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Sample records for acute-phase proteins

  1. Review: Acute phase reaction and acute phase proteins

    GRUYS E.; TOUSSAINT M.J.M.; NIEWOLD T.A.; KOOPMANS S.J.

    2005-01-01

    A review of the systemic acute phase reaction with major cytokines involved, and the hepatic metabolic changes,negative and positive acute phase proteins (APPs) with function and associated pathology is given. It appears that APPs represent appropriate analytes for assessment of animal health. Whereas they represent non-specific markers as biological effect reactants,they can be used for assessing nutritional deficits and reactive processes, especially when positive and negative acute phase variables are combined in an index. When such acute phase index is applied to separate healthy animals from animals with some disease, much better results are obtained than with single analytes and statistically acceptable results for culling individual animals may be reached.Unfortunately at present no cheap, comprehensive and easy to use system is available for assessing various acute phase proteins in serum or blood samples at the same time. Protein microarray or fluid phase microchip technology may satisfy this need;and permit simultaneous analysis of numerous analytes in the same small volume sample and enable integration of information derived from systemic reactivity and nutrition with disease specific variables. Applying such technology may help to solve health problems in various countries not only in animal husbandry but also in human populations.

  2. Acute Phase Proteins and Their Role in Periodontitis: A Review

    Polepalle, Tejaswin; Moogala, Srinivas; Boggarapu, Shalini; Pesala, Divya Sai; Palagi, Firoz Babu

    2015-01-01

    Acute phase proteins are a class of proteins whose plasma concentration increase (positive acute phase proteins) or decrease (negative acute phase proteins) in response to inflammation. This response is called as the acute phase reaction, also called as acute phase response, which occurs approximately 90 minutes after the onset of a systemic inflammatory reaction. In Periodontitis endotoxins released from gram negative organisms present in the sub gingival plaque samples interact with Toll- l...

  3. Acute Phase Proteins and Their Role in Periodontitis: A Review.

    Polepalle, Tejaswin; Moogala, Srinivas; Boggarapu, Shalini; Pesala, Divya Sai; Palagi, Firoz Babu

    2015-11-01

    Acute phase proteins are a class of proteins whose plasma concentration increase (positive acute phase proteins) or decrease (negative acute phase proteins) in response to inflammation. This response is called as the acute phase reaction, also called as acute phase response, which occurs approximately 90 minutes after the onset of a systemic inflammatory reaction. In Periodontitis endotoxins released from gram negative organisms present in the sub gingival plaque samples interact with Toll- like receptors (TLR) that are expressed on the surface of Polymorphonuclear leucocytes (PMNs) and monocytes which are in abundance in periodontal inflammation. The complex formed due to interaction of Endotoxins and TLR activates the Signal transduction pathway in both innate and adaptive immunity resulting in production of Cytokines that co- ordinate the local and systemic inflammatory response. The pro inflammatory cytokines originating at the diseased site activates the liver cells to produce acute phase proteins as a part of non specific response. The production of Acute phase proteins is regulated to a great extent by Cytokines such as IL-1, IL-6, IL-8, TNF-α and to a lesser extent by Glucocorticoid hormones. These proteins bind to bacteria leading to activation of complement proteins that destroys pathogenic organisms. Studies have shown that levels of acute phase proteins are increased in otherwise healthy adults with poor periodontal status. This article highlights about the synthesis, structure, types and function of acute phase proteins and the associated relation of acute phase proteins in Periodontitis. PMID:26674303

  4. Application of acute phase protein measurements in veterinary clinical chemistry

    Petersen, Henning; Nielsen, J. P.; Heegaard, Peter M. H.

    2004-01-01

    The body's early defence in response to trauma, inflammation or infection, the acute phase response, is a complex set of systemic reactions seen shortly after exposure to a triggering event. One of the many components is an acute phase protein response in which increased hepatic synthesis leads to...... possible use as non-specific indicators of health in large animal veterinary medicine such as in the health status surveillance of pigs at the herd level, for the detection of mastitis in dairy cattle and for the prognosis of respiratory diseases in horses....

  5. Application of acute phase protein measurements in veterinary clinical chemistry

    Petersen, Henning; Nielsen, J. P.; Heegaard, Peter M. H.

    2004-01-01

    The body's early defence in response to trauma, inflammation or infection, the acute phase response, is a complex set of systemic reactions seen shortly after exposure to a triggering event. One of the many components is an acute phase protein response in which increased hepatic synthesis leads t...... possible use as non-specific indicators of health in large animal veterinary medicine such as in the health status surveillance of pigs at the herd level, for the detection of mastitis in dairy cattle and for the prognosis of respiratory diseases in horses....

  6. Acute phase proteins in cattle after exposure to complex stress

    Lomborg, S. R.; Nielsen, L. R.; Heegaard, Peter M. H.;

    2008-01-01

    Abstract Stressors such as weaning, mixing and transportation have been shown to lead to increased blood concentrations of acute phase proteins (APP), including serum amyloid A (SAA) and haptoglobin, in calves. This study was therefore undertaken to assess whether SAA and haptoglobin levels in bl...

  7. Acute phase proteins as diagnostic markers in horses with colic

    Pihl, Tina Holberg; Scheepers, Elrien; Sanz, Macarena;

    2016-01-01

    Objective - To investigate the diagnostic potential of acute phase proteins (serum amyloid A (SAA), haptoglobin and fibrinogen) measured in blood and peritoneal fluid for differentiating horses with inflammatory colic (entero-colitis and peritonitis) from those with surgical colic. Design...... - Prospective observational multicenter study. Setting - Two university referral hospitals. Animals - Horses referred for severe acute abdominal pain to hospital 1 (n=148) or hospital 2 (n=78). Intervention - Blood and peritoneal fluid samples collected at admission were used for acute phase protein measurement...... significantly. When validated in hospital 2 data, the models had a satisfying integrity and diagnostic performance. Conclusions – Evaluation of SAA in serum improved the ability to differentiate horses with acute inflammatory colic requiring medical treatment from horses with colic requiring surgical treatment...

  8. Serum acute phase proteins and swine health status

    Chen, Hsin-Hsin; Lin, Jyh-Hung; Fung, Hang-Pong; Ho, Lin-Lin; Yang, Ping-Chin; Lee, Wen-Chuan; Lee, Yan-Pai; Chu, Rea-Min

    2003-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to investigate the relationship between swine health status and the concentration of the serum acute phase proteins, haptoglobin (HP), and C-reactive protein (CRP). A total of 378 clinically healthy pigs from farms A and B, plus 20 pigs culled from farm A due to poor growth, were used in this experiment. Each pig was examined and blood samples were collected during slaughter. The HP concentration was measured by using an HP-hemoglobin binding assay. The CRP conce...

  9. Acute phase protein response during acute ruminal acidosis in cattle

    Danscher, A. M.; Thoefner, M. B.; Heegaard, Peter M. H.;

    2011-01-01

    The aim of the study was to describe the acute phase protein and leukocyte responses in dairy heifers during acute, oligofructose-induced ruminal acidosis. The study included 2 trials involving oral oligofructose overload (17g/kg BW) to nonpregnant Danish Holstein heifers. Trial 1 included 12...... performed.Heifers receiving oligofructose developed a profound ruminal and systemic acidosis (in Trial 1 and 2 lowest ruminal pH was 4.3±0.2 and 3.8±0.02, respectively, and minimum SBE was −9.3±4.1 and −8.9±2.8, respectively). In Trial 1, SAA concentrations were higher than baseline concentrations on all...... than control heifers at 18 and 24h after overload (max. 13.7±4.3 billions/L). Feeding had no effect on plasma fibrinogen concentrations or WBC in Trial 1.Acute ruminal and systemic acidosis caused by oligofructose overload resulted in distinct acute phase protein and leukocyte responses in dairy...

  10. The porcine acute phase protein response to acute clinical and subclinical experimental infection with Streptococcus suis

    Sørensen, Nanna Skall; Tegtmeier, C.; Andresen, Lars Ole;

    2006-01-01

    The pig acute phase protein (APP) response to experimental Streptococcus suis (S. suis) infection was mapped by the measurement of the positive APPs C-reactive protein (CRP), serum amyloid A (SAA), haptoglobin (Hp) and major acute phase protein (pig-MAP) and the negative APPs albumin and apolipop......The pig acute phase protein (APP) response to experimental Streptococcus suis (S. suis) infection was mapped by the measurement of the positive APPs C-reactive protein (CRP), serum amyloid A (SAA), haptoglobin (Hp) and major acute phase protein (pig-MAP) and the negative APPs albumin and...

  11. Acute phase protein response in Alpine ibex with sarcoptic mange.

    Rahman, Md Mizanur; Lecchi, Cristina; Fraquelli, Cristina; Sartorelli, Paola; Ceciliani, Fabrizio

    2010-03-25

    The acute phase proteins (APP) are a group of serum proteins that change their concentration in animals following external or internal challenges, such as infection, inflammation or stress. The concentrations of four APPs, including serum amyloid A (SAA), haptoglobin (Hp), alpha(1)-acid glycoprotein (AGP) and ceruloplasmin (Cp) were determined in serum collected from healthy Alpine ibexes (Capra ibex) and ibexes with Sarcoptes scabiei mange. Primary structures of all four APPs were determined by cDNA sequencing. The concentrations of all four APPs were higher in serum of animals with clinical signs of sarcoptic mange when compared to healthy animals. Two of the APPs, including SAA and AGP, acted as major APPs, since their serum concentrations were increased more than 10-folds when compared to healthy animals (Psarcoptic mange in free ranging animals. PMID:20036058

  12. The porcine acute phase protein response to acute clinical and subclinical experimental infection with Streptococcus suis

    Sørensen, Nanna Skall; Tegtmeier, C.; Andresen, Lars Ole; Pineiro, M.; Toussaint, M.J.M.; Campbell, F.M.; Lampreave, F.; Heegaard, Peter M. H.

    The pig acute phase protein (APP) response to experimental Streptococcus suis (S. suis) infection was mapped by the measurement of the positive APPs C-reactive protein (CRP), serum amyloid A (SAA), haptoglobin (Hp) and major acute phase protein (pig-MAP) and the negative APPs albumin and apolipop...

  13. Rapid and widely disseminated acute phase protein response after experimental bacterial infection of pigs

    Skovgaard, Kerstin; Mortensen, Shila; Boye, Mette;

    2009-01-01

    The acute phase protein response is a well-described generalized early host response to tissue injury, inflammation and infection, observed as pronounced changes in the concentrations of a number of circulating serum proteins. The biological function of this response and its interplay with other...... measurements of interleukin-6 and selected acute phase proteins in serum. C-reactive protein and serum amyloid A were clearly induced 14-18 h after infection. Extrahepatic expression of acute phase proteins was found to be dramatically altered as a result of the lung infection with an extrahepatic acute phase...... protein response occurring concomitantly with the hepatic response. This suggests that the acute phase protein response is a more disseminated systemic response than previously thought. The current study provides to our knowledge the first example of porcine extrahepatic expression and regulation of C...

  14. Acute phase proteins: a review of their function, behaviour and measurement in chickens

    O'Reilly, E.L.; Eckersall, P.D.

    2014-01-01

    This review brings together and consolidates the large amount of research on acute phase proteins (APPs) that has been undertaken in chickens. Acute phase proteins are secreted from the liver as a result of inflammation or infection that can be measured in plasma. They have been well-characterised in other farm animal species and have been measured in a wide variety of poultry research areas. The acceleration in chicken APP research is in response to increased interest in ways the immune resp...

  15. Inflammation-induced recombinant protein expression in vivo using promoters from acute-phase protein genes.

    Varley, A.W.; Coulthard, M G; Meidell, R S; Gerard, R D; Munford, R S

    1995-01-01

    We report that promoters for two murine acute-phase protein (APP) genes, complement factor 3 (C3) and serum amyloid A3 (SAA3), can increase recombinant protein expression in response to inflammatory stimuli in vivo. To deliver APP promoter-luciferase reporter gene constructs to the liver, where most endogenous APP synthesis occurs, we introduced them into a nonreplicating adenovirus vector and injected the purified viruses intravenously into mice. When compared with the low levels of basal lu...

  16. Pig-MAP, porcine acute phase proteins and standardisation of assays in Europe

    Alava, M.A.; Gonzalez-Ramon, N.; Heegaard, Peter M. H.;

    1997-01-01

    during the inflammation. In addition to CRP and Hp, a serum alpha(2)-globulin was observed to be the major acute phase (MAP) protein in pigs. Pig-MAP is a new mammalian plasma protein, which is the pig counterpart of a recently cloned human serum protein denominated PK-120 or MRP. Pig-MAP shows promise...

  17. Procalcitonin behaves as a fast responding acute phase protein in vivo and in vitro

    Nijsten, MWN; Olinga, P; The, TH; de Vries, EGE; Groothuis, GMM; Limburg, PC; ten Duis, HJ; Moshage, H; Hoekstra, HJ; Bijzet, J; Zwaveling, JH; Schraffordt Koops, H.

    2000-01-01

    Objectives: Procalcitonin (PCT) is a 13 kD protein of which plasma concentrations are strongly increased in inflammatory states, PCT concentrations are claimed to have a more powerful discriminatory value for bacterial infection than the acute phase proteins serum amyloid A (SAA) or C-reactive prote

  18. The porcine acute phase response to infection with Actinobacillus pleuropneumoniae. Haptoglobin, C-reactive protein, major acute phase protein and serum amyloid a protein are sensitive indicators of infection

    Heegaard, Peter M. H.; Klausen, Joan; Nielsen, J.P.;

    1998-01-01

    In an experimental infection model mimicking acute Actinobacillus pleuropneumoniae (Ap) infection in swine (Sus scrofa) by aerosol inoculation, the development of a number of typical clinical signs was accompanied by a prototypic acute phase reaction encompassing fever and an acute phase protein ...

  19. The onset of the progression of acute phase response mechanisms induced by extreme impacts can be followed by the decrease in blood levels of positive acute phase proteins.

    Larina, Olga; Bekker, Anna

    Studies performed at space flights and earth-based simulation models detected the plasma indices of acute phase reaction (APR), i.e. the increase of APR cytokine mediators and alterations in the production of blood acute phase proteins (APP) at the initial stages of adaptation to altered gravity conditions. Acute phase response is the principal constituent of the functional activity of innate immunity system. Changes in plasma APPs contents are considered to serve the restoration of homeostasis state. According to trends of their concentration shifts at the evolving of acute phase reaction APPs are denoted as positive, neutral, or negative. Plasma concentrations of positive acute phase proteins α1-acid glycoprotein (α1-AGP), α1-antitrypsin (α1-AT), and neutral α2-macroglobulin (α2-M) were measured in human study at 12-hour antiorthostatic position (AOP) with 15° head down tilt and hypoxia experiments at 14% oxygen in pressure chamber. Both of these impacts were shown to produce alterations in the APP levels indicative for acute phase response. Nevertheless, in AOP experiment noticeable decrease in α1-AGP concentration occurred by hour 12, and even more pronounced decline of α1-AGP and α1-AT were found on hypoxia hours 12 and 36. Acute phase proteins α1-AGP and α2-M possess the features of proteinase inhibitors. This function is implemented by the formation of complexes with the molecules of proteolytic enzymes which subsequently are removed from the blood flow. Transient decrease in plasma concentrations of protease inhibitors on early phases of APR development was reported to result from the growth of plasma protease activity due to cathepsin release from activated leukocytes, which had not yet been compensated by enhanced APP synthesis. Being a carrier protein for positively charged and neutral substances, α1-AGP shows pronounced elevation in its blood content during APR development. As assumed, it is required for the transportation of the increased

  20. Identification of Acute Phase Proteins and Assays Applicable in Nondomesticated Mammals

    Bertelsen, M. F.; Kjelgaard-Hansen, M.; Grøndahl, C.;

    2009-01-01

    The serum concentration of acute phase proteins (APPs) increases dramatically in response to inflammation and tissue injury. APPs are clinically useful in a range of domesticated mammals; however, knowledge is limited in nondomesticated mammals. The detective ability of two assays for each of thr...

  1. Optimal combinations of acute phase proteins for detecting infectious disease in pigs

    Heegaard, Peter M. H.; Stockmarr, Anders; Piñeiro, Matilde;

    2011-01-01

    The acute phase protein (APP) response is an early systemic sign of disease, detected as substantial changes in APP serum concentrations and most disease states involving inflammatory reactions give rise to APP responses. To obtain a detailed picture of the general utility of porcine APPs to dete...

  2. C-reactive protein and the acute phase reaction in geriatric patients.

    Bertsch, Thomas; Triebel, Jakob; Bollheimer, Cornelius; Christ, Michael; Sieber, Cornel; Fassbender, Klaus; Heppner, Hans Jürgen

    2015-10-01

    The C-reactive protein (CRP), first described as a serum component capable of precipitating the C-polysaccharide of pneumococci, is one of the most important proteins because the serum concentration rises in the acute phase reaction. The acute phase reaction is the nonspecific reaction of the body to noxious stimuli of the most varied kinds, such as infections, burns, neoplasms and tissue trauma. The CRP is synthesized in liver parenchymal cells by cytokines which are derived from stimulated leucocytes and released into the circulation. Because of its molecular structure and in synergy with the complement system, it is able to precipitate and/or lyse microorganisms, thereby rendering them harmless. Measurement of the serum CRP concentration can provide important information with respect to the diagnosis and monitoring of treatment. Due to immunosenescence in geriatric patients the synthesis of CRP appears to be limited to inflammatory stimuli; however, this phenomenon does not appear to be of major clinical relevance. Despite the introduction of new parameters of the acute phase reaction, sometimes with better performance, such as interleukin-6, procalcitonin and the soluble endotoxin receptor sCD14, measurement of CRP for diagnosis and treatment monitoring is still justified even in geriatric patients as testing is rapid, economic and nearly ubiquitously available round the clock. Biochemical markers of the acute phase reaction should always be interpreted together with the clinical picture and their specific limitations. PMID:26334841

  3. Ethionine-dependent inhibition of acute-phase plasma protein synthesis in the rat.

    Kasperczyk, H.; Koj, A

    1983-01-01

    Ethionine administered intraperitoneally to rats suffering from turpentine-induced inflammation preferentially reduced incorporation of 14C-leucine into fibrinogen, haptoglobin and other acute-phase proteins. The inhibitory effect was observed both in vivo and in liver slices obtained from ethionine-treated donors, while addition of ethionine to liver slices in vitro led to general reduction of synthesis of all liver and plasma proteins, including albumin. For comparison, the effects of galac...

  4. Rapid and widely disseminated acute phase protein response after experimental bacterial infection of pigs

    Skovgaard, Kerstin; Mortensen, Shila; Boye, Mette; Poulsen, Karin T.; Campbell, Fiona M; Eckersall, P. David; Heegaard, Peter M.H.

    2009-01-01

    International audience The acute phase protein response is a well-described generalized early host response to tissue injury, inflammation and infection, observed as pronounced changes in the concentrations of a number of circulating serum proteins. The biological function of this response and its interplay with other parts of innate host defence reactions remain somewhat elusive. In order to gain new insight into this early host defence response in the context of bacterial infection we st...

  5. Acute phase proteins as diagnostic markers in horses with colic

    Pihl, Tina Holberg; Scheepers, Elrien; Sanz, Macarena;

    and fibrinogen to differentiate between horses with infectious non-surgical colic and surgical colic. Materials & Methods:The performance of the APPs was evaluated individually and in combination with clinical examination, as wells as traditional biomarkers in blood (WCC, PCV, TPP, lactate) and peritoneal fluid...... (PF) (haemolysis, WCC, total protein).Admission data collected prospectively from 148 horses with severe colic in one hospital was used to construct multivariate logistic models to predict if a horse had an infectious non-surgical colic. The models were based on 1) clinical evaluation, 2) clinical...... and blood evaluation and 3) clinical, blood and PF evaluation. Each model was independently validated against admission data from 78 horses in another hospital.Results and Discussion:The variables included in the final ‘clinical model’ were: Lethargy, temperature increase from 38◦C, gastric reflux 5-10L...

  6. Circulating microbial products and acute phase proteins as markers of pathogenesis in lymphatic filarial disease.

    R Anuradha

    Full Text Available Lymphatic filariasis can be associated with development of serious pathology in the form of lymphedema, hydrocele, and elephantiasis in a subset of infected patients. Dysregulated host inflammatory responses leading to systemic immune activation are thought to play a central role in filarial disease pathogenesis. We measured the plasma levels of microbial translocation markers, acute phase proteins, and inflammatory cytokines in individuals with chronic filarial pathology with (CP Ag+ or without (CP Ag- active infection; with clinically asymptomatic infections (INF; and in those without infection (endemic normal [EN]. Comparisons between the two actively infected groups (CP Ag+ compared to INF and those without active infection (CP Ag- compared to EN were used preliminarily to identify markers of pathogenesis. Thereafter, we tested for group effects among all the four groups using linear models on the log transformed responses of the markers. Our data suggest that circulating levels of microbial translocation products (lipopolysaccharide and LPS-binding protein, acute phase proteins (haptoglobin and serum amyloid protein-A, and inflammatory cytokines (IL-1β, IL-12, and TNF-α are associated with pathogenesis of disease in lymphatic filarial infection and implicate an important role for circulating microbial products and acute phase proteins.

  7. Role of acute-phase proteins in interleukin-1-induced nonspecific resistance to bacterial infections in mice.

    Vogels, M.T.E.; L. Cantoni; Carelli, M.; Sironi, M; Ghezzi, P; van der Meer, J. W M

    1993-01-01

    Treatment with a single low dose (80 to 800 ng) of interleukin-1 (IL-1) 24 h before a lethal bacterial challenge of granulocytopenic and normal mice enhances nonspecific resistance. Since IL-1 induces secretion of acute-phase proteins, liver proteins which possess several detoxifying effects, we investigated the role of these proteins in the IL-1-induced protection. Inhibition of liver protein synthesis with D-galactosamine (GALN) completely inhibited the IL-1-induced synthesis of acute-phase...

  8. The role of the acute phase protein PTX3 in the ventilator-induced lung injury

    JM Real; MM. Marques; GMGT Spilborghs; EM Negri; MM Matzuk; RP Moura; AA Camargo; Deheinzelin, D; AAM Dias

    2008-01-01

    The pentraxin 3 (PTX3) is an acute phase proinflammatory protein produced by fibroblasts and alveolar epithelial cells. We have previously demonstrated that PTX3 is a key modulator of inflammation. Mechanical ventilation (MV) is a life saving therapeutic approach for patients with acute lung injury that, nevertheless could lead to an inflammatory response and tissue injury (ventilator-induced lung injury: VILI), representing a major cause of iatrogenic lung damage in intensive units. Our obje...

  9. ACUTE PHASE PROTEINS, LIPID PROFILE AND PROINFLAMMATORY CYTOKINES IN HEALTHY AND BRONCHOPNEUMONIC WATER BUFFALO CALVES

    El-Bahr, Sabry M.; Wael M. EL-Deeb

    2013-01-01

    The aim of the present study was to evaluate the diagnostic value of Acute Phase Proteins (APP), lipid profiles and proinflammatory cytokines in healthy and bronchopneumonic water buffalo calves. Therefore, sixty water buffalo calves (9±1 month old, 175±15 kg) were divided into two equal groups, the first group represented healthy, control, calves whereas calves of the second group were affected with bronchopneumonia. Total leukocytic and differential counts were determined. Serum total pr...

  10. Acute phase protein response in an experimental model of ovine caseous lymphadenitis

    Lang Tamara L; Waterston Mary M; Bence Laura; Lawson Fraser P; Eckersall Peter D; Donachie William; Fontaine Michael C

    2007-01-01

    Abstract Background Caseous lymphadenitis (CLA) is a disease of small ruminants caused by Corynebacterium pseudotuberculosis. The pathogenesis of CLA is a slow process, and produces a chronic rather than an acute disease state. Acute phase proteins (APP) such as haptoglobin (Hp) serum amyloid A (SAA) and α1 acid glycoprotein (AGP) are produced by the liver and released into the circulation in response to pro-inflammatory cytokines. The concentration of Hp in serum increases in experimental CL...

  11. Acute phase proteins in bovine milk in an experimental model of Staphylococcus aureus subclinical mastitis

    Eckersall, P D; Young, F J; Nolan, A M;

    2006-01-01

    The objectives were to establish the origin of 2 acute phase proteins in milk during subclinical bovine mastitis and to characterize the relationship between those proteins in milk and blood. Haptoglobin (Hp) and mammary-associated serum amyloid A (M-SAA3) appear in milk during mastitis, whereas Hp...... and serum amyloid A increase in serum during mastitis. The concentrations of these proteins were determined in an experimental model using a field strain of Staphylococcus aureus to induce subclinical mastitis in dairy cows. The expression of mRNA coding for these proteins was assessed and the...

  12. ACUTE PHASE PROTEINS AS A MARKER OF RESPIRATORY INFLAMMATION IN PRZEWALSKI'S HORSE (EQUUS FERUS PRZEWALSKII).

    Sander, Samantha J; Joyner, Priscilla H; Cray, Carolyn; Rotstein, David S; Aitken-Palmer, Copper

    2016-06-01

    Acute phase proteins are sensitive markers of inflammation, which are highly conserved across taxa. Although the utility of these proteins are becoming well defined in human and domestic animal medical fields, their role in nondomestic species remains unclear. In this communication, a 20-yr-old Przewalski's horse was presented for unresolving aspiration pneumonia, which cultured a unique Actinomyces-like bacteria. Despite waxing and waning clinical signs and minimal changes on baseline hematologic analysis, protein electrophoresis, serum amyloid A, and surfactant protein D serum concentrations showed changes that more accurately reflected the clinical severity of this case. PMID:27468045

  13. Serum amyloid A: An acute-phase protein involved in tumour pathogenesis

    Sodin-Semrl, S.; Kovacevic, A.

    2016-01-01

    The synthesis of acute-phase protein serum amyloid A (SAA) is largely regulated by inflammation-associated cytokines and a high concentration of circulating SAA may represent an ideal marker for acute and chronic inflammatory diseases. However, SAA is also synthesized in extrahepatic tissues, e.g. human carcinoma metastases and cancer cell lines. An increasing body of in vitro data supports the concept of involvement of SAA in carcinogenesis and neoplastic diseases. Accumulating evidence suggests that SAA might be included in a group of biomarkers to detect a pattern of physiological events that reflect the growth of malignancy and host response. This review is meant to provide a broad overview of the many ways that SAA could contribute to tumour development, and accelerate tumour progression and metastasis, and to gain a better understanding of this acute-phase reactant as a possible link between chronic inflammation and neoplasia. PMID:18726069

  14. Acute Phase Proteins in Response to Dictyocaulus viviparus Infection in Calves

    Waller K Persson

    2004-06-01

    Full Text Available Three experiments were carried out to examine the acute phase response, as measured by the acute phase proteins (APP haptoglobin, serum amyloid A (SAA and fibrinogen, in calves infected with lungworm, Dictyocaulus vivparus. In addition, eosinophil counts were analysed. Three different dose models were used in 3 separate experiments: I 250 D. viviparus infective third stage larvae (L3 once daily for 2 consecutive days, II 100 D. viviparus L3 once daily for 5 consecutive days, and III 2000 L3 once. All 3 dose regimes induced elevated levels of haptoglobin, SAA and fibrinogen, although there was considerable variation both between and within experiments. A significant increase was observed in all 3 APP at one or several time points in experiment I and III, whereas in experiment II, the only significant elevation was observed for fibrinogen at one occasion. The eosinophil numbers were significantly elevated in all 3 experiments. The results show that lungworm infection can induce an acute phase response, which can be monitored by the selected APP. Elevated APP levels in combination with high numbers of eosinophils in an animal with respiratory disease may be used as an indicator of lung worm infection, and help the clinician to decide on treatment. However, high numbers of eosinophils and low levels of APP do not exclude a diagnosis of lungworm. Thus, lungworm infection may not be detected if measurements of APP are used to assess calf health in herds or individual animals.

  15. Acute phase protein and protein electrophoresis values for captive Grant's zebra (Equus burchelli).

    Cray, Carolyn; Hammond, Elizabeth; Haefele, Holly

    2013-12-01

    Grant's zebra (Equus burchelli) are commonly kept in zoos and are subject to routine health monitoring and research studies. Recently, assays for acute phase proteins (APP) have been described in many wildlife species, and specific assays for serum amyloid A (SAA) have been well validated and studied in horses (Equus ferus caballus), in which it serves as a major APP. In the present study, serum samples from 26 Grant's zebra were subject to analysis by using assays for SAA, haptoglobin (HP), and protein electrophoresis. Reference intervals were calculated by using the robust method: SAA 1.8-31.4 mg/L and HP 0.37-1.58 mg/ml. Significant differences in SAA and HP were observed in clinically abnormal zebra; in some cases, these differences were marked and were noted in the absence of abnormal values for protein electrophoretic fractions. These data indicate that APP may be a valuable and sensitive tool in monitoring inflammation in this species. PMID:24450080

  16. Age- and Sex-Associated Effects on Acute-Phase Proteins in Göttingen Minipigs

    Christoffersen, Berit Ø; Jensen, Søren J.; Ludvigsen, Trine P; Nilsson, Sara K; Grossi, Anette B; Heegaard, Peter M. H.

    2015-01-01

    Göttingen minipigs and to investigate the effects of age, sex, and various stimuli on these ranges. Serum concentrations of C-reactive protein (CRP), serum amyloid A (SAA), haptoglobin, pig major acute-phase protein (PMAP), albumin, and porcine α-1 acid glycoprotein (PAGP) were evaluated in 4 age groups (6...... in obese pigs without diabetes. In conclusion, reference values for CRP, PMAP, haptoglobin, SAA, PAGP and albumin were established for male and female Göttingen minipigs of different ages. These APP were influenced by age and sex, underlining the importance of considering these factors when designing...

  17. Age- and sex-associated effects on acute-phase proteins in Göttingen minipigs

    Christoffersen, Berit Ø.; Jensen, Søren Juel; Ludvigsen, Trine P.; Nilsson, Sara Kristina; Grossi, Anette B.; Heegaard, Peter M. H.

    2015-01-01

    Göttingen minipigs and to investigate the effects of age, sex, and various stimuli on these ranges. Serum concentrations of C-reactive protein (CRP), serum amyloid A (SAA), haptoglobin, pig major acute-phase protein (PMAP), albumin, and porcine α-1 acid glycoprotein (PAGP) were evaluated in 4 age groups (6...... in obese pigs without diabetes. In conclusion, reference values for CRP, PMAP, haptoglobin, SAA, PAGP and albumin were established for male and female Göttingen minipigs of different ages. These APP were influenced by age and sex, underlining the importance of considering these factors when designing...

  18. Early downregulation of acute phase proteins after doxorubicin exposition in patients with breast cancer.

    Panis, Carolina; Pizzatti, Luciana; Bufalo, Aedra Carla; Herrera, Ana Cristina; Victorino, Vanessa Jacob; Cecchini, Rubens; Abdelhay, Eliana

    2016-03-01

    Chemotherapy remains the first-choice option for adjuvant therapy in breast cancer. Here, we investigated the impact of the first chemotherapic cycle of doxorubicin on the plasmatic-proteomic profiling of women diagnosed with breast cancer (n = 87). Blood samples were obtained from the same patient before and after doxorubicin infusion (1 h, 60 mg/m(2)) and processed for label-free LC-MS proteomic screening. A total of 80 proteins were downregulated after chemotherapy. In silico analysis revealed that the main biological process enrolled was inflammation and canonical pathways involving acute phase proteins. TNF-α, IL-1β, IL-12, TGF-β1, clusterin, and gelsolin were chosen as relevant for further validation. All selected targets presented reduced plasmatic levels after treatment. Our results indicate that doxorubicin downregulated acute phase proteins immediately after its infusion. Since such proteins are cancer promoting, its downregulation could support the effectiveness of doxorubicin along treatment. PMID:26472721

  19. Serum acute phase proteins in cows with SARA (Subacute Ruminal Acidosis) suspect

    C. Cannizzo; Gianesella, M.; Giudice, E.; Messina, V; G. Piccione; M. Morgante

    2012-01-01

    The aim of this study was to evaluate the variations of Acute Phase Proteins (APPs) and other blood constituents during the onset of the sub-acute ruminal acidosis (SARA) pathological status. A total of 108 cows from 12 dairy herds were randomly selected and divided into three Groups of 36 animals each. All animals were subjected to a rumenocentesis. Group A was composed by subjects with a rumen pH>5.8, Group B was composed by subjects with a rumen pH ≤5.5≤5.8 and Group C was composed by subj...

  20. Comparison of Gliclazide Treatment with Diet Therapy on Acute Phase Protein Levels in Patients with Type 2 Diabetes

    MEMİŞOĞULLARI, Ramazan; AKÇAY, Fatih; Coşkun, Abdurrahman; Korkmaz, Uğur

    2009-01-01

    Aims: It is known that there is a relationship between diabetic complications and chronic inflammation characterized by alterations in circulating acute phase proteins. It has been emphasized that inflammation contributes to diabetic complications and that gliclazide -an antidiabetic sulfonylurea - decreases the development of such complications. In this study, we aimed to investigate whether gliclazide or diet treatment has an effect on serum levels of acute phase reactants, markers of infla...

  1. Interleukin 6 induces a liver-specific nuclear protein that binds to the promoter of acute-phase genes.

    Poli, V.; Cortese, R

    1989-01-01

    Interleukin 6 (IL-6) is responsible for a variety of biological effects related to the activation of defenses against infection or inflammation, including the immune response and the acute-phase reaction. Its mechanism of action is unknown. It has recently been shown to induce transcription of several genes encoding acute-phase proteins. Here we describe the identification of an IL-6 responsive element (IL-6RE) present in the promoter of the human hemopexin gene. This element is necessary and...

  2. Insulin is a prominent modulator of the cytokine-stimulated expression of acute-phase plasma protein genes.

    Campos, S P; Baumann, H

    1992-01-01

    Several endocrine hormones which influence liver metabolism are known to increase in activity during the acute phase of injury or inflammation. We determined whether these hormones have the potential to influence acute-phase protein production in human and rat hepatoma cells. Catecholamines, glucagon, growth hormone, triiodothyronine, and cyclic nucleotides individually or in combination did not modulate the basal or the interleukin-1 (IL-1)-, IL-6-, and dexamethasone-stimulated levels of acu...

  3. Relation between raised concentrations of fucose, sialic acid, and acute phase proteins in serum from patients with cancer: choosing suitable serum glycoprotein markers.

    Turner, G A; Skillen, A W; Buamah, P; Guthrie, D.; Welsh, J; Harrison, J; Kowalski, A.

    1985-01-01

    Serum concentrations of fucose, sialic acid, and eight acute phase proteins were measured in single specimens from patients with cancer in order to determine whether the raised concentrations of protein bound sugars commonly found in cancer correlate with increased concentrations of the acute phase proteins. Strong positive correlations were found only with alpha 1-acid glycoprotein, alpha 1-antitrypsin, and haptoglobins. Changes in protein bound sugars and acute phase proteins were also exam...

  4. Serum acute phase proteins in cows with SARA (Subacute Ruminal Acidosis suspect

    C. Cannizzo

    2012-02-01

    Full Text Available The aim of this study was to evaluate the variations of Acute Phase Proteins (APPs and other blood constituents during the onset of the sub-acute ruminal acidosis (SARA pathological status. A total of 108 cows from 12 dairy herds were randomly selected and divided into three Groups of 36 animals each. All animals were subjected to a rumenocentesis. Group A was composed by subjects with a rumen pH>5.8, Group B was composed by subjects with a rumen pH ≤5.5≤5.8 and Group C was composed by subjects with a rumen pH<5.5. Blood samples were collected by jugular venipuncture and Haptoglobin (Hp, Serum Amyloid A (SAA, Total Proteins, Albumin and White Blood Cells (WBC were determined. One-way ANOVA showed a statistical significance on Rumen pH, Hp, SAA. SARA seems not stimulate the APPs production from liver.

  5. Hepatic acute-phase proteins control innate immune responses during infection by promoting myeloid-derived suppressor cell function

    Sander, L.E.; Sackett, S.D.; Dierssen, U.; Beraza, N.; Linke, R.; Müller, M.R.; Blander, J.M.; Tacke, F.; Trautwein, C.

    2010-01-01

    Acute-phase proteins (APPs) are an evolutionarily conserved family of proteins produced mainly in the liver in response to infection and inflammation. Despite vast pro- and antiinflammatory properties ascribed to individual APPs, their collective function during infections remains poorly defined. Us

  6. The effect of transport stress on turkey (Meleagris gallopavo) liver acute phase proteins gene expression.

    Marques, Andreia Tomás; Lecchi, Cristina; Grilli, Guido; Giudice, Chiara; Nodari, Sara Rota; Vinco, Leonardo J; Ceciliani, Fabrizio

    2016-02-01

    The aim of this study was to investigate the effects of transport-related stress on the liver gene expression of four acute phase proteins (APP), namely α1-acid glycoprotein (AGP), C-Reactive Protein (CRP), Serum Amyloid A (SAA) and PIT54, in turkeys (Meleagris gallopavo). A group of seven BUT BIG 6 commercial hens was subjected to a two-hour long road transportation and the quantitative gene expression of APP in the liver was compared to that of a non transported control group. The expression of AGP and CRP mRNA was found to be increased in animals slaughtered after road transport. The presence of AGP protein was also confirmed by immunohistochemistry and Western blotting. The results of this study showed that road-transport may induce the mRNA expression of immune related proteins. The finding that AGP and CRP can be upregulated during transport could suggest their use as for the assessment of turkey welfare during transport. PMID:26850544

  7. Acute phase proteins in serum and cerebrospinal fluid in the course of bacterial meningitis.

    Paradowski, M; Lobos, M; Kuydowicz, J; Krakowiak, M; Kubasiewicz-Ujma, B

    1995-08-01

    We carried out estimations of the following acute phase proteins: C-reactive protein (CRP), alpha-1-antitrypsin (AAT), alpha-1-acid glycoprotein (AAG), alpha-2-ceruloplasmin (CER), and alpha-2-haptoglobin (HPT) in serum and in cerebrospinal fluid (CSF) in patients with bacterial meningitis (BM, n = 30) and viral meningitis (VM, n = 30). We have shown that determinations of concentrations of AAG and CRP in serum and CER in CSF are useful in differentiation between BM and VM. The diagnostic power of these three tests (the areas under their ROC curves equal 0.942, 0.929, and 0.931, respectively) is bigger, though statistically not significantly, than that of traditional parameters of BM in CSF, i.e., total protein concentration and white blood cell count. Determination of AAG, CRP, and AAT in serum is a valuable monitoring marker in the course of BM treatment. Convenience of serum sampling constitutes an advantage over traditional BM parameters in CSF. PMID:8521602

  8. Pig major acute-phase protein and haptoglobin serum concentrations correlate with PCV2 viremia and the clinical course of postweaning multisystemic wasting syndrome

    Grau-Roma, Llorenc; Heegaard, Peter M. H.; Hjulsager, Charlotte Kristiane;

    2009-01-01

    The aim of the present longitudinal study was to assess the evolution of two acute phase proteins (APPs), pig-major acute phase protein (pig-MAP) and haptoglobin (HPT), in serum from pigs that developed postweaning multisystemic wasting syndrome (PMWS) in comparison to healthy and wasted non-PMWS...

  9. Involvement of activated leukocytes in the regulation of plasma levels of acute phase proteins in microgravity simulation experiments

    Larina, Olga; Bekker, Anna; Turin-Kuzmin, Alexey

    2016-07-01

    Earth-based studies of microgravity effects showed the induction of the mechanisms of acute phase reaction (APR). APR comprises the transition of stress-sensitive protein kinases of macrophages and other responsive cells into the active state and the phosphorylation of transcription factors which in turn stimulate the production of acute-phase reaction cytokines. Leukocyte activation is accompanied by the acceleration of the formation of oxygen radicals which can serve a functional indice of leukocyte cell state. The series of events at acute phase response result in selective changes in the synthesis of a number of secretory blood proteins (acute phase proteins, APPs) in liver cells thus contributing the recovery of homeostasis state in the organism. Earlier experiment with head-down tilt showed the increase in plasma concentrations of two cytokine mediators of acute phase response, tumor necrosis factor-alpha (TNF-alpha) and interleukin-6 (IL-6) being the outcome of the activation of producer cells, foremost, leukocytes. In experiment with 4-day dry immersion chemiluminescent (ChL) reply of the whole blood samples to a test stimulus were studied along with the measurements of plasma levels of APPs, namely, alpha1-antitrypsin (alpha1-AT), alpha1-acid glycoprotein (alpha1-AGP), alpha2-macroglobulin (alpha2-M), ceruloplasmin (Cer), haptoglobin (Hp), C3-complement component (C3), C-reactive protein (CRP). Eight individuals aged 21.2 ± 3.2 years were the test subjects in the investigation. Protein studies showed a noticeable increase in the mean plasma levels of all APPs measured in experiment thus producing the evidence of the activation of acute phase response mechanisms while individual patterns revealed variability during the immersion period. The overall trends were similar to these in the previous immersion series. The augment in the strength of signal in stimulated light emission tests was higher after 1- and 2-day of immersion exposure than before the

  10. Proteomic approach for acute-phase proteins of hemolymph and muscles in Scylla serrata challenged by a pathogenic bactedum

    LIU Wenjie; SU Jing; WANG Guizhong; WANG Sanying

    2006-01-01

    Acute-phase response is documented to be a significant mechanism of innate immunity in vertebrates and invertebrates.In this study,proteomic methodologies were applied for different protein expressions in hemolymph of Scylla serrata challenged by Vibrio parahaemolyticus after immunization,and in muscles of the crabs separately challenged by V.parahaemolyticus.V.anguillarum and Aeromonas hydrophila.Up-regulated cryptocyanin is documented in the hemolymph and up-regulated calexcitin,wingless(fragment)and tachykinin-related peptide in the muscle as acute-phase proteins.All the four altered proteins were responsible for bacterial stress,but cryptocyanin seemed to be a memory response protein against the challenge by a live bacterium after immunization of the live cells.These up-regulated proteins can be indicative of an understanding of immunity of a crab.

  11. Acute phase and transport protein synthesis in simulated infection in undernourished men using uniformly labelled Spirulina Platensis

    Although it has been known for many years that injury and infection lead to body nitrogen loss, the reason has remained obscure. In this paper, we develop the argument that the processes that are activated during infection demand the provision of specific amino acids which have to be supplied from body protein. In particular, we show that the positive acute phase proteins are very rich in the aromatic amino acids and the exaggerated use of these amino acids (phenylalanine, tryptophan and tyrosine) in acute phase protein synthesis lead to an endogenous ''amino acid imbalance'' which restricts the use of other amino acids for tissue protein synthesis. Minimally invasive protocols, involving the administration of 15N and 13C-labelled amino acids for studying whole body nitrogen turnover, amino acid oxidation and plasma protein synthesis are described. (author). 22 refs, 3 tabs

  12. Synthesis of acute phase proteins in rats with cirrhosis exposed to lipopolysaccharide

    Nielsen, Susanne Schouw; Grøfte, Thorbjørn; Tygstrup, Niels; Vilstrup, Hendrik

    2006-01-01

    Background In patients with cirrhosis, infection is frequent and a leading cause of death. This is secondary to various immunologic abnormalities in both the innate and the adaptive immune system. However, it remains unclear whether cirrhosis affects the inflammatory systemic component of the innate immunity, 'the acute phase response', mostly effectuated by the liver itself. We hypothesized that rats with cirrhosis raise a reduced acute phase response induced by lipopolysaccharide (LPS). Res...

  13. Roles of STAT3 in Protein Secretion Pathways during the Acute-Phase Response

    Ahyi, Ayele-Nati N.; Quinton, Lee J.; Jones, Matthew R.; Ferrari, Joseph D.; Pepper-Cunningham, Zachary A.; Mella, Juan R.; Remick, Daniel G.; Mizgerd, Joseph P.

    2013-01-01

    The acute-phase response is characteristic of perhaps all infections, including bacterial pneumonia. In conjunction with the acute-phase response, additional biological pathways are induced in the liver and are dependent on the transcription factors STAT3 and NF-κB, but these responses are poorly understood. Here, we demonstrate that pneumococcal pneumonia and other severe infections increase expression of multiple components of the cellular secretory machinery in the mouse liver, including t...

  14. [Sequential changes in acute phase reactant proteins and complement activation in patients with acute head injuries].

    Ikeda, Y; Matsuura, H; Nakazawa, S

    1987-12-01

    The role of immunological mechanisms in head injury is not clearly defined. In this study we investigated the immunological function in patients with acute head injuries. Serum acute phase reactant proteins (APRP), complement activation and immunoglobulines as immunological parameters were studied. APRP are produced in the liver and increase in cancer patients as well as those with acute and chronic inflammations, trauma and autoimmune diseases. APRP are known to be one of the immunosuppressive factors in the serum. Forty patients with acute head injuries were studied. Thirty-four patients were male and six patients were female, ages ranged from 12 to 81 years. Serial blood samples were obtained during the first seven days of trauma. The Glasgow Coma Score (GCS) were recorded at the time of admission for all patients. Clinical outcome was assessed at the time of discharge according to the Glasgow Outcome Scale. The "good" group consisted of patients with good recovery or moderate disability. The "bad" group consisted of patients with severe disability, persistent vegetative state and death. The concentrations of immunoglobulines (IgG, IgM, IgA) were within normal range and humoral immunity was not affected. Complement activation at the time of admission was closely related to GCS (p less than 0.01), but the levels of C4, C3, and C3 activator except for these of CH50 were within normal range.(ABSTRACT TRUNCATED AT 250 WORDS) PMID:2451531

  15. Acute phase protein response in an experimental model of ovine caseous lymphadenitis

    Lang Tamara L

    2007-12-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Caseous lymphadenitis (CLA is a disease of small ruminants caused by Corynebacterium pseudotuberculosis. The pathogenesis of CLA is a slow process, and produces a chronic rather than an acute disease state. Acute phase proteins (APP such as haptoglobin (Hp serum amyloid A (SAA and α1 acid glycoprotein (AGP are produced by the liver and released into the circulation in response to pro-inflammatory cytokines. The concentration of Hp in serum increases in experimental CLA but it is not known if SAA and AGP respond in parallel or have differing response profiles. Results The concentration in serum of Hp, SAA and AGP in 6 sheep challenged with 2 × 105 cells of C. pseudotuberculosis showed significant increases (P C. pseudotuberculosis became detectable at 11 days p.i. and continued to rise throughout the experiment. Conclusion The serum concentrations of Hp, SAA and AGP were raised in sheep in an experimental model of CLA. An extended response was found for AGP which occurred at a point when the infection was likely to have been transforming from an acute to a chronic phase. The results suggest that AGP could have a role as a marker for chronic conditions in sheep.

  16. Evaluation of Sialic Acid and Acute Phase Proteins (Haptoglobin and Serum Amyloid A) in Clinical and Subclinical Bovine Mastitis

    S. Nazifi*, M. Haghkhah1, Z. Asadi, M. Ansari-Lari2, M. R. Tabandeh3, Z. Esmailnezhad and M. Aghamiri

    2011-01-01

    The present study was conducted to evaluate the concentrations of sialic acids (total, lipid bound and protein bound) and their correlation with acute phase proteins (haptoglobin and serum amyloid A) in clinical and subclinical mastitis of cattle. Thirty subclinical mastitic cows with positive California mastitis test (CMT) test and no clinical signs of mastitis, 10 clinical mastitic cows and 10 healthy cows with negative CMT test and normal somatic cell count were selected. Milk and blood sa...

  17. Hepatic acute-phase proteins control innate immune responses during infection by promoting myeloid-derived suppressor cell function

    Sander, L.E.; Sackett, S.D.; Dierssen, U.; Beraza, N.; Linke, R.; Müller, M.R.; Blander, J.M.; Tacke, F; Trautwein, C

    2010-01-01

    Acute-phase proteins (APPs) are an evolutionarily conserved family of proteins produced mainly in the liver in response to infection and inflammation. Despite vast pro- and antiinflammatory properties ascribed to individual APPs, their collective function during infections remains poorly defined. Using a mouse model of polymicrobial sepsis, we show that abrogation of APP production by hepatocyte-specific gp130 deletion, the signaling receptor shared by IL-6 family cytokines, strongly increase...

  18. ACUTE PHASE PROTEINS, LIPID PROFILE AND PROINFLAMMATORY CYTOKINES IN HEALTHY AND BRONCHOPNEUMONIC WATER BUFFALO CALVES

    Sabry M. El-Bahr

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available The aim of the present study was to evaluate the diagnostic value of Acute Phase Proteins (APP, lipid profiles and proinflammatory cytokines in healthy and bronchopneumonic water buffalo calves. Therefore, sixty water buffalo calves (9±1 month old, 175±15 kg were divided into two equal groups, the first group represented healthy, control, calves whereas calves of the second group were affected with bronchopneumonia. Total leukocytic and differential counts were determined. Serum total protein, albumin, Triacylglyceol (TAG, low density lipoprotein cholesterol (LDL-c, High Density Lipoprotein cholesterol (HDL-c, Total cholesterol, Alanine Amino Transferase (ALT, Aspartate Amino Transferase (AST, Alkaline Phosphatase (ALP, Fibrinogen (Fb, Haptaglobin (Hp, Serum Amyloid A (SAA, Tumor Necrosis Factor-alpha (TNF-α, Interleukins (IL1β, IL-12 and Interferon-gamma (IFN-γ were also determined. In addition, Bronchoalveolar Lavage (BAL was collected and analyzed. The present findings indicated that, total leukocytic and neutrophils counts were significantly (p<0.05 higher in pneumonic water buffalo calves compare with control. The examined biochemical parameters were significantly (p<0.05 increased in pneumonic calves except for total protein, albumin, cholesterol and HDL-c which were significantly (p<0.05 lower compare with control. Serum concentrations of investigated APP and proinflammatory cytokines were significantly (p<0.05 higher in pneumonic water buffalo calves than those of control. The present study demonstrated that, APP, lipid profile and proinflammatory cytokines perhaps served as biomarkers of bronchopneumonia in water buffalo calves. However, future studies with higher baseline sampling are still needed to establish and validate reference values for APP and cytokines in water buffalo calves.

  19. INFLAMMATION AND ACUTE PHASE RESPONSE

    Farah Aziz Khan

    2010-10-01

    Full Text Available Inflammation caused by infection takes place by the cooperative cascade of cytokines and leukocytes. Tumor necrosis factor, interlukin-1, and interlukin-6 play important roles as proinflammatory cytokines to mediate local inflammation and activate other inflammatory cells e.g. neutrophils, monocytes, and macrophages. At least 15 different low molecular weight cytokine are secreted by activated leukocytes and are responsible for triggering acute phase response in the form of fever, leukocytosis, increased secretion of adreno corticotropic hormones, and production of acute phase proteins. Acute phase proteins are produced in liver under the influence of cytokines, which through blood stream passes to the site of inflammation and kill the pathogens by opsonization and activating complement pathways. The changes in the concentrations of positive acute-phase proteins and negative acute-phase proteins are due to the changes in their production by liver. Three of the best known acute phase proteins are C-reactive protein, serum anyloid A, and haptoglobin. Some disease states are casually related to acute phase proteins. C-reactive protein mediated compliment activation has a key role in some forms of tissue alteration such as cardiac infarction. Elevated S amyloid A levels are seen in chronic arthritis and tuberculosis. Other acute phase proteins show more moderate rise, usually less than fivefold.

  20. Metabolizable protein supply modulated the acute-phase response following vaccination of beef steers.

    Moriel, P; Arthington, J D

    2013-12-01

    Our objective was to evaluate the effects of MP supply, through RUP supplementation, on the acute-phase response of beef steers following vaccination. On d 0, Brangus-crossbred steers (n = 24; 173 ± 31 kg; 175 ± 16 d of age) were randomly assigned to receive 1 of 3 isocaloric diets formulated to provide 85, 100, and 115% of the daily MP requirements of a beef steer gaining 0.66 kg of BW daily. Diets were limit-fed at 1.8% of BW (DM basis) and individually provided to steers once daily (0800 h) from d 0 to 29. Steers were weighed on d 0 and 29, following a 12-h period of feed and water withdrawal. On d 7, steers were vaccinated against Mannheimia haemolytica (OneShot, Pfizer), and blood samples were collected on d 0, 7, 8, 10, 14, 21, and 30. Plasma metabolites were analyzed as repeated measures using the MIXED procedure of SAS. Final BW and ADG were similar (P ≥ 0.50) among treatments (mean = 184 ± 9 kg and 0.5 ± 0.08 kg/d, respectively). Effects of time were detected (P < 0.01) for plasma concentrations of all acute-phase proteins, which peaked between d 7 to 14, returning to baseline concentrations by d 29. Treatment effects were not detected (P ≥ 0.19) for plasma concentrations of acid-soluble protein, albumin, fibrinogen, IGF-1 and serum amyloid-A. Plasma concentrations of total protein (TP) and plasma urea nitrogen (PUN) increased (P ≤ 0.05) with increasing supply of MP (87.1, 89.6, and 90.1 ± 1.09 mg TP/mL and 6.1, 8.3, and 10.3 ± 0.41 mg PUN/dL for 85, 100, and 115% MP steers, respectively). From d 10 to 29, steers provided 115% MP had less (P < 0.001) plasma concentrations of ceruloplasmin than steers fed 85 and 100% MP, which had similar plasma ceruloplasmin concentrations. On d 14, plasma concentrations of haptoglobin were greatest (P ≤ 0.06) for steers fed 115% MP, intermediate for 100% MP, and least for 85% MP (0.98, 0.71 and 0.44 ± 0.099 mg/mL, respectively). On d 10, plasma concentrations of creatinine were greater (P = 0.01) for steers

  1. Increases in the serum acute phase proteins after ozone exposure are associated with induction of genes in the lung but not liver

    Acute Phase Response (APR), a systemic reaction to infection, trauma, and inflammation, is characterized by increases and decreases in plasma levels of positive and negative acute phase proteins (APP), respectively. Although the liver has been shown to contribute to APR in variou...

  2. Diagnostic accuracy of porcine acute phase proteins in meat juice for detecting disease at abattoir.

    Gutiérrez, A M; Martínez-Subiela, S; Cerón, J J

    2015-07-01

    The aim of this work was to evaluate whether acute phase protein (APP) determinations could assist Official Veterinarians carrying out work in slaughterhouses. To test this hypothesis, the diagnostic accuracy of APP determinations in meat juice of pigs was analysed to differentiate between healthy and diseased pigs. One hundred and one pigs of two different origins were classified into two groups according to their health status (healthy and diseased pigs), which was determined by a veterinary clinical examination on the farm. To assess the pigs' immune status, against the main porcine diseases, serological analyses were monitored. A general idea of the degree of disease coverage was analysed by examining organ lesions postmortem. Haptoglobin (Hp) and C reactive protein (CRP) were measured in meat juice samples. 72.13 per cent of pigs appeared to be seropositive for the porcine respiratory and reproductive syndrome virus, and almost 86.2 per cent of them had concomitant infections with other pathogens, such as Porcine circovirus type 2 or Swine influenza virus. Median Hp and CRP concentrations were significantly higher in diseased animals at different stages of the production chain, when compared with levels found in healthy finishing pigs (P<0.0001). Receiver operating characteristic analysis showed the highest sensitivity-specificity pairs, nearly 80-90 per cent, at cut-off levels of 83 and 10 µg/ml for Hp and CRP determinations, respectively, with high AUCs 0.9. This cut-off could be useful for veterinary inspections at the time of slaughter, to differentiate between the carcase of a healthy animal and the carcase of an animal suffering from a systemic disease, which should be completely condemned. PMID:26101294

  3. The serum level of C-reactive protein (CRP) is associated with cognitive performance in acute phase psychosis

    Johnsen, Erik; Fathian, Farivar; Kroken, Rune A.; Vidar M Steen; Jørgensen, Hugo A; Gjestad, Rolf; Løberg, Else-Marie

    2016-01-01

    Background Inflammatory processes have been implicated in the etiology of schizophrenia and related psychoses, in which cognitive deficits represent core symptoms. The aim of the present study was to investigate possible associations between the level of the inflammation marker C-reactive protein (CRP) and cognitive performance in patients through the acute phase of psychosis. Methods A total of 124 patients were assessed at admittance to hospital and 62 patients were retested at discharge or...

  4. Acute phase protein response in cows with staphylococcus aureus subclinical mastitis

    Kovačević-Filipović Milica

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available Inflammation at a local and systemic level is a complex process that involves the synthesis of acute phase proteins (APPs with multiple functions in the regulation of the inflammatory process itself. The aim of this work was to define local and systemic APPs response induced by natural Staph. aureus subclinical infection of the mammary gland in dairy cows with a different number of quarters involved. Midlactation dairy cows (n=30 were devided into three groups. First group were cows with bacteriologically negative milk samples (BN group, second group were cows with one quarter infected with Staph. aureus (SaQ1 and third group were cows with two quarters infected (SaQ2. Milk samples were analyzed for inflammation indicators: serum amyloid A (SAA and somatic cell count (SCC. Serum samples where analyzed for SAA, haptoglobin (Hp, ceruloplasmin (Cp and albumin concentration. Also, complete blood count (CBC was done. SCC and SAA increased in quarter milk samples, being lowest in the BN group and highest in the SaQ2 group. In serum samples, SAA, Hp, Cp and albumin concentrations were significantly higher only in the SaQ2 group comparing with BN group. The leukocyte number, as well as hemoglobin concentration were in the physiological range in all three groups of cows. These results confirm that the magnitude of tissue injury has an impact on APPs concentration. They also demonstrate that cows having Staph. aureus sublinical infections of two mammary quarters have a more pronounced systemic APP response than cows with only one quarter involved.

  5. The role of the acute phase protein PTX3 in the ventilator-induced lung injury

    JM Real

    2008-06-01

    Full Text Available The pentraxin 3 (PTX3 is an acute phase proinflammatory protein produced by fibroblasts and alveolar epithelial cells. We have previously demonstrated that PTX3 is a key modulator of inflammation. Mechanical ventilation (MV is a life saving therapeutic approach for patients with acute lung injury that, nevertheless could lead to an inflammatory response and tissue injury (ventilator-induced lung injury: VILI, representing a major cause of iatrogenic lung damage in intensive units. Our objective was to investigate the role of PTX3 in VILI. PTX3 transgenic, knockout and Wt control mice (n = 12/group were ventilated (45ml·kg–1 until respiratory system Elastance increased 50% (Ers150%, an indicator of VILI. Histological analysis demonstrated that using a Ers150% was appropriate for our analysis since identical degrees of inflammation were observed in Tg, KO and Wt mice as assessed by leukocyte infiltration, oedema, alveolar collapse and number of breaks in alveolar septa. However, Tg mice reached Ers150% faster than Wt controls (p = 0.0225. We also showed that the lack of PTX3 does not abolish the occurrence of VILI in KOs. Gene expression profile of PTX3, IL-1beta, IL-6, KC, IFNgamma, TGFbeta and PCIII were investigated by QPCR. MV drastically up modulated PTX3 as well as IL-1beta, IL-6, IFNgamma and KC. Alternatively, mice were ventilated for 20, 40 and 60 min. The faster kinetics of Tg mice to reach Ers150% was accompanied by an earlier augmentation of IL-1b and PTX3 expression. The kinetics of local PTX3 expression in the lungs of ventilated mice strongly suggests the involvement of this pentraxin in the pathogenesis of VILI.

  6. Cytokine and acute phase protein gene expression in liver biopsies from dairy cows with a lipopolysaccharide - induced mastitis

    Vels, J; Røntved, Christine M.; Bjerring, Martin;

    2009-01-01

    A minimally invasive liver biopsy technique was tested for its applicability to study the hepatic acute phase response (APR) in dairy cows with Escherichia coli lipopolysaccharide (LPS)-induced mastitis. The hepatic mRNA expression profiles of the inflammatory cytokines, tumor necrosis factor (TNF......- ), IL-1β, IL-6, and IL-10, and the acute phase proteins serum amyloid A isoform 3 (SAA3), haptoglobin (Hp), and 1-acid glycoprotein (AGP) were determined by real-time reverse transcription-PCR. Fourteen primiparous cows in mid lactation were challenged with 200 µg of LPS (n = 8) or NaCl solution (n = 6...... SCC (log10 2.1 ± 0.1 vs. log10 2.8 ± 0.1 x 103 cells/mL), heart rate (76 ± 1 vs. 93 ± 1 beats/min), and respiratory rate (32 ± 2 vs. 36 ± 1 breaths/min) in the acute phase of the disease. The LPS treatment upregulated the hepatic expression of TNF- (103 ± 24 vs. 255 ± 18 units), IL-1β (37 ± 23 vs. 296...

  7. Serum protein concentrations, including acute phase proteins, in calves experimentally infected with Salmonella Dublin

    Daniela Gomes da Silva

    2011-07-01

    Full Text Available The aim of this study was to evaluate serum protein concentrations in calves experimentally inoculated with Salmonella Dublin. Twelve healthy 10 to 15-day-old Holstein calves were randomly allotted into two groups, control and infected with 10(8 CFU of Salmonella Dublin orally. The calves were subjected to physical evaluation and blood samples were collected shortly before administration of the bacteria and also 24, 48, 72, 96, 120 and 168 hours post-infection. The concentration of serum proteins was determined through sodium dodecyl sulphate-polyacrylamide gel electrophoresis (SDS-PAGE. Thirty serum proteins ranging from molecular weight of 24,000 Da to molecular weight of 236,000 Da were detected. Serum concentrations of ceruloplasmin (125,000 Da, haptoglobin (45,000 Da, acid glycoprotein (40,000 Da and a 34,000 Da protein were significantly increased in the experimentally infected calves, when compared with their concentrations in the control animals. Therefore, this study showed that S. Dublin infection could lead to the increase of certain serum proteins in calves.

  8. Impact of Diet Supplemented by Coconut Milk on Corticosterone and Acute Phase Protein Level under High Stocking Density

    Majid SHAKERI; Oskoueian, Ehsan; NAJAFI, Pardis

    2016-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to investigate effects of coconut milk supplementation on corticosterone and acute phase protein level under high stocking density. A total 300 Cobb 500 male chicks were placed in cages and stocked as 10 birds/cage (normal stocking density) and 15 birds/cage (high stocking density). The treatments were as (i) control diet and stocked at 10 and 15 birds/cage (ii) control diet + 3% coconut milk from 1-42 day and stocked at 10 and 15 birds/cage (iii) control diet + ...

  9. Genetic effects on acute phase protein response to the stresses of weaning and transportation in beef calves.

    Qiu, X; Arthington, J D; Riley, D G; Chase, C C; Phillips, W A; Coleman, S W; Olson, T A

    2007-10-01

    The objective herein was to estimate heterosis and breed effects in purebred and crossbred Romosinuano, Brahman, and Angus calves on acute phase protein response to weaning and transportation. Calves (n = 1,032) were weaned in September of 2002, 2003, and 2004 at approximately 7 mo of age. Approximately 28 d after weaning, steer calves (n = 482) were transported 1,800 km (20 h) to Oklahoma. Concentrations of 3 acute phase proteins (ceruloplasmin, fibrinogen, and haptoglobin) were measured in blood samples. Calves (steers and heifers) were sampled at weaning, and 24 and 72 h postweaning. For separate analyses, steers sent to Oklahoma were sampled before shipment, upon arrival, and 24 and 72 h after arrival. Combinations of the following fixed effects were investigated: sire breed, dam breed, sampling time, birth location, calf sex (weaning only), year, cow age, and interactions. Effects of special interest were sire breed x dam breed as an indication of breed group of calf, and the interaction of sire and dam breeds with sampling time. Weaning age and BW were investigated as linear and quadratic covariates. Sire of calf within sire breed was a random term. The correlation structure of repeated measures was determined by comparison of information criterion values for different structures within each analysis. In general, plasma acute phase protein concentrations in weaned calves increased with sampling time. Concentrations in the transported steers increased through sampling at 24 h after arrival, and were lower at 72 h. Significant estimates of heterosis were detected for Brahman-Angus haptoglobin concentrations at weaning (0.38 +/- 0.14 mg/dL x 100; 44%), and for Romosinuano-Angus fibrinogen concentrations at weaning (11.4 +/- 5.5 mg/dL; 10%) and in transported steers (22.5 +/- 8.4 mg/dL; 20%). The direct effect of Romosinuano was to increase (P Angus was to lower ceruloplasmin concentrations in weaned calves (-3.9 +/- 1.2; P = 0.001). Significant maternal effects

  10. Regulation of major acute-phase plasma proteins by hepatocyte- stimulating factors of human squamous carcinoma cells

    1986-01-01

    Human squamous carcinoma (COLO-16) cells release factors which specifically stimulate the synthesis of major acute-phase plasma proteins in human and rodent hepatic cells. Anion exchange, hydroxyapatite, lectin, and gel chromatography of conditioned medium of COLO-16 cells result in separation into three distinct forms of hepatocyte-stimulating factors (designated HSF-I, HSF-II, and HSF-III) with apparent molecular weights of 30,000, 50,000 and 70,000, respectively. None of the preparations c...

  11. Serum protein concentrations, including acute phase proteins, in calves experimentally infected with Salmonella Dublin

    Daniela Gomes da Silva; Péricles Ricardo Lacerda e Silva; Paulo César da Silva; José Jurandir Fagliari

    2011-01-01

    The aim of this study was to evaluate serum protein concentrations in calves experimentally inoculated with Salmonella Dublin. Twelve healthy 10 to 15-day-old Holstein calves were randomly allotted into two groups, control and infected with 10(8) CFU of Salmonella Dublin orally. The calves were subjected to physical evaluation and blood samples were collected shortly before administration of the bacteria and also 24, 48, 72, 96, 120 and 168 hours post-infection. The concentration of serum pro...

  12. Significance of lipopolysaccharide-binding protein (an acute phase protein) in monitoring critically ill patients

    Prucha, Miroslav; Herold, Ivan; Zazula, Roman; Dubska, Ladislava; Dostal, Miroslav; Hildebrand, Thomas; Hyanek, Josef

    2003-01-01

    Introduction The present study was conducted to assess the value of serum concentration of lipopolysaccharide-binding protein (LBP) in patients with systemic inflammatory response syndrome (SIRS), sepsis and septic shock with respect to its ability to differentiate between infectious and noninfectious etiologies in SIRS and to predict prognosis. Methods This prospective cohort study was conducted in a multidisciplinary intensive care unit. Sixty-eight patients, admitted consecutively to the i...

  13. Potential of acute phase proteins as predictor of postpartum uterine infections during transition period and its regulatory mechanism in dairy cattle

    Manimaran, A.; Kumaresan, A.; Jeyakumar, S.; Mohanty, T. K.; Sejian, V.; Narender Kumar; L. Sreela; M. Arul Prakash; Mooventhan, P.; Anantharaj, A.; Das, D.N.

    2016-01-01

    Among the various systemic reactions against infection or injury, the acute phase response is the cascade of reaction and mostly coordinated by cytokines-mediated acute phase proteins (APPs) production. Since APPs are sensitive innate immune molecules, they are useful for early detection of inflammation in bovines and believed to be better discriminators than routine hematological parameters. Therefore, the possibility of using APPs as a diagnostic and prognostic marker of inflammation in maj...

  14. Cytokines and the hepatic acute phase response

    Moshage, H

    1997-01-01

    The acute phase response is an orchestrated response to tissue injury, infection or inflammation. A prominent feature of this response is the induction of acute phase proteins, which are involved in the restoration of homeostasis. Cytokines are important mediators of the acute phase response. Uncont

  15. ACUTE PHASE PROTEIN RESPONSES IN MICE INFECTED WITH RIVER WATER CONTAMINATED BY PASTEURELLA MULTOCIDA TYPE B: 2

    Mohammed Muqdad Khaleel

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Animals are predisposed to infections through varieties of ways which activate the innate immune systems at the initial phase of acute infections. Hemorrhagic Septicemia (HS is a devastating septicemic disease of cattle and buffaloes caused by a particular serotypes of Pasteurella multocida and serotype B: 2 is the most important cause of the disease in Asia. Therefore, the present study aims to investigate on acute phase protein responses in mice infected with river water contaminated by Pasteurella multocida type B: 2. Five infected mice were placed in each tank containing river water for 24, 48 and 72 h. The groups comprise of five mice each made up of the control, intraperitoneal, oral and the aerosol routes. There were increased concentrations of Haptoglobin (Hp in the mice inoculated with infected river water kept for 24 h intraperitoneally (p<0.0454 relative to the control, oral and the aerosol routes. There was significant increased concentration of Serum Amyloid A (SAA in the mice that were inoculated with infected river water kept for 72 h intraperitoneally (p<0.0020 compared to control, orally and the aerosol routes. The intraperitoneal route though most effective in response but practically not feasible for vaccine administration in larger animals and the oral routes was inadequate in eliciting acute phase response in the present study of mice model. Therefore, the aerosol routes could perhaps be a readily available route for effective vaccine administration and heightened immunity in animals considering the progressive responses of APPs through this route.

  16. Different altered stage correlative expression of high abundance acute-phase proteins in sera of patients with epithelial ovarian carcinoma

    Lim Boon-Kiong

    2009-08-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background The general enhanced expression of α1-antichymotrypsin (ACT, clusterin (CLU, α1-antitrypsin (AAT, haptoglobin β-chain (HAP, and leucine rich glycoprotein (LRG in the sera of patients with epithelial ovarian carcinoma (EOCa was recently reported. In the present study, we compared the expression of the serum acute-phase proteins (APPs in the patients according to their stages of cancer. Results Different altered stage correlative expression of the high abundance serum APPs was demonstrated in sera of the patients studied. While the expression of ACT, HAP and AAT appeared to demonstrate positive correlation with the three initial stages of the cancer, inverse correlation was apparently detected in the expression of LRG and CLU. For patients who were diagnosed with stage IV of the cancer, expression of the serum APPs did not conform to the altered progression changes. Conclusion Our results highlight the potential prognostic significance of selective high abundance serum APPs in patients with EOCa.

  17. Elevation of intact and proteolytic fragments of acute phase proteins constitutes the earliest systemic antiviral response in HIV-1 infection.

    Holger B Kramer

    2010-05-01

    Full Text Available The earliest immune responses activated in acute human immunodeficiency virus type 1 infection (AHI exert a critical influence on subsequent virus spread or containment. During this time frame, components of the innate immune system such as macrophages and DCs, NK cells, beta-defensins, complement and other anti-microbial factors, which have all been implicated in modulating HIV infection, may play particularly important roles. A proteomics-based screen was performed on a cohort from whom samples were available at time points prior to the earliest positive HIV detection. The ability of selected factors found to be elevated in the plasma during AHI to inhibit HIV-1 replication was analyzed using in vitro PBMC and DC infection models. Analysis of unique plasma donor panels spanning the eclipse and viral expansion phases revealed very early alterations in plasma proteins in AHI. Induction of acute phase protein serum amyloid A (A-SAA occurred as early as 5-7 days prior to the first detection of plasma viral RNA, considerably prior to any elevation in systemic cytokine levels. Furthermore, a proteolytic fragment of alpha-1-antitrypsin (AAT, termed virus inhibitory peptide (VIRIP, was observed in plasma coincident with viremia. Both A-SAA and VIRIP have anti-viral activity in vitro and quantitation of their plasma levels indicated that circulating concentrations are likely to be within the range of their inhibitory activity. Our results provide evidence for a first wave of host anti-viral defense occurring in the eclipse phase of AHI prior to systemic activation of other immune responses. Insights gained into the mechanism of action of acute-phase reactants and other innate molecules against HIV and how they are induced could be exploited for the future development of more efficient prophylactic vaccine strategies.

  18. Measurement of acute phase proteins for assessing severity of Plasmodium falciparum malaria.

    Gillespie, S H; C. DOW; Raynes, J G; Behrens, R. H.; Chiodini, P L; McAdam, K P

    1991-01-01

    Seventeen adult patients with acute Plasmodium falciparum malaria, admitted to the Hospital for Tropical Diseases, were studied. Serial measurements of the serum concentration of C-reactive protein, serum amyloid A protein, and percentage parasitaemia were determined, together with initial measurement of serum electrolytes, liver function, haemoglobin, white cell and platelet counts. Initial C-reactive protein and serum amyloid A concentrations were increased (C-reactive protein mean 49.0 mg/...

  19. Acute Phase Response in Animals: A Review

    Cray, Carolyn; Zaias, Julia; Altman, Norman H

    2009-01-01

    The acute phase response is a complex systemic early-defense system activated by trauma, infection, stress, neoplasia, and inflammation. Although nonspecific, it serves as a core of the innate immune response involving physical and molecular barriers and responses that serve to prevent infection, clear potential pathogens, initiate inflammatory processes, and contribute to resolution and the healing process. Acute phase proteins, an integral part of the acute phase response, have been a focus...

  20. The relationship among acute-phase response proteins, cytokines and hormones in cachectic patients with colon cancer

    Dulger Ahmet

    2010-09-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Backgraund Acute-phase response proteins (APRP, cytokines and hormones have been claimed to be an independent prognostic factor of malignancies, however the basis for their association with prognosis remains unexplained. We suggest that in colon malignancies, as similar to pancreatic and lung cancers, changes in APRP are associated with angiogenesis. Methods C-reactive protein (CRP, albumin, IL-1α, IL-1β, IL-6, IL-8, IL-10, TNF-α, midkine, VEGF-A, VEGF-C, leptin, adiponectin, and ghrelin serum levels are studied in 126 colon cancer patients and 36 healthy subjects. Results We found statistically significant difference and correlations between two groups. We found significantly higher serum CRP, IL-1α, IL-1β, IL-6, IL-8, IL-10, TNF-α, VEGF-A, VEGF-C and leptin concentrations in patients relative to controls (p Conclusions Cachexia in patients with colon cancers is associated with changes in APRP, cytokines and hormone concentrations. These biomarkers and cachexia together have a direct relationship with accelerated angiogenesis. This may lead to a connection between the outcomes in malignancies and the biomarkers.

  1. ITIH4 (inter-alpha-trypsin inhibitor heavy chain 4) is a new acute-phase protein isolated from cattle during experimental infection

    Pineiro, M.; Andres, M.; Iturralde, M.;

    2004-01-01

    We have isolated from calf serum a protein with an apparent M, of 120,000. The protein was detected by using antibodies against major acute-phase protein in pigs with acute inflammation. The amino acid sequence of an internal fragment revealed that this protein is the bovine counterpart of ITIH4...... Peptostreptococcus indolicus to induce an acute-phase reaction. All animals developed moderate to severe clinical mastitis and exhibited remarkable increases in ITIH4 concentration in serum (from 3 to 12 times the initial values, peaking at 48 to 72 h after infection) that correlated with the severity of the disease....... Animals with experimental infections with bovine respiratory syncytial virus (BRSV) also showed increases in ITIH4 concentration (from two- to fivefold), which peaked at around 7 to 8 days after inoculation. Generally, no response was seen after a second infection of the same animals with the virus...

  2. Evaluation of Sialic Acid and Acute Phase Proteins (Haptoglobin and Serum Amyloid A in Clinical and Subclinical Bovine Mastitis

    S. Nazifi*, M. Haghkhah1, Z. Asadi, M. Ansari-Lari2, M. R. Tabandeh3, Z. Esmailnezhad and M. Aghamiri

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available The present study was conducted to evaluate the concentrations of sialic acids (total, lipid bound and protein bound and their correlation with acute phase proteins (haptoglobin and serum amyloid A in clinical and subclinical mastitis of cattle. Thirty subclinical mastitic cows with positive California mastitis test (CMT test and no clinical signs of mastitis, 10 clinical mastitic cows and 10 healthy cows with negative CMT test and normal somatic cell count were selected. Milk and blood samples were collected after confirmation of clinical and subclinical mastitis by somatic cell count and bacterial identification. Serum haptoglobin (Hp, serum amyloid A (SAA, total sialic acid (TSA, lipid bound sialic acid (LBSA and protein bound sialic acid (PBSA were measured by validated standard methods. Haptoglobin and SAA increased significantly in both types of mastitis compared with control group (P<0.001. However, the ratio of HP/SAA was significantly different from the control group only in clinical mastitis. The results showed that TSA and LBSA were significantly different in control group compared with clinical and subclinical mastitis (P<0.001. Protein bound sialic acid did not change in subclinical mastitis in comparison with control group (P=0.86. There was positive correlation between LBSA and PBSA in clinical mastitis (r=0.72, P=0.02 whereas significant negative correlation was observed between LBSA and PBSA in subclinical mastitis (r=-0.62, P<0.001. Results also showed no correlation between Hp and SAA with each other or with any other parameters in study groups.

  3. The Acute-Phase Protein Orosomucoid Regulates Food Intake and Energy Homeostasis via Leptin Receptor Signaling Pathway.

    Sun, Yang; Yang, Yili; Qin, Zhen; Cai, Jinya; Guo, Xiuming; Tang, Yun; Wan, Jingjing; Su, Ding-Feng; Liu, Xia

    2016-06-01

    The acute-phase protein orosomucoid (ORM) exhibits a variety of activities in vitro and in vivo, notably modulation of immunity and transportation of drugs. We found in this study that mice lacking ORM1 displayed aberrant energy homeostasis characterized by increased body weight and fat mass. Further investigation found that ORM, predominantly ORM1, is significantly elevated in sera, liver, and adipose tissues from the mice with high-fat diet (HFD)-induced obesity and db/db mice that develop obesity spontaneously due to mutation in the leptin receptor (LepR). Intravenous or intraperitoneal administration of exogenous ORM decreased food intake in C57BL/6, HFD, and leptin-deficient ob/ob mice, which was absent in db/db mice and was significantly reduced in mice with arcuate nucleus (ARC) LepR knockdown, whereas enforced expression of ORM1 in ARC significantly decreased food intake, body weight, and serum insulin level. Furthermore, we found that ORM is able to bind directly to LepR and activate the receptor-mediated JAK2-STAT3 signaling in hypothalamus tissue and GT1-7 cells, which was derived from hypothalamic tumor. These data indicated that ORM could function through LepR to regulate food intake and energy homeostasis in response to nutrition status. Modulating the expression of ORM is a novel strategy for the management of obesity and related metabolic disorders. PMID:27207522

  4. Acute-phase proteins, oxidative stress biomarkers, proinflammatory cytokines, and cardiac troponin in Arabian mares affected with pyometra.

    El-Bahr, S M; El-Deeb, W M

    2016-09-01

    New biomarkers are essential for diagnosis of pyometra in mares. In this context, 12 subfertile Arabian mares suffered from pyometra were admitted to the Veterinary Teaching Hospital. The basis for diagnosis of pyometra was positive findings of clinical examination and rectal palpation. Blood samples were collected from diseased animals and from five Arabian healthy mares, which were considered as control group. Acute-phase proteins (APP), oxidative stress biomarkers, proinflammatory cytokines, and cardiac troponin I were estimated in the harvested sera of both groups. Clinical examination revealed purulent yellowish fluid discharged from vagina of affected animals and rectal palpation of the reproductive tract revealed uterine distention. The biochemical analysis of the serum revealed significant increase in cardiac troponin I, creatin kinase, alkaline phosphatase, malondialdehyde, tumor necrosis factor α, interleukins 6, prostaglandin F2α, haptoglobin, and serum amyloid A and significant decrease in reduced glutathione, superoxide dismutase (SOD), total antioxidant capacity, and nitric oxide (NO) of mares affected with pyometra compare to control. Cardiac troponin I was positively correlated with aspartate aminotransferase, creatin kinase, malondialdehyde, alkaline phosphatase, tumor necrosis factor α, interleukins 6, prostaglandin F2α, haptoglobin and serum amyloid A and negatively correlated with glutathione, superoxide dismutase, total antioxidant capacity and nitric oxide in serum of mares affected with pyometra. Moreover, there was high positive correlation between proinflammatory cytokines and APP in serum of mares affected with pyometra. The present study suggests cardiac troponin I together with APP, proinflammatory cytokines, and oxidative stress parameters as biomarkers for pyometra in Arabian mares. PMID:27177966

  5. Acute phase proteins increase with sarcoptic mange status and severity in Iberian ibex (Capra pyrenaica, Schinz 1838).

    Ráez-Bravo, Arián; Granados, José Enrique; Cerón, José Joaquín; Cano-Manuel, Francisco Javier; Fandos, Paulino; Pérez, Jesús María; Espinosa, José; Soriguer, Ramón Casimiro; López-Olvera, Jorge Ramón

    2015-11-01

    Sarcoptic mange is a contagious skin disease caused by Sarcoptes scabiei, affecting both domestic and wild mammals, including the Iberian ibex (Capra pyrenaica), a medium-sized mountain ungulate almost endemic to the Iberian Peninsula. Acute phase proteins (APPs) could be an indicator of sarcoptic mange disease and severity in Iberian ibex. Serum samples from 131 healthy and sarcoptic mange-affected Iberian ibexes were collected from 2005 to 2012 in Sierra Nevada Natural Space in southern Spain. Serum alpha-1-acid glycoprotein (AGP), serum amyloid A (SAA) and haptoglobin (Hp) concentrations were quantified, and statistically significant differences according to sarcoptic mange disease and severity were assessed. Both AGP and SAA were significantly higher in the sarcoptic mange-affected ibexes than in the healthy ones as well as in the severely affected ibexes as compared to those with less than 50 % of the body surface affected. For the first time, changes in APP are reported in relation to sarcoptic mange in Iberian ibex. It is also reported for the first time that the intensity of APP increase depends on the severity of sarcoptic mange, which could be related with the pathological secondary amyloidosis, leading to organ dysfunction in severely mange-affected animals. Species and population differences in the increase of APP in response to sarcoptic mange could indicate individual and population differences in the immune capability of each population to deal with mange, population prevalence and mortality being the last indicators of such sensitivity. PMID:26227139

  6. Extensive changes in innate immune gene expression in obese Göttingen minipigs do not lead to changes in concentrations of circulating cytokines and acute phase proteins

    Højbøge, Tina Rødgaard; Skovgaard, Kerstin; Moesgaard, S. G.;

    2014-01-01

    been studied in Göttingen minipigs. Therefore, we studied the expression of innate immune genes in liver and adipose tissues as well as serum concentrations of cytokines and acute phase proteins in obese vs. lean Göttingen minipigs. In the liver, of 35 investigated genes, the expression of nine was...... receptor antagonist (up-regulated) with interleukin 1 receptor antagonist being the most highly regulated gene in both VAT and RPAT. Looking at patterns of expression across the three types of adipose tissues, obesity was associated with an increased number of acute phase proteins differentially expressed...... between adipose tissues and a decreased tissue-specific expression of cytokines and chemokines. In contrast to obese humans, no changes in serum concentrations of haptoglobin, C-reactive protein, serum amyloid A, tumor necrosis factor-α and interleukin 6 were found in obese Göttingen minipigs....

  7. Assessment of acute phase proteins and oxidative stress status of Nigerians using bleaching agents

    The disruption of primary innate immune function of the epidermal layer of the skin accounts for the susceptibility of individuals using bleaching agents to localized or systemic infections. This subverted innate immunity in these people may lead to other pathological conditions. The resultant effects of skin bleaching and phagocytes activation in response to infections have not been studied in Nigerians using bleaching agents. The present study therefore assessed the levels of C-reactive protein (CRP), albumin, total antioxidant potential (TAP), total plasma peroxides (TPP), oxidative stress index (OSI) and malonaldehyde (MDA) in the users bleaching agents. Thirty (30) people who had used bleaching agents for average of 4.9 + 1.2 years participated in this study. They were recruited from various schools and markets within the city of Ibadan, Oyo State, Nigeria. Thirty apparently healthy staffs of University College Hospital Ibadan, Ibaadan, Nigeria, who had never used bleaching agents served as controls. All the subjects used for this study had no metabolic abnormality and tested negative to both HIV and hepatitis B infections. The mean value of TAP (p 0.20) when compared with the controls. Oxidative stress and chronic inflammation are possible consequences of skin bleaching. The users of skin bleaching agents may need antioxidant therapies to avert the risks of oxidative stress. (author)

  8. Connective tissue growth factor reacts as an IL-6/STAT3-regulated hepatic negative acute phase protein

    Olav A Gressner; Ieva Peredniene; Axel M Gressner

    2011-01-01

    AIM: To investigate the mechanisms involved in a possible modulator role of interleukin (IL)-6 signalling on CYR61-CTGF-NOV (CCN) 2/connective tissue growth factor (CTGF) expression in hepatocytes (PC) and to look for a relation between serum concentrations of these two parameters in patients with acute inflammation.METHODS: Expression of CCN2/CTGF, p-STAT3, p-Smad 3/1 and p-Smad2 was examined in primary freshly isolated rat or cryo-preserved human PC exposed to various stimuli by Western blotting, electrophoretic mobility shift assay (EMSA), reporter-gene-assays and reversetranscriptase polymerase chain reaction.RESULTS: IL-6 strongly down-regulated CCN2/CTGF protein and mRNA expression in PC, enhanceable by extracellular presence of the soluble IL-6 receptor gp80,and supported by an inverse relation between IL-6 and CCN2/CTGF concentrations in patients' sera. The inhibition of TGFβ1 driven CCN2/CTGF expression by IL-6 did not involve a modulation of Smad2 (and Smad1/3)signalling. However, the STAT3 SH2 domain binding peptide, a selective inhibitor of STAT3 DNA binding activity, counteracted the inhibitory effect of IL-6 on CCN2/CTGF expression much more pronounced than pyrrolidine-dithiocarbamate, an inhibitor primarily of STAT3 phosphorylation. An EMSA confirmed STAT3 binding to the proposed proximal STAT binding site in the CCN2 /CTGF promoter.CONCLUSION: CCN2/CTGF is identified as a hepatocellular negative acute phase protein which is downregulated by IL-6 via the STAT3 pathway through interaction on the DNA binding level.

  9. Proteins involved on TGF-β pathway are up-regulated during the acute phase of experimental Chagas disease.

    Ferreira, Roberto Rodrigues; de Souza, Elen Mello; de Oliveira, Fabiane Loiola; Ferrão, Patrícia Mello; Gomes, Leonardo Henrique Ferreira; Mendonça-Lima, Leila; Meuser-Batista, Marcelo; Bailly, Sabine; Feige, Jean Jacques; de Araujo-Jorge, Tania Cremonini; Waghabi, Mariana Caldas

    2016-05-01

    Studies developed by our group in the last years have shown the involvement of TGF-β in acute and chronic Chagas heart disease, with elevated plasma levels and activated TGF-β cell signaling pathway as remarkable features of patients in the advanced stages of this disease, when high levels of cardiac fibrosis is present. Imbalance in synthesis and degradation of extracellular matrix components is the basis of pathological fibrosis and TGF-β is considered as one of the key regulators of this process. In the present study, we investigated the activity of the TGF-β signaling pathway, including receptors and signaling proteins activation in the heart of animals experimentally infected with Trypanosoma cruzi during the period that mimics the acute phase of Chagas disease. We observed that T. cruzi-infected animals presented increased expression of TGF-β receptors. Overexpression of receptors was followed by an increased phosphorylation of Smad2/3, p38 and ERK. Furthermore, we correlated these activities with cellular factors involved in the fibrotic process induced by TGF-β. We observed that the expression of collagen I, fibronectin and CTGF were increased in the heart of infected animals on day 15 post-infection. Correlated with the increased TGF-β activity in the heart, we found that serum levels of total TGF-β were significantly higher during acute infection. Taken together, our data suggest that the commitment of the heart associates with increased activity of TGF-β pathway and expression of its main components. Our results, confirm the importance of this cytokine in the development and maintenance of cardiac damage caused by T. cruzi infection. PMID:26852285

  10. The rat acute-phase protein {alpha}{sub 2}-macroglobulin plays a central role in amifostine-mediated radioprotection

    Mirjana, Mihailovic; Goran, Poznanovic; Nevena, Grdovic; Melita, Vidakovic; Svetlana, Dinic; Ilijana, Grigorov; Desanka, Bogojevic, E-mail: mista@ibiss.bg.ac.r [Department of Molecular Biology, Institute for Biological Research ' Sinisa Stankovic' , University of Belgrade, Bulevar despota Stefana 142, 11060 Belgrade (Serbia)

    2010-09-15

    Previously we reported that elevated circulating concentrations of the acute-phase (AP) protein {alpha}{sub 2}-macroglobulin ({alpha}{sub 2}M), either as typically occurring in pregnant female rats or after administration to male rats, provides radioprotection, displayed as 100% survival of experimental animals exposed to total-body irradiation with 6.7 Gy (LD{sub 50/30}) x-rays, that is as effective as that afforded by the synthetic radioprotector amifostine. The finding that amifostine administration induces a 45-fold increase in {alpha}{sub 2}M in the circulation led us to hypothesise that {alpha}{sub 2}M assumes an essential role in both natural and amifostine-mediated radioprotection in the rat. In the present work we examined the activation of cytoprotective mechanisms in rat hepatocytes after the exogenous administration of {alpha}{sub 2}M and amifostine. Our results showed that the IL6/JAK/STAT3 hepatoprotective signal pathway, described in a variety of liver-injury models, upregulated the {alpha}{sub 2}M gene in amifostine-pretreated animals. In both {alpha}{sub 2}M- and amifostine-pretreated rats we observed the activation of the Akt signalling pathways that mediate cellular survival. At the cellular level this was reflected as a significant reduction of irradiation-induced DNA damage that allowed for the rapid and complete restoration of liver mass and ultimately at the level of the whole organism the complete restoration of body weight. We conclude that the selective upregulation of {alpha}{sub 2}M plays a central role in amifostine-provided radioprotection.

  11. A robust quantitative solid phase immunoassay for the acute phase protein C-reactive protein (CRP) based on cytidine 5 '-diphosphocholine coupled dendrimers

    Heegaard, Peter M. H.; Pedersen, H. G.; Jensen, A. L.; Boas, Ulrik

    2009-01-01

    C-reactive protein (CRP) is an important acute phase protein, being used as a sensitive indicator of inflammation and infection and is also associated with the risk of cardiovascular problems. The present paper describes a robust and sensitive ELISA for CRP, based on the affinity of CRP for...... phosphocholine. In this design synthetic globular polymers (dendrimers) are used as scaffolds for the multivalent display of phosphocholine molecules. CRP present in a sample binds to the phosphocholine moiety presented at high density in the coating layer and is detectable by specific antibodies. The ELISA was...... applied to determination of pig and human CRP using commercially available antibodies against human CRP. The assay was shown to be more sensitive than previously published immunoassays employing albumin-coupled cytidine diphosphocholine. The coating was stable for at least 30 days at room temperature and...

  12. Effects of Salmonella typhimurium Challenge on Swine Growth, Nitrogen Balance, Insulin-like Growth Factor-I, and Acute Phase Proteins

    J. A. Loughmiller

    2007-01-01

    Full Text Available Growing barrows were used to determine the effects of an en teric disease challenge on nutrient balance, growth, acute phase proteins, and IGF-I. Pigs were challenged on d 0 with Salmonella typhimurium (S; N=21, or unchallenged and fed ad libitum (A; n=6, or unchallenged and pair-fed the same amount of feed as a challenged pig (P; n=8. Blood was collected on d -3, 1, 5, 9, and 15. A disease challenge  time interaction was observed for serum haptoglobin (P typhimurium challenge (P > 0.20. Results indicate that 66% of the short-term reductions in average daily gain from an acute S. typhimurium disease challenge are due to reductions in feed intake. The remaining differences are due to the acute phase immune response.

  13. Potential of acute phase proteins as predictor of postpartum uterine infections during transition period and its regulatory mechanism in dairy cattle

    A. Manimaran

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Among the various systemic reactions against infection or injury, the acute phase response is the cascade of reaction and mostly coordinated by cytokines-mediated acute phase proteins (APPs production. Since APPs are sensitive innate immune molecules, they are useful for early detection of inflammation in bovines and believed to be better discriminators than routine hematological parameters. Therefore, the possibility of using APPs as a diagnostic and prognostic marker of inflammation in major bovine health disorders including postpartum uterine infection has been explored by many workers. In this review, we discussed specifically importance of postpartum uterine infection, the role of energy balance in uterine infections and potential of APPs as a predictor of postpartum uterine infections during the transition period and its regulatory mechanism in dairy cattle.

  14. Mass-spectrometric identification of T-kininogen I/thiostatin as an acute-phase inflammatory protein suppressed by curcumin and capsaicin.

    Joe, Bina; Nagaraju, Anitha; Gowda, Lalitha R; Basrur, Venkatesha; Lokesh, Belur R

    2014-01-01

    Curcumin and capsaicin are dietary xenobiotics with well-documented anti-inflammatory properties. Previously, the beneficial effect of these spice principles in lowering chronic inflammation was demonstrated using a rat experimental model for arthritis. The extent of lowering of arthritic index by the spice principles was associated with a significant shift in macrophage function favoring the reduction of pro-inflammatory molecules such as reactive oxygen species and production and release of anti-inflammatory metabolites of arachidonic acid. Beyond the cellular effects on macrophage function, oral administration of curcumin and capsaicin caused alterations in serum protein profiles of rats injected with adjuvant to develop arthritis. Specifically, a 72 kDa acidic glycoprotein, GpA72, which was elevated in pre-arthritic rats, was significantly lowered by feeding either curcumin or capsaicin to the rats. Employing the tandem mass spectrometric approach for direct sequencing of peptides, here we report the identification of GpA72 as T-kininogen I also known as Thiostatin. Since T-kininogen I is an early acute-phase protein, we additionally tested the efficiency of curcumin and capsaicin to mediate the inflammatory response in an acute phase model. The results demonstrate that curcumin and capsaicin lower the acute-phase inflammatory response, the molecular mechanism for which is, in part, mediated by pathways associated with the lowering of T-kininogen I. PMID:25299597

  15. The lipopolysaccharide-binding protein is a secretory class 1 acute-phase protein whose gene is transcriptionally activated by APRF/STAT/3 and other cytokine-inducible nuclear proteins.

    Schumann, R.R.; Kirschning, C.J.; Unbehaun, A; Aberle, H P; Knope, H P; Lamping, N; Ulevitch, R J; Herrmann, F.

    1996-01-01

    Acute-phase reactants (APRs) are proteins synthesized in the liver following induction by interleukin-1 (IL-1), IL-6, and glucocorticoids, involving transcriptional gene activation. Lipopolysaccharide-binding protein (LBP) is a recently identified hepatic secretory protein potentially involved in the pathogenesis of sepsis, capable of binding the bacterial cell wall product endotoxin and directing it to its cellular receptor, CD14. In order to examine the transcriptional induction mechanisms ...

  16. Interferon beta 2/B-cell stimulatory factor type 2 shares identity with monocyte-derived hepatocyte-stimulating factor and regulates the major acute phase protein response in liver cells.

    Gauldie, J.; C. Richards; Harnish, D; Lansdorp, P.; Baumann, H

    1987-01-01

    One of the oldest and most preserved of the homeostatic responses of the body to injury is the acute phase protein response associated with inflammation. The liver responds to hormone-like mediators by the increased synthesis of a series of plasma proteins called acute phase reactants. In these studies, we examined the relationship of hepatocyte-stimulating factor derived from peripheral blood monocytes to interferon beta 2 (IFN-beta 2), which has been cloned. Antibodies raised against fibrob...

  17. Reduction of liver function delays resumption of postpartum ovarian activity and alters the synthesis of acute phase proteins in dairy cows.

    Montagner, Paula; Krause, Ana Rita Tavares; Schwegler, Elizabeth; Weschenfelder, Marina Menoncin; Rabassa, Viviane Rohrig; Schneider, Augusto; Pereira, Rubens Alves; Brauner, Cássio Cassal; Del Pino, Francisco Augusto Burkert; Gonçalves, Fernanda Medeiros; Corrêa, Marcio Nunes

    2016-06-01

    The aim of this study was to evaluate the concentration of acute phase proteins, milk production, and resumption of postpartum ovarian activity of clinically healthy dairy cows in a semi-extensive system with different Liver Functionality Index (LFI) values. The animals were divided into two groups: Low LFI (LLFI: -7 to -12; n: 10) and High LFI (HLFI: -7 to -4; n: 10). Animals with LLFI had lower paraoxonase activity and lower albumin concentration in the pre- and postpartum periods (Pacute phase proteins and the first ovulation interval, and it can be used to improve the production and reproductive performance. PMID:27234541

  18. Inflammatory cytokine and acute phase protein concentrations in the peripheral blood and uterine washings of cows with subclinical endometritis in the late postpartum period

    Brodzki, Piotr; Kostro, Krzysztof; Krakowski, Leszek; Marczuk, Jan

    2015-01-01

    The aim of the study was to evaluate the concentrations of proinflammatory cytokines: tumor necrosis factor (TNF-α) and interleukin-6 (IL-6), anti-inflammatory cytokine interleukin-10 (IL-10), and acute phase proteins (APPs)—haptoglobin (Hp) and serum amyloid A (SAA) in serum and uterine washings of cows with subclinical endometritis, and compare them to healthy animals. The study was performed on 24 cows on day 60 after delivery. The cows were divided into two groups based on the results of ...

  19. Expression of acute phase proteins and inflammatory cytokines in mouse mammary gland following Staphylococcus aureus challenge and in response to milk accumulation

    Nazemi, Sasan; Aalbæk, Bent; Kjelgaard-Hansen, Mads;

    2014-01-01

    We used a mouse model of pathogenic (Staphylococcus aureus) and non-pathogenic (teat sealing) mammary inflammation to investigate mRNA expression of several inflammatory cytokines and acute phase proteins (APP) in mammary tissue and liver, and the appearance of some of these factors in plasma and...... combination might provide a tool for diagnostic discrimination between mastitis caused by pathogenic invasion and milk accumulation, and hence allow for better targeting of antibiotic therapy. In comparison with mammary expression, expression of cytokines in liver tissue was up-regulated to a similar or...

  20. A selected reaction monitoring-based analysis of acute phase proteins in interstitial fluids from experimental equine wounds healing by secondary intention

    Bundgaard, Louise; Bendixen, Emøke; Sørensen, Mette Aamand;

    2016-01-01

    levels of inflammatory acute phase proteins (APPs) in interstitial fluid from wounds in horses. A novel approach for absolute quantification of proteins, selected reaction monitoring (SRM)-based mass spectrometry in combination with a quantification concatamer (QconCAT), was used for the quantification...... from five horses at days 1, 2, 7, and 14 after wounding and healing without (body) and with (limb) the formation of EGT. The QconCAT included proteotypic peptides representing each of the protein targets and was used to direct the design of a gene, which was expressed in Escherichia coli in a media...... supplemented with stable isotopes for metabolically labeling of standard peptides. Co-analysis of wound interstitial fluid samples with the stable isotope-labeled QconCAT tryptic peptides in known amounts enabled quantification of the APPs in absolute terms. The concentrations of fibrinogen, haptoglobin...

  1. In vivo changes in plasma acute phase protein levels in the rat induced by slow release of IL-1, IL-6 and TNF

    E. J. Lewis

    1992-01-01

    Full Text Available Administration of large doses of cytokines by injection is required to induce changes in acute phase protein levels. Comparisons were made in the rat of the effects of administering recombinant human cytokines by injection with continuous release from implanted osmotic minipumps. Continuous release of interleukin-1β (0.2–2.1 ng h-1 induced dose-related changes in the plasma levels of albumin, seromucoid proteins, haptoglobin and caeruloplasmin; interleukin-1α had similar effects but required higher doses (2–21 ng h-1. Tumour necrosis factor α (50 ng h-1 only significantly increased seromucoid levels, whereas IL-6 (3–30 ng h-1 induced haptoglobin and caeruloplassynthesis. This method provides a better technique for studying the in rive effects of cytokines which may be relevant to the release mechanisms in inflammation.

  2. Molecular characterization of two immunity-related acute-phase proteins: Haptoglobin and serum amyloid A from black rockfish (Sebastes schlegeli).

    Jayasinghe, J D H E; Elvitigala, Don Anushka Sandaruwan; Whang, Ilson; Nam, Bo-Hye; Lee, Jehee

    2015-08-01

    Haptoglobin (Hp) and serum amyloid A (SAA) are two vital proteins involved in inflammatory reactions and are classified as acute-phase proteins. They are released from hepatocytes under inflammatory conditions to protect healthy cells from being damaged by pathogens or from self-destructive mechanisms. In this study, a previously constructed black rockfish (Sebastes schlegeli) cDNA library was used to identify the full-length cDNA sequences of Hp and SAA homologs (RfHp and RfSAA, respectively) and characterize them at the molecular level. As expected, in silico analysis of these homologs showed the typical domain architectures of their known counterparts. Open reading frames of RfHp and RfSAA consisted of 942-bp and 313-bp DNA sequences, respectively. The derived polypeptide sequence of RfHp was composed of 313 amino acids (aa) with a predicted molecular weight of 34 kD, whereas RfSAA had a 121-amino acid sequence with a molecular weight of 13 kD. Phylogenetic analysis as well as pairwise sequence alignment results showed that RfHp was more closely related to Oreochromis mossambicus from an evolutionary perspective while RfSAA was closely related to the Epinephelus coioides ortholog. Although both genes were expressed ubiquitously in the tissues analyzed, they were particularly expressed in liver tissue, suggesting their origin in hepatocytes. Quantitative real-time PCR analysis indicated that both RfHp and RfSAA were significantly up-regulated by both bacterial and viral stimulation in liver tissue, affirming their putative importance in the acute phase of first-line host immune defenses. PMID:25989623

  3. Serum response of hepatocyte growth factor, insulin-like growth factor-I, interleukin-6, and acute phase proteins in patients with colorectal liver metastases treated with partial hepatectomy or cryosurgery

    De Jong, Koert P; Von Geusau, Boudewijn Alting; Rottier, Cees A; Bijzet, Johan; Limburg, Pieter C; De Vries, Elisabeth G.E; Fidler, Vaclav; Slooff, Maarten J.H

    2001-01-01

    Background/Aims: The aim of the study was to compare the serum response of regeneration factors and acute phase proteins in patients treated with partial hepatectomy or cryosurgery. Methods: The responses of serum hepatocyte growth factor (HGF), insulin-like growth factor-I (IGF-I) (free and total),

  4. Portal and systemic serum growth factor and acute-phase response after laparotomy or partial hepatectomy in patients with colorectal liver metastases : A prognostic role for C-reactive protein and hepatocyte growth factor

    de Jong, KP; Hoedemakers, RMJ; Fidler, [No Value; Bijzet, J; Limburg, PC; Peeters, PMJG; de Vries, EGE; Slooff, MJH

    2004-01-01

    Background: Growth factors play a role in wound healing and tumour growth. The aim of this study was to compare the effect of partial hepatectomy (PH) and laparotomy on serum levels of growth factors and acute-phase proteins in patients with colorectal liver metastases and to correlate these levels

  5. A study of acute phase and transport protein synthesis in undernourished men using simulated infection and uniformly 15N-labelled Spirulina Platenses

    This study was conducted to test the hypothesis that acute phase protein synthesis is accelerated and transport protein synthesis is decelerated in adult men in whom the stress of infection is superimposed upon undernutrition. As a pilot study, four chronically undernourished men and two well-nourished controls were studied on two occasions separated by four days; the second session was conducted 24 hours after the administration of typhoid vaccine. Basal urine and blood samples were collected and then subjects were given priming oral doses of 15N-Spirulina (13.5mg/kg body weight) and oral doses (3.5mg/kg body weight) every 30 min for the next six hours. Meals were aliquoted during the dosing period. Blood samples were collected at four, five and six hours. 15N enrichment in different fractions of plasma i.e., albumin, non-albumin and amino acids, was measured by combustion GC-IRMS. Total urinary nitrogen was measured by Kjeldahl. 5 refs, 2 figs, 3 tabs

  6. Inflammatory cytokines and acute-phase proteins concentrations in the peripheral blood and uterus of cows that developed endometritis during early postpartum.

    Brodzki, P; Kostro, K; Brodzki, A; Wawron, W; Marczuk, J; Kurek, Ł

    2015-07-01

    The aim of the study was to evaluate the level of proinflammatory cytokines (tumor necrosis factor-α [TNF-α], interleukin-6 [IL-6]), anti-inflammatory cytokine (interleukin-10 [IL-10]), and acute-phase proteins (haptoglobin [Hp] and serum amyloid A [SAA]) in serum and uterine washings in cows that developed endometritis during the early postpartum period. The study was carried out on 40 cows. The experimental group consisted of 20 cows with subclinical endometritis and the control group of 20 cows without endometritis. Analyses in both groups of cows were carried out at 5, 22, and 40 days postpartum (DPP). Experimental material consisted of the blood serum and uterine washings. The levels of the following cytokines: TNF-α, IL-6, IL-10 and acute-phase proteins: Hp and SAA were determined using ELISA. Our study reported that the levels of TNF-α, IL-6, IL-10, Hp, and SAA at 22 DPP were higher in cows with subclinical endometritis (P cows with subclinical endometritis compared to healthy cows. The level of IL-10 in uterine washings at 5 DPP was higher (P = 0.001), whereas of SAA was lower (P = 0.01) in cows with subclinical endometritis. At 22 DPP, the levels of IL-6, IL-10, and Hp were higher (P cows with endometritis. At 40 DPP, the level of TNF-α was lower, whereas these of IL-10 and Hp were elevated (P cows with endometritis compared to healthy cows. The results indicate that the evaluation of the levels of cytokines and Hp in serum, but primarily in uterine washings, can be an important diagnostic indicator in cows that developed subclinical endometritis. High levels of IL-10 in cows with subclinical endometritis may contribute to the weakening of local resistance mechanisms of the uterus and lead to the persistence of the inflammation in the postpartum period. The present study also shows that the simultaneous examination of selected parameters of antagonistic interactions allows for better assessment of the current state of local immunity in the uterus

  7. Adult patients are more catabolic than children during acute phase after burn injury: a retrospective analysis on muscle protein kinetics

    Tuvdendorj, Demidmaa; Chinkes, David L.; Zhang, Xiao-Jun; Ferrando, Arny A.; Elijah, Itoro E.; Mlcak, Ronald P.; Finnerty, Celeste C.; Wolfe, Robert R.; Herndon, David N.

    2011-01-01

    Purpose This study was performed to determine if there is an age-related specificity in the response of muscle protein metabolism to severe burn injury during acute hospitalization. This is a retrospective analysis of previously published data. Methods: Nineteen adult and 58 pediatric burn-injured patients (age 43.3 ± 14.3 vs. 7.2 ± 5.3 years, adult vs. children) participated in stable isotope [ring-2H5]phenylalanine (Phe) infusion studies. Femoral arterial and venous blood samples and muscle biopsy samples were collected throughout the study. Data are presented as means ± standard deviation (SD). A p value less than 0.05 was considered statistically significant. Results Muscle net protein balance (NB) was higher in children (adult vs. children, -43 ± 61 vs. 8 ± 68 nmol Phe/min/100 ml leg volume, p < 0.05). Muscle protein fractional synthesis rate (FSR) was higher in children (adult vs. children, 0.11 ± 0.05 vs. 0.16 ± 0.10 %/h, p < 0.05). Leg muscle protein breakdown was not different between the groups (adult vs. children, 179 ± 115 vs. 184 ± 124 nmol Phe/ min/100 ml leg volume, p < 0.05; synthesis rate was 134 ± 96 and 192 ± 128 nmol Phe/min/100 ml leg volume in adults and children, respectively (p = 0.07). Age significantly correlated with muscle protein NB (p = 0.01) and FSR (p = 0.02); but not with breakdown (p = 0.67) and synthesis (p = 0.07) rates measured by using a three-pool model. Conclusion In burn injury, the muscle protein breakdown may be affected to the same extent in adults and children, whereas synthesis may have age-related specificities, resulting in a better but still low NB in children. PMID:21647721

  8. A selected reaction monitoring-based analysis of acute phase proteins in interstitial fluids from experimental equine wounds healing by secondary intention.

    Bundgaard, Louise; Bendixen, Emøke; Sørensen, Mette Aa; Harman, Victoria M; Beynon, Robert J; Petersen, Lars J; Jacobsen, Stine

    2016-05-01

    In horses, pathological healing with formation of exuberant granulation tissue (EGT) is a particular problem in limb wounds, whereas body wounds tend to heal without complications. Chronic inflammation has been proposed to be central to the pathogenesis of EGT. This study aimed to investigate levels of inflammatory acute phase proteins (APPs) in interstitial fluid from wounds in horses. A novel approach for absolute quantification of proteins, selected reaction monitoring (SRM)-based mass spectrometry in combination with a quantification concatamer (QconCAT), was used for the quantification of five established equine APPs (fibrinogen, serum amyloid A, ceruloplasmin, haptoglobin, and plasminogen) and three proposed equine APPs (prothrombin, α-2-macroglobulin, and α-1-antitrypsin). Wound interstitial fluid was recovered by large pore microdialysis from experimental body and limb wounds from five horses at days 1, 2, 7, and 14 after wounding and healing without (body) and with (limb) the formation of EGT. The QconCAT included proteotypic peptides representing each of the protein targets and was used to direct the design of a gene, which was expressed in Escherichia coli in a media supplemented with stable isotopes for metabolically labeling of standard peptides. Co-analysis of wound interstitial fluid samples with the stable isotope-labeled QconCAT tryptic peptides in known amounts enabled quantification of the APPs in absolute terms. The concentrations of fibrinogen, haptoglobin, ceruloplasmin, prothrombin, and α-1-antitrypsin in dialysate from limb wounds were significantly higher than in dialysate from body wounds. This is the first report of simultaneous analysis of a panel of APPs using the QconCAT-SRM technology. The microdialysis technique in combination with the QconCAT-SRM-based approach proved useful for quantification of the investigated proteins in the wound interstitial fluid, and the results indicated that there is a state of sustained inflammation in

  9. Inflammatory cytokine and acute phase protein concentrations in the peripheral blood and uterine washings of cows with subclinical endometritis in the late postpartum period.

    Brodzki, Piotr; Kostro, Krzysztof; Krakowski, Leszek; Marczuk, Jan

    2015-06-01

    The aim of the study was to evaluate the concentrations of proinflammatory cytokines: tumor necrosis factor (TNF-α) and interleukin-6 (IL-6), anti-inflammatory cytokine interleukin-10 (IL-10), and acute phase proteins (APPs)--haptoglobin (Hp) and serum amyloid A (SAA) in serum and uterine washings of cows with subclinical endometritis, and compare them to healthy animals. The study was performed on 24 cows on day 60 after delivery. The cows were divided into two groups based on the results of cytological tests: 12 cows with subclinical endometritis and 12 healthy cows. Experimental material consisted of blood serum and uterine washings. The levels of the following cytokines in the study material were determined with ELISA: TNF-α, IL-6, IL-10 and APPs - Hp and SAA. The results show that the levels of TNF-α (p cows with subclinical endometritis compared to the controls (p cows compared to the controls (p cows with subclinical endometritis and healthy cows, in both the serum and uterine washings, may suggest the usefulness of these parameters in the diagnosis of subclinical endometritis in cows in the late postpartum period. PMID:25846950

  10. The concentrations of inflammatory cytokines and acute-phase proteins in the peripheral blood and uterine washings in cows with pyometra.

    Brodzki, P; Kostro, K; Brodzki, A; Ziętek, J

    2015-06-01

    The development of pyometra in cows depends largely on the state of local immunity of the uterus. The objective of the study was to evaluate the concentration of the following proinflammatory cytokines: tumour necrosis factor (TNF-α) and interleukin-6 (IL-6); anti-inflammatory cytokine: interleukin-10 (IL-10); and acute-phase proteins (APPs): haptoglobin (Hp) and serum amyloid A (SAA), in serum and uterine washings in cows with pyometra and healthy animals. The study was performed on 20 cows divided into two groups based on the results of cytological and ultrasonographic tests: a pyometra and a healthy group (10 cows per group). Experimental material consisted of blood serum and uterine washings. The levels of the following cytokines, TNF-α, IL-6, IL-10 and APPs - Hp and SAA, in the study material were determined by ELISA. The results showed that the values of TNF-α, IL-6, IL-10 as well as SAA and Hp were significantly higher in serum of cows with pyometra compared to controls (p pyometra cows compared to the control (p pyometra in cows based on the evaluation of the concentration of cytokines and Hp in the serum and uterine washings. Simultaneous evaluation of selected indicators of antagonistic interaction can be helpful in determining the current status of local immunity of the uterus. On this basis, it could be possible to properly select an adjunctive therapy in the form of immunomodulating preparations. PMID:25704413

  11. Acute-phase protein serum amyloid A3 is a novel paracrine coupling factor that controls bone homeostasis.

    Thaler, Roman; Sturmlechner, Ines; Spitzer, Silvia; Riester, Scott M; Rumpler, Monika; Zwerina, Jochen; Klaushofer, Klaus; van Wijnen, Andre J; Varga, Franz

    2015-04-01

    Serum amyloid A (A-SAA/Saa3) was shown before to affect osteoblastic metabolism. Here, using RT-quantitative PCR and/or immunoblotting, we show that expression of mouse Saa3 and human SAA1 and SAA2 positively correlates with increased cellular maturation toward the osteocyte phenotype. Expression is not detected in C3H10T1/2 embryonic fibroblasts but is successively higher in preosteoblastic MC3T3-E1 cells, late osteoblastic MLO-A5 cells, and MLO-Y4 osteocytes, consistent with findings using primary bone cells from newborn mouse calvaria. Recombinant Saa3 protein functionally inhibits osteoblast differentiation as reflected by reductions in the expression of osteoblast markers and decreased mineralization in newborn mouse calvaria. Yet, Saa3 protein enhances osteoclastogenesis in mouse macrophages/monocytes based on the number of multinucleated and tartrate-resistant alkaline phosphatase-positive cells and Calcr mRNA expression. Depletion of Saa3 in MLO osteocytes results in the loss of the mature osteocyte phenotype. Recombinant osteocalcin, which is reciprocally regulated with Saa3 at the osteoblast/osteocyte transition, attenuates Saa3 expression in MLO-Y4 osteocytes. Mechanistically, Saa3 produced by MLO-Y4 osteocytes is integrated into the extracellular matrix of MC3T3-E1 osteoblasts, where it associates with the P2 purinergic receptor P2rx7 to stimulate Mmp13 expression via the P2rx7/MAPK/ERK/activator protein 1 axis. Our data suggest that Saa3 may function as an important coupling factor in bone development and homeostasis. PMID:25491310

  12. [Behavior of some acute phase reactant proteins during phlogosis and neoplasms and their correlation with erythrocyte sedimentation rate].

    Triolo, L; Mian, G; Magris, D; L'Abbate, M; Tommasini, T

    1979-01-01

    Alpha 2 macroglobulin, haptoglobin and fibrinogen plasma levels were simultaneously determined, as well as E.S.R., to test if a significant difference could be found among cancer, inflammatory diseases and control subjects. Haptoglobin was higher in the cancer group and fibrinogen in inflammatory diseases, but these selective increases are not believed to be enough to suggest the widespread determinations of these proteins. A significant correlation was found between alpha 2 macroglobulin and E.S.R., as well as between fibrinogen and E.S.R. PMID:95158

  13. Phorbol Ester Modulates Interleukin 6- and Interleukin 1-regulated Expression of Acute Phase Plasma Proteins in Hepatoma Cells*

    Baumann, Heinz; Isseroff, Hadar; Latimer, Jean J.; Jahreis, Gerald P.

    1988-01-01

    Interleukin 6 (IL 6) and interleukin 1 (IL-1) regulate the expression of actue phase plasma proteins in rat and human hepatoma cells. Phorbol ester, 12-O-tetradecanoylphorbol-13-acetate (TPA), partially mimics the stimulatory effect of IL-6 but reduces that effect of IL-1. TPA and IL-6 act synergistically. These regulatory properties of TPA are also manifested in HepG2 cells transiently transfected with an indicator gene construct carrying the IL-1/IL-6 regulatory enhancer element of the rat ...

  14. DEXA measures of body fat percentage and acute phase proteins among breast cancer survivors: a Cross-Sectional Analysis

    C-reactive protein (CRP) and Serum amyloid A protein (SAA) increases with systemic inflammation and are related to worse survival for breast cancer survivors. This study examines the association between percent body fat and SAA and CRP and the potential interaction with NSAID use and weight change. Participants included 134 non-Hispanic white and Hispanic breast cancer survivors from the Health, Eating, Activity, and Lifestyle Study. Body fat percentage, measured with Dual Energy X-ray Absorptiometer (DEXA), and circulating levels of CRP and SAA were obtained 30 months after breast cancer diagnosis. Circulating concentrations of CRP and SAA were associated with increased adiposity as measured by DEXA after adjustment for age at 24-months, race/ethnicity, dietary energy intake, weight change, and NSAID use. Survivors with higher body fat ≥35% had significantly higher concentrations of CRP (2.01 mg/l vs. 0.85 mg/l) and SAA (6.21 mg/l vs. 4.21 mg/l) compared to non-obese (body fat < 35%). Women who had gained more than 5% of their body weight since breast cancer diagnosis had non-statistically significant higher geometric mean levels of CRP and SAA. Mean levels of CRP and SAA were higher among obese women who were non-users of NSAIDs compared to current users; the association with SAA reached statistical significance (Mean SAA = 7.24, 95%CI 6.13-8.56 for non-NSAID; vs. 4.87; 95%CI 3.95-6.0 for NSAID users respectively). Breast cancer survivors with higher body fat had higher mean concentrations of CRP and SAA than women with lower body fat. Further assessment of NSAID use and weight control in reducing circulating inflammatory markers among survivors may be worthwhile to investigate in randomized intervention trials as higher inflammatory markers are associated with worse survival

  15. Echocardiography, spirometry, and systemic acute-phase inflammatory proteins in smokers with COPD or CHF: an observational study.

    Bianca Beghé

    Full Text Available Chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD and chronic heart failure (CHF may coexist in elderly patients with a history of smoking. Low-grade systemic inflammation induced by smoking may represent the link between these 2 conditions. In this study, we investigated left ventricular dysfunction in patients primarily diagnosed with COPD, and nonreversible airflow limitation in patients primarily diagnosed with CHF. The levels of circulating high-sensitive C-reactive protein (Hs-CRP, pentraxin 3 (PTX3, interleukin-1β (IL-1 β, and soluble type II receptor of IL-1 (sIL-1RII were also measured as markers of systemic inflammation in these 2 cohorts. Patients aged ≥ 50 years and with ≥ 10 pack years of cigarette smoking who presented with a diagnosis of stable COPD (n=70 or stable CHF (n=124 were recruited. All patients underwent echocardiography, N-terminal pro-hormone of brain natriuretic peptide measurements, and post-bronchodilator spirometry. Plasma levels of Hs-CRP, PTX3, IL-1 β, and sIL-1RII were determined by using a sandwich enzyme-linked immuno-sorbent assay in all patients and in 24 healthy smokers (control subjects. Although we were unable to find a single COPD patient with left ventricular dysfunction, we found nonreversible airflow limitation in 34% of patients with CHF. On the other hand, COPD patients had higher plasma levels of Hs-CRP, IL1 β, and sIL-1RII compared with CHF patients and control subjects (p < 0.05. None of the inflammatory biomarkers was different between CHF patients and control subjects. In conclusion, although the COPD patients had no evidence of CHF, up to one third of patients with CHF had airflow limitation, suggesting that routine spirometry is warranted in patients with CHF, whereas echocardiography is not required in well characterized patients with COPD. Only smokers with COPD seem to have evidence of systemic inflammation.

  16. The acute phase protein ceruloplasmin as a non-invasive marker of pseudopregnancy, pregnancy, and pregnancy loss in the giant panda.

    Erin L Willis

    Full Text Available After ovulation, non-pregnant female giant pandas experience pseudopregnancy. During pseudopregnancy, non-pregnant females exhibit physiological and behavioral changes similar to pregnancy. Monitoring hormonal patterns that are usually different in pregnant mammals are not effective at determining pregnancy status in many animals that undergo pseudopregnancy, including the giant panda. Therefore, a physiological test to distinguish between pregnancy and pseudopregnancy in pandas has eluded scientists for decades. We examined other potential markers of pregnancy and found that activity of the acute phase protein ceruloplasmin increases in urine of giant pandas in response to pregnancy. Results indicate that in term pregnancies, levels of active urinary ceruloplasmin were elevated the first week of pregnancy and remain elevated until 20-24 days prior to parturition, while no increase was observed during the luteal phase in known pseudopregnancies. Active ceruloplasmin also increased during ultrasound-confirmed lost pregnancies; however, the pattern was different compared to term pregnancies, particularly during the late luteal phase. In four out of the five additional reproductive cycles included in the current study where females were bred but no birth occurred, active ceruloplasmin in urine increased during the luteal phase. Similar to the known lost pregnancies, the temporal pattern of change in urinary ceruloplasmin during the luteal phase deviated from the term pregnancies suggesting that these cycles may have also been lost pregnancies. Among giant pandas in captivity, it has been presumed that there is a high rate of pregnancy loss and our results are the first to provide evidence supporting this notion.

  17. Major acute phase protein and its application progress in animal nutrition and health%MAP及其在动物营养与健康中的应用进展

    许美芳; 齐珂珂; 胡向东

    2013-01-01

    Major acute phase protein (MAP) is one of the acute phase reactive proteins synthetized in liver,is a new plasma glycoprotein of 120 kDa belonging to inter-α-trypsin inhibitor (ITI) family.With close relation to animal nutrition and health,MAP can provide valuable diagnostic information about animal diseases and severity.Since muscular catabolism is associated to acute phase process,the determination of serum MAP concentration could be an effective parameter in meat inspection and animal welfare.The paper summarized the MAP classification,structural feature and synthetic process,also put emphasis on its application value in animal production field.%MAP(major acute phase protein)是一种肝脏合成的急性期反应蛋白,分子量约为120 kDa,属于ITI(inter-α-trypsin inhibitor)家族.MAP与动物的营养和健康状态密切相关,研究表明机体MAP水平可反映动物的疾病状态及其严重程度,还可作为肉质与常规管理中动物福利的有效监测指标.文章综述了MAP的种类与结构特征及其合成过程,并进一步介绍了其在动物的营养与健康中的应用,就MAP在动物生产领域中的应用和研究重点及发展方向作了展望.

  18. Acute phase response in Wistar rats after controlled hemorrhage

    Stepanović Predrag; Maličević Ž.; Andrić N.; Nikolovski-Stefanović Zorica

    2011-01-01

    After injury the acute-phase response of the organism activates mechanisms which imply the release of cytokines, stress hormones, and mediators of pain and inflammation. The main function of the acutephase response is to hinder further damage of the injured tissue by activating reparative processes. The increase in the concentration of acute phase proteins and the concurrent decrease in albumins and prealbumins indicate that there is a strong link between t...

  19. Acute-phase reaction induces a specific complex between hepatic nuclear proteins and the interleukin 6 response element of the rat alpha 2-macroglobulin gene.

    Hattori, M; Abraham, L J; Northemann, W; Fey, G H

    1990-01-01

    Interleukin 6 (IL-6) was established as a transcriptional inducer of the rat alpha 2-macroglobulin gene, a prototype liver acute-phase gene. Maximum induction occurred when the 5' flanking sequences of this gene (position -209 to -43) directed expression from the gene's own TATA box and transcription start site. Removal of the hexanucleotide CTGGGA (position -164 to -159) abolished 60-70% of the hormonal induction in FAO1 rat hepatoma cells. This hexanucleotide was defined as the IL-6 respons...

  20. Comparison of changes in gene expression of transferrin receptor-1 and other iron-regulatory proteins in rat liver and brain during acute-phase response

    Malik, Ihtzaz; Naz, Naila; Sheikh, Nadeem; Khan, Sajjad; Moriconi, Federico; Blaschke, Martina; Ramadori, Giuliano

    2011-01-01

    The “acute phase” is clinically characterized by homeostatic alterations such as somnolence, adinamia, fever, muscular weakness, and leukocytosis. Dramatic changes in iron metabolism are observed under acute-phase conditions. Rats were administered turpentine oil (TO) intramuscularly to induce a sterile abscess and killed at various time points. Tissue iron content in the liver and brain increased progressively after TO administration. Immunohistology revealed an abundant expression of transf...

  1. Vaccination of pigs with attenuated Lawsonia intracellularis induced acute phase protein responses and primed cell-mediated immunity without reduction in bacterial shedding after challenge

    Riber, Ulla; Heegaard, Peter M. H.; Hvass, Henriette Cordes; Ståhl, Marie; Jensen, Tim Kåre; Jungersen, Gregers

    2015-01-01

    same extent as non-vaccinated pigs after challenge,however less L. intracellularis in ileum and lymph nodes was seen post mortem. In the RE group, challengedid not lead to L. intracellularis shedding and no challenge bacteria were found post mortem. In both VACand RE the acute phase haptoglobin...... response was diminished and L. intracellularis specific IgG responseswere delayed and reduced compared to non-vaccinated pigs. On the other hand L. intracellularis specificIFN- responses tended to develop faster in the VAC group compared to controls.Conclusion: Although vaccinated and non-vaccinated pigs...

  2. INFLAMMATION AND ACUTE PHASE RESPONSE

    Farah Aziz Khan; Mohd Fareed Khan

    2010-01-01

    Inflammation caused by infection takes place by the cooperative cascade of cytokines and leukocytes. Tumor necrosis factor, interlukin-1, and interlukin-6 play important roles as proinflammatory cytokines to mediate local inflammation and activate other inflammatory cells e.g. neutrophils, monocytes, and macrophages. At least 15 different low molecular weight cytokine are secreted by activated leukocytes and are responsible for triggering acute phase response in the form of fever, leukocytosi...

  3. Extrahepatic production of acute phase serum amyloid A

    Upragarin, N.; Landman, W.J.M.; Gaastra, W; Gruys, E.

    2005-01-01

    Amyloidosis is a group of diseases characterized by the extracellular deposition of protein that contains non-branching, straight fibrils on electron microscopy (amyloid fibrils) that have a high content of ß-pleated sheet conformation. Various biochemically distinct proteins can undergo transformation into amyloid fibrils. The precursor protein of amyloid protein A (AA) is the acute phase protein serum amyloid A (SAA). The concentration of SAA in plasma increa...

  4. Environmental temperature and stocking density effects on acute phase proteins, heat shock protein 70, circulating corticosterone and performance in broiler chickens

    Najafi, Pardis; Zulkifli, Idrus; Amat Jajuli, Nurfarahin; Farjam, Abdoreza Soleimani; Ramiah, Suriya Kumari; Amir, Anna Aryani; O'Reily, Emily; Eckersall, David

    2015-11-01

    An experiment was conducted to determine the effect of different stocking densities on serum corticosterone (CORT), ovotransferrin (OVT), α1-acid glycoprotein (AGP) and ceruloplasmin (CP) concentrations, brain heat shock protein (HSP) 70 expression and performance in broiler chickens exposed to unheated and heated conditions. Day-old chicks were stocked at 0.100 m2/bird (low density (LD)) or 0.063 m2/bird (high density (HD)), in battery cages and housed in environmentally controlled rooms. From 21 to 35 days of age, birds from each stocking density group were exposed to either 24 or 32 °C. Growth performance was recorded during the heat treatment period, and blood and brain samples were collected to determine CORT, OVT, AGP, CP and HSP 70 levels on day 35. Heat treatment but not stocking density was detrimental to growth performance. There were significant temperature × density interactions for CORT, CP and OVT on day 35. Although HD elevated CORT, CP and OVT when compared to LD, the effects of the former were more obvious under heated condition. Both temperature and density had significant effect on AGP and HSP 70. In conclusion, irrespective of temperature, high stocking density was physiologically stressful to broiler chickens, as indicated by CORT, AGP, CP, OVT and HSP 70, but not detrimental to growth performance and survivability. As it was shown in the present study, AGP, CP and OVT could be useful biomarkers to determine the effect of overcrowding and high temperature on the welfare of broiler chickens.

  5. Ação do prebiótico sobre as proteínas de fase aguda de pacientes com neoplasia hematológica Action of prebiotics on proteins in the acute phase of hematologic neoplasia

    Telma Búrigo

    2007-06-01

    developed in the Bone Marrow Transplantation Unit of the Oncology Research Center in Florianopolis and was aimed at studying the action of prebiotic agents on protein response in the acute phase of hematologic neoplastic patients submitted to chemotherapy. A double-blind randomized clinical trial was performed involving 25 patients divided into two groups. Patients received 12 g FOS (n=14 or placebo (maltdextrine (n=11 over 15 days. All the variables were determined before and after supplementation. The serum levels of negative acute phase proteins, albumin and pre-albumin, and positive acute phase proteins, C-reactive protein, were evaluated. The presence of diarrhea and constipation are reported, as are the quantity of bifidobacteria and fecal pH measurements. Reductions in the serum levels of negative acute phase proteins (albumin and pre-albumin show intense proteic catabolism thereby, favoring the synthesis of protein in the positive acute phase. The supplemented group presented with a significant increase in the quantity of bifidobacteria. The fecal pH levels were affected in both groups. The serum levels of positive acute phase proteins were statistically higher in the control group indicating the occurrence of inflammatory processes and a higher metabolic demand suggesting that the quantity of bifidobacteria may favor a reduction of these adverse conditions in the supplemented group as was confirmed by the negative correlation between variables.

  6. Presence of acute phase response in coal workers' pneumoconiosis.

    Fernandez Rego, G; Ocio Achaerandio, G; González Cuervo, V; Rodríquez Menéndez, C; Martínez Gonezález, C; Alvarez Alvarez, C

    1991-01-01

    To evaluate the role of personal factors in pneumoconiosis, several acute phase proteins were studied in 62 coal miners without acute illnesses and classified as having no pneumoconiosis (n = 19), simple pneumoconiosis (n = 23), or complicated pneumoconiosis with progressive massive fibrosis (n = 20). Groups were similar for age, years of work at high risk jobs, chronic bronchitis, and forced expiratory volume in one second (FEV1). C-reactive protein concentration was significantly higher in ...

  7. Cytokine and acute phase protein mRNA expression in liver tissue from pigs with severe sepsis caused by intravenous inoculation of Staphylococcus aureus

    Nielsen, Ole Lerberg; Olsen, Helle Gerda; Iburg, Tine;

    2010-01-01

    . Blood was sampled for bacteriology, haematology and clinical pathology. Tissues were collected at necropsy for bacteriology, gene expression analysis and histology. Bacterial counts in blood remained low, decreased in the lungs, liver and spleen, but increased in bone. All infected pigs developed sepsis...... characterized by fever, neutrophilia, increased serum levels of C-reactive protein (CRP) and interleukin (IL)-6, and decreased levels of serum iron. CRP and IL-6 serum levels peaked at 36 h. Serum IL-1β and tumour necrosis factor-α (TNFα) did not change. Serum aspartate aminotransferase (AST) and bilirubin were...... elevated at 36 and 48 h. Microabscesses were found in the livers from pigs killed at 12 h only. The livers from pigs killed at 48 h also showed light, diffuse fibrin exudation (vascular leakage). Real-time PCR showed a decreased hepatic expression of mRNA coding for albumin and increased hepatic expression...

  8. Levels of Acute Phase Reactants in Patients with Acute Brucellosis

    Mehmet Uluğ

    2010-08-01

    Full Text Available Objective: Infection, tissue damage, immunologic reactions and the inflammatory process rapidly cause a systemic response in the organism, generally termed as acute phase response. The aim of this study was to evaluate the levels of acute phase reactants such as C-reactive protein (CRP, ferritin and fibrinogen in patients with acute brucellosis.Methods: This study was carried out in 48 patients (27 female, 21 male with acute brucellosis who were followed at the Departments of Infectious Diseases and Neurology, between April 2007 and August 2008, and in 42 healthy controls (22 female, 20 male.Results: Serum albumin levels significantly decreased (p<0.001, whereas CRP and ferritin levels significantly increased (p<0.001 and p=0.03 in patients with acute brucellosis.Conclusions: It was concluded that serum levels of CRP and ferritin increased, while albumin decreased in patients with acute brucellosis.

  9. Effect of pre-weaning concentrate supplementation on peripheral distribution of leukocytes, functional activity of neutrophils, acute phase protein and behavioural responses of abruptly weaned and housed beef calves

    Lynch Eilish M

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background The effect of pre-weaning concentrate supplementation on peripheral distribution of leukocytes, functional activity of neutrophils, acute phase protein response, metabolic and behavioural response, and performance of abruptly weaned and housed beef calves was investigated. Calves were grazed with their dams until the end of the grazing season when they were weaned and housed (day (d 0 in a concrete slatted floor shed, and offered grass silage ad libitum plus supplementary concentrates. Twenty-six days prior to weaning and housing, 20 singled suckled, pure-bred Simmental male (non-castrated, (n = 10, m and female (n = 10, f calves were assigned to one of two treatments (i concentrate supplement (CS: n = 10 (5 m and 5 f, mean age (s.d. 201 (12.8 d, mean weight (s.d. 258 (20.2 kg or (ii no concentrate supplement (controls (NCS: n = 10, (5 m and 5 f, mean age (s.d. 201 (13.4 d, mean weight (s.d. 257 (19.6 kg pre-weaning. Results There was a treatment × sampling time interaction (P + and WC1+ (γδ T cells lymphocytes and concentration of plasma globulin. On d 2, percentage CD4+ lymphocytes decreased (P + lymphocytes increased (P + lymphocytes in NCS did not differ (P > 0.05 from d 0. On d 2, WC1+ lymphocytes decreased (P P 0.05 in NCS than CS. Subsequently, percentages did not differ (P > 0.05 from pre-weaning baseline. On d 2, the increase in concentration of globulin was greater (P Conclusions Calves supplemented with concentrate prior to weaning had a lesser reduction in WC1+ lymphocytes, increased percentage CD4+ lymphocytes and concentration of total protein, and spent more time lying post-weaning, compared with non-supplemented calves.

  10. Effects of Hepatocyte Nuclear Factor-4α on the Regulation of the Hepatic Acute Phase Response

    Wang, Zhongyan; Burke, Peter A.

    2007-01-01

    Following injury, a large number of hepatic acute phase genes are rapidly modulated at the transcriptional level to restore metabolic homeostasis an limit tissue damage. Hepatocyte nuclear factor 4α (HNF-4α) is a liver-enriched transcription factor that controls embryonic liver development and regulates tissue specific gene expression in adult liver cells. Many genes encoding acute phase proteins contain HNF-4α binding sites in their promoter regions and are transcriptionally regulated by HNF...

  11. Mechanisms of the Hepatic Acute-Phase Response during Bacterial Pneumonia▿

    Quinton, Lee J.; Jones, Matthew R.; Robson, Bryanne E.; Mizgerd, Joseph P.

    2009-01-01

    The acute-phase response is characterized by increased circulating levels of acute-phase proteins (APPs) generated by the liver. During bacterial pneumonia, APPs correlate with the severity of disease, serve as biomarkers, and are functionally significant. The kinetics and regulatory mechanisms of APP induction in the liver during lung infection have yet to be defined. Here we show that APP mRNA transcription is induced in the livers of mice whose lungs are infected with either Escherichia co...

  12. Post-transcriptional control of negative acute phase genes by transforming growth factor beta.

    Morrone, G; Cortese, R; Sorrentino, V

    1989-01-01

    During the acute phase (AP) reaction the expression of a series of liver-specific genes coding for secretory proteins is either stimulated or suppressed by different cytokines released by activated monocytes. Transforming growth factor beta (TGF-beta) is a cytokine that, first identified for its ability to regulate cellular growth, has been gradually recognized to modulate several other functions. We have investigated the effect of TGF-beta on the expression of acute phase genes in liver cell...

  13. Investigate The Early Diagnosis Value of Four Kinds Acute Phase Proteins in Cirrhotic Secondary Infection%探讨四种急性时相蛋白对肝硬化继发感染的早期诊断价值

    杨咸春

    2014-01-01

    目的:探讨肝硬化继发感染时测定各种急性期蛋白(APP)对此病早期诊断的临床价值。方法对61例肝硬化继发感染的患者进行4种急性期蛋白(CRP、AAG、CER和HPT)的动态检测,61例肝硬化继发感染者中34例患者继发感染,在感染控制前后均进行监测,其余27例肝硬化患者没有并发感染,测定一般情况下的4中急性期蛋白。结果61例患者中继发感染的34例患者的急性期蛋白都比感染前高,组内差异有具有实际意义。经临床治疗感染后,急性期蛋白的水平均下降,但持续高于感染之前水平。结论4种肝硬化的急性期蛋白值水平的变化对于观察关英华继发感染和指导进行抗感染治疗,估计临床治疗预后有很大的临床价值。%Objective the determination of al kinds of acute phase proteins to investigate the infection secondary to liver cirrhosis (APP) clinical value in the early diagnosis of this disease. Methods:4 acute phase proteins in 61 patients with hepatic cirrhosis complicated with infection (CRP,AAG,CER and HPT) dynamic detection,61 cases of liver cirrhosis secondary infection in 34 patients with secondary infection,the infection control both before and after the monitor,the remaining 27 cirrhotic patients without concurrent infection,acute period determination case 4 protein. Results of 61 cases of acute phase protein in 34 patients with secondary infection than infection before the high,the dif erences within groups has practical significance. The clinical treatment after infection,acute phase protein level decreased,but before continuing higher infection levels. Conclusion the four cirrhosis and acute phase protein level changes for the observation Guan Yinghua secondary infection and guidance for anti infection treatment, is estimated to have great clinical value in clinical treatment and prognosis.

  14. Acute phase response induced following tumor treatment by photodynamic therapy: relevance for the therapy outcome

    Korbelik, Mladen; Merchant, Soroush; Stott, Brandon; Cecic, Ivana; Payne, Peter; Sun, Jinghai

    2006-02-01

    Acute phase response is an effector process orchestrated by the innate immune system for the optimal mobilization of the resources of the organism distant from the local insult site needed in the execution of a host-protecting reaction. Our research has shown that mice bearing tumors treated by photodynamic therapy (PDT) exhibit the three major hallmarks of acute phase response: release of acute phase reactants, neutrophilia, and pituitary/adrenal axis activation. Of particular interest in this study were acute phase proteins that have a pivotal role in the clearance of dead cells, since the occurrence of this process in PDT-treated tumors emerges as a critical event in the course of PDT-associated host response. It is shown that this type of acute phase reactants, including complement proteins (C3, C5, C9, mannose-binding lectin, and ficolin A) and related pentraxins (serum amyloid P component and PTX3), are upregulated following tumor PDT and accumulate in the targeted lesions. Based on the recently accumulated experimental evidence it is definitely established that the acute phase response is manifested in the hosts bearing PDT-treated tumors and it is becoming clear that this effector process is an important element of PDT-associated host response bearing in impact on the eventual outcome of this therapy.

  15. Effects of anabolic steroids on acute phase responses in intra-abdominal sepsis

    K. Mealy

    1997-01-01

    Full Text Available The acute phase response is an important adaptive response to sepsis and injury. As anabolic steroids increase protein synthesis we postulated that these agents might also increase hepatic acute phase protein synthesis. Male Wistar rats were pretreated with testosterone or danazol for 48 h prior to caecal ligation and puncture (CLP. Thirty-six h following surgery the animals were killed and blood taken for full blood count, total protein, albumin, α, β and γ globulin fractions on serum electrophoresis, complement C3 and transferrin levels. Danazol increased the α1, α2 and β1 globulin serum protein fractions in comparison with no surgery and CLP alone groups. These results indicate that danazol increases plasma acute phase proteins, as measured by electrophoresis, in this model of intra-abdominal sepsis.

  16. Heterogeneous lobular distribution of hepatocytes expressing acute- phase genes during the acute inflammatory reaction

    1989-01-01

    Functional heterogeneity in the lobule with regard to plasma protein synthesis is still debated. Therefore, we have localized in liver sections from normal rats and from rats with turpentine-induced AIR the mRNA and protein products of three genes with different alterations in their hepatic expression during an AIR: alpha 2M and alpha 1PI, two positively reacting acute-phase genes, and alpha 1I3, a negative acute- phase reactant. In normal liver, all hepatocytes expressed alpha 2M and alpha 1...

  17. 多发伤患者血清胆碱酯酶与急性期蛋白的相关性%Relationship between serum cholinesterase and acute-phase proteins in patients with multiple trauma

    巴立; 张茂; 沈凌炜; 吴定钱; 干建新; 徐少文

    2008-01-01

    和第7天显著低于存活组,CRP仅在第7天显著高于存活组,Logistic回归分析提示仅血清ChE和PAB是判断预后的独立因素. 结论 血清ChE可视为负急性期蛋白的一种,在反映多发伤病情严重度和预测患者转归中的综合价值要优于其他主要APP.%Objective To investigate the relationship between serum cholinesterase(ChE) and acute-phase proteins in patients with multiple trauma, then to evaluate their significance to judge prognosis. Method It's a prospective observation study. Patients with multiple trauma admitted to emergency intensive care unit,Second Af-filiated Hospital, Zhejiang Universieg, school of medicihe within 24 h after trauma from Oct. 2005 to Oct. 2007 were enrolled. And those with chronic liver disease, touching orgnaophosphorus, active tuberculosis, tumor, in-fection of major organ before trauma, liver injury or age < 18 year were excluded. Among 81 patients, 57 were male and24 female. The average age was (46±18) years, and the average injury severity score was (34.0±11.9).Seventy six healthy were selected as controls, 53 male and 23 female, with an average age of (44±16)years. The exclusion standards were the same as those in patients. Both groups had same gender proportion and age. Senum ChE and acute-phase proteins(APP) including albumin(ALB), prealbumin(PAB), transferrin(TRF),C-reactive protein(CRP) in patients were detected at 1, 3, 7 d after trauma. The acute physiology and chronic health evaluation Ⅲ (APACHEⅢ) was recorded simuhancously. Serum ChE, ALB, PAB, TRF, CRP in the controls were also detected. All of these indexes in the controls were compared with thoses in patients by t test or rank surn test. The dynamic changes of serum ChE and APPs in patients were analyzed by one way repeated mea-sures ANOVA. The relationships between serum ChE and those APPs and the relationships between APACHE Ⅲ and these indexes were analyzed by Pearson correlation analysis. We also compared these indexes

  18. The acute phase response of haptoglobin and serum amyloid A (SAA) in cattle undergoing experimental infection with bovine respiratory syncytial virus

    Heegaard, Peter M. H.; Godson, D.L.; Toussaint, M.J.M.; Tjørnehøj, Kirsten; Larsen, Lars Erik; Viuff, B.; Rønsholt, Leif

    The ability of a pure virus infection to induce an acute phase protein response is of interest as viral infections are normally considered to be less efficient in inducing an acute phase protein response than bacterial infections. This was studied in a bovine model for infection with bovine respi...

  19. Hematological and acute-phase responses to diet-induced obesity in IL-6 KO mice

    Pini, Maria; Rhodes, Davina H.; Fantuzzi, Giamila

    2011-01-01

    Obesity is associated with chronic inflammation and elevated levels of IL-6. The role of IL-6 in induction of acute-phase proteins and modulation of haematological responses has been demonstrated in models of inflammation and aging, but not in obesity. We hypothesized that IL-6 is necessary to regulate the acute-phase response and hematological changes associated with diet-induced obesity (DIO) in mice. Feeding a 60% kcal/fat diet for 13 weeks to C57BL6 WT male mice induced a significant incr...

  20. Lack of acute phase response in the livers of mice exposed to diesel exhaust particles or carbon black by inhalation

    Saber, Anne T; Halappanavar, Sabina; Folkmann, Janne K;

    2009-01-01

    phase responses, including C-reactive protein (CRP) and serum amyloid A (SAA) in humans. In this study we test the hypothesis that diesel exhaust particles (DEP) - or carbon black (CB)-induced lung inflammation initiates an acute phase response in the liver. RESULTS: Mice were exposed to filtered air...... pulmonary inflammation., Arch. Toxicol. 79 (2005) 177-182). As a positive control for the induction of an acute phase response, mice were exposed to 12.5 mg/kg of lipopolysaccharide (LPS) intraperitoneally. Quantitative real time RT-PCR was used to examine the hepatic mRNA expression of acute phase proteins......, serum amyloid P (Sap) (the murine homologue of Crp) and Saa1 and Saa3. While significant increases in the hepatic expression of Sap, Saa1 and Saa3 were observed in response to LPS, their levels did not change in response to DEP or CB. In a comprehensive search for markers of an acute phase response, we...

  1. Local and disseminated acute phase response during bacterial respiratory infection in pigs

    Skovgaard, Kerstin; Mortensen, Shila; Heegaard, Peter M. H.

    2010-01-01

    proteins (APP) outside the liver is increasingly recognized, still little is known of extra-hepatic production of APP in pigs. 14-18 h after experimental infection with Actinobacillus pleuropneumoniae, causing acute pleuropneumonia in pigs, we studied local APP gene expression changes in different......The acute phase response is playing an important role, aiming to restore the healthy state after tissue injury, inflammation and infection. The biological function of this response and its interplay with other parts of innate defense reactions remain somewhat elusive. Expression of acute phase...... differentially expressed between infected and control animals. We demonstrated that acute pleuropneumonia caused by A. pleuropneumoniae leads to a rapid disseminated local intra-lung APP response, also in apparently unaffected areas of the infected lung. Further extrahepatic expression of several acute-phase...

  2. Acute-phase responses in healthy and diseased rhesus macaques (Macaca mulatta)

    Krogh, Anne Kirstine Havnsøe; Lundsgaard, Jo F. H.; Bakker, Jaco;

    2014-01-01

    Five acute-phase reactants—serum amyloid A (SAA), C-reactive protein (CRP), haptoglobin, albumin, and iron—were measured using commercially available assays in 110 healthy rhesus macaques (Macaca mulatta), and reference intervals were established for future use in health monitoring of this specie...

  3. Regulation of urea synthesis during the acute phase response in rats

    Thomsen, Karen Louise; Jessen, Niels; Buch Møller, Andreas;

    2013-01-01

    the tumor necrosis factor-α (TNF-α)-induced acute-phase response in rats. We used four methods to study the regulation of urea synthesis: We examined urea cycle enzyme mRNA levels in liver tissue, the hepatocyte urea cycle enzyme proteins, the in vivo capacity of urea-N synthesis (CUNS), and known...... humoral regulators of CUNS at 1, 3, 24, and 72 h after TNF-α injection (25 μg/kg iv rrTNF-α) in rats. Serum acute-phase proteins and their liver mRNA levels were also measured. The urea cycle enzyme mRNA levels acutely decreased and then gradually normalized, whereas the urea cycle enzyme proteins......The acute-phase response is a catabolic event involving increased waste of amino-nitrogen (N) via hepatic urea synthesis, despite an increased need for amino-N incorporation into acute-phase proteins. This study aimed to clarify the regulation of N elimination via urea during different phases of...

  4. STAT3 Activation in Skeletal Muscle Links Muscle Wasting and the Acute Phase Response in Cancer Cachexia

    Andrea Bonetto; Tufan Aydogdu; Noelia Kunzevitzky; Guttridge, Denis C.; Sawsan Khuri; Koniaris, Leonidas G.; Teresa A Zimmers

    2011-01-01

    BACKGROUND: Cachexia, or weight loss despite adequate nutrition, significantly impairs quality of life and response to therapy in cancer patients. In cancer patients, skeletal muscle wasting, weight loss and mortality are all positively associated with increased serum cytokines, particularly Interleukin-6 (IL-6), and the presence of the acute phase response. Acute phase proteins, including fibrinogen and serum amyloid A (SAA) are synthesized by hepatocytes in response to IL-6 as part of the i...

  5. Management of pemphigus vulgaris during acute phase

    Kar P

    2003-03-01

    Full Text Available We present our experience with 21 patients of pemphigus vulgaris seen over a period of 10 years managed in service hospitals during acute phase of the disease. Age groups of patients ranged from 25-45 years. Eighteen (85.7% were young adults, 30-40 years of age. Fifteen (71.4% were men and 6(28.6% were women. All the cases were hospitalized in ICU, till the acute phase of the disease subsided. Complete hematological profile, urinalysis, serum biochemistry and repeated bacterial cultures from the skin were carried out in all patients at the time of admission and thereafter weekly. The treatment comprised of potassium permanganate lotion bath (1:10000 and 1 framycetin gauze dressing of the denuded areas, maintenance of fluid and electrolyte balance. All suspected infections and septicemia were treated with appropriate antibiotics. The corticosteroids were usually administered as a single dose of prednisolone 1 mg/kg/day. Cyclophosphamide was given at an initial dose of 50mg/day and the dose was escalated to 100mg/day. Once the bulk of the lesions were healed, the dose of corticosteroids was gradually lowered by approximately 50% every two weeks and cyclophosphamide was continued till patients were symptomfree. Out of 21 patients receiving corticosteroids, cyclophosphamide and other supportive therapy, 20(95% had undergone clinical resolution of the disease. During follow up study 15(71.4% patients remained symptom-free and undergone clinical remission. Five patients (23.8% had relapse, out of which 4(19% remained symptom free, after subsequent treatment. There was one death (4.7% in our study.

  6. Acute phase reactants, challenge in the near future of animal production and veterinary medicine

    2005-01-01

    The future of acute phase proteins (APPs) in science is discussed in this paper. Many functions and associated pathological processes of APPs are unknown. Extrahepatic formation in local tissues needs attention. Local serum amyloid A (SAA) formation may be involved in deposition of AA-amyloid induced by conformational change of SAA resulting in amyloid formation, having tremendous food safety implications. Amyloidogenesis is enhanced in mouse fed beta pleated sheet-rich proteins. The local amyloid in joints of chicken and mammary corpora amylacea is discussed. Differences in glycosylation of glycoproteins among the APPs, as has been shown for α1-acid glycoprotein, have to be considered. More knowledge on the reactivity patterns may lead to implication of APPs in the diagnostics and staging of a disease. Calculation of an index from values of several acute phase variables increases the power of APPs in monitoring unhealthy individuals in animal populations.Vaccinations, just as infections in eliciting acute phase response seem to limit the profitability of vaccines because acute phase reactions are contraproductive in view of muscle anabolism. Interest is focused on amino acid patterns and vitamins in view of dietary nutrition effect on sick and convalescing animals.When inexpensive methodology such as liquid phase methods (nephelometry, turbidimetry) or protein array technology for rapid APPs measurement is available, APPs have a future in routine diagnostics. Specific groups of patients may be screened or populations monitored by using APPs.

  7. Particle-induced pulmonary acute phase response may be the causal link between particle inhalation and cardiovascular disease

    Saber, Anne T.; Jacobsen, Nicklas R.; Jackson, Petra;

    2014-01-01

    Inhalation of ambient and workplace particulate air pollution is associated with increased risk of cardiovascular disease. One proposed mechanism for this association is that pulmonary inflammation induces a hepatic acute phase response, which increases risk of cardiovascular disease. Induction of...... epidemiological studies. In this review, we present and review emerging evidence that inhalation of particles (e.g., air diesel exhaust particles and nanoparticles) induces a pulmonary acute phase response, and propose that this induction constitutes the causal link between particle inhalation and risk of...... cardiovascular disease. Increased levels of acute phase mRNA and proteins in lung tissues, bronchoalveolar lavage fluid and plasma clearly indicate pulmonary acute phase response following pulmonary deposition of different kinds of particles including diesel exhaust particles, nanoparticles, and carbon nanotubes...

  8. Whole blood viscosity assessment issues IV: Prevalence in acute phase inflammation

    Ezekiel Uba Nwose

    2010-08-01

    Full Text Available Background: Hyperviscosity syndrome has been suggested as not simply an acute reaction. Yet, erythrocyte sedimentation rate is associated with whole blood viscosity and it is an indirect acute phase inflammation marker. Aims: This work investigates the prevalence of hyperviscosity in acute phase inflammation. Materials and Methods: Archived clinical pathology data for the period of 1999 to 2008 were utilized. 40,632-cases tested for C-reactive protein and/or erythrocyte sedimentation rate from five alternate years, which were concomitantly tested for haematocrit and total proteins, were extracted. The prevalence of abnormal viscosity associated with positive results of C-reactive protein and erythrocyte sedimentation rate were evaluated. Results: Hyperviscosity is infrequently associated with positive C-reactive protein (2.9% and erythrocyte sedimentation rate (2.7% sub-populations, and are not statistically different from their respective negative sub-populations. Normoviscosity is significantly more prevalent in the positive sub-populations (p < 0.01. Further analyses indicate that prevalence of acute phase inflammation is statistically significantly less in hyperviscosity compared to normoviscosity sub-population (p < 0.00001. Actual blood viscosity level increases with level of inflammation though. Conclusion: The study demonstrates that although blood viscosity level may increase with inflammation, hyperviscosity is not frequent in, or sensitive to acute phase inflammation. It portends that whole blood viscosity is not unspecific as acute phase inflammation markers. It calls for clinicians to consider utilizing whole blood viscosity in disease conditions where stasis is implicated, in which it is specific and valuable. It would also benefit to establish whether hyperviscosity is a chronic phase inflammation marker.

  9. Acute Phase Response of Rabbit to HgCl2 and CdCl2

    NinaGHOSH; SHELLEYBHATTACHARYA

    1993-01-01

    A variety of changes occur in the rabbit under metal stress which include the appearance of the acute phase protein,C-reactive protein in the serum and significant reduction in the serum titres of albumin and acetylcholinesterase.The phospholipid profile is postively correlated with the higher degree of tissue necrosis encountered in mercury treated rabbit.Cadmium and mercury treatments evoke a similar response pattern in rabbit differing only in the degree of change.

  10. Acute phase response in two consecutive experimentally induced E. coli intramammary infections in dairy cows

    Saatsi Johanna

    2008-06-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Acute phase proteins haptoglobin (Hp, serum amyloid A (SAA and lipopolysaccharide binding protein (LBP have suggested to be suitable inflammatory markers for bovine mastitis. The aim of the study was to investigate acute phase markers along with clinical parameters in two consecutive intramammary challenges with Escherichia coli and to evaluate the possible carry-over effect when same animals are used in an experimental model. Methods Mastitis was induced with a dose of 1500 cfu of E. coli in one quarter of six cows and inoculation repeated in another quarter after an interval of 14 days. Concentrations of acute phase proteins haptoglobin (Hp, serum amyloid A (SAA and lipopolysaccharide binding protein (LBP were determined in serum and milk. Results In both challenges all cows became infected and developed clinical mastitis within 12 hours of inoculation. Clinical disease and acute phase response was generally milder in the second challenge. Concentrations of SAA in milk started to increase 12 hours after inoculation and peaked at 60 hours after the first challenge and at 44 hours after the second challenge. Concentrations of SAA in serum increased more slowly and peaked at the same times as in milk; concentrations in serum were about one third of those in milk. Hp started to increase in milk similarly and peaked at 36–44 hours. In serum, the concentration of Hp peaked at 60–68 hours and was twice as high as in milk. LBP concentrations in milk and serum started to increase after 12 hours and peaked at 36 hours, being higher in milk. The concentrations of acute phase proteins in serum and milk in the E. coli infection model were much higher than those recorded in experiments using Gram-positive pathogens, indicating the severe inflammation induced by E. coli. Conclusion Acute phase proteins would be useful parameters as mastitis indicators and to assess the severity of mastitis. If repeated experimental intramammary

  11. BCL11A expression in acute phase chronic myeloid leukemia.

    Yin, Jiawei; Zhang, Fan; Tao, Huiquan; Ma, Xiao; Su, Guangsong; Xie, Xiaoli; Xu, Zhongjuan; Zheng, Yanwen; Liu, Hong; He, Chao; Mao, Zhengwei Jenny; Wang, Zhiwei; Chang, Weirong; Gale, Robert Peter; Wu, Depei; Yin, Bin

    2016-08-01

    Chronic myeloid leukemia (CML) has chronic and acute phases. In chronic phase myeloid differentiation is preserved whereas in acute phase myeloid differentiation is blocked. Acute phase CML resembles acute myeloid leukemia (AML). Chronic phase CML is caused by BCR-ABL1. What additional mutation(s) cause transition to acute phase is unknown and may differ in different persons with CML. BCL11A encodes a transcription factor and is aberrantly-expressed in several haematological and solid neoplasms. We analyzed BCL11A mRNA levels in subjects with chronic and acute phase CML. BCL11A transcript levels were increased in subjects with CML in acute phase compared with those in normals and in subjects in chronic phase including some subjects studied in both phases. BCL11A mRNA levels were correlated with percent bone marrow blasts and significantly higher in lymphoid versus myeloid blast crisis. Differentiation of K562 with butyric acid, a CML cell line, decreased BCL11A mRNA levels. Cytology and flow cytometry analyses showed that ectopic expression of BCL11A in K562 cells blocked differentiation. These data suggest BCL11A may operate in transformation of CML from chronic to acute phase in some persons. PMID:27285855

  12. ACUTE PHASE REACTANCTS IN PERICARDIAL FLUID ARE INDICATORS OF CORONARY ARTERY DISEASE

    Yılmaz Mehmet Ali

    2012-12-01

    Full Text Available Inflammation in formation of atherosclerosis, and acute phase reactants in the site of inflammation have major functions. Thus, do the acute phase reactants constitute the biggest risk factor for coronary artery disease? 55 patients are included in the study. Patients with coronary artery bypass surgery are included in Group I (38 patients and patients with valve operation are included in Group II (17 patients. CABG patients are further divided into two sub-groups as on-pump and off-pump. In both groups, homocystein, high sensitivity C reactive protein, ceruloplasmin, lipoprotein A and serum amyloid A protein levels are analyzed from blood and pericardial fluid. In patients with coronary artery disease, the measured high specific C- reactive protein levels from blood and pericardial fluid are found to be significantly high compared to patients with valve operation.Homocystein levels of pericardial fluids of patients with CABG are found to be higher than patients with valve operation and it is confirmed that the situation is correlated with blood homocystein levels. Although there are lots studies expressing the relation between coronary artery disease and lipoprotein A, ceruloplasmin and serum amyloid A protein levels; no significant difference for those parameters was obtained in our study. We determined that other phase reactants are higher in patients with coronary artery disease, in accordance with the literature. We aimed to state that acute phase reactants not only increase as a result of disease, but their levels are also elevated beforehand, as an indicator of the disease.

  13. Markers of acute-phase response in the treatment of pulmonary tuberculosis

    Cristiane Martins; Antônio Carlos de Castro Gama; Daniela Valcarenghi; Anna Paula de Borba Batschauer

    2014-01-01

    Introduction:Tuberculosis promotes an acute phase response with an increase of blood reactants, such as C-reactive protein (CRP), among others, which are associated with increased erythrocyte sedimentation rate (ESR).Objective:Evaluate the ESR and the CRP as markers for diagnosis and monitoring cases of pulmonary tuberculosis.Method:Research on patients with clinical, laboratory, and imaging diagnosis of pulmonary tuberculosis, from Itajaí-SC; in which CRP and ESR were analyzed in three diffe...

  14. An Explanation for the Paradoxical Induction and Suppression of an Acute Phase Response by Ethanol

    Pruett, Brandon S.; Pruett, Stephen B

    2006-01-01

    Binge ethanol (EtOH) consumption suppresses inflammatory responses and resistance to infection, but paradoxically it is associated with increased levels of acute phase proteins (which are indicators of inflammation) and an increased risk of inflammation mediated pathologies such as cardiovascular disease and cirrhosis of the liver. The latter effect may be mediated by increased translocation of bacteria leading to activation of toll-like receptor 4 (TLR4). In this study, the dose-response and...

  15. Leucograma e teores plasmáticos de proteínas de fase aguda de eqüinos portadores de abdômen agudo e submetidos à laparotomia Leukogram and plasma acute phase protein concentrations in horses with acute abdomen submitted to treatment by laparotomy

    J.J. Fagliari

    2008-04-01

    Full Text Available Foram examinados 20 eqüinos adultos portadores de abdômen agudo e submetidos à laparotomia. Dez recuperaram-se sem intercorrência pós-operatória (G1 e 10 foram a óbito sete a 10 dias após a cirurgia, com sinais de choque séptico (G2. Avaliaram-se temperatura retal, freqüências cardíaca e respiratória, tempo de preenchimento capilar e teores plasmáticos das proteínas de fase aguda - fibrinogênio, ceruloplasmina, proteína C-reativa, antitripsina, haptoglobina e glicoproteína ácida -, antes e até sete dias após a laparotomia. As leucometrias às 72h e no sétimo dia pós-operatório dos eqüinos que foram a óbito foram, respectivamente, 34,6% e 57,1%, mais altas que a dos animais curados. Os maiores valores de proteína de fase aguda ocorreram no sétimo dia após a cirurgia; os percentuais de elevação de fibrinogênio, antitripsina, glicoproteina ácida, proteína C-reativa, ceruloplasmina e haptoglobina de eqüinos do G2 em relação ao G1 foram 46,8%, 67,9%, 91,9%, 112,2%, 126,9% e 186,2%, respectivamente.Twenty adult horses with acute abdomen were examined and submitted to treatment by laparotomy; ten had no postoperative complication (group 1, and ten showed septic shock symptom and died from seven to ten days after surgery (group 2. Body temperature, heart and respiratory rates, filling capillary time, and plasma acute phase protein concentrations - fibrinogen, ceruloplasmin, C-reactive protein, antitrypsin, haptoglobin, and acid glycoprotein - were evaluated before laparotomy and until seven days after surgery. White blood cell counts at 72h and seven days after surgery in group 2 animals were, respectively, 34.6% and 57.1%, and were higher than those measured in group 1 horses. The highest values of acute phase proteins occurred on the seventh day after surgery. The increase percentages of fibrinogen, antitrypsin, acid glycoprotein, C-reactive protein, ceruloplasmin, and haptoglobin plasma concentrations in group 2

  16. The bovine acute phase response to endotoxin and Gram-negative bacteria

    Jacobsen, Stine

    The overall aims of the work presented in this thesis were to characterize bovine cytokine and acute phase protein (APP) responses to lipopolysaccharide (LPS) and to investigate how LPS-induced clinical and immunoinflammatory responses differed between individual cows. Two kinds of experimental...... from the udder. APP measurements in milk may therefore have great potential as mastitis diagnostics. Milk and plasma SAA concentrations seemed to be higher in cows with severe mastitis than in cows with moderate or mild mastitis, which suggests that SAA levels reflect severity of udder infection (Paper...... pathogenesis of bovine acute phase response and the biologically relevant functions of central reactants such as cytokines and APPs. Cytokines are known to induce pathophysiological changes and SAA and haptoglobin have also been suggested to be important modulators of the inflammatory response. Success in...

  17. Leucogram and serum acute phase protein concentrations in queens submitted to conventional or videolaparoscopic ovariectomy Leucograma e concentrações séricas de proteínas de fase aguda de gatas submetidas à ovariectomia convencional ou por videolaparoscopia

    A.E. Alves

    2010-02-01

    Full Text Available Thirty health queens were submitted to ovariectomy by conventional technique or by videolaparoscopy. In order to study the intensity of inflammatory response by means of acute phase protein analysis and white blood cell count, serum samples were taken before and until 144 hours after the surgical procedures. The protein concentrations that were significantly increased 24 hours after surgical procedures were: ceruloplasmin, hemopexin, haptoglobin, and α1-acid glycoprotein, 69.8%, 103.5%, 117.3%, and 199.0%, respectively, for conventional ovariectomy; and 22.3%, 46.1%, 79.8%, and 74.6%, respectively, for laparoscopic ovariectomy. Therefore, inflammatory response was more intense in queens submitted to conventional ovariectomy. Results indicate that the increase or decrease in acute phase proteins, as well as in white blood cells count, may be useful in the evaluation of inflammatory response induced by these surgical procedures.Trinta gatas, saudáveis, foram submetidas à ovariectomia pela técnica convencional e por videolaparoscopia. Amostras de sangue foram obtidas com o objetivo de verificar a intensidade da resposta inflamatória por meio da análise das concentrações de proteinas de fase aguda e contagem de leucócitos antes e até 144 horas após procedimento cirúrgico. As proteínas que apresentaram aumento significativo 24 horas após a cirurgia foram: ceruloplasmina, hemopexina, haptoglobina e α1-glicoproteína ácida, 69,8%, 103,5%, 117,3% e 199,0%, respectivamente, para ovariectomia convencional, e 22,3%, 46,1%, 79,8% e 74,6%, respectivamente, para ovariectomia por videolaparoscopia. A resposta inflamatória foi mais evidente nas gatas submetidas à ovariectomia convencional. Os resultados mostram aumento e diminuição na concentração de proteínas de fase aguda e na contagem de leucócitos, podendo ser utilizados na avaliação da resposta inflamatória induzida por procedimentos cirúrgicos.

  18. Changes of hepatic lactoferrin gene expression in two mouse models of the acute phase reaction.

    Ahmad, Ghayyor; Sial, Gull Zareen Khan; Ramadori, Pierluigi; Dudas, Jozsef; Batusic, Danko S; Ramadori, Giuliano

    2011-12-01

    Lactoferrin (Ltf), an iron binding glycoprotein, is a pleiotropic molecule whose serum concentration increases under acute phase conditions. The physiological roles of this protein have been well elucidated, but the source and serum regulation of Ltf gene expression have not been investigated in detail as part of the acute phase reaction (APR). In the current work, the changes in hepatic Ltf-gene-expression during turpentine oil- (TO-) or LPS-induced APR were investigated. Ltf was upregulated at both the mRNA and protein levels in the liver of TO- and LPS-treated wild type (WT) mice. The pattern of induction however was different in both animal models indicating distinctive signalling patterns resulting in an acute phase reaction. Cytokines are the core regulators of APR. Among the major cytokines, IL-6 is an important signalling molecule, which also regulates iron homeostasis in response to an inflammatory situation. In this study, the administration of IL-6 induced Ltf gene expression in the liver of WT mice, in murine hepatocytes and in hepa 1-6 cells. Ltf-gene-expression was upregulated also in the liver of TO- and LPS-treated IL-6 knockout (KO) mice. The increase in serum Ltf after LPS injection was greater than after TO-injection both in WT and IL-6-KO mice. To evaluate the contribution of other acute phase cytokines in the regulation of Ltf-gene-expression in the liver, both in vitro and in vivo studies with IL-1β, TNF-α, or IFN-γ were performed. The results demonstrate that TNF-α and IFN-γ also upregulated Ltf-gene-expression, while IL-1β has no role in the regulation of Ltf-gene-expression. PMID:21963450

  19. Comparison of Inflammatory and Acute-Phase Responses in the Brain and Peripheral Organs of the ME7 Model of Prion Disease

    Cunningham, Colm; Wilcockson, David C.; Boche, Delphine; Perry, V. Hugh

    2005-01-01

    Chronic neurodegenerative diseases such as prion disease and Alzheimer's disease (AD) are reported to be associated with microglial activation and increased brain and serum cytokines and acute-phase proteins (APPs). Unlike AD, prion disease is also associated with a peripheral component in that the presumed causative agent, PrPSc, also accumulates in the spleen and other lymphoreticular organs. It is unclear whether the reported systemic acute-phase response represents a systemic inflammatory...

  20. STAT3 activation in skeletal muscle links muscle wasting and the acute phase response in cancer cachexia.

    Andrea Bonetto

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: Cachexia, or weight loss despite adequate nutrition, significantly impairs quality of life and response to therapy in cancer patients. In cancer patients, skeletal muscle wasting, weight loss and mortality are all positively associated with increased serum cytokines, particularly Interleukin-6 (IL-6, and the presence of the acute phase response. Acute phase proteins, including fibrinogen and serum amyloid A (SAA are synthesized by hepatocytes in response to IL-6 as part of the innate immune response. To gain insight into the relationships among these observations, we studied mice with moderate and severe Colon-26 (C26-carcinoma cachexia. METHODOLOGY/PRINCIPAL FINDINGS: Moderate and severe C26 cachexia was associated with high serum IL-6 and IL-6 family cytokines and highly similar patterns of skeletal muscle gene expression. The top canonical pathways up-regulated in both were the complement/coagulation cascade, proteasome, MAPK signaling, and the IL-6 and STAT3 pathways. Cachexia was associated with increased muscle pY705-STAT3 and increased STAT3 localization in myonuclei. STAT3 target genes, including SOCS3 mRNA and acute phase response proteins, were highly induced in cachectic muscle. IL-6 treatment and STAT3 activation both also induced fibrinogen in cultured C2C12 myotubes. Quantitation of muscle versus liver fibrinogen and SAA protein levels indicates that muscle contributes a large fraction of serum acute phase proteins in cancer. CONCLUSIONS/SIGNIFICANCE: These results suggest that the STAT3 transcriptome is a major mechanism for wasting in cancer. Through IL-6/STAT3 activation, skeletal muscle is induced to synthesize acute phase proteins, thus establishing a molecular link between the observations of high IL-6, increased acute phase response proteins and muscle wasting in cancer. These results suggest a mechanism by which STAT3 might causally influence muscle wasting by altering the profile of genes expressed and

  1. Monoclonal Antibody-Based Antigen Capture Enzyme-Linked Immunosorbent Assay Reveals High Sensitivity of the Nucleocapsid Protein in Acute-Phase Sera of Severe Acute Respiratory Syndrome Patients

    Di, Biao; Hao, Wei; Gao, Yang; Wang, Ming; Wang, Ya-di; QIU, LI-WEN; Wen, Kun; Zhou, Duan-Hua; Wu, Xin-wei; Lu, En-Jie; Liao, Zhi-yong; Mei, Ya-bo; Zheng, Bo-Jian; Che, Xiao-Yan

    2005-01-01

    Accurate and timely diagnosis of severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus (SARS-CoV) infection is a critical step in preventing another global outbreak. In this study, 829 serum specimens were collected from 643 patients initially reported to be infected with SARS-CoV. The sera were tested for the N protein of SARS-CoV by using an antigen capture enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay (ELISA) based on monoclonal antibodies against the N protein of SARS-CoV and compared to 197 control serum sa...

  2. A human mannose-binding protein is an acute-phase reactant that shares sequence homology with other vertebrate lectins [published erratum appears in J Exp Med 1991 Sep 1;174(3):753

    1988-01-01

    Mannose-binding proteins have been isolated from the liver of rats and humans and subsequently been found in the serum of rats, rabbits, and humans. We report the isolation of cDNA clones isolated from a human liver cDNA library that encodes a human mannose-binding protein. The primary structure has three domains: (a) an NH2-terminal cysteine-rich segment of 19 amino acids which appears to be involved in the formation of interchain disulfide bonds that would stabilize multimeric forms of the ...

  3. The Use of Dermal Substitutes in Burn Surgery: Acute Phase

    Shahrokhi, Shahriar; Anna, Arno; Marc G. Jeschke

    2014-01-01

    Dermal substitutes are increasingly becoming an essential part of the burn care strategy. During the acute phase of burn treatment, dermal substitutes improve functional and cosmetic results long-term and thus increase quality of life. In the chronic wound setting, dermal substitutes are used to reconstruct and improve burn scars and other defects. Despite some successes in the use of dermal substitutes there are more needs and requirements to further improve outcomes and hence further resear...

  4. Influência da resposta inflamatória de fase aguda nos níveis séricos de retinol e da proteína de ligação do retinol em pacientes com AIDS Influence of acute-phase inflammatory response on serum levels of retinol and retinol binding protein in HIV/AIDS patients

    Fábio Fernandes Neves

    2010-02-01

    Full Text Available INTRODUÇÃO: a hiporretinolemia constitui fator prognóstico independente em pacientes com AIDS, e a atividade inflamatória causa redução dos níveis séricos deste nutriente na população em geral. Entretanto, faltam estudos que avaliem o impacto da atividade inflamatória sobre o nível sérico do retinol em pacientes com AIDS. MÉTODOS: foram avaliados transversalmente 41 pacientes internados por complicações da AIDS, que tiveram quantificados alguns marcadores de inflamação (proteína C reativa e fator de necrose tumoral alfa e concentrações séricas de retinol e da proteína de ligação do retinol. RESULTADOS: apesar da baixa (14,6% prevalência de hiporretinolemia evidenciou-se correlação negativa dos marcadores de inflamação com os níveis séricos de retinol e de sua proteína de ligação nos pacientes com AIDS. CONCLUSÕES: a atividade inflamatória de fase aguda está associada a baixos níveis séricos de retinol em indivíduos com AIDS.INTRODUCTION: Hyporetinolemia is an independent prognostic factor in AIDS patients. Inflammatory activity causes a reduction in the serum levels of this nutrient in the general population. However, there are no studies assessing the impact of inflammatory activity on the serum retinol level in AIDS patients. METHODS: A cross-sectional assessment was conducted on 41 patients hospitalized due to AIDS complications. Inflammatory markers (C-reactive protein and tumor necrosis factor-alpha and serum retinol and retinol binding protein concentrations were quantified. RESULTS: Despite the low (14.6% prevalence of hyporetinolemia, a significant negative correlation was observed between the inflammatory markers and the serum retinol and retinol binding protein levels in AIDS patients. CONCLUSIONS: Acute-phase inflammatory activity is associated with low serum retinol levels in individuals with AIDS.

  5. Caerulin-induced pancreatitis in rats: Histological and genetic expression changes from acute phase to recuperation

    Javier Maga(n)a-Gómez; Guillermo López-Cervantes; Ana María Calderón de la Barca

    2006-01-01

    AIM: To study the histological and pancreatitis-associated protein mRNA accumulation changes of pancreas from acute phase of caerulin-induced pancreatitis to recuperation in rats.METHODS: Acute pancreatitis was induced by caerulein in male Wistar rats and followed up for 90 d by histologicai and mRNA analyses of pancreas. Pancreases were dissected at 0, 9, 24 h and 3, 5, 15, 30, 60, 90 d post-induction. Edema (E), polymorphonuclear neutrophil (PMN) infiltration, cytoplasmic vacuolization (V), zymogen granule depletion (ZD) and acinar disorganization (AD) were microscopically evaluated. Accumulation of pancreatitisassociated protein (PAP) and L13A mRNAs were quantifled by real-time PCR.RESULTS: The main histological changes appeared at 9 h post-induction for PMN infiltration and cytoplasmic V, while at 24 h and 3 d for E and ZD, respectively. All the parameters were recovered after 5 d, except for ZD which delayed more than 30 d. The main AD was observed after 15 d and values returned to normal after 30 d. Similarly to histological changes, accumulation of the PAP mRNA was increased at 9 h with the highest accumulation at 24 h and differences disappeared after 5 d.CONCLUSION: From the acute phase to recuperation of pancreatitis, regeneration and re-differentiation of pancreas occur and PAP expression is exclusively an acute response of pancreatitis.

  6. Tail biting induces a strong acute phase response and tail-end inflammation in finishing pigs.

    Heinonen, Mari; Orro, Toomas; Kokkonen, Teija; Munsterhjelm, Camilla; Peltoniemi, Olli; Valros, Anna

    2010-06-01

    The extent of inflammation associated with tail biting in finishing pigs was evaluated. Tail histopathology, carcass condemnation and the concentration of three acute phase proteins (APPs), C-reactive protein (CRP), serum amyloid-A (SAA) and haptoglobin (Hp), were examined in 12 tail-bitten and 13 control pigs. The median concentrations of APPs were higher (Ppigs (CRP 65.7mg/L, 28.4-180.4; SAA 6.2mg/L, 6.2-21.4; Hp 1.2g/L, 0.9-1.5). There was a tendency for APP concentrations to rise with the histopathological score but the differences were only statistically significant between some of the scores. Five (42%) bitten cases and one (8%) control pig had partial carcass condemnations owing to abscesses (P=0.07). The results show that tail biting induces an inflammatory response in the tail end leading to an acute phase response and formation of carcass abscesses. PMID:19398209

  7. Anti-CD163-dexamethasone conjugate inhibits the acute phase response to lipopolysaccharide in rats

    Thomsen, Karen Louise; Møller, Holger Jon; Graversen, Jonas Heilskov;

    2016-01-01

    /kg) 24 h prior to lipopolysaccharide (LPS) (2.5 mg/kg intraperitoneal). We measured plasma concentrations of tumour necrosis factor-α (TNF-α) and interleukin 6 (IL-6) 2 h post-LPS and liver mRNAs and serum concentrations of the rat acute phase protein α-2-macroglobulin (α-2-M) 24 h after LPS. Also......AIM: To study the effect of a new anti-CD163-dexamethasone conjugate targeting activated macrophages on the hepatic acute phase response in rats. METHODS: Wistar rats were injected intravenous with either the CD163 targeted dexamethasone-conjugate (0.02 mg/kg) or free dexamethasone (0.02 or 1 mg......, plasma concentrations of alanine aminotransferase and bilirubin were measured at termination of the study. Spleen weight served as an indicator of systemic steroid effects. RESULTS: The conjugate halved the α-2-M liver mRNA (3.3 ± 0.6 vs 6.8 ± 1.1, P < 0.01) and serum protein (201 ± 48 μg/mL vs 389 ± 67...

  8. Particle-induced pulmonary acute phase response correlates with neutrophil influx linking inhaled particles and cardiovascular risk

    Saber, Anne Thoustrup; Lamson, Jacob Stuart; Jacobsen, Nicklas Raun;

    2013-01-01

    Background Particulate air pollution is associated with cardiovascular disease. Acute phase response is causally linked to cardiovascular disease. Here, we propose that particle-induced pulmonary acute phase response provides an underlying mechanism for particle-induced cardiovascular risk. Methods...... at a biofuel plant. Mice were exposed to single or multiple doses of particles by inhalation or intratracheal instillation and pulmonary mRNA expression of Saa3 was determined at different time points of up to 4 weeks after exposure. Also hepatic mRNA expression of Saa3, SAA3 protein levels in...... broncheoalveolar lavage fluid and in plasma and high density lipoprotein levels in plasma were determined in mice exposed to multiwalled carbon nanotubes. Results Pulmonary exposure to particles strongly increased Saa3 mRNA levels in lung tissue and elevated SAA3 protein levels in broncheoalveolar lavage fluid and...

  9. Lack of acute phase response in the livers of mice exposed to diesel exhaust particles or carbon black by inhalation

    Williams Andrew; Møller Peter; Boisen Anne; Bornholdt Jette; Folkmann Janne K; Halappanavar Sabina; Saber Anne T; Yauk Carole; Vogel Ulla; Loft Steffen; Wallin Håkan

    2009-01-01

    Abstract Background Epidemiologic and animal studies have shown that particulate air pollution is associated with increased risk of lung and cardiovascular diseases. Although the exact mechanisms by which particles induce cardiovascular diseases are not known, studies suggest involvement of systemic acute phase responses, including C-reactive protein (CRP) and serum amyloid A (SAA) in humans. In this study we test the hypothesis that diesel exhaust particles (DEP) – or carbon black (CB)-induc...

  10. Acute lung injury induced by whole gastric fluid: hepatic acute phase response contributes to increase lung antiprotease protection

    Ayala, Pedro; Meneses, Manuel; Olmos, Pablo; Montalva, Rebeca; Droguett, Karla; Ríos, Mariana; Borzone, Gisella

    2016-01-01

    Background Gastric contents aspiration in humans is a risk factor for severe respiratory failure with elevated mortality. Although aspiration-induced local lung inflammation has been studied in animal models, little is known about extrapulmonary effects of aspiration. We investigated whether a single orotracheal instillation of whole gastric fluid elicits a liver acute phase response and if this response contributes to enrich the alveolar spaces with proteins having antiprotease activity. Met...

  11. ACUTE-PHASE REACTIONS, INCLUDING CYTOKINES, IN PATIENTS BITTEN BY BOTHROPS AND CROTALUS SNAKES IN BRAZIL

    B. BARRAVIERA

    1995-01-01

    Full Text Available Thirty-one patients bitten by venomous snakes in Botucatu area (State of São Paulo - Brazil, sixteen by Bothrops spp. and fifteen by Crotalus durissus terrificus, were studied. The group comprised twenty-nine males and two females, ranging from fourteen to sixty-three years of age (mean 33 ± 15. Leukocytosis with neutrophilia and lymphopenia, increase of mucoproteins and C-reactive protein, decrease of total serum protein and albumin, were observed on the first day after the accident. In addition, increased serum levels of the cytokines IL-6 and IL-8, but not of IL-1b and TNF-a, were observed. The alterations were generally more intense in patients bitten by Crotalus durissus terrificus than by Bothrops spp. It is concluded that these snakebite envenomations closely resemble an acute trauma, inducing a typical acute-phase response.

  12. Acute phase response, inflammation and metabolic syndrome biomarkers of Libby asbestos exposure

    Shannahan, Jonathan H. [Curriculum in Toxicology, University of North Carolina at Chapel Hill School of Medicine, Chapel Hill, NC 27599 (United States); Alzate, Oscar [Systems Proteomics Center, University of North Carolina at Chapel Hill School of Medicine, Chapel Hill, NC 27599 (United States); Winnik, Witold M.; Andrews, Debora [Proteomics Core, Research Core Unit, National Health and Environmental Effects Research Laboratory, Office of Research and Development, U.S. Environmental Protection Agency, Research Triangle Park, NC 27711 (United States); Schladweiler, Mette C. [Cardiopulmonary and Immunotoxicology Branch, Environmental Public Health Division, National Health and Environmental Effects Research Laboratory, Office of Research and Development, U.S. Environmental Protection Agency, Research Triangle Park, NC 27711 (United States); Ghio, Andrew J. [Clinical Research Branch, Environmental Public Health Division, National Health and Environmental Effects Research Laboratory, Office of Research and Development, U.S. Environmental Protection Agency, Chapel Hill, NC 27599 (United States); Gavett, Stephen H. [Cardiopulmonary and Immunotoxicology Branch, Environmental Public Health Division, National Health and Environmental Effects Research Laboratory, Office of Research and Development, U.S. Environmental Protection Agency, Research Triangle Park, NC 27711 (United States); Kodavanti, Urmila P., E-mail: Kodavanti.Urmila@epa.gov [Cardiopulmonary and Immunotoxicology Branch, Environmental Public Health Division, National Health and Environmental Effects Research Laboratory, Office of Research and Development, U.S. Environmental Protection Agency, Research Triangle Park, NC 27711 (United States)

    2012-04-15

    Identification of biomarkers assists in the diagnosis of disease and the assessment of health risks from environmental exposures. We hypothesized that rats exposed to Libby amphibole (LA) would present with a unique serum proteomic profile which could help elucidate epidemiologically-relevant biomarkers. In four experiments spanning varied protocols and temporality, healthy (Wistar Kyoto, WKY; and F344) and cardiovascular compromised (CVD) rat models (spontaneously hypertensive, SH; and SH heart failure, SHHF) were intratracheally instilled with saline (control) or LA. Serum biomarkers of cancer, inflammation, metabolic syndrome (MetS), and the acute phase response (APR) were analyzed. All rat strains exhibited acute increases in α-2-macroglobulin, and α1-acid glycoprotein. Among markers of inflammation, lipocalin-2 was induced in WKY, SH and SHHF and osteopontin only in WKY after LA exposure. While rat strain- and age-related changes were apparent in MetS biomarkers, no LA effects were evident. The cancer marker mesothelin was increased only slightly at 1 month in WKY in one of the studies. Quantitative Intact Proteomic profiling of WKY serum at 1 day or 4 weeks after 4 weekly LA instillations indicated no oxidative protein modifications, however APR proteins were significantly increased. Those included serine protease inhibitor, apolipoprotein E, α-2-HS-glycoprotein, t-kininogen 1 and 2, ceruloplasmin, vitamin D binding protein, serum amyloid P, and more 1 day after last LA exposure. All changes were reversible after a short recovery regardless of the acute or long-term exposures. Thus, LA exposure induces an APR and systemic inflammatory biomarkers that could have implications in systemic and pulmonary disease in individuals exposed to LA. -- Highlights: ► Biomarkers of asbestos exposure are required for disease diagnosis. ► Libby amphibole exposure is associated with increased human mortality. ► Libby amphibole increases circulating proteins involved

  13. Acute phase response, inflammation and metabolic syndrome biomarkers of Libby asbestos exposure

    Identification of biomarkers assists in the diagnosis of disease and the assessment of health risks from environmental exposures. We hypothesized that rats exposed to Libby amphibole (LA) would present with a unique serum proteomic profile which could help elucidate epidemiologically-relevant biomarkers. In four experiments spanning varied protocols and temporality, healthy (Wistar Kyoto, WKY; and F344) and cardiovascular compromised (CVD) rat models (spontaneously hypertensive, SH; and SH heart failure, SHHF) were intratracheally instilled with saline (control) or LA. Serum biomarkers of cancer, inflammation, metabolic syndrome (MetS), and the acute phase response (APR) were analyzed. All rat strains exhibited acute increases in α-2-macroglobulin, and α1-acid glycoprotein. Among markers of inflammation, lipocalin-2 was induced in WKY, SH and SHHF and osteopontin only in WKY after LA exposure. While rat strain- and age-related changes were apparent in MetS biomarkers, no LA effects were evident. The cancer marker mesothelin was increased only slightly at 1 month in WKY in one of the studies. Quantitative Intact Proteomic profiling of WKY serum at 1 day or 4 weeks after 4 weekly LA instillations indicated no oxidative protein modifications, however APR proteins were significantly increased. Those included serine protease inhibitor, apolipoprotein E, α-2-HS-glycoprotein, t-kininogen 1 and 2, ceruloplasmin, vitamin D binding protein, serum amyloid P, and more 1 day after last LA exposure. All changes were reversible after a short recovery regardless of the acute or long-term exposures. Thus, LA exposure induces an APR and systemic inflammatory biomarkers that could have implications in systemic and pulmonary disease in individuals exposed to LA. -- Highlights: ► Biomarkers of asbestos exposure are required for disease diagnosis. ► Libby amphibole exposure is associated with increased human mortality. ► Libby amphibole increases circulating proteins involved

  14. Lack of acute phase response in the livers of mice exposed to diesel exhaust particles or carbon black by inhalation

    Saber, Anne T; Halappanavar, Sabina; Folkmann, Janne K;

    2009-01-01

    BACKGROUND: Epidemiologic and animal studies have shown that particulate air pollution is associated with increased risk of lung and cardiovascular diseases. Although the exact mechanisms by which particles induce cardiovascular diseases are not known, studies suggest involvement of systemic acute...... phase responses, including C-reactive protein (CRP) and serum amyloid A (SAA) in humans. In this study we test the hypothesis that diesel exhaust particles (DEP) - or carbon black (CB)-induced lung inflammation initiates an acute phase response in the liver. RESULTS: Mice were exposed to filtered air......, 20 mg/m3 DEP or CB by inhalation for 90 minutes/day for four consecutive days; we have previously shown that these mice exhibit pulmonary inflammation (Saber AT, Bornholdt J, Dybdahl M, Sharma AK, Loft S, Vogel U, Wallin H. Tumor necrosis factor is not required for particle-induced genotoxicity and...

  15. Changes in Serum Acute Phase Reactants, Inflammatory Mediators and Gangliosides in Japanese quail (Coturnix japonica with Retained Yolk Sac

    N. Mosleh, S. Nazifi* and A. Alaeddini

    2012-05-01

    Full Text Available Twenty-two 2-week-old Japanese quails (Coturnix japonica with retained yolk sac have been assessed using validated standard procedures to quantify the serum concentration of the acute phase reactants (haptoglobin and serum amyloid A, inflammatory mediators (tumor necrosis factor-alpha, gamma interferon and gangliosides (total sialic acid, lipid bound sialic acid and protein bound sialic acid. The present findings show that the concentrations of all measured parameters in diseased birds were significantly higher than the control group. Inflammation following yolk sac infection/retention leads to stimulation of the synthesis of inflammatory mediators, acute phase reactants and gangliosides. Among the study variables, lipid bound sialic acid had the most obvious change, so it is the most sensitive parameter.

  16. Diminished acute phase response and increased hepatic inflammation of aged rats in response to intraperitoneal injection of lipopolysaccharide.

    Gomez, Christian R; Acuña-Castillo, Claudio; Pérez, Claudio; Leiva-Salcedo, Elías; Riquelme, Denise M; Ordenes, Gamaliel; Oshima, Kiyoko; Aravena, Mauricio; Pérez, Viviana I; Nishimura, Sumiyo; Sabaj, Valeria; Walter, Robin; Sierra, Felipe

    2008-12-01

    Aging is associated with a deterioration of the acute phase response to inflammatory challenges. However, the nature of these defects remains poorly defined. We analyzed the hepatic inflammatory response after intraperitoneal administration of lipopolysaccharide (LPS) given to Fisher 344 rats aged 6, 15, and 22-23 months. Induction of the acute phase proteins (APPs), haptoglobin, alpha-1-acid glycoprotein, and T-kininogen was reduced and/or retarded with aging. Initial induction of interleukin-6 in aged rats was normal, but the later response was increased relative to younger counterparts. An exacerbated hepatic injury was observed in aged rats receiving LPS, as evidenced by the presence of multiple microabscesses in portal tracts, confluent necrosis, higher neutrophil accumulation, and elevated serum levels of alanine aminotransferase, relative to younger animals. Our results suggest that aged rats displayed a reduced expression of APPs and increased hepatic injury in response to the inflammatory insult. PMID:19126842

  17. Particle-induced pulmonary acute phase response correlates with neutrophil influx linking inhaled particles and cardiovascular risk.

    Anne Thoustrup Saber

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: Particulate air pollution is associated with cardiovascular disease. Acute phase response is causally linked to cardiovascular disease. Here, we propose that particle-induced pulmonary acute phase response provides an underlying mechanism for particle-induced cardiovascular risk. METHODS: We analysed the mRNA expression of Serum Amyloid A (Saa3 in lung tissue from female C57BL/6J mice exposed to different particles including nanomaterials (carbon black and titanium dioxide nanoparticles, multi- and single walled carbon nanotubes, diesel exhaust particles and airborne dust collected at a biofuel plant. Mice were exposed to single or multiple doses of particles by inhalation or intratracheal instillation and pulmonary mRNA expression of Saa3 was determined at different time points of up to 4 weeks after exposure. Also hepatic mRNA expression of Saa3, SAA3 protein levels in broncheoalveolar lavage fluid and in plasma and high density lipoprotein levels in plasma were determined in mice exposed to multiwalled carbon nanotubes. RESULTS: Pulmonary exposure to particles strongly increased Saa3 mRNA levels in lung tissue and elevated SAA3 protein levels in broncheoalveolar lavage fluid and plasma, whereas hepatic Saa3 levels were much less affected. Pulmonary Saa3 expression correlated with the number of neutrophils in BAL across different dosing regimens, doses and time points. CONCLUSIONS: Pulmonary acute phase response may constitute a direct link between particle inhalation and risk of cardiovascular disease. We propose that the particle-induced pulmonary acute phase response may predict risk for cardiovascular disease.

  18. Effects of glutamine supplementation on gut barrier,glutathione content and acute phase response in malnourished rats during inflammatory shock

    Liliana Belmonte; Philippe Ducrotté; Pierre Déchelotte; Mo(i)se Co(e)ffier; Florence Le Pessot; Olga Miralles-Barrachina; Martine Hiron; Antony Leplingard; Jean-Fran(c)ois Lemeland; Bernadette Hecketsweiler; Maryvonne Daveau

    2007-01-01

    AIM:To evaluate the effect of glutamine on intestinal mucosa integrity, glutathione stores and acute phase response in protein-depleted rats during an inflammatory shock.METHODS: Plasma acute phase proteins (APP),jejunal APP mRNA levels, liver and jejunal glutathione concentrations were measured before and one, three and seven days after turpentine injection in 4 groups of control, protein-restricted, protein-restricted rats supplemented with glutamine or protein powder.Bacterial translocation in mesenteric lymph nodes and intestinal morphology were also assessed.RESULTS: Protein deprivation and turpentine injection significantly reduced jejunal villus height, and crypt depths. Mucosal glutathione concentration significantly decreased in protein-restricted rats. Before turpentine oil, glutamine supplementation restored villus heights and glutathione concentration (3.24 ± 1.05 vs 1.72 ±0.46 μmol/g tissue, P < 0.05) in the jejunum, whereas in the liver glutathione remained low. Glutamine markedly increased jejunal α1-acid glycoprotein mRNA level after turpentine oil but did not affect its plasma concentration. Bacterial translocation in protein-restricted rats was not prevented by glutamine or protein powder supplementation.CONCLUSION: Glutamine restored gut glutathione stores and villus heights in malnourished rats but had no preventive effect on bacterial translocation in our model.

  19. Synergistic regulation of the acute phase protein SIP24/24p3 by glucocorticoid and pro-inflammatory cytokines%糖皮质激素与炎症因子对应急时相反应蛋白SIP24/24p3的协同调控作用及其意义

    刘全胜; Marit Nilsen-Hamilton; 熊思东

    2003-01-01

    SIP24/24p3 is a secreted murine acute phase protein which has been speculated to play an anti-inflammatory role in vivo. Recently SIP24/24p3 has been found to be able to specifically induce apoptosis in leukocytes. By using 35S metabolic labeling method, we studied the regulation of SIP24/24p3 by glucocorticoid and pro-inflammatory cytokines IL-6 and TNF-α in cultured Balb/c 3T3 and BNL cells. The following results were observed: ( 1 ) dexamethasone induced the expression of SIP24/24p3 in both Balb/c 3T3 and BNL cells, the induction was more significant in BNL cells; (2) dexamethasone and IL-6 synergistically induced the expression of SIP24/24p3 in both Balb/c 3T3 and BNL cells; (3) in Balb/c 3T3 cells dexamethasone and TNF-a acted synergistically to induce the expression of SIP24/24p3, whereas in BNL cells dexamethasone and TNF-α induced the expression of SIP24/24p3 in an additive manner; (4) dexamethasone and IL-6/TNF-α acted synergistically in Balb/c 3T3 cells and additively in BNL cells to induce the expression of SIP24/24p3. The inducibility of SIP24/24p3 by multiple factors will help to explain its highly specific expression in vivo. The difference in the expression patterns of SIP24/24p3 in different cell types is also suggestive to its expression and regulation in hepatic and extrahepatic tissues. Finally, the fact that SIP24/24p3 protein can be induced by both pro-inflammatory as well as anti-inflammatory factors is indicative of the important role of SIP24/24p3 in the entire acute phase response process.%小鼠应急时相反应蛋白SIP24/24p3有抗炎症和特异性诱导白细胞凋亡的功能,其在体内的表达是高度特异性的.为研究SIP24/24p3的调控因子及机制,我们在小鼠Balb/c 3T3和BNL细胞培养中通过灵敏的35S代谢标记方法检测SIP24/24p3蛋白的表达水平,定量观测分析了糖皮质激素化合物dexamethasone对SIP24/24p3的诱导作用及其与炎症因子白介素6(IL-6)和

  20. Myeloperoxidase and serum amyloid A contribute to impaired in vivo reverse cholesterol transport during the acute phase response but not group IIA secretory phospholipase A(2)

    Annema, Wijtske; Nijstad, Niels; Toelle, Markus; de Boer, Jan Freark; Buijs, Ruben V. C.; Heeringa, Peter; van der Giet, Markus; Tietge, Uwe J. F.

    2010-01-01

    Atherosclerosis is linked to inflammation. HDL protects against atherosclerotic cardiovascular disease, mainly by mediating cholesterol efflux and reverse cholesterol transport (RCT). The present study aimed to test the impact of acute inflammation as well as selected acute phase proteins on RCT wit

  1. Effect of structured lipid emulsion on acute phase protein and acute inflammatory reaction in gastrointestinal cancer patients after operation%结构脂肪乳对消化道肿瘤术后患者急性时相蛋白及炎性细胞因子的影响

    吕清泉; 孙坚; 叶亚林; 马汉军

    2014-01-01

    Objective To explore the influence of structured lipid emulsion on acute phase protein and acute inflammatory reaction in gastrointestinal cancer patients after operation.Methods Eighty postoperative patients with gastrointestinal caner from July 2010 to February 2012 were randomly divided into observation group and control group,and 40 cases for each group.Patients in observation group were given structured lipid emulsion,while in control group were given physic mixture of medium-chain/long-chain triglycerides group.Meanwhile patients in both groups were received isonitrogenous and isocaloric parenteral nutrition for 6 days after operation.The general conditions after operation were recorded.Acute phase protein and acute inflammatory reaction were measured before operation,the 1 st day and 7th day after operation.Results After 6 days parenteral nutrition,the vital sign data,blood routine indices,liver and renal function,blood fat were back to normal values in two groups.There was no significant difference in the incidence of postoperative infection complication and hospitalization duration between observation group and control group (12.5% (5/40) vs.25.0% (10/40) ; (12.9 ± 0.7) d vs.(13.1 ± 0.9) d; P > 0.05).The serum levels of Albumin (ALB),Prealbumin(PAB) and Transferrin(TRF) on the 1st day after operation in two groups were significantly lower than those before operation,while the serum levels of C reactive protein (CRP) and fibrinogen (Fib) were significantly higher,then gradually recovering.The serum levels of ALB,PAB,TRF,CRP,Fib on the 7th day after operation in observation group were (37.11 ± 3.30) g/L,(0.25 ± 0.08) g/L,(2.35 ± 0.49) g/L,(21.84±16.76) mg/L,(3.95 ± 1.23) g/L,significant different from those on the 1st day before nutrition therapy ((31.52±2.92) g/L,(0.15 ±0.02) g/L,(1.90 ±0.54) g/L,(83.80 ±47.13) mg/L,(4.35 ±0.98) g/L) and control group ((34.50 ±2.71) g/L,(0.18 ±0.05) g/L,(2.00 ±0.52) g/L,(41.36 ±23.49) mg/L,(4.76 ± 2

  2. Lack of acute phase response in the livers of mice exposed to diesel exhaust particles or carbon black by inhalation

    Williams Andrew

    2009-04-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Epidemiologic and animal studies have shown that particulate air pollution is associated with increased risk of lung and cardiovascular diseases. Although the exact mechanisms by which particles induce cardiovascular diseases are not known, studies suggest involvement of systemic acute phase responses, including C-reactive protein (CRP and serum amyloid A (SAA in humans. In this study we test the hypothesis that diesel exhaust particles (DEP – or carbon black (CB-induced lung inflammation initiates an acute phase response in the liver. Results Mice were exposed to filtered air, 20 mg/m3 DEP or CB by inhalation for 90 minutes/day for four consecutive days; we have previously shown that these mice exhibit pulmonary inflammation (Saber AT, Bornholdt J, Dybdahl M, Sharma AK, Loft S, Vogel U, Wallin H. Tumor necrosis factor is not required for particle-induced genotoxicity and pulmonary inflammation., Arch. Toxicol. 79 (2005 177–182. As a positive control for the induction of an acute phase response, mice were exposed to 12.5 mg/kg of lipopolysaccharide (LPS intraperitoneally. Quantitative real time RT-PCR was used to examine the hepatic mRNA expression of acute phase proteins, serum amyloid P (Sap (the murine homologue of Crp and Saa1 and Saa3. While significant increases in the hepatic expression of Sap, Saa1 and Saa3 were observed in response to LPS, their levels did not change in response to DEP or CB. In a comprehensive search for markers of an acute phase response, we analyzed liver tissue from these mice using high density DNA microarrays. Globally, 28 genes were found to be significantly differentially expressed in response to DEP or CB. The mRNA expression of three of the genes (serine (or cysteine proteinase inhibitor, clade A, member 3C, apolipoprotein E and transmembrane emp24 domain containing 3 responded to both exposures. However, these changes were very subtle and were not confirmed by real time RT

  3. Citocinas e proteínas de fase aguda do soro como marcadores de regressão da resposta inflamatória ao tratamento da tuberculose pulmonar Cytokines and acute phase serum proteins as markers of inflammatory regression during the treatment of pulmonary tuberculosis

    Eliana Peresi

    2008-11-01

    Full Text Available OBJETIVO: Analisar o padrão de citocinas pró- e antiinflamatórias e da resposta de fase aguda (RFA como marcadores de resposta ao tratamento da tuberculose pulmonar. MÉTODOS: Determinação dos níveis de interferon-gama (IFN-γ, tumor necrosis factor-alpha (TNF-α, fator de necrose tumoral-alfa, interleucina-10 (IL-10 e transforming growth factor-beta (TGF-β, fator transformador de crescimento-beta, pelo método ELISA, em sobrenadante de cultura de células mononucleares do sangue periférico e monócitos, assim como dos níveis de proteínas totais, albumina, globulinas, alfa-1-glicoproteína ácida (AGA, proteína C reativa (PCR e velocidade de hemossedimentação (VHS em 28 doentes com tuberculose pulmonar, em três tempos: antes (T0, aos três meses (T3 e aos seis meses (T6 de tratamento, em relação aos controles saudáveis, em um único tempo. RESULTADOS: Os pacientes apresentaram valores maiores de citocinas e RFA que os controles em T0, com diminuição em T3 e diminuição (TNF-α, IL-10, TGF-β, AGA e VHS ou normalização (IFN-γ e PCR em T6. CONCLUSÕES: PCR, AGA e VHS são possíveis marcadores para auxiliar no diagnóstico de tuberculose pulmonar e na indicação de tratamento de indivíduos com baciloscopia negativa; PCR (T0 > T3 > T6 = referência pode também ser marcador de resposta ao tratamento. Antes do tratamento, o perfil Th0 (IFN-γ, IL-10, TNF-α e TGF-β, indutor de e protetor contra inflamação, prevaleceu nos pacientes; em T6, prevaleceu o perfil Th2 (IL-10, TNF-α e TGF-β, protetor contra efeito nocivo pró-inflamatório do TNF-α ainda presente. O comportamento do IFN-γ (T0 > T3 > T6 = controle sugere sua utilização como marcador de resposta ao tratamento.OBJECTIVE: To evaluate the pattern of pro-inflammatory cytokines, anti-inflammatory cytokines and the acute phase response (APR as markers of the response to treatment of pulmonary tuberculosis. METHODS: Twenty-eight patients with pulmonary tuberculosis

  4. Effects of lactulose on liver function and acute phase proteins in patients underwent radiofrequency ab-lation for hepatocellular carcinoma%乳果糖对原发性肝癌射频消融术患者肝功能及血清急相反应蛋白的影响

    阚晓; 李晔; 孙洁; 潘家超; 郑昭敏; 彭敏

    2013-01-01

      目的观察乳果糖对原发性肝癌患者射频消融术后ALT、AST、C反应蛋白和降钙素原水平的影响。方法132例原发性肝癌患者被随机分为对照组和乳果糖治疗组。在射频消融术前后,对照组按常规治疗,治疗组加服乳果糖。两组均在射频消融前后检测ALT、AST、甲胎蛋白、C反应蛋白和降钙素原水平。结果治疗组在治疗后3天,患者C反应蛋白和降钙素原分别为15.42±3.81mg/L和13.85±4.67μg/L,与治疗前水平(14.23±4.65mg/L和12.28±4.45μg/L)相比,差异无显著性,但在1周后两者分别下降至4.56±1.38mg/L和4.35±2.12μg/L,显著低于治疗前水平(P<0.05);治疗后3天对照组患者C反应蛋白和降钙素原上升至20.36±7.72mg/L和17.62±9.43μg/L,显著高于治疗前水平(14.21±4.47mg/L和12.16±8.37μg/L,P<0.05),但治疗后1周分别下降至12.28±7.36mg/L和11.01±8.24μg/L;术后3天ALT(89±47U/LL)和AST(71±38U/L)均由基线水平显著上升(115±53U/L和107±54U,P<0.05),但术后1周下降至接近基线水平(63±32U/L和60±34U/L);治疗组甲胎蛋白水平由基线(1307±697ng/ml)持续下降(术后3天为875±653ng/ml,术后1周为201±171ng/ml,P均<0.01)。结论乳果糖显著改善原发性肝癌患者在射频消融术后肝功能状态,并减轻机体的炎症反应,可能对促进术后机体的恢复有一定的意义。%Objective To study the effects of lactulose on liver function and acute phase proteins (C-reac-tion protein and procalcitonin)in patients underwent radiofrequency ablation for hepatocellular carcinoma (HCC). Method 132 patients with HCC were randomly divided into control and treatment group. The patients in controls were treated with conventional therapy and patients in the treatment group were treated with lactulose additionally. The serum alanine aminotransferase(ALT),aspartate transaminase(AST),alpha fetoprotein(AFP),CRP and

  5. Increased Serum Phospholipase A2 Activity in Advanced Chronic Liver Disease as an Expression of the Acute Phase Response

    Mario Pirisi

    1993-01-01

    Full Text Available Phospholipase A2 (PLA2 modifications were investigated in patients with acute and chronic liver diseases, PLA2 variations were related to indices of liver function as well as to parameters of the acute phase response. Serum PLA2 activity modifications were f1uorimetrically measured in 105 patients affected by acute and chronic liver diseases or extra-hepatic diseases. One-way ANOV A demonstrated a significant difference among groups (F= 4.53, P<0.001; Bonferroni’s test for pairwise comparisons showed that patients with hepatocellular carcinoma had higher mean values than subjects with benign extra-hepatic diseases (p<0.0 I and mild chronic liver disease (p<0.0S J. Multiple regression analysis, performed choosing PLA2 as the dependent variable and blood urea nitrogen, C-reacti ve protein, alkaline phosphatase and al-fetoprotein as predictor variables was significant (multiple R= 0.7056, multiple R2= 0.4978, F= 15.36, P= <0.0001. The standardized regression coefficients found to be significant were those of Creactive protein, blood urea nitrogen and al-fetoprotein. In conclusion, in patients with chronic liver disease, serum PLA2 activity increases parallel to disease severity and accompanies the expression of proteins of the acute phase response that. like PLA2 activity, increase in serum while liver synthesis declines.

  6. ACUTE PHASE REACTANCTS IN PERICARDIAL FLUID ARE INDICATORS OF CORONARY ARTERY DISEASE

    Yılmaz Mehmet Ali; Simsek Erdal; Karapinar Kasim; Azboy Davut; Erdolu Burak

    2012-01-01

    Inflammation in formation of atherosclerosis, and acute phase reactants in the site of inflammation have major functions. Thus, do the acute phase reactants constitute the biggest risk factor for coronary artery disease? 55 patients are included in the study. Patients with coronary artery bypass surgery are included in Group I (38 patients) and patients with valve operation are included in Group II (17 patients). CABG patients are further divided into two sub-groups as on-pump and off-pump. I...

  7. Changes in cholesterol homeostasis and acute phase response link pulmonary exposure to multi-walled carbon nanotubes to risk of cardiovascular disease

    Poulsen, Sarah S.; Saber, Anne T.; Mortensen, Alicja; Szarek, Jozef; Wu, Dongmei; Williams, Andrew; Andersen, Ole; Nicklas R. Jacobsen; Yauk, Carole L.; Wallin, Hakan; Halappanavar, Sabina; Vogel, Ulla Birgitte

    2015-01-01

    Adverse lung effects following pulmonary exposure to multi-walled carbon nanotubes (MWCNTs) are well documented in rodents. However, systemic effects are less understood. Epidemiological studies have shown increased cardiovascular disease risk after pulmonary exposure to airborne particles, which has led to concerns that inhalation exposure to MWCNTs might pose similar risks. We analyzed parameters related to cardiovascular disease, including plasma acute phase response (APR) proteins and pla...

  8. 乳酸锌对仔猪小肠形态学、小肠黏膜金属硫蛋白1和组织急性期蛋白 mRNA表达的影响%Effects of Zinc Lactate on Intestinal Morphology, mRNA Expressions of Metallothioneins 1 in Intestinal Mucosa and Acute Phase Proteins in Tissues of Weaner Piglets

    王荣蛟; 信爱国; 张春勇; 李美荃; 梅文南; 安清聪; 陈克嶙; 郭荣富

    2014-01-01

    This study was conducted to investigate the effects of zinc lactate on growth performance, intestinal morphology, metallothioneins 1(MT1) in intestinal mucosa and acute phase proteins (APP) mRNA expres-sion in tissues. of‘durocílandraceíyork' ( DLY) weaner piglets Twenty-four ( half male and half female) 35-day-old DLY weaner piglets in this study were randomly divided into control group and experimental group with 12 replicates per group and 1 piglet per replicate. Control group was fed a basal diet, while the experi-mental group was fed an experimental diet which was the basal diet added with zinc lactate ( zinc added level at 100 mg/kg) . The experiment lasted for 25 days. The results showed that, adding zinc lactate significantly im-proved the growth performance of weaner piglet ( P十二指肠>回肠;被检测的C-反应蛋白( CRP)、触珠蛋白( HP)、α1-酸性糖蛋白( AGP)和血清淀粉样蛋白A( SAA) mRNA以胰腺、肾脏和肝脏表达量最高,而脾脏和十二指肠则微量表达。结果提示,添加乳酸锌可极显著增加仔猪小肠绒毛长度,降低隐窝深度,改善养分消化利用;通过提高十二指肠、空肠和回肠黏膜 MT1 mRNA 表达量,诱导机体组织 CRP、HP、AGP 和 SAA mRNA表达上调的方式,增加仔猪的抗病能力,从而改善仔猪的生长性能。

  9. Proteomic characterization of the acute-phase response of yellow stingrays Urobatis jamaicensis after injection with a Vibrio anguillarum-ordalii bacterin.

    Marancik, David P; Fast, Mark D; Camus, Alvin C

    2013-05-01

    Systemic inflammatory responses of mammals and bony fish are primarily driven by coordinated up-regulation and down-regulation of plasma acute-phase proteins. Although this general principle is believed to be universal among vertebrates, it remains relatively unexplored in elasmobranchs. The objective of this study was to characterize acute changes in the plasma proteome of three yellow stingrays Urobatis jamaicensis following intraperitoneal injection with a commercial Vibrio bacterin. Changes in plasma protein levels were analyzed immediately prior to vaccination (time 0) and at 24 and 72 h post-injection by isobaric tags for relative and absolute quantitation (iTRAQ 4-plex) using shotgun-based nano liquid chromatography-tandem mass spectrometry (LC-MS/MS) analysis and de novo peptide sequencing. Pooled 2D-LC-MS/MS and de novo sequencing data revealed differential expression of 156 distinct plasma proteins between time 0 and at least one post-vaccination time point. Using 1.5-fold change in expression as physiologically significant, 14/156 (9.0%) proteins were upregulated in at least one stingray through at least one experimental timepoint. Upregulated proteins included complement factors, Mx-protein, hemopexin, factor X and prothrombin. Seventy-six of 156 (48.7%) proteins were downregulated in the acute-phase response, including transferrin, apolipoprotein B, heparin cofactor 2, alpha2-macroglobulin, and various growth factors. Other differentially upregulated or downregulated proteins included intracellular, cell binding and structural proteins, proteins involved in physiologic processes, and unknown/hypothetical proteins. Selected bioactive factors are discussed for their putative roles in the elasmobranchs acute-phase response. These findings contribute to our understanding of disease processes in elasmobranchs, immunologic phylogeny in vertebrates, and begin the search for potential biomarkers of disease in these ecologically important fish. PMID:23470813

  10. Controversial results of therapy with mesenchymal stem cells in the acute phase of canine distemper disease.

    Pinheiro, A O; Cardoso, M T; Vidane, A S; Casals, J B; Passarelli, D; Alencar, A L F; Sousa, R L M; Fantinato-Neto, P; Oliveira, V C; Lara, V M; Ambrósio, C E

    2016-01-01

    Distemper disease is an infectious disease reported in several species of domestic and wild carnivores. The high mortality rate of animals infected with canine distemper virus (CDV) treated with currently available therapies has driven the study of new efficacious treatments. Mesenchymal stem cell (MSC)-based therapy is a promising therapeutic option for many degenerative, hereditary, and inflammatory diseases. Therefore, the aim of this study was to characterize stem cells derived from the canine fetal olfactory epithelium and to assess the systemic response of animals infected with CDV to symptomatic therapy and treatment with MSCs. Eight domestic mongrel dogs (N = 8) were divided into two groups: support group (SG) (N = 5) and support group + cell therapy (SGCT) (N = 3), which were monitored over 15 days. Blood samples were collected on days 0, 6, 9, 12, and 15 to assess blood count and serum biochemistry (urea, creatinine, alanine transferase, alkaline phosphatase, gamma-glutamyl transferase, total protein, albumin, and globulin), and urine samples were obtained on days 0 and 15 for urinary evaluation (urine I). The results showed a high mortality rate (SG = 4 and SGCT = 2), providing inadequate data on the clinical course of CDV infection. MSC therapy resulted in no significant improvement when administered during the acute phase of canine distemper disease, and a prevalence of animals with high mortality rate was found in both groups due to the severity of symptoms. PMID:27323085

  11. Lipopolysaccharide-induced anti-inflammatory acute phase response is enhanced in spermidine/spermine N1-acetyltransferase (SSAT) overexpressing mice.

    Pirnes-Karhu, Sini; Sironen, Reijo; Alhonen, Leena; Uimari, Anne

    2012-02-01

    Bacterial lipopolysaccharide (LPS) is an effective activator of the components of innate immunity. It has been shown that polyamines and their metabolic enzymes affect the LPS-induced immune response by modulating both pro- and anti-inflammatory actions. On the other hand, LPS causes changes in cellular polyamine metabolism. In this study, the LPS-induced inflammatory response in spermidine/spermine N(1)-acetyltransferase overexpressing transgenic mice (SSAT mice) was analyzed. In liver and kidneys, LPS enhanced the activity of the polyamine biosynthetic enzyme ornithine decarboxylase and increased the intracellular putrescine content in both SSAT overexpressing and wild-type mice. In survival studies, the enhanced polyamine catabolism and concomitantly altered cellular polyamine pools in SSAT mice did not affect the LPS-induced mortality of these animals. However, in the acute phase of LPS-induced inflammatory response, the serum levels of proinflammatory cytokines interleukin-1β and interferon-γ were significantly reduced and, on the contrary, anti-inflammatory cytokine interleukin-10 was significantly increased in the sera of SSAT mice compared with the wild-type animals. In addition, hepatic acute-phase proteins C-reactive protein, haptoglobin and α(1)-acid glycoprotein were expressed in higher amounts in SSAT mice than in the wild-type animals. In summary, the study suggests that SSAT overexpression obtained in SSAT mice enhances the anti-inflammatory actions in the acute phase of LPS-induced immune response. PMID:21814792

  12. The Effect of Oxandrolone on the Endocrinologic, Inflammatory, and Hypermetabolic Responses During the Acute Phase Postburn

    Jeschke, Marc G.; Finnerty, Celeste C.; Suman, Oscar E.; Kulp, Gabriela; Mlcak, Ronald P.; Herndon, David N.

    2007-01-01

    Objective and Summary Background Data: Postburn long-term oxandrolone treatment improves hypermetabolism and body composition. The effects of oxandrolone on clinical outcome, body composition, endocrine system, and inflammation during the acute phase postburn in a large prospective randomized single-center trial have not been studied. Methods: Burned children (n = 235) with >40% total body surface area burn were randomized (block randomization 4:1) to receive standard burn care (control, n = 190) or standard burn care plus oxandrolone for at least 7 days (oxandrolone 0.1 mg/kg body weight q.12 hours p.o, n = 45). Clinical parameters, body composition, serum hormones, and cytokine expression profiles were measured throughout acute hospitalization. Statistical analysis was performed by Student t test, or ANOVA followed by Bonferroni correction with significance accepted at P < 0.05. Results: Demographics and clinical data were similar in both groups. Length of intensive care unit stay was significantly decreased in oxandrolone-treated patients (0.48 ± 0.02 days/% burn) compared with controls (0.56 ± 0.02 days/% burn), (P < 0.05). Control patients lost 8 ± 1% of their lean body mass (LBM), whereas oxandrolone-treated patients had preserved LBM (+9 ± 4%), P < 0.05. Oxandrolone significantly increased serum prealbumin, total protein, testosterone, and AST/ALT, whereas it significantly decreased α2-macroglobulin and complement C3, P < 0.05. Oxandrolone did not adversely affect the endocrine and inflammatory response as we found no significant differences in the hormone panels and cytokine expression profiles. Conclusions: In this large prospective, double-blinded, randomized single-center study, oxandrolone shortened length of acute hospital stay, maintained LBM, improved body composition and hepatic protein synthesis while having no adverse effects on the endocrine axis postburn, but was associated with an increase in AST and ALT. PMID:17717439

  13. The analysis of the acute phase response during the course of Trypanosoma carassii infection in the goldfish (Carassius auratus L.).

    Kovacevic, Nikolina; Hagen, Mariel O; Xie, Jiasong; Belosevic, Miodrag

    2015-11-01

    The expression of genes encoding the acute phase proteins (APP) during the course of Trypanasoma carassii infection in the goldfish was determined using quantitative PCR. Significant changes in the mRNA levels of ceruloplasmin (Cp), C-reactive protein (CRP), transferrin (Tf), hemopexin (Hx) and serum amyloid A (SAA) were observed in the kidney, liver and spleen at various days post infection (dpi). Of the five acute phase protein genes examined, CRP and SAA exhibited the highest expression in the tissues during the acute infection. Cp and Tf were up-regulated throughout the acute course of infection in the liver. During the chronic phase of the infection, APP expression in the liver was similar to that in the non-infected control fish. At 7 dpi, Cp, Tf and Hx were down-regulated in the spleen, and Cp and Tf kidney, but their mRNA levels gradually returned to those of control non-infected fish. In contrast, during the chronic phase of the infection, there was an up-regulation of Cp, Hx and Tf in the spleen, and Tf and SAA in the kidney. The goldfish CRP was cloned and functionally characterized. CRP was differentially expressed in normal goldfish immune cells, with highest expression in monocytes and lowest expression in mature macrophages. A recombinant goldfish CRP (rgfCRP) was generated using prokaryotic expression. rgfCRP enhanced complement-mediated killing of trypanosomes in vitro, and the lysis increased after addition of immune serum. rgfCRP did not affect the production of reactive oxygen and nitrogen intermediates by monocytes and macrophages, respectively. PMID:26116443

  14. Relationship between Acute Phase of Chronic Periodontitis and Meteorological Factors in the Maintenance Phase of Periodontal Treatment: A Pilot Study

    Noriko Takeuchi; Daisuke Ekuni; Takaaki Tomofuji; Manabu Morita

    2015-01-01

    The acute phase of chronic periodontitis may occur even in patients during supportive periodontal therapy. However, the details are not fully understood. Since the natural environment, including meteorology affects human health, we hypothesized that weather conditions may affect occurrence of acute phase of chronic periodontitis. The aim of this study was to investigate the relationship between weather conditions and acute phase of chronic periodontitis in patients under supportive periodonta...

  15. The effects of combined therapy of rheumatoid arthritis on the acute phase reactants.

    Rexhepi, Sylejman; Rexhepi, Mjellma; Sahatçiu-Meka, Vjollca; Pllana, Ejup; Dragusha, Gani; Gashi, Masar; Rexhepi, Blerta

    2009-01-01

    The paper presents the results of studies of acute phase reactants in the 60 treated patients with rheumatoid arthritis. Patients were divided into two groups, depending on the applied treatment: group I (n = 30) was treated with methotrexate, sulfasalazine and hydroxychloroquine, and group II (n = 30) with methotrexate. The results of our study shows that there is a statistically significant reduction in the value of acute phase reactants and clinical parameters after treatment in both investigated groups of patients, and also a significant statistical difference between the first and second group of treated patients. PMID:20429264

  16. Role of lysosomal enzymes released by alveolar macrophages in the pathogenesis of the acute phase of hypersensitivity pneumonitis

    J. L. Pérez-Arellano

    1995-01-01

    Full Text Available Hydrolytic enzymes are the major constituents of alveolar macrophages (AM and have been shown to be involved in many aspects of the inflammatory pulmonary response. The aim of this study was to evaluate the role of lysosomal enzymes in the acute phase of hypersensitivity pneumonitis (HPs. An experimental study on AM lysosomal enzymes of an HP-guinea-pig model was performed. The results obtained both in vivo and in vitro suggest that intracellular enzymatic activity decrease is, at least partly, due to release of lysosomal enzymes into the medium. A positive but slight correlation was found between extracellular lysosomal activity and four parameters of lung lesion (lung index, bronchoalveolar fluid total (BALF protein concentration, BALF LDH and BALF alkaline phosphatase activities. All the above findings suggest that the AM release of lysosomal enzymes during HP is a factor involved, although possibly not the only one, in the pulmonary lesions appearing in this disease.

  17. Procalcitonin and other acute phase reactants in patients with chronic obstructive pulmonary disease exacerbation

    Cemil Civelek

    2011-06-01

    Full Text Available The aim of this study was to investigate the correlation between procalcitonin and other acute phase reactants, and also analyze their relationship with clinical situation in chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD acute exacerbations.Materials and methods: The study was made with 122 acute COPD exacerbated patients, who were admitted to emergency service. Patients with below 0.25 ng/ml PCT value included Group 1, and the patients with PCT values ≥ 0.25 ng/ml Group 2. Serum procalcitonin levels, erythrocyte sedimentation rate (ESR, C-reactive protein (CRP values and white blood cell (WBC counts were measured. Also, patients hospitalization time and mortality rates were recorded and compared with PCT.Results: Patients were divided in 3 groups according to their clinical diagnosis; Pneumonia (n=27, Mycoplasma-Chlamydia pneumonia (n=11 and the patients with only COPD exacerbation(n=84. Mean PCT values according to the groups were 9.47 ± 8.1 ng/ml, 0.41 ± 0.2 ng/ml, and 0.21 ± 0.05 ng/ml respectively. The relationship between PCT with CRP and white blood cell has been found between significiant (p=0.001, p=0.005 respectively, whereas the relationship between PCT and ESR was nonsignificant (p=0.55. Procalcitonin and CRP had a positive correlation with the hospitalization time (p=0.034, p=0.022 respectively. The mean ± standard error of PCT for the patients who died was 28.3 ± 27.5 ng/ml, and the difference between patients who died or were discharged was statistically significant (p= 0.012.Conclusion: PCT can be a useful indicator for morbidity and prognosis in COPD patients.

  18. Early weaning alters the acute-phase reaction to an endotoxin challenge in beef calves.

    Carroll, J A; Arthington, J D; Chase, C C

    2009-12-01

    Previous research indicates that early weaning before shipment can reduce transportation-induced increases in acute-phase proteins (APP) and can increase feedlot performance in beef calves. These data suggest that the combination of weaning and transport stress may compromise the immune system of calves, thus hindering subsequent performance and health. Therefore, our objective was to determine if the innate immune response of early weaned calves (EW; 80 d of age) differed from normal-weaned calves (NW; 250 d of age) in response to an endotoxin challenge. Eighteen Brahman x Angus calves (8 and 10 EW and NW, respectively; 233 +/- 5 kg of BW) were used. Calves were maintained on pasture with supplement and then moved into individual pens for 1 wk of acclimation before the start of the study. Calves were fitted with an indwelling jugular catheter 1 d before LPS challenge (0 h; 1.0 microg/kg of BW, intravenously). Blood samples were collected at 30-min intervals from -2 to 8 h. Serum samples were stored at -80 degrees C until analyzed for cortisol, tumor necrosis factor-alpha (TNF), IL-1 beta, IL-6, interferon-gamma (IFN), ceruloplasmin, and haptoglobin. Whereas LPS increased serum cortisol (P or= 0.15) was observed. A weaning age x time interaction (P x time interaction (P

  19. Immunomodulatory properties of gamithromycin and ketoprofen in lipopolysaccharide-challenged calves with emphasis on the acute-phase response.

    Plessers, Elke; Wyns, Heidi; Watteyn, Anneleen; Pardon, Bart; Baere, Siegrid De; Sys, Stanislas U; Backer, Patrick De; Croubels, Siska

    2016-03-01

    Macrolide antibiotics and non-steroidal anti-inflammatory drugs (NSAIDs) have been reported to be modulators of the innate immune response, irrespectively of their antimicrobial and anti-inflammatory actions. Therefore, it was our objective to evaluate whether the macrolide gamithromycin (GAM) and the NSAID ketoprofen (KETO) attenuate the acute-phase response in calves, and whether their combined administration is beneficial due to synergistic and/or additive effects. To this end, both drugs, as well as their combination, were studied in a previously developed inflammation model, i.e., the induction of an acute-phase response by an intravenous lipopolysaccharide (LPS) challenge (0.5μg/kg body weight). Sixteen 4-week-old Holstein-Friesian calves were randomized into 4 groups: a positive control (+CONTR) group, receiving LPS but no pharmacological treatment (n=4) and a GAM (n=4), a KETO (n=4) and a GAM-KETO (n=4) group, receiving the respective drugs 1h prior to LPS administration. Clinical scoring and blood collection were performed at regular time points until 72h post LPS challenge. Plasma concentrations of the selected cytokines (tumour necrosis factor-α (TNF-α) and interleukin-6 (IL-6)), acute-phase protein (serum amyloid A (SAA)) and prostaglandin E2 (PGE2) were subsequently quantified. Pre-treatment with GAM had no effect in the inflammation model compared to the +CONTR group. KETO, on the other hand, completely inhibited depression, anorexia and fever. This remarkable influence was associated with a significant reduction of PGE2 synthesis by KETO, while the effect on TNF-α, IL-6 and SAA was not straightforward. The combined administration of GAM and KETO provided no synergistic or additive effects in this model, neither clinically nor regarding the studied inflammatory mediators. In conclusion, KETO entirely inhibited PGE2 synthesis, fever development and depression, while GAM did not exert any effect in this model. These results promote the concomitant

  20. Increased platelet aggregation and turnover in the acute phase of ST-elevation myocardial infarction

    Jensen, Kristian Løkke Funck; Dalsgaard, Jens; Grove, Erik Lerkevang;

    2013-01-01

    Newly produced platelets are present in the acute phase of ST-elevation myocardial infarction (STEMI). This may influence the antiplatelet effect of aspirin and clopidogrel administered prior to primary percutaneous coronary intervention (PPCI). The aims of this study were to investigate the...

  1. Changes of Platelet Indices in Juvenile Idiopathic Arthritis in Acute Phase and After Two Months Treatment

    Marjan Vakili

    2016-05-01

    Full Text Available Background Various indices have been raised as predictors of activity and severity of juvenile idiopathic arthritis. Objectives This study was conducted to investigate the changes of platelet indices in acute phase and two months after treatment in these patients. Patients and Methods In a cohort study, platelet count, mean platelet volume (MPV, platelet distribution width (PDW, plateletcrit (PCT were evaluated in children referred to children’s medical center, Tehran due to juvenile idiopathic arthritis from March 2013 to March 2014 during the acute phase and two months after standard treatment. The statistical data were analyzed by SPSS 19 software, and the significance level was set as P < 0.05. Results In this study, 55 children (24 boys and 31 girls with mean ± SD age of 7.50 ± 3.35 years were studied. The mean ± SD value of platelet count was 441872.7 ± 151836.9 in the acute phase and reached 395418.2 ± 119601.6 two months after treatment (P = 0.01. The mean ± SD PCT in the acute phase of various subtypes of the disease was 0.32 ± 0.11, which reached 0.29 ± 0.10 after treatment (P = 0.09. However, the PDW range in different subtypes of the disease reached 13.4 ± 8.0 from 13.9 ± 2.9 and MPV reached 8.7 ± 0.9 from 8.8 ± 1.1 after treatment, but they were not significantly different from the results in the acute phase (P = 0.5. Conclusions Platelet count is one of the most remarkable indices in JIA. Evaluation of PCT can also help determine the severity of the inflammatory process in the follow-up and treatment process.

  2. Transcriptional profiling of Actinobacillus pleuropneumoniae during the acute phase of a natural infection in pigs

    Harel Josée

    2010-02-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Actinobacillus pleuropneumoniae is the etiological agent of porcine pleuropneumonia, a respiratory disease which causes great economic losses worldwide. Many virulence factors are involved in the pathogenesis, namely capsular polysaccharides, RTX toxins, LPS and many iron acquisition systems. In order to identify genes that are expressed in vivo during a natural infection, we undertook transcript profiling experiments with an A. pleuropneumoniae DNA microarray, after recovery of bacterial mRNAs from serotype 5b-infected porcine lungs. AppChip2 contains 2033 PCR amplicons based on the genomic sequence of App serotype 5b strain L20, representing more than 95% of ORFs greater than 160 bp in length. Results Transcriptional profiling of A. pleuropneumoniae recovered from the lung of a pig suffering from a natural infection or following growth of the bacterial isolate in BHI medium was performed. An RNA extraction protocol combining beadbeating and hot-acid-phenol was developed in order to maximize bacterial mRNA yields and quality following total RNA extraction from lung lesions. Nearly all A. pleuropneumoniae transcripts could be detected on our microarrays, and 150 genes were deemed differentially expressed in vivo during the acute phase of the infection. Our results indicate that, for example, gene apxIVA from an operon coding for RTX toxin ApxIV is highly up-regulated in vivo, and that two genes from the operon coding for type IV fimbriae (APL_0878 and APL_0879 were also up-regulated. These transcriptional profiling data, combined with previous comparative genomic hybridizations performed by our group, revealed that 66 out of the 72 up-regulated genes are conserved amongst all serotypes and that 3 of them code for products that are predicted outer membrane proteins (genes irp and APL_0959, predicted to code for a TonB-dependent receptor and a filamentous hemagglutinin/adhesin respectively or lipoproteins (gene APL_0920. Only 4

  3. Evaluation of the systemic acute phase response and endometrial gene expression of serum amyloid A and pro- and anti-inflammatory cytokines in mares with experimentally induced endometritis.

    Christoffersen, Mette; Mette, Christoffersen; Baagoe, Camilla Dooleweerdt; Camilla Dooleweerdt, Baagoe; Jacobsen, Stine; Stine, Jacobsen; Bojesen, Anders Miki; Anders Miki, Bojesen; Petersen, Morten Roenn; Morten Roenn, Petersen; Lehn-Jensen, Henrik; Henrik, Lehn-Jensen

    2010-11-15

    Infectious infertility in the mare is clinically well described, little is however known about the systemic acute phase reaction (APR) and local immunological responses accompanying equine endometritis. The aim of this study was to monitor selected markers of the APR in the systemic circulation and to correlate them to the local innate immune response in the uterus during infectious endometritis. Six adult standard bred mares received an intrauterine infusion of 10(9)CFU Escherichia coli. Blood samples were obtained before (0 h) and 3, 6, 12, 24, 36, 48, 72, 96 and 120 h post inoculation (pi), and endometrial biopsies were sampled before, and 3, 12, 24, 48 and 72 h pi. The infectious endometritis elicited a systemic APR with significantly increased concentrations of the acute phase proteins (APPs) serum amyloid A (SAA) and fibrinogen. Relative gene expression analyses were performed on extracted RNA from endometrial biopsies using quantitative real-time PCR and specific primers for SAA and pro- and anti-inflammatory cytokines. Expression of SAA was significantly up-regulated at 3 and 12h pi, and a significant up-regulated expression of IL-1β, TNFα, IL-8 and IL-10 was observed at 3h pi. Plasma concentration of SAA was significantly correlated to endometrial SAA expression. The results of the present study demonstrate that endometritis gives rise to a systemic APR and an up-regulated endometrial gene expression of SAA and several pro-and anti-inflammatory cytokines. Understanding endometrial expression of acute phase proteins and selected cytokines contributing to uterine immunity in equine endometritis could improve understanding of events leading to infertility in the mare and help identify candidate genes of mediators/markers for diagnostic use. PMID:20728224

  4. Involution of the mouse mammary gland is associated with an immune cascade and an acute-phase response, involving LBP, CD14 and STAT3

    Involution of the mammary gland is a complex process of controlled apoptosis and tissue remodelling. The aim of the project was to identify genes that are specifically involved in this process. We used Affymetrix oligonucleotide microarrays to perform a detailed transcript analysis on the mechanism of controlled involution after withdrawal of the pups at day seven of lactation. Some of the results were confirmed by semi-quantitative reverse transcriptase polymerase chain reaction, Western blotting or immunohistochemistry. We identified 145 genes that were specifically upregulated during the first 4 days of involution; of these, 49 encoded immunoglobulin genes. A further 12 genes, including those encoding the signal transducer and activator of transcription 3 (STAT3), the lipopolysaccharide receptor (CD14) and lipopolysaccharide-binding protein (LBP), were involved in the acute-phase response, demonstrating that the expression of acute-phase response genes can occur in the mammary gland itself and not only in the liver. Expression of LBP and CD14 was upregulated, at both the RNA and protein level, immediately after pup withdrawal; CD14 was strongly expressed in the luminal epithelial cells. Other genes identified suggested neutrophil activation early in involution, followed by macrophage activation late in the process. Immunohistochemistry and histological staining confirmed the infiltration of the involuting mammary tissue with neutrophils, plasma cells, macrophages and eosinophils. Oligonucleotide microarrays are a useful tool for identifying genes that are involved in the complex developmental process of mammary gland involution. The genes identified are consistent with an immune cascade, with an early acute-phase response that occurs in the mammary gland itself and resembles a wound healing process

  5. Value of Dynamic Susceptibility Contrast Perfusion MRI in the Acute Phase of Transient Global Amnesia

    Förster, Alex; Al-Zghloul, Mansour; Kerl, Hans U.; Böhme, Johannes; Mürle, Bettina; Groden, Christoph

    2015-01-01

    Purpose Transient global amnesia (TGA) is a transitory, short-lasting neurological disorder characterized by a sudden onset of antero- and retrograde amnesia. Perfusion abnormalities in TGA have been evaluated mainly by use of positron emission tomography (PET) or single-photon emission computed tomography (SPECT). In the present study we explore the value of dynamic susceptibility contrast perfusion-weighted MRI (PWI) in TGA in the acute phase. Methods From a MRI report database we identifie...

  6. Acute exercise does not induce an acute phase response (APR) in Standardbred trotters

    Kristensen, Lena; Buhl, Rikke; Nostell, Katarina; Bak, Lars; Petersen, Ellen; Lindholm, Maria; Jacobsen, Stine

    2014-01-01

    The purpose of the study was to investigate whether acute strenuous exercise (1600- to 2500-m race) would elicit an acute phase response (APR) in Standardbred trotters. Blood levels of several inflammatory markers [serum amyloid A (SAA), haptoglobin, fibrinogen, white blood cell count (WBC), and iron], muscle enzymes [creatinine kinase (CK) and aspartate transaminase (AST)], and hemoglobin were assessed in 58 Standardbred trotters before and after racing. Hemoglobin levels increased and iron ...

  7. Selected acute phase CSF factors in ischemic stroke: findings and prognostic value

    Intskirveli Nino; Shakarishvili1 Roman; Sanikidze Tamar; Beridze Maia; Bornstein Natan M

    2011-01-01

    Abstract Background Study aimed at investigation of pathogenic role and prognostic value of several selected cerebrospinal fluid acute phase factors that can reflect the severity of ischemic brain damage. Methods Ninety five acute ischemic stroke patients were investigated. Ischemic region visualized at the twenty fourth hour by conventional Magnetic Resonance Imaging. Stroke severity evaluated by National Institute Health Stroke Scale. One month outcome of disease was assessed by Barthel Ind...

  8. Evaluation of the Effects of Honey on Acute-Phase Deep Burn Wounds

    Nakajima, Yukari; Mukai, Kanae; Nasruddin; kOMATSU, Emi; Iuchi, Terumi; Kitayama, Yukie; Sugama, Junko; Nakatani, Toshio

    2013-01-01

    This study aimed to clarify the effects of honey on acute-phase deep burn wounds. Two deep burn wounds were created on mice which were divided into four groups: no treatment, silver sulfadiazine, manuka honey, and Japanese acacia honey. Wound sizes were calculated as expanded wound areas and sampled 30 minutes and 1–4 days after wounding for histological observation. The wound sections were subjected to hematoxylin and eosin and immunohistological staining to detect necrotic cells, apoptotic ...

  9. Affective symptoms and cognitive functions in the acute phase of Graves' thyrotoxicosis

    Vogel, Asmus; Elberling, Tina V; Hørding, Merete;

    2007-01-01

    problems. No significant differences between the patient and the control group on neuropsychological test performances were found. Thyroid levels did not correlate with the neuropsychological test performances or psychiatric ratings. After reaching euthyroidism the level of affective symptoms (including......In the acute phase of Graves' thyrotoxicosis patients often have subjective cognitive complaints. Continuing controversy exists about the nature of these symptoms and whether they persist after treatment. This prospective study included 31 consecutively referred, newly diagnosed, and untreated...

  10. Acute Phase Hyperglycemia among Patients Hospitalized with Acute Coronary Syndrome: Prevalence and Prognostic Significance

    Hameed Laftah Wanoose

    2011-03-01

    Full Text Available AbstractObjectives: Regardless of diabetes status, hyperglycemia on arrival for patients presenting with acute coronary syndrome, has been associated with adverse outcomes including death. The aim of this study is to look at the frequency and prognostic significance of acute phase hyperglycemia among patients attending the coronary care unit with acute coronary syndrome over the in-hospital admission days.Methods: The study included 287 consecutive patients in the Al- Faiha Hospital in Basrah (Southern Iraq during a one year period from December 2007 to November 2008. Patients were divided into two groups with respect to admission plasma glucose level regardless of their diabetes status (those with admission plasma glucose of <140 mg/dl (7.8 mmol/L and those equal to or more than that. Acute phase hyperglycemia was defined as a non-fasting glucose level equal to or above 140 mg/dl (7.8 mmol/L regardless of past history of diabetes.Results: Sixty one point seven percent (177 of patients were admitted with plasma glucose of ≥140 mg/dl (7.8 mmol/L. There were no differences were found between both groups regarding the mean age, qualification, and smoking status, but males were predominant in both groups. A family history of diabetes, and hypertension, were more frequent in patients with plasma glucose of ≥140 mg/dl (7.8 mmol/L. There were no differences between the two groups regarding past history of ischemic heart disease, stroke, lipid profile, troponin-I levels or type of acute coronary syndrome. Again heart failure was more common in the admission acute phase hyperglycemia group, but there was no difference regarding arrhythmia, stroke, or death. Using logistic regression with heart failure as the dependent variable we found that only the admission acute phase hyperglycemia (OR=2.1344, 95�0CI=1.0282-4.4307; p=0.0419 was independently associated with heart failure. While male gender, family history of diabetes mellitus, hypertension and

  11. Relationship between genetic mutation variations and acute-phase reactants in the attack-free period of children diagnosed with familial Mediterranean fever

    Familial Mediterranean fever (FMF) is a periodic autoinflammatory disease characterized by chronic inflammation. This study investigated the relationship between acute-phase reactants and gene mutations in attack-free periods of childhood FMF. Patients diagnosed with FMF were divided into four groups based on genetic features: no mutation, homozygous, heterozygous, and compound heterozygous. These groups were monitored for 2 years, and blood samples were collected every 6 months during attack-free periods. Erythrocyte sedimentation rate, C-reactive protein, fibrinogen, and white blood cell count were measured. A disease severity score was determined for each patient. Mean values for erythrocyte sedimentation rate and fibrinogen were significantly different in the homozygous group. White blood cell count and C-reactive protein were similar between the groups. Disease severity score was higher in patients with the M694V mutation than in individuals without the mutation, as well as in those with other mutation groups. Periodic follow-up of patients with FMF MEFV mutations in subjects with acute-phase reactants may be useful in the prevention of morbidity

  12. Relationship between genetic mutation variations and acute-phase reactants in the attack-free period of children diagnosed with familial Mediterranean fever

    C. Kosan

    2013-09-01

    Full Text Available Familial Mediterranean fever (FMF is a periodic autoinflammatory disease characterized by chronic inflammation. This study investigated the relationship between acute-phase reactants and gene mutations in attack-free periods of childhood FMF. Patients diagnosed with FMF were divided into four groups based on genetic features: no mutation, homozygous, heterozygous, and compound heterozygous. These groups were monitored for 2 years, and blood samples were collected every 6 months during attack-free periods. Erythrocyte sedimentation rate, C-reactive protein, fibrinogen, and white blood cell count were measured. A disease severity score was determined for each patient. Mean values for erythrocyte sedimentation rate and fibrinogen were significantly different in the homozygous group. White blood cell count and C-reactive protein were similar between the groups. Disease severity score was higher in patients with the M694V mutation than in individuals without the mutation, as well as in those with other mutation groups. Periodic follow-up of patients with FMF MEFV mutations in subjects with acute-phase reactants may be useful in the prevention of morbidity.

  13. Relationship between genetic mutation variations and acute-phase reactants in the attack-free period of children diagnosed with familial Mediterranean fever

    Kosan, C. [Department of Pediatric Nephrology, Faculty of Medicine, Ataturk University, Erzurum (Turkey); Cayir, A.; Turan, M.I. [Department of Pediatrics, Faculty of Medicine, Ataturk University, Erzurum (Turkey)

    2013-09-18

    Familial Mediterranean fever (FMF) is a periodic autoinflammatory disease characterized by chronic inflammation. This study investigated the relationship between acute-phase reactants and gene mutations in attack-free periods of childhood FMF. Patients diagnosed with FMF were divided into four groups based on genetic features: no mutation, homozygous, heterozygous, and compound heterozygous. These groups were monitored for 2 years, and blood samples were collected every 6 months during attack-free periods. Erythrocyte sedimentation rate, C-reactive protein, fibrinogen, and white blood cell count were measured. A disease severity score was determined for each patient. Mean values for erythrocyte sedimentation rate and fibrinogen were significantly different in the homozygous group. White blood cell count and C-reactive protein were similar between the groups. Disease severity score was higher in patients with the M694V mutation than in individuals without the mutation, as well as in those with other mutation groups. Periodic follow-up of patients with FMF MEFV mutations in subjects with acute-phase reactants may be useful in the prevention of morbidity.

  14. Liver and muscle protein metabolism in cachexia

    Peters, J.A.C.

    2009-01-01

    Up to 50% of cancer patients suffer from progressive weight loss (cachexia). Cachexia is induced by proinflammatory mediators (cytokines), induced by the tumor’s presence. These cytokines induce so-called acute phase protein synthesis by the liver, followed by skeletal muscle protein breakdown. Skeletal muscle protein breakdown seems to serve for providing amino acids (AA) for acute phase protein synthesis in the liver. The net effect of cytokines is a negative protein balance in the skeletal...

  15. Compared with parenteral nutrition, enteral feeding attenuates the acute phase response and improves disease severity in acute pancreatitis

    Windsor, A; Kanwar, S; Li, A.; Barnes, E.; Guthrie, J; Spark, J; Welsh, F.; Guillou, P; Reynolds, J

    1998-01-01

    Background—In patients with major trauma and burns, total enteral nutrition (TEN) significantly decreases the acute phase response and incidence of septic complications when compared with total parenteral nutrition (TPN). Poor outcome in acute pancreatitis is associated with a high incidence of systemic inflammatory response syndrome (SIRS) and sepsis. 
Aims—To determine whether TEN can attenuate the acute phase response and improve clinical disease severity in patients with ac...

  16. Immune Response to Trypanosoma cruzi Shed Acute Phase Antigen in Children from an Endemic Area for Chagas' Disease in Bolivia

    Simone Frédérique Brenière

    1997-07-01

    Full Text Available A field study of the immune response to the shed acute phase antigen (SAPA of Trypanosoma cruzi was carried out in the locality of Mizque, Cochabamba department, Bolivia. Schoolchildren (266, with an average of 8.6 ± 3.6 years, were surveyed for parasitological and serological diagnosis, as well as antibodies directed against SAPA using the corresponding recombinant protein in ELISA. The antibodies against SAPA were shown in 82% of patients presenting positive serological diagnosis (IgG specific antibodies. The positive and negative predictive values were 0.88. Antibodies anti-SAPA were shown in 80.8% of the chagasic patients in the initial stage of the infection (positive IgM serology and/or positive buffy coat (BC test and in 81.4% of the patients in the indeterminate stage of the infection (positive IgG serology with negative BC and IgM tests. These results show that the anti-SAPA response is not only present during the initial stage of the infection (few months but extends some years after infection

  17. Determinants of fatigue after first-ever ischemic stroke during acute phase.

    Shan-Shan Wang

    Full Text Available Fatigue after stroke is common and has a negative impact on rehabilitation and survival. However, its pathogenesis and contributing factors remain unclear. The purpose of this study was to identify factors influencing the occurrence of fatigue after first-ever ischemic stroke in acute phase.We examined 265 consecutive patients with first-ever ischemic stroke during acute phase (within 2 weeks in two tertiary stroke care hospitals in Henan, China. We documented patients' demographic and clinical characteristics through face-to-face interviews using structured questionnaires and reviews of medical records. Post-stroke fatigue was defined as a score of ≥4 using the Fatigue Severity Scale. Multivariate logistic regression was used to examine post-stroke fatigue in relation to socio-demographic, lifestyle, clinical characteristics and family function.About 40% first-ever ischemic stroke patients experienced post-stroke fatigue in acute phase. Post-stroke fatigue was associated with lack of exercise before stroke (adjusted odds ratio 4.01, 95% CI 1.95-8.24, family dysfunction (2.63, 1.20-5.80, depression (2.39, 1.02-5.58, the presence of pre-stroke fatigue (4.89, 2.13-11.21, use of sedative medications (4.14, 1.58-10.88, coronary heart disease (3.38, 1.46-7.79 and more severe Modified Rankin Scale (2.55, 1.65-3.95.The causes of post-stroke fatigue are multifaceted. More physical exercise, improving family function, reducing depression and appropriate use of sedative medications may be helpful in preventing post-stroke fatigue.

  18. Value of dynamic susceptibility contrast perfusion MRI in the acute phase of transient global amnesia.

    Alex Förster

    Full Text Available Transient global amnesia (TGA is a transitory, short-lasting neurological disorder characterized by a sudden onset of antero- and retrograde amnesia. Perfusion abnormalities in TGA have been evaluated mainly by use of positron emission tomography (PET or single-photon emission computed tomography (SPECT. In the present study we explore the value of dynamic susceptibility contrast perfusion-weighted MRI (PWI in TGA in the acute phase.From a MRI report database we identified TGA patients who underwent MRI including PWI in the acute phase and compared these to control subjects. Quantitative perfusion maps (cerebral blood flow (CBF and volume (CBV were generated and analyzed by use of Signal Processing In NMR-Software (SPIN. CBF and CBV values in subcortical brain regions were assessed by use of VOI created in FIRST, a model-based segmentation tool in the Oxford Centre for Functional Magnetic Resonance Imaging of the Brain (FMRIB Software Library (FSL.Five TGA patients were included (2 men, 3 women. On PWI, no relevant perfusion alterations were found by visual inspection in TGA patients. Group comparisons for possible differences between TGA patients and control subjects showed significant lower rCBF values bilaterally in the hippocampus, in the left thalamus and globus pallidus as well as bilaterally in the putamen and the left caudate nucleus. Correspondingly, significant lower rCBV values were observed bilaterally in the hippocampus and the putamen as well as in the left caudate nucleus. Group comparisons for possible side differences in rCBF and rCBV values in TGA patients revealed a significant lower rCBV value in the left caudate nucleus.Mere visual inspection of PWI is not sufficient for the assessment of perfusion changes in TGA in the acute phase. Group comparisons with healthy control subjects might be useful to detect subtle perfusion changes on PWI in TGA patients. However, this should be confirmed in larger data sets and serial PWI

  19. Affective symptoms and cognitive functions in the acute phase of Graves' thyrotoxicosis

    Vogel, Asmus; Elberling, Tina V; Hørding, Merete;

    2007-01-01

    In the acute phase of Graves' thyrotoxicosis patients often have subjective cognitive complaints. Continuing controversy exists about the nature of these symptoms and whether they persist after treatment. This prospective study included 31 consecutively referred, newly diagnosed, and untreated...... of cognitive deficits) had decreased significantly, with further normalisation 1-year after treatment initiation. In conclusion, patients had subjective reports of cognitive deficits in the toxic phase of Graves' thyrotoxicosis but comprehensive neuropsychological testing revealed no cognitive impairment....... Reports of cognitive dysfunction may reflect affective and somatic manifestations of thyrotoxicosis and in most patients these symptoms disappear after treatment of Graves' thyrotoxicosis....

  20. Changes in cholesterol homeostasis and acute phase response link pulmonary exposure to multi-walled carbon nanotubes to risk of cardiovascular disease

    Poulsen, Sarah S.; Saber, Anne T.; Mortensen, Alicja;

    2015-01-01

    has led to concerns that inhalation exposure to MWCNTs might pose similar risks. We analyzed parameters related to cardiovascular disease, including plasma acute phase response (APR) proteins and plasma lipids, in female C57BL/6 mice exposed to a single intratracheal instillation of 0, 18,54 or 162 mu...... g/mouse of small, entangled (CNTsmall, 0.8 +/- 0.1 pm long) or large, thick MWCNTs (CNTLarge, 4 +/- 0.4 mu m long). Liver tissues and plasma were harvested 1,3 and 28 days post-exposure. In addition, global hepatic gene expression, hepatic cholesterol content and liver histology were used to assess...... hepatic effects. The two MWCNTs induced similar systemic responses despite their different physicochemical properties. APR proteins SAA3 and haptoglobin, plasma total cholesterol and low-density/very low-density lipoprotein were significantly increased following exposure to either MWCNTs. Plasma SAA3...

  1. Selected acute phase CSF factors in ischemic stroke: findings and prognostic value

    Intskirveli Nino

    2011-03-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Study aimed at investigation of pathogenic role and prognostic value of several selected cerebrospinal fluid acute phase factors that can reflect the severity of ischemic brain damage. Methods Ninety five acute ischemic stroke patients were investigated. Ischemic region visualized at the twenty fourth hour by conventional Magnetic Resonance Imaging. Stroke severity evaluated by National Institute Health Stroke Scale. One month outcome of disease was assessed by Barthel Index. Cerebrospinal fluid was taken at the sixth hour of stroke onset. CSF pro- and anti-inflammatory cytokines were studied by Enzyme Linked Immunosorbent Assay. Nitric Oxide and Lipoperoxide radical were measured by Electron Paramagnetic Resonance. CSF Nitrate levels were detected using the Griess reagent. Statistics performed by SPSS-11.0. Results At the sixth hour of stroke onset, cerebrospinal fluid cytokine levels were elevated in patients against controls. Severe stroke patients had increased interleukin-6 content compared to less severe strokes (P Conclusion According to present study the cerebrospinal fluid contents of interleukin-6 and nitrates seem to be the most reliable prognostic factors in acute phase of ischemic stroke.

  2. Targeted proteomics as a tool for porcine acute phase proteins measurements

    Marco-Ramell, Anna; Bassols, Anna; Bislev, Stine Lønnerup;

    2013-01-01

    recent evidence that they can be also considered as welfare markers (Giannetto et al., 2011). During an acute stress situation, the levels of some interleukins (IL-1β, IL-6 and TNF-α) are increased (Elenkov and Chrousos, 2002) and consequently the concentration of the APPs varies dramatically. In pigs...

  3. Acute phase proteins in wild boar, pyrenean chamois and spanish ibex: method validation and reference values

    Bach Iraich, Ester

    2012-01-01

    Hay un grupo de proteínas plasmáticas, llamadas proteínas de fase aguda (PFAs), la concentración de las cuales cambia cuando se producen lesiones tisulares inducidas por traumas o estrés y por condiciones infecciosas e inflamatorias. La función principal de las PFAs es restablecer la homeostasis y limitar el crecimiento microbiano. La cuantificación de la concentración de las PFAs puede ser utilizada como herramienta para el diagnóstico y pronóstico, así como para el seguimiento de tratamient...

  4. ACCURACY OF RAPID TEST OF STORED ACUTE PHASE SERUM FOR DIAGNOSE JAPANESE ENCEPHALITIS

    Ida Bagus Subanada

    2013-10-01

    Full Text Available Normal 0 false false false IN X-NONE X-NONE Japanese encephalitis (JE is common viral encephalitis with high sequele and mortality. With some limitations, there are several diagnostic tool to diagnose of JE. The objecive of this study was to know the accuracy of rapid test of stored acute phase serum for diagnose of JE. We conducted diagnostic test of stored acute phase serum of encephalitis patients with MAC ELISA of cerebrospinal fluid as a gold standard. Sensitivity, specificity, positive predictive value (PPV, negative predictive value NPV, positive likelihood ratio (PLR, negative likelihood ratio (NLR, and post-test probability were calculated. This study found the prevalence of JE was 42.1%, sensitivity 15.7 % (95% CI 9.2 to 22.2%, specificity 95.7% (95% CI 92.1 to 99.3%, PPV 72.7% (95% CI 64.8 to 80.6%, NPV 60.9% (95% CI 52.2 to 69.6%, PLR 3.7, NLR 0.9, and post-test probability was 0.73. We concluded that rapid test of acute phase stored serum was insensitive but specific to diagnose of JE. /* Style Definitions */ table.MsoNormalTable {mso-style-name:"Table Normal"; mso-tstyle-rowband-size:0; mso-tstyle-colband-size:0; mso-style-noshow:yes; mso-style-priority:99; mso-style-qformat:yes; mso-style-parent:""; mso-padding-alt:0cm 5.4pt 0cm 5.4pt; mso-para-margin:0cm; mso-para-margin-bottom:.0001pt; mso-pagination:widow-orphan; font-size:11.0pt; font-family:"Calibri","sans-serif"; mso-ascii-font-family:Calibri; mso-ascii-theme-font:minor-latin; mso-fareast-font-family:"Times New Roman"; mso-fareast-theme-font:minor-fareast; mso-hansi-font-family:Calibri; mso-hansi-theme-font:minor-latin; mso-bidi-font-family:"Times New Roman"; mso-bidi-theme-font:minor-bidi;}

  5. Use of escitalopram to prevent depression and cognitive impairments in the acute phase of stroke

    Dina Rustemovna Khasanova

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available The purpose of the study was to comparatively analyze the rate of post-stroke depression and cognitive impairments in escitalopram (cipralex-treated and untreated (control patients. Emotional and affective cognitive symptoms, neurological deficit, and day-to-day activity were evaluated over time 1, 3, and 6 months after treatment. The results of the study indicated that escitalopram used to prevent depression in the acute phase of stroke provided a good effect. This drug caused a prompter recovery of cognitive impairments and reduced the pace of development of neurodegenerative disorders underlying the post-stroke 2D (depression and dementia syndrome. The study group was recorded to have more favorable functional outcomes of stroke and patient mobility indicators associated with lower disability rates.

  6. Role of acid-sensing ion channel 3 in sub-acute-phase inflammation

    Chen Chien-Ju

    2009-01-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Inflammation-mediated hyperalgesia involves tissue acidosis and sensitization of nociceptors. Many studies have reported increased expression of acid-sensing ion channel 3 (ASIC3 in inflammation and enhanced ASIC3 channel activity with pro-inflammatory mediators. However, the role of ASIC3 in inflammation remains inconclusive because of conflicting results generated from studies of ASIC3 knockout (ASIC3-/- or dominant-negative mutant mice, which have shown normal, decreased or increased hyperalgesia during inflammation. Results Here, we tested whether ASIC3 plays an important role in inflammation of subcutaneous tissue of paw and muscle in ASIC3-/- mice induced by complete Freund's adjuvant (CFA or carrageenan by investigating behavioral and pathological responses, as well as the expression profile of ion channels. Compared with the ASIC3+/+ controls, ASIC3-/- mice showed normal thermal and mechanical hyperalgesia with acute (4-h intraplantar CFA- or carrageenan-induced inflammation, but the hyperalgesic effects in the sub-acute phase (1–2 days were milder in all paradigms except for thermal hyperalgesia with CFA-induced inflammation. Interestingly, carrageenan-induced primary hyperalgesia was accompanied by an ASIC3-dependent Nav1.9 up-regulation and increase of tetrodotoxin (TTX-resistant sodium currents. CFA-inflamed muscle did not evoke hyperalgesia in ASIC3-/- or ASIC3+/+ mice, whereas carrageenan-induced inflammation in muscle abolished mechanical hyperalgesia in ASIC3-/- mice, as previously described. However, ASIC3-/- mice showed attenuated pathological features such as less CFA-induced granulomas and milder carrageenan-evoked vasculitis as compared with ASIC3+/+ mice. Conclusion We provide a novel finding that ASIC3 participates in the maintenance of sub-acute-phase primary hyperalgesia in subcutaneous inflammation and mediates the process of granuloma formation and vasculitis in intramuscular inflammation.

  7. Attenuation of Acute Phase Injury in Rat Intracranial Hemorrhage by Cerebrolysin that Inhibits Brain Edema and Inflammatory Response.

    Yang, Yang; Zhang, Yan; Wang, Zhaotao; Wang, Shanshan; Gao, Mou; Xu, Ruxiang; Liang, Chunyang; Zhang, Hongtian

    2016-04-01

    The outcome of intracerebral hemorrhage (ICH) is mainly determined by the volume of the hemorrhage core and the secondary brain damage to penumbral tissues due to brain swelling, microcirculation disturbance and inflammation. The present study aims to investigate the protective effects of cerebrolysin on brain edema and inhibition of the inflammation response surrounding the hematoma core in the acute stage after ICH. The ICH model was induced by administration of type VII bacterial collagenase into the stratum of adult rats, which were then randomly divided into three groups: ICH + saline; ICH + Cerebrolysin (5 ml/kg) and sham. Cerebrolysin or saline was administered intraperitoneally 1 h post surgery. Neurological scores, extent of brain edema content and Evans blue dye extravasation were recorded. The levels of pro-inflammatory factors (IL-1β, TNF-α and IL-6) were assayed by Real-time PCR and Elisa kits. Aquaporin-4 (AQP4) and tight junction proteins (TJPs; claudin-5, occludin and zonula occluden-1) expression were measured at multiple time points. The morphological and intercellular changes were characterized by Electron microscopy. It is found that cerebrolysin (5 ml/kg) improved the neurological behavior and reduced the ipsilateral brain water content and Evans blue dye extravasation. After cerebrolysin treated, the levels of pro-inflammatory factors and AQP4 in the peri-hematomal areas were markedly reduced and were accompanied with higher expression of TJPs. Electron microscopy showed the astrocytic swelling and concentrated chromatin in the ICH group and confirmed the cell junction changes. Thus, early cerebrolysin treatment ameliorates secondary injury after ICH and promotes behavioral performance during the acute phase by reducing brain edema, inflammatory response, and blood-brain barrier permeability. PMID:26498936

  8. Complement lysis activity in autologous plasma is associated with lower viral loads during the acute phase of HIV-1 infection.

    Michael Huber

    2006-11-01

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: To explore the possibility that antibody-mediated complement lysis contributes to viremia control in HIV-1 infection, we measured the activity of patient plasma in mediating complement lysis of autologous primary virus. METHODS AND FINDINGS: Sera from two groups of patients-25 with acute HIV-1 infection and 31 with chronic infection-were used in this study. We developed a novel real-time PCR-based assay strategy that allows reliable and sensitive quantification of virus lysis by complement. Plasma derived at the time of virus isolation induced complement lysis of the autologous virus isolate in the majority of patients. Overall lysis activity against the autologous virus and the heterologous primary virus strain JR-FL was higher at chronic disease stages than during the acute phase. Most strikingly, we found that plasma virus load levels during the acute but not the chronic infection phase correlated inversely with the autologous complement lysis activity. Antibody reactivity to the envelope (Env proteins gp120 and gp41 were positively correlated with the lysis activity against JR-FL, indicating that anti-Env responses mediated complement lysis. Neutralization and complement lysis activity against autologous viruses were not associated, suggesting that complement lysis is predominantly caused by non-neutralizing antibodies. CONCLUSIONS: Collectively our data provide evidence that antibody-mediated complement virion lysis develops rapidly and is effective early in the course of infection; thus it should be considered a parameter that, in concert with other immune functions, steers viremia control in vivo.

  9. Proton magnetic resonance spectroscopy as a diagnostic biomarker in mild cognitive impairment following stroke in acute phase.

    Meng, Ningqin; Shi, Shengliang; Su, Ying

    2016-05-25

    To investigate proton magnetic resonance spectroscopy (HMRS) as a diagnostic biomarker to identify mild cognitive impairment (MCI) following stroke in the acute phase. A total of 72 stroke patients were recruited in the acute phase of stroke from the Department of Neurology, including 36 stroke patients with MCI and 36 stroke patients without MCI. All patients underwent brain MRI/MRS examination on a 3.0 T scanner and a neuropsychological test in the acute phase of stroke. Single-voxel HMRS was performed to obtain hippocampal metabolism intensities and brain infarcts were assessed on MRI. Group difference in metabolite ratios was analyzed using a T-test. Spearman rank correlation was used to study the correlation between metabolite ratios and Montreal Cognitive Assessment scores. The hippocampal n-acetylaspartate/creatine (NAA/Cr) ratio was found to be significantly lower in stroke patients with MCI compared with stroke patients without MCI (P0.05) in stroke patients with MCI. Furthermore, a correlation was found between hippocampal NAA/Cr ratios and Montreal Cognitive Assessment scores in stroke patients with MCI (P<0.01). HMRS could be a biomarker to identify MCI following stroke in the acute phase by capturing neurodegenerative changes. PMID:26981713

  10. Acute phase response before treatment predicts radiation esophagitis in non-small cell lung cancer

    Background and purpose: Radiation esophagitis (RE) represents an inflammatory reaction to radiation therapy (RT). We hypothesized that aspects of the physiologic acute phase response (APR) predicts RE. Material and methods: We retrospectively analyzed 285 patients with non-small cell lung cancer (NSCLC) treated with definitive radiation. The primary analysis was the association of pretreatment lab values reflective of the APR with symptomatic (grade ⩾2) RE. Univariate and multivariate odds ratios (ORs) were calculated to test associations of clinical and pretreatment lab values with RE. Optimal cutpoints and multivariable risk stratification groupings were determined via recursive partitioning analysis. Results: Pretreatment platelet counts were higher and hemoglobin levels lower in patients who developed RE (P < 0.05). Based on these two pre-treatment risk factors, an APR score was defined as 0 (no risk factors), 1 (either risk factor), or 2 (both risk factors). APR score was significantly associated with RE in both univariate (OR = 2.3 for each point, 95% confidence interval [CI] 1.5–3.4, P = 0.001) and multivariate (OR = 2.1, 95% CI 1.3–3.4, P = 0.002) analyses. Conclusions: The APR score may represent a novel metric to predict RE. However, pending validation in an independent dataset, caution is advised when interpreting these results given their retrospective and thus exploratory nature

  11. Evaluation of the Effects of Honey on Acute-Phase Deep Burn Wounds

    Yukari Nakajima

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available This study aimed to clarify the effects of honey on acute-phase deep burn wounds. Two deep burn wounds were created on mice which were divided into four groups: no treatment, silver sulfadiazine, manuka honey, and Japanese acacia honey. Wound sizes were calculated as expanded wound areas and sampled 30 minutes and 1–4 days after wounding for histological observation. The wound sections were subjected to hematoxylin and eosin and immunohistological staining to detect necrotic cells, apoptotic cells, neutrophils, and macrophages. The no treatment group formed a scar. The redness around the wound edges in the silver sulfadiazine group was the most intense. All groups exhibited increased wound areas after wounding. The proportions of necrotic cells and the numbers of neutrophils in the manuka and acacia honey groups were lower than those in the no treatment and silver sulfadiazine groups until day 3; however, there were no significant differences between all groups on day 4. These results show that honey treatment on deep burn wounds cannot prevent wound progression. Moreover, comparing our observations with those of Jackson, there are some differences between humans and animals in this regard, and the zone of hyperemia and its surrounding area fall into necrosis, which contributes to burn wound progression.

  12. C-reactive protein

    C-reactive protein (CRP) is produced by the liver. The level of CRP rises when there is inflammation throughout the body. It is one of a group of proteins called "acute phase reactants" that go up in response to inflammation. ...

  13. Early Diagnosis of Congenital Trypanosoma cruzi Infection, Using Shed Acute Phase Antigen, in Ushuaia, Tierra del Fuego, Argentina

    Mallimaci, María Cristina; Sosa-Estani, Sergio; Russomando, Graciela; Sanchez, Zunilda; Sijvarger, Carina; Alvarez, Isabel Marcela; Barrionuevo, Lola; Lopez, Carlos; Segura, Elsa Leonor

    2010-01-01

    Chagas' disease, or American trypanosomiasis, is caused by the protozoan parasite Trypanasoma cruzi. It is estimated that 15,000 new cases of congenital T. cruzi transmission occur in the Americas each year. The aim of this study was to estimate the rate of congenital T. cruzi infection in infants born to infected women living in Ushuaia, Argentina, as well to assess a serologic test using Shed Acute Phase Antigen (SAPA) for a timely diagnosis of congenital infection. The rate of congenital i...

  14. HIV Replication Is Not Controlled by CD8+ T Cells during the Acute Phase of the Infection in Humanized Mice

    Petit, Nicolas Y.; Lambert-Niclot, Sidonie; Marcelin, Anne-Geneviève; Garcia, Sylvie; Marodon, Gilles

    2015-01-01

    International audience HIV replication follows a well-defined pattern during the acute phase of the infection in humans. After reaching a peak during the first few weeks after infection, viral replication resolves to a set-point thereafter. There are still uncertainties regarding the contribution of CD8 + T cells in establishing this set-point. An alternative explanation, supported by in silico modeling, would imply that viral replication is limited by the number of available targets for i...

  15. Paediatric Dengue Fever diagnosed through parents' epidemiologic report and preventive strategy during the acute phase of infection.

    Poddighe, Dimitri; Bonomelli, Irene; Giardinetti, Silvia; Nedbal, Marco; Bruni, Paola

    2016-01-01

    In Europe, Dengue Fever is one of the most frequent imported diseases and also autochthonous cases occurred in areas where the insect vector is present. Here, we describe a child returning from Philippines and diagnosed with Dengue Fever, through the information provided by parents about an ongoing outbreak in their municipality. An appropriate clinical management in the hospital was established to monitor the occurrence of complications and to cancel the risk of dengue virus transmission in the acute phase of infection. PMID:26782129

  16. Increased Serum Phospholipase A2 Activity in Advanced Chronic Liver Disease as an Expression of the Acute Phase Response

    Mario Pirisi; Carlo Fabris; Maria Piera Panozzo; Giorgio Soardo; Pierluigi Toniutto; Ettore Bartou

    1993-01-01

    Phospholipase A2 (PLA2) modifications were investigated in patients with acute and chronic liver diseases, PLA2 variations were related to indices of liver function as well as to parameters of the acute phase response. Serum PLA2 activity modifications were f1uorimetrically measured in 105 patients affected by acute and chronic liver diseases or extra-hepatic diseases. One-way ANOV A demonstrated a significant difference among groups (F= 4.53, P

  17. Acute-phase responses in cattle infected with hydatid cysts and microbial agents.

    Sevimli, A; Sevimli, F K; Şeker, E; Ulucan, A; Demirel, H H

    2015-07-01

    The aim of this study was to investigate the effect of hydatid cysts and microbial agents on the acute-phase response in cattle. Twenty-seven cattle with hydatid cysts and eight apparently healthy cattle comprised the study and control groups, respectively. Parasitological, microbiological, histopathological and immunohistochemical examinations of the liver and lungs were undertaken, and 49 of these organs were infected with cysts. In 14 of 31 (45.1%) livers and 10 of 18 (55.5%) lungs microbial growth was observed. The most frequent species occurring in the liver were Staphylococcus aureus, Escherichia coli, Corynebacterium spp. and Campylobacter spp., whereas in the lungs the most common species was Candida spp., followed by Streptococcus spp., Mannheimia haemolytica, Corynebacterium spp., Micrococcus spp. and S. aureus. The concentration of serum interleukin (IL-6) in infected cattle, 455.35 ± 39.68 pg/ml, was significantly higher than that of 83.02 ± 17.87 pg/ml in the control group (P0.05). The highest concentrations of IL-6 were detected in serum of the cattle where microbial growth had been detected, followed by cattle infected with bacteria + Trichostrongylus sp. (P< 0.001). Consequently, SAA showed an important increase in the group infected with hydatid cysts, whereas haptoglobin level decreased. It was noticed that IL-6, like SAA, had a significant role in hydatid cyst infection. Therefore IL-6 and SAA appear to be major markers in the detection of infection of cattle with hydatid cysts. PMID:26017333

  18. The Impact of Acute Phase Domain-Specific Cognitive Function on Post-stroke Functional Recovery

    Park, Jihong; Lee, Gangpyo; Lee, Shi-Uk

    2016-01-01

    Objective To assess whether the cognitive function in the acute stage evaluated by domain-specific neuropsychological assessments would be an independent predictor of functional outcome after stroke. Methods Forty patients underwent 4 domain-specific neuropsychological examinations about 3 weeks after the onset of stroke. The tests included the Boston Naming Test (BNT), the construction recall test (CRT), the construction praxis test (CPT), and the verbal fluency test (VFT). The Korean version of Modified Barthel Index (K-MBI) at 3 months and the modified Rankin Scale (mRS) at 6 months were investigated as functional outcome after stroke. Functional improvement was assessed using the change in K-MBI during the first 3 months and subjects were dichotomized into 'good status' and 'poor status' according to mRS at 6 months. The domain-specific cognitive function along with other possible predictors for functional outcome was examined using regression analysis. Results The z-score of CPT (p=0.044) and CRT (p<0.001) were independent predictors for functional improvement measured by the change in K-MBI during the first 3 months after stroke. The z-score of CPT (p=0.049) and CRT (p=0.048) were also independent predictors of functional status at post-stroke 6 months assessed by mRS. Conclusion Impairment in visuospatial construction and memory within one month after stroke can be an independent prognostic factor of functional outcome. Domain-specific neuropsychological assessments could be considered in patients with stroke in the acute phase to predict long-term functional outcome. PMID:27152270

  19. Synthesis of acute-phase alpha 2-macroglobulin during inflammation and pregnancy.

    Panrucker, D E; Lorscheider, F L

    1983-01-01

    A recent investigation of acute-phase alpha 2-macroglobulin (AP alpha 2M) concentration in the rat during pregnancy demonstrated a bimodal distribution, for which we suggested a maternal source of AP alpha 2M in early gestation and a fetal source in late gestation. This interpretation was supported by the findings of the present study, which employed organ culture techniques, incorporation of [35S]methionine, immunoprecipitation of radioactivity, and fluorography to measure synthesis of AP alpha 2M in specific fetal, adult, and maternal tissues. Preliminary results indicated that in adult male rats treated with croton oil (compared with nontreated males), AP alpha 2M was synthesized in kidney, spleen, thymus, and lymphocytes by 48 hr post induction, but synthesis in the liver was not evident. In the pregnant rat from 12 to 16 days (compared with nonpregnant females), synthesis of AP alpha 2M was high in metrial gland, moderate in spleen, thymus and lymphocytes, and absent in liver; at 21 days, synthesis of AP alpha 2M in these four maternal tissues had declined. Fetal synthesis of AP alpha 2M in yolk sac (12 to 16 days) and in liver (15 to 16 days) was significantly elevated, and at 21 days fetal liver still displayed marked synthesis. These data are consistent with the interpretation that an early maternal source of AP alpha 2M synthesis is the metrial gland and that in the fetus both yolk sac and liver are major sources of AP alpha 2M, the latter tissue continuing synthesis into late gestation. Lymphopoietic and lymph-containing tissues appear to be major sites of AP alpha 2M synthesis during inflammation and pregnancy. PMID:6200027

  20. Acute phase IL-10 plasma concentration associates with the high risk sources of cardiogenic stroke.

    Otso Arponen

    Full Text Available Etiological assessment of stroke is essential for accurate treatment decisions and for secondary prevention of recurrence. There is evidence that interleukin-10 (IL-10 associates with ischemic stroke. The aim of this prospective study was to assess the levels of IL-10 in ischemic stroke with unknown or suspected cardiogenic etiology, and evaluate the correlation between IL-10 plasma concentration and the number of diagnosed high risk sources for cardioembolism.A total of 141 patients (97 males; mean age 61±11 years with acute ischemic stroke with unknown etiology or suspected cardiogenic etiology other than known atrial fibrillation (AF underwent imaging investigations to assess high risk sources for cardioembolic stroke established by the European Association of Echocardiography (EAE. IL-10 was measured on admission to the hospital and on a three month follow-up visit.Acute phase IL-10 concentration was higher in patients with EAE high risk sources, and correlated with their number (p<0.01. In patients with no risk sources (n = 104, the mean IL-10 concentration was 2.7±3.1 ng/L (range 0.3-16.3 ng/L, with one risk source (n = 26 3.7±5.5 ng/L (0.3-23.6 ng/L, with two risk sources (n = 10 7.0±10.0 ng/L (1.29-34.8 ng/L and with three risk sources (n = 1 37.2 ng/L. IL-10 level was not significantly associated with cerebral infarct volume, presence of previous or recent myocardial infarction, carotid/vertebral artery atherosclerosis, paroxysmal AF registered on 24-hour ECG Holter monitoring or given intravenous thrombolytic treatment.IL-10 plasma concentration correlates independently with the number of EAE cardioembolic risk sources in patients with acute stroke. IL-10 may have potential to improve differential diagnostics of stroke with unknown etiology.

  1. Donepezil, anti-Alzheimer's disease drug, prevents cardiac rupture during acute phase of myocardial infarction in mice.

    Mikihiko Arikawa

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: We have previously demonstrated that the chronic intervention in the cholinergic system by donepezil, an acetylcholinesterase inhibitor, plays a beneficial role in suppressing long-term cardiac remodeling after myocardial infarction (MI. In comparison with such a chronic effect, however, the acute effect of donepezil during an acute phase of MI remains unclear. Noticing recent findings of a cholinergic mechanism for anti-inflammatory actions, we tested the hypothesis that donepezil attenuates an acute inflammatory tissue injury following MI. METHODS AND RESULTS: In isolated and activated macrophages, donepezil significantly reduced intra- and extracellular matrix metalloproteinase-9 (MMP-9. In mice with MI, despite the comparable values of heart rate and blood pressure, the donepezil-treated group showed a significantly lower incidence of cardiac rupture than the untreated group during the acute phase of MI. Immunohistochemistry revealed that MMP-9 was localized at the infarct area where a large number of inflammatory cells including macrophages infiltrated, and the expression and the enzymatic activity of MMP-9 at the left ventricular infarct area was significantly reduced in the donepezil-treated group. CONCLUSION: The present study suggests that donepezil inhibits the MMP-9-related acute inflammatory tissue injury in the infarcted myocardium, thereby reduces the risk of left ventricular free wall rupture during the acute phase of MI.

  2. Markers of iron status are associated with stage of pregnancy and acute-phase response, but not with parity among pregnant women in Guinea-Bissau

    Kæstel, Pernille; Aaby, Peter; Ritz, Christian;

    2015-01-01

    study, we measured the concentrations of serum ferritin and soluble transferrin receptors (sTfR), Hb and the acute-phase proteins C-reactive protein (CRP) and α1-antichymotrypsin (ACT) in a cross-sectional study among 738 pregnant women attending antenatal care in Guinea-Bissau, West Africa. Multiple...... linear regression analysis was used to identify the predictors of Fe status markers. The mean gestational age was 23 (sd 7) weeks. Serum ferritin values were lower with progressing gestation, from 27 % lower during weeks 16-20 of gestation up to 59 % lower after 29 weeks of gestation compared with early...... pregnancy. Using cut-off values for Fe deficiency as established in non-pregnant individuals, 52 % of the women had sTfR levels >2·3 mg/l, while only 25 % had serum ferritin levels 2·3 mg/l decreased to 47 % after adjustment for elevated serum CRP and ACT levels. On the contrary, the proportion of serum...

  3. Changes in cholesterol homeostasis and acute phase response link pulmonary exposure to multi-walled carbon nanotubes to risk of cardiovascular disease

    Poulsen, Sarah S., E-mail: spo@nrcwe.dk [National Research Centre for the Working Environment, DK-2100 Copenhagen (Denmark); Department of Science, Systems and Models, Roskilde University, DK-4000 Roskilde (Denmark); Saber, Anne T., E-mail: ats@nrcwe.dk [National Research Centre for the Working Environment, DK-2100 Copenhagen (Denmark); Mortensen, Alicja, E-mail: almo@food.dtu.dk [National Food Institute, Technical University of Denmark, Søborg (Denmark); Szarek, Józef, E-mail: szarek@uwm.edu.pl [Faculty of Veterinary Medicine, University of Warmia and Mazury in Olsztyn, 10-719 Olsztyn (Poland); Wu, Dongmei, E-mail: dongmei.wu@hc-sc.gc.ca [Environmental and Radiation Health Sciences Directorate, Health Canada, Ottawa, Ontario K1A 0K9 (Canada); Williams, Andrew, E-mail: andrew.williams@hc-sc.gc.ca [Environmental and Radiation Health Sciences Directorate, Health Canada, Ottawa, Ontario K1A 0K9 (Canada); Andersen, Ole, E-mail: oa@ruc.dk [Department of Science, Systems and Models, Roskilde University, DK-4000 Roskilde (Denmark); Jacobsen, Nicklas R., E-mail: nrj@nrcwe.dk [National Research Centre for the Working Environment, DK-2100 Copenhagen (Denmark); Yauk, Carole L., E-mail: carole.yauk@hc-sc.gc.ca [Environmental and Radiation Health Sciences Directorate, Health Canada, Ottawa, Ontario K1A 0K9 (Canada); Wallin, Håkan, E-mail: hwa@nrcwe.dk [National Research Centre for the Working Environment, DK-2100 Copenhagen (Denmark); Department of Public Health, University of Copenhagen, DK-1014 Copenhagen K (Denmark); Halappanavar, Sabina, E-mail: sabina.halappanavar@hc-sc.gc.ca [Environmental and Radiation Health Sciences Directorate, Health Canada, Ottawa, Ontario K1A 0K9 (Canada); Vogel, Ulla, E-mail: ubv@nrcwe.dk [National Research Centre for the Working Environment, DK-2100 Copenhagen (Denmark); Department of Micro- and Nanotechnology, Technical University of Denmark, DK-2800 Kgs. Lyngby (Denmark)

    2015-03-15

    Adverse lung effects following pulmonary exposure to multi-walled carbon nanotubes (MWCNTs) are well documented in rodents. However, systemic effects are less understood. Epidemiological studies have shown increased cardiovascular disease risk after pulmonary exposure to airborne particles, which has led to concerns that inhalation exposure to MWCNTs might pose similar risks. We analyzed parameters related to cardiovascular disease, including plasma acute phase response (APR) proteins and plasma lipids, in female C57BL/6 mice exposed to a single intratracheal instillation of 0, 18, 54 or 162 μg/mouse of small, entangled (CNT{sub Small}, 0.8 ± 0.1 μm long) or large, thick MWCNTs (CNT{sub Large}, 4 ± 0.4 μm long). Liver tissues and plasma were harvested 1, 3 and 28 days post-exposure. In addition, global hepatic gene expression, hepatic cholesterol content and liver histology were used to assess hepatic effects. The two MWCNTs induced similar systemic responses despite their different physicochemical properties. APR proteins SAA3 and haptoglobin, plasma total cholesterol and low-density/very low-density lipoprotein were significantly increased following exposure to either MWCNTs. Plasma SAA3 levels correlated strongly with pulmonary Saa3 levels. Analysis of global gene expression revealed perturbation of the same biological processes and pathways in liver, including the HMG-CoA reductase pathway. Both MWCNTs induced similar histological hepatic changes, with a tendency towards greater response following CNT{sub Large} exposure. Overall, we show that pulmonary exposure to two different MWCNTs induces similar systemic and hepatic responses, including changes in plasma APR, lipid composition, hepatic gene expression and liver morphology. The results link pulmonary exposure to MWCNTs with risk of cardiovascular disease. - Highlights: • Systemic and hepatic alterations were evaluated in female mice following MWCNT instillation. • Despite being physicochemically

  4. Changes in cholesterol homeostasis and acute phase response link pulmonary exposure to multi-walled carbon nanotubes to risk of cardiovascular disease

    Adverse lung effects following pulmonary exposure to multi-walled carbon nanotubes (MWCNTs) are well documented in rodents. However, systemic effects are less understood. Epidemiological studies have shown increased cardiovascular disease risk after pulmonary exposure to airborne particles, which has led to concerns that inhalation exposure to MWCNTs might pose similar risks. We analyzed parameters related to cardiovascular disease, including plasma acute phase response (APR) proteins and plasma lipids, in female C57BL/6 mice exposed to a single intratracheal instillation of 0, 18, 54 or 162 μg/mouse of small, entangled (CNTSmall, 0.8 ± 0.1 μm long) or large, thick MWCNTs (CNTLarge, 4 ± 0.4 μm long). Liver tissues and plasma were harvested 1, 3 and 28 days post-exposure. In addition, global hepatic gene expression, hepatic cholesterol content and liver histology were used to assess hepatic effects. The two MWCNTs induced similar systemic responses despite their different physicochemical properties. APR proteins SAA3 and haptoglobin, plasma total cholesterol and low-density/very low-density lipoprotein were significantly increased following exposure to either MWCNTs. Plasma SAA3 levels correlated strongly with pulmonary Saa3 levels. Analysis of global gene expression revealed perturbation of the same biological processes and pathways in liver, including the HMG-CoA reductase pathway. Both MWCNTs induced similar histological hepatic changes, with a tendency towards greater response following CNTLarge exposure. Overall, we show that pulmonary exposure to two different MWCNTs induces similar systemic and hepatic responses, including changes in plasma APR, lipid composition, hepatic gene expression and liver morphology. The results link pulmonary exposure to MWCNTs with risk of cardiovascular disease. - Highlights: • Systemic and hepatic alterations were evaluated in female mice following MWCNT instillation. • Despite being physicochemically different, the two

  5. Serum levels of chicken mannan-binding lectin (MBL) during virus infections; indication that chicken MBL is an acute phase reactant

    Nielsen, O.L.; Jensenius, J. C.; Jørgensen, Poul Henrik;

    1999-01-01

    Mannan-binding lectin (MBL) is a serum collectin which is believed to be an opsonin of the innate immune defence against various microorganisms. MBL is a minor acute phase reactant in man. We investigated the concentration of serum MBL in chickens infected with infectious bronchitis virus (IBV) and...... levels returned to normal values 6-10 days after infection. The results indicated that MBL is a minor acute phase reactant in chickens....

  6. Tumor necrosis factor (TNF) inhibits interleukin (IL)-1 and/or IL-6 stimulated synthesis of C-reactive protein (CRP) and serum amyloid A (SAA) in primary cultures of human hepatocytes

    Yap, S.H.; Moshage, H.J.; Hazenberg, B.P.C.; Roelofs, H.M.J.; Bijzet, J.; Limburg, P.C.; Aarden, L.A.; Van Rijswijk, M.H.

    1991-01-01

    Interleukin (IL)-1, IL-6 and tumor necrosis factor (TNF) are considered as important mediators for the modulation of liver synthesis of acute phase proteins. However, studies of the direct effect of individual or a combination of these cytokines on the synthesis of acute phase proteins in human hepa

  7. Neurological deterioration in the acute phase of minor ischemic stroke is an independent predictor of poor outcomes at 1 year: results from the China National Stroke Registry (CNSR)

    JU Yi; ZHAO Xing-quan; WANG Chun-xue; WANG Yi-long; LIU Gai-fen; WANG Yong-jun

    2013-01-01

    Background The risk of clinical deterioration still exists in the acute phase despite the fact that patients with minor stroke may display less severe symptoms.The impact of this clinical deterioration on long-term outcomes is unknown.We characterized the clinical features of neurological deterioration (ND) in the acute phase of minor ischemic stroke (MIS) and investigated its impact on mid-and long-term outcomes.Methods This was a multi-centered,prospective clinical study involving patients with MIS (the National Institutes of Health Stroke Scale,NIHSS <3) recruited from the China National Stroke Registry.Patients were included who had been hospitalized within 24 hours of stroke onset.Baseline characteristics,complication rates during hospitalization,etiology of stroke,as well as 3-,6-,and 12-month post-stroke outcomes were compared between patients with and without ND during the acute phase.Results A number of 368 (15.2%) out of 2424 patients included in the study exhibited ND in the acute phase.Compared to patients without ND,patients with ND had longer hospital stay,increased rate of baseline diabetes,and multiple complications.Multivariate Logistic regression indicated that ND in acute phase was an independent factor predictive of increased dependence (adjusted odds ratio =5.20,95% Cl,3.51-7.70,P <0.001) at 12-month post-stroke.Conclusions The risk of ND in the acute phase is high in patients with MIS.ND in the acute phase is an independent predictor for poor outcomes at 12 months post-stroke onset.

  8. Can cerebral blood flow measurement predict clinical outcome in the acute phase in patients with artherosclerotic occlusive carotid artery disease?

    It has been thought that the clinical course of patients with acute carotid occlusive disease depends on their collateral cerebral blood flow (CBF) and duration of ischemia. However, there have been few clinical reports to prove this hypothesis. Therefore, we performed CBF study in patients with artherosclerotic carotid occlusive disease in the very acute phase, and precisely assessed the prognosis of those patients under intensive medical therapy. This prospective study included a total of 44 patients (72±13 years) who were admitted to our hospital between April, 2007 and December, 2008. To evaluate their initial CBF, single photon emission computed tomography (SPECT) studies were performed within 6 hours after the onset. All patients included in this study were medically treated and were periodically followed up by neurological and radiological examination. Moreover, in patients with reduced CBF (ipsilateral CBF/contralateral CBF x 100: %CBF <80%), dobutamine-induce hyperdynamic therapy was performed. Multivariate analysis was performed to detect significant predictors for the occurrence of further cerebral infarction. Multivariate analysis showed that the occurrence of further infarction was associated with older age and smaller %CBF. Of 44 patients, 21 experienced further cerebral infarction within 10 days after onset. Fourteen out of 15 patients with %CBF <60% developed cerebral infarction. This study showed that the prognosis of the patients with artherosclerotic carotid occlusive disease in the acute phase is associated with their initial residual CBFs. It may be difficult to stop the developed cerebral infarction in those patients with %CBF <60% despite intensive medical therapy. (author)

  9. DNA strand breaks, acute phase response and inflammation following pulmonary exposure by instillation to the diesel exhaust particle NIST1650b in mice

    Kyjovska, Zdenka O.; Jacobsen, Nicklas R.; Saber, Anne T.;

    2015-01-01

    the alkaline comet assay as DNA strand breaks in BAL cells, lung and liver tissue. The pulmonary acute phase response was analysed by Saa3 mRNA levels by real-time quantitative polymerase chain reaction. Instillation of DEP induced a strong neutrophil influx 1 and 3 days, but not 28 days post......We investigated the inflammatory response, acute phase response and genotoxic effect of diesel exhaust particles (DEPs, NIST1650b) following a single intratracheal instillation. C57BL/6J BomTac mice received 18, 54 or 162 µg/mouse and were killed 1, 3 and 28 days post-exposure. Vehicle controls and...... inflammation but long-lasting pulmonary acute phase response as well as genotoxicity in lung tissue 28 days post-exposure. The observed long-term pulmonary genotoxicity by DEP was less than the previously observed genotoxicity for CB using identical experimental set-up....

  10. 饲粮纤维水平对高黎贡山仔猪与杜洛克仔猪生产性能、小肠形态学、小肠黏膜金属硫蛋白1及组织急性期蛋白基因表达影响的比较研究%Comparison Study of Effects of Dietary Fiber Level on Performance, Intestinal Morphology, mRNA Expression of Metallothioneins 1 in Intestinal Mucosa and Acute Phase Proteins in Tissues of Gaoligongshan and Duroc Piglets

    李美荃; 信爱国; 张春勇; 安清聪; 王荣蛟; 潘洪彬; 陈克嶙; 郭荣富

    2015-01-01

    This study was conducted to compare the effects of dietary fiber level on performance, intestinal mor-phology, mRNA expression of metallothioneins 1 ( MT1) in intestinal mucosa and acute phase proteins ( APPs) in tissues of Gaoligongshan and Duroc piglets. Each twenty four ( half male and half female) Duroc and Gaoli-gongshan weaner piglets of 35 days old were selected. They divided into control group and experimental group with 12 replicates per group and 1 piglet per replicate. Piglets in the control group and the experimental group were fed the diets with the fiber level was 3.53% and 7.04%, respectively. The experiment finished at 60 days old. The performance, intestinal morphological change, mRNA relative expression of MT1 in duodenum, jeju-num, ileum mucosa and four kinds of APPs [ C-reactive protein ( CRP) , haptoglobin ( HP) ,α1-acid glycopro-tein ( AGP) and serum amyloid A ( SAA) ] in liver, pancreas, spleen, kidney, duodenum, jejunum and ileum were detected. The results showed as follows:when dietary fiber level was 7.04%, daily gain and daily feed in-take of Gaoligongshan piglets was significantly higher than those of Duroc piglets ( P<0.05) , while feed conver-sion ratio was significantly lower than that of Duroc piglets ( P<0.05);villus length of duodenum, jejunum and ileum of Gaoligongshan piglets was significantly higher than that of Duroc piglets ( P<0.01);crypt depth of duo-denum and jejunum was significantly lower than that of Duroc piglets ( P<0.01);villus length/crypt depth of du-odenum, jejunum and ileum was significantly higher than that of Duroc piglets (P<0.01). When dietary fiber level was 7. 04%, MT1 mRNA relative expression in duodenum mucosa of Gaoligongshan piglets fed the diet with 7.04% fiber level was significantly higher than that of Gaoligongshan piglets fed the diet with 3.53% fiber level and Duroc piglets fed the diets with 7.04% or 3.53% fiber level ( P<0.01) . CRP, HP, AGP and SAA mR-NA expression could be detected in the