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Sample records for acute weight loss

  1. Acute liver injury induced by weight-loss herbal supplements

    Gary C Chen, Vivek S Ramanathan, David Law, Pauline Funchain, George C Chen, Samuel French, Boris Shlopov, Viktor Eysselein, David Chung, Sonya Reicher, Binh V Pham

    2010-01-01

    We report three cases of patients with acute liver injury induced by weight-loss herbal supplements. One patient took Hydroxycut while the other two took Herbalife supplements. Liver biopsies for all patients demonstrated findings consistent with drug-induced acute liver injury. To our knowledge, we are the first institute to report acute liver injury from both of these two types of weight-loss herbal supplements together as a case series. The series emphasizes the importance of taking a caut...

  2. Acute liver injury induced by weight-loss herbal supplements.

    Chen, Gary C; Ramanathan, Vivek S; Law, David; Funchain, Pauline; Chen, George C; French, Samuel; Shlopov, Boris; Eysselein, Viktor; Chung, David; Reicher, Sonya; Pham, Binh V

    2010-11-27

    We report three cases of patients with acute liver injury induced by weight-loss herbal supplements. One patient took Hydroxycut while the other two took Herbalife supplements. Liver biopsies for all patients demonstrated findings consistent with drug-induced acute liver injury. To our knowledge, we are the first institute to report acute liver injury from both of these two types of weight-loss herbal supplements together as a case series. The series emphasizes the importance of taking a cautious approach when consuming herbal supplements for the purpose of weight loss. PMID:21173910

  3. Acute drug induced hepatitis secondary to a weight loss product purchased over the internet

    Cross Tim JS

    2007-06-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Many people now seek alternative methods of weight loss. The internet provides a readily available source of weight reduction products, the ingredients of which are often unclear. The authors describe a case of acute hepatitis in a 20 year old woman caused by such a product purchased over the internet. Case Presentation A 20-year old woman presented with a two day history of abdominal pain, vomiting and jaundice. There were no identifiable risk factors for chronic liver disease. Liver function tests demonstrated an acute hepatitis (aminoaspartate transaminase 1230 IU/L. A chronic liver disease screen was negative. The patient had started a weight loss product (Pro-Lean, purchased over the internet two weeks prior to presentation. The patient was treated conservatively, and improved. The sequence of events suggests an acute hepatitis caused by an herbal weight loss product. Conclusion This case report highlights the dangers of weight loss products available to the public over the internet, and the importance of asking specifically about alternative medicines in patients who present with an acute hepatitis.

  4. Acute drug induced hepatitis secondary to a weight loss product purchased over the internet

    Cross Tim JS; Joshi Deepak; Wong Voi

    2007-01-01

    Abstract Background Many people now seek alternative methods of weight loss. The internet provides a readily available source of weight reduction products, the ingredients of which are often unclear. The authors describe a case of acute hepatitis in a 20 year old woman caused by such a product purchased over the internet. Case Presentation A 20-year old woman presented with a two day history of abdominal pain, vomiting and jaundice. There were no identifiable risk factors for chronic liver di...

  5. Acute liver injury associated with a newer formulation of the herbal weight loss supplement Hydroxycut.

    Araujo, James L; Worman, Howard J

    2015-01-01

    Despite the widespread use of herbal and dietary supplements (HDS), serious cases of hepatotoxicity have been reported. The popular herbal weight loss supplement, Hydroxycut, has previously been implicated in acute liver injury. Since its introduction, Hydroxycut has undergone successive transformations in its formulation; yet, cases of liver injury have remained an ongoing problem. We report a case of a 41-year-old Hispanic man who developed acute hepatocellular liver injury with associated nausea, vomiting, jaundice, fatigue and asterixis attributed to the use of a newer formulation of Hydroxycut, SX-7 Clean Sensory. The patient required hospitalisation and improved with supportive therapy. Despite successive transformations in its formulation, potential liver injury appears to remain an ongoing problem with Hydroxycut. Our case illustrates the importance of obtaining a thorough medication history, including HDS, regardless of new or reformulated product marketing efforts. PMID:25948859

  6. Thermogenic effect of an acute ingestion of a weight loss supplement

    Tranchina Christopher P

    2009-01-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background The purpose of this study was to examine the acute effects of a weight loss supplement on resting oxygen uptake (VO2, respiratory quotient (RQ, caloric expenditure (kcal, heart rate (HR, and blood pressure (BP in healthy and physically active individuals. Methods Ten subjects (5 male, 5 female; 20.2 ± 1.2 y; 172.2 ± 8.9 cm; 71.5 ± 17.2 kg; 17.3 ± 2.6% body fat underwent two testing sessions administered in a randomized and double-blind fashion. During each session, subjects reported to the Human Performance Laboratory after at least 3-h post-absorptive state and were provided either 3 capsules of the weight loss supplement (SUP, commercially marketed as Meltdown® or 3 capsules of a placebo (P. Subjects then rested in a semi-recumbent position for three hours. VO2 and HR were determined every 5 min during the first 30 min and every 10 min during the next 150 min. BP was determined every 15 min during the first 30 min and every 30 min thereafter. The profile of mood states was assessed every 30 min. Results Area under the curve analysis revealed a significant 28.9% difference in VO2 between SUP and P for the three hour study period. In addition, a significant difference in energy expenditure was also seen between SUP (1.28 ± 0.33 kcal·min-1 and P (1.00 ± 0.32 kcal·min-1. A trend (p = 0.06 towards a greater utilization of stored fat as an energy source was also demonstrated (0.78 ± 0.23 kcal·min-1 and 0.50 ± 0.38 kcal·min-1 in P and SUP, respectively. Significant elevations in HR were seen during hours two and three of the study, and significantly higher average systolic BP was observed between SUP (118.0 ± 7.3 mmHg and P (111.4 ± 8.2 mmHg. No significant differences were seen in diastolic blood pressure at any time point. Significant increases in tension and confusion were seen in SUP. Conclusion Results indicate a significant increase in energy expenditure in young, healthy individuals following an acute

  7. Weight Loss Surgery

    Weight loss surgery helps people with extreme obesity to lose weight. It may be an option if you cannot lose weight through diet and exercise or have serious health problems caused by obesity. There are different types of weight loss surgery. They often limit the ...

  8. Weight loss - unintentional

    ... of laxatives Other causes such as: Eating disorders, anorexia nervosa that have not been diagnosed yet Diabetes that ... do not know the reason. You have other symptoms along with the weight loss.

  9. Prizes for weight loss.

    Englberger, L.

    1999-01-01

    A programme of weight loss competitions and associated activities in Tonga, intended to combat obesity and the noncommunicable diseases linked to it, has popular support and the potential to effect significant improvements in health. PMID:10063662

  10. Prizes for weight loss.

    Englberger, L

    1999-01-01

    A programme of weight loss competitions and associated activities in Tonga, intended to combat obesity and the noncommunicable diseases linked to it, has popular support and the potential to effect significant improvements in health.

  11. Weight Loss Nutritional Supplements

    Eckerson, Joan M.

    Obesity has reached what may be considered epidemic proportions in the United States, not only for adults but for children. Because of the medical implications and health care costs associated with obesity, as well as the negative social and psychological impacts, many individuals turn to nonprescription nutritional weight loss supplements hoping for a quick fix, and the weight loss industry has responded by offering a variety of products that generates billions of dollars each year in sales. Most nutritional weight loss supplements are purported to work by increasing energy expenditure, modulating carbohydrate or fat metabolism, increasing satiety, inducing diuresis, or blocking fat absorption. To review the literally hundreds of nutritional weight loss supplements available on the market today is well beyond the scope of this chapter. Therefore, several of the most commonly used supplements were selected for critical review, and practical recommendations are provided based on the findings of well controlled, randomized clinical trials that examined their efficacy. In most cases, the nutritional supplements reviewed either elicited no meaningful effect or resulted in changes in body weight and composition that are similar to what occurs through a restricted diet and exercise program. Although there is some evidence to suggest that herbal forms of ephedrine, such as ma huang, combined with caffeine or caffeine and aspirin (i.e., ECA stack) is effective for inducing moderate weight loss in overweight adults, because of the recent ban on ephedra manufacturers must now use ephedra-free ingredients, such as bitter orange, which do not appear to be as effective. The dietary fiber, glucomannan, also appears to hold some promise as a possible treatment for weight loss, but other related forms of dietary fiber, including guar gum and psyllium, are ineffective.

  12. Acute loss of consciousness.

    Tristán, Bekinschtein; Gleichgerrcht, Ezequiel; Manes, Facundo

    2015-01-01

    Acute loss of consciousness poses a fascinating scenario for theoretical and clinical research. This chapter introduces a simple yet powerful framework to investigate altered states of consciousness. We then explore the different disorders of consciousness that result from acute brain injury, and techniques used in the acute phase to predict clinical outcome in different patient populations in light of models of acute loss of consciousness. We further delve into post-traumatic amnesia as a model for predicting cognitive sequels following acute loss of consciousness. We approach the study of acute loss of consciousness from a theoretical and clinical perspective to conclude that clinicians in acute care centers must incorporate new measurements and techniques besides the classic coma scales in order to assess their patients with loss of consciousness. PMID:25702218

  13. Weight Loss Surgery

    ... There's a lot of hard work and self-discipline involved. People who get any kind of weight ... The Nemours Foundation, iStock, Getty Images, Corbis, Veer, Science Photo Library, Science Source Images, Shutterstock, and Clipart. ...

  14. Weight loss and alcohol

    ... you are trying to lose weight, you can boost your efforts by cutting back on alcoholic drinks. ... goes in your drink. Many mixed drinks include juices, simple syrup, or liqueur, which all add extra ...

  15. Weight-Loss and Nutrition Myths

    ... Alternate Language URL Español Weight-loss and Nutrition Myths Page Content Weight-loss and Diet Myths Meal ... and keep it off. Weight-loss and Diet Myths Myth: Fad diets will help me lose weight ...

  16. Body Contouring After Major Weight Loss

    ... Blog Plastic Surgery Statistics ASPS TV News Program History of Plastic Surgery For Medical Professionals ... Major Weight Loss Body Contouring After Major Weight Loss For Men and Women Body contouring following major weight loss improves the ...

  17. Gastric stimulation for weight loss

    Meir Mizrahi; Ami Ben Ya'acov; Yaron Ilan

    2012-01-01

    The prevalence of obesity is growing to epidemic proportions,and there is clearly a need for minimally invasive therapies with few adverse effects that allow for sustained weight loss.Behavior and lifestyle therapy are safe treatments for obesity in the short term,but the durability of the weight loss is limited.Although promising obesity drugs are in development,the currently available drugs lack efficacy or have unacceptable side effects.Surgery leads to long-term weight loss,but it is associated with morbidity and mortality.Gastric electrical stimulation (GES) has received increasing attention as a potential tool for treating obesity and gastrointestinal dysmotility disorders.GES is a promising,minimally invasive,safe,and effective method for treating obesity.External gastric pacing is aimed at alteration of the motility of the gastrointestinal tract in a way that will alter absorption due to alteration of transit time.In addition,data from animal models and preliminary data from human trials suggest a role for the gut-brain axis in the mechanism of GES.This may involve alteration of secretion of hormones associated with hunger or satiety.Patient selection for gastric stimulation therapy seems to be an important determinant of the treatment's outcome.Here,we review the current status,potential mechanisms of action,and possible future applications of gastric stimulation for obesity.

  18. Weight loss and retention in a commercial weight loss program and the effect of corporate partnership

    Martin, Corby K.; Talamini, Lisa; Johnson, Andrea; Hymel, Alicia M.; Khavjou, Olga

    2010-01-01

    Background No studies report if improvements to commercial weight loss programs affect retention and weight loss. Similarly, no studies report if enrolling in a program through work (with a corporate partner) affects retention and weight loss. Objectives To determine if: 1) adding evidenced-based improvements to a commercial weight loss program increased retention and weight loss, 2) enrolling in a program through work increased retention and weight loss, and 3) if increased weight loss was d...

  19. Beware of Products Promising Miracle Weight Loss

    Full Text Available ... market in October 2010 because it caused heart problems and strokes. “We’ve also found weight-loss ... from the market. FDA has issued over 30 public notifications and recalled 7 tainted weight loss products ...

  20. Beware of Products Promising Miracle Weight Loss

    Full Text Available ... Consumers Home For Consumers Consumer Updates Beware of Products Promising Miracle Weight Loss Share Tweet Linkedin Pin ... Office of Drug Evaluation. back to top Tainted Products For example, FDA has found weight-loss products ...

  1. Osteoarthritis, obesity and weight loss

    Bliddal, Henning; Leeds, A R; Christensen, Robin Daniel Kjersgaard

    2014-01-01

    Obesity is widely acknowledged as a risk factor for both the incidence and progression of osteoarthritis, and has a negative influence on outcomes. Loss of at least 10% of body weight, coupled with exercise, is recognized as a cornerstone in the management of obese patients with osteoarthritis, and...... can lead to significant improvement in symptoms, pain relief, physical function and health-related quality of life. However, questions still remain surrounding optimal management. Given the significant health, social and economic burden of osteoarthritis, especially in obese patients, it is imperative...... to advance our knowledge of osteoarthritis and obesity, and apply this to improving care and outcomes. This paper overviews what is already known about osteoarthritis and obesity, discusses current key challenges and ongoing hypotheses arising from research in these areas, and finally, postulates...

  2. Beware of Products Promising Miracle Weight Loss

    Full Text Available ... the market in October 2010 because it caused heart problems and strokes. “We’ve also found weight- ... of weight loss products, including increased blood pressure, heart palpitations (a pounding or racing heart), stroke, seizure ...

  3. Beware of Products Promising Miracle Weight Loss

    Full Text Available ... these products are intended for people at least 18 years of age who: have a body mass ... For More Information "Lose it Overnight!" - FDA YouTube Video Tainted Weight Loss Products Health Fraud Scams - Weight ...

  4. Beware of Products Promising Miracle Weight Loss

    Full Text Available ... from the market. FDA has issued over 30 public notifications and recalled 7 tainted weight loss products ... and have at least one other weight-related health condition. Moreover, if you are going to embark ...

  5. Effect of sibutramine on weight maintenance after weight loss

    James, W P; Astrup, A; Finer, Nicholas;

    2000-01-01

    Sibutramine is a tertiary amine that has been shown to induce dose-dependent weight loss and to enhance the effects of a low-calorie diet for up to a year. We did a randomised, double-blind trial to assess the usefulness of sibutramine in maintaining substantial weight loss over 2 years....

  6. Physiological adaptations to weight loss and factors favouring weight regain.

    Greenway, F L

    2015-08-01

    Obesity is a major global health problem and predisposes individuals to several comorbidities that can affect life expectancy. Interventions based on lifestyle modification (for example, improved diet and exercise) are integral components in the management of obesity. However, although weight loss can be achieved through dietary restriction and/or increased physical activity, over the long term many individuals regain weight. The aim of this article is to review the research into the processes and mechanisms that underpin weight regain after weight loss and comment on future strategies to address them. Maintenance of body weight is regulated by the interaction of a number of processes, encompassing homoeostatic, environmental and behavioural factors. In homoeostatic regulation, the hypothalamus has a central role in integrating signals regarding food intake, energy balance and body weight, while an 'obesogenic' environment and behavioural patterns exert effects on the amount and type of food intake and physical activity. The roles of other environmental factors are also now being considered, including sleep debt and iatrogenic effects of medications, many of which warrant further investigation. Unfortunately, physiological adaptations to weight loss favour weight regain. These changes include perturbations in the levels of circulating appetite-related hormones and energy homoeostasis, in addition to alterations in nutrient metabolism and subjective appetite. To maintain weight loss, individuals must adhere to behaviours that counteract physiological adaptations and other factors favouring weight regain. It is difficult to overcome physiology with behaviour. Weight loss medications and surgery change the physiology of body weight regulation and are the best chance for long-term success. An increased understanding of the physiology of weight loss and regain will underpin the development of future strategies to support overweight and obese individuals in their efforts

  7. Beware of Products Promising Miracle Weight Loss

    Full Text Available ... For Consumers Consumer Updates Beware of Products Promising Miracle Weight Loss Share Tweet Linkedin Pin it More ... New Year’s resolution, know this: many so-called “miracle” weight loss supplements and foods (including teas and ...

  8. Dietary Adherence During Weight Loss Predicts Weight Regain

    Corral, Pedro Del; Bryan, David R.; Garvey, W. Timothy; Gower, Barbara A.; Gary R. Hunter

    2010-01-01

    This study examined the relationship between previous dietary adherence during a low-calorie diet weight loss intervention and subsequent weight change during a 2-year follow-up for weight maintenance. One hundred and sixteen healthy, recently weight reduced (lost ~12 kg, BMI 22–25 kg/m2) premenopausal women were studied. Dietary adherence was assessed by doubly labeled water (DLW) and body composition change. Comparisons were made between the upper and lower tertiles for previous dietary adh...

  9. Exercise and activity for weight loss

    An active lifestyle and exercise routine, along with eating healthy foods, is the best way to lose weight. ... Calories used in exercise > calories eaten = weight loss. This means that to lose weight, the number of calories you burn by exercising needs ...

  10. Beware of Products Promising Miracle Weight Loss

    Full Text Available ... seized products, and criminally prosecuted people responsible for marketing these illegal diet products. In addition, FDA maintains an online list of tainted weight-loss products. To help ...

  11. Beware of Products Promising Miracle Weight Loss

    Full Text Available ... Many of these tainted products are imported, sold online, and heavily promoted on social media sites. Some ... illegal diet products. In addition, FDA maintains an online list of tainted weight-loss products. To help ...

  12. Beware of Products Promising Miracle Weight Loss

    Full Text Available ... are imported, sold online, and heavily promoted on social media sites. Some can also be found on ... use of weight loss products, including increased blood pressure, heart palpitations (a pounding or racing heart), stroke, ...

  13. Beware of Products Promising Miracle Weight Loss

    Full Text Available ... ingredient which is not listed as an ingredient we become especially concerned about the safety of the ... 2010 because it caused heart problems and strokes. “We’ve also found weight-loss products marketed as ...

  14. Beware of Products Promising Miracle Weight Loss

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  15. Beware of Products Promising Miracle Weight Loss

    Full Text Available ... cause serious harm, say FDA regulators. The agency has found hundreds of products that are marketed as ... back to top Tainted Products For example, FDA has found weight-loss products tainted with the prescription ...

  16. Beware of Products Promising Miracle Weight Loss

    Full Text Available ... think of as “natural” dietary supplements, such as bee pollen or Garcinia cambogia, you should be aware ... and Dietary Supplements Can Endanger Your Health Some Bee Pollen Weight Loss Products Are a Dangerous Scam ...

  17. Beware of Products Promising Miracle Weight Loss

    Full Text Available ... October 2010 because it caused heart problems and strokes. “We’ve also found weight-loss products marketed ... pressure, heart palpitations (a pounding or racing heart), stroke, seizure and death. When safety issues are suspected, ...

  18. Beware of Products Promising Miracle Weight Loss

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  19. Beware of Products Promising Miracle Weight Loss

    Full Text Available ... from the market. FDA has issued over 30 public notifications and recalled 7 tainted weight loss products ... FOIA No FEAR Act Site Map Transparency Website Policies U.S. Food and Drug Administration 10903 New Hampshire ...

  20. Beware of Products Promising Miracle Weight Loss

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  1. Weight-loss surgery and children

    ... more likely to have problems such as: Low self-esteem Poor grades in school Depression ... weight-loss surgery should receive care at an adolescent bariatric surgery center. There, a team of experts ...

  2. Beware of Products Promising Miracle Weight Loss

    Full Text Available ... active ingredients (components that make a medicine effective against a specific illness) contained in prescription drugs, unsafe ... Dietary Supplements Questions and Answers about FDA’s Initiative Against Contaminated Weight Loss Products More in Consumer Updates ...

  3. Beware of Products Promising Miracle Weight Loss

    Full Text Available ... called “miracle” weight loss supplements and foods (including teas and coffees) don’t live up to their ... Federal, State & Local Officials Consumers Health Professionals Science & Research Industry Scroll back to top Popular Content Home ...

  4. Maintained intentional weight loss reduces cardiovascular outcomes

    Caterson, I D; Finer, N; Coutinho, W;

    2012-01-01

    Aim: The Sibutramine Cardiovascular OUTcomes trial showed that sibutramine produced greater mean weight loss than placebo but increased cardiovascular morbidity but not mortality. The relationship between 12-month weight loss and subsequent cardiovascular outcomes is explored. Methods: Overweight...... randomization to first occurrence of a primary outcome event (non-fatal myocardial infarction, non-fatal stroke, resuscitated cardiac arrest or cardiovascular death). Results: For the total population, mean weight change during Lead-in Period (sibutramine) was -2.54 kg. Post-randomization, mean total weight...... change to Month 12 was -4.18 kg (sibutramine) or -1.87 kg (placebo). Degree of weight loss during Lead-in Period or through Month 12 was associated with a progressive reduction in risk for the total population in primary outcome events and cardiovascular mortality over the 5-year assessment. Although...

  5. Ventricular tachycardia induced by weight loss pills

    Pareek, Manan; Hansson, Nils Henrik; Grove, Erik Lerkevang

    2013-01-01

    A previously healthy 29-year-old man was admitted with palpitations, dizziness, and near-syncope after he had recently started taking weight loss pills purchased on the internet. The pills contained caffeine and ephedrine. An electrocardiogram and telemetry revealed multiple episodes of non......-sustained monomorphic ventricular tachycardia, which was successfully treated with amiodarone. In conclusion, unauthorized weight loss pills can be harmful. In particular, ephedrine-containing drugs carry a risk of ventricular tachycardia and should be discouraged....

  6. Beware of Products Promising Miracle Weight Loss

    Full Text Available ... seized products, and criminally prosecuted people responsible for marketing these illegal diet products. In addition, FDA maintains an online list of tainted weight-loss products. To help people with long-term weight management, FDA has approved prescription drugs such as Belviq, ...

  7. Beware of Products Promising Miracle Weight Loss

    Full Text Available ... from the market. FDA has issued over 30 public notifications and recalled 7 tainted weight loss products ... to embark on any type of weight control campaign, you should talk to your health care professional about it first, Smith says. back ...

  8. The weight loss blogosphere: an online survey of weight loss bloggers.

    Evans, Martinus; Faghri, Pouran D; Pagoto, Sherry L; Schneider, Kristin L; Waring, Molly E; Whited, Matthew C; Appelhans, Bradley M; Busch, Andrew; Coleman, Ailton S

    2016-09-01

    Blogging is a form of online journaling that has been increasingly used to document an attempt in weight loss. Despite the prevalence of weight loss bloggers, few studies have examined this population. We examined characteristics of weight loss bloggers and their blogs, including blogging habits, reasons for blogging, like and dislikes of blogging, and associations between blogging activity and weight loss. Participants (N = 194, 92.3 % female, mean age = 35) were recruited from Twitter and Facebook to complete an online survey. Participants reported an average weight loss of 42.3 pounds since starting to blog about their weight loss attempt. Blogging duration significantly predicted greater weight loss during blogging (β = -3.65, t(185) = -2.97, p = .003). Findings suggest that bloggers are generally successful with their weight loss attempt. Future research should explore what determines weight loss success/failure in bloggers and whether individuals desiring to lose weight would benefit from blogging. PMID:27528529

  9. Interleukin-15 treatment induces weight loss independent of lymphocytes.

    Nicole G Barra

    Full Text Available Obesity is a chronic inflammatory condition characterized by activation and infiltration of proinflammatory immune cells and a dysregulated production of proinflammatory cytokines. While known as a key regulator of immune natural killer (NK cell function and development, we have recently demonstrated that reduced expression of the cytokine Interleukin-15 (IL-15 is closely linked with increased body weight and adiposity in mice and humans. Previously, we and others have shown that obese individuals have lower circulating levels of IL-15 and NK cells. Lean IL-15 overexpressing (IL-15 tg mice had an accumulation in adipose NK cells compared to wildtype and NK cell deficient obese IL-15(-/- mice. Since IL-15 induces weight loss in IL-15(-/- and diet induced obese mice and has effects on various lymphocytes, the aim of this paper was to determine if lymphocytes, particularly NK cells, play a role in IL-15 mediated weight loss. Acute IL-15 treatment resulted in an increased accumulation of NK, NKT, and CD3(+ T cells in adipose tissue of B6 mice. Mice depleted of NK and NKT cells had similar weight loss comparable to controls treated with IL-15. Finally, IL-15 treatment induces significant weight loss in lymphocyte deficient RAG2(-/-γc(-/- mice independent of food intake. Fat pad cross-sections show decreased pad size with cytokine treatment is due to adipocyte shrinkage. These results clearly suggest that IL-15 mediates weight loss independent of lymphocytes.

  10. Posttraumatic Stress Disorder obesity and weight loss

    Johannessen, Kim Berg; Berntsen, Dorthe

    Posttraumatic Stress Disorder (PTSD) has frequently been found to have a significant impact on the development of obesity. Yet, while a reciprocal relationship has been found between obesity and depression, the relationship between past traumatic episodes and obesity is usually thought of as uni...... directional. The purpose of the present study was to examine whether the level of PTSD symptoms decrease as a result of weight loss in 30 obese participants during a 16 week stay at a weight loss facility. During the 16 weeks participants’ Body Mass Index (BMI) decreased significantly. Concurrently, a...... depression also declined, whereas perceived social support was stable. The fact that the level of PTSD symptoms decreases simultaneously with weight loss is an interesting and positive side effect that has not been reported previously. The findings are discussed in term of cognitive theories of PTSD....

  11. The relationship of alcohol use to weight loss in the context of behavioral weight loss treatment.

    Kase, Colleen A; Piers, Amani D; Schaumberg, Katherine; Forman, Evan M; Butryn, Meghan L

    2016-04-01

    Despite common wisdom that reducing alcohol intake will facilitate weight loss, little research has examined whether participants in behavioral weight loss treatments actually decrease their alcohol intake, or whether reduced alcohol intake relates to weight loss outcomes in this context. This study examined the relationship of alcohol use to energy intake excluding alcohol and to weight in 283 overweight and obese adults participating in a 26-session behavioral weight loss treatment. The majority of participants consumed low to moderate levels of alcohol at baseline. Participants who consumed alcohol at baseline meaningfully reduced their alcohol intake by end-of-treatment. Alcohol use did not relate to weight at baseline or end-of-treatment when controlling for relevant demographic variables, and change in alcohol use was unrelated to weight change in the overall sample during treatment. However, end-of-treatment alcohol intake did relate to end-of-treatment energy intake excluding alcohol. In addition, behavioral impulsivity and change in alcohol intake interacted to predict weight loss, such that decreases in alcohol intake were associated with greater percent weight loss at end-of-treatment for participants with higher levels of impulsivity. Alcohol consumption may lead to overeating episodes, and highly impulsive individuals may be at risk for increased energy intake during or after episodes of drinking. Therefore, the recommendation to reduce alcohol intake in the context of behavioral weight loss treatment seems warranted, particularly for individuals with high levels of impulsivity. PMID:26792773

  12. Obesity, growth hormone and weight loss

    Rasmussen, Michael Højby

    2009-01-01

    particular results in a secondary reduction in GH secretion and subnormal insulin-like growth factor-I (IGF-I) levels. The recovery of the GH IGF-I axis after weight loss suggest an acquired defect, however, the pathophysiologic role of GH in obesity is yet to be fully understood. In clinical studies...... examining the efficacy of GH in obese subjects very little or no effect are observed with respect to weight loss, whereas GH seems to reduce total and abdominal fat mass in obese subjects. The observed reductions in abdominal fat mass are modest and similar to what can be achieved by diet or exercise...

  13. Posttraumatic Stress Disorder, obesity, and weight loss

    Johannessen, Kim Berg; Berntsen, Dorthe

    Posttraumatic Stress Disorder (PTSD) has frequently been found to have an impact on the development of obesity, with the relationship between past traumatic episodes and obesity usually thought of as uni-directional. The purpose of the present study was to examine whether the level of PTSD......-symptoms would decrease as a result of weight loss in obese participants during a 16 week stay at a weight loss facility. During the 16 weeks participants’ Body Mass Index (BMI) decreased significantly. Concurrently, a significant decline in the level of PTSD symptoms was also reported. During the first week of...

  14. Who succeeds in maintaining weight loss? A conceptual review of factors associated with weight loss maintenance and weight regain.

    Elfhag, K; Rössner, S

    2005-02-01

    Weight loss is difficult to achieve and maintaining the weight loss is an even greater challenge. The identification of factors associated with weight loss maintenance can enhance our understanding for the behaviours and prerequisites that are crucial in sustaining a lowered body weight. In this paper we have reviewed the literature on factors associated with weight loss maintenance and weight regain. We have used a definition of weight maintenance implying intentional weight loss that has subsequently been maintained for at least 6 months. According to our review, successful weight maintenance is associated with more initial weight loss, reaching a self-determined goal weight, having a physically active lifestyle, a regular meal rhythm including breakfast and healthier eating, control of over-eating and self-monitoring of behaviours. Weight maintenance is further associated with an internal motivation to lose weight, social support, better coping strategies and ability to handle life stress, self-efficacy, autonomy, assuming responsibility in life, and overall more psychological strength and stability. Factors that may pose a risk for weight regain include a history of weight cycling, disinhibited eating, binge eating, more hunger, eating in response to negative emotions and stress, and more passive reactions to problems. PMID:15655039

  15. Beware of Products Promising Miracle Weight Loss

    Full Text Available ... Updates Don't Be Fooled By Health Fraud Scams Mixing Medications and Dietary Supplements Can Endanger Your ... Bee Pollen Weight Loss Products Are a Dangerous Scam 6 Tip-offs to Rip-offs: Don't ...

  16. Beware of Products Promising Miracle Weight Loss

    Full Text Available ... received numerous reports of harm associated with the use of weight loss products, including increased blood pressure, ... for example, “lose 10 pounds in one week.” use of the words “guaranteed” or “scientific breakthrough.” products ...

  17. Beware of Products Promising Miracle Weight Loss

    Full Text Available ... Scams For More Information "Lose it Overnight!" - FDA YouTube Video Tainted Weight Loss Products Health Fraud Scams - ... Follow FDA on Facebook View FDA videos on YouTube View FDA photos on Flickr FDA Archive Combination ...

  18. Beware of Products Promising Miracle Weight Loss

    Full Text Available ... Promising Miracle Weight Loss Share Tweet Linkedin Pin it More sharing options Linkedin Pin it Email Print Get Consumer Updates by E-mail ... removed from the market in October 2010 because it caused heart problems and strokes. “We’ve also ...

  19. Brain function predictors and outcome of weight loss and weight loss maintenance.

    Szabo-Reed, Amanda N; Breslin, Florence J; Lynch, Anthony M; Patrician, Trisha M; Martin, Laura E; Lepping, Rebecca J; Powell, Joshua N; Yeh, Hung-Wen Henry; Befort, Christie A; Sullivan, Debra; Gibson, Cheryl; Washburn, Richard; Donnelly, Joseph E; Savage, Cary R

    2015-01-01

    Obesity rates are associated with public health consequences and rising health care costs. Weight loss interventions, while effective, do not work for everyone, and weight regain is a significant problem. Eating behavior is influenced by a convergence of processes in the brain, including homeostatic factors and motivational processing that are important contributors to overeating. Initial neuroimaging studies have identified brain regions that respond differently to visual food cues in obese and healthy weight individuals that are positively correlated with reports of hunger in obese participants. While these findings provide mechanisms of overeating, many important questions remain. It is not known whether brain activation patterns change after weight loss, or if they change differentially based on amount of weight lost. Also, little is understood regarding biological processes that contribute to long-term weight maintenance. This study will use neuroimaging in participants while viewing food and non-food images. Functional Magnetic Resonance Imaging will take place before and after completion of a twelve-week weight loss intervention. Obese participants will be followed though a 6-month maintenance period. The study will address three aims: 1. Characterize brain activation underlying food motivation and impulsive behaviors in obese individuals. 2. Identify brain activation changes and predictors of weight loss. 3. Identify brain activation predictors of weight loss maintenance. Findings from this study will have implications for understanding mechanisms of obesity, weight loss, and weight maintenance. Results will be significant to public health and could lead to a better understanding of how differences in brain activation relate to obesity. PMID:25533729

  20. Brain function predictors and outcome of weight loss and weight loss maintenance

    Szabo-Reed, Amanda N.; Breslin, Florence J.; Lynch, Anthony M.; Patrician, Trisha M.; Martin, Laura E.; Lepping, Rebecca J.; Powell, Joshua N.; Yeh, Hung-Wen (Henry); Befort, Christie A.; Sullivan, Debra; Gibson, Cheryl; Washburn, Richard; Donnelly, Joseph E.; Savage, Cary R.

    2015-01-01

    Obesity rates are associated with public health consequences and rising health care costs. Weight loss interventions, while effective, do not work for everyone, and weight regain is a significant problem. Eating behavior is influenced by a convergence of processes in the brain, including homeostatic factors and motivational processing that are important contributors to overeating. Initial neuroimaging studies have identified brain regions that respond differently to visual food cues in obese and healthy weight individuals that are positively correlated with reports of hunger in obese participants. While these findings provide mechanisms of overeating, many important questions remain. It is not known whether brain activation patterns change after weight loss, or if they change differentially based on amount of weight lost. Also, little is understood regarding biological processes that contribute to long-term weight maintenance. This study will use neuroimaging in participants while viewing food and non-food images. Functional Magnetic Resonance Imaging will take place before and after completion of a twelve-week weight loss intervention. Obese participants will be followed though a 6-month maintenance period. The study will address three aims: 1. Characterize brain activation underlying food motivation and impulsive behaviors in obese individuals. 2. Identify brain activation changes and predictors of weight loss. 3. Identify brain activation predictors of weight loss maintenance. Findings from this study will have implications for understanding mechanisms of obesity, weight loss, and weight maintenance. Results will be significant to public health and could lead to a better understanding of how differences in brain activation relate to obesity. PMID:25533729

  1. Adherence to a behavioral weight loss treatment program enhances weight loss and improvements in biomarkers

    Sushama D Acharya; Elci, Okan U.; Sereika, Susan M.; Music, Edvin; Styn, Mindi A.; Turk, Melanie Warziski; Burke, Lora E

    2009-01-01

    Objectives: To describe participants’ adherence to multiple components (attendance, energy intake, fat gram, exercise goals, and self-monitoring eating and exercise behaviors) of a standard behavioral treatment program (SBT) for weight loss and how adherence to these components may influence weight loss and biomarkers (triglycerides, low density lipoproteins [LDL], high density lipoprotein, and insulin) during the intensive and less-intensive intervention phases. Methods: A secondary analysis...

  2. Augmentation-Mastopexy after Massive Weight Loss

    ILya V. Sergeev

    2016-03-01

    Full Text Available This paper presents an assessment of the results of mastopexy surgery carried out by using the technique of autologous breast enlargement axillary lateral flap, which the authors developed for patients who have suffered a decline in breast volume, as a result of massive weight loss after bariatric surgery. The mastopexy was carried out by the improved method with preliminary Doppler ultrasound of the perforating branches of intercostal arteries in women after a significant reduction in body weight. This method provides a good aesthetic result with the correct position of the nipple and a satisfactory volume of the breast and with a simultaneous removal of excessive skin flaps and excess fat in the anterolateral area of the chest.

  3. Using personality as a predictor of diet induced weight loss and weight management

    Munro Irene A; Bore Miles R; Munro Don; Garg Manohar L

    2011-01-01

    Abstract Background A major challenge for successful weight management is tailoring weight loss programs to individual needs. The aim of this study was to investigate whether personality traits could be used to match individuals to a compatible weight loss program that would maximize weight loss. Method Two different weight loss trials were conducted, both with a weight loss greater than 5% the measure of success. Fifty-four individuals, BMI 30-40 kg/m2, either followed a slow, healthy eating...

  4. Diffusion-weighted imaging in acute stroke

    Diffusion-weighted imaging (DWI) enables the early detection of acute ischemic stroke and with high sensitivity and specificity. The signal changes are based on decreased diffusion of water molecules that is caused by cytotoxic edema. Despite the possibility of early detection of ischemic changes magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) is not normally necessary for the therapy decision; however, under some conditions, such as unknown time from onset of symptoms, multiparametric MRI including DWI can provide useful information that will influence the therapy. (orig.)

  5. Adherence to a behavioral weight loss treatment program enhances weight loss and improvements in biomarkers

    Sushama D Acharya

    2009-06-01

    Full Text Available Sushama D Acharya3, Okan U Elci3, Susan M Sereika1,2,3, Edvin Music3, Mindi A Styn3, Melanie Warziski Turk3, Lora E Burke2,31Department of Biostatistics, Graduate School of Public Health, 2Department of Epidemiology, Graduate School of Public Health, 3School of Nursing, University of Pittsburgh, Pittsburgh, PA, USAObjectives: To describe participants’ adherence to multiple components (attendance, energy intake, fat gram, exercise goals, and self-monitoring eating and exercise behaviors of a standard behavioral treatment program (SBT for weight loss and how adherence to these components may influence weight loss and biomarkers (triglycerides, low density lipoproteins [LDL], high density lipoprotein, and insulin during the intensive and less-intensive intervention phases. Methods: A secondary analysis of a randomized clinical trial consisting of a SBT with either fat-restricted standard or lacto-ovo vegetarian diet. The 12-month intervention was delivered in 33 group sessions. The first six months reflected the intensive phase; the second six months, the less-intensive intervention phase. We conducted the analysis without regard to treatment assignment. Eligible participants included overweight/obese adults (N = 176; mean body mass index = 34.0 kg/m2. The sample was 86.9% female, 70.5% White, and 44.4 ± 8.6 years old. The outcome measures included weight and biomarkers. Results: There was a significant decline in adherence to each treatment component over time (P < 0.0001. In the first six months, adherence to attendance, self-monitoring and the energy goal were significantly associated with greater weight loss (P < 0.05. Adherence to attendance and exercise remained significantly associated with weight loss in the second six months (P < 0.05. Adherence to attendance, self-monitoring and exercise had indirect effects through weight loss on LDL, triglycerides, and insulin (P < 0.05.Conclusions: We observed a decline in adherence to each

  6. Weight Loss Surgery May Boost Good Cholesterol in Obese Boys

    ... or federal policy. More Health News on: Cholesterol Obesity in Children Weight Loss Surgery Recent Health News Related MedlinePlus Health Topics Cholesterol Obesity in Children Weight Loss Surgery About MedlinePlus Site Map FAQs ...

  7. Eating behaviors as predictors of weight loss in a 6 month worksite weight loss intervention

    The eating behaviors restraint and disinhibition have been suggested to predict weight loss (WL) but there is no information on whether these predictors are valid in worksite WL programs, which are increasingly being recommended for reducing the obesity epidemic. This study examined associations bet...

  8. Patterns of weight loss and supplement consumption of male wrestlers in Tehran

    Kordi Ramin

    2011-02-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background To evaluate the weight loss behavior of male wrestlers in Tehran Methods This study was a population-based cross sectional survey. Subjects were 436 wrestlers randomly selected from the wrestling clubs in Tehran employing cluster sample setting method. Subjects were interviewed based on a designed questionnaire. Body fat levels were measured based on skin fold measurements. Results Weight loss methods practiced by 62% of all subjects during the previous year employing rapid (≤7 days before the matches and gradual (>7 days before the matches weight reduction methods (73% and 34% of wrestlers who reduced their weight respectively. In addition, opinions on weight reduction, the methods of weight loss used, and the side effects of the weight loss practices as well as consumption of supplements among the subjects were reported in this study. The mean percentage of body fat of subjects was 15.9%. Conclusions Rapid weight loss for matches and the use of unsafe methods of weight reduction such as fasting, and fluid reduction methods as well as acute side effects of weight loss were prevalent among wrestlers in Tehran. Some preventive measures including education and new rules such as scheduling weigh-ins immediately prior to the competitions and mat-side weigh-in are needed to prevent these unhealthy practices. The weight loss behaviors of these wrestlers should be changed from using dehydration methods to using gradual methods of weight loss.

  9. Weight loss and skin manifestations in obese patients with psoriasis

    Geiker, Nina Rica Wium; Jensen, Peter; Kirchner Larsson, Lena;

    2010-01-01

    Objective To examine if psoriatic patients can achieve a weight loss to the same extent as non-psoriatic patients To describe the effect of weight loss on the cutaneous manifestations. Conclusion Patients with psoriasis achieved a weight loss, similar to non-psoriatic patients, of 12 % of their...

  10. Acute effect of weight loss on levels of total bilirubin in obese, cardiovascular high-risk patients: an analysis from the lead-in period of the Sibutramine Cardiovascular Outcome trial

    Andersson, Charlotte; Weeke, Peter; Fosbøl, Emil Loldrup;

    2009-01-01

    Low levels of bilirubin are associated with an increased risk of cardiovascular adverse events. Weight reduction is known to reduce several cardiovascular risk factors, but effects on bilirubin levels have not been reported. We studied the response of weight loss therapy with sibutramine and life...

  11. Promoting weight loss methods in parenting magazines: Implications for women.

    Basch, Corey H; Roberts, Katherine J; Samayoa-Kozlowsky, Sandra; Glaser, Debra B

    2016-01-01

    Weight gain before and after pregnancy is important for women's health. The purpose of this study was to assess articles and advertisements related to weight loss in three widely read parenting magazines, "Parenting School Years," "Parenting Early Years," and "Parenting," which have an estimated combined readership of approximately 24 million (mainly women readers). Almost a quarter (23.7%, n = 32) of the 135 magazine issues over a four year period included at least one feature article on weight loss. A variety of topics were covered in the featured articles, with the most frequent topics being on losing weight to please yourself (25.2%), healthy ways to lose weight (21.1%), and how to keep the weight off (14.7%). Less than half (45.9%) of the articles displayed author credentials, such as their degree, qualifications, or expertise. A fifth (20.0%, n = 27) of the magazines included at least one prominent advertisement for weight loss products. Almost half (46.9%) of the weight loss advertisements were for weight loss programs followed by weight loss food products (25.0%), weight loss aids (21.9%), and only 6.2% of the advertisements for weight loss were on fitness. Parenting magazines should advocate for healthy weight loss, including lifestyle changes for sustained health. PMID:26212259

  12. A Dietary Quality Comparison of Popular Weight-Loss Plans

    MA, Yunsheng; Pagoto, Sherry L.; Griffith, Jennifer A.; Merriam, Philip A.; Ockene, Ira S.; Hafner, Andrea R.; Olendzki, Barbara C.

    2007-01-01

    Popular weight-loss plans often have conflicting recommendations, which makes it difficult to determine the most healthful approach to weight loss. Our study compares the dietary quality of popular weight-loss plans. Dietary quality, measured by the Alternate Healthy Eating Index (AHEI), was calculated via sample menus provided in published media for the New Glucose Revolution, Weight Watchers, Atkins, South Beach, Zone, Ornish, and 2005 US Department of Agriculture Food Guide Pyramid (2005 F...

  13. Weight loss maintenance: A review on dietary related strategies

    Fatemeh Azizi Soeliman; Leila Azadbakht

    2014-01-01

    Background: Weight regain after weight loss is a common problem for all those obese or overweight who have had a recent weight loss. Different cures such as diet therapy, behavioral therapy, exercise or a mixture of them have been advised as solutions. The purpose of this review is to find the best diet or eating pattern to maintain a recent weight loss. Materials and Methods: We searched in PubMed and SCOPUS by using the following key words: Overweight, obesity, weight maintenance, weight re...

  14. Using personality as a predictor of diet induced weight loss and weight management

    Munro Irene A

    2011-11-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background A major challenge for successful weight management is tailoring weight loss programs to individual needs. The aim of this study was to investigate whether personality traits could be used to match individuals to a compatible weight loss program that would maximize weight loss. Method Two different weight loss trials were conducted, both with a weight loss greater than 5% the measure of success. Fifty-four individuals, BMI 30-40 kg/m2, either followed a slow, healthy eating weight loss diet (HEWLD of 5000-6000 kJ/day for 12 weeks (n = 22, or a fast, very low energy diet (VLED of 3000 kJ/day for 4 weeks (n = 32. Anthropometric measurements were recorded at baseline, at the end of the weight loss period and, for VLED, at the end of 10 weeks of weight maintenance. Personality traits were measured at baseline using the Tangney Self Control Scale plus 3 of the scales from the Five Factor Model - Neuroticism, Conscientiousness and Extraversion. Results The percentage weight loss was significantly greater in VLED (-7.38% compared to HEWLD (-4.11%, (p Conclusion The personality factor, Neuroticism, was linked to successful weight loss (that is ≥ 5% with a particular weight loss treatment, suggesting that there is a potential to use measures of personality to identify appropriate weight loss/management strategies for individuals. Trial registration Australia and New Zealand Clinical Trials Register (ANZCTR: ACTRN12611000716965

  15. Ain’t no mountain high enough? Setting high weight loss goals predicts effort and short-term weight loss

    Vet, de E.; Nelissen, R.M.A.; Zeelenberg, M.; Ridder, de D.T.D.

    2013-01-01

    Although psychological theories outline that it might be beneficial to set more challenging goals, people attempting to lose weight are generally recommended to set modest weight loss goals. The present study explores whether the amount of weight loss individuals strive for is associated with more p

  16. Initial weight loss on an 800-kcal diet as a predictor of weight loss success after 8 weeks

    Handjieva-Darlenska, T.; Handjiev, S.; Larsen, Thomas Meinert;

    2010-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to investigate whether pre-treatment subject characteristics and weight change during the first weeks of a low-calorie diet (LCD) can predict weight loss outcomes at the end of a controlled 8-week weight loss period in overweight and obese adults....

  17. Advances in Weight Loss Surgery: The Fully Robotic Gastric Bypass

    Full Text Available ... the patients will stop losing weight at about 18 months, about a year-and-a-half after ... loss. So most patients, by the time it’s 18 months, they have lost most of the weight ...

  18. Physiological Response of Adipocytes to Weight Loss and Maintenance

    Verhoef, Sanne P. M.; Camps, Stefan G. J. A.; Bouwman, Freek G.; Mariman, Edwin C. M.; Westerterp, Klaas R.

    2013-01-01

    Background Metabolic processes in adipose tissue are dysregulated in obese subjects and, in response to weight loss, either normalize or change in favor of weight regain. Objective To determine changes in adipocyte glucose and fatty acid metabolism in relation to changes in adipocyte size during weight loss and maintenance. Methods Twenty-eight healthy subjects (12 males), age 20–50 y, and BMI 28–35 kg/m2, followed a very low energy diet for 2 months, followed by a 10-month period of weight maintenance. Body weight, body composition (deuterium dilution and BodPod), protein levels (Western blot) and adipocyte size were assessed prior to and after weight loss and after the 10-month follow-up. Results A 10% weight loss resulted in a 16% decrease in adipocyte size. A marker for glycolysis decreased (AldoC) during weight loss in association with adipocyte shrinking, and remained decreased during follow-up in association with weight maintenance. A marker for fatty acid transport increased (FABP4) during weight loss and remained increased during follow-up. Markers for mitochondrial beta-oxidation (HADHsc) and lipolysis (ATGL) were only increased after the 10-month follow-up. During weight loss HADHsc and ATGL were coordinately regulated, which became weaker during follow-up due to adipocyte size-related changes in HADHsc expression. AldoC was the major denominator of adipocyte size and body weight, whereas changes in ATGL during weight loss contributed to body weight during follow-up. Upregulation of ATGL and HADHsc occured in the absence of a negative energy balance and was triggered by adipocyte shrinkage or indicated preadipocyte differentiation. Conclusion Markers for adipocyte glucose and fatty acid metabolism are changed in response to weight loss in line with normalization from a dysregulated obese status to an improved metabolic status. Trial Registration ClinicalTrials.gov NCT01015508 PMID:23505452

  19. Revisiting leptin’s role in obesity and weight loss

    Ahima, Rexford S.

    2008-01-01

    Maintenance of weight loss is often unsuccessful because of metabolic adaptations that conserve energy. Studies in rodents suggest that a reduction in leptin level during weight loss signals to the brain to increase feeding and decrease energy expenditure. In this issue of the JCI, Rosenbaum et al. examined this concept in obese patients who lost weight and were maintained at 10% below their initial weight (see the related article beginning on page 2583). Brain activity responses to visual fo...

  20. Office management of weight loss in older persons.

    Rolland, Yves; Kim, Moon-Jong; Gammack, Julie K; Wilson, Margaret-Mary G; Thomas, David R; Morley, John E

    2006-12-01

    Weight loss in older persons is associated with a variety of deleterious effects, including hip fracture, pressure ulcers, decreasing immune function, decreased functional status, and death. There are 4 major causes of weight loss: anorexia, sarcopenia, cachexia, and dehydration. Many of the reasons for the development of these conditions are treatable. For example, depression is the most common cause of weight loss in the elderly. Early screening for anorexia can be undertaken in the physician's office utilizing the Simplified Nutritional Assessment Questionnaire. An algorithmic approach to the office management of weight loss is provided. PMID:17145241

  1. Beware of Products Promising Miracle Weight Loss

    Full Text Available ... Know the Warning Signs Advice for Consumers “This year, I’m going to lose some weight.” If you find yourself making this common New Year’s resolution, know this: many so-called “miracle” weight ...

  2. Does job loss make you smoke and gain weight?

    Marcus, Jan

    2012-01-01

    This paper estimates the effect of involuntary job loss on smoking behavior and body weight using German Socio-Economic Panel Study data. Baseline nonsmokers are more likely to start smoking due to job loss, while smokers do not intensify their smoking. Job loss increases body weight slightly, but significantly. In particular, single individuals as well as those with lower health or socioeconomic status prior to job loss exhibit high rates of smoking initiation. The applied regression-adjuste...

  3. Longitudinal Analysis of Leptin Variation during Weight Regain after Weight Loss in Obese Children

    Jens-Christian, Holm; Michael, Gamborg; Leigh, Ward;

    2009-01-01

    Objective: This study assessed if lower than predicted serum leptin concentrations seen during weight loss persisted during weight regain, with possible implications for weight control. Methods: 115 children were investigated during a 12-week weight loss program. 90 children completed the program....... Results: Children with the greatest increases in BMI standard deviation score (SDS) exhibited the largest leptin increments. The disproportionate reduction of leptin seen during weight loss recovered after weight loss. Leptin increases mirrored increases in BMI SDS during weight regain, and the leptin......-BMI SDS relationship seen during follow-up resembled the baseline leptin-BMI SDS relationship. Conclusion: Proportional increases of leptin and BMI SDS during weight regain suggests an intact leptin response during re-accumulation of fat. Following the pronounced reduction of leptin during weight loss...

  4. Weight loss maintenance: A review on dietary related strategies

    Fatemeh Azizi Soeliman

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Background: Weight regain after weight loss is a common problem for all those obese or overweight who have had a recent weight loss. Different cures such as diet therapy, behavioral therapy, exercise or a mixture of them have been advised as solutions. The purpose of this review is to find the best diet or eating pattern to maintain a recent weight loss. Materials and Methods: We searched in PubMed and SCOPUS by using the following key words: Overweight, obesity, weight maintenance, weight regain, and diet therapy. Finally, we assessed 26 articles in the present article. Results: Meal replacement, low carbohydrate-low glycemic index (GI diet, high protein intake, and moderate fat consumption have shown some positive effects on weight maintenance. However, the results are controversial. A Dietary Approach to Stop Hypertension (DASH-type diet seems helpful for weight maintenance although the need for more study has remained. Some special behaviors were associated with less weight regain, such as, not being awake late at night, drinking lower amount of sugar-sweetened beverages, and following a healthy pattern. Some special foods have been suggested for weight maintenance. However, the roles of specific foods are not confirmed. Conclusion: Healthy diets recommend low carbohydrate, low GI, and moderate fat foods, but it is not clear whether they are useful in preventing weight gain. It seems that consuming fewer calories helps people to keep weight loss. Further research to find strategies in obesity management focusing on successful maintenance of weight loss is needed.

  5. Beware of Products Promising Miracle Weight Loss

    Full Text Available ... only be used under the supervision of a health care professional. Many of these tainted products are imported, ... weight control campaign, you should talk to your health care professional about it first, Smith says. back to ...

  6. Weight-Loss and Nutrition Myths

    ... Research Training & Career Development Grant programs for students, postdocs, and faculty Research at NIDDK Labs, faculty, and ... diabetes, digestive and liver diseases, kidney diseases, weight control and nutrition, urologic diseases, endocrine and metabolic diseases, ...

  7. Life after weight-loss surgery

    ... expected friends and family would treat you differently after you lost weight. You hoped the sad or nervous ... are eating, and for 60 minutes before or after you eat. Having liquid in your pouch will wash ...

  8. Beware of Products Promising Miracle Weight Loss

    Full Text Available ... is safe, Humbert says. FDA has received numerous reports of harm associated with the use of weight ... online may be tainted, FDA urges you to report that information online . You or your health care ...

  9. Beware of Products Promising Miracle Weight Loss

    Full Text Available ... products. To help people with long-term weight management, FDA has approved prescription drugs such as Belviq, ... Emergency Preparedness International Programs News & Events Training & Continuing Education Inspections & Compliance Federal, State & Local Officials Consumers Health ...

  10. Beware of Products Promising Miracle Weight Loss

    Full Text Available ... t Fall for Health Fraud Scams For More Information "Lose it Overnight!" - FDA YouTube Video Tainted Weight ... 04/2015 Note: If you need help accessing information in different file formats, see Instructions for Downloading ...

  11. Herbal remedies and supplements for weight loss

    ... loss properties contain some combination of these ingredients: Aloe vera Aspartate Chromium Coenzyme Q10 DHEA derivatives EPA-rich fish oil Green tea Hydroxycitrate L-carnitine Pantethine Pyruvate ...

  12. Physiological weight loss in newborn puppies of Boxer breed

    Enrico Bigliardi

    2013-10-01

    Full Text Available In the first days after birth is common to see weight loss in puppies that should not exceed 10% of body weight at birth. The main causes of weight loss are urine and meconium issued followed by non-recovery of fluids expelled. The aims of the study were to check and outline growth curves in boxer breed during the first two week of life. In our study between 3th and 5th day after birth puppies retrieved the weight and got back a gain that leads to double in two weeks. We observed a mean weight loss of 11.26 g (2.27% between the first two days of life, subsequently they recovered the birth weight on day four. In our study puppies that regained the birth weight earlier were the puppies with higher weight at birth and were the heaviest at day 13.

  13. How Adolescent Girls Interpret Weight-Loss Advertising

    Hobbs, Renee; Broder, Sharon; Pope, Holly; Rowe, Jonelle

    2006-01-01

    While they demonstrate some ability to critically analyze the more obvious forms of deceptive weight-loss advertising, many girls do not recognize how advertising evokes emotional responses or how visual and narrative techniques are used to increase identification in weight-loss advertising. This study examined how girls aged 9-17 years…

  14. Complications following body contouring surgery after massive weight loss

    Hasanbegovic, Emir; Sørensen, Jens Ahm

    2014-01-01

    Bariatric surgery is a way to achieve lasting weight loss in the obese. Body contouring surgery seeks to alleviate some of the discomfort caused by the excessive loose skin following massive weight loss. Higher complication rates are described in this type of surgery when done post-bariatric. The...... purpose of this article is to compare complication rates of body contouring surgery when performed on patients with weight loss due to bariatric surgery compared to patients who lost weight due to dietary changes and/or exercise....

  15. Mandatory weight loss during the wait for bariatric surgery.

    Glenn, Nicole M; Raine, Kim D; Spence, John C

    2015-01-01

    Mandatory presurgical, behavior-induced weight loss, although not standard, is a relatively common practice among bariatric surgical clinics. We explore the patient's experience of this practice using phenomenology. We gathered experiential accounts from 7 individuals waiting to have the procedure at a large publically funded clinic in western Canada. In writing this article, we focused on four phenomenological themes: "just nod your head and carry on"-silencing through the ideal; waiting and weighing-promoting weight consciousness to the weight conscious; paying for surgical approval through weight loss; and presurgical weight loss and questioning the need for weight loss surgery altogether. We contrast the experiential findings with the clinical literature to question the impact and possible (unintended or unexpected) effects the practice might have, particularly on patients' lives. We situate this article within a larger discussion about the possible contribution of experiential knowledge to clinical guidelines, practices, and pedagogies. PMID:25185162

  16. Beware of Products Promising Miracle Weight Loss

    Full Text Available ... going to lose some weight.” If you find yourself making this common New Year’s resolution, know this: ... need in addition to your regular diet. ask yourself if it sounds too good to be true. ...

  17. Beware of Products Promising Miracle Weight Loss

    Full Text Available ... about to take what you think of as “natural” dietary supplements, such as bee pollen or Garcinia ... active ingredients contained in prescription drugs. “The only natural way to lose weight is to burn more ...

  18. Beware of Products Promising Miracle Weight Loss

    Full Text Available ... Feed Download PDF (245 K) En Español On this page: Tainted Products Dietary Supplements are not FDA-Approved Know the Warning Signs Advice for Consumers “This year, I’m going to lose some weight.” ...

  19. Beware of Products Promising Miracle Weight Loss

    Full Text Available ... contained triamterene, a powerful diuretic (sometimes known as “water pills”) that can have serious side-effects and ... products. To help people with long-term weight management, FDA has approved prescription drugs such as Belviq, ...

  20. Beware of Products Promising Miracle Weight Loss

    Full Text Available ... weight.” If you find yourself making this common New Year’s resolution, know this: many so-called “miracle” ... Website Policies U.S. Food and Drug Administration 10903 New Hampshire Avenue Silver Spring, MD 20993 1-888- ...

  1. Beware of Products Promising Miracle Weight Loss

    Full Text Available ... products. To help people with long-term weight management, FDA has approved prescription drugs such as Belviq, ... one week.” use of the words “guaranteed” or “scientific breakthrough.” products marketed in a foreign language. products ...

  2. Beware of Products Promising Miracle Weight Loss

    Full Text Available ... and antidepressants,” says Jason Humbert, a senior regulatory manager at FDA. Most recently, FDA has found a ... ingredients contained in prescription drugs. “The only natural way to lose weight is to burn more calories ...

  3. Losing weights: Failure to recognize and act on weight loss documented in an electronic health record

    Robert El-Kareh

    2015-08-01

    Full Text Available Background: Involuntary weight loss is associated with higher mortality.  When this weight loss is unrecognized, opportunities for timely diagnosis of significant conditions may be missed.  Objective:To use electronic health record (EHR data to estimate the frequency of unrecognized involuntary weight loss and its implications. Methods: We performed a retrospective analysis of the weights recorded in an EHR of 100,000 adult patients seen in outpatient clinics over a five-year period using a novel data visualization and review tool.  We reviewed charts of a random sample of 170 patients experiencing weight loss periods.   Our outcomes included determinations of whether weight loss 1 was voluntary vs. involuntary; 2 was recognized and documented; and 3 possible explanations identifiable at the index visit or within the subsequent two years.  Results: Of 170 randomly-selected weight loss periods reviewed, 22 (13% were involuntary, 36 (21% were voluntary and 112 (66% were indeterminate.  Sixty-six (39% weight loss periods were recognized by clinician at the index visits and an additional 3 (1% at the next PCP visits.  Possible explanations for weight loss emerged in the subsequent two years including medical conditions in 60 (45%, psycho-social conditions in 19 (14%, erroneous data entry in 9 (7%, voluntary weight loss in 8 (6%,  and postpartum weight loss in 6 (4%.   No possible explanations were found in 32 (24%.   Conclusions:Periods of weight loss were common, often involuntary and frequently not recognized or documented.  Many patients with involuntary weight loss had potential explanations that emerged within the subsequent two years.

  4. Beware of Products Promising Miracle Weight Loss

    Full Text Available ... to an FDA-approved drug or as having effects similar to prescription drugs. back to top Advice for Consumers Generally, if ... Loss Products More in Consumer Updates Animal & ... Supplements Drugs Food Medical Devices Nutrition Radiation-Emitting Products Tobacco ...

  5. Significant weight loss in breastfed term infants readmitted for hyperbilirubinemia

    De-Villegas Carlos A

    2009-12-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Weight loss of greater than 7% from birth weight indicates possible feeding problems. Inadequate oral intake causes weight loss and increases the bilirubin enterohepatic circulation. The objective of this study was to describe the association between total serum bilirubin (TSB levels and weight loss in healthy term infants readmitted for hyperbilirubinemia after birth hospitalization. Methods We reviewed medical records of breastfed term infants who received phototherapy according to TSB levels readmitted to Caja Petrolera de Salud Clinic in La Paz, Bolivia during January 2005 through October 2008. Results Seventy-nine infants were studied (64.6% were males. The hyperbilirubinemia readmission rate was 5% among breastfed infants. Term infants were readmitted at a median age of 4 days. Mean TSB level was 18.6 ± 3 mg/dL. Thirty (38% had significant weight loss. A weak correlation between TSB levels and percent of weight loss was identified (r = 0.20; p 20 mg/dL was notably higher among infants with significant weight loss (46.7% vs. 18.4%; p Conclusions Significant weight loss could be a useful parameter to identify breastfed term infants at risk of severe hyperbilirubinemia either during birth hospitalization or outpatient follow-up visits in settings where routine pre-discharge TSB levels have not been implemented yet.

  6. Physiogenomic analysis of weight loss induced by dietary carbohydrate restriction

    Wood Richard J

    2006-05-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Diets that restrict carbohydrate (CHO have proven to be a successful dietary treatment of obesity for many people, but the degree of weight loss varies across individuals. The extent to which genetic factors associate with the magnitude of weight loss induced by CHO restriction is unknown. We examined associations among polymorphisms in candidate genes and weight loss in order to understand the physiological factors influencing body weight responses to CHO restriction. Methods We screened for genetic associations with weight loss in 86 healthy adults who were instructed to restrict CHO to a level that induced a small level of ketosis (CHO ~10% of total energy. A total of 27 single nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs were selected from 15 candidate genes involved in fat digestion/metabolism, intracellular glucose metabolism, lipoprotein remodeling, and appetite regulation. Multiple linear regression was used to rank the SNPs according to probability of association, and the most significant associations were analyzed in greater detail. Results Mean weight loss was 6.4 kg. SNPs in the gastric lipase (LIPF, hepatic glycogen synthase (GYS2, cholesteryl ester transfer protein (CETP and galanin (GAL genes were significantly associated with weight loss. Conclusion A strong association between weight loss induced by dietary CHO restriction and variability in genes regulating fat digestion, hepatic glucose metabolism, intravascular lipoprotein remodeling, and appetite were detected. These discoveries could provide clues to important physiologic adaptations underlying the body mass response to CHO restriction.

  7. Weight loss and African-American women: a systematic review of the behavioural weight loss intervention literature

    The excess burden of obesity among black women is well-documented. The weight loss intervention literature often does not report results by ethnic group or gender; therefore, the purpose of this article was to conduct a systematic review of all weight loss intervention trials published between 1990 ...

  8. Behavior Change Strategies for Successful Long-Term Weight Loss: Focusing on Dietary and Physical Activity Adherence, Not Weight Loss

    Hongu, Nobuko; Kataura, Martha P.; Block, Linda M.

    2011-01-01

    This article helps Extension professionals guide individuals in a successful long-term weight loss program. A program should focus on behavioral changes (improving eating habits and physical activity), not just weight loss. In order to do this, Extension professionals should implement behavior change strategies that motivate individuals to…

  9. Longitudinal Analysis of Leptin Variation during Weight Regain after Weight Loss in Obese Children

    Holm, Jens-Christian; Gamborg, Michael; Ward, Leigh;

    2009-01-01

    Objective: This study assessed if lower than predicted serum leptin concentrations seen during weight loss persisted during weight regain, with possible implications for weight control. Methods: 115 children were investigated during a 12-week weight loss program. 90 children completed the program......, and 68 children entered a follow-up program spanning 28 months. Measurements were performed at baseline and day 82 as well as at months 10, 16, and 28. Height, weight, body composition, Tanner stages, testicular size, and serum concentrations of leptin, and insulin were measured at all time points....... Results: Children with the greatest increases in BMI standard deviation score (SDS) exhibited the largest leptin increments. The disproportionate reduction of leptin seen during weight loss recovered after weight loss. Leptin increases mirrored increases in BMI SDS during weight regain, and the leptin...

  10. Breakfast consumption and weight-loss maintenance: results from the MedWeight study.

    Brikou, Dora; Zannidi, Dimitra; Karfopoulou, Eleni; Anastasiou, Costas A; Yannakoulia, Mary

    2016-06-01

    Daily breakfast consumption is a common eating behaviour among people who have maintained their weight loss after weight-loss management. However, there is not a precise definition for breakfast in the literature. The purpose of this study was to investigate potential associations between breakfast consumption (based on several definitions) and weight-loss maintenance, as well as to explore differences in breakfast quality between individuals who managed to maintain part of the weight loss and in those who regained weight loss. The study sample consisted of 354 participants of the MedWeight study (age: 32 (sd 10) years, 61 % women) who had lost ≥10 % of their initial body weight and either maintained the loss for ≥1 year (maintainers, n 257) or regained weight loss (regainers, n 97). Participants completed online questionnaires and reported their dietary intake through two telephone 24-h recalls. Breakfast consumption was evaluated using twelve different definitions. The analysis indicated that breakfast consumption was associated with weight-loss maintenance only in men, when using self-reported breakfast consumption or the following breakfast definitions: (1) the first eating episode consumed at home and (2) the first eating episode consumed at home excluding caffeinated drinks. This association remained statistically significant even after adjustment for potential confounding factors. Thus, breakfast, the first eating episode of the day, when consumed at home, may be protective against weight regaining. PMID:27185413

  11. Infiltrated diffuse and loss of weight

    The paper treats this topic with base in a patient of feminine sex, 35 years who it consulted for square of progressive dyspnoea of 2 months of evolution that at the moment prevents her to bend over or to go up 3 steps. It has lost 7 kg. of weight in the last 7 months for marked anorexy. The patient was subjected to fibrobroncoscopy with transbronquial biopsy, which is informed as illness compatible chronic granulomatosis with TBC. The paper includes their evolution and the topic is discusses

  12. Major rapid weight loss induces changes in cardiac repolarization

    Vedel-Larsen, Esben; Iepsen, Eva Winning; Lundgren, Julie;

    2016-01-01

    INTRODUCTION: Obesity is associated with increased all-cause mortality, but weight loss may not decrease cardiovascular events. In fact, very low calorie diets have been linked to arrhythmias and sudden death. The QT interval is the standard marker for cardiac repolarization, but T-wave morphology...... analysis has been suggested as a more sensitive method to identify changes in cardiac repolarization. We examined the effect of a major and rapid weight loss on T-wave morphology. METHODS AND RESULTS: Twenty-six individuals had electrocardiograms (ECG) taken before and after eight weeks of weight loss......A1c (p<0.001) and fasting plasma glucose (p<0.01). CONCLUSION: Rapid weight loss induces changes in cardiac repolarization. Monitoring of MCS during calorie restriction makes it possible to detect repolarization changes with higher discriminative power than the QT-interval during major rapid weight...

  13. Adult weight loss diets: metabolic effects and outcomes.

    Matarese, Laura E; Pories, Walter J

    2014-12-01

    The global prevalence of overweight and obesity as a public health concern is well established and reflects the overall lack of success in our ability to achieve and maintain a healthy body weight. Being overweight and obese is associated with numerous comorbidities and is a risk factor for several of the leading causes of death, including cardiovascular disease, diabetes mellitus, and many types of cancer. The foundation of treatment has been diet and exercise. There are >1,000 published weight loss diets, with more appearing in the lay literature and the media on a regular basis. The sheer number of existing diet regimens would suggest that no one diet has been universally successful at inducing and maintaining weight loss. Many of these dietary programs are based on sound scientific evidence and follow contemporary principles of weight loss. Others simply eliminate 1 or more of the essential food groups or recommend consumption of 1 type of food at the expense of other foods with little to no supporting evidence. The focus of this review is on weight loss diets, specifically those with the most supporting scientific evidence and those that are most likely to succeed in achievement and maintenance of desirable body weight. The effects of weight loss diets on energy expenditure, body weight, body composition, and metabolic parameters will be evaluated. Ultimately, the best diet is the one the patient will follow and incorporate into his or her daily life for lifelong maintenance of a healthy body weight. PMID:25293593

  14. The effectiveness of breakfast recommendations on weight loss

    Dhurandhar, Emily J; Dawson, John; Alcorn, Amy;

    2014-01-01

    effectiveness of a recommendation to eat or skip breakfast on weight loss in adults trying to lose weight in a free-living setting. DESIGN: We conducted a multisite, 16-wk, 3-parallel-arm randomized controlled trial in otherwise healthy overweight and obese adults [body mass index (in kg/m(2)) between 25 and 40......] aged 20-65 y. Our primary outcome was weight change. We compared weight change in a control group with weight loss in experimental groups told to eat breakfast or to skip breakfast [no breakfast (NB)]. Randomization was stratified by prerandomization breakfast eating habits. A total of 309 participants...... were randomly assigned.RESULTS: A total of 283 of the 309 participants who were randomly assigned completed the intervention. Treatment assignment did not have a significant effect on weight loss, and there was no interaction between initial breakfast eating status and treatment. Among skippers, mean...

  15. Surgical solutions to the problem of massive weight loss

    Jason A Spector; Steven M Levine; Nolan S Karp

    2006-01-01

    In response to the global rise in obesity, bariatric surgery has become increasingly more popular and successful.As a result, the demand for body contouring following massive weight loss is rapidly growing. Although bariatric procedures may produce impressive weight loss, people who achieve massive weight loss are often unhappy with the hanging folds of skin and subcutaneous tissue that remain. This review examines the nature of the post-bariatric deformity in each body region and briefly reviews common approaches to their treatment.

  16. Diet and psoriasis, part I: Impact of weight loss interventions.

    Debbaneh, Maya; Millsop, Jillian W; Bhatia, Bhavnit K; Koo, John; Liao, Wilson

    2014-07-01

    One of the most frequently asked questions by patients with psoriasis is whether dietary changes can improve their condition. Included in this discussion is whether dietary weight loss can benefit their skin disease. Obesity has been associated with a proinflammatory state and several studies have demonstrated a relationship between body mass index and psoriasis severity. However, the question of whether weight loss interventions can impact psoriasis outcome is less clear. Here, we review the literature to examine the efficacy of weight loss interventions, both dietary and surgical, on psoriasis disease course. PMID:24709272

  17. Randomized trial of tapas acupressure technique for weight loss maintenance

    Elder Charles R

    2012-03-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Obesity is an urgent public health problem, yet only a few clinical trials have systematically tested the efficacy of long-term weight-loss maintenance interventions. This randomized clinical trial tested the efficacy of a novel mind and body technique for weight-loss maintenance. Methods Participants were obese adults who had completed a six-month behavioral weight-loss program prior to randomization. Those who successfully lost weight were randomized into either an experimental weight-loss maintenance intervention, Tapas Acupressure Technique (TAT®, or a control intervention comprised of social-support group meetings (SS led by professional facilitators. TAT combines self-applied light pressure to specific acupressure points accompanied by a prescribed sequence of mental steps. Participants in both maintenance conditions attended eight group sessions over six months of active weight loss maintenance intervention, followed by an additional 6 months of no intervention. The main outcome measure was change in weight from the beginning of the weight loss maintenance intervention to 12 months later. Secondary outcomes were change in depression, stress, insomnia, and quality of life. We used analysis of covariance as the primary analysis method. Missing values were replaced using multiple imputation. Results Among 285 randomized participants, 79% were female, mean age was 56 (standard deviation (sd = 11, mean BMI at randomization was 34 (sd = 5, and mean initial weight loss was 9.8 kg (sd = 5. In the primary outcome model, there was no significant difference in weight regain between the two arms (1.72 kg (se 0.85 weight regain for TAT and 2.96 kg (se 0.96 weight regain for SS, p post hoc tests showing that greater initial weight loss was associated with more weight regain for SS but less weight regain for TAT. Conclusions The primary analysis showed no significant difference in weight regain between TAT and SS, while secondary

  18. Pharmacological Approaches in the Treatment and Maintenance of Weight Loss.

    Van Gaal, Luc; Dirinck, Eveline

    2016-08-01

    Obesity is a growing global health concern, associated with a number of important comorbid conditions. It increases the risk of diabetes and contributes to development of cardiovascular disease. While the benefits of weight loss are well established, weight reduction remains a difficult-to-reach goal in overweight and obese individuals due to several metabolic and psychological factors. For many patients, lifestyle intervention is insufficient to achieve long-term weight loss, and additional options, such as pharmacotherapy, need to be considered. Besides the challenging enterprise of weight reduction, weight maintenance remains an even more crucial and outcome-determining aspect of weight management. This article focuses on the potential of currently available pharmacological strategies to support weight loss and maintenance goals in individuals at risk. Two pharmacotherapy types are considered: those developed primarily to induce weight loss and those developed primarily for blood glucose control that have a favorable effect on body weight. Finally, the potential of very low- and low-calorie diets combined with pharmacotherapy and pharmacological combination therapies are discussed, as well as emerging approaches in development. PMID:27440841

  19. Goal setting: Eating, Physical activity & Weight loss | Smokefree.gov

    No matter what your weight loss goal is, the key to reaching your goals is to make changes to your lifestyle like eating and physical activity. This involves setting realistic expectations and making a plan. 

  20. Advances in Weight Loss Surgery: The Fully Robotic Gastric Bypass

    Full Text Available ... you a detailed account of how the operation works. During that time, I’d like to answer ... you’ll understand it. Basically, the gastric bypass works on two different principals for weight loss, one ...

  1. Choosing a Safe and Successful Weight-Loss Program

    ... in Maryland and Arizona Research Resources Protocols, repositories, mouse models, plasmids, and more Technology Advancement & Transfer Material ... physical activity do I need? How can I exercise safely? Could a weight-loss program help me? ...

  2. Who participates in internet-based worksite weight loss programs?

    2011-01-01

    Background The reach and representativeness are seldom examined in worksite weight loss studies. This paper describes and illustrates a method for directly assessing the reach and representativeness of a internet-based worksite weight loss program. Methods A brief health survey (BHS) was administered, between January 2008 and November 2009, to employees at 19 worksites in Southwest Virginia. The BHS included demographic, behavioral, and health questions. All employees were blinded to the existence of a future weight loss program until the completion of the BHS. Results The BHS has a participation rate of 66 percent and the subsequent weight loss program has a participation rate of 30 percent. Employees from higher income households, with higher education levels and health literacy proficiency were significantly more likely to participate in the program (p's marketing strategies to engage employees with lower income, education, and health literacy. PMID:21933429

  3. Advances in Weight Loss Surgery: The Fully Robotic Gastric Bypass

    Full Text Available ... is a Bariatric Center of Excellence is the education of the patients. The surgical procedure that Dr. ... can be used for the weight loss. The education is extremely important, and most of the patients ...

  4. Advances in Weight Loss Surgery: The Fully Robotic Gastric Bypass

    Full Text Available ... medication. He’s not going to be able to cure you of that diabetes. You cannot get cured ... surgery, with the weight loss we can actually cure it so you’re not on any medications ...

  5. Advances in Weight Loss Surgery: The Fully Robotic Gastric Bypass

    Full Text Available Advances in Weight Loss Surgery: The Fully Robotic Gastric Bypass Baptist Health South Florida Miami, FL May 20, 2010 I am Dr. Anthony Gonzalez, and welcome to South Miami Hospital. We’ ...

  6. [Etiological and exacerbation factors for COPD. Body weight loss].

    Yokoyama, Akihito

    2016-05-01

    Hunger or malnutrition is not only a historical issue but also a current problem worldwide. Biological responses to hunger are evolutionary prepared in our body, including energy generation by degradation of body proteins. Extreme weight loss (malnutrition) can cause air space enlargement in human and rodents. However, the changes in rodents could be reversible, since refeeding could repair the pathology. On the other hand, weight loss is a common feature in patients with more severe COPD. Complex factors, such as increased energy consumption, decreased food uptake by low grade inflammation, socio-economic factors and so on, are involved in weight loss. Weight loss in patients with COPD also increases the risk of exacerbation, hospitalization, and death. PMID:27254941

  7. Advances in Weight Loss Surgery: The Fully Robotic Gastric Bypass

    Full Text Available ... who are morbidly obese have high incidents of diabetes II. As you know, diabetics are patients who ... do lose a lot of the comorbidities, the diabetes especially. But as far as weight loss and ...

  8. Intracranial germinoma presenting as anorexia and unexplained weight loss

    Shashank Kraleti; David Nelsen

    2014-01-01

    Objective: To describe a patient with germinoma of pineal body who presented with anorexia and unexplained weight loss of 70 pounds. Case Summary: A 23-year-old man with no significant past medical history presented with nausea, vomiting, anorexia and weight loss of 70 pounds over a period of 6–8 months. Magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) scans demonstrated tumor lesions that were confirmed as germinoma histologically. A good treatment response to surgery, radiation, chemot...

  9. Supplementation with carnitine for weight loss: a biochemical approach

    José Henry Osorio

    2011-11-01

    Full Text Available Carnitine is a molecule involved in transporting activated fatty acids among different cellular compartments, which is mostlikely present in all animal species, and in numerous microorganisms and plants. Recently the trend in the field of weightcontrol is to include carnitine in the diet as an agent responsible for weight loss. In the present review, some findings arediscussed from a biochemical point of view to illustrate if the use of carnitine for weight loss can be considered fiction orreality.

  10. Weight loss and eating behavior following vertical banded gastroplasty

    van Hout, G.C.M.; Jakimowicz, J.J.; Fortuin, F.A.M.; Pelle, A.J.M.; van Heck, G.L.

    2007-01-01

    Background Bariatric surgery is the treatment of choice for patients with morbid obesity. In addition to surgery, postoperative dietary behavior is an important mediator of weight loss and, therefore, critical in influencing outcome. Surgical treatment of obesity is not an alternative to dieting but a method to enforce dieting. Methods We evaluated early weight loss and postoperative eating behavior over time. Preoperatively as well as 6 months, 1 and 2 years after vertical banded gastroplast...

  11. Resting State Brain Connectivity After Surgical and Behavioral Weight Loss

    Lepping, Rebecca J.; Bruce, Amanda S.; Francisco, Alex; Yeh, Hung-Wen; Martin, Laura E.; Powell, Joshua N.; Hancock, Laura; Patrician, Trisha M.; Breslin, Florence J.; Selim, Niazy; Donnelly, Joseph E.; Brooks, William M.; Savage, Cary R.; Simmons, W. Kyle; Bruce, Jared M.

    2015-01-01

    OBJECTIVE We previously reported changes in food-cue neural reactivity associated with behavioral and surgical weight loss interventions. Resting functional connectivity represents tonic neural activity that may contribute to weight loss success. Here we explore whether intervention type is associated with differences in functional connectivity after weight loss. METHODS Fifteen obese participants were recruited prior to adjustable gastric banding surgery. Thirteen demographically matched obese participants were selected from a separate behavioral diet intervention. Resting state fMRI was collected three months after surgery/behavioral intervention. ANOVA was used to examine post-weight loss differences between the two groups in connectivity to seed regions previously identified as showing differential cue-reactivity after weight loss. RESULTS Following weight loss, behavioral dieters exhibited increased connectivity between left precuneus/superior parietal lobule (SPL) and bilateral insula pre- to post-meal and bariatric patients exhibited decreased connectivity between these regions pre- to post-meal (pcorrected<.05). CONCLUSIONS Behavioral dieters showed increased connectivity pre- to post-meal between a region associated with processing of self-referent information (precuneus/SPL) and a region associated with interoception (insula) whereas bariatric patients showed decreased connectivity between these regions. This may reflect increased attention to hunger signals following surgical procedures, and increased attention to satiety signals following behavioral diet interventions. PMID:26053145

  12. Hydroxycut hepatotoxicity: A case series and review of liver toxicity from herbal weight loss supplements

    Lily Dare; Jennifer Hewett; Joseph Kartaik Lim

    2008-01-01

    Dietary supplements represent an increasingly common source of drug-induced liver injury. Hydroxycut is a popular weight loss supplement which has previously been linked to hepatotoxiciLy, although the individual chemical components underlying liver injury remain poorly understood. We report two cases of acute hepatitis in the seLLing of Hydroxycut exposure and describe possible mechanisms of liver injury. We also comprehensively review and summarize the existing literature on commonly used weight loss supplements,and their individual components which have demonstrated potential for liver toxicity. An increased effort to screen for and educate patients and physicians about supplement-associated hepatotoxicity is warranted.

  13. Psychological predictors of weight loss after bariatric surgery

    Wimmelmann, Cathrine Lawaetz; Dela, Flemming; Mortensen, Erik Lykke

    2014-01-01

    of surgical weight loss.Methods: We searched PubMed, PsycInfo and Web of Science, for original prospectivestudies with a sample size >30 and at least one year follow-up, using a combina-tion of search terms such as ‘bariatric surgery’, ‘morbid obesity’, ‘psychologicalpredictors’, and ‘weight loss’. Only...

  14. T2-weighted cardiovascular magnetic resonance in acute cardiac disease

    Eitel Ingo; Friedrich Matthias G

    2011-01-01

    Abstract Cardiovascular magnetic resonance (CMR) using T2-weighted sequences can visualize myocardial edema. When compared to previous protocols, newer pulse sequences with substantially improved image quality have increased its clinical utility. The assessment of myocardial edema provides useful incremental diagnostic and prognostic information in a variety of clinical settings associated with acute myocardial injury. In patients with acute chest pain, T2-weighted CMR is able to identify acu...

  15. TIGHTENING THE BELT ON THE WEIGHT-LOSS INDUSTRY

    Mitchell, Sandra R.

    1994-01-01

    Americans dole out $33 billion dollars a year to cure their weight problems, as every year the market is flooded with food and drug products that promise a fast, easy way to a new, slimmer you. Unfortunately, while there is not a fast and easy solution to regulating America's weight problem, something must be done by the Federal Drug Administration ("F.D.A.") to better regulate the weight-loss industry.

  16. Can't wait to lose weight? Characterizing temporal discounting parameters for weight-loss.

    Lim, Seung-Lark; Bruce, Amanda S

    2015-02-01

    Obesity is often related to steeper temporal discounting, that is, higher decision impulsivity for immediate rewards over delayed rewards. However, previous studies have measured temporal discounting parameters through monetary rewards. The aim of this study was to develop a temporal discounting measure based on weight-loss rewards, which may help to understand decision-making mechanisms more closely related to body weight regulation. After having their heights and weights measured, healthy young adults completed the Monetary Choice Questionnaire (MCQ), and an adapted version of the MCQ, with weight-loss as a reward. Participants also completed self-reports that measure obesity-related cognitive variables. For 42 participants who expressed a desire to lose weight, weight-loss rewards were discounted over time and had a positive correlation with temporal discounting for monetary rewards. Higher temporal discounting for weight loss rewards (i.e., preference for immediate weight loss) showed correlations with beliefs that obesity is under obese persons' control and largely due to lack of willpower, while temporal discounting parameters for monetary rewards did not. Taken together, our weight loss temporal discounting measure demonstrated both convergent and divergent validity, which can be utilized for future obesity research and interventions. PMID:25450897

  17. Weight loss before conception: A systematic literature review

    Elisabet Forsum

    2013-03-01

    Full Text Available The prevalence of overweight and obesity in women has increased during the last decades. This is a serious concern since a high BMI before conception is an independent risk factor for many adverse outcomes of pregnancy. Therefore, dietary counseling, intended to stimulate weight loss in overweight and obese women prior to conception has recently been recommended. However, dieting with the purpose to lose weight may involve health risks for mother and offspring. We conducted a systematic literature review to identify papers investigating the effects of weight loss due to dietary interventions before conception. The objective of this study is to assess the effect of weight loss prior to conception in overweight or obese women on a number of health-related outcomes in mother and offspring using studies published between January 2000 and December 2011. Our first literature search produced 486 citations and, based on predefined eligibility criteria, 58 were selected and ordered in full text. Two group members read each paper. Fifteen studies were selected for quality assessment and two of them were considered appropriate for inclusion in evidence tables. A complementary search identified 168 citations with four papers being ordered in full text. The two selected studies provided data for overweight and obese women. One showed a positive effect of weight loss before pregnancy on the risk of gestational diabetes and one demonstrated a reduced risk for large-for-gestational-age infants in women with a BMI above 25 who lost weight before pregnancy. No study investigated the effect of weight loss due to a dietary intervention before conception. There is a lack of studies on overweight and obese women investigating the effect of dietary-induced weight loss prior to conception on health-related variables in mother and offspring. Such studies are probably lacking since they are difficult to conduct. Therefore, alternative strategies to control the body

  18. A Clinical Trial on Weight Loss among Truck Drivers

    MS Thiese; AC Effiong; Ott, U.; DG Passey; ZC Arnold; BB Ronna; PA Muthe; EM Wood; MA Murtaugh

    2015-01-01

    Background: The high prevalence of obesity among commercial truck drivers may be related to sedentary nature of the job, lack of healthy eating choices, and lack of exercise. There may be a link between obesity and crash risk, therefore an intervention to reduce obesity in this population is needed.Objective: To assess feasibility of a 12-week weight loss intervention for truck drivers with a weight loss goal of 10% of initial body weight.Methods: Drivers were selected based on age (≥21 years...

  19. Weight Loss, Dietary Intake and Pulse Wave Velocity

    Petersen, Kristina; Blanch, Natalie; Keogh, Jennifer; Clifton, Peter

    2015-01-01

    We have recently conducted a meta-analysis to determine the effect of weight loss achieved by an energy-restricted diet with or without exercise, anti-obesity drugs or bariatric surgery on pulse wave velocity (PWV) measured at all arterial segments. Twenty studies, including 1,259 participants, showed that modest weight loss (8% of the initial body weight) caused a reduction in PWV measured at all arterial segments. However, due to the poor methodological design of the included studies, the r...

  20. The role of protein in weight loss and maintenance

    Leidy, Heather J; Clifton, Peter M; Astrup, Arne;

    2015-01-01

    -analyses of shorter-term, tightly controlled feeding studies showed greater weight loss, fat mass loss, and preservation of lean mass after higher-protein energy-restriction diets than after lower-protein energy-restriction diets. Reductions in triglycerides, blood pressure, and waist circumference were also...... feeding studies consistently identified benefits with increased protein consumption, longer-term studies produced limited and conflicting findings; nevertheless, a recent meta-analysis showed persistent benefits of a higher-protein weight-loss diet on body weight and fat mass. Dietary compliance appears......Over the past 20 y, higher-protein diets have been touted as a successful strategy to prevent or treat obesity through improvements in body weight management. These improvements are thought to be due, in part, to modulations in energy metabolism, appetite, and energy intake. Recent evidence also...

  1. Updates in weight loss surgery and gastrointestinal peptides

    Svane, Maria Saur; Bojsen-Møller, Kirstine N; Madsbad, Sten;

    2015-01-01

    PURPOSE OF REVIEW: Roux-en-Y gastric bypass (RYGB) and sleeve gastrectomy are referred to as 'metabolic surgery' due to hormonal shifts with impacts on diabetes remission and weight loss. The purpose of this review is to summarize recent findings in mechanisms underlying beneficial effects of...... weight loss surgery. RECENT FINDINGS: Importantly, gut hormone secretion is altered after RYGB and sleeve gastrectomy due to accelerated transit of nutrients to distal parts of the small intestine, leading to excessive release of L-cell peptide hormones [e.g. glucagon-like peptide-1 (GLP-1), peptide YY...... demonstrated by relapse of impaired glucose tolerance in studies blocking the GLP-1 receptor by exendin 9-39, and later after major weight loss increased peripheral insulin sensitivity. Gut hormone secretion changes towards a more anorectic profile and is likely important for less caloric intake and weight...

  2. Self-Directed Weight Loss Strategies: Energy Expenditure Due to Physical Activity Is Not Increased to Achieve Intended Weight Loss

    Ulf Elbelt

    2015-07-01

    Full Text Available Reduced physical activity and almost unlimited availability of food are major contributors to the development of obesity. With the decline of strenuous work, energy expenditure due to spontaneous physical activity has attracted increasing attention. Our aim was to assess changes in energy expenditure, physical activity patterns and nutritional habits in obese subjects aiming at self-directed weight loss. Methods: Energy expenditure and physical activity patterns were measured with a portable armband device. Nutritional habits were assessed with a food frequency questionnaire. Results: Data on weight development, energy expenditure, physical activity patterns and nutritional habits were obtained for 105 patients over a six-month period from an initial cohort of 160 outpatients aiming at weight loss. Mean weight loss was −1.5 ± 7.0 kg (p = 0.028. Patients with weight maintenance (n = 75, with substantial weight loss (>5% body weight, n = 20 and with substantial weight gain (>5% body weight, n = 10 did not differ in regard to changes of body weight adjusted energy expenditure components (total energy expenditure: −0.2 kcal/kg/day; non-exercise activity thermogenesis: −0.3 kcal/kg/day; exercise-related activity thermogenesis (EAT: −0.2 kcal/kg/day or patterns of physical activity (duration of EAT: −2 min/day; steps/day: −156; metabolic equivalent unchanged measured objectively with a portable armband device. Self-reported consumption frequency of unfavorable food decreased significantly (p = 0.019 over the six-month period. Conclusions: An increase in energy expenditure or changes of physical activity patterns (objectively assessed with a portable armband device are not employed by obese subjects to achieve self-directed weight loss. However, modified nutritional habits could be detected with the use of a food frequency questionnaire.

  3. Weight loss by calorie restriction versus bariatric surgery differentially regulates the HPA axis in male rats

    Grayson, Bernadette E.; Hakala-Finch, Andrew P.; Kekulawala, Melani; Laub, Holly; Egan, Ann E.; Ressler, Ilana B.; Woods, Stephen C.; Herman, James P.; Seeley, Randy J.; Benoit, Stephen C.; Ulrich-Lai, Yvonne M.

    2015-01-01

    Behavioral modifications for the treatment of obesity, including caloric restriction, have notoriously low long-term success rates relative to bariatric weight-loss surgery. The reasons for the difference in sustained weight loss are not clear. One possibility is that caloric restriction alone activates the stress-responsive hypothalamo-pituitary-adrenocortical (HPA) axis, undermining the long-term maintenance of weight loss, and that this is abrogated after bariatric surgery. Accordingly, we compared the HPA response to weight loss in 5 groups of male rats: (1) high-fat diet-induced obese (DIO) rats treated with Roux-en-Y gastric bypass surgery (RYGB, n=7), (2) DIO rats treated with vertical sleeve gastrectomy (VSG, n=11), (3) DIO rats given sham surgery and subsequently restricted to the food intake of the VSG/RYGB groups (Pair-fed, n=11), (4) ad libitum-fed DIO rats given sham surgery (Obese, n=11) and (5) ad libitum chow-fed rats given sham surgery (Lean, n=12). Compared to Lean controls, food-restricted rats exhibited elevated morning (nadir) non-stress plasma corticosterone concentrations and increased hypothalamic corticotropin releasing hormone and vasopressin mRNA expression, indicative of basal HPA activation. This was largely prevented when weight loss was achieved by bariatric surgery. DIO increased HPA activation by acute (novel environment) stress and this was diminished by bariatric surgery-, but not pair-feeding-, induced weight loss. These results suggest that the HPA axis is differentially affected by weight loss from caloric restriction versus bariatric surgery, and this may contribute to the differing long-term effectiveness of these two weight-loss approaches. PMID:25238021

  4. Is bone loss after gastric bypass surgery associated with the extent of weight loss?

    Shapses, Sue A

    2009-01-01

    This Practice Point commentary discusses a prospective study by Fleisher et al. that showed bone loss in response to extreme weight loss in 23 patients following Roux-en-Y gastric bypass surgery. The decline in BMD at the hip, but not at the spine or distal radius, was found to be proportional to the extent of weight loss. Although dietary calcium and vitamin D intake markedly increased after surgery, serum 25 hydroxyvitamin D, serum parathyroid hormone and urinary calcium l...

  5. Effect of weight loss on urinary incontinence in women

    Whitcomb EL

    2011-08-01

    Full Text Available Emily L Whitcomb1, Leslee L Subak21Southern California Permanente Medical Group, Female Pelvic Medicine and Reconstructive Surgery, Orange County-Irvine Medical Center, Irvine, CA, USA; 2University of California San Francisco, UCSF Departments of Obstetrics, Gynecology and Reproductive Sciences, and Urology, and Epidemiology and Biostatistics, SF Veterans Affairs Medical Center, San Francisco, CA, USABackground: The purpose of this research was review the epidemiology of the association of obesity and urinary incontinence, and to summarize the published data on the effect of weight loss on urinary incontinence.Methods: A literature review of the association between urinary incontinence and overweight/obesity in women was performed. Case series and clinical trials reporting the effect of surgical, behavioral, and/or pharmacological weight loss on urinary incontinence are summarized.Results: Epidemiological studies demonstrate that obesity is a strong and independent risk factor for prevalent and incident urinary incontinence. There is a clear dose-response effect of weight on urinary incontinence, with each 5-unit increase in body mass index associated with a 20%–70% increase in risk of urinary incontinence. The maximum effect of weight on urinary incontinence has an odds ratio of 4–5. The odds of incident urinary incontinence over 5–10 years increase by approximately 30%–60% for each 5-unit increase in body mass index. There appears to be a stronger association between increasing weight and prevalent and incident stress incontinence (including mixed incontinence than for urge incontinence. Weight loss studies indicate that both surgical and nonsurgical weight loss leads to significant improvements in prevalence, frequency, and/or symptoms of urinary incontinence.Conclusion: Epidemiological studies document overweight and obesity as important risk factors for urinary incontinence. Weight loss by both surgical and more conservative

  6. Structural changes in the knee during weight loss maintenance after a significant weight loss in obese patients with osteoarthritis

    Henriksen, M; Christensen, R; Hunter, D J;

    2014-01-01

    OBJECTIVE: To compare structural knee joint changes in obese patients with knee osteoarthritis (OA) that after an intensive weight loss therapy were randomized to continuous dietetic support, a specialized knee exercise program, or 'no attention' for 1 year. METHODS: 192 obese individuals with knee...... OA underwent an intensive 16-week weight loss program with subsequent randomization to one of the three treatment groups. Changes in cartilage loss, bone marrow lesions (BMLs), synovitis, and effusion were assessed using semi quantitative assessments of magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) obtained at...... diet (difference: -0.21 [95%CI -0.40:-0.03]) and "no attention" (difference: -0.26 [95%CI -0.44:-0.07]) groups. CONCLUSION: In this 1 year follow-up after weight-loss in obese knee OA patients, we found a potentially increased number of BMLs in the exercise group compared to the diet and no attention...

  7. Rapid Weight Loss Among Adolescents Participating In Competitive Judo.

    Berkovich, Ben-El; Eliakim, Alon; Nemet, Dan; Stark, Aliza Hannah; Sinai, Tali

    2016-06-01

    Athletes competing in individual sports such as judo are categorized by weight. Before competitions, weight cutting is common. This cross-sectional study was designed to characterize and determine the prevalence of rapid weight loss (RWL) among adolescent judo competitors. Male athletes aged 12- to 17-years old (N = 108) were recruited from local judo teams. Each participant completed a validated questionnaire regarding RWL practices. Anthropometric measurements were also performed. Average age was 14.6 ± 1.6 years and all participants were of normal body mass index (BMI). RWL was practiced by 80% of the athletes before competition, beginning at an average age of 12.5 ± 2.2 years with the highest prevalence (~94%) in the oldest group of judoka (16-17.9 years). Precompetition weight loss duration was 8 ± 5.4 days, with an average weight reduction of 1.5 ± 1.1 kg. The number of weight loss efforts per athlete in the past season was 2.8 ± 2.2. RWL was achieved by increased physical activity (82.6%), skipped meals (56.3%), or fasting at least once (47%). Two-thirds of the athletes indicated that their coaches were the most influential figure in their decision to lose weight before competition. RWL is highly prevalent in adolescent judo competitors. The methods used by these athletes can potentially lead to significant health risks including compromised nutritional status, diminished physical performance and impaired growth and development. It is of great importance to insure that those who guide young adults in weight loss for competitive sports have the knowledge and understanding to make safe recommendations and appropriate decisions regarding achieving specific weight goals. PMID:26479490

  8. Partner Facilitation and Partner Interference in Individuals' Weight Loss Goals.

    Theiss, Jennifer A; Carpenter, Amanda M; Leustek, John

    2016-08-01

    Drawing on the logic of the relational turbulence model, this study examined the ways in which romantic partners facilitate and interfere with individuals' weight loss goals. Participants (N = 122) described the ways in which their romantic partner had recently helped or hindered their weight loss at four times over the course of 2 months. We conducted a content analysis of responses to identify themes of partner facilitation (Research Question 1 [RQ1]) and partner interference (RQ2) in individuals' weight loss goals. Results revealed seven themes of partner facilitation: (a) partner enabling diet, (b) motivation and encouragement, (c) emotional support and positive reinforcement, (d) exercising together, (e) partner enabling exercise, (f) dieting together, and (g) relationship influence and priorities. Four themes of partner interference emerged in the data: (a) inability to plan for healthy meals, (b) inability to control the food environment, (c) preventing or discouraging exercise, and (d) emotional or relational discouragement. PMID:25904678

  9. A Clinical Trial on Weight Loss among Truck Drivers

    MS Thiese

    2015-03-01

    Full Text Available Background: The high prevalence of obesity among commercial truck drivers may be related to sedentary nature of the job, lack of healthy eating choices, and lack of exercise. There may be a link between obesity and crash risk, therefore an intervention to reduce obesity in this population is needed.Objective: To assess feasibility of a 12-week weight loss intervention for truck drivers with a weight loss goal of 10% of initial body weight.Methods: Drivers were selected based on age (≥21 years and body mass index (≥30 kg/m2. The drivers participated in a before-after clinical trial. The intervention included a 12-week program that provided information on healthy diet and increasing exercise, and telephone-based coaching using SMART goals. Outcomes included change from baseline in reported energy intake, measured weight, waist, hip, and neck circumference, blood pressure, and point of care capillary blood lipids and hemoglobin A1c. Exit interviews were conducted to gain insight into driver opinions on the program features and usefulness. This study was registered with the NIH Clinical Trials Registry, number NCT02348983.Results: 12 of 13 drivers completed the study. Weight loss was statistically significant (p=0.03. Reported energy (p=0.005, total fat consumption (p=0.04, and saturated fat consumption (p=0.02 intake were also lower after the 12-week intervention. Drivers attributed their weight loss to health coaching and suggested a longer intervention so that they could reach their goal and become accustomed to the changes.Conclusion: This weight loss intervention is feasible for this difficult population. Additional research is needed to compare this intervention with a control group.

  10. Assessing the effect of weight and weight loss in obese persons with type 2 diabetes

    Bradley Curtis

    2008-10-01

    Full Text Available Bradley Curtis1, Risa P Hayes1, Sheri Fehnel2, Laurie Zografos21Global Health Outcomes, Eli Lilly and Co, Indianapolis, IN, USA; 2RTI Health Solutions, Research Triangle Park, NC, USAAbstract: The objective of this study was to assess specific areas of life in which obesity affects individuals with type 2 diabetes mellitus (T2DM, and changes that obese persons with T2DM experience with weight loss of varying degrees. Thirty in-depth interviews were conducted in persons identified as: age ≥40 years, diagnosed with T2DM for ≥2 years, on oral antihyperglycemic medications >3 months, BMI 30–35 kg/m2, having attempted to lose weight in the last 2 years. Participants (60% female, mean age 53 years, 53% Caucasian, mean BMI 32.2 kg/m2 agreed that 5% weight loss, while not reflective of an ultimate goal, would be meaningful and important; benefits were expected to accrue in physical functioning, self-confidence, blood glucose levels, and motivation to keep losing weight. Participants reported the greatest effect of weight loss on energy, physical activity, mobility, pain, and clothes/appearance. Participants reported weight affecting mood, with feelings of depression and frustration most commonly described. This research indicates that weight loss is likely to affect health-related quality of life in obese individuals with T2DM. Given the purported weight loss benefits of many emerging diabetic medications, it will be important to include measures of weight-related quality of life in future clinical trials of these agents.Keywords: health-related quality of life, obesity, type 2 diabetes, weight loss, patient-reported outcomes

  11. Negotiating control: Patients' experiences of unsuccessful weight-loss surgery

    Ogden, J; Avenell, S; Ellis, G.

    2011-01-01

    Interviews were carried out with 10 men and women who had undergone weight-loss surgery (WLS) up to 10 years ago and felt that it had failed. Seven had had a further successful procedure. Data were analysed using Interpretative Phenomenological Analysis. Weight regain following surgery was explained in terms of either the mechanics of the operation or with participants describing ways to ‘cheat’ as food continued to be used for emotional regulation. Everyone spoke of how surgery neglected the...

  12. Weight loss before conception: A systematic literature review

    Forsum, Elisabet; Brantsæter, Anne Lise; Olafsdottir, Anna-Sigrid; Olsen, Sjurdur F.; Thorsdottir, Inga

    2013-01-01

    The prevalence of overweight and obesity in women has increased during the last decades. This is a serious concern since a high BMI before conception is an independent risk factor for many adverse outcomes of pregnancy. Therefore, dietary counseling, intended to stimulate weight loss in overweight and obese women prior to conception has recently been recommended. However, dieting with the purpose to lose weight may involve health risks for mother and offspring. We conducted a systematic liter...

  13. Shaking weight loss away - Can vibration exercise reduce body fat?

    DARRYL COCHRANE

    2011-01-01

    An exercise modality that requires little time and physical exertion whilst providing the benefits of increased force, power, balance, flexibility, and weight loss would appeal to most people that may be at risk from an imbalanced lifestyle. One such exercise modality that has received a lot of attention has been vibration exercise (VbX), which evokes muscular work and elevates metabolic rate could be a potential method for weight reduction. Popular press has purported that VbX is quick, conv...

  14. Postharvest peach weight loss, water content, and outer layer firmness

    C. Puchalski

    1996-06-01

    Full Text Available Harvesting of a fruit is the beginning of loss in weight and firmness. Measuring changes in weight require maintaining identity of the fruit and current methods used to measure firmness are usually destructive. Alternative methods are needed which can rapidly and nondestructively sense fruit quality. Three cultivars of peaches were measured during 9 days of storage to obtain fruit having varying weight loss and firmness. The average daily whole fruit weight losses were 1.72, 2.19, and 2.22% for 'Garnet', 'Red Haven', and 'Sentinal', respectively. After 9 days of storage, the water content of the outer layers of a peach were less than at the center. Firmness, slope of the force-deformation curve obtained during 1 mm compression, decreased significantly during the first 3 days of storage and continued to decrease but by a smaller amount thereafter. By eliminating the time variable, firmness exponentially decreased with weight loss with an r of 0.79-0.88. Changes in water content and firmness of the outer layers appear to be good predictors of subsequent changes in the whole fruit.

  15. Weight Loss, Dietary Intake and Pulse Wave Velocity.

    Petersen, Kristina; Blanch, Natalie; Keogh, Jennifer; Clifton, Peter

    2015-09-01

    We have recently conducted a meta-analysis to determine the effect of weight loss achieved by an energy-restricted diet with or without exercise, anti-obesity drugs or bariatric surgery on pulse wave velocity (PWV) measured at all arterial segments. Twenty studies, including 1,259 participants, showed that modest weight loss (8% of the initial body weight) caused a reduction in PWV measured at all arterial segments. However, due to the poor methodological design of the included studies, the results of this meta-analysis can only be regarded as hypothesis generating and highlight the need for further research in this area. In the future, well-designed randomised controlled trials are required to determine the effect of diet-induced weight loss on PWV and the mechanisms involved. In addition, there is observational evidence that dietary components such as fruit, vegetables, dairy foods, sodium, potassium and fatty acids may be associated with PWV, although evidence from well-designed intervention trials is lacking. In the future, the effect of concurrently improving dietary quality and achieving weight loss should be assessed in randomised controlled trials. PMID:26587462

  16. Social embeddedness in an online weight management programme is linked to greater weight loss.

    Poncela-Casasnovas, Julia; Spring, Bonnie; McClary, Daniel; Moller, Arlen C; Mukogo, Rufaro; Pellegrini, Christine A; Coons, Michael J; Davidson, Miriam; Mukherjee, Satyam; Nunes Amaral, Luis A

    2015-03-01

    The obesity epidemic is heightening chronic disease risk globally. Online weight management (OWM) communities could potentially promote weight loss among large numbers of people at low cost. Because little is known about the impact of these online communities, we examined the relationship between individual and social network variables, and weight loss in a large, international OWM programme. We studied the online activity and weight change of 22,419 members of an OWM system during a six-month period, focusing especially on the 2033 members with at least one friend within the community. Using Heckman's sample-selection procedure to account for potential selection bias and data censoring, we found that initial body mass index, adherence to self-monitoring and social networking were significantly correlated with weight loss. Remarkably, greater embeddedness in the network was the variable with the highest statistical significance in our model for weight loss. Average per cent weight loss at six months increased in a graded manner from 4.1% for non-networked members, to 5.2% for those with a few (two to nine) friends, to 6.8% for those connected to the giant component of the network, to 8.3% for those with high social embeddedness. Social networking within an OWM community, and particularly when highly embedded, may offer a potent, scalable way to curb the obesity epidemic and other disorders that could benefit from behavioural changes. PMID:25631561

  17. Fatty acid composition of adipose tissue triglycerides after weight loss and weight maintenance

    Kunešová, M; Hlavatý, P; Tvrzická, E;

    2012-01-01

    Fatty acid composition of adipose tissue changes with weight loss. Palmitoleic acid as a possible marker of endogenous lipogenesis or its functions as a lipokine are under debate. Objective was to assess the predictive role of adipose triglycerides fatty acids in weight maintenance in participants...... of the DIOGENES dietary intervention study. After an 8-week low calorie diet (LCD) subjects with > 8 % weight loss were randomized to 5 ad libitum weight maintenance diets for 6 months: low protein (P)/low glycemic index (GI) (LP/LGI), low P/high GI (LP/HGI), high P/low GI (HP/LGI), high P/high GI...... (HP/HGI), and a control diet. Fatty acid composition in adipose tissue triglycerides was determined by gas chromatography in 195 subjects before the LCD (baseline), after LCD and weight maintenance. Weight change after the maintenance phase was positively correlated with baseline adipose palmitoleic...

  18. Changes in body composition and fat distribution in response to weight loss and weight regain.

    Kooy, van der K.

    1993-01-01

    This thesis describes the effects of weight loss and subsequent weight regain on body composition, fat distribution and resting energy expenditure in moderately obese men and moderately obese premenopausal women. Participants were subjected to a controlled 4.2 MJ/day energy deficit diet for 13 weeks

  19. Methodological quality of behavioural weight loss studies: a systematic review.

    Lemon, S C; Wang, M L; Haughton, C F; Estabrook, D P; Frisard, C F; Pagoto, S L

    2016-07-01

    This systematic review assessed the methodological quality of behavioural weight loss intervention studies conducted among adults and associations between quality and statistically significant weight loss outcome, strength of intervention effectiveness and sample size. Searches for trials published between January, 2009 and December, 2014 were conducted using PUBMED, MEDLINE and PSYCINFO and identified ninety studies. Methodological quality indicators included study design, anthropometric measurement approach, sample size calculations, intent-to-treat (ITT) analysis, loss to follow-up rate, missing data strategy, sampling strategy, report of treatment receipt and report of intervention fidelity (mean = 6.3). Indicators most commonly utilized included randomized design (100%), objectively measured anthropometrics (96.7%), ITT analysis (86.7%) and reporting treatment adherence (76.7%). Most studies (62.2%) had a follow-up rate > 75% and reported a loss to follow-up analytic strategy or minimal missing data (69.9%). Describing intervention fidelity (34.4%) and sampling from a known population (41.1%) were least common. Methodological quality was not associated with reporting a statistically significant result, effect size or sample size. This review found the published literature of behavioural weight loss trials to be of high quality for specific indicators, including study design and measurement. Identified for improvement include utilization of more rigorous statistical approaches to loss to follow up and better fidelity reporting. PMID:27071775

  20. Exercise and Weight Loss%运动与减肥

    李新华

    2014-01-01

    By analyzing the etiology of obesity, exercise to lose weight principle concluded that regular exercise and non-drug resistance has an economic, effective, no side effects, etc., in favor of people of all age’s lipid weight loss, and can inhibit weight rebound.%通过分析肥胖的病因学、运动减肥原理得出,非药物性的适量运动具有经济、有效、无副作用等优点,有利于各年龄段的人降脂减重,并能抑制体重反弹。

  1. A weight-loss program adapted to the menstrual cycle increases weight loss in healthy, overweight, premenopausal women

    Geiker, Nina R W; Ritz, Christian; Pedersen, Sue D;

    2016-01-01

    BACKGROUND: Hormonal fluctuations during the menstrual cycle influence energy intake and expenditure as well as eating preferences and behavior. OBJECTIVE: We examined the impact of a diet and exercise weight-loss program that was designed to target and moderate the effects of the menstrual cycle....... CONCLUSION: A differentiated diet and exercise program that is tailored to counteract food cravings and metabolic changes throughout the menstrual cycle may increase weight loss above that achieved with a traditional diet and exercise program in women who can comply with the program. This trial...... compared with the effect of simple energy restriction. DESIGN: A total of 60 healthy, overweight, premenopausal women were included in a 6-mo weight-loss program in which each subject consumed a diet of 1600 kcal/d. Subjects were randomly assigned to either a combined diet and exercise program...

  2. Commercial weight loss diets meet nutrient requirements in free living adults over 8 weeks: A randomised controlled weight loss trial

    Macdonald Ian; Robson Paula J; Baic Susan; Fox Kenneth R; deLooy Anne; Stanley Manana; Herriot Anne M; Hiscutt Rebecca; Truby Helen; Taylor Moira A; Ware Robert; Logan Catherine; Livingstone MBE

    2008-01-01

    Abstract Objective To investigate the effect of commercial weight loss programmes on macronutrient composition and micronutrient adequacy over a 2 month period. Design Adults were randomly allocated to follow the Slim Fast Plan, Weight Watchers Pure Points Programme, Dr Atkins' New Diet Revolution, or Rosemary Conley's "Eat Yourself Slim" Diet & Fitness Plan. Setting A multi-centre randomised controlled trial. Subjects 293 adults, mean age 40.3 years and a mean BMI 31.7 (range 27–38) were all...

  3. Who will lose weight? A reexamination of predictors of weight loss in women

    Barata José T

    2004-08-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background The purpose of this study was to analyze pretreatment predictors of short-term weight loss in Portuguese overweight and obese women involved in a weight management program. Behavioral and psychosocial predictors were selected a priori from previous results reported in American women who participated in a similar program. Methods Subjects were 140 healthy overweight/obese women (age, 38.3 ± 5.9 y; BMI, 30.3 ± 3.7 kg/m2 who participated in a 4-month lifestyle weight loss program consisting of group-based behavior therapy to improve diet and increase physical activity. At baseline, all women completed a comprehensive behavioral and psychosocial battery, in standardized conditions. Results Of all starting participants, 3.5% (5 subjects did not finish the program. By treatment's end, more than half of all women had met the recomended weight loss goals, despite a large variability in individual results (range for weight loss = 19 kg. In bivariate and multivariate correlation/regression analysis fewer previous diets and weight outcome evaluations, and to a lesser extent self-motivation and body image were significant and independent predictors of weight reduction, before and after adjustment for baseline weight. A negative and slightly curvilinear relationship best described the association between outcome evaluations and weight change, revealing that persons with very accepting evaluations (that would accept or be happy with minimal weight change lost the least amount of weight while positive but moderate evaluations of outcomes (i.e., neither low nor extremely demanding were more predictive of success. Among those subjects who reported having initiated more than 3–4 diets in the year before the study, very few were found to be in the most successful group after treatment. Quality of life, self-esteem, and exercise variables did not predict outcomes. Conclusions Several variables were confirmed as predictors of success in short

  4. Weight Change in a Commercial Web-Based Weight Loss Program and its Association With Website Use: Cohort Study

    Neve, Melinda; Morgan, Philip J; Clare E. Collins

    2011-01-01

    Background There is a paucity of information in the scientific literature on the effectiveness of commercial weight loss programs, including Web-based programs. The potential of Web-based weight loss programs has been acknowledged, but their ability to achieve significant weight loss has not been proven. Objective The objectives were to evaluate the weight change achieved within a large cohort of individuals enrolled in a commercial Web-based weight loss program for 12 or 52 weeks and to desc...

  5. The role of social support in weight loss maintenance: results from the MedWeight study.

    Karfopoulou, Eleni; Anastasiou, Costas A; Avgeraki, Evangelia; Kosmidis, Mary H; Yannakoulia, Mary

    2016-06-01

    The role of social support in weight management is not fully understood, as more support has been linked to both favorable and unfavorable outcomes. We examined social support in relation to weight loss maintenance, comparing between maintainers and regainers of weight loss. The MedWeight study is a Greek registry of people who have intentionally lost ≥10 % of their weight and are either maintaining this loss for over a year (maintainers), or have regained weight (regainers). Demographics and lifestyle habits questionnaires are completed online. Dietary assessment is carried out by two telephone 24 h recalls. Perceived social support was assessed by validated scales examining support from family and friends regarding healthy eating and exercise. 289 maintainers and 122 regainers participated. Regainers received more support compared to maintainers. However, maintainers reported receiving compliments and active participation, whereas regainers receiving verbal instructions and encouragements. Maintainers who received diet support displayed improved dietary intakes, such as lower energy intake; regainers' diet was unaffected by support. Positive, rather than instructive, support appears beneficial in weight loss maintenance. PMID:26801339

  6. Advances in Weight Loss Surgery: The Fully Robotic Gastric Bypass

    Full Text Available ... that have diabetes mellitus type II, and that’s diabetes associated with obesity. And there’s no question that the great thing about bariatric surgery is that the weight loss that’s associated with the ... be healed of their diabetes, which is a great thing. The other question ...

  7. Intentional Weight Loss Improved Performance in Obese Ischaemic Heart Patient

    Geiker, Nina; Myint, Khin Swe; Heck, Patrick;

    2014-01-01

    Aims: The risk of heart failure (HF) increases with BMI, but paradoxically obesity has been associated with reduced mortality in patients with HF. The effect of intentional or therapeutic weight loss on HF is not well known. We examined the effect of weight loss induced by low energy diet (LED) on...... physical performance and cardiovascular risk factors in obese patients with moderate-to-severe HF and/or ischaemic heart disease (IHD). Methods and Results: Results from two weight loss interventions at two centres, one in Denmark (DK - 12 week intervention in 21 subjects (14 LED, 7 controls)) and one in...... UK, (16 week intervention in 11 subjects (all LED, no controls) were combined for a total of 32 subjects with HF or IHD and median BMI 36.2 kg/m2 (range 30-50). Weight loss was initiated with LED (800 kcal/day) followed by energy restricted and protein-rich diet (1200 kcal/day). Physical performance...

  8. Advances in Weight Loss Surgery: The Fully Robotic Gastric Bypass

    Full Text Available ... two different principals for weight loss, one is restrictive in what we do. We actually take a ... the rest of the stomach, and that’s the restrictive part of the procedure. And it’s self-explanatory, ...

  9. Advances in Weight Loss Surgery: The Fully Robotic Gastric Bypass

    Full Text Available ... of the comorbidities, the diabetes especially. But as far as weight loss and the experience that we ... simple procedure, and it’s reversible. It’s approximately, as far as a cost, it’s probably pretty close to ...

  10. Collagen metabolism in obesity: the effect of weight loss

    Rasmussen, M H; Jensen, L T; Andersen, T;

    1995-01-01

    OBJECTIVE: To investigate the impact of obesity, fat distribution and weight loss on collagen turnover using serum concentrations of the carboxyterminal propeptide of type I procollagen (S-PICP) and the aminoterminal propeptide of type III pro-collagen (S-PIIINP) as markers for collagen turnover....

  11. Weight-Loss Surgery Helps Treat Type 2 Diabetes

    ... is defined as a BMI of 35 to 39.9. As an example, a 5-foot-8 person who weighs 240 pounds has a BMI of 36.5, the CDC says. Weight-loss surgery should also be considered to treat type 2 diabetes in people with a BMI of 30 to ...

  12. The role of carbohydrate in dietary prescription for weight loss

    Astrup, Arne

    to be shown whether a low-glycemic index diet provides benefits beyond this. Low-carbohydrate diets may be an option for inducing weight loss in obese patients, but a very low intake of carbohydrate-rich foods is not commensurate with a healthy and palatable diet in the long term. However, there is...

  13. Differential diagnosis of emotional disorders that cause weight loss.

    Garfinkel, P. E.; Garner, D. M.; Kaplan, A S; Rodin, G.; Kennedy, S.

    1983-01-01

    Recently, anorexia nervosa has received much attention in the scientific and lay press. As a result there is a danger that the other emotional disorders that can present with weight loss and vomiting will be overlooked. Case examples are presented for anorexia nervosa, conversion disorder, schizophrenia and depression. The presentation and treatment of these four disorders are compared.

  14. Energy Drinks, Weight Loss, and Disordered Eating Behaviors

    Jeffers, Amy J.; Vatalaro Hill, Katherine E.; Benotsch, Eric G.

    2014-01-01

    Objective: The present study examined energy drink consumption and relations with weight loss attempts and behaviors, body image, and eating disorders. Participants/Methods: This is a secondary analysis using data from 856 undergraduate students who completed the American College Health Association-National College Health Assessment II…

  15. The Impact of Acute and Chronic Weight Restriction and Weight Regulation practices on Physiological, Osteogenic, Metabolic and Cognitive Function in Elite Jockeys

    Dolan, Eimear

    2010-01-01

    Horse racing is a weight category sport. One of the key challenges facing jockeys is the pressure of “making weight” throughout the protracted racing season. Aim: The aim of this study was to examine the effect of a chronically weight restrictive lifestyle and acute weight loss practices on aspects of physiological, osteogenic, metabolic and cognitive function in jockeys. Methods: The primary aim was achieved through the completion of four related studies. Study One: The effect of a 4% reduct...

  16. Hepatic effects of dietary weight loss in morbidly obese subjects

    Andersen, T; Gluud, C; Franzmann, Magnus;

    1991-01-01

    This prospective study was carried out in order to evaluate the influence on liver morphology and function of a very-low-calorie formula diet. Fourty-one morbidly obese, non-alcoholic subjects had liver biopsy performed before and after a median weight loss of 34 kg. Fatty change improved (p less...... than 0.001), but 24% of the patients developed slight portal inflammation (p = 0.039) or slight portal fibrosis (p = 0.063). Patients developing portal fibrosis had a higher degree of fatty change at entry (p = 0.029), a more pronounced reduction of fatty change (p = 0.014) and a faster weight loss (p...... = 0.026). Liver biochemistry, which was of no individual diagnostic value, improved. It is concluded that morbidly obese subjects with a high degree of hepatic fatty change are at risk of developing portal inflammation and fibrosis when undergoing very fast dietary weight reductions....

  17. Smartphone applications to aid weight loss and management: current perspectives

    Sutton EF

    2016-07-01

    Full Text Available Elizabeth F Sutton, Leanne M Redman Pennington Biomedical Research Center, Louisiana State University, Baton Rouge, LA, USA Abstract: The development and dissemination of smart devices has cultivated a global environment of hyperconnectivity and increased our access to information. The paralleled launch and success of the Mobile Health industry has created a market of commercially available applications or “apps” along with tools or sensors, which allow the user to receive and collect personal health information. Apps and accompanying tools now allow an individual to “self-digitize” and, pertaining to weight management, monitor their body weight, caloric intake, physical activity, and more. These products possess the ability to improve the scalability of traditional in-person weight management services considering their near ubiquity, affordability, and capability to deliver information directly and personally to the user. However, similar to the dietary supplement market, the anecdotal value of these products has driven their popularity and acceptance by the general public without requirement of scientific validation or, in the area of weight management or diet/exercise, validation of the safety and efficacy by the Food and Drug Administration prior to market launch. By conducting a literature and clinical trial search, we found remarkably few active, completed, or published studies testing the efficacy of smart device applications using randomized controlled trials. Research efforts must be focused on illuminating the efficacy of behavioral interventions and remote self-monitoring for weight loss/maintenance treatment with true, randomized controlled trials. Keywords: smartphone, mobile phone, application, app, weight, weight loss, weight maintenance

  18. Fasting for weight loss: an effective strategy or latest dieting trend?

    Johnstone, A

    2015-05-01

    With the increasing obesity epidemic comes the search for effective dietary approaches for calorie restriction and weight loss. Here I examine whether fasting is the latest 'fad diet' as portrayed in popular media and discuss whether it is a safe and effective approach or whether it is an idiosyncratic diet trend that promotes short-term weight loss, with no concern for long-term weight maintenance. Fasting has long been used under historical and experimental conditions and has recently been popularised by 'intermittent fasting' or 'modified fasting' regimes, in which a very low-calorie allowance is allowed, on alternate days (ADF) or 2 days a week (5:2 diet), where 'normal' eating is resumed on non-diet days. It is a simple concept, which makes it easy to follow with no difficult calorie counting every other day. This approach does seem to promote weight loss, but is linked to hunger, which can be a limiting factor for maintaining food restriction. The potential health benefits of fasting can be related to both the acute food restriction and chronic influence of weight loss; the long-term effect of chronic food restriction in humans is not yet clear, but may be a potentially interesting future dietary strategy for longevity, particularly given the overweight epidemic. One approach does not fit all in the quest to achieve body weight control, but this could be a dietary strategy for consideration. With the obesity epidemic comes the search for dietary strategies to (i) prevent weight gain, (ii) promote weight loss and (iii) prevent weight regain. With over half of the population of the United Kingdom and other developed countries being collectively overweight or obese, there is considerable pressure to achieve these goals, from both a public health and a clinical perspective. Certainly not one dietary approach will solve these complex problems. Although there is some long-term success with gastric surgical options for morbid obesity, there is still a requirement

  19. Metabolic abnormalities associated with weight loss during chemoirradiation of head-and-neck cancer

    Purpose: Weight loss caused by acute mucositis and dysphagia is common during concurrent chemoirradiation (chemo-RT) of head-and-neck (HN) cancer. The metabolic consequences of weight loss during chemo-RT were investigated. Patients and Methods: Ninety-six patients with locally advanced HN cancer were treated from 1995 to 2001 on protocols that consisted of 1 to 2 cycles of induction cisplatin/5-fluorouracil followed by irradiation (70 Gy over 7 weeks) concurrent with cisplatin (100 mg/m2 every 3 weeks). Body weights and metabolic evaluations were obtained before and during induction chemotherapy and chemo-RT. Greatest percent changes in weight and in the laboratory values were calculated for each phase of therapy. Results: During induction chemotherapy, significant changes were found in BUN, BUN:creatinine ratio, HCO3, Mg, and albumin, but not in creatinine, Na, K, or weight. During chemo-RT, significant additional changes were observed in all parameters measured, including increases in BUN, creatinine, BUN: creatinine ratio, and HCO3 and decreases in Mg, albumin, Na, K, and weight. The magnitude of most of these changes was significantly greater during chemo-RT than during induction chemotherapy. During chemo-RT, 35% of the patients had more than 10% body weight loss and 6 patients had an increase in creatinine of more than 100%, including 5 patients with Grade 2 nephrotoxicity, all of whom had weight loss 10% or more. Significant correlations were found between weight loss and creatinine (p < 0.0001) or BUN (p = 0.0002) rises, but not with BUN:creatinine ratio or other metabolic changes. Age, gender, tobacco history, hypertension, and diabetes mellitus were not significant predictors of nephrotoxicity. Conclusions: Weight loss during cisplatin-containing chemo-RT was found to be associated with reduced kidney function. These findings do not establish cause-effect relationships; however, they highlight the importance of intensive supportive measures of nutrition

  20. Overweight men's motivations and perceived barriers towards weight loss

    Sabinsky, Marianne; Toft, U. N.; Raben, A.;

    2007-01-01

    motivated for weight loss, were recruited and distributed into four focus groups. The men were primarily unskilled workers. Overall 13 men participated and each group contained three or four participants. Intervention: The interview guide was partly structured, partly unstructured and the themes of the...... motive for losing weight was a strong desire to become more effective and a greater asset for one's workplace. Overweight subjects were considered less effective and attractive for the labour market. Conclusion: This study indicates that if men from lower socioeconomic backgrounds are to be motivated to...

  1. Adverse Psychiatric Effects Associated with Herbal Weight-Loss Products

    F. Saverio Bersani

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Obesity and overeating are among the most prevalent health concerns worldwide and individuals are increasingly using performance and image-enhancing drugs (PIEDs as an easy and fast way to control their weight. Among these, herbal weight-loss products (HWLPs often attract users due to their health claims, assumed safety, easy availability, affordable price, extensive marketing, and the perceived lack of need for professional oversight. Reports suggest that certain HWLPs may lead to onset or exacerbation of psychiatric disturbances. Here we review the available evidence on psychiatric adverse effects of HWLPs due to their intrinsic toxicity and potential for interaction with psychiatric medications.

  2. [Unhealthy weight loss. Erosion by apple cider vinegar].

    Gambon, D L; Brand, H S; Veerman, E C I

    2012-12-01

    Erosive tooth wear was diagnosed in the dentition of a 15-year-old girl with a Moroccan background. After an anamnesis, extensive analysis of possible risk factors and a study of the pattern of erosion, it was concluded that the erosive tooth wear was induced by daily consumption of a glass of apple cider vinegar Further investigation revealed that in North-African culture, women have used apple cider vinegar to achieve weight loss for generations. Bodybuilders are also known to make use of this method of weight reduction. PMID:23373303

  3. Evaluation of Acute Stress Disorder following Pregnancy Losses

    Hamit Sirri Keten

    2015-06-01

    Conclusion: The study revealed that symptoms of posttraumatic stress disorder increased after pregnancy losses. It is of great importance to provide social and psychological support for the couples experiencing a pregnancy loss in terms of their wellbeing. Inability to implement support mechanisms effectively in cases of increased acute stress such as pregnancy loss can predispose to progression to posttraumatic stress disorder. [Cukurova Med J 2015; 40(2.000: 226-232

  4. Radiologic findings and weight loss following gastroplasty for morbid obesity

    Miskowiak, J.; Fleckenstein, P.; Andersen, B.

    Gastroplasty aimed at treatment of morbid obesity creates a small proximal pouch and a narrow stoma to the remainder of the stomach. In 11 consecutive obese patients subjected to gastroplasty radiologic examinations of the stomach were performed before operation and one week, 3 and 12 months postoperatively. All stomachs were normal before operation. A significant decrease in pouch area and increase in stoma diameter were registered over the observation period. There were no statistically significant correlations between postoperative weight loss and stoma diameter or pouch area. Nor was retention in the pouch one week after gastroplasty related to weight loss. Radiographic evidence of gastroesophageal reflux was present in only one patient. The described method of follow-up is evidently not suited to predict the outcome of gastroplasty.

  5. Radiologic findings and weight loss following gastroplasty for morbid obesity

    Gastroplasty aimed at treatment of morbid obesity creates a small proximal pouch and a narrow stoma to the remainder of the stomach. In 11 consecutive obese patients subjected to gastroplasty radiologic examinations of the stomach were performed before operation and one week, 3 and 12 months postoperatively. All stomachs were normal before operation. A significant decrease in pouch area and increase in stoma diameter were registered over the observation period. There were no statistically significant correlations between postoperative weight loss and stoma diameter or pouch area. Nor was retention in the pouch one week after gastroplasty related to weight loss. Radiographic evidence of gastroesophageal reflux was present in only one patient. The described method of follow-up is evidently not suited to predict the outcome of gastroplasty. (orig.)

  6. Mindfulness as a Weight Loss Treatment for Veterans.

    Stanton, Michael V; Matsuura, Justin; Fairchild, Jennifer Kaci; Lohnberg, Jessica A; Bayley, Peter J

    2016-01-01

    Despite substantial evidence for their effectiveness in treating disordered eating and obesity, mindfulness-based treatments have not been broadly implemented among Veterans. A number of reviews have reported mindfulness to be beneficial in promoting healthy eating behaviors and weight loss among non-Veteran samples. We discuss this approach in the context of the Veterans Affairs system, the largest integrated healthcare provider in the U.S. and in the context of Veterans, among whom obesity is at epidemic proportions. In this article, we discuss what is known about treating obesity using a mindfulness approach, mindfulness interventions for Veterans, a new pilot mindfulness-based weight loss program designed for Veterans, and future directions for this type of obesity treatment in Veterans. We conclude that this population may be uniquely poised to benefit from mindfulness-based treatments. PMID:27574603

  7. Postprandial coagulation activation in overweight individuals after weight loss

    Bladbjerg, Else-Marie; Larsen, Thomas Meinert; Due, Anette Pia;

    2014-01-01

    . This was tested in a parallel intervention trial on overweight individuals (aged 28.4 (SD 4.7) years) randomly assigned to a MUFA-diet (35-45% of energy as fat; >20% as MUFA, n=21) or a low-fat (LF) diet (20-30% of energy as fat, n=22) for 6months after a weight loss of ~10%. All foods were provided...

  8. Intracranial germinoma presenting as anorexia and unexplained weight loss

    Shashank Kraleti

    2014-05-01

    Full Text Available Objective: To describe a patient with germinoma of pineal body who presented with anorexia and unexplained weight loss of 70 pounds. Case Summary: A 23-year-old man with no significant past medical history presented with nausea, vomiting, anorexia and weight loss of 70 pounds over a period of 6–8 months. Magnetic resonance imaging (MRI scans demonstrated tumor lesions that were confirmed as germinoma histologically. A good treatment response to surgery, radiation, chemotherapy and alleviation of symptomatology was achieved. The postoperative neurological and MRI follow-up corresponded with the clinical course of the disease and the results of therapeutic procedures. Discussion: There were few reports of unexplained weight loss and anorexia, which was misdiagnosed as anorexia nervosa but later, found to be germinoma. Intracranial germinomas have a reported 90% survival to five years after diagnosis. Germinomas, like several other types of germ cell tumor, are sensitive to both chemotherapy and radiotherapy. Conclusions: In the initial stages, the differentiation of organic and functional symptoms and the diagnosis of central nervous system tumour may be difficult. Although their good prognosis, the review of available literature suggest that they are a diagnostic and therapeutic challenge. Our notices with this case signify the importance of considering organic disorder before making a diagnosis of depression or anorexia nervosa, particularly if the presentation is a typical. Through this case report, clinicians will be able to appreciate the need to be aware of germinoma as a possible cause of unexplained weight loss. Also, to bear in mind that the complaint of vomiting without a known etiology should facilitate considering a central cause

  9. Obesity-induced Lymphedema Nonreversible following Massive Weight Loss

    Greene, Arin K.; Grant, Frederick D; Maclellan, Reid A.

    2015-01-01

    Summary: Lymphedema is the progressive enlargement of tissue due to inadequate lymphatic function. Obesity-induced lymphedema of the lower extremities can occur once a patient’s body mass index (BMI) exceeds 50. We report our first patient with obesity-induced lower extremity lymphedema who was followed prospectively before and after weight loss. A 46-year-old woman with a BMI of 80 presented to our Lymphedema Program complaining of bilateral lower extremity swelling. Lymphoscintigraphy showe...

  10. Weight loss diets advertised in non-scientific publications

    Amancio Olga Maria Silverio; Chaud Daniela Maria Alves

    2004-01-01

    Weight-loss diets advertised in mainstream non-scientific publications and targeting the adult female public were evaluated in relation to total energy value, macronutrients, calcium, iron, vitamins A and E, and cholesterol content, as well as the presence of information regarding the duration of diets, fluid intake, physical activity, and maintenance diets. Two publications were selected, considering periodicity, circulation, readership, and years in publication. The Virtual Nutri software w...

  11. Psychiatric Considerations of the Massive Weight Loss Patient

    Sarwer, David B.; Fabricatore, Anthony N.

    2008-01-01

    As bariatric surgery for extreme obesity continues to grow in popularity, so does interest in post-bariatric surgery body contouring surgery. There is an extensive literature on the psychological characteristics of persons with extreme obesity who undergo bariatric surgery, as well as the psychological changes that typically occur postoperatively. Far less, however, is known about the psychological aspects of body contouring following massive weight loss. In this article, we review the psycho...

  12. Incentive Design to Enhance the Reach of Weight Loss Program

    You, Wen; Hashemi, Ali; Boyle, Kevin J.; Christopher F. Parmeter; Kanninen, Barbara; Estabrooks, Paul A.

    2011-01-01

    This study employed stated-preference methods to elicit individuals’ program participation preference towards different financial incentive attributes. The results of this study show promise for the use of carefully designed incentive programs to raise participation in weight loss programs. Results show that a fungible payment form is important for the incentive to be effective in reach (i.e., cash and grocery gift-cards are preferred over gym passes and waivers of insurance co-payments). Fur...

  13. Some ethical reflections on weight-loss diets

    ERTİN, Hakan; ÖZALTAY, Bülent

    2011-01-01

    To assess how weight-loss diets tend to move away from the authority of conventional medicine and become a field of abuse. Endocrinologists and specialists on metabolic diseases are rarely called upon to speak about obesity, whereas physicians from unrelated fields or nonphysicians frequently appear in the media. Materials and methods: The literature related with the field was reviewed and interpreted from an ethical perspective. Results: It is presented medically doubtful solutions via ...

  14. Regular exercise attenuates the metabolic drive to regain weight after long-term weight loss

    MacLean, Paul S.; Higgins, Janine A.; Wyatt, Holly R.; Melanson, Edward L.; Johnson, Ginger C.; Jackman, Matthew R.; Giles, Erin D.; Brown, Ian E.; Hill, James O.

    2009-01-01

    Weight loss is accompanied by several metabolic adaptations that work together to promote rapid, efficient regain. We employed a rodent model of regain to examine the effects of a regular bout of treadmill exercise on these adaptations. Obesity was induced in obesity-prone rats with 16 wk of high-fat feeding and limited physical activity. Obese rats were then weight reduced (∼14% of body wt) with a calorie-restricted, low-fat diet and maintained at that reduced weight for 8 wk by providing li...

  15. Weight loss and survival of Biomphalaria Glabrata deprived of water

    Marc Vianey-Liaud

    1986-06-01

    Full Text Available Immature and mature Biomphalaria glabrata are kept out of water at relative humidities varying from 0 to 100%. When snails are submitted to a saturated atmosphere, they show a slow weight loss and survival may be long. If relative humidity (RH decreases, weight loss becomes important and survival is short. A reduced RH (0 to 65% produces similar effects. During desiccation, fasting has no noticeable effect; survival depends essentially on weight loss.Biomphalaria glabrata maduros ou imaturos são mantidos fora da água, variando a umidade de 0 a 100%. Quando caramujos são submetidos a uma atmosfera saturada, sofrem uma lenta perda de peso e a sobrevivência pode ser longa. Se a umidade relativa decresce, a perda de peso será importante e a sobrevida será abreviada. Uma umidade relativa de 0 a 65% pode produzir efeitos similares. Durante a dessecação, a privação de alimento não tem efeito notável, a sobrevivência dependendo essencialmente da perda de peso.

  16. Herbal Weight Loss Pill Overdose: Sibutramine Hidden in Pepper Pill

    Gul Pamukcu Gunaydin

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Supposedly herbal weight loss pills are sold online and are widely used in the world. Some of these products are found to contain sibutramine by FDA and their sale is prohibited. We report a case of a female patient who presented to the emergency department after taking slimming pills. 17-year-old female patient presented to the emergency room with palpitations, dizziness, anxiety, and insomnia. She stated that she had taken 3 pills named La Jiao Shou Shen for slimming purposes during the day. Her vital signs revealed tachycardia. On her physical examination, she was restless, her oropharynx was dry, her pupils were mydriatic, and no other pathological findings were found. Sibutramine intoxication was suspected. She was given 5 mg IV diazepam for restlessness. After supportive therapy and observation in emergency department for 12 hours there were no complications and the patient was discharged home. Some herbal pills that are sold online for weight loss have sibutramine hidden as an active ingredient, and their sale is prohibited for this reason. For people who use herbal weight loss drugs, sibutramine excessive intake should be kept in mind at all times.

  17. Diffusion-weighted imaging in acute demyelinating myelopathy

    Zecca, Chiara; Cereda, Carlo; Tschuor, Silvia; Staedler, Claudio; Nadarajah, Navarajah; Bassetti, Claudio L.; Gobbi, Claudio [Ospedale Regionale di Lugano, Servizio di Neurologia e Neuroradiologia, Neurocenter of Southern Switzerland, Lugano (Switzerland); Wetzel, Stephan [Swiss Neuro Institute (SNI), Abteilung fuer Neuroradiologie, Hirslanden Klinik Zuerich, Zuerich (Switzerland); Santini, Francesco [University of Basel Hospital, Division of Radiological Physics, Basel (Switzerland)

    2012-06-15

    Diffusion-weighted imaging (DWI) has become a reference MRI technique for the evaluation of neurological disorders. Few publications have investigated the application of DWI for inflammatory demyelinating lesions. The purpose of the study was to describe diffusion-weighted imaging characteristics of acute, spinal demyelinating lesions. Six consecutive patients (two males, four females; aged 28-64 years) with acute spinal cord demyelinating lesions were studied in a prospective case series design from June 2009 to October 2010. We performed magnetic resonance imaging studies from 2 to 14 days from symptom onset on the patients with relapsing remitting multiple sclerosis (n = 3) or clinically isolated syndrome (n = 3). Main outcome measures were diffusion-weighted imaging and apparent diffusion coefficient pattern (ADC) of acute spinal cord demyelinating lesions. All spinal lesions showed a restricted diffusion pattern (DWI+/ADC-) with a 24% median ADC signal decrease. A good correlation between clinical presentation and lesion site was observed. Acute demyelinating spinal cord lesions show a uniform restricted diffusion pattern. Clinicians and neuro-radiologists should be aware that this pattern is not necessarily confirmatory for an ischaemic aetiology. (orig.)

  18. Lifestyle medicine consulting walking meetings for sustained weight loss.

    Frates, Elizabeth Pegg; Crane, Margaret E

    2016-01-01

    With rates of obesity and diabetes rising worldwide, effective ways of managing weight are becoming more important. We present the case study of a middle-aged Caucasian-American woman (body mass index (BMI) 27.8, overweight category) who wanted to lose weight. The patient participated in a behaviour modification programme with a physician trained in lifestyle medicine as well as health and wellness coaching. After the 14-week programme, which included 9, 1 h long walking sessions with the clinician, the patient lost 11 Ibs (BMI 24.7, normal category). The programme included a combination of increasing physical activity, eating appropriate quantities of healthy foods, goal setting and a positive attitude. The patient has kept her BMI at or below 24.1 for over 2 years. This case demonstrates a novel approach to weight loss management--walking therapeutic sessions--and also outlines critical components of lifestyle medicine counselling that facilitate the process of sustainable weight loss and lasting change. PMID:26833954

  19. Maintenance of weight loss after lifestyle interventions for overweight and obesity, a systematic review

    Barte, J. C. M.; ter Bogt, N. C. W.; Bogers, R. P.; Teixeira, P. J.; Blissmer, B.; Mori, T. A.; Bemelmans, W. J. E.

    2010-01-01

    P>Lifestyle interventions can reduce body weight, but weight regain is common and may particularly occur with higher initial weight loss. If so, one may argue whether the 10% weight loss in clinical guidelines is preferable above a lower weight loss. This systematic review explores the relation betw

  20. Nonequilibrium thermodynamics and energy efficiency in weight loss diets

    Fine Eugene J

    2007-07-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Carbohydrate restriction as a strategy for control of obesity is based on two effects: a behavioral effect, spontaneous reduction in caloric intake and a metabolic effect, an apparent reduction in energy efficiency, greater weight loss per calorie consumed. Variable energy efficiency is established in many contexts (hormonal imbalance, weight regain and knock-out experiments in animal models, but in the area of the effect of macronutrient composition on weight loss, controversy remains. Resistance to the idea comes from a perception that variable weight loss on isocaloric diets would somehow violate the laws of thermodynamics, that is, only caloric intake is important ("a calorie is a calorie". Previous explanations of how the phenomenon occurs, based on equilibrium thermodynamics, emphasized the inefficiencies introduced by substrate cycling and requirements for increased gluconeogenesis. Living systems, however, are maintained far from equilibrium, and metabolism is controlled by the regulation of the rates of enzymatic reactions. The principles of nonequilibrium thermodynamics which emphasize kinetic fluxes as well as thermodynamic forces should therefore also be considered. Here we review the principles of nonequilibrium thermodynamics and provide an approach to the problem of maintenance and change in body mass by recasting the problem of TAG accumulation and breakdown in the adipocyte in the language of nonequilibrium thermodynamics. We describe adipocyte physiology in terms of cycling between an efficient storage mode and a dissipative mode. Experimentally, this is measured in the rate of fatty acid flux and fatty acid oxidation. Hormonal levels controlled by changes in dietary carbohydrate regulate the relative contributions of the efficient and dissipative parts of the cycle. While no experiment exists that measures all relevant variables, the model is supported by evidence in the literature that 1 dietary carbohydrate, via its

  1. Naltrexone + bupropion (Mysimba). Too risky for only modest weight loss.

    2015-10-01

    Weight loss and its long-term maintenance are mainly based on dietary measures and regular physical activity. There are currently no weight-loss medications with a favourable harm-benefit balance. Bupropion is chemically related to certain amphetamines, while naltrexone is an opioid receptor antagonist. A fixed-dose combination of these two drugs has received marketing authorisation in the European Union for obese patients and for over-weight patients with other cardiovascular risk factors. In five placebo-controlled, randomised, double-blind trials, the patients, weighing on average between 100 kg and 105 kg (average body mass index 36 kg/m2), the naltrexone + bupropion combination was associated with an average weight loss of a few additional kilograms compared with placebo, after 6 months or one year of treatment. There are no post-trial follow-up data to show whether or not the patients regained their lost weight after treatment discontinuation. One trial including more than 8900 patients examined the effect of the naltrexone + bupropion combination on the freauency of maior cardiovascular events, but poor handling of an interim analysis undermined the validity of the final results. The known adverse effects of bupropion consist of potentially severe neuropsychiatric disorders such as aggressiveness, depression and suicidal ideation, and also allergic reactions, including Stevens-Johnson syndrome. Misuse and excessive consumption have been reported. In trials in obese or overweight patients, the naltrexone + bupropion combination caused sometimes severe neuropsychiatric disorders, including seizures, cognitive impairment, dizziness, anxiety, sleep disorders and psychotic symptoms. In clinical trials, the combination led to an increase in blood pressure compared with placebo, and also an excess of cardiac arrhythmias. About half of patients who took naltrexone + bupropion experienced gastrointestinal disorders such as nausea, vomiting and constipation. The

  2. Self-Directed Weight Loss Strategies: Energy Expenditure Due to Physical Activity Is Not Increased to Achieve Intended Weight Loss

    Ulf Elbelt; Tatjana Schuetz; Nina Knoll; Silke Burkert

    2015-01-01

    Reduced physical activity and almost unlimited availability of food are major contributors to the development of obesity. With the decline of strenuous work, energy expenditure due to spontaneous physical activity has attracted increasing attention. Our aim was to assess changes in energy expenditure, physical activity patterns and nutritional habits in obese subjects aiming at self-directed weight loss. Methods: Energy expenditure and physical activity patterns were measured with a portable ...

  3. Smartphone applications to aid weight loss and management: current perspectives

    Sutton, Elizabeth F; Redman, Leanne M

    2016-01-01

    The development and dissemination of smart devices has cultivated a global environment of hyperconnectivity and increased our access to information. The paralleled launch and success of the Mobile Health industry has created a market of commercially available applications or “apps” along with tools or sensors, which allow the user to receive and collect personal health information. Apps and accompanying tools now allow an individual to “self-digitize” and, pertaining to weight management, monitor their body weight, caloric intake, physical activity, and more. These products possess the ability to improve the scalability of traditional in-person weight management services considering their near ubiquity, affordability, and capability to deliver information directly and personally to the user. However, similar to the dietary supplement market, the anecdotal value of these products has driven their popularity and acceptance by the general public without requirement of scientific validation or, in the area of weight management or diet/exercise, validation of the safety and efficacy by the Food and Drug Administration prior to market launch. By conducting a literature and clinical trial search, we found remarkably few active, completed, or published studies testing the efficacy of smart device applications using randomized controlled trials. Research efforts must be focused on illuminating the efficacy of behavioral interventions and remote self-monitoring for weight loss/maintenance treatment with true, randomized controlled trials. PMID:27486338

  4. Smartphone applications to aid weight loss and management: current perspectives.

    Sutton, Elizabeth F; Redman, Leanne M

    2016-01-01

    The development and dissemination of smart devices has cultivated a global environment of hyperconnectivity and increased our access to information. The paralleled launch and success of the Mobile Health industry has created a market of commercially available applications or "apps" along with tools or sensors, which allow the user to receive and collect personal health information. Apps and accompanying tools now allow an individual to "self-digitize" and, pertaining to weight management, monitor their body weight, caloric intake, physical activity, and more. These products possess the ability to improve the scalability of traditional in-person weight management services considering their near ubiquity, affordability, and capability to deliver information directly and personally to the user. However, similar to the dietary supplement market, the anecdotal value of these products has driven their popularity and acceptance by the general public without requirement of scientific validation or, in the area of weight management or diet/exercise, validation of the safety and efficacy by the Food and Drug Administration prior to market launch. By conducting a literature and clinical trial search, we found remarkably few active, completed, or published studies testing the efficacy of smart device applications using randomized controlled trials. Research efforts must be focused on illuminating the efficacy of behavioral interventions and remote self-monitoring for weight loss/maintenance treatment with true, randomized controlled trials. PMID:27486338

  5. Weight loss during pelvic irradiation: Cobalt-60 vs. 10 MV

    The effect of radiotherapy treatment unit and technique on body weight loss during 5 to 6 weeks of pelvic irradiation was assessed in 129 patients with cervix or endometrial cancer. The patients treated with the 60Co APPA technique lost 2.91 +- 2.28 percent, whereas the patients treated with the 10-MV APPA technique lost only 1.30 +- 2.58 percent (P = 0.003). The patients treated with the 60Co box technique lost 4.36 +- 3.85 percent and the patients treated with the 10-MV box technique lost 2.00 +- 2.69 percent (P = 0.04). Patients treated with 60Co experienced more nausea during treatment than the 10-MV patients but the incidence of diarrhea was similar for the treatment units. Weight loss during radiotherapy was somewhat greater for cervix patients and for patients having advanced disease but was not adversely affected by previous pelvic surgery. We conclude technical factors such as treatment unit and technique can influence the amount of weight lost by patients during pelvic irradiation. (orig.)

  6. Significance in diagnosis of acute cerebral ischemia by diffusion-weighted and perfusion-weighted images

    Ikawa, Fusao; Kurisu, Kaoru; Arita, Kazunori; Migita, Keisuke; Akimitsu, Tomohide; Takeshita, Shinichiro; Chen, Shuda; Itoh, Katsuhide [Hiroshima Univ. (Japan). School of Medicine

    2000-07-01

    The purpose of this study was to diagnose acute stroke by diffusion-weighted imaging (DWI) and perfusion-weighted imaging (PWI) using echo planar imaging (EPI) with special reference to the corticospinal tract and hemodynamics. Six cases of acute stroke within 72 hours of onset were imaged with FLAIR, DWI and PWI. All studies were performed using a 1.5 T Signa Horizon MRI scanner (GE YMS). The imaging parameters of the DWI were employed in phase, frequency, and slice encode directions in four time frames; b=250, 500, 750, 1000 s/mm{sup 2}. DWI was imaged with single shot SE type EPI, TE=120 ms, matrix=100 x 100, 1 NEX, thickness 6 mm, FOV 40 cm. PWI was performed with single shot gradient echo type echo-planar technique during the injection of 0.2 mmol per kilogram of body weight of gadopentate dimeglumine, TE=42 ms, matrix=128 x 128, 1 NEX, thickness 6 mm, FOV 30 cm. Apparent diffusion coefficient (ADC) map, relative cerebral blood volume (rCBV) map, and relative mean transit time (rMTT) map were reconstructed by workstation. All six acute infarctions could be imaged by DWI. In phase directional DWI, the relationship between infarction and corticospinal tract was easily detected. A perfusion map could reveal a larger area with disturbance of hemodynamics around the acute infarction. In conclusion, diffusion-weighted imaging was useful for the diagnosis of acute stage cerebral infarction. Perfusion-weighted imaging was useful as a simple model of cerebral hemodynamics in cerebral infarction. (author)

  7. Pattern of Weight Loss of Young Female and Male Wrestlers.

    Viveiros, Luis; Moreira, Alexandre; Zourdos, Michael C; Aoki, Marcelo S; Capitani, Caroline D

    2015-11-01

    The aim of this study was to investigate the magnitude of rapid weight loss (RWL) of female and male young wrestlers at the Brazilian high-school games. High-school wrestlers (females: n = 16, 13 ± 2 years; males: n = 15, 13 ± 2 years) participated in this study. The official weigh-in was conducted 24 hours before competition. Immediately after the official weigh-in, wrestlers completed a hydration habits and a standardized weight loss questionnaires. Twenty-four hours later, wrestlers took part in an unofficial prematch weigh-in. Sodium, potassium, chloride, hematocrit, and hemoglobin were measured immediately before the first competitive match by iSTAT Blood Gas Analyzer. A significant body mass increase was observed from the official weigh-in to the prematch weigh-in (females: 2.7 ± 1.4 kg and males: 1.5 ± 0.9 kg; p ≤ 0.05) with significantly greater body mass increase in females (6.3%) vs. males (3.1%) (p ≤ 0.05). Rapid weight loss practices were exercised by 42.0% of the wrestlers. Furthermore, 46.2% of those who performed RWL practices reported side effects, which they perceived negatively altered past performance. Despite RWL and subsequent body mass increase, all biomarkers (sodium, potassium, chloride, hematocrit, and hemoglobin) were in the normal range at the prematch weigh-in. The majority (82.0%) of the athletes agreed that hydration habits are important to health and performance. It seems that although wrestlers acknowledge negative performance effects due to RWL, the practice is still exercised among both female and male wrestlers. Therefore, educational programs should be implemented in high-school athletes to discourage RWL and provide information for exercise and nutritional strategies to maintain a healthy body mass and avoid chronic health issues. PMID:25932982

  8. Initial very low calorie diet (VLCD) improves ultimate weight loss

    Quaade, F; Astrup, A

    1989-01-01

    alone (12.3 kg (4.1-28.8], than group 1 (8.7 kg (-1.1 to 19.1), P = 0.008; and 7.3 kg (0.9-18.2 P = 0.01). Weight losses in both groups eliminated or strongly reduced the need for a wide variety of expensive drugs: antidiabetics, diuretics, antihypertensives, analgetics, etc. It is concluded that VLCD...... = 18): VLCD for 2 months or more. The two groups were comparable with regard to height, absolute weight and percentual overweight, but group 2 was somewhat older than group 1 (49.5 vs 38.3 years, P less than 0.01). Group 2 lost significantly more weight, both totally (17.1 kg (7.8-40.1] and on VLCD...... is an effective and encouraging way of starting a dieting program, and that it should be continued for at least two months, as the length of the initial VLCD period related significantly to the amount of weight eventually lost....

  9. Tackling obesity: new therapeutic agents for assisted weight loss

    JG Karam

    2010-04-01

    Full Text Available JG Karam1, SI McFarlane21SUNY-Downstate-Kings County Hospital, Brooklyn, NY, USA, Maimonides Medical Center, Brooklyn, NY, USA; 2Division of Endocrinology, College of Medicine, State University of New York-Downstate Medical Center, New York, USAAbstract: The pandemic of overweight and obesity continues to rise in an alarming rate in western countries and around the globe representing a major public health challenge in desperate need for new strategies tackling obesity. In the United States nearly two thirds of the population is overweight or obese. Worldwide the number of persons who are overweight or obese exceeded 1.6 billion. These rising figures have been clearly associated with increased morbidity and mortality. For example, in the Framingham study, the risk of death increases with each additional pound of weight gain even in the relatively younger population between 30 and 42 years of age. Overweight and obesity are also associated with increased co-morbid conditions such as diabetes, hypertension and cardiovascular disease as well as certain types of cancer. In this review we discuss the epidemic of obesity, highlighting the pathophysiologic mechanisms of weight gain. We also provide an overview of the assessment of overweight and obese individuals discussing possible secondary causes of obesity. In a detailed section we discuss the currently approved therapeutic interventions for obesity highlighting their mechanisms of action and evidence of their efficacy and safety as provided in clinical trials. Finally, we discuss novel therapeutic interventions that are in various stages of development with a special section on the weight loss effects of anti-diabetic medications. These agents are particularly attractive options for our growing population of obese diabetic individuals.Keywords: obesity, assisted weight loss, therapy

  10. [Weight loss and night sweats with unexpected tumor localization].

    Oberholzer, C; Sawatzki, M; Rothermundt, C

    2007-11-28

    A 52-year-old patient presented himself with weight loss and night sweats. Laboratory analyses revealed a high sedimentation rate, elevated immunoglobulines and anaemia with sludge phenomenon. Differential diagnoses included Multiple Myeloma and Lymphoma. Having a risk constellation for HIV infection and just having recovered from oral thrush also made this diagnosis possible. Urinary analysis and chest x-ray were normal; however, CT-scan detected renal cell cancer with pulmonary metastases. Renal cell cancer is heterogeneous in presentation, symptoms are unspecific, therefore they are often discovered late when they have already metastasized. Paraneoplastic syndromes, e.g. hypercalcaemia or hypertension are not infrequent in renal cell cancer. PMID:18072582

  11. Time course and determinants of leptin decline during weight loss in obese boys and girls

    Holm, Jens-Christian; Gamborg, Michael; Kaas-Ibsen, Karsten;

    2007-01-01

    OBJECTIVE: To investigate whether changes in leptin concentrations during weight loss can be explained by gender, puberty, baseline adiposity and changes in adiposity, body composition, rate of weight loss, physical activity and insulin concentrations. DESIGN: A longitudinal study with 9 repeated......, body composition, rate of weight loss, physical activity scores and insulin concentrations. The dissociation of the leptin-weight relationship during weight loss may contribute to the general leptin variability in obese subjects....

  12. Resistant starch and energy balance: impact on weight loss and maintenance

    Higgins, Janine A.

    2014-01-01

    The obesity epidemic has prompted researchers to find effective weight loss and maintenance tools. Weight loss and subsequent maintenance are reliant on energy balance; the net difference between energy intake and energy expenditure. Negative energy balance, lower intake than expenditure, results in weight loss whereas positive energy balance, greater intake than expenditure, results in weight gain. Resistant starch has many attributes which could promote weight loss and/or maintenance includ...

  13. Diffusion-weighted MRI in acute cerebral stroke

    Takayama, Hideichi; Kobayashi, Masahito; Suga, Sadao; Kawase, Takeshi; Nagasawa, Masakazu; Sadanaga, Humiko; Okamura, Miyuki; Kanai, Yoshihiro; Mihara, Ban [Mihara Memorial Hospital, Isezaki, Gunma (Japan)

    1999-03-01

    Diffusion-weighted MRI has been demonstrated to be valuable in the assessment of cerebral stroke. Recent advance in MR systems of hardware with larger maximum gradient amplitude and faster imaging strategies, such as EPI, has made it possible to acquire whole brain diffusion-weighted imaging (DWI) in less that one minute. The purposes of this study are to evaluate clinical usefulness of DWI and to clarify pitfalls in the diagnosis of acute cerebral stroke. Seventeen patients with 18 ischemic lesions were studied. DWI were taken with 1.5 Tesla MRI (Magnetom Vision, Siemens, Germany) using EPI sequence. Fifteen lesions out of them (3 in cerebral cortex, 9 in basal ganglia/deep white matter and 3 in cerebellum) were studied serially at various times up to 147 days. Acute cerebral infarction was seen clearly as an area of hyperintensity with DWI and as hypointensity in apparent diffusion coefficient (ADC) maps which are indicative of decreased diffusion. DWI detected areas of hyperintense acute infarcts, as early as 2.5 hours after onset, which were not visualized on T{sub 2}-weighted image (T2WI). The lesion of cerebral infarction became isointense in ADC maps at 14-28 days after onset, whereas with DWI it became isointense at about 2 months. Because ADC changed earlier than DWI, ADC maps were useful for differentiate acute from nonacute lesion in cases of recurrent stroke within a short period. In a patient with transient global amnesia for 7 hours, DWI did not show any lesion at 8 hours. In terms of cerebral hemorrhage, lesions were seen as area of hyperintensity in DWI at 3 days and were not distinguishable from that of infarct. Despite limitations in the diagnosis of transient ischemia and cerebral hemorrhage, DWI is a useful technique for early detection of cerebral infarction, especially within the first 6 hours after stroke onset. (author)

  14. Diffusion-weighted MRI in acute cerebral stroke

    Diffusion-weighted MRI has been demonstrated to be valuable in the assessment of cerebral stroke. Recent advance in MR systems of hardware with larger maximum gradient amplitude and faster imaging strategies, such as EPI, has made it possible to acquire whole brain diffusion-weighted imaging (DWI) in less that one minute. The purposes of this study are to evaluate clinical usefulness of DWI and to clarify pitfalls in the diagnosis of acute cerebral stroke. Seventeen patients with 18 ischemic lesions were studied. DWI were taken with 1.5 Tesla MRI (Magnetom Vision, Siemens, Germany) using EPI sequence. Fifteen lesions out of them (3 in cerebral cortex, 9 in basal ganglia/deep white matter and 3 in cerebellum) were studied serially at various times up to 147 days. Acute cerebral infarction was seen clearly as an area of hyperintensity with DWI and as hypointensity in apparent diffusion coefficient (ADC) maps which are indicative of decreased diffusion. DWI detected areas of hyperintense acute infarcts, as early as 2.5 hours after onset, which were not visualized on T2-weighted image (T2WI). The lesion of cerebral infarction became isointense in ADC maps at 14-28 days after onset, whereas with DWI it became isointense at about 2 months. Because ADC changed earlier than DWI, ADC maps were useful for differentiate acute from nonacute lesion in cases of recurrent stroke within a short period. In a patient with transient global amnesia for 7 hours, DWI did not show any lesion at 8 hours. In terms of cerebral hemorrhage, lesions were seen as area of hyperintensity in DWI at 3 days and were not distinguishable from that of infarct. Despite limitations in the diagnosis of transient ischemia and cerebral hemorrhage, DWI is a useful technique for early detection of cerebral infarction, especially within the first 6 hours after stroke onset. (author)

  15. Initial weight loss on an 800-kcal diet as a predictor of weight loss success after 8 weeks: the Diogenes study

    Handjieva-Darlenska, T; Handjiev, S; Larsen, Thomas Meinert;

    2010-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to investigate whether pre-treatment subject characteristics and weight change during the first weeks of a low-calorie diet (LCD) can predict weight loss outcomes at the end of a controlled 8-week weight loss period in overweight and obese adults....

  16. Unexplained weight loss in an 80-year-old woman.

    Taylor, Imogen Aleksandra; Gill, Isaac; Harripaul, Azad

    2015-01-01

    An 80-year-old woman presented with long-standing history of weight loss and malnutrition, which had caused her to become reliant on the use of a wheelchair. Her symptoms were initially attributed to her medical comorbidities, however, during admission it became apparent that she had been suffering from depression and had gone on to develop an eating disorder. Eating disorders are most common in young adults but can affect all age groups, including the elderly population. The diagnosis is rarely considered in such patients and easily overlooked, especially when in the presence of chronic conditions and cognitive decline. A pre-existing psychiatric issue, most often depression, may also be present in this age group. There are no current treatment methods targeting patients in this population, who may not respond as effectively to the available strategies directed at young adults. It is important to always consider an eating disorder as a contributor or direct cause of unexplained weight loss in elderly patients. PMID:25618876

  17. Weight loss endoscopy: Development, applications, and current status.

    Kumar, Nitin

    2016-08-21

    Obesity and its comorbidities - including diabetes and obstructive sleep apnea - have taken a large and increasing toll on the United States and the rest of the world. The availability of commercial, clinical, and operative therapies for weight management have not been effective at a societal level. Endoscopic bariatric therapy is gaining acceptance as more effective than diet and lifestyle measures, and less invasive than bariatric surgery. Various endoscopic therapies are analogues of the restrictive or bypass components of bariatric surgery, utilizing gastric remodeling or intestinal anastomosis to achieve proven weight loss and metabolic benefits. Others, such as aspiration therapy, employ novel mechanisms of action. Intragastric balloons have recently been approved by the United States Food and Drug Administration, and a number of other technologies have completed large multicenter trials (such as AspireAssist aspiration therapy and Primary Obesity Surgery Endolumenal). Endoscopic sleeve gastroplasty and transoral outlet reduction for endoscopic revision of gastric bypass have proven safe and effective in a number of studies. As devices are approved for use, data will continue to accumulate for safety, effectiveness, and cost effectiveness. Bariatric endoscopists should be prepared to appropriately target and apply various endoscopic bariatric therapies in the context of a comprehensive long-term weight management program. PMID:27610017

  18. Disseminated neurocysticercosis presenting as isolated acute monocular painless vision loss

    Gaurav M Kasundra

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Neurocysticercosis, the most common parasitic infection of the nervous system, is known to affect the brain, eyes, muscular tissues and subcutaneous tissues. However, it is very rare for patients with ocular cysts to have concomitant cerebral cysts. Also, the dominant clinical manifestation of patients with cerebral cysts is either seizures or headache. We report a patient who presented with acute monocular painless vision loss due to intraocular submacular cysticercosis, who on investigation had multiple cerebral parenchymal cysticercal cysts, but never had any seizures. Although such a vision loss after initiation of antiparasitic treatment has been mentioned previously, acute monocular vision loss as the presenting feature of ocular cysticercosis is rare. We present a brief review of literature along with this case report.

  19. Burn wounds infected with Pseudomonas aeruginosa triggers weight loss in rats

    Su Grace

    2005-09-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Despite dramatic improvements in the management of burns, infection still remains a serious risk for the burn patient. The aim of this study was to shed light on the impact of acute burn injury with or without infection on cytokine profiles. Methods Sprague-Dawley rats (n = 21 were randomized into three groups: 1 burn only 2 burn and infection or 3 sham burn. Weight was monitored and blood was collected for cytokine ELISA, LPS quantification, and peripheral blood analysis. Animals were sacrificed either after 6 or 12 days. Results Infected animals showed substantial weight loss until day 6 post-burn as compared to burn alone. Endotoxin and TNF-α levels were elevated early in the infected burn group within 48 hours post-burn. In contrast, significant up-regulation of the anti-inflammatory cytokine IL-10 occurred later in the clinical course and was associated with the recovery from weight loss. Conclusion Our results suggest that in the presence of infection, you get a SIRS response possibly due to transient endotoxemia that is only seen in the infection group. In contrast, both burn and infection get a late IL-10 (CARS response, which is then associated with a return to normal weight in the infection group.

  20. Shaking weight loss away - Can vibration exercise reduce body fat?

    DARRYL COCHRANE

    2011-03-01

    Full Text Available An exercise modality that requires little time and physical exertion whilst providing the benefits of increased force, power, balance, flexibility, and weight loss would appeal to most people that may be at risk from an imbalanced lifestyle. One such exercise modality that has received a lot of attention has been vibration exercise (VbX, which evokes muscular work and elevates metabolic rate could be a potential method for weight reduction. Popular press has purported that VbX is quick, convenient, and 10 minutes of VbX is equivalent to one hour of traditional exercise, where it has been marketed as the new weight-loss and body toning workout. However, research studies have shown that muscle activation is elicited but the energy demand in response to VbX is quite low. Exhaustive VbX has been reported to produce a metabolic demand of 23 ml/kg/min compared to 44 ml/kg/min from an exhaustive cycle test. Different vibration frequencies have been tested with varying amplitudes and loads, but only small increases in metabolic rate have been reported. Based on these findings it has been indirectly calculated that a VbX session of 26Hz for 3 continuous minutes would only incur a loss of ~ 10.7g fat/hr. Following a 24-week programme of VbX, no observed differences were found in body composition and following 12 months of VbX the time to reach peak O2 was significantly higher in conventional exercise compared to VbX. However, one study has reported that percentage body fat decreased by 3.2% after eight months after VbX in comparison to resistance and control groups that performed no aerobic conditioning. The evidence to date, suggests that VbX can increase whole and local oxygen uptake; however, with additional load, high vibration frequency and/or amplitude it cannot match the demands of conventional aerobic exercise. Therefore, caution is required when VbX programmes are solely used for the purpose of reducing body fat without considering dietary and

  1. Prognostic markers for diet-induced weight loss in obese women

    Astrup, A; Buemann, B; Gluud, C;

    1995-01-01

    To identify prognostic metabolic and hormonal markers for long-term weight loss outcome in obese women.......To identify prognostic metabolic and hormonal markers for long-term weight loss outcome in obese women....

  2. [Weight loss and healing of ulcers - case report].

    Seremet, Jasmina; Laginja, Stanislava; Marinović, Marin

    2013-10-01

    Diabetes mellitus type 2 is one of the most common diseases with a prevalence increasing with age. If blood sugar is not controlled, complications arise and diabetic foot ulcer occurs. Depending on the blood vessels involved, we distinguish venous and arterial ulcers. Venous ulcers respond very well to modern methods of treatment such as compression therapy and hydrocolloid dressings, but for arterial ulcer prevention is most significant, e.g. weight loss, dietary modification, etc. The aim of this study was to show that despite all the available therapeutic options, we cannot cure ulcers completely because the patient's readiness to change his lifestyle plays a decisive role. Therefore, we present a patient having suffered from venous ulcers for several years and arterial ulcer that healed only after the patient had lost about 20 pounds. PMID:24371990

  3. On the Anomalous Weight Losses of High Voltage Symmetrical Capacitors

    Porcelli, Elio B

    2015-01-01

    In this work, we analyzed an anomalous effect verified from symmetrical capacitor devices, working in very high electric potentials. The mastery of that effect could mean in the future the possible substitution of propulsion technology based on fuels by single electrical propulsion systems. From experimental measurements, we detected small variations of the device inertia that cannot be associated with known interactions, so that the raised force apparently has not been completely elucidated by current theories. We measured such variations within an accurate range and we proposed that the experimental results can be explained by relations like Clausius-Mossotti one, in order to quantify the dipole forces that appear in the devices. The values of the weight losses in the capacitors were calculated by means of the theoretical proposal and indicated good agreement with our experimental measurements for 7kV and with many other experimental works.

  4. Quantitative and qualitative HPLC analysis of thermogenic weight loss products.

    Schaneberg, B T; Khan, I A

    2004-11-01

    An HPLC qualitative and quantitative method of seven analytes (caffeine, ephedrine, forskolin, icariin, pseudoephedrine, synephrine, and yohimbine) in thermogenic weight loss preparations available on the market is described in this paper. After 45 min the seven analytes were separated and detected in the acetonitrile: water (80:20) extract. The method uses a Waters XTerra RP18 (5 microm particle size) column as the stationary phase, a gradient mobile phase of water (5.0 mM SDS) and acetonitrile, and a UV detection of 210 nm. The correlation coefficients for the calibration curves and the recovery rates ranged from 0.994 to 0.999 and from 97.45% to 101.05%, respectively. The qualitative and quantitative results are discussed. PMID:15587578

  5. Predictors of weight loss in young adults who are over-weight or obese and have psychosocial problems

    Lous, Jørgen; Freund, Kirsten S.

    2016-01-01

    all 218 patients who have over-weight or obesity. A 23-pages questionnaire was completed before and 1 year after randomization. 111 patients had a one-hour preventive health consultation with their general practitioners focused on life coaching and a follow-up consultation within 3 months, and 107......-45 years with psychosocial problems for a randomized general preventive study to increase self-efficacy to achieve a self-prioritised goal for a better life by discussions of resources and barriers for reaching the goal. The present study is a post hoc analysis of possible predictors of weight loss among...... logistic regression model, predictors of weight loss or no weight loss were a) pre-interventional consideration of weight loss within 30 days, b) having weight loss as a prioritised goal for improved quality of life, c) being female, d) being in the oldest half of participants, and e) having many...

  6. [Plastic reconstructive operations after weight loss through gastric banding].

    Rhomberg, M; Piza-Katzer, H

    2002-09-01

    The number of patients who desire reconstructive surgery after a huge weight loss through gastric banding is increasing. From 1999 to 2001, 40 reconstructive operations were performed on 25 patients after an average decrease in weight of 58 kg. Six months later, a follow-up examination was done. A questionnaire was handed out and the aesthetic results were judged by five independent plastic surgeons. The department of psychology judged the patient's attitude towards their body, the presentation of their body for attractiveness, satisfaction with life, anxiety and depression, and changes in experience and behavior. The results showed a discrepancy between the subjective satisfaction of the patients and the judgment of the plastic surgeons; the preference for long scars instead of remaining surplus tissue, the necessity of a strict indication for transplantation of one's own tissue, the importance of detailed preoperative information using pictures, advantages and disadvantages of simultaneous operations in different anatomical regions, the need for exact planning and postoperative care as well as the importance of interdisciplinary teamwork. These results will influence the indication for a reconstructive operation in the future. PMID:12297958

  7. Losing Weight on Reality TV: A Content Analysis of the Weight Loss Behaviors and Practices Portrayed on The Biggest Loser.

    Klos, Lori A; Greenleaf, Christy; Paly, Natalie; Kessler, Molly M; Shoemaker, Colby G; Suchla, Erika A

    2015-01-01

    A number of weight loss-related reality television programs chronicle the weight loss experience of obese individuals in a competitive context. Although highly popular, such shows may misrepresent the behavior change necessary to achieve substantial weight loss. A systematic, quantitative content analysis of Seasons 10-13 (n = 66 episodes) of The Biggest Loser was conducted to determine the amount of time and number of instances that diet, physical activity, or other weight management strategies were presented. The average episode was 78.8 ± 15.7 min in length. Approximately 33.3% of an episode, representing 1,121 segments, portrayed behavioral weight management-related content. Within the episode time devoted to weight management content, 85.2% was related to physical activity, 13.5% to diet, and 1.2% to other. Recent seasons of The Biggest Loser suggest that substantial weight loss is achieved primarily through physical activity, with little emphasis on modifying diet and eating behavior. Although physical activity can impart substantial metabolic health benefits, it may be difficult to create enough of an energy deficit to induce significant weight loss in the real world. Future studies should examine the weight loss attitudes and behaviors of obese individuals and health professionals after exposure to reality television shows focused on weight loss. PMID:25909247

  8. Drug abuse and weight loss in HIV-infected Hispanic men

    Weight loss is an independent risk factor for mortality in HIV, but the role of drug use in HIV-related weight loss is not well described. We conducted this study to determine the role of drug abuse in HIV-related weight loss. Men (n=304), all of whom were Hispanic, were recruited into one of three ...

  9. Weight loss by calorie restriction versus bariatric surgery differentially regulates the hypothalamo-pituitary-adrenocortical axis in male rats.

    Grayson, Bernadette E; Hakala-Finch, Andrew P; Kekulawala, Melani; Laub, Holly; Egan, Ann E; Ressler, Ilana B; Woods, Stephen C; Herman, James P; Seeley, Randy J; Benoit, Stephen C; Ulrich-Lai, Yvonne M

    2014-12-01

    Behavioral modifications for the treatment of obesity, including caloric restriction, have notoriously low long-term success rates relative to bariatric weight-loss surgery. The reasons for the difference in sustained weight loss are not clear. One possibility is that caloric restriction alone activates the stress-responsive hypothalamo-pituitary-adrenocortical (HPA) axis, undermining the long-term maintenance of weight loss, and that this is abrogated after bariatric surgery. Accordingly, we compared the HPA response to weight loss in five groups of male rats: (1) high-fat diet-induced obese (DIO) rats treated with Roux-en-Y gastric bypass surgery (RYGB, n = 7), (2) DIO rats treated with vertical sleeve gastrectomy (VSG, n = 11), (3) DIO rats given sham surgery and subsequently restricted to the food intake of the VSG/RYGB groups (Pair-fed, n = 11), (4) ad libitum-fed DIO rats given sham surgery (Obese, n = 11) and (5) ad libitum chow-fed rats given sham surgery (Lean, n = 12). Compared with Lean controls, food-restricted rats exhibited elevated morning (nadir) non-stress plasma corticosterone concentration and increased hypothalamic corticotropin-releasing hormone and vasopressin mRNA expression, indicative of basal HPA activation. This was largely prevented when weight loss was achieved by bariatric surgery. DIO increased HPA activation by acute (novel environment) stress and this was diminished by bariatric surgery-, but not pair-feeding-, induced weight loss. These results indicate that the HPA axis is differentially affected by weight loss from caloric restriction versus bariatric surgery, and this may contribute to the differing long-term effectiveness of these two weight-loss approaches. PMID:25238021

  10. Caffeine Treatment Prevented from Weight Regain after Calorie Shifting Diet Induced Weight Loss

    Davoodi, Sayed Hossein; Hajimiresmaiel, Seyed Javad; Ajami, Marjan; Mohseni-Bandpei, Anoushiravan; Ayatollahi, Seyyed Abdulmajid; Dowlatshahi, Kamran; Javedan, Gholamali; Pazoki-Toroudi, Hamidreza

    2014-01-01

    Low calorie diets are always difficult for obese subjects to follow and lead to metabolic and behavioral adaptation. Therefore, we evaluated the effect of caffeine treatment with calorie shifting diet (CSD) on weight loss. Female subjects (n=60; BMI≥25) completed 4-weeks control diet, 6-weeks CSD (3 repeated phases; each 2-weeks) and 4-weeks follow-up diet, with or without caffeine treatment (5 mg/Kg/day). The first 11 days of each phase included calorie restriction with four meals every day ...

  11. Metabolic syndrome, circulating RBP4, testosterone, and SHBG predict weight regain at 6 months after weight loss in men

    Wang, Ping; Menheere, Paul P C A; Astrup, Arne;

    2013-01-01

    , adiponectin, retinol-binding protein 4 (RBP4), luteinizing hormone, prolactin, progesterone, total and free testosterone, and sex hormone-binding globulin (SHBG) were measured at baseline, after 8-week low-calorie diet-induced active weight loss, and after a subsequent 26-week ad libitum weight maintenance...... also the effect of basal MetS status on weight regain. DESIGN AND METHODS: Twenty-four men who continued to lose weight (WL) and 24 men who regained weight (WR) during the 6-month follow-up period after weight loss were selected from the Diogenes Study. Their circulating concentrations of leptin...... diet, and analyzed together with anthropometrical and physiological parameters. RESULTS AND CONCLUSIONS: Overweight and obese men with MetS at baseline had higher risk to regain weight (odds ratio=2.8, P=0.015). High baseline RBP4, and low total testosterone and low SHBG are predictors of weight loss...

  12. Assessing weight perception accuracy to promote weight loss among U.S. female adolescents: A secondary analysis

    Yost Jennifer

    2010-08-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Overweight and obesity have become a global epidemic. The prevalence of overweight and obesity among U.S. adolescents has almost tripled in the last 30 years. Results from recent systematic reviews demonstrate that no single, particular intervention or strategy successfully assists overweight or obese adolescents in losing weight. An understanding of factors that influence healthy weight-loss behaviors among overweight and obese female adolescents promotes effective, multi-component weight-loss interventions. There is limited evidence demonstrating associations between demographic variables, body-mass index, and weight perception among female adolescents trying to lose weight. There is also a lack of previous studies examining the association of the accuracy of female adolescents' weight perception with their efforts to lose weight. This study, therefore, examined the associations of body-mass index, weight perception, and weight-perception accuracy with trying to lose weight and engaging in exercise as a weight-loss method among a representative sample of U.S. female adolescents. Methods A nonexperimental, descriptive, comparative secondary analysis design was conducted using data from Wave II (1996 of the National Longitudinal Study of Adolescent Health (Add Health. Data representative of U.S. female adolescents (N = 2216 were analyzed using STATA statistical software. Descriptive statistics and survey weight logistic regression were performed to determine if demographic and independent (body-mass index, weight perception, and weight perception accuracy variables were associated with trying to lose weight and engaging in exercise as a weight-loss method. Results Age, Black or African American race, body-mass index, weight perception, and weight perceptions accuracy were consistently associated with the likeliness of trying to lose weight among U.S. female adolescents. Age, body-mass index, weight perception, and weight

  13. Performance on the Iowa gambling task is related to magnitude of weight loss and salivary cortisol in a diet-induced weight loss intervention in overweight women

    The overall objective of this study was to examine the relationship between executive function, specifically decision making, and weight loss. We used the Iowa Gambling Task (IGT) to characterize decision making and compared performance on this task to weight loss in obese women (n=29) participatin...

  14. Commercial weight loss diets meet nutrient requirements in free living adults over 8 weeks: A randomised controlled weight loss trial

    Macdonald Ian

    2008-09-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Objective To investigate the effect of commercial weight loss programmes on macronutrient composition and micronutrient adequacy over a 2 month period. Design Adults were randomly allocated to follow the Slim Fast Plan, Weight Watchers Pure Points Programme, Dr Atkins' New Diet Revolution, or Rosemary Conley's "Eat Yourself Slim" Diet & Fitness Plan. Setting A multi-centre randomised controlled trial. Subjects 293 adults, mean age 40.3 years and a mean BMI 31.7 (range 27–38 were allocated to follow one of the four diets or control group. Subjects completed a 7-day food and activity diary at baseline (prior to randomisation and after 2 months. Diet records were analysed for nutrient composition using WinDiets (research version. Results A significant shift in the macronutrient composition of the diet with concurrent alteration of the micronutrient profile was apparent with all diets. There was no evidence to suggest micronutrient deficiency in subjects on any of the dietary regimens. However, those sub-groups with higher needs for specific micronutrients, such as folate, iron or calcium may benefit from tailored dietary advice. Conclusion The diets tested all resulted in considerable macronutrient change and resulted in an energy deficit indicating dietary compliance. Health professionals and those working in community and public health should be reassured of the nutritional adequacy of the diets tested. Trial Registration Number NCT00327821

  15. Intentional weight loss and mortality among initially healthy men and women

    Simonsen, Mette K; Hundrup, Yrsa A; Obel, Erik B;

    2008-01-01

    increased mortality observed with weight loss must depend on confounding or poor study designs. This review was conducted to summarize results from studies on intentional weight loss and mortality among healthy individuals, while carefully considering the designs and problems in these studies. Evaluation...... criteria with a rating scale were developed. Of the studies evaluated, two found decreased mortality with intentional weight loss, three found increased mortality, and four found no significant associations between intentional weight loss and total mortality. Thus, it is still not possible for health...... authorities to make secure recommendations on intentional weight loss. More studies designed to specifically address this issue are warranted....

  16. Weight-Loss Practices and Weight-Related Issues Among Youth With Type 1 or Type 2 Diabetes

    Lawrence, Jean M.; Liese, Angela D.; Liu, Lenna; Dabelea, Dana; Anderson, Andrea; Imperatore, Giuseppina; Bell, Ronny

    2008-01-01

    OBJECTIVE—The purpose of this study was to describe the weight-loss practices and weight-related issues reported by youth with diabetes, according to sex and diabetes type. RESEARCH DESIGN AND METHODS—A total of 1,742 female and 1,615 male youth aged 10–21 years with type 1 or type 2 diabetes completed a SEARCH for Diabetes in Youth study visit during which height, weight, and A1C were measured. A survey assessed weight-related issues and weight-loss practices. RESULTS—Although more common in...

  17. Effectiveness of a Structured Intensive Weight Loss Program Using Health Educators

    Rohrer, James E; Harvey D. Cassidy; Diane Dressel; Barbara Cramer

    2008-01-01

    Background: Primary care providers may refer their patients to a variety of weight loss programs and diet plans. However, the relative effectiveness of the available options is not well understood. This retrospective study compared weight loss in an intensive structured (IS) program using health educators versus weight loss in the general population of primary care patients seeking to lose weight using less intensive (LI) methods. Methods: The IS program in this study is operated by Luther Mi...

  18. Difusion weighted imaging characteristics differentiate acute symptomatic cerebral microbleeds from silent microbleeds: An acute pontine microhemorrhage case presentation

    Arda Yılmaz

    2015-04-01

    Full Text Available Cerebral microbleeds (CMBs on susceptibility weighted imaging (SWI have generally been considered to be silent. Recent reports indicated that, albeit it is a rarity, CMBs can cause acute focal neurological symptoms. Herein we present a patient who was admitted with cheiro-oral syndrome due to an acute izolated pontine microbleed. Combination of diffusion weighted imaging and SWI can be useful in the differentiation of acute symptomatic cerebral microbleeds from chronic ones.

  19. Predicting successful long-term weight loss from short-term weight-loss outcomes: new insights from a dynamic energy balance model (the POUNDS Lost study)123

    Ivanescu, Andrada E; Martin, Corby K; Heymsfield, Steven B; Marshall, Kaitlyn; Bodrato, Victoria E; Williamson, Donald A; Anton, Stephen D; Sacks, Frank M; Ryan, Donna; Bray, George A

    2015-01-01

    Background: Currently, early weight-loss predictions of long-term weight-loss success rely on fixed percent-weight-loss thresholds. Objective: The objective was to develop thresholds during the first 3 mo of intervention that include the influence of age, sex, baseline weight, percent weight loss, and deviations from expected weight to predict whether a participant is likely to lose 5% or more body weight by year 1. Design: Data consisting of month 1, 2, 3, and 12 treatment weights were obtained from the 2-y Preventing Obesity Using Novel Dietary Strategies (POUNDS Lost) intervention. Logistic regression models that included covariates of age, height, sex, baseline weight, target energy intake, percent weight loss, and deviation of actual weight from expected were developed for months 1, 2, and 3 that predicted the probability of losing <5% of body weight in 1 y. Receiver operating characteristic (ROC) curves, area under the curve (AUC), and thresholds were calculated for each model. The AUC statistic quantified the ROC curve’s capacity to classify participants likely to lose <5% of their body weight at the end of 1 y. The models yielding the highest AUC were retained as optimal. For comparison with current practice, ROC curves relying solely on percent weight loss were also calculated. Results: Optimal models for months 1, 2, and 3 yielded ROC curves with AUCs of 0.68 (95% CI: 0.63, 0.74), 0.75 (95% CI: 0.71, 0.81), and 0.79 (95% CI: 0.74, 0.84), respectively. Percent weight loss alone was not better at identifying true positives than random chance (AUC ≤0.50). Conclusions: The newly derived models provide a personalized prediction of long-term success from early weight-loss variables. The predictions improve on existing fixed percent-weight-loss thresholds. Future research is needed to explore model application for informing treatment approaches during early intervention. The POUNDS Lost study was registered at clinicaltrials.gov as NCT00072995. PMID:25733628

  20. A Different Weight Loss Experience: A Qualitative Study Exploring the Behavioral, Physical, and Psychosocial Changes Associated with Yoga That Promote Weight Loss

    A. Ross

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Yoga interventions improve obesity-related outcomes including body mass index (BMI, body weight, body fat, and waist circumference, yet it is unclear whether these improvements are due to increased physical activity, increased lean muscle mass, and/or changes in eating behaviors. The purpose of this study is to expand our understanding of the experience of losing weight through yoga. Methods. Semistructured interviews were qualitatively analyzed using a descriptive phenomenological approach. Results. Two distinct groups who had lost weight through yoga responded: those who were overweight and had repeatedly struggled in their attempts to lose weight (55%, n=11 and those who were of normal weight and had lost weight unintentionally (45%, n=9. Five themes emerged that differed slightly by group: shift toward healthy eating, impact of the yoga community/yoga culture, physical changes, psychological changes, and the belief that the yoga weight loss experience was different than past weight loss experiences. Conclusions. These findings imply that yoga could offer diverse behavioral, physical, and psychosocial effects that may make it a useful tool for weight loss. Role modeling and social support provided by the yoga community may contribute to weight loss, particularly for individuals struggling to lose weight.

  1. A Different Weight Loss Experience: A Qualitative Study Exploring the Behavioral, Physical, and Psychosocial Changes Associated with Yoga That Promote Weight Loss.

    Ross, A; Brooks, A; Touchton-Leonard, K; Wallen, G

    2016-01-01

    Yoga interventions improve obesity-related outcomes including body mass index (BMI), body weight, body fat, and waist circumference, yet it is unclear whether these improvements are due to increased physical activity, increased lean muscle mass, and/or changes in eating behaviors. The purpose of this study is to expand our understanding of the experience of losing weight through yoga. Methods. Semistructured interviews were qualitatively analyzed using a descriptive phenomenological approach. Results. Two distinct groups who had lost weight through yoga responded: those who were overweight and had repeatedly struggled in their attempts to lose weight (55%, n = 11) and those who were of normal weight and had lost weight unintentionally (45%, n = 9). Five themes emerged that differed slightly by group: shift toward healthy eating, impact of the yoga community/yoga culture, physical changes, psychological changes, and the belief that the yoga weight loss experience was different than past weight loss experiences. Conclusions. These findings imply that yoga could offer diverse behavioral, physical, and psychosocial effects that may make it a useful tool for weight loss. Role modeling and social support provided by the yoga community may contribute to weight loss, particularly for individuals struggling to lose weight. PMID:27594890

  2. Weight loss intervention before total knee arthroplasty-feasibility and safety

    Liljensøe, A.; Laursen, J. O.; Bliddal, H.;

    2015-01-01

    implement an intensive weight loss program in order to reduce preoperative body weight of obese patients before TKA surgery. The primary aim of the Weight Loss Intervention before Total Knee Arthroplasty (WITKA) study is to investigate whether weight loss interventions before total knee arthroplasty (TKA......) will improve QoL and physical function 1 year after surgery. Methods: We conducted a single-blind, randomized study. Eligible patients were scheduled for TKA due to osteoarthritis (OA) of the knee and obesity (BMI >30kg/m2). Participants were randomized to either a control group that followed the...... standard care or a weight loss group that followed a low-energy diet (810 kcal/day) 8 weeks before surgery. Outcomes were assessed before intervention for the weight loss group, and within 1 week preoperatively for both the weight loss group and the control group. The primary outcome in the WITKA study was...

  3. Influence of ham weight, trimming and pressing on Istrian dry-cured ham seasoning loss

    Antun Kostelic

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available Influence of raw ham weight, trimming form and pressing on seasoning weight loss of Istrian dry-cured hams were studied. Swine thighs were shaped traditionally with skin and subcutaneous fat removed. The pelvis bones were left in the ham (B hams or experimentally deboned (boneless or BL hams. After trimming the raw hams were weighted and classified into the weight classes. The hams were pressed after dry salting with different loads. High seasoning weight loss (46.31 % of Istrian hams was expected due to raw ham skinning. However, deboning had no influence on differences in seasoning weight loss. Significantly higher weight loss of light class hams suggest to use raw hams heavier than 10 kg and 9 kg after B and BL dressing, respectively. There was no significant press load effect on seasoning weight loss.

  4. Effect of weight loss on the severity of psoriasis

    Jensen, P; Zachariae, Claus; Christensen, R;

    2013-01-01

    Psoriasis is associated with adiposity and weight gain increases the severity of psoriasis and the risk of incident psoriasis. Therefore, we aimed to measure the effect of weight reduction on the severity of psoriasis in obese patients with psoriasis.......Psoriasis is associated with adiposity and weight gain increases the severity of psoriasis and the risk of incident psoriasis. Therefore, we aimed to measure the effect of weight reduction on the severity of psoriasis in obese patients with psoriasis....

  5. Weight-related teasing and non-normative eating behaviors as predictors of weight loss maintenance. A longitudinal mediation analysis.

    Hübner, Claudia; Baldofski, Sabrina; Crosby, Ross D; Müller, Astrid; de Zwaan, Martina; Hilbert, Anja

    2016-07-01

    Weight loss maintenance is essential for the reduction of obesity-related health impairments. However, only a minority of individuals successfully maintain reduced weight in the long term. Research has provided initial evidence for associations between weight-related teasing (WRT) and greater non-normative eating behaviors. Further, first evidence was found for associations between non-normative eating behaviors and weight loss maintenance. Hence, the present study aimed to examine the predictive value of WRT for weight loss maintenance and the role of non-normative eating behaviors as possible mediators of this relationship. The study was part of the German Weight Control Registry that prospectively followed individuals who had intentionally lost at least 10% of their maximum weight and had maintained this reduced weight for at least one year. In N = 381 participants, retrospective WRT during childhood and adolescence, current non-normative eating behaviors (i.e., restrained, external, emotional eating), and change in body mass index (BMI, kg/m(2)) over two years were examined using self-report assessments. Structural equation modeling was used to analyze the assumed mediational relationship. As a result, a greater effect of retrospective WRT during childhood and adolescence predicted less successful adult weight loss maintenance over two years. Current emotional eating fully mediated this relationship while current restrained and external eating yielded no mediational effects. Hence, a greater effect of WRT predicted greater current emotional eating, which in turn predicted a smaller decrease or a greater increase in BMI. Our findings suggest that suffering from WRT during childhood and adolescence might lead to emotional eating which in turn impairs long-term weight loss maintenance. Thus, our results highlight the need for interventions aiming at reducing weight stigmatization and targeting emotional eating for successful long-term weight loss maintenance

  6. Weight loss in Oystercatchers Haematopus ostralegus on the roost and after capture

    Zwarts, L; Hulscher, JB; Zegers, PM

    1996-01-01

    This paper analyses the weight loss in Oystercatchers on the roost and after capture and attempts to investigate to what degree this weight loss is due to defecation of digested food, to dehydration and to utilisation of nutrient stores. The study emphasizes the need to record weight changes relativ

  7. Energy homeostasis and appetite regulating hormones as predictors of weight loss in men and women.

    Williams, Rebecca L; Wood, Lisa G; Collins, Clare E; Morgan, Philip J; Callister, Robin

    2016-06-01

    Sex differences in weight loss are often seen despite using the same weight loss program. There has been relatively little investigation of physiological influences on weight loss success in males and females, such as energy homeostasis and appetite regulating hormones. The aims were to 1) characterise baseline plasma leptin, ghrelin and adiponectin concentrations in overweight and obese males and females, and 2) determine whether baseline concentrations of these hormones predict weight loss in males and females. Subjects were overweight or obese (BMI 25-40 kg/m(2)) adults aged 18-60 years. Weight was measured at baseline, and after three and six months participation in a weight loss program. Baseline concentrations of leptin, adiponectin and ghrelin were determined by enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay (ELISA). An independent t-test or non-parametric equivalent was used to determine any differences between sex. Linear regression determined whether baseline hormone concentrations were predictors of six-month weight change. Females had significantly higher baseline concentrations of leptin, adiponectin and unacylated ghrelin as well as ratios of leptin:adiponectin and leptin:ghrelin. The ratio of acylated:unacylated ghrelin was significantly higher in males. In males and females, a higher baseline concentration of unacylated ghrelin predicted greater weight loss at six months. Additionally in females, higher baseline total ghrelin predicted greater weight loss and a higher ratio of leptin:ghrelin predicted weight gain at six months. A higher pre-weight-loss plasma concentration of unacylated ghrelin is a modest predictor of weight loss success in males and females, while a higher leptin:ghrelin ratio is a predictor of weight loss failure in females. Further investigation is required into what combinations and concentrations of these hormones are optimal for weight loss success. PMID:26921488

  8. An Evidence-Based Review of Fat Modifying Supplemental Weight Loss Products

    Amy M. Egras

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available Objective. To review the literature on fat modifying dietary supplements commonly used for weight loss. Methods. Recently published randomized, placebo-controlled trials were identified in PubMed, MEDLINE, International Pharmaceutical Abstracts, Cochrane Database, and Google Scholar using the search terms dietary supplement, herbal, weight loss, obesity, and individual supplement names. Discussion. Data for conjugated linoleic acid (CLA, Garcinia cambogia, chitosan, pyruvate, Irvingia gabonensis, and chia seed for weight loss were identified. CLA, chitosan, pyruvate, and Irvingia gabonensis appeared to be effective in weight loss via fat modifying mechanisms. However, the data on the use of these products is limited. Conclusion. Many obese people use dietary supplements for weight loss. To date, there is little clinical evidence to support their use. More data is necessary to determine the efficacy and safety of these supplements. Healthcare providers should assist patients in weighing the risks and benefits of dietary supplement use for weight loss.

  9. TFAP2B influences the effect of dietary fat on weight loss under energy restriction

    Stocks, Tanja; Angquist, Lars; Banasik, Karina;

    2012-01-01

    Numerous gene loci are related to single measures of body weight and shape. We investigated if 55 SNPs previously associated with BMI or waist measures, modify the effects of fat intake on weight loss and waist reduction under energy restriction....

  10. Image Analyzer Study of the Skin in Patients With Morbid Obesity and Massive Weight Loss

    Sami, Khaled; Elshahat, Ahmed; Moussa, Manal; Abbas, Alaa; Mahmoud, Amr

    2015-01-01

    Objective: Studies in literature on skin of patients with massive weight loss are limited and somehow conflicting in their results. The aim of this study was to quantitatively assess the skin change after massive weight loss. Method: This study was performed on 30 patients from whom skin biopsies were taken from the skin excised during operations, divided into 3 main groups. The first included patients who were undergoing cosmetic contouring procedures without history of massive weight loss. ...

  11. Clinical correlates of weight loss and attrition during a 10-week dietary intervention study

    Handjieva-Darlenska, Teodora; Holst, Claus; Grau, Katrine;

    2012-01-01

    + 1.35 × gender (R(2) = 0.28, p <0.001). When performing the corresponding model with half-way weight loss (week 5) as covariate, the regression equation was: weight loss (kg) at week 10 = 1.88 + 1.38 × half-way weight loss (kg) (week 5) + 0.42 × gender (R(2) = 0.77, p <0.001). A cut-off target of = 4...

  12. Sex differences in the composition of weight gain and loss in overweight and obese adults.

    Millward, D Joe; Truby, Helen; Fox, Kenneth R; Livingstone, M Barbara E; Macdonald, Ian A; Tothill, Peter

    2014-03-14

    Sex differences in the ratio of fat mass (FM):fat-free mass (FFM) during weight change should differentially affect the extent of weight change during energy imbalance in men and women. In the present study, we determined FM and FFM contents by dual-energy X-ray absorptiometry and calculated the P-ratios (protein energy/total energy) of excess weight and weight loss during a randomised controlled trial of four commercial weight loss regimens. Overweight and obese women (n 210) and men (n 77) were studied at baseline and at 2 and 6 months during weight loss on four dietary regimens: Dr Atkins' New Diet Revolution; The Slim-Fast Plan; Weight-Watchers programme; Rosemary Conley's Diet and Fitness Plan. At baseline, the percentage of FFM (%FFM) and P-ratios of excess weight were 40 % and 0·071 for men and 27 % and 0·039 for women. At 2 months, men had lost twice as much weight as women and three times more FFM than women, indicating higher FFM content and P-ratios of weight loss for men, 0·052, than for women, 0·029, with no dietary effects. Between 2 and 6 months, the rate at which weight was lost decreased and the %FFM of weight loss decreased to similar low levels in men (7 %) and women (5 %): i.e. P-ratios of 0·009 and 0·006, respectively, with no dietary effects. Thus, for men compared with women, there were greater FFM content and P-ratios of weight change, which could partly, but not completely, explain their greater weight loss at 2 months. However, protein-conserving adaptations occur with increasing weight loss and over time, more extensively in men, eventually eliminating any sex difference in the composition of weight loss. PMID:24103395

  13. A Brief Review of Higher Dietary Protein Diets in Weight Loss: A Focus on Athletes

    Phillips, Stuart M.

    2014-01-01

    Thermodynamics dictates that for body weight (i.e. stored substrate) loss to occur a person must ingest less energy than they expend. Athletes, who owing to their oftentimes large daily energy expenditures, may have greater flexibility than non-athletes in this regard; however, they may also have different goals for weight loss. In particular, weight lost may be less important to an athlete than from which compartment the weight is lost: fat or lean. A critical question is thus, what balance ...

  14. Self-Directed Interventions to Promote Weight Loss: A Systematic Review of Reviews

    Tang, Jason; Abraham, Charles; Greaves, Colin; Yates, Tom

    2014-01-01

    Background A wide range of self-directed weight-loss interventions are available, providing users with a variety of tools delivered through various formats to regulate weight-related behavior patterns. However, it is unclear how effective self-directed interventions are and how they promote weight loss and weight maintenance. Objective A systematic review of reviews was conducted to examine the effectiveness of such interventions and to identify intervention content associated with effectiven...

  15. Relationship of transport distance, sex on live weight loss of pigs during transit to slaughter house

    P H G J DeSilva; A Kalubowila

    2012-01-01

    The transport distance have a significant impact on the levels of stress burden on animals before slaughter and have an impact on veterinary decision-making about meat edibility and also on the quality of slaughtered animal meat. The objective of the study was to determine live weight, dress weight and body weight loss during transportation of different sex group of pigs into the Slaughtering house. The body weight loss during pre-slaughter treatment of animals was recorded and carcass value ...

  16. Human cardiovascular disease IBC chip-wide association with weight loss and weight regain in the look ahead trial

    Background/Aims: The present study identified genetic predictors of weight change during behavioral weight loss treatment. Methods: Participants were 3,899 overweight/obese individuals with type 2 diabetes from Look AHEAD, a randomized controlled trial to determine the effects of intensive lifestyle...

  17. Investigating the impact of deconditioning anxiety on weight loss.

    Nagler, W; Androff, A

    1990-04-01

    The effectiveness of a new model for the treatment of obesity was studied. This model assumed that obesity was not an eating disorder but a "not eating" disorder. Obese individuals do not have a problem eating, they are overly good at it. Obese individuals have a problem not eating. They experience difficulty or anxiety when they do not eat. The model assumed that removal of anxiety associated with "not eating" would allow obese subjects to lose weight. Wolpe and Lazarus' progressive relaxation techniques were used to decondition anxiety assumed associated with "not eating" in subjects. Inferred anxiety was deconditioned under conditions of "not eating" when imagining hunger, emotions, and cravings. Twenty-five subjects were instructed not to follow a diet after deconditioning but to eat less and be hungry to lose weight. A control group of 10 was instructed to follow a balanced 1000-calorie diet to lose weight. The former group lost a statistically significant amount of weight (7.5% of their body weight) over 11.9 months, while the control group subjects gained 6.5% of their weight. The model appears to be effective for the treatment of some individuals who wish to lose weight, based upon this preliminary study. Replication with other and larger groups is essential. PMID:2190255

  18. Intentional Weight Loss and Longevity in Overweight Patients with Type 2 Diabetes

    Køster-Rasmussen, Rasmus; Simonsen, Mette Kildevæld; Siersma, Volkert;

    2016-01-01

    OBJECTIVE: This study examined the influence of weight loss on long-term morbidity and mortality in overweight (BMI≥25kg/m2) patients with type 2 diabetes, and tested the hypothesis that therapeutic intentional weight loss supervised by a medical doctor prolongs life and reduces the risk for...... cardiovascular disease in these patients. METHODS: This is a 19 year cohort study of patients in the intervention arm of the randomized clinical trial Diabetes Care in General Practice. Weight and prospective intentions for weight loss were monitored every third month for six years in 761 consecutive patients...... registers. RESULTS: Overall, weight loss regardless of intention was an independent risk factor for increased all-cause mortality (P<0.01). The adjusted hazard ratio for all-cause mortality, cardiovascular mortality, and cardiovascular morbidity attributable to an intentional weight loss of 1 kg/year was 1...

  19. Advances in Weight Loss Surgery: The Fully Robotic Gastric Bypass

    Full Text Available ... who could not lose the weight they, they should be recommended to have bariatric surgery, and the ... the horse, back on their diet, as they should. Again, if there’s any viewer questions, please click ...

  20. Advances in Weight Loss Surgery: The Fully Robotic Gastric Bypass

    Full Text Available ... patients lose the weight through bariatric surgery, those issues that have decreased their lifespan and made their ... of the time, it’s going to be behavioral issues. One of the things that we put the ...

  1. Choosing a Safe and Successful Weight-Loss Program

    ... Research Training & Career Development Grant programs for students, postdocs, and faculty Research at NIDDK Labs, faculty, and ... diabetes, digestive and liver diseases, kidney diseases, weight control and nutrition, urologic diseases, endocrine and metabolic diseases, ...

  2. Weight loss effect of dietary diacylglycerol in obese dogs.

    Umeda, T; Bauer, J E; Otsuji, K

    2006-06-01

    Obesity in dogs and cats have been increasingly recognized in recent years. Because obesity underlies various diseases, pet owners and veterinarians have an important responsibility to help animals lose weight and maintain their health. Diet therapy, however, is typically based on limited calorie intake and animals may suffer stress from hunger and this is also a concern to animal owners. For this reason, many clients drop out of weight control programmes. In the present study, we focused on dietary diacylglycerol (DAG) as a potentially effective ingredient for canine weight control without caloric restriction. We replaced a portion of the fat in dog food with either DAG or triacylglycerol (TAG), referred to as DAG or TAG diets here, and fed overweight beagle dogs (body condition score of 4 or higher) with either the DAG or TAG diet for a 6-week period. Results indicated that, even though the food composition other than fat type were identical, dogs fed the DAG diet showed a statistically significant reduction in body weight averaging a 2.3% reduction within 6 weeks while the TAG-fed dogs maintained their obese body weights. In addition, the DAG group also showed a reduction in body fat content, serum triglyceride and total cholesterol concentrations. These results suggest the possibility of developing a pet food using DAG to control weight and serum lipid levels without compromising caloric intake. PMID:16684141

  3. Advances in Weight Loss Surgery: The Fully Robotic Gastric Bypass

    Full Text Available ... Loss Surgery: The Fully Robotic Gastric Bypass Baptist Health South Florida Miami, FL May 20, 2010 I ... study in 1991 at the National Institute of Health in Washington, D.C. And what they looked ...

  4. Advances in Weight Loss Surgery: The Fully Robotic Gastric Bypass

    Full Text Available ... Loss Surgery: The Fully Robotic Gastric Bypass Baptist Health South Florida Miami, FL May 20, 2010 I ... robotic prostatectomy, which is probably the standard of care today for prostate cancer. This is our eighth ...

  5. Advances in Weight Loss Surgery: The Fully Robotic Gastric Bypass

    Full Text Available ... know, diabetics are patients who have no blood control of -- no control of their blood sugar, and because of this, ... of infection because of their loss of glucose control. But our infection rates in those patients that ...

  6. American College of Sports Medicine position stand. Appropriate intervention strategies for weight loss and prevention of weight regain for adults.

    Jakicic, J M; Clark, K; Coleman, E; Donnelly, J E; Foreyt, J; Melanson, E; Volek, J; Volpe, S L

    2001-12-01

    In excess of 55% of adults in the United States are classified as either overweight (body mass index = 25-29.9 kg.m(-2)) or obese (body mass index > or = 30 kg.m(-2)). To address this significant public health problem, the American College of Sports Medicine recommends that the combination of reductions in energy intake and increases in energy expenditure, through structured exercise and other forms of physical activity, be a component of weight loss intervention programs. An energy deficit of 500-1000 kcal.d-1 achieved through reductions in total energy intake is recommended. Moreover, it appears that reducing dietary fat intake to exercise per week, and overweight and obese adults should progressively increase to this initial exercise goal. However, there may be advantages to progressively increasing exercise to 200-300 min (3.3-5 h) of exercise per week, as recent scientific evidence indicates that this level of exercise facilitates the long-term maintenance of weight loss. The addition of resistance exercise to a weight loss intervention will increase strength and function but may not attenuate the loss of fat-free mass typically observed with reductions in total energy intake and loss of body weight. When medically indicated, pharmacotherapy may be used for weight loss, but pharmacotherapy appears to be most effective when used in combination with modifications of both eating and exercise behaviors. The American College of Sports Medicine recommends that the strategies outlined in this position paper be incorporated into interventions targeting weight loss and the prevention of weight regain for adults. PMID:11740312

  7. The Weight-Inclusive versus Weight-Normative Approach to Health: Evaluating the Evidence for Prioritizing Well-Being over Weight Loss

    Tracy L. Tylka

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Using an ethical lens, this review evaluates two methods of working within patient care and public health: the weight-normative approach (emphasis on weight and weight loss when defining health and well-being and the weight-inclusive approach (emphasis on viewing health and well-being as multifaceted while directing efforts toward improving health access and reducing weight stigma. Data reveal that the weight-normative approach is not effective for most people because of high rates of weight regain and cycling from weight loss interventions, which are linked to adverse health and well-being. Its predominant focus on weight may also foster stigma in health care and society, and data show that weight stigma is also linked to adverse health and well-being. In contrast, data support a weight-inclusive approach, which is included in models such as Health at Every Size for improving physical (e.g., blood pressure, behavioral (e.g., binge eating, and psychological (e.g., depression indices, as well as acceptability of public health messages. Therefore, the weight-inclusive approach upholds nonmaleficience and beneficience, whereas the weight-normative approach does not. We offer a theoretical framework that organizes the research included in this review and discuss how it can guide research efforts and help health professionals intervene with their patients and community.

  8. Environmental organic pollutants in human milk before and after weight loss.

    Lignell, Sanna; Winkvist, Anna; Bertz, Fredrik; Rasmussen, Kathleen M; Glynn, Anders; Aune, Marie; Brekke, Hilde Kristin

    2016-09-01

    Many persistent organic pollutants (POPs) are banned because they accumulate in organisms and are toxic. Lipophilic POPs are stored in maternal adipose tissue and concentrations in human milk (HM) may increase during weight loss. Our aim was to examine associations between weight loss and concentrations of chlorinated POPs in HM in lactating women participating in a weight loss study. We analysed POPs (PCB 28, PCB 153, HCB, DDE) in HM at 12 and 24 weeks postpartum from 32 women who participated in a randomized, 2 × 2 factorial trial of diet and exercise for postpartum weight loss. Participants donated milk before and after the intervention period. We examined associations between weight loss and change in POP concentrations and estimated the intake of POPs by their breastfed infants. Most (n = 27) women lost weight during intervention, 0.45 ± 0.30 kg/week (mean ± SD). Among these women, the concentration of PCB 153 in HM was significantly (p = 0.04) higher at follow-up than at baseline. Weight loss was significantly positively associated with changes in concentrations of all studied POPs (2.0-2.4% increase per percent weight loss). Estimated mean intakes of POPs (ng/day) remained stable because infant milk consumption decreased during the study period. As infants gained weight, estimated mean intakes per kg body weight decreased 17-22%. Changes in concentrations of POPs in HM correlated positively with maternal weight loss, but it is unlikely that the balance between the benefits and risks of breastfeeding will change if the weight loss is restricted to 0.5 kg per week. PMID:27281542

  9. Weighting of Acoustic Cues to a Manner Distinction by Children with and without Hearing Loss

    Nittrouer, Susan; Lowenstein, Joanna H.

    2015-01-01

    Purpose: Children must develop optimal perceptual weighting strategies for processing speech in their first language. Hearing loss can interfere with that development, especially if cochlear implants are required. The three goals of this study were to measure, for children with and without hearing loss: (a) cue weighting for a manner distinction,…

  10. Charts for Weight Loss to Detect Hypernatremic Dehydration and Prevent Formula Supplementing

    Dommelen, P. van; Boer, S.; Unal, S.; Wouwe, J.P. van

    2014-01-01

    BACKGROUND: Most breast-fed newborns get the milk they need. However, very rarely milk intake is insufficient mostly as a result of poor breastfeeding techniques. Dramatic weight loss and hypernatremic dehydration may occur. Our aim was to construct charts for weight loss. METHODS: A case-control st

  11. Exercise for Obese Youth: Refocusing attention from weight loss to health gains

    Shaibi, Gabriel Q.; Ryder, Justin R.; Kim, Joon Young; Barraza, Estela

    2015-01-01

    Despite evidence to the contrary, exercise interventions for obese youth target weight loss as a means for improving health. Using Exercise is Medicine® as a framework, we present a conceptual model for the beneficial effects of exercise independent of weight loss in obese youth and highlight novel biomarkers of cardiometabolic health that could prove useful as interventional targets for this population.

  12. Effect of weight loss on thiazide produced erectile problems in men.

    Langford, H. G.; Rockhold, R. W.; Wassertheil-Smoller, S.; Oberman, A.; Davis, B R; Blaufox, M. D.

    1990-01-01

    Thiazide-type diuretics frequently produce erectile dysfunction in men on a regular diet. However, men on a weight-loss diet have much less erectile dysfunction. Thiazide-type diuretics also produce erectile dysfunction in rats and interfere with normal copulation. The mechanism of the dysfunction and the favorable response to weight loss is unknown.

  13. The Efficacy of Weight-Loss Clinics: An Issue in Consumer Health Education.

    Thomas, Susan E.

    1988-01-01

    Weight loss clinics based on scientific fact and containing diet therapy, exercise therapy, and behavior modification components can be effective vehicles for weight loss among the mildly to moderately obese. Health educators are called on to disseminate the information necessary to establish scientifically based criteria and program evaluation…

  14. Prandial subcutaneous injections of glucagon-like peptide-1 cause weight loss in obese human subjects

    Näslund, Erik; King, N; Mansten, S; Adner, N; Holst, Jens Juul; Gutniak, M; Hellström, P M

    2004-01-01

    Recombinant glucagon-like peptide-1 (7-36)amide (rGLP-1) was recently shown to cause significant weight loss in type 2 diabetics when administered for 6 weeks as a continuous subcutaneous infusion. The mechanisms responsible for the weight loss are not clarified. In the present study, rGLP-1 was ...

  15. Effect of glycemic load on eating behavior self-efficacy during weight loss

    High eating behavior self-efficacy may contribute to successful weight loss. Diet interventions that maximize eating behavior self-efficacy may therefore improve weight loss outcomes. However, data on the effect of diet composition on eating behavior self-efficacy are sparse. To determine the eff...

  16. Bilateral acute visual loss from Rathke's cleft cyst apoplexy in a patient with dengue fever

    Ana Cláudia De Franco Suzuki

    2014-10-01

    Full Text Available Hemorrhagic complications of optic pathway diseases are extremely rare causes of acute visual loss associated with dengue fever. In this paper we report a patient presenting with dengue fever and bilateral acute visual loss caused by chiasmal compression due to Rathke's cleft cyst apoplexy. Considering the importance of early diagnosis and treatment to visual recovery, apoplexy of sellar and suprasellar tumors should be considered in the differential diagnosis of patients with acute visual loss and dengue fever.

  17. Benefits of recruiting participants with friends and increasing social support for weight loss and maintenance.

    Wing, R R; Jeffery, R W

    1999-02-01

    To determine the benefits of social support for weight loss and maintenance, this study recruited participants (N = 166) either alone or with 3 friends or family members and then randomly assigned them to a standard behavioral treatment (SBT) or SBT with social support strategies. Participants recruited with friends had greater weight losses at the end of the 4-month treatment and at Month 10 follow-up. Both recruitment strategy and the social support manipulation affected treatment completion and weight-loss maintenance. In those recruited alone and given SBT, 76% completed treatment and 24% maintained their weight loss in full from Months 4 to 10. Among those recruited with friends and given SBT plus social support, 95% completed treatment and 66% maintained their weight loss in full. PMID:10028217

  18. Advances in Weight Loss Surgery: The Fully Robotic Gastric Bypass

    Full Text Available ... 40; that if you put them on strict diet and exercise, supervised by a physician, that only one percent, that’s one percent of those patients were actually able to lose enough weight. And because of that, in 1991 the recommendation of the NIH was that those patients who ...

  19. Should Medicare Reimburse Providers for Weight Loss Interventions?

    Kaplan, Robert M.

    2007-01-01

    This issue of the American Psychologist (April 2007) includes two reviews of the literature on the effects of behavioral programs to reduce body weight. One review (T. Mann et al., 2007) concentrates on dietary interventions and finds little evidence that diets are of benefit. The second review (L. H. Powell, J. E. Calvin III, & J. E. Calvin Jr.,…

  20. GLP-1 and weight loss: unraveling the diverse neural circuitry.

    Kanoski, Scott E; Hayes, Matthew R; Skibicka, Karolina P

    2016-05-15

    Glucagon-like peptide-1 (GLP-1) is currently one of the most promising biological systems for the development of effective obesity pharmacotherapies. Long-acting GLP-1 analogs potently reduce food intake and body weight, and recent discoveries reveal that peripheral administration of these drugs reduces food intake largely through humoral pathways involving direct action on brain GLP-1 receptors (GLP-1R). Thus, it is of critical importance to understand the neural systems through which GLP-1 and long-acting GLP-1 analogs reduce food intake and body weight. In this review, we discuss several neural, physiological, cellular and molecular, as well as behavioral mechanisms through which peripheral and central GLP-1R signaling reduces feeding. Particular attention is devoted to discussion regarding the numerous neural substrates through which GLP-1 and GLP-1 analogs act to reduce food intake and body weight, including various hypothalamic nuclei (arcuate nucleus of the hypothalamus, periventricular hypothalamus, lateral hypothalamic area), hindbrain nuclei (parabrachial nucleus, medial nucleus tractus solitarius), hippocampus (ventral subregion; vHP), and nuclei embedded within the mesolimbic reward circuitry [ventral tegmental area (VTA) and nucleus accumbens (NAc)]. In some of these nuclei [VTA, NAc, and vHP], GLP-1R activation reduces food intake and body weight without concomitant nausea responses, suggesting that targeting these specific pathways may be of particular interest for future obesity pharmacotherapy. The widely distributed neural systems through which GLP-1 and GLP-1 analogs act to reduce body weight highlight the complexity of the neural systems regulating energy balance, as well as the challenges for developing effective obesity pharmacotherapies that reduce feeding without producing parallel negative side effects. PMID:27030669

  1. Qualitative analysis of the role of self-weighing as a strategy of weight control for weight-loss maintainers in comparison with a normal, stable weight group.

    Carrard, Isabelle; Kruseman, Maaike

    2016-10-01

    Self-weighing seems to have a primary role in weight-loss maintenance. The use of this strategy may help correct even slight weight regain and contribute to long-term weight stability. However, self-weighing has also been associated with negative psychological health consequences in specific subgroups. This study aimed to explore the use and the behavioral and psychological consequences of self-weighing in a group of weight-loss maintainers (WLoMs). We chose a qualitative design to conduct this investigation. Eighteen WLoMs were interviewed and compared to a matched comparison group of 18 participants with a lifelong normal stable weight (NSW). Analyses showed that most WLoMs needed regular self-weighing to be aware of their weight. The weight displayed on the scale helped WLoMs sustain the continuous efforts needed to maintain weight loss and also at times triggered corrective actions that were sometimes drastic. Weight changes generated both negative and positive affect among WLoMs, who could experience anxiety because of self-weighing or have their self-esteem impaired in the case of weight gain. In comparison, the NSW group rarely used self-weighing. They relied on a conscious way of living to control their weight and needed fewer strategies. NSW participants simply went back to their routine when they felt a slight increase in their weight, without experiencing consequences on their mood or self-esteem. Regular self-weighing as a component of weight-loss maintenance should be encouraged to help WLoMs regulate their food and physical activity, provided that potential consequences on psychological well-being, including self-esteem, are screened and addressed when needed. PMID:27374738

  2. Personnel and Participant Experiences of a Residential Weight-Loss Program. A Qualitative Study

    Dahl, Unni Alice; Rise, Marit By; Kulseng, Bård Eirik; Steinsbekk, Aslak

    2014-01-01

    Background: Residential weight-loss programs aim to help persons with obesity lose weight and maintain a long-term healthy lifestyle. Knowledge is needed on the different actors’ perceptions and experiences from such programs. The aim of this study was to describe how personnel argued for and perceived a residential weight-loss program, to investigate how the participants experienced the program, and to contrast these perspectives. Methods: This qualitative study took place in an ...

  3. The role of genes involved in lipolysis on weight loss program in overweight and obese individuals

    Luglio, Harry Freitag; Sulistyoningrum, Dian Caturini; Susilowati, Rina

    2015-01-01

    The ability of obese people to reduce weight in the same treatment varied. Genetic make up as well as the behavioral changes are important for the successfulness of the program. One of the most proposed genetic variations that have been reported in many intervention studies was genes that control lipolysis process. This review summarizes studies that were done showing the influence of genetic polymorphisms in lipolysis pathway and weight loss in a weight loss treatment program. Some studies h...

  4. Advances in Weight Loss Surgery: The Fully Robotic Gastric Bypass

    Full Text Available ... complications of the surgery is something called an “internal hernia,” and that can happen later on. It’s ... of infection because of their loss of glucose control. But our infection rates in those patients that ...

  5. Active pharmaceutical ingredients detected in herbal food supplements for weight loss samples on the Dutch market

    Reeuwijk, N.M.; Venhuis, B.J.; Kaste, de D.; Hoogenboom, L.A.P.; Rietjens, I.; Martena, M.J.

    2014-01-01

    Herbal food supplements claiming to reduce weight may contain active pharmacological ingredients (APIs) that can be used for the treatment of overweight and obesity. The aim of this study was to determine whether herbal food supplements for weight loss on the Dutch market contain APIs with weight lo

  6. Food Thought Suppression Inventory: Test-retest reliability and relationship to weight loss treatment outcomes.

    Barnes, Rachel D; Ivezaj, Valentina; Grilo, Carlos M

    2016-08-01

    This study examined the test-retest reliability of the Food Thought Suppression Inventory (FTSI) and its relationship with weight loss during weight loss treatment. Participants were 89 adults with and without binge eating disorder (BED) recruited through primary care for weight loss treatment who completed the FTSI twice prior to starting treatment. Intra-class correlations for the FTSI ranged from .74-.93. Participants with BED scored significantly higher on the FTSI than those without BED at baseline only. Percent weight loss from baseline to mid-treatment was significantly negatively correlated with the FTSI at baseline and at post-treatment. Participants reaching 5% loss of original body weight by post-treatment had significantly lower FTSI scores at post assessment when compared to those who did not reach this weight loss goal. While baseline binge-eating episodes were significantly positively correlated with baseline FTSI scores, change in binge-eating episodes during treatment were not significantly related to FTSI scores. The FTSI showed satisfactory one week test-retest reliability. Higher levels of food thought suppression may impair individuals' ability to lose weight while receiving weight loss treatment. PMID:27112114

  7. Weight loss alters severity of individual nocturnal respiratory events depending on sleeping position

    Weight loss is an effective treatment for obstructive sleep apnea (OSA). The mechanisms of how weight loss affects nocturnal breathing are not fully understood. The severity of OSA is currently estimated by the number of respiratory events per hour of sleep (i.e. apnea-hypopnea-index, AHI). AHI neglects duration and morphology of individual respiratory events, which describe the severity of individual events. In the current paper, we investigate the novel Adjusted-AHI parameter (incorporating individual event severity) and AHI after weight loss in relation to sleeping position. It was hypothesised that there are positional differences in individual event severity changes during weight loss. Altogether, 32 successful (> 5% of weight) and 34 unsuccessful weight loss patients at baseline and after 1 year follow-up were analysed. The results revealed that individual respiratory event severity was reduced differently in supine and non-supine positions during weight loss. During weight loss, AHI was reduced by 54% (p = 0.004) and 74% (p < 0.001), while Adjusted-AHI was reduced by 14% (p = 0.454) and 48% (p = 0.003) in supine and non-supine positions, respectively. In conclusion, the severity of individual respiratory events decreased more in the non-supine position. The novel Adjusted-AHI parameter takes these changes into account and might therefore contribute additional information to the planning of treatment of OSA patients. (paper)

  8. Personalized weight loss strategies - the role of macronutrient distribution

    Martinez, J Alfredo; Navas-Carretero, Santiago; Saris, Wim H M;

    2014-01-01

    to the different metabolic roles of proteins, carbohydrates and lipids in energy homeostasis, diets of similar overall energy content but with different macronutrient distribution can differentially affect metabolism, appetite and thermogenesis. Evidence increasingly suggests that the fuel values of calories...... with specific genotypes. This Review discusses all available systematic reviews and meta-analyses, and summarizes the results of relevant randomized controlled intervention trials assessing the influence of macronutrient composition on weight management. The initial findings of research into personalized...

  9. Perfusion MR imaging in patients with acute cerebral infarction: comparison with T2-weighted and diffusion-weighted MR imaging

    Jae, Hwan Jun; Chang, Kee Hyun; Song, In Chan; Park, Sun Won; Kim, Yoon Hee; Choi, Joon Il; Han, Moon Hee [College of Medicine, Institute of Radiation Medicine, Seoul National University, Seoul (Korea, Republic of); Kim, Hong Dae [Kang Nam Sacred Heart Hospital, Seoul (Korea, Republic of); Kim, Hyung Seok [Cheju Medical Center, Cheju (Korea, Republic of)

    2000-07-01

    To evaluate the clinical usefulness of perfusion MR imaging by comparing with T2-weighted and diffusion weighted MR imaging in patients with acute cerebral ischemic infarction. Conventional, diffusion weighted, and perfusion MR images were obtained within one week of clinical onset in 14 cases of acute ischemic infarction. For perfusion MRI, the gradient-echo EPI technique after IV bolus injection of 15 cc of contrast media was used. Four kinds of perfusion MR images (rCBV, rCBF, mean transit time (MTT), time to peak concentration (TTP)) were generated by home-made software from the raw data. T2-weighted, diffusion-weighted, and perfusion images of each patient were retrospectively analyzed, with attention to the number, signal intensity, and size of lesions. T2-weighted and diffusion-weighted images demonstrated 21 acute ischemic lesions in 14 patients. Six lesions had a long diameter of more than 3 cm, while the other 15 were smaller than 3 cm. On T2-weighted images, 17 lesions showed high signal intensity and four showed subtle high signal intensity. On diffusion-weighted images, all lesions showed bright high signal intensity. The six lesions larger than 3 cm were all delineated by all four kinds of perfusion MR imaging, but among the 15 smaller than 3 cm, only four (26.7%), five (33.3%) and six (40%) were delineated on rCBV and r CBF maps, the MTT map, and the TTP map, respectively. As compared with T2-weighted and diffusion-weighted imaging, the rCBV and rCBF maps showed that four lesions were smaller and six were the same size. On the MTT map, three lesions were seen to be larger, four were smaller, and the other four were the same size as they appeared on diffusion-weighted images, while on the TTP map, seven were larger and five were smaller than they appeared on these images. In all cases, diffusion-weighted images most clearly delineated acute ischemic lesions, regardless of lesion size. Many such lesions smaller than 3 cm were not apparent on perfusion

  10. A prospective analysis of factors that influence weight loss in patients undergoing radiotherapy

    Jon Cacicedo; Francisco Casquero; Lorea Martinez-Indart; Olga del Hoyo; Alfonso Gomez de Iturriaga; Arturo Navarro; Pedro Bilbao

    2014-01-01

    Malnutrition occurs frequently in patients with cancer. Indeed, a variety of nutritional and tumor-related factors must be taken into account in these patients. Recognizing this relationship, we aimed to prospectively evaluate the risk factors that influence weight loss in patients undergoing radiotherapy with oral nutritional supplementation and dietetic counseling. Weight loss of 74 patients during radiotherapy and 1 month after treatment was analyzed. Parameters such as age, gender, tumor location, tumor stage, Eastern Cooperative Oncology Group performance status (ECOG PS) score, and the use of chemotherapy were analyzed to evaluate their influence on weight loss. All patients underwent oral nutritional supplementation and dietetic counseling. Forty-six (65.7%) patients lost weight, with a mean weight loss of (4.73 ± 3.91) kg, during radiotherapy. At 1 month after treatment, 45 (66.2%) patients lost weight, presenting a mean weight loss of (4.96 ± 4.04) kg, corresponding to a (6.84 ± 5.24)% net reduction from their baseline weight. Head and neck cancer patients had a mean weight loss of (3.25 ± 5.30) kg, whereas the remaining patients had a mean weight loss of (0.64 ± 2.39) kg (P=0.028) during radiotherapy. In the multivariate analysis, the head and neck tumor location (P = 0.005), use of chemotherapy (P = 0.011), and ECOG PS score of 2-3 (P = 0.026) were considered independent risk factors. Nutritional status and parameters, such as tumor location (especially the head and neck), the use of chemotherapy, and the ECOG PS score, should be evaluated before radiotherapy because these factors can influence weight loss during radiotherapy and 1 month after treatment.

  11. Long-Term Outcomes of Acute Low-Tone Hearing Loss

    Roh, Kyung Jin; Lee, Eun Jung; Park, Ah Young; Choi, Byeong Il; Son, Eun Jin

    2015-01-01

    Background and Objectives Although acute low-tone hearing loss has been associated with cochlear hydrops or early stage Meniere's disease, its prognosis in the short-term has been reported to be better than sudden hearing loss. However, recurrence of hearing loss and possible progression to Meniere's disease remain important concerns in the clinical setting. This study aims to investigate the long-term audiological outcomes of acute low-tone hearing loss. Subjects and Methods A retrospective ...

  12. Low carbohydrate diets improve atherogenic dyslipidemia even in the absence of weight loss

    Volek Jeff S

    2006-06-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Because of its effect on insulin, carbohydrate restriction is one of the obvious dietary choices for weight reduction and diabetes. Such interventions generally lead to higher levels of dietary fat than official recommendations and have long been criticized because of potential effects on cardiovascular risk although many literature reports have shown that they are actually protective even in the absence of weight loss. A recent report of Krauss et al. (AJCN, 2006 separates the effects of weight loss and carbohydrate restriction. They clearly confirm that carbohydrate restriction leads to an improvement in atherogenic lipid states in the absence of weight loss or in the presence of higher saturated fat. In distinction, low fat diets seem to require weight loss for effective improvement in atherogenic dyslipidemia.

  13. Sociodemographic and Health Characteristics Associated With Attempting Weight Loss During Pregnancy

    Cohen, Jennifer H.; Kim, Hyoshin

    2008-01-01

    Introduction Approximately 40% of women of childbearing age report that they are attempting to lose weight. No professional medical organization recommends attempting to lose weight during pregnancy because of the possible risks to both mother and baby. Since half of all pregnancies are unintended, women may attempt to lose weight before they know they are pregnant, and some women may continue or initiate weight loss attempts even after they know they are pregnant. This study examines the ext...

  14. Menstrual cycle dysfunction and weight loss practices among college-age women

    Michele D Lewis

    1996-01-01

    Secondary amenorrhea, ovulatory disturbances, and luteal phase deficiency occur in normal-weight women with sub-clinical eating disorders. The purpose of this investigation was to examine the influence of Eating Attitudes Test (EAT-26) scores, energy intake, and frequency of activity on ovarian hormone status in normal-weight, college-age women. Fourteen normal-weight female students, ages 19 - 24, who were attempting weight loss and did not currently meet diagnostic criteri...

  15. Emphasising Personal Investment Effects Weight Loss and Hedonic Thoughts about Food after Obesity Surgery

    Margaret Husted

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Obesity surgery is the most effective treatment method for the severely obese but does not work for everyone. Indications are that weight-loss success may be related to individuals’ sense of investment in surgery, with failure linked to higher automatic hedonic motivations to consume food and greater susceptibility to food in the environment. A pilot study using an independent experimental design recruited bariatric surgery patients (n=91 via a UK obesity-surgery charity website who were randomly allocated to either the intervention or the control condition. The intervention involved raising the salience of the personal investment made in having weight-loss surgery in an attempt to reduce automatic hedonic thoughts about food and aid weight loss. Data was collected initially with subsequent weight loss measured at 3 months of follow-up. Following the intervention, participants reported significantly reduced hedonic thoughts, increased liking for low-fat foods, reduced liking of high-fat food, and higher self-efficacy for achieving sustained weight loss than controls. By 3 months, this was translated into significant differences in mean weight losses of 6.77 kg for the intervention group and 0.91 kg for control participants. To conclude, a quick simple cost-effective intervention encouraging participants to focus on investment helped weight loss and changed hedonic thoughts about food in bariatric patients.

  16. Novel parameters reflect changes in morphology of respiratory events during weight loss

    Apnea–hypopnea-index (AHI), disregarding the respiratory event morphology, is currently used in estimation of severity of obstructive sleep apnea (OSA). The purpose of the current study was to evaluate the potential of novel parameters in estimation of changes in severity of OSA during weight loss. Polygraphic data of 67 patients, 37 in the control (no weight loss) and 30 in the weight loss (>5%) groups was evaluated at baseline and after two year follow-up. Changes in the values of novel parameters, incorporating detailed information of respiratory event characteristics, were evaluated and compared with changes in AHI. The median AHI in the weight loss group decreased significantly during the follow-up. The number of shorter respiratory events decreased in the weight loss group, while the longer ones remained, increasing the median durations of the respiratory events by 20–62%. For this reason the decrease of the values of the novel parameters were smaller compared to AHI in the weight loss group. This suggests that the severity of OSA might not fall as linearly during weight loss as AHI suggests. Moreover, the novel parameters containing more detailed information on the morphology characteristics may provide valuable supplementary information for the assessment of the severity of OSA. (paper)

  17. Water Consumption Increases Weight Loss During a Hypocaloric Diet Intervention in Middle-aged and Older adults

    Dennis, Elizabeth A.; Dengo, Ana Laura; Comber, Dana L.; Flack, Kyle D.; Savla, Jyoti; Davy, Kevin P.; Davy, Brenda M.

    2009-01-01

    Water consumption acutely reduces meal energy intake (EI) among middle-aged and older adults. Our objectives were to determine if premeal water consumption facilitates weight loss among overweight/obese middle-aged and older adults, and to determine if the ability of premeal water consumption to reduce meal EI is sustained after a 12-week period of increased water consumption. Adults (n = 48; 55–75 years, BMI 25–40 kg/m2) were assigned to one of two groups: (i) hypocaloric diet + 500 ml water...

  18. Dietary Practices, Dining Out Behavior, and Physical Activity Correlates of Weight Loss Maintenance

    Judy Kruger, PhD

    2008-01-01

    Full Text Available IntroductionLoss of excess weight can improve blood lipids, insulin sensitivity, and blood pressure. However, data are scant on behavioral strategies related to maintenance of weight loss. We examined dietary practices, physical activity, and self-efficacy among adults self-reported to be successful at maintaining weight loss.MethodsUsing the 2004 Styles survey, a mailed survey of U.S. adults aged 18 years or older, we examined behaviors associated with weight loss maintenance among people who reported trying to lose weight. We analyzed data on number of daily fruit and vegetable servings, minutes per week of physical activity, dining out behavior, and confidence in one’s ability to engage in behavioral strategies. We conducted frequency and multivariable logistic regression analyses.ResultsMore men (35.5% than women (27.7% were classified as successful weight loss maintainers. Compared with adults who reported eating at a fast-food restaurant two or more times per week, adults who reported not eating at fast-food restaurants were more successful at weight loss maintenance (odds ratio, 1.62; 95% confidence interval, 1.09–2.42. Compared with adults who consumed fewer than five fruit and vegetable servings per day and were sedentary, adults who consumed fewer than five fruit and vegetable servings per day and accrued 420 minutes or more per week of physical activity or consumed five or more fruit and vegetable servings and accrued 150 minutes or more per week of activity were more successful at weight loss maintenance.ConclusionThe behavioral strategy of reducing consumption of fast foods could assist people in keeping weight off. The combined approach of consuming five or more fruit and vegetable servings per day and attaining 150 minutes or more per week of physical activity was a common strategy among adults successful at weight loss maintenance.

  19. Influence of Weight Loss, Body Composition, and Lifestyle Behaviors on Plasma Adipokines: A Randomized Weight Loss Trial in Older Men and Women with Symptomatic Knee Osteoarthritis

    Gary D. Miller

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available Objective. To investigate effects of weight loss on adipokines and health measures in obese older adults with symptomatic knee osteoarthritis. Methods. Participants were randomly assigned to either weight loss (WL (men: 12, women: 14 or weight stable (WS group (men: 12, women: 13. WL intervention included meal replacements and structured exercise training. Measurements of leptin, adiponectin, soluble leptin receptor, lifestyle behaviors, and body composition were collected at baseline and 6 months. Univariate analysis of covariance was performed on 6 month variables, and Spearman and partial correlations were made between variables. Results. Weight loss was 13.0% and 6.7% in WL for men and women, respectively. Women in WL had lower whole body and trunk fat than WS. The leptin : adiponectin ratio was lower for women in WL than WS at 6 months, with no group differences in adipokines for men. Leptin and free leptin index correlated with body fat in both genders at baseline. Interestingly, only women showed reductions in leptin (P<0.100 and correlations between the percentage change leptin and trunk fat and the percentage changes in free leptin index with total fat and trunk fat. Partial correlations between 6 month adipokines after adjustments for covariates and group/time period show potential multivariate influences. Conclusions. In the presence of an effective weight loss intervention in older obese adults, there are significant relationships between weight and fat loss and leptin in women, but not men, suggesting gender-specific features of adipokine metabolism in this age group.

  20. Binge Eating Behavior and Weight Loss Maintenance over a 2-Year Period

    Pacanowski, Carly R.; Senso, Meghan M.; Kristin Oriogun; A. Lauren Crain; Sherwood, Nancy E

    2014-01-01

    Objective. To investigate the relationship between binge eating behavior and weight loss maintenance over a two-year period in adults. Design. Secondary data analysis using the Keep It Off study, a randomized trial evaluating an intervention to promote weight loss maintenance. Participants. 419 men and women (ages: 20 to 70 y; BMI: 20–44 kg/m2) who had intentionally lost ≥10% of their weight during the previous year. Measurements. Body weight was measured and binge eating behavior over the pa...

  1. Weight loss in patients receiving radical radiation therapy for head and neck cancer: a prospective study

    Thirty-one patients receiving radiation therapy for localized cancer of the head and neck areas were systematically assessed before, during, and after treatment. The pathogenesis of weight loss and its association with treatment morbidity and other determinants were sought. The serial data collected consisted of a food frequency questionnaire based on Canada's Food Guide, anthropometric measurements, 10 Linear Analogue Self Assessment questions on morbidity, and biochemical and hematological indices. Twenty of 31 patients (68%) lost over 5% of their presenting weight within one month after completing treatment. The mean weight loss was 10% and the range of weight loss in this group was 5.4 to 18.9%. Pretreatment dietary habits, serum albumin, absolute lymphocyte count, serum creatinine, creatinine height index, and anthropometric measurements did not predict for weight loss. However, weight loss can be predicted on the basis of field size and site irradiated. Treatment-related morbidity involving dysguesia, xerostomia, dysphagia of solids, and mouth pain was greater and of longer duration in patients with weight loss. The sequence of development of these symptoms during treatment and their duration provide a rational basis for the timing and methods of nutritional intervention in this patient population

  2. Bilateral acute visual loss from Rathke's cleft cyst apoplexy in a patient with dengue fever

    Ana Cláudia De Franco Suzuki; Rafael Barbosa de Araújo; Eduardo Cunha de Souza; Mário Luiz Ribeiro Monteiro

    2014-01-01

    Hemorrhagic complications of optic pathway diseases are extremely rare causes of acute visual loss associated with dengue fever. In this paper we report a patient presenting with dengue fever and bilateral acute visual loss caused by chiasmal compression due to Rathke's cleft cyst apoplexy. Considering the importance of early diagnosis and treatment to visual recovery, apoplexy of sellar and suprasellar tumors should be considered in the differential diagnosis of patients with acute visual lo...

  3. Comparison of low-molecular-weight-heparin and unfractionated heparin for acute PTE*

    Chen, Li-Ying; Ying, Ke-Jing; Hong, Wu-jun; Zhou, Pan

    2005-01-01

    Objective: Acute pulmonary thromboembolism (PTE) is a serious high mortality pulmonary vascular disease whose effective treatment decreases morbidity and mortality. To determine if low-molecular-weight-heparin (LMWH) is clinically as efficient and safe as unfractionated heparin (UH) in patients with diagnosis of acute non-massive PTE, our study compares the efficacy, adverse effects and costs of LMWH and UH. Methods: One hundred and fourteen patients with non-massive acute PTE were randomly d...

  4. [Low-carbohydrate or low-fat diet for weight loss--which is better?].

    Hauner, H

    2004-10-01

    Several recent clinical studies show that a low-carbohydrate diet produces a greater initial weight loss than conventional low-fat diets, and is associated with a greater reduction of elevated serum triglycerides. After one year, however, weight loss is similar with both diets. Since the intake of saturated fat is higher on a low-carbohydrate diet, there may be an increased risk of elevated levels of LDL cholesterol, thus furthering atherosclerosis, over the long term. Before low-carbohydrate diets can be considered an equivalent alternative to low-fat diets for the treatment of obesity, long-term clinical trials are urgently required. The greater weight loss under low-carbohydrate diets would appear to be due to a lower caloric intake. Successful weight loss largely depends on restricting the intake of calories, but the supply of essential nutrients should be guaranteed. PMID:15532735

  5. How Important Is Surgeon's Skill for Weight-Loss Surgery Outcomes?

    ... news/fullstory_158292.html How Important Is Surgeon's Skill for Weight-Loss Surgery Outcomes? Study saw no ... WEDNESDAY, April 13, 2016 (HealthDay News) -- A surgeon's skill level does not seem to have a big ...

  6. Weight-Loss Surgery May Help Control Type 2 Diabetes in Long Run

    ... persistent weight loss, [and] reduction in diabetes and cardiovascular medications at five years," study author Dr. Philip Schauer said in the news release. Schauer is a bariatric surgeon at the Cleveland Clinic. However, the researchers noted ...

  7. Daily energy expenditure and physical activity measured in Parkinson's disease patients with and without weight loss

    Patients with Parkinson's disease (PD) commonly exhibit weight loss, which investigators attribute to various factors, including elevated resting energy expenditure. We tested the hypothesis that daily energy expenditure (DEE) and its components, resting energy expenditure (REF) and physical activit...

  8. Changes in choice evoked brain activations after a weight loss intervention in adolescents.

    Mata, Fernanda; Verdejo-Roman, Juan; Soriano-Mas, Carles; Yücel, Murat; Verdejo-Garcia, Antonio

    2016-08-01

    This study was aimed to investigate if treatment-related success in weight loss (i.e., reductions of BMI and fat percentage) is linked to significant changes in choice evoked brain activity in adolescents with excess weight. Sixteen adolescents with excess weight (age range: 12-18; BMI range: 22-36) performed the Risky-Gains Task during functional Magnetic Resonance Imaging (fMRI) both before and after a 12-week weight loss intervention. Success in weight loss was selectively associated with increased activation in the anterior insula. We concluded that adolescents with the greatest increases in activation of the insula-related interoceptive neural circuitry also show greater reductions in BMI and fat mass. PMID:27058280

  9. Intentional Weight Loss and Longevity in Overweight Patients with Type 2 Diabetes

    Køster-Rasmussen, Rasmus; Simonsen, Mette Kildevæld; Siersma, Volkert;

    2016-01-01

    OBJECTIVE: This study examined the influence of weight loss on long-term morbidity and mortality in overweight (BMI≥25kg/m2) patients with type 2 diabetes, and tested the hypothesis that therapeutic intentional weight loss supervised by a medical doctor prolongs life and reduces the risk for...... cardiovascular disease in these patients. METHODS: This is a 19 year cohort study of patients in the intervention arm of the randomized clinical trial Diabetes Care in General Practice. Weight and prospective intentions for weight loss were monitored every third month for six years in 761 consecutive patients...... (≥40 years) newly diagnosed with diabetes in general practices throughout Denmark in 1989-92. Multivariable Cox regression was used to estimate the association between weight change during the monitoring period (year 0 to 6) and the outcomes during the succeeding 13 years (year 6 to 19) in 444 patients...

  10. Dietary and physical activity behaviors among adults successful at weight loss maintenance

    Gillespie Cathleen

    2006-07-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background There is limited population-based data on behavioral factors found to be important for successful weight loss maintenance among adults. Methods Data from the 2004 Styles surveys, mailed to U.S. adults aged ≥18 years were used to examine the difference in selected weight loss strategies and attitudes among persons who reported successful weight loss attempts (lost weight and able to keep it off and persons who were not successful (previous attempts to lose weight were unsuccessful or they could not keep the lost weight off. Behaviors examined included modification of diet, leisure-time and sports activities, and self-monitoring, and barriers to weight management. Results Among adults who reported losing weight or trying to lose weight, 31.0% had been successful at both losing weight and maintenance after weight loss. Successful weight loss status differed by sex, age, and current weight status. Assessment of reported weight loss strategies, found that exercising ≥30 minutes/day and adding physical activity to daily life were significantly higher among successful versus unsuccessful weight losers. Individuals who were successful at weight loss and maintenance were less likely to use over-the-counter diet products than those who were unsuccessful at weight loss. Significantly more successful versus unsuccessful weight losers reported that on most days of the week they planned meals (35.9% vs. 24.9%, tracked calories (17.7% vs. 8.8%, tracked fat (16.4% vs. 6.6%, and measured food on plate (15.9% vs. 6.7%. Successful losers were also more likely to weigh themselves daily (20.3% vs. 11.0%. There were a significantly higher proportion of successful losers who reported lifting weights (19.0% versus unsuccessful (10.9%. The odds of being a successful weight loser were 48%–76% lower for those reporting exercise weight control barriers were influencing factors (e.g., no time, too tired to exercise, no one to exercise with, too

  11. What Overweight Women Want From a Weight Loss App: A Qualitative Study on Arabic Women

    Alnasser, Aroub Abdulaziz; Alkhalifa, Abdulrahman Saleh; Sathiaseelan, Arjuna; Marais, Debbi

    2015-01-01

    Background Overweight and obesity are international public health issues. With mobile and app use growing globally, the development of weight loss apps are increasing along with evidence that interventions using technology have been effective in the treatment of obesity. Although studies have been conducted regarding what content health professionals would recommend within weight loss apps, there are limited studies that explore users’ viewpoints. There is specifically a paucity of research t...

  12. Understanding eating behaviours in Spanish women enrolled in a weight-loss treatment

    Barberia, Ana Maria; Attree, Moira; Todd, Christopher

    2008-01-01

    AIM: To identify the beliefs and attitudes of a sample of obese and overweight Spanish women undertaking a weight-loss treatment. BACKGROUND: Obesity is a global epidemic. Weight-loss treatments focus on changing eating behaviours; however, many patients fail to adhere to the diet. This suggests that more effective behaviour-change interventions are required to help people change their eating behaviours. According to the theory of planned behaviour (TPB) human behaviour is influenced by belie...

  13. Issues in characterizing resting energy expenditure in obesity and after weight loss

    Anja eBosy-Westphal

    2013-03-01

    Full Text Available Normalization of resting energy expenditure (REE for body composition using the 2-compartment model (fat mass, FM and fat-free mass, FFM has inherent limitations for the interpretation of REE and may lead to erroneous conclusions when comparing people with a wide range of adiposity as well as before and after substantial weight loss. We compared different methods of REE normalization: (i for FFM and FM (ii by the inclusion of %FM as a measure of adiposity and (iii based on organ and tissue masses. Results were compared between healthy subjects with different degrees of adiposity as well as within subject before and after weight loss. Normalizing REE from an REE vs. FFM and FM equation that (i was derived in obese participants and applied to lean people or (ii was derived before weight loss and applied after weight loss leads to the erroneous conclusion of a lower metabolic rate (i in lean persons and (ii after weight loss. This is revealed by the normalization of REE for organ and tissue masses that was not significantly different between lean and obese or between baseline and after weight loss. There is evidence for an increasing specific metabolic rate of FFM with increasing %FM that could be explained by a higher contribution of liver, kidney and heart mass to FFM in obesity. Using REE vs. FFM and FM equations specific for different levels of adiposity (% fat mass eliminated differences in REE before and after weight loss in women. In conclusion, the most established method for normalization of REE based on FFM and FM may lead to spurious conclusions about metabolic rate in obesity and the phenomenon of weight loss-associated adaptive thermogenesis. Using % fat mass-specific REE prediction from FFM and FM in kg may improve the normalization of REE when subjects with wide differences in % fat mass are investigated.

  14. Adolescent Exergame Play for Weight Loss and Psychosocial Improvement: A Controlled Physical Activity Intervention

    Staiano, A. E.; A A Abraham; Calvert, S. L.

    2013-01-01

    Overweight and obese youth, who face increased risk of medical complications including heart disease and type II diabetes, can benefit from sustainable physical activity interventions that result in weight loss. This study examined whether a 20-week exergame (i.e. videogame that requires gross motor activity) intervention can produce weight loss and improve psychosocial outcomes for 54 overweight and obese African American adolescents. Participants were recruited from a public high school and...

  15. Enhanced ZAG production by subcutaneous adipose tissue is linked to weight loss in gastrointestinal cancer patients

    Mracek, T.; Stephens, N. A.; Gao, D.; Bao, Y.; Ross, J A; Rydén, M; Arner, P; Trayhurn, P.; Fearon, K C H; Bing, C

    2011-01-01

    Background: Profound loss of adipose tissue is a hallmark of cancer cachexia. Zinc-α2-glycoprotein (ZAG), a recently identified adipokine, is suggested as a candidate in lipid catabolism. Methods: In the first study, eight weight-stable and 17 cachectic cancer patients (weight loss ⩾5% in previous 6 months) were recruited. Zinc-α2-glycoprotein mRNA and protein expression were assessed in subcutaneous adipose tissue (SAT), subcutaneous adipose tissue morphology was examined and serum ZAG conce...

  16. Effect of Diet Composition on Energy Expenditure during Weight Loss: The POUNDS LOST Study

    Bray, George A; Steven R Smith; DeJonge, Lilian; Souza, Russell de; Rood, Jennifer; Champagne, Catherine M.; Laranjo, Nancy; Carey, Vincent; Obarzanek, Eva; Loria, Catherine M.; Anton, Stephen D.; Ryan, Donna H.; Greenway, Frank L.; Williamson, Donald; Sacks, Frank M.

    2011-01-01

    Background Weight loss reduces energy expenditure, but the contribution of different macronutrients to this change is unclear. Hypothesis We tested the hypothesis that macronutrient composition of the diet might affect the partitioning of energy expenditure during weight loss. Design A sub-study of 99 participants from the POUNDS LOST trial had total energy expenditure (TEE) measured by doubly labeled water and resting energy expenditure (REE) measured by indirect calorimetry at baseline and ...

  17. Greater hunger and less restraint predict weight loss success with phentermine treatment

    Thomas, Elizabeth A.; McNair, Bryan; Bechtell, Jamie L.; Ferland, Annie; Cornier, Marc-Andre; Eckel, Robert H.

    2015-01-01

    Objective Phentermine is thought to cause weight loss through a reduction in hunger. We hypothesized that higher hunger ratings would predict greater weight loss with phentermine. Design and Methods This is an observational pilot study in which all subjects were treated with phentermine for 8 weeks and appetite and eating behaviors were measured at baseline and week 8. Outcomes were compared in subjects with ≥5% vs

  18. A weight loss protocol and owners participation in the treatment of canine obesity

    Carciofi Aulus Cavalieri; Gonçalves Karina Nogueira Venturelli; Vasconcellos Ricardo Souza; Bazolli Rodrigo Sousa; Brunetto Márcio Antonio; Prada Flávio

    2005-01-01

    The success of a weight loss program for pets depends on the owners collaboration. Their compliance is fundamental in establishing the correct food management. The objective of this study was to compare the effectiveness of a weight loss program in two groups of dogs, one maintained under experimental conditions and the other with their owners. The same hypocaloric food was used to feed all animals, the amount being restricted to 60% of the estimated maintenance energy requirement for a 15% r...

  19. A new approach to the minimum weight/loss design of switching power converters

    Lee, F. C.; Rahman, S.; Wu, C. J.; Kolacki, J.

    1981-01-01

    A new technique using the mathematical nonlinear programming ALAG is proposed to facilitate design optimizations of switching power converters. This computer-aided approach provides a minimum weight (or loss) design down to the details of component level and concurrently satisfies all related power-circuit performance requirements. It also provides such design insights as tradeoffs between power loss and system weight as the switching frequency is increased.

  20. Risk factors for excess weight loss and hypernatremia in exclusively breast-fed infants

    M.K. Çaglar; I Özer; Altugan, F S

    2006-01-01

    Data were prospectively obtained from exclusively breast-fed healthy term neonates at birth and from healthy mothers with no obstetric complication to determine risk factors for excess weight loss and hypernatremia in exclusively breast-fed infants. Thirty-four neonates with a weight loss > or = 10% were diagnosed between April 2001 and January 2005. Six of 18 infants who were eligible for the study had hypernatremia. Breast conditions associated with breast-feeding difficulties (P < 0.05), p...

  1. Risk factors for excess weight loss and hypernatremia in exclusively breast-fed infants

    Çaglar M.K.; Özer I.; Altugan F.S.

    2006-01-01

    Data were prospectively obtained from exclusively breast-fed healthy term neonates at birth and from healthy mothers with no obstetric complication to determine risk factors for excess weight loss and hypernatremia in exclusively breast-fed infants. Thirty-four neonates with a weight loss > or = 10% were diagnosed between April 2001 and January 2005. Six of 18 infants who were eligible for the study had hypernatremia. Breast conditions associated with breast-feeding difficulties (P < 0.05), ...

  2. Chewing Gum Can Help in Weight Loss, Study Says

    陈小兰

    2000-01-01

    杭州的陈小兰把这篇稿子寄给我们,意欲刊登在“难句会诊”专栏。因为她对文章的第一句(非主题句也)感到莫名其妙。我们觉得本文的信息不乏新意,现将此文刊登在注释读物栏。 语言与文化岂可随便割裂?两者的关系是:你中有我,我中有你,水乳交融一般。陈小兰对文章的首句(Maybe this s why the Doublemint Twins are soskinny.)感到头疼。问题不在文字,而在文化。语言打着文化烙印,其丰润的文化内涵往往不是查阅词典、阅读书籍所能够解决的,需要长期地生活在该语言文化环境之中。陈小兰的问题,我们编辑部也感到头疼,只得求助美国教授。E-mail上午发往美国,下午回音即到! Dorine/Rosemary两教授分别居住在美国的东/西海岸。她们的解答几乎如出一辙。本刊将她们的E-mail附在文后。有兴趣的读者不妨一读,从中也许还可以感受到电视商业广告是何等深入人心! 本文还有一句话的理解值得注意: The effect of chewing gum on weight control,they said,“should not bediscounted.” Discount一词的含义是“打折扣”,翻译时似不宜照译,恐怕只能改译“低估”。 我们向读者推荐此文,并不是为Chewing Gum作广告,也不可能为ChewingGum作广告。因为,文章的末尾写道: But they warned that a person would have to chew e

  3. Measurement of transepidermal water loss in Tanzanian cot-nursed neonates and its relation to postnatal weight loss

    Thijs, HFH; Massawe, AW; Okken, A; Coenraads, PJ; Muskiet, FAJ; Huisman, M; Boersma, ER

    1996-01-01

    In healthy cot-nursed Tanzanian neonates (n = 92, gestation 26-42 weeks) measurements of transepidermal water loss (TEWL) and weight change were performed during the first 24 h after birth at an average ambient humidity of 70% and an environmental temperature of 32 degrees C. Urine production on day

  4. Removal of excess skin after massive weight loss: challenges and solutions

    Giordano S

    2015-06-01

    Full Text Available Salvatore Giordano Department of Plastic and General Surgery, Turku University Hospital, Turku, Finland Abstract: The advent of bariatric surgery has led to a subspecialty in plastic surgery for skin and fat contouring which remain after massive weight loss. The author discusses the preoperative assessment, surgical treatment plan, postoperative management, possible complications, and benefits of postbariatric surgery. Preoperative planning includes medical history and patient assessment. Surgical procedures for brachioplasty, upper back lift, breast reshaping, abdominoplasty, panniculectomy, lower back lift, and thigh lift are discussed. Indications, postoperative complications, and benefits are also discussed. The best candidates for postbariatric plastic surgery are those who have achieved weight loss stability with a BMI of 32 or less and who have adequate nutrition in order to heal the surgical excisions. Abdominal and truncal deformity are the most common presenting complaints in massive weight loss patients, and the procedure of choice to address this region is a body lift. Postoperative care focuses on patient safety, prioritizing in deep venous thrombosis (DVT prophylaxis and seroma prevention. Postbariatric body contouring aims to correct the deformity due to the excess of skin after massive weight loss and to restore a sense of normalcy. Keywords: morbid obesity, bariatric surgery, weight loss, massive weight loss, body contouring, panniculectomy

  5. Kinematic Analysis of the Effect of Rapid Weight Loss by Sauna on Elite Wrestlers’ Single Leg Takedown Technique

    Amir Moghaddami; ZinnurGerek; Ali Karimiasl; HabibNozohouri

    2015-01-01

    Rapid weight loss and weight cutting are two widely used methods to reach competition weight; Sauna and dehydration as well as sweating through physical activity are very common. Many athletes with specific weight classifications such as wrestling, judo, and weight lifting want to participate in competitions 6-8 % below their normal weight. The aim of this study was to present an example of the quantitative contribution of modern sport biomechanics. The results showed that rapid weight loss c...

  6. A Preliminary Observation of Weight Loss Following Left Gastric Artery Embolization in Humans

    Andrew J. Gunn

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Background/Objectives. Embolization of the left gastric artery (LGA, which preferentially supplies the gastric fundus, has been shown to produce weight loss in animal models. However, weight loss after LGA embolization in humans has not been previously established. The aim of this study was to evaluate postprocedural weight loss in patients following LGA embolization. Subjects/Methods. A retrospective analysis of the medical records of patients who underwent LGA embolization for upper gastrointestinal (GI bleeding was performed. Postprocedural weight loss in this group was compared to a control group of patients who had undergone embolization of other arteries for upper GI bleeding. Results. The experimental group (N=19 lost an average of 7.3% of their initial body weight within three months of LGA embolization, which was significantly greater than the 2% weight loss observed in the control group (N=28 (P=0.006. No significant differences were seen between the groups in preprocedural body mass index (BMI, age, postprocedural care in the intensive care unit, history of malignancy, serum creatinine, or left ventricular ejection fraction. Conclusions. The current data suggest that body weight in humans may be modulated via LGA embolization. Continued research is warranted with prospective studies to further investigate this phenomenon.

  7. The Wii Club: Gaming for Weight Loss in Overweight and Obese Youth.

    Staiano, Amanda E; Abraham, Anisha A; Calvert, Sandra L

    2012-10-01

    Our 20-week "Wii Club" intervention for overweight and obese adolescents demonstrated weight loss, increased self-efficacy, and improved peer support from cooperative exergame play. Videogames that require motor activity in a social context may be a fun, effective tool to promote healthy weight and physical activity among youth. PMID:23565349

  8. The Wii Club: Gaming for Weight Loss in Overweight and Obese Youth

    Staiano, Amanda E.; Abraham, Anisha A.; Calvert, Sandra L.

    2012-01-01

    Our 20-week “Wii Club” intervention for overweight and obese adolescents demonstrated weight loss, increased self-efficacy, and improved peer support from cooperative exergame play. Videogames that require motor activity in a social context may be a fun, effective tool to promote healthy weight and physical activity among youth.

  9. Energy balance and the composition of weight loss during prolonged space flight

    Leonard, J. I.

    1982-01-01

    Integrated metabolic balance analysis, Skylab integrated metabolic balance analysis and computer simulation of fluid-electrolyte responses to zero-g, overall mission weight and tissue losses, energy balance, diet and exercise, continuous changes, electrolyte losses, caloric and exercise requirements, and body composition are discussed.

  10. Association between nutrient adequacy and psychosocial factors with overall rate of weight loss after bariatric surgery.

    Vanoh, Divya; Shahar, Suzana; Mahmood, Nik Ritza Kosai Nik

    2015-01-01

    This was a cross-sectional study that investigated the relationship between nutrient intake and psychosocial factors with the overall rate of weight loss after bariatric surgery among patients who had undergone sleeve gastrectomy in University Kebangsaan Malaysia Medical Centre (UKMMC). Forty-three subjects (15 men and 28 women) were recruited for this study. Subjects completed assessment questionnaires including the Binge Eating Scale (BES), Beck Depression Inventory (BECK), Family Support Questionnaires, and the Index of Peer Relation (IPR). Results showed that the median overall rate of weight loss was 4.3±5.5 kg/month, which was lower when compared to the rate of weight loss at three months which was 5.0±5.6 kg/month. Pre-operative weight was the predictor of overall rate of weight loss (peating disorder (BED) and depression were also closely associated with each other after bariatric surgery (peating scale. The mean caloric and protein intake was very low, only 562±310 kcal/day and 29.6±16.1 g/day. The intake of vitamin A, B-1, B-2, B-3, B-12, C, folate, and iron met the Malaysian Recommended Nutrient Intake (RNI). However, the RNI for calcium, zinc, selenium, vitamin D, and vitamin E was not met. In conclusion, although bariatric surgery had many health benefits, several factors hindered weight loss after bariatric surgery. Health care professionals should closely monitor patients after bariatric surgery. PMID:26693745

  11. The role of genes involved in lipolysis on weight loss program in overweight and obese individuals.

    Luglio, Harry Freitag; Sulistyoningrum, Dian Caturini; Susilowati, Rina

    2015-09-01

    The ability of obese people to reduce weight in the same treatment varied. Genetic make up as well as the behavioral changes are important for the successfulness of the program. One of the most proposed genetic variations that have been reported in many intervention studies was genes that control lipolysis process. This review summarizes studies that were done showing the influence of genetic polymorphisms in lipolysis pathway and weight loss in a weight loss treatment program. Some studies had shown that certain enzymes involved in this process were related to successfulness of weight loss program. Single Nucleotide Polymorphism (SNP) in PLIN (11482G>A) and ADRB3 (Trp64Arg) are the most studied polymorphisms that have effect on weight loss intervention. However, those studies were not conclusive because of limited number of subjects used and controversies in the results. Thus, replication and confirmation on the role of those genes in weight loss are important due to their potential to be used as predictors of the results of the program. PMID:26388665

  12. Attribution of Causes of Weight Loss and Weight Gain to 3-Year Mortality in Older Adults : Results From the Longitudinal Aging Study Amsterdam

    Wijnhoven, Hanneke A. H.; van Zon, Sander K. R.; Twisk, Jos; Visser, Marjolein

    2014-01-01

    Background. Weight loss is associated with a higher mortality risk in old age, but the underlying cause may impact this association. We examined associations between causes of intentional and unintentional weight loss and weight gain and mortality. Methods. We used data of five triannual examination

  13. Weight loss predictability by plasma metabolic signatures in adults with obesity and morbid obesity of the DiOGenes study

    J.H.M. Stroeve; E. Saccenti; J. Bouwman; A. Dane; K. Strassburg; J. Vervoort; T. Hankemeier; A. Astrup; A.K. Smilde; B. van Ommen; W.H.M. Saris

    2016-01-01

    OBJECTIVE: Aim is to predict successful weight loss by metabolic signatures at baseline and to identify which differences in metabolic status may underlie variations in weight loss success. METHODS: In DiOGenes, a randomized, controlled trial, weight loss was induced using a low-calorie diet (800 kc

  14. [Gastrointestinal causes of weight loss: clinical presentation, diagnostic workup and therapy].

    Fromhold-Treu, Sophie; Lamprecht, Georg

    2016-02-01

    This review describes the gasterointestinal entities, their pathophysiology, clinical presentation, diagnostic workup and therapy that typically involve weight loss as the major presenting symptom. The differentiation of malassimilation into maldigestion and malabsorption is clinically mostly not helpful. Instead primary malasssimilation can be distinguished from secondary due to another disease. Celiac disease, lambliasis, small bowel CD, CVIDS and Whipple's disease result in loss of absorptive surface. Chronic intestinal pseudobstruction leads to weight loss through dysmotility and postprandial pain. Microscopic colitis involves some weight loss and needs to be considered because of its high prevalence. Exocrine pancreatic insufficiency and the various protein loosing enteropathies may be primary or secondary syndromes. Dumping, bile acid malabsorption and short bowel syndrome occur after typical operative procedures. Chronic radiation enteritis, chronic intestinal ischemia and intestinal diabetic polyneuropathy are due to chronic intestinal injury. PMID:26886038

  15. Acute weight gain, gender, and therapeutic response to antipsychotics in the treatment of patients with schizophrenia

    Zhao Zhongyun; Stensland Michael; Ascher-Svanum Haya; Kinon Bruce J

    2005-01-01

    Abstract Background Previous research indicated that women are more vulnerable than men to adverse psychological consequences of weight gain. Other research has suggested that weight gain experienced during antipsychotic therapy may also psychologically impact women more negatively. This study assessed the impact of acute treatment-emergent weight gain on clinical and functional outcomes of patients with schizophrenia by patient gender and antipsychotic treatment (olanzapine or haloperidol). ...

  16. A weight-loss program adapted to the menstrual cycle increases weight loss in healthy, overweight, premenopausal women: a 6-mo randomized controlled trial

    Geiker, Nina Rica Wium; Ritz, Christian; Pedersen, Sue D;

    2016-01-01

    Background: Hormonal fluctuations during the menstrual cycle influence energy intake and expenditure as well as eating preferences and behavior. Objective: We examined the impact of a diet and exercise weightloss program that was designed to target and moderate the effects of the menstrual cycle....... Conclusion: A differentiated diet and exercise program that is tailored to counteract food cravings and metabolic changes throughout the menstrual cycle may increase weight loss above that achieved with a traditional diet and exercise program in women who can comply with the program. This trial...... compared with the effect of simple energy restriction. Design: A total of 60 healthy, overweight, premenopausal women were included in a 6-mo weight-loss program in which each subject consumed a diet of 1600 kcal/d. Subjects were randomly assigned to either a combined diet and exercise program...

  17. Tissue components of weight loss in cancer patients. A new method of study and preliminary observations.

    Heymsfield, S B; McManus, C B

    1985-01-01

    A new approach using anthropometric, radiographic, biochemical, and ultrasonic methods allowed partition of body weight into fat, fat-free mass, skeletal muscle, and volume of heart, liver, kidneys, spleen, and tumor. These methods were used to evaluate body composition longitudinally in a pilot group of nine cancer patients, seven of whom lost weight (greater than 2.5 kg) during the study period. Two control groups also underwent the protocol: (1) healthy subjects (+/- 10% IBW) of similar age, sex, and height; and (2) patients with weight loss due to anorexia nervosa. Weight loss in both the cancer and anorexia nervosa groups could be accounted for primarily by loss in fat and skeletal muscle; although the relative magnitude of these tissue losses were approximately the same in both groups, cancer patients lost relatively less body weight. This was because (1) overt or occult ascites (detected radiographically) was present in cancer patients (3 of 9); (2) tumor bulk increased fat-free mass by up to 1 to 2 kg; and (3) the proportional loss in visceral organ volume was less in cancer patients than in anorexia nervosa patients. In the latter group, heart, liver, kidneys, and spleen were reduced in proportion to body weight, whereas in the cancer group as a whole, these organs (when uninvolved with tumor) lost little (heart and kidneys) or no volume (liver and spleen). This initial study suggests that the principal endogenous energy and nitrogen sources during evolution of weight loss in cancer are primarily adipose tissue triglycerides and skeletal muscle proteins. In some cancer patients, fluid accumulation, a large tumor burden, and the slow rate of visceral organ atrophy make body weight an unreliable index of available energy-nitrogen reserves. PMID:3965090

  18. Low birth weight is associated with adiposity, impaired skeletal muscle energetics, and weight loss resistance in mice

    Beauchamp, Brittany; Ghosh, Sujoy; Dysart, Michael; Kanaan, Georges N.; Chu, Alphonse; Blais, Alexandre; Rajamanickam, Karunanithi; Tsai, Eve C.; Patti, Mary-Elizabeth; Harper, Mary-Ellen

    2014-01-01

    Background In utero undernutrition is associated with obesity and insulin resistance, although its effects on skeletal muscle remain poorly defined. Therefore, in the current study we explored the effects of in utero food restriction on muscle energy metabolism in mice. Methods We used an experimental mouse model system of maternal undernutrition during late pregnancy to examine offspring from undernourished dams (U) and control offspring from ad libitum fed dams (C). Weight loss of 10 wk old...

  19. Pancreatic cancerrelated cachexia: influence on metabolism and correlation to weight loss and pulmonary function

    Dramatic weight loss is an often underestimated symptom in pancreatic cancer patients. Cachexia- defined as an unintended loss of stable weight exceeding 10% – is present in up to 80% of patients with cancer of the upper gastrointestinal tract, and has a significant influence on survival. The aim of the study was to show the multiple systemic effects of cachexia in pancreatic cancer patients, in terms of resection rate, effects on pulmonary function, amount of fat and muscle tissue, as well as changes in laboratory parameters. In patients with pancreatic cancer, clinical appearance was documented, including the amount of weight loss. Laboratory parameters and lung-function tests were evaluated, and the thickness of muscle and fat tissue was measured with computed tomography scans. Statistical analysis, including multivariate analysis, was performed using SPSS software. Survival curves were calculated using Kaplan-Meier analysis and the log-rank test. To test for significant differences between the examined groups we used Student's t-test and the Mann-Whitney U test. Significance was defined as p < 0.05. Of 198 patients with a ductal adenocarcinoma of the pancreas, 70% were suffering from weight loss when they presented for operation, and in 40% weight loss exceeded 10% of the stable weight. In patients with cachexia, metastases were diagnosed significantly more often (47% vs. 24%, P < 0.001), leading to a significantly reduced resection rate in these patients. Patients with cachexia had significantly reduced fat tissue amounts. Hence, dramatic weight loss in a patient with pancreatic cancer may be a hint of a more progressed or more aggressive tumour. Pancreatic cancer patients with cachexia had a higher rate of more progressed tumour stages and a worse nutritional status. Furthermore, patients with cachexia had an impaired lung function and a reduction in fat tissue. Patients with pancreatic cancer and cachexia had significantly reduced survival. If weight

  20. Intention, perceived control, and weight loss: an application of the theory of planned behavior.

    Schifter, D E; Ajzen, I

    1985-09-01

    Success at attempted weight reduction among college women was predicted on the basis of a theory of planned behavior. At the beginning of a 6-week period, participants expressed their attitudes, subjective norms, perceived control, and intentions with respect to losing weight. In addition, the extent to which they had made detailed weight reduction plans was assessed, as were a number of general attitudes and personality factors. In support of the theory, intentions to lose weight were accurately predicted on the basis of attitudes, subjective norms, and perceived control; perceived control and intentions were together moderately successful in predicting the amount of weight that participants actually lost over the 6-week period. Actual weight loss was also found to increase with development of a plan and with ego strength, factors that were assumed to increase control over goal attainment. Other factors, such as health locus of control, perceived competence, and action control, were found to be unrelated to weight reduction. PMID:4045706

  1. How Formerly Overweight and Obese Individuals Negotiate Disclosure of Their Weight Loss.

    Romo, Lynsey K

    2016-09-01

    Overweight and obese individuals frequently experience weight-based stigma, and reducing stigma is one reason people want to lose weight. However, research suggests even after individuals become a normal weight, knowledge of their old body size can result in stigma. Through interviews of 30 formerly overweight or obese individuals and the framework of Communication Privacy Management theory, this study found the vast majority of participants perceived more benefits from disclosing their larger identity than risks, regardless of weight-loss method. Participants revealed their weight loss in order to inspire others, build relationships, or hold themselves accountable. Conversely, a few participants concealed to protect their thinner identity (i.e., they feared stigma) or to avoid coming across as boastful. In contrast to previous studies, this investigation suggests most participants were not dissuaded from revealing their former body size due to a threat of residual stigma. Participants' disclosure was overwhelmingly met with encouraging and supportive responses. PMID:26881478

  2. Weight-Loss Surgery for Adults with Diabetes or Prediabetes Who Are at the Lower Levels of Obesity

    ... about how much weight-loss surgery, diet and exercise, and medicine lower weight and blood sugar? The chart below ... about how much weight-loss surgery, diet and exercise, and diabetes medicines lower weight and blood sugar after 1 year. ...

  3. Exercise Decreases Lipogenic Gene Expression in Adipose Tissue and Alters Adipocyte Cellularity during Weight Regain After Weight Loss.

    Giles, Erin D; Steig, Amy J; Jackman, Matthew R; Higgins, Janine A; Johnson, Ginger C; Lindstrom, Rachel C; MacLean, Paul S

    2016-01-01

    Exercise is a potent strategy to facilitate long-term weight maintenance. In addition to increasing energy expenditure and reducing appetite, exercise also favors the oxidation of dietary fat, which likely helps prevent weight re-gain. It is unclear whether this exercise-induced metabolic shift is due to changes in energy balance, or whether exercise imparts additional adaptations in the periphery that limit the storage and favor the oxidation of dietary fat. To answer this question, adipose tissue lipid metabolism and related gene expression were studied in obese rats following weight loss and during the first day of relapse to obesity. Mature, obese rats were weight-reduced for 2 weeks with or without daily treadmill exercise (EX). Rats were weight maintained for 6 weeks, followed by relapse on: (a) ad libitum low fat diet (LFD), (b) ad libitum LFD plus EX, or (c) a provision of LFD to match the positive energy imbalance of exercised, relapsing animals. 24 h retention of dietary- and de novo-derived fat were assessed directly using (14)C palmitate/oleate and (3)H20, respectively. Exercise decreased the size, but increased the number of adipocytes in both retroperitoneal (RP) and subcutaneous (SC) adipose depots, and prevented the relapse-induced increase in adipocyte size. Further, exercise decreased the expression of genes involved in lipid uptake (CD36 and LPL), de novo lipogenesis (FAS, ACC1), and triacylglycerol synthesis (MGAT and DGAT) in RP adipose during relapse following weight loss. This was consistent with the metabolic data, whereby exercise reduced retention of de novo-derived fat even when controlling for the positive energy imbalance. The decreased trafficking of dietary fat to adipose tissue with exercise was explained by reduced energy intake which attenuated energy imbalance during refeeding. Despite having decreased expression of lipogenic genes, the net retention of de novo-derived lipid was higher in both the RP and SC adipose of exercising

  4. Weight Loss

    > Find Us On Facebook Twitter Pinterest Youtube Instagram Diabetes Stops Here Blog Online Community Site Menu Are You at Risk? Diagnosis Lower Your Risk Risk Test Alert Day Prediabetes My Health Advisor Tools to ...

  5. Changes in Skeletal Integrity and Marrow Adiposity during High-Fat Diet and after Weight Loss

    Scheller, Erica L.; Khoury, Basma; Moller, Kayla L.; Wee, Natalie K. Y.; Khandaker, Shaima; Kozloff, Kenneth M.; Abrishami, Simin H.; Zamarron, Brian F.; Singer, Kanakadurga

    2016-01-01

    The prevalence of obesity has continued to rise over the past three decades leading to significant increases in obesity-related medical care costs from metabolic and non-metabolic sequelae. It is now clear that expansion of body fat leads to an increase in inflammation with systemic effects on metabolism. In mouse models of diet-induced obesity, there is also an expansion of bone marrow adipocytes. However, the persistence of these changes after weight loss has not been well described. The objective of this study was to investigate the impact of high-fat diet (HFD) and subsequent weight loss on skeletal parameters in C57Bl6/J mice. Male mice were given a normal chow diet (ND) or 60% HFD at 6 weeks of age for 12, 16, or 20 weeks. A third group of mice was put on HFD for 12 weeks and then on ND for 8 weeks to mimic weight loss. After these dietary challenges, the tibia and femur were removed and analyzed by micro computed-tomography for bone morphology. Decalcification followed by osmium staining was used to assess bone marrow adiposity, and mechanical testing was performed to assess bone strength. After 12, 16, or 20 weeks of HFD, mice had significant weight gain relative to controls. Body mass returned to normal after weight loss. Marrow adipose tissue (MAT) volume in the tibia increased after 16 weeks of HFD and persisted in the 20-week HFD group. Weight loss prevented HFD-induced MAT expansion. Trabecular bone volume fraction, mineral content, and number were decreased after 12, 16, or 20 weeks of HFD, relative to ND controls, with only partial recovery after weight loss. Mechanical testing demonstrated decreased fracture resistance after 20 weeks of HFD. Loss of mechanical integrity did not recover after weight loss. Our study demonstrates that HFD causes long-term, persistent changes in bone quality, despite prevention of marrow adipose tissue accumulation, as demonstrated through changes in bone morphology and mechanical strength in a mouse

  6. Assessment of plasma acylcarnitines before and after weight loss in obese subjects.

    Schooneman, Marieke G; Napolitano, Antonella; Houten, Sander M; Ambler, Graeme K; Murgatroyd, Peter R; Miller, Sam R; Hollak, Carla E M; Tan, Chong Y; Virtue, Samuel; Vidal-Puig, Antonio; Nunez, Derek J; Soeters, Maarten R

    2016-09-15

    Acylcarnitines, fatty acid oxidation (FAO) intermediates, have been implicated in diet-induced insulin resistance and type 2 diabetes mellitus, as increased levels are found in obese insulin resistant humans. Moreover plasma acylcarnitines have been associated with clinical parameters related to glucose metabolism, such as fasting glucose levels and HbA1c. We hypothesized that plasma acylcarnitines would correlate with energy expenditure, insulin sensitivity and other clinical parameters before and during a weight loss intervention. We measured plasma acylcarnitines in 60 obese subjects before and after a 12 week weight loss intervention. These samples originated from three different interventions (diet alone (n = 20); diet and exercise (n = 21); diet and drug treatment (n = 19)). Acylcarnitine profiles were analysed in relation to clinical parameters of glucose metabolism, insulin sensitivity and energy expenditure. Conclusions were drawn from all 60 subjects together. Despite amelioration of HOMA-IR, plasma acylcarnitines levels increased during weight loss. HOMA-IR, energy expenditure and respiratory exchange ratio were not related to plasma acylcarnitines. However non-esterified fatty acids correlated strongly with several acylcarnitines at baseline and during the weight loss intervention (p < 0.001). Acylcarnitines did not correlate with clinical parameters of glucose metabolism during weight loss, questioning their role in insulin resistance and type 2 diabetes mellitus. PMID:27444119

  7. Recruiting young adults into a weight loss trial: report of protocol development and recruitment results.

    Corsino, Leonor; Lin, Pao-Hwa; Batch, Bryan C; Intille, Stephen; Grambow, Steven C; Bosworth, Hayden B; Bennett, Gary G; Tyson, Crystal; Svetkey, Laura P; Voils, Corrine I

    2013-07-01

    Obesity has spread to all segments of the U.S. population. Young adults, aged 18-35 years, are rarely represented in clinical weight loss trials. We conducted a qualitative study to identify factors that may facilitate recruitment of young adults into a weight loss intervention trial. Participants were 33 adults aged 18-35 years with BMI ≥25 kg/m(2). Six group discussions were conducted using the nominal group technique. Health, social image, and "self" factors such as emotions, self-esteem, and confidence were reported as reasons to pursue weight loss. Physical activity, dietary intake, social support, medical intervention, and taking control (e.g. being motivated) were perceived as the best weight loss strategies. Incentives, positive outcomes, education, convenience, and social support were endorsed as reasons young adults would consider participating in a weight loss study. Incentives, advertisement, emphasizing benefits, and convenience were endorsed as ways to recruit young adults. These results informed the Cellphone Intervention for You (CITY) marketing and advertising, including message framing and advertising avenues. Implications for recruitment methods are discussed. PMID:23591327

  8. Self-directed interventions to promote weight loss: a systematic review and meta-analysis.

    Tang, Jason C H; Abraham, Charles; Greaves, Colin J; Nikolaou, Vasilis

    2016-09-01

    Many self-directed weight-loss interventions have been developed using a variety of delivery formats (e.g., internet and smartphone) and change techniques. Yet, little research has examined whether self-directed interventions can exclusively promote weight loss. MEDLINE, Embase, PsycINFO, CINAHL, and the Cochrane Library were systematically reviewed for randomised controlled trials evaluating self-directed interventions in relation to weight-loss outcomes in adults. Standardised mean differences (SMD) and 95% confidence intervals (CI) were calculated using a random effects model. Twenty-seven trials incorporating 36 comparisons met our inclusion criteria. Participants using self-directed interventions lost significantly more weight (MD = -1.56 kg, CI -2.25, -0.86 ranging from 0.6 to 5.3 kg) compared to those in the minimal intervention or no-treatment groups (3.1-month follow-up median). The majority of interventions were internet based (18 evaluations) and these were effective at 3 months (MD = -1.74 kg, CI -2.65, -0.82 ranging from 0.6 to 4.8 kg) (SMD = -0.48, 95% CI -0.72, -0.24, I(2) = 82%; p < .0001; 16 evaluations) and 6 months follow-up (MD = -2.71 kg, CI -4.03, -1.39 ranging from 2.2 to 5.3 kg) (SMD = -0.59, 95% CI -0.99, -0.19, I(2) = 76%; p = .004; 4 evaluations). Self-directed weight-loss interventions can generate modest weight loss for up to 6 months but may need to be supplemented by other interventions to achieve sustained and clinically meaningful weight loss. PMID:27091296

  9. A weight loss protocol and owners participation in the treatment of canine obesity

    Carciofi Aulus Cavalieri

    2005-01-01

    Full Text Available The success of a weight loss program for pets depends on the owners collaboration. Their compliance is fundamental in establishing the correct food management. The objective of this study was to compare the effectiveness of a weight loss program in two groups of dogs, one maintained under experimental conditions and the other with their owners. The same hypocaloric food was used to feed all animals, the amount being restricted to 60% of the estimated maintenance energy requirement for a 15% reduction of the present body weight of the dog. The animals were followed during 90 days. A standard questionnaire was used to study the owners' perception of obesity and its treatment. The protocol and the diet were found to be effective. The control dogs had an average weight loss of 1.39% per week. Dogs with owners lost on average 0.75% of their body weight per week, a statistically lower result (P<0.05, suggesting that the owners did not follow the treatment closely. The owners were clearly satisfied with the results that were obtained, even with this modest weight loss. The questionnaires were shown to be an important tool in determining the causes of canine obesity, as well as in the follow-up of the treatment.

  10. Acute hyperammonemic encephalopathy with features on diffusion-weighted images: Report of two cases

    Kim, Ja Young; Yu, In Kyu [Dept. of Radiology, Eulji University Hospital, Daejeon (Korea, Republic of)

    2015-02-15

    Acute hyperammonemic encephalopathy is a rare toxic encephalopathy caused by accumulated plasma ammonia. A few literatures are reported about MRI findings of acute hyperammonemic encephalopathy. It is different from the well-known chronic hepatic encephalopathy. The clinical symptom and MRI findings of acute hyperammonemic encephalopathy can be reversible with proper treatment. Acute hepatic encephalopathy involves the cingulate cortex, diffuse cerebral cortices, insula, bilateral thalami on diffusion-weighted imaging (DWI), and fluid-attenuated inversion-recovery. Acute hepatic encephalopathy might mimic hypoxic-ischemic encephalopathy because of their similar predominant involving sites. We experienced 2 cases of acute hyperammonemic encephalopathy consecutively. They showed restricted diffusion at the cingulate cortex, cerebral cortices, insula, and bilateral dorsomedial thalami on DWI. One patient underwent acute fulminant hepatitis A, the other patient with underlying chronic liver disease had acute liver failure due to hepatotoxicity of tuberculosis medication. In this report, we presented the characteristic features of DWI in acute hyperammonemic encephalopathy. In addition, we reviewed articles on MRI findings of acute hyperammonemic encephalopathy.

  11. Acute hyperammonemic encephalopathy with features on diffusion-weighted images: Report of two cases

    Acute hyperammonemic encephalopathy is a rare toxic encephalopathy caused by accumulated plasma ammonia. A few literatures are reported about MRI findings of acute hyperammonemic encephalopathy. It is different from the well-known chronic hepatic encephalopathy. The clinical symptom and MRI findings of acute hyperammonemic encephalopathy can be reversible with proper treatment. Acute hepatic encephalopathy involves the cingulate cortex, diffuse cerebral cortices, insula, bilateral thalami on diffusion-weighted imaging (DWI), and fluid-attenuated inversion-recovery. Acute hepatic encephalopathy might mimic hypoxic-ischemic encephalopathy because of their similar predominant involving sites. We experienced 2 cases of acute hyperammonemic encephalopathy consecutively. They showed restricted diffusion at the cingulate cortex, cerebral cortices, insula, and bilateral dorsomedial thalami on DWI. One patient underwent acute fulminant hepatitis A, the other patient with underlying chronic liver disease had acute liver failure due to hepatotoxicity of tuberculosis medication. In this report, we presented the characteristic features of DWI in acute hyperammonemic encephalopathy. In addition, we reviewed articles on MRI findings of acute hyperammonemic encephalopathy.

  12. Mining Health App Data to Find More and Less Successful Weight Loss Subgroups

    2016-01-01

    Background More than half of all smartphone app downloads involve weight, diet, and exercise. If successful, these lifestyle apps may have far-reaching effects for disease prevention and health cost-savings, but few researchers have analyzed data from these apps. Objective The purposes of this study were to analyze data from a commercial health app (Lose It!) in order to identify successful weight loss subgroups via exploratory analyses and to verify the stability of the results. Methods Cross-sectional, de-identified data from Lose It! were analyzed. This dataset (n=12,427,196) was randomly split into 24 subsamples, and this study used 3 subsamples (combined n=972,687). Classification and regression tree methods were used to explore groupings of weight loss with one subsample, with descriptive analyses to examine other group characteristics. Data mining validation methods were conducted with 2 additional subsamples. Results In subsample 1, 14.96% of users lost 5% or more of their starting body weight. Classification and regression tree analysis identified 3 distinct subgroups: “the occasional users” had the lowest proportion (4.87%) of individuals who successfully lost weight; “the basic users” had 37.61% weight loss success; and “the power users” achieved the highest percentage of weight loss success at 72.70%. Behavioral factors delineated the subgroups, though app-related behavioral characteristics further distinguished them. Results were replicated in further analyses with separate subsamples. Conclusions This study demonstrates that distinct subgroups can be identified in “messy” commercial app data and the identified subgroups can be replicated in independent samples. Behavioral factors and use of custom app features characterized the subgroups. Targeting and tailoring information to particular subgroups could enhance weight loss success. Future studies should replicate data mining analyses to increase methodology rigor. PMID:27301853

  13. Initial Weight Loss after Restrictive Bariatric Procedures May Predict Mid-Term Weight Maintenance: Results From a 12-Month Pilot Trial

    Nikolić, Marko; Kruljac, Ivan; Kirigin, Lora; Mirošević, Gorana; Ljubičić, Neven; Nikolić, Borka Pezo; Bekavac-Bešlin, Miroslav; Budimir, Ivan; Vrkljan, Milan

    2015-01-01

    Background: Bariatric procedures are effective options for weight loss (WL) in the morbidly obese. However, some patients fail to lose any weight after bariatric surgery, and mid-term weight maintenance is variable. The aim of this study was to investigate whether initial WL could predict mid-term weight maintenance.

  14. Maintaining weight loss after bariatric surgery: when the spectator role is no longer enough.

    Jones, L; Cleator, J; Yorke, J

    2016-08-01

    Bariatric (weight loss) surgery is the gold standard treatment for severe obesity. Concern exists that patients are regaining weight in the longer term. Success and cost-effectiveness of surgery are threatened due to the re-emergence of related conditions such as diabetes. This exploratory qualitative study investigates patients' expectations and experiences of weight regain (WR) 2 years or more after Roux-en-Y gastric bypass (RYGB). Ten participants (two men and eight women) who experienced WR were interviewed between 2 and 6 years following surgery. Findings highlight that participants reacted to initial weight loss as passive spectators and were unprepared for subsequent WR. Their tolerability of WR reduced as the amount of regain increased, suggesting a 'line of tolerance' for WR. WR was influenced by a new vulnerability arising from weight loss over time, and participants struggled to manage their own weight actively as surgical effects waned. They considered self-management skills, and carer and professional support to be limited at the time when WR was most likely to occur. Degrees of tolerability are noted in individuals regaining weight after RYGB. More studies are needed to further understand these problems. Pre- and post-operative support and teaching patients self-management skills may be helpful to minimize WR. PMID:27273813

  15. Long-term weight loss maintenance for obesity: a multidisciplinary approach

    Montesi L

    2016-02-01

    Full Text Available Luca Montesi,1 Marwan El Ghoch,2 Lucia Brodosi,1 Simona Calugi,2 Giulio Marchesini,1 Riccardo Dalle Grave2 1Unit of Metabolic Diseases, S Orsola-Malpighi Hospital, “Alma Mater Studiorum” University, Bologna, Italy; 2Department of Eating and Weight Disorders, Villa Garda Hospital, Verona, Italy Abstract: The long-term weight management of obesity remains a very difficult task, associated with a high risk of failure and weight regain. However, many people report that they have successfully managed weight loss maintenance in the long term. Several factors have been associated with better weight loss maintenance in long-term observational and randomized studies. A few pertain to the behavioral area (eg, high levels of physical activity, eating a low-calorie, low-fat diet; frequent self-monitoring of weight, a few to the cognitive component (eg, reduced disinhibition, satisfaction with results achieved, confidence in being able to lose weight without professional help, and a few to personality traits (eg, low novelty seeking and patient–therapist interaction. Trials based on the most recent protocols of lifestyle modification, with a prolonged extended treatment after the weight loss phase, have also shown promising long-term weight loss results. These data should stimulate the adoption of a lifestyle modification-based approach for the management of obesity, featuring a nonphysician lifestyle counselor (also called “lifestyle trainer” or “healthy lifestyle practitioner” as a pivotal component of the multidisciplinary team. The obesity physicians maintain a primary role in engaging patients, in team coordination and supervision, in managing the complications associated with obesity and, in selected cases, in the decision for drug treatment or bariatric surgery, as possible more intensive, add-on interventions to lifestyle treatment. Keywords: obesity, lifestyle modification, cognitive behavior therapy, multidisciplinary treatment

  16. Do we really need to panic in all acute vision loss in ICU? Acute angle-closure glaucoma.

    Akal, Ali; Kucuk, Ahmet; Yalcin, Funda; Yalcin, Saban

    2014-08-01

    Acute angle closure glaucoma is a sight-threatening situation characterized by a sudden and marked rise in intraocular pressure (IOP) due to obstruction of aqueous humour outflow. Many local (ocular drops, nasal and nebulized agents) and systemic drugs (e.g. atropine, adrenaline, ephedrine, some psychoactive and antiepileptic drugs) that are widely used in intensive care units have the potential to precipitate such an acute attack. In this case report, we describe progressive visual loss due to acute angle-closure glaucoma (AACG) in a 59 year old female patient followed in the ICU due to a massive pulmonary embolism. PMID:25252529

  17. Binder extraction from green multilayer ceramics using a weight loss rate-controlled thermogravimetric analyzer

    Witt, Jason; Speyer, Robert F.; Murali, Lakshman

    1997-06-01

    A weight loss rate-controlled organic extraction furnace was built and demonstrated using a multilayer green ceramic. Multirate weight loss schedules as well as automated atmosphere control and detection were demonstrated. The low thermal mass furnace showed good tracking with 300 °C heating and cooling rates. This furnace, coupled with appropriate PID control constants, facilitated feedback control which could extract organics rapidly without self-ignition to uncontrolled combustion. Controlled organic burnout was demonstrated at weight loss rates up to 0.5%/min in air. Damage-free multilayers were observed using a burnout rate requiring 150 min for extraction, rather than the days commonly associated with this task when using conventional furnaces.

  18. Bulimia nervosa symptomatology and body image disturbance associated with distance running and weight loss.

    Gleaves, D H; Williamson, D A; Fuller, R D

    1992-09-01

    To investigate the hypothesis that problems characteristic of eating disorders may often be associated with distance running, 20 women who had lost weight through distance running were compared with a control group who did not exercise and had not lost weight and a comparison group of bulimia nervosa patients. Dependent variables were measures of depression, bulimia nervosa symptomatology, and body image disturbance. No differences were found between the runner group and the normal controls. Bulimics differed from runners and controls on most measures. Thus, the results did not support the proposition that weight loss through running leads to problems related to eating and body image. The failure to find disturbances in body image in runners suggests that body image disturbances are not a direct result of weight loss, as suggested by some theorists. PMID:1422651

  19. Intermuscular adipose tissue and thigh muscle area dynamics during an 18-month randomized weight loss trial.

    Yaskolka Meir, Anat; Shelef, Ilan; Schwarzfuchs, Dan; Gepner, Yftach; Tene, Lilac; Zelicha, Hila; Tsaban, Gal; Bilitzky, Avital; Komy, Oded; Cohen, Noa; Bril, Nitzan; Rein, Michal; Serfaty, Dana; Kenigsbuch, Shira; Chassidim, Yoash; Zeller, Lior; Ceglarek, Uta; Stumvoll, Michael; Blüher, Matthias; Thiery, Joachim; Stampfer, Meir J; Rudich, Assaf; Shai, Iris

    2016-08-01

    It remains unclear whether intermuscular adipose tissue (IMAT) has any metabolic influence or whether it is merely a marker of abnormalities, as well as what are the effects of specific lifestyle strategies for weight loss on the dynamics of both IMAT and thigh muscle area (TMA). We followed the trajectory of IMAT and TMA during 18-mo lifestyle intervention among 278 sedentary participants with abdominal obesity, using magnetic resonance imaging. We measured the resting metabolic rate (RMR) by an indirect calorimeter. Among 273 eligible participants (47.8 ± 9.3 yr of age), the mean IMAT was 9.6 ± 4.6 cm(2) Baseline IMAT levels were directly correlated with waist circumference, abdominal subdepots, C-reactive protein, and leptin and inversely correlated with baseline TMA and creatinine (P < 0.05 for all). After 18 mo (86.3% adherence), both IMAT (-1.6%) and TMA (-3.3%) significantly decreased (P < 0.01 vs. baseline). The changes in both IMAT and TMA were similar across the lifestyle intervention groups and directly corresponded with moderate weight loss (P < 0.001). IMAT change did not remain independently associated with decreased abdominal subdepots or improved cardiometabolic parameters after adjustments for age, sex, and 18-mo weight loss. In similar models, 18-mo TMA loss remained associated with decreased RMR, decreased activity, and with increased fasting glucose levels and IMAT (P < 0.05 for all). Unlike other fat depots, IMAT may not represent a unique or specific adipose tissue, instead largely reflecting body weight change per se. Moderate weight loss induced a significant decrease in thigh muscle area, suggesting the importance of resistance training to accompany weight loss programs. PMID:27402560

  20. Participation as a leader in immersion weight loss treatment: a 1-year follow-up study.

    Anderson, L M; Schaumberg, K; Anderson, D A; Kirschenbaum, D S

    2016-02-01

    Non-overweight individuals may follow aggressive weight management approaches alongside overweight/obese friends or family members; thus, research has begun to evaluate subsequent effects among non-overweight populations. A prior study evaluated the short-term effects of an immersion weight loss programme on healthy young adult staff leaders. Results indicated that participation seemed to benefit, not harm, the young adults. The current investigation examined 1-year eating disorder and weight trajectories in this sample. The total sample (N = 244) consisted of staff leaders (44.3%) and demographically similar comparison participants who completed eating disorder and weight assessments across four time points: baseline, end of summer, 6-week follow-up and 1-year follow-up. Forty-seven per cent of the original sample responded to all time points (staff leaders n = 60; comparison n = 55). Over the course of 1 year, risk trajectories did not differ between groups. Staff leaders did not report significant changes in body mass index, suggesting that they maintained healthy weight over the course of 1 year. Participation as an immersion weight loss programme leader appeared to be protective against weight gain, without increasing eating disorder risk, for healthy young adults. This provides further support for using weight management interventions across a wide range of individuals. PMID:26638779

  1. Lifestyle interventions in treatment of obese adults:eating behaviour and other factors affecting weight loss and maintenance

    Keränen, A.-M. (Anna-Maria)

    2011-01-01

    Abstract The prevalence of working-aged weight losers is high because of high prevalence of obesity. Unfortunately, the loss of weight is often temporary. The aim of the present study was to investigate the effect of intensive counselling on maintained weight loss and eating behaviour (cognitive restraint, emotional eating, uncontrolled eating and binge eating). Additionally, the associations of eating behaviour with maintained weight loss, discontinuation, dietary intake and anhedonia we...

  2. Differential Effect of Weight Loss on Adipocyte Size Subfractions in Patients With Type 2 Diabetes

    Pasarica, Magdalena; Tchoukalova, Yourka D.; Heilbronn, Leonie K.; Fang, Xiaobing; Albu, Jeanine B.; Kelley, David E.; Smith, Smith R.; Ravussin, Eric

    2009-01-01

    The size of adipocytes influences their function suggesting a differential responsiveness to intervention. We hypothesized that weight loss in patients with type 2 diabetes mellitus (T2DM) predominantly decreases the size of large and very-large adipocyte subfractions in parallel with beneficial changes in serum adipokines and improved insulin sensitivity. A total of 44 volunteers from the Look Action for Health in Diabetes trial, who lost weight after 1-year of intense lifestyle intervention...

  3. Eating behaviors, victimization, and desire for supportive intervention among adolescents in weight-loss camps.

    King, Kelly M; Puhl, Rebecca M; Luedicke, Joerg; Peterson, Jamie Lee

    2013-12-01

    This study examined links between eating behaviors, weight-based victimization (WBV) and preferences for bullying intervention among adolescents. Adolescents enrolled in weight loss camps participated in an online survey (N = 361). Regression models examined relationships between key variables. Almost half of adolescents who experienced WBV engaged in unhealthy eating behaviors, which corresponded to less desire for supportive intervention. Unhealthy eating behaviors may offset adaptive coping strategies to deal with WBV, such as support from peers and family. PMID:24183141

  4. Questioning the Knowledge Levels and Attitudes of Postpartum Mothers About Healthy Weight Loss

    Avcuoğlu, Alime; Karataş Eray, İrep; Yurdakul, Aliye Vildan; ÜSTÜ, Yusuf; Uğurlu, Mehmet

    2014-01-01

    Objectives: Our goal in this study is to determine the etiologic factors behind overweightness and obesity among mothers following delivery and to identify proper precautions. We have investigated many factors like the level of knowledge about healthy weight loss, eating habits, food culture, environmental factors that may affect attitudes about nutrition, gestational weight gain, maternal milk, the duration and frequency of postpartum physical activity habits, characteristics of their diets ...

  5. Genital Reconstruction After Weight Loss in Adipose Male Patients: A Case report

    Sattler, Daniel Robert Arno; Altmann, Silke; Infanger, Manfred; Abuagela, Nauras; Schneegans, Sarah Maj; Damert, Hans-Georg; Kraus, Armin

    2014-01-01

    Objective: We introduce our surgical technique in two male genital reconstruction cases out of 15 post-bariatric patients. Methods: At our Department for Plastic Surgery at the University Hospital Magdeburg, 15 patients, 6 male and 9 female, underwent a surgical abdominoplasty after weight loss in 2009. Results: The average weight of the 15 patients was preoperatively 197.2 kg and the average hospital stay was of 14 days. In 2 cases, a second procedure for male genital reconstruction was nece...

  6. Studies on Microbial Degradation of Natural Rubber Using Dilute Solution Viscosity Measurement and Weight Loss Techniques

    G. N. Onyeagoro; E. G. Ohaeri; U. J. Timothy

    2012-01-01

    Reduction of molecular weight of rubber polymers for easy absorption of compounding ingredients is critical in every rubber compounding operation. Yet, rubber mastication which is the current practice of achieving this is expensive, requiring high energy and equipment cost. To address this problem, microbial degradation of natural rubber (NR) and waste rubber tire (WRT) by Nocardia sp. strain 385A was studied using dilute solution viscosity measurement and weight loss methods. Solutions of NR...

  7. Pandemic of Pregnant Obese Women: Is It Time to Re-Evaluate Antenatal Weight Loss?

    Anne M. Davis

    2015-01-01

    The Obesity pandemic will afflict future generations without successful prevention, intervention and management. Attention to reducing obesity before, during and after pregnancy is essential for mothers and their offspring. Preconception weight loss is difficult given that many pregnancies are unplanned. Interventions aimed at limiting gestational weight gain have produced minimal maternal and infant outcomes. Therefore, increased research to develop evidence-based clinical practice is needed...

  8. Overvaluation of shape and weight among overweight children and adolescents with loss of control eating

    Goldschmidt, Andrea; Wilfley, Denise E.; Eddy, Kamryn T.; Boutelle, Kerri; Zucker, Nancy; Peterson, Carol B.; Celio-Doyle, Angela; Le Grange, Daniel

    2011-01-01

    Little is known about the phenomenology of pediatric loss of control (LOC) eating. Overvaluation of shape and weight, however, appears to be diagnostically meaningful among binge eating adults. We explored the significance of shape and weight overvaluation among children and adolescents with LOC eating. Participants (n=526) included 149 overweight youth with LOC eating and 377 overweight controls (CON). Participants were categorized as those reporting at least moderate overvaluation (LOC-Mod,...

  9. Watching reality weight loss TV. The effects on body satisfaction, mood, and snack food consumption.

    Bourn, Rebecca; Prichard, Ivanka; Hutchinson, Amanda D; Wilson, Carlene

    2015-08-01

    The present study investigated the influence of a weight loss reality TV show on body satisfaction, mood and food consumption. Young Australian women (N = 99) first completed baseline measures of state body satisfaction and mood. They were then randomly allocated to either a weight loss or a home renovation programme and were provided with snack foods during viewing. Post-measures included state body satisfaction, state mood and trait dietary restraint and snack food consumption. BMI moderated the relationship between condition and body satisfaction and mood. Larger women experienced less body satisfaction and less positive mood in response to the weight loss programme. Dietary restraint moderated the relationship between condition and food consumption. A greater percentage of women with lower dietary restraint ate in the control condition; whilst a greater percentage of women with higher dietary restraint ate food whilst watching the weight loss programme. These findings highlight the potential negative impact of weight-focused reality TV on mood, body satisfaction and snack food consumption among some women. PMID:25936290

  10. Safety and Efficacy of Glucomannan for Weight Loss in Overweight and Moderately Obese Adults

    Joyce K. Keithley

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Background. Few safe and effective dietary supplements are available to promote weight loss. We evaluated the safety and efficacy of glucomannan, a water-soluble fiber supplement, for achieving weight loss in overweight and moderately obese individuals consuming self-selected diets. Methods. Participants were randomly assigned to take 1.33 grams of glucomannan or identically looking placebo capsules with 236.6 mL (8 ounces of water one hour before breakfast, lunch, and dinner for 8 weeks. The primary efficacy outcome was change in body weight after 8 weeks. Other efficacy outcomes were changes in body composition, hunger/fullness, and lipid and glucose concentrations. Safety outcomes included gastrointestinal symptoms/tolerance and serum liver enzymes and creatinine levels. Results. A total of 53 participants (18–65 years of age; BMI 25–35 kg/m2 were enrolled and randomized. The two groups did not differ with respect to baseline characteristics and compliance with the study supplement. At 8 weeks, there was no significant difference between the glucomannan and placebo groups in amount of weight loss (−.40±.06 and −.43±.07, resp. or other efficacy outcomes or in any of the safety outcomes. Conclusions. Glucomannan supplements administered over 8 weeks were well tolerated but did not promote weight loss or significantly alter body composition, hunger/fullness, or lipid and glucose parameters. This trial is registered with NCT00613600.

  11. Liver Injury from Herbal, Dietary, and Weight Loss Supplements: a Review

    Zheng, Elizabeth X.; Navarro, Victor J.

    2015-01-01

    Herbal and dietary supplement usage has increased steadily over the past several years in the United States. Among the non-bodybuilding herbal and dietary supplements, weight loss supplements were among the most common type of HDS implicated in liver injury. While drug induced liver injury is rare, its consequences are significant and on the rise. The purpose of this review is to highlight case reports of weight loss products such as Hydroxycut and OxyElite Pro as one form of HDS that have he...

  12. Recruiting young adults into a weight loss trial: Report of protocol development and recruitment results

    Corsino, Leonor; Lin, Pao-Hwa; Batch, Bryan C.; Intille, Stephen; Grambow, Steven C.; Bosworth, Hayden B; Bennett, Gary G.; Tyson, Crystal; Svetkey, Laura P.; Voils, Corrine I.

    2013-01-01

    Obesity has spread to all segments of the U.S. population. Young adults, aged 18-35, are rarely represented in clinical weight loss trials. We conducted a qualitative study to identify factors that may facilitate recruitment of young adults into a weight loss intervention trial. Participants were 33 adults aged 18-35 yrs with BMI > 25 kg/m2. Six group discussions were conducted using the nominal group technique. Health, social image, and “self”factors such as emotions, self-esteem, and confid...

  13. Adipose tissue mitochondrial respiration and lipolysis before and after a weight loss by diet and RYGB

    Hansen, Merethe; Lund, Michael T.; Gregers, Emilie;

    2015-01-01

    OBJECTIVE: To study adipose tissue mitochondrial respiration and lipolysis following a massive weight loss. METHODS: High resolution respirometry of adipose tissue biopsies and tracer determined whole body lipolysis. Sixteen obese patients with type 2 diabetes (T2DM) and 27 without (OB) were...... studied following a massive weight loss by diet and Roux-en-Y gastric bypass (RYGB). RESULTS: The mitochondrial respiratory rates were similar in OB and T2DM, and the mass-specific oxygen flux increased significantly 4 and 18 months post-surgery (P < 0.05). With normalization to mitochondrial content, no...

  14. Weight Loss and Maintenance in Overweight and Obese Patients with Cardiovascular Disease

    Neala Ambrosi-Randić

    2010-12-01

    Full Text Available We assessed 87 overweight and obese patients with cardiovascular disease in order to explore the weight change over time, and related psychological, behavioural and environmental variables. After hospitalisation, all patients received recommendations for decreased calorie intake combined with physical activity. All of them were contacted for a follow-up after 6 to 23 months in person (N = 43 or in a telephone interview (N = 44. Results show that patients who attended the follow-up in person increased their weight significantly less and maintained their body weight more successfully in comparison with the group of patients contacted over telephone. In the present study, the most desirable techniques for weight reduction seem to be the low calorie diet and exercise. However, the level of attendance at received recommendations for dieting and exercise was not satisfactory. Patients reported different reasons that interfered with their weight loss attempt, such as problems at work or financial problems. We have discussed the necessity of continued contact and support for patients in the period of loss and maintenance of weight loss, considering their psychological, behavioural and environmental problems, and particularities.

  15. Does the method of weight loss effect long-term changes in weight, body composition or chronic disease risk factors in overweight or obese adults? A systematic review.

    Richard A Washburn

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: Differences in biological changes from weight loss by energy restriction and/or exercise may be associated with differences in long-term weight loss/regain. OBJECTIVE: To assess the effect of weight loss method on long-term changes in weight, body composition and chronic disease risk factors. DATA SOURCES: PubMed and Embase were searched (January 1990-October 2013 for studies with data on the effect of energy restriction, exercise (aerobic and resistance on long-term weight loss. Twenty articles were included in this review. STUDY ELIGIBILITY CRITERIA: Primary source, peer reviewed randomized trials published in English with an active weight loss period of >6 months, or active weight loss with a follow-up period of any duration, conducted in overweight or obese adults were included. STUDY APPRAISAL AND SYNTHESIS METHODS: Considerable heterogeneity across trials existed for important study parameters, therefore a meta-analysis was considered inappropriate. Results were synthesized and grouped by comparisons (e.g. diet vs. aerobic exercise, diet vs. diet + aerobic exercise etc. and study design (long-term or weight loss/follow-up. RESULTS: Forty percent of trials reported significantly greater long-term weight loss with diet compared with aerobic exercise, while results for differences in weight regain were inconclusive. Diet+aerobic exercise resulted in significantly greater weight loss than diet alone in 50% of trials. However, weight regain (∼ 55% of loss was similar in diet and diet+aerobic exercise groups. Fat-free mass tended to be preserved when interventions included exercise.

  16. Prevalence of overweight and obesity and weight loss practice among Beijing adults, 2011.

    Li Cai

    Full Text Available OBJECTIVE: This study aims to determine the up-to-date prevalence of overweight and obesity, the distributions of body weight perception and weight loss practice in Beijing adults. METHODS: A cross-sectional study was conducted in 2011. A total of 2563 men and 4088 women aged 18-79 years from the general population were included. Data were obtained from questionnaire and physical examination. RESULTS: The prevalence of overweight (BMI 24-27.9 kg/m(2 and obesity (BMI ≥ 28 kg/m(2 was 42.1% and 20.3% in men and 35.6% and 17.1% in women, respectively. Age was inversely associated with overweight in both sexes, and obesity in women. Education level was negatively associated with overweight and obesity in women but not in men. Only 49.1% men and 58.3% women had a correct perception of their body weight. Underestimation of body weight was more common than overestimation, especially in men, the older people, and those with low education level. The percentage of taking action to lose weight was inversely associated with men and old age, and positively associated with higher education level, higher BMI, and self-perception as "fat" (OR = 3.78 in men, OR = 2.91 in women. Only 26.1% of overweight/obese individuals took action to lose weight. The top two weight loss practices were to reduce the amount of food intake and exercise. CONCLUSION: Overweight and obesity were highly prevalent with high incorrect body weight perceptions in the general adult population in Beijing. Weight loss practice was poor in overweight and obese individuals. Actions at multiple levels are needed to slow or control this overweight and obesity epidemic.

  17. The Impact of Education on Weight Loss in Overweight and Obese Adults

    Mohammad Ali Ostovan

    2013-09-01

    Full Text Available Background: Prevalence of obesity is rapidly rising. To reverse the obesity epidemic, efforts should be made to incorporate intensive weight loss programs into medical practice. The primary aim of this study was to change the behavior for achieving a mean weight loss of 5-10% of initial body weight over 6 months in overweight and obese adults. Methods: In this quasi-experimental study, 266 out of 533 subjects screened for coronary heart disease risk factors in Shiraz Healthy Heart House were overweight or obese. 140 individuals with BMI≥25 completed this study’s 6 month program. The subjects were visited on day 1 and at 2 week intervals and taught intensive lifestyle modification. The subjects who did not lose 5% of their initial body weight after 3 months were assigned to receive 120 mg orlistat three times daily for 3 months in addition to counseling sessions. The main outcome measures were body weight and BMI. Results: The mean weight and BMI of participants were 78.6±10.7 kg and 30±0.2 kg/m2, respectively. Women included 58% of the sample. 110 subjects (78.5% lost ≥5% of their initial body weight during 3 months. The Mean weight and BMI loss in these subjects were 7.6±0.8 kg and 2.4±0.3 kg/m2, respectively. Conclusions: Teaching of how to modify lifestyle and to gain more self-control with eating have the major role in reducing weight and BMI. So, training accompanied by continual follow up for performing the instructions could lead to favourable results.

  18. Burn wounds infected with Pseudomonas aeruginosa triggers weight loss in rats

    Su Grace; Lehnhardt Marcus; Jacobsen Frank; Fan Ming H; Burkhard Olaf; Steinstraesser Lars; Daigeler Adrien; Steinau Hans U; Remick Daniel; Wang Stewart C

    2005-01-01

    Abstract Background Despite dramatic improvements in the management of burns, infection still remains a serious risk for the burn patient. The aim of this study was to shed light on the impact of acute burn injury with or without infection on cytokine profiles. Methods Sprague-Dawley rats (n = 21) were randomized into three groups: 1) burn only 2) burn and infection or 3) sham burn. Weight was monitored and blood was collected for cytokine ELISA, LPS quantification, and peripheral blood analy...

  19. Basis Weight And Moisture Machine Direction Control System To Reduce Loss Production At Leces Paper Industry

    Basis Weight and Moisture Machine Direction Control System have been constructed by using beta absorption and infrared absorption method to reduce loss production of the paper Industry at Leces Paper Industry. Quality Paper Industry product depends on variable Basis Weight and Moisture that has been set up according to the Set Point Target Production Process with the required accuracy ± 2.5 gram/m2 for Basis Weight measurement and ± 0.1% for the moisture. The advantage of this system compared to the sample method is the effective technique of measurement and the ON-LINE control of the production process without disturbing the process production. (author)

  20. Risk factors for excess weight loss and hypernatremia in exclusively breast-fed infants

    M.K. Çaglar

    2006-04-01

    Full Text Available Data were prospectively obtained from exclusively breast-fed healthy term neonates at birth and from healthy mothers with no obstetric complication to determine risk factors for excess weight loss and hypernatremia in exclusively breast-fed infants. Thirty-four neonates with a weight loss > or = 10% were diagnosed between April 2001 and January 2005. Six of 18 infants who were eligible for the study had hypernatremia. Breast conditions associated with breast-feeding difficulties (P < 0.05, primiparity (P < 0.005, less than four stools (P < 0.001, pink diaper (P < 0.001, delay at initiation of first breast giving (P < 0.01, birth by cesarean section (P < 0.05, extra heater usage (P < 0.005, extra heater usage among mothers who had appropriate conditions associated with breast-feeding (P < 0.001, mean weight loss in neonates with pink diaper (P < 0.05, mean uric acid concentration in neonates with pink diaper (P < 0.0001, fever in hypernatremic neonates (P < 0.02, and the correlation of weight loss with both serum sodium and uric acid concentrations (P < 0.02 were determined. Excessive weight loss occurs in exclusively breast-fed infants and can be complicated by hypernatremia and other morbidities. Prompt initiation of breast-feeding after delivery and prompt intervention if problems occur with breast-feeding, in particular poor breast attachment, breast engorgement, delayed breast milk "coming in", and nipple problems will help promote successful breast-feeding. Careful follow-up of breast-feeding dyads after discharge from hospital, especially regarding infant weight, is important to help detect inadequate breast-feeding. Environmental factors such as heaters may exacerbate infant dehydration.

  1. Evaluation of weight loss and surface roughness of compomers after simulated toothbrushing abrasion test.

    Mondelli, Rafael Francisco Lia; Wang, Linda; Garcia, Fernanda Cristina Pimentel; Prakki, Anuradha; Mondelli, José; Franco, Eduardo Batista; Ishikiriama, Aquira

    2005-06-01

    This study aimed at analyzing the compomers wear by an "in vitro" toothbrushing abrasion test. The null hypotheses tested were that there would be no differences in weight loss and no significant changes in surface roughness of the compomers after this test. The utilized commercial brands were Dyract (Dentsply), Dyract AP (Dentsply), Compoglass F (Vivadent), Freedom (SDI), F2000 (3M ESPE), which were compared to the two resin composites Z100 (3M ESPE) and Silux Plus (3M ESPE). Ten cylindrical specimens for each commercial brand were prepared with 5mm diameter and 3mm thickness. An appropriate machine with soft bristle tips containing dentifrice solution and deionized water was used. A total of 100,000 brushing cycles were performed. The amount of weight loss was measured by the percentage alteration between the initial (before toothbrushing) and final weight (after toothbrushing), measured by a Sartorius analytical balance. The surface roughness change was determined by the percentage difference between initial and final means after 5 tracings by a T 1000 Hommel Tester roughness meter on the specimen's surfaces before and after toothbrushing abrasion test. The statistical analysis (Students paired t-test, ANOVA and Tukey, á=0.05) showed that all materials presented statistically significant weight loss and roughness increase after abrasion test. All compomers presented higher weight loss than resin composites. Freedom and Dyract AP presented the lowest weight loss among compomers. F2000 presented the worst abrasion resistance, without statistical differences with Dyract. For roughness changes, Dyract, Dyract AP, Z100, Compoglass F and Silux Plus showed the lowest surface roughness alteration, in increasing order, without statistical differences between them. Freedom was the statistically roughest material of the study. PMID:20924536

  2. The Effects of Weight Perception on Adolescents’ Weight-Loss Intentions and Behaviors: Evidence from the Youth Risk Behavior Surveillance Survey

    Maoyong Fan

    2015-11-01

    Full Text Available The objective of this study was to examine the correlation between self-perception of being overweight and weight loss intentions, eating and exercise behaviors, as well as extreme weight-loss strategies for U.S. adolescents. This study uses 50,241 observations from the Youth Risk Behavior Surveillance Survey (YRBSS 2001–2009, which were nationally representative sample of 9th- through 12th-grade students in both public and private schools in the US. This study finds that, irrespective of the weight status base on self-reported weight and height, adolescents who perceive themselves as overweight have a stronger intention to lose weight, but do not develop better eating and exercise habits, compared with their counterparts of same gender and reported weight status. Normal-weight adolescents, if they perceive themselves as overweight, are more likely to engage in health-compromising weight-loss methods. This study shows that it is critical to transform weight-loss intentions into actual behaviors among overweight/obese adolescents and improve the efficacy of behavioral interventions against childhood obesity. It also highlights the need of establishing a correct perception of body weight among normal weight adolescents to curb extreme weight-loss methods.

  3. Blood profile of proteins and steroid hormones predicts weight change after weight loss with interactions of dietary protein level and glycemic index.

    Ping Wang

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: Weight regain after weight loss is common. In the Diogenes dietary intervention study, high protein and low glycemic index (GI diet improved weight maintenance. OBJECTIVE: To identify blood predictors for weight change after weight loss following the dietary intervention within the Diogenes study. DESIGN: Blood samples were collected at baseline and after 8-week low caloric diet-induced weight loss from 48 women who continued to lose weight and 48 women who regained weight during subsequent 6-month dietary intervention period with 4 diets varying in protein and GI levels. Thirty-one proteins and 3 steroid hormones were measured. RESULTS: Angiotensin I converting enzyme (ACE was the most important predictor. Its greater reduction during the 8-week weight loss was related to continued weight loss during the subsequent 6 months, identified by both Logistic Regression and Random Forests analyses. The prediction power of ACE was influenced by immunoproteins, particularly fibrinogen. Leptin, luteinizing hormone and some immunoproteins showed interactions with dietary protein level, while interleukin 8 showed interaction with GI level on the prediction of weight maintenance. A predictor panel of 15 variables enabled an optimal classification by Random Forests with an error rate of 24±1%. A logistic regression model with independent variables from 9 blood analytes had a prediction accuracy of 92%. CONCLUSIONS: A selected panel of blood proteins/steroids can predict the weight change after weight loss. ACE may play an important role in weight maintenance. The interactions of blood factors with dietary components are important for personalized dietary advice after weight loss. REGISTRATION: ClinicalTrials.gov NCT00390637.

  4. Concurrent visuo-spatial processing reduces food cravings in prescribed weight-loss dieters.

    Kemps, Eva; Tiggemann, Marika; Christianson, Rebecca

    2008-06-01

    The study investigated the relative effectiveness of thought suppression and the working memory-based method of dynamic visual noise as techniques for reducing food cravings. Twenty dieting women on the weight-loss programme prescribed by weight watchers and 20 non-dieting controls formed images of their most craved food and then suppressed thoughts of the food or watched a flickering pattern of black and white dots (dynamic visual noise). Both thought suppression and dynamic visual noise reduced cravings for weight watchers and non-dieters. However, their relative effectiveness varied according to participant dieting status. Specifically, while both techniques reduced cravings equally well for non-dieters, dynamic visual noise was clearly the more effective technique for weight watchers. Thus, dynamic visual noise may provide a useful tool for controlling problematic cravings in clinically overweight or obese individuals who are actively trying to lose weight. PMID:17470360

  5. Behavioral training promotes multiple adaptive processes following acute hearing loss

    Keating, P; Rosenior-Patten, O.; Dahmen, J. C.; Bell, O.; King, A. J.

    2016-01-01

    eLife digest The brain normally compares the timing and intensity of the sounds that reach each ear to work out a sound’s origin. Hearing loss in one ear disrupts these between-ear comparisons, which causes listeners to make errors in this process. With time, however, the brain adapts to this hearing loss and once again learns to localize sounds accurately. Previous research has shown that young ferrets can adapt to hearing loss in one ear in two distinct ways. The ferrets either learn to rem...

  6. Heart risk associated with weight loss in anorexia nervosa and eating disorders: risk factors for QTc interval prolongation and dispersion.

    Swenne, I; Larsson, P T

    1999-03-01

    Risk factors for QTc interval prolongation and dispersion, indicators of an increased risk for cardiac arrhythmia and sudden death, have been investigated in patients with eating disorders (ED) and ongoing weight loss. Patients were characterized with regard to weight, body mass index (BMI; weight/length2), duration of weight loss, rate of weight loss and rate of weight loss immediately preceding examination. At examination, a 12-lead electrocardiographic (ECG) registration and blood samples for analysis of serum electrolytes were obtained. In total, 92 examinations in 58 female patients aged 15.5+/-1.7 (mean +/- SD) y were analysed. Control ECG recordings were obtained from 38 normal-weight teenage girls with no known heart disease. Patients with ED weighed 40.7+/-7.8 kg, corresponding to BMI 15.2+/-2.4 kg/m2 following a weight loss of 11.8+/-6.5 kg. In ED patients, the ECG showed bradycardia, a shift to the right of the QRS axis, diminished amplitudes of the QRS complex and T wave, and prolongation and increased dispersion of the QTc interval. In multiple regression analyses low weight, low BMI and rapid weight loss immediately preceding the examination were the most important independent predictors of QTc interval prolongation and dispersion. It is concluded that an ECG examination is an important part of the assessment of patients with ED and ongoing weight loss, even in the absence of electrolyte disturbances, and especially if the patient is severely underweight or weight loss is rapid. PMID:10229042

  7. Diffusion-weighted imaging in acute bacterial meningitis in infancy

    Bacterial meningitis is frequently fatal or leads to severe neurological impairment. Complications such as vasculitis, resulting in infarcts, should be anticipated and dealt with promptly. Our aim was to demonstrate the complications of meningitis by diffusion weighted imaging (DWI) in patients who deteriorated despite therapy. We studied 13 infants between the ages of 1 day and 32 months who presented with symptoms ranging from fever and vomiting to seizures, encephalopathy and coma due to bacterial meningitis, performing MRI, including DWI, 2-5 days after presentation. Multiple infarcts were found on DWI in 12 of the 13, most commonly in the frontal lobes (in 10). Global involvement was seen in four children, three of whom died; the fourth had a very poor outcome. In one case abnormalities on DWI were due to subdural empyemas. We diagnosed vasculitis in three of five patients studied with MRA. We think DWI an important part of an MRI study in infants with meningitis. Small cortical or deep white-matter infarcts due to septic vasculitis can lead to tissue damage not easily recognized on routine imaging and DWI can be used to confirm that extra-axial collections represent empyemas. (orig.)

  8. Diffusion-weighted imaging in acute bacterial meningitis in infancy

    Jan, W.; Zimmerman, R.A.; Bilaniuk, L.T.; Hunter, J.V.; Simon, E.M.; Haselgrove, J. [Department of Radiology, Children' s Hospital of Philadelphia, 34th Street and Civic Center Boulevard, PA 19104, Philadelphia (United States)

    2003-09-01

    Bacterial meningitis is frequently fatal or leads to severe neurological impairment. Complications such as vasculitis, resulting in infarcts, should be anticipated and dealt with promptly. Our aim was to demonstrate the complications of meningitis by diffusion weighted imaging (DWI) in patients who deteriorated despite therapy. We studied 13 infants between the ages of 1 day and 32 months who presented with symptoms ranging from fever and vomiting to seizures, encephalopathy and coma due to bacterial meningitis, performing MRI, including DWI, 2-5 days after presentation. Multiple infarcts were found on DWI in 12 of the 13, most commonly in the frontal lobes (in 10). Global involvement was seen in four children, three of whom died; the fourth had a very poor outcome. In one case abnormalities on DWI were due to subdural empyemas. We diagnosed vasculitis in three of five patients studied with MRA. We think DWI an important part of an MRI study in infants with meningitis. Small cortical or deep white-matter infarcts due to septic vasculitis can lead to tissue damage not easily recognized on routine imaging and DWI can be used to confirm that extra-axial collections represent empyemas. (orig.)

  9. Whole-body vibration training as complement to programs aimed at weight loss

    Carlos Cristi-Montero

    2013-10-01

    Full Text Available Introduction: Whole-body vibration training (WBVT has been shown to be an extremely useful tool for increasing muscle mass, bone tissue, muscle power, flexibility, and strength, among others. However, to date, there are few studies on the effects of WBVT on energy metabolism and whether this tool could be able to enhance weight loss in addition to a nutritional plan and/or exercise. Objective: The aim of this review is to analyse the most recent studies on vibration training in order to determine whether this method constitutes a reliable complement to programs aimed at weight loss. Methods: An updated literature search was conducted using PubMed, SciELO and SPORTDiscus. In addition, a detailed search was also performed from references given in selected studies. Results: WBVT appears to be associated with three pathways involved in weight loss: inhibition of adipogenesis and reduction of fat mass, increased energy expenditure, and increase in muscle mass. After analysing the literature, none of the results for the proposed pathways are consistent, and indeed are often contradictory. Conclusion: Further in-depth research is required on this subject. However, WBVT would appear to be a safe method, and may possibly yield benefits, mainly as regards muscle mass, which in turn might promote weight loss when combined with a nutritional plan and a traditional exercise program.

  10. Surgically Induced Interpregnancy Weight Loss and Prevalence of Overweight and Obesity in Offspring

    Willmer, Mikaela; Berglind, Daniel; Sørensen, Thorkild I.A.;

    2013-01-01

    According to the fetal overnutrition hypothesis, obesity in pregnancy predisposes the offspring to obesity. Previous studies have suggested that after biliopancreatic surgery for obesity, the offspring is less likely to be obese. This study aims to further compare the BMI development of children ...... born before and after maternal surgical weight loss....

  11. Quality of weight-loss counseling by Dutch practice nurses in primary care: an observational study.

    Dillen, S.M.E. van; Noordman, J.; Dulmen, S. van; Hiddink, G.J.

    2015-01-01

    Background/objective: To assess the quality of weight-loss counseling provided by Dutch primary care practice nurses (PNs) to overweight and obese patients including both PNs’ compliance with the Five A’s Model for behavioral counseling in primary care, and the use of different communication styles.

  12. Quality of weight-loss counseling by Dutch practice nurses in primary care: an observational study

    Dillen, S.M. van; Noordman, J.; Dulmen, S. van; Hiddink, G.J.

    2015-01-01

    BACKGROUND/OBJECTIVE: To assess the quality of weight-loss counseling provided by Dutch primary care practice nurses (PNs) to overweight and obese patients including both PNs' compliance with the Five A's Model for behavioral counseling in primary care, and the use of different communication styles.

  13. Omega-3 Fatty Acid Intervention Suppresses Lipopolysaccharide-Induced Inflammation and Weight Loss in Mice

    Ying-Hua Liu

    2015-02-01

    Full Text Available Bacterial endotoxin lipopolysaccharide (LPS-induced sepsis is a critical medical condition, characterized by a severe systemic inflammation and rapid loss of muscle mass. Preventive and therapeutic strategies for this complex disease are still lacking. Here, we evaluated the effect of omega-3 (n-3 polyunsaturated fatty acid (PUFA intervention on LPS-challenged mice with respect to inflammation, body weight and the expression of Toll-like receptor 4 (TLR4 pathway components. LPS administration induced a dramatic loss of body weight within two days. Treatment with n-3 PUFA not only stopped loss of body weight but also gradually reversed it back to baseline levels within one week. Accordingly, the animals treated with n-3 PUFA exhibited markedly lower levels of inflammatory cytokines or markers in plasma and tissues, as well as down-regulation of TLR4 pathway components compared to animals without n-3 PUFA treatment or those treated with omega-6 PUFA. Our data demonstrate that n-3 PUFA intervention can suppress LPS-induced inflammation and weight loss via, at least in part, down-regulation of pro-inflammatory targets of the TLR4 signaling pathway, and highlight the therapeutic potential of n-3 PUFA in the management of sepsis.

  14. Invited Commentary: Childhood and Adolescent Obesity--Psychological and Behavioral Issues in Weight Loss Treatment

    Sarwer, David B.; Dilks, Rebecca J.

    2012-01-01

    The prevalence of childhood and adolescent obesity has tripled in the past three decades. This increase has been accompanied by a dramatic rise in obesity-related health complications among American youth. Thus, many obese youth are now experiencing illnesses that will threaten their life expectancy in the absence of significant weight loss.…

  15. Motivation for weight loss affects recall from autobiographical memory in dieters

    Johannessen, Kim Berg; Berntsen, Dorthe

    2009-01-01

    Two studies examined the connection between motivation for weight loss and autobiographical memory by comparing characteristics of autobiographical memories between dieters and non-dieters. Study 1 involved 29 normal/overweight dieters and 48 non-dieters, and Study 2 involved 18 obese dieters and...

  16. Unexplained weight loss in an elderly patient. Delayed diagnosis of thyrotoxicosis

    Weiss, R.J. (Medical College of Pennsylvania, Philadelphia (USA))

    1989-11-01

    Because the presenting symptoms of hyperthyroidism are often misleading in elderly patients, diagnosis depends on a high degree of clinical suspicion. The presence of unexplained weight loss, atrial fibrillation, or heart failure (especially in a patient without a history of heart problems) justifies testing for thyrotoxicosis.

  17. Weight Loss as a Primary Objective of Therapeutic Groups for Obese Women: Two Preliminary Studies

    Buckroyd, Julia; Rother, Sharon; Stott, David

    2006-01-01

    The studies reported here explored whether therapeutic groups for women who eat compulsively can demonstrate weight loss as a primary result as well as the improvements in emotional functioning reported by other investigators. In both studies questionnaire data showed little change in self-esteem or attitudes as measured by the Rosenberg…

  18. Food freezing with simultaneous surface dehydration: approximate prediction of weight loss during freezing and storage

    Campanone, Laura A.; Salvadori, Viviana O.; Mascheroni, Rodolfo H. [Centro de Investigacion Desarollo en Criotecnologia de Alimentos (CIDCA), Facultad de Ciencias Exactas, La Plata (Argentina); MODIAL, Facultad de Ingenieria, La Plata (Argentina)

    2005-03-01

    Weight loss of unpackaged foods during freezing and later storage is an important quality and economic issue. It is originated on surface ice sublimation due to differences in water activity between food surface and the refrigerating air. Weight loss rate is determined by refrigerating conditions and product characteristics. The modelling of this phenomenon has merited very little attention; at present there are no simplified methods to predict weight losses during the freezing and the storage of unpackaged foods. In previous studies we developed a detailed model for the simultaneous heat and mass transfer during food freezing and storage with ice sublimation. Based on the information of this numerical model, simplified analytical methods for the prediction of weight loss during the freezing and the storage of unpackaged frozen foods were developed. The methods account for product characteristics and storage conditions. The prediction equations are very simple and results of their use - simulating usual freezing and storage conditions for different products - give very good accuracy when tested against the previously cited numerical model and experimental data. (Author)

  19. Time to Talk: 7 Things to Know about Complementary Health Practices for Weight Loss

    ... the use of acai berry, bitter orange, and green tea supplements for weight loss. There is little reliable information about the safety of acai as a supplement, and there have been reports of serious side effects from taking ... tea extracts. Ephedra is dangerous, and the increased ...

  20. Unexplained weight loss in an elderly patient. Delayed diagnosis of thyrotoxicosis

    Because the presenting symptoms of hyperthyroidism are often misleading in elderly patients, diagnosis depends on a high degree of clinical suspicion. The presence of unexplained weight loss, atrial fibrillation, or heart failure (especially in a patient without a history of heart problems) justifies testing for thyrotoxicosis

  1. Effects of Dietary Induced Weight Loss on Exercise-Induced Bronchoconstriction in Overweight and Obese Children

    van Leeuwen, Janneke C.; Hoogstrate, Mira; Duiverman, Eric J.; Thio, Boony J.

    2014-01-01

    RationalePrevious studies showed that obesity in asthmatic children is associated with more severe exercise-induced bronchoconstriction (EIB), compared with non-obese asthmatic children. This study investigates the effect of weight loss on EIB in overweight and obese asthmatic children. MethodsIn th

  2. Weight Loss After Laparoscopic Adjustable Gastric Banding is not Caused by Altered Gastric Emptying

    de Jong, J. R.; van Ramshorst, B.; Gooszen, H. G.; Smout, A. J. P. M.; Buul, M. M. C. Tiel-Van

    2009-01-01

    In order to know the role of gastric emptying in the mechanism of weight loss and early satiety after a restrictive surgical procedure for treatment of morbid obesity, a consecutive series of patients were scintigraphically investigated before and after laparoscopic adjustable gastric banding. Sixte

  3. Relationship between Visceral Adiposity and Plasma Adiponectin Concentration: Effect of Weight Loss

    E Nasseri

    2008-05-01

    Full Text Available Background: Adiponectin is an anti-inflammatory and antiatherogenic protein that has a protective effect against athero­sclero­sis and diabetes. It is exclusively secreted by adipose tissue. Serum adiponectin levels are inversely associated with pa­rame­ters of overall adiposity including body mass index (BMI, fat mass, and percentage of body fat. Methods: In a cross-sectional study of 76 women we sought to evaluate if adiponectin is associated primarily with central adi­pos­ity rather than overall adiposity. We also assessed adiponectin changes after weight loss in a subgroup of 42 obese sub­jects.Results: Waist to hip ratio (WHR, an index of central obesity, was the only variable independently associated to adi­ponectin (Beta= 0.25, P< 0.05. A mean increase of 8.2±24.2% in adiponectin concentration was observed in response to the dietary restriction and weight loss (P= 0.03. Our findings provide evidence for association of serum adiponectin level with visceral fat, represented by waist to hip ratio index.Conclusion: Moderate weight loss result in significant improvements in adiponectin concentration and provide another bio­logi­cal explanation for the beneficial effect of body weight loss on reducing cardiovascular and diabetes risks in obese pa­tients.

  4. Successful weight loss maintenance associated with morning chronotype and better sleep quality.

    Ross, Kathryn M; Graham Thomas, J; Wing, Rena R

    2016-06-01

    It is not known whether individuals successful at long term weight loss maintenance differ in chronotype (i.e., being a "morning" or "evening" person) or sleep habits compared to those who are overweight and obese. We compared Morningness-Eveningness Questionnaire (MEQ) and Pittsburgh Sleep Quality Index scores of 690 National Weight Control Registry (NWCR) members (73 % female, 93 % white, age = 51.7 ± 12.5, BMI = 26.4 ± 5.1) to 75 enrollees in two behavioral weight loss interventions (INT; 77 % female, 88 % white, age = 55.7 ± 10.4, BMI = 36.2 ± 4.7). Controlling for age, MEQ scores were higher in NWCR than INT, p = .004, such that more NWCR than INT were morning-types and fewer were evening types, p = .014. Further, NWCR participants reported better sleep quality, longer sleep duration, and shorter latency to sleep onset compared to INT, ps ps < .01. Future studies should examine if these factors change as a result of weight loss or are predictors of weight outcome. PMID:26660638

  5. Interest in a Twitter-delivered weight loss program among women of childbearing age.

    Waring, Molly E; Schneider, Kristin L; Appelhans, Bradley M; Simas, Tiffany A Moore; Xiao, Rui S; Whited, Matthew C; Busch, Andrew M; Evans, Martinus M; Pagoto, Sherry L

    2016-06-01

    Weight management through the childbearing years is important, yet few women have access to efficacious weight loss programs. Online social network-delivered programs may increase reach and thus impact. The aim of this study was to gauge interest in a Twitter-based weight loss intervention among women of childbearing age and the feasibility of recruitment via Twitter. We recruited English-speaking women aged 18-45 years (N = 63) from Twitter to complete an anonymous online survey including open-ended questions about program advantages and concerns. Forty percent of participants were obese and 83 % were trying to lose weight. Eighty-one percent were interested in a Twitter-delivered weight loss program. Interest was high in all subgroups (62-100 %). Participants (59 %) cited program advantages, including convenience, support/accountability, and privacy. Concerns (59 %) included questions about privacy, support/accountability, engagement, efficacy, and technology barriers. Research is needed to develop and evaluate social media-delivered interventions, and to develop methods for recruiting participants directly from Twitter. PMID:27356998

  6. Taste sensitivity, nutritional status and metabolic syndrome: Implication in weight loss dietary interventions

    Simona; Bertoli; Monica; Laureati; Alberto; Battezzati; Valentina; Bergamaschi; Emanuele; Cereda; Angela; Spadafranca; Laila; Vignati; Ella; Pagliarini

    2014-01-01

    AIM: We investigated the relationship between taste sensitivity, nutritional status and metabolic syndrome and possible implications on weight loss dietary program. METHODS: Sensitivity for bitter, sweet, salty and sour tastes was assessed by the three-Alternative-Forced-Choice method in 41 overweight(OW), 52 obese(OB) patients and 56 normal-weight matched controls. OW and OB were assessed also for body composition(by impedence), resting energy expenditure(by indirect calorimetry) and presence of metabolic syndrome(MetS) and were prescribed a weight loss diet. Compliance to the weight loss dietary program was defined as adherence to control visits and weight loss ≥ 5% in 3 mo. RESULTS: Sex and age-adjusted multiple regression models revealed a significant association between body mass index(BMI) and both sour taste(P < 0.05) and global taste acuity score(GTAS)(P < 0.05), with lower sensitivity with increasing BMI. This trend in sensitivity for sour taste was also confirmed by the model refitted on the OW/OB group while the association with GTAS was marginally significant(P = 0.06). MetS+ subjects presented higher thresholds for salty taste when compared to MetS- patients while no significant difference was detected for the other tastes and GTAS. As assessed by multiple regression model, the association between salty taste and MetS appeared to be independent of sex, age and BMI. Patients continuing the program(n = 37) did not show any difference in baseline taste sensitivity when compared to drop-outs(n = 29). Similarly, no significant difference was detected between patients reporting and not reporting a weight loss ≥ 5% of the initial body weight. No significant dif-ference in taste sensitivity was detected even after dividing patients on the basis of nutritional(OW and OB) or metabolic status(MetS+ and MetS-). CONCLUSION: There is no cause-effect relationship between overweight and metabolic derangements. Taste thresholds assessment is not useful in

  7. Chronic Treatment With a Melanocortin-4 Receptor Agonist Causes Weight Loss, Reduces Insulin Resistance, and Improves Cardiovascular Function in Diet-Induced Obese Rhesus Macaques

    Kievit, Paul; Halem, Heather; Marks, Daniel L.; Dong, Jesse Z.; Glavas, Maria M.; Sinnayah, Puspha; Pranger, Lindsay; Cowley, Michael A.; Kevin L. Grove; Culler, Michael D.

    2013-01-01

    The melanocortin-4 receptor (MC4R) is well recognized as an important mediator of body weight homeostasis. Activation of MC4R causes dramatic weight loss in rodent models, and mutations in human are associated with obesity. This makes MC4R a logical target for pharmacological therapy for the treatment of obesity. However, previous studies in rodents and humans have observed a broad array of side effects caused by acute treatment with MC4R agonists, including increased heart rate and blood pre...

  8. The relationship between physical activity, volitional skills and weight loss maintenance in Danish obese individuals

    Elsborg, Peter; Pfister, Gertrud Ursula; Helge, Jørn Wulff;

    volitional skills. Conclusion: This study indicates that volitional skills seem to be an important component in the difficult task of weight maintenance. Implications for future research with a large sample of 2000 former participants and practical implications for the design of the life style intervention......Background: Volitional skills, also referred to as “the will”, have been shown to be important for goal achievement in many different contexts (e.g. elite sports, academia, work-life). Volitional skills have proven especially important for keeping to one’s plan and adhering to one’s long-term goals....... However, the relationship between weight loss maintenance and volitional skills has not been investigated yet. This study investigates if volitional skills are related to the amount of physical activity in obese individuals, and their relationship with actual successful weight loss. Methods: Participants...

  9. Independent effects of endurance training and weight loss on peak fat oxidation in moderately overweight men

    Nordby, Pernille; Rosenkilde, Mads; Ploug, Thorkil;

    2015-01-01

    Endurance training increases peak fat oxidation (PFO) during exercise, but whether this is independent of changes in body weight is not known. The aim of the present study was to investigate the effects of endurance training with or without weight loss or a diet-induced weight loss on PFO and on...... key skeletal muscle mitochondrial proteins involved in fat oxidation. Sixty moderately overweight, sedentary but otherwise healthy men were randomized to 12 wk of training (T), diet (D), training and increased caloric intake (T-iD), or continuous sedentary control (C). Isoenergetic deficits...... corresponding to 600 kcal/day were comprised of endurance exercise for T and caloric restriction for D. T-iD completed similar training but was not in 600 kcal deficit because of dietary replacement. PFO and the exercise intensity at which this occurred (FatMax) were measured by a submaximal exercise test and...

  10. Modest weight loss in moderately overweight postmenopausal women improves heart rate variability

    Mouridsen, Mette Rauhe; Bendsen, Nathalie Tommerup; Astrup, Arne;

    2013-01-01

    Purpose: To evaluate the effects of weight loss on heart rate (HR) and heart rate variability (HRV) parameters in overweight postmenopausal women. Design and Methods: Forty-nine overweight postmenopausal women with an average body mass index of 28.8 1.9 kg/m2 underwent a 12-week dietary weight......-slice MRI at L3. Results: The weight loss of 3.9 2.0 kg was accompanied by an improvement of HRV. SDNN increased by 9.2% (p ¼ 0.003) and SDNNindex increased by 11.4% (p ¼ 0.0003). MeanNN increased by 2.4%, reflecting a decrease in mean heart rate from 74.1 to 72.3 beats/min (p ¼ 0.033). Systolic blood...

  11. Pandemic of Pregnant Obese Women: Is It Time to Re-Evaluate Antenatal Weight Loss?

    Anne M. Davis

    2015-08-01

    Full Text Available The Obesity pandemic will afflict future generations without successful prevention, intervention and management. Attention to reducing obesity before, during and after pregnancy is essential for mothers and their offspring. Preconception weight loss is difficult given that many pregnancies are unplanned. Interventions aimed at limiting gestational weight gain have produced minimal maternal and infant outcomes. Therefore, increased research to develop evidence-based clinical practice is needed to adequately care for obese pregnant women especially during antenatal care. This review evaluates the current evidence of obesity interventions during pregnancy various including weight loss for safety and efficacy. Recommendations are provided with the end goal being a healthy pregnancy, optimal condition for breastfeeding and prevent the progression of obesity in future generations.

  12. Diffusion-weighted magnetic resonance imaging in acute reversible toxic leukoencephalopathy: A report of two cases

    Acute toxic leukoencephalopathy may be caused by endogenous or exogenous toxins. It may reverse clinically if the offending agent is withdrawn or the underlying condition is treated. However, demonstration of reversibility on imaging, especially with diffusion-weighted MRI, has been reported only very recently. We report two such cases

  13. Meal Replacements for Weight Loss in Type 2 Diabetes in a Community Setting

    Keogh, Jennifer B.; Clifton, Peter M.

    2012-01-01

    Background. There is limited information on the effectiveness of meal replacements (MRs) as a weight-loss strategy in an unsupervised community setting. Aim. To evaluate the use of MR compared with a diet book for 6 months. Subjects and Methods. Obese subjects (n = 120) with type 2 diabetes mellitus were recruited from the community in Adelaide, South Australia, and randomised to intervention or control. Subjects in the intervention were advised to consume 2 MR/day for 3 months and 1 MR/day for 3 months and follow the manufacturers' instructions from printed material and the website. Subjects in the control arm were given a commercially available diet book. Results. Consumption of 2 MR for 3 months and 1 MR for the subsequent 3 months led to weight loss of 5.5 kg (5%) and a 0.26% decrease in HbA1c while the diet book group had a weight loss of 3 kg (3%) (P = 0.027 for difference between groups) and a decrease in HbA1c of 0.15% (between group ns) in those who completed the 6-month study. On intention-to-treat (last observation carried forward) weight loss at 6 months was 3.4 kg in MR and 1.8 kg in control (P = 0.07). Decreases in HbA1c were 0.22% and 0.12%, respectively (P = ns). HDL cholesterol increased by 4% in MR and decreased by 1% in control (P = 0.004). Blood pressure decreased equally in both groups. There were reductions in fasting glucose in both groups at 6 months with no changes in LDL-cholesterol or triglyceride concentrations. Conclusion. MR confers benefits in HbA1C reduction and weight loss at 6 months in those who completed the study. PMID:23091707

  14. Correlation between microstructural characteristics and weight loss of natural stones exposed to simulated acid rain.

    Franzoni, Elisa; Sassoni, Enrico

    2011-12-15

    The correlation between stone microstructural characteristics and material degradation (in terms of weight loss), in given environmental conditions, was investigated. Seven lithotypes, having very different microstructural characteristics, were used. Four acidic aqueous solutions were prepared to simulate acid rain (two adding H(2)SO(4) and two adding HNO(3) to deionized water, in order to reach, for each acid, pH values of 5.0 and 4.0), and deionized water at pH=5.6 was used to simulate clean rain. Stone samples were then immersed in such aqueous solutions, the surface alteration being periodically inspected and the weight loss periodically measured. After 14 days of immersion, a good correlation was found between weight loss and the product of carbonate content and specific surface area in the starting materials. This was explained considering that this product accounts for the weight loss owing to the sample's fraction actually composed of calcite (the most soluble fraction) and the effective surface area exposed to dissolving solution (which depends on stone porosity and pore size distribution). Such correlation between stone microstructure and degradation may be useful for comparing the durability of different lithotypes, in given environmental conditions, and quantitatively predicting the weight loss of a lithotype, compared to another one. Hence, the correlation found in this study may be used to specifically tailor to various stone types, with different microstructural characteristics, some results that have been calculated in literature for specific stone types and then proposed as possibly representative for a broad category of stones with similar characteristics. PMID:22030245

  15. Dietary counseling on long-term weight loss in overweight hypertensive patients

    Márcia Regina Simas Gonçalves Torres

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available OBJECTIVE: This study aimed to evaluate long-term weight loss in overweight hypertensive patients receiving dietary counseling. METHODS: Longitudinal study included overweight hypertensive patients who had an initial individual consultation with a nutritionist between January 2002 and December 2005 and were followed for four years in a hypertension clinic. Patients who had at least four consultations during the follow-up period were included in the dietary counseling group. Those who scheduled their first consultation but missed that appointment or had fewer than four consultations during the follow-up period were allocated to the control group. Target Energy intake was calculated at 20-25 kcal/kg actual body weight/day. RESULTS: The study included 102 patients aged 55 + 1 years old (58 in the dietary counseling group. As compared with the control group, patients in the dietary counseling group showed a significantly greater reduction in body weight (-3.6 + 0.8 vs. 0.8 + 0.7 kg, which remained significant after controlling for age, gender, baseline body mass index, and the use of different antihypertensive and antidiabetic drugs. Weight loss between 5.0% and 9.9% was observed in a significantly higher percentage of patients in the dietary counseling group (28% vs. 11%. A weight loss of at least 10% was only observed in dietary counseling group patients, who had a significantly lower odds ratio for increasing the number and/or dosage of antihypertensive agents, even after controlling for age, gender, and baseline body mass index. CONCLUSIONS: Dietary counseling may be associated with long-term weight loss in overweight hypertensive patients.

  16. TFAP2B influences the effect of dietary fat on weight loss under energy restriction.

    Tanja Stocks

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: Numerous gene loci are related to single measures of body weight and shape. We investigated if 55 SNPs previously associated with BMI or waist measures, modify the effects of fat intake on weight loss and waist reduction under energy restriction. METHODS AND FINDINGS: Randomized controlled trial of 771 obese adults. ( REGISTRATION: ISRCTN25867281. One SNP was selected for replication in another weight loss intervention study of 934 obese adults. The original trial was a 10-week 600 kcal/d energy-deficient diet with energy percentage from fat (fat% in range of 20-25 or 40-45. The replication study used an 8-weeks diet of 880 kcal/d and 20 fat%; change in fat% intake was used for estimation of interaction effects. The main outcomes were intervention weight loss and waist reduction. In the trial, mean change in fat% intake was -12/+4 in the low/high-fat groups. In the replication study, it was -23/-12 among those reducing fat% more/less than the median. TFAP2B-rs987237 genotype AA was associated with 1.0 kg (95% CI, 0.4; 1.6 greater weight loss on the low-fat, and GG genotype with 2.6 kg (1.1; 4.1 greater weight loss on the high-fat (interaction p-value; p = 0.00007. The replication study showed a similar (non-significant interaction pattern. Waist reduction results generally were similar. Study-strengths include (i the discovery study randomised trial design combined with the replication opportunity (ii the strict dietary intake control in both studies (iii the large sample sizes of both studies. Limitations are (i the low minor allele frequency of the TFAP2B polymorphism, making it hard to investigate non-additive genetic effects (ii the different interventions preventing identical replication-discovery study designs (iii some missing data for non-completers and dietary intake. No adverse effects/outcomes or side-effects were observed. CONCLUSIONS: Under energy restriction, TFAP2B may modify the effect of dietary fat intake on

  17. Perceived Barriers to Weight loss Programs for Overweight or Obese Women

    Nasrin Sharifi

    2013-06-01

    Full Text Available Background: In order to develop appropriate obesity control and treat¬ment strategies, the key point is to understand the barriers perceived by overweight or obese people in trying to follow weight-loss programs. This study examined perceived barriers to weight-loss programs among over¬weight or obese women.Methods: In this descriptive-analytical study, 204 overweight or obese women aged 31.97± 10.62 yr, were selected randomly from the nutritional counseling centers in 2008 in Tabriz, Iran. The mean BMI was 33.83 ±5.75 kg/ m2. A structured questionnaire including questions on barriers to weight-loss diet and physical activity was filled out for each participant by face-to-face interview. Height and weight measured objectively and demo¬graphic details were obtained. Data analysis carried out using mul¬tiple re¬gression and factor analysis.Results: The most important perceived barriers to weight-loss diets were 'situational barriers', stress, depression, and food craving. High educational level was independent determinant of situational barriers (β=0.329, P=0.048. Employee women had a higher mean score on stress and de¬pres¬sion than students and housewives. Lack of time and exercising lonely were the most important items of "External barriers" and Lack of motiva¬tion was the most important item of "internal barriers" to physical activity. Employ¬ment and being student were highly associated with external bar¬riers (β=1.018, P<0.001 and β=0.541, P= 0.002. Moreover, older women who had low educational level, perceived more internal barriers. Conclusion: Weight reducing strategies should take into account the spe¬cific perceived barriers to weight-loss diets faced by overweight or obese women, particularly situational barriers, stress and depression and food craving; and lack of time and lack of motivation as barriers to physical ac¬tivity.

  18. Increase in Fracture Risk Following Unintentional Weight Loss in Postmenopausal Women: The Global Longitudinal Study of Osteoporosis in Women.

    Compston, Juliet E; Wyman, Allison; FitzGerald, Gordon; Adachi, Jonathan D; Chapurlat, Roland D; Cooper, Cyrus; Díez-Pérez, Adolfo; Gehlbach, Stephen H; Greenspan, Susan L; Hooven, Frederick H; LaCroix, Andrea Z; March, Lyn; Netelenbos, J Coen; Nieves, Jeri W; Pfeilschifter, Johannes; Rossini, Maurizio; Roux, Christian; Saag, Kenneth G; Siris, Ethel S; Silverman, Stuart; Watts, Nelson B; Anderson, Frederick A

    2016-07-01

    Increased fracture risk has been associated with weight loss in postmenopausal women, but the time course over which this occurs has not been established. The aim of this study was to examine the effects of unintentional weight loss of ≥10 lb (4.5 kg) in postmenopausal women on fracture risk at multiple sites up to 5 years after weight loss. Using data from the Global Longitudinal Study of Osteoporosis in Women (GLOW), we analyzed the relationships between self-reported unintentional weight loss of ≥10 lb at baseline, year 2, or year 3 and incident clinical fracture in the years after weight loss. Complete data were available in 40,179 women (mean age ± SD 68 ± 8.3 years). Five-year cumulative fracture rate was estimated using the Kaplan-Meier method, and adjusted hazard ratios for weight loss as a time-varying covariate were calculated from Cox multiple regression models. Unintentional weight loss at baseline was associated with a significantly increased risk of fracture of the clavicle, wrist, spine, rib, hip, and pelvis for up to 5 years after weight loss. Adjusted hazard ratios showed a significant association between unintentional weight loss and fracture of the hip, spine, and clavicle within 1 year of weight loss, and these associations were still present at 5 years. These findings demonstrate increased fracture risk at several sites after unintentional weight loss in postmenopausal women. This increase is found as early as 1 year after weight loss, emphasizing the need for prompt fracture risk assessment and appropriate management to reduce fracture risk in this population. © 2016 American Society for Bone and Mineral Research. PMID:26861139

  19. Increase in Fracture Risk Following Unintentional Weight Loss in Postmenopausal Women: The Global Longitudinal Study of Osteoporosis in Women†

    Compston, Juliet E.; Wyman, A; FitzGerald, Gordon; Adachi, Jonathan D.; Chapurlat, Roland D.; Cooper, Cyrus; Díez-Pérez, Adolfo; Gehlbach, Stephen H; Greenspan, Susan L.; Hooven, Frederick H.; LaCroix, Andrea Z.; March, Lyn; Coen Netelenbos, J.; Nieves, Jeri W.; Pfeilschifter, Johannes; Rossini, Maurizio; Roux, Christian; Saag, Kenneth G.; Siris, Ethel S.; Silverman, Stuart; Watts, Nelson B.; Anderson, Frederick A.

    2016-01-01

    Increased fracture risk has been associated with weight loss in postmenopausal women but the time course over which this occurs has not been established. The aim of this study was to examine the effects of unintentional weight loss of ≥10 lb (4.5 kg) in postmenopausal women on fracture risk at multiple sites up to 5 years following weight loss. Using data from the Global Longitudinal Study of Osteoporosis in Women (GLOW) we analyzed the relationships between self-reported unintentional weight loss of ≥10 lb at baseline, year 2, or year 3 and incident clinical fracture in the years following weight loss. Complete data were available in 40,179 women (mean age ± SD 68 ± 8.3 years). Five-year cumulative fracture rate was estimated using the Kaplan-Meier method, and adjusted hazard ratios for weight loss as a time-varying covariate were calculated from Cox multiple regression models. Unintentional weight loss at baseline was associated with a significantly increased risk of fracture of the clavicle, wrist, spine, rib, hip, and pelvis for up to 5 years following weight loss. Adjusted hazard ratios showed a significant association between unintentional weight loss and fracture of the hip, spine, and clavicle within 1 year of weight loss, and these associations were still present at 5 years. These findings demonstrate increased fracture risk at several sites after unintentional weight loss in postmenopausal women. This increase is seen as early as 1 year following weight loss, emphasizing the need for prompt fracture risk assessment and appropriate management to reduce fracture risk in this population. PMID:26861139

  20. Features Predicting Weight Loss in Overweight or Obese Participants in a Web-Based Intervention: Randomized Trial

    Brindal, Emily; Freyne, Jill; Saunders, Ian; Berkovsky, Shlomo; Smith, Greg; Noakes, Manny

    2012-01-01

    Background Obesity remains a serious issue in many countries. Web-based programs offer good potential for delivery of weight loss programs. Yet, many Internet-delivered weight loss studies include support from medical or nutritional experts, and relatively little is known about purely web-based weight loss programs. Objective To determine whether supportive features and personalization in a 12-week web-based lifestyle intervention with no in-person professional contact affect retention and we...

  1. Web-based interventions for weight loss and weight maintenance among rural midlife and older women: protocol for a randomized controlled trial

    Boeckner Linda S

    2011-06-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Weight loss is challenging and maintenance of weight loss is problematic among midlife and older rural women. Finding effective interventions using innovative delivery methods that can reach underserved and vulnerable populations of overweight and obese rural women is a public health challenge. Methods/Design This Women Weigh-In for Wellness (The WWW study randomized-controlled trial is designed to compare the effectiveness of theory-based behavior-change interventions using (1 website only, (2 website with peer-led support, or (3 website with professional email-counseling to facilitate initial weight loss (baseline to 6 months, guided continuing weight loss and maintenance (7-18 months and self-directed weight maintenance (19-30 months among rural women ages 45-69 with a BMI of 28-45. Recruitment efforts using local media will target 306 rural women who live within driving distance of a community college site where assessments will be conducted at baseline, 3, 6, 12, 18, 24 and 30 months by research nurses blinded to group assignments. Primary outcomes include changes in body weight, % weight loss, and eating and activity behavioral and biomarkers from baseline to each subsequent assessment. Secondary outcomes will be percentage of women achieving at least 5% and 10% weight loss without regain from baseline to 6, 18, and 30 months and achieving healthy eating and activity targets. Data analysis will use generalized estimating equations to analyze average change across groups and group differences in proportion of participants achieving target weight loss levels. Discussion The Women Weigh-In for Wellness study compares innovative web-based alternatives for providing lifestyle behavior-change interventions for promoting weight loss and weight maintenance among rural women. If effective, such interventions would offer potential for reducing overweight and obesity among a vulnerable, hard-to-reach, population of rural women

  2. Smart conjugated polymer nanocarrier for healthy weight loss by negative feedback regulation of lipase activity

    Chen, Yu-Lei; Zhu, Sha; Zhang, Lei; Feng, Pei-Jian; Yao, Xi-Kuang; Qian, Cheng-Gen; Zhang, Can; Jiang, Xi-Qun; Shen, Qun-Dong

    2016-02-01

    Healthy weight loss represents a real challenge when obesity is increasing in prevalence. Herein, we report a conjugated polymer nanocarrier for smart deactivation of lipase and thus balancing calorie intake. After oral administration, the nanocarrier is sensitive to lipase in the digestive tract and releases orlistat, which deactivates the enzyme and inhibits fat digestion. It also creates negative feedback to control the release of itself. The nanocarrier smartly regulates activity of the lipase cyclically varied between high and low levels. In spite of high fat diet intervention, obese mice receiving a single dose of the nanocarrier lose weight over eight days, whereas a control group continues the tendency to gain weight. Daily intragastric administration of the nanocarrier leads to lower weight of livers or fat pads, smaller adipocyte size, and lower total cholesterol level than that of the control group. Near-infrared fluorescence of the nanocarrier reveals its biodistribution.Healthy weight loss represents a real challenge when obesity is increasing in prevalence. Herein, we report a conjugated polymer nanocarrier for smart deactivation of lipase and thus balancing calorie intake. After oral administration, the nanocarrier is sensitive to lipase in the digestive tract and releases orlistat, which deactivates the enzyme and inhibits fat digestion. It also creates negative feedback to control the release of itself. The nanocarrier smartly regulates activity of the lipase cyclically varied between high and low levels. In spite of high fat diet intervention, obese mice receiving a single dose of the nanocarrier lose weight over eight days, whereas a control group continues the tendency to gain weight. Daily intragastric administration of the nanocarrier leads to lower weight of livers or fat pads, smaller adipocyte size, and lower total cholesterol level than that of the control group. Near-infrared fluorescence of the nanocarrier reveals its biodistribution

  3. Clinical utility of dronabinol in the treatment of weight loss associated with HIV and AIDS

    Badowski, Melissa E; Perez, Sarah E

    2016-01-01

    Since the beginning of the HIV/AIDS epidemic, weight loss has been a common complaint for patients. The use of various definitions defining HIV wasting syndrome has made it difficult to determine its actual prevalence. Despite the use of highly active antiretroviral therapy, it is estimated that the prevalence of HIV wasting syndrome is between 14% and 38%. HIV wasting syndrome may stem from conditions affecting chewing, swallowing, or gastrointestinal motility, neurologic disease affecting food intake or the perception of hunger or ability to eat, psychiatric illness, food insecurity generated from psychosocial or economic concerns, or anorexia due to medications, malabsorption, infections, or tumors. Treatment of HIV wasting syndrome may be managed with appetite stimulants (megestrol acetate or dronabinol), anabolic agents (testosterone, testosterone analogs, or recombinant human growth hormone), or, rarely, cytokine production modulators (thalidomide). The goal of this review is to provide an in-depth evaluation based on existing clinical trials on the clinical utility of dronabinol in the treatment of weight loss associated with HIV/AIDS. Although total body weight gain varies with dronabinol use (–2.0 to 3.2 kg), dronabinol is a well-tolerated option to promote appetite stimulation. Further studies are needed with standardized definitions of HIV-associated weight loss and clinical outcomes, robust sample sizes, safety and efficacy data on chronic use of dronabinol beyond 52 weeks, and associated virologic and immunologic outcomes. PMID:26929669

  4. Weight loss interventions for morbidly obese patients with compensated cirrhosis: a Markov decision analysis model.

    Bromberger, Bianca; Porrett, Paige; Choudhury, Rashikh; Dumon, Kristoffel; Murayama, Kenric M

    2014-02-01

    Many transplant centers require that patients maintain a BMI below 40 kg/m(2) in order to be eligible for listing, rendering many morbidly obese patients with end-stage liver disease unable to access liver transplantation as a method of treatment. In order to determine the safest and most efficacious weight loss regimen in this challenging population, Roux-en-Y gastric bypass (RYGB), adjustable gastric banding (AGB), and diet and exercise were modeled to assess their impact on life expectancy in morbidly obese patients with cirrhosis. A Markov state transition model was developed to assess the survival benefit of undergoing RYGB, AGB, or 1 year of diet and exercise in morbidly obese patients with compensated cirrhosis. A base case analysis of no weight loss intervention in a 45-year-old patient with compensated cirrhosis and a BMI of 45 kg/m(2) revealed an average survival of 7.93 years. The average survival for the weight loss simulations was 9.14, 8.84, and 8.16 years for RYGB, AGB, and diet and exercise, respectively. In morbidly obese patients with compensated cirrhosis, RYGB allows patients to lose more weight more rapidly than is probable with either AGB or diet and exercise, thus having the greatest impact on survival. PMID:23918085

  5. Do Arabic weight-loss apps adhere to evidence-informed practices?

    Alnasser, Aroub A; Amalraj, Raja E; Sathiaseelan, Arjuna; Al-Khalifa, Abdulrahman S; Marais, Debbi

    2016-09-01

    Mobile technology has been used successfully for promoting health and weight loss and for treating obesity. There is a high prevalence of smartphone and tablet users among the Saudi population. This study aimed to identify whether current Arabic weight-loss apps had features that adhered to evidence-informed practices. The six most relevant app stores were systematically searched using the Arabic words for weight and diet (n = 298). All apps that met the inclusion criteria (n = 65) were downloaded and examined for adherence to 13 evidence-informed practices. Latent class analysis identified two subgroups of apps: self-monitoring (15 % of apps) and advice-giving apps (85 %). The median number of evidence-informed practices was 1 (1, 2), with no apps having more than six and only nine apps including four to six. Meal planning was the most common feature (38 % of apps). These findings identify serious weaknesses in the currently available Arabic weight-loss apps. Thus, existing and future apps should include more features based on the best available evidence in the context of Arab culture. PMID:27528528

  6. Self-Reported Psychosocial Health in Obese Patients before and after Weight Loss

    G. Osei-Assibey

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available Psychosocial profiles were examined in 255 morbidly obese patients attending a hospital service offering access to standard weight loss therapies. 129 patients were reassessed after at least 6-month follow-up. At baseline, 51.8% and 32.7% of patients, respectively, had evidence of anxiety and depressive disorders, 24% had severe impairments in self esteem, and 29.7% had an increased risk of eating disorders. At follow-up, weight loss from baseline was significant in all 3 therapies: diet only is 0.74±1.8 kg; pharmacotherapy is 6.7±4.2 kg; and surgery is 20.1±13.6 kg. Anxiety scores improved in all three groups (<.05. Patients having pharmacotherapy or surgery had significant improvements in physical and work function and public distress compared to those having dietary treatment only (<.05. Our observational data suggest that weight management services can lead to psychosocial benefit in morbidly obese patients. Well-designed studies are necessary to examine the link between weight loss and emotional health.

  7. WEIGHT LOSS DETERMINATION OF LAMB CARCASSES DURING THE PRECOOLING AND FREEZING PROCESS

    İbrahim YILMAZ

    1995-01-01

    Full Text Available Total weight loss of Morkaraman breed lamb carcasses were determined during the precooling and also during the freezing process of the carcasses. Research was carried out in the cooling and freezing rooms of Turkish State Slaughter House (EBK of Erzurum. Determined results were compared with the literature values given by different researches. Some suggestions were made to optimize the precooling and frozen process. In each trial, 64 lambs were selected randomly from different herds had been come to slaughter. After slaughter and dressing carcasses were showered with cold water, and removing the kidney and peripheral fats, the carcasses were used in precooling and freezing experiments. Precooling, freezing and all the other treatments were done in the practical handling conditions of EBK, that is none of those conditions were rearranged or altered, and what had been happening in those conditions were aimed to be determined. Experiment was repeated 7 times, thus total of 448 whole carcasses were used in the entire research work. At the end of this study, the average precooling and freezing weight losses were 1.88% and 1.3% respectively and their sum was 3.18%. It was determined that duration of precooling and freezing, average carcass weight, relative humidity, air circulation and loading percentage of the rooms were very effective on the weight losses.

  8. Long-term effect of dexfenfluramine on amino acid profiles and food selection in obese patients during weight loss

    Breum, L; Møller, S E; Andersen, T;

    1996-01-01

    obesity and to elucidate the long-term effect of dexfenfluramine (dF) on plasma amino acid profiles and macronutrient selection, we examined 29 obese patients participating in a 12 months double-blind weight loss trial with either dexfenfluramine (dF) (30 mg/day) or placebo (PL) in conjunction with 4...... the variation in weight loss (p < 0.0005), whereas no correlation could be shown in the dF group. Pre-treatment plasma Trp/LNAA or Tyr/LNAA and weight loss were not correlated. In conclusion, neither food selection nor basal plasma amino acid profiles were predictors of weight loss during long...

  9. Effects of different weight loss intervention programmes in health clubs - an observational multicenter study.

    Wanjek, Markus; Senner, Veit; Scharhag-Rosenberger, Friederike; Halle, Martin

    2016-10-01

    This study aimed at comparing the effectiveness of three lifestyle intervention programmes in health clubs "exercise only" (E), "exercise plus nutritional counselling" (E + NC), and "exercise plus weight loss program" (E + WLP) on weight loss under real-life conditions. An observational multicenter study including 788 overweight/obese new customers of 95 health clubs in Germany was performed. Participants chose E (n = 512, 38 ± 14 year, BMI 30.4 ± 4.7 kg/m(2)), E + NC (n = 179, 42 ± 14 year, BMI 31.7 ± 4.5 kg/m(2)), or E + WLP (n = 97, 40 ± 11 year, BMI 31.6 ± 5.1 kg/m(2)). Anthropometric data, energy expenditure, and energy intake were assessed at baseline and after 3 months. All groups significantly reduced body weight (E: -1.5 ± 2.9 kg, E + NC: -3.4 ± 3.6 kg, E + WLP: -5.5 ± 4.3 kg, p Exercise energy expenditure increased and energy intake decreased significantly in all groups (p exercise plus dietary interventions are more effective for weight loss than exercise alone. The benefits of E + WLP emphasize that interventions even performed by health clubs may elicit clinically relevant weight loss in overweight and obese new customers and can therefore be recommended. PMID:26835870

  10. Effects of Simultaneous or Sequential Weight Loss Diet and Aerobic Interval Training on Metabolic Syndrome.

    Mora-Rodriguez, R; Ortega, J F; Guio de Prada, V; Fernández-Elías, V E; Hamouti, N; Morales-Palomo, F; Martinez-Vizcaino, V; Nelson, R K

    2016-04-01

    Our purpose in this study was to investigate efficient and sustainable combinations of exercise and diet-induced weight loss (DIET), in order to combat obesity in metabolic syndrome (MetS) patients. We examined the impact of aerobic interval training (AIT), followed by or concurrent to a DIET on MetS components. 36 MetS patients (54±9 years old; 33±4 BMI; 27 males and 9 females) underwent 16 weeks of AIT followed by another 16 weeks without exercise from the fall of 2013 to the spring of 2014. Participants were randomized to AIT without DIET (E CON, n=12), AIT followed by DIET (E-then-D, n=12) or AIT concurrent with DIET (E+D, n=12) groups. Body weight decreased below E CON similarly in the E-then-D and E+D groups (~5%). Training improved blood pressure and cardiorespiratory fitness (VO2peak) in all groups with no additional effect of concurrent weight loss. However, E+D improved insulin sensitivity (HOMA) and lowered plasma triglycerides and blood cholesterol below E CON and E-then-D (all P<0.05). Weight loss in E-then-D in the 16 weeks without exercise lowered HOMA to the E+D levels and maintained blood pressure at trained levels. Our data suggest that a new lifestyle combination consisting of aerobic interval training followed by weight loss diet is similar, or even more effective on improving metabolic syndrome factors than concurrent exercise plus diet. PMID:26667921

  11. Predicting short-term weight loss using four leading health behavior change theories

    Barata José T

    2007-04-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background This study was conceived to analyze how exercise and weight management psychosocial variables, derived from several health behavior change theories, predict weight change in a short-term intervention. The theories under analysis were the Social Cognitive Theory, the Transtheoretical Model, the Theory of Planned Behavior, and Self-Determination Theory. Methods Subjects were 142 overweight and obese women (BMI = 30.2 ± 3.7 kg/m2; age = 38.3 ± 5.8y, participating in a 16-week University-based weight control program. Body weight and a comprehensive psychometric battery were assessed at baseline and at program's end. Results Weight decreased significantly (-3.6 ± 3.4%, p Conclusion The present models were able to predict 20–30% of variance in short-term weight loss and changes in weight management self-efficacy accounted for a large share of the predictive power. As expected from previous studies, exercise variables were only moderately associated with short-term outcomes; they are expected to play a larger explanatory role in longer-term results.

  12. Effects of Orlistat-induced Weight Loss on Cardiovascular Risk Factors in Obese Chinese Subjects

    徐明彤; 吴木潮; 黎锋; 周淑娴; 程桦; 傅祖植

    2003-01-01

    Objectives To observe the influence of weight loss induced by orlistat onseveral cardiovascular diseases risk factors in obeseChinese subjects. Methods Sixty obese Chinesepatients participated in a 24 week clinical trial. Par-ticipants were prescribed a slightly hypocaloric diet andexercise, then they were randomly assigned double-blind treatment with either orlistat 120 mg three times aday or placebo. Their body weight, blood pressure,fasting glucose, insulin, HbA1c, and serum lipid pro-file were performed before and after the weight lossintervention. Results After 24 weeks, orlistat-treated group lost more of their body weight thanplacebo group (6.66 ± 0.52 kg, 8.44 ± 4.08 % and1.98±0.44 kg, 2.44±1.74%, respectively, P <0.05) Moreover, after treatment, orlistat - treatedpatients showed significant decreases in serum levels oftotal cholesterol, low density lipoprotein-cholesteroland high density lipoprotein - cholesterol ( P <0.01), but in placebo group we found no change.Both systolic blood pressure and diastolic blood pres-sure fell significantly in orlistat-treated group.Fasting glucose and HOMA- IR in orlistat- treatedgroup was distinctly reduced if compared with placebogroup. Conclusions Weight loss resulting fromorlistat treatment and slightly hypocaloric diet hasproduced favorable effects on several cardiovascularrisk factors in obese Chinese subjects.

  13. Development of ‘Twazon’: An Arabic App for Weight Loss

    Sathiaseelan, Arjuna; Al-Khalifa, Abdulrahman; Marais, Debbi

    2016-01-01

    Background Weight gain and its related illnesses have become a major public health issue across the world, with Saudi Arabia and other Gulf countries seeing dramatic increases in obesity and overweight, and yet there is very little information on how to intervene with this demographic due to cultural and linguistic barriers. As the use of smartphones and apps has also increased in the region, information communication technologies could be a cost-effective means of facilitating the delivery of behavior-modification interventions directly to the target population. Although there are existing apps that offer lifestyle-modification tools, they do not give consideration to the evidence-based practices for weight management. This offers an opportunity to create an Arabic language weight loss app that offers localized content and adheres to evidence-informed practices that are needed for effective weight loss. Objective This paper describes the process of developing an Arabic weight loss app designed to facilitate the modification of key nutritional and physical activity behaviors among Saudi adults, while taking into consideration cultural norms. Methods The development of the Twazon app involved: (1) reviewing all available Arabic weight loss apps and compared with evidence-based practices for weight loss, (2) conducting a qualitative study with overweight and obese Saudi women to ascertain their preferences, (3) selecting which behavioral change strategies and guidelines to be used in the app, (4) creating the Saudi Food Database, (5) deciding on graphic design for both iPhone operating system and Android platforms, including user interface, relational database, and programming code, and (6) testing the beta version of the app with health professionals and potential users. Results The Twazon app took 23 months to develop and included the compilation of an original Saudi Food database. Eight subjects gave feedback regarding the content validity and usability of the app

  14. Weight Loss Instead of Weight Gain within the Guidelines in Obese Women during Pregnancy: A Systematic Review and Meta-Analyses of Maternal and Infant Outcomes

    Kapadia, Mufiza Zia; Park, Christina K.; Beyene, Joseph; Giglia, Lucy; Maxwell, Cindy; McDonald, Sarah D.

    2015-01-01

    Background Controversy exists about how much, if any, weight obese pregnant women should gain. While the revised Institute of Medicine guidelines on gestational weight gain (GWG) in 2009 recommended a weight gain of 5–9 kg for obese pregnant women, many studies suggested even gestational weight loss (GWL) for obese women. Objectives A systematic review was conducted to summarize pregnancy outcomes in obese women with GWL compared to GWG within the 2009 Institute of Medicine guidelines (5–9 kg...

  15. Serum visfatin concentration in acutely ill and weight-recovered patients with anorexia nervosa.

    Seidel, Maria; King, Joseph A; Ritschel, Franziska; Döpmann, Johanna; Bühren, Katharina; Seitz, Jochen; Roessner, Veit; Westphal, Sabine; Egberts, Karin; Burghardt, Roland; Wewetzer, Christoph; Fleischhaker, Christian; Hebebrand, Johannes; Herpertz-Dahlmann, Beate; Ehrlich, Stefan

    2015-03-01

    Visfatin is a recently described protein that is thought to regulate the process of adipocyte differentiation. Findings suggest that visfatin may be actively involved in the control of weight regulatory networks. However, to what extent and which role it plays in eating disorders is still poorly understood, as mixed results have been reported. The aim of the current study was to investigate serum visfatin concentrations on a cross sectional sample between acute anorexia nervosa patients (n=44), weight recovered patients (n=13) and healthy controls (n=46) and a longitudinal sample of acute patients (n=57) during weight recovery at three different time-points. Results did not show significant differences in visfatin between the three groups; however, acute patients showed a higher visfatin/BMI-SDS ratio than controls and recovered patients. Longitudinal results revealed an increase of visfatin levels during therapy. Our results suggest that high ratios of visfatin/BMI-SDS could be a state marker in acute anorexia nervosa, displaying a compensatory mechanism of the individual to maintain normal visfatin levels under malnourished conditions. PMID:25617618

  16. A Dynamical Systems Model for Understanding Behavioral Interventions for Weight Loss

    Navarro-Barrientos, J.-Emeterio; Rivera, Daniel E.; Collins, Linda M.

    We propose a dynamical systems model that captures the daily fluctuations of human weight change, incorporating both physiological and psychological factors. The model consists of an energy balance integrated with a mechanistic behavioral model inspired by the Theory of Planned Behavior (TPB); the latter describes how important variables in a behavioral intervention can influence healthy eating habits and increased physical activity over time. The model can be used to inform behavioral scientists in the design of optimized interventions for weight loss and body composition change.

  17. Hearing loss in children with very low birth weight: current review of epidemiology and pathophysiology.

    Cristobal, R; Oghalai, J S

    2008-11-01

    An association between birth weight weight (VLBW)) and hearing loss has been long recognised. As universal hearing screening programmes have become widely implemented and the survival rate of VLBW babies in modern intensive care units has increased, we have gained a substantially better understanding of the nature of this problem. However, many gaps in our knowledge base exist. This review describes recent data on hearing loss in the VLBW population and explains the current level of understanding about the physiological basis underlying the auditory deficits in these patients. Although VLBW alone may not have a severe impact on hearing, it is commonly associated with multiple other risk factors that can alter hearing in a synergistic fashion. Therefore, the risk of hearing loss is substantially higher than in the general newborn population. Also, it is important to perform a more comprehensive audiometric evaluation than standard otoacoustic emission screening for infants who are in the neonatal intensive care unit in order not to miss hearing loss due to retrocochlear pathology. Furthermore, children with VLBW are also at increased risk of experiencing progressive or delayed-onset hearing loss, and thus should continue to have serial hearing evaluations after discharge from the neonatal intensive care unit. PMID:18941031

  18. TFAP2B -Dietary Protein and Glycemic Index Interactions and Weight Maintenance after Weight Loss in the DiOGenes Trial

    Stocks, Tanja; Ängquist, Lars Henrik; Hager, Jörg; Charon, Celine; Holst, Claus; Martinez, J Alfredo; Saris, Wim H M; Astrup, Arne; Sørensen, Thorkild I A; Larsen, Lesli Hingstrup

    Background: TFAP2B rs987237 is associated with obesity and has shown interaction with the dietary fat-to-carbohydrate ratio, which has an effect on weight loss. We investigated interactions between rs987237 and protein-to-carbohydrate ratio or glycemic index (GI) in relation to weight maintenance......987237 and dietary protein/carbohydrate interacted to modify weight maintenance. Considering the carbohydrate proportion of the diet, the interaction was different from the previously reported rs987237-fat-to-carbohydrate ratio interaction for weight loss. Thus, TFAP2B-macronutrient interactions might...... after weight loss. Methods: This study included 742 obese individuals from 8 European countries who participated in the Diet, Obesity, and Genes (DiOGenes) trial, lost ≥8% of their initial body weight during an 8-week low-calorie diet and were randomized to one of 5 ad libitum diets with a fixed energy...

  19. Body mass loss correlates with cognitive performance in primates under acute caloric restriction conditions.

    Villain, N; Picq, J-L; Aujard, F; Pifferi, F

    2016-05-15

    Brain functions are known to consume high levels of energy, thus, the integrity of cognitive performance can be drastically impacted by acute caloric restriction. In this study, we tested the impact of a 40% caloric restriction on the cognitive abilities of the grey mouse lemur (Microcebus murinus). Twenty-three male mouse lemurs were divided into two groups: 13 control animals (CTL) that were fed with 105kJ/day and 10calorie restricted (CR) animals that received 40% less food (63kJ/day) than the CTL animals. The animals were fed according to their group for 19days. Before treatment, we assessed baseline associative learning capacities, resting metabolic rates and locomotor performance of both animal groups. After treatment, we tested the same functions as well as long-term memory. Our results showed that CR animals had lower learning performance following caloric restriction. The effects of caloric restriction on memory recall varied and depended on the metabolism of the individual animal. Body mass loss was linked to memory test performance in the CR group, and lower performance was observed in individuals losing the most weight. While CR was observed to negatively impact learning, locomotor capacities were preserved in CR animals, and there were higher resting metabolic rates in the CR group. Our data reinforce the strong link between energy allocation and brain function, and suggest that in the context of food shortage, learning capacities could be a limiting parameter in the adaptation to a changing environment. PMID:26952885

  20. Adherent Use of Digital Health Trackers Is Associated with Weight Loss.

    Pourzanjani, Arya; Quisel, Tom; Foschini, Luca

    2016-01-01

    We study the association between weight fluctuation and activity tracking in an on-line population of thousands of individuals using digital health trackers (1,749 ≤ N ≤ 14,411, depending on the activity tracker considered) with millions of recorded activities (119,292 ≤ N ≤ 2,221,382) over the years 2013-2015. In a first between-subject analysis, we found a positive association between activity tracking frequency and weight loss. Users who log food with moderate frequency lost an additional 0.63% (CI [0.55, 0.72]; p loggers. Frequent workout loggers lost an additional 0.38% (CI [0.20, 0.56]; p loggers lost an additional 0.40% (CI [0.33, 0.47]; p loggers. In a subsequent within-subject analysis on a subset of the population (799 ≤ N ≤ 6,052) with sufficient longitudinal data, we used fixed effect models to explore the temporal relationship between a change in tracking adherence and weight change. We found that for the same individual, weight loss is significantly higher during periods of high adherence to tracking vs. periods of low adherence: +2.74% of body weight lost per month (CI [2.68, 2.81]; p < .001) during adherent weight tracking, +1.35% per month (CI [1.26, 1.43]; p < .001) during adherent food tracking, and +0.60% per month (CI [0.44, 0.76]; p < .001) during adherent workout tracking. The findings suggest that adherence to activity tracking can be utilized as a convenient real-time predictor of weight fluctuations, enabling large-scale, personalized intervention strategies. PMID:27049859

  1. A dynamical model for describing behavioural interventions for weight loss and body composition change.

    Navarro-Barrientos, J-Emeterio; Rivera, Daniel E; Collins, Linda M

    2011-01-12

    We present a dynamical model incorporating both physiological and psychological factors that predicts changes in body mass and composition during the course of a behavioral intervention for weight loss. The model consists of a three-compartment energy balance integrated with a mechanistic psychological model inspired by the Theory of Planned Behavior (TPB). The latter describes how important variables in a behavioural intervention can influence healthy eating habits and increased physical activity over time. The novelty of the approach lies in representing the behavioural intervention as a dynamical system, and the integration of the psychological and energy balance models. Two simulation scenarios are presented that illustrate how the model can improve the understanding of how changes in intervention components and participant differences affect outcomes. Consequently, the model can be used to inform behavioural scientists in the design of optimised interventions for weight loss and body composition change. PMID:21673826

  2. Liver Injury from Herbal, Dietary, and Weight Loss Supplements: a Review.

    Zheng, Elizabeth X; Navarro, Victor J

    2015-06-28

    Herbal and dietary supplement usage has increased steadily over the past several years in the United States. Among the non-bodybuilding herbal and dietary supplements, weight loss supplements were among the most common type of HDS implicated in liver injury. While drug induced liver injury is rare, its consequences are significant and on the rise. The purpose of this review is to highlight case reports of weight loss products such as Hydroxycut and OxyElite Pro as one form of HDS that have hepatotoxic potential and to characterize its clinical effects as well as pattern of liver injury. We also propose future strategies in the identification and study of potentially hepatotoxic compounds in an effort to outline a diagnostic approach for identifying any drug induced liver injury. PMID:26357638

  3. Waving the Red Flag: FTC Regulation of Deceptive Weight-Loss Advertising 1951-2009.

    Lellis, Julie C

    2016-01-01

    This article documents the historical role of the Federal Trade Commission (FTC) in regulating deceptive weight-loss advertising, which the commission began to prioritize in the 1990s after a dramatic rise in complaints. It also includes the results of a content analysis of more than 150 FTC complaints filed between 1951 and 2009, which were used to analyze trends in advertising content, liability for deceptive practices, and outcomes. Regulatory efforts may not have curbed the use of bogus weight-loss claims, which have only increased over time. The FTC has made attempts to apply broad liability, but advertisers and corporate leaders continue to be named most frequently over other respondents, including advertising agencies, media outlets, and product endorsers. Although the number of complaints that result in financial penalties is increasing, the FTC lacks systematic and specific policies to adequately deter advertisers and address what continues to be a growing problem. PMID:26075539

  4. A randomized comparison of horizontal and vertical banded gastroplasty: what determines weight loss?

    Andersen, T; Pedersen, B H; Dissing, I;

    1989-01-01

    Pouch volume, stoma diameter, and pouch emptying rate were measured postoperatively and after 6 months in 45 morbidly obese patients who had been assigned to either horizontal gastroplasty (HGP) or vertical banded gastroplasty (VBGP) after pretreatment with diet alone. Pouch volume and stoma...... diameter were measured by a standardized radiographic method with blinded assessment by two observers. Pouch emptying rate was determined by a standardized scintigraphic method and expressed as the mean transit time (t60). Pouch volume and stoma diameter did not change, whereas t60 decreased by 36% during...... volume, stoma diameter, and t60. Stoma diameter was not correlated with t60. The study provides further evidence against the significance of stoma diameter and pouch emptying rate as determinants of weight loss after gastroplasty. The much smaller pouch volume after VBGP may favor weight loss....

  5. Diffusion-weighted MRI and quantitative biophysical modeling of hippocampal neurite loss in chronic stress.

    Peter Vestergaard-Poulsen

    Full Text Available Chronic stress has detrimental effects on physiology, learning and memory and is involved in the development of anxiety and depressive disorders. Besides changes in synaptic formation and neurogenesis, chronic stress also induces dendritic remodeling in the hippocampus, amygdala and the prefrontal cortex. Investigations of dendritic remodeling during development and treatment of stress are currently limited by the invasive nature of histological and stereological methods. Here we show that high field diffusion-weighted MRI combined with quantitative biophysical modeling of the hippocampal dendritic loss in 21 day restraint stressed rats highly correlates with former histological findings. Our study strongly indicates that diffusion-weighted MRI is sensitive to regional dendritic loss and thus a promising candidate for non-invasive studies of dendritic plasticity in chronic stress and stress-related disorders.

  6. The pathological findings seen in laparoscopic sleeve gastrectomies for weight loss.

    Miller, Gregory C; Reid, Andrew S; Brown, Ian S

    2016-04-01

    Sleeve gastrectomy specimens are increasingly common surgical specimens received for examination following bariatric surgery for weight loss. The spectrum of pathological changes seen in these cases is not well documented. Retrospective examination was undertaken of 1463 consecutive sleeve gastrectomy specimens received at Envoi Specialist Pathologists. Most cases showed no pathological changes (80.2%). The most common changes seen were non-specific, non-Helicobacter associated chronic gastritis (7.2%), Helicobacter associated gastritis (6.8%) and benign fundic gland polyps (4.0%). Other, rarer changes were lymphocytic gastritis, autoimmune atrophic gastritis, chronic gastritis with intestinal metaplasia, hyperplastic polyps, pancreatic heterotopia, gastrointestinal stromal tumours (GISTs) and a leiomyoma. A wide range of pathological changes are seen in resection specimens following sleeve gastrectomies for weight loss. Many cases will require further treatment or ongoing investigation and surveillance. PMID:27020497

  7. Weight-Loss Strategies Used by the General Population: How Are They Perceived?

    Julia, Chantal; Péneau, Sandrine; Andreeva, Valentina A.; Méjean, Caroline; Fezeu, Léopold; Galan, Pilar; Hercberg, Serge

    2014-01-01

    Background The rising prevalence of obesity and the social pressure for thinness increase the prevalence of dieting. However, little is known about the overall perception of dieting strategies actually used by the general population. Objectives Our main objective was to investigate perceptions of weight-loss practices in an observational study in order to identify the most favourable strategy. Design Adults from the ongoing Nutrinet-Santé cohort study who had reported engaging in dieting in t...

  8. Weight-loss strategies used by the general population: how are they perceived?

    Chantal Julia

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: The rising prevalence of obesity and the social pressure for thinness increase the prevalence of dieting. However, little is known about the overall perception of dieting strategies actually used by the general population. OBJECTIVES: Our main objective was to investigate perceptions of weight-loss practices in an observational study in order to identify the most favourable strategy. DESIGN: Adults from the ongoing Nutrinet-Santé cohort study who had reported engaging in dieting in the three previous years were included in the study. For each diet, detailed information was collected on types of diets, circumstances and perception of the diet, and outcomes. Perceptions were compared across diets using sex-specific mixed effects models. RESULT: Among the 48 435 subjects who had completed the respective questionnaire, 12 673 (26.7%, 87.8% of women had followed at least one weight-loss diet in the previous three years. Diet plans prescribed by health professionals and diets conforming to official dietary recommendations were the most favourably perceived among all assessed weight-loss strategies. Alternatively, commercial diet plans and self-imposed dietary restrictions were more negatively perceived (Odds ratios (OR for adherence difficulty 1.30 (95% confidence interval (0.99;1.7 in men and OR 1.92 (1.76;2.10 in women compared to official nutritional guidelines; OR 1.06 (0.82;1.38 in men and OR 1.39 (1.26;1.54 in women respectively compared to official nutritional guidelines. CONCLUSION: Official dietary recommendations could be useful tools for maintaining a dietary balance while following a weight-loss diet.

  9. Removal of excess skin after massive weight loss: challenges and solutions

    Giordano, Salvatore

    2015-01-01

    Salvatore Giordano Department of Plastic and General Surgery, Turku University Hospital, Turku, Finland Abstract: The advent of bariatric surgery has led to a subspecialty in plastic surgery for skin and fat contouring which remain after massive weight loss. The author discusses the preoperative assessment, surgical treatment plan, postoperative management, possible complications, and benefits of postbariatric surgery. Preoperative planning includes medical history and patient assessment. Su...

  10. Body Composition Changes after Weight-Loss Interventions among Obese Females: A Comparison of Three Protocols

    Nayera E. Hassan; El-Masry, Sahar A; Rokia El-Banna; Salwa M. Elshebini; Muhamed Al-Tohamy; Salwa El-Batrawy; Nihad H. Ahmed; Dalia Adel; Enas Abdel Rasheed; Mohamed Selim; Mohamed S. El Hussieny; Aya Khalil; Manal Mouhamed Ali

    2014-01-01

    AIM: To evaluate body composition changes after use of three different types of obesity management protocols: dietary measures and physical activity; acupuncture or laser acupuncture with healthy diet; aiming at achieving stable weight loss among obese Egyptian females. METHODS:  A randomized longitudinal prospective study included 76 obese adult females; aged 26 up to 55 years. Anthropometric, body composition, ultrasonographic and biochemical assessments were done. RESULTS: The thre...

  11. Weight-Loss Interventions for Hispanic Populations: The Role of Culture

    Lindberg, Nangel M.; Stevens, Victor J.; Halperin, Ruben O.

    2013-01-01

    In the United States, ethnic minorities are overrepresented among the overweight and obese population, with Hispanic individuals being among the groups most at risk for obesity and obesity-related disease and disability. Most weight-loss interventions designed for the general population have been less successful with individuals from ethnic minorities and there is a pressing need to develop more effective interventions for these groups. This paper examines the importance of culture in the dev...

  12. Science of weight loss supplements:Compromised by conflicts of interest?

    Ano; Lobb

    2010-01-01

    Weight loss supplements often contain powerful pharmacoactive ingredients with the potential to cause harm. Trials used to determine product safety and effectiveness, meanwhile,tend to be small, of short duration, and frequently lack financial conflict of interest disclosures. These factors could conspire to place consumers at risk, especially when published research cited in advertising cloaks products with the suggestion that their safety and effectiveness have been proven by science. Examples of current ...

  13. The Effect of Social Feedback in a Reddit Weight Loss Community

    Cunha, Tiago O.; Weber, Ingmar; Haddadi, Hamed; Pappa, Gisele L.

    2016-01-01

    It is generally accepted as common wisdom that receiving social feedback is helpful to (i) keep an individual engaged with a community and to (ii) facilitate an individual's positive behavior change. However, quantitative data on the effect of social feedback on continued engagement in an online health community is scarce. In this work we apply Mahalanobis Distance Matching (MDM) to demonstrate the importance of receiving feedback in the "loseit" weight loss community on Reddit. Concretely we...

  14. A Weight Loss Intervention for African American Breast Cancer Survivors, 2006

    Stolley, Melinda R.; Sharp, Lisa K.; Oh, April; Schiffer, Linda

    2008-01-01

    Introduction Breast cancer survival rates are lower for African American women than for white women. Obesity, high-fat diets, and lack of regular physical activity increase risk for breast cancer recurrence, comorbid conditions, and premature death. Eighty-two percent of African American women are overweight or obese, partly because of unhealthy eating and exercise patterns. Although successful weight loss and lifestyle interventions for breast cancer survivors are documented, none has consid...

  15. Weight-loss intervention using implementation intentions and mental imagery: a randomised control trial study protocol

    Hattar, Anne; Hagger, Martin S.; Pal, Sebely

    2015-01-01

    Background Overweight and obesity are major health problems worldwide. This protocol describes the HEALTHI (Healthy Eating and Active LifesTyle Health Intervention) Program, a 12-week randomised-controlled weight-loss intervention that adopts two theory-based intervention techniques, mental imagery and implementation intentions, a behaviour-change technique based on planning that have been shown to be effective in promoting health-behaviour change in previous research. The effectiveness of go...

  16. Differences in consumer use of food labels by weight loss strategies and demographic characteristics

    Bleich, Sara N.; Julia A Wolfson

    2015-01-01

    Background Little is known about national patterns in the use of fast food and packaged food labels among adults by weight loss strategies and demographic characteristics. Methods We analyzed the Consumer Behavior Module in the National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey 2007–2010 among adults (N = 9,690). For each of the outcome variables – use of packed food and fast food menu labels – multiple logistic regressions were used to adjust for potential differences in population characteris...

  17. Spousal Social Control During a Weight Loss Attempt: A Daily Diary Study

    Novak, Sarah A.; Webster, Gregory D.

    2011-01-01

    We investigated perceptions of spousal social control and the partners’ behavior, affect, and relationship satisfaction at the start of a weight loss attempt. Gender and body mass index (BMI) were explored as moderators. In order to examine the short-term effects of social control, participants completed daily assessments reporting spouses’ influence and their own behavior and well-being. Instrumental and reinforcing social control were associated with better health behavior, well-being, and ...

  18. Design and methods for testing a simple dietary message to improve weight loss and dietary quality

    Ockene Ira S; Li Wenjun; Schneider Kristin L; Olendzki Barbara C; Ma Yunsheng; Merriam Philip A; Pagoto Sherry L

    2009-01-01

    Abstract Background The current food pyramid guidelines have been criticized because of their complexity and the knowledge required for users to understand the recommendations. Simplification of a dietary message to focus on a single key aspect of dietary quality, e.g., fiber intake, may make the message much easier to comprehend and adhere, such that respondents can achieve greater weight loss, better dietary quality and overall metabolic health. Methods and design This is a randomized contr...

  19. Early behavioral adherence predicts short and long-term weight loss in the POUNDS LOST study

    Donald A. Williamson; Anton, Stephen D.; Han, Hongmei; Champagne, Catherine M.; Allen, Ray; LeBlanc, Eric; Ryan, Donna H.; Rood, Jennifer; McManus, Katherine; Laranjo, Nancy; Vincent J Carey; Loria, Catherine M.; Bray, George A; Sacks, Frank M.

    2010-01-01

    The primary aim of this study was to test the association of early (first 6 months) adherence related to diet, self-monitoring, and attendance with changes in adiposity and cardiovascular risk factors. This study used data from the 24-month POUNDS LOST trial that tested the efficacy of four dietary macronutrient compositions for short-and long-term weight loss. A computer tracking system was used to record data on eight indicator variables related to adherence. Using canonical correlations at...

  20. Issues in characterizing resting energy expenditure in obesity and after weight loss

    Bosy-Westphal, Anja; Braun, Wiebke; Schautz, Britta; Müller, Manfred J.

    2013-01-01

    Limitations of current methods: Normalization of resting energy expenditure (REE) for body composition using the 2-compartment model fat mass (FM), and fat-free mass (FFM) has inherent limitations for the interpretation of REE and may lead to erroneous conclusions when comparing people with a wide range of adiposity as well as before and after substantial weight loss. Experimental objectives: We compared different methods of REE normalization: (1) for FFM and FM (2) by the inclusion of %FM...

  1. Food Deprivation, Body Weight Loss and Anxiety-Related Behavior in Rats

    Silke Dietze; Lees, Katarina R.; Heidrun Fink; Jan Brosda; Jörg-Peter Voigt

    2016-01-01

    Simple Summary Food deprivation protocols are frequently used in behavioral studies. However, there is limited evidence as to when food deprivation compromises animal welfare. Regarding the refinement of experiments involving animals, this study investigated the effects of food deprivation on body weight loss and behavior in male and female rats. Sex difference in behavior and motivational state after food deprivation is the main finding of the study. The data highlights the need for tailored...

  2. Post-Bariatric Surgery Satisfaction and Body-Contouring Consideration after Massive Weight Loss

    Saleh M Aldaqal; Ahmad M Makhdoum; Ali M Turki; Awan, Basim A; Osama A Samargandi; Hytham Jamjom

    2013-01-01

    Background: Following a bariatric surgery and massive weight-loss, the outcome is usually sullied by consequences on the body′s contour and redundant skin. Aims: We aimed to record the frequency of contour irregularities and quantify patients′ satisfaction with appearance and anticipations from body contouring surgery. Materials and Methods: The ethical committee at King Abdulaziz University Hospital approved the study, and patients were consented. A cross-sectional study targeting the post-b...

  3. Clinical utility of dronabinol in the treatment of weight loss associated with HIV and AIDS

    Badowski, Melissa

    2016-01-01

    Melissa E Badowski,1 Sarah E Perez2 1Department of Pharmacy Practice, Section of Infectious Diseases Pharmacotherapy, College of Pharmacy, University of Illinois at Chicago, Chicago, IL, USA; 2Infectious Diseases Clinic, Tufts Medical Center, Boston, MA, USA Abstract: Since the beginning of the HIV/AIDS epidemic, weight loss has been a common complaint for patients. The use of various definitions defining HIV wasting syndrome has made it difficult to determine its actual prevalence. Despite ...

  4. Radiotherapy on the neck nodes predicts severe weight loss in patients with early stage laryngeal cancer

    Background and purpose: Although patients with early stage (T1/T2) laryngeal cancer (LC) are thought to have a low incidence of malnutrition, severe weight loss is observed in a subgroup of these patients during radiotherapy (RT). The objective of this study was to evaluate weight loss and nutrition-related symptoms in patients with T1/T2 LC during RT and to select predictive factors for early identification of malnourished patients. Methods: Of all patients with T1/T2 LC, who received primary RT between 1999 and 2007, the following characteristics were recorded: sex, age, TNM classification, tumour location, radiation schedule, performance status, quality of life, weight loss, and nutrition-related symptoms. The association between baseline characteristics and malnutrition (>5% weight loss during RT) was investigated by Cox regression analysis. Results: The study population consisted of 238 patients. During RT, 44% of patients developed malnutrition. Tumour location, TNM classification, RT on the neck nodes, RT dose, nausea/vomiting, pain, swallowing, senses problems, trouble with social eating, dry mouth and the use of painkillers were all significantly associated with malnutrition. In the multivariate analysis, RTs on both the neck nodes (HR 4.16, 95% CI 2.62-6.60) and dry mouth (HR 1.72, 95% CI 1.14-2.60) remained predictive. Nevertheless, RT on the neck nodes alone resulted in the best predictive model for malnutrition scores. Conclusions: Patients with early stage laryngeal cancer are at risk of malnutrition during radiotherapy. Radiotherapy on the neck nodes is the best predictor of malnutrition during radiotherapy. Therefore, we suggest to offer nutritional counselling to all the patients who receive nodal irradiation.

  5. Transgenic n-3 PUFAs enrichment leads to weight loss via modulating neuropeptides in hypothalamus.

    Ma, Shuangshuang; Ge, Yinlin; Gai, Xiaoying; Xue, Meilan; Li, Ning; Kang, Jingxuan; Wan, Jianbo; Zhang, Jinyu

    2016-01-12

    Body weight is related to fat mass, which is associated with obesity. Our study explored the effect of fat-1 gene on body weight in fat-1 transgenic mice. In present study, we observed that the weight/length ratio of fat-1 transgenic mice was lower than that of wild-type mice. The serum levels of triglycerides (TG), cholesterol (CT), high-density lipoprotein cholesterol (HDL-c), low-density lipoprotein cholesterol (LDL-c) and blood glucose (BG) in fat-1 transgenic mice were all decreased. The weights of peri-bowels fat, perirenal fat and peri-testicular fat in fat-1 transgenic mice were reduced. We hypothesized that increase of n-3 PUFAs might alter the expression of hypothalamic neuropeptide genes and lead to loss of body weight in fat-1 transgenic mice. Therefore, we measured mRNA levels of appetite neuropeptides, Neuropeptide Y (NPY), Agouti-related peptides (AgRP), Proopiomelanocortin (POMC), Cocaine and amphetamine regulated transcript (CART), ghrelin and nesfatin-1 in hypothalamus by real-time PCR. Compared with wild-type mice, the mRNA levels of CART, POMC and ghrelin were higher, while the mRNA levels of NPY, AgRP and nesfatin-1 were lower in fat-1 transgenic mice. The results indicate that fat-1 gene or n-3 PUFAs participates in regulation of body weight, and the mechanism of this phenomenon involves the expression of appetite neuropeptides and lipoproteins in fat-1 transgenic mice. PMID:26610903

  6. A weight-neutral versus weight-loss approach for health promotion in women with high BMI: A randomized-controlled trial.

    Mensinger, Janell L; Calogero, Rachel M; Stranges, Saverio; Tylka, Tracy L

    2016-10-01

    Weight loss is the primary recommendation for health improvement in individuals with high body mass index (BMI) despite limited evidence of long-term success. Alternatives to weight-loss approaches (such as Health At Every Size - a weight-neutral approach) have been met with their own concerns and require further empirical testing. This study compared the effectiveness of a weight-neutral versus a weight-loss program for health promotion. Eighty women, aged 30-45 years, with high body mass index (BMI ≥ 30 kg/m(2)) were randomized to 6 months of facilitator-guided weekly group meetings using structured manuals that emphasized either a weight-loss or weight-neutral approach to health. Health measurements occurred at baseline, post-intervention, and 24-months post-randomization. Measurements included blood pressure, lipid panels, blood glucose, BMI, weight, waist circumference, hip circumference, distress, self-esteem, quality of life, dietary risk, fruit and vegetable intake, intuitive eating, and physical activity. Intention-to-treat analyses were performed using linear mixed-effects models to examine group-by-time interaction effects and between and within-group differences. Group-by-time interactions were found for LDL cholesterol, intuitive eating, BMI, weight, and dietary risk. At post-intervention, the weight-neutral program had larger reductions in LDL cholesterol and greater improvements in intuitive eating; the weight-loss program had larger reductions in BMI, weight, and larger (albeit temporary) decreases in dietary risk. Significant positive changes were observed overall between baseline and 24-month follow-up for waist-to-hip ratio, total cholesterol, physical activity, fruit and vegetable intake, self-esteem, and quality of life. These findings highlight that numerous health benefits, even in the absence of weight loss, are achievable and sustainable in the long term using a weight-neutral approach. The trial positions weight-neutral programs as a

  7. Weight loss after bariatric surgery normalizes brain opioid receptors in morbid obesity.

    Karlsson, H K; Tuulari, J J; Tuominen, L; Hirvonen, J; Honka, H; Parkkola, R; Helin, S; Salminen, P; Nuutila, P; Nummenmaa, L

    2016-08-01

    Positron emission tomography (PET) studies suggest opioidergic system dysfunction in morbid obesity, while evidence for the role of the dopaminergic system is less consistent. Whether opioid dysfunction represents a state or trait in obesity remains unresolved, but could be assessed in obese subjects undergoing weight loss. Here we measured brain μ-opioid receptor (MOR) and dopamine D2 receptor (D2R) availability in 16 morbidly obese women twice-before and 6 months after bariatric surgery-using PET with [(11)C]carfentanil and [(11)C]raclopride. Data were compared with those from 14 lean control subjects. Receptor-binding potentials (BPND) were compared between the groups and between the pre- and postoperative scans among the obese subjects. Brain MOR availability was initially lower among obese subjects, but weight loss (mean=26.1 kg, s.d.=7.6 kg) reversed this and resulted in ~23% higher MOR availability in the postoperative versus preoperative scan. Changes were observed in areas implicated in reward processing, including ventral striatum, insula, amygdala and thalamus (P'ssystem plays an important role in the pathophysiology of human obesity. Because bariatric surgery and concomitant weight loss recover downregulated MOR availability, lowered MOR availability is associated with an obese phenotype and may mediate excessive energy uptake. Our results highlight that understanding the opioidergic contribution to overeating is critical for developing new treatments for obesity. PMID:26460230

  8. A weight-loss intervention program designed for Mexican-American women: Cultural adaptations and results

    Lindberg, Nangel M.; Stevens, Victor J.; Vega-López, Sonia; Kauffman, Tia; Calderón, Mariana Rosales; Cervantes, María Antonieta

    2013-01-01

    Background This study assessed the feasibility of a culturally-appropriate weight-loss intervention targeting obese Spanish-speaking Mexican women. Methods This 12-month weight-loss program was based on behavioral interventions previously used successfully with English-speaking participants. Cultural adaptations included: female interventionists, minimal written materials, emphasis on group activities, focus on Mexican traditions and beliefs, and skill-building approach to food measurement. All sessions were conducted in Spanish. The study had few exclusionary criteria, which allowed participation of women with a wide range of literacy levels. Results Recruitment exceeded expectations, with 47 participants enrolling in the program. Not counting participants who became pregnant during the study, attendance at 6 and 12 months was 62% and 50% respectively. Mean weight loss at 6 and 12 months was 5.3 kg and 7.2 kg, respectively, with a mean reduction in BMI of 4.0 kg/m2 and 5.5 kg/m2 from baseline to 6 and 12 months, respectively. Discussion This pilot study shows that it is feasible to develop and implement culturally-appropriate behavioral lifestyle interventions for obesity treatment in Mexican-American women. PMID:22460538

  9. Diet, weight loss, and liver health in nonalcoholic fatty liver disease: Pathophysiology, evidence, and practice.

    Marchesini, Giulio; Petta, Salvatore; Dalle Grave, Riccardo

    2016-06-01

    Fatty liver accumulation results from an imbalance between lipid deposition and removal, driven by the hepatic synthesis of triglycerides and de novo lipogenesis. The habitual diet plays a relevant role in the pathogenesis of nonalcoholic fatty liver disease (NAFLD), and both risky (e.g., fructose) and protective foods (Mediterranean diet) have been described, but the contribution of excess calories remains pivotal. Accordingly, weight loss is the most effective way to promote liver fat removal. Several controlled studies have confirmed that an intense approach to lifestyle changes, carried on along the lines of cognitive-behavior treatment, is able to attain the desired 7%-10% weight loss, associated with reduced liver fat, nonalcoholic steatohepatitis (NASH) remission, and also reduction of fibrosis. Even larger effects are reported after bariatric surgery-induced weight loss in NAFLD, where 80% of subjects achieve NASH resolution at 1-year follow-up. These results provide solid data to evaluate the safety and effectiveness of the pharmacological treatment of NASH. The battle against metabolic diseases, largely fueled by increased liver fat, needs a comprehensive approach to be successful in an obesiogenic environment. In this review, we will discuss the role of hepatic lipid metabolism, genetic background, diet, and physical activity on fatty liver. They are the basis for a lifestyle approach to NAFLD treatment. (Hepatology 2016;63:2032-2043). PMID:26663351

  10. The effect of three different ad libitum diets for weight loss maintenance

    Due, Anette; Larsen, Thomas M; Mu, Huiling;

    2015-01-01

    PURPOSE: To test the effect of three diets in their ability to sustain weight loss and improve type 2 diabetes (T2D) and cardiovascular disease (CVD) risk markers after 18-month intervention. METHODS: Following a ≥8 % weight loss, 131 healthy, overweight/obese (BMI ± SD 31.5 ± 2.6 kg/m(2)) men (n.......23 ± 0.11 in LF (P < 0.05) and 0.06 ± 0.14 (P < 0.005) in CTR groups. CONCLUSIONS: Weight regain or body composition did not differ between diets over 18 months. No effects on risk markers for T2D or CVD were found, with the exception of an improvement in the LDL/HDL ratio by the MUFA diet compared to.......09) group. Weight regain in completers was not different between groups (mean ± SEM), MUFA 7.1 ± 2.1 % versus LF 5.6 ± 1.3 % versus CTR 7.2 ± 1.5 %, nor was body fat regain, MUFA 4.8 ± 1.0 % versus LF 4.7 ± 0.8 % versus CTR 5.7 ± 0.6 %. The MUFA group reduced LDL/HDL ratio by -0.47 ± 0.09 compared with -0...

  11. Gastroplasty for obesity: long-term weight loss improved by vagotomy.

    Kral, J G; Görtz, L; Hermansson, G; Wallin, G S

    1993-01-01

    Sixty-nine (13M, 56F), severely obese patients (body mass index 47 kg/m2) have had vertical banded gastroplasty (GP) with 5-cm polypropylene mesh (n = 39) or fascia (n = 30) bands since 1981. Of these 69 patients, 30 also had truncal vagotomy (TVG) without drainage. Total office follow-up rate is 94%. During follow-up of 1 year or more (mean 60 months), 25 patients with vagotomy plus gastroplasty lost 33 +/- 3 kg, corresponding to 51% of excess weight, compared to 21 +/- 3 kg (34% excess weight) in the 34 patients having gastroplasty alone (p or = 5 years (mean 83 months) 10 patients with TVG lost 40 +/- 5 kg (61% of excess) compared to 17 +/- 4 kg (28% of excess) in 22 patients with GP alone (p TVG (p TVG demonstrated greater weight loss in those with prolonged emptying and gastroesophageal pooling, though the emptying rates of patients with GP and those with TVG showed no statistically significant difference. Our earlier studies, which showed reduced liquid consumption after vagotomy, imply that this mechanism (rather than delayed emptying) explains why vagotomy potentiates weight loss after gastroplasty. PMID:8447144

  12. Evaluation of a simple weight-loss method for determining the permeation of organic liquids through rubber films.

    Mickelsen, R L; Hall, R C; Chern, R T; Myers, J R

    1991-10-01

    The standard ASTM method for determining permeation of liquid penetrants through polymeric films (F739-85) was compared with a simple weight-loss method. The weight-loss permeation cell was constructed of off-the-shelf components, a conventional analytical balance was used to measure the weight loss, and a chamber with continuous ventilation was used to hold the cell at constant temperature and evacuate the permeating penetrant. The advantages and limitations of the weight-loss method were illustrated by using data obtained from the permeation of acetonitrile, n-hexane, and methanol through films of four acrylonitrile-butadiene copolymers. The steady-state flux obtained by using the weight-loss method gave results statistically equivalent to the more analytically complex ASTM standard method. The weight-loss method required the experimenter to monitor the weight of the cell and its contents over time to obtain the steady-state flux whereas the ASTM method required the experimenter to chemically analyze for the penetrant concentration in the effluent gas stream as a function of time. The ASTM method required more analytical skill and training and more costly analytical equipment than did the simple weight-loss method. The weight-loss method needs further improvement and validation but shows promise even in its present form. By using the weight-loss method, the potential exists for far more chemical protective clothing users to conduct their own low-cost permeation testing as an initial screening to determine the relative permeation performance of candidate protective clothing materials. The weight-loss method is not meant to replace the standard ASTM method but to supplement it as a screening test. PMID:1951056

  13. Reductions in knee joint forces with weight loss are attenuated by gait adaptations in class III obesity.

    DeVita, Paul; Rider, Patrick; Hortobágyi, Tibor

    2016-03-01

    A consensus exists that high knee joint forces are a precursor to knee osteoarthritis and weight loss reduces these forces. Because large weight loss also leads to increased step length and walking velocity, knee contact forces may be reduced less than predicted by the magnitude of weight loss. The purpose was to determine the effects of weight loss on knee muscle and joint loads during walking in Class III obese adults. We determined through motion capture, force platform measures and biomechanical modeling the effects of weight loss produced by gastric bypass surgery over one year on knee muscle and joint loads during walking at a standard, controlled velocity and at self-selected walking velocities. Weight loss equaling 412N or 34% of initial body weight reduced maximum knee compressive force by 824N or 67% of initial body weight when walking at the controlled velocity. These changes represent a 2:1 reduction in knee force relative to weight loss when walking velocity is constrained to the baseline value. However, behavioral adaptations including increased stride length and walking velocity in the self-selected velocity condition attenuated this effect by ∼50% leading to a 392N or 32% initial body weight reduction in compressive force in the knee joint. Thus, unconstrained walking elicited approximately 1:1 ratio of reduction in knee force relative to weight loss and is more indicative of walking behavior than the standard velocity condition. In conclusion, massive weight loss produces dramatic reductions in knee forces during walking but when patients stride out and walk faster, these favorable reductions become substantially attenuated. PMID:26979878

  14. Combined effects of weight loss and physical activity on all-cause mortality of overweight men and women

    ÿstergaard, Jane Nautrup; Grønbaek, M; Schnohr, P; Sørensen, Thorkild I.A.; Heitmann, B L

    2010-01-01

    To estimate the excess deaths associated with weight loss in combination with leisure time physical activity among overweight or obese people.......To estimate the excess deaths associated with weight loss in combination with leisure time physical activity among overweight or obese people....

  15. Effects of an intensive weight loss program on knee joint loading in obese adults with knee osteoarthritis

    Alkjaer, T; Henriksen, Marius; Aaboe, J; Bliddal, H; Messier, S P; Eriksen, Tine Alkjær; Henriksen, M

    2011-01-01

    To determine the effect of an intensive weight loss program on knee joint loads during walking in obese patients with knee osteoarthritis (OA).......To determine the effect of an intensive weight loss program on knee joint loads during walking in obese patients with knee osteoarthritis (OA)....

  16. Critical weight loss in head and neck cancer - prevalence and risk factors at diagnosis : an explorative study

    Jager-Wittenaar, H.; Dijkstra, P.U.; Vissink, A.; van der Laan, B.F.A.M.; van Oort, R.P.; Roodenburg, J.L.N.

    2007-01-01

    Goals of work Critical weight loss (>= 5% in 1 month or >= 10% in 6 months) is a common phenomenon in head and neck cancer patients. It is unknown which complaints are most strongly related to critical weight loss in head and neck cancer patients at the time of diagnosis. The aim of this explorative

  17. CLOCK 3111 T/C SNP interacts with emotional eating behavior for weight-loss in a Mediterranean population

    The goals of this research was (1) to analyze the role of emotional eating behavior on weight-loss progression during a 30-week weight-loss program in 1,272 individuals from a large Mediterranean population and (2) to test for interaction between CLOCK 3111 T/C SNP and emotional eating behavior on t...

  18. Acute weight gain, gender, and therapeutic response to antipsychotics in the treatment of patients with schizophrenia

    Zhao Zhongyun

    2005-01-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Previous research indicated that women are more vulnerable than men to adverse psychological consequences of weight gain. Other research has suggested that weight gain experienced during antipsychotic therapy may also psychologically impact women more negatively. This study assessed the impact of acute treatment-emergent weight gain on clinical and functional outcomes of patients with schizophrenia by patient gender and antipsychotic treatment (olanzapine or haloperidol. Methods Data were drawn from the acute phase (first 6-weeks of a double-blind randomized clinical trial of olanzapine versus haloperidol in the treatment of 1296 men and 700 women with schizophrenia-spectrum disorders. The associations between weight change and change in core schizophrenia symptoms, depressive symptoms, and functional status were examined post-hoc for men and women and for each medication group. Core schizophrenia symptoms (positive and negative were measured with the Brief Psychiatric Rating Scale (BPRS, depressive symptoms with the BPRS Anxiety/Depression Scale and the Montgomery-Asberg Depression Rating Scale, and functional status with the mental and physical component scores on the Medical Outcome Survey-Short Form 36. Statistical analysis included methods that controlled for treatment duration. Results Weight gain during 6-week treatment with olanzapine and haloperidol was significantly associated with improvements in core schizophrenia symptoms, depressive symptoms, mental functioning, and physical functioning for men and women alike. The conditional probability of clinical response (20% reduction in core schizophrenia symptom, given a clinically significant weight gain (at least 7% of baseline weight, showed that about half of the patients who lost weight responded to treatment, whereas three-quarters of the patients who had a clinically significant weight gain responded to treatment. The positive associations between therapeutic

  19. Bile loss in the acute intestinal radiation syndrome in rats

    The effects of bile duct ligation (BDL), choledochostomy, bile acid sequestering within the intestinal lumen by cholestyramine, and fluid and electrolyte replacement on survival time and development of diarrhea after whole-body exposure to doses of ionizing radiation that result in death from acute intestinal injury were studied. BDL significantly prolonged survival and delayed the onset of diarrhea after exposure to 137Cs gamma rays, fission neutrons, or cyclotron-produced neutrons in the range of doses that produce intestinal death or death from a combination of intestinal and hematopoietic injuries. Cannulation of the bile duct with exteriorized bile flow (choledochostomy) to protect the irradiated intestine from the mucolytic action of bile salts did not duplicate the effect of BDL in increasing survival time. Choledochostomy without fluid replacement eliminated the occurrence of diarrhea in 15.4 Gy irradiated rats. Diarrhea did occur in irradiated animals with choledochostomy if they received duodenal injections of fluid and electrolytes to replace the fluid lost as a result of bile drainage. Duodenal injection of fluid and electrolytes had no significant effect on survival time in irradiated rats. Injection of fluid and electrolytes into the peritoneal cavity of irradiated rats resulted in an increase in survival time that was comparable to that observed after BDL. Addition of antibiotics to the peritoneally injected fluid and electrolytes further increased survival time (up to 9 days). This survival time approached that seen in animals receiving the same radiation dose but which had the intestine exteriorized and shielded to minimize radiation injury to the intestine. Postmortem histological examinations of the irradiated small intestine showed mucosal regeneration in these long-term survivors receiving fluid and antibiotic therapy

  20. PROPELLER Diffusion-Weighted Magnetic Resonance Imaging of Acute Spinal Epidural Hematoma

    We present the case of an 86-year-old female with spontaneous spinal epidural hematoma. Although T1- and T2-weighted images showed the dilated posterior epidural space at the cervical spine, this finding was non-specific on conventional magnetic resonance imaging obtained 15 h after the onset of symptoms. Diffusion-weighted imaging with the use of periodically rotated overlapping parallel lines with enhanced reconstruction (PROPELLER), which clearly revealed the high intensity hematoma, was useful for detection and diagnosis of acute spinal epidural hematoma

  1. PROPELLER Diffusion-Weighted Magnetic Resonance Imaging of Acute Spinal Epidural Hematoma

    Fujiwara, H.; Oki, K.; Momoshima, S.; Kuribayashi, S. [Keio Univ. School of Medicine (Japan). Dept. of Diagnostic Radiology and Dept. of Neurology

    2005-08-01

    We present the case of an 86-year-old female with spontaneous spinal epidural hematoma. Although T1- and T2-weighted images showed the dilated posterior epidural space at the cervical spine, this finding was non-specific on conventional magnetic resonance imaging obtained 15 h after the onset of symptoms. Diffusion-weighted imaging with the use of periodically rotated overlapping parallel lines with enhanced reconstruction (PROPELLER), which clearly revealed the high intensity hematoma, was useful for detection and diagnosis of acute spinal epidural hematoma.

  2. The evaluation of diffusion weighted imaging in acute cerebral infarction with permanent type MR scanner

    Objective: To evaluate the value of diffusion weighted imaging (DWI) in acute cerebral infarction using permanent type MR scanner. Methods: DWI and conventional MRI sequences were done in 77 patients suspected with cerebral infarction. The sensitivity of DWI and conventional MRI was comparatively evaluated on lesion signal intensity and size. The characteristics and orderliness of lesions were studied. Results: (1) DWI has higher sensitivity than conventional MRI. (2) The higher b value was applied in the imaging, the higher signal intensity of acute cerebral infarction was revealed. The lesions were easier to identify on DWI images than on conventional MRI. Conclusion: DWI of permanent type MR imager is a feasible imaging modality, which is valuable in early diagnosis and management of acute cerebral infarction. (authors)

  3. The Breathe Easier through Weight Loss Lifestyle (BE WELL Intervention: A randomized controlled trial

    Buist A

    2010-03-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Obesity and asthma have reached epidemic proportions in the US. Their concurrent rise over the last 30 years suggests that they may be connected. Numerous observational studies support a temporally-correct, dose-response relationship between body mass index (BMI and incident asthma. Weight loss, either induced by surgery or caloric restriction, has been reported to improve asthma symptoms and lung function. Due to methodological shortcomings of previous studies, however, well-controlled trials are needed to investigate the efficacy of weight loss strategies to improve asthma control in obese individuals. Methods/Design BE WELL is a 2-arm parallel randomized clinical trial (RCT of the efficacy of an evidence-based, comprehensive, behavioral weight loss intervention, focusing on diet, physical activity, and behavioral therapy, as adjunct therapy to usual care in the management of asthma in obese adults. Trial participants (n = 324 are patients aged 18 to 70 years who have suboptimally controlled, persistent asthma, BMI between 30.0 and 44.9 kg/m2, and who do not have serious comorbidities (e.g., diabetes, heart disease, stroke. The 12-month weight loss intervention to be studied is based on the principles of the highly successful Diabetes Prevention Program lifestyle intervention. Intervention participants will attend 13 weekly group sessions over a four-month period, followed by two monthly individual sessions, and will then receive individualized counseling primarily by phone, at least bi-monthly, for the remainder of the intervention. Follow-up assessment will occur at six and 12 months. The primary outcome variable is the overall score on the Juniper Asthma Control Questionnaire measured at 12 months. Secondary outcomes include lung function, asthma-specific and general quality of life, asthma medication use, asthma-related and total health care utilization. Potential mediators (e.g., weight loss and change in physical

  4. CLOCK 3111 T/C SNP Interacts with Emotional Eating Behavior for Weight-Loss in a Mediterranean Population

    López Guimerà, Gemma; Dashti, Hassan S.; Smith, Caren E.; Sánchez Carracedo, David; Ordovas, José M.; Garaulet Aza, Marta

    2014-01-01

    Objective: The goals of this research was (1) to analyze the role of emotional eating behavior on weight-loss progression during a 30-week weight-loss program in 1,272 individuals from a large Mediterranean population and (2) to test for interaction between CLOCK 3111 T/C SNP and emotional eating behavior on the effectiveness of the weight-loss program. Design and Methods: A total of 1,272 overweight and obese participants (BMI: 31±5 kg/m2), aged 20 to 65 years, attending outpatient weight-lo...

  5. Actual versus ideal body weight for acute kidney injury diagnosis and classification in critically Ill patients

    Thongprayoon, Charat; Cheungpasitporn, Wisit; Akhoundi, Abbasali; Ahmed, Adil H.; Kashani, Kianoush B

    2014-01-01

    Background In the current acute kidney injury (AKI) definition, the urine output (UO) criterion does not specify which body weights (BW), i.e. actual (ABW) versus ideal (IBW), should be used to diagnose and stage AKI, leading to heterogeneity across research studies. Methods This is a single center, retrospective, observational study conducted at a tertiary referral hospital. All adult patients who were admitted to intensive care units (ICUs) at our institution for a minimum of 6 continuous h...

  6. Low molecular weight measles immunoglobulin M in subacute sclerosing panencephalitis and acute measles.

    Connolly, J. H.; Simpson, D. M.; Trudgett, A.; Hopkins, A. P.

    1985-01-01

    Thirty eight patients with subacute sclerosing panencephalitis (SSPE) were investigated. Five patients who previously had measles immunoglobulin M (IgM) detected in unfractionated serum and cerebrospinal fluid (CSF) had measles IgM exclusively in the low molecular weight (LMW) fractions of serum and CSF. Measles IgM had previously not been found in unfractionated serum from 33 patients but was detected exclusively in the LMW fractions of serum from 30 patients. Seven children with acute measl...

  7. Lifestyle patterns associated with diet, physical activity, body mass index and amount of recent weight loss in a sample of successful weight losers

    Fuglestad Paul T

    2012-06-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Research suggests that the interaction between biological susceptibility and environmental risk is complex and that further study of behavioral typologies related to obesity and associated behaviors is important to further elucidate the nature of obesity risk and how to approach it for intervention. The current investigation aims to identify phenotypical lifestyle patterns that might begin to unify our understanding of obesity and obesity related behaviors. Methods Individuals who had recently lost substantial weight of their own initiative completed measures of intentional weight control behaviors and lifestyle behaviors associated with eating. These behaviors were factor analyzed and the resulting factors were examined in relation to BMI, recent weight loss, diet, and physical activity. Results Four meaningful lifestyle and weight control behavioral factors were identified— regularity of meals, TV related viewing and eating, intentional strategies for weight control, and eating away from home. Greater meal regularity was associated with greater recent weight loss and greater fruit and vegetable intake. Greater TV related viewing and eating was associated with greater BMI and greater fat and sugar intake. More eating away from home was related to greater fat and sugar intake, lower fruit and vegetable intake, and less physical activity. Greater use of weight control strategies was most consistently related to better weight, diet, and physical activity outcomes. Conclusions Compared to the individual behavior variables, the identified lifestyle patterns appeared to be more reliably related to diet, physical activity, and weight (both BMI and recent weight loss. These findings add to the growing body of literature identifying behavioral patterns related to obesity and the overall weight control strategy of eating less and exercising more. In future research it will be important to replicate these behavioral factors (over

  8. Psychosocial Predictors of Weight Loss among American Indian and Alaska Native Participants in a Diabetes Prevention Translational Project

    Edward J. Dill

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available The association of psychosocial factors (psychological distress, coping skills, family support, trauma exposure, and spirituality with initial weight and weight loss among American Indians and Alaska Natives (AI/ANs in a diabetes prevention translational project was investigated. Participants (n=3,135 were confirmed as prediabetic and subsequently enrolled in the Special Diabetes Program for Indians Diabetes Prevention (SDPI-DP demonstration project implemented at 36 Indian health care programs. Measures were obtained at baseline and after completing a 16-session educational curriculum focusing on weight loss through behavioral changes. At baseline, psychological distress and negative family support were linked to greater weight, whereas cultural spirituality was correlated with lower weight. Furthermore, psychological distress and negative family support predicted less weight loss, and positive family support predicted greater weight loss, over the course of the intervention. These bivariate relationships between psychosocial factors and weight remained statistically significant within a multivariate model, after controlling for sociodemographic characteristics. Conversely, coping skills and trauma exposure were not significantly associated with baseline weight or change in weight. These findings demonstrate the influence of psychosocial factors on weight loss in AI/AN communities and have substantial implications for incorporating adjunctive intervention components.

  9. Psychosocial Predictors of Weight Loss among American Indian and Alaska Native Participants in a Diabetes Prevention Translational Project.

    Dill, Edward J; Manson, Spero M; Jiang, Luohua; Pratte, Katherine A; Gutilla, Margaret J; Knepper, Stephanie L; Beals, Janette; Roubideaux, Yvette; Special Diabetes Program For Indians Diabetes Prevention Demonstration Project

    2016-01-01

    The association of psychosocial factors (psychological distress, coping skills, family support, trauma exposure, and spirituality) with initial weight and weight loss among American Indians and Alaska Natives (AI/ANs) in a diabetes prevention translational project was investigated. Participants (n = 3,135) were confirmed as prediabetic and subsequently enrolled in the Special Diabetes Program for Indians Diabetes Prevention (SDPI-DP) demonstration project implemented at 36 Indian health care programs. Measures were obtained at baseline and after completing a 16-session educational curriculum focusing on weight loss through behavioral changes. At baseline, psychological distress and negative family support were linked to greater weight, whereas cultural spirituality was correlated with lower weight. Furthermore, psychological distress and negative family support predicted less weight loss, and positive family support predicted greater weight loss, over the course of the intervention. These bivariate relationships between psychosocial factors and weight remained statistically significant within a multivariate model, after controlling for sociodemographic characteristics. Conversely, coping skills and trauma exposure were not significantly associated with baseline weight or change in weight. These findings demonstrate the influence of psychosocial factors on weight loss in AI/AN communities and have substantial implications for incorporating adjunctive intervention components. PMID:26649314

  10. Results of an Academic, Health Care Worksite Weight Loss Contest for Southeastern Americans: Scale Back Alabama 2011-2013.

    Breaux-Shropshire, Tonya L; Whitt, Lauren; Oster, Robert A; Lewis, Dwight; Shropshire, Toneyell S; Calhoun, David A

    2015-04-01

    Few studies have assessed the effectiveness of competitive incentivized worksite weight loss programs. Scale Back Alabama (SBA) is a free, state-supported program designed to promote weight loss among overweight and obese citizens. The purpose of this manuscript is to describe the design and preliminary findings of SBA as a worksite intervention among employees at a collegiate institution and university hospital. In teams of 4 employees, SBA participants volunteered to engage in a 10-week competitive weight loss contest; both teams and individuals who lost significant weight were eligible for randomly drawn cash incentives. Trained staff objectively measured participants' weight before and at the conclusion of the contest. Preliminary analyses suggest that SBA as a worksite program can promote weight loss among employees, but future analyses are warranted to understand the context of these findings and determine if current results are confounded by unmeasured factors. PMID:26081473

  11. Daily self-monitoring of body weight, step count, fruit/vegetable intake, and water consumption: a feasible and effective long-term weight loss maintenance approach.

    Akers, Jeremy D; Cornett, Rachel A; Savla, Jyoti S; Davy, Kevin P; Davy, Brenda M

    2012-05-01

    Maintenance of weight loss remains a challenge for most individuals. Thus, practical and effective weight-loss maintenance (WTLM) strategies are needed. A two-group 12-month WTLM intervention trial was conducted from June 2007 to February 2010 to determine the feasibility and effectiveness of a WTLM intervention for older adults using daily self-monitoring of body weight, step count, fruit/vegetable (F/V) intake, and water consumption. Forty weight-reduced individuals (mean weight lost=6.7±0.6 kg; body mass index [calculated as kg/m²] 29.2±1.1), age 63±1 years, who had previously participated in a 12-week randomized controlled weight-loss intervention trial, were instructed to record daily body weight, step count, and F/V intake (WEV [defined as weight, exercise, and F/V]). Experimental group (WEV+) participants were also instructed to consume 16 fl oz of water before each main meal (ie, three times daily), and to record daily water intake. Outcome measures included weight change, diet/physical activity behaviors, theoretical constructs related to health behaviors, and other clinical measures. Statistical analyses included growth curve analyses and repeated measures analysis of variance. Over 12 months, there was a linear decrease in weight (β=-0.32, Pwater consumption may provide additional WTLM benefits. PMID:22709772

  12. Benefits and risks of weight-loss treatment for older, obese women

    Rossen LM

    2013-02-01

    Full Text Available Lauren M Rossen,1,2 Vanessa A Milsom,1,3 Kathryn R Middleton,1,4 Michael J Daniels,5,6 Michael G Perri1,71Department of Clinical and Health Psychology, University of Florida, Gainesville, FL, USA; 2National Center for Health Statistics, Centers for Disease Control and Prevention, Hyattsville, MD, USA; 3Department of Psychiatry, Yale University School of Medicine, New Haven, CT, USA; 4Weight Control and Diabetes Research Center, Department of Psychiatry and Human Behavior, Warren Alpert Medical School of Brown University and The Miriam Hospital, Providence, RI, USA; 5Department of Statistics, University of Florida, Gainesville, FL, USA; 6Division of Statistics and Scientific Computation, University of Texas at Austin, Austin, TX, USA; 7College of Public Health and Health Professions, University of Florida, Gainesville, FL, USABackground: A key issue in the treatment of obesity in older adults is whether the health benefits of weight loss outweigh the potential risks with respect to musculoskeletal injury.Objective: To compare change in weight, improvements in metabolic risk factors, and reported musculoskeletal adverse events in middle-aged (50–59 years and older (65–74 years, obese women.Materials and methods: Participants completed an initial 6-month lifestyle intervention for weight loss, comprised of weekly group sessions, followed by 12 months of extended care with biweekly contacts. Weight and fasting blood samples were assessed at baseline, month 6, and month 18; data regarding adverse events were collected throughout the duration of the study.Results: Both middle-aged (n = 162 and older (n = 56 women achieved significant weight reductions from baseline to month 6 (10.1 ± 0.68 kg and 9.3 ± 0.76 kg, respectively and maintained a large proportion of their losses at month 18 (7.6 ± 0.87 kg and 7.6 ± 1.3 kg, respectively; there were no significant differences between the two groups with respect to weight change. Older women further

  13. Efficacy of a meal replacement diet plan compared to a food-based diet plan after a period of weight loss and weight maintenance: a randomized controlled trial

    Hutchisen Tammy

    2010-03-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Obesity has reached epidemic proportions in the United States. It is implicated in the development of a variety of chronic disease states and is associated with increased levels of inflammation and oxidative stress. The objective of this study is to examine the effect of Medifast's meal replacement program (MD on body weight, body composition, and biomarkers of inflammation and oxidative stress among obese individuals following a period of weight loss and weight maintenance compared to a an isocaloric, food-based diet (FB. Methods This 40-week randomized, controlled clinical trial included 90 obese adults with a body mass index (BMI between 30 and 50 kg/m2, randomly assigned to one of two weight loss programs for 16 weeks and then followed for a 24-week period of weight maintenance. The dietary interventions consisted of Medifast's meal replacement program for weight loss and weight maintenance, or a self-selected, isocaloric, food-based meal plan. Results Weight loss at 16 weeks was significantly better in the Medifast group (MD versus the food-based group (FB (12.3% vs. 6.9%, and while significantly more weight was regained during weight maintenance on MD versus FB, overall greater weight loss was achieved on MD versus FB. Significantly more of the MD participants lost ≥ 5% of their initial weight at week 16 (93% vs. 55% and week 40 (62% vs. 30%. There was no difference in satiety observed between the two groups during the weight loss phase. Significant improvements in body composition were also observed in MD participants compared to FB at week 16 and week 40. At week 40, both groups experienced improvements in biochemical outcomes and other clinical indicators. Conclusions Our data suggest that the meal replacement diet plan evaluated was an effective strategy for producing robust initial weight loss and for achieving improvements in a number of health-related parameters during weight maintenance, including inflammation

  14. T2-enhanced tensor diffusion trace-weighted image in the detection of hyper-acute cerebral infarction: Comparison with isotropic diffusion-weighted image

    Chou, M.-C. [Department of Radiology, Tri-Service General Hospital, Taipei, Taiwan (China); Department of Electrical Engineering, National Taiwan University, Taipei, Taiwan (China); Tzeng, W.-S. [Department of Radiology, Chi-Mei Medical Center, Tainan, Taiwan (China); Chung, H.-W.; Wang, C.-Y.; Liu, H.-S.; Juan, C.-J. [Department of Radiology, Tri-Service General Hospital, Taipei, Taiwan, ROC (China); Department of Electrical Engineering, National Taiwan University, Taipei, Taiwan (China); Lo, C.-P. [Department of Radiology, Kaohsiung Medical University Chung-Ho Memorial Hospital, Kaohsiung, Taiwan (China); Hsueh, C.-J. [Department of Radiology, Tri-Service General Hospital, Taipei, Taiwan (China); Chen, C.-Y., E-mail: sandy0928@seed.net.t [Department of Radiology, Tri-Service General Hospital, Taipei, Taiwan (China)

    2010-06-15

    Background and purpose: Although isotropic diffusion-weighted imaging (isoDWI) is very sensitive to the detection of acute ischemic stroke, it may occasionally show diffusion negative result in hyper-acute stroke. We hypothesize that high diffusion contrast diffusion trace-weighted image with enhanced T2 may improve stroke lesion conspicuity. Methods: Five hyper acute stroke patients (M:F = 0:5, average age = 61.8 {+-} 20.5 y/o) and 16 acute stroke patients (M:F = 11:5, average age = 67.7 {+-} 12 y/o) were examined six-direction tensor DWIs at b = 707 s/mm{sup 2}. Three different diffusion-weighted images, including isotropic (isoDWI), diffusion trace-weighted image (trDWI) and T2-enhanced diffusion trace-weighted image (T2E{sub t}rDWI), were generated. Normalized lesion-to-normal ratio (nLNR) and contrast-to-noise ratio (CNR) of three diffusion images were calculated from each patient and statistically compared. Results: The trDWI shows better nLNR than isoDWI on both hyper-acute and acute stroke lesions, whereas no significant improvement in CNR. Nevertheless, the T2E{sub t}rDWI has statistically superior CNR and nLNR than those of isoDWI and trDWI in both hyper-acute and acute stroke. Conclusions: We concluded that tensor diffusion trace-weighted image with T2 enhancement is more sensitive to stroke lesion detection, and can provide higher lesion conspicuity than the conventional isotropic DWI for early stroke lesion delineation without the need of high-b-value technique.

  15. Design and methods for testing a simple dietary message to improve weight loss and dietary quality

    Ockene Ira S

    2009-12-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background The current food pyramid guidelines have been criticized because of their complexity and the knowledge required for users to understand the recommendations. Simplification of a dietary message to focus on a single key aspect of dietary quality, e.g., fiber intake, may make the message much easier to comprehend and adhere, such that respondents can achieve greater weight loss, better dietary quality and overall metabolic health. Methods and design This is a randomized controlled clinical trial with two equal sized arms. In total, 240 obese adults who meet diagnostic criteria for the metabolic syndrome will be randomized to one of the two conditions: 1 a high fiber diet and 2 the American Heart Association (AHA diet. In the high fiber diet condition, patients will be given instruction only on achieving daily dietary fiber intake of 30 g or more. In the AHA diet condition, patients will be instructed to make the several dietary changes recommended by the AHA 2006 guidelines. The trial examines participant weight loss and dietary quality as well as changes in components of the metabolic syndrome, inflammatory biomarkers, low-density lipoprotein cholesterol levels, insulin levels, and glycosolated hemoglobin. Potential mediators, i.e., diet adherence and perceived ease of the diet, and the intervention effect on weight change will also be examined. Discussions The purpose of this paper is to outline the study design and methods for testing the simple message of increasing dietary fiber. If the simple dietary approach is found efficacious for weight loss; and, improves dietary quality, metabolic health, and adherence, it might then be used to develop a simple public health message. Trial registration NCT00911885

  16. Weight loss and body composition changes following three sequential cycles of ketogenic enteral nutrition

    Gianfranco Cappello

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available Background: Ketogenic enteral nutrition (KEN is a modification of the protein sparing modified fast in which a protein solution is introduced with a continuous infusion through a nasogastric tube over 10-days cycles. The aim of the study was to perform a retrospective analysis of the safety, compliance, weight loss and body composition changes after 3 sequential 10-days cycles of KEN therapy. Materials and Methods: From a large number of patients who underwent KEN therapy in our department over a 5-year period, we selected 188 patients who participated in 3 KEN cycles with 10-13 days of break between them. Before and after the treatment cycles, body composition was analyzed by bioelectric impedance; a final assessment was made 10 days after the end of last cycle. During each rest period all the patients were on a low-carbohydrate, normal caloric diet. Results: Most patients (97% successfully tolerated the nasogastric treatment and lost an average of 14.4 kg of body weight, 10.6 kg of fat mass and 3.4 kg of body cell mass. Adverse effects were recorded as mild gastric hypersecretion (2% and constipation (5%. Patients continued to lose fat during the 10-day follow up period after the end of each KEN Cycle. This effect may be explained by abnormality of water distribution during the rapid weight loss inducing the observed change in fat mass. Conclusion: Ten-days KEN treatment cycles can induce rapid weight loss and reduction of fat mass in obese patients. Furthermore, preservation of lean mass can be achieved by infusing 1.9 g of protein/kg of BCM.

  17. The Role of Diffusion-Weighted MRI in Differentiation of Idiopathic Acute Transverse Myelitis and Acute Spinal Cord Infarction

    Kim, Yeo Goon; Lee, Joon Woo; Kim, Jae Hyoung; Kang, Heung Sik [Dept. of Radiology, Bundang Hospital, Seoul University College of Medicine, Seoul (Korea, Republic of); Park, Kyung Seok [Dept. of Neurology, Bundang Hospital, Seoul University College of Medicine, Seoul (Korea, Republic of)

    2011-08-15

    To compare the diffusion characteristics of idiopathic acute transverse myelitis (ATM) and acute spinal cord infarction (SCI). Diffusion-weighted images (DWI) and an apparent diffusion coefficient (ADC) map were prospectively obtained from patients diagnosed with myelopathy between February 2006 and April 2009. Inclusion criteria included 1) the presence of an intramedullary T2-high signal intensity and 2) a final diagnosis of idiopathic ATM or SCI established by one neurologist. In total, 13 patients (M : F = 8 : 5; mean age, 39.5 years; range, 29-50 years) with idiopathic ATM and seven patients (M : F = 2 : 5; mean age, 58 years; range, 48-75 years) with SCI were included in this study. Two radiologists evaluated the DWIs and ADC map in consensus. The extent of the cord signal change was also evaluated on T2-weighted sagittal images. Among the 16 patients with ATM, 14 patients showed iso-signal on an ADC map, but one case showed restricted diffusion and another showed increased diffusion on the ADC map. Among the seven patients with SCI, five patients showed restricted diffusion. Idiopathic ATM usually does not demonstrate restricted diffusion, which can be a clue to differentiate it from SCI. However, idiopathic ATM with larger segment involvement can show focal diffusion restriction.

  18. The Role of Diffusion-Weighted MRI in Differentiation of Idiopathic Acute Transverse Myelitis and Acute Spinal Cord Infarction

    To compare the diffusion characteristics of idiopathic acute transverse myelitis (ATM) and acute spinal cord infarction (SCI). Diffusion-weighted images (DWI) and an apparent diffusion coefficient (ADC) map were prospectively obtained from patients diagnosed with myelopathy between February 2006 and April 2009. Inclusion criteria included 1) the presence of an intramedullary T2-high signal intensity and 2) a final diagnosis of idiopathic ATM or SCI established by one neurologist. In total, 13 patients (M : F = 8 : 5; mean age, 39.5 years; range, 29-50 years) with idiopathic ATM and seven patients (M : F = 2 : 5; mean age, 58 years; range, 48-75 years) with SCI were included in this study. Two radiologists evaluated the DWIs and ADC map in consensus. The extent of the cord signal change was also evaluated on T2-weighted sagittal images. Among the 16 patients with ATM, 14 patients showed iso-signal on an ADC map, but one case showed restricted diffusion and another showed increased diffusion on the ADC map. Among the seven patients with SCI, five patients showed restricted diffusion. Idiopathic ATM usually does not demonstrate restricted diffusion, which can be a clue to differentiate it from SCI. However, idiopathic ATM with larger segment involvement can show focal diffusion restriction.

  19. Participation as a leader in immersion weight loss treatment may benefit, not harm, young adult staff members.

    Schaumberg, K; Anderson, D A; Kirschenbaum, D S; Earleywine, M

    2015-08-01

    Despite the success of weight-management programmes, some researchers caution that participation in an aggressive approach to weight management could promote the development of eating pathology. The current study evaluated the risks and benefits for young adults of serving as staff members in an immersion treatment of adolescent obesity over the course of a summer. Participants included weight loss staff members (n = 108) along with a comparison group of young adults with similar demographic characteristics (n = 136). Participants completed assessments of eating disorder and obesity risk at three time points: the beginning of the summer, the end of the summer and a 6-week follow-up. Weight loss leadership participants who were initially overweight lost weight over the course of the summer, but those at healthy weights maintained their weight. Comparison participants also maintained their weight during the summer. Weight loss staff members also increased dietary restraint over the summer, and increases in dietary restraint appeared to facilitate appropriate weight reduction. Participation as a leader in an immersion weight loss programme seemed to benefit, not harm, young adults; this suggests potential advantages for using weight controlling interventions in a wide range of individuals, including as an obesity prevention strategy. PMID:26129749

  20. A cross-sectional study assessing the self-reported weight loss strategies used by adult Australian general practice patients

    Yoong Sze

    2012-05-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Obesity is a significant public health concern. General practitioners (GPs see a large percentage of the population and are well placed to provide weight management advice. There has been little examination of the types of weight loss strategies used in Australian general practice patients. This cross-sectional study aimed to describe the proportion of normal weight, overweight and obese general practice patients who report trying to lose weight in the past 12 months, the types of weight loss strategies and diets used as well as the proportion consulting their GP prior to trying to lose weight. Methods Adult patients completed a touchscreen computer survey while waiting for their appointment. Responses from 1335 patients in twelve Australian practices are reported. Results A larger proportion of obese patients had tried to lose weight in the past 12 months (73% compared to those who were overweight (55% and normal weight (33%. The most commonly used strategy used was changing diet and increasing exercise in all BMI categories. Less than 10% used strategies such as prescription medication, over the counter supplements and consulted a weight loss specialist. Low calorie and low fat diets were the most frequently reported diets used to lose weight in those who were normal weight, overweight and obese. Overall, the proportion seeking GP advice was low, with 12% of normal weight, 15% of overweight and 43% of obese patients consulting their GP prior to trying to lose weight. Conclusions A large proportion of overweight or obese patients have tried to lose weight and utilized strategies such as changing diet and increasing exercise. Most attempts however were unassisted, with low rates of consultation with GPs and weight loss specialists. Ways to assist overweight and obese general practice patients with their weight loss attempts need to be identified.