African Voices and Activists at the WSF in Nairobi: The Uncertain Ways of Transnational African Activism

    Marie-Emmanuelle Pommerolle; Johanna Siméant

    2015-01-01

    Transnational social movement studies have long neglected the way activists from the South, and particularly from Africa, have participated in World Social Forum processes. Alterglobal activists have also been accused of neglecting or dominating southern voices. The organization of the WSF in Nairobi was seen as an opportunity to make African voices be heard. This examines how Africans activists participated in Nairobi, and the complex relationship they have to northern and other southern (su...

  17. Co-evolution between the South African venture capital industry and the South [African] government

    Aluko, Olumide Mayowa

    2011-01-01

    This thesis contributes to the current discourse around co-evolution, this study investigates co-evolution between the South African venture capital industry and the South African government. Using a qualitative method which involved gathering data from archival sources and contemporary interviews, this study extends the growing literature on the co-evolution of organizations and their institutional environment in three ways. First, the study shows that the co-evolution that occurs between or...

  18. Drug-induced acute pancreatitis

    I.A. Eland

    2003-01-01

    textabstractAcute pancreatitis is an inflammatory disease of the pancreas with sudden onset. The severity of acute pancreatitis may vary from mild to life threatening. There are many risk factors for acute pancreatitis, among which gallstones and alcohol abuse are most widely known. Drugs are consid

  19. Acute pancreatitis and Cushing's syndrome.

    Clague, H W; B. Warren; Krasner, N.

    1984-01-01

    A case of acute necrotizing pancreatitis in a 53-year-old man with an ectopic adrenocorticotrophin (ACTH) producing bronchial carcinoma is described. The aetiology of acute pancreatitis in relation to steroid therapy and malignancy is discussed and it is suggested that excess endogenous steroid production may also cause acute pancreatitis.

  20. Gadolinium induced recurrent acute pancreatitis.

    Blasco-Perrin, H; Glaser, B; Pienkowski, M; Peron, J M; Payen, J L

    2013-01-01

    Acute pancreatitis is a sudden swelling and inflammation of the pancreas. The two most common causes are alcohol use and biliary stones. Drug-induced acute pancreatitis are rare (1.4-2%). In this present study, we present a case of recurrent acute pancreatitis induced by a specific magnetic-resonance-imaging (MRI) contrast agent called gadobenate dimeglumine. PMID:23395575

  1. Improving the productivity of indigenous African livestock

    This document summarizes the results of two Co-ordinated Research Programs to improve the productivity of indigenous African livestock. After an introduction and a summary the reports of the participating countries are presented. The individual contributions have been indexed separately. Refs, figs and tabs

  2. African and Pacific Literature: A Comparative Study.

    Martin, Kristine L.

    Literary writing in Africa and the Pacific addresses themes that reflect colonial experience and the struggles of newly independent nations to cope with change and conflicts between traditional and modern existence. The novels of Chinua Achebe of Nigeria and Ngugi Wa Thiong'o of Kenya illustrate many dominant themes of African literature. Achebe…

  3. RHD allele distribution in Africans of Mali

    Moulds Joann M

    2003-09-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Aberrant and non-functional RHD alleles are much more frequent in Africans than in Europeans. The DAU cluster of RHD alleles exemplifies that the alleles frequent in Africans have evaded recognition until recently. A comprehensive survey of RHD alleles in any African population was lacking. Results We surveyed the molecular structure and frequency of RHD alleles in Mali (West Africa by evaluating 116 haplotypes. Only 69% could be attributed to standard RHD (55% or the RHD deletion (14%. The aberrant RHD allele DAU-0 was predicted for 19%, RHDΨ for 7% and Ccdes for 4% of all haplotypes. DAU-3 and the new RHD allele RHD(L207F, dubbed DMA, were found in one haplotype each. A PCR-RFLP for the detection of the hybrid Rhesus box diagnostic for the RHD deletion in Europeans was false positive in 9 individuals, including all carriers of RHDΨ . Including two silent mutations and the RHD deletion, a total of 9 alleles could be differentiated. Conclusion Besides standard RHD and the RHD deletion, DAU-0, RHDΨ and Ccdes are major alleles in Mali. Our survey proved that the most frequent alleles of West Africans have been recognized allowing to devise reliable genotyping and phenotyping strategies.

  4. Some remarks on the African wild ass

    Bemmel, van A.C.V.

    1972-01-01

    INTRODUCTION Without any doubt the African Wild Ass should be considered a species threatened with extinction. Therefore, it seems worth-while to collect as many data on this species as possible and to do this quickly. Data and material, however, are scarce. Many sportsmen and zoologists observed th

  5. African American Students' Attitudes toward Entrepreneurship Education.

    Ede, Fred O.; Panigrahi, Bhagaban; Calcich, Stephen E.

    1998-01-01

    A survey of 171 African-American students found that 72% came from nonentrepreneurial family backgrounds; only 24.5% intended to start their own businesses, there were no gender differences in entrepreneurship attitudes, and seniors and those from entrepreneurial backgrounds were more favorable toward entrepreneurship. (SK)

  6. Glucose intolerance in the West African Diaspora

    Nielsen, Jannie; Christensen, Dirk Lund

    2011-01-01

    In the United States, Black Americans are largely descendants of West African slaves; they have a higher relative proportion of obesity and experience a higher prevalence of diabetes than White Americans. However, obesity rates alone cannot explain the higher prevalence of type 2 diabetes. Type 2...

  7. African Literature and the American University.

    Priebe, Richard

    While African literature appears to be firmly established in American colleges and universities, its expansion, and in some cases its continuance, is threatened by two factors: racialism and departmental conservatism. As demands for courses in black literature can be met by an increased supply of scholars in Afro-American literature, fewer schools…

  8. Myths in African Concept of Reality

    Jaja, Jones M.

    2014-01-01

    Myths are accounts of the origin of societies and institutions not subject to rationalization but often used by historians and philosophers in their quest to study African history; for it is only thus that we can comprehend the various aspects of the continent's history and culture. This paper examines the critical understanding of African…

  9. Dictionaries of African Sign Languages: An Overview

    Schmaling, Constanze H.

    2012-01-01

    This article gives an overview of dictionaries of African sign languages that have been published to date most of which have not been widely distributed. After an introduction into the field of sign language lexicography and a discussion of some of the obstacles that authors of sign language dictionaries face in general, I will show problems…

  10. African American College Women's Suicide Buffers.

    Marion, Michelle S.; Range, Lillian M.

    2003-01-01

    To examine the relationships buffers may have with suicide ideation, 300 African American female college students completed measures of suicide ideation and buffers. Three variables accounted for a significant and unique portion of the variance in suicide ideation: family support, a view that suicide is unacceptable, and a collaborative religious…

  11. Colorectal Cancer in African Americans: An Update.

    Williams, Renee; White, Pascale; Nieto, Jose; Vieira, Dorice; Francois, Fritz; Hamilton, Frank

    2016-01-01

    This review is an update to the American College of Gastroenterology (ACG) Committee on Minority Affairs and Cultural Diversity's paper on colorectal cancer (CRC) in African Americans published in 2005. Over the past 10 years, the incidence and mortality rates of CRC in the United States has steadily declined. However, reductions have been strikingly much slower among African Americans who continue to have the highest rate of mortality and lowest survival when compared with all other racial groups. The reasons for the health disparities are multifactorial and encompass physician and patient barriers. Patient factors that contribute to disparities include poor knowledge of benefits of CRC screening, limited access to health care, insurance status along with fear and anxiety. Physician factors include lack of knowledge of screening guidelines along with disparate recommendations for screening. Earlier screening has been recommended as an effective strategy to decrease observed disparities; currently the ACG and American Society of Gastrointestinal Endoscopists recommend CRC screening in African Americans to begin at age 45. Despite the decline in CRC deaths in all racial and ethnic groups, there still exists a significant burden of CRC in African Americans, thus other strategies including educational outreach for health care providers and patients and the utilization of patient navigation systems emphasizing the importance of screening are necessary. These strategies have been piloted in both local communities and Statewide resulting in notable significant decreases in observed disparities. PMID:27467183

  12. Legacy of a Pioneer African American Educator

    Cazers, Gunars; Curtner-Smith, Matthew

    2013-01-01

    Purpose: The purpose was to reconstruct the historical and legendary contribution of one exemplary African American physical education teacher educator who lived and worked in the Deep South prior to and immediately following the 1954 Brown v. Board of Education court case. The following questions guided data collection and analysis: To what…

  13. Seismic imaging of Southern African cratons

    Soliman, Mohammad Youssof Ahmad

    the southern African regions. Some of the main research problems that have been dealt with during this research are about (1) the heterogeneity scale of crustal structure and composition, (2) the depth extent of the cratonic keels and their layering, and (3) the strength of crustal anisotropy. The...

  14. Beijing Summit Promotes Sino-African Relations

    Xu Weizhong

    2007-01-01

    @@ Since the establishment of the Forum on China-Africa Cooperation in 2000, China-Africa relations have entered a new period of cooperation. 2006 not only consolidated friendship between China and Africa, but also laid a sound foundation for more prosperous Sino-African relations.

  15. Caring School Leadership: A South African Study

    van der Vyver, Cornelius P.; van der Westhuizen, Philip C.; Meyer, L. W.

    2014-01-01

    The research pivoted on the question whether South African school principals fulfilled their caring role towards teachers. The aims of the study were threefold. First, to determine how principals rated their care-giving, secondly to determine whether significant discrepancies existed between principals' rating of their care-giving and…

  16. African American Homeschooling Practices: Empirical Evidence

    Mazama, Ama

    2016-01-01

    Despite a significant increase in scholarly interest for homeschooling, some of its most critical aspects, such as instructional daily practices, remain grossly understudied. This essay thus seeks to fill that void by presenting empirical evidence regarding the homeschooling practices of a specific group, African Americans. Most specifically, the…

  17. Cultural Considerations When Caring for African Americans

    The EPEC-O (Education in Palliative and End-of-Life Care for Oncology) Self-Study: Cultural Considerations When Caring for African Americans is a free comprehensive multimedia curricula for health professionals caring for persons with cancer and their families.

  18. African American Vernacular English and Rap Music

    胡波

    2015-01-01

    African American Vernacular English (AAVE) is the language spoken by almost 20 milion speakers al over the world. It is also used frequently in rap lyrics. Studying the origin and grammar rules of AAVE is a very important topic in today's English Language and English Teaching Studies.

  19. Assessing sanitary mixtures in East African cities

    Letema, S.C.

    2012-01-01

    The urbanisation of poverty and informality in East African cities poses a threat to environmental
    health, perpetuates social exclusion and inequalities, and creates service gaps (UN-Habitat, 2008).
    This makes conventional sanitation provision untenable citywide, giving rise to the emerg

  20. Educational Resilience in African American Adolescents

    Cunningham, Michael; Swanson, Dena Phillips

    2010-01-01

    The purpose of this article was to examine factors within the school context that facilitates educational resilience among African American high school students. The authors expected academic self-esteem to be positively associated with future expectations (academic and general). They expected perceptions of school-based social support to have…

  1. An Exploration of African Students in Malaysia

    Lian, Irene Tan Ai

    2011-01-01

    The exploratory study is an attempt to understand the reasons that prompted African students to study in Malaysia, the challenges encountered and the coping strategies used. The research on such topics among international students is well documented, but studies on international students in Malaysia are scarce. The sample included 155 African…

  2. Contemporary Sexism in the South African Navy

    Van Wijk, Charles H.

    2011-01-01

    The military traditionally embraces highly sexist attitudes. Over the past decade, the South African Navy (SAN) has been exposed to an increasingly progressive political environment. This study investigated contemporary expressions of sexism in the SAN. A representative sample of 476 sailors completed the Ambivalent Sexism Inventory, Modern Sexism…

  3. Hantavirus in African Wood Mouse, Guinea

    Klempa, Boris; Fichet-Calvet, Elisabeth; Lecompte, Emilie; Auste, Brita; Aniskin, Vladimir; Meisel, Helga; Denys, Christiane; Koivogui, Lamine; ter Meulen, Jan; Krüger, Detlev H.

    2006-01-01

    Hantaviruses are rodentborne, emerging viruses that cause life-threatening human diseases in Eurasia and the Americas. We detected hantavirus genome sequences in an African wood mouse (Hylomyscus simus) captured in Sangassou, Guinea. Sequence and phylogenetic analyses of the genetic material demonstrate a novel hantavirus species, which we propose to name "Sangassou virus."

  4. Cataloging the Pan-African Experience

    Hayes, Dianne

    2012-01-01

    Of all the honors and accolades bibliophile and noted authority on the Underground Railroad Charles Blockson has received, being bequeathed recently with some of Harriet Tubman's personal items by her great-niece is one of the most significant experiences of his life. A longtime collector of books and rare items by and about African-Americans,…

  5. Wages and Labor Management in African Manufacturing

    Fafchamps, Marcel; Soderbom, Mans

    2006-01-01

    Using matched employer-employee data from ten African countries, we examine the relationship between wages, worker supervision, and labor productivity in manufacturing. Wages increase with firm size for both production workers and supervisors. We develop a two-tier model of supervision that can account for this stylized fact and we fit the…

  6. Tuberculosis Detection by Giant African Pouched Rats

    Poling, Alan; Weetjens, Bart; Cox, Christophe; Beyene, Negussie; Durgin, Amy; Mahoney, Amanda

    2011-01-01

    In recent years, operant discrimination training procedures have been used to teach giant African pouched rats to detect tuberculosis (TB) in human sputum samples. This article summarizes how the rats are trained and used operationally, as well as their performance in studies published to date. Available data suggest that pouched rats, which can…

  7. The South African species of Teucrium (Lamiaceae

    L. E. Codd

    1977-12-01

    Full Text Available While writing up the three South African species of  Teucrium for the Flora o f Southern Africa it became necessary to replace two well-known names as follows:  T. trifidum Retz. (1779 ( = T.  capense Thunb., 1800 and  T. kraussii Codd  {=T. riparium Hochst., 1845, non Rafin., 1838.

  8. Acute pyelonephritis in ER

    Giovanni Volpicelli

    2007-10-01

    Full Text Available Symptoms and signs of acute pyelonephritis sometimes are subtle and emergency physicians attending overcrowded and busy institutions could easily miss the right diagnosis. The presence of a renal damage is decisive in the therapeutic choice. Aims of our study are: 1 to assess prevalence of renal damage in patients presenting to our ED with symptoms and signs of primary urinary tract infection (UTI; 2 to evaluate the reliability of such symptoms and signs in predicting a renal damage; 3 to assess accuracy of the contrast enhanced ultrasound (CEUS in the ED diagnosis of renal damage due to acute uncomplicated pyelonephritis. We studied 54 patients with suspected UTI. Each patient underwent clinical examination, routine blood and urine sampling and conventional renal ultrasound (US. 23 patients had confirmation of acute primary UTI, and performed renal magnetic resonance (MR to rule out renal parenchymal involvement. In 16 patients (69,6% one or more parenchymal lesions were visualized at MR, and diagnosis of acute uncomplicated pyelonephritis was confirmed (group A. The other 7 patients had a diagnosis of UTI without renal involvement (group B. Some of 23 patients presented with few atypical symptoms. Lumbar pain was the most frequent symptom (n = 21, without a statistically significant difference between group A and B (P 0,958; p = 0,328. No other symptom or sign has demonstrated statistically valid in predicting the renal involvement. Renal US was positive in only 3 patients of group A (18,7%. During this first part of our study, CEUS was performed in a limited number of patients (n = 8, and in 7 examinations data were concordant with MR. In conclusion, analysis of our preliminary data confirms that a distinction between patients with different extension of the UTI is not possible through the simple clinical examination and routine tests. CEUS is very promising and its routine employment in the ED could simplify the diagnostic practice in

  9. Logic in African Philosophy: Examples from two Niger Delta Societies

    Jones M. Jaja

    2012-04-01

    Full Text Available There have been questions as to whether African Philosophy exists or not. European scholars and some African scholars are at the opposite end of this scholarly debate. The result is the production of various works by Odera Oruka, Omoregbe, Bordunrin, Wright, Maurier and others espousing their views for or against the existence of African Philosophy. This paper attempts to show the existence of a unique Philosophy that deserves to be recognized and rightly known as African Philosophy. It shows the existence of African Logic using examples from two Niger-Delta societies. The paper begins with the concept of Logic in African thought system, the natural nature of it and it’s applicability to these communities especially as it permeates every aspect of the African way of life. The Ibani and Ogoni societies in the Niger-Delta were used as case studies.

  10. An African-American family with dystonia.

    Puschmann, Andreas; Xiao, Jianfeng; Bastian, Robert W; Searcy, Jill A; LeDoux, Mark S; Wszolek, Zbigniew K

    2011-08-01

    The genetic cause of late-onset focal and segmental dystonia remains unknown in most individuals. Recently, mutations in Thanatos-associated protein domain containing, apoptosis associated protein 1 (THAP1) have been described in DYT6 dystonia and associated with some cases of familial and sporadic late-onset dystonia in Caucasians. We are not aware of any previous descriptions of familial dystonia in African-Americans or reports of THAP1 mutations in African-Americans. Herein, we characterize an African-American (AA) kindred with late-onset primary dystonia, clinically and genetically. The clinical phenotype included cervical, laryngeal and hand-forearm dystonia. Symptoms were severe and disabling for several family members, whereas others only displayed mild signs. There were no accompanying motor or cognitive signs. In this kindred, age of onset ranged from 45 to 50 years and onset was frequently sudden, with symptoms developing within weeks or months. DYT1 was excluded as the cause of dystonia in this kindred. The entire genomic region of THAP1, including non-coding regions, was sequenced. We identified 13 sequence variants in THAP1, although none co-segregated with dystonia. A novel THAP1 variant (c.-237-3G>T/A) was found in 3/84 AA dystonia patient alleles and 3/212 AA control alleles, but not in 5870 Caucasian alleles. In summary, although previously unreported, familial primary dystonia does occur in African-Americans. Genetic analysis of the entire genomic region of THAP1 revealed a novel variant that was specific for African-Americans. Therefore, genetic testing for dystonia and future studies of candidate genes must take genetic background into consideration. PMID:21601506

  11. Severe Acute Pancreatitis in Pregnancy

    Bahiyah Abdullah

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available This is a case of a pregnant lady at 8 weeks of gestation, who presented with acute abdomen. She was initially diagnosed with ruptured ectopic pregnancy and ruptured corpus luteal cyst as the differential diagnosis. However she then, was finally diagnosed as acute hemorrhagic pancreatitis with spontaneous complete miscarriage. This is followed by review of literature on this topic. Acute pancreatitis in pregnancy is not uncommon. The emphasis on high index of suspicion of acute pancreatitis in women who presented with acute abdomen in pregnancy is highlighted. Early diagnosis and good supportive care by multidisciplinary team are crucial to ensure good maternal and fetal outcomes.

  12. Acute hantavirus infection induces galectin-3-binding protein.

    Hepojoki, Jussi; Strandin, Tomas; Hetzel, Udo; Sironen, Tarja; Klingström, Jonas; Sane, Jussi; Mäkelä, Satu; Mustonen, Jukka; Meri, Seppo; Lundkvist, Ake; Vapalahti, Olli; Lankinen, Hilkka; Vaheri, Antti

    2014-11-01

    Hantaviruses are zoonotic viruses that cause life-threatening diseases when transmitted to humans. Severe hantavirus infection is manifested by impairment of renal function, pulmonary oedema and capillary leakage. Both innate and adaptive immune responses contribute to the pathogenesis, but the underlying mechanisms are not fully understood. Here, we showed that galectin-3-binding protein (Gal-3BP) was upregulated as a result of hantavirus infection both in vitro and in vivo. Gal-3BP is a secreted glycoprotein found in human serum, and increased Gal-3BP levels have been reported in chronic viral infections and in several types of cancer. Our in vitro experiments showed that, whilst Vero E6 cells (an African green monkey kidney cell line) constitutively expressed and secreted Gal-3BP, this protein was detected in primary human cells only as a result of hantavirus infection. Analysis of Gal-3BP levels in serum samples of cynomolgus macaques infected experimentally with hantavirus indicated that hantavirus infection induced Gal-3BP also in vivo. Finally, analysis of plasma samples collected from patients hospitalized because of acute hantavirus infection showed higher Gal-3BP levels during the acute than the convalescent phase. Furthermore, the Gal-3BP levels in patients with haemorrhagic fever with renal syndrome correlated with increased complement activation and with clinical variables reflecting the severity of acute hantavirus infection. PMID:25013204

  13. Therapeutic evaluation of Acacia nilotica (Linn stem bark extract in experimental African trypanosomiasis

    E O Ogbadoyi

    2011-06-01

    Full Text Available Summary: Chemotherapy of African trypanosomiasis still remains far from being satisfactory, being severely limited by a number of factors including unacceptable toxicity, increasing parasite resistance, high cost and unavailability. There is an urgent need for therapeutic agents that are effective, affordable and accessible to the rural poor in Africa who bear most of the disease burden. The objective of this study was to evaluate the therapeutic effects of Acacia nilotica in experimental Trypanosoma brucei brucei infection in mice.  Methanol extract of stem bark of the plant was investigated for its therapeutic effects in experimental African trypanosomiasis. Acute toxicity studies were also conducted. Crude extract of 70% v/v (Methanol/Water at a dose of 400mg kg-1 body weight per day completely cured the experimental T.b. brucei infection in mice, while doses of 50, 100, 200, 300, and 400mgkg-1 body weight per day of the partially purified extract completely cured the experimental infection in mice within two days.  Sub inoculation of blood and cerebrospinal fluid drawn from the cured mice into healthy mice failed to produce any infection within 28 days of post inoculation. Phytochemical analysis showed the presence of carbohydrates, saponin, tannin and cardiac glycoside. LD50 of the partially purified extract was found to be 2000mg/kg body weight, the extract being acutely toxic at a dose of 1600mgkg-1 body weight. It is concluded that methanol extract of stem bark of A. nilotica cures experimental T. b. brucei infection in mice.   Industrial relevance: The findings in this study provide very useful clue for biopharmaceutical industries and drug manufacturers for the development of phytotherapeutic agents from this plant, not only for therapeutic intervention in the control of African trypanosomiasis but also for the treatment of cancer. This is because of the strong link between Chemotherapy of human African trypanosomiasis (sleeping

  14. Acute Coronary Events

    Arbab-Zadeh, Armin; Nakano, Masataka; Virmani, Renu; Fuster, Valentin

    2012-01-01

    In the United States alone, more than 400,000 Americans die annually from coronary artery disease and more than 1,000,000 suffer acute coronary events, i.e., myocardial infarction and sudden cardiac death.1 Considering the aging of our population and increasing incidence of diabetes and obesity, the morbidity from coronary artery disease, and its associated costs, will place an increasing, substantial burden on our society.2 Between 2010 and 2030, total direct medical costs spent in the US for cardiovascular diseases are projected to triple from 273 to 818 billion dollars.2 Although effective treatments are available and considerable efforts are ongoing to identify new strategies for the prevention of coronary events, predicting such events in an individual has been challenging.3 In hopes of improving our ability to determine the risk of coronary events, it is prudent to review our knowledge of factors that lead to acute coronary events. PMID:22392862

  15. Acute pancreatitis in pregnancy

    Pitchumoni, Capecomorin S; Yegneswaran, Balaji

    2009-01-01

    Acute pancreatitis (AP) is a rare event in pregnancy, occurring in approximately 3 in 10 000 pregnancies. The spectrum of AP in pregnancy ranges from mild pancreatitis to serious pancreatitis associated with necrosis, abscesses, pseudocysts and multiple organ dysfunction syndromes. Pregnancy related hematological and biochemical alterations influence the interpretation of diagnostic tests and assessment of severity of AP. As in any other disease associated with pregnancy, AP is associated wit...

  16. Streptococcal acute pharyngitis

    Lais Martins Moreira Anjos

    2014-07-01

    Full Text Available Acute pharyngitis/tonsillitis, which is characterized by inflammation of the posterior pharynx and tonsils, is a common disease. Several viruses and bacteria can cause acute pharyngitis; however, Streptococcus pyogenes (also known as Lancefield group A β-hemolytic streptococci is the only agent that requires an etiologic diagnosis and specific treatment. S. pyogenes is of major clinical importance because it can trigger post-infection systemic complications, acute rheumatic fever, and post-streptococcal glomerulonephritis. Symptom onset in streptococcal infection is usually abrupt and includes intense sore throat, fever, chills, malaise, headache, tender enlarged anterior cervical lymph nodes, and pharyngeal or tonsillar exudate. Cough, coryza, conjunctivitis, and diarrhea are uncommon, and their presence suggests a viral cause. A diagnosis of pharyngitis is supported by the patient's history and by the physical examination. Throat culture is the gold standard for diagnosing streptococcus pharyngitis. However, it has been underused in public health services because of its low availability and because of the 1- to 2-day delay in obtaining results. Rapid antigen detection tests have been used to detect S. pyogenes directly from throat swabs within minutes. Clinical scoring systems have been developed to predict the risk of S. pyogenes infection. The most commonly used scoring system is the modified Centor score. Acute S. pyogenes pharyngitis is often a self-limiting disease. Penicillins are the first-choice treatment. For patients with penicillin allergy, cephalosporins can be an acceptable alternative, although primary hypersensitivity to cephalosporins can occur. Another drug option is the macrolides. Future perspectives to prevent streptococcal pharyngitis and post-infection systemic complications include the development of an anti-Streptococcus pyogenes vaccine.

  17. Acute ischemic cerebral attack

    Franco-Garcia Samir; Barreiro-Pinto Belis

    2010-01-01

    The decrease of the cerebral blood flow below the threshold of autoregulation led to changes of cerebral ischemia and necrosis that traduce in signs and symtoms of focal neurologic dysfunction called acute cerebrovascular symdrome (ACS) or stroke. Two big groups according to its etiology are included in this category the hemorragic that constitue a 20% and the ischemic a 80% of cases. Great interest has wom the ischemic ACS because of its high social burden, being the third cause of no violen...

  18. Minocycline for Acute Neuroprotection

    Elewa, Hazem F.; Hilali, Hend; Hess, David C.; Machado, Livia S.; Fagan, Susan C.

    2006-01-01

    Minocycline is a widely used tetracycline antibiotic. It has been used for decades in the treatment of various gram-positive and gram-negative infections. More recently, minocycline has been shown to have neuroprotective properties in different animal models of acute neurological injury. As a neuroprotective agent, minocycline has the potential to be superior to most of the previously tried agents. In addition to its high blood-brain barrier penetration, minocycline is also a safe compound co...

  19. Myopathy in acute hypothyroidism.

    Kung, A. W.; Ma, J T; Yu, Y L; Wang, C. C.; Woo, E K; Lam, K.S.; Huang, C Y; Yeung, R T

    1987-01-01

    Hypothyroid myopathy has so far been reported in long standing cases of hypothyroidism. We describe two adult patients with myopathy associated with acute transient hypothyroidism. Both presented with severe muscle aches and cramps, stiffness and spasms. Muscle enzymes were markedly elevated and electromyography in one patient showed myopathic features. Histological changes were absent in muscle biopsy, probably because of the short duration of metabolic disturbance. The myopathy subsided pro...

  20. Myopathy in acute hypothyroidism

    Kung, AWC; Ma, JTC; Yu, YL

    1987-01-01

    Hypothyroid myopathy has so far been reported in long standing cases of hypothyroidism. We describe two adult patients with myopathy associated with acute transient hypothyroidism. Both presented with severe muscle aches and cramps, stiffness and spasms. Muscle enzymes were markedly elevated and electromyography in one patient showed myopathic features. Histological changes were absent in muscle biopsy, probably because of the short duration of metabolic disturbance. The myopathy subsided pro...

  1. Acute Myocardial Infarction 19922001

    Robert Schmitz

    2005-01-01

    Heart disease is the leading cause of hospitalization and death in the United States among persons age 65 and older. Acute myocardial infarction (AMI), more commonly known as heart attack, accounted for more than 321,000 hospitalizations among Medicare beneficiaries in 2001. This report presents trends in AMI hospitalization, readmission, and mortality rates from 1992 through 2001 among Medicare fee-for-service beneficiaries across various demographic groups.

  2. Acute oesophageal necrosis syndrome

    Garas, George; Wou, Constance; Sawyer, Joseph; Amygdalos, Iakovos; Gould, Stuart

    2011-01-01

    An 89-year-old woman with a known hiatus hernia presented to the accident and emergency department with acute onset epigastric pain. CT of the thorax and abdomen revealed a large hiatus hernia with mesentero-axial volvulus but no evidence of strangulation. A large aneurysmal aortic arch and descending aorta were visible with associated mural thrombus. As the pain was worsening, following discussion with the patient, the decision to operate was taken. The hiatus hernia was successfully reduced...

  3. Acute liver failure secondary to khat (Catha edulis)-induced necrotic hepatitis requiring liver transplantation: case report.

    Roelandt, P; George, C; d'Heygere, F; Aerts, R; Monbaliu, D; Laleman, W; Cassiman, D; Verslype, C; van Steenbergen, W; Pirenne, J; Wilmer, A; Nevens, F

    2011-11-01

    We describe the case of a 26-year-old man with acute liver failure secondary to ingestion of khat (Catha edulis) leaves. In fact, this is the first case of acute liver failure due to khat reported outside the United Kingdom. The combination of specific epidemiologic data (young man of East African origin) and clinical features (central nervous system stimulation, withdrawal reactions, toxic autoimmune-like hepatitis) led to the diagnosis. Mechanisms of action and potential side effects of khat are elaborated on. PMID:22099826

  4. Ectomycorrhizal symbiosis of tropical African trees.

    Bâ, Amadou M; Duponnois, Robin; Moyersoen, Bernard; Diédhiou, Abdala G

    2012-01-01

    The diversity, ecology and function of ectomycorrhizal (EM) fungi and ectomycorrhizas (ECMs) on tropical African tree species are reviewed here. While ECMs are the most frequent mycorrhizal type in temperate and boreal forests, they concern an economically and ecologically important minority of plants in African tropical forests. In these African tropical forests, ECMs are found mainly on caesalpionioid legumes, Sarcolaenaceae, Dipterocarpaceae, Asterpeiaceae, Phyllantaceae, Sapotaceae, Papilionoideae, Gnetaceae and Proteaceae, and distributed in open, gallery and rainforests of the Guineo-Congolian basin, Zambezian Miombo woodlands of East and South-Central Africa and Sudanian savannah woodlands of the sub-sahara. Overall, EM status was confirmed in 93 (26%) among 354 tree species belonging to EM genera. In addition, 195 fungal taxa were identified using morphological descriptions and sequencing of the ML5/ML6 fragment of sporocarps and ECMs from West Africa. Analyses of the belowground EM fungal communities mostly based on fungal internal transcribed spacer sequences of ECMs from Continental Africa, Madagascar and the Seychelles also revealed more than 350 putative species of EM fungi belonging mainly to 18 phylogenetic lineages. As in temperate forests, the /russula-lactarius and /tomentella-thelephora lineages dominated EM fungal flora in tropical Africa. A low level of host preference and dominance of multi-host fungal taxa on different African adult tree species and their seedlings were revealed, suggesting a potential for the formation of common ectomycorrhizal networks. Moreover, the EM inoculum potential in terms of types and density of propagules (spores, sclerotia, EM root fragments and fragments of mycelia strands) in the soil allowed opportunistic root colonisation as well as long-term survival in the soil during the dry season. These are important characteristics when choosing an EM fungus for field application. In this respect, Thelephoroid fungal sp

  5. Acute tubulointerstitial nephritis.

    Ulinski, Tim; Sellier-Leclerc, Anne-Laure; Tudorache, Elena; Bensman, Albert; Aoun, Bilal

    2012-07-01

    Acute tubulointerstitial nephritis (TIN) is a frequent cause of acute renal failure, characterised by the presence of inflammatory cell infiltrate in the interstitium of the kidney. Immuno-allergic reaction to certain medications, mainly non-steroidal anti-inflammatory drugs and antibiotics are by far the most important etiology for TIN today, but other situations such as infections, toxins, and vasculitis are known to induce TIN. Incidence of TIN is increasing, probably due to prescription habits and NSAID overuse, representing 3-7% of acute kidney injury in biopsies in children. Avoidance of the causal substance and rapid steroid therapy are hallmarks for patient care, but spontaneous initial recovery is very frequent and the general prognosis seems satisfactory. However, development of chronic TIN, without response to steroid or other immunosuppressive treatment, is possible. As the largest part of TIN is secondary to certain drugs, clear indications in particular for NSAID or antibiotics should be respected to reduce the number of TIN cases. PMID:21638156

  6. Acute puerperal uterine inversion

    Objective: To determine the frequency, causes, clinical presentations, management and maternal mortality associated with acute puerperal inversion of the uterus. Materials and Methods: All the patients who developed acute puerperal inversion of the uterus either in or outside the JPMC were included in the study. Patients of chronic uterine inversion were not included in the present study. Abdominal and vaginal examination was done to confirm and classify inversion into first, second or third degrees. Results: 57036 deliveries and 36 acute uterine inversions occurred during the study period, so the frequency of uterine inversion was 1 in 1584 deliveries. Mismanagement of third stage of labour was responsible for uterine inversion in 75% of patients. Majority of the patients presented with shock, either hypovolemic (69%) or neurogenic (13%) in origin. Manual replacement of the uterus under general anaesthesia with 2% halothane was successfully done in 35 patients (97.5%). Abdominal hysterectomy was done in only one patient. There were three maternal deaths due to inversion. Conclusion: Proper education and training regarding placental delivery, diagnosis and management of uterine inversion must be imparted to the maternity care providers especially to traditional birth attendants and family physicians to prevent this potentially life-threatening condition. (author)

  7. Perioperative acute renal failure.

    Mahon, Padraig

    2012-02-03

    PURPOSE OF REVIEW: Recent biochemical evidence increasingly implicates inflammatory mechanisms as precipitants of acute renal failure. In this review, we detail some of these pathways together with potential new therapeutic targets. RECENT FINDINGS: Neutrophil gelatinase-associated lipocalin appears to be a sensitive, specific and reliable biomarker of renal injury, which may be predictive of renal outcome in the perioperative setting. For estimation of glomerular filtration rate, cystatin C is superior to creatinine. No drug is definitively effective at preventing postoperative renal failure. Clinical trials of fenoldopam and atrial natriuretic peptide are, at best, equivocal. As with pharmacological preconditioning of the heart, volatile anaesthetic agents appear to offer a protective effect to the subsequently ischaemic kidney. SUMMARY: Although a greatly improved understanding of the pathophysiology of acute renal failure has offered even more therapeutic targets, the maintenance of intravascular euvolaemia and perfusion pressure is most effective at preventing new postoperative acute renal failure. In the future, strategies targeting renal regeneration after injury will use bone marrow-derived stem cells and growth factors such as insulin-like growth factor-1.

  8. Levels of Acute Phase Reactants in Patients with Acute Brucellosis

    Mehmet Uluğ

    2010-08-01

    Full Text Available Objective: Infection, tissue damage, immunologic reactions and the inflammatory process rapidly cause a systemic response in the organism, generally termed as acute phase response. The aim of this study was to evaluate the levels of acute phase reactants such as C-reactive protein (CRP, ferritin and fibrinogen in patients with acute brucellosis.Methods: This study was carried out in 48 patients (27 female, 21 male with acute brucellosis who were followed at the Departments of Infectious Diseases and Neurology, between April 2007 and August 2008, and in 42 healthy controls (22 female, 20 male.Results: Serum albumin levels significantly decreased (p<0.001, whereas CRP and ferritin levels significantly increased (p<0.001 and p=0.03 in patients with acute brucellosis.Conclusions: It was concluded that serum levels of CRP and ferritin increased, while albumin decreased in patients with acute brucellosis.

  9. Acute appendicitis mistaken as acute rejection in renal transplant recipients.

    Talwalkar N; Javali D; Venkatesh K; Iyer S; Venkatesh M; Joshi U

    1994-01-01

    Case histories of 2 renal transplant recipients are reported who had presenting features of fever, leukocytosis and pain/tenderness over right iliac fossa and were diagnosed to be due to acute appendicitis rather than more commonly suspected acute rejection episode which has very similar features. Diagnosis of acute appendicitis was suspected on the basis of rectal examination and later confirmed by laparotomy. The purpose of this communication is to emphasize the need for proper diagnosis in...

  10. The U3 promoter region of the acutely lethal simian immunodeficiency virus clone smmPBj1.9 confers related biological activity on the apathogenic clone agm3mc.

    Dittmar, M T; Cichutek, K; Fultz, P N; Kurth, R

    1995-01-01

    Infection with the acutely pathogenic molecular virus clone SIVsmmPBj1.9, cloned from isolate PBj14 of simian immunodeficiency virus (SIV) from sooty mangabey monkeys (Cercocebus atys), leads to acute viral and often lethal disease within days or weeks. SIVsmmPBj1.9 has the unique property of replicating in nonstimulated peripheral blood mononuclear cells from pig-tailed macaques. In contrast, molecular virus clone SIVagm3mc of SIV from African green monkeys (Cercopithecus aethiops), which is...

  11. African Voices and Activists at the WSF in Nairobi: The Uncertain Ways of Transnational African Activism

    Marie-Emmanuelle Pommerolle

    2015-08-01

    Full Text Available Transnational social movement studies have long neglected the way activists from the South, and particularly from Africa, have participated in World Social Forum processes. Alterglobal activists have also been accused of neglecting or dominating southern voices. The organization of the WSF in Nairobi was seen as an opportunity to make African voices be heard. This examines how Africans activists participated in Nairobi, and the complex relationship they have to northern and other southern (such as Asia and Latin America activists. The African alterglobal movement is seen as a space of tensions (i.e. between South Africans and the rest of the continent, between French and English speaking Africa, or between NGOs and more radical organizations reflected in national mobilizations. Our team of 23 French and 12 Kenyan scholars made collective ethnographic observations in more than a hundred workshops and conducted 150 biographical interviews of African activists in order to examine how: Africa was referred to in the WSF; activists financed their trip to Nairobi; and Afrocentric, anti-imperialist, and anticolonial arguments have been used.

  12. "Women...mourn and men carry on": African women storying mourning practices: a South African example.

    Kotzé, Elmarie; Els, Lishje; Rajuili-Masilo, Ntsiki

    2012-09-01

    African mourning of loss of lives in South Africa has been shaped by discursive practices of both traditional African cultures and the sociopolitical developments under apartheid and in post-apartheid South Africa. This article reports on changes in mourning practices on the basis of a literature review and uses a collection of examples to highlight the navigation of some cultural and gendered issues relating to mourning, against the backdrop of the everyday experiences of loss of life in South Africa due to violence and HIV/AIDS. The article draws on African womanist and feminist scholarship and focuses on the intersections between cultural and gender practices of bereavement in the lives of professional urban African women. The authors argue for the use of positioning theory and witnessing practices to honor and story the ongoing struggle of African women as these women take different agentic positions by accepting, questioning, resisting, and/or changing cultural mourning practices while they compassionately witness the self and others in the narratives they live. PMID:24563939

  13. Young Africans Tackle Their Continent's Environmental Issues

    Olwoch, Jane Mukarugwiza

    2008-11-01

    Young African Scientists Session at the Fourth International Geosphere-Biosphere Programme Congress; Cape Town, South Africa, 7 May 2008; Africa is often described as a unique and diverse continent. This is reflected in its biodiversity, economic and social circumstances, and diversity in culture and environment. The Young African Scientists (YAS) session at the International Geosphere-Biosphere Programme Congress was one of the congress's highlights. Global environmental change research in Africa was presented to an audience that included visiting international and national scientists, policy makers, and a group of schoolchildren. From the uniqueness of Africa's paleoclimate to the diversity and complexity of current and future impacts of environmental change on Africa, the session not only provided an overview of current projects but also highlighted the problems that are intertwined with poverty. This session was sponsored by the Global Change System for Analysis, Research, and Training (START).

  14. Towards a Classification of the African Acacias

    J. H. Ross

    1973-09-01

    Full Text Available Some of the first attempts to subdivide the genus Acacia Mill, as a whole are discussed briefly. Bentham’s work, in which the subdivisions of the genus were for the first time given names, is considered and his two series into which the African species fall are reproduced. The characters employed by various workers to divide the African species into two main groups are mentioned and the advantages of using each of these characters for the first dichotomy in a key are discussed. Recent work on pollen morphology and seedling morphology is correlated with general morphology. A proposal put forward by Guinet to divide Acacia into three large genera on the basis of pollen morphology is briefly discussed. Certain modifications to Bentham's series Vulgares and Gummiferae are suggested.

  15. Weak interaction in the African Easterly Jet

    A. Lenouo

    2005-07-01

    Full Text Available Low-frequency, African Easterlies Waves (AEW are examined as disturbances embedded in the mid-tropospheric easterly jet of the African low troposphere. The solution to the nonlinear vorticity equation relevant to the description of waves is sought in the form of triplet waves. The latest suggest a unified method to determine their kinetics characteristic and to explain the mechanism of energy exchange between their different modes. The period of energy interaction between different modes of the global wave is equal to 3.5 days when the wave packet is moving with a group velocity dependent on the mean basic flow. The effects of nonlinearity are also identified, and it is noted that the horizontal shears of mean flow, as well as the temporal variation of the amplitude wave functions, are the controlling factors.

    Keywords. Meteorology and atmospheric dynamics (Synoptic-scale meteorology; Tropical meteorology; Waves and tides

  16. A focus on acute cholecystitis and acute cholangitis

    Massimo Sartelli; Cristian Tranà

    2012-01-01

    Biliary infections are very common intra-abdominal infections. Laparoscopic cholecystectomy for acute cholecystitis and endoscopic retrograde management of acute cholangitis play important roles in the treatment of biliary infections. Also antimicrobial therapy is nevertheless important in the overall management of biliary infections. A multidisciplinary team of physicians, including surgeons trained in laparoscopic techniques, interventional gastroenterologists, and interventional radiologists may improve outcomes of patients with biliary infections. This review focuses the clinical presentation, diagnosis, and state of the art management of acute cholecystitis and acute cholangitis.

  17. SUBJECTIVE MEMORY IN OLDER AFRICAN AMERICANS

    Sims, Regina C.; Whitfield, Keith E.; Ayotte, Brian J.; Gamaldo, Alyssa A.; Edwards, Christopher L.; Allaire, Jason C.

    2011-01-01

    The current analysis examined (a) if measures of psychological well-being predict subjective memory, and (b) if subjective memory is consistent with actual memory. Five hundred seventy-nine older African Americans from the Baltimore Study of Black Aging completed measures assessing subjective memory, depressive symptomatology, perceived stress, locus of control, and verbal and working memory. Higher levels of perceived stress and greater externalized locus of control predicted poorer subjecti...

  18. Caring school leadership: a South African study

    Van der Vyver, C.P.; Van der Westhuizen, P C; Meyer, L.W.

    2014-01-01

    The research pivoted on the question whether South African school principals fulfilled their caring role towards teachers. The aims of the study were threefold. First, to determine how principals rated their care-giving, secondly to determine whether significant discrepancies existed between principals’ rating of their care-giving and teachers’ experiences thereof and thirdly to identify the determinants of care that contributed the most and the least towards principals’ care-givi...

  19. The evolution of African plant diversity

    HansPeterLinder

    2014-01-01

    Sub-Saharan Africa includes some 45,000 plant species. The spatial patterns of this diversity have been well explored. We can group the species into a set of biogeographical regions (largely co-incident with regions defined for terrestrial vertebrate groups). Furthermore, we know that the diversity is unevenly distributed, with southern Africa (especially the south-western tip) disproportionally species rich, while the West African interior is disproportionally species poor. However, the ...

  20. Intestinal plasmacytoma in an African hedgehog.

    Ramos-Vara, J A; Miller, M A; Craft, D

    1998-04-01

    A 3-yr-old male African hedgehog (Atelerix albiventris) had anorexia and weight loss for 1 wk before its death. The colon and mesocolon were diffusely infiltrated by a neoplastic proliferation of round cells with plasmacytoid features. A diagnosis of intestinal plasmacytoma was made and confirmed by electron microscopy. No other organs appeared to be affected. This is the first description of intestinal plasmacytoma in a hedgehog. PMID:9577789

  1. Africans in the American Labor Market.

    Elo, Irma T; Frankenberg, Elizabeth; Gansey, Romeo; Thomas, Duncan

    2015-10-01

    The number of migrants to the United States from Africa has grown exponentially since the 1930s. For the first time in America's history, migrants born in Africa are growing at a faster rate than migrants from any other continent. The composition of African-origin migrants has also changed dramatically: in the mid-twentieth century, the majority were white and came from only three countries; but today, about one-fifth are white, and African-origin migrants hail from across the entire continent. Little is known about the implications of these changes for their labor market outcomes in the United States. Using the 2000-2011 waves of the American Community Survey, we present a picture of enormous heterogeneity in labor market participation, sectoral choice, and hourly earnings of male and female migrants by country of birth, race, age at arrival in the United States, and human capital. For example, controlling a rich set of human capital and demographic characteristics, some migrants-such as those from South Africa/Zimbabwe and Cape Verde, who typically enter on employment visas-earn substantial premiums relative to other African-origin migrants. These premiums are especially large among males who arrived after age 18. In contrast, other migrants-such as those from Sudan/Somalia, who arrived more recently, mostly as refugees-earn substantially less than migrants from other African countries. Understanding the mechanisms generating the heterogeneity in these outcomes-including levels of socioeconomic development, language, culture, and quality of education in countries of origin, as well as selectivity of those who migrate-figures prominently among important unresolved research questions. PMID:26304845

  2. Obesity and Pulmonary Function in African Americans

    Mehari, Alem; Afreen, Samina; Ngwa, Julius; Setse, Rosanna; Thomas, Alicia N.; Poddar, Vishal; Davis, Wayne; Polk, Octavius D.; Hassan, Sheik; Thomas, Alvin V.

    2015-01-01

    Background Obesity prevalence in United States (US) adults exceeds 30% with highest prevalence being among blacks. Obesity is known to have significant effects on respiratory function and obese patients commonly report respiratory complaints requiring pulmonary function tests (PFTs). However, there is no large study showing the relationship between body mass index (BMI) and PFTs in healthy African Americans (AA). Objective To determine the effect of BMI on PFTs in AA patients who did not have...

  3. Ethnic Patriotism and Markets in African History

    Lonsdale, John

    2010-01-01

    African economic and social history since 1800 suggests that the relationships between ethnic consciousness and market transaction is very varied and largely unpredictable. The early twentieth century was a period of important change. Before 1900 labour was scarce and land abundant: inter-ethnic relations were relatively flexible, thanks to a general demand for mobile labour supplies. By 1960 population growth meant that property had become more valuable than labour: inter-ethnic relations be...

  4. Social mobility in five African countries

    Bossuroy, T.; Cogneau, Denis

    2013-01-01

    This paper conceptualizes intergenerational occupational mobility between the farm and non-farm sectors in five African countries, measures it using nationally representative household survey data, and analyzes its determinants through a comparative method based on pooled logit regressions. We first analyze intergenerational gross mobility. Until the end of the 1980s, intergenerational flows toward the non-farm sector are high in Cote d'Ivoire and Guinea, flows toward the farm sector are more...

  5. TURNING THE TIDE: REVISITING AFRICAN MARITIME SECURITY

    Francois Vrey

    2013-01-01

    Maritime security appears to be assuming an increasingly more prominent place on the African security agenda. Although the growing scholarly debate and international responses seem to attend to more than piracy, the latter unfortunately skews perceptions about Africa’s maritime landscape. The piracy focus suggests a limited problem-solving approach, but Africa’s offshore domain calls for a more critical stance that entails more than anti-piracy. Perceptions and realities of maritime terroris...

  6. Assessing sanitary mixtures in East African cities

    Letema, S.C.

    2012-01-01

    The urbanisation of poverty and informality in East African cities poses a threat to environmental health, perpetuates social exclusion and inequalities, and creates service gaps (UN-Habitat, 2008). This makes conventional sanitation provision untenable citywide, giving rise to the emergence of sanitation mixtures. Sanitation mixtures have different scales, institutional arrangements, user groups, and rationalities for their establishment, location, and management. For assessing the performan...

  7. Agriculture in African Development: Theories and Strategies

    Stefan Dercon; Douglas Gollin

    2014-01-01

    Agriculture is the largest sector in most sub-Saharan economies in terms of employment, and it plays an important role in supplying food and export earnings. Rural poverty rates remain high, and labor productivity is strikingly low. This article asks how these factors shape the role of agriculture in African development strategies. Is agricultural growth a prerequisite for growth in other sectors? Or will urbanization and nonagricultural export markets ultimately be the forces that pull the r...

  8. African Primary Care Research: Participatory action research

    Bob Mash

    2014-01-01

    Abstract This article is part of the series on African primary care research and focuses on participatory action research. The article gives an overview of the emancipatory-critical research paradigm, the key characteristics and different types of participatory action research. Following this it describes in detail the methodological issues involved in professional participatory action research and running a cooperative inquiry group. The article is intended to help students with writing thei...

  9. African Independent Churches in Zambia (Lusaka)

    Mildnerová Kateřina

    2014-01-01

    The African Independent churches (AICs) in Zambia, as elsewhere in Africa, from their very beginning formed a protest movement against the cultural imperialism undertaken by the missionary representatives of the historic mission churches and also played an important role in the anti-colonial political struggles. In Zambia, the early AICs were closely related to witchcraft eradication movements such as the Mchape, or socially and politically oriented prophet-healing churches such as The Lumpa ...

  10. African perspectives on the clean development mechanism

    NONE

    1999-08-01

    The papers, which are all written from an African perspective, are an important contribution to the debate surrounding the relevance and applicability of the Clean Development Mechanism in Africa. In addition to sector-specific discussions on the prospects for CDM in the energy, transport, industry and forestry sectors, various authors have attempted to tackle complex issues related to the instituional design of CDM, its mode of operation, participatory implementation and methodological questions such as baselines and additionality. (au)

  11. South African History Online's Education Programme.

    Jardine, Varushka

    2011-01-01

    This paper outlines South African History Online as a NGO that focuses on the enhancement of history especially at school level. The advent of digital and social media platforms has changed the way scholars learn and the way they perceive their world. The book, paper and journals should no longer provide the exclusive model for historical knowledge to be passed on. With this in mind, SAHO has developed a comprehensive online programme that focuses on the current curriculum a...

  12. Digital Empowerment: African Women and Creative Media

    Neff, Ali Colleen

    2016-01-01

    Drawing from seven years' research with women singers, dancers, emcees, and ritual practitioners in Senegal and beyond, Dr. Neff examines the ways in which ethnic traditions intersect with the possibility of digital futures. Although their work is often overlooked in conventional conversations about digital invention, African women engage digital technologies--from the hip-hop recording studio, to religious media, to pop videos, and, perhaps most importantly, social media, in ways that contri...

  13. African Woman Gets No.2 UN Post

    2007-01-01

    With a pledge to work for an inte-grated UN, former Tanzanian Foreign Minister Asha-Rose Migiro was sworn in as UN deputy secretary gen-eral on February 5, making her the first woman from the African conti-nent to hold such a powerful posi-tion in the world body.Migiro’s appointment early last month was widely seen as a signal of new UN Secretary General Ban Ki Moon’s reform initia-

  14. The Politics of African Industrial Policy

    Whitfield, Lindsay; Therkildsen, Ole; Buur, Lars;

    2015-01-01

    This book engages in the debate on growth versus economic transformation and the importance of industrial policy, presenting a comprehensive framework for explaining the politics of industrial policy. Using comparative research to theorize about the politics of industrial policy in countries in the...... early stages of capitalist transformation that also experience the pressures of elections due to democratization, this book provides four in-depth African country studies that illustrate the challenges to economic transformation and the politics of implementing industrial policies....

  15. The college life experiences of African American women athletes.

    Sellers, R M; Kuperminc, G P; Damas, A

    1997-10-01

    The present study provides a descriptive analysis of four areas of African American women student athletes' college life experiences: academic performance; alienation and abuse; perceived social advantage as the result of athletics; and life satisfaction. Multivariate comparisons were made between the four areas of college life experiences of 154 African American women student athletes and 793 White women student athletes, 250 African American women nonathletes, and 628 African American men student athletes from a national sample of 39 NCAA Division I universities. Overall, African American women student athletes are performing adequately academically, integrating socially within the university, perceiving some social advantage as the result of being athletes, and are fairly satisfied with their life. Their experiences seem most consistent with African American women nonathletes. Results are discussed in the context of potential policy recommendations as well as the need for more research on this particular population. PMID:9485580

  16. Geomagnetic secular variation at the African observatories

    Geomagnetic data from ten observatories in the African continent with time series data length of more than three decades have been analysed. All-day annual mean values of the D, H and Z components were used to study secular variations in the African region. The residuals in D, H and Z components obtained after removing polynomial fits have been examined in relation to the sunspot cycle. The occurrence of the 1969-1970 worldwide geomagnetic impulse in each observatory is studied. It is found that the secular variation in the field can be represented for most of the observatories with polynomials of second or third degree. Departures from these trends are observed over the Southern African region where strong local magnetic anomalies have been observed. The residuals in the geomagnetic field components have been shown to exhibit parallelism with the periods corresponding to double solar cycle for some of the stations. A clear latitudinal distribution in the geomagnetic component that exhibits the 1969-70 jerk is shown. The jerk appears in the plots of the first differences in H for the southern most observatories of Hermanus, Hartebeesthoek, and Tsuemb, while the Z plots show the jerk for near equatorial and equatorial stations of Antananarivo, Luanda Belas, Bangui and Addis Ababa. There is some indication for this jerk in the first difference plots of D for the northern stations of M'Bour and Tamanrasset. The plots of D rather strongly suggest the presence of a jerk around 1980 at most of the stations. (author)

  17. Virtual Universities for African and Arab Countries

    Wolfram LAASER

    2006-10-01

    Full Text Available Internet development in Africa is constrained by poor telephone infrastructure, low international bandwidth and high dials up tariffs levied on internet users. This means in Africa we find actually app. 1% of worldwide internet users whereas population share of world population may be around 13%. Nearly half of the internet users are concentrated in South Africa. Another one percent of world users is located in the Middle East. Therefore it is understandable that Africa and the Arab world are latecomers in developing net based educational systems. However today donor organizations put strong emphasis on creating Virtual Campuses for African States (EC, Word Bank and Mediterranean countries or plan to incorporate selected African States to other institutional arrangements (Commonwealth of Nations, UNESCO. In what follows we will discuss five of these projects differing in scope, structure and funding namely the Virtual African University, the Avicenna Project, the Virtual Arab University, the Syrian Open University and the proposal for a Virtual University for the Small States. From the analysis of the respective projects some tentative conclusions will be derived.

  18. Rethinking "relevance": South African psychology in context.

    Long, Wahbie

    2013-02-01

    This article examines the phenomenon known as the "relevance debate" in South African psychology. It begins with a historical overview of the contours of the discipline in that country before describing the controversy's international dimensions, namely, the revolutionary politics of 1960s higher education and the subsequent emergence of cognate versions of the debate in American, European, and "Third World" psychology. The article then details how South Africa's "relevance" project enjoyed a special affinity with an assortment of ethnic-cultural, national, and continental myths and metaphors, all of which served the interests of the political formations of the day. It discusses how, in present-day South Africa, the intelligentsia has become an important catalyst for the so-called African Renaissance, which seeks to provide "relevant" solutions for the regeneration of African society. However, the global hegemony of what began in the 1970s as a "second academic revolution," aided by the lifting of the academic boycott of South Africa, has blunted the once critical edge of "relevance" discourse. A new mode of knowledge production now holds sway, the outcome of a dramatic reformulation of the capitalist manifesto in which the values of the "May 68" generation have been hijacked by a managerialist rationality. In light of the capitalization of the knowledge-production enterprise, it is concluded that the idiom of "relevance" has outlived its usefulness. PMID:23421936

  19. Cystic fibrosis on the African continent.

    Stewart, Cheryl; Pepper, Michael S

    2016-07-01

    Cystic fibrosis (CF; OMIM 219700) is a life-shortening and costly autosomal recessive disease that has been most extensively studied in individuals of Caucasian descent. There is ample evidence, however, that it also affects other ethnicities. In Africa there have been several reports of CF, but there has been no concerted effort toward establishing the molecular epidemiology of this disease on the continent, which is the first step toward outlining a public health strategy to effectively address the needs of these patients. A literature search revealed reports from only 12 of the 54 African states on the molecular analysis of the mutations present in suspected CF patients, resulting in the identification of 79 mutations. Based on previous functional investigations, 39 of these cause CF, 10 are of varying clinical consequence, 4 have no associated evidence regarding whether they cause CF, 4 are synonymous, 5 are novel, and 21 are unique to Africa. We propose that CF be more thoroughly investigated on the continent to ensure that the public health needs of African CF patients-both those in Africa and those of African descent living elsewhere-are met.Genet Med 18 7, 653-662. PMID:26656651

  20. TURNING THE TIDE: REVISITING AFRICAN MARITIME SECURITY

    Francois Vrey

    2013-11-01

    Full Text Available Maritime security appears to be assuming an increasingly more prominent place on the African security agenda. Although the growing scholarly debate and international responses seem to attend to more than piracy, the latter unfortunately skews perceptions about Africa’s maritime landscape. The piracy focus suggests a limited problem-solving approach, but Africa’s offshore domain calls for a more critical stance that entails more than anti-piracy. Perceptions and realities of maritime terrorism, piracy, illegal oil bunkering, criminality and unsettled maritime boundaries increasingly complicate traditional African threats and vulnerabilities on land. The growing range of threats requires a framework to explain events taking shape off West and East Africa in particular better. In this regard, the constituent elements of good order at sea house a more critical line to view security off Africa through safe access to resources (food and minerals, safe sea routes, as well as dominium and jurisdiction. Opposition to threats off the African coast tends to privilege naval responses, but closer scrutiny reflects that responses are found to also display a profile of cooperation between numerous actors and agencies that securitise maritime threats beyond piracy. The resultant cooperation reveals landward and offshore initiatives that promote maritime security, rather than merely fighting piracy.

  1. Intracranial aneurysms in an African country

    Ogeng'o Julius

    2009-12-01

    Full Text Available Background : Characteristics of intracranial aneurysms display ethnic variations. Data on this disease from the African continent is scarce and often conflicting. Aim : To describe site, age and gender distribution of intracranial aneurysms among Kenyans. Study Design and Setting : Retrospective study at Kenyatta National Hospital, Kenya. Materials and Methods: All records of black African patients with a diagnosis of intracranial aneurysms seen at Kenyatta National Hospital, the largest referral hospital in the Eastern and Central African region, over the period from January 1998 to December 2007 were examined for site, age and gender distribution. The data gathered were coded, analyzed with SPSS 11.50. Results : Fifty-six cases of intracranial aneurysms were analyzed. The posterior communicating artery was the most affected (35.7%, followed by the anterior communicating artery (26.8%, while the posterior cerebral artery was the least affected (2%. Multiple aneurysms were present in 2%. The mean age at presentation was 50.9 years (range 21-80 years and the gender distribution was equal. Conclusions : Intracranial aneurysms among Kenyans occur most commonly on the posterior communicating artery, in young individuals, and without gender bias. The distribution differs from that described in the literature and this requires search for risk factors.

  2. Geomorphic Aspects of Southern African Dryland Soils

    Eckardt, Frank

    2015-04-01

    Southern African drylands are host to stable land surfaces with limited denudation rates. The resulting soils manifest long term weathering processes, including leaching, collapse and precipitation of calcium carbonate as is the case in the semi-arid Kalahari. Despite the thickness of some of the Kalahari soils and sands, they are furthermore depicting a range of neotectonic land forms and processes, associated with the contemporary rifting of the southern African continent. This is particularly apparent in satellite imagery and digital elevation data that can be used to examine regional scale surface characteristics. Southern Africa is also home to significant global and regional scale dust sources, which are mostly associated with inland basins and playas. Plumes of dust emitted from playas are able to impact upon downwind soil quality. This can be observed in the both the western Makgadikgadi as well as the Central Namib gravel plain. In the Namib playa dust contributes to the accumulation of gravel plain fines, leaching and massive pedogenic gypsum accumulations. It is apparent that Southern African dryland soils are home to aeolian inputs, host extensive duricrusts and depict neotectonic movement which should be of interest to the wider earth science community.

  3. Micropropagation of African violet (Saintpaulia ionantha Wendl.).

    Shukla, Mukund; Sullivan, J Alan; Jain, Shri Mohan; Murch, Susan J; Saxena, Praveen K

    2013-01-01

    Micropropagation is an important tool for rapid multiplication and the creation of genetic variability in African violets (Saintpaulia ionantha Wendl.). Successful in vitro propagation depends on the specific requirements and precise manipulation of various factors such as the type of explants used, physiological state of the mother plant, plant growth regulators in the culture medium, and growth conditions. Development of cost-effective protocols with a high rate of multiplication is a crucial requirement for commercial application of micropropagation. The current chapter describes an optimized protocol for micropropagation of African violets using leaf explants obtained from in vitro grown plants. In this process, plant regeneration occurs via both somatic embryogenesis and shoot organogenesis simultaneously in the explants induced with the growth regulator thidiazuron (TDZ; N-phenyl-N'-1,2,3-thidiazol-5-ylurea). The protocol is simple, rapid, and efficient for large-scale propagation of African violet and the dual routes of regeneration allow for multiple applications of the technology from simple clonal propagation to induction or selection of variants to the production of synthetic seeds. PMID:23179707

  4. On obesity in acute pancreatitis

    Segersvärd, Ralf

    2005-01-01

    Over-nutrition is one of today s most visible public health problems. Currently over 40% of the Swedish population is either overweight or obese. Acute pancreatitis (AP) is an acute inflammatory process of the pancreas with variable involvement of regional tissues and/or remote organ systems. The morbidity and mortality associated with acute pancreatitis is largely determined by the involvement of distant organs such as the liver and lung and by the development of organ fail...

  5. Acute otitis media in children

    Cherpillod J

    2011-01-01

    Jacques CherpillodEar, Nose and Throat Department, Childrens’ University Hospital, Lausanne, SwitzerlandDate of preparation: 6th March 2011Conflict of interest: None declaredClinical question: What is the best treatment for acute otitis media in children?Results: Watchful waiting, followed by amoxicillin treatment, if necessary, is the best first-line treatment for acute otitis media in children aged six months or older.Keywords: acute otitis media, antibiotics, watchful waitin

  6. ACUTE PSYCHOTIC DISORDER AND HYPOGLYCEMIA

    Singh, S.K.; Agrawal, J.K.; Srivastava, A.S.; Bhardwaj, V.K.; Bose, B. Sarat

    1994-01-01

    A variable array of neuroglycopenic symptoms are frequently encountered in the hypoglycemic stage, but acute psychotic disorders are quite rare. A fifty five year old female presented with an acute psychosis following oral sulfonylurea induced hypoglycemia without preceding features of adrenomedullary stimulation. This case report suggests that an acute and transient psychotic disorder may be an important neuroglycopenic feature and its early recognition protects the patient from severe hypog...

  7. Nutrition Support in Acute Pancreatitis

    Orestis Ioannidis; Athina Lavrentieva; Dimitrios Botsios

    2008-01-01

    The management of acute pancreatitis differs according to its severity. Approximately 75% of patients with acute pancreatitis have mild disease with a mortality rate below 1%. Mortality increases up to 20% if the disease progresses to its severe necrotizing form and, in the most severe cases, mortality can increase to 30-40%. Severe acute pancreatitis is usually accompanied by systemic inflammatory response syndrome (SIRS) which results in hypermetabolism with prominent protein catabolism. Ac...

  8. The Reflection of Race and Law in African American Literature

    Peter Schneck

    2008-06-01

    Full Text Available Since the law has been crucial in defining and delineating the dimensions of African American experience both in slavery and in freedom, the encounter with the American legal system and its representatives has left a strong imprint on African American cultural and literary memory and expression. The article sketches out a few aspects and features which characterize the reflection of law and race in African American culture and literature.

  9. Consumer ethnocentrism and conspicuousness of South African imports in Mozambique

    John, Anna

    2011-01-01

    Focus of the study The study examines the nature and effects of consumer ethnocentrism and conspicuousness of imports on consumer reactions toward South African products in Mozambique. Purpose The purpose of the study is threefold: (1) to indicate those groups of Mozambican consumers who are more ethnocentric and who see greater conspicuousness in South African imports; (2) to indicate those groups of consumers whose consumer ethnocentric responses to South African versus Moza...

  10. Older African American Women’s Lived Experiences with Depression

    Ward, Earlise C.; Mengesha, Maigenete; Issa, Fathiya

    2013-01-01

    Little is known about older African American women’s lived experiences with depression. What does depression mean to this group? What are they doing about their depression? Unfortunately, these questions are unanswered. This study examined older African American women’s lived experiences with depression and coping behaviours. The common sense model provided the theoretical framework for present study. Thirteen community-dwelling African American women aged 60 and older (M =71 years) participa...

  11. East African Running: Toward a Cross-Disciplinary Perspective

    Yannis Pitsiladis; John Bale; Craig Sharp; Timothy Noakes

    2007-01-01

    DESCRIPTION "East African Running: Toward a Cross-disciplinary Perspective" examines the secret of those runners in being the top athletes of middle and long distance running. PURPOSE This book aims to discuss the anatomical, physiological, biomechanical, genomic, psychological and sociological conditions which lead East African runners to success. AUDIENCE This all-inclusive book about favoured East African runners is a remarkable source for all sports and social sciences professionals as we...

  12. Fluconazole in the therapy of multiple osteomyelitis in African histoplasmosis

    Onwuasoigwe, O.

    1999-01-01

     Amphotericin B has been the standard treatment for deep mycoses including African histoplasmosis, but its use is complicated by its toxicity. More recently, Fluconazole, a water-soluble triazole with antimycotic activity and little side effects, has become available. A case of African histoplasmosis from Nigeria, manifesting as multiple osteomyelitis and successfully treated with oral Fluconazole, is presented. Fluconazole may be preferred in the therapy of African histoplasmosis.

  13. Agricultural Biodiversity: African alternatives to a ‘green revolution’

    Andrew Mushita; Carol Thompson

    2008-01-01

    Although the global agricultural crises affect the African continent most adversely, African farmers and scientists offer successful alternatives to industrial monoculture. Andrew Mushita and Carol Thompson argue that while the ‘green revolution for Africa’ promotes private foreign ownership of genetically modified seeds and focuses on increased yields of a few crops, African alternatives honour farmers' rights and agricultural biodiversity, through innovative legislation and protocols, in or...

  14. Transgenerational Consequences of Racial Discrimination for African American Health

    Goosby, Bridget J.; Heidbrink, Chelsea

    2013-01-01

    Disparities in African American health remain pervasive and persist transgenerationally. There is a growing consensus that both structural and interpersonal racial discrimination are key mechanisms affecting African American health. The Biopsychosocial Model of Racism as a Stressor posits that the persistent stress of experiencing discrimination take a physical toll on the health of African Americans and is ultimately manifested in the onset of illness. However, the degree to which the health...

  15. African migrants in South Africa : an interactional perspective / Shingairai Chigeza

    Chigeza, Shingairai

    2012-01-01

    The movement of African migrants from their countries of origin to other countries in search of a better future will continue to increase. However, such movement is accompanied by many challenges. Literature indicates that African migrants in South Africa face challenges such as cultural differences, exploitation and xenophobia. In the context of migration, migrants and citizens constantly interact with one another. The relational patterns between African migrants and citizens accordingly nee...

  16. Family Support and Colorectal Cancer Screening among Urban African Americans

    Brittain, Kelly; Taylor, Jacquelyn Y.; Loveland-Cherry, Carol; Northouse, Laurel; Caldwell, Cleopatra H.

    2012-01-01

    Colorectal cancer (CRC) is the third leading cause of cancer death among African Americans. Less than 50% of African Americans have had CRC screening. This study examined the relationships between family support and influence, cultural identity, CRC beliefs, and a screening informed decision among 129 urban African Americans. Family support (p < .01) significantly predicted CRC beliefs and CRC beliefs significantly predicted informed decision (p < .01). Based on study results, practitioners s...

  17. Online Health Information and Low-Literacy African Americans

    Birru, Mehret S; Steinman, Richard A.

    2004-01-01

    African Americans with low incomes and low literacy levels disproportionately suffer poor health outcomes from many preventable diseases. Low functional literacy and low health literacy impede millions of Americans from successfully accessing health information. These problems are compounded for African Americans by cultural insensitivity in health materials. The Internet could become a useful tool for providing accessible health information to low-literacy and low-income African Americans. O...

  18. African Americans, hypertension and the renin angiotensin system.

    Williams, SF; Nicholas, SB; Vaziri, ND; Norris, KC

    2014-01-01

    African Americans have exceptionally high rates of hypertension and hypertension related complications. It is commonly reported that the blood pressure lowering efficacy of renin angiotensin system (RAS) inhibitors is attenuated in African Americans due to a greater likelihood of having a low renin profile. Therefore these agents are often not recommended as initial therapy in African Americans with hypertension. However, the high prevalence of comorbid conditions, such as diabetes, cardiovas...

  19. The Reflection of Race and Law in African American Literature

    Peter Schneck

    2008-01-01

    Since the law has been crucial in defining and delineating the dimensions of African American experience both in slavery and in freedom, the encounter with the American legal system and its representatives has left a strong imprint on African American cultural and literary memory and expression. The article sketches out a few aspects and features which characterize the reflection of law and race in African American culture and literature.

  20. Gendered Resource Returns: African American Institutions and Political Engagement

    Robnett, Belinda

    2007-01-01

    While numerous studies discuss the importance of black churches and race-based organizations to African American political participation, few of them systematically analyze the gendered nature of such engagement. Employing data from the 1994 National Black Politics Survey, this study compares the influence of church-based activities and race-based organizational participation on African American men’s and women’s electoral and non-electoral political participation, and finds that 1) African ...

  1. Mothering Children in Africa: Interrogating single parenthood in African literature

    Olayiwola, Abiodun; Olowonmi, Adekunle

    2013-01-01

    The issue of motherhood in African women’s writings has transcended the façade of binary oppositions created by radical “Western” feminists who pitch women against men in their campaign for gender equality or, worse still, belittle or show disdain for the men-folk. The approach of African women writers takes issue with the collapse of social inequalities and its potentially disastrous implications. This essay examines the representations of African women in their struggle against the divisive...

  2. The black Dutchmen: African soldiers in the Netherlands East Indies

    Kessel, van, CGM

    2002-01-01

    Between 1831 and 1872 some 3000 African recruits sailed from Elmina (Gold Coast, now Ghana) to Batavia, the capital of the Netherlands East Indies. They had been recruited to serve in the Dutch colonial army, which throughout most of the 19th century experienced a chronic shortage of European manpower. The Africans counted as part of the European contingent of the army. After expiry of their contracts, some Africans returned to the Gold Coast, while others opted to settle in the East Indies. ...

  3. CREATION OF A DIGITAL AFRICAN ARCHIVE THROUGH COLLABORATION

    Malan, Pierre

    2013-01-01

    Sabinet facilitates collaboration between various role players in the African region in an effort to create the most comprehensive collection of African research content in the world. By collaborating with publishers, libraries and faculty at institutions, Sabinet is bringing together full-text content published in journals and institutional repositories, on a single and easily accessible platform. The initiative was started in 1998 with a project to collect and make available African jour...

  4. Institutions in African history and development: A review essay

    Fenske, James

    2010-01-01

    In this review, I discuss the role of African institutions in general and pre-colonial institutions in particular in explaining present-day African poverty. Six of the most often cited explanations of African poverty -- geography, ethnolinguistic fractionalization, the slave trades, colonial rule, underdevelopment, and failed aid -- operate largely through institutions. Bad institutions themselves directly affect modern growth. Pre-colonial institutions also matter for present-day outcomes. I...

  5. Welfare of African catfish : effects of stocking density

    Nieuwegiessen, van de, P.G.

    2009-01-01

    The general aim of this thesis was to determine the impact of stocking density on welfare indicators in African catfish, Clarias gariepinus, cultured in a recirculating aquaculture system. The following factors were studied: 1) the effects of stocking density on physical, physiological, and behavioural responses of African catfish, 2) how age mediates the effects of stocking density on physical, physiological, and behavioural responses of African catfish, 3) the potential effects of chemical ...

  6. Estimating bioenergy potentials of common African agricultural residues

    Thomsen, Sune Tjalfe; Kádár, Zsófia; Schmidt, Jens Ejbye

    2013-01-01

    Asking a bioenergy researcher about the composition of wheat straw, he would know it by heart. But if enquiring about typicalAfrican biomasses – it would be another case. Until now, biomasses common to African countries have not received the samescientific attention as biomasses from Europe, North America or Brazil. For that reason, it is difficult to estimate bioenergypotentials in the African region.As a part of an on‐going research collaboration investigating production of 2g biofuels in G...

  7. The Topology of African Exports : emerging patterns on spanning trees

    Araujo, Tanya; Ferreira, Manuel Ennes

    2016-01-01

    This paper is a contribution to interweaving two lines of research that have progressed in separate ways: network analyses of international trade and the literature on African trade and development. Gathering empirical data on African countries has important limitations and so does the space occupied by African countries in the analyses of trade networks. Here, these limitations are dealt with by the definition of two independent bipartite networks: a destination share network and a commodit...

  8. Sensitivity of African easterly waves to boundary layer conditions

    A. Lenouo; Mkankam Kamga, F.

    2008-01-01

    A linearized version of the quasi-geostrophic model (QGM) with an explicit Ekman layer and observed static stability parameter and profile of the African easterly jet (AEJ), is used to study the instability properties of the environment of the West African wave disturbances. It is found that the growth rate, the propagation velocity and the structure of the African easterly waves (AEW) can be well simulated. Two different lower boundary conditions are applied. One assumes a lack of vertical g...

  9. Genome-wide association of anthropometric traits in African- and African-derived populations.

    Kang, Sun J; Chiang, Charleston W K; Palmer, Cameron D; Tayo, Bamidele O; Lettre, Guillaume; Butler, Johannah L; Hackett, Rachel; Adeyemo, Adebowale A; Guiducci, Candace; Berzins, Ilze; Nguyen, Thutrang T; Feng, Tao; Luke, Amy; Shriner, Daniel; Ardlie, Kristin; Rotimi, Charles; Wilks, Rainford; Forrester, Terrence; McKenzie, Colin A; Lyon, Helen N; Cooper, Richard S; Zhu, Xiaofeng; Hirschhorn, Joel N

    2010-07-01

    Genome-wide association (GWA) studies have identified common variants that are associated with a variety of traits and diseases, but most studies have been performed in European-derived populations. Here, we describe the first genome-wide analyses of imputed genotype and copy number variants (CNVs) for anthropometric measures in African-derived populations: 1188 Nigerians from Igbo-Ora and Ibadan, Nigeria, and 743 African-Americans from Maywood, IL. To improve the reach of our study, we used imputation to estimate genotypes at approximately 2.1 million single-nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs) and also tested CNVs for association. No SNPs or common CNVs reached a genome-wide significance level for association with height or body mass index (BMI), and the best signals from a meta-analysis of the two cohorts did not replicate in approximately 3700 African-Americans and Jamaicans. However, several loci previously confirmed in European populations showed evidence of replication in our GWA panel of African-derived populations, including variants near IHH and DLEU7 for height and MC4R for BMI. Analysis of global burden of rare CNVs suggested that lean individuals possess greater total burden of CNVs, but this finding was not supported in an independent European population. Our results suggest that there are not multiple loci with strong effects on anthropometric traits in African-derived populations and that sample sizes comparable to those needed in European GWA studies will be required to identify replicable associations. Meta-analysis of this data set with additional studies in African-ancestry populations will be helpful to improve power to detect novel associations. PMID:20400458

  10. Diarrheal Diseases - Acute and Chronic

    ... and drinking contaminated or raw foods and beverages. Screening/Diagnosis Most episodes of acute diarrhea resolve quickly without antibiotic therapy and with simple dietary modifications. See a ...

  11. Computer tomography in acute pyelonephritis

    Triller, J.; Scheidegger, J.; Terrier, F.

    1983-07-01

    Computer tomography of the kidneys was performed on 30 patients with acute renal infections (acute suppurative pyelonephritis, acute renal abscess, infected cyst, pyelonephrosis, calculus perforation, retroperitoneal abscess). Computer tomography provided more accurate information concerning the extent of the renal and extra-renal inflammatory process than did the urogram or sonogram. This may significantly affect the choice of treatment, particularly concerning the use of drugs or of surgery. Angiography and retrograde pyelography may be used in selected cases, especially where there is a suspicion of acute bacterial nephritis, renal vein thrombosis or ureteric obstruction.

  12. [Acute abdomen in gynecology].

    von Hugo, R; Meyer, B; Loos, W; Dirmeier, H

    1988-09-01

    The aim of the present study is, to describe the morbidity and mortality of 196 patients with an acute abdominal condition who underwent surgery at the Department of Gynecology and Obstetrics of the TU Munich between 1982 and 1986. This is a percentage of 2.7 of all 7,167 operations carried out during this period. 118 of these patients had an extrauterine pregnancy and were therefore excluded from the study. The second group of 79 patients, mostly with inflammatory diseases, were analyzed. In most of these cases the acute abdominal condition was caused by a tuboovarian abscess (48.1%), followed by peritonitis because of a bowel-disease (11.4%). 6 patients suffered from an abscessing endometritis due to a caesarean section with sepsis in 5 cases. A generalized peritonitis occurred in 5 cases and was treated with a planned relaparatomy with lavage. 63% of the patients had no complications within 28 days after operation, 13% developed a subileus; in 7% a relaparatomy was necessary. 6% of the patients had problems of wound-healing. One patient with stomach-cancer died 3 weeks after the operation because of a fulminant lung-embolism. Thus the mortality rate was 1.5%. A further 27% were treated at the intensive care-unit and 18% needed artificial respiration. The average postoperative period of hospitalisation was 15 days. In comparison, patients with elective operations remained 13 days. The morbidity and mortality of patients due to surgery of an acute abdominal condition was relatively small; postoperative complications could be well treated in all cases and is probably the result of a positive and early indication for surgical intervention. PMID:3181709

  13. Mandela’s Favourite African Folktales

    Carmen Concilio

    2014-11-01

    Full Text Available In this essay I would like to examine the selection of African tales that Nelson Mandela took care to leave as heritage to the future generations, not only to children, and not only to African children. The fact that a political leader, ex freedom fighter and political prisoner dedicated his time to the collection and editing of stories from all over the African continent to be addressed to new readers as simple entertainment or as educational tools clearly testifies to the great humanity, culture, and open mindedness of one of the most important men of our times. In his most recent autobiographical writing Conversations With Myself, Mandela claimed his double affiliation to both his own indigenous culture as well as to western culture. Moreover, he recalled with affection a dear pastime of his childhood:After supper we would listen enthralled to my mother and sometimes my aunt telling us stories, legends, myths and fables which have come down from countless generations, and all of which tended to stimulate the imagination and contained some valuable moral lesson. (p. 10Thus, it is not surprising that such a charismatic public figure, as Mandela has been, was also interested in- and worried about- the future survival of a cluster of traditional folktales with their lively, specific and “valuable moral lesson”. It is my intention to verify if there might be a dialogue between the western tradition of folktales where animals are protagonists and speak as anthropomorphic figures and the facets of the African traditions and cultures from which Mandela draws inspiration. Among the critical tools on this topic, Tess Cosslett’s Talking Animals in British Children’s Fiction (2006 seems to provide a useful starting point, together with the latest studies in the volume Dall’ABC a Harry Potter (2011, among others. Moreover, aspects of “orature” will be discussed with reference to the stories chosen by Nelson Mandela. Finally, an attempt will

  14. Nomenclatural adjustments in African plants 1

    Peter Goldblatt

    2014-07-01

    Full Text Available Background: Ongoing systematic studies of the African flora necessitate periodic nomenclatural adjustments and corrections.Objectives: To effect requisite nomenclatural changes.Method: Relevant literature was surveyed and type material located and studied.Results: Nomenclatural corrections were published in Justicia L. (Acanthaceae, Babiana KerGawl. and Geissorhiza Ker Gawl. (Iridaceae and Zaluzianskya F.W.Schmidt (Scrophulariaceae.Conclusions: Firstly, a complete enumeration of all southern African species of Justicia was provided within the infrageneric classification for the genus accepted by Graham (1988 and later modified and expanded by Ensermu (1990 and Hedrén (1990. In this circumscription, Justicia includes such well-established segregates in an African context as Adhatoda Miller, Aulojusticia Lindau, Duvernoia E.Mey. ex Nees, Monechma Hochst. and Siphonoglossa Oersted.Both southern African species of Adhatoda were transferred to Justicia, as well as all of the southern African species of Monechma, with eight new combinations or replacement names provided. All species were placed to section within Justicia. Secondly, the type of Gladiolus nervosus Lam. (1788 was considered to be conspecific with Gladiolus strictus Aiton (1789 and is therefore the earliest available name for the species currently known as Babiana stricta (Aiton Ker Gawl. The new combination Babiana nervosa (Lam. Goldblatt & J.C.Manning was provided. Thirdly, Geissorhiza ornithogaloides has been regarded as a new species described by F.W. Klatt (1866 but the name should be treated as the combination G. ornithogaloides (Lichst. ex Roem. & Schult. Klatt, based on Ixia ornithogaloides Lichst. ex Roem. & Schult.(1817a. Examination of the type showed that it is conspecific with Geissorhiza marlothii R.C.Foster (1941 and it is therefore the valid name for the taxon treated as G. ornithogaloides subsp. marlothii (R.C.Foster Goldblatt. An epitype for the taxon was designated and

  15. 76 FR 43649 - Board of Directors Meeting; African Development Foundation, Board of Directors Meeting

    2011-07-21

    ...; ] AFRICAN DEVELOPMENT FOUNDATION Board of Directors Meeting; African Development Foundation, Board of Directors Meeting Time: Tuesday, August 2, 2011, 9 a.m. to 12 p.m. Place: African Development...

  16. African American women and breastfeeding: an integrative literature review.

    Spencer, Becky S; Grassley, Jane S

    2013-07-01

    The purpose of this article is to present a review of literature regarding factors that influence breastfeeding intentions, initiation, and duration in the African American population. Research related to health disparities experienced by African Americans in the United States, as well as research regarding the protective benefits of breastfeeding for those specific health disparities, are also presented. Community and institutional interventions and promotional campaigns aimed at increasing initiation and duration of breastfeeding in the African American population are discussed. Future research regarding African American women's breastfeeding experiences using Black feminist thought as a theoretical foundation is recommended. PMID:23445372

  17. Africanized honeybees in urban areas: a public health concern

    Rodrigo Zaluski

    2014-10-01

    Full Text Available Introduction This study aimed to investigate the occurrence of Africanized honeybees in Botucatu, São Paulo, Brazil, and to implement a program to remove such swarms. Methods The occurrences of Africanized honeybee swarms between 2010 and 2012 were studied and strategies to prevent accidents were developed. Results We noted 1,164 cases of Africanized honeybee occurrences in the city, and 422 swarms were collected. The developed strategies to prevent accidents were disseminated to the population. Conclusions We contributed to reducing the risks represented by Africanized honeybee swarms in urban areas, by collecting swarms and disseminating strategic information for preventing accidents.

  18. African American legislators' perceptions of firearm violence prevention legislation.

    Payton, Erica; Thompson, Amy; Price, James H; Sheu, Jiunn-Jye; Dake, Joseph A

    2015-06-01

    Firearm mortality is the leading cause of death for young African American males, however, few studies have focused on racial/ethnic minority populations and firearm violence. The National Black Caucus of State Legislators advocates for legislation that promotes the health of African Americans. Thus, the purpose of this study was to collect baseline data on African American legislators' perceptions regarding firearm violence in the African American community. A cross-sectional study of African American legislators (n = 612) was conducted to investigate the research questions. Of the 612 questionnaires mailed, 12 were not deliverable, and 170 were returned (28%). Utilizing a three wave mailing process, African American legislators were invited to participate in the study. The majority (88%) of respondents perceived firearm violence to be very serious among African Americans. Few (10%) legislators perceived that addressing legislative issues would be an effective strategy in reducing firearm violence among African Americans. The majority (72%) of legislators perceived the most effective strategy to reducing firearm violence in the African American community should focus on addressing societal issues (e.g. crime and poverty). After adjusting for the number of perceived barriers, the number of perceived benefits was a significant predictor of legislators' perceived effectiveness of firearm violence prevention legislation for 8 of the 24 potential firearm violence prevention legislative bills. PMID:25301589

  19. Stress and ethical behaviour among South African managers

    Ebben van Zyl

    1997-03-01

    Full Text Available Stress and ethical behaviour among South African managersThe South African business world is increasingly characterised by unethical behaviour and commercial crimes. Involvement of managers is contributing up to 80% of the total costs of white collar crime. In order to try to understand the situation, the current South African managerial climate is analysed.This analysis clearly indicates that South African managers function in stressful circumstances which can give rise to unethical behaviour. A theoretical model for ethical behaviour is therefore discussed and used as a basis for practical suggestions in order to improve the situation.

  20. The myth of meritocracy and African American health.

    Kwate, Naa Oyo A; Meyer, Ilan H

    2010-10-01

    Recent theoretical and empirical studies of the social determinants of health inequities have shown that economic deprivation, multiple levels of racism, and neighborhood context limit African American health chances and that African Americans' poor health status is predicated on unequal opportunity to achieve the American Dream. President Obama's election has been touted as a demonstration of American meritocracy-the belief that all may obtain the American Dream-and has instilled hope in African Americans. However, we argue that in the context of racism and other barriers to success, meritocratic ideology may act as a negative health determinant for African Americans. PMID:20724679