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Sample records for acutely influences motivated

  1. Influence of Motivation on Wayfinding

    Srinivas, Samvith

    2010-01-01

    This research explores the role of affect in the domain of human wayfinding by asking if increased motivation will alter the performance across various routes of increasing complexity. Participants were asked to perform certain navigation tasks within an indoor Virtual Reality (VR) environment under either motivated and not-motivated instructions.…

  2. Influencing Motivation in the Foreign Language Classroom

    Nicholson, Simon James

    2013-01-01

    Motivation is one of the main determining factors of success in developing a second or foreign language. However, motivation is a complex phenomenon and the more its constructs are understood the better we are able to understand the extent to which we can influence it. Teachers can cultivate student motivation to varying degrees and play a central…

  3. STUDENTS’ MOTIVATION IN EFL CONTEXT: MOTIVATIONAL INFLUENCES AND PRACTICAL IMPLICATIONS

    Јагода П. Топалов Топалов

    2012-02-01

    Full Text Available This paper analyses students’ motivation to learn English as an optional foreign language at the Faculty of Philosophy in Novi Sad, with respect to their success in learning. Motivation to learn a foreign language is a complex concept which is under the influence of cognitive factors, affective (emotional factors and the context in which learning takes place. In this respect, the research reported in this paper analysed three stages in the students’ motivation (preactional, actional and postactional stage during two phases of research, on a sample of eighty-seven (N=87 first and second year students. For the purpose of gathering data, two questionnaires, which contained items that were rated on a 5-point Likert scale, were used during the research. The results of the research indicate that there is a relationship between certain aspects of motivation and the success students achieved in learning English. Specifically, the results indicate the following: first of all, the influence of the preactional stage in the institutionalized context of learning English is decreased; second of all, there is a direct connection between the actional stage and the results of the proficiency test; finally, the postactional stage can be a strong indicator of future success.

  4. Task motivation influences alpha suppression following errors.

    Compton, Rebecca J; Bissey, Bryn; Worby-Selim, Sharoda

    2014-07-01

    The goal of the present research is to examine the influence of motivation on a novel error-related neural marker, error-related alpha suppression (ERAS). Participants completed an attentionally demanding flanker task under conditions that emphasized either speed or accuracy or under conditions that manipulated the monetary value of errors. Conditions in which errors had greater motivational value produced greater ERAS, that is, greater alpha suppression following errors compared to correct trials. A second study found that a manipulation of task difficulty did not affect ERAS. Together, the results confirm that ERAS is both a robust phenomenon and one that is sensitive to motivational factors. PMID:24673621

  5. Affective and motivational influences in person perception.

    Kuzmanovic, Bojana; Jefferson, Anneli; Bente, Gary; Vogeley, Kai

    2013-01-01

    Interpersonal impression formation is highly consequential for social interactions in private and public domains. These perceptions of others rely on different sources of information and processing mechanisms, all of which have been investigated in independent research fields. In social psychology, inferences about states and traits of others as well as activations of semantic categories and corresponding stereotypes have attracted great interest. On the other hand, research on emotion and reward demonstrated affective and motivational influences of social cues on the observer, which in turn modulate attention, categorization, evaluation, and decision processes. While inferential and categorical social processes have been shown to recruit a network of cortical brain regions associated with mentalizing and evaluation, the affective influence of social cues has been linked to subcortical areas that play a central role in detection of salient sensory input and reward processing. In order to extend existing integrative approaches to person perception, both the inferential-categorical processing of information about others, and affective and motivational influences of this information on the beholder should be taken into account. PMID:23781188

  6. Affective and motivational influences in person perception

    Bojana eKuzmanovic

    2013-06-01

    Full Text Available Interpersonal impression formation is highly consequential for social interactions in private and public domains. These perceptions of others rely on different sources of information and processing mechanisms, all of which have been investigated in independent research fields. In social psychology, inferences about states and traits of others as well as activations of semantic categories and corresponding stereotypes have attracted great interest. On the other hand, research on emotion and reward demonstrated affective and motivational influences of social cues on the observer, which in turn modulate attention, categorization, evaluation and decision processes. While inferential and categorical social processes have been shown to recruit a network of cortical brain regions associated with mentalizing and evaluation, the affective influence of social cues has been linked to subcortical areas that play a central role in detection of salient sensory input and reward processing. In order to extend existing integrative approaches to person perception, both the inferential-categorical processing of information about others, and affective and motivational influences of this information on the beholder should be taken into account.

  7. Motivation's Influence on English Learning and Strategies for Improving

    陈玢; 张亚铃

    2009-01-01

    The article mainly focuses on the relationship between motivation and English learning,the influence of motivation on English learning(That is,English learning motive may be simply viewed as the reason of learning English;different motives will lead to different learning methods;generally speaking,surface motive does not endure longer than deep motive.;strong motivation can lead to final Success.)and six strategies of improving English learning(That is,developing proper attitudes towards English learning and letting students know the pressure of it;goal and feedback;praise and criticism;contest and cooperation;expectation and appraisement;achievement motive.).

  8. The Influence of Job Motivation versus Downsizing on Individual Behavior.

    Jalajas, David S.; Bommer, Michael

    1999-01-01

    Engineers (n=146) who survived downsizing participated in a study of intrinsic motivation and effects of past downsizing and threat of future downsizing. Job motivation was a more powerful influence on job behavior than fear of downsizing. (SK)

  9. Is motivation influenced by geomagnetic activity?

    Starbuck, S; Cornélissen, G; Halberg, F

    2002-01-01

    To eventually build a scientific bridge to religion by examining whether non-photic, non-thermic solar effects may influence (religious) motivation, invaluable yearly world wide data on activities from 1950 to 1999 by Jehovah's Witnesses on behalf of their church were analyzed chronobiologically. The time structure (chronome) of these archives, insofar as it is able to be evaluated in yearly means for up to half a century, was assessed. Least squares spectra in a frequency range from one cycle in 42 to one in 2.1 years of data on the average number of hours per month spent in work for the church, available from 103 different geographic locations, as well as grand totals also including other sites, revealed a large peak at one cycle in about 21 years. The non-linear least squares fit of a model consisting of a linear trend and a cosine curve with a trial period of 21.0 years, numerically approximating that of the Hale cycle, validated the about 21.0-year component in about 70% of the data series, with the non-overlap of zero by the 95% confidence interval of the amplitude estimate. Estimates of MESOR (midline-estimating statistic of rhythm, a rhythm (or chronome) adjusted mean), amplitude and period were further regressed with geomagnetic latitude. The period estimate did not depend on geomagnetic latitude. The about 21.0-year amplitude tends to be larger at low and middle than at higher latitudes and the resolution of the about 21.0-year cycle, gauged by the width of 95% confidence intervals for the period and amplitude, is higher (the 95% confidence intervals are statistically significantly smaller) at higher than at lower latitudes. Near-matches of periods in solar activity and human motivation hint that the former may influence the latter, while the dependence on latitude constitutes evidence that geomagnetic activity may affect certain brain areas involved in motivation, just as it was earlier found that it is associated with effects on the electrocardiogram

  10. Investigation into Motivation Types and Influences on Motivation: The Case of Chinese Non-English Majors

    Lei Zhao

    2012-01-01

    Motivation is one of the most important factors affecting students’ performance of English learning, which is widely concerned by foreign language teachers and researchers for a long time. However, how to promote students’ motivation in learning English by knowing their English learning motivation types at the initial stages and the factors that influence their sustaining motivation in the long process of English learning is still in need of exploration in the Chinese context. The paper aims ...

  11. The Influence of Personality Characteristics on Children's Intrinsic Reading Motivation

    Medford, Emma; McGeown, Sarah P.

    2012-01-01

    Research suggests that children's motivation to read is influenced by their level of reading skill and reading self-concept. However, it is possible that characteristics unrelated to reading, such as underlying personality characteristics, may also influence children's motivation to read. The current study examined the extent to which children's…

  12. A Study of Motivational Influences on Academic Achievement

    Dishon-Berkovits, Miriam

    2014-01-01

    This study examined the influence of motivation on academic achievement. The theoretical rationale for the study is grounded in bridging two influential yet isolated literatures of motivation: goal setting theory and achievement goal theory. Although it is clear that academic performance should be influenced by assigned learning goals,…

  13. Motivation and Satisfaction of Employees. Influence of Cultural Differences on Motivation

    Zubova, Ekaterina

    2014-01-01

    The objective of this research was to learn about factors that might lead to employees’ job dissatisfaction and factors that motivate employees. Also the aim was to understand how cultural differences can influence employees’ motivation and performance. The theoretical part of the thesis included such topics as human resource management, motivation, Herzberg’s two-factor theory, satisfaction and Hofstede’s cultural dimensions. The information for this part was gathered from secondary sou...

  14. Influence of non-conscius motives to leadership behaviour

    Eva Boštjančič

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available In the past century McClelland (1975 began exploring non-conscious motives and their influence on leader's behaviour. We investigated how leader's intrinsic motivation influences his leadership behaviour, both with managers and entrepreneurs. Our randomized sample included 59 executives employed in Slovenian and international companies with headquarters in Slovenia. We conducted a one hour long structured interview with each individual and asked at least nine of their subordinates to fill in two different questionnaires based on the executive's behaviour under study. Winter's motive scoring system for coding power, affiliation and achievement motives and expressions of responsibility was used to analyse the interviews. The evaluation method proved not to be sufficiently reliable. Factor analysis showed five different styles of leadership: value based leadership, directive leadership, participative leadership, productivity oriented leadership and supportive leadership. Achievement and power motivation are prevailing in entrepreneurs, whereas in managers the leader motivational profile is more often (33% noticed (high power motivation, high concern for the moral exercise of power, and power motivation greater than affiliative motivation. The prediction of influence of unconscious motives presents a smaller part than expected.

  15. The influence of rewards on employee motivation

    Ščigulinská, Erika

    2013-01-01

    The main topic of this thesis is the impact of reward system on the motivation of employees, which is one of the most important tools for human resources management. The main objective of this paper is the description, analysis and evaluation of the impact of this system on the motivation of employees in the selected company and the proposal of changes in this system. The theoretical part includes a literature review that has been prepared for the purpose of outlining definitions and ...

  16. Behavioral economic analysis of stress effects on acute motivation for alcohol.

    Owens, Max M; Ray, Lara A; MacKillop, James

    2015-01-01

    Due to issues of definition and measurement, the heavy emphasis on subjective craving in the measurement of acute motivation for alcohol and other drugs remains controversial. Behavioral economic approaches have increasingly been applied to better understand acute drug motivation, particularly using demand curve modeling via purchase tasks to characterize the perceived reinforcing value of the drug. This approach has focused on using putatively more objective indices of motivation, such as units of consumption, monetary expenditure, and price sensitivity. To extend this line of research, the current study used an alcohol purchase task to determine if, compared to a neutral induction, a personalized stress induction would increase alcohol demand in a sample of heavy drinkers. The stress induction significantly increased multiple measures of the reinforcing value of alcohol to the individual, including consumption at zero price (intensity), the maximum total amount of money spent on alcohol (Omax), the first price where consumption was reduced to zero (breakpoint), and the general responsiveness of consumption to increases in price (elasticity). These measures correlated only modestly with craving and mood. Self-reported income was largely unrelated to demand but moderated the influence of stress on Omax. Moderation based on CRH-BP genotype (rs10055255) was present for Omax, with T allele homozygotes exhibiting more pronounced increases in response to stress. These results provide further support for a behavioral economic approach to measuring acute drug motivation. The findings also highlight the potential relevance of income and genetic factors in understanding state effects on the perceived reinforcing value of alcohol. PMID:25413719

  17. Research on Sociocultural Influences on Motivation and Learning, Volume 1.

    McInerney, Dennis M., Ed.; Van Etten, Shawn, Ed.

    This collection of papers explores sociocultural influences on motivation and learning across a broad range of settings and content areas. There are 16 papers in five sections. "Introduction" includes: (1) "Modern Education Needs Cross-Cultural Psychology" (Harry Triandis). Part 1, "The Motivation Context," includes: (2) "Beyond Dichotomous…

  18. Influence of non-conscius motives to leadership behaviour

    Eva Boštjančič

    2010-01-01

    In the past century McClelland (1975) began exploring non-conscious motives and their influence on leader's behaviour. We investigated how leader's intrinsic motivation influences his leadership behaviour, both with managers and entrepreneurs. Our randomized sample included 59 executives employed in Slovenian and international companies with headquarters in Slovenia. We conducted a one hour long structured interview with each individual and asked at least nine of their subordinates to...

  19. A Discussion on Motivation Factor Influencing Second Language Acquisition

    盛芊芊

    2016-01-01

    Various characteristics can influence students'second language acquisition and language development, which in-cludes age, gender, personality, cognitive ability, motivation, learning strategies and so on. Among all these factors mentioned, motivation factor that is categorized into learner factors affects learner's learning effect to a great extent. In this paper, motiva-tion characteristic that influences second language learning are discussed. At last, some strategies on the real classroom teaching application are provided after the discussion, which aims at making contribution to the second language teaching process as well as students'language development.

  20. [Influence of Counsellor- and Intervention Variables on Motivation to Change Following a Brief Motivational Intervention to Reduce Risky Alcohol Use].

    Diestelkamp, Silke; Wartberg, Lutz; Arnaud, Nicolas; Thomasius, Rainer

    2016-09-01

    Influence of Counsellor- and Intervention Variables on Motivation to Change Following a Brief Motivational Intervention to Reduce Risky Alcohol Use Brief interventions are recommended for prevention and early intervention of risky alcohol use. However, evidence of their effectiveness, in particular for children and adolescents, is heterogeneous. Analysis of counsellor and intervention variables may provide insights into mechanisms of action in brief interventions and thereby contribute to an enhanced effectiveness. We analyzed data of N = 141 children and adolescents who were treated for acute alcohol intoxication in the emergency department. Study participants received a brief motivational intervention to reduce risky alcohol use during hospitalization. We applied multiple regression analysis to examine counsellor variables (empathy, affirmation, competence, congruence) and intervention variables (readiness and confidence ruler, decisional balance, goal agreement) as predictors of motivation to change. Higher scores on the basic therapeutic skill "positive affirmation" (R2 = 7.1 %; p < .01), finishing the intervention with a written goal agreement (R2 = 2.9 %; p < .05) and younger age were associated with greater readiness to change (R2 = 10.2 %; p < .01). Therefore, a special focus should be put on the counsellor skill "positive affirmation" when training new counsellors. Results also indicate that younger patients respond stronger to a brief intervention in this context. PMID:27595811

  1. How People's Motivational System and Situational Motivation Influence Their Risky Financial Choices

    Sekścińska, Katarzyna; Maison, Dominika Agnieszka; Trzcińska, Agata

    2016-01-01

    People's preferences for risks have been a subject of interest to researchers in both the economy and psychology fields over the last few years. This has given rise to many important findings about the role of psychological factors that influence people's choices. The presented studies focused on the role of motivational systems (described by Higgins in the Regulatory Focus Theory) in explaining people's financial choices. The main goal was to examine the relationship between people's chronic promotion and prevention motivational system and their propensity to (1) invest, (2) undertake investment risks, and (3) assume financial risks in gambling tasks in both the gain and loss decision-making frame. Moreover, we aimed to investigate how chronic motivational systems confronted with situationally induced promotion and prevention motivation would affect people's propensity to invest and embrace financial risks. Two CAWI studies on a Polish national representative sample (N1 = 1093; N2 = 1096) were conducted. The second study consisted of two waves with a 2-week break. The studies provided evidence of higher chronic promotion motivation as well as higher prevention motivation associated with the propensity to invest; however, induced promotion motivation results in a lower propensity to invest compared to induced prevention motivation. Participants with an activated promotion system built more risky portfolios than individuals with an induced prevention system. Moreover, participants with a low chronic promotion system built more risky portfolios than individuals with a high promotion motivation system as long as their prevention system was also low. In terms of gambling decisions in both the gain and loss frame, a higher level of chronic promotion motivation and situationally induced promotion motivation were related to the preference for the non-sure option over the sure one.

  2. Influence of the perception of discrimination on women's work motivation

    Temmerman, Laura; Marin, Sarah; Akelian, Areni; Lambillon, Coraline; van der Linden, Jan; Closon, Caroline

    2016-01-01

    Nowadays, despite anti-discrimination policies, women suffer frequently from a lack of consideration from their male colleagues, altering their well-being and motivation to work. More precisely, perceived personal or groupal discrimination, could have a distinct influence on work motivation. Previous studies showed that the impact on women varies in function of the type of perceived discrimination (Bourguignon et al. 2006). Based on the self-categorization and the social identity theory, work...

  3. Influence of Intangible Motivation Factors on Workers’ Labour Behavior Formation

    I. Hruzina

    2010-01-01

    There is an opinion that Ukrainian workers can be motivated only by money, therefore, money is the most important motivation. However more theorists and practical workers in the sphere of personnel management including V. Sladkevych, E. Utkin, Yu. Domin and others do not agree with this statement, but there are often such situations, when quite high payment level and use of various financial factors practically do not influence on the labour intensity of workers.The reason of dependence decli...

  4. Motivational factors that influence the acceptance of Moodle using TAM

    Duarte Hueros, Ana María; Arteaga Sánchez, Rocío

    2010-01-01

    Moodle and other virtual teaching platforms have bolstered the ability and motivation of universities to support distance learning. The aim of our study is to improve understanding of the motivational factors behind student satisfaction, or dissatisfaction, with the Web-based learning platform, Moodle. Our study extends the Technology Acceptance Model (TAM) to include technical support and perceived self-efficacy, with the expectation that they influence usage of Moodle. We surveyed 226 stu...

  5. Some Characteristics that Influence Motivation for Learning in Organisations

    Marjana Merkac Skok

    2013-01-01

    The aim of the research was to discover the motives for lifelong learning, for studying part time, possibilities for personal and career development and the level of learning support within organisations, where randomly selected students are already employed. We were interested in motivation for learning on behalf of the individual and its potential links with the organisation. In this research we tried to establish which factors have the most influence on individual’s personal developmen...

  6. What influences motivation in Physical Education? A multilevel approach for identifying climate determinants of achievement motivation

    Benjamin Niederkofler

    2015-03-01

    Full Text Available The present research tested the longitudinal and hierarchical influences of students’ climate perception on the development of achievement motives in Physical Education (PE. Students from Switzerland (N = 919; 45 classes; 50.1% female, age: M = 13.2, SD = 0.6 responded to the questionnaire. Perceived climate was measured using the German LASSO scales (Von Saldern & Littig, 1987, namely teacher care, classmate cooperativeness and satisfaction with teaching. To assess sport specific achievement motives (Hope of Success, HS; Fear of Failure, FF, we used a validated German scale from Elbe, Wenhold, and Müller (2005. Multilevel analysis revealed a link between perceived climate on change of students’ motivation in PE. The investigation also identified factors determining motivation decline caused by the classroom environment and teachers. Moreover, results showed significant gender effects on both motives and a significant impact of individual teacher care on the HS. This was also found for individual and aggregated satisfaction with teaching. The latter was significant for FF on both levels. Interestingly, teacher care showed inhibitory effects on both achievement motives. These findings suggest that students in PE may have unique behaviour which requires a different teaching approach than in normal classroom. This describes a specific learning environment in PE classes. Results are discussed based on students’ unique needs and gender effects.

  7. Does Motivation for Exercise Influence Post-Exercise Snacking Behavior?

    James A. Dimmock

    2015-06-01

    Full Text Available It is well established that regular exercise plays an important role in achieving a number of health and wellbeing outcomes. However, certain post-exercise behaviors, including the consumption of unhealthy high-calorie foods, can counteract some of the benefits of physical activity. There are at least three overlapping pathways through which exercise may increase the likelihood of consuming pleasurable but unhealthy foods: through impulsive cognitive processes, reflective cognitive processes, and/or physiological responses. It is argued in this paper that motivation toward exercise can influence each of these pathways. Drawing from literature from various domains, we postulate that controlled exercise motivation, as opposed to autonomous exercise motivation, is more likely to influence each of these pathways in a manner that leaves individuals susceptible to the post-exercise consumption of pleasurable but unhealthy foods.

  8. Positive emotion, reward, and cognitive control: emotional versus motivational influences

    KimberlySarahChiew

    2011-10-01

    Full Text Available It is becoming increasingly appreciated that affective influences can contribute strongly to goal-oriented cognition and behaviour. However, much work is still needed to properly characterize these influences and the mechanisms by which they contribute to cognitive processing. An important question concerns the nature of emotional manipulations (i.e., direct induction of affectively-valenced subjective experience versus motivational manipulations (e.g., delivery of performance-contingent rewards and punishments and their impact on cognitive control. Empirical evidence suggests that both kinds of manipulations can influence cognitive control in a systematic fashion, but investigations of both have largely been conducted independently of one another. Likewise, some theoretical accounts suggest that emotion and motivation may modulate cognitive control via common neural mechanisms, while others suggest the possibility of dissociable influences. Here, we provide an analysis and synthesis of these various accounts, suggesting potentially fruitful new research directions to test competing hypotheses.

  9. The implicit affiliation motive moderates cortisol responses to acute psychosocial stress in high school students.

    Wegner, Mirko; Schüler, Julia; Budde, Henning

    2014-10-01

    It has been previously shown that the implicit affiliation motive - the need to establish and maintain friendly relationships with others - leads to chronic health benefits. The underlying assumption for the present research was that the implicit affiliation motive also moderates the salivary cortisol response to acute psychological stress when some aspects of social evaluation and uncontrollability are involved. By contrast we did not expect similar effects in response to exercise as a physical stressor. Fifty-nine high school students aged M=14.8 years were randomly assigned to a psychosocial stress (publishing the results of an intelligence test performed), a physical stress (exercise intensity of 65-75% of HRmax), and a control condition (normal school lesson) each lasting 15min. Participants' affiliation motives were assessed using the Operant Motive Test and salivary cortisol samples were taken pre and post stressor. We found that the strength of the affiliation motive negatively predicted cortisol reactions to acute psychosocial but not to physical stress when compared to a control group. The results suggest that the affiliation motive buffers the effect of acute psychosocial stress on the HPA axis. PMID:25016451

  10. Sex ratio influences the motivational salience of facial attractiveness

    Hahn, A. C; Fisher, C. I.; DeBruine, L. M.; Jones, B. C.

    2014-01-01

    The sex ratio of the local population influences mating-related behaviours in many species. Recent experiments show that male-biased sex ratios increase the amount of financial resources men will invest in potential mates, suggesting that sex ratios influence allocation of mating effort in humans. To investigate this issue further, we tested for effects of cues to the sex ratio of the local population on the motivational salience of attractiveness in own-sex and opposite-sex faces. We did thi...

  11. Some Characteristics that Influence Motivation for Learning in Organisations

    Marjana Merkac Skok

    2013-04-01

    Full Text Available The aim of the research was to discover the motives for lifelong learning, for studying part time, possibilities for personal and career development and the level of learning support within organisations, where randomly selected students are already employed. We were interested in motivation for learning on behalf of the individual and its potential links with the organisation.In this research we tried to establish which factors have the most influence on individual’s personal development and career planning; whether organisation promotes career development; whether organisations promote learning and which support mechanisms are available. Employees’ motive for learning, education and training – even after they become employed – is linked with the possibility to receive a promotion. The research was conducted among large group of part time students, already holding a job. Over 150 respondents filled out questionnaire and results were statistically treated. The results of this research show, similar to other recent findings, that knowledge and work experience have the most influence on the possibility for development and for a career. Clear personal and organisational objectives are also crucial. And the importance of knowledge sharing with the help of peers, coaches or mentors is significant.

  12. Influence of Motivation on the Effectiveness of Work in a chosen Firm

    Hrutkaiová, Gabriela

    2011-01-01

    This bachelor thesis is concerned with motivation of employees, describes factors, which can directly or indirectly influence workers and instigate them to efficient work. Theory engages with the definition of motivation term, and its importance, motivation progression and also describes concrete tools, which stimulate increase in employee's motivation. The practical part evaluates system of motivation and its effect in chosen company and also decides whether chosen methods succeeded.

  13. The Influence of Financial Factors of Motivation of Personnel Management

    Mazhnik Natalya Andriivna; Bilyk Irina Yu.

    2013-01-01

    The article reviews the current state of the system of the employees motivation of Ukrainian enterprises and analyzes the problem of motivation. The article shows different theories of motivation, which is the interesting points that should be considered in the formation of an organization's motivation management program. The article defines the features of foreign models of staff' encouraging in the company and and offers some recommendations for improving national employee's motivation syst...

  14. Work Motivation in Geriatric Care: How Specific Factors Influence The Work Motivation of Geriatric Care Professionals

    Goldschmidt, Toni

    2012-01-01

    Work motivation is one of the most researched topics in organisational behavioural studies and widely used by businesses to increase employee motivation. Despite its popularity, motivational literature is basically non-existent for the increasingly important sector of geriatric care. It is therefore the objective of this paper to present an insight of the work motivation in geriatric care. Therefore, 20 geriatric care professionals participated in semi-structured interviews and the gather...

  15. Investigation into Motivation Types and Influences on Motivation: The Case of Chinese Non-English Majors

    Zhao, Lei

    2012-01-01

    Motivation is one of the most important factors affecting students' performance of English learning, which is widely concerned by foreign language teachers and researchers for a long time. However, how to promote students' motivation in learning English by knowing their English learning motivation types at the initial stages and the factors that…

  16. Adrenal Steroids Uniquely Influence Sexual Motivation Behavior in Male Rats

    George T. Taylor

    2012-08-01

    Full Text Available The androgenic adrenal steroids dehydroepiandrosterone (DHEA and 4α-androstenedione (4-A have significant biological activity, but it is unclear if the behavioral effects are unique or only reflections of the effects of testosterone (TS. Gonadally intact male Long-Evans rats were assigned to groups to receive supplements of DHEA, 4-A, TS, corticosteroid (CORT, all at 400 µg steroid/kg of body weight, or vehicle only for 5 weeks. All males were tested in a paradigm for sexual motivation that measures time and urinary marks near an inaccessible receptive female. It was found that DHEA and 4-A supplements failed to influence time near the estrous female in the same way TS supplements did, and, indeed, 5 weeks of 4-A administration reduced the time similar to the suppressive effects of CORT after 3 weeks. Further, animals treated with DHEA or 4-A left fewer urinary marks near an estrous female than TS and control groups. These results suggest that DHEA and 4-A are not merely precursors of sex hormones, and provide support for these steroids influencing the brain and behavior in a unique fashion that is dissimilar from the effects of TS on male sexual behavior.

  17. Is all motivation good for learning? Dissociable influences of approach and avoidance motivation in declarative memory

    Murty, Vishnu P.; LaBar, Kevin S; Hamilton, Derek A.; Adcock, R. Alison

    2011-01-01

    The present study investigated the effects of approach versus avoidance motivation on declarative learning. Human participants navigated a virtual reality version of the Morris water task, a classic spatial memory paradigm, adapted to permit the experimental manipulation of motivation during learning. During this task, participants were instructed to navigate to correct platforms while avoiding incorrect platforms. To manipulate motivational states participants were either rewarded for naviga...

  18. Motivation in Business Survey Response Behavior : Influencing motivation to improve survey outcome

    Torres van Grinsven, V.

    2015-01-01

    In this dissertation we show theoretical and empirical insights into the concept of motivation in the context of the business and organizational survey task. The research has led to a number of recommendations on how to improve organizational survey and communication design to enhance motivation and

  19. The influence of employee motivation on productivity in a merged real estate environment / R. Swart

    Swart, Renier

    2010-01-01

    The purpose of this research was to determine if motivation had any influence on productivity in a merged real estate company. A secondary purpose of this research was also to determine the influence of commitment on motivation and productivity. A questionnaire was designed by the researcher emanating from the literature review addressing the variables of motivation, productivity and commitment. The questionnaire consisted of 58 questions: 4 demographical questions and 54 qu...

  20. The entrepreneurs influence in employee motivation in small firms

    Magdinceva Sopova, Marija; Postolov, Kiril

    2015-01-01

    This book is organized in three chapters. In the first chapter the importance of the organizational conditions for employee motivation is being stressed. In the second chapter the process of rewarding and the types of recognition systems for the the employees in small firms has been outlined.In the third chapter it is explained the process of employee motivation by the entrepreneurs.And finally the application of motivation strategies and techniques in the small firms has been explained.

  1. Tutors' Influence on Distance Language Students' Learning Motivation: Voices from Learners and Tutors

    Xiao, Junhong

    2012-01-01

    Teachers' influence on students' learning motivation is a well-researched topic. Nevertheless, the majority of such studies are situated in the conventional learning context despite the rapid growth of distance language learning. This study set out to investigate tutors' influence on students' learning motivation in the Chinese distance language…

  2. Teacher Professionalization: Motivational Factors and the Influence of Age

    Hildebrandt, Susan A.; Eom, Minhee

    2011-01-01

    This study examines motivational factors of teachers who have achieved a national standard of professionalization. Data were collected from National Board certified teachers in the United States (N = 453) using a two-part, web-based survey. Exploratory factor analysis found five motivators: improved teaching, financial gain, collaborative…

  3. How Motivation Influences Student Engagement: A Qualitative Case Study

    Saeed, Sitwat; Zyngier, David

    2012-01-01

    The authors use Ryan and Deci's (2000) Self-Determination Theory (SDT) to better understand how student motivation and engagement are linked combined with Schlechty's Student Engagement Continuum to analyse the impact of intrinsic and extrinsic motivation on students' different engagement types. The study seeks to understand which type of…

  4. Animal Cruelty Motivations: Assessing Demographic and Situational Influences

    Hensley, Christopher; Tallichet, Suzanne E.

    2005-01-01

    Few studies have examined childhood and adolescent animal cruelty motives. Using a sample of 261 inmates surveyed at both medium and maximum security prisons in a southern state, the present study examined the impact of demographic attributes and situational factors relating specifically to a range of animal cruelty motivations. Almost half of the…

  5. Motivation and expectancy influences in placebo responding: the mediating role of attention.

    Aigner, Carrie; Svanum, Soren

    2014-12-01

    Drawing upon research in perception and motivation, the current study proposes a motivation-attention model of placebo in which more motivated persons pay greater attention to placebo-related stimuli, directly influencing placebo response. We manipulated both motivation to respond to placebo and expectations of placebo response in a 2 × 2 design. Participants (N = 152) evaluated a series of placebo pheromones (slightly scented water) of potential romantic dates and made desirability ratings. Consistent with hypotheses, more highly motivated participants demonstrated greater placebo responses, as evidenced by higher desirability ratings of the "pheromone" and greater variability among ratings, when compared to less motivated participants. Moreover, the relation between motivation and placebo response was mediated by attention. Contrary to expectations, we found no effect for expectancy. These findings highlight the importance of motivation and the mediating factor of attention in placebo and support goal-oriented models of placebo. PMID:24821612

  6. Motivation

    Ågård, Dorte

    Bogen præsenterer relevant teori om motivation fra international forskning, som hidtil ikke har været brugt i Danmark. Med afsæt i denne forskning giver bogen med inspiration og praktiske anbefalinger et bud på, hvordan man som lærer også får anvendt teorien i praksis. Forfatterens overordnede...... pointe er, at elevers motivation er et resultat af deres skoleerfaringer og oplevelse af læreren. Derfor har man som lærer stor indflydelse på, hvordan eleverne vælger at engagere sig i skolearbejdet. Bogen henvender sig til undervisere, der gerne vil blive klogere på: * Hvad er det, der sætter elever i...... gang med og i stand til at arbejde engageret i skolen? * Hvordan påvirkes elevers motivation af mødet med skolen? * Hvad kan virke negativt på motivationen? * Hvilken rolle spiller lærerne ift. elevernes motivation? * Hvad kan læreren i praksis gøre for at styrke elevernes arbejdsglæde? Bogen indgår i...

  7. The Influence of Motivational Orientation on Comprehension Monitoring

    Callman, Joshua L.

    1989-01-01

    This study investigated that relationship between motivational orientation and comprehension monitoring while studying. It was hypothesized that relatively learning-oriented students would exhibit better comprehension monitoring than relatively performance-oriented students. Data was also collected on several other factors that might be related to both comprehension monitoring and motivation, such as comprehension, self­ concept, and general ability. It was found that comprehension monitorin...

  8. Dissociable influences of reward motivation and positive emotion on cognitive control

    Chiew, Kimberly S.; Braver, Todd S.

    2014-01-01

    It is becoming increasingly appreciated that affective and/or motivational influences contribute strongly to goal-oriented cognition and behavior. An unresolved question is whether emotional manipulations (i.e., direct induction of affectively valenced subjective experience) and motivational manipulations (e.g., delivery of performance-contingent rewards and punishments) have similar or distinct effects on cognitive control. Prior work has suggested that reward motivation can reliably enhance...

  9. Beyond self-esteem: influence of multiple motives on identity construction.

    Vignoles, Vivian L; Regalia, Camillo; Manzi, Claudia; Golledge, Jen; Scabini, Eugenia

    2006-02-01

    Diverse theories suggest that people are motivated to maintain or enhance feelings of self-esteem, continuity, distinctiveness, belonging, efficacy, and meaning in their identities. Four studies tested the influence of these motives on identity construction, by using a multilevel regression design. Participants perceived as more central those identity elements that provided a greater sense of self-esteem, continuity, distinctiveness, and meaning; this was found for individual, relational, and group levels of identity, among various populations, and by using a prospective design. Motives for belonging and efficacy influenced identity definition indirectly through their direct influences on identity enactment and through their contributions to self-esteem. Participants were happiest about those identity elements that best satisfied motives for self-esteem and efficacy. These findings point to the need for an integrated theory of identity motivation. PMID:16536653

  10. Case Study of the Influence of Motivation in School Learning

    Lina María Jiménez

    2014-07-01

    Full Text Available This reflective paper born of the need to recognize the factors that are promoting student motivation in the learning environment in nowadays. Therefore, it was intended to interpret the relationship between the motivational patterns and learning strategies. To achieve the qualitative research was conducted using the method of ethnography by the technique of participant observation to recognize the motivational patterns and learning strategies used by teachers. This allowed the researcher could see and interact with their subject matter. Revealing that this relationship occurs when the student can choose the strategy, then he feels included in the process to make sense of the activities, contrary to when the teacher proposes the strategy because the student feels it is an imposition. Similarly, it attracted attention the fact that teachers use learning strategies of processing and less metacognitive strategies. It was also noted that some teachers use guidelines as individualized motivational explanation, give value to the question and the answer. However, the life project of students is not related to the objectives of the class, in the same way, there is not a feedback about a correct answer or a mistake. In conclusion, it must be more flexible the use of learning strategies by students and it is also necessary to integrate motivational patterns in the classroom according to their constructivist pedagogical model.

  11. Contextual influences on health worker motivation in district hospitals in Kenya

    Blaauw Duane

    2009-07-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Organizational factors are considered to be an important influence on health workers' uptake of interventions that improve their practices. These are additionally influenced by factors operating at individual and broader health system levels. We sought to explore contextual influences on worker motivation, a factor that may modify the effect of an intervention aimed at changing clinical practices in Kenyan hospitals. Methods Franco LM, et al's (Health sector reform and public sector health worker motivation: a conceptual framework. Soc Sci Med. 2002, 54: 1255–66 model of motivational influences was used to frame the study Qualitative methods including individual in-depth interviews, small-group interviews and focus group discussions were used to gather data from 185 health workers during one-week visits to each of eight district hospitals. Data were collected prior to a planned intervention aiming to implement new practice guidelines and improve quality of care. Additionally, on-site observations of routine health worker behaviour in the study sites were used to inform analyses. Results Study settings are likely to have important influences on worker motivation. Effective management at hospital level may create an enabling working environment modifying the impact of resource shortfalls. Supportive leadership may foster good working relationships between cadres, improve motivation through provision of local incentives and appropriately handle workers' expectations in terms of promotions, performance appraisal processes, and good communication. Such organisational attributes may counteract de-motivating factors at a national level, such as poor schemes of service, and enhance personally motivating factors such as the desire to maintain professional standards. Conclusion Motivation is likely to influence powerfully any attempts to change or improve health worker and hospital practices. Some factors influencing motivation may

  12. The influence of mental skills on motivation and psychosocial characteristics.

    McGraw, Leigh; Pickering, Michael A; Ohlson, Carl; Hammermeister, Jon

    2012-01-01

    The purpose of this observational, cross-sectional study was to assess psychosocial characteristics and intrinsic motivation in a convenience sample of Army soldiers with different mental skills profiles. Participants were recruited immediately before or immediately following regular training activities. Anonymous surveys were completed and collected in the training area. Instruments used in this study included the Ottawa Mental Skills Assessment Tool-3 Revised for Soldiers; Rosenberg Self-esteem Scale; Depression Anxiety Stress Scale-21; University of California, Los Angeles, Loneliness Scale; Beck Hopelessness Scale; Intrinsic Motivation Inventory; and an anger measure. Soldiers with strong mental skill profiles were more intrinsically motivated and psychosocially healthier than their peers with weaker mental skill profiles. It is recommended that a proactive approach to psychological health promotion practices in soldiers be sought rather than reactive treatment plans to psychological sequelae. Future research must examine the role of psychosocial fitness and adaptability to enhance mental skills fitness. PMID:22338985

  13. The Psychic Rewards of Teaching: Examining Global, National and Local Influences on Teacher Motivation

    Morgan, Mark; Kitching, Karl; O'Leary, Michael

    2007-01-01

    What are the main influences on the day-to-day motivation of classroom teachers? The particular focus in this research is the micro-events that teachers experience and which enhance or undermine their motivation. We conceptualise such events in terms of their proximity/distance. We suggest that experiences with a proximal origin (classroom and…

  14. Exploring the Influences of Elementary School Students' Learning Motivation on Web-Based Collaborative Learning

    Chin-Fei, Huang; Chia-Ju, Liu

    2012-01-01

    The purpose of this study is to explore the influences of students' learning motivation on Web-based collaborative learning. This study conducted learning materials of Web pages about science and collaborative learning, a motivation questionnaire and interviews were used for data collection. Eighty Grade 5 students and a science teacher were…

  15. It's the Motivation Stupid!: The Influence of Motivation of Secondary Currency Initiators on the Currencies' Success

    Fesenfeld, Lukas; Stuckatz, Jan; Summerson, Iona; Kiesgen, Thomas; Russ, Daniela; Klimaschewski, Maja

    2015-01-01

    textabstractThis paper attempts to explain the success of secondary currencies. Success is defined as the degree to which the initiators of these currencies manage to reach their original goals. In order to do so, we draw on two explanatory factors: the motivation of a currency’s founder and the degree of organization. We employed a combination of qualitative interviews, secondary literature review and standardized questionnaires with seven secondary currency projects in Croatia (CROM), Germa...

  16. Learning to Program with Personal Robots: Influences on Student Motivation

    McGill, Monica M.

    2012-01-01

    One of the goals of using robots in introductory programming courses is to increase motivation among learners. There have been several types of robots that have been used extensively in the classroom to teach a variety of computer science concepts. A more recently introduced robot designed to teach programming to novice students is the Institute…

  17. Experience-based teaching of acute medicine for extra motivated medical students and young physicians – 4th Emergency Medicine Course and 6th AKUTNĚ.CZ Congress

    Petr Štourač

    2014-12-01

    Full Text Available Faculty of Medicine of the Masaryk University (MU, and especially its departments focusing on acute medicine, make an active effort to find and to support extra motivated students by organising courses and congresses with simulation-based learning sessions for them. 4th Emergency Medicine Course (EMC and 6th AKUTNĚ.CZ Congress were organised during 2014. EMC was held during a weekend in mid-April for 80 medical students. The congress was held on 22nd November 2014. A group of more than 700 enthusiastic professionals including physicians, nursing staff and medical students interested in acute medicine met again in Brno at the University Campus Bohunice. We also report the evaluation of effectiveness of different types of sessions, as well as its influence on practical skills and the fixation of memory footprint. The website AKUTNĚ.CZ (www.akutne.cz is freely accessible, and anyone can find and watch all the videos and presentations there.

  18. The Influence of Positive Attitudes and Motivation on Successful L2 learning

    陈影

    2015-01-01

    As the development of the second language learning(L2),it becomes more significant to study the factors that influence the success in L2 learning.Positive attitudes and motivation definitely play vital role in L2 learning process.This paper briefly analyses how these two factors influence L2learning.

  19. The Influence of Positive Attitudes and Motivation on Successful L2 learning

    陈影

    2015-01-01

    As the development of the second language learning(L2),it becomes more significant to study the factors that influence the success in L2 learning.Positive attitudes and motivation definitely play vital role in L2 learning process. This paper briefly analyses how these two factors influence L2 learning.

  20. Students' Perceptions of Family Influences on their Academic Motivation: A Qualitative Analysis

    Urdan, Tim; Solek, Monica; Schoenfelder, Erin

    2007-01-01

    Research examining family influences on student motivation and achievement in school has generally focused on parental influences and has often been limited to one or two variables (e.g., parental expectations or aspirations, parental involvement in schoolwork). In the present study we interviewed high school seniors to examine whether and how…

  1. Transformational Leadership and Change: How Leaders Influence Their Followers' Motivation Through Organizational Justice.

    Deschamps, Carl; Rinfret, Natalie; Lagacé, Marie Claude; Privé, Catherine

    2016-01-01

    In the past decade, the reform of Québec's healthcare establishments has resulted in a reduction in the number of institutions through mergers and closures. In this report, we investigate the consequences of reform by looking at managers' motivations and related mitigating factors. We examine the influence that transformational leaders have on their employees' motivation through organizational justice. Using a survey of 253 healthcare managers, we describe how the positive impact of transformational leadership on motivation is fully mediated via different aspects of organizational justice. The results indicate that while transformational leaders influence each type of organizational justice, followers' motivation is affected primarily by procedural and interpersonal justice and little by distributive justice. PMID:27356446

  2. The Influence of Perceived Disgust on Students' Motivation and Achievement

    Randler, Christoph; Hummel, Eberhard; Wüst-Ackermann, Peter

    2013-11-01

    There are a wide range of student emotions in academic settings, but apart from emotions such as interest and well-being, disgust is a negative emotion which might be relevant in biology education, for instance, during dissection or when encountering living animals. This paper addresses the issue of situational disgust during a course at the university using living animals and prepared mounts. The course covers a wide range of organisms from protists (e.g. Paramecium) through invertebrates to vertebrates and uses many methods (e.g. microscopy, dissection, and behavioral observations) and specific content (anatomy, structure, and behavior). The dissection of the trout was rated as most disgusting, followed by working with living woodlice, living earthworms, and living snails. The least disgusting lessons were those dealing with microscopy, mammalian skulls, honeybee dance, and bird flight. Based on animals, macro-invertebrates were rated as most disgusting and mammals as least disgusting. Concerning methods, observing through a microscope was perceived as being least disgusting, followed by experiments without animals, then followed by experiments with living animals and, most disgusting, dissection. Disgust was correlated negatively with interest, well-being, and competence but positively with pressure and boredom. Thus, low disgust is related to high interest, well-being, and competence, while higher disgust is related to higher pressure and boredom. The results show a need for measuring situational disgust in addition to survey studies. They also suggest that perceived disgust negatively affects intrinsic motivation. This has implications for biology teaching, because carrying out dissections or experiencing living animals in the classroom may have a detrimental effect on motivation.

  3. TO STUDY THE INFLUENCE OF PERFORMANCE MOTIVATION ON THE PERFORMANCE OF PLAYERS

    Ramesh Chand Chauhan; Praveenkumar

    2013-01-01

    The purpose of this research work was to find out the influence of performance motivation on the performance of players with special reference to gender and performance. Performance motivation test constructed by Kaur (1994) was used to collect the data. The sample for the study comprised of 128 handball players belonging to different affiliated states and units with Handball Federation of India (HFI). Out of 128 samples, 64 male & 64 female each belonged to four semifinalist teams in both se...

  4. Parents’ motives for home education: The influence of methodological design and social context

    Thomas SPIEGLER

    2010-01-01

    Parents’ motives for home education are one of the most researched topics within home education research. The focus of this article is on the question of the degree to which the results regarding these motives are influenced and shaped by the applied methods and thesocial context. The empirical basis is a meta-analysis of twelve research examples from the last two decades. It is concluded that the diversity within the results can partly be traced back to fundamental differences in the methodo...

  5. Pharmaceutical Sponsorship Bias Influences Thrombolytic Literature in Acute Ischemic Stroke

    Ryan P Radecki

    2011-05-01

    Full Text Available Background: The efficacy of thrombolytic therapy for acute ischemic stroke remains controversial in Emergency Medicine and has not been fully endorsed by either the American College of Emergency Physicians or the American Academy of emergency medicine. A growing recognition exists of the influence of pharmaceutical sponsorship on the reported findings of published clinical trials. Sponsorship bias has been suggested as a potential criticism of the literature and guidelines favoring thrombolytic therapy. Objective: The objective of this study is to review the most influential literature regarding thrombolytic therapy for acute ischemic stroke and document the presence or absence of pharmaceutical sponsorship. Methods: A publication-citation analysis was performed to identify the most frequently cited articles pertaining to thrombolytic therapy for acute ischemic stroke. Identified articles were reviewed for disclosures of pharmaceutical funding. Results: Of the 20 most-cited articles pertaining to thrombolytic therapy for acute stroke, 17 (85% disclosed pharmaceutical sponsorship. These disclosures range from general sponsorship to direct employment of authors by pharmaceutical companies. Conclusion: An overwhelming predominance of the most influential literature regarding thrombolytic therapy for acute ischemic stroke is susceptible to sponsorship bias. This potential bias may provide a basis for physician concern regarding the efficacy and safety of thrombolytic therapy. Further, large, independent, placebo-controlled studies may be required to guide therapy and professional guidelines definitively for acute ischemic stroke. [West J Emerg Med. 2011;12(4:435–441.

  6. Influence of science and technology magnet middle schools on students' motivation and achievement in science

    Allen, David

    Some informal discussions among educators regarding motivation of students and academic performance have included the topic of magnet schools. The premise is that a focused theme, such as an aspect of science, positively affects student motivation and academic achievement. However, there is limited research involving magnet schools and their influence on student motivation and academic performance. This study provides empirical data for the discussion about magnet schools influence on motivation and academic ability. This study utilized path analysis in a structural equation modeling framework to simultaneously investigate the relationships between demographic exogenous independent variables, the independent variable of attending a science or technology magnet middle school, and the dependent variables of motivation to learn science and academic achievement in science. Due to the categorical nature of the variables, Bayesian statistical analysis was used to calculate the path coefficients and the standardized effects for each relationship in the model. The coefficients of determination were calculated to determine the amount of variance each path explained. Only five of 21 paths had statistical significance. Only one of the five statistically significant paths (Attended Magnet School to Motivation to Learn Science) explained a noteworthy amount (45.8%) of the variance.

  7. Decreased Incentive Motivation Following Knockout or Acute Blockade of the Serotonin Transporter: Role of the 5-HT2C Receptor.

    Browne, Caleb J; Fletcher, Paul J

    2016-09-01

    Acute pharmacological elevation of serotonin (5-hydroxytryptamine; 5-HT) activity decreases operant responding for primary reinforcers, suggesting that 5-HT reduces incentive motivation. The mechanism by which 5-HT alters incentive motivation is unknown, but parallel evidence that 5-HT2C receptor agonists also reduce responding for primary reinforcers implicates this receptor as a potential candidate. These experiments examined whether chronic and acute disruptions of serotonin transporter (SERT) activity altered incentive motivation, and whether the 5-HT2C receptor mediated the effects of elevated 5-HT on behavior. To assess incentive motivation, we measured responding for three different reinforcers: a primary reinforcer (saccharin), a conditioned reinforcer (CRf), and an unconditioned sensory reinforcer (USRf). In the chronic condition, responding was compared between SERT knockout (SERT-KO) mice and their wild-type littermates. In the acute condition, responding was examined in wild-type mice following treatment with 10 or 20 mg/kg citalopram, or its vehicle. The ability of the selective 5-HT2C antagonist SB 242084 to prevent the effects of SERT-KO and citalopram on responding was subsequently examined. Both SERT-KO and citalopram reduced responding for saccharin, a CRf, and a USRf. Treatment with SB 242084 enhanced responding for a CRf and a USRf in SERT-KO mice and blocked the effects of citalopram on CRf and USRf responding. However, SB 242084 was unable to prevent the effects of SERT-KO or citalopram on responding for saccharin. These results support a powerful inhibitory function for 5-HT in the control of incentive motivation, and indicate that the 5-HT2C receptor mediates these effects of 5-HT in a reinforcer-dependent manner. PMID:27125304

  8. A study on the influence of organizational climate on motivation of employees

    Sibel Gök

    2009-10-01

    Full Text Available The relation between organizational climate and organizational efficiency is frequently pointed out in recent management and labour psychology studies. Organizational climate has positive or negative impacts on performance, job satisfaction, and motivation of employees.In this study, which consists of two parts, the relation between organizational climate and work motivation is examined. The first part of the study contains theoretical framework with regard to the organizational climate and work motivation.In the second part, a field research is presented. 252 employees were interviewed in this study. The data that obtained from interviews were analyzed and subsequently evaluated in terms of statistical outcomes. The statistical results demonstrated that organizational climate has a positive influence on motivation of employees.

  9. Autonomy, Affiliation, and Ability: Relative Salience of Factors that Influence Online Learner Motivation and Learning Outcomes

    Kuan-Chung Chen

    2010-03-01

    Full Text Available Autonomy, affiliation, and ability appear as main factors that influence online learners‟ motivation and learning outcomes, however, the relative salience of these three factors remains unclear in the online learning literature. Drawing on Deci and Ryan‟s self-determination theory, this study sought to bridge this gap by investigating the relative salience of perceived autonomy, affiliation, and ability on learner motivation and learning outcomes in two special education online programs (N = 262. This study found that the most salient predictor varied from categories of motivation and learning outcomes, and the number of significant predictors increased by participants‟ level of motivation/self-determination. Results of this study provide implications for online learner support.

  10. Motivational factors influencing the homeowners’ decisions between residential heating systems: An empirical analysis for Germany

    Heating demand accounts for a large fraction of the overall energy demand of private households in Germany. A better understanding of the adoption and diffusion of energy-efficient and renewables-based residential heating systems (RHS) is of high policy relevance, particularly against the background of climate change, security of energy supply and increasing energy prices. In this paper, we explore the multi-dimensionality of the homeowners’ motivation to decide between competing RHS. A questionnaire survey (N=2440) conducted in 2010 among homeowners who had recently installed a RHS provides the empirical foundation. Principal component analysis shows that 25 items capturing different adoption motivations can be grouped around six dimensions: (1) cost aspects, (2) general attitude towards the RHS, (3) government grant, (4) reactions to external threats (i.e., environmental or energy supply security considerations), (5) comfort considerations, and (6) influence of peers. Moreover, a cluster analysis with the identified motivational factors as segmentation variables reveals three adopter types: (1) the convenience-oriented, (2) the consequences-aware, and (3) the multilaterally-motivated RHS adopter. Finally, we show that the influence of the motivational factors on the adoption decision also differs by certain characteristics of the homeowner and features of the home. - Highlights: ► Study of the multi-dimensionality of the motivation to adopt residential heating systems (RHS). ► Principal component and cluster analysis are applied to representative survey data for Germany. ► Motivation has six dimensions, including rational decision-making and emotional factors. ► Adoption motivation differs by certain characteristics of the homeowner and of the home. ► Many adopters are driven by existing habits and perceptions about the convenience of the RHS

  11. Influence of motivations for seeking ISO 14001 certification on perceptions of EMS effectiveness in China.

    Fryxell, Gerald E; Lo, Carlos Wing-Hung; Chung, Shan Shan

    2004-02-01

    This study examines the motivations of mainland Chinese facilities in seeking ISO 14001 certification and examines the linkages between these motivations and self-reports of the effectiveness of major environmental management system (EMS) components. In a sample of 128 facilities in Beijing, Shanghai, and Guangzhou, the main drivers for certification were reported to be to ensure regulatory compliance, to enhance the firm's reputation, and to improve environmental performance, in that order. Although motivation to achieve cost reductions were least emphasized, a broad range of motivations appears to be considered in the decision to seek certification to ISO 14001. Regression models linking these motivations to the EMS components suggests that internal motivations have an influence on most EMS components. One interesting exception to this, however, is that no significant relationship was observed between internal motivations and the promulgation of environmental objectives and targets. The relationships associated with external motivations for certification (i.e., those in response to customer and other stakeholder pressures) and EMS components, on the other hand, are weaker and tend to occur earlier in the process cycle. No significant relationships were found between motivations to reduce costs and perceptions of the effectiveness of EMS components. Overall, these findings suggest that ISO 14001, as currently being implemented in mainland China, may have a modestly useful role when used in combination with other policy mechanisms to move the Chinese economy toward more sustainable practices. It is asserted that the ISO standard could provide even greater benefits if Chinese registrars were more proactive in developing EMS in conjunction with even more rigorous third-party audits. PMID:15285401

  12. The Influence of Competence, Motivation, and Organisational Culture to High School Teacher Job Satisfaction and Performance

    Arifin, H. Muhammad

    2015-01-01

    The study aims to find out and analyze the influence of competence, motivation, and organizational competence to high school teacher job satisfaction and performance in Jayapura City, Papua, Indonesia. The study was conducted on 117 respondents of 346 teachers by means of questionnaire. Data is analyzed by SEM analysis method in AMOS program.…

  13. Academic motivation mediates the influence of temporal discounting on academic achievement during adolescence

    Lee, Nikki; Krabbendam, Lydia; Dekker, Sanne; Boschloo, Annemarie; De Groot, Renate; Jolles, Jelle

    2012-01-01

    Lee, N. C., Krabbendam, L., Dekker, S. J., Boschloo, A. M., De Groot, R. H. M., & Jolles, J. (2012). Academic motivation mediates the influence of temporal discounting on academic achievement during adolescence. Trends in Neuroscience and Education, 1(1), 43-48.

  14. Intrinsic and extrinsic motivation in early adolescents' friendship development : Friendship selection, influence, and prospective friendship quality

    Ojanen, Tiina; Sijtsema, Jelle J.; Hawley, Patricia H.; Little, Todd D.; Ojanen, M.

    2010-01-01

    Friendships are essential for adolescent social development. However, they may be pursued for varying motives, which, in turn, may predict similarity in friendships via social selection or social influence processes, and likely help to explain friendship quality. We examined the effect of early adol

  15. Understanding employees' informal workplace learning: The joint influence of career motivation and self-construal

    Rijn, van Monique Bernadette; Yang, Huadong; Sanders, Karin

    2013-01-01

    Purpose – This paper aims to investigate the joint influence of employees' career motivation and their self-construal on their engagement in three informal workplace learning activities: keeping up-to-date, asking for feedback from supervisors and knowledge sharing. Design/methodology/approach – D

  16. The Influence of Content on Adult L2 Learners' Task Motivation: An Interest Theory Perspective

    Poupore, Glen

    2014-01-01

    This study investigates the influence of content-related conditions on adult second language learners' task motivation during interactive tasks. It also aims to identify what is referred to as interestingness conditions within task content, that is, elements that are intrinsically interesting to most individuals. The investigation was conducted…

  17. Intrinsic and Extrinsic Motivation in Early Adolescents' Friendship Development: Friendship Selection, Influence, and Prospective Friendship Quality

    Ojanen, Tiina; Sijtsema, Jelle J.; Hawley, Patricia H.; Little, Todd D.

    2010-01-01

    Friendships are essential for adolescent social development. However, they may be pursued for varying motives, which, in turn, may predict similarity in friendships via social selection or social influence processes, and likely help to explain friendship quality. We examined the effect of early adolescents' (N = 374, 12-14 years) intrinsic and…

  18. Influence of brand differential on motivation to conform and manufacturer versus store brand purchase intention

    Tran, E.

    2014-05-01

    Full Text Available Relationships and characteristics that influence consumers’ purchase decision between store brand and manufacturer brand product offerings have emerged as an interesting and practical area of research. From a management perspective, understanding the process by which consumers make purchase choices between these brand offerings would lead to both theoretical and practical applications. Therefore, this study attempts to enhance understanding about the factors that influence consumers’ manufacturer versus store brand purchase decisions. A conceptual model is developed to integrate the manner by which a consumer’s motivation to conform to the perceived social norm of purchasing manufacturer brand products influences this purchase decision. The model is tested using survey data. Findings indicate the importance of the intensity of perceived differences between store brand and manufacturer brand product offerings in affecting consumers’ purchase intention of these products. The relationship is also mediated by consumers’ motivation to conform to manufacturer brand products in their purchase decision.

  19. Varying influences of motivation factors on employees' likelihood to perform safe food handling practices because of demographic differences.

    Ellis, Jason D; Arendt, Susan W; Strohbehn, Catherine H; Meyer, Janell; Paez, Paola

    2010-11-01

    Food safety training has been the primary avenue for ensuring food workers are performing proper food handling practices and thus, serving safe food. Yet, knowledge of safe food handling practices does not necessarily result in actual performance of these practices. This research identified participating food service employees' level of agreement with four factors of motivation (internal motivations, communication, reward-punishment, and resources) and determined if respondents with different demographic characteristics reported different motivating factors. Data were collected from 311 food service employees who did not have any supervisory responsibilities. Intrinsic motivation agreement scores were consistently the highest of all four motivational factors evaluated and did not differ across any of the demographic characteristics considered. In contrast, motivation agreement scores for communication, reward-punishment, and resources did differ based on respondents' gender, age, place of employment, job status, food service experience, completion of food handler course, or possession of a food safety certification. In general, respondents agreed that these motivation factors influenced their likelihood to perform various safe food handling procedures. This research begins to illustrate how employees' demographic characteristics influence their responses to various motivators, helping to clarify the complex situation of ensuring safe food in retail establishments. Future research into why employee willingness to perform varies more for extrinsic motivation than for intrinsic motivation could assist food service managers in structuring employee development programs and the work environment, in a manner that aids in improving external motivation (communication, reward-punishment, and resources) and capitalizing on internal motivation. PMID:21219719

  20. The Influence of Affective States Varying in Motivational Intensity on Cognitive Scope

    Eddie Harmon-Jones

    2012-09-01

    Full Text Available We review a program of research that has suggested that affective states high in motivationally intensity (e.g., enthusiasm, disgust narrow cognitive scope, whereas affective states low in motivationally intensity (e.g., joy, sadness broaden cognitive scope. Further supporting this interpretation, indices of brain activations, derived from human electroencephalography, suggest that the motivational intensity of the affective state predicts the narrowing of cognitive scope. Finally, research suggests that the relationship between emotive intensity and cognitive scope is bi-directional, such that manipulated changes in cognitive scope influence early brain activations associated with emotive intensity. In the end, the review highlights how emotion can impair and improve certain cognitive processes.

  1. IMPROVEMENT OF ORAL HYGIENE STATUS IN CHILDREN INFLUENCED BY MOTIVATION PROGRAMS.

    Dobrinka M. Damyanova

    2015-09-01

    Full Text Available Background: Providing and maintaining proper oral hygiene is related with the control of initiation and progression of dental caries and periodontal diseases. Objective: To accentuate on the application and effectiveness of standardized motivational program for oral hygiene in children with assessment of OHI-S Green-Vermillion. Methods: The study includes 200 children from 3 to 6 years of age. Comparison and evaluation of effectiveness of toothpastes with different fluoride concentrations regarding proper hygiene status in children. Application of OHI-S by Green-Vermillion. Examined children are divided into two groups. The first group consists of 100 children divided into two subgroups. The subgroup of children aged from 3 to 5 years washed their teeth with toothpaste containing 500 ppm F. The subgroup of children at the age of 6 used toothpaste containing 1000 ppm F. Concerning the second, control group of 100 children no specific motivation activities were provided. Results: Among children being influenced by standardized motivation program combined with application of toothpaste with 500 ppm F, 45% show better oral hygiene level. Among children influenced by standardized motivation program and toothpaste of 1000 ppm F, 20% of them are with improved oral hygiene status. Reduction of the OHI-S values in children from 3 to 5 years is established from 1.92 to 1.16. In children at the age of 6 OHI-S is reduced from 1.67 to 1.14. Conclusion: 1. All children improve their oral hygiene status after a period of training and motivation. 2. In children at high decay risk standardized motivation program should be combined with additional prophylactic approaches.

  2. Motivating, Influencing, and Persuading Patients through Personal Health Records: A Scoping Review

    Saparova, Dinara

    2012-01-01

    The manuscript is an evaluative review of the literature pertaining to personal health records (PHRs). The primary focus was on revealing their potential to function as persuasive tools and their efficiency in this role. We demonstrated the ways in which PHRs could motivate, influence, and persuade patients in their adoption of target health behaviors associated with disease and medication management. We based this review on the theoretical framework of captology by B. J. Fogg and colleagues ...

  3. Factors influencing prehospital delay for patients with acute myocardial infarction

    Shujuan CHENG; Lufen GUO; Juyuan LIU; Xiaoling ZHU; Hongbing YAN

    2007-01-01

    Objective To investigate the influencing factors for prehospital delay in patients with acute myocardial infarction (AMI).Methods A total of 807 consecutive patients with AMI who presented to the emergency department of Beijing Anzhen Hospital were analyzed. The influence of several potential risk factors on the prehospital delay time (PDT) was evaluated by comparing patients admitted more than 2 hours after onset of chese pain with those admitted within 2 hours after onset. Results Among 807 patients, 402 came to the hospital within 2 hours while the others arrived at the hospital after 2 hours. The median PDT was 130 min. Among the potential variables, advanced age, history of diabetes mellitus, occurrence of symptom at night and use of emergency medical service significantly affected PDT by multivariate analysis. Conclusion Interventions aimed at reducing the prehospital delay in AMI should primarily focus on the awareness of the risk and help-seeking behavior of patients.

  4. Gifted Students' Intrinsic and Extrinsic Motivations and Parental Influence on Their Motivation: From the Self-Determination Theory Perspective

    Al-Dhamit, Yahya; Kreishan, Lana

    2016-01-01

    The aim of this research is to describe and investigate a sample of school gifted students' intrinsic and extrinsic motivations, and the role of their parents in fostering motivational achievements in Jordan. In the study, 122 gifted students were selected to complete a questionnaire (adapted from Pelletier, Fortier and Vallerand et?al.)…

  5. Cognitive-motivational influences on the task-related help-seeking behavior of black children.

    Nelson-Le Gall, S; Jones, E

    1990-04-01

    The present study examined the relation between children's mastery motivation, self-assessment of performance, and task-related help-seeking behavior during task performance. Average-achieving black American children, varying in mastery motivation as measured by subscales of the Harter's Intrinsic-Extrinsic Orientation in the Classroom Scale, performed a multitrial verbal task and were given the opportunity to seek help on each trial after making a tentative response and assessing their performance by rating their confidence in the correctness of the response. A response-contingent payoff system was implemented to encourage children to restrict their help seeking to those instances in which they perceived that they could not make a correct response without assistance. As predicted, children's self-assessments of performance, regardless of their accuracy, appeared to influence help seeking more than the actual performance outcomes. Neither children's self-assessments of performance nor their overall rate of help seeking varied with level of measured mastery motivation. However, the type of help sought varied as expected with mastery motivation. Children characterized by high intrinsic orientations toward independent mastery in academic achievement contexts sought indirect help (i.e., hints) more often than they sought direct help (i.e., answers), whereas children characterized by low intrinsic orientations toward independent mastery showed no preference. These differences in motivational orientation influenced requests for help only when children perceived their initial solutions to be incorrect. These findings are discussed in the context of the analyses of help seeking as an instrumental learning and achievement strategy. The implications of the findings for analyses of black children's achievement styles are highlighted. PMID:2344792

  6. Scaffolding software: How does it influence student conceptual understanding and motivation?

    Butler, Kyle A.

    The purpose of this study was to determine the influence of scaffolding software on student conceptual understanding and motivation. This study also provides insight on how students use the scaffolding features found in Artemis and the extent to which features show a relationship to student conceptual understanding and motivation. A Randomized Solomon Four Group Design was used in this study. As students worked through a project based unit over photosynthesis, the students performed information seeking activities that were based on their own inquiry. For this purpose, the students in the experimental group used an example of scaffolding software called Artemis, while the students in the control group used a search engine of their choice. To measure conceptual understanding, the researcher analyzed student generated concept maps on photosynthesis using three different methods (quantitative, qualitative, hierarchical). To measure motivation, the researcher used a survey that measured motivation on five different indicators: intrinsic goal orientation, extrinsic goal orientation, task value, control of learning beliefs, self-efficacy for learning and performance. Finally, the researcher looked at the relationship and influence of the scaffolding features on two student performance scores at the end of the unit. This created a total of ten dependent variables in relationship to the treatment. Overall, the students used the collaborative features 25% of the time, the maintenance features 0.84% of the time, the organizational features 16% of the time, the saving/viewing features 7% of the time and the searching features 51% of the time. There were significant correlations between the saving/viewing features hits and the students' task value (r = .499, p motivation.

  7. The influence of patient's motivation on reported pain during orthodontic treatment

    Marcio José da Silva Campos

    2013-06-01

    Full Text Available INTRODUCTION: Patients usually experience pain during orthodontic treatment. This fact can affect cooperation and the development of treatment. Reporting pain during treatment seems to be influenced by emotional aspects such as the patient's motivation. OBJECTIVE: To assess the relationship between patient's motivation and the intensity of reported pain during two stages of treatment. METHODS: Twenty males (11-37 years old answered a questionnaire divided into five categories regarding their motivation towards treatment. The subjects were studied for 14 days (7 days with bonded brackets and 7 days with the initial arch inserted and the intensity of pain was evaluated on a daily basis. All the issues, including the intensity of pain, were measured through the visual analog scale (VAS. RESULTS: The VAS-associated questionnaire proved to have good temporal reliability and reasonable internal consistency, being that the "perceived severity" domain had the greatest, although not significant (p = 0.196 correlation with pain intensity. Only the question asking the patients if they thought that their teeth were too uneven showed a positive correlation with pain intensity (p = 0.048. CONCLUSION: The results seem to indicate that the five categories related to treatment motivation cannot be used to predict discomfort during treatment. In addition, patients who think their teeth are too uneven may experience more severe pain due to greater force application after insertion of the initial arch.

  8. Influences of coaches, parents, and peers on the motivational patterns of child and adolescent athletes.

    Chan, D K; Lonsdale, C; Fung, H H

    2012-08-01

    The purposes of this study were to assess the relative impact of social influences initiated by coach, parents, and peers on children and adolescent athletes' motivational patterns, involving self-rated effort, enjoyment, competence, and competitive trait anxiety. Questionnaire data were collected from 408 youth swimmers (aged 9-18 years). Results of multi-group structural equation modeling analyses generally showed that compared with athletes in the other age group, the social influence from mother was stronger in childhood (mean age=10.87 years; SD=1.00), and that from peers was greater in adolescence (mean age=16.32 years; SD=1.15). The social influence from coach was more influential for athletes' effort and enjoyment in childhood, and competence in adolescence. We concluded that age appeared to moderate the impact of social influence from significant others on young athletes' sport experiences. PMID:21410540

  9. Bridging Strategic Management Tools and Employee Motivation : A qualitative study of how an organization's mission & vision influence the motivation of its employees

    Jans, Bastian; Kienel, Niklas

    2015-01-01

    The mission and vision of companies have been gaining a lot of attention both within the scholarly and business context. A lot of time and money is being invested to develop and implement mission and vision statements and business students all over the world are taught these concepts. However, literature on how mission and vision actually influence employees is limited and inconsistent. Therefore, this thesis explores how mission and vision influence employees’ work motivation. The study foll...

  10. Enriching traditional biology lectures digital concept maps and their influence on cognition and motivation

    Steffen Schaal

    2010-04-01

    Full Text Available Higher education deals with complex knowledge and university teaching should focus on conceptual understanding. Adequate knowledge structures are essential and active knowledge construction should be supported for meaningful learning. But traditional lectures mostly are structured by slides which may misleadingly cause linear representations of knowledge. In this study, a framework for digital concept maps was developed to complement lectures in human biology. The course was aimed at student science teachers at the undergraduate level. The work is based on theoretical research on computer-supported learning, on knowledge structures perspectives within learning environments as well as on self-determination theory. Each session was supplemented by a digital, multimedia-enriched concept map. After each single lecture, students had free access to the concept maps to reinforce the latest topics. The objective of the study was to examine if the use of complementary concept maps (i influences achievement and (ii if motivational variables influence the use of the concept maps. In both cases, influences of computer-user self-efficacy were expected (iii. The students’ (N = 171 concept map use was logged, achievement was tested and motivational variables were surveyed (e.g. interest/ enjoyment, perceived competence, effort/ importance, value/usefulness. The logfile-data allowed distinguishing learners according to their concept map use. Results reveal the benefit of additional concept maps for achievement, positive motivational aspects and computer-user self-efficacy as mediating factors showed some influence. The emphasize of further research should be on students’ active engagement in structuring their individual learning by constructing concept maps themselves, especially in science education courses.

  11. Pharmacogenetics Influence Treatment Efficacy in Childhood Acute Lymphoblastic Leukemia

    Devidsen, M.L.; Dalhoff, K.; Schmiegelow, K.

    2008-01-01

    Pharmacogenetics covers the genetic variation affecting pharmacokinetics and pharmacodynamics. and their influence on drug-response phenotypes. The genetic variation includes an estimated 15 million single nucleotide polymorphisms (SNP) and is a key determinator for the interindividual differences...... treatment response. In the future, high-throughput, low-cost, genetic platforms will allow screening of hundreds or thousands of targeted SNPs to give a combined gene-dosage effect ( = individual SNP risk profile), which may allow pharmacogenetic-based individualization of treatment Udgivelsesdato: 2008/11...... in treatment resistance and toxic side effects. As most childhood acute lymphoblastic leukemia treatment protocols include up to 13 different chemotherapeutic agents, the impact of individual SNPs has been difficult to evaluate. So far Focus has mainly been on the widely used glucocorticosteroids...

  12. THE INFLUENCE OF MOTIVATION ON THE USE OF A PROVERB AS AN ARGUMENT (ON THE MATERIAL OF FRENCH LANGUAGE

    Olga Sergeevna ANISIMOVA

    2015-09-01

    Full Text Available The article considers the conditions for successful use of proverbs during argumentations and critical discussions. All the conclusions and theoretical provisions are based on the paremiological fund of French proverbs (notably French proverbs with negations. The article shows the difference between the notion of the paremiological etymological meaning related to the diachronic aspect, and the notion of the paremiological motivation related to the synchronic and diachronic aspects. The motivation of proverbs is presented as a key aspect, which influences the frequency of their use as an argument. The author analyzes the differences between the definitions of a word’s motivation and a proverb’s motivation. The article contains the author’s definition of the paremiological motivation and author’s classification of proverbs’ motivation degrees (examples of motivation, partial motivation and demotivation in proverbs and their influence on the use of proverbs as an argument. The author highlights the interdependence of idiomatic and analytical meanings of proverbs’ components, the influence of demotivation of analytical components on gradual demotivation of idiomatic meaning of proverbs. Proverbs with archaisms and historicisms gradually become inefficient arguments, therefore they are rarely used during critical discussions because they can cause misunderstanding.

  13. Manual and oral apraxia in acute stroke, frequency and influence on functional outcome

    Pedersen, P M; Jørgensen, H S; Kammersgaard, L P; Nakayama, H; Raaschou, H O; Olsen, T S

    2001-01-01

    To determine the frequency of manual and oral apraxia in acute stroke and to examine the influence of these symptoms on functional outcome.......To determine the frequency of manual and oral apraxia in acute stroke and to examine the influence of these symptoms on functional outcome....

  14. Relationship Between Career Aspirations and Measures of Motivation Toward Biology and Physics, and the Influence of Gender

    Koul, Ravinder; Lerdpornkulrat, Thanita; Chantara, Soontornpathai

    2011-12-01

    A student's motivational orientation is considered to be a predictor of a range of related education decisions, from attending classes to choosing a particular course or a profession. This survey study conducted with student volunteers (males = 519; females = 904) enrolled in secondary school science-math academic stream in Thailand investigated the relationship between measures of motivation (achievement goal orientation and physics and biology classroom anxiety) and aspirations for high earning science and math related careers. Results of multiple discriminant analyses showed gender differences in the motivational factors that influence career aspirations. Our interpretation of the findings highlights the significance of cultural beliefs about gender in decision making for careers.

  15. Motivation influencing worker performance in a technical division of Telkom SA

    T. F.J. Oosthuizen

    2001-12-01

    Full Text Available This paper investigates the overall motivational level of employees in a technical division of Telkom SA during change periods. Specific reasons for the established levels of motivation are identified. Based on the six motivator factors and ten hygiene factors as presented by Herzberg, it is the conclusion of this study that the solution to motivate employees are based on informed and positively motivated employees who participate continuously in the change process at all levels

  16. Effect of failure/success feedback and the moderating influence of personality on reward motivation.

    Anand, Deepika; Oehlberg, Katherine A; Treadway, Michael T; Nusslock, Robin

    2016-01-01

    While motivation to pursue goals is often assumed to be a trait-like characteristic, it is influenced by a variety of situational factors. In particular, recent experiences of success or failure, as well as cognitive responses to these outcomes, may shape subsequent willingness to expend effort for future rewards. To date, however, these effects have not been explicitly tested. In the present study, 131 healthy individuals received either failure or success feedback on a cognitive task. They were then instructed to either ruminate or distract themselves from their emotions. Finally, they completed the Effort Expenditure for Rewards Task, a laboratory measure of reward motivation. Results indicate that participants who received failure feedback relied more strongly on the reward magnitude when choosing whether to exert greater effort to obtain larger rewards, though this effect only held under conditions of significant uncertainty about whether the effort would be rewarded. Further, participants with high levels of trait inhibition were less responsive to reward value and probability when choosing whether to expend greater effort, results that echo past studies of effort-based decision-making in psychological disorders. PMID:25759131

  17. INFLUENCE OF ACUTE EXERCISE ON OXIDATIVE STRESS IN CHRONIC SMOKERS

    Zehra Serdar

    2003-09-01

    Full Text Available The relative oxidative insult caused by exercise and smoking on biological systems are well documented, however, their cumulative influence needs to be clarified. In order to examine the collective effects of exercise and smoking on oxidant and antioxidant parameters, young male smokers (n=10 and non-smokers (n=10 made to perform a negative slope (10% cycling exercise for 30 minutes at individual load equivalent to 60% maximal oxygen consumption (VO2max. Pre- and post-exercise (post-ex haematocrit, haemoglobin, white blood cells, plasma malondialdehyde (MDA levels, protein carbonyl formation and non-HDL oxidation, erythrocyte superoxide dismutase (SOD and glutathione peroxidase (GPX activities, serum ceruloplasmin (CER and urinary cotinine concentrations were evaluated. Pre-ex CER and urinary cotinine concentrations of smokers were significantly higher (p<0.05 and p<0.01, respectively compared to that of non-smokers and pre-ex CER concentrations were significantly correlated with cotinine levels in all subjects (p<0.05. Significant (p<0.01 increases were observed in non-HDL oxidation following the exercise in both groups and the elevations were more pronounced in smokers. Pre-ex SOD and GPX activities were not different between the two groups, however post-ex enzyme activities were significantly reduced in smokers (p<0.05. MDA and protein carbonyl concentrations were not different between the two groups and there were not any significant changes due to exercise.In conclusion, according to the results of the present study, we suggest that erythrocyte antioxidants SOD and GPX and plasma non-HDL are more prone to the possible oxidant damage of acute physical exercise in chronic smokers.

  18. Role of parental autonomy support on self-determination in influencing diet and exercise motivation in older adolescents

    Morrison SA

    2013-04-01

    Full Text Available Shannon A Morrison, Carol J Dashiff, David E Vance School of Nursing, University of Alabama, Birmingham, AL, USA Abstract: Parental influence to promote autonomy and self-determination in their children as they grow up may also motivate them to exercise and eat healthily. Unfortunately, nutritious dietary consumption and physical activity frequency tend to decline during the adolescent years and reaches its lowest level as the adolescent nears adulthood. In this study of 132 freshman and sophomore college students, the influence of parental autonomy support on overall adolescents self-determination was examined to determine whether self-determination influences adolescents' motivation to engage in healthy diet and exercise behaviors. Utilizing hierarchical multiple regression analyses, parental autonomy support was not predictive of older adolescents' motivation for diet and exercise; however, study results did indicate that parental autonomy support remains highly influential in adolescent self-determination (F[2, 130] = 22.21; P = 0.001 during early college years and that in this sample, adolescent self-determination is predictive of motivation for diet (t = 2.21; P < 0.05, but not exercise. Findings suggest that parental autonomy support continues to influence adolescent internalization of attitudes and behaviors during latter adolescence, but may play a lessor role in motivation for specific health-related behaviors as the adolescent nears adulthood. A better understanding of health motivation antecedents of adolescents may facilitate nurses develop new approaches to health-promotion strategies. Keywords: parental autonomy support, self-determination, adolescent health behaviors, motivation

  19. Acute Short-Term Mental Stress Does Not Influence Salivary Flow Rate Dynamics

    Naumova, Ella A; Sandulescu, Tudor; Al Khatib, Philipp; Thie, Michael; Lee, Wing-Kee; Zimmer, Stefan; Arnold, Wolfgang H.

    2012-01-01

    Background: Results of studies that address the influence of stress on salivary flow rate and composition are controversial. The aim of this study was to reveal the influence of stress vulnerability and different phases of stress reactivity on the unstimulated and stimulated salivary flow rate. We examined that acute mental stress does not change the salivary flow rate. In addition, we also examined the salivary cortisol and protein level in relation to acute mental stress stimuli. Methods: S...

  20. Differential influences of achievement approach goals and intrinsic/extrinsic motivation on help-seeking in e-learning

    Yan Yang

    2013-06-01

    Full Text Available Considering the importance yet paucity of help-seeking in e-learning, the present study investigated the motivational antecedents of help-seeking among online college students. We explored and compared the influences of achievement approach goals from the old and new achievement motivation models (Elliot & McGregor, 2001; Elliot, Murayama, & Pekrun, 2011 on online students’ help-seeking through intrinsic/extrinsic motivation. Path analyses were used to test two models of help-seeking among college students from four online educational psychology classes (N = 93 based on the two models of achievement goals. Our results showed that the new 3 × 2 model was a better fit than the old 2 × 2 model, suggesting that the achievement approach goals of the new model differ from those of the old model conceptually as Elliot, Murayama, and Pekrun (2011 posited. Second, our results revealed both unexpected direct and indirect positive influence of performance- and other-approach goals on online students’ help-seeking behaviour through extrinsic motivation. Third, while mastery-approach goals indirectly predicted help-seeking through intrinsic motivation, self- and task-approach predicted help-seeking in a dramatically different manner. Self-approach goals displayed indirect influence on help-seeking through intrinsic motivation similar to mastery-approach, yet task-approach displayed a negative direct influence on help-seeking. These results suggested the potential positive impact of self-approach and the detrimental influence of task-approach goals on help-seeking in e-learning environment. Conceptual issues and pedagogical implications for online instructions are discussed.

  1. The influence of preliminary motivation on successful realization of the artistic task

    Tancoš, Teja

    2013-01-01

    In the first part of theory of my thesis I present the motivation during the lessons. In this chapter I dealt with both sorts of motivation, intrinsic and extrinsic as well as the relation between them. I also focused on the theories of motivation. In the second part of the theory I explored the problem of the preliminary motivation at the subject of art that has a great impact on the execution of the teaching process. I wrote about how to motivate in the preliminary part of the lesson. I...

  2. The influence of teacher perceived administration of self-regulated learning on students' motivation and information-processing

    Rozendaal, JS; Minnaert, A; Boekaerts, M

    2005-01-01

    This study investigates the influence of teacher perceived administration of self-regulated learning on students' motivation and information-processing over time. This was done in the context of the Interactive Learning group System (ILS (R)): a large-scale innovation program in Dutch vocational sch

  3. The Influence of Cultural Bias on Motivation to Learn English: The Case of Khoe Primary School Students in Eastern Botswana

    Magogwe, Joel Mokuedi

    2009-01-01

    This study investigated the influence of cultural bias in the teaching of English and in the books used to teach English in primary schools attended by Khoe students in eastern Botswana. The study also explored the link between cultural bias and the attitudes and motivation of Khoe students learning English. One hundred and thirty-seven students…

  4. Influence of Motivational Beliefs and Strategies on Recall Task Performance in Elementary, Middle and High School Students

    Meneghetti, Chiara; De Beni, Rossana

    2010-01-01

    In the present study, we propose a model describing how motivational beliefs and strategies influence study performance of students at three different school levels: elementary (age 8-10), middle (11-14), and first year high school (15). Participants were administered the AMOS 8-15 instrument (Cornoldi et al. 2005) designed for measuring the…

  5. Perception Shapes Experience: The Influence of Actual and Perceived Classroom Environment Dimensions on Girls' Motivations for Science

    Spearman, Juliette; Watt, Helen M. G.

    2013-01-01

    The classroom environment influences students' academic outcomes, but it is often students' perceptions that shape their classroom experiences. Our study examined the extent to which observed classroom environment features shaped perceptions of the classroom, and explained levels of, and changes in, girls' motivation in junior secondary school…

  6. Influence of Web-Aided Cooperative Learning Environment on Motivation and on Self-Efficacy Belief in Biology Teaching

    Hevedanli, Murat

    2015-01-01

    The purpose of this study is to investigate the influence of the web-aided cooperative learning environment on biology preservice teachers' motivation and on their self-efficacy beliefs in biology teaching. The study was carried out with 30 biology preservice teachers attending a state university in Turkey. In the study, the pretest-posttest…

  7. Using Extrinsic Motivation to Influence Student Attitude and Behavior toward State Assessments at an Urban High School

    Emmett, Joshua

    2013-01-01

    The purpose of this qualitative research study was to discover the influence of a student achievement program implemented at one large urban high school that employed extrinsic motivation to promote student achievement on state assessments. Using organismic integration theory as the theoretical framework, 19 randomly selected students participated…

  8. Work Ethic, Motivation, and Parental Influences in Chinese and North American Children Learning to Play the Piano

    Comeau, Gilles; Huta, Veronika; Liu, YiFei

    2015-01-01

    This study compared 50 Chinese and 100 North American Caucasian children aged 6 to 17 who were learning piano, in terms of their work ethic, motivation, and parental influences. Compared to North American Caucasians, Chinese children and parents believed more strongly that musical ability requires hard work, and Chinese children were more…

  9. The Model of Motivational Dynamics in Sport: Resistance to Peer Influence, Behavioral Engagement and Disaffection, Dispositional Coping, and Resilience

    Adam Robert Nicholls; David eMorley; John ePerry

    2016-01-01

    The Model of Motivational Dynamics (MMD; Skinner and Pitzer, 2012) infers that peers influence behavioral engagement levels, which in turn is linked to coping and resilience. Scholars, however, are yet to test the MMD among an athletic population. The purpose of this paper was to assess an a priori model that included key constructs from the MMD, such as resistance to peer influence, behavioral engagement and disaffection, coping, and resilience among athletes. Three hundred and fifty-one at...

  10. The Model of Motivational Dynamics in Sport: Resistance to Peer Influence, Behavioral Engagement and Disaffection, Dispositional Coping, and Resilience

    Nicholls, Adam R; Morley, David; Perry, John L.

    2016-01-01

    The Model of Motivational Dynamics (MMD; Skinner and Pitzer, 2012) infers that peers influence behavioral engagement levels, which in turn is linked to coping and resilience. Scholars, however, are yet to test the MMD among an athletic population. The purpose of this paper was to assess an a priori model that included key constructs from the MMD, such as resistance to peer influence, behavioral engagement and disaffection, coping, and resilience among athletes. Three hundred and fifty-one ath...

  11. Exploring the influence of trust relationships on motivation in the health sector: a systematic review

    Okello, DR; Gilson, L

    2015-01-01

    Background Dedicated and motivated health workers (HWs) play a major role in delivering efficient and effective health services that improve patients’ experience of health care. Growing interest in HW motivation has led to a global focus on pay for performance strategies, but less attention has been paid to nurturing intrinsic motivation. Workplace trust relationships involve fair treatment and respectful interactions between individuals. Such relationships enable cooperation among HWs and th...

  12. The influence of parental and peer attachment on Internet usage motives and addiction

    Soh, Patrick Chin-Hooi; Charlton, John P.; Chew, Kok-Wai

    2014-01-01

    The impact of parental and peer attachment on four Internet usage motives and Internet addiction was compared using path modelling of survey data from 1,577 adolescent Malaysian school students. The model accounted for 31 percent of Internet addiction score variance. Lesser parental attachment was associated with greater Internet addiction risk. Psychological escape motives were more strongly related to Internet addiction than other motives, and had the largest mediating effect upon the paren...

  13. How do rewards and management styles influence the motivation to share knowledge?

    Harder, Mie

    2008-01-01

    How to motivate knowledge sharing is of crucial importance to many companies. This paper analyzes individual knowledge sharing behavior in a self-determination theory (SDT) perspective. The primary aim is to explore what type of motivation predicts knowledge sharing behavior and how this type of motivation is affected by reward structures and management styles in organizations. The paper builds on survey and interview data from a pilot case study and provides statistical evidence of a strong ...

  14. Investigating students' levels of engagement with mathematics: critical events, motivations, and influences on behaviour

    Grehan, Martin; Bhaird, Ciarán Mac an; O'Shea, Ann

    2016-01-01

    Universities invest significant resources in the provision of mathematics tuition to first year students, through both traditional and non-traditional means. Research has shown that a significant minority of students do not engage with these resources appropriately. This paper presents findings from a study of two groups of students at Maynooth University. Both groups had similar mathematical backgrounds on entry to university. The first group consisted of seven students who had failed first year mathematics and had very low levels of engagement with available supports. The second group consisted of nine students who had passed first year mathematics and had engaged with the supports to a significant extent. It emerged that while both groups initially displayed similar tactics and encountered similar difficulties, their levels of reaction to a number of critical events in their mathematical education were key to their engagement levels and their subsequent progression. Further analysis revealed aspects of the students' behaviour which caused them to approach or avoid difficulties. The reasons behind the different student behaviours were investigated, and the main categories of influence on student behaviour which emerged from the interview data were fear, social factors, and motivation.

  15. Perceived barriers and motivating factors influencing student midwives’ acceptance of rural postings in Ghana

    Lori Jody R

    2012-07-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Research on the mal-distribution of health care workers has focused mainly on physicians and nurses. To meet the Millennium Development Goal Five and the reproductive needs of all women, it is predicted that an additional 334,000 midwives are needed. Despite the on-going efforts to increase this cadre of health workers there are still glaring gaps and inequities in distribution. The objectives of this study are to determine the perceived barriers and motivators influencing final year midwifery students’ acceptance of rural postings in Ghana, West Africa. Methods An exploratory qualitative study using focus group interviews as the data collection strategy was conducted in two of the largest midwifery training schools in Ghana. All final year midwifery students from the two training schools were invited to participate in the focus groups. A purposive sample of 49 final year midwifery students participated in 6 focus groups. All students were women. Average age was 23.2 years. Glaser’s constant comparative method of analysis was used to identify patterns or themes from the data. Results Three themes were identified through a broad inductive process: 1 social amenities; 2 professional life; and 3 further education/career advancement. Together they create the overarching theme, quality of life, we use to describe the influences on midwifery students’ decision to accept a rural posting following graduation. Conclusions In countries where there are too few health workers, deployment of midwives to rural postings is a continuing challenge. Until more midwives are attracted to work in rural, remote areas health inequities will exist and the targeted reduction for maternal mortality will remain elusive.

  16. Motivated explanation.

    Patterson, Richard; Operskalski, Joachim T; Barbey, Aron K

    2015-01-01

    Although motivation is a well-established field of study in its own right, and has been fruitfully studied in connection with attribution theory and belief formation under the heading of "motivated thinking," its powerful and pervasive influence on specifically explanatory processes is less well explored. Where one has a strong motivation to understand some event correctly, one is thereby motivated to adhere as best one can to normative or "epistemic" criteria for correct or accurate explanation, even if one does not consciously formulate or apply such criteria. By contrast, many of our motivations to explain introduce bias into the processes involved in generating, evaluating, or giving explanations. Non-epistemic explanatory motivations, or following Kunda's usage, "directional" motivations, include self-justification, resolution of cognitive dissonance, deliberate deception, teaching, and many more. Some of these motivations lead to the relaxation or violation of epistemic norms; others enhance epistemic motivation, so that one engages in more careful and thorough generational and evaluative processes. We propose that "real life" explanatory processes are often constrained by multiple goals, epistemic and directional, where these goals may mutually reinforce one another or may conflict, and where our explanations emerge as a matter of weighing and satisfying those goals. We review emerging evidence from psychology and neuroscience to support this framework and to elucidate the central role of motivation in human thought and explanation. PMID:26528166

  17. Continuing to drive while sleepy: the influence of sleepiness countermeasures, motivation for driving sleepy, and risk perception.

    Watling, Christopher N; Armstrong, Kerry A; Obst, Patricia L; Smith, Simon S

    2014-12-01

    Driver sleepiness is a major contributor to road crashes. The current study sought to examine the association between perceptions of effectiveness of six sleepiness countermeasures and their relationship with self-reports of continuing to drive while sleepy among 309 drivers after controlling for the influence of age, sex, motivation for driving sleepy, and risk perception of sleepy driving. The results demonstrate that the variables of age, sex, motivation, and risk perception were significantly associated with self-reports of continuing to drive while sleepy and only one countermeasure was associated with self-reports of continuing to drive while sleepy. Further, it was found that age differences in self-reports of continuing to drive while sleepy was mediated by participants' motivation and risk perception. These findings highlight modifiable factors that could be focused on with interventions that seek to modify drivers' attitudes and behaviours of driving while sleepy. PMID:25261619

  18. Influence of Age, Sex, and Race on College Students' Exercise Motivation of Physical Activity

    Egli, Trevor; Bland, Helen W.; Melton, Bridget F.; Czech, Daniel R.

    2011-01-01

    Objective: The authors examined differences in exercise motivation between age, sex, and race for college students. Participants: Students from 156 sections of physical activity classes at a midsize university were recruited (n = 2,199; 1,081 men, 1,118 women) in 2005-2006 and volunteered to complete the Exercise Motivation Inventory. Methods:…

  19. Introspective responses to cues and motivation to reduce cigarette smoking influence state and behavioral responses to cue exposure.

    Veilleux, Jennifer C; Skinner, Kayla D

    2016-09-01

    In the current study, we aimed to extend smoking cue-reactivity research by evaluating delay discounting as an outcome of cigarette cue exposure. We also separated introspection in response to cues (e.g., self-reporting craving and affect) from cue exposure alone, to determine if introspection changes behavioral responses to cigarette cues. Finally, we included measures of quit motivation and resistance to smoking to assess motivational influences on cue exposure. Smokers were invited to participate in an online cue-reactivity study. Participants were randomly assigned to view smoking images or neutral images, and were randomized to respond to cues with either craving and affect questions (e.g., introspection) or filler questions. Following cue exposure, participants completed a delay discounting task and then reported state affect, craving, and resistance to smoking, as well as an assessment of quit motivation. We found that after controlling for trait impulsivity, participants who introspected on craving and affect showed higher delay discounting, irrespective of cue type, but we found no effect of response condition on subsequent craving (e.g., craving reactivity). We also found that motivation to quit interacted with experimental conditions to predict state craving and state resistance to smoking. Although asking about craving during cue exposure did not increase later craving, it resulted in greater delaying of discounted rewards. Overall, our findings suggest the need to further assess the implications of introspection and motivation on behavioral outcomes of cue exposure. PMID:27115733

  20. Ecological Momentary Assessment of Acute Alcohol Use Disorder Symptoms: Associations With Mood, Motives, and Use on Planned Drinking Days

    Dvorak, Robert D.; Pearson, Matthew R.; Day, Anne M.

    2014-01-01

    Several theories posit that alcohol is consumed both in relation to one’s mood and in relation to different motives for drinking. However, there are mixed findings regarding the role of mood and motives in predicting drinking. Ecological momentary assessment (EMA) methods provide an opportunity to evaluate near real-time changes in mood and motives within individuals to predict alcohol use. In addition, endorsement of criteria of an alcohol use disorder (AUD) may also be sensitive to changes ...

  1. Motivated Explanation

    Richard Patterson

    2015-10-01

    Full Text Available Although motivation is a well-established field of study in its own right, and has been fruitfully studied in connection with attribution theory and belief formation under the heading of “motivated thinking”, its powerful and pervasive influence on explanatory processes is less well explored. Where one has a strong motivation to understand some event correctly, one is thereby motivated to adhere as best one can to normative or “epistemic” criteria for correct or accurate explanation, even if one does not consciously formulate or apply such criteria. By contrast, many of our motivations to explain introduce bias into the processes involved in generating, evaluating, or giving of explanations. Non-epistemic explanatory motivations, or (following Kunda’s usage, “directional” motivations, include self-justification, resolution of cognitive dissonance, deliberate deception, teaching, and many more. Some of these motivations lead to the relaxation or violation of epistemic norms, combined with an effort to preserve the appearance of accuracy; others enhance epistemic motivation, so that one engages in more careful and thorough generational and evaluative processes. In short, “real life” explanatory processes are often constrained by multiple goals, epistemic and directional, where these goals may mutually reinforce one another or may conflict, and where our explanations emerge as a matter of weighing and satisfying those goals. Our proposals are largely programmatic, although we do review a good deal of relevant behavioral and neurological evidence. Specifically, we recognize five generative processes, some of which cover further sub-processes, and six evaluative processes. All of these are potential points of entry for the influence of motivation. We then suggest in some detail how specific sorts of explanatory motivation interact with specific explanatory processes.

  2. Centrally Administered Ghrelin Acutely Influences Food Choice in Rodents.

    Schéle, Erik; Bake, Tina; Rabasa, Cristina; Dickson, Suzanne L

    2016-01-01

    We sought to determine whether the orexigenic hormone, ghrelin, is involved in the intrinsic regulation of food choice in rats. Ghrelin would seem suited to serve such a role given that it signals hunger information from the stomach to brain areas important for feeding control, including the hypothalamus and reward system (e.g. ventral tegmental area, VTA). Thus, in rats offered a choice of palatable foods (sucrose pellets and lard) superimposed on regular chow for 2 weeks, we explored whether acute central delivery of ghrelin (intracerebroventricular (ICV) or intra-VTA) is able to redirect their dietary choice. The major unexpected finding is that, in rats with high baseline lard intake, acute ICV ghrelin injection increased their chow intake over 3-fold, relative to vehicle-injected controls, measured at both 3 hr and 6 hr after injection. Similar effects were observed when ghrelin was delivered to the VTA, thereby identifying the VTA as a likely contributing neurobiological substrate for these effects. We also explored food choice after an overnight fast, when endogenous ghrelin levels are elevated, and found similar effects of dietary choice to those described for ghrelin. These effects of fasting on food choice were suppressed in models of suppressed ghrelin signaling (i.e. peripheral injection of a ghrelin receptor antagonist to rats and ghrelin receptor (GHSR) knock-out mice), implicating a role for endogenous ghrelin in the changes in food choice that occur after an overnight fast. Thus, in line with its role as a gut-brain hunger hormone, ghrelin appears to be able to acutely alter food choice, with notable effects to promote "healthy" chow intake, and identify the VTA as a likely contributing neurobiological substrate for these effects. PMID:26925974

  3. Centrally Administered Ghrelin Acutely Influences Food Choice in Rodents.

    Erik Schéle

    Full Text Available We sought to determine whether the orexigenic hormone, ghrelin, is involved in the intrinsic regulation of food choice in rats. Ghrelin would seem suited to serve such a role given that it signals hunger information from the stomach to brain areas important for feeding control, including the hypothalamus and reward system (e.g. ventral tegmental area, VTA. Thus, in rats offered a choice of palatable foods (sucrose pellets and lard superimposed on regular chow for 2 weeks, we explored whether acute central delivery of ghrelin (intracerebroventricular (ICV or intra-VTA is able to redirect their dietary choice. The major unexpected finding is that, in rats with high baseline lard intake, acute ICV ghrelin injection increased their chow intake over 3-fold, relative to vehicle-injected controls, measured at both 3 hr and 6 hr after injection. Similar effects were observed when ghrelin was delivered to the VTA, thereby identifying the VTA as a likely contributing neurobiological substrate for these effects. We also explored food choice after an overnight fast, when endogenous ghrelin levels are elevated, and found similar effects of dietary choice to those described for ghrelin. These effects of fasting on food choice were suppressed in models of suppressed ghrelin signaling (i.e. peripheral injection of a ghrelin receptor antagonist to rats and ghrelin receptor (GHSR knock-out mice, implicating a role for endogenous ghrelin in the changes in food choice that occur after an overnight fast. Thus, in line with its role as a gut-brain hunger hormone, ghrelin appears to be able to acutely alter food choice, with notable effects to promote "healthy" chow intake, and identify the VTA as a likely contributing neurobiological substrate for these effects.

  4. Influence of acute hypoxia and radiation quality on cell survival

    Tinganelli, Walter; Ma, Ning-Yi; von Neubeck, Cläre; Maier, Andreas; Schicker, Corinna; Kraft-Weyrather, Wilma; Durante, Marco

    2013-01-01

    To measure the effect of acute oxygen depletion on cell survival for different types of radiation, experiments have been performed using Chinese hamster ovary (CHO) cells and RAT-1 rat prostate cancer cells. A special chamber has been developed to perform irradiations under different levels of oxygenation. The oxygen concentrations used were normoxia (air), hypoxia (94.5% N2, 5% CO2, 0.5% O2) and anoxia (95% N2, 5% CO2). Cells were exposed to X-rays and to C-, N- or O-ions with linear energy ...

  5. A Research on Factors Influencing the Clinical Prognosis of Acute Stroke Patie.patients

    Luo Zuming; Li Manli

    2000-01-01

    Object: To search for the factors significantly influencing the clinical prognosis of acute stroke patients. Background: There are lack of prospective multivariate analysis research m acute stroke in the world. Method: We chose 17 factors possibly influencing the prognosis of acute patients, took Barthel′s Index at the end of 2 months after stroke onset and decreased percentage of neurological deficit scores (MESSS) between 72h after hospitalization and 2 months after onset as gold standard, to have a prospective, multivariate analysis research combined with univariate analysis. Results: Multivariate analysis of 106 acute stroke patients combined with univariate analysis showed the factors significantly influencing the clinical prognosis of acute stroke patients were: initial MESSS score、 age、 complication、 mass effect、 stroke location、 time of delay before emergency arrival (BDT). Time of delay after emergency arrival was not found to be a significant prognostic factor. Discussion: Barthel Index at the end of 1 month after stroke onset was strongly related to that at the end of 2 month after onset, as was the same with MESSS score. It showed there was no significant difference between 1 month and 2 months after stroke onset when we choose time interval in evaluating prognosis of acute stroke patients.Conclusion: BDT、 initial MESSS score、 age、 stroke location、 mass effect、 complication were important factors of acute stroke patients. Avoid the delay before emergency arrival after onset, prevent and treat complications after stroke, more carefully treat acute stroke patients with advanced age, advanced age, high initial MESSS scores and those with mass effect reported by CT, we can improve the outcome of stroke patients.

  6. Role of parental autonomy support on self-determination in influencing diet and exercise motivation in older adolescents

    Morrison SA; Dashiff CJ; Vance DE

    2013-01-01

    Shannon A Morrison, Carol J Dashiff, David E Vance School of Nursing, University of Alabama, Birmingham, AL, USA Abstract: Parental influence to promote autonomy and self-determination in their children as they grow up may also motivate them to exercise and eat healthily. Unfortunately, nutritious dietary consumption and physical activity frequency tend to decline during the adolescent years and reaches its lowest level as the adolescent nears adulthood. In this study of 132 freshman and soph...

  7. Role of parental autonomy support on self-determination in influencing diet and exercise motivation in older adolescents

    Shannon Morrison, Shannon

    2013-01-01

    Shannon A Morrison, Carol J Dashiff, David E Vance School of Nursing, University of Alabama, Birmingham, AL, USA Abstract: Parental influence to promote autonomy and self-determination in their children as they grow up may also motivate them to exercise and eat healthily. Unfortunately, nutritious dietary consumption and physical activity frequency tend to decline during the adolescent years and reaches its lowest level as the adolescent nears adulthood. In this study of 132 freshman and sop...

  8. Influence of Motivational Interviewing on Explicit and Implicit Alcohol-Related Cognition and Alcohol Use in At-Risk Adolescents

    Thush, Carolien; Wiers, Reinout W.; Moerbeek, Mirjam; Ames, Susan L.; Grenard, Jerry L.; Sussman, Steve; Stacy, Alan W.

    2009-01-01

    Both implicit and explicit cognitions play an important role in the development of addictive behavior. This study investigated the influence of a single-session motivational interview (MI) on implicit and explicit alcohol-related cognition and whether this intervention was successful in consequently decreasing alcohol use in at-risk adolescents. Implicit and explicit alcohol-related cognitions were assessed at pretest and one month posttest in 125 Dutch at-risk adolescents ranging in age from...

  9. Engineering Design Activity: Understanding How Different Design Activities Influence Students' Motivation in Grades 9-12

    Lawanto, Oenardi; Stewardson, Gary

    2009-01-01

    The objective of this study was to evaluate grade 9-12 students’ motivation while engaged in two different engineering design projects: marble-sorter and bridge designs. The motivation components measured in this study were focused on students’ intrinsic (IGO) and extrinsic (EGO) goal orientations, task value (TV), self-efficacy for learning and performance (SELP), and control belief (CB). After finishing each project, students were asked to complete an Engineering Design Questionnaire (EDQ) ...

  10. A study on the influence of organizational climate on motivation of employees

    Sibel Gök

    2009-01-01

    The relation between organizational climate and organizational efficiency is frequently pointed out in recent management and labour psychology studies. Organizational climate has positive or negative impacts on performance, job satisfaction, and motivation of employees. In this study, which consists of two parts, the relation between organizational climate and work motivation is examined. The first part of the study contains theoretical framework with regard to the organizational climate an...

  11. The more (complex), the better? The influence of epistemic motivation on integrative bargaining in complex negotiation

    Schalk, van der, J.; Beersma, B.; Kleef, van, J.; Dreu, de, C.K.W.

    2010-01-01

    Negotiating about a larger number of issues is often argued to enhance the potential for integrative bargaining. However, the enhanced complexity may also make negotiators more susceptible to bias, making it less likely for them to reach win-win agreements. We argue that epistemic motivation, the motivation to hold accurate perceptions of the world, provides a key to solve this paradox. In a negotiation experiment we manipulated complexity by having participants negotiate about 6 or 18 issues...

  12. A study on the influence of organizational climate on motivation of employees

    Gök, Sibel

    2009-01-01

    The relation between organizational climate and organizational efficiency is frequently pointed out in recent management and labour psychology studies. Organizational climate has positive or negative impacts on performance, job satisfaction, and motivation of employees. In this study, which consists of two parts, the relation between organizational climate and work motivation is examined. The first part of the study contains theoretical framework with regard to the organizational climate and ...

  13. The living arrangement may differentially influence IDU parents' motivation to reduce HIV risk as a function of gender.

    Copenhaver, Michael; Lee, I-Ching; Merz-Beyus, Amanda; Faghri, Pouran

    2010-11-01

    Studies that examine data from drug-abusing parents typically investigate the impact of parental behavior on their children's well-being and focus almost exclusively on the impact of mothers. Other approaches have examined the level of parental involvement among parents in drug treatment and find that a higher level of parental involvement is related to lower levels of addiction severity. Recent research examines the specific role of fathers and suggests that the promotion of responsible parenting may serve as a positive motivational influence among fathers participating in drug treatment. The present study investigated the influence of the living arrangement on improvements in HIV-risk reduction variables among 151 IDU parents who participated in the Community-friendly Health Recovery Program intervention. A gender×living arrangement interaction demonstrated greater enhancements in social and personal motivation to reduce HIV risk among fathers currently living with their children vs. fathers not living with their children while the opposite pattern of outcomes was demonstrated for mothers. Findings indicate that a parenting role that includes living with children may differentially influence parents' HIV-risk reduction motivation as a function of gender. PMID:20711890

  14. Human solvent exposure. Factors influencing the pharmacokinetics and acute toxicity

    Bælum, Jesper

    1991-01-01

    symptoms. The pharmacokinetics of toluene is complex and there is a large individual variation in the excretion of the metabolites. This variation can only to a limited extend be related to known variables. Intake of alcohol during exposure inhibits the metabolism of toluene and increases the internal dose...... exposed to mixtures of solvents experience an increased frequency of work related irritative and neurological symptoms although the exposure has been far below the occupational exposure limits. A series of controlled human exposure studies was carried out. Different groups of persons were exposed to the...... most frequent solvent, toluene. Toluene in alveolar air and the urinary excretion of the metabolites were measured and the acute effects of toluene were assessed by the performance in a series of test of the perceptual and psychomotor functions as well as a standardized registration of annoyance and...

  15. The Influence of Acute Physical Activity on Working Memory.

    Zach, Sima; Shalom, Eyal

    2016-04-01

    The effect of three types of physical activity on two types of working memory were investigated. Participants were 20 adult males who trained twice a week in volleyball two hours per session. Procedures included two pre and post intervention tests of working memory: the Digit span and Visual Memory Span subtests of the Wechsler Memory Scale-Revised. Interventions included tactical volleyball formation, body-weight resistance exercises, 15 minutes of running, and sub-maximal aerobic activity. Volleyball activity improved memory performance to a greater extent than the other two activities. Results indicate that immediately after acute exercise there is an increase in working memory function, more evident after physical activity in which cognitive functioning is inherent. PMID:27166321

  16. The mean electro-motive force, current- and cross-helicity under the influence of rotation, magnetic field and shear

    Pipin, V V

    2006-01-01

    The expressions for the mean electromotive force (MEMF) is derived for the case of the stratified magnetohydrodynamical turbulence that is subjected to the influence of rotation, large-scale magnetic field (LSMF) and shear. The derivations were made in the framework of mean-field magnetohydrodynamics. The effect of turbulent flows and fluctuating magnetic fields on the evolution of the large-scale fields is computed within the so-called "minimal tau-approximation" (MTA). The influence of the large-scale fields such as rotation, LSMF and uniform shear (differential rotation) on the different parts of the MEMF (such as $\\alpha$ - effect, turbulent diffusion, turbulent transport and etc.) is explicitly defined via factors describing the efficiency of rotational and LSMF's influence on the turbulent flows. Whenever it possible we make comparison with results obtained earlier within the second order correlation approximation (SOCA). In computing the mean electro-motive force we take into account the influence of t...

  17. The influence of ethical values and food choice motivations on intentions to purchase sustainably sourced foods.

    Dowd, Kylie; Burke, Karena J

    2013-10-01

    This study examined a three-step adaptation of the Theory of Planned Behaviour (TPB) applied to the intention of consumers to purchase sustainably sourced food. The sample consisted of 137 participants, of which 109 were female, who were recruited through a farmers market and an organic produce outlet in an Australian capital city. Participants completed an online questionnaire containing the TPB scales of attitude, subjective norms, perceived behavioural control and intention; measures of positive moral attitude and ethical self identity; and food choice motives. Hierarchical multiple regression was used to examine the predictive utility of the TPB in isolation (step 1) and the TPB expanded to include the constructs of moral attitude and ethical self-identity (step 2). The results indicated the expansion of the TPB to include these constructs added significantly to the predictive model measuring intention to purchase sustainably sourced food. The third step in the adaptation utilised this expanded TPB model and added a measure of retail channel (where consumers reported buying fresh produce) and 9 food choice motives, in order to assess the predictive utility of the inclusion of choice motivations in this context. Of the 8 food choice motives examined, only health and ethical values significantly predicted intention to purchase sustainably sourced food. However, with the addition of food choice motives, ethical self-identity was no longer a significant predictor of intention to purchase sustainably sourced food. Overall the adapted TPB model explained 76% of the variance in intention to purchase sustainably sourced food. PMID:23770118

  18. Glucose and acute exercise influence factors secreted by circulating angiogenic cells in vitro

    Witkowski, Sarah; Guhanarayan, Gayatri; Burgess, Rachel

    2016-01-01

    Abstract Circulating angiogenic cells (CAC) influence vascular repair through the secretion of proangiogenic factors and cytokines. While CAC are deficient in patients with diabetes and exercise has a beneficial effect on CACs, the impact of these factors on paracrine secretion from CAC is unknown. We aimed to determine whether the in vitro secretion of selected cytokines and nitric oxide (NO) from CAC is influenced by hyperglycemia and acute exercise. Colony‐forming unit CAC (CFU‐CAC) were c...

  19. Influence of motivation on academic performance of students undertaking vocational training

    Javier J. Maquilón Sánchez

    2011-04-01

    Full Text Available Vocational training in Spain is not longer an option for those students who do not reach the right level to attend secondary school, and has turned into a professional alternative of high quality and with high levels of employability. The analysis of the motivations that foster student learning is very useful in order to design intervention proposals which may improve the quality of student learning. This research study is a response to this approach. We present a theoretical review of the basics of motivation and its relationship with learning, followed by an empirical study of considerable length, whose results are striking: both mid-level and higher level vocational course students require supervision and specific training in all aspects related to motivation and learning strategies.

  20. Age-Differences in Work Motivation and Job Satisfaction. The Influence of Age on the Relationships between Work Characteristics and Workers' Outcomes

    Boumans, Nicolle P. G.; de Jong, Ad H. J.; Janssen, Sara M.

    2011-01-01

    This study investigated the influence of age on the relationship between work characteristics and workers' work motivation and job satisfaction. In total, 1036 workers of a Dutch division of a multinational organization participated. Data were collected by a digital questionnaire. Two interaction terms in the regression on work motivation were…

  1. Influence of acute hypoxia and radiation quality on cell survival

    The purpose of this study was to measure the effect of acute oxygen depletion on cell survival for different types of radiation, experiments have been performed using Chinese hamster ovary (CHO) cells and R-3327-AT1 (RAT-1) rat prostate cancer cells. A special chamber has been developed to perform irradiations under different levels of oxygenation. The oxygen concentrations used were normoxia (air), hypoxia (94.5% N2, 5% CO2, 0.5% O2) and anoxia (95% N2, 5% CO2). Cells were exposed to X-rays and to C-, N- or O-ions with linear energy transfer (LET) values ranging from 100-160 keV/μm. The oxygen enhancement ratio (OER) and relative biological effectiveness (RBE) values have been calculated from the measured clonogenic survival curves. For both cell lines, the X-ray OER depended on the survival level. For particle irradiation, OER was not dependent on the survival level but decreased with increasing LET. The RBE of CHO cells under oxic conditions reached a plateau for LET values above 100 keV/μm, while it was still increasing under anoxia. In conclusion, the results demonstrated that our chamber could be used to measure radiosensitivity under intermediate hypoxia. Measurements suggest that ions heavier than carbon could be of additional advantage in the irradiation, especially of radioresistant hypoxic tumor regions. (author)

  2. Think, Feel, Act: Motivational and Emotional Influences on Military Students' Online Academic Success

    Artino, Anthony R.

    2009-01-01

    This study employed a social-cognitive view of self-regulated learning to examine how several personal factors relate to academic success in an online course. Service academy undergraduates (N = 481) completed a survey that assessed their motivational beliefs (self-efficacy and task value); negative achievement emotions (boredom and frustration);…

  3. Socio-Political Influences on EFL Motivation and Attitudes: Comparative Surveys of Korean High School Students

    Kim, Tae-Young

    2010-01-01

    This paper investigates Korean high school students' English learning motivation and attitudes. In this regard, the results of a 2002 study were compared with those of a 2006 study. Questionnaire data were obtained from a total of 1,037 high school students in a major city in South Korea, and the data were compared with those on the students'…

  4. The Influence of Physical Activity, Sport and Exercise Motives among UK-Based University Students

    Roberts, Simon; Reeves, Matthew; Ryrie, Angus

    2015-01-01

    Recent evidence suggests that the majority of the adult population fails to achieve the recommended target of 30-minutes moderate intensity exercise, days a week. This includes university students who often have the time to engage in physical activity. The aim of this study was to determine exercise motives for a UK-based student population. The…

  5. Intrinsic and External Factors and Influences on the Motivation of Suicide Attackers

    Gregor Bruce

    2013-09-01

    Full Text Available Suicide terrorism is the most extreme example of asymmetrical warfare. It is dramatic, frightening and can be very effective for the terrorist group which employs it. The psychological effects are out of proportion to the damage caused. The individual attackers have a mixture of motivations and the combination of motivators varies between the individual attackers, their groups and their causes. The terms “suicide terrorism”, “suicide attacks”, “suicide missions” and “suicide bombing” have specific meanings. Pape (1 limits the term “suicide attack” to an attack which is only successful with the death of the terrorist. The terrorist deploys in the expectation of certain death to ensure the success of the mission. “Suicide bombers”are a specific example of this genre as are hijackers who fly aircraft into buildings. “Suicide missions” are carried out by terrorists who realistically do not expect to survive the mission and do not have an escape plan but sometimes survive. The success of the mission is not dependent on their death. Examples are the 1972 attack on Lod Airport and the 2008 attack on Mumbai. “Suicide terrorism” is an all-embracing term that covers all of these events. Participants in suicide attacks have significant differences in their aims, psychological profiles and motivation from those who participate in suicide missions. This paper is specifically directed to the motivation of suicide attackers.

  6. Influencing Young Adolescents' Motivation in the Lowest Level of Secondary Education

    Peetsma, Thea; Van der Veen, Ineke

    2015-01-01

    After the transition to secondary school around age 12, a well-known decline in young adolescents' motivation for learning causes particular concerns in the lowest level of secondary education, where the percentage of early school leavers is highest. This article focuses on a study of the effects of an intervention, designed to enhance…

  7. Effectiveness of motivational interviewing in influencing smoking cessation in pregnant and postpartum disadvantaged women.

    Hayes, Catherine B

    2013-05-01

    Systematic assessments of Motivational Interviewing (MI) in smoking behavior have been rare to date. This study aimed to determine whether an integrated approach, involving staff training in MI techniques, was sufficient to affect change in smoking status or intensity in low-income pregnant and postpartum women.

  8. Motivational factors influencing behavioural responses to charging measures in freight operator sector

    Rößger, Lars; Schade, Jens; Tretvik, Terje

    2009-01-01

    The present paper aims to provide insights into freight operators’ attitudes with differentiated charges and their opinions about charges’ effectiveness and future behavioural responses. Thereby, we investigate whether motivational factors, particularly acceptability towards road charges, play an important role on future behavioural adaptations according to charging schemes. Interview surveys have been conducted and have focused on freight operators and road hauliers’ perception a...

  9. Motivational and Cognitive Test-Taking Strategies and Their Influence on Test Performance in Mathematics

    Peng, Yun; Hong, Eunsook; Mason, Elsa

    2014-01-01

    A structural equation model of relationships among testing-related motivation variables (test value, effort, self-efficacy, and test anxiety), test-taking strategies (test tactics and metacognitive strategies), gender, and math test performance were examined with a sample of 10th graders (N = 438; 182 males and 256 females). In general, motivation…

  10. Motivational interviewing group at inpatient detoxification, its influence in maintaining abstinence and treatment retention after discharge.

    Bachiller, Diana; Grau-López, Lara; Barral, Carmen; Daigre, Constanza; Alberich, Cristina; Rodríguez-Cintas, Laia; Valero, Sergi; Casas, Miquel; Roncero, Carlos

    2015-01-01

    The relapse rate after discharge from inpatient detoxification is high. The objective of this pilot study is to assess the sociodemographic, clinical and therapeutic factors associated with maintaining abstinence in patients who participated in a brief motivational interviewing group during admission for detoxification. A total of 46 patients, diagnosed substance dependent according to DSM -IV, and admitted to the Hospital Detoxification Unit, participated in a brief motivational interviewing group. Sociodemographic, clinical, motivation to change (University of Rhode Island Change Assessment, URICA) and satisfaction with the treatment group (Treatment Perceptions Questionnaire, CPT) data were collected. Abstinence and treatment retention two months after discharge were assessed by weekly telephone calls. A survival analysis was performed. Being male, having more cognitions of the maintenance stage of change at discharge, being satisfied with group therapy and therapist during hospitalization are associated with longer abstinence after discharge. The brief motivational interviewing group approach with patients admitted for detoxification is related to greater likelihood of maintaining abstinence and subsequent treatment retention. PMID:26132300

  11. Please Pass the Peas: Influence of Emotions on Adult Learning Motivations

    Ramsay, Samantha; Holyoke, Laura

    2014-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to expand the knowledge of adult motivation in unconventional professional settings. Nine focus group interviews were conducted with child care providers in child care settings from four states in the Western United States: California, Idaho, Oregon, and Washington. At each focus group interview three to eight…

  12. Multiple groups confirmatory factor analysis of the motivational influencing individuals’ decisions about participating in intramural sports

    K. Rickel

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available Intramural programs provide competition and recreation during the academic year for the diverse college populations of faculty, staff, and currently enrolled students and their spouses/partners who do not participate in other organized sports on campus. Sport psychologists, physical activity leaders, and others have shown an increased interest in the psychological factors that motivate college students to consume sport and physical activity (Rickel, Stoll, &Beller, 2005, 2006; Harkema, Dieser, Lankford, & Scholl, 2006; Yue-de, Wen-hao, & Ying-chun, 2009. Little research has been done with regard to the motivational factors affecting individuals’ decisions about participating specifically in intramural sports such as flag football, basketball, and soccer, etc. The purpose of this study was to independently test the measurement model of the Participant Motivations Questionnaire (PMQ assumed to underlie the motivational factors of the intramural sport participation by male and female college students. In addition, this study also examined whether or not PMQ was valid for the intramural sport participants in a northwestern university of the USA. Based on the results of the CFA, the one-factor model does fit both male and female college students. However, the factor loadings are not equivalent across the two groups. In summary, it is noted that the regenerated 24-item PMQ for the intramural sport participants is unequally valid for the current subjects of male and female college students.

  13. Influence of Songs in Primary School Students' Motivation for Learning English in Lima, Peru

    Aguirre, Diego; Bustinza, Daisy; Garvich, Mijail

    2016-01-01

    Many studies have shown that using music and songs while learning a new language can be of great benefit to students in aspects such as grammar, pronunciation and vocabulary. However, the use of songs in class as motivation to learn English is a subject that has not been explored thoroughly. The purpose of this study is to explore how the use of…

  14. Influence of acute glycaemic level on measures of myocardial infarction in non-diabetic pigs

    Diemar, Sarah S; Sejling, Anne-Sophie; Iversen, Kasper K; Engstrøm, Thomas; Honge, Jesper L; Tønder, Niels; Vejlstrup, Niels; Idorn, Manja; Ekström, Kathrine; Pedersen-Bjergaard, Ulrik; Thorsteinsson, Birger; Dalsgaard, Morten

    2015-01-01

    OBJECTIVE: Patients with diabetes are at increased risk of experiencing myocardial infarction. The influence of the prevailing plasma glucose level on infarction and mortality after acute ischaemia is however unknown. The aim was to study the effect of the acute plasma glucose level on the...... myocardial infarction size in a closed-chest pig model. DESIGN: 38 non-diabetic pigs were randomised to hypoglycaemic (1.8-2.2 mmol/l; n = 15), normoglycaemic (5-7 mmol/l; n = 12) or hyperglycaemic glucose clamping (22-23 mmol/l; n = 11). After 30 min within glucose target myocardial infarction was induced...

  15. Predicting visual attention to nutrition information on food products: the influence of motivation and ability.

    Turner, Monique Mitchell; Skubisz, Christine; Pandya, Sejal Patel; Silverman, Meryl; Austin, Lucinda L

    2014-09-01

    Obesity is linked to numerous diseases including heart disease, diabetes, and cancer. To address this issue, food and beverage manufacturers as well as health organizations have developed nutrition symbols and logos to be placed on the front of food packages to guide consumers to more healthful food choices. In 2010, the U.S. Food and Drug Administration requested information on the extent to which consumers notice, use, and understand front-of-package nutrition symbols. In response, this study used eye-tracking technology to explore the degree to which people pay visual attention to the information contained in food nutrition labels and front-of-package nutrition symbols. Results indicate that people with motivation to shop for healthful foods spent significantly more time looking at all available nutrition information compared to people with motivation to shop for products on the basis of taste. Implications of these results for message design, food labeling, and public policy are discussed. PMID:24555542

  16. Exploration of Factors Influencing the Customers’ Motivation in Buyer-supplier Relationships on Industrial Markets

    Bernd Markus Zunk

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available To gain a competitive advantage on industrial markets, suppliers need to understand what motivates their customers to collaborate in long-term buyer-supplier relationships. Therefore, this paper presents (i a literature-based model of a 12-part industrial customers’ motivation profile, and (ii empirical findings from an explorative survey of 118 decision makers in the purchasing departments of firms in the technology sector. The results indicate that, “the optimum value for money”, “the holistic problem-solving capability of the suppliers and their high degree of performance” and “the good assistance in economically hard times in the past, which has led to a feeling of gratefulness” are all of great importance to industrial customers for building and maintaining relationships.

  17. Influence of motivation on academic performance of students undertaking vocational training

    Javier J. Maquilón Sánchez; Fuensanta Hernández Pina

    2011-01-01

    Vocational training in Spain is not longer an option for those students who do not reach the right level to attend secondary school, and has turned into a professional alternative of high quality and with high levels of employability. The analysis of the motivations that foster student learning is very useful in order to design intervention proposals which may improve the quality of student learning. This research study is a response to this approach. We present a theoretical review of the ba...

  18. IMPROVEMENT OF ORAL HYGIENE STATUS IN CHILDREN INFLUENCED BY MOTIVATION PROGRAMS.

    Dobrinka M. Damyanova; Vladimir E. Panov; Sirma T. Angelova

    2015-01-01

    Background: Providing and maintaining proper oral hygiene is related with the control of initiation and progression of dental caries and periodontal diseases. Objective: To accentuate on the application and effectiveness of standardized motivational program for oral hygiene in children with assessment of OHI-S Green-Vermillion. Methods: The study includes 200 children from 3 to 6 years of age. Comparison and evaluation of effectiveness of toothpastes with different fluoride concentrat...

  19. Influence of cross – age peer tutoring on reading and reading motivation

    Slabe, Špela

    2015-01-01

    Reading is an activity that accompanies us throughout life and affects the individual all-round development. The basic dimensions of the reading process are word recognition (decoding), reading fluency and reading comprehension. Students with reading difficulties need more practice to acquire these skills. This is a challenging task for them, as their motivation for reading is lower due to their problems with reading. The most common cause of long-term reading difficulties is dyslexia, howeve...

  20. Influencing Adolescent Leisure Motivation: Intervention Effects of HealthWise South Africa

    Caldwell, Linda L.; Patrick, Megan E.; SMITH, EDWARD A.; Palen, Lori-Ann; WEGNER, LISA

    2010-01-01

    This study investigates changes in self-reported motivation for leisure due to participation in HealthWise, a high school curriculum aimed at decreasing risk behavior and promoting health behavior. Participants were 2,193 mixed race adolescents (M = 14 years old) from 9 schools (4 intervention, 5 control) near Cape Town, South Africa. Students in the HealthWise school with the greatest involvement in teacher training and implementation fidelity reported increased intrinsic and identified moti...

  1. The Positive Influence of Chinese Culture on Employees' Motivation and Retention: the P&G Case

    Chen, Yu

    2008-01-01

    In terms of the effect of Chinese culture on HRM of MNCs in China, a large amount of existing literature focuses on the negative aspects. On the basis of assuming that the advantages of Chinese culture can be integrated into HRM practices. This dissertation explores how some of Chinese traditional values play a positive role on Chinese employees' motivation and retention. These effects may be not possible achieved by classic Western HRM models and theories. The investigation of this study...

  2. Effects of Motivational Interviewing for Incarcerated Adolescents on Driving Under the Influence after Release

    Stein, L. A. R.; Colby, Suzanne M.; Barnett, Nancy P.; MONTI, PETER M.; Golembeske, Charles; Lebeau-Craven, Rebecca

    2006-01-01

    Motivational Interviewing (MI) to reduce alcohol and marijuana-related driving events among incarcerated adolescents was evaluated. Adolescents were randomly assigned to receive MI or Relaxation Training. Follow-up assessment showed that, as compared to RT, adolescents who received MI had lower rates of drinking and driving, and being a passenger in a car with someone who had been drinking. Effects were moderated by levels of depression. At low levels of depression, MI evidenced lower rates o...

  3. The Influence of Work Motivation on Emotional Intelligence and Team Effectiveness Relationship

    Abdul Kadir Othman; Hazman Shah Abdullah; Jasmine Ahmad

    2009-01-01

    Empirical evidence on the role of Emotional Intelligence (EI) in service providers' team role effectiveness is inconclusive despite the obvious conceptual link. The purpose of this paper is to look into the moderating effect of work motivation on the relationship between EI factors (Self Emotional Appraisal, Others' Emotion Appraisal, Regulation of Emotion, and Use of Emotion) and team role effectiveness. Analyses of 167 responses from service providers and their superiors revealed that the i...

  4. The Influence of 16-year-old Students' Gender, Mental Abilities, and Motivation on their Reading and Drawing Submicrorepresentations Achievements

    Devetak, Iztok; Aleksij Glažar, Saša

    2010-08-01

    Submicrorepresentations (SMRs) are a powerful tool for identifying misconceptions of chemical concepts and for generating proper mental models of chemical phenomena in students' long-term memory during chemical education. The main purpose of the study was to determine which independent variables (gender, formal reasoning abilities, visualization abilities, and intrinsic motivation for learning chemistry) have the maximum influence on students' reading and drawing SMRs. A total of 386 secondary school students (aged 16.3 years) participated in the study. The instruments used in the study were: test of Chemical Knowledge, Test of Logical Thinking, two tests of visualization abilities Patterns and Rotations, and questionnaire on Intrinsic Motivation for Learning Science. The results show moderate, but statistically significant correlations between students' intrinsic motivation, formal reasoning abilities and chemical knowledge at submicroscopic level based on reading and drawing SMRs. Visualization abilities are not statistically significantly correlated with students' success on items that comprise reading or drawing SMRs. It can be also concluded that there is a statistically significant difference between male and female students in solving problems that include reading or drawing SMRs. Based on these statistical results and content analysis of the sample problems, several educational strategies can be implemented for students to develop adequate mental models of chemical concepts on all three levels of representations.

  5. The Model of Motivational Dynamics in Sport: Resistance to Peer Influence, Behavioral Engagement and Disaffection, Dispositional Coping, and Resilience

    Adam Robert Nicholls

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available The Model of Motivational Dynamics (MMD; Skinner and Pitzer, 2012 infers that peers influence behavioral engagement levels, which in turn is linked to coping and resilience. Scholars, however, are yet to test the MMD among an athletic population. The purpose of this paper was to assess an a priori model that included key constructs from the MMD, such as resistance to peer influence, behavioral engagement and disaffection, coping, and resilience among athletes. Three hundred and fifty-one athletes (male n = 173, female n = 178; M age = 16.15 years completed a questionnaire that measured each construct. Our results provide support for the model. In particular, there were positive paths between resistance to peer influence and behavioral engagement, behavioral engagement and task-oriented coping, and task-oriented coping with resilience. There was also a positive path between resilience and resistance to peer influence, but a negative path from resistance to peer influence to behavioral disaffection. Due to the reported benefits of enhancing resistance to peer influence and behavioral engagement, researchers could devise sport specific interventions to maximize athletes’ scores in these constructs.

  6. Acute short-term mental stress does not influence salivary flow rate dynamics.

    Ella A Naumova

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: Results of studies that address the influence of stress on salivary flow rate and composition are controversial. The aim of this study was to reveal the influence of stress vulnerability and different phases of stress reactivity on the unstimulated and stimulated salivary flow rate. We examined that acute mental stress does not change the salivary flow rate. In addition, we also examined the salivary cortisol and protein level in relation to acute mental stress stimuli. METHODS: Saliva of male subjects was collected for five minutes before, immediately, 10, 30 and 120 min after toothbrushing. Before toothbrushing, the subjects were exposed to acute stress in the form of a 2 min public speech. Salivary flow rate and total protein was measured. The physiological stress marker cortisol was analyzed using enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay. To determine the subjects' psychological stress reaction, the State-Trait-Anxiety Inventory State questionnaire (STAI data were obtained. The subjects were divided into stress subgroup (S1 (psychological reactivity, stress subgroup (S2 (psychological and physiological reactivity and a control group. The area under the curve for salivarycortisol concentration and STAI-State scores were calculated. All data underwent statistical analysis using one-way analysis of variance. RESULTS: Immediately after stress exposure, all participants exhibited a psychological stress reaction. Stress exposure did not change the salivary flow rate. Only 69% of the subjects continued to display a physiological stress reaction 20 minutes after the public talk. There was no significant change in the salivary flow rate during the psychological and the physiological stress reaction phases relative to the baseline. CONCLUSIONS: Acute stress has no impact on the salivary flow rate; however, there may be other responses through salivary proteins that are increased with the acute stress stimuli. Future studies are needed to examine

  7. Low malathion concentrations influence metabolism in Chironomus sancticaroli (Diptera, Chironomidae in acute and chronic toxicity tests

    Débora Rebechi

    2014-09-01

    Full Text Available Low malathion concentrations influence metabolism in Chironomus sancticaroli (Diptera, Chironomidae in acute and chronic toxicity tests. Organophosphate compounds are used in agro-systems, and in programs to control pathogen vectors. Because they are continuously applied, organophosphates often reach water sources and may have an impact on aquatic life. The effects of acute and chronic exposure to the organophosphate insecticide malathion on the midge Chironomus sancticaroli are evaluated. To that end, three biochemical biomarkers, acetylcholinesterase (AChE, alpha (EST-α and beta (EST-β esterase were used. Acute bioassays with five concentrations of malathion, and chronic bioassays with two concentrations of malathion were carried out. In the acute exposure test, AChE, EST-α and EST-β activities declined by 66, 40 and 37%, respectively, at 0.251 µg L-1 and more than 80% at 1.37, 1.96 and 2.51 µg L-1. In chronic exposure tests, AChE and EST-α activities declined by 28 and 15% at 0.251 µg L-1. Results of the present study show that low concentrations of malathion can influence larval metabolism, indicating high toxicity for Chironomus sancticaroli and environmental risk associated with the use of organophosphates.

  8. Parsing the hedonic and motivational influences of nociceptin on feeding using licking microstructure analysis in mice.

    Mendez, Ian A; Maidment, Nigel T; Murphy, Niall P

    2016-09-01

    Opioid peptides are implicated in processes related to reward and aversion; however, how specific opioid peptides are involved remains unclear. We investigated the role of nociceptin (NOC) in voluntary licking for palatable and aversive tastants by studying the effect of intracerebroventricularly administered NOC on licking microstructure in wild-type and NOC receptor knockout (NOP KO) mice. Compared with the wild-type mice, NOP KO mice emitted fewer bouts of licking when training to lick for a 20% sucrose solution. Correspondingly, intracerebroventricular administration of NOC increased the number of licking bouts for sucrose and sucralose in wild-type, but not in NOP KO mice. The ability of NOC to initiate new bouts of licking for sweet solutions suggests that NOC may drive motivational aspects of feeding behavior. Conversely, adulterating a sucrose solution with the aversive tastant quinine reduced licking bout lengths in wild-type and NOP KOs, suggesting that NOC signaling is not involved in driving voluntary consumption of semiaversive tastants. Interestingly, when consuming sucrose following 20 h of food deprivation, NOP KO mice emitted longer bouts of licking than wild types, suggesting that under hungry conditions, NOC may also contribute toward hedonic aspects of feeding. Together, these results suggest differential roles for NOC in the motivational and hedonic aspects of feeding. PMID:27100061

  9. Toward an Understanding of Motivational Influences on Prospective Memory Using Value-Added Intentions

    Gabriel I Cook

    2015-05-01

    Full Text Available This study examined value-added intentions by manipulating the cognitive frame associated with monetary contingencies for detecting prospective memory cues. We associated a loss-frame with a monetary punishment for failing to respond to cues and a gain-frame with a monetary reward for remembering to respond to cues and compared those frames to a no-frame control condition with no contingency linked to performance. Across two experiments, we find increased prospective memory performance for participants in the loss-frame (Experiments 1 and 2 and in the gain-frame (Experiment 2 conditions relative to the no-frame condition. This value-related improvement in prospective memory was not accompanied by a significant increase in cue monitoring as measured by intention induced interference to an ongoing task and recognition memory for ongoing task items. The few previous studies investigating motivational prospective memory showed mixed results regarding whether prospective memory improves due to incentives or not. Our results provide further evidence that, under some experimental conditions, prospective memory improves with rewards and that the benefit generalizes to penalizing performance. The results have both practical implications and theoretical implications for motivation models of prospective memory.

  10. Measuring more than we know? An examination of the motivational and situational influences in science achievement

    Haydel, Angela Michelle

    The purpose of this dissertation was to advance theoretical understanding about fit between the personal resources of individuals and the characteristics of science achievement tasks. Testing continues to be pervasive in schools, yet we know little about how students perceive tests and what they think and feel while they are actually working on test items. This study focused on both the personal (cognitive and motivational) and situational factors that may contribute to individual differences in achievement-related outcomes. 387 eighth grade students first completed a survey including measures of science achievement goals, capability beliefs, efficacy related to multiple-choice items and performance assessments, validity beliefs about multiple-choice items and performance assessments, and other perceptions of these item formats. Students then completed science achievement tests including multiple-choice items and two performance assessments. A sample of students was asked to verbalize both thoughts and feelings as they worked through the test items. These think-alouds were transcribed and coded for evidence of cognitive, metacognitive and motivational engagement. Following each test, all students completed measures of effort, mood, energy level and strategy use during testing. Students reported that performance assessments were more challenging, authentic, interesting and valid than multiple-choice tests. They also believed that comparisons between students were easier using multiple-choice items. Overall, students tried harder, felt better, had higher levels of energy and used more strategies while working on performance assessments. Findings suggested that performance assessments might be more congruent with a mastery achievement goal orientation, while multiple-choice tests might be more congruent with a performance achievement goal orientation. A variable-centered analytic approach including regression analyses provided information about how students, on

  11. Dimensions of Motivation to Transfer: A Longitudinal Analysis of Their Influence on Retention, Transfer, and Attitude Change

    Gegenfurtner, Andreas

    2013-01-01

    This longitudinal study examined the multidimensionality of motivation to transfer training. Based on self-determination theory, expectancy theory, and the theory of planned behaviour, motivation to transfer was conceptualized in three dimensions: autonomous motivation to transfer, controlled motivation to transfer, and intention to transfer.…

  12. Destination Culture and Its Influence on Tourist Motivation and Tourist Satisfaction of Homestay Visit

    Nguyen Quang VINH

    2013-12-01

    Full Text Available With the advantage of culture and historical tourism resource, Hanoi has to finalize its tourism development strategy for the long term. This study aims to help tourism planners and marketers to get an understanding that may provide a foundation for their strategic marketing decision in homestay tourism service. The empirical analysis used data from 150 international visitors who have experience in using homestay service in Duonglam old village. To test the hypotheses among tourist motivation, satisfaction with destination loyalty, regression is adopted. This study result show that climate conditions, the destination can be easily reached, the quality of the accommodation, beauty of the scenery and cleanliness are ranked most important attribute for tourist satisfaction with Duonglam village. Another hand the result also indicates negative image about tourist service and culture events of Duonglam old village. Implications of the findings for tourism marketers and research limitation are also discussed.

  13. Metabolism of biogenic amines in acute cerebral ischemia: Influence of systemic hyperglycemia

    Milovanović Aleksandar

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available Dopamine, norepinephrine and serotonin are biogenic amines which are transmitters of the central nervous system. The effects of ischemia on the brain parenchyma depends on many factors, such is the mechanism of blood flow interruption, velocity of the occurring blood flow interruption, duration of an ischemic episode, organization of anatomical structures of the brain blood vessels etc., which all influence the final outcome. During interruption of the brain circulation in experimental or clinical conditions, neurotransmitter metabolism, primarily of biogenic amines, is disturbed. Many researches with various experimental models of complete ischemia reported a decrease in the content of norepinephrine, dopamine and serotonin in the CNS tissue. It was proven that hyperglycemia can drastically increase cerebral injury followed by short-term cerebral ischemia. Considering the fact that biogenic amines (dopamine, norepinephrine and serotonin influence the size of neurologic damage, as well as the fact that in hyperglycemic conditions infarct size (from the morphological aspect is larger relative to normoglycemic status, the intention was to evaluate the role of biogenic amines in occurrence of damage in conditions of hyperglycemia, i.e. in the case of brain apoplexia in diabetics. Analysis of biogenic amines metabolism in states of acute hyperglycemia, as well as analysis of the effects of reversible and irreversible brain ischemia on metabolism of serotonin, dopamine and norepinephrine, showed that acute hyperglycemia slows down serotonin, dopamine and norepinephrine metabolism in the cerebral cortex and n. caudatus. Brain ischemia in normoglycemic animals by itself has no influence on biogenic amines metabolism, but the effect of ischemia becomes apparent during reperfusion. In recirculation, which corresponds to the occurrences in penumbra, release of biogenic amines is uncontrolled and increased. Brain ischemia in acute hyperglycemic animals

  14. Glucose and acute exercise influence factors secreted by circulating angiogenic cells in vitro.

    Witkowski, Sarah; Guhanarayan, Gayatri; Burgess, Rachel

    2016-02-01

    Circulating angiogenic cells (CAC) influence vascular repair through the secretion of proangiogenic factors and cytokines. While CAC are deficient in patients with diabetes and exercise has a beneficial effect on CACs, the impact of these factors on paracrine secretion from CAC is unknown. We aimed to determine whether the in vitro secretion of selected cytokines and nitric oxide (NO) from CAC is influenced by hyperglycemia and acute exercise. Colony-forming unit CAC (CFU-CAC) were cultured from young active men (n = 9, 24 ± 2 years) at rest and after exercise under normal (5 mmol/L) and elevated (15 mmol/L) glucose. Preliminary relative multiplex cytokine analysis revealed that CAC conditioned culture media contained three of six measured cytokines: transforming growth factor-beta-1 (TGFβ1), tumor necrosis factor alpha (TNFα), and monocyte chemotactic protein-1 (MCP-1). Single quantitative cytokine analysis was used to determine the concentration of each cytokine from the four conditions. NO was measured via Griess assay. There was a significant effect of CAC exposure to in vivo exercise on in vitro TGFβ1 secretion (P = 0.024) that was independent of glucose concentration. There was no effect of glucose or acute exercise on TNFα or MCP-1 concentration (both P > 0.05). The concentration of NO from CFU-CAC cultured in elevated glucose was lower following acute exercise (P = 0.002) suggesting that exercise did not maintain NO secretion under hyperglycemic conditions. Our results identify paracrine signaling factors that may be responsible for the proangiogenic function of CFU-CAC and an influence of acute exercise and elevated glucose on CFU-CAC soluble factor secretion. PMID:26847726

  15. Influence of Zinc Supplementation in Acute Diarrhea Differs by the Isolated Organism

    Archana B. Patel

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available Zinc supplementation is recommended in all acute diarrheas in children from developing countries. We aimed to assess whether zinc supplementation would be equally effective against all the common organisms associated with acute diarrheas. We used data on 801 children with acute diarrhea recruited in a randomized, double blind controlled trial (ISRCTN85071383 of zinc and copper supplementation. Using prespecified subgroup analyses, multidimensionality reduction analyses, tests of heterogeneity, and stepwise logistic regression for tests of interactions, we found that the influence of zinc on the risk of diarrhea for more than 3 days depended on the isolated organism—beneficial in Klebsiella, neutral in Esherichia coli and parasitic infections, and detrimental in rotavirus coinfections. Although we found similar results for the outcome of high stool volume, the results did not reach statistical significance. Our findings suggest that the current strategy of zinc supplementation in all cases of acute diarrheas in children may need appropriate fine tuning to optimize the therapeutic benefit based on the causative organism, but further studies need to confirm and extend our findings.

  16. Abnormal glucose metabolism in acute myocardial infarction: influence on left ventricular function and prognosis

    Høfsten, Dan E; Løgstrup, Brian B; Møller, Jacob E;

    2009-01-01

    OBJECTIVES: We studied the influence of abnormal glucose metabolism on left ventricular (LV) function and prognosis in 203 patients with acute myocardial infarction. BACKGROUND: Abnormal glucose metabolism is associated with increased mortality after acute myocardial infarction. This appears to be...... particularly attributable to an increased incidence of post-infarction congestive heart failure. A relationship between glucose metabolism and LV function could potentially explain this excess mortality. METHODS: In patients without known diabetes, glucose metabolism was determined using an oral glucose...... atrial volume index) and by measuring plasma N-terminal pro-B-type natriuretic peptide levels. RESULTS: After adjustment for age and gender, a linear relationship between the degree of abnormal glucose metabolism was observed for each marker of LV dysfunction (p(trend) < 0.05) with the exception of left...

  17. The influence of motivation on stress: is it stressful not to fit?

    Schwab, Sebastian; Wolf, Oliver T; Memmert, Daniel

    2015-01-01

    The present research elaborates on the regulatory fit hypothesis by investigating a biological stress marker in a motivational fit- and non-fit-situation. Recent stress theories lead to the assumption that the participants' stress level in fit-situations remains constant or rather decreases, whereas under non-fit-conditions an increase of the stress activity is observed. We tested this hypothesis by assessment of salivary α-amylase (sAA), a saliva-based stress marker presumed to reflect noradrenergic activity. The results indicated that participants in a fit-situation show a decrease in sAA, whereas participants in a non-fit-situation demonstrate a contrary effect with an increase in sAA. These findings extend the concept of regulatory fit by illustrating that there are differences in sAA activity depending on whether participants are in a fit-situation. The experience of regulatory fit appears to be associated with a reduction of stress. PMID:26115162

  18. Means, Motive and Opportunity? Disentangling Client Influence on Performance Measurement Appraisals

    N. Crosby; Lizieri, C.; P. McAllister

    2009-01-01

    There is a longstanding body of literature that discusses the potential for clients to influence the outcome of the property appraisal process. In the market downturn of 2007-9, it is clear from a number of practitioner conferences and articles that some market participants such as investment agents or fund managers are sceptical about the ability of real estate appraisers to produce valuations that record ad reflect accurately the timing and extent of market price changes (see, for example, ...

  19. Predicting Intra-Individual Academic Achievement Trajectories of Adolescents Nested in Class Environment: Influence of motivation, implicit theory of intelligence, self-esteem and parenting

    Isabelle Roskam

    2007-05-01

    Full Text Available In a longitudinal study conducted on 1130 adolescents (557 male and 573 female in the 1st-6th grades from Belgian secondary schools, we tested the influence of individual factors (motivational constructs, implicit theory of intelligence and self-esteem and environmental determinants (parenting and class environment of academic achievement (grades in mathematics, language arts and GPA at three points in time. Using hierarchical linear models, we observed a decrease of grade over the course of the study, reciprocal relations between motivational constructs, self-esteem and academic achievement, a strong positive impact of supportive parenting and a moderate influence of class environment.

  20. Influence of the cortical midline structures on moral emotion and motivation in moral decision-making.

    Han, Hyemin; Chen, Jingyuan; Jeong, Changwoo; Glover, Gary H

    2016-04-01

    The present study aims to examine the relationship between the cortical midline structures (CMS), which have been regarded to be associated with selfhood, and moral decision making processes at the neural level. Traditional moral psychological studies have suggested the role of moral self as the moderator of moral cognition, so activity of moral self would present at the neural level. The present study examined the interaction between the CMS and other moral-related regions by conducting psycho-physiological interaction analysis of functional images acquired while 16 subjects were solving moral dilemmas. Furthermore, we performed Granger causality analysis to demonstrate the direction of influences between activities in the regions in moral decision-making. We first demonstrate there are significant positive interactions between two central CMS seed regions-i.e., the medial prefrontal cortex (MPFC) and posterior cingulate cortex (PCC)-and brain regions associated with moral functioning including the cerebellum, brainstem, midbrain, dorsolateral prefrontal cortex, orbitofrontal cortex and anterior insula (AI); on the other hand, the posterior insula (PI) showed significant negative interaction with the seed regions. Second, several significant Granger causality was found from CMS to insula regions particularly under the moral-personal condition. Furthermore, significant dominant influence from the AI to PI was reported. Moral psychological implications of these findings are discussed. The present study demonstrated the significant interaction and influence between the CMS and morality-related regions while subject were solving moral dilemmas. Given that, activity in the CMS is significantly involved in human moral functioning. PMID:26772629

  1. Learner motivation and interest

    Daskalovska, Nina; Koleva Gudeva, Liljana; Ivanovska, Biljana

    2012-01-01

    There are a lot of factors which influence success in learning. However, one of the most important factors is the learner’s motivation to reach the desired goals. Research and experience show that learners with strong motivation can achieve a lot regardless of circumstances. Studies of motivation in second language learning have led to several distinctions, one of which is the distinction between integrative and instrumental motivation. According to this distinction, some learners are motivat...

  2. Motivation in medical students

    Kusurkar, R.A.

    2012-01-01

    Introduction The importance of motivation in learning behaviour and education is well-researched and proven in general education, but much less in medical education. There is sometimes focus on increasing the quantity of motivation, but the how and why need more evidence. The aims of this thesis were to gather insights and investigate medical students’ motivation, particularly the importance of quality of motivation, factors influencing and outcomes and to explore how these can be applied to ...

  3. Factors influencing acute high-grade restenosis in emergency percutaneous transluminal coronary angioplasty for acute myocardial infarction.

    Kusachi, Shozo; Iwasaki,Kohichirou; Nishiyama, Osamu; Ueda, Minoru; Kita, Toshimasa; Hata,Takato; Taniguchi, Gyou; Watanabe, Hirofumi; Hina, Kazuyoshi; Saito, Daiji; Tsuji, Takao; Haraoka,Shoichi

    1989-01-01

    We studied the factors which may induce acute high grade restenosis in emergency percutaneous transluminal coronary angioplasty (PTCA). PTCA was attempted in 50 patients with acute myocardial infarction, and the balloon catheter passed successfully across the occlusion site in 47 (94%) of the patients. These 47 patients were analyzed. "Acute restenosis" was defined as a lesion which was revascularized to less than 50% luminal reduction narrowed again to more than 75% luminal reduction...

  4. Influence of delays on perforation risk in adults with acute appendicitis.

    Kearney, D

    2012-02-03

    PURPOSE: This study analyzed whether prehospital or in-hospital delay was the more significant influence on perforation rates for acute appendicitis and whether any clinical feature designated patients requiring higher surgical priority. METHODS: A retrospective analysis was conducted over one year at a tertiary referral hospital without a dedicated emergency surgical theater. Admission notes, theater logbook, and the Hospital Inpatient Enquiry system were reviewed to identify the characteristics and clinical course of patients aged greater than 16 years who were operated upon for histologically confirmed acute appendicitis. RESULTS: One hundred and fifteen patients were studied. The overall perforation rate was 17 percent. The mean duration of symptoms prior to hospital presentation was 38.1 hours with the mean in-hospital waiting time prior to operation being 23.4 hours. Although body temperature on presentation was significantly greater in patients found to have perforated appendicitis (P < 0.05), only patient heart rate at presentation and overall duration of symptoms, but not in-hospital waiting time, independently predicted perforation by stepwise linear regression modeling. CONCLUSION: In-hospital delay was not an independent predictor of perforation in adults with acute appendicitis although delays may contribute if patients are left to wait unduly. Tachycardia at presentation may be a quantifiable feature of those more likely to have perforation and who should be given higher surgical priority.

  5. Does the Duration of Abdominal Pain Prior to Admission Influence the Severity of Acute Pancreatitis?

    Karan Kapoor

    2013-03-01

    Full Text Available Context In a prior report involving patients with hemoconcentration at admission, those with necrotizing pancreatitis presented significantly earlier than those with interstitial disease suggesting that duration of abdominal pain prior to presentation may have prognostic significance in acute pancreatitis. Objectives The aim of the present study was to determine whether the duration of abdominal pain prior to admission influences the severity of acute pancreatitis. Methods During a five-year period, all patients presenting directly to our hospital with their first episode of acute pancreatitis were enrolled in a cohort study. We analyzed data obtained from records of all such patients and performed a separate analysis on those with hemoconcentration (hematocrit equal to, or greater than, 44% at presentation to determine whether duration of abdominal pain prior to presentation was associated with severity of acute pancreatitis. Duration of abdominal pain wascategorized as persisting for either less than 12 h or 12 h or more prior to arrival. Prognostic markers of severity included admission hematocrit and blood urea nitrogen (BUN, as well as the development of systemic inflammatory response syndrome (SIRS during the initial 24 h of hospitalization. Outcome measures included pancreatic necrosis based on contrast-enhanced CT scanning, need for intensive care, length of hospitalization, and death. Radiologic severity of peripancreatic inflammatory changes was assessed within 48 h of admission in accordance with the Balthazar-Ranson scoring system (A-E. Results Among a total of 318 patients, there were 62 (19.5% with hemoconcentration at admission. Among the 318 patients, there was no significant difference in the prevalence of pancreatic necrosis when comparing the less than 12 h group to the 12 h or more group. Among the 62 patients with hemoconcentration, those admitted within 12 h compared to those admitted 12 h or more following the onset of

  6. The influence of 16‐year‐old students' gender, mental abilities, and motivation on their reading and drawing submicrorepresentations achievements

    Devetak, Iztok; Glažar, Saša Aleksij

    2010-01-01

    Abstract Submicrorepresentations are a powerful tool for identifying misconceptions of chemical concepts and for generating proper mental models of chemical phenomena in students? long term memory during chemical education. The main purpose of the study was to determine which independent variables (gender, formal reasoning abilities, visualization abilities and intrinsic motivation for learning chemistry) have the most influence on students? reading and drawing submicrorepresentati...

  7. Students' Persistence and Academic Success in a First-Year Professional Bachelor Program: The Influence of Students' Learning Strategies and Academic Motivation

    Gert Vanthournout

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available The present study explores whether students' learning strategies and academic motivation predict persistence and academic success in the first year of higher education. Freshmen students in a professional bachelor program in teacher education were questioned on their learning strategy use and motivation at the start and at the end of the academic year. Students' learning strategies were assessed using the inventory of learning styles-SV. Motivation was measured using scales from the self-regulation questionnaire and the academic motivation scale. Gender and students' prior education were incorporated as control variables. Logistic regression analyses and general linear modelling were applied to predict persistence and academic success, respectively. In each case a stepwise approach in data analysis was used. Results on persistence indicate that lack of regulation and amotivation at the start of the year are significant predictors. For academic success, results showed that relating and structuring, lack of regulation, and lack of motivation at the end of the year are meaningful predictors. Overall, our study demonstrates that learning strategies and motivation have a moderate explanatory value regarding academic success and persistence, and that these effects remain even after controlling for the influence of background variables.

  8. Factors Influencing Facebook Usage and Facebook Addictive Tendency in University Students: The Role of Online Psychological Privacy and Facebook Usage Motivation.

    Hong, Fu-Yuan; Chiu, Su-Lin

    2016-04-01

    There are few studies analysing the influence of personal traits and motivation factors on Facebook usage and Facebook addictive tendency as seen in university students. In this study, 225 Taiwanese university students completed a questionnaire to determine their online psychological privacy scale, Facebook usage motivation scale, Facebook usage scale and Facebook addictive tendency scale, in order to evaluate the items that can be conceptualized as the effect of university students' online psychological privacy personal trait and motive factors, and Facebook usage motivation with respect to Facebook usage and Facebook addictive tendency. The study found that a desire for more online psychological privacy correlates with a stronger motivation to use Facebook and more Facebook usage behaviour among university students who may become high-risk groups for Facebook addictive tendency. The study found that a desire for or an acceptance of a lower online psychological privacy correlates with a stronger motivation to use Facebook among university students who may have more Facebook usage behaviour. This study can help understand university students' Facebook usage and Facebook addictive tendency and provide feature indicators for those who may become high-risk groups for Facebook addictive tendency. Finally, this study conducts discussion and proposes relevant suggestions for future study. Copyright © 2014 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd. PMID:24916923

  9. An Examination of the Influence of Consumer Motivation on Salesperson Appraisal and Emotional Response to Salesperson Behavior.

    Mallalieu, Lynnea Anne

    2000-01-01

    This research examines the effects of consumer motivation during an interpersonal sales encounter. The research proposes that a consumer's motivational mind-set affects the consumer's cognitive appraisal of the salesperson and the consumer's subsequent emotional response. Of primary interest is the interaction between a consumer's motivation and a salesperson's behavior. A main thesis of this research is that a congruency mechanism operates between the consumer and the salesperson during a...

  10. The influence of cognitive and motivational biases in managerial decision making: empirical evidence from a Brazilian construction company

    Arnaldo Barros Feitosa

    2014-10-01

    Full Text Available The heuristics and the biases affect the decision making process allowing the manager to take high complexity decisions under simplified conditions with the benefit of time saving. Although they are useful, making the information processing more efficient by directing the managers to relevancies and common urgencies to the decision making process, the use of heuristics can lead to induced inconsistencies by biases or lapses of decisions, which persistent and predictable generate patterns of behavior. Against that, the object of this research consists in diagnose possible cognitive and motivational biases, in special, the confidence excess, the optimism and the anchorage, in managers of a great Brazilian construction company. In order to achieve that objective, a structured questionary with selected tools into the literature on decision process was submitted to 120 managers of a big Brazilian construction company, however, only 84 questionaries were obtained, tabled and analyzed. As from the parametric and non-parametric tests, univariate and bivariate, it was found that the managers of the analyzed company: (1 are excessively confidents in their estimates; (2 seem more optimists than other economic agent groups; (3 are totally influenced by bosses in theirs estimates. The results confirm empirical evidences, emanated from the literature on heuristics and cognitive and emotional biases, particularly with concepts of Prospect Theory, and are opposed to the concepts derived from the literature that addresses the rational model of decision making, more specifically, the Expected Utility Theory.

  11. A Study of Circadian Rhythm and Meteorological Factors Influencing Acute Myocardial Infarction

    Selvam, A M; Mody, S M S

    1998-01-01

    The circadian rhythm in the occurrence of acute myocardial infarction (AMI) was assessed in three hundred and twenty three patients admitted with AMI during the two-year period June 1992 to May 1994. The influence of the following meteorological, solar-geophysical and cosmic parameters in the causation of an infarct was also considered : (1) surface pressure (2) maximum temperature (3) minimum temperature (4) relative humidity (5) cosmic ray index (6) geomagnetic aa index (7) solar flares and (8) sunspot number. A well pronounced diurnal variability in AMI with a peak in the morning hours (6-12 a.m.) was seen. Further analysis of the data by considering one-hour periods revealed the presence of a smaller evening (10 p.m.) increase in incidence, i.e., the existence of a bimodal circadian rhythm. The simultaneous occurrence of the well documented semi-diurnal rhythm in surface pressure and incidence of acute myocardial infarction were evident. This may be one of the factors involved in the causation of the smal...

  12. Exploration of the Independent and Joint Influences of Social Norms and Drinking Motives on Korean College Students' Alcohol Consumption.

    Choi, Jounghwa; Park, Dong-Jin; Noh, Ghee-Young

    2016-06-01

    Understanding what types of social norms are more or less influential and how they operate with respect to other psychological variables can provide valuable insights into the design of effective social norm campaigns. To this end, this study explores the roles of two types of social norms (injunctive norms and descriptive norms) and two types of drinking motives (social motives and conformity motives) in collegiate drinking behavior in South Korea. A survey of Korean college students (N = 569) revealed significant positive effects of injunctive norms, descriptive norms, and social motives on students' drinking frequency and quantity. Conformity motives were positively related to the frequency of drinking but negatively related to the quantity of drinking. Furthermore, the results revealed significant effects of the interactions between descriptive norms and social motives (on both the frequency and quantity of alcohol consumption), such that the positive effect of descriptive norms was more pronounced among individuals with stronger social motives. A similar pattern was observed in the interaction between injunctive norms and conformity motives (on frequency). Theoretical and practical implications of the findings for social norm campaigns seeking to curb drinking among college students are discussed. PMID:27187185

  13. Influence of Student Learning Experience on Academic Performance: The Mediator and Moderator Effects of Self-Regulation and Motivation

    Ning, Hoi Kwan; Downing, Kevin

    2012-01-01

    This study examined the mediator and moderator roles of self-regulation and motivation constructs in the relationship between learning experience and academic success. Self-reported measures of learning experience, self-regulation and motivation were obtained from 384 undergraduate students from a university in Hong Kong. Structural equation…

  14. Influence of acute static stretching on the behavior of maximum muscle strength

    Carmen Lúcia Borges Bastos

    2014-06-01

    Full Text Available The aim of this study was to compare the influence of acute static stretching on maximal muscle strength (1RM. The non-probabilistic sample consisted of 30 subjects split into two groups: static stretching (SS= 15 and without stretching group (WS= 15. Muscle strength evaluation (1RM was conducted with a Dynamometer model 32527pp400 Pound push / pull devices coupled in knee extension (KE and bench press (BP. The Wilcoxon test for intragroup comparisons and the Kruskal-Wallis test for comparisons between groups (p< 0.05 were selected. There were no significant differences (p> 0.05 between the SS and WS in exercise KE and BP. Therefore, it can be concluded that there was no reduction in the performance of 1RM performing the exercises KE and BP when preceded by static stretching.

  15. Virtual histology assessment of coronary atheroma influences treatment strategy in the young acute coronary syndrome patient.

    Ormerod, Julian; Johnston, Tom; Ramcharitar, Steve

    2014-01-01

    A 43-year-old woman having significant risk factors for ischaemic heart disease was admitted with an acute coronary syndrome (ACS). Coronary angiography revealed a non-flow limiting lesion in her right coronary artery with the rest of her arteries unremarkable. Risk stratification of the culprit lesion in the right coronary artery through intravascular ultrasound virtual histology demonstrated that the rupture plaque had less than 5% necrotic core with low vulnerability indices. This important finding suggested that the re-rupture risk was low so aggressive pharmacological treatment that can influence the plaque characteristics was instigated in preference to mechanical plaque sealing with a coronary stent. At a year of follow-up the patient was well and had no further events. PMID:24477714

  16. Public Service Motivation

    Raluca-Marilena Mihalcioiu

    2011-05-01

    Full Text Available Public Service Motivation concept was developed in North America and focuses on specific motivations of public servants, such as employee satisfaction, organizational commitment, reward preferences, organizational and individual performance. Other types of motivation, as financial consideration, are relevant but have less important influences with regard to this kind of work outcomes. This strengthen the assertion for a diversified motivational strategy, which affect various types of motivation, while not losing sight of the public value that one organization shows and therefore valuing public service motivation as a specific contribution to work outcomes. The concept has been increasingly applied in European public administration. This paper presents Status Quo of international Public Service Motivation research and locates in them empirical evidences from contries that are already working with this concept, like Austria. It also analyses implications for central questions of public management. The main focus of this article is general appropriateness and possible applications for Romanian public management research.

  17. Social Motivation

    Veroff, Joseph

    1978-01-01

    Summarizes different types of social motivation that have interested social psychologists within a developmental paradigm. Currently, cognition is a central aspect of motivational psychology. Individuals' motive patterns are seen to change over the life cycle. (Author/AV)

  18. Work motivation

    Vrbová, Tereza

    2011-01-01

    The bachelor thesis is focused on an issue of a work motivation. The thesis is divided into two main parts. The first part, a theoretical one, is focused on a general concept of motivation and characteristics of basic terms associated with the work motivation. This part defines a theoretical basis for practical solutions. This part of the thesis was basedon a literature search. The sources of motivation, the terms like a motive, a stimulus, a stimulation or motivational types are listed i...

  19. Work motivation

    Hrouda, Jan

    2013-01-01

    The bachelor thesis is focused on an issue of a work motivation. The thesis is divided into two main parts. The first part, a theoretical one, is focused on a general concept of motivation and characteristics of basic terms associated with the work motivation. This part defines a theoretical basis for practical solutions. This part of the thesis was basedon a literature search. The sources of motivation, the terms like a motive, a stimulus, a stimulation or motivational types are listed i...

  20. The influence of leader's spiritual values of servant leadership on employee motivational autonomy and eudaemonic well-being.

    Chen, Chin-Yi; Chen, Chun-Hsi Vivian; Li, Chun-I

    2013-06-01

    This research examined the role of leader's spiritual values in terms of the "servant leadership" in the process of promoting employee's autonomous motivation and eudaemonic well-being. Sample consists of 265 Chinese supervisor-subordinate dyads recruited from a variety of industries in Taiwan. Spiritual values perceived by the subordinates, as well as the discrepancy between leader-subordinate perceptions, but not the leader's self-perceptions of spiritual values, were found to contribute significantly beyond transactional leadership in predicting subordinate motivational autonomy and eudaemonic well-being, and subordinate autonomous motivations fully mediates the relationship between spiritual values and eudaemonic well-being. PMID:21424861

  1. Factors influencing outcome in acute ischaemic stroke : outcome scales, the role of blood glucose and rtPA treatment

    Uyttenboogaart, Maarten

    2008-01-01

    This thesis describes several aspects that influence outcome in acute ischaemic strok. In the first part, two frequently used outcome scales - the Barthel index and modified Rankin scale - are studied and for both scales, optimal endpoints for stroke trials are proposed. In the second part, the rela

  2. Predicting Intra-Individual Academic Achievement Trajectories of Adolescents Nested in Class Environment: Influence of motivation, implicit theory of intelligence, self-esteem and parenting

    Isabelle Roskam; Frederic Nils

    2007-01-01

    In a longitudinal study conducted on 1130 adolescents (557 male and 573 female) in the 1st-6th grades from Belgian secondary schools, we tested the influence of individual factors (motivational constructs, implicit theory of intelligence and self-esteem) and environmental determinants (parenting and class environment) of academic achievement (grades in mathematics, language arts and GPA at three points in time). Using hierarchical linear models, we observed a decrease of grade over the course...

  3. Perceived Motivational Factors Influencing Leisure-Time Physical Activity Involvement of Teaching and Non-Teaching Staff in Tertiary Institutions in Ondo State, Nigeria

    2013-01-01

    The benefits of involvement in leisure-time physical activity have attracted individuals, groups and governments to it. There is compelling evidence that an active and fit way of life has many important health benefits and that sedentary habits are associated with increased risks of numerous chronic diseases and decreases longevity. The aim of this study was to identify motivational factors influencing leisure-time physical activity involvement among staff of tertiary institutions in Ondo Sta...

  4. The influence of parents on achievement orientation and motivation for sport of adolescent athletes with and whithout disabilities

    Gutiérrez Sanmartín, Melchor; Caus i Pertegaz, Núria; Ruiz Pérez, Luis Miguel

    2011-01-01

    The purpose was three-fold. First, to analyze the psychometric properties of scales used. Second, to test the relationship among athletes’ perceptions of parents’ goal orientation and their own goal orientation and intrinsic motivation. Third, to compare athletes with and without disabilities with respect to the infuence of parents on athletes’ achievement orientation and motivation for sport. Participants were 173 amateur athletes (80 with disabilities, 93 without disabilitie...

  5. THE INFLUENCE OF MOTIVATION ON THE USE OF A PROVERB AS AN ARGUMENT (ON THE MATERIAL OF FRENCH LANGUAGE)

    Olga Sergeevna ANISIMOVA

    2015-01-01

    The article considers the conditions for successful use of proverbs during argumentations and critical discussions. All the conclusions and theoretical provisions are based on the paremiological fund of French proverbs (notably French proverbs with negations). The article shows the difference between the notion of the paremiological etymological meaning related to the diachronic aspect, and the notion of the paremiological motivation related to the synchronic and diachronic aspects. The motiv...

  6. How do impulsivity traits influence problem gambling through gambling motives? The role of perceived gambling risk/benefits.

    Canale, Natale; Vieno, Alessio; Griffiths, Mark D; Rubaltelli, Enrico; Santinello, Massimo

    2015-09-01

    Although substantial research suggests that motivations have been found to mediate the relationships between impulsivity traits and various forms of substance use, no studies have examined how gambling motives may mediate the relationships between impulsivity traits and problem gambling. The primary purpose of this study was to test an integrative model linking impulsivity traits and gambling problems, evaluating the mediating effects of gambling motives. Participants were 594 students (73% male; age, M = 19.92 years; SD = 2.91) enrolled in public high schools or universities. Young people who tend to act rashly in response to extremely positive moods showed higher enhancement and coping motives, which in turn were positively related to gambling problems. Individuals with higher levels of sensation seeking were more likely to have higher levels of enhancement motives, which in turn were also positively related to gambling problems. The model was examined in several groups, separately for the level of perceived gambling risk/benefits (lower perceived gambling risk, higher perceived gambling risk, lower perceived gambling benefits, and higher perceived gambling benefits). There were significant differences between these groups for this division. These findings suggest that prevention and/or treatment strategies might need to consider the model's variables, including impulsivity traits and gambling motives, in accordance with individual levels of perceived gambling risk/benefits. PMID:25730629

  7. Influence of plasma GSH level on acute radiation mucositis of the oral cavity

    The purpose of the study was to see how pretreatment plasma GSH level influences the severity of acute radiation mucositis of the oral cavity during therapeutic irradiation in patients with oral cancer. Thirteen patients with squamous cell circinoma of the oral cavity form the subject material. Radical radiotherapy (60 Gy in 25 fractions over 5 weeks) was given using telecobalt. Pretreatment plasma GSH level was measured by Beutler's method. The normal tissue reaction during radiotherapy was monitored and graded. The GSH levels ranged from 10.6-90.5 μM/L (mean 30.6 μM/L). Those who had higher GSH levels developed less severe mucositis. The mean GSH levels in the groups with different severity of reactions were: Grade 2 (four patients) = 50.7 μM/L; Grade 3 (five patients) = 26.1 μM/L; Grade 4 (two patients) = 20.4 μM/L and Grade 5 (two patients) = 26.1 μM/L; Grade 4 (two patients) = 20.4 μM/L and Grade 5 (two patients) = 13.6 μM/L. Plasma GSH estimation has the potential to predict individual sensitivity to acute radiation mucositis and may particularly be useful in hyperfractionated regimes. The study also affirms the radioprotective role of GSH and suggests that this effect is either due to protection against membrane lipid perodixation (since GSH does not enter the cell freely) or DNA damage (fractionated radiotherapy may permit freer entry of GSH into cell). 26 refs., 1 fig., 2 tabs

  8. Clinical Characteristics and Factors Influencing the Occurrence of Acute Eosinophilic Pneumonia in Korean Military Personnel.

    Yoon, Chang-Gyo; Kim, Se Jin; Kim, Kang; Lee, Ji Eun; Jhun, Byung Woo

    2016-02-01

    Acute eosinophilic pneumonia (AEP) is an uncommon inflammatory lung disease, and limited data exist concerning the clinical characteristics and factors that influence its occurrence. We retrospectively reviewed the records of AEP patients treated at Korean military hospitals between January 2007 and December 2013. In total, 333 patients were identified; their median age was 22 years, and all were men. All patients presented with acute respiratory symptoms (cough, sputum, dyspnea, or fever) and had elevated levels of inflammatory markers including median values of 13,185/µL for white blood cell count and 9.51 mg/dL for C-reactive protein. All patients showed diffuse ground glass opacity/consolidation, and most had pleural effusion (n = 265; 80%) or interlobular septal thickening (n = 265; 85%) on chest computed tomography. Most patients had normal body mass index (n = 255; 77%), and only 30 (9%) patients had underlying diseases including rhinitis, asthma, or atopic dermatitis. Most patients had recently changed smoking habits (n = 288; 87%) and were Army personnel (n = 297; 89%).The AEP incidence was higher in the Army group compared to the Navy or Air Force group for every year (P = 0.002). Both the number of patients and patients with high illness severity (oxygen requirement, intensive care unit admission, and pneumonia severity score class ≥ III) tended to increase as seasonal temperatures rose. We describe the clinical characteristics of AEP and demonstrate that AEP patients have recently changed smoking habits and work for the Army. There is an increasing tendency in the numbers of patients and those with higher AEP severity with rising seasonal temperatures. PMID:26839479

  9. Depression, anxiety and influencing factors in patients with acute pulmonary embolism

    LIU Chun-ping; LI Xiao-mei; CHEN Hang-wei; CUI Jun-yu; NIU Li-li; HE Yu-bin; TIAN Xin-li

    2011-01-01

    Background Psychological distress has been widely studied in many cardiovascular and pulmonary diseases, but the condition in acute pulmonary embolism (APE) is unknown. The purpose of this study was to investigate levels of depression and anxiety and their influencing factors in APE patients.Methods Sixty consecutive patients with APE were subjected to investigation of depression and anxiety by the Beck Depression Inventory and State-Trait Anxiety Inventory, and 60 community-based subjects were enrolled as controls.APE patients were stratified as high-risk, intermediate-risk and low-risk according to the disease severity. Scores of depression and anxiety were compared by statistical analysis using paired t tests between APE patients and controls,and by analysis of variance within the APE patients with the three risk stratification. Factors influencing depression and anxiety were evaluated.Results The mean age of the patients (38 males and 22 females) was (52+12) years. APE patients displayed higher scores of depression (P=0.04) and anxiety (P=0.001) compared with controls. Patients in the high-risk group displayed higher scores of depression (P=0.004) and anxiety (P=0.001) compared with those in the intermediate- and low-risk groups. Depression scores were highly correlated with anxiety scores (r=0.60, P <0.001). Both depression and anxiety inversely related to risk stratification (P <0.01), age (P <0.05), and arterial blood oxygen pressure (PaO2) (P <0.05).Linear regression analysis showed that PaO2 was independently inversely related to both depression (P <0.01) and anxiety (P <0.05); risk stratification and age were independently inversely related to anxiety (P <0.05).Conclusions Patients of APE suffered high levels of depression and anxiety, which were negatively influenced by PaO2,risk stratification and age.

  10. Motivation factors enabling positive deviance at workplace

    Olasmaa, Tomi

    2010-01-01

    Motivation concerns a person’s willingness to do something. Managers of organizations wish to keep their employees’ motivation level high and improve the performance of the organization. To keep the motivation level high, managers have to acknowledge what are the factors that influence the motivation level of employees. This Bachelor’s Thesis explores factors that influence personnel motivation at workplace. It also studies if these motivational factors enable positive deviance of organizatio...

  11. Effectiveness of a drinking-motive-tailored emergency-room intervention among adolescents admitted to hospital due to acute alcohol intoxication — A randomized controlled trial

    Wurdak, M.; Wolstein, J; Kuntsche, E.N.

    2015-01-01

    The aim of this study is to develop and test the effectiveness of a drinking-motive-tailored intervention for adolescents hospitalized due to alcohol intoxication in eight cities in Germany between December 2011 and May 2012 against a similar, non-motive-tailored intervention. In a randomized controlled trial, 254 adolescents received a psychosocial intervention plus motive-tailored (intervention group; IG) or general exercises (control group; CG). Adolescents in the IG received exercises in ...

  12. Influence of motivation upon effectiveness of physical culture and sport profile high educational facilities teachers' proffessional-pedagogical activity.

    Stepanchenko N.I.

    2012-12-01

    Full Text Available Motivation of teachers for professional-pedagogical activity and levels of forming of their pedagogical skills were determined based on the results of self evaluation and evaluation that was performed by the students. Evaluation of teachers' pedagogical skills and self evaluation were compared to dominating motivation for professional activity of teachers. 42 teachers and 78 students took part in this experiment. To determine proffessional-pedagogical activity motivation the tool of K. Zamfir in modification by A. Rean was used. To determine self evaluation of pedagogical skills "Scale of self evaluation of pedagogical activity" and tool of B. Zelentsov "Students about a teacher" were used. It was shown that it is characteristic for teachers to over estimate their pedagogical skills in comparison to the evaluation made by students: high level of forming of pedagogical skills comprise 40,48 % of respondents, while according to the students evaluation this figure is almost twice lower and comprises - 21,43%; average level evaluation, shows only 14,28 %, when students evaluate that 35,71% of teachers have average level of pedagogical skills forming. It was declared that teachers with the most determined internal motives are more objective in their self evaluation. It was proven that teachers whose pedagogical skills are on high level and who are evaluated by the students on the same level the are lead by domination of internal motivation.

  13. The influence of motivations for seeking ISO 14001 certification: an empirical study of ISO 14001 certified facilities in Hong Kong.

    Fryxell, Gerald E; Szeto, Agnes

    2002-07-01

    This study proposes a model linking firm motivations for seeking ISO 14001 certification to the effectiveness of three major components of an environmental management system (EMS)--environmental policy, the assessment of environmental aspect and impacts, and management review. The relationship of these EMS components with a self-reported measure of environmental performance is also examined. From a sample of 29 ISO 14001 certified facilities in Hong Kong (of 71 total certifications at the time the data was collected), it was found that motivations to enhance firm reputation are positively related to perceptions of the effectiveness of the policy statement. Motivations for reputation enhancement and cost reduction were positively related to perceptions of EMS effectiveness in assessing environmental aspects and impacts. The effectiveness of the methodology for identifying environmental aspects and impacts was also found to be positively related to improved environmental performance. PMID:12357656

  14. Effectiveness of a drinking-motive-tailored emergency-room intervention among adolescents admitted to hospital due to acute alcohol intoxication: A randomized controlled trial

    Wurdak, M.; Wolstein, J.; Kuntsche, E.N.

    2016-01-01

    The aim of this study is to develop and test the effectiveness of a drinking-motive-tailored intervention for adolescents hospitalized due to alcohol intoxication in eight cities in Germany between December 2011 and May 2012 against a similar, non-motive-tailored intervention. In a randomized contro

  15. Influence of Daily Individual Meteorological Parameters on the Incidence of Acute Coronary Syndrome

    Mirjam Ravljen

    2014-11-01

    Full Text Available Background: A nationwide study was conducted to explore the short term association between daily individual meteorological parameters and the incidence of acute coronary syndrome (ACS treated with coronary emergency catheter interventions in the Republic of Slovenia, a south-central European country. Method: We linked meteorological data with daily ACS incidence for the entire population of Slovenia, for the population over 65 years of age and for the population under 65 years of age. Data were collected daily for a period of 4 years from 1 January 2008 to 31 December 2011. In line with existing studies, we used a main effect generalized linear model with a log-link-function and a Poisson distribution of ACS. Results and Conclusions: Three of the studied meteorological factors (daily average temperature, atmospheric pressure and relative humidity all have relevant and significant influences on ACS incidences for the entire population. However, the ACS incidence for the population over 65 is only affected by daily average temperature, while the ACS incidence for the population under 65 is affected by daily average pressure and humidity. In terms of ambient temperature, the overall findings of our study are in line with the findings of the majority of contemporary European studies, which also note a negative correlation. The results regarding atmospheric pressure and humidity are less in line, due to considerable variations in results. Additionally, the number of available European studies on atmospheric pressure and humidity is relatively low. The fourth studied variable—season—does not influence ACS incidence in a statistically significant way.

  16. Factors influencing pre-hospital delay among patients with acute myocardial infarction in Iran

    Maryam Momeni; Arsalan Salari; Shora Shafighnia; Atefeh Ghanbari; Fardin Mirbolouk

    2012-01-01

    Background Acute myocardial infarction (AMI) is the leading cause of morbidity and disability among Iranian population.Pre-hospital delay is an important cause of increasing early and also late mortality in AMI.Thus the aim of the present study was to identify the factors influencing pre-hospital delay among patients with AMI in Iran.Methods Between August 2010 and May 2011,a cross-sectional and single-center survey was conducted on 162 consecutive patients with ST-elevation myocardial infarction (STEMI) admitted to Cardiac Care Unit (CCU) of Dr.Heshmat Hospital,Rasht.All patients were interviewed by the third author within 7 days after admission by using a four-part questionnaire including socio-demographic,clinical,situational and cognitive factors.Data were analyzed by descriptive and Logistic regression model at P < 0.05 using SPSS 16.Results Mean age was (60.11±12.29) years in all patients.Majority of patients (65.4%) were male.The median of pre-hospital delay was 2 hours,with a mean delay of 7.4 hours (±16.25 hours).Regression analysis showed that admission in weekend (P <0.04,OR=1.033,95% Cl=1.187-2.006) and misinterpretation of symptoms as cardiac origin (P <0.002,OR=1.986,95% Cl=1.254-3.155) and perceiving symptoms to not be so serious (P <0.003,OR=3.264,95%Cl=1.492-7.142) were factors influencing pre-hospital delay > 2 hours.Conclusions Our findings highlight the importance of cognitive factors on decision-making process and pre-hospital delays.Health care providers can educate the public on AMI to enable them recognize the signs and symptoms of AMI correctly and realize the benefits of early treatment.

  17. Influence of dexamethasone on mesenteric lymph node of rats with severe acute pancreatitis

    Xi-Ping Zhang; Hong-Miao Xu; Yi-Yu Jiang; Shuo Yu; Yang Cai; Bei Lu; Qi Xie; Tong-Fa Ju

    2008-01-01

    AIM: To study the influence and mechanisms of dexamethasone on mesenteric lymph node of rats with severe acute pancreatitis (SAP).METHODS: The SAP rats were assigned to model, treated or sham-operated groups. The mortality, pathological changes of mesenteric lymph nodes, expression levels of NF-κB, P-selectin, Bax, Bcl-2 and caspase-3 protein and changes in apoptotic indexes in lymph nodes were observed at 3, 6 and 12 h after operation. The blood levels of endotoxin, superoxide dismutase (SOD), malondialdehyde (MDA), and endothelin-1 (ET-1) in blood were determined.RESULTS: SOD content, expression of Bax protein and apoptotic index were significantly higher in the treated group than in the model group at different time points (P < 0.05 or P < 0.01). Other blood-detecting indexes and histopathological scores of mesenteric lymph nodes were lower in the treated than in the model group (P < 0.05, P < 0.01 or P < 0.01). NF-κB protein expression was negative in all groups. Comparing P-selectin and caspase-3 expression levels among all three groups, there was no marked difference between the model and treated group.CONCLUSION: Dexamethasone can protect mesenteric lymph nodes. The mechanism may be by reducing the content of inflammatory mediators in the blood and inducing lymphocyte apoptosis.

  18. The Influence of Acute Hyperglycemia in an Animal Model of Lacunar Stroke That Is Induced by Artificial Particle Embolization

    Tsai, Ming-Jun; Lin, Ming-Wei; Huang, Yaw-Bin; Kuo, Yu-Min; Tsai, Yi-Hung

    2016-01-01

    Animal and clinical studies have revealed that hyperglycemia during ischemic stroke increases the stroke's severity and the infarct size in clinical and animal studies. However, no conclusive evidence demonstrates that acute hyperglycemia worsens post-stroke outcomes and increases infarct size in lacunar stroke. In this study, we developed a rat model of lacunar stroke that was induced via the injection of artificial embolic particles during full consciousness. We then used this model to compare the acute influence of hyperglycemia in lacunar stroke and diffuse infarction, by evaluating neurologic behavior and the rate, size, and location of the infarction. The time course of the neurologic deficits was clearly recorded from immediately after induction to 24 h post-stroke in both types of stroke. We found that acute hyperglycemia aggravated the neurologic deficit in diffuse infarction at 24 h after stroke, and also aggravated the cerebral infarct. Furthermore, the infarct volumes of the basal ganglion, thalamus, hippocampus, and cerebellum but not the cortex were positively correlated with serum glucose levels. In contrast, acute hyperglycemia reduced the infarct volume and neurologic symptoms in lacunar stroke within 4 min after stroke induction, and this effect persisted for up to 24 h post-stroke. In conclusion, acute hyperglycemia aggravated the neurologic outcomes in diffuse infarction, although it significantly reduced the size of the cerebral infarct and improved the neurologic deficits in lacunar stroke.

  19. Acute and chronic pretreatment with essential oil of peppermint (Mentha × piperita L., Lamiaceae) influences drug effects.

    Samojlik, Isidora; Petković, Stojan; Mimica-Dukić, Neda; Božin, Biljana

    2012-06-01

    The appearance of common and self-initiative usage of various herbal preparations in everyday practice and life imposes the question of possible interactions with drugs. This survey examined the influence of acute and chronic peppermint oil (PO--Mentha × piperita L., Lamiaceae; prepared as emulsion for oral use) on pentobarbitone-induced sleeping time, analgesic effect of codeine and impairment of motor coordination caused by midazolam in mice. The chemical profile of essential oil was determined by GC-MS. Applied doses of PO were 0.1 and 0.2 mL/kg. Chronic PO intake (in both doses) led to significant decrease of analgesic effect of codeine, while acute intake of PO did not change this effect. Acute PO pretreatment in higher dose caused significant prolongation of pentobarbitone-induced sleeping time, while it was significantly shortened by chronic PO pretreatment at the same dose. Midazolam effect was enhanced and prolonged significantly by chronic PO intake at higher dose, while acute intake of PO did not change this effect. Gut motility was increased only by acute intake of higher PO dose. Regarding the fact that PO produces changes in tested drug effects, the interaction between drugs and phytopreparations containing PO should be additionally followed/confirmed in humans. PMID:22076909

  20. Management styles and motivation.

    Shearer, Dana Ann

    2012-01-01

    According to a review of the current literature, common managerial styles are transformational, transactional, and laissez-faire. When managers expand their leadership skills to improve the staff's morale, they must use a combination of transformational leadership behaviors and transactional contingent rewards to maximize their effectiveness on employees. A motivation theory such as Herzberg and Maslow enhances employees' motivation, morale, and satisfaction. Being able to motivate, empower, and influence staff improves satisfaction and retention levels among the team. A manager's leadership style influences motivation, morale, and retention in staff. Leaders are influenced by their educational development and the organizational culture. Organizational culture has an impact on a manager's style, which is forwarded to their followers. PMID:23130386

  1. The Influence of Organisational Commitment, Job Involvement and Utility Perceptions on Trainees' Motivation to Improve Work through Learning

    von Treuer, Kathryn; McHardy, Katherine; Earl, Celisha

    2013-01-01

    Workplace training is a key strategy often used by organisations to optimise performance. Further, trainee motivation is a key determinant of the degree to which the material learned in a training programme will be transferred to the workplace, enhancing the performance of the trainee. This study investigates the relationship between several…

  2. Investigating the Influences of Core Self-Evaluations, Job Autonomy, and Intrinsic Motivation on In-Role Job Performance

    Joo, Baek-Kyoo; Jeung, Chang-Wook; Yoon, Hea Jun

    2010-01-01

    This study investigates the effects of core self-evaluations, job autonomy, and intrinsic motivation on employees' perceptions of their in-role job performance, based on a cross-sectional survey of 283 employees in a Fortune Global 100 company in Korea. The results suggest that employees perceived higher in-role job performance when they had…

  3. Enabling employees to work safely: the influence of motivation and ability in the design of safety instructions

    Cornelissen, P.A.; Hoof, van J.J.; Vuuren, van M.

    2014-01-01

    Purpose: One of the major challenges for modern organizations is to create healthy and safe work environments, as evidenced by the number of occupational deaths (worldwide: four per minute), and an even higher number of injuries. This study explores different levels of motivation and ability, to ide

  4. The Influence of Motivation and Adaptation on Students' Subjective Well-Being, Meaning in Life and Academic Performance

    Bailey, Thomas Hamilton; Phillips, Lisa J.

    2016-01-01

    High rates of mental illness among students and discontinuation with university studies are regularly reported. The current study sought to explore relationships between motivation, university adaptation and indicators of mental health and well-being and academic performance of 184 first-year university students (73% female, mean age?=?19.3…

  5. Investigating the Influences of a LEAPS Model on Preservice Teachers' Problem Solving, Metacognition, and Motivation in an Educational Technology Course

    Lubin, Ian A.; Ge, Xun

    2012-01-01

    This paper discusses a qualitative study which examined students' problem-solving, metacognition, and motivation in a learning environment designed for teaching educational technology to pre-service teachers. The researchers converted a linear and didactic learning environment into a new open learning environment by contextualizing domain-related…

  6. What do the Numbers Say? The Influence of Motivation and Peer Feedback on Students' Behaviour in Online Discussions

    Xie, Kui

    2013-01-01

    Students' non-posting behaviour in online discussions is often neglected in educational research. However, it can be a potential indicator of student learning. This study examined the relationships between motivation, peer feedback and students’ posting and non-posting behaviours in online discussions in a distance learning class. Fifty-seven…

  7. The Influence of Racism-Related Stress on the Academic Motivation of Black and Latino/a Students

    Reynolds, Amy L.; Sneva, Jacob N.; Beehler, Gregory P.

    2010-01-01

    This study examined the effects of racism-related stress on the academic and psychological factors affecting the success of 151 Black and Latino/a college students enrolled at several predominantly White universities in the northeastern United States. Institutional racism-related stress was negatively correlated with extrinsic motivation but…

  8. Multiple motives and persuasive communication : Creative elaboration as a result of impression motivation and accuracy motivation

    Nienhuis, AE; Manstead, ASR; Spears, R

    2001-01-01

    The authors examined the influence of impression motivation (Experiments 1 and 2) and the combined effects of accuracy motivation and impression motivation (Experiment 3) on the elaboration of persuasive messages as reflected in attitude change and cognitive responses. Intermediate levels of impress

  9. Work motivation

    Bláhová, Marcela

    2014-01-01

    The main theme of this thesis is the work motivation. The work is divided into two parts. The theoretical part speaks about the basic concepts and the motivation theory. It also deals with the motivation of employees, their evaluation and remuneration. The second, empirical part, is focused on exploration and evaluation of individual preferences affect the performance of employees. The research aim determines how the motivational tools in the work are effective or inefficient and how employee...

  10. Influence of Spironolactone on Matrix Metalloproteinase-2 in Acute Decompensated Heart Failure

    João Pedro Ferreira

    2015-04-01

    Full Text Available Background: Matrix metalloproteinases (MMPs are a family of enzymes important for the resorption of extracellular matrices, control of vascular remodeling and repair. Increased activity of MMP2 has been demonstrated in heart failure, and in acutely decompensated heart failure (ADHF a decrease in circulating MMPs has been demonstrated along with successful treatment. Objective: Our aim was to test the influence of spironolactone in MMP2 levels. Methods: Secondary analysis of a prospective, interventional study including 100 patients with ADHF. Fifty patients were non-randomly assigned to spironolactone (100 mg/day plus standard ADHF therapy (spironolactone group or standard ADHF therapy alone (control group. Results: Spironolactone group patients were younger and had lower creatinine and urea levels (all p < 0.05. Baseline MMP2, NT-pro BNP and weight did not differ between spironolactone and control groups. A trend towards a more pronounced decrease in MMP2 from baseline to day 3 was observed in the spironolactone group (-21 [-50 to 19] vs 1.5 [-26 to 38] ng/mL, p = 0.06. NT-pro BNP and weight also had a greater decrease in the spironolactone group. The proportion of patients with a decrease in MMP2 levels from baseline to day 3 was also likely to be greater in the spironolactone group (50% vs 66.7%, but without statistical significance. Correlations between MMP2, NT-pro BNP and weight variation were not statistically significant. Conclusion: MMP2 levels are increased in ADHF. Patients treated with spironolactone may have a greater reduction in MMP2 levels.

  11. Maternal and Newborn Healthcare Providers in Rural Tanzania: In-depth Interviews Exploring Influences on Motivation, Performance and Job Satisfaction.

    Prytherch, H; Kakoko, D. C. V.; Leshabari, M.T.; Sauerborn, R; M. Marx

    2012-01-01

    Major improvements in maternal and neonatal health (MNH) remain elusive in Tanzania. The causes are closely related to the health system and overall human resource policy. Just 35% of the required workforce is actually in place and 43% of available staff consists of lower-level cadres such as auxiliaries. Staff motivation is also a challenge. In rural areas the problems of recruiting and retaining health staff are most pronounced. Yet, it is here that the majority of the population continues ...

  12. The membrane-induced proton motive force influences the metal binding ability of Bacillus subtilis cell walls.

    Urrutia Mera, M; Kemper, M; Doyle, R.; Beveridge, T. J.

    1992-01-01

    Bacillus subtilis 168 is a gram-positive bacterium whose cell wall contains the highly electronegative polymers peptidoglycan (chemotype A1 gamma) and glycerol-based teichoic acid to produce a surface with a net negative charge with high metal binding capacity. During metabolism, a membrane-induced proton motive force continuously pumps protons into the wall fabric. As a result, a competition between protons and metal ions for anionic wall sites occurs, and less metal is bound in living cells...

  13. The strategy and motivational influences on the beneficial effect of neurostimulation: a tDCS and fNIRS study.

    Jones, Kevin T; Gözenman, Filiz; Berryhill, Marian E

    2015-01-15

    Working memory (WM) capacity falls along a spectrum with some people demonstrating higher and others lower WM capacity. Efforts to improve WM include applying transcranial direct current stimulation (tDCS), in which small amounts of current modulate the activity of underlying neurons and enhance cognitive function. However, not everyone benefits equally from a given tDCS protocol. Recent findings revealed tDCS-related WM benefits for individuals with higher working memory (WM) capacity. Here, we test two hypotheses regarding those with low WM capacity to see if they too would benefit under more optimal conditions. We tested whether supplying a WM strategy (Experiment 1) or providing greater extrinsic motivation through incentives (Experiment 2) would restore tDCS benefit to the low WM capacity group. We also employed functional near infrared spectroscopy to monitor tDCS-induced changes in neural activity. Experiment 1 demonstrated that supplying a WM strategy improved the high WM capacity participants' accuracy and the amount of oxygenated blood levels following anodal tDCS, but it did not restore tDCS-linked WM benefits to the low WM capacity group. Experiment 2 demonstrated that financial motivation enhanced performance in both low and high WM capacity groups, especially after anodal tDCS. Here, only the low WM capacity participants showed a generalized increase in oxygenated blood flow across both low and high motivation conditions. These results indicate that ensuring that participants' incentives are high may expand cognitive benefits associated with tDCS. This finding is relevant for translational work using tDCS in clinical populations, in which motivation can be a concern. PMID:25462798

  14. Formation of schoolchildren's culture of health on the basis of the motivated differencial - intyral optimums of the influence of pedagogical factors

    Kravchenko V.V.

    2010-04-01

    Full Text Available The characteristics of the system of morphological, functional and psychological indicators of the schoolchildren under the influence of the methods of formation of their motivation sphere is represented. It is proved that the individual adequacy of the worked out pedagogical factors is a powerful social-pedagogical and physical culture-healthy factor. The system of experimental factors witnessed the effectiveness of the methods of formation of the schoolchildren's healthy way of life, the culture of health as a personal-somatic and public-social value is represented.

  15. Influence of reward preferences in attracting, retaining, and motivating knowledge workers in South African information technology companies

    Mark Bussin

    2015-02-01

    Full Text Available Purpose: The world of work is evolving and the nature of relationships between knowledge workers and their employers has changed distinctly, leading to a change in the type of rewards they prefer. The nature of these preferences in the South African, industry-specific context is poorly understood. The purpose of this study was to deepen understanding of the reward preferences of Information technology (IT knowledge workers in South Africa, specifically as these relate to the attraction, retention and motivation of knowledge workers.Design: The research design included a quantitative, empirical and descriptive study of reward preferences, measured with a self-administered survey and analysed using non-parametric tests for variance between dependent and independent groups and non-parametric analysis of variance.Findings: This study found that there are specific reward preferences in knowledge workers in the IT sector in South Africa and that these preferences apply differently when related to the attraction, retention and motivation of employees. It identified the most important reward components in the competition for knowledge workers and also demonstrated that demographic characteristics play a statistically significant role in determining reward preferences.Practical implications: The study’s findings show that a holistic approach to total rewards is required, failing which, companies will find themselves facing increased turnover and jobhopping. Importantly, the study also highlights that different rewards need to form part of knowledge workers’ relationship with their employer in three different scenarios: attraction, retention and motivation.

  16. Factors Influencing Learner Conceptions of Force: Exploring the Interaction among Visuospatial Ability, Motivation, and Conceptions of Newtonian Mechanics in University Undergraduates from an Evolutionary Perspective

    Vallett, David Bruce

    This study examined the relationships among visuospatial ability, motivation to learn science, and learner conceptions of force across commonly measured demographics with university undergraduates with the aim of examining the support for an evolved sense of force and motion. Demographic variables of interest included age, ethnicity, and gender, which served to determine the ubiquity of the effects of the exogenous variables. Participants (n=91) self selected from introductory physics courses at a large public university in the Mid-Atlantic region of the United States. Utilizing a single-group exploratory design, all participants completed a series of anonymous online instruments to assess the variables of interest. Analysis consisted of an ANOVA for significance testing of demographic variables and a single-level structural equation model (SEM) to ascertain the causal influence of visuospatial ability and affect in the form of motivation on learner conceptions of force. Results of the SEM indicated that while motivation had a nonsignificant (p>.05) impact with this sample, visuospatial ability had a strong (.5 unit change in physics achievement per unit of VSA, pcognitive processes and corresponding neural substrates associated with successful Newtonian reasoning.

  17. Factors that motivate and influence excellence in human performance: A case study of inspection personnel in the complex context of nuclear power plants

    This study investigates the problem of poor performance among nuclear power plant inspection personnel both in training and in the field. First, a systems perspective is employed to explore the psychological processes and relevant human factors that may be associated with workers' inadequate performance. Second, two separate yet related approaches are used to clarify the definition of competence: (a) a theory-based (or top-down) approach, in which effective performance is construed as a product of a skillful, motivated person interacting with a responsive environment; and (b) an empirical (or bottom-up) approach, in which key person and context characteristics are generated based on the opinions of experts in the industry. Using a series of semistructured interviews, two empirical studies were conducted in the latter approach. Workers motivational characteristics appeared to be largely a function of their current working conditions. Overall, the results of both studies converged with the theoretical analysis emphasizing (a) the reciprocal and dynamic interplay of contextual and motivational factors influencing performance, and (b) the salient role of supervisory practices in terms of support, cooperation, and efficiency in contributing to the outcome of performance

  18. Motivator-manager.

    McDonald, Angelic P

    2009-01-01

    The radiologic career field has undergone radical changes in technology, regulatory compliance, and customer expectation.These changes often require dramatic alterations to processes,which can break down communication, create stress, and have a negative effect on department productivity. Motivation itself is a frequently analyzed and reported topic in professional publications. For this purpose, this literature review specifically researches motivation as identified by radiology administrators through Radiology Management. Three key elements surfaced as those with the most impact: (1) motivation is an intrinsic factor which can be influenced but not created, (2) clear attainable goals are an essential component of motivation,and (3) motivation begins with identification of employee needs. PMID:22276390

  19. Motivation and motoric tests in sports

    Karaba-Jakovljević Dea; Popadić-Gaćeša Jelena; Grujić Nikola; Barak Otto; Drapšin Miodrag

    2007-01-01

    Motivation in sport performance has been an interesting topic for many investigators during the past decade. This area can be considered from different viewpoints: motivation for participation in sport activity, achievement motivation, competitiveness etc. Motivation plays an important role in all out tests, as well as in sport activities and at all levels of competition. Motivation climate, or positive social environment may influence and modulate motivation of individuals involved in sports...

  20. Student and Teacher Perceptions of Teacher Immediacy Behaviors and the Influence of Teacher Immediacy Behaviors on Student Motivation to Learn Science

    Littlejohn, Vania

    The National Assessment on Educational Progress signals that American students are not being adequately prepared to compete globally in an ever changing scientific society. As a result, legislation mandated that all students be assessed and show proficiency in scientific literacy beginning in Grade 4 with the reauthorization of the Elementary and Secondary Education Act of 2002 also known as No Child Left Behind. Research indicates a disturbing decline in the number of U.S. students pursuing more rigorous science courses in high school, majoring in scientific areas in college, and choosing future careers in science. With a need to improve science instruction and enhance science literacy for all students, this study focuses on immediate communication behaviors of the classroom teacher as a deciding factor in the opinions of high school students towards science. The purpose of this study was to reveal high school science student perceptions of teacher communication patterns, both verbal and nonverbal, and how they influence their motivation to learn science. The researcher utilized a nonexperimental, quantitative research design to guide this study. Teacher and student data were collected using the Teacher Communication Behavior Questionnaire (TCBQ). The Student Motivation to Learn Instrument (SMLI) across gender, ethnicity, and socioeconomic status survey was used to evaluate student motivation in science. Participants were encouraged to be honest in reporting and sharing information concerning teacher communication behaviors. The data revealed that teacher immediacy behaviors, both verbal and nonverbal, were perceived differently in terms of student gender, ethnicity, and socioeconomic class. The results showed that teachers who display positive communication behaviors and use challenging questioning followed with positive responses create pathways to potentially powerful relationships. These relationships between teachers and students can lead to increased student

  1. Factors influencing recurrent reflux acute pyelonephritis in patients with JJ ureteral stent after discharge

    Pricop Catalin

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available The vesicoureteral reflux (VUR after the insertion of a JJ stent is a pathological entity characterized by the impossibility of the vesicoureteric junction (VUJ to exhibit its sphincterian functioning that allows the unidirectional flow of urine from the ureter to the bladder. This happens as long as the catheter is in place, and after its suppression due to traumatization of the ureterovesical junction, which loses its tonicity and ability to ensure urinary unidirectional flow. Reflux acute pyelonephritis is the acute inflammation of the renal tract and parenchyma resulting from stagnation of infected urine for long periods of time due to vesicoureteral reflux. We have noted multiple cases which, after the insertion of a JJ stent, presented reflux acute pyelonephritis due VUR, we considered the causes favoring these aspects. We focused on the frequency of reflux acute pyelonephritis and identified factors that could be used to advise patients with JJ stents.

  2. Performance management, employee motivation

    Korytová, Lenka

    2012-01-01

    The thesis is devoted to performance management and staff motivation. The goal is to find out how performance and motivation of staff of the Police of the Czech Republic - Territorial Department of Pribram is managed. This work is divided into two parts, theoretical and practical. The first chapter focuses on management and leadership in the organization and on its nature, purpose and differences. Furthermore I analyze the influences that determine the management and approaches to management ...

  3. Factors Influencing the Efficacy of Radiation Protection of the Thyroid Gland in Chernobyl Patients with Acute Radiation Disease

    Full text: Just after the Chernobyl accident there were three groups of factors which could influence on the incorporation of radioactive iodine into the victims at the Chernobyl nuclear power plant. The first group was related with the amount of radioactive iodine in the air, the second with radiation protection measures and the third with clinical condition of the victims. The purpose of this investigation was to study relationships among them. The subject of the research was 108 case histories of the victims after short-term external gamma-exposure from 0.5 to 12.7 Gy. 92 of them fell ill with acute radiation disease. Their thyroid glands were exposed to radiation iodine within 0.01-12 Gy. A multifactor analysis was used for studying the relationships among the radioactive iodine intake, development of prodromal radiation syndrome and taking in 0.125 g of potassium iodine to protect the thyroid gland. The investigation shows that the highest level of iodine incorporation was determined in the men stayed at the nuclear power plant for the first hour after the beginning of the accident. A protective effect of potassium iodine depended on the time of taking in. The vomiting was a reason for decreasing the effect due to the loss of some potassium iodine with vomiting materials during the prodromal period of acute radiation disease. The level of the radionuclide incorporation had no influence on the development of the acute radiation syndrome. (author)

  4. Effectiveness of a drinking-motive-tailored emergency-room intervention among adolescents admitted to hospital due to acute alcohol intoxication - A randomized controlled trial.

    Wurdak, Mara; Wolstein, Jörg; Kuntsche, Emmanuel

    2016-06-01

    The aim of this study is to develop and test the effectiveness of a drinking-motive-tailored intervention for adolescents hospitalized due to alcohol intoxication in eight cities in Germany between December 2011 and May 2012 against a similar, non-motive-tailored intervention. In a randomized controlled trial, 254 adolescents received a psychosocial intervention plus motive-tailored (intervention group; IG) or general exercises (control group; CG). Adolescents in the IG received exercises in accordance with their drinking motives as indicated at baseline (e.g. alternative ways of spending leisure time or dealing with stress). Exercises for the CG contained alcohol-related information in general (e.g. legal issues). The data of 81 adolescents (age: M = 15.6, SD = 1.0; 42.0% female) who participated in both the baseline and the follow-up were compared using ANOVA with repeated measurements and effect sizes (available case analyses). Adolescents reported lower alcohol use at the four-week follow-up independently of the kind of intervention. Significant interaction effects between time and IG were found for girls in terms of drinking frequency (F = 7.770, p effect sizes of drinking frequency (d = - 1.18), binge drinking (d = - 1.61) and drunkenness (d = - 2.87) were much higher than the .8 threshold for large effects. Conducting psychosocial interventions in a motive-tailored way appears more effective for girls admitted to hospital due to alcohol intoxication than without motive-tailoring. Further research is required to address the specific needs of boys in such interventions. (German Clinical Trials Register, DRKS ID: DRKS00005588). PMID:26844193

  5. Suspension properties of whole blood and its components under glucose influence studied in patients with acute coronary syndrome

    Malinova, Lidia I.; Simonenko, Georgy V.; Denisova, Tatyana P.; Dovgalevsky, Pavel Y.; Tuchin, Valery V.

    2004-05-01

    The protocol of our study includes men with acute myocardial infarction, stable angina pectoris of II and III functional classes and unstable angina pectoris. Patients with arterial hypertension, disorders in carbohydrate metabolism were excluded from the study. Blood samples taken under standardized conditions, were stabilized with citrate sodium 3,8% (1:9). Erythrocytes and platelets aggregation activity under glucose influence (in vitro) was studied by means of computer aided microphotometer -- a visual analyzer. Erythrocyte and platelets were united in special subsystem of whole blood. Temporal and functional characteristics of their aggregation were analyzed by creation of phase patterns fragments. The received data testify to interrelation of erythrocytes and platelets processes of aggregation under conditions of increasing of glucose concentration of the incubatory environment, which temporal and functional characteristics may be used for diagnostics and the prognosis of destabilization coronary blood flow at an acute coronary syndrome.

  6. Influence of acute normobaric hypoxia on physiological variables and lactate turn point determination in trained men.

    Ofner, Michael; Wonisch, Manfred; Frei, Mario; Tschakert, Gerhard; Domej, Wolfgang; Kröpfl, Julia M; Hofmann, Peter

    2014-12-01

    The goal of this study is to evaluate the response of physiological variables to acute normobaric hypoxia compared to normoxia and its influence on the lactate turn point determination according to the three-phase model of energy supply (Phase I: metabolically balanced at muscular level; Phase II: metabolically balanced at systemic level; Phase III: not metabolically balanced) during maximal incremental exercise. Ten physically active (VO2max 3.9 [0.49] l·min(-1)), healthy men (mean age [SD]: 25.3 [4.6] yrs.), participated in the study. All participants performed two maximal cycle ergometric exercise tests under normoxic as well as hypoxic conditions (FiO2 = 14%). Blood lactate concentration, heart rate, gas exchange data, and power output at maximum and the first and the second lactate turn point (LTP1, LTP2), the heart rate turn point (HRTP) and the first and the second ventilatory turn point (VETP1, VETP2) were determined. Since in normobaric hypoxia absolute power output (P) was reduced at all reference points (max: 314 / 274 W; LTP2: 218 / 184 W; LTP1: 110 / 96 W), as well as VO2max (max: 3.90 / 3.23 l·min(-1); LTP2: 2.90 / 2.43 l·min(-1); LTP1: 1.66 / 1.52 l·min(-1)), percentages of Pmax at LTP1, LTP2, HRTP and VETP1, VETP2 were almost identical for hypoxic as well as normoxic conditions. Heart rate was significantly reduced at Pmax in hypoxia (max: 190 / 185 bpm), but no significant differences were found at submaximal control points. Blood lactate concentration was not different at maximum, and all reference points in both conditions. Respiratory exchange ratio (RER) (max: 1.28 / 1.08; LTP2: 1.13 / 0.98) and ventilatory equivalents for O2 (max: 43.4 / 34.0; LTP2: 32.1 / 25.4) and CO2 (max: 34.1 / 31.6; LTP2: 29.1 / 26.1) were significantly higher at some reference points in hypoxia. Significant correlations were found between LTP1 and VETP1 (r = 0.778; p exercise performance in both environments. Key PointsThe lactate turn point concept can be used for

  7. Influence of pH on the acute toxicity of ammonia to juvenile freshwater mussels (fatmucket, Lampsills siliquoidea)

    Wang, N.; Erickson, R.J.; Ingersoll, C.G.; Ivey, C.D.; Brunson, E.L.; Augspurger, T.; Barnhart, M.C.

    2008-01-01

    The objective of the present study was to evaluate the influence of pH on the toxicity of ammonia to juvenile freshwater mussels. Acute 96-h ammonia toxicity tests were conducted with 10-d-old juvenile mussels (fatmucket, Lampsilis siliquoidea) at five pH levels ranging from 6.5 to 9.0 in flow-through diluter systems at 20??C. Acute 48-h tests with amphipods (Hyalella azteca) and 96-h tests with oligochaetes (Lumbriculus variegatus) were conducted concurrently under the same test conditions to determine the sensitivity of mussels relative to these two commonly tested benthic invertebrate species. During the exposure, pH levels were maintained within 0.1 of a pH unit and ammonia concentrations were relatively constant through time (coefficient of variation for ammonia concentrations ranged from 2 to 30% with a median value of 7.9%). The median effective concentrations (EC50s) of total ammonia nitrogen (N) for mussels were at least two to six times lower than the EC50s for amphipods and oligochaetes, and the EC50s for mussels decreased with increasing pH and ranged from 88 mg N/L at pH 6.6 to 0.96 mg N/L at pH 9.0. The EC50s for mussels were at or below the final acute values used to derive the U.S. Environmental Protection Agency's acute water quality criterion (WQC). However, the quantitative relationship between pH and ammonia toxicity to juvenile mussels was similar to the average relationship for other taxa reported in the WQC. These results indicate that including mussel toxicity data in a revision to the WQC would lower the acute criterion but not change the WQC mathematical representation of the relative effect of pH on ammonia toxicity. ?? 2008 SETAC.

  8. Phasic D1 and tonic D2 dopamine receptor signaling double dissociate the motivational effects of acute nicotine and chronic nicotine withdrawal

    Grieder, Taryn E; George, Olivier; Tan, Huibing; George, Susan R.; Le Foll, Bernard; Laviolette, Steven R; van der Kooy, Derek

    2012-01-01

    Nicotine, the main psychoactive ingredient of tobacco smoke, induces negative motivational symptoms during withdrawal that contribute to relapse in dependent individuals. The neurobiological mechanisms underlying how the brain signals nicotine withdrawal remain poorly understood. Using electrophysiological, genetic, pharmacological, and behavioral methods, we demonstrate that tonic but not phasic activity is reduced during nicotine withdrawal in ventral tegmental area dopamine (DA) neurons, a...

  9. Ultrastructural and tissue restructuring of the rat atrial myocardium under the influence of acute and chronic prenatal hypoxia

    Shevchenko K. M.

    2015-09-01

    Full Text Available Background. There are relatively few researches that focused on the study of the influence of hypoxia on atrial myocardium. However the results of previous researches are contradictory and fragmentary, that leades to the further study of this item. Objective. Purpose of the work was to determine the tissue, cellular and ultrastructural changes of the rat atrial myocardium during the stages of cardiogenesis under the conditions of acute and chronic prenatal hypoxia. Methods. Embryo hearts were investigated on 14th, 16th and 18th day of prenatal ontogenesis, newborn rat hearts and the hearts of rats on the 3rd, 14th and 30th day of postnatal ontogenesis. Animals were subdivided into three groups: first experimental group animals were exposed to acute prenatal hypoxia, second experimental group animals were exposed to chronic prenatal hypoxia and control group animals. Hypoxia modeling was conducted on pregnant females by injection of 1% sodium nitrite intraperitonealy in doses that lead to moderate hypoxia. During the work complex of histological, immunohistochemical and morphometric methods was used. Results and conclusion. Effect of acute hypoxia leads to stimulation of proliferative activity of fibroblasts and endothelial cells on the right atrium, which causes to increasing of the relative volume of connective tissue and blood vessels of microvasculature of myocardium. Relative volume of connective tissue of the atrial myocardium exceeds significantly the control level of newborn rats. Ultrastructural changes of the atrial cardiomyocytes in 3 days after the influence of acute prenatal hypoxia reveals on violation of mitochondrial structure, significant inhibition of myofibrils accumulation. Until the birth of most of morphometric parameters renewal and reach control levels, however changes of the degree of myofibrils orientation on the left atrium proves stability of hypoxic damages. Chronic prenatal hypoxia causes a significant increase of

  10. How Peer Communication and Engagement Motivations Influence Social Media Shopping Behavior: Evidence from China and the United States.

    Muralidharan, Sidharth; Men, Linjuan Rita

    2015-10-01

    Based on consumer socialization theory, this study proposes and tests a conceptual model of social media shopping behavior, which links the antecedents of user motivations of engagement and peer communication about products to shopping behavior through social media. A cross-cultural survey was conducted with social media users in two culturally distinct markets with the largest Internet population: China (n=304) and the United States (n=328). Findings showed that social interaction, information, and remuneration were positive antecedents of peer communication for users from both countries. Peer communication positively impacted social media shopping behavior, and cultural differences were observed, with social interaction being important to Chinese users' shopping behavior, while remuneration was more important to American users. Implications are discussed. PMID:26376370

  11. Why do early adolescents bully? Exploring the influence of prestige norms on social and psychological motives to bully.

    Berger, Christian; Caravita, Simona C S

    2016-01-01

    The present study examines psychological (e.g., Machiavellianism) and social (i.e., perceived popularity) motives for bullying, exploring the effects that classroom prestige norms for physical and relational aggression may have on these associations. A longitudinal multilevel study design was adopted, which included 978 5th to 7th graders from four Chilean schools. Participants were assessed three times over one year on self reports on bullying and Machiavellianism, and peer reports on popularity. Classroom prestige norms were calculated as the within classroom association between peer perceived coolness and aggression. Both Machiavellianism and perceived popularity were associated with bullying. However, hierarchical linear modeling analyses showed that Machiavellianism, but not perceived popularity, predicted bullying after controlling for baseline scores. Classroom prestige norms for relational aggression increased the association between Machiavellianism and bullying. Separate models were tested for boys and girls, showing no differences. Results are discussed in light of conceptual and methodological considerations. PMID:26584218

  12. Motivational factors influencing small construction and auto repair enterprises to participate in occupational health and safety programmes

    Kvorning, Laura Veng; Hasle, Peter; Christensen, Ulla

    2015-01-01

    Small enterprises have limited resources to prioritise occupational health and safety (OHS) so regulators and other stakeholders have developed programmes to support them. The present study analysed the factors influencing active participation of small construction and auto repair enterprises to...

  13. Situating Motivation

    Nolen, Susan Bobbitt; Horn, Ilana Seidel; Ward, Christopher J.

    2015-01-01

    This article describes a situative approach to studying motivation to learn in social contexts. We begin by contrasting this perspective to more prevalent psychological approaches to the study of motivation, describing epistemological and methodological differences that have constrained conversation between theoretical groups. We elaborate on…

  14. Motivational interviewing

    Karlsen, Kamilla; Humaidan, Peter; Sørensen, Lise H;

    2013-01-01

    This is a retrospective study to investigate whether motivational interviewing increases weight loss among obese or overweight women prior to fertility treatment. Women with body mass index (BMI) > 30 kg/m(2) approaching the Fertility Clinic, Regional Hospital Skive, were given advice about diet...... and physical activity with the purpose of weight loss. In addition, they were asked if they wanted to receive motivational interviewing. Among other data, age, height and weight were obtained. Main outcomes were weight loss measured in kg and decrease in BMI. We studied 187 women: 110 received...... sessions of motivational interviewing (intervention group, n = 110), 64 received motivational support by phone or e-mail only and 13 women did not wish any motivational support (control group, n = 77). The mean weight loss and decrease in BMI was greater in the intervention group compared with the control...

  15. The Influence of Acute Arm Vibration on Coordination in Physical Education

    Erman, Alparslan

    2015-01-01

    Today, some researchers have focused on the impacts of new and easily applicable non-invasive methods on physical education. The purpose of this study is to examine the vibration-related acute change in rotary pursuit coordination performance soon after arm vibration. In the study, 27 students in School of Physical Education and Sport were divided…

  16. Does the electrocardiographic presence of Q waves influence the survival of patients with acute myocardial infarction?

    Abdulla, J; Brendorp, B; Torp-Pedersen, C;

    2001-01-01

    AIMS: To compare the outcome of short- and long-term survival of patients with Q wave vs non-Q wave myocardial infarction. METHODS: A total of 6676 patients with acute myocardial infarction were enrolled on the TRAndolapril Cardiac Evaluation (TRACE) register between 1990 and 1992. Medical histor...

  17. Acute and chronic eggshell temperature manipulations during hatching term influence hatchability, broiler performance, and ascites incidence.

    Sozcu, A; Ipek, A

    2015-02-01

    The aim of the current study was to determine how a control temperature and acute and chronic high eggshell temperatures during the last three days of incubation, can affect hatchability, chick quality, and organ development on day of hatch as well as broiler performance and ascites incidence in later life. The eggshell temperature manipulations were applied during hatching term (days 19 to 21) as follows: control EST (37.3 to 38.0°C), acute high eggshell temperature manipulations (38.4- to 39.0°C for three hours daily) and chronic high eggshell temperature manipulations (38.4 to 39.0°C). The lowest hatchability and the highest cull chick rate were in the chronic high eggshell temperature manipulations group. Lower chick quality parameters correlated with lower chick weights and heavier residual yolk sac weights that were in the chronic high eggshell temperature manipulations group depending on hatch time. The live weights on the 1(st) day of the growing period were higher in the control and acute high eggshell temperature manipulations groups than the chronic high eggshell temperature manipulations group. At 6 wk of age, live weights of broilers were the highest in the control than in the acute and chronic high eggshell temperature manipulations groups. The total mortality was 2.5, 9.2, and 13.3%, the mortality due to ascites was 2.1, 8.3, and 12.9% in the control, acute ,and chronic high eggshell temperature manipulations groups, respectively. The right ventricular/total ventricular ratios for the control, acute and chronic high eggshell temperature manipulations groups were 0.22, 0.28, and 0.30%, respectively. In conclusion, short-term and long-term higher temperatures during the hatching term affect embryo development, incubation results, broiler performance, and ascites incidence. Although the acute high eggshell temperature manipulations did not affect the chick quality parameters at hatch, it negatively affected incubation results and broiler performance

  18. Motivation and library management

    Tatjana Likar

    2000-01-01

    Full Text Available The present article deals with motivation, its relation to management and its role and use in librarianship in our country and abroad. The countries where librarianship is well developed started to deal with library management and questions of motivation of library workers decades ago, whereas elsewhere the subject is at its start. The prerequisite for modern policy making is attention to the elements of modern library management. Librarians, library managers and directors of libraries should create a work environment providing long term satisfaction with work by means of certain knowledge and tools. The level of motivation of the staff is influenced by the so called higher factors deriving from the work process itself and related to work contents: achieve¬ment, recognition, trust and work itself. Extrinsic factors (income, interpersonal relations, technology of administration, company policy, working conditions, work con¬trol, personal security, job security and position... should exercise lesser impact on the level of motivation.

  19. Clinical Factors and Viral Load Influencing Severity of Acute Hepatitis A.

    Hyun Woong Lee

    Full Text Available Clinical manifestations of hepatitis A virus (HAV infection vary from mild to fulminant hepatic failure (FHF in adults. We investigated the relationship between laboratory findings, including viral load, and clinical outcomes in patients with acute hepatitis A (AHA and evaluated predictive factors for severe acute hepatitis (s-AH.We analyzed the clinical manifestations of AHA in 770 patients. Patients with a prothrombin time (PT of less than 40% of normal were classified as s-AH and included 4 patients with FHF, 11 patients with acute renal failure, and 3 patients with prolonged jaundice (n = 128. Other patients were defined as mild acute hepatitis (m-AH (n = 642. Serum samples were obtained from 48 patients with acute hepatitis A. Among them, 20 with s-AH, and 28 with m-AH, were tested for HAV RNA titer.In a multivariate analysis, age (HR = 1.042, P = 0.041, peak creatinine (HR = 4.014, P = 0.001, bilirubin (HR = 1.153, P = 0.003, alanine aminotransferase (ALT (HR = 1.001, P < 0.001, initial lactate dehydrogenase (LDH (HR = 1.000, P = 0.045 and total cholesterol (HR = 0.978, P < 0.001 were independent factors for s-AH. Serum HAV RNA was detected in 20/20 (100% patients with s-AH and 22/28 (78.6% patients with m-AH. In a multivariate analysis of the 48 patients who were tested for HAV RNA, peak ALT (HR = 1.001, P = 0.004 and HAV RNA titer (HR = 2.076, P = 0.012 were independent factors for s-AH.Clinical factors including age, peak creatinine, bilirubin, ALT, initial LDH and total cholesterol were independent factors for s-AH in a multivariate analysis. In particular, HAV load strongly correlated with the severity of hepatitis A.

  20. Influence of Acute Normobaric Hypoxia on Physiological Variables and Lactate Turn Point Determination in Trained Men

    Michael Ofner, Manfred Wonisch, Mario Frei, Gerhard Tschakert, Wolfgang Domej, Julia M. Kröpfl, Hofmann Peter

    2014-12-01

    Full Text Available The goal of this study is to evaluate the response of physiological variables to acute normobaric hypoxia compared to normoxia and its influence on the lactate turn point determination according to the three-phase model of energy supply (Phase I: metabolically balanced at muscular level; Phase II: metabolically balanced at systemic level; Phase III: not metabolically balanced during maximal incremental exercise. Ten physically active (VO2max 3.9 [0.49] l·min-1, healthy men (mean age [SD]: 25.3 [4.6] yrs., participated in the study. All participants performed two maximal cycle ergometric exercise tests under normoxic as well as hypoxic conditions (FiO2 = 14%. Blood lactate concentration, heart rate, gas exchange data, and power output at maximum and the first and the second lactate turn point (LTP1, LTP2, the heart rate turn point (HRTP and the first and the second ventilatory turn point (VETP1, VETP2 were determined. Since in normobaric hypoxia absolute power output (P was reduced at all reference points (max: 314 / 274 W; LTP2: 218 / 184 W; LTP1: 110 / 96 W, as well as VO2max (max: 3.90 / 3.23 l·min-1; LTP2: 2.90 / 2.43 l·min-1; LTP1: 1.66 / 1.52 l·min-1, percentages of Pmax at LTP1, LTP2, HRTP and VETP1, VETP2 were almost identical for hypoxic as well as normoxic conditions. Heart rate was significantly reduced at Pmax in hypoxia (max: 190 / 185 bpm, but no significant differences were found at submaximal control points. Blood lactate concentration was not different at maximum, and all reference points in both conditions. Respiratory exchange ratio (RER (max: 1.28 / 1.08; LTP2: 1.13 / 0.98 and ventilatory equivalents for O2 (max: 43.4 / 34.0; LTP2: 32.1 / 25.4 and CO2 (max: 34.1 / 31.6; LTP2: 29.1 / 26.1 were significantly higher at some reference points in hypoxia. Significant correlations were found between LTP1 and VETP1 (r = 0.778; p < 0.01, LTP2 and HRTP (r = 0.828; p < 0.01 and VETP2 (r = 0.948; p < 0.01 for power output for both

  1. Factors influencing incidence of acute grade 2 morbidity in conformal and standard radiation treatment of prostate cancer

    Purpose: The fundament hypothesis of conformal radiation therapy is that tumor control can be increased by using conformal treatment techniques that allow a higher tumor dose while maintaining an acceptable level of complications. To test this hypothesis, it is necessary first to estimate the incidence of morbidity for both standard and conformal fields. In this study, we examine factors that influence the incidence of acute grade 2 morbidity in patients treated with conformal and standard radiation treatment for prostate cancer. Methods and Materials: Two hundred and forty-seven consecutive patients treated with conformal technique are combined with and compared to 162 consecutive patients treated with standard techniques. The conformal technique includes special immobilization by a cast, careful identification of the target volume in three dimensions, localization of the inferior border of the prostate using the retrograde urethrogram, and individually shaped portals that conform to the Planning Target Volume (PTV). Univariate analysis compares differences in the incidence of RTOG-EORTC grade two acute morbidity by technique, T stage, age, irradiated volume, and dose. Multivariate logistic regression includes these same variables. Results: In nearly all categories, the conformal treatment group experienced significantly fewer acute grade 2 complications than the standard treatment group. Only volume (prostate ± whole pelvis) and technique (conformal vs. standard) were significantly related to incidence of morbidity on multivariate analysis. When dose is treated as a continuous variable (rather than being dichotomized into two levels), a trend is observed on multivariate analysis, but it does not reach significant levels. The incidence of acute grade 2 morbidity in patients 65 years or older is significantly reduced by use of the conformal technique. Conclusion: The conformal technique is associated with fewer grade 2 acute toxicities for all patients. This

  2. Motivation in action: A process model of L2 motivation

    Dornyei, Zoltan; Otto, Istvan

    1998-01-01

    As part of a long-term project aimed at designing classroom interventions to motivate language learners, we have searched for a motivation model that could serve as a theoretical basis for the methodological applications. We have found that none of the existing models we considered were entirely adequate for our purpose for three reasons: (1) they did not provide a sufficiently comprehensive and detailed summary of all the relevant motivational influences on classroom behaviour; (2) they tend...

  3. Color in context: psychological context moderates the influence of red on approach- and avoidance-motivated behavior.

    Brian P Meier

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: A basic premise of the recently proffered color-in-context model is that the influence of color on psychological functioning varies as a function of the psychological context in which color is perceived. Some research has examined the appetitive and aversive implications of viewing the color red in romance- and achievement-relevant contexts, respectively, but in all existing empirical work approach and avoidance behavior has been studied in separate tasks and separate experiments. Research is needed to directly test whether red influences the same behavior differently depending entirely on psychological context. METHODOLOGY/PRINCIPAL FINDINGS: The present experiment was designed to put this premise to direct test in romance- and achievement-relevant contexts within the same experimental paradigm involving walking behavior. Our results revealed that exposure to red (but not blue indeed has differential implications for walking behavior as a function of the context in which the color is perceived. Red increased the speed with which participants walked to an ostensible interview about dating (a romance-relevant context, but decreased the speed with which they walked to an ostensible interview about intelligence (an achievement-relevant context. CONCLUSIONS/SIGNIFICANCE: These results are the first direct evidence that the influence of red on psychological functioning in humans varies by psychological context. Our findings contribute to both the literature on color psychology and the broader, emerging literature on the influence of context on basic psychological processes.

  4. Application of Protection Motivation Theory to Study the Factors that Influence Disaster Recovery Planning: An Empirical Investigation

    Wunnava, Shalini

    2011-01-01

    In today's information intensive and networked world, Disaster Recovery Planning (DRP) is a critical and significant activity. However, DRP does not always receive the attention it deserves. Therefore, it is critical to examine the factors that influence the undertaking of disaster recovery planning. A model on disaster recovery planning was…

  5. Experimental Longitudinal Test of the Influence of Autonomy-Supportive Teaching on Motivation for Participation in Elementary School Physical Education

    Leptokaridou, Elisavet T.; Vlachopoulos, Symeon P.; Papaioannou, Athanasios G.

    2016-01-01

    The present study examined the efficacy of autonomy-supportive teaching during elementary school physical education (PE) in influencing pupils' enjoyment, fear of failure, boredom and effort. A sample of 54 pupils attending fifth and sixth grades comprised the control group (typical instruction; n = 27) and the experimental group…

  6. Job Assignments, Intrinsic Motivation and Explicit Incentives

    Nafziger, Julia

    2008-01-01

    This paper considers the interplay of job assignments with the intrinsic and extrinsic motivation of an agent. Job assignments influence the self confidence of the agent, and thereby his intrinsic motivation. Monetary reward allow the principal to complement intrinsic motivation with extrinsic incentives. The main result is that the principal chooses an inefficient job assignment rule to enhance the agent's intrinsic motivation even though she can motivate him with monetary rewards. This show...

  7. Empathy, motivation, and P300-BCI performance

    Kleih, Sonja C.

    2013-01-01

    Motivation moderately influences Brain-Computer Interface (BCI) performance in healthy subjects when monetary reward is used to manipulate extrinsic motivation. However, the motivation to use a BCI of severely paralyzed patients, who are potentially in need for BCI, could mainly be internal and thus, an intrinsic motivator may be more powerful. Also healthy subjects who participate in BCI studies could be intrinsically motivated as they may wish to contribute to research and thus extrinsic mo...

  8. Motivational Leadership: Tips From the Business World.

    Rajiah, Prabhakar; Bhargava, Puneet

    2016-05-01

    It is an important task for leadership to identify the motivating factors for employees and motivate them to fulfill their individual and organizational goals. Although there are several motivational factors (extrinsic and intrinsic), intrinsic motivational factors such as autonomy, mastery, and purpose are more important for deeper lasting job satisfaction and higher performance. In this article, the authors discuss how an understanding of these factors that influence motivation has the potential to transform an organization. PMID:26908031

  9. Malignant diseases as suicidal motives

    Bogdanović Ljiljana; Savić Slobodan; Basta-Jovanović Gordana

    2007-01-01

    Introduction Suicide is a conscious and intentional destruction of one’s own life, which occurs as a result of mutual influence of a person’s disposition and motives (facts inspiring the commitment of suicide). It is well known that various diseases, including malignancies, could be important and in some cases the only motive for committing suicide. Objective The purpose of the study was to analyze in detail suicides of persons whose only motive was an established malignant disease. Method Th...

  10. The influence of hypertension on in-hospital outcome in patients with acute myocardial infarction

    Davor Miličić; Bojan Jelaković; Zrinka Ivanuša; Mario Ivanuša

    2009-01-01

    Aim To examine the differences in the frequency of risk factors,clinical presentations on admission and in-hospital outcome in hypertensiveand normotensive patients treated for acute myocardialinfarction (AMI).Methods In hypertensive and normotensive patients with AMI weretrospectively analyzed risk factors (age, gender, smoking habits,diabetes, blood lipids, history of angina pectoris, previous myocardialinfarction, previous stroke and family history of atherothromboticdisease), admission Ki...

  11. Virtual histology assessment of coronary atheroma influences treatment strategy in the young acute coronary syndrome patient

    Ormerod, Julian; Johnston, Tom; Ramcharitar, Steve

    2014-01-01

    A 43-year-old woman having significant risk factors for ischaemic heart disease was admitted with an acute coronary syndrome (ACS). Coronary angiography revealed a non-flow limiting lesion in her right coronary artery with the rest of her arteries unremarkable. Risk stratification of the culprit lesion in the right coronary artery through intravascular ultrasound virtual histology demonstrated that the rupture plaque had less than 5% necrotic core with low vulnerability indices. This importan...

  12. PLZF/RARalpha binding partners and their influence on the induction of acute promyelocytic leukaemia

    Frech, Miriam

    2014-01-01

    The acute promyelocytic leukaemia (APL) accounts for 10% of the adult AML patients. APL patients carry chromosomal translocations involving the rarα gene on chromosome 17. The most frequent translocations lead to the expression of the fusion proteins PML/RARα (98%; t(15;17)) and PLZF/RARα (1%; t(11;17)) (X-RARα). The APL is characterised by a differentiation block at the promyelocytic stage and leads to an increased amount of myel...

  13. The influence of acute stress on the regulation of conditioned fear

    Raio, Candace M.; Phelps, Elizabeth A.

    2014-01-01

    Fear learning and regulation is a prominent model for describing the pathogenesis of anxiety disorders and stress-related psychopathology. Fear expression can be modulated using a number of regulatory strategies, including extinction, cognitive emotion regulation, avoidance strategies and reconsolidation. In this review, we examine research investigating the effects of acute stress and stress hormones on these regulatory techniques. We focus on what is known about the impact of stress on the ...

  14. Influence factors of salt-sensitive hypertension and responses of blood pressure and urinary sodium and potassium excretion to acute oral saline loading among essential hypertensive patients

    刘叶舟

    2014-01-01

    Objective To explore the influence factors of saltsensitive hypertension and to observe changes of blood pressures and urinary sodium and potassium excretion in response to acute oral saline loading among essential hypertensive patients in China.Methods Essential hypertensive patients from Beijing Jinzhan second community were included in this study.Salt-sensitivity was determined via the improved Sullivan’s acute oral saline loading

  15. INFLUENCE OF ACUPUNCTURE ON BRAIN-TAXIS OF TETRAMETHYLPYRAZINE IN ACUTE CEREBRAL INFARCTION RATS

    崔荣秀; 陈以国; 谷雨

    2003-01-01

    Purpose: To observe the effect of acupuncture on the brain-taxis of tetrarmethylpyrazine (TMP) and toexplore into the underlying mechanisms of combined action of acupuncture and medicine in the treatment of acute cere-bral ischemia. Methods: 37 male Wistar rats were randomly divided into normal control group (n= 10), sham-operationgroup (n= 10), acute cerebral ischemia (ACI) + drug group (model group, n=8)and ACl+drug+acupuncture group(acupuncture group, n=9). Rat ACl model was established by using photochemical method. "Neiguan"(PC 6) and"Shuigou"(GV 26) were punctured and stimulated with both hand manipulation and electroacupuncture, 30 min and16hrs after ACI. TMP was given to the rats of the later 2 groups using gastric perfusion method. High pressure chro-matography (HPLC) was used to detect the target absorption level of TMP in the brain. Results: The content of TMP inthe brain in acupuncture group was significantly higher than that in model group (P<0.01), suggesting that acupunc-ture can strengthen the brain-taxis of TMP in ACl rats, and combined administration of acupuncture and Chinese drugmaybe work better for treatment of acute cerebral infarction. Conclusion: Acupuncture can strengthen the chano-taxisof TMP to the brain in ACl rats.

  16. Color in context: psychological context moderates the influence of red on approach- and avoidance-motivated behavior.

    Meier, Brian P.; D'Agostino, Paul R.; Elliot, Andrew J.; Maier, Markus A.; Wilkowski, Benjamin M.

    2012-01-01

    Background A basic premise of the recently proffered color-in-context model is that the influence of color on psychological functioning varies as a function of the psychological context in which color is perceived. Some research has examined the appetitive and aversive implications of viewing the color red in romance- and achievement-relevant contexts, respectively, but in all existing empirical work approach and avoidance behavior has been studied in separate tasks and separate experiments. ...

  17. The Influence of Motivation and Attentional Style on Affective, Cognitive, and Behavioral Outcomes of an Exercise Class

    Karageorghis, CI; Jones, L.; Lane, AM; Bishop, DT

    2015-01-01

    Since the late 1970s exercise classes have been a popular form of physical activity. A greater understanding of the personal factors that might influence the outcomes of such classes could help to minimize the high dropout rates associated with exercise. The study explored the effects of dominant attentional style and self-determination on affective, cognitive, and behavioral outcomes following structured exercise classes. Data from 417 female participants revealed that those with a dominant ...

  18. Color in context: psychological context moderates the influence of red on approach- and avoidance-motivated behavior.

    Brian P Meier; Paul R D'Agostino; Elliot, Andrew J.; Maier, Markus A.; Wilkowski, Benjamin M.

    2012-01-01

    BACKGROUND: A basic premise of the recently proffered color-in-context model is that the influence of color on psychological functioning varies as a function of the psychological context in which color is perceived. Some research has examined the appetitive and aversive implications of viewing the color red in romance- and achievement-relevant contexts, respectively, but in all existing empirical work approach and avoidance behavior has been studied in separate tasks and separate experiments....

  19. Designing motivation

    How can products be designed to change our habits for the better? What is some of the leading research that designers can draw on to create new systems that motivate people towards healthier behaviour? Designing Motivation is an edited collection of ‘industrialist cheat sheets’: 22 single......-page summaries of research articles relating to technology design, motivation, and behaviour change. Ranging across the fields of economics, sociology, design research and behavioural science, each summary draws out the design implications of the research. It is intended as a resource for designers who are...... grappling with how to create motivating products, and as a primer for students who want a brief introduction to some of the relevant theories, findings and design interventions in these fields. The editor's introduction raises a number of issues encountered when we try to apply behavioural research to the...

  20. Drinking Motives

    Grunert, Klaus G; Rosendahl, Jacob; Andronikidis, Andreas I.;

    2013-01-01

    , and quenching one’s thirst. The non-alcoholic products scoring low on functionality are coffee, tea, soft drinks, and energy drinks. Analysis of socio-demographic differences resulted in only a few effects. Men, lower education groups, and lower income groups are more likely to drink alcohol for reasons other......This chapter presents an analysis of what consumer in Europe drink and why they drink what they drink. The concept of drinking motives is developed and defined, and analysis of data on drinking motives shows that these can be grouped into two major classes: self-expressive and functional....... This distinction is universal and henceapplies across Europe. However, the importance of self-expressive as compared to functional motives, as well as the way in which these relate to different beverages, does differ across Europe. Both dimensions are relevant for the motives for drinking non-alcoholic drinks...

  1. Work motivation

    Přikrylová, Petra

    2014-01-01

    This thesis called "Work Motivation" is divided into five basic parts. The introduction describes the reason why this topic was chosen and its motivational meaning in people´s life. The second part is the core of this thesis targeting the work and methodology used in the practical part. The third part contains a literature research, which is composed by a couple of topics, which are basic for understanding ways to resolve issues. The theoretical part defines basic terms related to th...

  2. Influence of motive activity on forming of proof skills of healthy way of life of students of higher educational establishments.

    Trotsenko V.V.

    2010-08-01

    Full Text Available The estimation and the analysis of impellent activity of students is considered. The importance of impellent activity in forming a healthy way of life of students is shown. In research the data of questionnaire of students are used. sports priorities of students are revealed should to undertake in attention by development of the program of physical training. The wide spectrum of the reasons which interfere with exercises is revealed. These reasons should be considered during individual work with each student. It is proved, that impellent activity influences forming of proof skills of a healthy way of life of students.

  3. Motivational Issues in Knowledge Work

    Anca BOGDAN

    2008-01-01

    Full Text Available The paper discusses the place of emotions in modern theories of motivation, and the influence of the knowledge-oriented paradigm on redefining motivation and rethinking ways of rendering work, knowledge work, in particular, more efficient, in a society in which human participation and deployment of intellectual capital become key factors of success, replacing traditional, tangible-focused, factors of production.

  4. Teachers' Job Characteristics and Motivation.

    Barnabe, Clermont; Burns, Mildred

    1994-01-01

    To test the Job Characteristics Model of Motivation, 247 Quebec teachers completed the Job Diagnostic Survey. Results demonstrated the utility of the model and the instrument for the teaching profession. Psychological states influenced the relationship between job characteristics and motivation/satisfaction outcomes. (SK)

  5. Acute Auditory Stimulation with Different Styles of Music Influences Cardiac Autonomic Regulation in Men

    Sheila Ap. F. da Silva

    2014-09-01

    Full Text Available Background: No clear evidence is available in the literature regarding the acute effect of different styles of music on cardiac autonomic control. Objectives: The present study aimed to evaluate the acute effects of classical baroque and heavy metal musical auditory stimulation on Heart Rate Variability (HRV in healthy men. Patients and Methods: In this study, HRV was analyzed regarding time (SDNN, RMSSD, NN50, and pNN50 and frequency domain (LF, HF, and LF / HF in 12 healthy men. HRV was recorded at seated rest for 10 minutes. Subsequently, the participants were exposed to classical baroque or heavy metal music for five minutes through an earphone at seated rest. After exposure to the first song, they remained at rest for five minutes and they were again exposed to classical baroque or heavy metal music. The music sequence was random for each individual. Standard statistical methods were used for calculation of means and standard deviations. Besides, ANOVA and Friedman test were used for parametric and non-parametric distributions, respectively. Results: While listening to heavy metal music, SDNN was reduced compared to the baseline (P = 0.023. In addition, the LF index (ms2 and nu was reduced during exposure to both heavy metal and classical baroque musical auditory stimulation compared to the control condition (P = 0.010 and P = 0.048, respectively. However, the HF index (ms2 was reduced only during auditory stimulation with music heavy metal (P = 0.01. The LF/HF ratio on the other hand decreased during auditory stimulation with classical baroque music (P = 0.019. Conclusions: Acute auditory stimulation with the selected heavy metal musical auditory stimulation decreased the sympathetic and parasympathetic modulation on the heart, while exposure to a selected classical baroque music reduced sympathetic regulation on the heart.

  6. The influence of acute stress on attention mechanisms and its electrophysiological correlates

    Jessica Sänger

    2014-10-01

    By means of the EEG, subjects who got stressed showed a reduced allocation to the relevant luminance change apparent in a modulation of the N1pc. The following N2pc, which reflects a re-allocation of attentional resources, supports the error pattern. There was only an N2pc in conditions, which required to bias the less salient luminance change. Moreover, this N2pc was decreased as a consequence of the induced stress. These results allow the conclusion that acute stress impairs the intention-based attentional allocation and enhances the stimulus-driven selection, leading to a strong distractibility during attentional information selection.

  7. Influence of sulfate, Ca, and Mg on the acute toxicity of potassium dichromate to Daphnia similis

    Hosokawa, Mamoru; Kuroda, Koichi (Osaka City Inst. of Public Health and Environmental Sciences (Japan)); Endo, Ginji; Horiguchi, Shunichi (Osaka City Univ. Medical School (Japan))

    1991-03-01

    In the Daphnia test which is commonly employed for assessing effects of chemicals to aquatic environments, it is well known that the toxicity of chemicals is variable with test animals and also with the chemistry of test waters. However, it is not clear what constituents in water affect toxicity of chemicals. The authors report here experimental results which show that sulfate, calcium and magnesium, commonly contained in aquatic environments, decrease the toxicity of K{sub 2}Cr{sub 2}O{sub 7} which is recommended as a reference toxicant in the acute toxicity test.

  8. Influence of Acute High Glucose on Protein Abundance Changes in Murine Glomerular Mesangial Cells.

    Barati, Michelle T; Gould, James C; Salyer, Sarah A; Isaacs, Susan; Wilkey, Daniel W; Merchant, Michael L

    2016-01-01

    The effects of acute exposure to high glucose levels as experienced by glomerular mesangial cells in postprandial conditions and states such as in prediabetes were investigated using proteomic methods. Two-dimensional gel electrophoresis and matrix assisted laser desorption ionization time of flight mass spectrometry methods were used to identify protein expression patterns in immortalized rat mesangial cells altered by 2 h high glucose (HG) growth conditions as compared to isoosmotic/normal glucose control (NG(⁎)) conditions. Unique protein expression changes at 2 h HG treatment were measured for 51 protein spots. These proteins could be broadly grouped into two categories: (1) proteins involved in cell survival/cell signaling and (2) proteins involved in stress response. Immunoblot experiments for a protein belonging to both categories, prohibitin (PHB), supported a trend for increased total expression as well as significant increases in an acidic PHB isoform. Additional studies confirmed the regulation of proteasomal subunit alpha-type 2 and the endoplasmic reticulum chaperone and oxidoreductase PDI (protein disulfide isomerase), suggesting altered ER protein folding capacity and proteasomal function in response to acute HG. We conclude that short term high glucose induces subtle changes in protein abundances suggesting posttranslational modifications and regulation of pathways involved in proteostasis. PMID:26839892

  9. Influence of Acute High Glucose on Protein Abundance Changes in Murine Glomerular Mesangial Cells

    Michelle T. Barati

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available The effects of acute exposure to high glucose levels as experienced by glomerular mesangial cells in postprandial conditions and states such as in prediabetes were investigated using proteomic methods. Two-dimensional gel electrophoresis and matrix assisted laser desorption ionization time of flight mass spectrometry methods were used to identify protein expression patterns in immortalized rat mesangial cells altered by 2 h high glucose (HG growth conditions as compared to isoosmotic/normal glucose control (NG⁎ conditions. Unique protein expression changes at 2 h HG treatment were measured for 51 protein spots. These proteins could be broadly grouped into two categories: (1 proteins involved in cell survival/cell signaling and (2 proteins involved in stress response. Immunoblot experiments for a protein belonging to both categories, prohibitin (PHB, supported a trend for increased total expression as well as significant increases in an acidic PHB isoform. Additional studies confirmed the regulation of proteasomal subunit alpha-type 2 and the endoplasmic reticulum chaperone and oxidoreductase PDI (protein disulfide isomerase, suggesting altered ER protein folding capacity and proteasomal function in response to acute HG. We conclude that short term high glucose induces subtle changes in protein abundances suggesting posttranslational modifications and regulation of pathways involved in proteostasis.

  10. Relationship between Motivation and Behavior of SNS User

    Hui Chen

    2012-01-01

    With 225 SNS network users as the subjects, the research focuses on the influence of SNS network users’ motivation on their behavior. Data are collected through questionnaires and the relationship between motivation and behavior is studied with relative analytical methods. As shown in the study, information and instrument motivation, entertainment and aesthetic motivation, social connection motivation, altruism motivation, ascription and identification motivation, and intrisic motivatio...

  11. Acute Superoxide Radical Scavenging Reduces Blood Pressure but Does Not Influence Kidney Function in Hypertensive Rats with Postischemic Kidney Injury

    Zoran Miloradović

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Acute kidney injury (AKI is associated with significant morbidity and mortality in hypertensive surroundings. We investigated superoxide radical molecules influence on systemic haemodynamic and kidney function in spontaneously hypertensive rats (SHR with induced postischemic AKI. Experiment was performed in anesthetized adult male SHR. The right kidney was removed, and left renal artery was subjected to ischemia by clamping for 40 minutes. The treated group received synthetic superoxide dismutase mimetic TEMPOL in the femoral vein 5 minutes before, during, and 175 minutes after the period of reperfusion, while the control AKI group received the vehicle via the same route. All parameters were measured 24 h after renal reperfusion. TEMPOL treatment significantly decreased mean arterial pressure and total peripheral resistance P<0.05 compared to AKI control. It also increased cardiac output and catalase activity P<0.05. Lipid peroxidation and renal vascular resistance were decreased in TEMPOL P<0.05. Plasma creatinine and kidney morphological parameters were unchanged among TEMPOL treated and control groups. Our study shows that superoxide radicals participate in haemodynamic control, but acute superoxide scavenging is ineffective in glomerular and tubular improvement, probably due to hypertension-induced strong endothelial dysfunction which neutralizes beneficial effects of O2− scavenging.

  12. Some factors influencing susceptibility of rainbow trout to the acute toxicity of an ethyl mercury phosphate formulation (Timsan)

    Amend, Donald F.; Yasutake, William T.; Morgan, Reginald

    1969-01-01

    This study determined the influence of water temperature (55–68° F), dissolved oxygen (4–12 ppm), water hardness as CaCO3 (20–256 ppm), and chloride ions (to 2 mM) on the susceptibility of rainbow trout (Salmo gairdneri) to the acute toxicity of ethyl mercury phosphate (EMP). The fish were exposed for one hour to 0.125 ppm EMP, the active ingredient of Timsan, a commercial EMP formulation. The death rate because of the exposure to EMP increased with an increase in water temperature, a decrease in dissolved oxygen, and an increase in chloride ions; calcium appeared to have no effect. The effect of water temperature and dissolved oxygen was ascribed to changes in the respiration rate of the fish, and a chemical explanation is presented for the effect of chloride ions.

  13. Influence of acute pancreatitis on the in vitro responsiveness of rat mesenteric and pulmonary arteries

    Antunes Edson

    2008-05-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Acute pancreatitis is an inflammatory disease characterized by local tissue injury and systemic inflammatory response leading to massive nitric oxide (NO production and haemodynamic disturbances. Therefore, the aim of this work was to evaluate the vascular reactivity of pulmonary and mesenteric artery rings from rats submitted to experimental pancreatitis. Male Wistar rats were divided into three groups: saline (SAL; tauracholate (TAU and phospholipase A2 (PLA2. Pancreatitis was induced by administration of TAU or PLA2 from Naja mocambique mocambique into the common bile duct of rats, and after 4 h of duct injection the animals were sacrificed. Concentration-response curves to acetylcholine (ACh, sodium nitroprusside (SNP and phenylephrine (PHE in isolated mesenteric and pulmonary arteries were obtained. Potency (pEC50 and maximal responses (EMAX were determined. Blood samples were collected for biochemical analysis. Results In mesenteric rings, the potency for ACh was significantly decreased from animals treated with TAU (about 4.2-fold or PLA2 (about 6.9-fold compared to saline group without changes in the maximal responses. Neither pEC50 nor EMAX values for Ach were altered in pulmonary rings in any group. Similarly, the pEC50 and the EMAX values for SNP were not changed in both preparations in any group. The potency for PHE was significantly decreased in rat mesenteric and pulmonary rings from TAU group compared to SAL group (about 2.2- and 2.69-fold, for mesenteric and pulmonary rings, respectively. No changes were seen in the EMAX for PHE. The nitrite/nitrate (NOx- levels were markedly increased in animals submitted to acute pancreatitis as compared to SAL group, approximately 76 and 68% in TAU and PLA2 protocol, respectively. Conclusion Acute pancreatitis provoked deleterious effects in endothelium-dependent relaxing response for ACh in mesenteric rings that were strongly associated with high plasma NOx- levels as

  14. Variables d’influence de l’utilisation la messagerie électronique sur la relation hiérarchique : motivation, contrôle et accessibilité

    2010-01-01

    Stress, disputes, work overload, pressure, control but also time saving, motivation, accessibility…. are all words that are frequently used when talking about e-mails particularly in connection with hierarchical relations. Although researchers and practitioners acknowledge the effects this media has on hierarchical relations, they struggle to explain the kind of influence and the potentially mediating or moderating variables of this influence. The aim of this paper is to answer these question...

  15. Influence of Chemotherapy on the Lipid Peroxidation and Antioxidant Status in Patients with Acute Myeloid Leukemia

    Zohreh Sanaat

    2012-07-01

    Full Text Available Chemotherapeutic agents used in patients with cancer cause to generate the enormous amounts of free radicals associated with cell injury. In this study we assess the effects of chemotherapy regimen on oxidant/antioxidant status in patients with acute myeloid leukemia (AML. 38 newly diagnosed patients with acute myeloid leukemia were recruited in this study. All patients received cytarabine and daunorubicin as chemotherapy regimen. Plasma levels of malondialdehyde (MDA, total antioxidant status (TAS, and the levels of erythrocyte activity of superoxide dismutase (SOD and glutathione peroxidase (GPx were determined before chemotherapy and 14 days after chemotherapy with cytarabine and daunorubicin. Plasma MDA concentrations increased significantly (from 2.68±0.89 nmol/L to 3.14±1.29 nmol/L during the 14days post-chemotherapy period (P=0.04. Plasma TAS concentrations changed with chemotherapy from 1.09±0.15 mmol/L to 1.02±0.14 mmol/L with P=0.005. Erythrocyte SOD and GPX activity decreased overtime from 1157.24±543.61 U/g Hb to 984.01±419.09 U/g Hb (P=0.04 and 46.96±13.70 U/g Hb to 41.40±6.44 U/g Hb (P=0.02 respectively. We report here that there is an increase in malondialdehyde levels and a decrease in the levels of antioxidant enzymes and total antioxidant status. This suggests that chemotherapy causes these changes as a result of enormous production of reactive oxygen species in the patients with AML. Antioxidant supplementation must be approached with caution because of the probability of reduction the therapeutic efficacy of these cytotoxic drugs.

  16. Influence of water hardness and sulfate on the acute toxicity of chloride to sensitive freshwater invertebrates.

    Soucek, David J; Linton, Tyler K; Tarr, Christopher D; Dickinson, Amy; Wickramanayake, Nilesh; Delos, Charles G; Cruz, Luis A

    2011-04-01

    Total dissolved solids (TDS) represent the sum of all common ions (e.g., Na, K, Ca, Mg, chloride, sulfate, and bicarbonate) in freshwater. Currently, no federal water quality criteria exist for the protection of aquatic life for TDS, but because the constituents that constitute TDS are variable, the development of aquatic life criteria for specific ions is more practical than development of aquatic life criteria for TDS. Chloride is one such ion for which aquatic life criteria exist; however, the current aquatic life criteria dataset for chloride is more than 20 years old. Therefore, additional toxicity tests were conducted in the current study to confirm the acute toxicity of chloride to several potentially sensitive invertebrates: water flea (Ceriodaphnia dubia), fingernail clams (Sphaerium simile and Musculium transversum), snail (Gyraulus parvus), and worm (Tubifex tubifex), and determine the extent to which hardness and sulfate modify chloride toxicity. The results indicated a significant ameliorating effect of water hardness (calcium and magnesium) on chloride toxicity for all species tested except the snail; for example, the 48-h chloride median lethal concentration (LC50) for C. dubia at 50 mg/L hardness (977 mg Cl(-) /L) was half that at 800 mg/L hardness (1,836 mg Cl(-) /L). Conversely, sulfate over the range of 25 to 600 mg/L exerted a negligible effect on chloride toxicity to C. dubia. Rank order of LC50 values for chloride at a given water hardness was in the order (lowest to highest): S. simile tubifex. Results of the current study support the contention that the specific conductivity or TDS concentration of a water body alone is not a sufficient predictor of acute toxicity and that knowledge of the specific ion composition is critical. PMID:21191883

  17. Students' Persistence and Academic Success in a First-Year Professional Bachelor Program: The Influence of Students' Learning Strategies and Academic Motivation

    Gert Vanthournout; David Gijbels; Liesje Coertjens; Vincent Donche; Peter Van Petegem

    2012-01-01

    The present study explores whether students' learning strategies and academic motivation predict persistence and academic success in the first year of higher education. Freshmen students in a professional bachelor program in teacher education were questioned on their learning strategy use and motivation at the start and at the end of the academic year. Students' learning strategies were assessed using the inventory of learning styles-SV. Motivation was measured using scales from the self-regu...

  18. INFLUENCE OF CYTOCHROME P-450 MIXED IN FRACTIONS OXIDASE INDUCTION ON THE ACUTE TOXICITY TO RAINBOW TROUT (SALMO GAIRDNERI) OF PRIMARY AROMATIC AMINES

    The influence of enzyme induction on acute toxicity of aniline and 4-chloroaniline to rainbow trout (Salmo gairdneri) was investigated. or these two xenobiotics, bioactivation reaction are known to occur in mammals. nduction of cytochrome P450 mixed-function oxidase was obtained ...

  19. Pneumocystis jiroveci pneumonia prophylaxis during maintenance therapy influences methotrexate/6-mercaptopurine dosing but not event-free survival for childhood acute lymphoblastic leukemia

    Levinsen, Mette; Shabaneh, Diana; Bohnstedt, Cathrine;

    2012-01-01

    Trimethoprim-sulfamethoxazole (TMP/SMX) is used in children with acute lymphoblastic leukemia (ALL) to prevent Pneumocystis pneumonia (PCP). We explored to which extent TMP/SMX influenced methotrexate (MTX)/6-mercaptopurine (6MP) dosage, myelosuppression, and event-free survival (EFS) during...

  20. Influence of Tirofiban maintenance duration on patients with acute myocardial infarction treated by percutaneous coronary intervention

    Zhen-Guo Ji; Hong-Bin Liu; Zhi-Hong Liu; Guo-Ping Ma; Li-Qiang Qin; Wei Dong; Li-Ya Wang

    2015-01-01

    Objective: To evaluate the efficacy and short term prognosis of Tirofiban in different treatment duration in patients with acute ST segment elevation myocardial infarction (STEMI) and percutaneous coronary intervention (PCI) combined with intracoronary injection. Methods: A total of 125 patients with acute STEMI were enrolled in this study. They were randomly divided into two groups: control group (n ¼ 61) and Tirofiban group (n ¼ 64). The Tirofiban was used by intracoronary and intravenous administration in Tirofiban group which was randomly divided into three sub-groups according to the duration of Tirofiban by persistent intravenous injection for 12 hours, 24 hours or 36 hours. Thrombolysis in myocardial infarction flow and myocardial perfusion grades were recorded immediately after PCI. The adverse cardiac events and cardiac death within 180 days of PCI, and the adverse effects (hemorrhage and thrombocytopenia) were compared between the two groups and within Tirofiban sub-groups. Results: Grade 3 in myocardial perfusion was significantly better in Tirofiban group than control group (85.94% vs. 72.13%, P ¼ 0.03) after PCI. There was one cardiac death in control group in 180 days after PCI. The adverse cardiac event rates between two groups was significant difference (16 patients in control group and only 8 in Tirofiban group, P ¼ 0.047). There was no significant difference in incidence of hemorrhage complications and platelet counts between two groups. Nevertheless, hemorrhage complications in the 12-and 24-hour subgroups were less than 36-hour subgroup (P ¼ 0.01). Conclusions: Intravenous Tirofiban treatment reduced the adverse cardiac events and improved short term prognosis without increasing the adverse reactions of the drugs in patients undergoing PCI. The less rate of hemorrhage complication can be achieved in short-duration of Tirofiban by intravenous injection after PCI. Copyright © 2015, Chinese Medical Association Production. Production and

  1. Influence of acute hyperglycemia in human sepsis on inflammatory cytokine and counterregulatory hormone concentrations

    Wen-Kui Yu; Wei-Qin Li; Ning Li; Jie-Shou Li

    2003-01-01

    AIM: In human sepsis, a prominent component of the hypermetabolite is impaired glucose tolerance (IGT) and hyperglycemia. Elevations in plasma glucose concentration impair immune function by altering cytokine production from macrophages. We assessed the role of glucose in the regulation of circulating levels of insulin, glucagon, cortisol,IL-6 and TNF-α in human sepsis with normal or impaired glucose tolerance.METHODS: According to the results of intravenous glucose tolerance test, forty patients were classified into two groups: control group (n=20) and IGT group (n=20).Plasma glucose levels were acutely raised in two groups and maintained at 15 mmol/L for 3 hours. Plasma insulin,glucagon and cortisol levels were measured by radioimmunoassay, the levels of TNF-α and IL-6 were detected by ELISA.RESULTS: In IGT group, the fasting concentrations of plasma glucose, insulin, glucagon, cortisol, IL-6 and TNFα levels were significantly higher than those in control group (P<0.05). During clamp, the control group had a higher average amount of dextrose infusion than the IGT group (P<0.01). In control group, plasma insulin levels rose from a basal value to a peak at an hour (P<0.05) and maintained at high levels. Plasma glucagon levels descended from a basal value to the lowest level within an hour (P<0.01)and low levels were maintained throughout the clamp. In IGT group, plasma insulin was more significantly elevated (P<0.01), and plasma glucagon levels were not significantly declined. Plasma cortisol levels were not significantly changed in two groups. In control group, plasma IL-6 and TNF-α levels rose (P<0.01) within 2 hours of the clamp and returned to basal values at 3 hours. In IGT group, increased levels of plasma cytokine lasted longer than in control group (3 hours vs. 2 hours, P<0.05), and the cytokine peaks of IGT group were higher (P<0.05) than those of control group.CONCLUSION: Acute hyperglycemia pricks up hyperinsulinemia and increases

  2. Motivation and Its Relationship with Learning Strategy

    Liu, Yunzhen

    2012-01-01

    This study investigates motivation that influences heritage and non-heritage students' learning of Chinese, and its relationship with Chinese language learning strategies (LLS). The study uses Deci and Ryan's typology--"Intrinsic Motivation" and "Extrinsic Motivation", for the investigation, examining issues such as: (1) What are Chinese students'…

  3. Exploring Japanese University EFL Teacher Motivation

    Tsutsumi, Rie

    2014-01-01

    Current studies show that it is becoming clear that language teachers give significant importance to learners' motivation level, interest levels, and attitudes toward their learning. Motivated teachers can have a powerful influence on students' career directions, and positively impact learners' motivations and interests. However,…

  4. Acute ureterolithiasis: Incidence of secondary signs on unenhanced helical CT and influence on patient management

    AIM: The purpose of this study was to determine the incidence of secondary signs associated with ureteral stones on unenhanced helical computed tomography (CT) of patients with acute renal colic, and to correlate these with patient management and outcome. MATERIALS AND METHODS: One hundred and ten patients with ureterolithiasis were evaluated prospectively for the secondary signs of obstruction on unenhanced helical CT. Our attention was focused primarily on the presence or absence of seven secondary signs on unenhanced helical CT, including hydronephrosis, unilateral renal enlargement, perinephric oedema, unilateral absence of the white pyramid, hydroureter, periureteral oedema and lateroconal fascial thickening. RESULTS: Of the 110 patients, 91 (82.7%) had hydroureter, 88 (80%) had hydronephrosis, 65 (59%) had periureteric oedema and 63 (57.2%) had unilateral renal enlargement. Ninety stones passed spontaneously and 21 required intervention. CONCLUSION: Secondary signs of urinary tract obstruction are useful and supportive findings in interpretation of the CT examination. In our experience, the most reliable signs indicating ureteral obstruction are hydroureter, hydronephrosis, periureteral oedema and unilateral renal enlargement, respectively. In addition, stones larger than 6 mm, located within the proximal two thirds of the ureter, and seen associated with five or more the secondary signs of obstruction, are more likely to require endoscopic removal and/or lithotripsy

  5. [Influence of cortical neurotrophic factors on the neurocytokine production system in acute hemorrhagic stroke].

    Kul'chikov, A E; Kositsyn, N S; Svinov, M M; Vasil'eva, I G; Makarenko, A N

    2009-01-01

    The mechanism of therapeutic action of cortical neurotropic factors (CNTF) was studied in hemorrhagic stroke. In intracerebral hemorrhage, CNTFs were shown to elevate the level of nerve growth factor mRNA and at the same time, produce no effect on its level in intact animals. The neuroactivating action of CNTF in the acute phase of hemorrhagic stroke was achieved by intranasal administration due to the retrograde axon transport of CNTF molecules along the olfactory nerve fibers to the brain, by passing the blood-brain barrier. It was ascertained that the molecules of tritium-labeled CHTF accumulated in the central nervous system following 20 minutes and the level of label accumulation is proportionally increased after 120 minutes. The pattern of accumulation of the intranasally administered label in the olfactory tract and olfactory bulb proves CNTF transportation along these structures of the nervous system. Therefore, when intranasally administered, CNTFs are able to transport to the central nervous system along the olfactory tract and to enhance the expression of nerve growth factor mRNA in hemorrhagic stroke. PMID:19919011

  6. Acute ureterolithiasis: Incidence of secondary signs on unenhanced helical CT and influence on patient management

    Ege, G. E-mail: gurkanege@yahoo.com; Akman, H.; Kuzucu, K.; Yildiz, S

    2003-12-01

    AIM: The purpose of this study was to determine the incidence of secondary signs associated with ureteral stones on unenhanced helical computed tomography (CT) of patients with acute renal colic, and to correlate these with patient management and outcome. MATERIALS AND METHODS: One hundred and ten patients with ureterolithiasis were evaluated prospectively for the secondary signs of obstruction on unenhanced helical CT. Our attention was focused primarily on the presence or absence of seven secondary signs on unenhanced helical CT, including hydronephrosis, unilateral renal enlargement, perinephric oedema, unilateral absence of the white pyramid, hydroureter, periureteral oedema and lateroconal fascial thickening. RESULTS: Of the 110 patients, 91 (82.7%) had hydroureter, 88 (80%) had hydronephrosis, 65 (59%) had periureteric oedema and 63 (57.2%) had unilateral renal enlargement. Ninety stones passed spontaneously and 21 required intervention. CONCLUSION: Secondary signs of urinary tract obstruction are useful and supportive findings in interpretation of the CT examination. In our experience, the most reliable signs indicating ureteral obstruction are hydroureter, hydronephrosis, periureteral oedema and unilateral renal enlargement, respectively. In addition, stones larger than 6 mm, located within the proximal two thirds of the ureter, and seen associated with five or more the secondary signs of obstruction, are more likely to require endoscopic removal and/or lithotripsy.

  7. Maternal agency influences the prevalence of diarrhea and acute respiratory tract infections among young Indonesian children.

    Agustina, Rina; Shankar, Anita V; Ayuningtyas, Azalea; Achadi, Endang L; Shankar, Anuraj H

    2015-05-01

    To examine the relationship between measures of mother's caretaking, practice and individual agency on acute diarrhea and respiratory tract infections (ARTIs) of Indonesian children. Using population-based household data from the Indonesian Demographic Health Surveys for 2002-2003 (n = 9,151 children) and 2007 (n = 9,714 children), we selected 28 indicators related to mother' caretaking, and applied principal component analysis to derive indices for access to care, practice and experience, and agency. The association between index quartiles (level 1-4) and the prevalence of diarrhea and ARTIs in the youngest child family size, child's age and sex, immunization status and received vitamin A supplementation. Moderate levels (level 3) of practice and experience were associated with decreased diarrheal risk (adjusted OR 0.86, 95 % CI 0.75-0.98), but not for ARTIs. Children of mothers with higher levels (level 4) of agency were protected against both diarrhea (adjusted OR 0.68, 95 % CI 0.60-0.77) and ARTIs (adjusted OR 0.77, 95 % CI 0.66-0.91). Stratified analyses with child's age and mother's education, and tests of interaction, showed that agency had a stronger effect on diarrhea and ARTIs prevalence in children child health. PMID:25108503

  8. Influence of ambulance use on early reperfusion therapies for acute myocardial infarction

    SONG Li; HU Da-yi; YAN Hong-bing; YANG Jin-gang; SUN Yi-hong; LI Chao; LIU Shu-shan; WU Dong; FENG Qi

    2008-01-01

    Background Ambulance use expedites the definitive treatment of acute myocardial infarction (AMI). The aim of this study was to evaluate the effect of ambulance use on the administration of early reperfusion therapies for patients with AMI in Beijing, China.Methods Data were prospectively collected from 498 patients with ST-elevation myocardial infarction (STEMI) who were admitted within 12 hours of symptom onset to 19 hospitals in Beijing between November 1,2005 and December 31, 2006. The baseline characteristics of and the initial management of the ambulance users and the non-ambulance users were compared.Results Only 186 (37.3%) patients used an ambulance as transportation to the hospital. Ambulance users were, on average, older and at relatively higher risk on presentation than the non-ambulance users. After adjustment for patient and hospital characteristics, ambulance use was associated with a greater early reperfusion rate, mainly because of a greater incidence of primary percutaneous coronary intervention. In addition, ambulance users had a significantly shorter median door-to-balloon (120 compared with 145 minutes, P<0.001) and symptom onset-to-balloon (223 compared with 300 minutes, P<0.001) time than non-ambulance users.Conclusions Ambulances are underused by AMI patients in Beijing. Ambulance use may lead to more frequent and faster receipt of early reperfusion therapies. New public health strategies should be developed to facilitate an increased use of ambulances by AMI patients.

  9. Influencing factors for the disappearance of hemispatial neglect in patients during acute stroke

    Yaobin Long

    2006-01-01

    BACKGROUND: Some researches are proved that early sitting balance and body motor control performed on patients with stroke and hemiplegia is related to functional prognosis. For patients with hemispatial neglect (HSN) during acute stroke, whether HSN disappearance is related to those trainings or not should be further studied.OBJ ECTIVE: To analyze the correlation between HSN disappearance and related intervention of patients during acute stroke.DESIGN: Case analysis.SETTING: Department of Neurology, First Affiliated Hospital of Guangxi Medical University.PARTICIPANTS: A total of 21 patients with stroke were selected from the Department of Neurology, the First Affiliated Hospital of Guangxi Medical University from May 2005 to March 2006. Diagnosis criteria: ① Stroke was diagnosed by CT and MRI; ② Diagnosis was coincidence with HSN evaluation criteria; ③ All cases were consent. Exclusion criteria: Patients who had poly-focus, conscious disturbance, severe amentia and hard communication combined with aphasia were excluded. A total of 12 males and 9 females were included, and the mean age was (68±10) years. Among them, 14 patients had cerebral infarction and 7 had cerebral hemorrhage.METHODS: Disappearance and existence of HSN were analyzed with HSN evaluation criteria: body agnosia, left and right agnosia, maintenance of supine position, place of things, sitting up straight, center of line measured by eyes, and cutting 30 lines with paring method. Items mentioned below belonged to HSN disappearance: ① without body agnosia; ② without left and right agnosia; ③ be able to maintain supine position; ④ knowing place of things; ⑤ sitting up straight by one's own; ⑥ be able to measure the center of line by eyes; ⑦ be able to cut 30 lines with paring method. However, only one item belonged to HSN remnant; but only one item belonged to HSN remnant. Numbers of patients who were of body agnosia, left and right agnosia and difficult maintenance of supine

  10. Metabolism of biogenic amines in acute cerebral ischemia: Influence of systemic hyperglycemia

    Milovanović Aleksandar; Milovanović J.; Milovanović Anđela; Konstatinović Ljubica; Petrović M.; Kekuš Divna; Petronijević-Vrzić Svetlana; Artiko Vera

    2012-01-01

    Dopamine, norepinephrine and serotonin are biogenic amines which are transmitters of the central nervous system. The effects of ischemia on the brain parenchyma depends on many factors, such is the mechanism of blood flow interruption, velocity of the occurring blood flow interruption, duration of an ischemic episode, organization of anatomical structures of the brain blood vessels etc., which all influence the final outcome. During interruption of the brai...

  11. Ethical Judgment of Enterprise and Construction of Moral Concern Influenced by the Economic Motivation and Moral Motivation%经济和道德动机下的企业伦理判断与道德关怀构筑

    郭瑜

    2015-01-01

    一般认为,实现利润最大化是企业存在的意义和价值所在,也是其出于经济动机的单一考量。如何让企业承担更多的社会责任,体现更多的道德关怀,是当前政府和企业都必须考虑的问题。本文从经济动机的根源出发,找出自利性经济动机存在的合理性,并探讨了其中的道德诉求。在经济动机与道德动机的差异中,寻求二者的统一,并梳理出道德关怀与企业家和企业的关系,分析了构建企业伦理精神中存在的诸多问题。%In general ,the realization of the profit maximization is not only the significance and value of the enterprise ,but also the sole consideration from economic motivation .How to make the enterprise take more social responsibility and reflect more moral concern is the current government and enterprises must consider the problem .This article begins to study the root of economic motivation .Identify the existence of reasonable economic self -interest motivation and explores the moral aspirations of the economic behavior . To seeking the unity of economic rationality and moral rationality in the differences of economic motivation and moral motivation .And comb out the relationship between moral care and entrepreneurs and enterpri‐ses ,analyzes the problems in the construction of business ethic .

  12. Influence of zinc sulfate intake on acute ethanol-induced liver injury in rats

    Sema Bolkent; Pelin Arda-Pirincci; Sehnaz Bolkent; Refiye Yanardag; Sevim Tunali; Sukriye Yildirim

    2006-01-01

    AIM: To investigate the role of metallothionein and proliferating cell nuclear antigen (PCNA) on the morphological and biochemical effects of zinc sulfate in ethanol-induced liver injury.METHODS: Wistar albino rats were divided into four groups. Group I; intact rats, group Ⅱ; control rats given only zinc, group Ⅲ; animals given absolute ethanol, group Ⅳ; rats given zinc and absolute ethanol.Ethanol-induced injury was produced by the 1 mL of absolute ethanol, administrated by gavage technique to each rat. Animals received 100 mg/kg per day zinc sulfate for 3 d 2 h prior to the administration of absolute ethanol.RESULTS: Increases in metallothionein immunoreactivity in control rats given only zinc and rats given zinc and ethanol were observed. PCNA immunohistochemistry showed that the number of PCNA-positive hepatocytes was increased significantly in the livers of rats administered ethanol + zinc sulfate. Acute ethanol exposure caused degenerative morphological changes in the liver. Blood glutathione levels decreased, serum alkaline phosphatase and aspartate transaminase activities increased in the ethanol group when compared to the control group. Liver glutathione levels were reduced, but lipid peroxidation increased in the livers of the group administered ethanol as compared to the other groups. Administration of zinc sulfate in the ethanol group caused a significant decrease in degenerative changes, lipid peroxidation, and alkaline phosphatase and aspartate transaminase activities, but an increase in liver glutathione.CONCLUSION: Zinc sulfate has a protective effect on ethanol-induced liver injury. In addition, cell proliferation may be related to the increase in metallothionein immunoreactivity in the livers of rats administered ethanol + zinc sulfate.

  13. Influence of cardiac insufficiency on acute renal impairment induced by contrast medium in patients with diabetes and renal dysfunction

    Jing LI

    2015-10-01

    Full Text Available Objective To evaluate the influence of cardiac insufficiency on contrast-induced acute kidney injury (CIAKI after percutaneous coronary intervention (PCI in patients with diabetes mellitus (DM complicated with mild to moderate renal insufficiency (MMRI. Methods From Dec. 2008 to Oct. 2011, 2998 patients, with type 2 DM and concomitant chronic kidney diseases (CKD from 53 hospitals in China, were enrolled in the present study. Out of them, 2533 patients showed normal cardiac function (NYHA=1 and 465 patients suffered from cardiac insufficiency (NYHA>1. The demographic characteristics, preoperative renal function and postoperative incidence of CIAKI in the two groups were monitored. Results No significant difference was found between two groups (P>0.05 in preoperative baseline data (age, sex, high risk factors, etc.. The incidence of CIAKI was significantly higher in NYHA>1 group than in NYHA=1 group (4.7% vs2.8%, P=0.03. During a 30 day follow-up, the incidence of all-cause mortality was not significantly different between two groups (P>0.05. Multiple factors analysis found that rosuvastatin was the protective agent for CIAKI, and acute coronary syndrome, cardiac insufficiency, anemia and renal insufficiency were the risk factors for CIAKI. Conclusion For PCI, the risk of postoperative incidence of CIAKI is higher in patients with preoperative cardiac insufficiency than in those with normal cardiac function. The incidence of CIAKI may be reduced obviously by meticulous preoperative assessment of heart function in high-risk patients, giving effective treatment and performing PCI after cardiac function is improved. DOI: 10.11855/j.issn.0577-7402.2015.09.08

  14. The influence of an acute bout of aerobic exercise on cortical contributions to motor preparation and execution.

    Thacker, Jonathan S; Middleton, Laura E; McIlroy, William E; Staines, W Richard

    2014-10-01

    Increasing evidence supports the use of physical activity for modifying brain activity and overall neurological health. Specifically, aerobic exercise appears to have a positive effect on cognitive function, which some have suggested to be a result of increasing levels of arousal. However, the role of aerobic exercise on movement-related cortical activity is less clear. We tested the hypothesis that (1) an acute bout of exercise modulates excitability within motor areas and (2) transient effects would be sustained as long as sympathetic drive remained elevated (indicated by heart rate). In experiment 1, participants performed unimanual self-paced wrist extension movements before and after a 20-min, moderate intensity aerobic exercise intervention on a recumbent cycle ergometer. After the cessation of exercise, Bereitschaftspotentials (BP), representative cortical markers for motor preparation, were recorded immediately postexercise (Post) and following a return to baseline heart rate (Post[Rest]). Electroencephalography (EEG) was used to measure the BP time-locked to onset of muscle activity and separated into three main components: early, late and reafferent potentials. In experiment 2, two additional time points postexercise were added to the original protocol following the Post[Rest] condition. Early BP but not late BP was influenced by aerobic exercise, evidenced by an earlier onset, indicative of a regionally selective effect across BP generators. Moreover, this effect was sustained for up to an hour following exercise cessation and this effect was following a return to baseline heart rate. These data demonstrate that acute aerobic exercise may alter and possibly enhance the cortical substrates required for the preparation of movement. PMID:25355852

  15. Motivation Strategy in EFL

    Ying SHU

    2006-03-01

    Full Text Available Motivation is one of the leading factors which can affect learners learning foreign languages, it has been observed by researchers for a long time. Since 1990s, the study of motivation puts more attention on the combination between the main motivation theories and the practical school study situation. If learners’ motivation can be cultivated, it can accelerate other factors to promote learners’ ability.
    Key Words: motivation,theory review,strategy study
    Résumé La motivation est un des facteurs cruciaux qui peuvent influencer les apprennants des langues étrangères, ce qui a été observé par les chercheurs pour longtemps. Depuis les années 90 du 20e siècle, l’étude de la motivation prête plus d’attention à la combinaison entre les théories de mativation et la situation d’apprentissage dans les écoles de pratique. Si la motivation des apprenants peut être cultivée, elle peut aussi accélérer d’autres facteurs pour promouvoir la compétence des apprenants.
    Mots-clés : motivation, revue de théorie, étude de la stratégie
    摘 要 學習動機是影響學生外語學習的主要因素之一,長期以來受到外語學習研究者的廣泛關注。進入二十世紀九十年代以來,外語學習動機研究更注重將動機理論與學校外語教育情景相結合。通過激發學習者英語學習動機,以動機教育促進其他因素的發展,能更好地促進學生的英語學習。
    關鍵詞:學習動機;理論回顧;策略研究

  16. IMPORTANCE OF ACHIEVEMENT MOTIVATION IN SPORTS PERFORMANCE

    Jyoti A Upadhye; N Chandrappa

    2014-01-01

    The present article defines the psychological construct of Achievement motivation and its influence on Sportsman to achieve their goals and to improve their performance level. Achievement Motivation is a mindset that leads people to set for themselves realistic but challenging goals. In Achievement Motivation can calculate mathematically by taking a person's desire to succeed and subtracting their fear of failure. When a student is motivated, he is inspired to pursue greater a...

  17. A Study on Influence of English Learning Motivation upon Undergraduates' Autonomous Learning%学习动机对大学生英语自主学习影响的研究

    王秋香; 徐霜雪

    2015-01-01

    The study explores the effects of motivation modes upon autonomous learning based on questionnaires to 300 second-year non-English majors in Taiyuan Institute of Technology. The statistic analysis shows that seven motivations exert different influences on four dimensions of autonomous learning:motivations of intrinsic interests and immediate achievement have positive effects;motivations of learning situation and going abroad have negative influences; though social responsibility motivation has a significantly positive relationship with identifying teaching objectives, formulating learning goals and monitoring learning process, it has an insignificant effect on learning strategies;motivations of individual development and information medium have zero impacts.%通过对太原工业学院300名本科生进行问卷调查,以探究不同学习动机类型对非英语专业大学生英语自主学习的影响. 分析数据后发现7种学习动机类型对自主性4个维度产生不同的影响:内在兴趣动机和成绩动机为正向性影响;学习情境动机和出国动机为反向性影响;社会责任动机对自主性维度中明晰教师教学目的与要求、制订与规划学习目标、调控与评价学习过程产生正向性影响,但对有效使用学习策略这一维度未见显著影响;而个人发展动机和信息媒介动机同自主性英语学习呈零相关影响.

  18. 行为动机差异与我国手机网游市场发展影响研究%Difference of Behavior Motivation and Its Influence on China Mobile Phone Net work Market Development

    施巍巍

    2012-01-01

      Based on questionnaire data and through structural model, this paper defines clearly three different kinds of behavior motivation of mobile phone network game player, as well as the status of that market. The findings show that for the influence of behavior motivation on mobile phone network game market development, interwoven characteristic of player motivation is already very apparent. Compared with exploration motivation, interactive and communication motivation, and achievement motivation have even more apparent influence on market; findings also indicate that the market is still at a very low level and at“see-saw” stage.%  运用结构方程,实证检验了手机网络游戏玩家行为动机对该市场发展的影响。结论表明,手机网游玩家行为动机已经表现出了多重交织的特点;相对探索体验性动机,玩家互动沟通性动机和成就性动机更显著构成了影响我国手机网络游戏市场发展的因素;基于动机影响下的市场分析也表明,该市场发展仍然还处于低层次“拉锯”阶段。要:基于问卷调查数据,研究通过明确界定三种典型手机网游玩家行为动机类型以及该市场发展状

  19. The Influence of Overall Self -esteem on Physical Exercise Motivation of Female Students%整体自尊对女大学生锻炼动机的影响

    陈敐

    2015-01-01

    为考察女大学生整体自尊对锻炼动机的影响。采用 Rosenberg 自尊量表和 Ryan 身体活动动机量表对433名女大学生进行调查。结果显示:女大学生的整体自尊和锻炼动机亟待关注与改善;整体自尊和锻炼动机(包括各维度)显著正相关,其中,整体自尊与外貌动机、乐趣动机的相关性较密切;整体自尊对锻炼动机(包括各维度)预测效应显著,其中,整体自尊对外貌动机、乐趣动机的预测力较强;结构方程模型验证了,女大学生整体自尊对锻炼动机的积极影响。研究为制定女大学生锻炼动机激励决策提供重要的实践启示。%In order to verify the influence of overall self -esteem on physical exercise motivation of female students,the paper makes investigation on 433 female students by using Rosenberg’s self -esteem scale (RSES) and Ryan's measuring physical activity motivation -revised (MPAM-R).Results indicate that female students’ overall self -esteem and physical exercise motivation are in dire need of attention and promotion;the two (including every dimension)are obviously positively correlated with each other;among them,overall self -esteem is more closely related with appearance motivation and pleasure motivation;overall self -esteem has significant predicted effect on physical exercise motivation (including every dimension);among them,the predictive power of overall self -esteem on appearance motivation and pleasure motivation is quite strong;structural equation model confirms the positive impact of overall self -esteem on physical exercise motivation. This research conclusion provides important practical implications for formulating decisions on inciting female students’physical exercise motivation.

  20. Is the outcome in acute aortic dissection type A influenced by of femoral versus central cannulation?

    Bucsky, Bence S.; Richardt, Doreen; Petersen, Michael; Sievers, Hans H.

    2016-01-01

    Background The purpose of this study was to evaluate the single-center experience in initial femoral versus central cannulation of the extracorporeal circulation for acute aortic dissection type A (AADA). Methods Between January 2003 and December 2015, 235 patients underwent repair of AADA. All patients were evaluated for the type of arterial cannulation (femoral vs. central) for initial bypass. Demographic data and outcome parameters were accessed. Results One hundred and twenty seven (54.0%) were initially cannulated in the central aortic vessels (ascending aorta or subclavian/axillary artery) and 108 (46.0%) in the femoral artery. Patients were comparable between age (62.4±14.4 vs. 62.9±14.4 years, P=0.805), gender (male, 62.2 vs. 69.4%, P=0.152) and previous sternotomy (15.7 vs. 16.7%, P=0.861) between both cannulation groups; while EuroSCORE I (11.5±4.0 vs. 12.7±4.2, P=0.031) and ASA Score (3.5±0.81 vs. 3.8±0.57, P=0.011) were significantly higher in the femoral artery cannulation group. Bypass (249±102 vs. 240±81 min, P=0.474), X-clamp (166±85 vs. 157±67 min, P=0.418) and circulatory arrest time (51.6±28.7 vs. 48.3±21.7 min, P=0.365) were similar between the groups as were lowest temperature (18.1±2.0 vs. 18.1±2.2, P=0.775). Postoperative neurologic deficit and 30-day mortality were comparable between both cannulation groups (11.7 vs. 7.2%, P=0.449 and 20.2 vs. 16.9%, P=0.699, central vs. peripheral cannulation). Multivariate analysis revealed only EuroScore I above 13 as single preoperative predictor for mortality. Conclusions AADA can be operated with both femoral and central cannulation with similar results. Risk for early mortality was driven by the preoperative clinical and hemodynamic status before operation rather than the cannulation technique.

  1. Influence of socioeconomic status on acute myocardial infarction in the Chinese population: the INTERHEART China study

    GUO Jin; LI Wei; WANG Yang; CHEN Tao; Koon Teo; LIU Li-sheng; Salim Yusuf

    2012-01-01

    Background Many researches report that low socioeconomic status (SES) is associated with a higher risk of coronary heart disease (CHD).This study aimed to determine whether levels of education,family income,and other SES were associated with acute myocardial infarction (AMI) in the Chinese population,and to compare the difference in this association between northern and southern regions in China.Methods We conducted a case-control study.Cases were first AMI (n=2909).Controls (n=2947) were randomly selected and frequency matched to cases on age and sex.SES was measured using education,family income,possessions in the household,and occupation.Results Low levels of education (8 years) were more common in cases compared to controls (53.4% and 44.1%;P=0.0001).After adjusting all risk factors,the level of education was associated with AMI risk in the Chinese population (P=0.0005).The odds ratio (OR) associated with education of 8 years or less,compared with more than 12 years (trade school/college/university) was 1.33 (95% CI 1.12-1.59),and for education of 9-12 years 1.04 (95% CI 0.88-1.33).The proportion of higher income population was more in controls than cases (39.4% and 35.3%).Number of possessions and non-professional occupation were only weakly or not at all independently related to AMI.The adjusted OR associated with the lower education was 2.38 (95% CI 1.67-3.39) in women,and 1.18 (95% CI 0.99-1.42) in men (P=0.0001,for heterogeneity).The interaction between levels of education and different regions was significant (P=0.0206,for interaction).Conclusion Several socioeconomic factors including levels of education and income were closely associated with increase of AMI risk in China,most markedly in northeast and southern area.The effect of education was stronger towards AMI in women than men.

  2. The influence of anatomic variance in the coronary artery on cardiac function with PCI after acute inferior wall myocardial infarction

    Objective: To analyze the influence in anatomic variance of coronary artery on function of left and right ventricles after acute inferior myocardial infarction (AIMI) treated with percutaneous coronary intervention therapy (PCI). Methods: Forty-seven inferior AIMI patients were divided into 2 groups: 12 left dominant group [including equipollent case, i.e. inferior wall of left ventricle supplied by left circumflex coronary artery (LCX), right ventricle by right coronary artery (RCA)] and 35 right dominant group (both inferior wall and right ventricle were supplied by RCA). Equilibrium radionuclide angiocardiography (ERNA) and myocardial perfusion imaging (MPI) were used for comparing the influence between different coronary artery flow patterns on biventricular hemodynamics, blood supply and prognosis of PCI after 3 months. Results: Comparison of ventricular function in left and right dominant coronal artery type groups discharged 7- 10 d after PCI, there were differences in left ventricular ejection fraction (LVEF) [(63.03 ± 5.64)% vs (57.67 ± 7.35)%, P=0.012], peak ejection rate (PER) [(3.52 ± 0.66) end-diastolic volume (EDV)/s vs (2.93 ± 0.73) EDV/s, P =0.011], peak filling rate (PFR) [(2.71 ± 0.88) EDV/s vs (2.11 ± 0.45 ) EDV/s, P=0.004], left free-wall regional ejection fraction [(81.94 ± 20.75)% vs (67.25 ± 16.54)%, P = O.032], and right free-wall regional ejection fraction [(57.86 ± 11.77)% vs (67.83 ± 10.38)%, P=0.012], right ventricular ejection fraction (RVEF) [(37.89 ± 3.86)% vs (41.67 ± 4.81)%, P=0.09]. After 3 months,there was difference only in RVEF [(44.60 ± 5.29)% vs (48.00 ± 3.30)%, P=0.043], but no difference in myocardial perfusion of left ventricle (P=0.357). Conclusions: In acute stage of AIMI right dominant group, there was more severe injury of right ventricle, in convalescent stage most of the right ventricular function resumed. The sustained right ventricular function in part of the patients can be demonstrated by ERNA

  3. Work and family decision-making framework: A motivational perspective

    Chinchilla, Nuria; Moragas, Maruja; Kim, Sowon

    2012-01-01

    We introduce motivation theory as a way of understanding the decision-making process in the work and family context. We use core concepts from motivation theory - extrinsic, intrinsic and prosocial motivation - and link them to motivational learning to build our framework. We then propose a framework illustrating motivational factors that influence work-family decision-making and offer propositions focusing on the motivational consequences for individuals which will impact their future decisi...

  4. Motivation of employees as a tool for performance management

    Volkova, Polina

    2014-01-01

    The Bachelor thesis „Motivation of employees as a tool for performance management“ is focused on employee motivation. The main objective is to motivate employees to achieve better performance across the enterprise. The work consists of two parts. The first part is theoretical and includes an explanation of the basic concepts related motivation, exploring selected theories of motivation and the influence of motivation on work performance. The second part presents practical research on the ...

  5. 择业动机与工作动机对幼儿园教师专业认同的影响%On Influence of Job Choosing Motives and Work Motives upon Preschool Teacher's Professional Identification

    秦奕

    2011-01-01

    A study on 604 preschool teachers reveals that (1) the co-working of job choosing motives and work motives significantly affects preschool teachers' professional identification. (2) job choosing motives prominently affect the dimensions of devotion and co%对604名幼儿园教师所作的相关调查发现:(1)择业动机与工作动机共同作用显著影响幼儿园教师的专业认同水平。(2)择业动机显著影响幼儿园教师专业认同的投入意愿和持续承诺维度。(3)不同的工作动机与不同的择业动机共同作用对幼儿园教师专业认同的影响存在差异。

  6. Acute interventional diagnosis and treatment of upper gastrointestinal arterial hemorrhage: its clinical value and influence factors

    Objective: To evaluate emergent angiography and interventional management in treating massive upper gastrointestinal (GI) arterial hemorrhage, and to discuss the factors influencing the angiographic bleeding signs and the interventional therapeutic results. Methods: The clinical data of 56 patients with massive upper GI arterial hemorrhage, who underwent diagnostic arteriography and interventional management with trans-catheter vasopressin infusion and embolization, were retrospectively analyzed. Systolic blood pressure of both pre-and post-interventional therapy was recorded and statistically analyzed. The arteriographic positive rates were separately calculated according to the catheter tip's location, being placed at the 2nd grade branch or at the 3 rd -4 th grade branch of the artery, and the relation of the positive rate with the tip's location was analyzed. A comparison of the hemostatic effect between trans-catheter vasopressin infusion and trans-catheter embolization was made. Results: The average systolic blood pressure of pre-and post-procedure was (93.14 ± 18.63) mmHg and (11.64 ± 13.61) mmHg respectively, with a significant difference (P = 0.023). The angiographic bleeding signs were demonstrated in 12 cases (21.4%) with the catheter's tip at the 2nd grade branch and in 56 cases (100%) with the catheter's tip at the 3 rd -4 th grade branch,the difference between the two was of statistically significance (P < 0.05). The technical success rate and the clinical hemostasis rate of via catheter vasopressin infusion was 80% (16 / 20) and 55% (11/20) respectively. Of nine re-bleeding cases, seven were successfully controlled with embolization therapy by using microcatheter and two had to receive surgery because of arterial rupture which was proved by angiography. The technical and the clinical rates of success for transcatheter embolization therapy were 93% (42 / 45) and 89% (40 / 45) respectively. Recurrence of bleeding was seen in two patients who got

  7. Motivation,Attitude and Teaching Methods

    曹琪雯

    2014-01-01

    Motivation and attitude are two important factors that influence the students' foreign language learning. This paper focuses on the diverse influences from the different types of motivation and attitude that the students have. At the same time, it provides some suggestions for the language teachers and hopes that it may be helpful for their language teaching.

  8. Influences of acute ethanol exposure on locomotor activities of zebrafish larvae under different illumination.

    Guo, Ning; Lin, Jia; Peng, Xiaolan; Chen, Haojun; Zhang, Yinglan; Liu, Xiuyun; Li, Qiang

    2015-11-01

    Larval zebrafish present unique opportunities to study the behavioral responses of a model organism to environmental challenges during early developmental stages. The purpose of the current study was to investigate the locomotor activities of AB strain zebrafish larvae at 5 and 7 days post-fertilization (dpf) in response to light changes under the influence of ethanol, and to explore potential neurological mechanisms that are involved in ethanol intoxication. AB strain zebrafish larvae at both 5 and 7 dpf were treated with ethanol at 0% (control), 0.1%, 0.25%, 0.5%, 1%, and 2% (v/v%). The locomotor activities of the larvae during alternating light-dark challenges, as well as the locomotor responses immediately following the light transitions, were investigated. The levels of various neurotransmitters were also measured in selected ethanol-treated groups. The larvae at 5 and 7 dpf demonstrated similar patterns of locomotor responses to ethanol treatment. Ethanol treatment at 1% increased the swimming distances of the zebrafish larvae in the dark periods, but had no effect on the swimming distances in the light periods. In contrast, ethanol treatment at 2% increased the swimming distances in the light periods, but did not potentiate the swimming activity in the dark periods, compared to controls. Differences in the levels of neurotransmitters that are involved in norepinephrine, dopamine, and serotonin pathways were also observed in groups with different ethanol treatments. These results indicated the behavioral studies concerning the ethanol effects on locomotor activities of zebrafish larvae could be carried out as early as 5 dpf. The 1% and 2% ethanol-treated zebrafish larvae modeled ethanol effects at different intoxication states, and the differences in neurotransmitter levels suggested the involvement of various neurotransmitter pathways in different ethanol intoxication states. PMID:26384924

  9. The Influence of Intrinsic and Extrinsic Motivation on Employee Engagement : A qualitative study of the perceptions of managers in public and private sector organizations

    Bergström, Emma; Garcia Martinez, Melanie

    2016-01-01

    Whereas motivation has portrayed a significant managerial issue for decades, employee engagement has relatively recently been identified as a topic of growing popularity in the world of business and management research. Current research that connects the concepts of employee motivation and engagement has had a focus on quantitative analysis and the employee perspective, investigating what factors are of importance to employees in their engagement at work. As there were no studies exploring th...

  10. Motivation in Beyond Budgeting: A Motivational Paradox?

    Sandalgaard, Niels; Bukh, Per Nikolaj

    In this paper we discuss the role of motivation in relation to budgeting and we analyse how the Beyond Budgeting model functions compared with traditional budgeting. In the paper we focus on budget related motivation (and motivation in general) and conclude that the Beyond Budgeting model is a...... motivational paradox....

  11. Determinants of International Students' Adaptation: Examining Effects of Integrative Motivation, Instrumental Motivation and Second Language Proficiency

    Yu, Baohua; Downing, Kevin

    2012-01-01

    This study examined the influence of integrative motivation, instrumental motivation and second language (L2) proficiency on socio-cultural/academic adaptation in a sample of two groups of international students studying Chinese in China. Results revealed that the non-Asian student group reported higher levels of integrative motivation,…

  12. The influence of statin-fibrate combination therapy on lipids profile and apolipoprotein A5 in patients with acute coronary syndrome

    Li, Xiang-ping; Gong, Hai-rong; Huang, Xian-sheng; Huang, Wen-Yu; Zhao, Shui-ping

    2013-01-01

    Background Statin-fibrate combination therapy has been used to treat patients with acute coronary syndrome (ACS) complicated by elevated triglycerides (TG) and decreased high density lipoprotein cholesterol (HDL-C). The purpose of this study was to evaluate the influence of the combination therapy on lipids profile and apolipoprotein A5 (apoA5) level in patients with ACS. Methods One hundred and four patients with ACS were recruited and randomly assigned into two groups: one was statin group ...

  13. Twenty Strategies to Increase Student Motivation. Information Capsule. Volume 0907

    Blazer, Christie

    2010-01-01

    Keeping students interested in school and motivating them to succeed are challenges that even the most experienced teachers face every year. A host of student variables can lead to low levels of motivation, but research indicates that educational settings also influence motivation levels. Some studies have found that motivation is a stronger…

  14. IMPORTANCE OF ACHIEVEMENT MOTIVATION IN SPORTS PERFORMANCE

    Jyoti A Upadhye

    2014-06-01

    Full Text Available The present article defines the psychological construct of Achievement motivation and its influence on Sportsman to achieve their goals and to improve their performance level. Achievement Motivation is a mindset that leads people to set for themselves realistic but challenging goals. In Achievement Motivation can calculate mathematically by taking a person's desire to succeed and subtracting their fear of failure. When a student is motivated, he is inspired to pursue greater academic goals. Underlying motivations can include grades, social acceptance or parental approval.

  15. Employee's Motivation : How to improve employees’ motivation in order to increase work performance.

    Ho, Oanh

    2016-01-01

    This thesis examines the state of employee’s job satisfaction and motivation at language school KTDC Group that is located in Ho Chi Minh City, Vietnam. The study deals with the major factors that influence teachers’ motivation at the target school. Employee motivation is extremely crucial for the company as it has a great impact on employee’s job performance and responsibility. Especially for companies that are operating in services and education industry, motivated employees are vital. Ther...

  16. Commodity Team Motivation and Performance

    Englyst, Linda; Jørgensen, Frances; Johansen, John;

    2008-01-01

    In this article, an in-depth single case study is presented in order to explore and discuss the functioning of commodity teams in a global sourcing context. Specifically, the study aimed at identifying factors that may influence team members' motivation to participate in activities that create...... opportunities for synergy and coordination of purchasing. In the teams studied, motivation appeared to be influenced to some degree by a number of factors, including rewards, leadership behaviours, goal setting, and the career goals of the commodity team members. In some cases, inconsistencies between these...

  17. Commodity team motivation and performance

    Englyst, Linda; Jørgensen, Frances; Johansen, John;

    2007-01-01

    In this article, an in-depth single case study is presented in order to explore and discuss the functioning of commodity teams in a global sourcing context. Specifically the study aimed at identifying factors that may influence team members' motivation to participate in activities consistent with a...... commodity team's objective of creating opportunities for synergy and coordination of purchasing. In the teams studied, motivation appeared to be influenced to some degree by a number of factors, including rewards, leadership behaviors, goal setting, and the career goals of the commodity team members. In...

  18. Commodity team motivation and performance

    Englyst, Linda; Jørgensen, Frances; Johansen, John;

    2008-01-01

    In this article, an in-depth single case study is presented in order to explore and discuss the functioning of commodity teams in a global sourcing context. Specifically, the study aimed at identifying factors that may influence team members' motivation to participate in activities that create...... opportunities for synergy and coordination of purchasing. In the teams studied, motivation appeared to be influenced to some degree by a number of factors, including rewards, leadership behaviours, goal setting, and the career goals of the commodity team members. In some cases, inconsistencies between these...

  19. Influence of Transplantation of Allogenic Bone Marrow Mononuclear Cells on the Left Ventricular Remodeling of Rat after Acute Myocardial Infarction

    2006-01-01

    To probe into the influence of transplantation of allogenic bone marrow mononuclear cells (BM-MNCs) on the left ventricular remodeling of rat after acute myocardial infarction (AMD,60 male Wistar rats were evenly divided into three groups at random: control group 1, control group 2and transplantation group. In control group 1, chest was opened without ligation of coronary artery;in control group 2 and transplantation group, the left anterior descending branch of coronary artery was ligated to establish AMI model. Prepared culture medium and allogenic BM-MNCs suspension were respectively implanted the surrounding area of infracted cardiac muscle via epicardium of control group 2 and transplantation group. Four weeks after the operation, the osteopontin gene (OPN mRNA, P<0.01), type Ⅰ collagen (P<0.01) and angiotensin Ⅱ (AngⅡ, P<0.01) content in the left ventricular non-infracted myocardium, and the Ang Ⅱ density in blood plasma (P<0.05) of transplantation group and control group 2 were all significantly higher than that of control group 1. In the transplantation group, the myocardial OPN mRNA, type Ⅰ collagen and Ang Ⅱ content of non-infracted zone in left ventricle, and the Ang Ⅱ concentration in blood plasma were all significantly lower than those of control group 2 (P<0.05 for all). It is concluded that allogenic BM-MNCs transplantation may ease left ventricular remodeling after AMI by inhibiting the synthesis of type Ⅰ collagen in the cardiac muscle and down-regulating the expression of Ang Ⅱ and OPN gene.

  20. Influence of detection of pretreatment cytogenetic abnormalities on first complete remission and survival in adult acute lymphoblastic leukemia

    Milena Georgieva Velizarova

    2011-09-01

    Full Text Available Objective: Treatment of acute lymphoblastic leukemia (ALL in adults focuses on the initial assessment of the prognostic relevant cytogenetic features as well as a response-guided therapy based on molecular data. We examined the importance of molecular-cytogenetic abnormalities for complete remission (CR rates and the overall survival (OS in adult ALLs.Materials and Methods: Conventional cytogenetics and fluorescence in situ hybridization were performed on bone marrow cells from 33 newly-diagnosed ALL adults. Two karyotype categories [standard- risk group- normal karyotype, hyperdiplody and other structural aberrations, and high-risk group-t(11q23/MLL, t(9;22/bcr-abl, t(1;19, t(8;14, C-MYC and complex karyotype] and the biologically and clinically relevant ALL ploidy subgroups were prospectively defined.Results: Chromosomal abnormalities were found in 52% of the cases with a high rate of poor-risk translocations - t(9;22, t(8q24, t(11q23, t(1;19. The total CR rate was 67% and the median time for achievement 2.33 months. Male sex, an age below 35 years and the absence of high risk translocations might have contributed to the high CR rates. Female patients, hyperdiplody, low white blood cells (WBC, and random cytogenetic aberrations had the longest OS. OS, 3- and 5-years survival periods were significantly shorter for poor-risk than standard risk group (p=.015, p=.001 and p=.005, respectively.Conclusion: This study emphasizes the lack of influence of cytogenetic aberrations on the CR and the time to achieve CR. However, our observations show that these aberrations are an independent prognostic factor in adult ALL - they allow predicting therapy resistance and the OS time after intensetreatment.

  1. The influences of reproductive status and acute stress on the levels of phosphorylated mu opioid receptor immunoreactivity in rat hippocampus

    Keith L. Gonzales

    2011-08-01

    Full Text Available Opioids play a critical role in hippocampally dependent behavior and plasticity. In the hippocampal formation, mu opioid receptors (MOR are prominent in parvalbumin (PARV containing interneurons. Previously we found that gonadal hormones modulate the trafficking of MORs in PARV interneurons. Although sex differences in response to stress are well documented, the point at which opioids, sex and stress interact to influence hippocampal function remains elusive. Thus, we used quantitative immunocytochemistry in combination with light and electron microscopy for the phosphorylated MOR at the SER375 carboxy-terminal residue (pMOR in male and female rats to assess these interactions. In both sexes, pMOR-immunoreactivity (ir was prominent in axons and terminals and in a few neuronal somata and dendrites, some of which contained PARV in the mossy fiber pathway region of the dentate gyrus (DG hilus and CA3 stratum lucidum. In unstressed rats, the levels of pMOR-ir in the DG or CA3 were not affected by sex or estrous cycle stage. However, immediately following 30 minutes of acute immobilization stress (AIS, males had higher levels of pMOR-ir whereas females at proestrus and estrus (high estrogen stages had lower levels of pMOR-ir within the DG. In contrast, the number and types of neuronal profiles with pMOR-ir were not altered by AIS in either males or proestrus females. These data demonstrate that although gonadal steroids do not affect pMOR levels at resting conditions, they are differentially activated both pre- and post-synaptic MORs following stress. These interactions may contribute to the reported sex differences in hippocampally dependent behaviors in stressed animals.

  2. Long-term effects of autologous bone marrow stem cell treatment in acute myocardial infarction: factors that may influence outcomes.

    David M Clifford

    Full Text Available AIMS: To investigate whether there are important sources of heterogeneity between the findings of different clinical trials which administer autologous stem cell treatment for acute myocardial infarction (AMI and to evaluate what factors may influence the long-term effects of this treatment. METHODS AND RESULTS: MEDLINE (1950-January 2011, EMBASE (1974-January 2011, CENTRAL (The Cochrane Library 2011, Issue 1, CINAHL (1982-January 2011, and ongoing trials registers were searched for randomised trials of bone marrow stem cells as treatment for AMI. Hand-searching was used to screen recent, relevant conference proceedings (2005-2010/11. Meta-analyses were conducted using random-effects models and heterogeneity between subgroups was assessed using chi-squared tests. Planned analyses included length of follow-up, timing of cell infusion and dose, patient selection, small trial size effect, methodological quality, loss of follow-up and date of publication. Thirty-three trials with a total of 1,765 participants were included. There was no evidence of bias due to publication or time-lag, methodological quality of included studies, participant drop-out, duration of follow-up or date of the first disclosure of results. However, in long-term follow-ups the treatment seemed more effective when administered at doses greater than 10(8 cells and to patients with more severe heart dysfunction. CONCLUSIONS: Evaluation of heterogeneity between trials has not identified significant sources of bias in this study. However, clinical differences between trials are likely to exist which should be considered when undertaking future trials.

  3. Influence of melanocytes in the ex-vivo reconstructed epidermal melanin unit following an acute UV irradiation

    Influence of melanocytes in skin pigmentation is well documented, however its photo-protective role has given rise to controversy. The role of melanocytes have been investigated on reconstructed epidermis with 100 % of keratinocytes or 95 % of keratinocytes and 5 % of melanocytes. In a first time, the effect of an acute UVB dose has been studied on both reconstructed epidermis, next we have investigated UVA and UVA+B effects on these epidermis. Following irradiation, the presence of melanocytes in reconstructed epidermis protects against apoptosis without protecting significantly against DNA damage formation (CPD, 6-4PP) and protects against UV-induced unbalance of the SOD/catalase ratio (antioxidants enzymes). On the contrary, the presence of melanocytes in reconstructed epidermis amplifies lipids and proteins oxidations but seems to protect against DNA oxidations. Melanocytes differ from keratinocytes by their melanin content and their more important concentration in polyunsaturated fatty acids. To evaluate what is the part of melanin and the part of polyunsaturated fatty acids in epidermal UV responses, reconstructed epidermis with keratinocytes have been supplemented with polyunsaturated fatty acid. This study indicates that polyunsaturated fatty acids are responsible for lipids and proteins oxidations and that melanin protect against DNA oxidation induced by lipid peroxidation. All these studies demonstrate that, model of reconstructed epidermis and epidermis in-vivo have the same behaviour following UV irradiation. In the last part, sunscreens and antioxidants have been tested on reconstructed epidermis and have demonstrated that model of reconstructed epidermis is suitable for photo-protective molecules screening. (author)

  4. Selenium Pretreatment for Mitigation of Ischemia/Reperfusion Injury in Cardiovascular Surgery: Influence on Acute Organ Damage and Inflammatory Response.

    Steinbrenner, Holger; Bilgic, Esra; Pinto, Antonio; Engels, Melanie; Wollschläger, Lena; Döhrn, Laura; Kellermann, Kristine; Boeken, Udo; Akhyari, Payam; Lichtenberg, Artur

    2016-08-01

    Ischemia/reperfusion injury (IRI) contributes to morbidity and mortality after cardiovascular surgery requiring cardiopulmonary bypass (CPB) and deep hypothermic circulatory arrest (DHCA). Multi-organ damage is associated with substantial decreases of blood selenium (Se) levels in patients undergoing cardiac surgery with CPB. We compared the influence of a dietary surplus of Se and pretreatment with ebselen, a mimic of the selenoenzyme glutathione peroxidase, on IRI-induced tissue damage and inflammation. Male Wistar rats were fed either a Se-adequate diet containing 0.3 ppm Se or supplemented with 1 ppm Se (as sodium selenite) for 5 weeks. Two other groups of Se-adequate rats received intraperitoneal injection of ebselen (30 mg/kg) or DMSO (solvent control) before surgery. The animals were connected to a heart-lung-machine and underwent 45 min of global ischemia during circulatory arrest at 16 °C, followed by re-warming and reperfusion. Selenite and ebselen suppressed IRI-induced leukocytosis and the increase in plasma levels of tissue damage markers (AST, ALT, LDH, troponin) during surgery but did not prevent the induction of proinflammatory cytokines (IL-6, TNF-α). Both Se compounds affected phosphorylation and expression of proteins related to stress response and inflammation: Ebselen increased phosphorylation of STAT3 transcription factor in the heart and decreased phosphorylation of ERK1/2 MAP kinases in the lungs. Selenite decreased ERK1/2 phosphorylation and HSP-70 expression in the heart. Pretreatment with selenite or ebselen protected against acute IRI-induced tissue damage during CPB and DHCA. Potential implications of their different actions with regard to molecular stress markers on the recovery after surgery represent promising targets for further investigation. PMID:27192987

  5. Motivating students through positive learning experiences

    Lykke, Marianne; Coto Chotto, Mayela; Jantzen, Christian;

    2015-01-01

    Based on the assumption that wellbeing, positive emotions and engagement influence motivation for learning, the aim of this paper is to provide insight into students’ emotional responses to and engagement in different learning designs. By comparing students’ reports on the experiential qualities of...... three different learning designs, their respective influence on students’ motivation for learning is discussed with the purpose of exploring the relationship between positive emotions, engagement and intrinsic motivation for learning. Our study thus aims at evaluating the motivational elements in the...

  6. Motivations of parametric studies

    The paper concerns the motivations of parametric studies in connection with the Programme for the Inspection of Steel Components PISC II. The objective of the PISC II exercise is to evaluate the effectiveness of current and advanced NDT techniques for inspection of reactor pressure vessel components. The parametric studies were initiated to determine the influence of some parameters on defect detection and dimensioning, and to increase the technical bases of the Round Robin Tests. A description is given of the content of the parametric studies including:- the effect of the defects' characteristics, the effect of equipment characteristics, the effect of cladding, and possible use of electromagnetic techniques. (U.K.)

  7. Development of the Exercise Motives and Gains Inventory

    Strömmer, Sofia T.; Ingledew, David K.; Markland, David

    2015-01-01

    There are existing measures of exercise motives (what people want from exercise), but corresponding measures of gains (what people get) are needed, because motives and gains could influence each other and together influence other variables. An exercise motives and gains inventory (EMGI) was developed by creating gains scales to complement existing…

  8. Factors Influencing Learner Conceptions of Force: Exploring the Interaction among Visuospatial Ability, Motivation, and Conceptions of Newtonian Mechanics in University Undergraduates from an Evolutionary Perspective

    Vallett, David Bruce

    2013-01-01

    This study examined the relationships among visuospatial ability, motivation to learn science, and learner conceptions of force across commonly measured demographics with university undergraduates with the aim of examining the support for an evolved sense of force and motion. Demographic variables of interest included age, ethnicity, and gender,…

  9. Investigating the Influence of Motivation on Students' Conceptual Learning Outcomes in Web-Based vs. Classroom-Based Science Teaching Contexts

    Yen, Hung-Chih; Tuan, Hsiao-Lin; Liao, Chi-Hung

    2011-01-01

    The purposes of this study were to investigate students' conceptual learning outcomes and the effect of motivation on students' conceptual learning outcomes in two different contexts: a Web-based and a classroom-based instruction, which incorporated the Dual Situation Learning Model (DSLM). Nine classes of Grade eight students (N = 190) were…

  10. Formation of Patent Motive and It's Influence on Decision Mode of Commercialization%专利动机演化对商业化决策模式的影响

    陈朝晖; 朱雪忠

    2012-01-01

    This paper starts from the phenomenon of commercialization deviation) discusses the content and the type with the characteristics of patent motives (protective motive, economic motive and strategic motive)via the relations between assumption about human nature and patent value. After analyzing the evolution process of patent motive, patent decision- making models were compared under different patent motive modes, and the influence of strategic motive upon patent behavior was found. It concludes that strategic value has been important benchmarking of patent value, and the pursuit of strategic value has become the major aim of the patent strategic in some enterprises. It is worthwhile to pay more attention to the important role of strategic patent playing in the process of obtaining enterprise competitive advantages on the base of patent monopolization.%从“商业化背离”现象入手,通过对人性假设与专利价值之间的关系分析,研究了专利动机(保护动机、经济动机与战略动机)的内容、类型与特点,并结合“契约人”假设,解释专利动机的形成机理.之后,通过对专利动机演化过程的剖析,指出了战略动机对专利行为的影响,提出了不同专利动机驱动的专利决策模式.研究发现:战略价值已经成为衡量专利价值的重要标准,对战略价值的追求也已成为一些企业实施专利战略的主要目标,战略专利对企业构建基于专利垄断性的竞争优势起着关键作用.

  11. Employee motivation and its effects on job performance

    Siira, Heidi Johanna

    2012-01-01

    Individuals’ motivation is influenced by biological, intellectual, social and emotional factors. People have different kinds of activities, events, people, and goals in their lives that they find motivating enough to work for. Therefore motivation will show in each person´s consciousness and actions. There are four approaches to motivation: physiological, behavioral, cognitive and social. When we look at employee motivation we see that it’s a driver that keeps employees working towards a r...

  12. Important motivators for buying green products

    Kamyar Kianpour; Roya Anvari; Ahmad Jusoh; Muhammed Fauzi Othman

    2014-01-01

    Purpose: To addresses the main motivators that influence customers to buy green products as well as well as profiling the decisions that shape their behavior. Design/methodology/approach: The authors have conducted a review of the major research related to consumers to identify motivational factors, to draw conclusions about their impact on buying green products.   Factor analysis is conducted on the collected data to find the underlying factors that motivate consumers to buy green products a...

  13. Important motivators for buying green products

    Kamyar Kianpour; Roya Anvari; Ahmad Jusoh; Muhammed Fauzi Othman

    2014-01-01

    Purpose: To addresses the main motivators that influence customers to buy green products as well as well as profiling the decisions that shape their behavior. Design/methodology/approach: The authors have conducted a review of the major research related to consumers to identify motivational factors, to draw conclusions about their impact on buying green products. Factor analysis is conducted on the collected data to find the underlying factors that motivate consumers to buy green products and...

  14. Contemporary foreign studies in preschoolers’ motivation development

    Nazarenko V.V.

    2013-01-01

    The article presents the review of contemporary foreign studies related to the problem of motivation development in preschoolers. The bigger part of these publications is focused on the study of achievement motivation in terms of preschoolers’ learning and their readiness for school education. The data analyzed in the article indicates the influence of child motivation on his/her academic achievement. The results of the studies demonstrate that the practice of preschool education centered on ...

  15. Employees’ Motivation, Essential Premise of Performance Ensuring

    Loredana Iordache; Ion Criveanu

    2010-01-01

    Preoccupation for what employees want should be one of the main concerns of the companies. That is because between motivation and performance is a reciprocity condition relationship. Practical experience shows that active or talent individuals who aren't appreciated according to their influence on the company tend to leave it. And this appreciation and motivation doesn't have to be represented just by money. Sometimes, a good organizational climate can sustain a long term motivation even if t...

  16. Empathy, Motivation, and P300 BCI performance

    Sonja C Kleih

    2013-10-01

    Full Text Available Motivation moderately influences Brain-Computer Interface (BCI performance in healthy subjects when monetary reward is used to manipulate extrinsic motivation. However, the motivation to use a BCI of severely paralyzed patients, who are potentially in need for BCI, could mainly be internal and thus, an intrinsic motivator may be more powerful. Also healthy subjects who participate in BCI studies could be intrinsically motivated as they may wish to contribute to research and thus extrinsic motivation by monetary reward would be less important than the content of the study. In this respect, motivation could be defined as “motivation-to-help”. The aim of this study was to investigate, whether subjects with high motivation for helping and who are highly empathic would perform better with a BCI controlled by event-related potentials (P300-BCI. We included N=20 healthy young participants naïve to BCI and grouped them according to their motivation for participating in a BCI study in a low and highly motivated group. Motivation was further manipulated with interesting or boring presentations about BCI and the possibility to help patients. Motivation for helping did neither influence BCI performance nor the P300 amplitude. Post-hoc, subjects were re-grouped according to their ability for perspective taking. We found significantly higher P300 amplitudes on parietal electrodes in participants with a low ability for perspective taking and therefore, lower empathy, as compared to participants with higher empathy. The lack of an effect of motivation on BCI performance contradicts previous findings and thus, requires further investigation. We speculate that subjects with higher empathy were less able to focus attention on the BCI task. Good perspective takers with regards to patients in potential need of BCI, may be more emotionally involved and therefore, less able to allocate attention on the BCI task at hand.

  17. An evaluation of the influence of substrate on the response of juvenile freshwater mussels (fatmucket, Lampsilis siliquoidea) in acute water exposures to ammonia

    Miao, J.; Barnhart, M.C.; Brunson, E.L.; Hardesty, D.K.; Ingersoll, C.G.; Wang, N.

    2010-01-01

    Acute 96-h ammonia toxicity to three-month-old juvenile mussels (Lampsilis siliquoidea) was evaluated in four treatments (water-only, water-only with feeding, water and soil, and water and sand) using an exposure unit designed to maintain consistent pH and ammonia concentrations in overlying water and in pore water surrounding the substrates. Median effect concentrations (EC50s) for total ammonia nitrogen in the four treatments ranged from 5.6 to 7.7mg/L and median lethal concentrations (LC50s) ranged from 7.0 to 11mg/L at a mean pH of 8.4. Similar EC50s or LC50s with overlapping 95% confidence intervals among treatments indicated no influence of substrate on the response of mussels in acute exposures to ammonia. ?? 2010 SETAC.

  18. Motivation of Online Buyer Behavior

    Svatošová Veronika

    2013-01-01

    Buyer behavior of consumers plays one of the key roles in fulfillment of the main goals of a company. It is influenced by many external and internal factors but the company can also influence the final process of buyer decision-making process significantly by its activities. The subject matter of this article is an analysis of the features of online buyer behavior compared to the general regularities of buyer behavior, definition of the main motives of online shopping, and description of the ...

  19. The influence of chronotype and intelligence on academic achievement in primary school is mediated by conscientiousness, midpoint of sleep and motivation.

    Arbabi, Talat; Vollmer, Christian; Dörfler, Tobias; Randler, Christoph

    2015-04-01

    Individuals differ in their timing of sleep (bed times, rise times) and in their preference for morning or evening hours. Previous work focused on the relationship between academic achievement and these variables in secondary school students. The main aim of the study is to investigate the relationship between chronotype and academic achievement in 10-year-old children (n = 1125) attending 4th grade of primary school. They filled a cognitive test (Culture Fair Intelligence Test, CFT 20-R) and questions about rise times and bed times, academic achievement, conscientiousness and motivation. We used the "scales for the assessment of learning and performance motivation" (SELLMO; Skalen zur Erfassung der Lern- und Leistungsmotivation for motivation), the short version of the Five-Factor Personality Inventory Children (FFPI-C) to measure conscientiousness, and the Composite Scale of Morningness (CSM) to assess morningness-eveningness. Mean CSM score was 37.84 ± 6.66, midpoint of sleep was 1:36 ± 00:25 and average sleep duration (time in bed) was 10:15 ± 0:48. Morningness orientation was positively related to intelligence, conscientiousness and learning objectives. Eveningness orientation was related to avoidance performance objectives and work avoidance. Early midpoint of sleep, conscientiousness and intelligence were associated with better grades. The multivariate model showed that intelligence was the strongest predictor of good grades. Conscientiousness, motivation, younger age and an earlier midpoint of sleep were positively related to good grades. This is the first study in primary school pupils, and it shows that the relationship between evening orientation and academic achievement is already prevalent at this age even when controlling for important predictors of achievement. PMID:25392281

  20. The Influence of Antiobesity Media Content on Intention to Eat Healthily and Exercise: A Test of the Ordered Protection Motivation Theory

    2014-01-01

    This study extended the ordered protection motivation framework to determine whether exposure and attention to antiobesity media content increases people’s appraisals of threat and their ability to cope with it. It also assesses whether these cognitive processes, in turn, affected people’s intention to abide by the practices recommended to prevent obesity. The results of a national online survey using a nonprobability sample indicate that attention to mediated obesity and related information ...

  1. ISLAM AND POLITICAL ECONOMY A Study of the Influence of Religiosity and Religiously Motivated Attitudes on Macroeconomic Performance in Countries with Substantial Muslim Presence

    Arif, Shawky

    2013-01-01

    This thesis consists of three empirical chapters studying the relationship be- tween religion and political economy for a sample of countries with substantial Muslim presence. Chapter one is a study of the relationship between religiously motivated at- titudes and FDI for a panel of predominantly Muslim countries over a period of ten years stretching from 1997 to 2006. Instrumenting for the attitude variables, I �nd that countries with more progressive attitudes towards wome...

  2. The Influence Of Knowledge And Economic Motive On The Use Of Formaline And Borax In Fast Food (Meatballs)By Its Seller In Medan Denai And Medan Tuntungan Subdistrict In 2011

    SR, Lambok Oktavia

    2012-01-01

    Misuse of formalin and borax in meatballs by its sellers still found in Medan. The data of 2010 obtained from the food security surveillance of Indonesian food and drugs inspection agency revealed that the misuse of formalin was 4.89% and borax 8.80%. The purpose of this analytical study with cross-sectional design was to analyze the influence of knowledge and economic motive on the use of formalin and borax in meatballs in Medan Denai and Medan Tuntungan Subdistrict. The population o...

  3. Motivation as Ethical Self-Formation

    Clarke, Matthew; Hennig, Barbara

    2013-01-01

    Motivation is a concept more frequently found in venues concerned with educational psychology than in ones concerned with educational philosophy. Under the influence of psychology, and its typically dualistic way of making sense of the world, motivation in education has tended to be viewed in dichotomous terms, for example, as intrinsic or…

  4. Motivational Implications of Faculty Performance Standards

    Hardre, Patricia L.; Kollmann, Sherry L.

    2012-01-01

    Expectations and how they are communicated influence employees' motivation, effort, goals, efficacy and performance. This study examined faculty performance evaluation standards and processes of 60 academic departments in research universities for motivationally relevant elements. Characteristics were systematically analysed to understand their…

  5. Motivational Issues of Faculty in Saudi Arabia

    Abdul Cader, Akram

    2012-01-01

    Researchers have suggested that faculty motivation influences profitability of academic programs. The problem researched in this mixed method study was the motivational factors that reduce faculty member effectiveness in improving the profitability of their universities' academic programs. Based on Maslow's theory of needs, the purpose of the…

  6. Extrinsic Motivation of Part time Advisors and the Influencing Factors%高校兼职辅导员激励效果及影响因素探究--以中国人民大学为例

    关一

    2014-01-01

    From the perspective of management science,this paper examines questionnaire surveys and interviews the extrinsic motivation of part time advisors from Renmin University of China and the in-fluencing factors in the hope of finding the relationships between the various motivators and the advi-sors'psychological expectations so universities can better manage and motivate part time advisors.%文章从管理学角度,通过问卷调查和访谈法,分析了中国人民大学兼职班级辅导员的激励效果现状及影响因素,找出影响大学生兼职辅导员激励效果的各类要素和辅导员心理期望之间的关系,对高校兼职辅导员的管理、激励提出建议。

  7. Empirical Study on the Influence of Team Conflict and Epistemic Motivation on Decision-making Quality%团队冲突和求知动机对决策质量影响的实证分析

    戴佩华

    2014-01-01

    鉴于求知动机可以提升团队成员对信息的的专注度和需求度,有可能在任务冲突和决策质量之间起到一个有益的调节作用,在研究中引入求知动机作为“团队冲突—决策质量”的调节变量,通过行为实验方法模拟团队决策过程,以任务冲突为研究起点,探寻求知动机在决策过程中对团队冲突的影响,以及求知动机和任务冲突的交互作用对决策质量的影响。结果发现,求知动机可以对任务冲突和决策质量的关系起到非常显著的正向调节作用;并且可以有效地缓解任务冲突向关系冲突的转化。这两种作用使得在高求知动机状态下,任务冲突与决策质量之间呈现出正相关关系。%Epistemic motivation can improve the team members’attention and demand for information,so it may play a positive role in mediating the task conflict and decision-making quality.Therefore,this thesis uses the behavioral experi-ments to simulate the team decision making,regards the task conflict as the research starting point,and explores the influ-ence of epistemic motivation on team conflicts and the influence of the interaction of epistemic motivation and conflicts on decision-making quality.The results state that epistemic motivation can play a remarkable positive role in mediating task conflict and decision-making quality,and can effectively prevent task conflict from transforming into relationship conflict. Therefore under the condition of high epistemic motivation,the relationship between task conflict and decision -making quality is positive.

  8. Motivation and English as a foreign language : Motivation among Swedish upper secondary school students

    Dijkstra, Daniel

    2009-01-01

    In order to be able to influence the motivation of second language learners one first has to understand what motivation is, what its preconditions are and how to detect it. The research for this essay was done with the help of one hundred and ten students from seven classes in two different upper secondary schools and most of these learners were first year students. The aim was to find and measure the students' motivation to learn English and how this motivation can be influenced in a positiv...

  9. Does acute led (Pb) contamination influence membrane fatty acid composition and freeze tolerance in intertidal blue mussels in arctic Greenland?

    Thyrring, Jakob; Juhl, Bodil Klein; Holmstrup, Martin; Blicher, Martin; Sejr, Mikael Kristian

    2015-01-01

    In their natural habitats, organisms are exposed to multiple stressors. Heavy metal contamination stresses the cell membrane due to increased peroxidation of lipids. Likewise, sub-zero air temperatures potentially reduce membrane functionality in ectothermal animals. We tested if acute lead (Pb...... tolerance and does not induce membrane damage in terms of persistent lipid peroxidation....

  10. In-Hospital Mortality among Rural Medicare Patients with Acute Myocardial Infarction: The Influence of Demographics, Transfer, and Health Factors

    Muus, Kyle J.; Knudson, Alana D.; Klug, Marilyn G.; Wynne, Joshua

    2011-01-01

    Context/Purpose: Most rural hospitals can provide medical care to acute myocardial infarction (AMI) patients, but a need for advanced cardiac care requires timely transfer to a tertiary hospital. There is little information on AMI in-hospital mortality predictors among rural transfer patients. Methods: Cross-sectional retrospective analyses on…

  11. Trends in management of acute lymphoblastic leukemia: Influence of insurance based healthcare and treatment compliance on the outcome of adolescents and adults with acute lymphoblastic leukemia

    Ravi Sankar Arigela

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Aim: In this study, we attempted to analyze the impact of insurance based health care system and treatment compliance on the outcome of adolescent and adults with acute lymphoblastic leukemia (ALL. Materials and Methods: Patients who underwent treatment for ALL during the period 2003-2011 were enrolled into this retrospective study. Patients on supportive or palliative care only and patients with age <10 years were excluded. The hospital records and tumor registry records were studied. Patients were stratified into two groups, Group A (prior to the introduction of state health insurance [SHI], 2003-2007 and Group B (after the introduction of SHI, 2008-2011. Overall survival (OS was calculated using Kaplan-Meier method. Results: A total of 420 patients with suspected or confirmed ALL visited our center during the study period and 179 patients (87 in Group A and 92 in Group B were considered for inclusion. The median age in years (range was 18 (10-57 and 18 (10-58 respectively in Groups A and B with males more than females. Median OS (95% CI was 9 (6.7-11.2 and 12 (7.3-16.7 months in the Groups A and B respectively (P = 0.265. Poor treatment compliance in both groups was high (36% in Group A and 41% in Group B, [P = 0.107] with lower default rates in Group B (P = 0.019. Patients with good compliance in the total study population and the individual study groups had significantly better OS. Conclusions: Insurance based health care has improved outcomes in the present study but not compliance to treatment. Significantly better OS was observed in patients with good compliance.

  12. Motivation in tennis

    Crespo, Miguel; Reid, Machar M

    2007-01-01

    Motivation underpins successful tennis performance, representing one of the game's foremost psychological skills. This paper elaborates on its role in tennis play, and takes an overview of the current state of motivation research applied to tennis. First, the importance of motivation in player and coach performance is explored. The body of evidence pertaining to players' motives for participation and the relevance of goal achievement motivation in tennis is then examined. Finally, the efficac...

  13. Motivation as a ledership

    Fuxová, Klára

    2011-01-01

    My bachelor thesis has been focused on the motivation as a way of management and leadership. The main objective of the first part is to gain theoretical knowledge in the HR area. First the term management is analysed: it´s origin, development, structuring and managers as people being involved. Other terms such as motive, motivation and major motivation theories follow. Further the terms stimulus and stimulation are described, the differences between stimulus and motive, subsequently between ...

  14. Motivation and performance

    Kvidera, Tomáš

    2011-01-01

    This Bachelor Thesis deals with the topic of motivation and job performance, which is desired all over the world. The target of attention are cultural factors of motivation, which cause differences among national populations. These differences often lead to misunderstanding between different cultures, including leadership and employee motivation. The literature retrieval part describes basic terms connected with motivation and well-known motivation theories using propriate literature. Conf...

  15. Work motivation at company

    Skřivánková, Martina

    2011-01-01

    This bachelor work deals with work motivation of the employees at company Jindřich Valenta – ELKO Valenta. The aim of the bachelor work was to describe an existing motivation program, figure out which motivation factors are the most important for the employees and also find out satisfaction or dissatisfaction of employees with actual motivation factors in the company. Eventually propose improvement in motivation program. Questionnaire method was chosen as research technique. It appears from ...

  16. Motivational factors, gender and engineering education

    Kolmos, Anette; Mejlgaard, Niels; Haase, Sanne; Egelund Holgaard, Jette

    2013-06-01

    Based on survey data covering the full population of students enrolled in Danish engineering education in autumn 2010, we explore the motivational factors behind educational choice, with a particular aim of comparing male and female students1 reasons for choosing a career in engineering. We find that women are significantly more influenced by mentors than men, while men tend to be more motivated by intrinsic and financial factors, and by the social importance of the engineering profession. Parental influence is low across all programmes and by differentiating between specific clusters of engineering programmes, we further show that these overall gender differences are subtle and that motivational factors are unequally important across the different educational programmes. The findings from this study clearly indicate that intrinsic and social motivations are the most important motivational factors; however, gender and programme differentiation needs to be taken into account, and points towards diverse future strategies for attracting students to engineering education.

  17. Motivational factors, gender and engineering education

    Kolmos, Anette; Mejlgaard, Niels; Haase, Sanne Schioldann;

    2013-01-01

    Based on survey data covering the full population of students enrolled in Danish engineering education in autumn 2010, we explore the motivational factors behind educational choice, with a particular aim of comparing male and female students1 reasons for choosing a career in engineering. We find...... that women are significantly more influenced by mentors than men, while men tend to be more motivated by intrinsic and financial factors, and by the social importance of the engineering profession. Parental influence is low across all programmes and by differentiating between specific clusters of...... engineering programmes, we further show that these overall gender differences are subtle and that motivational factors are unequally important across the different educational programmes. The findings from this study clearly indicate that intrinsic and social motivations are the most important motivational...

  18. Command and motivation

    Jacobsen, Christian Bøtcher; Hvidtved, Johan; Andersen, Lotte Bøgh

    2014-01-01

    Motivated employees are crucial to organizations, but external interventions such as command systems and financial incentives may decrease motivation. If these external interventions are perceived to be controlling, they are expected to crowd out intrinsic motivation, and this may also apply to...... motivation. Using a dataset with 3,230 school teachers in Denmark, a structural equation model shows that the perception of obligatory student plans as controlling is negatively associated with all of the investigated types of employee motivation, supporting that motivation crowding can occur....... other types of autonomous motivation such as public service motivation. The perception of external interventions is thus expected to be vital. This article investigates how the perception of a specific command system (obligatory student plans) is associated with intrinsic motivation and public service...

  19. The Influence of Age of Onset and Acute Anabolic Steroid Exposure on Cognitive Performance, Impulsivity, and Aggression in Men

    Hildebrandt, Tom; Langenbucher, James W.; Flores, Adrianne; Harty, Seth; Berlin, Heather A.

    2014-01-01

    A growing translational literature suggests that adolescent exposure to anabolic-androgenic steroids (AASs) leads to increased aggression and impulsivity. However, little is known about the cognitive effects of AASs among AAS users or the differences between adolescent and adult onset users. This study provides a test of the effects of acute naturalistic AAS use and age of onset (adolescent vs. adult) on measures of inhibitory control, planning and attention, and decision makin...

  20. Neuropeptide Y influences acute food intake and energy status affects NPY immunoreactivity in the female musk shrew (Suncus murinus) 1

    Bojkowska, Karolina; Hamczyk, Magdalena M.; Tsai, Houng-Wei; Riggan, Anna; Rissman, Emilie F.

    2007-01-01

    Neuropeptide Y (NPY) stimulates feeding, depresses sexual behavior, and its expression in the brain is modulated by energetic status. We examined the role of NPY in female musk shrews, a species with high energetic and reproductive demands; they store little fat, and small changes in energy can rapidly diminish or enhance sexual receptivity. Intracerebroventricular infusion of NPY enhanced acute food intake in shrews, however, NPY had little affect on sexual receptivity. The distribution of N...

  1. The influence of an acute bout of aerobic exercise on cortical contributions to motor preparation and execution

    Thacker, Jonathan S.; Middleton, Laura E; McIlroy, William E.; Staines, W. Richard

    2014-01-01

    Abstract Increasing evidence supports the use of physical activity for modifying brain activity and overall neurological health. Specifically, aerobic exercise appears to have a positive effect on cognitive function, which some have suggested to be a result of increasing levels of arousal. However, the role of aerobic exercise on movement‐related cortical activity is less clear. We tested the hypothesis that (1) an acute bout of exercise modulates excitability within motor areas and (2) trans...

  2. 学习动机对公外学生英语水平磨蚀的影响%A Study on the Influence of Learning Motivation to the Attrition of English Proficiency for Non-English Majors

    叶譞

    2014-01-01

    Based on the learning motivation scale designed by Wen Qiufang as questionnaire and the CET4 score, coupled with the method of interview, the influence of learning motivation to the attrition of English proficiency for non-English majors is studied. As is discovered in matched sample T-test, all participants and high-score group have significant improvement in English proficiency while low-score group have significant attrition.High-score and low score group are similar in most items of extrinsic motivation but the influences of endeavor and metacognitive strategy determine whether their English will go through attrition or not. Due to a pessimistic attitide to English learning and the belief that English learning is valueless as well as the reluctance to learn English after passing CET4 and to use English as a tool for academic study, the low-score group have a low intensity of intrinsic motivation, which results in attrition in English proficiency.%!!!!!!!!!!!!押以文秋芳制作的学习动机量表和两次四级成绩为测量工具,通过问卷调查、访谈的方式,研究了学习动机对公外学生英语水平磨蚀的影响。配对样本T检验发现:全体受试对象、高分组受试对象英语水平有显著提高,低分组有显著磨蚀。高、低分组大多数表层动机强度相似,但努力程度和元认知策略影响他们英语水平是否磨蚀。低分组学生由于对英语学习持悲观态度且认为英语学习没有价值,在通过四级后不会继续学习,加之不会将英语作为交流工具及用于学术研究而造成深层动机强度较低,从而磨蚀英语水平。

  3. Influence of Vitamin C Supplementation on Oxidative Stress and Neutrophil Inflammatory Response in Acute and Regular Exercise

    Ljiljana M. Popovic

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Exercise induces a multitude of physiological and biochemical changes in blood affecting its redox status. Tissue damage resulting from exercise induces activation of inflammatory cells followed by the increased activity of myeloperoxidase (MPO in circulation. Vitamin C readily scavenges free radicals and may thereby prevent oxidative damage of important biological macromolecules. The aim of this study was to examine the effect of vitamin C supplementation on oxidative stress and neutrophil inflammatory response induced by acute and regular exercise. Experiment was conducted on acute exercise group (performing Bruce Treadmill Protocol (BTP and regular training group. Markers of lipid peroxidation, malondialdehyde (MDA, MPO activity, and vitamin C status were estimated at rest and after BTP (acute exercise group and before and after vitamin C supplementation in both groups. Our results showed increased postexercise Asc in serum independently of vitamin supplementation. They also showed that vitamin C can significantly decrease postexercise MDA level in both experimental groups. Increased postexercise MPO activity has been found in both groups and was not affected by vitamin C supplementation. We concluded that vitamin C supplementation can suppress lipid peroxidation process during exercise but cannot affect neutrophil inflammatory response in either exercise group.

  4. Motivation of the nursing staff in and a framework of realistic motives in a public hospital

    Yannis Markovits; Sofia Monastiridou

    2011-01-01

    The motivation of human resources and in particular of the nursing staff is a crucial issue that influences their job satisfaction, as well as patients' satisfaction from the health services offered. Aim: The presentation of selected motivation theories through literature review and the development of a framework of realistic motives applied to the nursing staff of a public hospital. Material-Method: The Greek and international bibliography has been reviewed, and in particular papers on the m...

  5. Mixed Motives and Motivic Birational Covers

    Pelaez, Pablo

    2016-01-01

    We introduce a tower of localizing subcategories in Voevodsky's big (closed under infinite coproducts) triangulated category of motives. We show that the tower induces an interesting finite filtration on the motivic cohomology groups of smooth schemes over a perfect field. With rational coefficients, this finite filtration satisfies several of the properties of the still conjectural Bloch-Beilinson-Murre filtration.

  6. Disorders of diminished motivation.

    Marin, Robert S; Wilkosz, Patricia A

    2005-01-01

    Disorders of diminished motivation occur frequently in individuals with traumatic brain injury. Motivation is an ever-present, essential determinant of behavior and adaptation. The major syndromes of diminished motivation are apathy, abulia, and akinetic mutism. Depending on their etiology, disorders of diminished motivation may be a primary clinical disturbance, a symptom of another disorder, or a coexisting second disorder. This article presents a biopsychosocial approach to the assessment and management of motivational impairments in patients with traumatic brain injury. The recognition and differential diagnosis of disorders of diminished motivation, as well as the mechanism and clinical pathogenesis, are discussed. PMID:16030444

  7. Leukocytosis in acute stroke

    Kammersgaard, L P; Jørgensen, H S; Nakayama, H;

    1999-01-01

    Leukocytosis is a common finding in the acute phase of stroke. A detrimental effect of leukocytosis on stroke outcome has been suggested, and trials aiming at reducing the leukocyte response in acute stroke are currently being conducted. However, the influence of leukocytosis on stroke outcome has...

  8. Self-esteem, Motivation, and Emotional Intelligence: Three Factors that influence the Successful Design of a Life Project of Middle-school Young Students

    Andrea Magdalena Lomelí-Parga

    2016-05-01

    Full Text Available The purpose of this research study is to depict the factors that allow young people to effectively carry out their life projects by planning short, mid, and long term goals. The population sample participating in this study was comprised of middle and high school students. This research was executed using mixed methods in order to identify the determining factors for young people who plan to have success in facing the daily life challenges, as well as today’s society demands, through a solid construction of their private vision of the future. The results of this project determine that the features which allow the conclusion of students’ life projects are closely related with a high self-esteem and motivation, as well as some emotional intelligence that allow students to visualize a successful personal and professional future.

  9. Motivation of Online Buyer Behavior

    Svatošová Veronika

    2013-09-01

    Full Text Available Buyer behavior of consumers plays one of the key roles in fulfillment of the main goals of a company. It is influenced by many external and internal factors but the company can also influence the final process of buyer decision-making process significantly by its activities. The subject matter of this article is an analysis of the features of online buyer behavior compared to the general regularities of buyer behavior, definition of the main motives of online shopping, and description of the current trends. The article uses the basic terminology of this subject and current bibliography as well as other resources. Theoretical knowledge is based on historic directions of Maslow’s theory of motivation where it is possible to find the basis for a buyer behavior analysis. The article is also based on the formerly carried out questionnaire survey which examines the motives and experience of the respondents with online shopping. By means of the independence test it is verified whether there is a relation between the age of respondents and motivation for online shopping. Subsequently, the survey carried out in person is compared with other relevant research solutions.

  10. Motivational Themes and Academic Success of At-Risk Freshmen.

    Wambach, Cathrine A.

    1993-01-01

    Describes a study of motivational factors influencing 19 first-year students who made the dean's list their first quarter in college, despite a poor academic performance in high school. Applies Weiner's attributional theory of motivation. Most students attributed their prior academic performance to a lack of motivation/effort. (DMM)

  11. Factor Analysis Influencing Postoperative Hospital Stay and Medical Costs for Patients with Definite, Suspected, or Unmatched Diagnosis of Acute Cholecystitis according to the Tokyo Guidelines 2013

    Hayasaki, Aoi; Takahashi, Koji; Fujii, Takehiro; Kumamoto, Koji; Fujii, Koji; Matsumoto, Eiichi; Miyahara, Shigeki; Kusuta, Tsukasa; Azumi, Yoshinori; Isaji, Shuji

    2016-01-01

    Purpose. To identify significant independent preoperative factors influencing postoperative hospital stay (PHS) and medical costs (MC) in 171 patients who underwent cholecystectomy for benign gallbladder diseases and had definite, suspected, or unmatched acute cholecystitis (AC) diagnosis according to the Tokyo Guidelines 2013 (TG13). Methods. The 171 patients were classified according to the combination of diagnostic criteria including local signs of inflammation (A), systemic signs of inflammation (B), and imaging findings (C): A+ B+ C (definite diagnosis, n = 84), A+ B (suspected diagnosis, n = 25), (A or B) + C (n = 10), A (n = 41), and B (n = 11). Results. The A+ B + C and (A or B) + C groups had equivalent PHS and MC, suggesting that imaging findings were essential for AC diagnosis. PHS and MC were significantly increased in the order of severity grades based on TG13. Performance status (PS), white blood cell count, and severity grade were identified as preoperative factors influencing PHS by multivariate analysis, and significant independent preoperative factors influencing MC were age, PS, preoperative biliary drainage, hospital stay before surgery, albumin, and severity grade. Conclusion. PS and severity grade significantly influenced prolonged PHS and increased MC.

  12. Understanding Employee Motivation.

    Lindner, James R.

    1998-01-01

    Extension employees (n=23) ranked the following as the most important motivational factors: interesting work, good wages, appreciation, job security, and good working conditions. The findings were related to theories of motivation formulated by Herzberg, Adams, and Vroom. (SK)

  13. Motivation of Management Subjects in Market Economy

    T. Yarovikova

    2010-03-01

    Full Text Available Market economy is the stage of world history where a company (an enterprise becomes the main subject of economic system. That is why motivation of enterprises’ activities here is the function that comes directly from the elements of macroeconomic mechanism inherent to the system.The main institutional features are: emerging of stimuli for labor economy; formation of manufacturers’ personal freedom and freedom of taking decisions by the subjects of economics; "openness" of economic processes inside the country.General economic mechanism of industrial economics forms the following motivational institutions of market economy that act as outer factors (motivators that form inner motives of enterprises’ behavior, and their change "turns off or on" these or that inner motives: factors of economic environment; factors of demographic and cultural environment; scientific and technologic determinants; political motivators; influence of labor force market; motivators caused by the industry and competitors; consumers’ factors; suppliers’ factors; factors of contact auditoriums.The main motives of the enterprises’ activities are: maximisation of income and profitability; satisfaction of consumers’ needs; production development; maximisation of trade volumes; social responsibility; saving expenses; wins in competence; leadership, prevailing on the market; minimisation of production risks; extension to the new markets; strategy; adaptation to the world market.So, this research allows us to say that motivational activities of economic subjects in market economy is formed on the basis of the most important macroeconomic features of industrial economics. These features condition existence of several institutions (outer motivators of market media that directly influence the motives pursued by enterprises as they function and interact with other participants of the market.

  14. Unges motivation i udskolingen

    Pless, Mette; Katznelson, Noemi; Hjort-Madsen, Peder;

    Om hvordan de unge i udskolingen skaber lyst og motivation for læring. Med afsnit om hvad motivation er, hvordan den fremmes hos unge og kombineres med et liv udenfor skolen......Om hvordan de unge i udskolingen skaber lyst og motivation for læring. Med afsnit om hvad motivation er, hvordan den fremmes hos unge og kombineres med et liv udenfor skolen...

  15. [Motivational interview: supporting change].

    Fond, Guillaume; Ducasse, Déborah

    2015-01-01

    The motivational interview aims to help patients to resolve their ambivalence regarding problematic behaviors and to guide them into change. It differs from other therapeutic approaches mainly through the attitude of the therapist. In motivational interviewing, the therapist defends the statu quo. By reactance, the patient defends the change and enhance her/his motivation. This article provides a summary of the other concepts of motivational interviewing and its applications in the psychiatric daily practice. PMID:26143220

  16. Strong intrinsic motivation

    Dessi, Roberta; Rustichini, Aldo

    2015-01-01

    A large literature in psychology, and more recently in economics, has argued that monetary rewards can reduce intrinsic motivation. We investigate whether the negative impact persists when intrinsic motivation is strong, and test this hypothesis experimentally focusing on the motivation to undertake interesting and challenging tasks, informative about individual ability. We find that this type of task can generate strong intrinsic motivation, that is impervious to the effect of monetary incen...

  17. Motivation and achievements

    Stefanova, Sladzana; Miceski, Trajko

    2015-01-01

    Motivation of employees as management function is an important factor in encouraging, guiding and strengthening the behavior of employees in organizations. For one organization is very important the employees to be motivated, only thus will be achieved its objectives. The manager is usually responsible for the motivation of employees and for fulfilment their needs in the workplace, but it is recommended the employees to motivate themselves. Generally, employees are working t...

  18. Leadership and motivation

    Yarovaya, Anastasiya

    2013-01-01

    The given bachelor thesis focuses on leadership and motivation. It consists of theoretical and practical parts. The theoretical part delineates the conception of leadership and motivation of employees. It is also consists information about major theories of leadership and motivation. The main goal of the practical part is to analyze real situation of particular working group, their satisfaction with leadership and motivation. The research was conducted in the jewelry company Lapis Diamond s....

  19. Motivation as a leadership

    Maturkanič, Jiří

    2014-01-01

    This bachelor thesis named Motivation as a leadership is focused on methods and possibilities of employee motivation leading to their development and well-being. Managers controls human resources using managerial functions ensuring compilance of business objectives. First part describes main theoretical definition such as management and manager. Managerial functions, motivation, motivation strategy and other terms are described in next chapters. The practical part includes acquired knowl...

  20. Social motives in intergroup conflict

    Weisel, Ori; Ro`i Zultan

    2013-01-01

    We experimentally test the social motives behind individual participation in intergroup conflict by manipulating the framing and symmetry of conflict. We find that behavior in conflict depends on whether one is harmed by actions perpetrated by the out-group, but not on one's own influence on the outcome of the out-group. The way in which this harm is presented and perceived dramatically alters participation decisions. When people perceive their group to be under threat, they are mobilized to ...

  1. 浙江省中小物流企业激励机制影响因素调查研究%Study on Influence Factors of Motivational Mechanism of SMS Logistics Enterprises in Zhejiang

    宣玲玲

    2013-01-01

    人力资源是中小物流企业构建核心竞争能力的重要因素,激励机制是人力资源管理的重要内容,有效的激励措施是最大限度地实现人力资本收益的可靠保证.对浙江省中小物流企业激励机制的主要影响因素进行了调查分析,并根据其结果提出针对不同类型员工,在设计激励机制时应有不同的策略.%In this paper,through surveying and analyzing the main factors influencing the motivational mechanism of the small-and-medium-sized logistics enterprises in Zhejiang and then according to the finding we took differentiated strategies in designing the motivational mechanism for different employee groups.

  2. The Intrinsic and Extrinsic Factors for Teacher Motivation

    Harun GULTEKIN

    2014-12-01

    Full Text Available Education researchers and school administrators have faced the challenge of motivating teachers to higher levels of performance. In this regard, teacher motivation increases classroom performance and, accordingly, improves schooling and the overall quality of the school system. The purpose of this paper is to investigate the different types of motivational factors, both intrinsic and extrinsic, that influence teacher performance and contribute to teacher motivation.

  3. Thinking deep and feeling good : cognitive motivation and positive affect

    Schei, Vidar; Rognes, Jørn K.; Mykland, Solfrid

    2002-01-01

    This article examines how individual differences in cognitive motivation and positive affect influence the outcome in integrative dyadic negotiations. The cognitive motivation and positive affect of 64 participants were measured prior to a simulated negotiation. At the individual level, high cognitive motivation strongly improved the outcome for the sellers, but not for the buyers. When cognitive motivation was low, positive affect enhanced the quality of the outcome for the se...

  4. Control system of motivation of personal based on gradient approach

    Doliatovskii Valerii Anastasievich; Doliatovskii Leonid Valerevich; Liss Elina Mikhailovna; Sushchenko Sergei Anatolevich

    2014-01-01

    The concept of management by motivation of workers on the basis of definition of sensitivity of results of work to influence various motives is proved. There by the object of management is identified by a set of indicators of sensitivity which are the limiting sizes defining reaction of workers on motives. By averaging of the given questionnaires the matrix of identification of system of motivation is received. On its basis the decision of direct and return problems of management is possible....

  5. The motivation of English language teachers in Greek secondary schools

    Gheralis-Roussos, Eleni

    2003-01-01

    This thesis addresses a largely uncharted area within language motivation research, which is the motivation of teachers of English as a foreign language (EFL). A qualitative research approach was employed to identify and document different motivational influences affecting EFL teacher motivation. The method of analysis employed in our dataset, which consisted of a series of in-depth qualitative interviews with Greek state EFL and non-EFL teachers, followed the principles of grounded theory. M...

  6. Developing an instrument to assess information technology staff motivation

    Belfo, Fernando Paulo; Sousa, Rui Dinis

    2011-01-01

    Motivation is a key factor that influences individual effort, which, in turn, affects individual and organizational performance. Nevertheless, motivation at work depends on the organizational rewards and incentives, according to individual goals. This paper reports on the development of an instrument designed to measure the motivation of Information Technology people at their workplace. Psychology theories and work addressing intrinsic and extrinsic motivation have been studied. Some motivati...

  7. MOTIVATIONAL FACTORS OF HOSPITAL EMPLOYEES: EVIDENCE FROM NORTH CYPRUS

    Oladotun, Kolawole Julius; Öztüren, Ali

    2013-01-01

    It is important for a service oriented organization to know and understand the motivating needs of its employees since employee motivation is a significant element of health systems‟ performance. Providing a motivating environment for employees becomes more important in the health-care system in our world today. This quantitative study helps to increase our awareness and knowledge of the influencing motivational attributes of a major private hospital staff in North Cyprus. It helps to examine...

  8. THE IMPORTANCE OF PERSONNEL MOTIVATION IN THE MANAGEMENT PROCESS

    NASTASIE MIHAELA – ANDREEA

    2015-01-01

    General research area of this article is the motivation of personnel, essential tool in the management process, and also a component derived from human resource management. In economic activity, personnel motivation should be regarded as an internal process, not as an imperative that can be imposed from outside the economic entity. Managers of economic entities must, first, understand personnel motivation strategies, how they influence positively or negatively the internal motivations of empl...

  9. Understanding Student Motivation

    Seifert, Timothy

    2004-01-01

    Contemporary theories of academic motivation seek to explain students' behaviours in academic settings. While each theory seems to possess its own constructs and unique explanations, these theories are actually closely tied together. In this theoretical study of motivation, several theories of motivation were described and an underlying theme of…

  10. Motivation, Management, and Performance.

    Olmstead, Joseph A.

    There is an increasing interest today in the ways in which human motivation contributes to the productivity and performance of personnel. This early study of motivation management emphasizes that the organizational environment is a principal determinant of the quality of employee motivation. Concrete considerations in the management of motivation…

  11. Explorations in achievement motivation

    Helmreich, Robert L.

    1982-01-01

    Recent research on the nature of achievement motivation is reviewed. A three-factor model of intrinsic motives is presented and related to various criteria of performance, job satisfaction and leisure activities. The relationships between intrinsic and extrinsic motives are discussed. Needed areas for future research are described.

  12. Motivation, démotivation et transmotivation

    Michel Verstraeten

    2012-01-01

    Dans cet article, nous partons des trois facteurs qui construisent la motivation selon Vroom : la valence, l’instrumentalité et l’expectation de soi. Nous décrivons à l’aide d’exemples concrets comment les carences d’un des trois facteurs neutralisent la motivation. En enrichissant quelque peu le modèle, nous développons dans un deuxième temps plusieurs scénarios d’intervention qui permettent d’agir sur la motivation d’un individu à accomplir une action précise. Nous décrivons enfin comment l...

  13. Influence of pre-existing invasive aspergillosis on allo-HSCT outcome: a retrospective EBMT analysis by the Infectious Diseases and Acute Leukemia Working Parties.

    Penack, O; Tridello, G; Hoek, J; Socié, G; Blaise, D; Passweg, J; Chevallier, P; Craddock, C; Milpied, N; Veelken, H; Maertens, J; Ljungman, P; Cornelissen, J; Thiebaut-Bertrand, A; Lioure, B; Michallet, M; Iacobelli, S; Nagler, A; Mohty, M; Cesaro, S

    2016-03-01

    Historically, invasive aspergillosis (IA) has been a major barrier for allogeneic hematopoietic stem cell transplantation (allo-HSCT). The influence of invasive IA on long-term survival and on transplant-related complications has not been investigated in a larger patient cohort under current conditions. Our aim was to analyze the long-term outcome of patients undergoing allo-HSCT with a history of prior IA. We used European Society for Blood and Marrow Transplantation database data of first allo-HSCTs performed between 2005 and 2010 in patients with acute leukemia. One thousand one hundred and fifty patients with data on IA before allo-HSCT were included in the analysis. The median follow-up time was 52.1 months. We found no significant impact of IA on major transplant outcome variables such as overall survival, relapse-free survival, non-relapse mortality, cumulative incidence of acute GvHD grade II-IV, chronic GvHD, pulmonary complications and leukemia relapse. However, we found a trend toward lower overall survival (P=0.078, hazard ratio (HR) (95% confidence interval (CI)): 1.16 (0.98, 1.36)) and higher non-relapse mortality (P=0.150, HR (95% CI): 1.19 (0.94, 1.50)) in allo-HSCT recipients with pre-existing IA. Our data suggest that a history of IA should not generally be a contraindication when considering the performance of allo-HSCT in patients with acute leukemia. PMID:26501769

  14. Knowledge of Nativelike Selections in a L2. The Influence of Exposure, Memory, Age of Onset, and Motivation in Foreign Language and Immersion Settings

    Foster, Pauline; Bolibaugh, Cylcia; Kotula, Agnieszka

    2014-01-01

    It is well established that part of native speaker competence resides in knowledge of conventionalized word combinations, or nativelike selections (NLSs). This article reports an investigation into the receptive NLS knowledge of second language (L2) users of English in both the United Kingdom and Poland and the influence of a variety of…

  15. The Role of Motivational Strategies in English Language Learning: An Investigation into the Relationship between the Student Language Achievement Level at Jilin University and Their Motivational Stra

    YouZiyuan

    2004-01-01

    To motivate students to learn English requires teachers to utilise more motivational strategies in order to improve students' achievements. Thus, the aims of this article are to discuss whether motivational strategies affect students' achievements in respect of the scores and focus on which motivational strategies influenced students' achievements at

  16. [The influence of local and combined acute suppurative Highmore maxillary sinusitis on the serum lactoferrin and interleukin-8 levels in the children].

    Klimova, I I; Zorina, V N; Zorina, R M; Akhtiamov, D R; Zorin, N A

    2014-01-01

    The objective of the present study was to estimate the influence of isolated and combined acute suppurative Highmore maxillary sinusitis on the serum lactoferrin (LF) and interleukin-8 (IL-8) levels in the children. A total of 70 children at the age varying from 4 to 15 years were available for the examination. Twenty of them constituted the control group, 29 presented with acute suppurative Highmore maxillary sinusitis, in 21 cildren this condition was combined with frontitis, ethmoiditis, otitis, and adenoiditis. Serum lactoferrin and interleukin-8 levels were measured by solid phase enzyme-linked immunoassay. It was shown that all the aforementioned forms of rhinosinusitis were associated with a significant increase of the serum LF level, an universal factor inactivating the propagation of bacterial, viral, and fungal pathogens. The level of IL-8 known to activate chemotaxis was increased only in the children presenting with combined forms of suppurative Highmore maxillary sinusitis. It is concluded that this difference can be used for the purpose of dufferential diagnostics of different forms of suppurative maxillary sinusitis. PMID:25588485

  17. The Influence of Autologous Bone Marrow Stem Cell Transplantation on Matrix Metalloproteinases in Patients Treated for Acute ST-Elevation Myocardial Infarction

    Eline Bredal Furenes

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Background. Matrix metalloproteinase-9 (MMP-9, regulated by tissue inhibitor of metalloproteinase-9 (TIMP-1 and the extracellular matrix metalloproteinase inducer (EMMPRIN, contributes to plaque instability. Autologous stem cells from bone marrow (mBMC treatment are suggested to reduce myocardial damage; however, limited data exists on the influence of mBMC on MMPs. Aim. We investigated the influence of mBMC on circulating levels of MMP-9, TIMP-1, and EMMPRIN at different time points in patients included in the randomized Autologous Stem-Cell Transplantation in Acute Myocardial Infarction (ASTAMI trial (n=100. Gene expression analyses were additionally performed. Results. After 2-3 weeks we observed a more pronounced increase in MMP-9 levels in the mBMC group, compared to controls (P=0.030, whereas EMMPRIN levels were reduced from baseline to 2-3 weeks and 3 months in both groups (P<0.0001. Gene expression of both MMP-9 and EMMPRIN was reduced from baseline to 3 months. MMP-9 and EMMPRIN were significantly correlated to myocardial injury (CK: P=0.005 and P<0.001, resp. and infarct size (SPECT: P=0.018 and P=0.008, resp.. Conclusion. The results indicate that the regulation of metalloproteinases is important during AMI, however, limited influenced by mBMC.

  18. Maintaining Learners’Motivation

    SI Zi-han

    2015-01-01

    Foreign language learning is a complex process and its success is determined by a variety of factors. The prime one of them is motivation ,which, as everyone knows, could be controlled by external forces so as to be taken advantage of. Motivation could prompt the learner to have his own learning goals and let him finish his learning task autonomously. All of that shows the im⁃portance of maintaining learners’motivation. This paper will demonstrate not only the definition and the types of motivation, but al⁃so the methods that could be used to stimulate and maintain the motivation.

  19. Influence of a history of arterial hypertension and pretreatment blood pressure on the effect of angiotensin converting enzyme inhibition after acute myocardial infarction. Trandolapril Cardiac Evaluation Study

    Gustafsson, F; Køber, L; Torp-Pedersen, C;

    1998-01-01

    inhibition after AMI complicated by left ventricular dysfunction may be of particular importance in patients with a history of arterial hypertension or a relatively high pretreatment blood pressure. However, further investigations are necessary to establish the clinical impact of these results.......OBJECTIVE: To evaluate the influence of a history of arterial hypertension and the level of pretreatment blood pressure on the efficacy of the angiotensin converting enzyme (ACE) inhibitor trandolapril on mortality and morbidity in patients with acute myocardial infarction (AMI) and left...... broad spectrum of potential confounders. Also, benefit from ACE inhibition increased with increasing blood pressure at the time of randomization. Significant interactions between benefit from ACE inhibition and hypertension history, and systolic and diastolic blood pressure were found. CONCLUSION: ACE...

  20. Influence of distance from home to invasive centre on invasive treatment after acute coronary syndrome: a nationwide study of 24 910 patients

    Hvelplund, Anders; Galatius, Søren; Madsen, Mette;

    2011-01-01

    Objective To investigate whether distance from a patient's home to the nearest invasive centre influenced the invasive treatment strategy in acute coronary syndrome (ACS). Methods This was an observational cohort study using nationwide registries involving 24 910 patients admitted with ACS (median...... age 67, range 30-90 years). All persons were grouped in tertiles according to the distance from their residence to the invasive centre. Cox proportional hazard models were applied to estimate the differences in coronary angiography and revascularisation rate within 60 days of admission...... according to the distance to the centre. The end points were coronary angiography and subsequent revascularisation. Results Of 24 910 patients with a first ACS, 33% resided 64 km away. The incidence of coronary angiography was 68% for long distance versus 77% for short distance (p...

  1. RESEARCH ON HUMAN RESOURCES MOTIVATION AND SATISFACTION

    Zoltan-Bela FARKAS

    2014-06-01

    Full Text Available Many research studies on the human resources performance of the educational system have proved that pupils/students’ educational success depends, to a high degree, on the level of human resource motivation, as well as on their degree of professional satisfaction. Teachers’ who show a high level of motivation, both intrinsic and extrinsic, invest more into their activity, are more creative and more efficient in problem solving. The paper debates the results of an empirical study regarding the influence of pre-university teachers’ motivation and satisfaction regarding the general work conditions on their work performance by measuring the present motivation and satisfaction level. Furthermore, the determinant factors of their satisfaction with the work place are determined and analyzed. Finally, based on the statistical data process we will conclude and debate on the research hypothesis validation and the empirical model related to motivation – satisfaction – performance interdependences.

  2. Occupational safety motivation

    Pedersen, Louise; Kines, Pete

    2010-01-01

    Background: Motivation is one of the most important factors for safety behaviour and for implementing change in general. However, theoretical and psychometric studies of safety performance have traditionally treated safety motivation, safety compliance and safety participation unidimensionally. At...... the same time many motivation questionnaire items are seldom founded on theory and/or do not account for the theories’ ontological and epistemological differences, e.g. of how knowledge, attitude and action are related. Present questionnaire items tap into occupational safety motivation in asking...... whether or not respondents ‘are’ motivated and whether they feel that safety is important or worthwhile. Another important aspect is ‘what’ motivates workers to comply to and participate in safety. The aim of this article is to introduce a new theory-based occupational safety motivation scale which is...

  3. Motivating Workers in Construction

    Jason E. Barg

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available The study of the motivation of construction workers is limited to a relatively small body of knowledge. Although there is considerable research available regarding motivation and productivity, few researchers have provided a comprehensive analysis on the motivation of construction workers. The research stated that productivity in construction has not improved compared to other industry sectors such as manufacturing. This trend has been echoed in publications throughout the past five decades, and suggested that motivation is one of the key factors impacting productivity. This paper offers a comprehensive review of the published work that directly links the key words—construction and motivation. The findings have been presented in five themes, that is, motivation models, environment and culture, incentives and empowerment, and worker management. This paper concludes with two methods suggested by previous researchers to improve motivation of construction workers: (1 relevant worker incentives (intrinsic or extrinsic and (2 improved management practices, specifically regarding communication with workers.

  4. The Relations between Parenting and Adolescent Motivation

    Hoang, Thienhuong N.

    2007-01-01

    There are many factors that influence the academic success and motivation of students. Social cognitive theory contends that individuals learn and perform based upon a triadic reciprocality of personal factors, behavior, and the environment. Personal factors such as beliefs, behaviors, and the environment equally influence one another. Existing…

  5. The Influence of Motivational Factors on the Romanian Passenger Car Consumer Behavior after the Start of the Current Economic Crisis – an Explorative Study

    Madalina ARITON (BALAU)

    2012-01-01

    Supply chain management in Albania has received little attention in the recent literature. Many companies now realize that actions taken by one member of the chain can influence the profitability of all others in the chain. Companies are increasingly thinking in terms of competing as part of a supply chain against other supply chains, rather than as a single firm against other individual firms. The aim of the paper is to investigate the current situation of supply chain management in Albania ...

  6. Influence of gender on short- and long-term mortality after acute myocardial infarction. TRACE study group

    Køber, L; Torp-Pedersen, C; Ottesen, M; Rasmussen, S; Lessing, M; Skagen, K

    1996-01-01

    The aim of this study was to assess differences in short- and long-term mortality between male and female patients with acute myocardial infarction (AMI). The study population consisted of 6,676 consecutive patients admitted alive with an enzyme-confirmed AMI to 27 Danish hospitals from 1990 to...... 1992. Five patients were excluded because of missing information. Female patients (n = 2,170) were on average 5 years older than male patients (n = 4,501, p <0.001), had lower body mass index, and more often had diabetes, hypertension, and congestive heart failure. Left ventricular systolic function...... was the same for men and women. Women received thrombolytic therapy less often. The 1-year mortality for female patients was 28 +/- 1% and for men 21 +/- 1% (p <0.001). The unadjusted risk ratio associated with male gender in a proportional-hazards model was 0.76 (95% confidence intervals [CI] 0.70 to...

  7. Analysis of factors influencing the overall effect of racecadotril on childhood acute diarrhea. Results from a real-world and post-authorization surveillance study in Venezuela

    Jose Chacón

    2010-06-01

    Full Text Available Jose ChacónOn behalf of the Racecadotril Post-authorization Record Group; Centro Clinico Profesional Caracas, Caracas, VenezuelaAbstract: Drug efficacy might differ from clinical trial results when performed in clinical daily conditions. Therefore, it is mandatory to conduct trials about effectiveness to improve external validity. This post-authorization, open-label, noncontrolled, prospective, multicenter, observational, and naturalistic trial was designed to search for factors influencing the racecadotril overall effect on childhood acute watery diarrhea in a real-world setting of Venezuela. There were 3,873 children with acute watery diarrhea treated with racecadotril, an enkephalin breakdown blocker plus oral rehydration therapy by 97 pediatricians. Evaluations were carried out daily until emission of two consecutive formed stools or absence of watery bowel movements for 24 hours. The primary end-point was time-to-relief, defined as the time from first racecadotril dose to the last watery bowel movement time. Age, gender, nursing type, nursing status during diarrhea, diarrhea severity, and co-medication were considered as factors in the statistical analysis. The primary end-point was evaluated by factors using UNIANOVA, and post-hoc tests were done. A multiple regression analysis was carried out to identify factors affecting drug performance, racecadotril effectiveness and tolerability overall assessment was searched by physicians and patients, and inter-observer agreement was evaluated by kappa statistics. The mean time-to-relief was 18.5 ± 12.5 hours [95% confidence interval 17.9–19.0] and the diarrhea severity was the only variable with significant and independent weight on racecadotril effectiveness explaining 23% of time-to-relief variance, but even in severe diarrhea cases this time was less than 24 hours. High agreement about satisfactory perception on effectiveness and tolerability was reached among physicians and patients. In

  8. Student Motivation to Study Abroad and Their Intercultural Development

    Anderson, Philip H.; Hubbard, Ann; Lawton, Leigh

    2015-01-01

    To date, student motivation for electing to study abroad has not been incorporated into study abroad research as a potential factor influencing intercultural development. The authors of this study hypothesize that a student's motivation for studying abroad plays an important role in influencing the program a student selects and in determining what…

  9. Motivation to Teach: The Case of Arab Teachers in Israel

    Husny Arar, Khalid; Massry-Herzllah, Asmahan

    2016-01-01

    This paper describes an attempt to identify factors influencing teachers' motivation in the Arab education system. In-depth interviews with 10 school principals, 15 teachers and 3 counsellors, yielded three themes influencing Arab teachers' motivation: (1) Arab culture, (2) the school climate and (3) government policies. Arab teachers try to meet…

  10. How do Epistemological Beliefs Affect Training Motivation?

    Ingrid Molan; Eva Boštjančič

    2014-01-01

    Studies show that human resources development through workplace training is one of the major investments in the workforce in today’s globalized and challenging market. As training motivation influences employees’ preparation for the workplace training, their respond to the programme, their learning outcome, their performance levels, and use of acquired knowledge and skills in their workplace it seems logical to investigate and determine antecedents of training motivation. The aim of this stud...

  11. How to Motivate Employees?

    Andreja Kušar

    2014-02-01

    Full Text Available Research Question (RQ: How to motivate employees and keep them motivated? Purpose: The purpose of this study is to find out what motivates employees and what motivates employees for work. Method: The results of the questionnaire are graphically presented and described. Random sampling was utilized that included participants from various professional areas and demographic characteristics. The results showed a relationship between individual motivational factors related to education, age and type of employment. All of the questions were closed - type questions except for the last question, which was an open question, in which the respondents answered in their own words. Questions were analyzed using frequency analysis of individual responses. Pearson's Chi - squared test, Spearman's rank correlation and Fisher’s Exact test was made using R Commander. Results: The research findings showed which motivational factors motivate employees the most. These are especially non - material motivational factors, such as good relationships, jobs with challenges, advancement opportunities, clear instructions, good work conditions, company reputation, etc. Organization: The study will help managers understand their role in motivating employees as well as the types of motivational factors. Society: The research shows how individuals are motivated. Originality: Certain motivators in the study are ranked differently than was found in previous literature. Most probably the reason is that the respondents in this study favored intangible motivators (good relations with leadership and their colleagues, good working conditions, etc.. Limitations/Future Research: The limitation of this study was that the sample included employees of different ages, gender and years of service in various organizations. To enhance the study and to find similar results as in previous literature, more questions should have been asked as well as increasing the sample size.

  12. Inherited coding variants at the CDKN2A locus influence susceptibility to acute lymphoblastic leukaemia in children

    Xu, Heng; Zhang, Hui; Yang, Wenjian;

    2015-01-01

    of haematopoietic progenitor cells, and is preferentially retained in ALL tumour cells. Resequencing the CDKN2A-CDKN2B locus in 2,407 childhood ALL cases reveals 19 additional putative functional germline variants. These results provide direct functional evidence for the influence of inherited...

  13. Important motivators for buying green products

    Kamyar Kianpour

    2014-12-01

    Full Text Available Purpose: To addresses the main motivators that influence customers to buy green products as well as well as profiling the decisions that shape their behavior. Design/methodology/approach: The authors have conducted a review of the major research related to consumers to identify motivational factors, to draw conclusions about their impact on buying green products.   Factor analysis is conducted on the collected data to find the underlying factors that motivate consumers to buy green products and most importantly motivational factors were identified by T test. Findings: Results show that 1 Environmental Concern, Perceived Consumer Effectiveness, Consumer Knowledge 2 Laws and regulation and 3 Promotional Tools’ were the most important of motivators. Practical implications: The results could help companies, authorities, governments, producers, sellers to know what motivate customers to buy green products and persuade the customers for buying them. Social implications: Furthermore this research will indirectly contribute to increase the customers and public intention for buying green products which in turn will help to solve some of environmental issues and make less environmental side effect caused by products. It is notable that motivated consumers for buying green product will finally expect to have healthy life and clean environment which leads to a healthy and clean society. Originality/value: This article contributes to the literature on the customers’ intention for buying green products by filling the gap in the concrete issues of the customers’ motivation.

  14. Acute Bronchitis

    ... of bronchitis: acute and chronic. Most cases of acute bronchitis get better within several days. But your cough ... that cause colds and the flu often cause acute bronchitis. These viruses spread through the air when people ...

  15. The influence of meteorological and geomagnetic factors on acute myocardial infarction and brain stroke in Moscow, Russia

    Shaposhnikov, Dmitry; Revich, Boris; Gurfinkel, Yuri; Naumova, Elena

    2014-07-01

    Evidence of the impact of air temperature and pressure on cardiovascular morbidity is still quite limited and controversial, and even less is known about the potential influence of geomagnetic activity. The objective of this study was to assess impacts of air temperature, barometric pressure and geomagnetic activity on hospitalizations with myocardial infarctions and brain strokes. We studied 2,833 myocardial infarctions and 1,096 brain strokes registered in two Moscow hospitals between 1992 and 2005. Daily event rates were linked with meteorological and geomagnetic conditions, using generalized linear model with controls for day of the week, seasonal and long-term trends. The number of myocardial infarctions decreased with temperature, displayed a U-shaped relationship with pressure and variations in pressure, and increased with geomagnetic activity. The number of strokes increased with temperature, daily temperature range and geomagnetic activity. Detrimental effects on strokes of low pressure and falling pressure were observed. Relative risks of infarctions and strokes during geomagnetic storms were 1.29 (95 % CI 1.19-1.40) and 1.25 (1.10-1.42), respectively. The number of strokes doubled during cold spells. The influence of barometric pressure on hospitalizations was relatively greater than the influence of geomagnetic activity, and the influence of temperature was greater than the influence of pressure. Brain strokes were more sensitive to inclement weather than myocardial infarctions. This paper provides quantitative estimates of the expected increases in hospital admissions on the worst days and can help to develop preventive health plans for cardiovascular diseases.

  16. Motivation, démotivation et transmotivation

    Michel Verstraeten

    2011-12-01

    Full Text Available Dans cet article, nous partons des trois facteurs qui construisent la motivation selon Vroom : la valence, l’instrumentalité et l’expectation de soi. Nous décrivons à l’aide d’exemples concrets comment les carences d’un des trois facteurs neutralisent la motivation. En enrichissant quelque peu le modèle, nous développons dans un deuxième temps plusieurs scénarios d’intervention qui permettent d’agir sur la motivation d’un individu à accomplir une action précise. Nous décrivons enfin comment le contexte organisationnel des services publics favorise la « transmotivation », c’est-à-dire le déplacement d’un schéma de motivation initial utile pour l’organisation vers un schéma de motivation sans intérêt ou nuisible pour celle-ci.

  17. Impact of a motivated performance task on autonomic and hemodynamic cardiovascular reactivity.

    May, Ross W; Sanchez-Gonzalez, Marcos A; Seibert, Gregory S; Samaan, John S; Fincham, Frank D

    2016-05-01

    Motivated performance (MP) tasks include mental stressors characterized by a high degree of motivation, individual engagement, and sympathetic overstimulation. It is therefore important to document the independent influence of motivation apart from engagement on markers of cardiovascular autonomic modulation, including vasomotor tone (low-frequency systolic blood pressure, LFSBP), blood pressure homeostasis (baroreflex sensitivity, BRS), and myocardial oxygen consumption (rate pressure product, RPP). Accordingly, an arithmetic task (AT) was used to manipulate motivation to evaluate its impact on cardiovascular reactivity. Forty-two young adults (Mage = 20.21 years, SD = 2.09) qualified for the study. After a 10-min resting period, electrocardiogram and finger beat-to-beat blood pressure were recorded at three distinct 5-min stages: baseline (BASE), AT, and recovery (REC). Prior to AT initiation, participants were randomized into two groups based on directions stating that the AT task was either designed to be entertaining and fun (low MP, LMP) or a test diagnostic of one's intelligence (high MP, HMP). Independent of task engagement ratings, motivation to complete the AT task as well as solution success was significantly greater in the HMP than the LMP condition. Regarding physiological parameters, two (LMP vs. HMP) × three (BASE, AT, REC) repeated measures ANOVAs revealed no significant baseline differences but a significant higher order interaction indicating that in comparison to LMP, individuals in the HMP condition had significantly higher vasomotor tone and myocardial oxygen consumption but not BRS. Greater motivation during a performance task may provide the substrate for the development of adverse cardiovascular events by increasing sympathetic activity and ultimately increasing myocardial oxygen demand which could lead to acute coronary syndromes. PMID:27295199

  18. Empathy: a motivated account.

    Zaki, Jamil

    2014-11-01

    Empathy features a tension between automaticity and context dependency. On the one hand, people often take on each other's internal states reflexively and outside of awareness. On the other hand, empathy shifts with characteristics of empathizers and situations. These 2 characteristics of empathy can be reconciled by acknowledging the key role of motivation in driving people to avoid or approach engagement with others' emotions. In particular, at least 3 phenomena-suffering, material costs, and interference with competition-motivate people to avoid empathy, and at least 3 phenomena-positive affect, affiliation, and social desirability-motivate them to approach empathy. Would-be empathizers carry out these motives through regulatory strategies including situation selection, attentional modulation, and appraisal, which alter the course of empathic episodes. Interdisciplinary evidence highlights the motivated nature of empathy, and a motivated model holds wide-ranging implications for basic theory, models of psychiatric illness, and intervention efforts to maximize empathy. PMID:25347133

  19. Acute pulmonary and hematological effects of two types of particle surrogates are influenced by their elemental composition

    Several epidemiological studies have consistently demonstrated significant associations between ambient levels of particulate matter and lung injury and cardiovascular events with increased morbidity and mortality. Particle surrogates (PS), such as residual oil fly ash (ROFA), have been widely used in experimental studies aimed at characterizing the mechanisms of particle toxicity. Since PS composition varies depending on its source, studies with different types of PS may provide clues about the relative toxicity of the components generated by high-temperature combustion process. In this work, we have studied the effects of nasal instillation of increasing doses of different PS in mice: saline, carbon, and two types of particle surrogates. PS type A (PSA) was the ROFA collected from the waste incinerator of our university hospital; PS type B (PSB) was collected from the electrostatic precipitator of a large steel company and thus had an elevated metal content. After 24 h, we analyzed hematological parameters, fibrinogen, bronchoalveolar lavage, bone marrow, and pulmonary histology. Nasal instillation of the two types of PS-induced leucopenia. PSB elicited a greater elevation of plasma fibrinogen levels. Bone marrow and pulmonary inflammatory changes were more intense for PSA. We concluded that the PS composition modulates acute inflammatory changes more significantly than the mass for these two types of PS

  20. Influence of acute irradiation on induction of chromosome aberrations in cultured cells of the fish Ameca splendens

    There is very little published information on the genetic and cytogenetic responses of fish to radiation. Since a large proportion of the low-level waste arising from the nuclear power industry is discharged to aquatic environments, this constitutes a significant deficiency in our knowledge. While it is not expected that fish populations are seriously at risk, confirmatory evidence would be useful and would also provide a basis for generalizations from the much greater body of information available for mammalian systems. A primary cell culture has been obtained from pooled embryonic tissue of the small tropical fish Ameca splendens. This material has two advantages from the point of view of cytogenetic studies: the diploid chromosome complement is 26, and the chromosomes are all fairly large and most have a well defined centromere. The spectrum of aberrations found in these cells after irradiation with 60Co γ rays is similar to that found in irradiated mammalian cells in culture, and an acute dose-response curve has been obtained. (author)

  1. Factors of influence on acute skin toxicity of breast cancer patients treated with standard three-dimensional conformal radiotherapy (3D-CRT) after breast conserving surgery (BCS)

    Standard 3D-CRT after BCS may cause skin toxicity with a wide range of intensity including acute effects like erythema or late effects. In order to reduce these side effects it is mandatory to identify potential factors of influence in breast cancer patients undergoing standard three-dimensional conformal radiation therapy (3D-CRT) of the breast and modern systemic therapy. Between 2006 and 2010 a total of 211 breast cancer patients (median age 52,4 years, range 24–77) after BCS consecutively treated in our institution with 3D-CRT (50 Gy whole breast photon radiotherapy followed by 16 Gy electron boost to the tumorbed) were evaluated with special focus on documented skin toxicity at the end of the 50 Gy-course. Standardized photodocumentation of the treated breast was done in each patient lying on the linac table with arms elevated. Skin toxicity was documented according to the common toxicity criteria (CTC)-score. Potential influencing factors were classified in three groups: patient-specific (smoking, age, breast size, body mass index = BMI, allergies), tumor-specific (tumorsize) and treatment-specific factors (antihormonal therapy with tamoxifen or aromatase inhibitors, chemotherapy). Uni- and multivariate statistical analyses were done using IBM SPSS version 19. After 50 Gy 3D-CRT to the whole breast 28.9% of all 211 patients had no erythema, 62.2% showed erythema grade 1 (G1) and 8.5% erythema grade 2. None of the patients had grade 3/4 (G3/4) erythema. In univariate analyses a significant influence or trend on the development of acute skin toxicities (erythema G0 versus G1 versus G2) was observed for larger breast volumes (p=0,004), smoking during radiation therapy (p=0,064) and absence of allergies (p=0,014) as well as larger tumorsize (p=0,009) and antihormonal therapy (p=0.005). Neither patient age, BMI nor choice of chemotherapy showed any significant effect on higher grade toxicity. In the multivariate analysis, factors associated with higher grade

  2. Motivation hos ledige

    Schytte, Frederik J.J; Knudsen, Rasmus Kristoffer; Kappel, Kevin Bossen; Walander-Andersen, Benjamin

    2014-01-01

    This study examines the motivation of the unemployed. Émile Durkheim and Abraham Maslow’s theories are used to describe the motivation of the unemployed along with reforms dating from 1994 to 2013. In the second part of the study, it tries to analyze the motivation of the unemployed by using Durkheim and Maslows’ theories while combining them with the aforementioned reforms. The third part of the study discusses the intentions of the danish government for implementing new reforms about unempl...

  3. Performance management, motivation.

    Lichý, Jakub

    2012-01-01

    This bachelor work deals with the question of worker motivation and its effect on the labour performance of employees. This work is divided into two parts – the literature research and the proper work. The literature research is based on studying of the scientific literature and my own knowledge and it presents basic terms as the human resource management, the labour performance and efficiency, motivation, stimulation, stimulation factors and motivational programme. The caracteristic of m...

  4. Motivation and will

    Stella Maris Vásquez

    2009-01-01

    The paper analyzes the relationship between motivation and volitional processes as described by current motivation theories. The root of the separation between both moments of behavioris traced back to Tetens and Kant’s threefold view of the mind. Sensory perception is reduced to feeling and the will to energy without a proper object. The history of this conception isoutlined. Nuttin’s motivation theory is presented as an alternative to the limitations of other contemporary theories. Some edu...

  5. Second Language Learning Motivation

    Alvyda Liuolienė; Regina Metiūnienė

    2011-01-01

    The paper deals with the peculiarities of ESP learning motivation. The meaning of motivation and three main approaches to motivational psychology: expectancy-value theory, goal-directed theory and the self-determination theory are presented, two distinct orientations for learning a language: integrative and instrumental are described in the paper. The importance of needs analysis to ESP learning is stressed and the main conditions (interest in the topic and activity; relevance to the students...

  6. PROBLEMS OF PERSONAL MOTIVATION

    Pakdel, Elnaz

    2013-01-01

    The concept of motivation is always considered in human societies especially for researchers and experts of education. Especially, in recent decades, many theorists and researchers in Educational Psychology have been put validity and particular role for motivational and psychological patterns on educational behaviors. So, at this article, we explain historical process of concept of motivation; compare it to goal and then providing the process of social, psychological and educational motivatio...

  7. Motivation as a leadership

    Lundáková, Sára

    2014-01-01

    This bachelor thesis concerns about motivation as the most efficient way of leadership given that a manager has a possibility to achieve a company's goals through its employees. A manager needs to have knowledge about employees, their attitudes, interests and by the use of motivational tools incite employees to perform better. The aim of this thesis is to find out to what extent are managers concerned about the motivation of their subordinates and what kinds of incentives they use the most...

  8. Employee motivation and benefits

    Březíková, Tereza

    2009-01-01

    The topic of my bachelor's thesis is the employee motivation and benefits. The thesis is divided in two parts, a theoretical one and a practical one. The theoretical part deals with the theory of motivation and individual employee benefits. The practical part describes employee benefits in ČSOB, where I did my research by questionnaires that were filled in by employees from different departments of ČSOB. These employees answered questions about their work motivation and benefits. The resultts...

  9. Motivation and remuneration

    SOUKUP, Miloslav

    2012-01-01

    The aim of this bachelor work is analysis of remuneration and motivation in travel agencies and companies, where is established performance pay system for self-employed. Work consists of literature review and practical part. Literature review contains information about motivation and remuneration. Practical part includes information about analyzed companies, analysis remuneration and motivation, evaluation analyzed companies and conceiving performance pay system, in which are participants sel...

  10. Motivation as a leadership

    Holeček, Petr

    2013-01-01

    The thesis deals with the motivation as a manner of leadership of people. I chose this topic because I have worked in a company which employs workers with trade certificate for 8 years. This form of employment shows certain differences against the ordinary employment from the perspective of motivation. The aim of this work is to find out which importance the managers give to the motivational stimulus in the process of leadership of people. For the purposes of evaluation the guided interview w...

  11. Employee motivation and performance

    akah, ndang william

    2010-01-01

    The subject matter of this research; employee motivation and performance seeks to look at how best employees can be motivated in order to achieve high performance within a company or organization. Managers and entrepreneurs must ensure that companies or organizations have a competent personnel that is capable to handle this task. This takes us to the problem question of this research “why is not a sufficient motivation for high performance?” This therefore establishes the fact that money is f...

  12. Work motivation in organization

    Lenártová, Jana

    2012-01-01

    The dissertation deals with work motivation in the studied organization. The main objective of this thesis is to examine the level of existing incentive program at ZZN Pelhřimov a.s., including a proposal for its improvement. Questionnaire survey technique was used to determine the level of motivation in the company. The theoretical background of motivation and basic concepts associated with it are based on professional literature in the first part of this work. Individual theories of mot...

  13. Motives for SMS Use

    Peters, Oscar; Almekinders, Johan; Buren, van, Anne; Snippers, Roy; Wessels, Jacqueline

    2003-01-01

    This study was designed to identify, from a uses-and-gratifications point of view, the motives that young people in the age of 12 to 25 have for using SMS. The study also aimed to assess whether these SMS motives are related to age, gender, current education, mobile phone experience, SMS experience and SMS use. We located four types of motives for using SMS: entertainment, social interaction, immediate access, and efficiency (in time). Immediate access and social interaction were most salient...

  14. Motivation og Tillidsbaseret ledelse

    Jupin, Lasse

    2014-01-01

    This thesis deals with motivation and trust-based management in the workplace. The financial incentive no longer seems to be enough to motivate people to work. This is why it is important to explore how else human motivation can be affected. Much research points to the importance of employee motivation in the context of achieving positive effects. The concept of trust is popular these days and used by more and more leaders. Trust-based management is also said to ensure positive results in the...

  15. Do monetary rewards crowd out intrinsic motivations of volunteers? Some empirical evidence for Italian volunteers

    Damiano Fiorillo

    2009-01-01

    The paper studies the determinants of regular volunteering departing from previous literature on extrinsic and intrinsic motivations. It contributes to the literature investigating the role of monetary rewards to influence intrinsic motivation. Using a simple framework that allows me to study the effect of monetary rewards on intrinsic motivation, the paper shows, controlling for endogenous bias, that monetary rewards crowd-out intrinsic motivation.

  16. Motivating the Student: Sport Education Can Be a Framework for Success

    Perlman, Dana

    2014-01-01

    The focus on student motivation is an ever evolving and interesting area within physical education. Although motivation can be important, teachers today face students who are less motivated, and often implement teaching approaches or instructional models that do not positively influence student motivation. A model of instruction that has been…

  17. Influence of Double-Strand Break Repair on Radiation Therapy-Induced Acute Skin Reactions in Breast Cancer Patients

    Purpose: Curative radiation therapy (RT)-induced toxicity poses strong limitations for efficient RT and worsens the quality of life. The parameter that explains when and to what extent normal tissue toxicity in RT evolves would be of clinical relevance because of its predictive value and may provide an opportunity for personalized treatment approach. Methods and Materials: DNA double-strand breaks and repair were analyzed by microscopic γ-H2AX foci analysis in peripheral lymphocytes from 38 healthy donors and 80 breast cancer patients before RT, a 2 Gy challenge dose of x-ray exposed in vitro. Results: The actual damage (AD) at 0.25, 3, and 6 hours and percentage residual damage (PRD) at 3 and 6 hours were used as parameters to measure cellular radiosensitivity and correlated with RT-induced acute skin reactions in patients stratified as non-overresponders (NOR) (Radiation Therapy Oncology Group [RTOG] grade <2) and overresponders (OR) (RTOG grade ≥2). The results indicated that the basal and induced (at 0.25 and 3 hours) γ-H2AX foci numbers were nonsignificant (P>.05) between healthy control donors and the NOR and OR groups, whereas it was significant between ORs and healthy donors at 6 hours (P<.001). There was a significantly higher PRD in OR versus NOR (P<.05), OR versus healthy donors (P<.001) and NOR versus healthy donors (P<.01), supported further by the trend analysis (r=.2392; P=.0326 at 6 hours). Conclusions: Our findings strongly suggest that the measurement of PRD by performing γ-H2AX foci analysis has the potential to be developed into a clinically useful predictive assay

  18. Control system of motivation of personal based on gradient approach

    Doliatovskii Valerii Anastasievich

    2014-07-01

    Full Text Available The concept of management by motivation of workers on the basis of definition of sensitivity of results of work to influence various motives is proved. There by the object of management is identified by a set of indicators of sensitivity which are the limiting sizes defining reaction of workers on motives. By averaging of the given questionnaires the matrix of identification of system of motivation is received. On its basis the decision of direct and return problems of management is possible. Experimental data about results of application are led to a choice of system of motivation based on gradient the approach.

  19. THE IMPORTANCE OF PERSONNEL MOTIVATION IN THE MANAGEMENT PROCESS

    NĂSTASIE MIHAELA – ANDREEA

    2015-07-01

    Full Text Available General research area of this article is the motivation of personnel, essential tool in the management process, and also a component derived from human resource management. In economic activity, personnel motivation should be regarded as an internal process, not as an imperative that can be imposed from outside the economic entity. Managers of economic entities must, first, understand personnel motivation strategies, how they influence positively or negatively the internal motivations of employees. Personnel motivation by itself attracts an end, just as profitable and moral, individual and social welfare making.

  20. The Role of Client Motivation in Workplace Rehabilitation

    Amanda Mabin

    2014-06-01

    Full Text Available Motivation has been recognised as an essential component in managing medical issues, adjusting to physical disability, cognitive impairment, returning to work, and improving psychosocial functioning (Wagner & McMahon, 2004.  This research explores the role of client motivation in workplace rehabilitation and demonstrates the implications for rehabilitation counselling practice. The research focuses on understanding the concept of motivation, reasons for its presence or absence, and why motivation is important to the workplace rehabilitation process. This study also explores significant influencing factors that may be utilised to increase motivation and promote more successful return to work outcomes, as well as considering the implications for rehabilitation practice and research.

  1. STAFFS MOTIVATIONAL IN KNOWLEDGE TRANSFER BEHAVIOUR

    Saide

    2016-06-01

    Full Text Available Previous have highlighted knowledge transfer behaviour (KTB for an increase organization performance, however an obstacle from the perspective among staffs still exists. The problem is still difficult because staffs will not share their knowledge as they thinking their knowledge is important. This paper investigated factors of staffs motivational that influence KTB among staffs in Riau Province of Indonesia. The survey 400 respondents were used, 325 were returned, and 75 were not returned. Likert and smart PLS to confirmation the conceptual model. This paper conclude factors that reward, trust, and an enjoyment helping colleagues of staffs motivation are factors which influencing the KTB. The results and conclusions are discussed.

  2. FORMS AND MOTIVATIONS OF FOREIGN DIRECT INVESTMENT

    Maria-Ramona SÂRBU

    2014-04-01

    Full Text Available This study proposes the identification of forms of Foreign Direct Investment (FDI and analyzes factors influencing FDI motivation. Designing a coherent program to encourage foreign direct investment is based on knowledge of the factors that determine international companies to resort to this type of development: these companies resort to foreign direct investment if they have ownership advantages and internationalization, while another country has locational advantages to the company's home country. Thus, identifying the factors that influence the motivation of FDI is important both at the microeconomic level, local, local authorities and macroeconomic, national, government to develop measures for multiplying FDI .

  3. Motivating crowding theory - opening the black box of intrinsic motivation

    Jacobsen, Christian Bøtcher

    2010-01-01

    . Studies have found support for the motivation crowding claim, but have neglected intrinsic motivation. This study opens the black box of intrinsic motivation and finds a meaningful distinction between task motivation and public service motivation. Among 2,772 physiotherapists in the Danish public sector...

  4. Mange unge mangler motivation

    Hutters, Camilla; Katznelson, Noemi

    2012-01-01

    Motivation er altafgørende for unges uddannelseschancer. Nyt forskningsprojekt skal gøre os klogere på, hvad der fremmer unges lyst til læring.......Motivation er altafgørende for unges uddannelseschancer. Nyt forskningsprojekt skal gøre os klogere på, hvad der fremmer unges lyst til læring....

  5. Motivational Goal Bracketing

    Nafziger, Julia; Koch, Alexander

    It is a puzzle why people often evaluate consequences of choices separately (narrow bracketing) rather than jointly (broad bracketing). We study the hypothesis that a present-biased individual, who faces two tasks, may bracket his goals narrowly for motivational reasons. Goals motivate because th...

  6. Guided Reading and Motivation

    Hauptman, Allyson L.

    2012-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to determine the relationship between Guided Reading and student motivation to read across fourth, fifth, and sixth grades. The study defined literacy motivation as: (a) task value; (b) self-perceived competence; (c) students' perceptions of the Guided Reading format. Factor analysis and repeated measures ANOVAs were…

  7. What is this Motivation?

    Waters, T. R.

    1971-01-01

    Maslow's Hierarchial Theory, Mcgregor's X & Y Theory, and Hertsberg's Hygiene Theory all based on motivation, are examined as to their effectiveness to increase worker production. The author feels management should not concentrate on motivation and offers his own theory, Spiral Web Theory, to help increase employee productiveness. (RB)

  8. Can Goals Motivate Students?

    Usher, Alexandra; Kober, Nancy

    2012-01-01

    This is the third in a series of six papers by the Center on Education Policy exploring issues related to students' motivation to learn. This paper examines various programs that use test performance or postsecondary attendance as motivational goals and the effects of these goals on students. How do policies surrounding assessments and college…

  9. Measuring Adolescent Science Motivation

    Schumm, Maximiliane F.; Bogner, Franz X.

    2016-01-01

    To monitor science motivation, 232 tenth graders of the college preparatory level ("Gymnasium") completed the Science Motivation Questionnaire II (SMQ-II). Additionally, personality data were collected using a 10-item version of the Big Five Inventory. A subsequent exploratory factor analysis based on the eigenvalue-greater-than-one…

  10. Driver Behavior and Motivation.

    Thomas, Patricia

    School bus driver behavior and motivation are continuing concerns for leaders/administrators in the field of transportation. Motivation begins with selection of a potential new driver. Drivers must like children and be patient, loyal, and punctual. The applicant's background must be verified, in view of the national concern for child safety.…

  11. Motivation techniques for supervision

    Gray, N. D.

    1974-01-01

    Guide has been published which deals with various aspects of employee motivation. Training methods are designed to improve communication between supervisors and subordinates, to create feeling of achievement and recognition for every employee, and to retain personnel confidence in spite of some negative motivators. End result of training is reduction or prevention of errors.

  12. Children's Theories of Motivation

    Gurland, Suzanne T.; Glowacky, Victoria C.

    2011-01-01

    To investigate children's theories of motivation, we asked 166 children (8-12 years of age) to rate the effect of various motivational strategies on task interest, over the short and long terms, in activities described as appealing or unappealing. Children viewed the rewards strategy as resulting in greatest interest except when implemented over…

  13. Motivated Reinforcement Learning

    Maher, Mary Lou

    2009-01-01

    Motivated learning is a research field in artificial intelligence and cognitive modelling. This book describes how motivated reinforcement learning agents can be used in computer games for the design of non-player characters that can adapt their behaviour in response to unexpected changes in their environment

  14. Motivation in medical students

    Kusurkar, R.A.

    2012-01-01

    Introduction The importance of motivation in learning behaviour and education is well-researched and proven in general education, but much less in medical education. There is sometimes focus on increasing the quantity of motivation, but the how and why need more evidence. The aims of this thesis wer

  15. Motives for SMS Use

    Peters, Oscar; Almekinders, Johan; Buren, van Ruud; Snippers, Roy; Wessels, Jacqueline

    2003-01-01

    This study was designed to identify, from a uses-and-gratifications point of view, the motives that young people in the age of 12 to 25 have for using SMS. The study also aimed to assess whether these SMS motives are related to age, gender, current education, mobile phone experience, SMS experience

  16. Influence of dietary patterns on the risk of acute myocardial infarction in China population: the INTERHEART China study

    GUO Jin; LI Wei; WANG Yang; CHEN Tao; Koon Teo; LIU Li-sheng

    2013-01-01

    Background Some dietary patterns are risk factors for acute myocardial infarction (AMI).Chinese traditional food and habits vary from other cultures.The present study determined whether different dietary patterns were associated with AMI in Chinese people.Methods We conducted a case-control study.There were 1312 cases of first AMI and 2235 control subjects who did not have previous angina,diabetes mellitus,hypertension or stroke.Controls were matched to cases on age and gender.Diet was measured with a validated,19 item food frequency questionnaire.We identified three major dietary patterns using factor analysis:vitamin and microelement pattern (high intake of vegetables,fruits and tofu),carbohydrate pattern (high in grain),and fat and protein pattern (high in meat,fish,eggs and fried foods).Results After adjusting for all risk factors,the vitamin and microelement pattern was inversely associated with AMI risk (global P value,0.0001).Compared with the first quartile,the adjusted ORs of AMI were 0.81 (95% CI:0.66-1.00) for the second quartile,0.67 (95% CI:0.54-0.82) for the third,and 0.70 (95% CI:0.56-0.88) for the fourth.Several dietary frequencies (serves per week) including vegetables,fruits and tofu were closely associated with decrease of AMI risk.Carbohydrate pattern showed weak relationship with AMI.We observed a U-shaped association between frequencies of fat and protein pattern and AMI risk.Excessive fat intake increased the AMI risk.The adjusted OR of AMI associated with the higher level of green vegetables was 0.37 (95% CI:0.24-0.57) in women and 0.65 (95% CI:0.51-0.82) in men (P value for heterogeneity,0.0140).Conclusions Unhealthy dietary intake can increase the AMI risk.Improving intake of vegetables,fruits and tofu have the potential to partially prevent the rising epidemic of cardiovascular disease in China.

  17. Analysis of situation and influencing factors in learning motivation of continuing education in clinical nurses%临床护士继续教育学习动机现状及影响因素分析

    常燕; 周文琦; 刘晓霞; 高泽宇

    2013-01-01

    目的 调查影响临床护士学习的动机因素,为临床护理管理者制定培养策略提供依据,促进护理人员自主学习.方法 采用“临床护士学习动机调查问卷”对469名临床护士进行学习动机问卷调查,并分析其影响因素.结果 共发放问卷469份,回收有效问卷428份,回收有效率为91.2%.临床护士学习动机6个维度的得分由高到低的排序依次为:职业发展、利他服务、认知兴趣、外界期望、社会接触、社会刺激,总分为(114.34±20.95)分;学习动机排在前3位的条目分别是为晋升奠定基础(4.01±0.97)分,更加胜任自己的工作(3.95±0.95)分,获取知识(3.92±1.02)分.多元回归分析显示职称和工作年限为临床护士学习动机的影响因素,差异有统计学意义(t分别为-2.949,-2.037;P<0.05).结论 继续教育管理部门需加强对社会刺激方面的管理,对不同职称和工作年限的护士进行针对性的干预,提高护士参与继续教育的主动性.%Objective To investigate the effects of clinical nurses learning motivation factors,provide the basis for the formulation of strategies for cultivating clinical nurses,promote autonomous learning in nursing staff.Methods Four hundreds and sixty-nine clinical nurses were surveyed by the "clinical nurses learning motivation questionnaire".The influencing factors in learning motivation of continuing education in clinical nurses were analyzed by the SPSS 16.0 software package,including descriptive statistics,multiple regression analysis.Results Tatals of 469 questionnaires were sent out,and 428 were recycled,the effective responsive rate was 91.2%.The scores of six dimensions of learning motivation of continuing education in clinical nurses were from high to low in order occupation development,altruistic service,cognitive interests,expectations from outside,social contact and social stimuli.The occupation development motivation got the highest score (3.68 ± 0

  18. Managing Joint Production Motivation

    Lindenberg, Siegwart; Foss, Nicolai Juul

    2011-01-01

    We contribute to the microfoundations of organizational performance by proffering the construct of joint production motivation. Under such motivational conditions individuals see themselves as part of a joint endeavor, each with his or her own roles and responsibilities; generate shared represent......We contribute to the microfoundations of organizational performance by proffering the construct of joint production motivation. Under such motivational conditions individuals see themselves as part of a joint endeavor, each with his or her own roles and responsibilities; generate shared...... representations of actions and tasks; cognitively coordinate cooperation; and choose their own behaviors in terms of joint goals. Using goal-framing theory, we explain how motivation for joint production can be managed by cognitive/symbolic management and organizational design....

  19. Enkele perspektiewe op Motivering

    A. J. Van Wyk

    1984-11-01

    Full Text Available Different motivational theories in the literature seem to claim unique explanations of motivational behaviour. When these theories are evaluated against basic concepts and the process of motivation, it becomes clear that theory building in motivational terms really focuses on the same basic phenomenon. The implications and practical applications of the more job related contemporary theories of motivation are discussed. OpsommingDie indruk wat verskillende motiveringsteorieë in die literatuur skep, is dat elke teorie 'n unieke verklaring gee van gemotiveerde gedrag. Indien die basisbegrippe en die motiveringsproses egter as ankers gebruik word om teorieë te ontleed is dit moontlik om aan te toon dat teoriebou in die motiveringsliteratuur, niks anders is as beligtingsaspekte van dieselfde fenomeen nie. Die beligtingskant van kontemporêre teorieë is weliswaar meer werksverwant en die implikasies en toepassing daarvan word aangetoon.

  20. 人口统计特征对酒店员工内在动机的影响--基于长沙市高星级酒店调查数据分析%Influence of Demographic Characteristics on Intrinsic Motivation of Hotel Employees---Based on the Analysis of High Stars Hotel Survey in Changsha City

    曾丽艳; 周美芳; 周应兰

    2015-01-01

    Through 366 questionnaires answered by high star hotel employees in Changsha city,it tries to explore the reliability and validity of intrinsic motivation scale,and discusses the influence of demographic characteristic on intrinsic motivation by optimal scaling regression analysis.The results show that demographic characteristic has an important impact on the intrinsic motivation of hotel employees.Intrinsic motivation is most related to seniority, age and level of education,but gender has no significant influence on the intrinsic motivation.%通过对长沙市部分高星级酒店实施问卷调查获得的366份调查表,进行内在动机量表的信度与效度以及内在动机的最优尺度回归分析,得知人口统计特征变量对内在动机影响的相对重要性,在人口统计特征中,工龄对内在动机的影响最大,其次是年龄和受教育程度,性别对内在动机并无显著影响。

  1. Motivating the Stakeholders, a Feature of SMEs

    Nicoleta Raluca ROBU

    2011-06-01

    Full Text Available Motivation, in a narrow meaning, based on a classical vision on the organisation and management, aims only at the employees or staff of the organization. This optics still predominates both in theory and in the worldwide managerial practice. Motivation, in a broad meaning, contoured in recent years, based on a modern vision on the organization and management is centred on the stakeholders, namely on those people, categories of staff and organisms who have major interests in developing the activity and performances of the organisation. In order to understand motivation, the managers must first understand the reasons why the individuals behave in a certain way and for which they have certain reactions under threatening situations or by which influencing is attempted. Motivation is an internal process, not an imperative one which can be compelled from the outside. Managers must understand the motivation strategies, the way in which they succeed or fail on the grounds of the way in which they succeed in influencing the inner motivations of the employees.

  2. 农村基层卫生人员对激励因素偏好及影响因素分析%Preference for working motivation and its influencing factors among rural health workers

    袁蓓蓓; 孟庆跃; 宋奎萌; 侯志远

    2012-01-01

    Objective To explore the preference for different working motivations and influencing factors of the preference among rural health workers. Methods Totally 213 health workers from township health centers and 251 health workers from village clinics in two counties with different economic development were investigated with a self-designed questionnaire. Results The participants showed different preferences for various working motivations. Material condition was the most important motivator among the participants with a mean factor value of 4. 10, followed by the need for management and promotion (mean factor value = 3. 87 ) and the preference for social environment (mean factor value = 3. 52 ). Conclusion Financial incentive, which could satisfy the need for material condition, is effective for improving working performance and non-financial incentives, such as self-development, good management, and social environments,are also important working motivations among rural healdi workers.%目的 探讨乡镇卫生院和村卫生室人员对各种激励因素的偏好程度及其相关因素.方法 选择经济发展水平不同的2个农村县,共调查乡镇卫生院人员213人,村卫生室工作人员251人,利用自编问卷进行激励因素偏好及影响因素调查.结果 2县乡镇卫生院和村卫生室人员对各类激励因素的偏好程度不同,对物质条件的偏好程度最高(物质条件因子均数为4.10),对管理和发展的需求水平次之(3.87),对社会环境的偏好程度最低(3.52);多元线性回归分析结果表明,农村基层卫生人员的工作地区、年龄、性别和学历水平影响其对物质条件、管理和发展、社会环境的偏好程度.结论 能满足农村基层人员对物质条件需求的经济激励机制是提高他们工作绩效的有效手段,非经济激励制度可满足农村卫生人员对个人发展、良好管理或社会环境的偏好,其激励作用不容忽视.

  3. How do Epistemological Beliefs Affect Training Motivation?

    Ingrid Molan

    2014-05-01

    Full Text Available Studies show that human resources development through workplace training is one of the major investments in the workforce in today’s globalized and challenging market. As training motivation influences employees’ preparation for the workplace training, their respond to the programme, their learning outcome, their performance levels, and use of acquired knowledge and skills in their workplace it seems logical to investigate and determine antecedents of training motivation. The aim of this study was to examine the relationship between the concepts of epistemological beliefs, training motivation and the actual participation in the workplace training. We predicted that epistemological beliefs would have an effect on training motivation and actual participation on the workplace training and that there would be a positive relationship between the concepts, meaning that the more sophisticated epistemological beliefs would lead to higher motivation and participation. To test the epistemological beliefs, the Epistemic Belief Inventory (Schraw, Bendixen & Dunkle, 2002 was used and adjusted to the workplace setting. Then the results were compared to employees’ training motivation, which was measured with a questionnaire made by authors of the present study, and employees’ actual number of training hours annually. The results confirmed the relationship between the concepts as well as a significant predicting value of epistemological beliefs on motivation and actual participation. Epistemic Belief Inventory did not yield expected results reported by the authors of the instrument therefore the limitations, possible other interpretations and suggested further exploration are discussed.

  4. Parenthood motives in IVF-mothers.

    Colpin, H; De Munter, A; Vandemeulebroecke, L

    1998-03-01

    This is an exploratory study to answer two questions: (1) does in-vitro fertilization (IVF)-mothers' motivation for parenthood differ from the naturally conceiving mothers' motivation for parenthood? and (2) are IVF-mothers' parenthood motives correlated with their adjustment to parenthood (in the same way as they are for naturally conceiving mothers)? The study sample consisted of 31 mothers with a 24-30 month old, single-born child conceived by homologous IVF and a comparison group of 31 mothers with a naturally conceived child. Self-rating questionnaires were used. Overall, the parenthood motivation pattern was quite similar for IVF-mothers and mothers by natural conception. However, 'identity', 'motherhood' and 'social control' were significantly more important motives for IVF-mothers than for the naturally conceiving mothers. The two former motives remained more important for IVF-mothers when findings were adjusted for the influence of the mothers' age and educational level. Possible explanations for these findings refer to the infertility history. Overall, few correlations between parenthood motives and the adjustment to parenthood were significant, both for the IVF-mothers and for the mothers by natural conception. Further (hypothesis-testing) research is needed to support these findings. PMID:9575465

  5. Commodity Team Motivation and Performance

    Englyst, Linda; Jørgensen, Frances; Johansen, John;

    2007-01-01

    This article explores factors influencing the motivation and performance of commodity teams in a global sourcing context. Several challenges are related to the classical dilemma of matrix organization, but with particular implications in this specific context of purchasing. We report on a reward...... system which was intended to support collective team effort, yet enhanced conflicts of interest in the matrix structure, discuss leadership, goal alignment and career tracks, and debate when and whether a team structure is appropriate in the pursuit of corporate purchasing synergies. The article is based...

  6. Contemporary foreign studies in preschoolers’ motivation development

    Nazarenko V.V.

    2013-03-01

    Full Text Available The article presents the review of contemporary foreign studies related to the problem of motivation development in preschoolers. The bigger part of these publications is focused on the study of achievement motivation in terms of preschoolers’ learning and their readiness for school education. The data analyzed in the article indicates the influence of child motivation on his/her academic achievement. The results of the studies demonstrate that the practice of preschool education centered on a child, his/her needs and interests as well as child social competence positively correlate with formation of child interest to systematic school study. Promoting to child motivational development is thus the substantial task of preschool education.

  7. THE ANALYSIS OF FACTORS INFLUENCING THE TERMS OF HOSPITAL ADMISSION IN PATIENTS WITH ACUTE CORONARY SYNDROM (ACCORDING TO THE LIS STUDY DATA – LYUBERTSY STUDY ON MORTALITY RATE IN PATIENTS AFTER ACUTE MYOCARDIAL INFARCTION

    M. L. Ginzburg

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available Aim. To evaluate main factors influencing admission time to cardiovascular care unit in patients with acute coronary syndrome (ACS. Material and methods. Anonymous questionnaire was used to study factors associated with prehospital delay. A total of 363 patients aged 63.2±12.3 (24-89 years were enrolled into the study: women – 132 (37%, men – 231 (63%. Results. The main reason for emergency call was typical pain syndrome (87%. 52% of the patients experienced the pain syndrome for the first time, the others noted change in the pain characteristics. 28% of the patients did nothing to relieve the chest pain; only one third of the patients used short-acting nitrates. The main reasons for delay in emergency call were the follows: hope that the symptoms will pass off aidless, unwillingness to disturb medical staff, various family circumstances and so on. Almost third part of the patients sought medical attention more than one hour after pain syndrome onset, about half of the patients called an ambulance within the first 40 minutes. Women sought medical advice later than men and used nitroglycerin less often. Experience of myocardial infarctions decreased in time before emergency call and increase in frequency of nitroglycerin intake before ambulance arrival but these correlations were weak (r≤0.25. Conclusion. Very high and high cardiovascular risk patients underestimate severity of possible complications of their disease and necessity for emergency call, they are also not familiar with the first aid algorithm in emergency cases. To reduce prehospital delay hospital and out-patient clinic doctors have to regularly inform high-risk patients and their relatives about the ACS symptoms and methods of the first aid.

  8. The Impact of Personality on Training-Related Aspects of Motivation: Test of a Longitudinal Model

    Rowold, Jens

    2007-01-01

    A model that proposed dispositional influences on training-related aspects of motivation was developed. More specifically, the model predicted influences of the Big Five personality variables on motivation to learn and transfer motivation, while controlling for general attitudes toward training. The model was tested empirically, drawing on a…

  9. Malignant diseases as suicidal motives

    Bogdanović Ljiljana

    2007-01-01

    Full Text Available Introduction Suicide is a conscious and intentional destruction of one’s own life, which occurs as a result of mutual influence of a person’s disposition and motives (facts inspiring the commitment of suicide. It is well known that various diseases, including malignancies, could be important and in some cases the only motive for committing suicide. Objective The purpose of the study was to analyze in detail suicides of persons whose only motive was an established malignant disease. Method The analysis was performed using the autopsy material of the Institute of Forensic Medicine, School of Medicine, University of Belgrade, during the period from 1990 to 2004. The reports on performed medico-legal autopsies were used, as well as history data obtained from the family members of suicidal persons, investigation reports and the available medical documents. Results In 1931 cases there was established suicidal nature of a violent death. Neoplasms were the suicidal motive in 37 persons (1.9%. The basic characteristics of the analyzed sample were predominance of males (26:11, ratio 2.4:1, the age of over 70 years and the highest incidence of malignant lung and breast tumors. Almost all cases were the persons who underwent treatment for malignant neoplasms over a longer period of time. During 19 autopsies (51.3% out of 37, a progressive phase of malignancy was established, i.e. metastases. The data on prior oral announcement of suicide intention were obtained for 70.3% (26 cases, and on previous suicidal attempts only for 13.5% (5 cases. In the majority of cases (78.4% the place of committed suicide was the person’s home. In 16 cases (43.2% the suicide was committed with a firearm. Hanging as a manner of destroying one’s own life was chosen by 12 persons (32.4%, while other ways were less frequently used. Conclusion Although malignancies were not present with high incidence as a suicidal motive in our analyzed sample, such cases require particular

  10. 基于成就动机的大学生创业意愿影响因素研究%Research on the Influencing Factors of Entrepreneurial Intension of University Students Based on the Achievement Motivation

    孙跃; 胡蓓; 杨天中

    2011-01-01

    Establishing one' s own business has become a very important choice for undergraduate and graduate students because students are under a greater pressure for getting a job. The paper mainly discusses such factors which influence students' intention to establish their own businesses after graduation as achievement motivation; attitude to starting an undertaking, risk propensity, which can be directly improved through higher education. An empirical study shows that the standardized total effects of those factors above are 0. 718, 0. 515, 0. 685 and 0.715 respectively.%随着金融危机的发展,就业压力与日俱增,创业已成为大学生就业的选择之一,其重要性日趋明显.主要研究大学生的成就动机对创业态度、风险倾向、创业意愿的影响.研究发现,成就动机对创业态度、风险倾向影响的总效应分别为0.718和0.515,创业态度、风险倾向对创业意愿的总效应分别为0.685和0.715.

  11. INFLUENCE OF NMDA AND NON-NMDA ANTAGONISTS ON ACUTE AND INFLAMMATORY PAIN IN THE TRIGEMINAL TERRITORY

    Piovesan, Elcio Juliato; Randunz, Vitor; Utiumi, Marco; Lange, Marcos Cristiano; Kowacs, Pedro André; Mulinari, Rogério Andrade; Oshinsky, Michael; Vital, Maria; Sereniki, Adriana; Fernandes, Artur Furlaneto; Silva, Lucas Leite e; Werneck, Lineu César

    2016-01-01

    NMDA and non-NMDA receptors are involved in spinal transmission of nociceptive information in physiological and pathological conditions. Our objective was to study the influence of NMDA and non-NMDA receptor antagonists on pain control in the trigeminal system using a formalin-induced orofacial pain model. Motor performance was also evaluated. Male Rattus norvegicus were pre-treated with topiramate (T) (n=8), memantine (M) (n=8), divalproex (D) (n=8) or isotonic saline solution (ISS) (n=10) intraperitoneally 30 minutes before the formalin test. Formalin 2.5% was injected into the right upper lip (V2 branch) and induced two phases: phase I (early or neurogenic) (0–3 min) and phase II (late or inflammatory) (12–30 min). For motor behavior performance we used the open-field test and measured latency to movement onset, locomotion and rearing frequencies, and immobility time. Pre-treatment of animals with M and D only attenuated nociceptive formalin behavior for phase II. T increased locomotion and rearing frequencies and reduced immobility time. Treatment with M increased immobility time and with D reduced locomotion frequency. Our results showed that the NMDA antagonist (M) is more potent than the non-NMDA antagonists (D and T) in the control of pain in the inflammatory phase. The non-NMDA topiramate improved motor performance more than did D and M, probably because T has more anxiolytic properties. PMID:19099122

  12. Motivation in medical students: a PhD thesis report.

    Kusurkar, Rashmi

    2012-08-01

    The aims of this thesis were to gather insights and investigate the factors influencing, outcomes and applications of medical students' motivation. This thesis consists of three literature reviews, four research papers and two application papers. Two research studies investigated the relationships of student motivation with study strategy, effort and academic performance through structural equation modelling and cluster analysis. The relationships of age, maturity, gender and educational background with motivation were investigated through multiple regression analysis. The results of this thesis were 1. Developments in medical education appear to have undervalued student motivation. 2. Motivation is an independent variable in medical education; intrinsic motivation is significantly associated with deep study strategy, high study effort and good academic performance. 3. Motivation is a dependent variable in medical education and is significantly affected by age, maturity, gender, educational background; intrinsic motivation is enhanced by providing students with autonomy, feedback and emotional support. 4. Strength of motivation for medical school can be reliably measured by Strength of Motivation for Medical School questionnaire. The conclusion of this thesis was that it is important to give consideration to motivation in medical education because intrinsic motivation leads to better learning and performance and it can be enhanced through giving students autonomy in learning, feedback about competence and emotional support. PMID:23316471

  13. Questioning a class effect: does ACE inhibitor tissue penetration influence the degree of fibrinolytic balance alteration following an acute myocardial infarction?

    Tsikouris, James P; Suarez, Jose A; Meyerrose, Gary E; Ziska, Martin; Fike, David; Smith, Jack

    2004-02-01

    There is a common belief in a class effect among angiotensin-converting enzyme (ACE) inhibitors. This is unsubstantiated for acute myocardial infarction (AMI). Because vascular tissue is a source of the endogenous fibrinolytic markers, and ACE inhibition in vascular tissue favorably influences the fibrinolytic system, the authors hypothesized that a high-tissue-penetrating ACE inhibitor would provide a more favorable reduction in plasminogen activator inhibitor-1 (PAI-1) and an increase in tissue plasminogen activator (t-PA) after AMI compared to a low-tissue-penetrating ACE inhibitor. In a randomized open-label trial, patients received the high-tissue-penetrating quinapril (n = 15) or low-tissue-penetrating enalapril (n = 15) immediately following an AMI. PAI-1 and t-PA antigen (ng/mL) were measured at baseline and through 14 days of treatment. There was no difference in baseline PAI-1 or t-PA antigen between treatments. PAI-1 antigen trended toward being lower with quinapril versus enalapril on day 1 (24.44 +/- 14.96 vs. 36.94 +/- 19.49, respectively, p = 0.059) and was significantly lower on day 3 (17.32 +/- 9.57 vs. 27.49 +/- 9.61, respectively, p = 0.009). Analysis of PAI-1 antigen over time by two-factor ANOVA with replication found significantly lower concentrations of PAI-1 antigen over the entire treatment period with quinapril versus enalapril (p < 0.003). This investigation of ACE inhibitor tissue-penetrating influence on markers of reinfarction risk suggests there may be a greater early reduction in PAI-1 with a more highly tissue-penetrating ACE inhibitor. PMID:14747423

  14. Do Gender and Race/Ethnicity Influence Acute Myocardial Infarction Quality of Care in a Hospital with a Large Hispanic Patient and Provider Representation?

    Tomás Romero

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Background. Disparities in acute myocardial infarction (AMI care for women and minorities have been extensively reported in United States but with limited information on Hispanics. Methods. Medical records of 287 (62% Hispanic and 176 (38% non-Hispanic white (NHW patients and 245 women (53% admitted with suspected AMI to a southern California nonprofit community hospital with a large Hispanic patient and provider representation were reviewed. Baseline characteristics, outcomes (mortality, CATH, PCI, CABG, and use of pertinent drug therapy, and medical insurance were analyzed according to gender, Hispanic and NHW race/ethnicity when AMI was confirmed. For categorical variables, 2×2 chi-square analysis was conducted. Odds ratio and 95% confidence interval for outcomes adjusted for gender, race/ethnicity, cardiovascular risk factors, and insurance were obtained. Results. Women and Hispanics had similar drug therapy, CATH, PCI, and mortality as men and NHW when AMI was confirmed (n=387. Hispanics had less private insurance than NHW (31.4% versus 56.3%, P<0.001; no significant differences were found according to gender. Conclusions. No differences in quality measures and outcomes were found for women and between Hispanic and NHW in AMI patients admitted to a facility with a large Hispanic representation. Disparities in medical insurance showed no influence on these findings.

  15. Delegation and Motivation

    Borowiecki, Karol Jan; Angst, Lukas

    2014-01-01

    In this article we study the determinants of decision rights transfer and its effects on the motivation of an agent. The study is based on a laboratory experiment conducted on 130 subjects playing an innovative principal-agent game. Interestingly, the results show that agents do not favour a...... delegation and a decision is considered rather burdensome. Although the experiment could not give support for the behavioural hypothesis of higher effort provided by participants who receive choice subsequently, the survey illuminates the interaction between delegation motives, effort motivators, goals and...

  16. Lessons in Student Motivation

    Errol Craig Sull

    2007-01-01

    Full Text Available The tools students have at their ready to do well are really amazing: engaging, thorough, and colorful textbooks; the Internet, of course; faculty who know how to teach and offer a plethora of information; and seemingly endless possibilities for optimal learning environments. Yet with all these improved “mousetraps” there is one factor that, if missing, will keep each of these silent – and the student will learn little or naught: motivation. Indeed, if the student is not motivated to learn, and his or her motivation is not kept up throughout a course, there is little the student will take away from the course.

  17. Motivation and will

    Stella Maris Vásquez

    2009-12-01

    Full Text Available The paper analyzes the relationship between motivation and volitional processes as described by current motivation theories. The root of the separation between both moments of behavioris traced back to Tetens and Kant’s threefold view of the mind. Sensory perception is reduced to feeling and the will to energy without a proper object. The history of this conception isoutlined. Nuttin’s motivation theory is presented as an alternative to the limitations of other contemporary theories. Some educational consequences are sketched out.

  18. Analyzing EFL Teachers’ Initial Job Motivation and Factors Effecting Their Motivation in Fezalar Educational Institutions in Iraq

    Selcuk Koran

    2015-02-01

    Full Text Available Teacher motivation is one of the primary variables of students’ high performance. It is experienced that students whose teachers are highly motivated are more engaged in the learning process. Therefore, it’s mostly the teacher who determines the level of success or failure in achieving institution’s goal in the educational process. Thus, teachers are expected to demonstrate a high job motivation performance by administrations. However, some teachers seem naturally enthusiastic about teaching while others need to be stimulated, inspired and challenged. There are several factors that provide teachers with necessary motivation driven by which they can work effectively. These factors can be emotional, financial, physical or academic. This study is an attempt to find out what motivates teachers to enter this profession, since the reasons of entering this job has significant influence on their commitment to the job, investigate factors which are responsible for high or low motivation of language teachers in Fezalar Educational Institutions (FEI, which is a Turkish private institution that operates in Iraq, and ascertain the degree to which intrinsic and extrinsic motivational factors impact teachers in their work situation. Based on the review of the recent researches of motivation, in general, and of language teacher motivation, in particular, and relying on the qualitative and quantitative study of the issue, a detailed analysis of some aspects of foreign language teacher motivation is presented in the article.Keywords: teacher motivation, job satisfaction, foreign language teaching, L2 teacher motivation 

  19. Motivation for Learning Science and Mathematics: Identifying Personal and Environmental Factors

    Winberg, Mikael

    2011-01-01

    Several theories in motivation research aim at explaining or predicting the emotional experiences and behavior of students in academic situations as well as the quality of learning outcomes. However, there are still ambiguities regarding the mechanisms of motivation, how motivation can be influenced, and what effects motivation has on learning. As a first step to examine the role of situational and personal variables involved in some of the most influential motivation theories, their relative...

  20. Motivation in Academic Research as an Important Factor in Increasing International Visibility

    Ursachi (Horodnic) Ioana Alexandra; Ursachi George Marian

    2011-01-01

    This paper aims to present the main factors that influence motivation in academic research: extrinsic/ intrinsic factors, motivator/ demotivator factors, personal/ interpersonal/ social factors, individual/ collective factors. Also brought into the discussion and the main theories related to motivation in academic research: self efficacy, self-concept and self-determination theory. As a conclusion it is emphasized the link between motivation and productivity and the need to increase the motiv...