WorldWideScience

Sample records for acute vocal variability

  1. Variable food begging calls are harbingers of vocal learning.

    Wan-chun Liu

    Full Text Available Vocal learning has evolved in only a few groups of mammals and birds. The developmental and evolutionary origins of vocal learning remain unclear. The imitation of a memorized sound is a clear example of vocal learning, but is that when vocal learning starts? Here we use an ontogenetic approach to examine how vocal learning emerges in a songbird, the chipping sparrow. The first vocalizations of songbirds, food begging calls, were thought to be innate, and vocal learning emerges later during subsong, a behavior reminiscent of infant babbling. Here we report that the food begging calls of male sparrows show several characteristics associated with learned song: male begging calls are highly variable between individuals and are altered by deafening; the production of food begging calls induces c-fos expression in a forebrain motor nucleus, RA, that is involved with the production of learned song. Electrolytic lesions of RA significantly reduce the variability of male calls. The male begging calls are subsequently incorporated into subsong, which in turn transitions into recognizable attempts at vocal imitation. Females do not sing and their begging calls are not affected by deafening or RA lesion. Our results suggest that, in chipping sparrows, intact hearing can influence the quality of male begging calls, auditory-sensitive vocal variability during food begging calls is the first step in a modification of vocal output that eventually culminates with vocal imitation.

  2. Variable Food Begging Calls Are Harbingers of Vocal Learning

    Wan-chun Liu; Kazuhiro Wada; Fernando Nottebohm

    2009-01-01

    Vocal learning has evolved in only a few groups of mammals and birds. The developmental and evolutionary origins of vocal learning remain unclear. The imitation of a memorized sound is a clear example of vocal learning, but is that when vocal learning starts? Here we use an ontogenetic approach to examine how vocal learning emerges in a songbird, the chipping sparrow. The first vocalizations of songbirds, food begging calls, were thought to be innate, and vocal learning emerges later during s...

  3. Comparative gene expression analysis among vocal learners (Bengalese finch and budgerigar and non-learners (quail and ring dove reveals variable cadherin expressions in the vocal system

    Eiji eMatsunaga

    2011-04-01

    Full Text Available Birds use various vocalizations to communicate with one another, and some are acquired through learning. So far, three families of birds (songbirds, parrots, and hummingbirds have been identified as having vocal learning ability. Previously, we found that cadherins, a large family of cell-adhesion molecules, show vocal control-area-related expression in a songbird, the Bengalese finch. To investigate the molecular basis of evolution in avian species, we conducted comparative analysis of cadherin expressions in the vocal and other neural systems among vocal learners (Bengalese finch and budgerigar and a non-learner (quail and ring dove. The gene expression analysis revealed that cadherin expressions were more variable in vocal and auditory areas compared to vocally unrelated areas such as the visual areas among these species. Thus, it appears that such diverse cadherin expressions might have been related to generating species diversity in vocal behavior during the evolution of avian vocal learning. 

  4. A hypothesis on improving foreign accents by optimizing variability in vocal learning brain circuits

    Anna J Simmonds

    2015-11-01

    Full Text Available Rapid vocal motor learning is observed when acquiring a language in early childhood, or learning to speak another language later in life. Accurate pronunciation is one of the hardest things for late learners to master and they are almost always left with a non-native accent. Here I propose a novel hypothesis that this accent could be improved by optimizing variability in vocal learning brain circuits during learning. Much of the neurobiology of human vocal motor learning has been inferred from studies on songbirds. Jarvis (2004 proposed the hypothesis that as in songbirds there are two pathways in humans: one for learning speech (the striatal vocal learning pathway, and one for production of previously learnt speech (the motor pathway. Learning new motor sequences necessary for accurate non-native pronunciation is challenging and I argue that in late learners of a foreign language the vocal learning pathway becomes inactive prematurely. The motor pathway is engaged once again and learners maintain their original native motor patterns for producing speech, resulting in speaking with a foreign accent. Further, I argue that variability in neural activity within vocal motor circuitry generates vocal variability that supports accurate non-native pronunciation. Recent theoretical and experimental work on motor learning suggests that variability in the motor movement is necessary for the development of expertise. I propose that there is little trial-by-trial variability when using the motor pathway. When using the vocal learning pathway variability gradually increases, reflecting an exploratory phase in which learners try out different ways of pronouncing words, before decreasing and stabilizing once the ‘best’ performance has been identified. The hypothesis proposed here could be tested using behavioral interventions that optimize variability and engage the vocal learning pathway for longer, with the prediction that this would allow learners to

  5. Resting-associated vocalization emitted by captive Asian house shrews (Suncus murinus: acoustic structure and variability in an unusual mammalian vocalization.

    Irena Schneiderová

    Full Text Available Shrews have rich vocal repertoires that include vocalizations within the human audible frequency range and ultrasonic vocalizations. Here, we recorded and analyzed in detail the acoustic structure of a vocalization with unclear functional significance that was spontaneously produced by 15 adult, captive Asian house shrews (Suncus murinus while they were lying motionless and resting in their nests. This vocalization was usually emitted repeatedly in a long series with regular intervals. It showed some structural variability; however, the shrews most frequently emitted a tonal, low-frequency vocalization with minimal frequency modulation and a low, non-vocal click that was clearly noticeable at its beginning. There was no effect of sex, but the acoustic structure of the analyzed vocalizations differed significantly between individual shrews. The encoded individuality was low, but it cannot be excluded that this individuality would allow discrimination of family members, i.e., a male and female with their young, collectively resting in a common nest. The question remains whether the Asian house shrews indeed perceive the presence of their mates, parents or young resting in a common nest via the resting-associated vocalization and whether they use it to discriminate among their family members. Additional studies are needed to explain the possible functional significance of resting-associated vocalizations emitted by captive Asian house shrews. Our study highlights that the acoustic communication of shrews is a relatively understudied topic, particularly considering that they are highly vocal mammals.

  6. Myasthenia gravis presenting as acute vocal cord paresis

    Khan, Muhammad Kamaal; Powell, Steven M.; Hartley, Chris; Cleland, Peter

    2010-01-01

    Myasthenia gravis is a condition rarely seen by otolaryngologists. We present a case of bilateral vocal cord paresis caused by previously undiagnosed myasthenia gravis. A tracheostomy was required after initial presentation and after a relapse. The airway management, neurological diagnosis and medical treatment are discussed.

  7. Acute Contained Ruptured Aortic Aneurysm Presenting as Left Vocal Fold Immobility

    Sharon H. Gnagi

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Objective. To recognize intrathoracic abnormalities, including expansion or rupture of aortic aneurysms, as a source of acute onset vocal fold immobility. Methods. A case report and review of the literature. Results. An 85-year-old female with prior history of an aortic aneurysm presented to a tertiary care facility with sudden onset hoarseness. On laryngoscopy, the left vocal fold was immobile in the paramedian position. A CT scan obtained that day revealed a new, large hematoma surrounding the upper descending aortic stent graft consistent with an acute contained ruptured aortic aneurysm. She was referred to the emergency department for evaluation and treatment by vascular surgery. She was counseled regarding surgical options and ultimately decided not to pursue further treatment. Her vocal fold immobility was subsequently treated via office-based injection medialization two weeks after presentation and again 5 months after the initial injection which dramatically improved her voice. Follow-up CT scan at 8 months demonstrated a reduction of the hematoma. The left vocal cord remains immobile to date. Conclusion. Ortner’s syndrome, or cardiovocal syndrome, is hoarseness secondary to left recurrent laryngeal nerve palsy caused by cardiovascular pathology. It is a rare condition and, while typically presenting gradually, may also present with acute symptomatology.

  8. Variability of normal vocal fold dynamics for different vocal loading in one healthy subject investigated by phonovibrograms.

    Doellinger, Michael; Lohscheller, Joerg; McWhorter, Andrew; Kunduk, Melda

    2009-03-01

    We investigate the potential of high-speed digital imaging technique (HSI) and the phonovibrogram (PVG) analysis in normal vocal fold dynamics by studying the effects of continuous voice use (vocal loading) during the workday. One healthy subject was recorded at sustained phonation 13 times within 2 consecutive days in the morning before and in the afternoon after vocal loading, respectively. Vocal fold dynamics were extracted and visualized by PVGs. The characteristic PVG patterns were extracted representing vocal fold vibration types. The parameter values were then analyzed by statistics regarding vocal load, left-right PVG asymmetries, anterior-posterior PVG asymmetries, and opening-closing differences. For the first time, the direct impact of vocal load could be determined by analyzing vocal fold dynamics. For same vocal loading conditions, equal dynamical behavior of the vocal folds were confirmed. Comparison of recordings performed in the morning with the recordings after work revealed significant changes in vibration behavior, indicating impact of occurring vocal load. Left-right asymmetries in vocal fold dynamics were found confirming earlier assumptions. Different dynamics between opening and closing procedure as well as for anterior and posterior parts were found. Constant voice usage stresses the vocal folds even in healthy subjects and can be detected by applying the PVG technique. Furthermore, left-right PVG asymmetries do occur in healthy voice to a certain extent. HSI in combination with PVG analysis seems to be a promising tool for investigation of vocal fold fatigue and pathologies resulting in small forms of dynamical changes. PMID:18313896

  9. Reduced vocal variability in a zebra finch model of dopamine depletion: implications for Parkinson disease.

    Miller, Julie E; Hafzalla, George W; Burkett, Zachary D; Fox, Cynthia M; White, Stephanie A

    2015-11-01

    Midbrain dopamine (DA) modulates the activity of basal ganglia circuitry important for motor control in a variety of species. In songbirds, DA underlies motivational behavior including reproductive drive and is implicated as a gatekeeper for neural activity governing vocal variability. In the zebra finch, Taeniopygia guttata, DA levels increase in Area X, a song-dedicated subregion of the basal ganglia, when a male bird sings his courtship song to a female (female-directed; FD). Levels remain stable when he sings a less stereotyped version that is not directed toward a conspecific (undirected; UD). Here, we used a mild dose of the neurotoxin 6-hydroxydopamine (6-OHDA) to reduce presynaptic DA input to Area X and characterized the effects on FD and UD behaviors. Immunoblots were used to quantify levels of tyrosine hydroxylase (TH) as a biomarker for DA afferent loss in vehicle- and 6-OHDA-injected birds. Following 6-OHDA administration, TH signals were lower in Area X but not in an adjacent subregion, ventral striatal-pallidum (VSP). A postsynaptic marker of DA signaling was unchanged in both regions. These observations suggest that effects were specific to presynaptic afferents of vocal basal ganglia. Concurrently, vocal variability was reduced during UD but not FD song. Similar decreases in vocal variability are observed in patients with Parkinson disease (PD), but the link to DA loss is not well-understood. The 6-OHDA songbird model offers a unique opportunity to further examine how DA loss in cortico-basal ganglia pathways affects vocal control. PMID:26564062

  10. Southeast Pacific atmospheric composition and variability sampled along 20° S during VOCALS-REx

    P. I. Williams

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available The VAMOS Ocean-Climate-Atmosphere-Land Regional Experiment (VOCALS-REx was conducted from 15 October to 15 November 2008 in the South East Pacific region to investigate interactions between land, sea and atmosphere in this unique tropical eastern ocean environment and to improve the skill of global and regional models in representing the region. This study synthesises selected aircraft, ship and surface site observations from VOCALS-REx to statistically summarise and characterise the atmospheric composition and variability of the Marine Boundary Layer (MBL and Free Troposphere (FT along the 20° S parallel between 70° W and 85° W. Significant zonal gradients in mean MBL sub-micron aerosol particle size and composition, carbon monoxide, ozone and sulphur dioxide were seen over the campaign, with a generally more variable and polluted coastal environment and a less variable, more pristine remote maritime regime. Gradients are observed to be associated with strong gradients in cloud droplet number. The FT is often more polluted in terms of trace gases than the MBL in the mean; however increased variability in the FT composition suggests an episodic nature to elevated concentrations. This is consistent with a complex vertical interleaving of airmasses with diverse sources and hence pollutant concentrations as seen by generalised back trajectory analysis, which suggests contributions from both local and long-range sources. Furthermore, back trajectory analysis demonstrates that the observed zonal gradients both in the boundary layer and the free troposphere are characteristic of marked changes in airmass history with distance offshore – coastal boundary layer airmasses having been in recent contact with the local land surface and remote maritime airmasses having resided over ocean for in excess of ten days. Boundary layer composition to the east of 75° W was observed to be dominated by coastal emissions from sources to the west of the Andes

  11. Southeast Pacific atmospheric composition and variability sampled along 20˚S during VOCALS-REx

    Allen, G.; Kleinman, L.; Coe, H.; Clarke, A.; Bretherton, C.; Wood, R.; Abel, S. J.; Barrett, P.; Brown, P.; George, R.; Freitag, S.; McNaughton, C.; Howell, S.; Shank, L.; Kapustin, V.; Brekhovskikh, V.; Lee, Y.-N.; Springston, S.; Toniazzo, T.; Krejci, R.; Fochesatto, J.; Shaw, G.; Krecl, P.; Brooks, B.; McKeeking, G.; Bower, K. N.; Williams, P. I.; Crosier, J.; Crawford, I.; Connolly, P.; Covert, D.; Bandy, A. R.

    2011-01-10

    The VAMOS Ocean-Climate-Atmosphere-Land Regional Experiment (VOCALS-REx) was conducted from 15 October to 15 November 2008 in the South East Pacific region to investigate interactions between land, sea and atmosphere in this unique tropical eastern ocean environment and to improve the skill of global and regional models in representing the region. This study synthesises selected aircraft, ship and surface site observations from VOCALS-REx to statistically summarise and characterise the atmospheric composition and variability of the Marine Boundary Layer (MBL) and Free Troposphere (FT) along the 20{sup o} S parallel between 70{sup o} W and 85{sup o} W. Significant zonal gradients in mean MBL sub-micron aerosol particle size and composition, carbon monoxide, ozone and sulphur dioxide were seen over the campaign, with a generally more variable and polluted coastal environment and a less variable, more pristine remote maritime regime. Gradients are observed to be associated with strong gradients in cloud droplet number. The FT is often more polluted in terms of trace gases than the MBL in the mean; however increased variability in the FT composition suggests an episodic nature to elevated concentrations. This is consistent with a complex vertical interleaving of airmasses with diverse sources and hence pollutant concentrations as seen by generalised back trajectory analysis, which suggests contributions from both local and long-range sources. Furthermore, back trajectory analysis demonstrates that the observed zonal gradients both in the boundary layer and the free troposphere are characteristic of marked changes in airmass history with distance offshore - coastal boundary layer airmasses having been in recent contact with the local land surface and remote maritime airmasses having resided over ocean for in excess of ten days. Boundary layer composition to the east of 75{sup o} W was observed to be dominated by coastal emissions from sources to the west of the Andes

  12. South East Pacific atmospheric composition and variability sampled along 20° S during VOCALS-REx

    G. Allen

    2011-06-01

    Full Text Available The VAMOS Ocean-Cloud-Atmosphere-Land Regional Experiment (VOCALS-REx was conducted from 15 October to 15 November 2008 in the South East Pacific (SEP region to investigate interactions between land, sea and atmosphere in this unique tropical eastern ocean environment and to improve the skill of global and regional models in representing the region. This study synthesises selected aircraft, ship and surface site observations from VOCALS-REx to statistically summarise and characterise the atmospheric composition and variability of the Marine Boundary Layer (MBL and Free Troposphere (FT along the 20° S parallel between 70° W and 85° W. Significant zonal gradients in mean MBL sub-micron aerosol particle size and composition, carbon monoxide, sulphur dioxide and ozone were seen over the campaign, with a generally more variable and polluted coastal environment and a less variable, more pristine remote maritime regime. Gradients in aerosol and trace gas concentrations were observed to be associated with strong gradients in cloud droplet number. The FT was often more polluted in terms of trace gases than the MBL in the mean; however increased variability in the FT composition suggests an episodic nature to elevated concentrations. This is consistent with a complex vertical interleaving of airmasses with diverse sources and hence pollutant concentrations as seen by generalised back trajectory analysis, which suggests contributions from both local and long-range sources. Furthermore, back trajectory analysis demonstrates that the observed zonal gradients both in the boundary layer and the free troposphere are characteristic of marked changes in airmass history with distance offshore – coastal boundary layer airmasses having been in recent contact with the local land surface and remote maritime airmasses having resided over ocean for in excess of ten days. Boundary layer composition to the east of 75° W was observed to be dominated by coastal

  13. Vocal Stereotypy in Children with Autism: Structural Characteristics, Variability, and Effects of Auditory Stimulation

    Lanovaz, Marc J.; Sladeczek, Ingrid E.

    2011-01-01

    Two experiments were conducted to examine (a) the relationship between the structural characteristics (i.e., bout duration, inter-response time [IRT], pitch, and energy) and overall duration of vocal stereotypy, and (b) the effects of auditory stimulation on the duration and temporal structure of the behavior. In the first experiment, we measured…

  14. Macrogeographical variability in the great call of Hylobates agilis: assessing the applicability of vocal analysis in studies of fine-scale taxonomy of gibbons

    Heller, R; Pedersen, Adam Frederik Sander; Wang, Christian William; Usman, F; Dabelsteen, T

    2010-01-01

    islands are currently recognized as distinct subspecies or even species. We recorded great calls from female agile gibbons from two populations on Sumatra and two populations on Borneo and examined the vocal variability on four levels: within-individuals, between-individuals, between-populations and...

  15. Marine boundary layer over the subtropical southeast Pacific during VOCALS-REx – Part 2: Synoptic variability

    R. D. Garreaud

    2009-12-01

    Full Text Available In the second part of this work we study the day-to-day variability of the marine atmospheric boundary layer (MBL over the subtropical southeast Pacific using primarily results from a numerical simulation that covered the whole VOCALS-REx period (October–November 2008. In situ and satellite-derived observations of the MBL height in the offshore region indicate rapid, significant variations (from 500 m to 1700 m a.s.l. over a few days during October. These MBL changes are connected with the passage of midlatitude troughs that altered the large-scale environment over the VOCALS-REx region. In contrast, the synoptic forcing and MBL changes were less prominent during November. Modelled and observed MBL depth at Point Omega (20° S, 85° W compare quite well during October (but the simulation is on average 200 m lower while in November the simulation does not perform as well.

    Each term in the prognostic local MBL height equation (horizontal MBL height advection, large scale vertical velocity at MBL top, and entrainment velocity is calculated explicitly from the simulation except the entrainment velocity which is calculated as the residual of the other terms in the equation. While the vertical velocity and residual terms are opposing and generally have the largest magnitude on average, it is the variability in the advection that explains most of the large changes in the MBL depth. Examination of several cases during VOCALS-REx suggests that the advective term is in turn largely controlled by changes in wind direction, driven by midlatitude activity, acting on a MBL that generally slopes down toward the coast. In one phase, the subtropical anticyclone is reinforced and extends toward the Chilean coast, leading to easterly wind that advects low MBL heights from the coast as far as Point Omega. The opposite phase occurs after the passage of an extratropical cyclone over southern Chile, leading to southwesterly wind that advects a deeper MBL

  16. Marine boundary layer over the subtropical southeast Pacific during VOCALS-REx – Part 2: Synoptic variability

    D. A. Rahn

    2010-05-01

    Full Text Available In the second part of this work we study the day-to-day variability of the marine atmospheric boundary layer (MBL over the subtropical southeast Pacific using primarily results from a numerical simulation that covered the whole VOCALS-REx period (October–November 2008. In situ and satellite-derived observations of the MBL height in the offshore region indicate rapid, significant variations (from 500 m to 1700 m a.s.l. over a few days during October. These MBL changes are connected with the passage of midlatitude troughs that altered the large-scale environment over the VOCALS-REx region. In contrast, the synoptic forcing and MBL changes were less prominent during November. Modelled and observed MBL depth at Point Omega (20° S, 85° W compare quite well during October (but the simulation is on average 200 m lower while in November the simulation does not perform as well.

    In the prognostic local MBL height equation the height change, the horizontal MBL height advection, and the large scale vertical velocity at MBL top are calculated explicitly from the simulation. The entrainment velocity is calculated as the residual of the other terms in the equation. While the vertical velocity and residual terms are opposing and generally have the largest magnitude on average, it is the variability in the advection that explains most of the large changes in the MBL depth. Examination of several cases during VOCALS-REx suggests that the advective term is in turn largely controlled by changes in wind direction, driven by midlatitude activity, acting on a MBL that generally slopes down toward the coast. In one phase, the subtropical anticyclone is reinforced and extends toward the Chilean coast, leading to easterly wind that advects low MBL heights from the coast as far as Point Omega. The opposite phase occurs after the passage of an extratropical cyclone over southern Chile, leading to southwesterly wind that advects a deeper MBL towards subtropical

  17. Heart rate variability is reduced during acute uncomplicated diverticulitis

    Huang, Chenxi; Alamili, Mahdi; Rosenberg, Jacob; Gögenur, Ismail

    2015-01-01

    BACKGROUND: The aim of the present study was to report the trajectory of heart rate variability (HRV) indices during a low-grade acute inflammation and their associations to biomarkers for infection. METHODS: Twelve patients with uncomplicated acute diverticulitis completed this observational study...... HRV indices were decreased both in time and frequency domains during acute diverticulitis compared to baseline. In particular, the indices reflecting the balance of sympathetic and parasympathetic activities were affected: standard deviation of normal-to-normal beats (P = .003), low-frequency power (P...

  18. A neural circuit mechanism for regulating vocal variability during song learning in zebra finches

    Garst-Orozco, Jonathan; Babadi, Baktash; Ölveczky, Bence P

    2014-01-01

    eLife digest ‘Practice makes perfect’ captures the essence of how we learn new skills. When learning to play a musical instrument, for example, it often takes hours of practice before we can play a single piece of music properly for the first time. And as we get better, the variability in our performance—which is an advantage during the early stages of learning—becomes less. Likewise, songbirds need lots of practice in order to master the intricate songs they need to sing to attract mates. St...

  19. Marked uptake of fluorodeoxyglucose in a vocal cord after medialization: Acute and subacute positron emission tomography/computed tomography findings

    A 60-year-old male who underwent left upper lobectomy because of recently diagnosed lung cancer was admitted to the nuclear medicine department. A whole body fluorodeoxyglucose positron emission tomography/computed tomography (CT) that was performed for staging purposes, revealed an intense hypermetabolism in left vocal cord region corresponding with hyperdense mass-like material on CT scan

  20. Clinical Application of Heart Rate Variability after Acute Myocardial Infarction

    HeikkiVeliHuikuri

    2012-02-01

    Heart rate (HR variability has been extensively studied in patients surviving an acute myocardial infarction (AMI. The majority of studies have shown that patients with reduced or abnormal HR variability/turbulence have an increased risk of mortality within few years after an AMI. Various measures of HR dynamics, such as time-domain, spectral, and non-linear measures of HR variability, as well as HR turbulence, have been used in risk stratification of post-AMI patients. The prognostic power of various measures, except of those reflecting rapid R-R interval oscillations, has been almost identical, albeit some non-linear HR variability measures, such as short-term fractal scaling exponent, and HR turbulence, have provided somewhat better prognostic information than the others. Abnormal HR variability predicts both sudden and non-sudden cardiac death after AMI. Because of remodeling of the arrhythmia substrate after AMI, early measurement of HR variability to identify those at high risk should likely be repeated later in order to assess the risk of fatal arrhythmia events. Future randomized trials using HR variability/turbulence as one of the pre-defined inclusion criteria will show whether routine measurement of HR variability/turbulence will become a routine clinical tool for risk stratification of post-AMI patients.

  1. Atmospheric sulfur cycling in the Southeastern Pacific – longitudinal distribution, vertical profile, and diel variability observed during VOCALS-REx

    M. Yang

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available Dimethylsulfide (DMS emitted from the ocean is a biogenic precursor gas for sulfur dioxide (SO2 and non-sea-salt sulfate aerosols (SO42. During the VAMOS-Ocean-Cloud-Atmosphere-Land Study Regional Experiment (VOCALS-REx in 2008, multiple instrumented platforms were deployed in the Southeastern Pacific (SEP off the coast of Chile and Peru to study the linkage between aerosols and stratocumulus clouds. We present here observations from the NOAA Ship Ronald H. Brown and the NSF/NCAR C-130 aircraft along ~20° S from the coast (70° W to a remote marine region (85° W. While SO42− and SO2 concentrations were distinctly elevated above background levels in the coastal marine boundary layer (MBL due to anthropogenic influence (~800 and 80 pptv, respectively, their concentrations rapidly decreased offshore (~100and 25 pptv. Compared to the "mass" entrainment fluxes of SO42− and SO2 from the free troposphere (0.5 ± 0.3 and 0.3 ± 0.2 μmoles m−2 day−1, the sea-to-air DMS flux (3.8 ± 0.1 μmoles m−2 day−1 remained the predominant source of sulfur mass to the MBL. In-cloud oxidation was found to be the most important mechanism for SO2 removal and in situ SO42− production. Surface SO42− loading in the remote region displayed pronounced diel variability, increasing rapidly in the first few hours after sunset and then decaying for the rest of the time. We theorize that the increase in SO42− was due to nighttime recoupling of the MBL that mixed down cloud-processed air, while decoupling and sporadic precipitation scavenging were responsible for the daytime decline in SO42−.

  2. Quantification of acute vocal fold epithelial surface damage with increasing time and magnitude doses of vibration exposure.

    Tsuyoshi Kojima

    Full Text Available Because the vocal folds undergo repeated trauma during continuous cycles of vibration, the epithelium is routinely susceptible to damage during phonation. Excessive and prolonged vibration exposure is considered a significant predisposing factor in the development of vocal fold pathology. The purpose of the present study was to quantify the extent of epithelial surface damage following increased time and magnitude doses of vibration exposure using an in vivo rabbit phonation model. Forty-five New Zealand white breeder rabbits were randomized to nine groups and received varying phonation time-doses (30, 60, or 120 minutes and magnitude-doses (control, modal intensity phonation, or raised intensity phonation of vibration exposure. Scanning electron microscopy and transmission electron microscopy was used to quantify the degree of epithelial surface damage. Results revealed a significant reduction in microprojection density, microprojection height, and depth of the epithelial surface with increasing time and phonation magnitudes doses, signifying increased epithelial surface damage risk with excessive and prolonged vibration exposure. Destruction to the epithelial cell surface may provide significant insight into the disruption of cell function following prolonged vibration exposure. One important goal achieved in the present study was the quantification of epithelial surface damage using objective imaging criteria. These data provide an important foundation for future studies of long-term tissue recovery from excessive and prolonged vibration exposure.

  3. Adverse incidents, patient flow and nursing workforce variables on acute psychiatric wards: the Tompkins Acute Ward Study

    Bowers, L.; Allan, T; Simpson, A.; Nijman, H.; Warren, J.

    2007-01-01

    Background: Adverse incidents (violence, self-harm and absconding) can cause significant harm to patients and staff, are difficult to predict, and are driving an increase in security measures and defensive practice. Aims: To explore the relationship between adverse incidents on acute psychiatric wards, admissions and nursing workforce variables. Methods: A retrospective analysis of officially collected data covering a period of 30 months on 14 acute wards at three hospitals. This data...

  4. Observations of the boundary layer, cloud, and aerosol variability in the southeast Pacific coastal marine stratocumulus during VOCALS-REx

    X. Zheng

    2011-05-01

    Full Text Available Aircraft observations made off the coast of northern Chile in the Southeastern Pacific (20° S, 72° W; named Point Alpha from 16 October to 13 November 2008 during the VAMOS Ocean-Cloud-Atmosphere-Land Study-Regional Experiment (VOCALS-REx, combined with meteorological reanalysis, satellite measurements, and radiosonde data, are used to investigate the boundary layer (BL and aerosol-cloud-drizzle variations in this region. The BL at Point Alpha was typical of a non-drizzling stratocumulus-topped BL on days without predominately synoptic and meso-scale influences. The BL had a depth of 1140 ± 120 m, was well-mixed and capped by a sharp inversion. The wind direction generally switched from southerly within the BL to northerly above the inversion. The cloud liquid water path (LWP varied between 15 g m−2 and 160 g m−2. From 29 October to 4 November, when a synoptic system affected conditions at Point Alpha, the cloud LWP was higher than on the other days by around 40 g m−2. On 1 and 2 November, a moist layer above the inversion moved over Point Alpha. The total-water specific humidity above the inversion was larger than that within the BL during these days. Entrainment rates (average of 1.5 ± 0.6 mm s−1 calculated from the near cloud-top fluxes and turbulence (vertical velocity variance in the BL at Point Alpha appeared to be weaker than those in the BL over the open ocean west of Point Alpha and the BL near the coast of the northeast Pacific.

    The accumulation mode aerosol varied from 250 to 700 cm−3 within the BL, and CCN at 0.2 % supersaturation within the BL ranged between 150 and 550 cm−3. The main aerosol source at Point Alpha was horizontal advection within the BL from south. The average cloud droplet number concentration ranged between 80 and 400 cm−3, which was consistent with the satellite-derived values. The relationship of cloud droplet

  5. Variable detection of myeloid antigens in childhood acute lymphoblastic leukaemia.

    Howard, M R; Thomas, L; Reid, M. M.

    1994-01-01

    AIMS--To determine whether the use of different sources of anti-CD13 and anti-CD33 monoclonal antibodies leads to discrepant results in childhood acute lymphoblastic leukaemia (ALL), which might contribute to the wide variation in the reported incidence of myeloid antigen expressing ALL in childhood. METHODS--Stored leukaemic cells from 10 children with previously defined myeloid positive ALL were examined. A range of commercially available anti-CD13 and anti-CD33 monoclonal antibodies, direc...

  6. Techniques for Vocal Health.

    Wiest, Lori

    1997-01-01

    Outlines a series of simple yet effective practices, techniques, and tips for improving the singing voice and minimizing stress on the vocal chords. Describes the four components for producing vocal sound: respiration, phonation, resonation, and articulation. Provides exercises for each and lists symptoms of sickness and vocal strain. (MJP)

  7. Acute psychological stress induces short-term variable immune response.

    Breen, Michael S; Beliakova-Bethell, Nadejda; Mujica-Parodi, Lilianne R; Carlson, Joshua M; Ensign, Wayne Y; Woelk, Christopher H; Rana, Brinda K

    2016-03-01

    In spite of advances in understanding the cross-talk between the peripheral immune system and the brain, the molecular mechanisms underlying the rapid adaptation of the immune system to an acute psychological stressor remain largely unknown. Conventional approaches to classify molecular factors mediating these responses have targeted relatively few biological measurements or explored cross-sectional study designs, and therefore have restricted characterization of stress-immune interactions. This exploratory study analyzed transcriptional profiles and flow cytometric data of peripheral blood leukocytes with physiological (endocrine, autonomic) measurements collected throughout the sequence of events leading up to, during, and after short-term exposure to physical danger in humans. Immediate immunomodulation to acute psychological stress was defined as a short-term selective up-regulation of natural killer (NK) cell-associated cytotoxic and IL-12 mediated signaling genes that correlated with increased cortisol, catecholamines and NK cells into the periphery. In parallel, we observed down-regulation of innate immune toll-like receptor genes and genes of the MyD88-dependent signaling pathway. Correcting gene expression for an influx of NK cells revealed a molecular signature specific to the adrenal cortex. Subsequently, focusing analyses on discrete groups of coordinately expressed genes (modules) throughout the time-series revealed immune stress responses in modules associated to immune/defense response, response to wounding, cytokine production, TCR signaling and NK cell cytotoxicity which differed between males and females. These results offer a spring-board for future research towards improved treatment of stress-related disease including the impact of stress on cardiovascular and autoimmune disorders, and identifies an immune mechanism by which vulnerabilities to these diseases may be gender-specific. PMID:26476140

  8. Coding of Vocalizations by Single Neurons in Ventrolateral Prefrontal Cortex

    Plakke, Bethany; Diltz, Mark D.; Romanski, Lizabeth M.

    2013-01-01

    Neuronal activity in single prefrontal neurons has been correlated with behavioral responses, rules, task variables and stimulus features. In the non-human primate, neurons recorded in ventrolateral prefrontal cortex (VLPFC) have been found to respond to species-specific vocalizations. Previous studies have found multisensory neurons which respond to simultaneously presented faces and vocalizations in this region. Behavioral data suggests that face and vocal information are inextricably linke...

  9. ECG Morphological Variability in Beat Space for Risk Stratification After Acute Coronary Syndrome

    Liu, Yun; Syed, Zeeshan; Scirica, Benjamin M.; Morrow, David A; Guttag, John V.; Stultz, Collin M.

    2014-01-01

    Background: Identification of patients who are at high risk of adverse cardiovascular events after an acute coronary syndrome (ACS) remains a major challenge in clinical cardiology. We hypothesized that quantifying variability in electrocardiogram (ECG) morphology may improve risk stratification post‐ACS. Methods and Results: We developed a new metric to quantify beat‐to‐beat morphologic changes in the ECG: morphologic variability in beat space (MVB), and compared our metric to published ECG ...

  10. Vocal expression in schizophrenia: Less than meets the ear.

    Cohen, Alex S; Mitchell, Kyle R; Docherty, Nancy M; Horan, William P

    2016-02-01

    Abnormalities in nonverbal communication are a hallmark of schizophrenia. Results from studies using symptom rating scales suggest that these abnormalities are profound (i.e., 3-5 SDs) and occur across virtually every channel of vocal expression. Computerized acoustic analytic technologies, used to overcome practical and psychometric limitations with symptom rating scales, have found much more benign and isolated abnormalities. To better understand vocal deficits in schizophrenia and to advance acoustic analytic technologies for clinical and research applications, we examined archived speech samples from 5 separate studies, each using different speaking tasks (patient N = 309; control N = 117). We sought to: (a) use Principal Component Analysis (PCA) to identify independent vocal expression measures from a large set of variables, (b) quantify how patients with schizophrenia are abnormal with respect to these variables, (c) evaluate the impact of demographic and contextual factors (e.g., study site, speaking task), and (d) examine the relationship between clinically-rated psychiatric symptoms and vocal variables. PCA identified 7 independent markers of vocal expression. Most of these vocal variables varied considerably as a function of context and many were associated with demographic factors. After controlling for context and demographics, there were no meaningful differences in vocal expression between patients and controls. Within patients, vocal variables were associated with a range of psychiatric symptoms-though only pause length was significantly associated with clinically rated negative symptoms. The discussion centers on explaining the apparent discordance between clinical and computerized speech measures. (PsycINFO Database Record PMID:26854511

  11. Genetic and Environmental Effects on Vocal Symptoms and Their Intercorrelations

    Nybacka, Ida; Simberg, Susanna; Santtila, Pekka; Sala, Eeva; Sandnabba, N. Kenneth

    2012-01-01

    Purpose: Recently, Simberg et al. (2009) found genetic effects on a composite variable consisting of 6 vocal symptom items measuring dysphonia. The purpose of the present study was to determine genetic and environmental effects on the individual vocal symptoms in a population-based sample of Finnish twins. Method: The sample comprised 1,728 twins…

  12. Sensory feedback control of mammalian vocalizations.

    Smotherman, Michael S

    2007-09-01

    Somatosensory and auditory feedback mechanisms are dynamic components of the vocal motor pattern generator in mammals. This review explores how sensory cues arising from central auditory and somatosensory pathways actively guide the production of both simple sounds and complex phrases in mammals. While human speech is a uniquely sophisticated example of mammalian vocal behavior, other mammals can serve as examples of how sensory feedback guides complex vocal patterns. Echolocating bats in particular are unique in their absolute dependence on voice control for survival: these animals must constantly adjust the acoustic and temporal patterns of their orientation sounds to efficiently navigate and forage for insects at high speeds under the cover of darkness. Many species of bats also utter a broad repertoire of communication sounds. The functional neuroanatomy of the bat vocal motor pathway is basically identical to other mammals, but the acute significance of sensory feedback in echolocation has made this a profitable model system for studying general principles of sensorimotor integration with regard to vocalizing. Bats and humans are similar in that they both maintain precise control of many different voice parameters, both exhibit a similar suite of responses to altered auditory feedback, and for both the efficacy of sensory feedback depends upon behavioral context. By comparing similarities and differences in the ways sensory feedback influences voice in humans and bats, we may shed light on the basic architecture of the mammalian vocal motor system and perhaps be able to better distinguish those features of human vocal control that evolved uniquely in support of speech and language. PMID:17449116

  13. VOCALS-UK: An overview of UK VOCALS science (Invited)

    Coe, H.; Vocals-Uk Science Team

    2010-12-01

    This paper will highlight a variety of process studies, observationally led studies and modelling studies, both completed and in progress, conducted by groups in the United Kingdom, working in collaboration with international partners on the VAMOS Ocean-Cloud-Atmosphere Land Study Regional Experiment (VOCALS-REx). The VOCALS field experiment was conducted out of Arica, Chile, between October and November, 2008. The study aims to better understand the nature and variability of interactions between the ocean, atmosphere and steep topography, as well as local and long-range transport of pollutants and aerosol, in the context of their role in controlling the climate of the South East Pacific - an important region in terms of the global energy budget and which is currently poorly characterised in global climate models. Specific highlights will include a statistical representation of the SEP marine boundary layer during VOCALS-Rex to inform future modelling; an analysis of the synoptic and large-scale dynamical influences on cloud in the SEP; results from improved Met Office Unified Model forecast runs which examine aerosol-cloud interactions with a comparison to results from WRF-CHEM; and large eddy modelling of simulated gravity waves and their potential to induce open cellular convection (create pockets of open cells). In addition, early results from a number of further studies will be presented.

  14. Reinforcement of Infant Vocalizations through Contingent Vocal Imitation

    Pelaez, Martha; Virues-Ortega, Javier; Gewirtz, Jacob L.

    2011-01-01

    Maternal vocal imitation of infant vocalizations is highly prevalent during face-to-face interactions of infants and their caregivers. Although maternal vocal imitation has been associated with later verbal development, its potentially reinforcing effect on infant vocalizations has not been explored experimentally. This study examined the…

  15. Effect of trimetazidine on heart rate variability in elderly patients with acute coronary syndrome

    Jing ZHANG; HE, SHENGHU; Wang, Xuefei; WANG, DAXIN

    2016-01-01

    Background and Objective: Trimetazidine has mainly been used in coronary insufficiency, angina and elderly myocardial infarction. However, the effect of trimetazidine on the efficacy, heart rate variability (HRV) and protection of myocardial ischemia in elderly patients with acute coronary syndrome (ACS) remains unclear. This study aimed to investigate the effect of trimetazidine on the efficacy HRV and protection of myocardial ischemia in patients with ACS. Methods: One hundred twenty two el...

  16. Continuous Vocalization during Kendo Exercises Suppresses Expiration of CO2.

    Arikawa, H; Terada, T; Takahashi, T; Kizaki, K; Imai, H; Era, S

    2015-06-01

    One distinctive trait of kendo, the Japanese martial art of fencing, is the execution of sustained, high-effort vocalizations during actions. The purpose of this study was to determine the effect of these vocalizations on respiratory functions. First, the intensity of 3 kendo exercises was quantified by measuring oxygen uptake (V̇O2) and comparing it with V̇O2max measured during treadmill tests of 8 university kendo athletes. Respiratory variables of these 8 athletes were then analyzed using a portable breath gas analyzer during the most intensive kendo exercise, kakari-keiko, with and without vocalization. Breathing frequency (fB) increased regardless of vocalization, but in trials with vocalization, fB and ventilation were significantly lower, and expiration time was significantly longer. Components of expired gases were also affected by vocalization. Although there was no significant difference in oxygen uptake, vocalization yielded a reduction in carbon dioxide output (V̇CO2) and an increase in fraction of end-tidal carbon dioxide (FetCO2). We thus conclude that these vocalizations greatly affect expiration breathing patterns in kendo. Moreover, repetition of kakari-keiko caused a reduction in V̇CO2 and an increase in FetCO2 and CO2 storage. We consider the possibility that the sustained high-effort vocalizations of kendo also increase cerebral blood flow. PMID:25760149

  17. Perinatally Influenced Autonomic System Fluctuations Drive Infant Vocal Sequences.

    Zhang, Yisi S; Ghazanfar, Asif A

    2016-05-23

    The variable vocal behavior of human infants is the scaffolding upon which speech and social interactions develop. It is important to know what factors drive this developmentally critical behavioral output. Using marmoset monkeys as a model system, we first addressed whether the initial conditions for vocal output and its sequential structure are perinatally influenced. Using dizygotic twins and Markov analyses of their vocal sequences, we found that in the first postnatal week, twins had more similar vocal sequences to each other than to their non-twin siblings. Moreover, both twins and their siblings had more vocal sequence similarity with each other than with non-sibling infants. Using electromyography, we then investigated the physiological basis of vocal sequence structure by measuring respiration and arousal levels (via changes in heart rate). We tested the hypothesis that early-life influences on vocal output are via fluctuations of the autonomic nervous system (ANS) mediated by vocal biomechanics. We found that arousal levels fluctuate at ∼0.1 Hz (the Mayer wave) and that this slow oscillation modulates the amplitude of the faster, ∼1.0 Hz respiratory rhythm. The systematic changes in respiratory amplitude result in the different vocalizations that comprise infant vocal sequences. Among twins, the temporal structure of arousal level changes was similar and therefore indicates why their vocal sequences were similar. Our study shows that vocal sequences are tightly linked to respiratory patterns that are modulated by ANS fluctuations and that the temporal structure of ANS fluctuations is perinatally influenced. PMID:27068420

  18. Fractal analysis of heart rate variability and mortality after an acute myocardial infarction

    Tapanainen, Jari M; Thomsen, Poul Erik Bloch; Køber, Lars;

    2002-01-01

    The recently developed fractal analysis of heart rate (HR) variability has been suggested to provide prognostic information about patients with heart failure. This prospective multicenter study was designed to assess the prognostic significance of fractal and traditional HR variability parameters...... in a large, consecutive series of survivors of an acute myocardial infarction (AMI). A consecutive series of 697 patients were recruited to participate 2 to 7 days after an AMI in 3 Nordic university hospitals. The conventional time-domain and spectral parameters and the newer fractal scaling indexes...... of HR variability were analyzed from 24-hour RR interval recordings. During the mean follow-up of 18.4 +/- 6.5 months, 49 patients (7.0%) died. Of all the risk variables, a reduced short-term fractal scaling exponent (alpha(1) <0.65), measured by detrended fluctuation analysis, was the most powerful...

  19. Vocal Polyps in Tourette Syndrome

    Michael P Chu

    2011-10-01

    Full Text Available Hoarseness and dysphonia are often a result of vocal cord polyps which in turn, are linked to vocal trauma. We report the case of vocal polyps in the setting of a 27-year old male with a history only remarkable for Tourette syndrome. We review the literature regarding etiology and pathophysiology of vocal cord lesions and propose vocal tics in Tourette syndrome as an under-recognized etiology. In this way, we also review therapies that may aid in treating not only the vocal cord lesions but also particularly in the setting of vocal tics.

  20. Prognosis after Acute Myocardial Infarction as Predicted by C-reactive Protein and Clinical Variables

    Angelo Modica MD, PhD

    2013-02-01

    Full Text Available Background:Raised concentrations of C-reactive protein (CRP have been reported to be strongly related to an adverse long term prognosis in patients with acute myocardial infarction (AMI. However, adjustments for clinical variables as well as interaction between variables have been incomplete. The aims of this study were to examine the predictive value of baseline concentrations of CRP for mortality after adjustment for important clinical variables and to compare the clinical usefulness of CRP with easily available clinical variables in the prediction of long term survival.Methods:Five hundred and thirty-one patients with AMI were included. A blood sample for CRP was obtained on admission. All patients were followed for a minimum of two years and death of any cause was recorded as the study end point.Results:In logistic regression analysis, the interaction term Age by Killip class > 1, the variable glomerular filtration rate as well as the interaction term Age by Atrial fibrillation were retained. The resulting model correctly predicted death or not in 81% of the patients. CRP did not contribute to the final model.Conclusions:CRP does not independently predict long-term mortality after an AMI after adjustments for clinical variables and interaction. CRP has no value beyond clinical variables in predicting death after AMI.

  1. Vocal repertoire of the social giant otter.

    Leuchtenberger, Caroline; Sousa-Lima, Renata; Duplaix, Nicole; Magnusson, William E; Mourão, Guilherme

    2014-11-01

    According to the "social intelligence hypothesis," species with complex social interactions have more sophisticated communication systems. Giant otters (Pteronura brasiliensis) live in groups with complex social interactions. It is likely that the vocal communication of giant otters is more sophisticated than previous studies suggest. The objectives of the current study were to describe the airborne vocal repertoire of giant otters in the Pantanal area of Brazil, to analyze call types within different behavioral contexts, and to correlate vocal complexity with level of sociability of mustelids to verify whether or not the result supports the social intelligence hypothesis. The behavior of nine giant otters groups was observed. Vocalizations recorded were acoustically and statistically analyzed to describe the species' repertoire. The repertoire was comprised by 15 sound types emitted in different behavioral contexts. The main behavioral contexts of each sound type were significantly associated with the acoustic variable ordination of different sound types. A strong correlation between vocal complexity and sociability was found for different species, suggesting that the communication systems observed in the family mustelidae support the social intelligence hypothesis. PMID:25373985

  2. Acute low back pain is marked by variability: An internet-based pilot study

    Katz Jeffrey N

    2011-10-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Pain variability in acute LBP has received limited study. The objectives of this pilot study were to characterize fluctuations in pain during acute LBP, to determine whether self-reported 'flares' of pain represent discrete periods of increased pain intensity, and to examine whether the frequency of flares was associated with back-related disability outcomes. Methods We conducted a cohort study of acute LBP patients utilizing frequent serial assessments and Internet-based data collection. Adults with acute LBP (lasting ≤3 months completed questionnaires at the time of seeking care, and at both 3-day and 1-week intervals, for 6 weeks. Back pain was measured using a numerical pain rating scale (NPRS, and disability was measured using the Oswestry Disability Index (ODI. A pain flare was defined as 'a period of increased pain lasting at least 2 hours, when your pain intensity is distinctly worse than it has been recently'. We used mixed-effects linear regression to model longitudinal changes in pain intensity, and multivariate linear regression to model associations between flare frequency and disability outcomes. Results 42 of 47 participants (89% reported pain flares, and the average number of discrete flare periods per patient was 3.5 over 6 weeks of follow-up. More than half of flares were less than 4 hours in duration, and about 75% of flares were less than one day in duration. A model with a quadratic trend for time best characterized improvements in pain. Pain decreased rapidly during the first 14 days after seeking care, and leveled off after about 28 days. Patients who reported a pain flare experienced an almost 3-point greater current NPRS than those not reporting a flare (mean difference [SD] 2.70 [0.11]; p ß [SE} 0.28 (0.08; p = 0.002. Conclusions Acute LBP is characterized by variability. Patients with acute LBP report multiple distinct flares of pain, which correspond to discrete increases in pain intensity. A

  3. Vocal coselection in rat pup ultrasonic vocalizations.

    Spence, Heather R; Aslam, Ali M; Hofer, Myron A; Brunelli, Susan A; Shair, Harry N

    2016-04-01

    Selective breeding and natural selection that select for one trait often bring along other correlated traits via coselection. Selective breeding for an infantile trait, high or low call rates of isolation-induced ultrasonic vocalization of rat pups, also alters functions of some brain systems and emotional behaviors throughout life. We examined the effect of breeding for call rate on acoustic parameters that are of communicative significance. Selecting for higher call rate produced calls of significantly increased amplitude and bandwidth relative to a randomly bred line. Selecting for lower rate produced calls of decreased duration. These nonmorphological, functional trait changes demonstrate enhanced communicatory potential and energy expenditure for the High line and the opposite for the Low line. This demonstration of coselection in a communicatory system suggests an underlying heritable suite of linked acoustic vocalization characteristics that in noisy environments could enhance dam-pup communication and lead to selection of emotionality traits with beneficial responses to stress. PMID:27066218

  4. Impacto vocal de professores Teachers' vocal impact

    Adriana Ricarte

    2011-08-01

    Full Text Available OBJETIVO: analisar o impacto vocal nas atividades diárias em professores do ensino médio. Correlacionar os achado da auto-percepção do problema vocal com os aspectos: efeitos no trabalho, na comunicação diária, na comunicação social e na sua emoção. MÉTODOS: a amostra foi constituída por 107 professores, sendo 86 com queixa e 21 sem queixa, selecionados em escolas da rede particular de ensino de Maceió-AL. Cada professor respondeu individualmente o protocolo Perfil Participação em Atividades Vocais na presença da pesquisadora, assinalando suas respostas em uma escala visual que varia de 0 a 10. O protocolo é composto por 28 questões com a presença integrada em cinco aspectos englobados para avaliar a qualidade de vida e o resultado de tratamentos vocais. O protocolo oferece, ainda, dois escores adicionais: pontuação de limitação nas atividades (PLA e de restrição de participação (PRP. RESULTADOS: na comparação dos grupos com e sem queixa vocal foram verificados que todos os resultados foram estatisticamente significantes (pPURPOSE: to analyze the vocal impact in the daily activities on high-school teachers. Correlate the finding of the auto-perception on the vocal problem with the following aspects: effects in the work, daily communication, social communication and, its emotion METHODS: the sample consisted of 107 teachers, 86 with and 21 with no complaint, selected from private teaching schools in Maceió-AL. Each teacher answered individually the Protocol for Voice Activity Participation Profile in the presence of the researcher, noting their responses on a visual scale ranging from 0 to 10. The protocol is composed of 28 questions with the presence integrated in five aspects to evaluate the quality of life and the result of vocal treatments. The protocol offers, still, two additional scores: punctuation of limitation in the activities (PLA and restriction of participation (PRP. RESULTS: comparing the groups with

  5. Vocal Polyps in Tourette Syndrome

    Chu, Michael P.; Karen PM Chu; Kevin Fung

    2011-01-01

    Hoarseness and dysphonia are often a result of vocal cord polyps which in turn, are linked to vocal trauma. We report the case of vocal polyps in the setting of a 27-year old male with a history only remarkable for Tourette syndrome. We review the literature regarding etiology and pathophysiology of vocal cord lesions and propose vocal tics in Tourette syndrome as an under-recognized etiology. In this way, we also review therapies that may aid in treating not only the vocal cord lesions but a...

  6. Vocal coselection in rat pup ultrasonic vocalizations

    Spence, Heather R.; Aslam, Ali M.; Hofer, Myron A; Brunelli, Susan A.; Shair, Harry N.

    2016-01-01

    Abstract Selective breeding and natural selection that select for one trait often bring along other correlated traits via coselection. Selective breeding for an infantile trait, high or low call rates of isolation‐induced ultrasonic vocalization of rat pups, also alters functions of some brain systems and emotional behaviors throughout life. We examined the effect of breeding for call rate on acoustic parameters that are of communicative significance. Selecting for higher call rate produced c...

  7. MARATHON DESPITE UNILATERAL VOCAL FOLD PARALYSIS

    Matthias Echternach

    2008-06-01

    vocal fold paralysis for the first time. Although a marathon race is an endurance exertion without maximum acute strain on the respiratory system (McArdle et al., 2001, the sport medical examinations also showed no restriction at maximum exertion, neither expiratory nor inspiratory. An unilateral vocal fold paralysis is apparently not such a serious obstacle to the respiratory tract that one would have to reckon with a clear-cut respiratory deficit. Exercise testing of larger samples of patients with vocal fold paralysis should be performed concerning their capacity to endure exertion.The question in the present case thus remains the causal connection between the paralysis and unspecific respiratory complaints. The laryngological examination speaks against an acute event. A possible cause of the vocal fold paralysis is the thoracotomy or the pleuritis in childhood; Due to the time lapse of over 40 years, this cannot be proven. The entire diagnostic spectrum excluded another organic cause for her respiratory complaints, so that we tend to assume a functional or psychosomatic nature. As the symptoms vanished spontaneously, no further proof of this can be offered

  8. Plasma pentraxin-3 and coagulation and fibrinolysis variables during acute Puumala hantavirus infection and associated thrombocytopenia.

    Laine, Outi K; Koskela, Sirpa M; Outinen, Tuula K; Joutsi-Korhonen, Lotta; Huhtala, Heini; Vaheri, Antti; Hurme, Mikko A; Jylhävä, Juulia; Mäkelä, Satu M; Mustonen, Jukka T

    2014-09-01

    Thrombocytopenia and altered coagulation characterize all hantavirus infections. To further assess the newly discovered predictive biomarkers of disease severity during acute Puumala virus (PUUV) infection, we studied the associations between them and the variables reflecting coagulation, fibrinolysis and endothelial activation. Nineteen hospital-treated patients with serologically confirmed acute PUUV infection were included. Acutely, plasma levels of pentraxin-3 (PTX3), cell-free DNA (cf-DNA), complement components SC5b-9 and C3 and interleukin-6 (IL-6) were recorded as well as platelet ligands and markers of coagulation and fibrinolysis. High values of plasma PTX3 associated with thrombin formation (prothrombin fragments F1+2; r = 0.46, P = 0.05), consumption of platelet ligand fibrinogen (r = -0.70, P < 0.001) and natural anticoagulants antithrombin (AT) (r = -0.74, P < 0.001), protein C (r = -0.77, P < 0.001) and protein S free antigen (r = -0.81, P < 0.001) and a decreased endothelial marker ADAMTS13 (a disintegrin and metalloproteinase with a thrombospondin type 1 domain 13) (r = -0.48, P = 0.04). Plasma level of AT associated with C3 (r = 0.76, P < 0.001), IL-6 (r = -0.56, P = 0.01) and cf-DNA (r = -0.47, P = 0.04). High cf-DNA coincided with increased prothrombin fragments F1+2 (r = 0.47, P = 0.04). Low C3 levels reflecting the activation of complement system through the alternative route predicted loss of all natural anticoagulants (for protein C r = 0.53, P = 0.03 and for protein S free antigen r = 0.64, P = 0.004). Variables depicting altered coagulation follow the new predictive biomarkers of disease severity, especially PTX3, in acute PUUV infection. The findings are consistent with the previous observations of these biomarkers also being predictive for low platelet count and underline the cross-talk of inflammation and coagulation systems in acute PUUV infection. PMID:24751477

  9. Observer variability of absolute and relative thrombus density measurements in patients with acute ischemic stroke

    Thrombus density may be a predictor for acute ischemic stroke treatment success. However, only limited data on observer variability for thrombus density measurements exist. This study assesses the variability and bias of four common thrombus density measurement methods by expert and non-expert observers. For 132 consecutive patients with acute ischemic stroke, three experts and two trained observers determined thrombus density by placing three standardized regions of interest (ROIs) in the thrombus and corresponding contralateral arterial segment. Subsequently, absolute and relative thrombus densities were determined using either one or three ROIs. Intraclass correlation coefficient (ICC) was determined, and Bland-Altman analysis was performed to evaluate interobserver and intermethod agreement. Accuracy of the trained observer was evaluated with a reference expert observer using the same statistical analysis. The highest interobserver agreement was obtained for absolute thrombus measurements using three ROIs (ICCs ranging from 0.54 to 0.91). In general, interobserver agreement was lower for relative measurements, and for using one instead of three ROIs. Interobserver agreement of trained non-experts and experts was similar. Accuracy of the trained observer measurements was comparable to the expert interobserver agreement and was better for absolute measurements and with three ROIs. The agreement between the one ROI and three ROI methods was good. Absolute thrombus density measurement has superior interobserver agreement compared to relative density measurement. Interobserver variation is smaller when multiple ROIs are used. Trained non-expert observers can accurately and reproducibly assess absolute thrombus densities using three ROIs. (orig.)

  10. Observer variability of absolute and relative thrombus density measurements in patients with acute ischemic stroke

    Santos, Emilie M.M. [Erasmus MC - University Medical Center Rotterdam, Department of Radiology, P.O. Box 2040, Rotterdam (Netherlands); Department of Radiology, AMC, Amsterdam (Netherlands); Yoo, Albert J. [Texas Stroke Institute, Plano, TX (United States); Beenen, Ludo F.; Majoie, Charles B. [Department of Radiology, AMC, Amsterdam (Netherlands); Berkhemer, Olvert A. [Department of Radiology, AMC, Amsterdam (Netherlands); Department of Neurology, Erasmus MC, Rotterdam (Netherlands); Blanken, Mark D. den; Wismans, Carrie [AMC, Department of Biomedical Engineering and Physics, Amsterdam (Netherlands); Niessen, Wiro J. [Erasmus MC - University Medical Center Rotterdam, Department of Radiology, P.O. Box 2040, Rotterdam (Netherlands); Delft University of Technology, Faculty of Applied Sciences, Delft (Netherlands); Marquering, Henk A. [Department of Radiology, AMC, Amsterdam (Netherlands); AMC, Department of Biomedical Engineering and Physics, Amsterdam (Netherlands); Collaboration: on behalf of the MR CLEAN investigators

    2016-02-15

    Thrombus density may be a predictor for acute ischemic stroke treatment success. However, only limited data on observer variability for thrombus density measurements exist. This study assesses the variability and bias of four common thrombus density measurement methods by expert and non-expert observers. For 132 consecutive patients with acute ischemic stroke, three experts and two trained observers determined thrombus density by placing three standardized regions of interest (ROIs) in the thrombus and corresponding contralateral arterial segment. Subsequently, absolute and relative thrombus densities were determined using either one or three ROIs. Intraclass correlation coefficient (ICC) was determined, and Bland-Altman analysis was performed to evaluate interobserver and intermethod agreement. Accuracy of the trained observer was evaluated with a reference expert observer using the same statistical analysis. The highest interobserver agreement was obtained for absolute thrombus measurements using three ROIs (ICCs ranging from 0.54 to 0.91). In general, interobserver agreement was lower for relative measurements, and for using one instead of three ROIs. Interobserver agreement of trained non-experts and experts was similar. Accuracy of the trained observer measurements was comparable to the expert interobserver agreement and was better for absolute measurements and with three ROIs. The agreement between the one ROI and three ROI methods was good. Absolute thrombus density measurement has superior interobserver agreement compared to relative density measurement. Interobserver variation is smaller when multiple ROIs are used. Trained non-expert observers can accurately and reproducibly assess absolute thrombus densities using three ROIs. (orig.)

  11. Vocal matching by orange-fronted conures (Aratinga canicularis)

    Balsby, Thorsten J S; Bradbury, Jack W

    2009-01-01

    The functions of vocal matching have been clarified in territorial songbirds, compositionally stable groups of birds and mammals, and species with multiple alarm or assembly signals. The functions of vocal matching are less well understood in fission/fusion species that are non-territorial, live...... in groups with variable composition, and lack multiple alarm signals. Here we present the results of interactive playbacks in a fission/fusion parrot species, the orange-fronted conjure (Aratinga canicularis), that provide evidence of vocal matching. A randomly selected loud contact call (chee) per trial...

  12. Identification of high-risk acute coronary syndromes by spectral analysis of ear photoplethysmographic waveform variability

    There is a need for robust techniques for early and accurate diagnosis of acute coronary syndromes (ACSs), to avoid inappropriate discharge of patients. This study examined the use of frequency spectrum analysis of heart rate variability (HRV) and photoplethysmogram (PPG) waveform variability for the identification of high-risk ACS patients defined by an elevated cardiac troponin level. The study cohort comprised a convenience sample of adult patients presenting to the emergency department of the Prince of Wales Hospital over a 4 month period complaining of non-traumatic chest pain. Valid electrocardiogram (ECG) and earlobe PPG waveforms together with troponin I test results were obtained from 52 patients at presentation, 4 of which were troponin I positive (Trop 0+). Frequency spectrum analysis was performed on the beat-to-beat HRV and PPG waveform variability (PPGV). The Trop 0+ were found to have significantly higher normalized mid-frequency power (MFnu) in HRV (P = 0.017), PPG amplitude variability (P = 0.009) and the cross-spectrum of HRV and PPGV (P = 0.001), which were attributed to reflex sympathetic response to myocardial ischemia. MFnu of PPG amplitude had the best overall performance in detecting Trop 0+, with ROC area under the curve of 0.93. The results demonstrate the potential use of ear PPG waveform to identify high-risk heart disease patients, and further highlight the utility of frequency spectrum analysis of PPGV in critical care

  13. Hydroclimatic variables and acute gastro-intestinal illness in British Columbia, Canada: A time series analysis

    Galway, L. P.; Allen, D. M.; Parkes, M. W.; Li, L.; Takaro, T. K.

    2015-02-01

    Using epidemiologic time series analysis, we examine associations between three hydroclimatic variables (temperature, precipitation, and streamflow) and waterborne acute gastro-intestinal illness (AGI) in two communities in the province of British Columbia (BC), Canada. The communities were selected to represent the major hydroclimatic regimes that characterize BC: rainfall-dominated and snowfall dominated. Our results show that the number of monthly cases of AGI increased with increasing temperature, precipitation, and streamflow in the same month in the context of a rainfall-dominated regime, and with increasing streamflow in the previous month in the context of a snowfall-dominated regime. These results suggest that hydroclimatology plays a role in driving the occurrence and variability of AGI in these settings. Further, this study highlights that the nature and magnitude of the effects of hydroclimatic variability on AGI are different in the context of a snowfall-dominated regime versus a rainfall-dominated regimes. We conclude by proposing that the watershed may be an appropriate context for enhancing our understanding of the complex linkages between hydroclimatic variability and waterborne illness in the context of a changing climate.

  14. Decreased reaction time variability is associated with greater cardiovascular responses to acute stress.

    Wawrzyniak, Andrew J; Hamer, Mark; Steptoe, Andrew; Endrighi, Romano

    2016-05-01

    Cardiovascular (CV) responses to mental stress are prospectively associated with poor CV outcomes. The association between CV responses to mental stress and reaction times (RTs) in aging individuals may be important but warrants further investigation. The present study assessed RTs to examine associations with CV responses to mental stress in healthy, older individuals using robust regression techniques. Participants were 262 men and women (mean age = 63.3 ± 5.5 years) from the Whitehall II cohort who completed a RT task (Stroop) and underwent acute mental stress (mirror tracing) to elicit CV responses. Blood pressure, heart rate, and heart rate variability were measured at baseline, during acute stress, and through a 75-min recovery. RT measures were generated from an ex-Gaussian distribution that yielded three predictors: mu-RT, sigma-RT, and tau-RT, the mean, standard deviation, and mean of the exponential component of the normal distribution, respectively. Decreased intraindividual RT variability was marginally associated with greater systolic (B = -.009, SE = .005, p = .09) and diastolic (B = -.004, SE = .002, p = .08) blood pressure reactivity. Decreased intraindividual RT variability was associated with impaired systolic blood pressure recovery (B = -.007, SE = .003, p = .03) and impaired vagal tone (B = -.0047, SE = .0024, p = .045). Study findings offer tentative support for an association between RTs and CV responses. Despite small effect sizes and associations not consistent across predictors, these data may point to a link between intrinsic neuronal plasticity and CV responses. PMID:26894967

  15. Vocal Fold Collision Modeling

    Granados, Alba; Brunskog, Jonas; Misztal, M. K.

    2015-01-01

    When vocal folds vibrate at normal speaking frequencies, collisions occurs. The numerics and formulations behind a position-based continuum model of contact is an active field of research in the contact mechanics community. In this paper, a frictionless three-dimensional finite element model of the...... vocal fold collision is proposed, which incorporates different procedures used in contact mechanics and mathematical optimization theories. The penalty approach and the Lagrange multiplier method are investigated. The contact force solution obtained by the penalty formulation is highly dependent on the...

  16. Asthma: vocal cord dysfunction (VCD) and other dysfunctional breathing disorders.

    Balkissoon, Ron; Kenn, Klaus

    2012-12-01

    Vocal cord dysfunction (VCD) and dysfunctional breathing (DB) disorders may mimic or coexist with asthma, leading to overtreatment with corticosteroids with consequent morbidity. Iatrogenic complications can be averted by early and correct diagnosis. VCD, also termed paradoxical vocal fold motion disorder (PVFMD), is characterized by intermittent paradoxical adduction of the vocal cords, mainly during inspiration, leading to airflow obstruction and dyspnea. Patients with VCD may have repetitive emergency room visits due to acute dyspnea (mimicking exacerbations of asthma). In the seminal descriptions of VCD, young women (often with psychiatric issues) predominated; however, other groups at increased risk for developing VCD include elite athletes, military recruits, and individuals exposed to irritants (inhaled or aspirated). Chronic postnasal drip, laryngopharyngeal reflux (LPR), and gastroesophageal reflux (GER) may lead to laryngeal hyperresponsiveness. The diagnosis of VCD may be difficult because physical exam and spirometry may be normal between episodes. During symptomatic episodes, spirometry typically reveals variable extrathoracic airway obstruction (truncated inspiratory flow volume loop). The gold standard for identifying VCD is flexible fiberoptic rhinolaryngoscopy. Management of VCD includes identification and treatment of underlying disorders (eg, chronic postnasal drip, LPR, GER, anxiety, depression) and a multidisciplinary approach (including highly trained speech therapists). Speech therapy and biofeedback play a critical role in teaching techniques to override various dysfunctional breathing habits. When postnasal drip, LPR, or GER coexist, these disorders should be aggressively treated. With successful therapy, corticosteroids can often be discontinued. During severe, acute episodes of VCD, therapeutic strategies include heliox (80% helium/20% oxygen), topical lidocaine, anxiolytics, and superior laryngeal blocks with Clostridium botulinum toxin

  17. Perspectives on the impact on vocal function of heavy vocal load among working professional music theater performers.

    Phyland, Debra J; Thibeault, Susan L; Benninger, Michael S; Vallance, Neil; Greenwood, Kenneth M; Smith, Julian A

    2013-05-01

    Music theater singers (MTS) typically have a heavy vocal load, but the impact on their voices has not been previously evaluated. A group of 49 MTS from two professional productions were administered the Singing Voice Handicap Index (SVHI). Responses for the SVHI demonstrated that, although the SVHI supported the performers' self-report of healthy vocal status, it lacked the sensitivity to detect potential subtle fluctuations or changes in physical functioning of the voice for working singers. Secondarily, descriptive data regarding professional working singers' perspectives were collected regarding how their singing voices typically responded to performing in a music theater production after a show, across a working week, and across a production season. Seventy-nine currently performing MTS were involved in a series of focus group interviews (n=43) or a written survey (n=36) to detail their perception of the impact of performing in an eight-show per week professional production on their vocal function and vocal health. Thematic analysis revealed the MTS commonly perceived transient and variable changes in their singing voice status in both positive and negative directions after heavy vocal load. Based on these data, a list of 97 descriptors of these perceptual changes was generated using the singers' own terminology and experiences. These included symptoms of vocal impairment and vocal fatigue but also some novel descriptors of positive vocal changes to the physical functioning of the singing voice as a perceived consequence of heavy vocal load. This study offers new and valuable insights into performers' perceptions of the impact of performing in a musical theater production on physical aspects of vocal function. PMID:23415149

  18. Temporal recalibration in vocalization induced by adaptation of delayed auditory feedback.

    Kosuke Yamamoto

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: We ordinarily perceive our voice sound as occurring simultaneously with vocal production, but the sense of simultaneity in vocalization can be easily interrupted by delayed auditory feedback (DAF. DAF causes normal people to have difficulty speaking fluently but helps people with stuttering to improve speech fluency. However, the underlying temporal mechanism for integrating the motor production of voice and the auditory perception of vocal sound remains unclear. In this study, we investigated the temporal tuning mechanism integrating vocal sensory and voice sounds under DAF with an adaptation technique. METHODS AND FINDINGS: Participants produced a single voice sound repeatedly with specific delay times of DAF (0, 66, 133 ms during three minutes to induce 'Lag Adaptation'. They then judged the simultaneity between motor sensation and vocal sound given feedback. We found that lag adaptation induced a shift in simultaneity responses toward the adapted auditory delays. This indicates that the temporal tuning mechanism in vocalization can be temporally recalibrated after prolonged exposure to delayed vocal sounds. Furthermore, we found that the temporal recalibration in vocalization can be affected by averaging delay times in the adaptation phase. CONCLUSIONS: These findings suggest vocalization is finely tuned by the temporal recalibration mechanism, which acutely monitors the integration of temporal delays between motor sensation and vocal sound.

  19. Observations of the boundary layer, cloud, and aerosol variability in the southeast Pacific near-coastal marine stratocumulus during VOCALS-REx

    X. Zheng

    2011-09-01

    Full Text Available Aircraft observations made off the coast of northern Chile in the Southeastern Pacific (20° S, 72° W; named Point Alpha from 16 October to 13 November 2008 during the VAMOS Ocean-Cloud- Atmosphere-Land Study-Regional Experiment (VOCALS-REx, combined with meteorological reanalysis, satellite measurements, and radiosonde data, are used to investigate the boundary layer (BL and aerosol-cloud-drizzle variations in this region. On days without predominately synoptic and meso-scale influences, the BL at Point Alpha was typical of a non-drizzling stratocumulus-topped BL. Entrainment rates calculated from the near cloud-top fluxes and turbulence in the BL at Point Alpha appeared to be weaker than those in the BL over the open ocean west of Point Alpha and the BL near the coast of the northeast Pacific. The cloud liquid water path (LWP varied between 15 g m−2 and 160 g m−2. The BL had a depth of 1140 ± 120 m, was generally well-mixed and capped by a sharp inversion without predominately synoptic and meso-scale influences. The wind direction generally switched from southerly within the BL to northerly above the inversion. On days when a synoptic system and related mesoscale costal circulations affected conditions at Point Alpha (29 October–4 November, a moist layer above the inversion moved over Point Alpha, and the total-water mixing ratio above the inversion was larger than that within the BL. The accumulation mode aerosol varied from 250 to 700 cm−3 within the BL, and CCN at 0.2 % supersaturation within the BL ranged between 150 and 550 cm−3. The main aerosol source at Point Alpha was horizontal advection within the BL from south. The average cloud droplet number concentration ranged between 80 and 400 cm−3. While the mean LWP retrieved from GOES was in good agreement with the in situ measurements, the GOES-derived cloud droplet effective radius tended to be larger than that from the

  20. High Resolution ECG for Evaluation of QT Interval Variability during Exposure to Acute Hypoxia

    Zupet, P.; Finderle, Z.; Schlegel, Todd T.; Starc, V.

    2010-01-01

    Ventricular repolarization instability as quantified by the index of QT interval variability (QTVI) is one of the best predictors for risk of malignant ventricular arrhythmias and sudden cardiac death. Because it is difficult to appropriately monitor early signs of organ dysfunction at high altitude, we investigated whether high resolution advanced ECG (HR-ECG) analysis might be helpful as a non-invasive and easy-to-use tool for evaluating the risk of cardiac arrhythmias during exposure to acute hypoxia. 19 non-acclimatized healthy trained alpinists (age 37, 8 plus or minus 4,7 years) participated in the study. Five-minute high-resolution 12-lead electrocardiograms (ECGs) were recorded (Cardiosoft) in each subject at rest in the supine position breathing room air and then after breathing 12.5% oxygen for 30 min. For beat-to-beat RR and QT variability, the program of Starc was utilized to derive standard time domain measures such as root mean square of the successive interval difference (rMSSD) of RRV and QTV, the corrected QT interval (QTc) and the QTVI in lead II. Changes were evaluated with paired-samples t-test with p-values less than 0.05 considered statistically significant. As expected, the RR interval and its variability both decreased with increasing altitude, with p = 0.000 and p = 0.005, respectively. Significant increases were found in both the rMSSDQT and the QTVI in lead II, with p = 0.002 and p = 0.003, respectively. There was no change in QTc interval length (p = non significant). QT variability parameters may be useful for evaluating changes in ventricular repolarization caused by hypoxia. These changes might be driven by increases in sympathetic nervous system activity at ventricular level.

  1. Songbirds tune their vocal tract to the fundamental frequency of their song

    Riede, Tobias; Suthers, Roderick A.; Fletcher, Neville H.; Blevins, William E.

    2006-01-01

    In human speech, the sound generated by the larynx is modified by articulatory movements of the upper vocal tract, which acts as a variable resonant filter concentrating energy near particular frequencies, or formants, essential in speech recognition. Despite its potential importance in vocal communication, little is known about the presence of tunable vocal tract filters in other vertebrates. The tonal quality of much birdsong, in which upper harmonics have relatively little energy, depends ...

  2. The Acute Effect of Resistance Exercise with Blood Flow Restriction with Hemodynamic Variables on Hypertensive Subjects

    Araújo Joamira P.

    2014-12-01

    Full Text Available The purpose of this study was to analyze systolic blood pressure (SBP, diastolic blood pressure (DBP and the heart rate (HR before, during and after training at moderate intensity (MI, 50%-1RM and at low intensity with blood flow restriction (LIBFR. In a randomized controlled trial study, 14 subjects (average age 45±9,9 years performed one of the exercise protocols during two separate visits to the laboratory. SBP, DBP and HR measurements were collected prior to the start of the set and 15, 30, 45 and 60 minutes after knee extension exercises. Repeated measures of analysis of variance (ANOVA were used to identify significant variables (2 x 5; group x time. The results demonstrated a significant reduction in SBP in the LIBFR group. These results provide evidence that strength training performed acutely alters hemodynamic variables. However, training with blood flow restriction is more efficient in reducing blood pressure in hypertensive individuals than training with moderate intensity.

  3. An Evaluation of Select Test Variables Potentially Affecting Acute Oil Toxicity.

    Echols, Brandi S; Smith, A; Gardinali, P; Rand, G

    2016-02-01

    In the wake of the Deepwater Horizon incident (2010) in the Gulf of Mexico, an abundance of research studies have been performed, but the methodologies used have varied making comparisons and replication difficult. In this study, acute toxicity tests with mysids and inland silversides were performed to examine the effect of different variables on test results. The toxicity test variables evaluated in this study included (1) open versus closed static test chambers, (2) natural versus artificial diluent, (3) aerated versus nonaerated test solution, and (4) low versus medium energy water-accommodated (WAF) mixing energies. The use of tests using natural or artificial diluent showed no difference in either toxicity test or analytical chemistry results. Based on median lethal concentrations (LC50) of WAFs of unweathered oil (MASS), mysid tests performed in closed chambers were approximately 41 % lower than LC50 values from open-chamber studies, possibly a result of the presence of low-molecular weight volatile aromatics (i.e., naphthalenes). This research also showed that using a medium-energy WAF (with a 20–25 % vortex) increases the number of chemical components compared with low-energy WAF, thus affecting the composition of the exposure media and increasing toxicity. The comparison of toxic units as a measure of the potential toxicity of fresh and weathered oils showed that weathered oils (e.g., Juniper, CTC) are less toxic than the unweathered MASS oil. In the event of future oil spills, these variables should be considered to ensure that data regarding the potential toxicity and environmental risk are of good quality and reproducible. PMID:26467150

  4. Early assessment of heart rate variability is predictive of in-hospital death and major complications during acute myocardial infarction

    Carpeggiani, Clara; Emdin, Michele; Landi, Patrizia; Michelassi, Claudio; L'Abbate, Antonio

    2003-01-01

    Background: Depressed heart rate variability (HRV) at AMI discharge is associated with poor Iong-lerm prognosis However, its early (< 48 hours) prediclive value has not been exlensively investigaled Aim of the sludy was to invest igale, during acute myocardial infarction (AMI), in hospital prognostic value of HRV.

  5. Effects of Systemic Hydration on Vocal Acoustics of 18- to 35-Year-Old Females

    Franca, Maria Claudia; Simpson, Kenneth O.

    2012-01-01

    The influence of body hydration and vocal acoustics was investigated in this study. Effects of two levels of hydration on objective measures of vocal acoustics were explored. In an attempt to reduce variability in the degree of systemic hydration and to induce a state of systemic dehydration, participants were instructed to refrain from ingestion…

  6. A simple computational principle predicts vocal adaptation dynamics across age and error size

    Conor William Kelly

    2014-09-01

    Full Text Available The brain uses sensory feedback to correct errors in behavior. Songbirds and humans acquire vocal behaviors by imitating the sounds produced by adults and rely on auditory feedback to correct vocal errors throughout their lifetimes. In both birds and humans, acoustic variability decreases steadily with age following the acquisition of vocal behavior. Prior studies in adults have shown that while sensory errors that fall within the limits of vocal variability evoke robust motor corrections, larger errors do not induce learning. Although such results suggest that younger animals, which have greater vocal variability, might correct large errors more readily than older individuals, it is unknown whether age-dependent changes in variability are accompanied by changes in the speed or magnitude of vocal error correction. We tested the hypothesis that auditory errors evoke greater vocal changes in younger animals and that a common computation determines how sensory information drives motor learning across different ages and error sizes. Consistent with our hypothesis, we found that in songbirds the speed and extent of error correction changes dramatically with age and that age-dependent differences in learning were predicted by a model in which the overlap between sensory errors and the distribution of prior sensory feedback determines the dynamics of adaptation. Our results suggest that the brain employs a simple and robust computational principle to calibrate the rate and magnitude of vocal adaptation across age-dependent changes in behavioral performance and in response to different sensory errors.

  7. A Morphological Analyzer for Vocalized or Not Vocalized Arabic Language

    El Amine Abderrahim, Med; Breksi Reguig, Fethi

    This research has been to show the realization of a morphological analyzer of the Arabic language (vocalized or not vocalized). This analyzer is based upon our object model for the Arabic Natural Language Processing (NLP) and can be exploited by NLP applications such as translation machine, orthographical correction and the search for information.

  8. Hippotherapy acute impact on heart rate variability non-linear dynamics in neurological disorders.

    Cabiddu, Ramona; Borghi-Silva, Audrey; Trimer, Renata; Trimer, Vitor; Ricci, Paula Angélica; Italiano Monteiro, Clara; Camargo Magalhães Maniglia, Marcela; Silva Pereira, Ana Maria; Rodrigues das Chagas, Gustavo; Carvalho, Eliane Maria

    2016-05-15

    Neurological disorders are associated with autonomic dysfunction. Hippotherapy (HT) is a therapy treatment strategy that utilizes a horse in an interdisciplinary approach for the physical and mental rehabilitation of people with physical, mental and/or psychological disabilities. However, no studies have been carried out which evaluated the effects of HT on the autonomic control in these patients. Therefore, the objective of the present study was to investigate the effects of a single HT session on cardiovascular autonomic control by time domain and non-linear analysis of heart rate variability (HRV). The HRV signal was recorded continuously in twelve children affected by neurological disorders during a HT session, consisting in a 10-minute sitting position rest (P1), a 15-minute preparatory phase sitting on the horse (P2), a 15-minute HT session (P3) and a final 10-minute sitting position recovery (P4). Time domain and non-linear HRV indices, including Sample Entropy (SampEn), Lempel-Ziv Complexity (LZC) and Detrended Fluctuation Analysis (DFA), were calculated for each treatment phase. We observed that SampEn increased during P3 (SampEn=0.56±0.10) with respect to P1 (SampEn=0.40±0.14, pdisabilities attributable to neurological disorders by eliciting an acute autonomic response during the therapy and during the recovery period. PMID:26988283

  9. Exposure to Discrimination and Heart Rate Variability Reactivity to Acute Stress among Women with Diabetes.

    Wagner, Julie; Lampert, Rachel; Tennen, Howard; Feinn, Richard

    2015-08-01

    Exposure to racial discrimination has been linked to physiological reactivity. This study investigated self-reported exposure to racial discrimination and parasympathetic [high-frequency heart rate variability (HF-HRV)] and sympathetic (norepinephrine and cortisol) activity at baseline and then again after acute laboratory stress. Lifetime exposure to racial discrimination was measured with the Schedule of Racist Events scale. Thirty-two women (16 Black and 16 White) with type 2 diabetes performed a public speaking stressor. Beat-to-beat intervals were recorded on electrocardiograph recorders, and HF-HRV was calculated using spectral analysis and natural log transformed. Norepinephrine and cortisol were measured in blood. Higher discrimination predicted lower stressor HF-HRV, even after controlling for baseline HF-HRV. When race, age, A1c and baseline systolic blood pressure were also controlled, racial discrimination remained a significant independent predictor of stressor HF-HRV. There was no association between lifetime discrimination and sympathetic markers. In conclusion, preliminary data suggest that among women with type 2 diabetes mellitus (T2DM), exposure to racial discrimination is adversely associated with parasympathetic, but not sympathetic, reactivity. PMID:24194397

  10. Variable clinical course in acute necrotizing encephalopathy and identification of a novel RANBP2 mutation.

    Sell, Katharina; Storch, Katja; Hahn, Gabriele; Lee-Kirsch, Min Ae; Ramantani, Georgia; Jackson, Sandra; Neilson, Derek; von der Hagen, Maja; Hehr, Ute; Smitka, Martin

    2016-09-01

    Acute necrotizing encephalopathy (ANE) is a rare disease presenting with rapidly progressing encephalopathy. It usually occurs in otherwise healthy children after common viral infections. The hallmarks of ANE are the neuroradiological findings of multiple symmetric lesions in the thalami, midbrain, pons and brainstem. Most cases are sporadic and non recurrent. However, recurrent or familial forms of ANE due to mutations in RANBP2 gene have been reported. It has been suggested to give these cases the term ANE1. We report the clinical course in two male infants (P1, P2) with ANE1 and a variable clinical course and outcome. One patient is heterozygous for the most common RANBP2 missense mutation p.Thr585Met. In the other patient we observed a novel de novo missense mutation p.Trp681Cys in the RANBP2 gene causing recurrent ANE. Clinical and radiological features are presented and differential diagnoses are discussed. This report adds to the current knowledge of the phenotype in ANE, caused by mutations in RANBP2 gene. PMID:26923722

  11. The effect of vocal tract impedance on the vocal folds

    Agerkvist, Finn T.; Selamtzis, Andreas

    2011-01-01

    The importance of the interaction between the acoustic impedance of the vocal tract with the flow across the vocal cords is well established. In this paper we are investigating the changes in vocal tract impedance when using the different modes of phonation according to Sadolin [1], going from the...... soft levels of the Neutral mode to the high levels of the fully ‘metallic’ Edge mode. The acoustic impedance of vocal tract as seen from the mouth opening is measured via a microphone placed close to the mouth when exciting the system with a volume velocity source [2]. At the same time a Laryngograph...... frontend is used to measure the electroglottograph signal which reflects the opening and closing pattern of the vocal folds. The measurements were carried out for all four modes (Neutral, Curbing, Overdrive and Edge) for the vowel [a] in three different pitches: C3(131 Hz), G3 (196 Hz) and C4 (262Hz) . The...

  12. Vocal matching and intensity of begging calls are associated with a forebrain song circuit in a generalist brood parasite.

    Liu, Wan-Chun; Rivers, James W; White, David J

    2016-06-01

    Vocalizations produced by developing young early in life have simple acoustic features and are thought to be innate. Complex forms of early vocal learning are less likely to evolve in young altricial songbirds because the forebrain vocal-learning circuit is underdeveloped during the period when early vocalizations are produced. However, selective pressure experienced in early postnatal life may lead to early vocal learning that is likely controlled by a simpler brain circuit. We found the food begging calls produced by fledglings of the brown-headed cowbird (Molothrus ater), a generalist avian brood parasite, induced the expression of several immediate early genes and early circuit innervation in a forebrain vocal-motor pathway that is later used for vocal imitation. The forebrain neural activity was correlated with vocal intensity and variability of begging calls that appears to allow cowbirds to vocally match host nestmates. The begging-induced forebrain circuits we observed in fledgling cowbirds were not detected in nonparasitic passerines, including species that are close relatives to the cowbird. The involvement of forebrain vocal circuits during fledgling begging and its association with vocal learning plasticity may be an adaptation that provides young generalist brood parasites with a flexible signaling strategy to procure food from a wide range of heterospecific host parents. © 2015 Wiley Periodicals, Inc. Develop Neurobiol 76: 615-625, 2016. PMID:26335154

  13. Vocal therapy of hyperkinetic dysphonia

    Mumović Gordana

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Introduction. Hyperkinetic (hyperfunctional dysphonia is a common pathology. The disorder is often found in vocal professionals faced with high vocal requirements. Objective. The objective of this study was to evaluate the effects of vocal therapy on voice condition characterized by hyperkinetic dysphonia with prenodular lesions and soft nodules. Methods. The study included 100 adult patients and 27 children aged 4-16 years with prenodular lesions and soft nodules. A subjective acoustic analysis using the GIRBAS scale was performed prior to and after vocal therapy. Twenty adult patients and 10 children underwent objective acoustic analysis including several acoustic parameters. Pathological vocal qualities (hoarse, harsh and breathy voice were also obtained by computer analysis. Results. The subjective acoustic analysis revealed a significant (p<0.01 reduction in all dysphonia parameters after vocal treatment in adults and children. After treatment, all levels of dysphonia were lowered in 85% (85/100 of adult patients and 29% (29/100 had a normal voice. Before vocal therapy 9 children had severe, 13 had moderate and 8 slight dysphonia. After vocal therapy only 1 child had severe dysphonia, 7 had moderate, 10 had slight levels of dysphonia and 9 were without voice disorder. The objective acoustic analysis in adults revealed a significant improvement (p≤0.025 in all dysphonia parameters except SD F0 and jitter %. In children, the acoustic parameters SD F0, jitter % and NNE (normal noise energy were significantly improved (p=0.003-0.03. Pathological voice qualities were also improved in adults and children (p<0.05. Conclusion. Vocal therapy effectively improves the voice in hyperkinetic dysphonia with prenodular lesions and soft nodules in both adults and children, affecting diverse acoustic parameters.

  14. Personality Processes Reflected in Client Vocal Style and Rorschach Performance

    Rice, Laura North; Gaylin, Ned L.

    1973-01-01

    Vocal style was proposed as a useful variable with which to classify groups of clients in order to study the differential effects of various therapeutic maneuvers. Relationships between voice quality ratings in early psychotherapy interviews and pretherapy Rorschach and Minnesota Multiphasic Personality Inventory scores were investigated in order…

  15. Modal locking between vocal fold and vocal tract oscillations

    Aalto, Atte; Malinen, Jarmo; Vainio, Martti

    2012-01-01

    The human vocal folds are known to interact with the vocal tract acoustics during voiced speech production; namely a nonlinear source-filter coupling has been observed both by using models and in \\emph{in vivo} phonation. These phenomena are approached from two directions in this article. We first present a computational dynamical model of the speech apparatus that contains an explicit filter-source feedback mechanism from the vocal tract acoustics back to the vocal folds oscillations. The model was used to simulate vocal pitch glideswhere the trajectory was forced to cross the lowest vocal tract resonance, i.e., the lowest formant $F_1$. Similar patterns produced by human participants were then studied. Both the simulations and the experimental results reveal an effect when the glides cross the first formant (as may happen in \\textipa{[i]}). Conversely, this effect is not observed if there is no formant within the glide range (as is the case in \\textipa{[\\textscripta]}). The experiments show smaller effect c...

  16. Increased non-Gaussianity of heart rate variability predicts cardiac mortality after an acute myocardial infarction

    JunichiroHayano

    2011-09-01

    Full Text Available Non-Gaussianity index (λ is a new index of heart rate variability (HRV that characterizes increased probability of the large heart rate deviations from its trend. A previous study has reported that increased λ is an independent mortality predictor among patients with chronic heart failure. The present study examined predictive value of λ in patients after acute myocardial infarction (AMI. Among 670 post-AMI patients, we performed 24-hr Holter monitoring to assess λ and other HRV predictors, including standard deviation of normal-to-normal interval, very-low frequency power, scaling exponent α1 of detrended fluctuation analysis, deceleration capacity, and heart rate turbulence (HRT. At baseline, λ was not correlated substantially with other HRV indices (|r| <0.4 with either indices and was decreased in patients taking β-blockers (P = 0.04. During a median follow up period of 25 months, 45 (6.7% patients died (32 cardiac and 13 non-cardiac and 39 recurrent nonfatal AMI occurred among survivors. While all of these HRV indices but λ were significant predictors of both cardiac and non-cardiac deaths, increased λ predicted exclusively cardiac death (RR [95% CI], 1.6 [1.3-2.0] per 1 SD increment, P <0.0001. The predictive power of increased λ was significant even after adjustments for clinical risk factors, such as age, diabetes, left ventricular function, renal function, prior AMI, heart failure, and stroke, Killip class, and treatment ([95% CI], 1.4 [1.1-2.0] per 1 SD increment, P = 0.01. The prognostic power of increased λ for cardiac death was also independent of all other HRV indices and the combination of increased λ and abnormal HRT provided the best predictive model for cardiac death. Neither λ nor other HRV indices was an independent predictor of AMI recurrence. Among post-AMI patients, increased λ is associated exclusively with increased cardiac mortality risk and its predictive power is independent of clinical risk factors and

  17. Influence of acute normobaric hypoxia on physiological variables and lactate turn point determination in trained men.

    Ofner, Michael; Wonisch, Manfred; Frei, Mario; Tschakert, Gerhard; Domej, Wolfgang; Kröpfl, Julia M; Hofmann, Peter

    2014-12-01

    The goal of this study is to evaluate the response of physiological variables to acute normobaric hypoxia compared to normoxia and its influence on the lactate turn point determination according to the three-phase model of energy supply (Phase I: metabolically balanced at muscular level; Phase II: metabolically balanced at systemic level; Phase III: not metabolically balanced) during maximal incremental exercise. Ten physically active (VO2max 3.9 [0.49] l·min(-1)), healthy men (mean age [SD]: 25.3 [4.6] yrs.), participated in the study. All participants performed two maximal cycle ergometric exercise tests under normoxic as well as hypoxic conditions (FiO2 = 14%). Blood lactate concentration, heart rate, gas exchange data, and power output at maximum and the first and the second lactate turn point (LTP1, LTP2), the heart rate turn point (HRTP) and the first and the second ventilatory turn point (VETP1, VETP2) were determined. Since in normobaric hypoxia absolute power output (P) was reduced at all reference points (max: 314 / 274 W; LTP2: 218 / 184 W; LTP1: 110 / 96 W), as well as VO2max (max: 3.90 / 3.23 l·min(-1); LTP2: 2.90 / 2.43 l·min(-1); LTP1: 1.66 / 1.52 l·min(-1)), percentages of Pmax at LTP1, LTP2, HRTP and VETP1, VETP2 were almost identical for hypoxic as well as normoxic conditions. Heart rate was significantly reduced at Pmax in hypoxia (max: 190 / 185 bpm), but no significant differences were found at submaximal control points. Blood lactate concentration was not different at maximum, and all reference points in both conditions. Respiratory exchange ratio (RER) (max: 1.28 / 1.08; LTP2: 1.13 / 0.98) and ventilatory equivalents for O2 (max: 43.4 / 34.0; LTP2: 32.1 / 25.4) and CO2 (max: 34.1 / 31.6; LTP2: 29.1 / 26.1) were significantly higher at some reference points in hypoxia. Significant correlations were found between LTP1 and VETP1 (r = 0.778; p exercise performance in both environments. Key PointsThe lactate turn point concept can be used for

  18. Recurrent Vocal Fold Paralysis and Parsonage-Turner Syndrome

    Marcus Vinicius Pinto; Lucia Joffily; Maurice Borges Vincent

    2013-01-01

    Background. Parsonage-Turner syndrome, or neuralgic amyotrophy (NA), is an acute brachial plexus neuritis that typically presents with unilateral shoulder pain and amyotrophy but also can affect other peripheral nerves, including the recurrent laryngeal nerve. Idiopathic vocal fold paralysis (VFP) represents approximately 12% of the VFP cases and recurrence is extremely rare. Methods and Results. We report a man with isolated recurrent unilateral right VFP and a diagnosis of NA years befo...

  19. Effect of verapamil on heart rate variability after an acute myocardial infarction. Danish Verapamil Infarction Trial II

    Vaage-Nilsen, M; Rasmussen, Verner

    1998-01-01

    with verapamil significantly reduced sudden death, the aim of the present substudy was to evaluate the effect of verapamil on heart-rate variability in the time and frequency domain, measured in two 5-minute segments during the day and night. Thirty-eight patients were examined by Holter monitoring, at......Because decreased heart rate variability measured after an acute myocardial infarction (AMI) has been demonstrated to predict subsequent mortality and sudden death, and an efficacy analysis of the Danish Verapamil Infarction Trial II (DAVIT II) demonstrated that long-term postinfarction treatment...... 1 week, that is, before randomization, and at 1 month after infarction; 22 of the patients were examined 12-16 months after infarction as well. In both treatment groups (verapamil and placebo) no significant alteration of heart rate variability during the day-time was demonstrated from before to...

  20. Electroglottographic parameterization of the effects of gender, vowel and phonatory registers on vocal fold vibratory patterns: an Indian perspective.

    Paul, Nilanjan; Kumar, Suman; Chatterjee, Indranil; Mukherjee, Biswarup

    2011-01-01

    In-depth study on laryngeal biomechanics and vocal fold vibratory patterns reveal that a single vibratory cycle can be divided into two major phases, the closed and open phase, which is subdivided into opening and closing phases. Studies reveal that the relative time course of abduction and adduction, which in turn is dependent on the relative relaxing and tensing of the vocal fold cover and body, to be the determining factor in production of a particular vocal register like the modal (or chest), falsetto, glottal fry registers. Studies further point out Electroglottography to be particularly suitable for the study of vocal vibratory patterns during register changes. However, to date, there has been limited study on quantitative parameterization of EGG wave form in vocal fry register. Moreover, contradictory findings abound in literature regarding effects of gender and vowel types on vocal vibratory patterns, especially during phonation at different registers. The present study endeavors to find out the effects of vowel and gender differences on the vocal fold vibratory patterns in different registers and how these would be reflected in standard EGG parameters of Contact Quotient (CQ) and Contact Index (CI), taking into consideration the Indian sociolinguistic context. Electroglottographic recordings of 10 young adults (5 males and 5 females) were taken while the subjects phonated the three vowels /a/,/i/,/u/ each in two vocal registers, modal and vocal fry. Obtained raw EGG were further normalized using the Derived EGG algorithm and theCQ and CI values were derived. Obtained data were subject to statistical analysis using the 3-way ANOVA with gender, vowel and vocal register as the three variables. Post-hoc Dunnett C multiple comparison analysis were also performed. Results reveal that CQ values are significantly higher in vocal fry than modal phonation for both males and females, indicating a relatively hyperconstricted vocal system during vocal fry. The males

  1. Variables predictive of outcome in patients with acute hypercapneic respiratory failure treated with noninvasive ventilation

    To assess results with NIV in acute hypercapneic respiratory failure and to identify outcome predictors. This was a retrospective observational study on consecutive patients presenting with acute type II respiratory failure and meeting criteria for NIV use over a 5 year period. Patients presenting with haemodynamic instability, inability to protect their airway, malignant arrhythmias and recent oesophageal surgery were excluded. Univariate and Multivariate regression analysis was used to determine the impact on survival. A p value of 35 Meq/L (adjusted Odds ratio 0.9; 95% CI 0.83, 0.98, p < 0.015) identified those less at risk for intubation. NIV was found to be both safe and effective in the management of acute hypercapneic respiratory failure. Sepsis and serum HCO/sub 3/ at admission identified patients having poor outcomes (JPMA 60:13; 2010). (author)

  2. Influence of Acute Normobaric Hypoxia on Physiological Variables and Lactate Turn Point Determination in Trained Men

    Michael Ofner, Manfred Wonisch, Mario Frei, Gerhard Tschakert, Wolfgang Domej, Julia M. Kröpfl, Hofmann Peter

    2014-12-01

    Full Text Available The goal of this study is to evaluate the response of physiological variables to acute normobaric hypoxia compared to normoxia and its influence on the lactate turn point determination according to the three-phase model of energy supply (Phase I: metabolically balanced at muscular level; Phase II: metabolically balanced at systemic level; Phase III: not metabolically balanced during maximal incremental exercise. Ten physically active (VO2max 3.9 [0.49] l·min-1, healthy men (mean age [SD]: 25.3 [4.6] yrs., participated in the study. All participants performed two maximal cycle ergometric exercise tests under normoxic as well as hypoxic conditions (FiO2 = 14%. Blood lactate concentration, heart rate, gas exchange data, and power output at maximum and the first and the second lactate turn point (LTP1, LTP2, the heart rate turn point (HRTP and the first and the second ventilatory turn point (VETP1, VETP2 were determined. Since in normobaric hypoxia absolute power output (P was reduced at all reference points (max: 314 / 274 W; LTP2: 218 / 184 W; LTP1: 110 / 96 W, as well as VO2max (max: 3.90 / 3.23 l·min-1; LTP2: 2.90 / 2.43 l·min-1; LTP1: 1.66 / 1.52 l·min-1, percentages of Pmax at LTP1, LTP2, HRTP and VETP1, VETP2 were almost identical for hypoxic as well as normoxic conditions. Heart rate was significantly reduced at Pmax in hypoxia (max: 190 / 185 bpm, but no significant differences were found at submaximal control points. Blood lactate concentration was not different at maximum, and all reference points in both conditions. Respiratory exchange ratio (RER (max: 1.28 / 1.08; LTP2: 1.13 / 0.98 and ventilatory equivalents for O2 (max: 43.4 / 34.0; LTP2: 32.1 / 25.4 and CO2 (max: 34.1 / 31.6; LTP2: 29.1 / 26.1 were significantly higher at some reference points in hypoxia. Significant correlations were found between LTP1 and VETP1 (r = 0.778; p < 0.01, LTP2 and HRTP (r = 0.828; p < 0.01 and VETP2 (r = 0.948; p < 0.01 for power output for both

  3. An In Vivo Study of Composite Microgels Based on Hyaluronic Acid and Gelatin for the Reconstruction of Surgically Injured Rat Vocal Folds

    Coppoolse, Jiska M. S.; Van Kooten, T. G.; Heris, Hossein K.; Mongeau, Luc; Li, Nicole Y. K.; Thibeault, Susan L.; Pitaro, Jacob; Akinpelu, Olubunm; Daniel, Sam J.

    2014-01-01

    Purpose: The objective of this study was to investigate local injection with a hierarchically microstructured hyaluronic acid-gelatin (HA-Ge) hydrogel for the treatment of acute vocal fold injury using a rat model. Method: Vocal fold stripping was performed unilaterally in 108 Sprague-Dawley rats. A volume of 25 µl saline (placebo controls),…

  4. Effects of acute exposure to WIFI signals (2.45GHz) on heart variability and blood pressure in Albinos rabbit.

    Saili, Linda; Hanini, Amel; Smirani, Chiraz; Azzouz, Ines; Azzouz, Amina; Sakly, Mohsen; Abdelmelek, Hafedh; Bouslama, Zihad

    2015-09-01

    Electrocardiogram and arterial pressure measurements were studied under acute exposures to WIFI (2.45GHz) during one hour in adult male rabbits. Antennas of WIFI were placed at 25cm at the right side near the heart. Acute exposure of rabbits to WIFI increased heart frequency (+22%) and arterial blood pressure (+14%). Moreover, analysis of ECG revealed that WIFI induced a combined increase of PR and QT intervals. By contrast, the same exposure failed to alter maximum amplitude and P waves. After intravenously injection of dopamine (0.50ml/kg) and epinephrine (0.50ml/kg) under acute exposure to RF we found that, WIFI alter catecholamines (dopamine, epinephrine) action on heart variability and blood pressure compared to control. These results suggest for the first time, as far as we know, that exposure to WIFI affect heart rhythm, blood pressure, and catecholamines efficacy on cardiovascular system; indicating that radiofrequency can act directly and/or indirectly on cardiovascular system. PMID:26356390

  5. An Investigation of Extinction-Induced Vocalizations

    Valentino, Amber L.; Shillingsburg, M. Alice; Call, Nathan A.; Burton, Britney; Bowen, Crystal N.

    2011-01-01

    Children with autism have significant communication delays. Although some children develop vocalizations through shaping and differential reinforcement, others rarely exhibit vocalizations, and alternative methods are targeted in intervention. However, vocal language often remains a goal for caregivers and clinicians. Thus, strategies to increase…

  6. A comparison of biologically variable ventilation to recruitment manoeuvres in a porcine model of acute lung injury

    Rector Edward S

    2004-11-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Biologically variable ventilation (return of physiological variability in rate and tidal volume using a computer-controller was compared to control mode ventilation with and without a recruitment manoeuvre – 40 cm H2O for 40 sec performed hourly; in a porcine oleic acid acute lung injury model. Methods We compared gas exchange, respiratory mechanics, and measured bronchoalveolar fluid for inflammatory cytokines, cell counts and surfactant function. Lung injury was scored by light microscopy. Pigs received mechanical ventilation (FIO2 = 0.3; PEEP 5 cm H2O in control mode until PaO2 decreased to 60 mm Hg with oleic acid infusion (PaO2/FIO2 2O was added after injury. Animals were randomized to one of the 3 modes of ventilation and followed for 5 hr after injury. Results PaO2 and respiratory system compliance was significantly greater with biologically variable ventilation compared to the other 2 groups. Mean and mean peak airway pressures were also lower. There were no differences in cell counts in bronchoalveolar fluid by flow cytometry, or interleukin-8 and -10 levels between groups. Lung injury scoring revealed no difference between groups in the regions examined. No differences in surfactant function were seen between groups by capillary surfactometry. Conclusions In this porcine model of acute lung injury, various indices to measure injury or inflammation did not differ between the 3 approaches to ventilation. However, when using a low tidal volume strategy with moderate levels of PEEP, sustained improvements in arterial oxygen tension and respiratory system compliance were only seen with BVV when compared to CMV or CMV with a recruitment manoeuvre.

  7. Vocalizations of Amazon river dolphins (Inia geoffrensis) : Characterization, effect of physical environment and differences between populations

    Amorim, Thiago Orion Simões; Andriolo, Artur; Reis, Sarah S.; Santos, Manuel Eduardo dos

    2016-01-01

    The vocal repertoire of the Amazon river dolphin and its geographic variations are still poorly known, especially in relation to ecological variables. Here the acoustic characteristics of low frequency pulsed vocalizations, with single or multiple pulses, recorded in two protected areas of the Amazon were described and differences in acoustic emissions related to water properties were analyzed. Both frequency and time parameters differ relative to abiotic condition of water turbid...

  8. Evaluating WRF-Chem aerosol indirect effects in Southeast Pacific marine stratocumulus during VOCALS-REx

    Saide, P.E.; S. N. Spak; Carmichael, G R; M. A. Mena-Carrasco; Howell, S.; D. C. Leon; J. R. Snider; A. R. Bandy; J. L. Collett; Benedict, K. B.; Szoeke, S. P.; L. N. Hawkins; Allen, G.; Crawford, I; J. Crosier

    2011-01-01

    We evaluate a regional-scale simulation with the WRF-Chem model for the VAMOS (Variability of the American Monsoon Systems) Ocean-Cloud-Atmosphere-Land Study Regional Experiment (VOCALS-REx), which sampled the Southeast Pacific's persistent stratocumulus deck. Evaluation of VOCALS-REx ship-based and aircraft observations focuses on analyzing how aerosol loading affects marine boundary layer (MBL) dynamics and cloud microphysics. We compare local time series and campaign-averaged longitud...

  9. A comparison between subjective and objective methods for evaluating the vocal accuracy of a popular song

    Larrouy, Pauline; Lévêque, Yohana; Giovanni, Antoine; Schön, Daniele; Morsomme, Dominique

    2012-01-01

    Vocal accuracy of a sung performance can be evaluated by two methods: acoustical analyses and subjective judgements. For one decade, acoustic analyses have been presented as a more reliable solution to evaluate vocal accuracy, avoiding the limitation of experts’ perceptive system and their variability. This paper presents for the first time a direct comparison of these methods. 166 occasional singers were asked to sing the popular song « Happy Birthday ». Acoustic analyses were performed t...

  10. Laboratory diagnostics acute respiratory virus infections under evolutionary variability influenza viruses

    V. F. Suhovetskaya

    2014-09-01

    Full Text Available As a result of laboratory investigation 1651 patients at the age from 0 months till 18 years, hospitalized with ARI from 2008 to 2011, in ¾ cases the virus etiology of disease was found. At the same time in 2009-2011 was marked significant prevalence of pandemic influenza virus infection A(Н1N1v in a kind mono- and mikst-infections (in 18,8 and 10,2 % of cases accordingly, and adenoviruses, espiratory sincitial viruses and parainfluenza were the most frequent concomitants (in 4,8, 3,2 and 2,4 % of cases. In a clinical picture of disease acute nasopharynx lesion (67,8 % was predominated, complicating by croup in 12,2 % of cases, by acute bronchitis in 12,1 % of cases, and more rare by pneumonia (in 8,2 % of cases. The analysis of results of immunofluorescence test in comparison with the cumulative data of other laboratory methods (polymerase chain reaction, immuneenzyme analysis, virus isolation, serological examination has shown possibility of discovery with its help the valuable information on etiology ARI, including influenza, at early stages of disease and in short terms.

  11. Familial bias and auditory feedback regulation of vocal babbling patterns during early song development

    Sato, Daisuke; Mori, Chihiro; Sawai, Azusa; Wada, Kazuhiro

    2016-01-01

    Learned vocalizations are a crucial acoustic biosignal conveying individual traits in many species. Songbirds learn song patterns by listening to a tutor song and performing vocal practice during a sensitive developmental period. However, when and how individual differences in song patterns develop remain unknown. Here, we report that individual differences in vocal output exist even at the earliest song development stage, called subsong. Experiments involving the manipulation of both breeding pairs and song tutoring conditions revealed that the parental pair combination contributes to generating familial differences in syllable duration and variability in the subsong of offspring. Furthermore, after deafening, juveniles immediately changed their subsong by shortening the syllable durations but maintained the individual variability of their subsong temporal patterns, suggesting both auditory-sensitive modification and independent intrinsic regulation of vocal output. These results indicate that the temporal patterns of subsong are not merely disordered vocalization but are regulated by familial bias with sensitivity to auditory feedback, thus generating individual variability at the initiation of vocal development. PMID:27444993

  12. Chronic cough and laryngeal dysfunction improve with specific treatment of cough and paradoxical vocal fold movement

    Ryan, Nicole M; Vertigan, Anne E; Gibson, Peter G

    2009-01-01

    Rationale Chronic persistent cough can be associated with laryngeal dysfunction that leads to symptoms such as dysphonia, sensory hyperresponsiveness to capsaicin, and motor dysfunction with paradoxical vocal fold movement and variable extrathoracic airflow obstruction (reduced inspiratory airflow). Successful therapy of chronic persistent cough improves symptoms and sensory hyperresponsiveness. The effects of treatment for chronic cough on laryngeal dysfunction are not known. Objective The aim of this study was to investigate effects of therapy for chronic cough and paradoxical vocal fold movement. Methods Adults with chronic cough (n = 24) were assessed before and after treatment for chronic persistent cough by measuring quality of life, extrathoracic airway hyperresponsiveness to hypertonic saline provocation, capsaicin cough reflex hypersensitivity and fibreoptic laryngoscopy to observe paradoxical vocal fold movement. Subjects with chronic cough were classified into those with (n = 14) or without (n = 10) paradoxical vocal fold movement based on direct observation at laryngoscopy. Results Following treatment there was a significant improvement in cough related quality of life and cough reflex sensitivity in both groups. Subjects with chronic cough and paradoxical vocal fold movement also had additional improvements in extrathoracic airway hyperresponsiveness and paradoxical vocal fold movement. The degree of improvement in cough reflex sensitivity correlated with the improvement in extrathoracic airway hyperresponsiveness. Conclusion Laryngeal dysfunction is common in chronic persistent cough, where it is manifest as paradoxical vocal fold movement and extrathoracic airway hyperresponsiveness. Successful treatment for chronic persistent cough leads to improvements in these features of laryngeal dysfunction. PMID:19292930

  13. Review on Mathematical and Mechanical Models of the Vocal Cord

    L. Cveticanin

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available A review on mathematical and mechanical models of the vocal cords is given. The basic model is a two-mass nonlinear oscillator system which is accepted to be the basic one for mechanical description in voice production. The model is not only extended into three, five, and more mass systems, systems with time variable parameters and three-dimensional systems, but also simplified into one-mass system with coupled two-direction deflection and damping functions. The corresponding mathematical models are the systems of coupled second-order differential equations which describe the vibrations of the symmetric and asymmetric vocal folds. The models give the conditions for the regular and irregular motions like bifurcation and deterministic chaos in vocal folds. The obtained results are of special interest for detecting the pathology of vocal cords, when there are no visual effects of disease. Based on the results given in the paper, the objectives for future investigation in this matter are given.

  14. Biomechanical control of vocal plasticity in an echolocating bat.

    Luo, Jinhong; Wiegrebe, Lutz

    2016-03-15

    Many animal species adjust the spectral composition of their acoustic signals to variable environments. However, the physiological foundation of such spectral plasticity is often unclear. The source-filter theory of sound production, initially established for human speech, applies to vocalizations in birds and mammals. According to this theory, adjusting the spectral structure of vocalizations could be achieved by modifying either the laryngeal/syringeal source signal or the vocal tract, which filters the source signal. Here, we show that in pale spear-nosed bats, spectral plasticity induced by moderate level background noise is dominated by the vocal tract rather than the laryngeal source signal. Specifically, we found that with increasing background noise levels, bats consistently decreased the spectral centroid of their echolocation calls up to 3.2 kHz, together with other spectral parameters. In contrast, noise-induced changes in fundamental frequency were small (maximally 0.1 kHz) and were inconsistent across individuals. Changes in spectral centroid did not correlate with changes in fundamental frequency, whereas they correlated negatively with changes in call amplitude. Furthermore, while bats consistently increased call amplitude with increasing noise levels (the Lombard effect), increases in call amplitude typically did not lead to increases in fundamental frequency. In summary, our results suggest that at least to a certain degree echolocating bats are capable of adjusting call amplitude, fundamental frequency and spectral parameters independently. PMID:26823102

  15. Determinants of the mouse ultrasonic vocal structure and repertoire.

    Heckman, Jesse; McGuinness, Brigit; Celikel, Tansu; Englitz, Bernhard

    2016-06-01

    Mouse ultrasonic vocalizations (USV) exhibit a high degree of complexity as demonstrated in recent years. A multitude of factors have been identified to influence USVs on the spectrotemporal as well as structural - e.g. syntactic - level. A synthesis of the various studies that attributes semantics to USV properties or sequences is still lacking. Presently, we address the factors modulating the composition of USVs, specifically age, gender, genetic background (including the targeted FoxP2 mutagenesis), behavioral state and individuality. It emerges that the different factors share a set of common influences, e.g. vocalization rate and frequency range are universally modulated across independent variables described; however, distinct influences exist for sequential structure (different effects for age, behavioral state and genetic background) or vocal repertoire (age). Recently, USV research has seen important advances based on the quantitative maturation of methods on multiple levels of vocalization. Adoption of these methods to address the natural statistics of USV will ultimately benefit several related research areas, e.g. neurolinguistics, neurodevelopmental disorders, multisensory and sensorimotor research. PMID:27060755

  16. Vocal Health for Physical Educators

    Trout, Josh; McColl, Douglas

    2007-01-01

    Evidence suggests that teachers are often at risk for vocal disease and are more likely to change occupations because of their voice problems compared to non-teachers. Physical educators are especially at risk for voice problems due to the intense daily demands of voice projection. Chronic abuse can cause swelling and inflammation of the…

  17. Effect of prenatal cocaine on early postnatal thermoregulation and ultrasonic vocalization production

    MatthewStephenMcMurray

    2013-11-01

    Full Text Available Prenatal cocaine exposure can alter the postnatal care received by rat pups. Such effects could be caused in part by alterations in pup-produced stimuli that elicit early postnatal maternal care. Pup ultrasonic vocalizations are thought to be a particularly salient stimulus, and when paired with other cues, may elicit maternal attention. Cocaine is known to acutely alter thermoregulatory and cardiac function, thus prenatal cocaine may affect vocalizations through altering these functions. The data presented here determine the impact of full term prenatal cocaine exposure , saline exposure, or no exposure on thermogenic capacity, cardiac function, and the resulting ultrasonic vocalizations across the early postnatal period (days 1-5. Results indicated that while sharing many similar characteristics with saline-exposed and untreated animals, prenatal cocaine exposure was associated with specific alterations in vocalization characteristics on postnatal day 1 (PND 1, including call amplitude. Furthermore, numerous spectral parameters of their vocalizations were found altered on PND 3, including rate, call duration, and frequency, while no alterations were found on PND 5. Additionally, cocaine-exposed pups also showed a reduced thermoregulatory capacity compared to saline animals and reduced cardiac mass compared to untreated animals on PND 5. Together, these findings indicate that prenatal cocaine may be altering the elicitation of maternal care through its impact on vocalizations and thermoregulation, and suggests a potential mechanism for these effects through cocaine’s impact on developing stress systems.

  18. Effects of acute hypoxia on heart rate variability, sample entropy and cardiorespiratory phase synchronization

    Zhang, Da; She, Jin; Zhang, Zhengbo; Yu, Mengsun

    2014-01-01

    Background Investigating the responses of autonomic nervous system (ANS) in hypoxia may provide some knowledge about the mechanism of neural control and rhythmic adjustment. The integrated cardiac and respiratory system display complicated dynamics that are affected by intrinsic feedback mechanisms controlling their interaction. To probe how the cardiac and respiratory system adjust their rhythms in different simulated altitudes, we studied heart rate variability (HRV) in frequency domain, th...

  19. Heart rate variability measurement and clinical depression in acute coronary syndrome patients: narrative review of recent literature

    Harris PR

    2014-07-01

    Full Text Available Patricia RE Harris,1 Claire E Sommargren,2 Phyllis K Stein,3 Gordon L Fung,4,5 Barbara J Drew6,7 1ECG Monitoring Research Lab, 2Department of Physiological Nursing, School of Nursing, University of California, San Francisco, CA, USA; 3Heart Rate Variability Laboratory, School of Medicine, Washington University, St Louis, MO, USA; 4Asian Heart & Vascular Center at Mount Zion, Division of Cardiology, University of California, 5Cardiology Consultation Service, Cardiac Noninvasive Laboratory, and The Enhanced External Counterpulsation Unit, Department of Medicine, University of California, San Francisco Medical Center, 6Division of Cardiology, 7Department of Physiological Nursing, School of Nursing, University of California, San Francisco, CA, USA Aim: We aimed to explore links between heart rate variability (HRV and clinical depression in patients with acute coronary syndrome (ACS, through a review of recent clinical research literature. Background: Patients with ACS are at risk for both cardiac autonomic dysfunction and clinical depression. Both conditions can negatively impact the ability to recover from an acute physiological insult, such as unstable angina or myocardial infarction, increasing the risk for adverse cardiovascular outcomes. HRV is recognized as a reflection of autonomic function. Methods: A narrative review was undertaken to evaluate state-of-the-art clinical research, using the PubMed database, January 2013. The search terms “heart rate variability” and “depression” were used in conjunction with “acute coronary syndrome”, “unstable angina”, or “myocardial infarction” to find clinical studies published within the past 10 years related to HRV and clinical depression, in patients with an ACS episode. Studies were included if HRV measurement and depression screening were undertaken during an ACS hospitalization or within 2 months of hospital discharge. Results: Nine clinical studies met the inclusion criteria. The

  20. Acute toxicity of leachates of tire wear material to Daphnia magna--variability and toxic components.

    Wik, Anna; Dave, Göran

    2006-09-01

    Large amounts of tire rubber are deposited along the roads due to tread wear. Several compounds may leach from the rubber and cause toxicity to aquatic organisms. To investigate the toxic effects of tire wear material from different tires, rubber was abraded from the treads of twenty-five tires. Leachates were prepared by allowing the rubber to equilibrate with dilution water at 44 degrees C for 72 h. Then the rubber was filtered from the leachates, and test organisms (Daphnia magna) were added. Forty-eight hour EC50s ranged from 0.5 to >10.0 g l(-1). The toxicity identification evaluation (TIE) indicated that non-polar organic compounds caused most of the toxicity. UV exposure of the filtered tire leachates caused no significant increase in toxicity. However, when tested as unfiltered leachates (the rubber was not filtered from the leachates before addition of D. magna) photo-enhanced toxicity was considerable for some tires, which means that test procedures are important when testing tire leachates for aquatic (photo) toxicity. The acute toxicity of tire wear for Daphnia magna was found to be tire component found in environmental samples, which emphasizes the need for a more extensive risk assessment of tire wear for the environment. PMID:16466775

  1. Dependence of phonation threshold pressure on vocal tract acoustics and vocal fold tissue mechanics.

    Chan, Roger W; Titze, Ingo R

    2006-04-01

    Analytical and computer simulation studies have shown that the acoustic impedance of the vocal tract as well as the viscoelastic properties of vocal fold tissues are critical for determining the dynamics and the energy transfer mechanism of vocal fold oscillation. In the present study, a linear, small-amplitude oscillation theory was revised by taking into account the propagation of a mucosal wave and the inertive reactance (inertance) of the supraglottal vocal tract as the major energy transfer mechanisms for flow-induced self-oscillation of the vocal fold. Specifically, analytical results predicted that phonation threshold pressure (Pth) increases with the viscous shear properties of the vocal fold, but decreases with vocal tract inertance. This theory was empirically tested using a physical model of the larynx, where biological materials (fat, hyaluronic acid, and fibronectin) were implanted into the vocal fold cover to investigate the effect of vocal fold tissue viscoelasticity on Pth. A uniform-tube supraglottal vocal tract was also introduced to examine the effect of vocal tract inertance on Pth. Results showed that Pth decreased with the inertive impedance of the vocal tract and increased with the viscous shear modulus (G") or dynamic viscosity (eta') of the vocal fold cover, consistent with theoretical predictions. These findings supported the potential biomechanical benefits of hyaluronic acid as a surgical bioimplant for repairing voice disorders involving the superficial layer of the lamina propria, such as scarring, sulcus vocalis, atrophy, and Reinke's edema. PMID:16642848

  2. Vocal acoustic analysis as a biometric indicator of information processing: implications for neurological and psychiatric disorders.

    Cohen, Alex S; Dinzeo, Thomas J; Donovan, Neila J; Brown, Caitlin E; Morrison, Sean C

    2015-03-30

    Vocal expression reflects an integral component of communication that varies considerably within individuals across contexts and is disrupted in a range of neurological and psychiatric disorders. There is reason to suspect that variability in vocal expression reflects, in part, the availability of "on-line" resources (e.g., working memory, attention). Thus, understanding vocal expression is a potentially important biometric index of information processing, not only across but within individuals over time. A first step in this line of research involves establishing a link between vocal expression and information processing systems in healthy adults. The present study employed a dual attention experimental task where participants provided natural speech while simultaneously engaged in a baseline, medium or high nonverbal processing-load task. Objective, automated, and computerized analysis was employed to measure vocal expression in 226 adults. Increased processing load resulted in longer pauses, fewer utterances, greater silence overall and less variability in frequency and intensity levels. These results provide compelling evidence of a link between information processing resources and vocal expression, and provide important information for the development of an automated, inexpensive and uninvasive biometric measure of information processing. PMID:25656172

  3. Psychogenic dysphonia: diversity of clinical and vocal manifestations in a case series

    Regina Helena Garcia Martins

    2014-12-01

    Full Text Available Introduction: Psychogenic dysphonia is a functional disorder with variable clinical manifestations. Objective: To assess the clinical and vocal characteristics of patients with psychogenic dysphonia in a case series. Methods: The study included 28 adult patients with psychogenic dysphonia, evaluated at a University hospital in the last ten years. Assessed variables included gender, age, occupation, vocal symptoms, vocal characteristics, and videolaryngostroboscopic findings. Results: 28 patients (26 women and 2 men were assessed. Their occupations included: housekeeper (n = 17, teacher (n = 4, salesclerk (n = 4, nurse (n = 1, retired (n = 1, and psychologist (n = 1. Sudden symptom onset was reported by 16 patients and progressive symptom onset was reported by 12; intermittent evolution was reported by 15; symptom duration longer than three months was reported by 21 patients. Videolaryngostroboscopy showed only functional disorders; no patient had structural lesions or changes in vocal fold mobility. Conversion aphonia, skeletal muscle tension, and intermittent voicing were the most frequent vocal emission manifestation forms. Conclusions: In this case series of patients with psychogenic dysphonia, the most frequent form of clinical presentation was conversion aphonia, followed by musculoskeletal tension and intermittent voicing. The clinical and vocal aspects of 28 patients with psychogenic dysphonia, as well as the particularities of each case, are discussed.

  4. Comportamento vocal de cantores populares Vocal behavior of popular singers

    Valquíria Zimmer

    2012-04-01

    Full Text Available OBJETIVO: investigar aspectos do histórico, hábitos e comportamentos vocais de cantores populares, conforme o sexo e as categorias profissional e amador. MÉTODO: entrevista com 47 cantores, 25 homens e 22 mulheres. RESULTADOS: significância estatística nos seguintes achados: MASCULINO - microfone nos ensaios, ausência de problemas vocais diagnosticados, ausência de orientações sobre higiene vocal, dor ou desconforto após cantar, ausência de alergias e problemas respiratórios; FEMININO - aulas de canto e conhecimento sobre postura; AMADOR - não cantar dançando, não imitar vozes, ausência de avaliação otorrinolaringológica, ausência de problemas vocais diagnosticados, ausência de terapia fonoaudiológica, ausência de orientações de anatomofisiologia vocal e não utilização de álcool nos ensaios; PROFISSIONAL - rouquidão, conhecimento sobre articulação, álcool durante os shows, "garganta suja" ou pigarro, dor após cantar. CONCLUSÕES: a comparação entre os sexos evidenciou que os homens utilizavam microfone no ensaio, não apresentavam problemas alérgicos ou respiratórios, nem problemas vocais diagnosticados, mas apresentavam sensação de dor ou desconforto após o canto e não possuíam noções sobre higiene vocal; e que as mulheres realizavam aulas de canto e possuíam orientações de postura. A comparação entre amadores e profissionais mostrou que os amadores não cantavam dançando, não imitavam vozes, não utilizavam álcool nos ensaios, e não apresentavam problemas vocais diagnosticados, mas não possuíam avaliação otorrinolaringológica, não realizavam terapia fonoaudiológica, e não possuíam conhecimento sobre anatomofisiologia vocal; e os profissionais apresentavam queixa de rouquidão, de "garganta suja" ou pigarro e de dor após cantar, e usavam álcool durante os shows, apesar de possuir conhecimento sobre articulação.PURPOSE: to investigate aspects of vocal history, vocal habits and

  5. Modeling vocalization with ECoG cortical activity recorded during vocal production in the macaque monkey.

    Fukushima, Makoto; Saunders, Richard C; Fujii, Naotaka; Averbeck, Bruno B; Mishkin, Mortimer

    2014-01-01

    Vocal production is an example of controlled motor behavior with high temporal precision. Previous studies have decoded auditory evoked cortical activity while monkeys listened to vocalization sounds. On the other hand, there have been few attempts at decoding motor cortical activity during vocal production. Here we recorded cortical activity during vocal production in the macaque with a chronically implanted electrocorticographic (ECoG) electrode array. The array detected robust activity in motor cortex during vocal production. We used a nonlinear dynamical model of the vocal organ to reduce the dimensionality of `Coo' calls produced by the monkey. We then used linear regression to evaluate the information in motor cortical activity for this reduced representation of calls. This simple linear model accounted for circa 65% of the variance in the reduced sound representations, supporting the feasibility of using the dynamical model of the vocal organ for decoding motor cortical activity during vocal production. PMID:25571556

  6. Assessment of acute pesticide toxicity with selected biochemical variables in suicide attempting subjects

    Pesticide induced changes were assessed in thirty two subjects of attempted suicide cases. Among all, the farmers and their families were recorded as most frequently suicide attempting. The values obtained from seven biochemical variables of 29 years old (average age) hospitalized subjects were compared to the same number and age matched normal volunteers. The results revealed major differences in the mean values of the selected parameters. The mean difference calculate; alkaline phosphatase (178.7 mu/l), Bilirubin (7.5 mg/dl), GPT (59.2 mu/l) and glucose (38.6 mg/dl) were higher than the controls, which indicate the hepatotoxicity induced by the pesticides in suicide attempting individuals. Increase in serum creatinine and urea indicated renal malfunction that could be linked with pesticide induced nephrotoxicity among them. (author)

  7. Acute Effects of Plyometric Intervention—Performance Improvement and Related Changes in Sprinting Gait Variability.

    Maćkała, Krzysztof; Fostiak, Marek

    2015-07-01

    The purpose of this study was to examine the effect of a short high-intensity plyometric program on the improvement of explosive power of lower extremities and sprint performance as well as changes in sprinting stride variability in male sprinters. Fourteen healthy male sprinters (mean ± SD: age: 18.07 ± 0.73 years, body mass: 73 ± 9.14 kg, height: 180.57 ± 8.16 cm, and best 100 m: 10.89 ± 0.23) participated in the experiment. The experimental protocol included vertical jumping such as squat jump, countermovement jump, and horizontal jumps; standing long jump and standing triple jumps to assess lower-body power, maximal running velocity; a 20-m flying start sprint that evaluated variability of 10 running steps and 60-m starting block sprint. All analyzed parameters were obtained using the new technology of OptoJump-Microgate (OptoJump, Italy). The short-term plyometric training program significantly increased the explosive power of lower extremities, both vertical and horizontal jumping improvement. However, the vertical jumps increased much more than the horizontal. The 20-m improvements were derived from an increase of stride frequency from 4.31 to 4.39 Hz because of a decrease of ground contact time from 138 to 133 milliseconds. This did not translate into step length changes. Therefore, the significantly increased frequency of stride (1.8%), which is a specific expression of ground contact time reduction during support phase, resulted in an increase of speed. The training volume of 2 weeks (with 6 sessions) using high-intensity (between 180 and 250 jumps per session) plyometric exercises can be recommended as the short-term strategy that will optimize one's probability of reaching strong improvements in explosive power and sprint velocity performance. PMID:25627644

  8. Changes in the heart rate variability in patients with obstructive sleep apnea and its response to acute CPAP treatment.

    Ernesto Kufoy

    Full Text Available INTRODUCTION: Obstructive Sleep Apnea (OSA is a major risk factor for cardiovascular disease. The goal of this study was to demonstrate whether the use of CPAP produces significant changes in the heart rate or in the heart rate variability of patients with OSA in the first night of treatment and whether gender and obesity play a role in these differences. METHODS: Single-center transversal study including patients with severe OSA corrected with CPAP. Only patients with total correction after CPAP were included. Patients underwent two sleep studies on consecutive nights: the first night a basal study, and the second with CPAP. We also analyzed the heart rate changes and their relationship with CPAP treatment, sleep stages, sex and body mass index. Twenty-minute segments of the ECG were selected from the sleep periods of REM, no-REM and awake. Heart rate (HR and heart rate variability (HRV were studied by comparing the R-R interval in the different conditions. We also compared samples from the basal study and CPAP nights. RESULTS: 39 patients (15 females, 24 males were studied. The mean age was 50.67 years old, the mean AHI was 48.54, and mean body mass index was 33.41 kg/m(2 (31.83 males, 35.95 females. Our results showed that HRV (SDNN decreased after the use of CPAP during the first night of treatment, especially in non-REM sleep. Gender and obesity did not have any influence on our results. CONCLUSIONS: These findings support that cardiac variability improves as an acute effect, independently of gender or weight, in the first night of CPAP use in severe OSA patients, supporting the idea of continuous use and emphasizing that noncompliance of CPAP treatment should be avoided even if it is just once.

  9. Recurrent Vocal Fold Paralysis and Parsonage-Turner Syndrome

    Marcus Vinicius Pinto

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Background. Parsonage-Turner syndrome, or neuralgic amyotrophy (NA, is an acute brachial plexus neuritis that typically presents with unilateral shoulder pain and amyotrophy but also can affect other peripheral nerves, including the recurrent laryngeal nerve. Idiopathic vocal fold paralysis (VFP represents approximately 12% of the VFP cases and recurrence is extremely rare. Methods and Results. We report a man with isolated recurrent unilateral right VFP and a diagnosis of NA years before. Conclusions. We emphasize that shoulder pain and amyotrophy should be inquired in any patient suffering from inexplicable dysphonia, and Parsonage-Turner syndrome should be considered in the differential diagnosis of idiopathic VFP.

  10. Recurrent Vocal Fold Paralysis and Parsonage-Turner Syndrome

    Joffily, Lucia; Vincent, Maurice Borges

    2013-01-01

    Background. Parsonage-Turner syndrome, or neuralgic amyotrophy (NA), is an acute brachial plexus neuritis that typically presents with unilateral shoulder pain and amyotrophy but also can affect other peripheral nerves, including the recurrent laryngeal nerve. Idiopathic vocal fold paralysis (VFP) represents approximately 12% of the VFP cases and recurrence is extremely rare. Methods and Results. We report a man with isolated recurrent unilateral right VFP and a diagnosis of NA years before. Conclusions. We emphasize that shoulder pain and amyotrophy should be inquired in any patient suffering from inexplicable dysphonia, and Parsonage-Turner syndrome should be considered in the differential diagnosis of idiopathic VFP. PMID:24288639

  11. Recurrent vocal fold paralysis and parsonage-turner syndrome.

    Pinto, Marcus Vinicius; Joffily, Lucia; Vincent, Maurice Borges

    2013-01-01

    Background. Parsonage-Turner syndrome, or neuralgic amyotrophy (NA), is an acute brachial plexus neuritis that typically presents with unilateral shoulder pain and amyotrophy but also can affect other peripheral nerves, including the recurrent laryngeal nerve. Idiopathic vocal fold paralysis (VFP) represents approximately 12% of the VFP cases and recurrence is extremely rare. Methods and Results. We report a man with isolated recurrent unilateral right VFP and a diagnosis of NA years before. Conclusions. We emphasize that shoulder pain and amyotrophy should be inquired in any patient suffering from inexplicable dysphonia, and Parsonage-Turner syndrome should be considered in the differential diagnosis of idiopathic VFP. PMID:24288639

  12. Assessing variability in chemical acute toxicity of unionid mussels: Influence of intra- and inter-laboratory testing, life stage, and species - SETAC Abstract

    We developed a toxicity database for unionid mussels to examine the extent of intra- and inter-laboratory variability in acute toxicity tests with mussel larvae (glochidia) and juveniles; the extent of differential sensitivity of the two life stages; and the variation in sensitiv...

  13. Assessing variability in chemical acute toxicity of unionid mussels: Influence of intra- and inter-laboratory testing, life stage, and species

    The authors developed a toxicity database for unionid mussels to examine the extent of intra- and interlaboratory variability in acute toxicity tests with mussel larvae (glochidia) and juveniles; the extent of differential sensitivity of the 2 life stages; and the variation in se...

  14. Vocal communication of wild parrots

    Bradbury, Jack

    2001-05-01

    Field studies of four sympatric parrot species in Costa Rica are revealing several possible functions for the well-known ability of parrots to mimic new sounds throughout life. Despite earlier suggestions that this might facilitate exchanges of environmental information, all data so far suggest that vocal mimicry in the wild is associated with mediation of the fission/fusion of groups of parrots and/or of conflicts between mated pairs. Recent results using array recording and interactive playback will be summarized, and several technical problems created by the mechanisms of parrot vocal signal production discussed. [Research supported by NSF Grant IBN-022927 and by continued encouragement and logistics provided by the staff of the Area Conservacion Guanacaste (Costa Rica).

  15. Acoustic detection of manatee vocalizations

    Niezrecki, Christopher; Phillips, Richard; Meyer, Michael; Beusse, Diedrich O.

    2003-09-01

    The West Indian manatee (trichechus manatus latirostris) has become endangered partly because of a growing number of collisions with boats. A system to warn boaters of the presence of manatees, that can signal to boaters that manatees are present in the immediate vicinity, could potentially reduce these boat collisions. In order to identify the presence of manatees, acoustic methods are employed. Within this paper, three different detection algorithms are used to detect the calls of the West Indian manatee. The detection systems are tested in the laboratory using simulated manatee vocalizations from an audio compact disk. The detection method that provides the best overall performance is able to correctly identify ~96% of the manatee vocalizations. However, the system also results in a false alarm rate of ~16%. The results of this work may ultimately lead to the development of a manatee warning system that can warn boaters of the presence of manatees.

  16. Heart rate variability measured early in patients with evolving acute coronary syndrome and 1-year outcomes of rehospitalization and mortality

    Harris PR

    2014-08-01

    Full Text Available Patricia R E Harris,1 Phyllis K Stein,2 Gordon L Fung,3 Barbara J Drew4 1Electrocardiographic Monitoring Research Laboratory, School of Nursing, Department of Physiological Nursing, University of California, San Francisco, CA, USA; 2Heart Rate Variability Laboratory, School of Medicine, Division of Cardiology, Washington University, St Louis, MO, USA; 3Cardiology Services, Mount Zion, Department of Medicine, Division of Cardiology, University of California, San Francisco, CA, USA; 4School of Nursing, Department of Physiological Nursing, Division of Cardiology, University of California, San Francisco, CA, USA Objective: This study sought to examine the prognostic value of heart rate variability (HRV measurement initiated immediately after emergency department presentation for patients with acute coronary syndrome (ACS. Background: Altered HRV has been associated with adverse outcomes in heart disease, but the value of HRV measured during the earliest phases of ACS related to risk of 1-year rehospitalization and death has not been established. Methods: Twenty-four-hour Holter recordings of 279 patients with ACS were initiated within 45 minutes of emergency department arrival; recordings with ≥18 hours of sinus rhythm were selected for HRV analysis (number [N] =193. Time domain, frequency domain, and nonlinear HRV were examined. Survival analysis was performed. Results: During the 1-year follow-up, 94 patients were event-free, 82 were readmitted, and 17 died. HRV was altered in relation to outcomes. Predictors of rehospitalization included increased normalized high frequency power, decreased normalized low frequency power, and decreased low/high frequency ratio. Normalized high frequency >42 ms2 predicted rehospitalization while controlling for clinical variables (hazard ratio [HR] =2.3; 95% confidence interval [CI] =1.4–3.8, P=0.001. Variables significantly associated with death included natural logs of total power and ultra low frequency

  17. Vocal Ontogeny in Neotropical Singing Mice (Scotinomys)

    Polly Campbell; Bret Pasch; Ashley L Warren; Phelps, Steven M.

    2014-01-01

    Isolation calls produced by dependent young are a fundamental form of communication. For species in which vocal signals remain important to adult communication, the function and social context of vocal behavior changes dramatically with the onset of sexual maturity. The ontogenetic relationship between these distinct forms of acoustic communication is surprisingly under-studied. We conducted a detailed analysis of vocal development in sister species of Neotropical singing mice, Scotinomys teg...

  18. Vocal competition in male Xenopus laevis frogs

    Tobias, Martha L.; Corke, Anna; Korsh, Jeremy; Yin, David; Kelley, Darcy B.

    2010-01-01

    Male Xenopus laevis frogs produce underwater advertisement calls that attract gravid females and suppress calling by male competitors. Here we explore whether groups of males establish vocal ranks and whether auditory cues alone suffice for vocal suppression. Tests of male–male pairs within assigned groups reveal linear vocal dominance relations, in which each male has a defined rank. Both the duration over which males interact, as well as the number of competitive opportunities, affect linea...

  19. Sensory Feedback Control of Mammalian Vocalizations

    Smotherman, Michael S.

    2007-01-01

    Somatosensory and auditory feedback mechanisms are dynamic components of the vocal motor pattern generator in mammals. This review explores how sensory cues arising from central auditory and somatosensory pathways actively guide the production of both simple sounds and complex phrases in mammals. While human speech is a uniquely sophisticated example of mammalian vocal behavior, other mammals can serve as examples of how sensory feedback guides complex vocal patterns. Echolocating bats in par...

  20. Singing synthesis and the Vocal Tract Organ

    Howard, David Martin

    2014-01-01

    Vocal synthesis has been the subject of investigation since the late 18th century when von Kempelen produced his mechanical ‘speaking machine’. The advert of electronics has enabled a number of different methods of voice synthesis to be realized in practice. Recently with the advent of 3-D printing and magnetic resonance imaging of human vocal tracts, it has been possible to create synthetic vocal sounds that combine both mechanical (3-D printed tracts) and electronic (synthesized larynx soun...

  1. Aesthetic and Culture Origin of Vocal Art

    张延春

    2010-01-01

    As one of the most commonly and widely adopted art forms, vocal art has been closely related with national culture and the aesthetics trend. Traditional Chinese vocal art rooted from China' s long history and distinctive culture. On the contrary, Italian bel canto stems from the prospect of Italian Opera Art during the Renaissance period. This essay discusses the differences between East and West vocal art, from its aesthetic and culture origin.

  2. Vocal attractiveness increases by averaging.

    Bruckert, Laetitia; Bestelmeyer, Patricia; Latinus, Marianne; Rouger, Julien; Charest, Ian; Rousselet, Guillaume A; Kawahara, Hideki; Belin, Pascal

    2010-01-26

    Vocal attractiveness has a profound influence on listeners-a bias known as the "what sounds beautiful is good" vocal attractiveness stereotype [1]-with tangible impact on a voice owner's success at mating, job applications, and/or elections. The prevailing view holds that attractive voices are those that signal desirable attributes in a potential mate [2-4]-e.g., lower pitch in male voices. However, this account does not explain our preferences in more general social contexts in which voices of both genders are evaluated. Here we show that averaging voices via auditory morphing [5] results in more attractive voices, irrespective of the speaker's or listener's gender. Moreover, we show that this phenomenon is largely explained by two independent by-products of averaging: a smoother voice texture (reduced aperiodicities) and a greater similarity in pitch and timbre with the average of all voices (reduced "distance to mean"). These results provide the first evidence for a phenomenon of vocal attractiveness increases by averaging, analogous to a well-established effect of facial averaging [6, 7]. They highlight prototype-based coding [8] as a central feature of voice perception, emphasizing the similarity in the mechanisms of face and voice perception. PMID:20129047

  3. Complexity and time asymmetry of heart rate variability are altered in acute mental stress

    We aimed to study the complexity and time asymmetry of short-term heart rate variability (HRV) as an index of complex neurocardiac control in response to stress using symbolic dynamics and time irreversibility methods. ECG was recorded at rest and during and after two stressors (Stroop, arithmetic test) in 70 healthy students. Symbolic dynamics parameters (NUPI, NCI, 0V%, 1V%, 2LV%, 2UV%), and time irreversibility indices (P%, G%, E) were evaluated. Additionally, HRV magnitude was quantified by linear parameters: spectral powers in low (LF) and high frequency (HF) bands. Our results showed a reduction of HRV complexity in stress (lower NUPI with both stressors, lower NCI with Stroop). Pattern classification analysis revealed significantly higher 0V% and lower 2LV% with both stressors, indicating a shift in sympathovagal balance, and significantly higher 1V% and lower 2UV% with Stroop. An unexpected result was found in time irreversibility: significantly lower G% and E with both stressors, P% index significantly declined only with arithmetic test. Linear HRV analysis confirmed vagal withdrawal (lower HF) with both stressors; LF significantly increased with Stroop and decreased with arithmetic test. Correlation analysis revealed no significant associations between symbolic dynamics and time irreversibility. Concluding, symbolic dynamics and time irreversibility could provide independent information related to alterations of neurocardiac control integrity in stress-related disease. (paper)

  4. Elasticity and stress relaxation of rhesus monkey (Macaca mulatta) vocal folds.

    Riede, Tobias

    2010-09-01

    Fundamental frequency is an important perceptual parameter for acoustic communication in mammals. It is determined by vocal fold oscillation, which depends on the morphology and viscoelastic properties of the oscillating tissue. In this study, I tested if stress-strain and stress-relaxation behavior of rhesus monkey (Macaca mulatta) vocal folds allows the prediction of a species' natural fundamental frequency range across its entire vocal repertoire as well as of frequency contours within a single call type. In tensile tests, the load-strain and stress-relaxation behavior of rhesus monkey vocal folds and ventricular folds has been examined. Using the string model, predictions about the species' fundamental frequency range, individual variability, as well as the frequency contour of 'coo' calls were made. The low- and mid-frequency range (up to 2 kHz) of rhesus monkeys can be predicted relatively well with the string model. The discrepancy between predicted maximum fundamental frequency and what has been recorded in rhesus monkeys is currently ascribed to the difficulty in predicting the behavior of the lamina propria at very high strain. Histological sections of the vocal fold and different staining techniques identified collagen, elastin, hyaluronan and, surprisingly, fat cells as components of the lamina propria. The distribution of all four components is not uniform, suggesting that different aspects of the lamina propria are drawn into oscillation depending on vocal fold tension. A differentiated recruitment of tissue into oscillation could extend the frequency range specifically at the upper end of the frequency scale. PMID:20709920

  5. Estimation of vocal fold plane in 3D CT images for diagnosis of vocal fold abnormalities.

    Hewavitharanage, Sajini; Gubbi, Jayavardhana; Thyagarajan, Dominic; Lau, Ken; Palaniswami, Marimuthu

    2015-01-01

    Vocal folds are the key body structures that are responsible for phonation and regulating air movement into and out of lungs. Various vocal fold disorders may seriously impact the quality of life. When diagnosing vocal fold disorders, CT of the neck is the commonly used imaging method. However, vocal folds do not align with the normal axial plane of a neck and the plane containing vocal cords and arytenoids does vary during phonation. It is therefore important to generate an algorithm for detecting the actual plane containing vocal folds. In this paper, we propose a method to automatically estimate the vocal fold plane using vertebral column and anterior commissure localization. Gray-level thresholding, connected component analysis, rule based segmentation and unsupervised k-means clustering were used in the proposed algorithm. The anterior commissure segmentation method achieved an accuracy of 85%, a good estimate of the expert assessment. PMID:26736949

  6. VOCAL SEGMENT CLASSIFICATION IN POPULAR MUSIC

    Feng, Ling; Nielsen, Andreas Brinch; Hansen, Lars Kai

    2008-01-01

    This paper explores the vocal and non-vocal music classification problem within popular songs. A newly built labeled database covering 147 popular songs is announced. It is designed for classifying signals from 1sec time windows. Features are selected for this particular task, in order to capture...

  7. A statistical, formant-pattern model for segregating vowel type and vocal-tract length in developmental formant data

    Turner, Richard E.; Walters, Thomas C.; Monaghan, Jessica J. M.; Patterson, Roy D.

    2009-01-01

    This paper investigates the theoretical basis for estimating vocal-tract length (VTL) from the formant frequencies of vowel sounds. A statistical inference model was developed to characterize the relationship between vowel type and VTL, on the one hand, and formant frequency and vocal cavity size, on the other. The model was applied to two well known developmental studies of formant frequency. The results show that VTL is the major source of variability after vowel type and that the contribut...

  8. A Rat Excised Larynx Model of Vocal Fold Scar

    Welham, Nathan V.; Montequin, Douglas W.; Tateya, Ichiro; Tateya, Tomoko; Choi, Seong Hee; Bless, Diane M.

    2009-01-01

    Purpose: To develop and evaluate a rat excised larynx model for the measurement of acoustic, aerodynamic, and vocal fold vibratory changes resulting from vocal fold scar. Method: Twenty-four 4-month-old male Sprague-Dawley rats were assigned to 1 of 4 experimental groups: chronic vocal fold scar, chronic vocal fold scar treated with 100-ng basic…

  9. Songbirds tune their vocal tract to the fundamental frequency of their song

    Riede, Tobias; Suthers, Roderick A.; Fletcher, Neville H.; Blevins, William E.

    2006-01-01

    In human speech, the sound generated by the larynx is modified by articulatory movements of the upper vocal tract, which acts as a variable resonant filter concentrating energy near particular frequencies, or formants, essential in speech recognition. Despite its potential importance in vocal communication, little is known about the presence of tunable vocal tract filters in other vertebrates. The tonal quality of much birdsong, in which upper harmonics have relatively little energy, depends on filtering of the vocal source, but the nature of this filter is controversial. Current hypotheses treat the songbird vocal tract as a rigid tube with a resonance that is modulated by the end-correction of a variable beak opening. Through x-ray cinematography of singing birds, we show that birdsong is accompanied by cyclical movements of the hyoid skeleton and changes in the diameter of the cranial end of the esophagus that maintain an inverse relationship between the volume of the oropharyngeal cavity and esophagus and the song’s fundamental frequency. A computational acoustic model indicates that this song-related motor pattern tunes the major resonance of the oropharyngeal–esophageal cavity to actively track the song’s fundamental frequency. PMID:16567614

  10. Mathematical modelling to centre low tidal volumes following acute lung injury: A study with biologically variable ventilation

    McManus Bruce M

    2005-06-01

    individualised Venegas P-V curves in all experiments irrespective of group. Jensen's inequality provides theoretical proof of why a variable ventilatory approach is advantageous under these circumstances. When using BVV, with VT centred by Venegas P-V curve analysis at the point of maximal compliance change, some leeway in low VT settings beyond ARDSNet protocols may be possible in acute lung injury. This study also shows that in this model, the standard ARDSNet algorithm assures ventilation occurs on the convex portion of the P-V curve.

  11. Automated versus manual post-processing of perfusion-CT data in patients with acute cerebral ischemia: influence on interobserver variability

    Soares, Bruno P.; Dankbaar, Jan Willem; Bredno, Joerg; Cheng, Suchun; Bhogal, Sumail; Dillon, William P.; Wintermark, Max

    2009-01-01

    Introduction The purpose of this study is to compare the variability of PCT results obtained by automatic selection of the arterial input function (AIF), venous output function (VOF) and symmetry axis versus manual selection. Methods Imaging data from 30 PCT studies obtained as part of standard clinical stroke care at our institution in patients with suspected acute hemispheric ischemic stroke were retrospectively reviewed. Two observers performed the post-processing of 30 CTP datasets. Each ...

  12. Serial Holter ST-segment monitoring after first acute myocardial infarction. Prevalence, variability, and long-term prognostic importance of transient myocardial ischemia

    Mickley, H; Nielsen, J R; Berning, J; Junker, A; Møller, M

    1998-01-01

    Based on serial Holter monitoring performed 7 times within 3 years after a first acute myocardial infarction, we assessed the prevalence, variability and long-term clinical importance of transient myocardial ischemia (TMI) defined as episodes of ambulatory ST-segment depression. In all, 121...... consecutive male patients <70 years old were studied. The prevalence of TMI on different Holter recordings varied around 20% ranging between 18 and 27%. Fifty-five of the patients (46%) had TMI on at least 1 of the 7 Holter recordings. Considerable variability was found within and between patients for the...

  13. Effects of fundamental frequency and vocal-tract length changes on attention to one of two simultaneous talkers

    Darwin, Christopher J.; Brungart, Douglas S.; Simpson, Brian D.

    2003-11-01

    Three experiments used the Coordinated Response Measure task to examine the roles that differences in F0 and differences in vocal-tract length have on the ability to attend to one of two simultaneous speech signals. The first experiment asked how increases in the natural F0 difference between two sentences (originally spoken by the same talker) affected listeners' ability to attend to one of the sentences. The second experiment used differences in vocal-tract length, and the third used both F0 and vocal-tract length differences. Differences in F0 greater than 2 semitones produced systematic improvements in performance. Differences in vocal-tract length produced systematic improvements in performance when the ratio of lengths was 1.08 or greater, particularly when the shorter vocal tract belonged to the target talker. Neither of these manipulations produced improvements in performance as great as those produced by a different-sex talker. Systematic changes in both F0 and vocal-tract length that simulated an incremental shift in gender produced substantially larger improvements in performance than did differences in F0 or vocal-tract length alone. In general, shifting one of two utterances spoken by a female voice towards a male voice produces a greater improvement in performance than shifting male towards female. The increase in performance varied with the intonation patterns of individual talkers, being smallest for those talkers who showed most variability in their intonation patterns between different utterances.

  14. Motor planning for vocal production in common marmosets

    Miller, Cory T.; Eliades, Steven J.; Wang, Xiaoqin

    2009-01-01

    The vocal motor plan is one of the most fundamental and poorly understood elements of primate vocal production. Here we tested whether a single vocal motor plan comprises the full length of a vocalization. We hypothesized that if a single motor plan was determined at vocal onset, the acoustic features early in the call should be predictive of the subsequent call structure. Analyses were performed on two classes of features in marmoset phee calls: continuous and discrete. We first generated co...

  15. Analysis on Psychological Factors to Affect the Vocal Stage Performance

    Xihong CHEN

    2012-01-01

    The stage performance is an important part of artistic practice for vocal students. To perfectly express the music on stage is the dream of every vocal music performer. This essay is about analysis of the psychological factors to affect the vocal stage performance and to explore the reasons for stage fright and the methods to overcome this, to enable students to further enhance the level of their vocal music.

    Key words: Vocal music; Stag...

  16. Vocal Cord Paralysis and its Etiologies: A Prospective Study

    Seyed Javad Seyed Toutounchi; Mahmood Eydi; Samad EJ Golzari; Mohammad Reza Ghaffari; Nashmil Parvizian

    2014-01-01

    Introduction: Vocal cord paralysis is a common symptom of numerous diseases and it may be due to neurogenic or mechanical fixation of the cords. Paralysis of the vocal cords is just a symptom of underlying disease in some cases; so, clinical diagnosis of the underlying cause leading to paralysis of the vocal cords is important. This study evaluates the causes of vocal cord paralysis. Methods: In a prospective study, 45 patients with paralyzed vocal cord diagnosis were examined by tests such a...

  17. Vocal ontogeny in neotropical singing mice (Scotinomys).

    Campbell, Polly; Pasch, Bret; Warren, Ashley L; Phelps, Steven M

    2014-01-01

    Isolation calls produced by dependent young are a fundamental form of communication. For species in which vocal signals remain important to adult communication, the function and social context of vocal behavior changes dramatically with the onset of sexual maturity. The ontogenetic relationship between these distinct forms of acoustic communication is surprisingly under-studied. We conducted a detailed analysis of vocal development in sister species of Neotropical singing mice, Scotinomys teguina and S. xerampelinus. Adult singing mice are remarkable for their advertisement songs, rapidly articulated trills used in long-distance communication; the vocal behavior of pups was previously undescribed. We recorded 30 S. teguina and 15 S. xerampelinus pups daily, from birth to weaning; 23 S. teguina and 11 S. xerampelinus were recorded until sexual maturity. Like other rodent species with poikilothermic young, singing mice were highly vocal during the first weeks of life and stopped vocalizing before weaning. Production of first advertisement songs coincided with the onset of sexual maturity after a silent period of ≧2 weeks. Species differences in vocal behavior emerged early in ontogeny and notes that comprise adult song were produced from birth. However, the organization and relative abundance of distinct note types was very different between pups and adults. Notably, the structure, note repetition rate, and intra-individual repeatability of pup vocalizations did not become more adult-like with age; the highly stereotyped structure of adult song appeared de novo in the first songs of young adults. We conclude that, while the basic elements of adult song are available from birth, distinct selection pressures during maternal dependency, dispersal, and territorial establishment favor major shifts in the structure and prevalence of acoustic signals. This study provides insight into how an evolutionarily conserved form of acoustic signaling provides the raw material for

  18. Vocal ontogeny in neotropical singing mice (Scotinomys.

    Polly Campbell

    Full Text Available Isolation calls produced by dependent young are a fundamental form of communication. For species in which vocal signals remain important to adult communication, the function and social context of vocal behavior changes dramatically with the onset of sexual maturity. The ontogenetic relationship between these distinct forms of acoustic communication is surprisingly under-studied. We conducted a detailed analysis of vocal development in sister species of Neotropical singing mice, Scotinomys teguina and S. xerampelinus. Adult singing mice are remarkable for their advertisement songs, rapidly articulated trills used in long-distance communication; the vocal behavior of pups was previously undescribed. We recorded 30 S. teguina and 15 S. xerampelinus pups daily, from birth to weaning; 23 S. teguina and 11 S. xerampelinus were recorded until sexual maturity. Like other rodent species with poikilothermic young, singing mice were highly vocal during the first weeks of life and stopped vocalizing before weaning. Production of first advertisement songs coincided with the onset of sexual maturity after a silent period of ≧2 weeks. Species differences in vocal behavior emerged early in ontogeny and notes that comprise adult song were produced from birth. However, the organization and relative abundance of distinct note types was very different between pups and adults. Notably, the structure, note repetition rate, and intra-individual repeatability of pup vocalizations did not become more adult-like with age; the highly stereotyped structure of adult song appeared de novo in the first songs of young adults. We conclude that, while the basic elements of adult song are available from birth, distinct selection pressures during maternal dependency, dispersal, and territorial establishment favor major shifts in the structure and prevalence of acoustic signals. This study provides insight into how an evolutionarily conserved form of acoustic signaling provides

  19. Learned vocal variation is associated with abrupt cryptic genetic change in a parrot species complex.

    Raoul F H Ribot

    Full Text Available Contact zones between subspecies or closely related species offer valuable insights into speciation processes. A typical feature of such zones is the presence of clinal variation in multiple traits. The nature of these traits and the concordance among clines are expected to influence whether and how quickly speciation will proceed. Learned signals, such as vocalizations in species having vocal learning (e.g. humans, many birds, bats and cetaceans, can exhibit rapid change and may accelerate reproductive isolation between populations. Therefore, particularly strong concordance among clines in learned signals and population genetic structure may be expected, even among continuous populations in the early stages of speciation. However, empirical evidence for this pattern is often limited because differences in vocalisations between populations are driven by habitat differences or have evolved in allopatry. We tested for this pattern in a unique system where we may be able to separate effects of habitat and evolutionary history. We studied geographic variation in the vocalizations of the crimson rosella (Platycercus elegans parrot species complex. Parrots are well known for their life-long vocal learning and cognitive abilities. We analysed contact calls across a ca 1300 km transect encompassing populations that differed in neutral genetic markers and plumage colour. We found steep clinal changes in two acoustic variables (fundamental frequency and peak frequency position. The positions of the two clines in vocal traits were concordant with a steep cline in microsatellite-based genetic variation, but were discordant with the steep clines in mtDNA, plumage and habitat. Our study provides new evidence that vocal variation, in a species with vocal learning, can coincide with areas of restricted gene flow across geographically continuous populations. Our results suggest that traits that evolve culturally can be strongly associated with reduced gene flow

  20. Linear and nonlinear analysis of heart rate variability in healthy subjects and after acute myocardial infarction in patients

    Kunz, V.C.; Borges, E.N.; Coelho, R.C.; Gubolino, L.A.; Martins, L.E.B.; Silva, E.

    2012-01-01

    The objectives of this study were to evaluate and compare the use of linear and nonlinear methods for analysis of heart rate variability (HRV) in healthy subjects and in patients after acute myocardial infarction (AMI). Heart rate (HR) was recorded for 15 min in the supine position in 10 patients with AMI taking β-blockers (aged 57 ± 9 years) and in 11 healthy subjects (aged 53 ± 4 years). HRV was analyzed in the time domain (RMSSD and RMSM), the frequency domain using low- and high-frequency bands in normalized units (nu; LFnu and HFnu) and the LF/HF ratio and approximate entropy (ApEn) were determined. There was a correlation (P < 0.05) of RMSSD, RMSM, LFnu, HFnu, and the LF/HF ratio index with the ApEn of the AMI group on the 2nd (r = 0.87, 0.65, 0.72, 0.72, and 0.64) and 7th day (r = 0.88, 0.70, 0.69, 0.69, and 0.87) and of the healthy group (r = 0.63, 0.71, 0.63, 0.63, and 0.74), respectively. The median HRV indexes of the AMI group on the 2nd and 7th day differed from the healthy group (P < 0.05): RMSSD = 10.37, 19.95, 24.81; RMSM = 23.47, 31.96, 43.79; LFnu = 0.79, 0.79, 0.62; HFnu = 0.20, 0.20, 0.37; LF/HF ratio = 3.87, 3.94, 1.65; ApEn = 1.01, 1.24, 1.31, respectively. There was agreement between the methods, suggesting that these have the same power to evaluate autonomic modulation of HR in both AMI patients and healthy subjects. AMI contributed to a reduction in cardiac signal irregularity, higher sympathetic modulation and lower vagal modulation. PMID:22370707

  1. Linear and nonlinear analysis of heart rate variability in healthy subjects and after acute myocardial infarction in patients

    V.C. Kunz

    2012-05-01

    Full Text Available The objectives of this study were to evaluate and compare the use of linear and nonlinear methods for analysis of heart rate variability (HRV in healthy subjects and in patients after acute myocardial infarction (AMI. Heart rate (HR was recorded for 15 min in the supine position in 10 patients with AMI taking β-blockers (aged 57 ± 9 years and in 11 healthy subjects (aged 53 ± 4 years. HRV was analyzed in the time domain (RMSSD and RMSM, the frequency domain using low- and high-frequency bands in normalized units (nu; LFnu and HFnu and the LF/HF ratio and approximate entropy (ApEn were determined. There was a correlation (P < 0.05 of RMSSD, RMSM, LFnu, HFnu, and the LF/HF ratio index with the ApEn of the AMI group on the 2nd (r = 0.87, 0.65, 0.72, 0.72, and 0.64 and 7th day (r = 0.88, 0.70, 0.69, 0.69, and 0.87 and of the healthy group (r = 0.63, 0.71, 0.63, 0.63, and 0.74, respectively. The median HRV indexes of the AMI group on the 2nd and 7th day differed from the healthy group (P < 0.05: RMSSD = 10.37, 19.95, 24.81; RMSM = 23.47, 31.96, 43.79; LFnu = 0.79, 0.79, 0.62; HFnu = 0.20, 0.20, 0.37; LF/HF ratio = 3.87, 3.94, 1.65; ApEn = 1.01, 1.24, 1.31, respectively. There was agreement between the methods, suggesting that these have the same power to evaluate autonomic modulation of HR in both AMI patients and healthy subjects. AMI contributed to a reduction in cardiac signal irregularity, higher sympathetic modulation and lower vagal modulation.

  2. Recannulation of a stenosed old tracheostomy wound in vocal-cord palsy: Anaesthetic management

    Rashmi Pal; Arora, K. K.; Pandey, S.

    2011-01-01

    Tracheostomy still remains a life-saving procedure to secure a patent airway in emergency situations. Anaesthetic management of tracheostomy in paediatric patients with bilateral vocal cord immobility and acute respiratory distress in emergency has always been a great challenge to the anaesthesiologists. Administering general anaesthesia in a child for recannulation of tracheostomy in emergency is far more challenging. We report a case of a 4-year-old male child in whom tracheostomy tube was ...

  3. What Is Vocal Cord Dysfunction (VCD)?

    ... your vocal cords. The breathing test is called spirometry and must include a flow-volume loop. This ... be so hard. To learn more about the spirometry test, see the ATS Patient Information Series fact ...

  4. Benign Lesions of The Vocal Fold

    Ozgur Surmelioglu

    2013-02-01

    Full Text Available Benign lesions of vocal folds are common disorders. Fifty percent of patients who have sound complaints are found to have these lesions after endoscopic and stroboscopic examinations. Benign vocal fold diseases are primarily caused by vibratory trauma. However they may also occur as a result of viral infections and congenital causes. These lesions are often presented with the complaints of dysphonia. [Archives Medical Review Journal 2013; 22(1.000: 86-95

  5. Combining gestures and vocalizations to imitate sounds

    Scurto, Hugo; Lemaitre, Guillaume; Françoise, Jules; Voisin, Frédéric; Bevilacqua, Frédéric; SUSINI, Patrick

    2015-01-01

    International audience Communicating about sounds is a difficult task without a technical language, and naïve speakers often rely on different kinds of non-linguistic vocalizations and body gestures (Lemaitre et al. 2014). Previous work has independently studied how effectively people describe sounds with gestures or vocalizations (Caramiaux, 2014, Lemaitre and Rocchesso, 2014). However, speech communication studies suggest a more intimate link between the two processes (Kendon, 2004). Our...

  6. Path Models of Vocal Emotion Communication

    Bänziger, Tanja; Hosoya, Georg; Klaus R. Scherer

    2015-01-01

    We propose to use a comprehensive path model of vocal emotion communication, encompassing encoding, transmission, and decoding processes, to empirically model data sets on emotion expression and recognition. The utility of the approach is demonstrated for two data sets from two different cultures and languages, based on corpora of vocal emotion enactment by professional actors and emotion inference by naïve listeners. Lens model equations, hierarchical regression, and multivariate path analys...

  7. Parental alarm calls suppress nestling vocalization.

    Platzen, Dirk; Magrath, Robert D.

    2004-01-01

    Evolutionary models suggest that the cost of a signal can ensure its honesty. Empirical studies of nestling begging imply that predator attraction can impose such a cost. However, parents might reduce or abolish this cost by warning young of the presence of danger. We tested, in a controlled field playback experiment, whether alarm calls cause 5-, 8- and 11-day-old nestlings of the white-browed scrubwren, Sericornis frontalis, to suppress vocalization. In this species, nestlings vocalize when...

  8. VOCAL SEGMENT CLASSIFICATION IN POPULAR MUSIC

    Feng, Ling; Nielsen, Andreas Brinch; Hansen, Lars Kai

    2008-01-01

    This paper explores the vocal and non-vocal music classification problem within popular songs. A newly built labeled database covering 147 popular songs is announced. It is designed for classifying signals from 1sec time windows. Features are selected for this particular task, in order to capture both the temporal correlations and the dependencies among the feature dimensions. We systematically study the performance of a set of classifiers, including linear regression, generalized linear mode...

  9. Observations of upper-ocean turbulence during the VOCALS experiment

    Zappa, C. J.; Farrar, J.; Weller, R. A.; Straneo, F.; Moffat, C. F.

    2011-12-01

    As part of the VAMOS Ocean-Cloud-Atmosphere-Land Study (VOCALS) Regional Experiment, properties of upper-ocean turbulence were measured with a microstructure profiler during ship-based surveys, and a longer time series of turbulent kinetic energy dissipation at 9-m depth was collected from a surface mooring. The ship-based surveys allow examination of vertical mixing and its horizontal and vertical variation. The turbulence data from the mooring allows an assessment of the temporal variability of upper-ocean turbulence in the region and its relation to the surface forcing (wind, waves, and surface heat flux) and to oceanic variability, such as near-inertial waves. These data will be used to characterize upper-ocean turbulence beneath the Southeast Pacific stratus deck, its variability, and its role in setting upper-ocean mean properties.

  10. Vocal health fitness to different music styles

    Maria Cláudia Mendes Caminha Muniz

    2010-09-01

    Full Text Available Objective: To present genres and styles currently running on western music scene, focusing on the practice of singing voice. Methods: An observational and documental study for which were selected sound sources presenting musical genres and styles that are part of the experience of the researchers, which were analyzed considering origins, formative elements and vocal features. Alongside we carried out a review of literature grounded in databases research and free review of websites and classical books of the area. Results: The selected styles (Rock and Roll, Heavy Metal, Trash Metal, Grunge, Gothic Metal, Rap, Funk, Blues, R&B – Rhythm and Blues, Soul, Gospel, MPB, Samba, Forro, Sertanejo, Bossa Nova, Opera and Chamber Music were described, pointing the reasons for the speech therapist to be informed about them and about singing voice aspects. His guidance may minimize possible vocal damage caused by each style, since each of them carries its own patterns to which the interpreter must submit. Conclusions: We conclude that the singer will use a specific vocal pattern that resembles the musical style he intends to sing, regardless of any harm it may or may not cause to vocal health. When choosing a musical style, it is important that the singer has the knowledge and understanding of how the use of his vocal apparatus will cause or not cause injury to his voice. Also be aware that the technique in singing is necessary for vocal longevity.

  11. Vocal tract articulation in zebra finches.

    Verena R Ohms

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: Birdsong and human vocal communication are both complex behaviours which show striking similarities mainly thought to be present in the area of development and learning. Recent studies, however, suggest that there are also parallels in vocal production mechanisms. While it has been long thought that vocal tract filtering, as it occurs in human speech, only plays a minor role in birdsong there is an increasing number of studies indicating the presence of sound filtering mechanisms in bird vocalizations as well. METHODOLOGY/PRINCIPAL FINDINGS: Correlating high-speed X-ray cinematographic imaging of singing zebra finches (Taeniopygia guttata to song structures we identified beak gape and the expansion of the oropharyngeal-esophageal cavity (OEC as potential articulators. We subsequently manipulated both structures in an experiment in which we played sound through the vocal tract of dead birds. Comparing acoustic input with acoustic output showed that OEC expansion causes an energy shift towards lower frequencies and an amplitude increase whereas a wide beak gape emphasizes frequencies around 5 kilohertz and above. CONCLUSION: These findings confirm that birds can modulate their song by using vocal tract filtering and demonstrate how OEC and beak gape contribute to this modulation.

  12. Inter-professional variability in the assignment and recording of acute toxicity grade using the RTOG system during prostate radiotherapy

    Background and purpose: To compare the routine acute toxicity documentation practices of therapists and oncologists using the RTOG lower GI and GU scales. Methods and materials: Ninety consecutive prostate radiotherapy patients were identified. The weekly urinary and rectal acute toxicity grades routinely documented by therapists and oncologists were collected retrospectively from radiotherapy charts. These data were paired together, and compared between the professional groups. Results: Only RTOG acute toxicity grades between 0 and 2 were recorded by either group. The overall rate of documentation was high (97% therapists/86% oncologists), but the rate of quantitative documentation was low from the oncologists (46%) who used a free-form text field for recording purposes. There was no significant difference in the incidence of maximum grade of acute toxicity reported by either professional group (p > 0.1). There was good RTOG score concordance between the observer groups (κ = 0.756), with pair-wise absolute agreement in 76%. Pair-wise discrepancies between the observers were commonly attributable to differences in the time/date of assessment. Conclusions: Despite some methodological limitations, this study found that therapist-assessed RTOG acute toxicity grades demonstrated a good level of agreement with the grades assigned by their oncologist colleagues

  13. Individual killer whale vocal variation during intra-group behavioral dynamics

    Grebner, Dawn M.

    The scientific goal of this dissertation was to carefully study the signal structure of killer whale communications and vocal complexity and link them to behavioral circumstances. The overall objective of this research sought to provide insight into killer whale call content and usage which may be conveying information to conspecifics in order to maintain group cohesion. Data were collected in the summers of 2006 and 2007 in Johnstone Strait, British Columbia. For both individuals and small groups, vocalizations were isolated using a triangular hydrophone array and the behavioral movement patterns were captured by a theodolite and video camera positioned on a cliff overlooking the hyrophone locations. This dissertation is divided into four analysis chapters. In Chapter 3, discriminant analysis was used to validate the four N04 call subtypes which were originally parsed due to variations in slope segments. The first two functions of the discriminant analysis explained 97% of the variability. Most of the variability for the N04 call was found in the front convex and the terminal portions of the call, while very little variability was found in the center region of the call. This research revealed that individual killer whales produced multiple subtypes of the N04 call. No correlations of behaviors to acoustic parameters obtained were found. The aim of the Chapter 4 was to determine if killer whale calling behavior varied prior to and after the animals had joined. Pulsed call rates were found to be greater pre- compared to post-joining events. Two-way vocal exchanges were more common occurring 74% of the time during pre-joining events. In Chapter 5, initiated and first response to calls varied between age/sex class groups when mothers were separated from an offspring. Solo mothers and calves initiated pulsed calls more often than they responded. Most of the no vocal responses were due to mothers who were foraging. Finally, observations of the frequency split in N04

  14. The Effects of Gesture and Movement Training on the Intonation of Children's Singing in Vocal Warm-Up Sessions

    Liao, Mei-Ying; Davidson, Jane W.

    2016-01-01

    The main purpose of the current study was to examine the effects of gesture and movement training for beginning children's choirs with regard to improving intonation. It was a between-subjects design with one independent variable Training Technique (TT). One dependent variable was measured: intonation in the singing of vocal pattern warm-up…

  15. Pneumomediastino espontâneo após esforço vocal: relato de caso Spontaneous pneumomediastinum following vocal effort: a case report

    Flávia Paiva Lobo Lopes

    2010-04-01

    Full Text Available Neste estudo é relatado o caso de um paciente do sexo masculino, 14 anos de idade, que após fazer grande esforço vocal, durante uma partida de futebol, desenvolveu quadro agudo de dor torácica. As radiografias de tórax e a tomografia computadorizada evidenciaram pneumomediastino, com pequeno pneumotórax bilateral. Os exames clínico, laboratoriais e radiológicos não demonstraram qualquer fator predisponente, ficando o caso classificado como pneumomediastino espontâneo.The present article reports the case of a 14-year-old male patient who developed acute chest pain following increased vocal effort during a soccer game. Chest radiography and computed tomography demonstrated pneudomediastinum with small bilateral pneumothorax. Clinical, laboratory and radiological studies did not demonstrate any predisposing factor, and the case was classified as spontaneous pneudomediastinum.

  16. Adapted to Roar: Functional Morphology of Tiger and Lion Vocal Folds

    Klemuk, Sarah A.; Tobias Riede; Walsh, Edward J.; Titze, Ingo R.

    2011-01-01

    Vocal production requires active control of the respiratory system, larynx and vocal tract. Vocal sounds in mammals are produced by flow-induced vocal fold oscillation, which requires vocal fold tissue that can sustain the mechanical stress during phonation. Our understanding of the relationship between morphology and vocal function of vocal folds is very limited. Here we tested the hypothesis that vocal fold morphology and viscoelastic properties allow a prediction of fundamental frequency r...

  17. Control pattern of vocal center for vocalization in ruddy bunting (Emberiza rutila)

    赵静; 蒋锦昌; 李东风

    2003-01-01

    High vocal center (HVC) can produce single sound with one or two syllables by the single-type vocal control pattern in songbirds ruddy bunting (Emberiza rutila). It obviously shows left-side dominance in controlling double syllables, principal frequency (PF) and increasing sound intensity of the evoked calls. Meanwhile, the complex-type control pattern can produce complex calls with multisyllable, and also shows significant left-side dominance in controlling the number of syllables, tone changing and sound intensity. These indicate that left-side HVC controls higher frequency and complicated sentence structure. The basic vocal center, dorsomedial nucleus of the intercollicular complex (DM), controls the monosyllable sound in songbirds, and shows left-side dominance in controlling both the number of syllable and sound intensity. These results not only provide some direct evidence for left-side dominance in high vocal center, but also indicate that there is some internal connection between the high and basic vocal centers in songbirds.

  18. Social complexity parallels vocal complexity: a comparison of three nonhuman primate species

    Hélène eBOUCHET

    2013-07-01

    Full Text Available Social factors play a key role in the structuring of vocal repertoires at the individual level, notably in nonhuman primates. Some authors suggested that, at the species level too, social life may have driven the evolution of communicative complexity, but this has rarely been empirically tested. Here, we use a comparative approach to address this issue. We investigated vocal variability, at both the call type and the repertoire levels, in three forest-dwelling species of Cercopithecinae presenting striking differences in their social systems, in terms of social organization as well as social structure. We collected female call recordings from twelve De Brazza’s monkeys (Cercopithecus neglectus, six Campbell’s monkeys (Cercopithecus campbelli and seven red-capped mangabeys (Cercocebus torquatus housed in similar conditions. First, we noted that the level of acoustic variability and individual distinctiveness found in several call types was related to their importance in social functioning. Contact calls, essential to intra-group cohesion, were the most individually distinctive regardless of the species, while threat calls were more structurally variable in mangabeys, the most ‘despotic’ of our three species. Second, we found a parallel between the degree of complexity of the species’ social structure and the size, diversity, and usage of its vocal repertoire. Mangabeys (most complex social structure called twice as often as guenons and displayed the largest and most complex repertoire. De Brazza’s monkeys (simplest social structure displayed the smallest and simplest repertoire. Campbell’s monkeys displayed an intermediate pattern. Providing evidence of higher levels of vocal variability in species presenting a more complex social system, our results are in line with the theory of a social-vocal coevolution of communicative abilities, opening new perspectives for comparative research on the evolution of communication systems in

  19. Heart rate variability changes at 2400 m altitude predicts acute mountain sickness on further ascent at 3000-4300 m altitudes

    HeikkiMikaelKarinen; HenriVähä-Ypyä; MikaKähönen; JariViik; PhyllisKravetStein

    2012-01-01

    Objective If the body fails to acclimatize at high altitude, acute mountain sickness (AMS) may result. For the early detection of AMS, changes in cardiac autonomic function measured by heart rate variability (HRV) may be more sensitive than clinical symptoms alone. The purpose of this study was to ascertain if the changes in HRV during ascent are related to AMS. Methods We followed Lake Louise Score (LLS), arterial oxygen saturation at rest (R-SpO2) and exercise (Ex-SpO2) and HRV pa...

  20. Heart rate variability changes at 2400 m altitude predicts acute mountain sickness on further ascent at 3000–4300 m altitudes

    Karinen, Heikki M.; Uusitalo, Arja; Vähä-Ypyä, Henri; Kähönen, Mika; Peltonen, Juha E.; Stein, Phyllis K.; Viik, Jari; Tikkanen, Heikki O.

    2012-01-01

    Objective: If the body fails to acclimatize at high altitude, acute mountain sickness (AMS) may result. For the early detection of AMS, changes in cardiac autonomic function measured by heart rate variability (HRV) may be more sensitive than clinical symptoms alone. The purpose of this study was to ascertain if the changes in HRV during ascent are related to AMS. Methods: We followed Lake Louise Score (LLS), arterial oxygen saturation at rest (R-SpO2) and exercise (Ex-SpO2) and HRV parameters...

  1. Responses of primate frontal cortex neurons during natural vocal communication.

    Miller, Cory T; Thomas, A Wren; Nummela, Samuel U; de la Mothe, Lisa A

    2015-08-01

    The role of primate frontal cortex in vocal communication and its significance in language evolution have a controversial history. While evidence indicates that vocalization processing occurs in ventrolateral prefrontal cortex neurons, vocal-motor activity has been conjectured to be primarily subcortical and suggestive of a distinctly different neural architecture from humans. Direct evidence of neural activity during natural vocal communication is limited, as previous studies were performed in chair-restrained animals. Here we recorded the activity of single neurons across multiple regions of prefrontal and premotor cortex while freely moving marmosets engaged in a natural vocal behavior known as antiphonal calling. Our aim was to test whether neurons in marmoset frontal cortex exhibited responses during vocal-signal processing and/or vocal-motor production in the context of active, natural communication. We observed motor-related changes in single neuron activity during vocal production, but relatively weak sensory responses for vocalization processing during this natural behavior. Vocal-motor responses occurred both prior to and during call production and were typically coupled to the timing of each vocalization pulse. Despite the relatively weak sensory responses a population classifier was able to distinguish between neural activity that occurred during presentations of vocalization stimuli that elicited an antiphonal response and those that did not. These findings are suggestive of the role that nonhuman primate frontal cortex neurons play in natural communication and provide an important foundation for more explicit tests of the functional contributions of these neocortical areas during vocal behaviors. PMID:26084912

  2. The VAMOS Ocean-Cloud-Atmosphere-Land Study Regional Experiment (VOCALS-REx: goals, platforms, and field operations

    R. Wood

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available The VAMOS1 Ocean-Cloud-Atmosphere-Land Study Regional Experiment (VOCALS-REx was an international field program designed to make observations of poorly understood but critical components of the coupled climate system of the southeast Pacific. This region is characterized by strong coastal upwelling, the coolest SSTs in the tropical belt, and is home to the largest subtropical stratocumulus deck on Earth. The field intensive phase of VOCALS-REx took place during October and November 2008 and constitutes a critical part of a broader CLIVAR program (VOCALS designed to develop and promote scientific activities leading to improved understanding, model simulations, and predictions of the southeastern Pacific (SEP coupled ocean-atmosphere-land system, on diurnal to interannual timescales. The other major components of VOCALS are a modeling program with a model hierarchy ranging from the local to global scales, and a suite of extended observations from regular research cruises, instrumented moorings, and satellites. The two central themes of VOCALS-REx focus upon (a links between aerosols, clouds and precipitation and their impacts on marine stratocumulus radiative properties, and (b physical and chemical couplings between the upper ocean and the lower atmosphere, including the role that mesoscale ocean eddies play. A set of hypotheses designed to be tested with the combined field, monitoring and modeling work in VOCALS is presented here. A further goal of VOCALS-REx is to provide datasets for the evaluation and improvement of large-scale numerical models. VOCALS-REx involved five research aircraft, two ships and two surface sites in northern Chile. We describe the instrument payloads and key mission strategies for these platforms and give a summary of the missions conducted.

    1 Variability of the American Monsoon Systems, an international CLIVAR program.

  3. Viscoelastic properties of the false vocal fold

    Chan, Roger W.

    2001-05-01

    The biomechanical properties of vocal fold tissues have been the focus of many previous studies, as vocal fold viscoelasticity critically dictates the acoustics and biomechanics of phonation. However, not much is known about the viscoelastic response of the ventricular fold or false vocal fold. It has been shown both clinically and in computer simulations that the false vocal fold may contribute significantly to the aerodynamics and sound generation processes of human voice production, with or without flow-induced oscillation of the false fold. To better understand the potential role of the false fold in phonation, this paper reports some preliminary measurements on the linear and nonlinear viscoelastic behavior of false vocal fold tissues. Linear viscoelastic shear properties of human false fold tissue samples were measured by a high-frequency controlled-strain rheometer as a function of frequency, and passive uniaxial tensile stress-strain response of the tissue samples was measured by a muscle lever system as a function of strain and loading rate. Elastic moduli (Young's modulus and shear modulus) of the false fold tissues were calculated from the measured data. [Work supported by NIH.

  4. Wavelet based detection of manatee vocalizations

    Gur, Berke M.; Niezrecki, Christopher

    2005-04-01

    The West Indian manatee (Trichechus manatus latirostris) has become endangered partly because of watercraft collisions in Florida's coastal waterways. Several boater warning systems, based upon manatee vocalizations, have been proposed to reduce the number of collisions. Three detection methods based on the Fourier transform (threshold, harmonic content and autocorrelation methods) were previously suggested and tested. In the last decade, the wavelet transform has emerged as an alternative to the Fourier transform and has been successfully applied in various fields of science and engineering including the acoustic detection of dolphin vocalizations. As of yet, no prior research has been conducted in analyzing manatee vocalizations using the wavelet transform. Within this study, the wavelet transform is used as an alternative to the Fourier transform in detecting manatee vocalizations. The wavelet coefficients are analyzed and tested against a specified criterion to determine the existence of a manatee call. The performance of the method presented is tested on the same data previously used in the prior studies, and the results are compared. Preliminary results indicate that using the wavelet transform as a signal processing technique to detect manatee vocalizations shows great promise.

  5. Vocal tract resonances in speech, singing, and playing musical instruments

    Wolfe, Joe; Garnier, Maëva; Smith, John

    2008-01-01

    International audience In both the voice and musical wind instruments, a valve (vocal folds, lips or reed) lies between an upstream and downstream duct: trachea and vocal tract for the voice, vocal tract and bore for the instrument. Examining the structural similarities and functional differences gives insight into their operation and the duct-valve interactions. In speech and singing, vocal tract resonances usually determine the spectral envelope, and usually have a smaller influence on t...

  6. Effects of Voice Therapy on Vocal Acoustic Characteristics in Patients With Vocal Cord Nodules

    Yunos Amiri Shavaki

    2011-09-01

    Full Text Available Background and Aim: Vocal cord nodule is one of the voice disorders causes hoarseness and breathy voice. Voice therapy is one of the treatment approaches. We aimed to find out the effects of voice therapy on vocal acoustic characteristics in these patients.Methods: In this case series, five women with vocal nodule (14 to 45-year-old participated in a 9-week voice therapy program developed by Boone. Vocal hygiene and voice practices were measured every day using a questionnaire. Moreover, structure and movements of vocal folds were examined using videolaryngostroboscope by a laryngologist before and after voice therapy to evaluate the effectiveness of program. For collecting voice samples we used sustained /æ/ in comfortable loudness for all patients and data were analyzed using Speech Studio.Results: After voice therapy, fundamental frequency in four of five subjects were decreased but it was not significant (p=0.225. However, jitter in all of five subjects was significantly decreased (p=0.043. After voice therapy, shimmer in three of five subjects were decreased that was not significant (p=0.345.Conclusion: Voice therapy can be used for the remedy of acoustic vocal characteristics and elimination or contraction of vocal cord nodule.

  7. Effects of speech style, room acoustics, and vocal fatigue on vocal effort.

    Bottalico, Pasquale; Graetzer, Simone; Hunter, Eric J

    2016-05-01

    Vocal effort is a physiological measure that accounts for changes in voice production as vocal loading increases. It has been quantified in terms of sound pressure level (SPL). This study investigates how vocal effort is affected by speaking style, room acoustics, and short-term vocal fatigue. Twenty subjects were recorded while reading a text at normal and loud volumes in anechoic, semi-reverberant, and reverberant rooms in the presence of classroom babble noise. The acoustics in each environment were modified by creating a strong first reflection in the talker position. After each task, the subjects answered questions addressing their perception of the vocal effort, comfort, control, and clarity of their own voice. Variation in SPL for each subject was measured per task. It was found that SPL and self-reported effort increased in the loud style and decreased when the reflective panels were present and when reverberation time increased. Self-reported comfort and control decreased in the loud style, while self-reported clarity increased when panels were present. The lowest magnitude of vocal fatigue was experienced in the semi-reverberant room. The results indicate that early reflections may be used to reduce vocal effort without modifying reverberation time. PMID:27250179

  8. Data on respiratory variables in critically ill patients with acute respiratory failure placed on proportional assist ventilation with load adjustable gain factors (PAV+).

    Georgopoulos, Dimitris; Xirouchaki, Nectaria; Tzanakis, Nikolaos; Younes, Magdy

    2016-09-01

    The data show respiratory variables in 108 critically ill patients with acute respiratory failure placed on proportional assist ventilation with load adjustable gain factors (PAV+) after at least 36 h on passive mechanical ventilation. PAV+ was continued for 48 h until the patients met pre-defined criteria either for switching to controlled modes or for breathing without ventilator assistance. Data during passive mechanical ventilation and during PAV+ are reported. Data are acquired from the whole population, as well as from patients with and without acute respiratory distress syndrome. The reported variables are tidal volume, driving pressure (ΔP, the difference between static end-inspiratory plateau pressure and positive end-expiratory airway pressure), respiratory system compliance and resistance, and arterial blood gasses. The data are supplemental to our original research article, which described individual ΔP in these patients and examined how it related to ΔP when the same patients were ventilated with passive mechanical ventilation using the currently accepted lung-protective strategy "Driving pressure during assisted mechanical ventilation. Is it controlled by patient brain?" [1]. PMID:27358909

  9. Characterizing Vocal Repertoires--Hard vs. Soft Classification Approaches.

    Philip Wadewitz

    Full Text Available To understand the proximate and ultimate causes that shape acoustic communication in animals, objective characterizations of the vocal repertoire of a given species are critical, as they provide the foundation for comparative analyses among individuals, populations and taxa. Progress in this field has been hampered by a lack of standard in methodology, however. One problem is that researchers may settle on different variables to characterize the calls, which may impact on the classification of calls. More important, there is no agreement how to best characterize the overall structure of the repertoire in terms of the amount of gradation within and between call types. Here, we address these challenges by examining 912 calls recorded from wild chacma baboons (Papio ursinus. We extracted 118 acoustic variables from spectrograms, from which we constructed different sets of acoustic features, containing 9, 38, and 118 variables; as well 19 factors derived from principal component analysis. We compared and validated the resulting classifications of k-means and hierarchical clustering. Datasets with a higher number of acoustic features lead to better clustering results than datasets with only a few features. The use of factors in the cluster analysis resulted in an extremely poor resolution of emerging call types. Another important finding is that none of the applied clustering methods gave strong support to a specific cluster solution. Instead, the cluster analysis revealed that within distinct call types, subtypes may exist. Because hard clustering methods are not well suited to capture such gradation within call types, we applied a fuzzy clustering algorithm. We found that this algorithm provides a detailed and quantitative description of the gradation within and between chacma baboon call types. In conclusion, we suggest that fuzzy clustering should be used in future studies to analyze the graded structure of vocal repertoires. Moreover, the use of

  10. Characterizing Vocal Repertoires—Hard vs. Soft Classification Approaches

    Wadewitz, Philip; Hammerschmidt, Kurt; Battaglia, Demian; Witt, Annette; Wolf, Fred; Fischer, Julia

    2015-01-01

    To understand the proximate and ultimate causes that shape acoustic communication in animals, objective characterizations of the vocal repertoire of a given species are critical, as they provide the foundation for comparative analyses among individuals, populations and taxa. Progress in this field has been hampered by a lack of standard in methodology, however. One problem is that researchers may settle on different variables to characterize the calls, which may impact on the classification of calls. More important, there is no agreement how to best characterize the overall structure of the repertoire in terms of the amount of gradation within and between call types. Here, we address these challenges by examining 912 calls recorded from wild chacma baboons (Papio ursinus). We extracted 118 acoustic variables from spectrograms, from which we constructed different sets of acoustic features, containing 9, 38, and 118 variables; as well 19 factors derived from principal component analysis. We compared and validated the resulting classifications of k-means and hierarchical clustering. Datasets with a higher number of acoustic features lead to better clustering results than datasets with only a few features. The use of factors in the cluster analysis resulted in an extremely poor resolution of emerging call types. Another important finding is that none of the applied clustering methods gave strong support to a specific cluster solution. Instead, the cluster analysis revealed that within distinct call types, subtypes may exist. Because hard clustering methods are not well suited to capture such gradation within call types, we applied a fuzzy clustering algorithm. We found that this algorithm provides a detailed and quantitative description of the gradation within and between chacma baboon call types. In conclusion, we suggest that fuzzy clustering should be used in future studies to analyze the graded structure of vocal repertoires. Moreover, the use of factor analyses to

  11. VOCAL: Voice Oriented Curriculum Author Language. Technical Report No. 291.

    Hinckley, Michael; And Others

    VOCAL (Voice Oriented Curriculum Author Language) is designed to facilitate the authoring of computer assisted curricula which incorporate highly interactive audio and text presentations. Lessons written in VOCAL are intended to be patterned after the style of informal classroom lectures. VOCAL contains features that allow the author to specify…

  12. The role of vocal individuality in conservation

    Terry, Andrew Mark Ryder; Peake, Thomas More; McGregor, Peter Kenneth

    2005-01-01

    features of their vocalisations. This vocal individuality can be utilised as an alternative marking technique in situations where the marks are difficult to detect or animals are sensitive to disturbance. Vocal individuality can also be used in cases were the capture and handling of an animal is either......Identifying the individuals within a population can generate information on life history parameters, generate input data for conservation models, and highlight behavioural traits that may affect management decisions and error or bias within census methods. Individual animals can be discriminated by...... logistically or ethically problematic. Many studies have suggested that vocal individuality can be used to count and monitor populations over time; however, few have explicitly tested the method in this role. In this review we discuss methods for extracting individuality information from vocalisations and...

  13. Measurement of vocal doses in virtual classrooms

    Bottalico, Pasquale; Pelegrin Garcia, David

    2010-01-01

    different acoustical conditions, that combined different kind of background noise and virtual classroom acoustics. Readings from the vocal fold vibrations were registered with an Ambulatory Phonation Monitor device. The speech signal from the talker in the center of the facility was picked up with a head...... positions. The acoustic of the classrooms was simulated with Odeon 9.0. Environmental noise recorded in quiet classrooms, traffic, and babble noise were considered as sources of disturbing noise during experimentation. Several acoustical parameters were calculated from the impulse response measured...... these data the vocal doses Time dose, Vocal Loading Index, Distance Dose, Energy Dissipation Dose, and Radiated Energy Dose were calculated and correlated with the acoustical features of the classrooms....

  14. Vocal cord paralysis caused by stingray.

    Kwon, Oh Jin; Park, Jung Je; Kim, Jin Pyeong; Woo, Seung Hoon

    2013-11-01

    Foreign bodies in the oral cavity and pharynx are commonly encountered in the emergency room and outpatient departments, and the most frequently observed of these foreign bodies are fish bones. Among the possible complications resulting from a pharyngeal foreign body, vocal cord fixation is extremely rare, with only three cases previously reported in the English literature. The mechanisms of vocal cord fixation can be classified into mechanical articular fixation, direct injury of the recurrent laryngeal nerve, or recurrent laryngeal nerve paralysis secondary to inflammation. The case discussed here is different from previous cases. We report a rare case of vocal cord paralysis caused by the venom of a stingray tail in the hypopharynx. PMID:24077868

  15. The value of vocalizing: Five-month-old infants associate their own noncry vocalizations with responses from caregivers

    Goldstein, Michael H.; Schwade, Jennifer A.; Bornstein, Marc H.

    2009-01-01

    The early noncry vocalizations of infants are salient social signals. Caregivers spontaneously respond to 30-50% of these sounds, and their responsiveness to infants' prelinguistic noncry vocalizations facilitates the development of phonology and speech. Have infants learned that their vocalizations influence the behavior of social partners? If infants have learned the contingency between their vocalizing and the social responses of others, they should show an extinction burst when the contin...

  16. Evaluation of the vocal cords by MRI

    Yamaguchi, Akira [Toho Univ., Tokyo (Japan). School of Medicine

    2002-03-01

    Radiological evaluation of the dynamics of the vocal cords has been done by fluoroscopy, tomography or contrast laryngography. Open and closed condition of the vocal cords can be easily seen by optical laryngography. In most institutions, radiological imaging of the cords is made by conventional tomography, with timing exposures in the phases of quiet respiration and in phonation. Satisfactory images are not always obtained due to mis-timing, incorrect tomographic level or due to other technical factors. I then attempted to visualize laryngeal motion by fast sequence MRI (MR fluoroscopy). AIRIS-II, an open type permanent magnetic unit by Hitachi Corporation (Tokyo, Japan) was used. Scans were made with RF-Spoiled SARGE/EPI-PAPE sequences. Scanning time was 1.7-4.0 sec. The movement and configuration of the vocal cord structure during inspiration and phonation were determined in 22 asymptomatic healthy volunteers and 44 symptomatic patients. Normal changes in the configuration of the vocal cords are clearly visualized by fast sequence MRI. The vocal cords were best seen on the plane slightly tilted angle to the plane perpendicular to the laryngeal ventricle and the plane slightly anterior to the middle of the ventricle. Coronal views were the most useful. Disturbed motion of the cords due to laryngeal trauma and neoplasm are well evaluated. Pathological changes of the surrounding structure could be demonstrated. Evaluation of the vocal cords by MRI has a great deal of potentials. Prime advantages are characteristics of non-radiation and patient comfort. Shorter scanning time is preferred for better visualization of the anatomical details. When the time comes for this examination to be performed more frequently, the real value of this examination could be fully accepted, although the cost of the MRI examination is greater than that of other conventional studies at present time. (author)

  17. Gestures, vocalizations and memory in language origins.

    Francisco eAboitiz

    2012-02-01

    Full Text Available This article discusses the possible homologies between the human language networks and comparable auditory projection systems in the macaque brain, in an attempt to conciliate two existing views on language evolution: one that makes emphasis on hand control and gestures, and the other that makes emphasis on auditory-vocal mechanisms. The capacity for language is based on relatively well defined neural substrates whose rudiments have been traced into the non-human primate brain. In its core, this circuit makes up an auditory-vocal sensorimotor circuit with two main components, a ventral pathway connecting anterior auditory regions with anterior ventrolateral prefrontal areas, and a dorsal pathway connecting auditory areas with parietal areas and with posterior ventrolateral prefrontal areas via the arcuate fasciculus and the superior longitudinal fasciculus. In humans, the dorsal circuit is especially important for phonological processing and phonological working memory, capacities that are critical for language acquisition and for complex syntax processing. In the macaque, the homologue to the dorsal circuit overlaps with an inferior parietal-ventrolateral prefrontal network for hand and gestural action selection that is under voluntary control, while vocalizations are largely fixed and involuntary. The recruitment of this dorsal component for vocalization behavior in the human lineage, together with a direct cortical control of the subcortical vocalizing system, are proposed to have marked a fundamental innovation in human evolution, generating an inflection point that permitted the explosion of language and human communication. In this context, vocal communication and gesturing have a common history in primate communication.

  18. Ultrasonic vocalizations in golden hamsters (Mesocricetus auratus reveal modest sex differences and nonlinear signals of sexual motivation.

    Marcela Fernández-Vargas

    Full Text Available Vocal signaling is one of many behaviors that animals perform during social interactions. Vocalizations produced by both sexes before mating can communicate sex, identity and condition of the caller. Adult golden hamsters produce ultrasonic vocalizations (USV after intersexual contact. To determine whether these vocalizations are sexually dimorphic, we analyzed the vocal repertoire for sex differences in: 1 calling rates, 2 composition (structural complexity, call types and nonlinear phenomena and 3 acoustic structure. In addition, we examined it for individual variation in the calls. The vocal repertoire was mainly composed of 1-note simple calls and at least half of them presented some degree of deterministic chaos. The prevalence of this nonlinear phenomenon was confirmed by low values of harmonic-to-noise ratio for most calls. We found modest sexual differences between repertoires. Males were more likely than females to produce tonal and less chaotic calls, as well as call types with frequency jumps. Multivariate analysis of the acoustic features of 1-note simple calls revealed significant sex differences in the second axis represented mostly by entropy and bandwidth parameters. Male calls showed lower entropy and inter-quartile bandwidth than female calls. Because the variation of acoustic structure within individuals was higher than among individuals, USV could not be reliably assigned to the correct individual. Interestingly, however, this high variability, augmented by the prevalence of chaos and frequency jumps, could be the result of increased vocal effort. Hamsters motivated to produce high calling rates also produced longer calls of broader bandwidth. Thus, the sex differences found could be the result of different sex preferences but also of a sex difference in calling motivation or condition. We suggest that variable and complex USV may have been selected to increase responsiveness of a potential mate by communicating sexual

  19. The Importance of Vocal Parameters Correlation

    Valentin Ghisa

    2016-06-01

    Full Text Available To analyze communication we need to study the main parameters that describe the vocal sounds from the point of view of information content transfer efficiency. In this paper we analyze the physical quality of the “on air" information transfer, according to the audio streaming parameters and from the particular phonetic nature of the human factor. Applying this statistical analysis we aim to identify and record the correlation level of the acoustical parameters with the vocal ones and the impact which the presence of this cross-correlation can have on communication structures’ improvement.

  20. Extramedullary plasmacytoma of the true vocal fold.

    De Zoysa, Nilantha; Sandler, Belinda; Amonoo-Kuofi, Kwame; Swamy, Rajiv; Kothari, Prasad; Mochloulis, George

    2012-08-01

    We report a rare case of extramedullary plasmacytoma (EMP) of the true vocal fold. Our patient, a 62-year-old woman, presented with dysphonia. On workup, fiberoptic laryngoscopy detected a lesion arising from the anterior half of her left true vocal fold. No evidence of other pathology was noted. The patient underwent radical radiotherapy, and the lesion resolved. Follow-up revealed no sign of recurrence. A type of myeloma, EMP is rare, especially in the larynx. To the best of our knowledge, our patient represents the sixth case of glottic EMP to be reported in the literature. PMID:22930090

  1. Distributed acoustic cues for caller identity in macaque vocalization.

    Fukushima, Makoto; Doyle, Alex M; Mullarkey, Matthew P; Mishkin, Mortimer; Averbeck, Bruno B

    2015-12-01

    Individual primates can be identified by the sound of their voice. Macaques have demonstrated an ability to discern conspecific identity from a harmonically structured 'coo' call. Voice recognition presumably requires the integrated perception of multiple acoustic features. However, it is unclear how this is achieved, given considerable variability across utterances. Specifically, the extent to which information about caller identity is distributed across multiple features remains elusive. We examined these issues by recording and analysing a large sample of calls from eight macaques. Single acoustic features, including fundamental frequency, duration and Weiner entropy, were informative but unreliable for the statistical classification of caller identity. A combination of multiple features, however, allowed for highly accurate caller identification. A regularized classifier that learned to identify callers from the modulation power spectrum of calls found that specific regions of spectral-temporal modulation were informative for caller identification. These ranges are related to acoustic features such as the call's fundamental frequency and FM sweep direction. We further found that the low-frequency spectrotemporal modulation component contained an indexical cue of the caller body size. Thus, cues for caller identity are distributed across identifiable spectrotemporal components corresponding to laryngeal and supralaryngeal components of vocalizations, and the integration of those cues can enable highly reliable caller identification. Our results demonstrate a clear acoustic basis by which individual macaque vocalizations can be recognized. PMID:27019727

  2. Fundamental frequency, sound pressure level and vocal dose of a vocal loading test in comparison to a real teaching situation.

    Echternach, Matthias; Nusseck, Manfred; Dippold, Sebastian; Spahn, Claudia; Richter, Bernhard

    2014-12-01

    Vocal loading capacity is an important aspect of vocal health, especially for people in vocally demanding occupations such as teaching. To analyze vocal loading, vocal loading tests (VLTs) or portable voice devices such as accelerometers have been used. However, it remains unclear how much a VLT in a clinical setup reflects the vocal effort of a real situation, in particular for teachers in a given classroom lesson. In this study of vocally healthy 101 student teachers, we analyzed different vocal doses for a 10-min VLT (80 dB at a distance of 30 cm) and a real 45-min teaching lesson. The phonation time, fundamental frequency, sound pressure level, and noise level were recorded using the VoxLog accelerometer/microphone system for both conditions. From these measurements the time dose, cycle dose, distance dose, energy dissipation dose, and radiated energy dose were calculated. The VLT was associated with a higher fundamental frequency, a higher sound pressure level, and higher relative phonation time compared to the real teaching lesson. Nevertheless, most vocal doses did not differ significantly between the conditions. A VLT of 10 min with >80 dB at 30 cm distance shows only small differences of vocal doses in comparison to a real teaching situation of 45 min. Thus, for clinical vocal assessment the vocal load of a VLT can be related to an approximately 45-min teaching situation. PMID:25012705

  3. Analysis on Psychological Factors to Affect the Vocal Stage Performance

    Xihong CHEN

    2012-11-01

    Full Text Available

    The stage performance is an important part of artistic practice for vocal students. To perfectly express the music on stage is the dream of every vocal music performer. This essay is about analysis of the psychological factors to affect the vocal stage performance and to explore the reasons for stage fright and the methods to overcome this, to enable students to further enhance the level of their vocal music.

    Key words: Vocal music; Stage performance; Psychological factor

  4. Risk factors for the appearance of minimal pathologic lesions on vocal folds in vocal professionals

    Stojanović Jasmina

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available Background/Aim. An excessive use or misuse of voice by vocal professionals may result in symptoms such are husky voice, hoarse voice, total loss of voice, or even organic changes taking place on vocal folds - minimal pathological lesions - MAPLs. The purpose of this study was to identify the type of MAPLs which affects vocal professionals, as well as to identify the risk factors that bring about these changes. Methods. There were 94 vocal professionals who were examined altogether, out of whom 46 were affected by MAPLs, whereas 48 of them were diagnosed with no MAPLs, so that they served as the control group. All these patients were clinically examined (anamnesis, clinical examination, bacteoriological examination of nose and pharynx, radiography of paranasal cavities, allergological processing, phoniatric examination, endo-video-stroboscopic examination, as well as gastroenterologic examination, and finally endocrinological and pulmological analyses. Results. The changes that occurred most often were identified as nodules (50%; n = 23/46 and polyps (24%; n = 11/46. Risk factors causing MAPLs in vocal professionals were as follows: age, which reduced the risk by 23.9% [OR 0.861 (0.786-0.942] whereas the years of career increase the risk [OR 1.114 (1.000-1.241], as well as the presence of a chronic respiratory disease [OR 7.310 (1.712- 31.218], and the presence of gastro-oesophageal reflux disease [OR 4.542 (1.263-16.334]. The following factors did not contribute to development of MAPLs in vocal professionals: sex, a place of residence, irritation, smoking, endocrinologic disease and the presence of poly-sinusitis. Conclusion. It is necessary to introduce comprehensive procedures for prevention of MAPLs, particularly in high-risk groups. Identification of the risk factors for MAPLs and prevention of their influence on vocal professionals (given that their income depends on their vocal ability is of the highest importance.

  5. Vocal Tract and Glottal Function During and After Vocal Exercising With Resonance Tube and Straw

    Guzman, M.; Laukkanen, A. M.; Krupa, P.; Horáček, Jaromír; Švec, Jan G.; Geneid, A.

    2013-01-01

    Roč. 27, č. 4 (2013), "523.e19"-"523.e34". ISSN 0892-1997 R&D Projects: GA ČR GAP101/12/1306 Institutional support: RVO:61388998 Keywords : vocal exercises * resonance tube * vocal tract impedance * computerized tomography * singer’s/speaker’s formant cluster Subject RIV: BI - Acoustics Impact factor: 0.944, year: 2013 http://www.sciencedirect.com/science/journal/08921997

  6. Vocal therapy with larynx compression after partial laryngectomy

    Mumović Gordana M.

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available The aim of the study was to establish the effects of the vocal therapy by manual compression of the larynx on dysphonia due to a partial laryngectomy and compare them with the effects of the standard vocal therapy. The prospective study included 66 patients submitted to any partial laryngectomy type. The patients were randomly classified into two groups: Group I (33 receiving the standard vocal therapy, and Group II (33 submitted to larynx compression vocal therapy. The 6-week vocal treatment was performed. The treatment effects were evaluated by subjective and objective voice analysis methods. The subjective and objective acoustic voice analysis revealed a significant influence (p<0.05 of either of the two vocal therapy modes on initial dysphonia. The larynx compression vocal therapy had better effects on the acoustic parameters: habitual fundamental frequency, mean fundamental frequency, standard deviation of fundamental frequency, maximal fundamental frequency, harmonics-to-noise ratio, and signal-to-noise ratio.

  7. Pupils dilate for vocal or familiar music.

    Weiss, Michael W; Trehub, Sandra E; Schellenberg, E Glenn; Habashi, Peter

    2016-08-01

    Previous research reveals that vocal melodies are remembered better than instrumental renditions. Here we explored the possibility that the voice, as a highly salient stimulus, elicits greater arousal than nonvocal stimuli, resulting in greater pupil dilation for vocal than for instrumental melodies. We also explored the possibility that pupil dilation indexes memory for melodies. We tracked pupil dilation during a single exposure to 24 unfamiliar folk melodies (half sung to la la, half piano) and during a subsequent recognition test in which the previously heard melodies were intermixed with 24 novel melodies (half sung, half piano) from the same corpus. Pupil dilation was greater for vocal melodies than for piano melodies in the exposure phase and in the test phase. It was also greater for previously heard melodies than for novel melodies. Our findings provide the first evidence that pupillometry can be used to measure recognition of stimuli that unfold over several seconds. They also provide the first evidence of enhanced arousal to vocal melodies during encoding and retrieval, thereby supporting the more general notion of the voice as a privileged signal. (PsycINFO Database Record PMID:27123682

  8. Enhanced Processing of Vocal Melodies in Childhood

    Weiss, Michael W.; Schellenberg, E. Glenn; Trehub, Sandra E.; Dawber, Emily J.

    2015-01-01

    Music cognition is typically studied with instrumental stimuli. Adults remember melodies better, however, when they are presented in a biologically significant timbre (i.e., the human voice) than in various instrumental timbres (Weiss, Trehub, & Schellenberg, 2012). We examined the impact of vocal timbre on children's processing of melodies.…

  9. Music Education Intervention Improves Vocal Emotion Recognition

    Mualem, Orit; Lavidor, Michal

    2015-01-01

    The current study is an interdisciplinary examination of the interplay among music, language, and emotions. It consisted of two experiments designed to investigate the relationship between musical abilities and vocal emotional recognition. In experiment 1 (N = 24), we compared the influence of two short-term intervention programs--music and…

  10. Path Models of Vocal Emotion Communication.

    Tanja Bänziger

    Full Text Available We propose to use a comprehensive path model of vocal emotion communication, encompassing encoding, transmission, and decoding processes, to empirically model data sets on emotion expression and recognition. The utility of the approach is demonstrated for two data sets from two different cultures and languages, based on corpora of vocal emotion enactment by professional actors and emotion inference by naïve listeners. Lens model equations, hierarchical regression, and multivariate path analysis are used to compare the relative contributions of objectively measured acoustic cues in the enacted expressions and subjective voice cues as perceived by listeners to the variance in emotion inference from vocal expressions for four emotion families (fear, anger, happiness, and sadness. While the results confirm the central role of arousal in vocal emotion communication, the utility of applying an extended path modeling framework is demonstrated by the identification of unique combinations of distal cues and proximal percepts carrying information about specific emotion families, independent of arousal. The statistical models generated show that more sophisticated acoustic parameters need to be developed to explain the distal underpinnings of subjective voice quality percepts that account for much of the variance in emotion inference, in particular voice instability and roughness. The general approach advocated here, as well as the specific results, open up new research strategies for work in psychology (specifically emotion and social perception research and engineering and computer science (specifically research and development in the domain of affective computing, particularly on automatic emotion detection and synthetic emotion expression in avatars.

  11. Gelada vocal sequences follow Menzerath's linguistic law.

    Gustison, Morgan L; Semple, Stuart; Ferrer-I-Cancho, Ramon; Bergman, Thore J

    2016-05-10

    Identifying universal principles underpinning diverse natural systems is a key goal of the life sciences. A powerful approach in addressing this goal has been to test whether patterns consistent with linguistic laws are found in nonhuman animals. Menzerath's law is a linguistic law that states that, the larger the construct, the smaller the size of its constituents. Here, to our knowledge, we present the first evidence that Menzerath's law holds in the vocal communication of a nonhuman species. We show that, in vocal sequences of wild male geladas (Theropithecus gelada), construct size (sequence size in number of calls) is negatively correlated with constituent size (duration of calls). Call duration does not vary significantly with position in the sequence, but call sequence composition does change with sequence size and most call types are abbreviated in larger sequences. We also find that intercall intervals follow the same relationship with sequence size as do calls. Finally, we provide formal mathematical support for the idea that Menzerath's law reflects compression-the principle of minimizing the expected length of a code. Our findings suggest that a common principle underpins human and gelada vocal communication, highlighting the value of exploring the applicability of linguistic laws in vocal systems outside the realm of language. PMID:27091968

  12. Path Models of Vocal Emotion Communication.

    Bänziger, Tanja; Hosoya, Georg; Scherer, Klaus R

    2015-01-01

    We propose to use a comprehensive path model of vocal emotion communication, encompassing encoding, transmission, and decoding processes, to empirically model data sets on emotion expression and recognition. The utility of the approach is demonstrated for two data sets from two different cultures and languages, based on corpora of vocal emotion enactment by professional actors and emotion inference by naïve listeners. Lens model equations, hierarchical regression, and multivariate path analysis are used to compare the relative contributions of objectively measured acoustic cues in the enacted expressions and subjective voice cues as perceived by listeners to the variance in emotion inference from vocal expressions for four emotion families (fear, anger, happiness, and sadness). While the results confirm the central role of arousal in vocal emotion communication, the utility of applying an extended path modeling framework is demonstrated by the identification of unique combinations of distal cues and proximal percepts carrying information about specific emotion families, independent of arousal. The statistical models generated show that more sophisticated acoustic parameters need to be developed to explain the distal underpinnings of subjective voice quality percepts that account for much of the variance in emotion inference, in particular voice instability and roughness. The general approach advocated here, as well as the specific results, open up new research strategies for work in psychology (specifically emotion and social perception research) and engineering and computer science (specifically research and development in the domain of affective computing, particularly on automatic emotion detection and synthetic emotion expression in avatars). PMID:26325076

  13. Vocal cord hemangioma in an adult

    Muzaffer Kanlıkama

    2011-03-01

    Full Text Available Hemangioma is one of the most common benign tumorsin the head and neck region. Laryngeal hemangiomasare benign vascular tumors of unknown etiology thatarise from subglottic region with stridor in infants. Thistype also known as congenital laryngeal hemangioma, isthe more common. Congenital hemangiomas occur usuallyin subglottic region and more frequent in girls. Laryngealhemangioma in adults is a very rare conditionand main symptom is hoarseness and breathing difficulties.Adult hemangiomas can be seen in different locationssuch as the epiglottis, aryepiglottic folds, arytenoidsand false and true vocal cords. They are more oftenof cavernous form and cause hoarseness. In this reportwe present an adult patient with hemangioma ofthe left vocal fold and review the literature. Diagnosticinvestigation revealed a pink-purple mass which was extendedfrom the anterior comissure to the posterior partof true vocal cord and false vocal cord, filling the ventriculeand extending to supraglottic region. Directlaryngoscopy was performed, but the lesion was not excisedbecause of its widespread extension in the larynx. JClin Exp Invest 2010; 2(1: 91-94

  14. Path Models of Vocal Emotion Communication

    Bänziger, Tanja; Hosoya, Georg; Scherer, Klaus R.

    2015-01-01

    We propose to use a comprehensive path model of vocal emotion communication, encompassing encoding, transmission, and decoding processes, to empirically model data sets on emotion expression and recognition. The utility of the approach is demonstrated for two data sets from two different cultures and languages, based on corpora of vocal emotion enactment by professional actors and emotion inference by naïve listeners. Lens model equations, hierarchical regression, and multivariate path analysis are used to compare the relative contributions of objectively measured acoustic cues in the enacted expressions and subjective voice cues as perceived by listeners to the variance in emotion inference from vocal expressions for four emotion families (fear, anger, happiness, and sadness). While the results confirm the central role of arousal in vocal emotion communication, the utility of applying an extended path modeling framework is demonstrated by the identification of unique combinations of distal cues and proximal percepts carrying information about specific emotion families, independent of arousal. The statistical models generated show that more sophisticated acoustic parameters need to be developed to explain the distal underpinnings of subjective voice quality percepts that account for much of the variance in emotion inference, in particular voice instability and roughness. The general approach advocated here, as well as the specific results, open up new research strategies for work in psychology (specifically emotion and social perception research) and engineering and computer science (specifically research and development in the domain of affective computing, particularly on automatic emotion detection and synthetic emotion expression in avatars). PMID:26325076

  15. Vocal cord hemangioma in an adult

    Muzaffer Kanlıkama

    2011-09-01

    Full Text Available Hemangioma is one of the most common benign tumors in the head and neck region. Laryngeal hemangiomas are benign vascular tumors of unknown etiology that arise from subglottic region with stridor in infants. This type also known as congenital laryngeal hemangioma, is the more common. Congenital hemangiomas occur usually in subglottic region and more frequent in girls. Laryngeal hemangioma in adults is a very rare condition and main symptom is hoarseness and breathing difficulties. Adult hemangiomas can be seen in different locations such as the epiglottis, aryepiglottic folds, arytenoids and false and true vocal cords. They are more often of cavernous form and cause hoarseness. In this report we present an adult patient with hemangioma of the left vocal fold and review the literature. Diagnostic investigation revealed a pink-purple mass which was extended from the anterior comissure to the posterior part of true vocal cord and false vocal cord, filling the ventricule and extending to supraglottic region. Direct laryngoscopy was performed, but the lesion was not excised because of its widespread extension in the larynx. J Clin Exp Invest 2010; 2(3: 323-326.

  16. High N-terminal pro-B-type natriuretic peptide levels are associated with reduced heart rate variability in acute myocardial infarction.

    Luc Lorgis

    Full Text Available AIM: We investigated the relationships between the autonomic nervous system, as assessed by heart rate variability (HRV and levels of N-terminal Pro-B-type Natriuretic Peptide (Nt-proBNP in patients with acute myocardial infarction (MI. METHODS AND RESULTS: The mean of standard deviation of RR intervals (SDNN, the percentage of RR intervals with >50 ms variation (pNN50, square root of mean squared differences of successive RR intervals (rMSSD, and frequency domain parameters (total power (TP, high frequency and low frequency power ratio (LF/HF were assessed by 24 h Holter ECG monitoring. 1018 consecutive patients admitted <24 h for an acute MI were included. Plasma Nt-proBNP (Elecsys, Roche was measured from blood samples taken on admission. The median (IQR Nt-proBNP level was 681(159-2432 pmol/L. Patients with the highest quartile of Nt-proBNP were older, with higher rate of risk factors and lower ejection fraction. The highest Nt-proBNP quartile group had the lowest SDNN, LF/HF and total power but similar pNN50 and rMSSD levels. Nt-proBNP levels correlated negatively with SDNN (r = -0.19, p<0.001, LF/HF (r = -0.37, p<0.001, and LF (r = -0.29, p<0.001 but not HF (r = -0.043, p = 0.172. Multiple regression analysis showed that plasma propeptide levels remained predictive of LF/HF (B(SE = -0.065(0.015, p<0.001, even after adjustment for confounders. CONCLUSIONS: In conclusion, our population-based study highlights the importance of Nt-proBNP levels to predict decreased HRV after acute MI.

  17. A Computational Study of the Effect of False Vocal Folds on Glottal Flow and Vocal Fold Vibration During Phonation

    Zheng, Xudong; Bielamowicz, Steve; Luo, Haoxiang; Mittal, Rajat

    2010-01-01

    The false vocal folds are believed to be components of the acoustic filter that is responsible for shaping the voice. However, the effects of false vocal folds on the vocal fold vibration and the glottal aerodynamic during phonation remain unclear. This effect has implications for computational modeling of phonation as well as for understanding laryngeal pathologies such as glottal incompetence resulting from unilateral vocal fold paralysis. In this study, a high fidelity, two-dimensional computational model, which combines an immersed boundary method for the airflow and a continuum, finite-element method for the vocal folds, is used to examine the effect of the false vocal folds on flow-induced vibration (FIV) of the true vocal folds and the dynamics of the glottal jet. The model is notionally based on a laryngeal CT scan and employs realistic flow conditions and tissue properties. Results show that the false vocal folds potentially have a significant impact on phonation. The false vocal folds reduce the glottal flow impedance and increase the amplitude as well as the mean glottal jet velocity. The false vocal folds also enhance the intensity of the monopole acoustic sources in the glottis. A mechanism for reduction in flow impedance due to the false vocal folds is proposed. PMID:19142730

  18. Evaluating MODIS cloud retrievals with in situ observations from VOCALS-REx

    King, N. J.; K. N. Bower; Crosier, J.; I. Crawford

    2013-01-01

    Microphysical measurements collected during eleven profiles, by the UK BAe-146 aircraft, through marine stratocumulus as part of the Variability of the American Monsoon Systems (VAMOS) Ocean-Cloud-Atmosphere-Land Study Regional Experiment (VOCALS-REx) are compared to collocated overpasses of the Moderate Resolution Imaging Spectroradiometer (MODIS) aboard the Aqua and Terra satellite platforms. The full depth of the cloud is sampled in each case using a Cloud Droplet Probe (CDP) and a Two-Dim...

  19. The interaction of vocal characteristics and audibility in the recognition of concurrent syllablesa)

    Vestergaard, Martin D.; Fyson, Nicholas R. C.; Patterson, Roy D.

    2009-01-01

    In concurrent-speech recognition, performance is enhanced when either the glottal pulse rate (GPR) or the vocal tract length (VTL) of the target speaker differs from that of the distracter, but relatively little is known about the trading relationship between the two variables, or how they interact with other cues such as signal-to-noise ratio (SNR). This paper presents a study in which listeners were asked to identify a target syllable in the presence of a distracter syllable, with carefully...

  20. Classification of acute stress using linear and non-linear heart rate variability analysis derived from sternal ECG

    Tanev, George; Saadi, Dorthe Bodholt; Hoppe, Karsten;

    2014-01-01

    Chronic stress detection is an important factor in predicting and reducing the risk of cardiovascular disease. This work is a pilot study with a focus on developing a method for detecting short-term psychophysiological changes through heart rate variability (HRV) features. The purpose of this pilot...... features. Standardizing non-linear HRV features for each subject was found to be an important factor for the improvement of the classification results....

  1. Changes in the heart rate variability in patients with obstructive sleep apnea and its response to acute CPAP treatment

    Ernesto Kufoy; Jose-Alberto Palma; Jon Lopez; Manuel Alegre; Elena Urrestarazu; Julio Artieda; Jorge Iriarte

    2012-01-01

    Obstructive Sleep Apnea (OSA) is a major risk factor for cardiovascular disease. The goal of this study was to demonstrate whether the use of CPAP produces significant changes in the heart rate or in the heart rate variability of patients with OSA in the first night of treatment and whether gender and obesity play a role in these differences. METHODS: Single-center transversal study including patients with severe OSA corrected with CPAP. Only ...

  2. Heart rate variability measurement and clinical depression in acute coronary syndrome patients: Narrative review of recent literature

    Harris PR; Sommargren CE; Stein PK; Fung GL; Drew BJ

    2014-01-01

    Patricia RE Harris,1 Claire E Sommargren,2 Phyllis K Stein,3 Gordon L Fung,4,5 Barbara J Drew6,7 1ECG Monitoring Research Lab, 2Department of Physiological Nursing, School of Nursing, University of California, San Francisco, CA, USA; 3Heart Rate Variability Laboratory, School of Medicine, Washington University, St Louis, MO, USA; 4Asian Heart & Vascular Center at Mount Zion, Division of Cardiology, University of California, 5Cardiology Consultation Service, Cardiac Noninvasive Laboratory,...

  3. Processing of fascia for vocal fold injection. A study in vitro and in paralyzed canine vocal folds.

    Rihkanen, Heikki; Kaliste, Eila; Leivo, Ilmo

    2003-08-01

    To evaluate the simplest and safest method to mince fascia for autologous vocal fold injection, we performed an in vitro study applying porcine fascia and a prospective study using a canine model. Six different surfaces were tested in the laboratory for mincing fascia. The ease of handling of tissue on each surface was noted. Minced fascia was studied by microscope under polarized illumination, and the number and nature of foreign particles were recorded. After the safest method to mince fascia was established, 2 dogs were operated on. The recurrent nerve was sectioned, and a piece of fascia lata was harvested and cut with scissors on a steel surface. Fascia injection deep into the thyroarytenoid muscle was performed. The dogs were painlessly sacrificed 6 months later, and the larynges were removed for histomorphological study. On cutting, all polymer surfaces released small amounts of particles. These were not evident when we used glass or steel plates, but their hard surfaces were difficult to work on. Cutting a piece of fascia with scissors was found to be effective and safe in terms of microscopic foreign particles. The two dogs suffered no perioperative or late complications. Six months later, a well-preserved, vascularized, collagen-rich tissue was in its place without any evidence of acute or chronic inflammation. The histomorphological findings were identical to those of our previous study, with the exception that this time, no foreign particles from the mincing surface were present. An autologous fascia graft proves to be well preserved and well tolerated in the augmentation of a paralyzed vocal fold, and scissors are simple and effective in mincing it for injection. PMID:12940673

  4. Audience effects, but not environmental influences, explain variation in gorilla close distance vocalizations-A test of the acoustic adaptation hypothesis.

    Hedwig, Daniela; Mundry, Roger; Robbins, Martha M; Boesch, Christophe

    2015-12-01

    Close distance vocalizations are an integral part of primate vocal communication. They exhibit large acoustic variation which has been suggested to constitute flexible responses to the highly variable social setting of group living animals. However, a recent study suggested that acoustic variation in close distance calls of baboons may also arise from acoustic adaptations to environmental factors in order to counteract sound degradation. We tested whether the variation in calling rate and acoustic structure of gorilla close distance vocalizations may serve to counteract distorting effects of vegetation during sound propagation. Using focal animal sampling we recorded the vocal behavior of 15 adult individuals living in two groups: one group of western lowland gorillas Gorilla gorilla gorilla and one group of mountain gorillas Gorilla beringei beringei. We considered the distance between the caller and its nearest neighbor as the minimum transmission distance of calls; while vegetation density was quantified through measures of visibility. Our analysis revealed vocal plasticity in gorilla close calls in relation to changes in visibility and nearest neighbor distance. However, the observed changes in fundamental frequency and calling rate are unlikely to counteract degrading effects of vegetation, but rather seem to reflect reactions to variation in spatial and visual separation from other group members, similar to the audience effects demonstrated in a range of other species. We propose that vocal plasticity to counteract distorting environmental effects may not be prevalent across taxa and perhaps confined to species living in heterogeneous habitats with highly variable transmission conditions. PMID:26352614

  5. Perfil da saúde vocal de cantores amadores de igreja evangélica Vocal health profile of amateur singers from an evangelical church

    Thaise Marcela Mota Barreto

    2011-06-01

    complaints, such as continuous hoarseness (43.6%, constant throat clearing (43.6%, voice failure (34.5%, voice loss (18.1%, dry throat (18.1%, weak voice (14.5%, and neck and cervix pain (12.7%. During singing activity, the most reported complaints were difficulties in reaching high notes (45.4%, hoarseness (30.9% and voice failure (29%. The vocal habits the singers reported regarded excessive talking (63.6%, immoderate icy beverages intake (43.6%, loud talking (40%, and repeatedly shouting (20%. Significant differences were found between genders regarding the variables voice failure, icy beverages intake, and loud talking. CONCLUSION: Amateur religious singers of both genders showed an expressive percentage of vocal complaints and habits that might be associated to lack of information about healthy vocal habits, which can contribute to the development of laryngeal alterations and voice disorders.

  6. Interspecific hybridization as a tool to understand vocal divergence: the example of crowing in quail (Genus Coturnix.

    Sébastien Derégnaucourt

    Full Text Available Understanding the mechanisms that lead organisms to be separated into distinct species remains a challenge in evolutionary biology. Interspecific hybridization, which results from incomplete reproductive isolation, is a useful tool to investigate such mechanisms. In birds, interspecific hybridization is relatively frequent, despite the fact that closed species exhibit morphological and behavioural differences. Evolution of behaviour is difficult to investigate on a large timescale since it does not 'fossilize'. Here I propose that calls of hybrid non-songbirds that develop without the influence of learning may help in understanding the gradual process that leads to vocal divergence during speciation. I recorded crows produced by the European quail (Coturnix c. coturnix, the domestic Japanese quail (Coturnix c. japonica and their hybrids (F1, F2 and backcrosses. Most crowing patterns were intermediate to those of the parental species; some were similar to one or the other parental species, or not present in either parental species. I also observed vocal changes in hybrid crows during the breeding season and from one year to the other. This vocal variability resembles those observed during the ontogeny of the crow in quails. It is likely that similar mechanisms involved in vocal changes during ontogeny might have driven vocal divergence in the species of Palearctic quails. I suggest that hybrid crows might have resembled those produced by intermediary forms of quails during speciation.

  7. High-Resolution, Non-Invasive Imaging of Upper Vocal Tract Articulators Compatible with Human Brain Recordings

    Anumanchipalli, Gopala K.; Dichter, Benjamin; Chaisanguanthum, Kris S.; Johnson, Keith; Chang, Edward F.

    2016-01-01

    A complete neurobiological understanding of speech motor control requires determination of the relationship between simultaneously recorded neural activity and the kinematics of the lips, jaw, tongue, and larynx. Many speech articulators are internal to the vocal tract, and therefore simultaneously tracking the kinematics of all articulators is nontrivial—especially in the context of human electrophysiology recordings. Here, we describe a noninvasive, multi-modal imaging system to monitor vocal tract kinematics, demonstrate this system in six speakers during production of nine American English vowels, and provide new analysis of such data. Classification and regression analysis revealed considerable variability in the articulator-to-acoustic relationship across speakers. Non-negative matrix factorization extracted basis sets capturing vocal tract shapes allowing for higher vowel classification accuracy than traditional methods. Statistical speech synthesis generated speech from vocal tract measurements, and we demonstrate perceptual identification. We demonstrate the capacity to predict lip kinematics from ventral sensorimotor cortical activity. These results demonstrate a multi-modal system to non-invasively monitor articulator kinematics during speech production, describe novel analytic methods for relating kinematic data to speech acoustics, and provide the first decoding of speech kinematics from electrocorticography. These advances will be critical for understanding the cortical basis of speech production and the creation of vocal prosthetics. PMID:27019106

  8. Comportamiento de algunas variables relacionadas con la atención al Infarto del Miocardio Agudo. Maracaibo. Venezuela Behavior of some variables associated with treatment of acute myocardial infarction. Maracaibo. Venezuela

    Raymid García Fernández

    2009-12-01

    Full Text Available A pesar de la evidencia del beneficio del tratamiento médico oportuno en cuanto a disminuir mortalidad y otros eventos clínicos importantes, continúan existiendo fallas en la atención a los pacientes con infarto del miocardio agudo. Se realizó un estudio descriptivo transversal de los pacientes que acudieron a cuatro Centros de Diagnósticos Integrales del municipio Maracaibo, estado Zulia, Venezuela en el período comprendido entre octubre de 2006 a agosto de 2007 con el objetivo de evaluar el comportamiento de algunas variables relacionadas con la atención del infarto con elevación del segmento ST. El universo estuvo constituido por todos los pacientes con enfermedades cardiovasculares ingresados en los centros de atención. La muestra estuvo integrada por la historia clínica de 44 pacientes con diagnóstico de infarto agudo del miocardio. La misma fue agrupada según las variables a estudiar cumpliendo los criterios de inclusión y exclusión. Hubo un predominio del sexo masculino y de las edades mayores de 60 años. Se utilizó tratamiento fibrinolítico en el 71,7% de los pacientes. El tiempo puerta aguja fue demorado. Hubo mayor reperfusión en los pacientes que tuvieron una puerta aguja menor de 60 minutos. Se utilizó beta bloqueadores e IECAs en el 79,5% y 65,9% respectivamente. El fallo de bomba fue la complicación más frecuente y estuvo presente en el 35,2%. Se hace necesario cumplir con las normas establecidas para el tratamiento del IMA basada en la evidencia de los estudios disponibles con el objetivo de disminuir la mortalidad por esta entidad.In spite of the evident benefits of prompt medical treatment to reduce mortality and other important clinical events, there are still failures in the care of patients with acute myocardial infarction. A cross-wise descriptive study was performed in patients who were seen at four integral diagnostic centers located in Maracaibo, Zulia state, in Venezuela in the period from October

  9. Vocal training, levodopa, and environment effects on ultrasonic vocalizations in a rat neurotoxin model of Parkinson disease.

    Kelm-Nelson, Cynthia A; Brauer, Alexander F L; Ciucci, Michelle R

    2016-07-01

    Levodopa does not improve dysarthria in patients with Parkinson Disease (PD), although vocal exercise therapy, such as "LSVT/LOUD(®)", does improve vocal communication. Most patients receive vocal exercise therapy while concurrently being treated with levodopa, although the interaction between levodopa and vocal exercise therapy on communication in PD is relatively unknown. Further, carryover of vocal exercise therapy to novel situations is critical for successful outcomes, but the influence of novel situations on rehabilitated vocal communication is not well understood. To address the influence of exercise, medications, and environment on vocal communication with precise experimental control, we employed the widely used 6-OHDA rat neurotoxin model of PD (infusion to the medial forebrain bundle), and assessed ultrasonic vocalizations after: vocal exercise, vocal exercise with levodopa, levodopa alone, and control conditions. We tested USVs in the familiar training environment of the home cage and a novel cage. We hypothesized that parkinsonian rats that undergo vocal exercise would demonstrate significant improvement of ultrasonic vocalization (USV) acoustic parameters as compared to the control exercise and levodopa-only treatment groups. We further hypothesized that vocal exercise in combination with levodopa administration, similar to what is common in humans, would lead to improvement in USV outcomes, particularly when tested in a familiar versus a novel environment. We found that the combination of exercise and levodopa lead to some improvement in USV acoustic parameters and these effects were stronger in a familiar vs. a novel environment. Our results suggest that although treatment can improve aspects of communication, environment can influence the benefits of these effects. PMID:27025445

  10. Vocal training, levodopa, and environment effects on ultrasonic vocalizations in a rat neurotoxin model of Parkinson disease

    Kelm-Nelson, Cynthia A.; Brauer, Alexander F.L.; Ciucci, Michelle R.

    2016-01-01

    Levodopa does not improve dysarthria in patients with Parkinson Disease (PD), although vocal exercise therapy, such as “LSVT/LOUD®”, does improve vocal communication. Most patients receive vocal exercise therapy while concurrently being treated with levodopa, although the interaction between levodopa and vocal exercise therapy on communication in PD is relatively unknown. Further, carryover of vocal exercise therapy to novel situations is critical for successful outcomes, but the influence of novel situations on rehabilitated vocal communication is not well understood. To address the influence of exercise, medications, and environment on vocal communication with precise experimental control, we employed the widely used 6-OHDA rat neurotoxin model of PD (infusion to the medial forebrain bundle), and assessed ultrasonic vocalizations after: vocal exercise, vocal exercise with levodopa, levodopa alone, and control conditions. We tested USVs in the familiar training environment of the home cage and a novel cage. We hypothesized that parkinsonian rats that undergo vocal exercise would demonstrate significant improvement of ultrasonic vocalization (USV) acoustic parameters as compared to the control exercise and levodopa-only treatment groups. We further hypothesized that vocal exercise in combination with levodopa administration, similar to what is common in humans, would lead to improvement in USV outcomes, particularly when tested in a familiar versus a novel environment. We found that the combination of exercise and levodopa lead to some improvement in USV acoustic parameters and these effects were stronger in a familiar vs. a novel environment. Our results suggest that although treatment can improve aspects of communication, environment can influence the benefits of these effects. PMID:27025445

  11. Modal locking between vocal fold and vocal tract oscillations: Simulations in time domain

    Aalto, Atte; Malinen, Jarmo; Aalto, Daniel; Vainio, Martti

    2015-01-01

    It is well known that during voiced speech, the human vocal folds interact with the vocal tract acoustics. The resulting source-filter coupling has been observed using mathematical and physical models as well as in in vivo phonation. We propose a computational time-domain model of the full speech apparatus that, in particular, contains a feedback mechanism from the vocal tract acoustics to the vocal fold oscillations. It is based on numerical solution of ordinary and partial differential equations defined on vocal tract geometries that have been obtained by Magnetic Resonance Imaging. The model is used to simulate rising and falling pitch glides of [a, i] in the fundamental frequency (f_0) interval [180 Hz, 360 Hz]. The interval contains the first formant F1 of [i] as well as the subformants F1/4 and F1/3 of [a]. The simulations reveal a locking pattern of the f_0-trajectory at F1 of [i] in falling and rising glides. The subformants of [a] produce perturbations in the waveforms of glottal signals but no locki...

  12. Vocal fold vibrations at high soprano fundamental frequencies.

    Echternach, Matthias; Döllinger, Michael; Sundberg, Johan; Traser, Louisa; Richter, Bernhard

    2013-02-01

    Human voice production at very high fundamental frequencies is not yet understood in detail. It was hypothesized that these frequencies are produced by turbulences, vocal tract/vocal fold interactions, or vocal fold oscillations without closure. Hitherto it has been impossible to visually analyze the vocal mechanism due to technical limitations. Latest high-speed technology, which captures 20,000 frames/s, using transnasal endoscopy was applied. Up to 1568 Hz human vocal folds do exhibit oscillations with complete closure. Therefore, the recent results suggest that human voice production at very high F0s up to 1568 Hz is not caused by turbulence, but rather by airflow modulation from vocal fold oscillations. PMID:23363198

  13. Developmental changes of cognitive vocal control in monkeys.

    Hage, Steffen R; Gavrilov, Natalja; Nieder, Andreas

    2016-06-01

    The evolutionary origins of human language are obscured by the scarcity of essential linguistic characteristics in non-human primate communication systems. Volitional control of vocal utterances is one such indispensable feature of language. We investigated the ability of two monkeys to volitionally utter species-specific calls over many years. Both monkeys reliably vocalized on command during juvenile periods, but discontinued this controlled vocal behavior in adulthood. This emerging disability was confined to volitional vocal production, as the monkeys continued to vocalize spontaneously. In addition, they continued to use hand movements as instructed responses during adulthood. This greater vocal flexibility of monkeys early in ontogeny supports the neoteny hypothesis in human evolution. This suggests that linguistic capabilities were enabled via an expansion of the juvenile period during the development of humans. PMID:27252457

  14. Human mutant huntingtin disrupts vocal learning in transgenic songbirds.

    Liu, Wan-Chun; Kohn, Jessica; Szwed, Sarah K; Pariser, Eben; Sepe, Sharon; Haripal, Bhagwattie; Oshimori, Naoki; Marsala, Martin; Miyanohara, Atsushi; Lee, Ramee

    2015-11-01

    Speech and vocal impairments characterize many neurological disorders. However, the neurogenetic mechanisms of these disorders are not well understood, and current animal models do not have the necessary circuitry to recapitulate vocal learning deficits. We developed germline transgenic songbirds, zebra finches (Taneiopygia guttata) expressing human mutant huntingtin (mHTT), a protein responsible for the progressive deterioration of motor and cognitive function in Huntington's disease (HD). Although generally healthy, the mutant songbirds had severe vocal disorders, including poor vocal imitation, stuttering, and progressive syntax and syllable degradation. Their song abnormalities were associated with HD-related neuropathology and dysfunction of the cortical-basal ganglia (CBG) song circuit. These transgenics are, to the best of our knowledge, the first experimentally created, functional mutant songbirds. Their progressive and quantifiable vocal disorder, combined with circuit dysfunction in the CBG song system, offers a model for genetic manipulation and the development of therapeutic strategies for CBG-related vocal and motor disorders. PMID:26436900

  15. Heart Rate Variability Density Analysis (Dyx) and Prediction of Long-Term Mortality after Acute Myocardial Infarction

    Jørgensen, Rikke Mørch; Abildstrøm, Steen Z; Levitan, Jacob;

    2016-01-01

    AIMS: The density HRV parameter Dyx is a new heart rate variability (HRV) measure based on multipole analysis of the Poincaré plot obtained from RR interval time series, deriving information from both the time and frequency domain. Preliminary results have suggested that the parameter may provide...... all traditional and multipole HRV parameters, reduced Dyx was the most powerful predictor of all-cause mortality (HR 2.4; CI 1.5 to 3.8; P < 0.001). After adjustment for known risk markers, such as age, diabetes, ejection fraction, previous MI and hypertension, Dyx remained an independent predictor of...... nonlinear HRV measure Dyx is a promising independent predictor of mortality in a long-term follow-up study of patients surviving a MI, irrespectively of left ventricular systolic function....

  16. Bias Adaptation for Vocal Tract Length Normalization

    Saheer, Lakshmi; Yamagishi, Junichi; Garner, Philip N.; Dines, John

    2013-01-01

    Vocal tract length normalisation (VTLN) is a well known rapid adaptation technique. VTLN as a linear transformation in the cepstral domain results in the scaling and translation factors. The warping factor represents the spectral scaling parameter. While, the translation factor represented by bias term captures more speaker characteristics especially in a rapid adaptation framework without having the risk of over-fitting. This paper presents a complete and comprehensible derivation of the bia...

  17. Gestures, Vocalizations, and Memory in Language Origins

    Francisco eAboitiz

    2012-01-01

    This article discusses the possible homologies between the human language networks and comparable auditory projection systems in the macaque brain, in an attempt to conciliate two existing views on language evolution: one that makes emphasis on hand control and gestures, and the other that makes emphasis on auditory-vocal mechanisms. The capacity for language is based on relatively well defined neural substrates whose rudiments have been traced into the non-human primate brain. In its core, t...

  18. Vocal copying of individually distinctive signature whistles in bottlenose dolphins

    King, Stephanie Laura; Sayigh, Laela; Wells, Randall; Fellner, Wendi; Janik, Vincent

    2013-01-01

    Vocal learning is relatively common in birds but less so in mammals. Sexual selection and individual or group recognition have been identified as major forces in its evolution. While important in the development of vocal displays, vocal learning also allows signal copying in social interactions. Such copying can function in addressing or labelling selected conspecifics. Most examples of addressing in non-humans come from bird song, where matching occurs in an aggressive context. However, in o...

  19. Ultrasonic Vocalization Changes and FOXP2 expression after Experimental Stroke

    Doran, Sarah J.; Trammel, Cassandra; Benashaski, Sharon E; Venna, Venugopal Reddy; McCullough, Louise D.

    2015-01-01

    Speech impairments affect one in four stroke survivors. However, animal models of post-ischemic vocalization deficits are limited. Male mice vocalize at ultrasonic frequencies when exposed to an estrous female mouse. In this study we assessed vocalization patterns and quantity in male mice after cerebral ischemia. FOXP2, a gene associated with verbal dyspraxia in humans, with known roles in neurogenesis and synaptic plasticity, was also examined after injury. Using a transient middle cerebral...

  20. Biomechanics and control of vocalization in a non-songbird

    Elemans, Coen P.H; Zaccarelli, Riccardo; Herzel, Hanspeter

    2007-01-01

    The neuromuscular control of vocalization in birds requires complicated and precisely coordinated motor control of the vocal organ (i.e. the syrinx), the respiratory system and upper vocal tract. The biomechanics of the syrinx is very complex and not well understood. In this paper, we aim to unravel the contribution of different control parameters in the coo of the ring dove (Streptopelia risoria) at the syrinx level. We designed and implemented a quantitative biomechanical syrinx model that ...

  1. EFFECTS OF MUSIC ON VOCAL STEREOTYPY IN CHILDREN WITH AUTISM

    Lanovaz, Marc J; Sladeczek, Ingrid E; Rapp, John T

    2011-01-01

    We examined the effects of manipulating the intensity (i.e., volume) of music on engagement in vocal stereotypy in 2 children with autism. Noncontingent access to music decreased immediate engagement in vocal stereotypy for each participant, but it produced only marginal effects on subsequent engagement in the behavior (i.e., after withdrawal). Manipulating the intensity of music did not produce differential effects on immediate engagement in vocal stereotypy. The implications of the results ...

  2. Imaging evaluation of vocal cord paralysis

    Garcia, Marcelo de Mattos; Magalhaes, Fabiana Pizanni; Dadalto, Gabriela Bijos; Moura, Marina Vimieiro Timponi de [Axial Centro de Imagem, Belo Horizonte, MG (Brazil)], e-mail: marcelomgarcia@superig.com.br, e-mail: ce@axialmg.com.br

    2009-09-15

    Vocal cord paralysis is a common cause of hoarseness. It may be secondary to many types of lesions along the cranial nerve X pathway and its branches, particularly the laryngeal recurrent nerves. Despite the idiopathic nature of a great number of cases, imaging methods play a very significant role in the investigation of etiologic factors, such as thyroid and esophagus neoplasias with secondary invasion of the laryngeal recurrent nerves. Other conditions such as aortic and right subclavian artery aneurysms also may be found. The knowledge of local anatomy and related diseases is of great importance for the radiologist, so that he can tailor the examination properly to allow an appropriate diagnosis and therapy planning. Additionally, considering that up to 35% of patients with vocal cord paralysis are asymptomatic, the recognition of radiological findings indicative of this condition is essential for the radiologist who must warn the referring physician on the imaging findings. In the present study, the authors review the anatomy and main diseases related to vocal cord paralysis, demonstrating them through typical cases evaluated by computed tomography and magnetic resonance imaging, besides describing radiological findings of laryngeal abnormalities indicative of this condition. (author)

  3. Vocal emotion of humanoid robots: a study from brain mechanism.

    Wang, Youhui; Hu, Xiaohua; Dai, Weihui; Zhou, Jie; Kuo, Taitzong

    2014-01-01

    Driven by rapid ongoing advances in humanoid robot, increasing attention has been shifted into the issue of emotion intelligence of AI robots to facilitate the communication between man-machines and human beings, especially for the vocal emotion in interactive system of future humanoid robots. This paper explored the brain mechanism of vocal emotion by studying previous researches and developed an experiment to observe the brain response by fMRI, to analyze vocal emotion of human beings. Findings in this paper provided a new approach to design and evaluate the vocal emotion of humanoid robots based on brain mechanism of human beings. PMID:24587712

  4. Diagnostic and therapeutic pitfalls in benign vocal fold diseases

    Bohlender, Jörg

    2013-12-01

    Full Text Available [english] More than half of patients presenting with hoarseness show benign vocal fold changes. The clinician should be familiar with the anatomy, physiology and functional aspects of voice disorders and also the modern diagnostic and therapeutic possibilities in order to ensure an optimal and patient specific management. This review article focuses on the diagnostic and therapeutic limitations and difficulties of treatment of benign vocal fold tumors, the management and prevention of scarred vocal folds and the issue of unilateral vocal fold paresis.

  5. Automatic recognizing of vocal fold disorders from glottis images.

    Huang, Chang-Chiun; Leu, Yi-Shing; Kuo, Chung-Feng Jeffrey; Chu, Wen-Lin; Chu, Yueng-Hsiang; Wu, Han-Cheng

    2014-09-01

    The laryngeal video stroboscope is an important instrument to test glottal diseases and read vocal fold images and voice quality for physician clinical diagnosis. This study is aimed to develop a medical system with functionality of automatic intelligent recognition of dynamic images. The static images of glottis opening to the largest extent and closing to the smallest extent were screened automatically using color space transformation and image preprocessing. The glottal area was also quantized. As the tongue base movements affected the position of laryngoscope and saliva would result in unclear images, this study used the gray scale adaptive entropy value to set the threshold in order to establish an elimination system. The proposed system can improve the effect of automatically captured images of glottis and achieve an accuracy rate of 96%. In addition, the glottal area and area segmentation threshold were calculated effectively. The glottis area segmentation was corrected, and the glottal area waveform pattern was drawn automatically to assist in vocal fold diagnosis. When developing the intelligent recognition system for vocal fold disorders, this study analyzed the characteristic values of four vocal fold patterns, namely, normal vocal fold, vocal fold paralysis, vocal fold polyp, and vocal fold cyst. It also used the support vector machine classifier to identify vocal fold disorders and achieved an identification accuracy rate of 98.75%. The results can serve as a very valuable reference for diagnosis. PMID:25313026

  6. Discriminating Simulated Vocal Tremor Source Using Amplitude Modulation Spectra

    Carbonell, Kathy M.; Lester, Rosemary A.; Story, Brad H.; Lotto, Andrew J.

    2014-01-01

    Objectives/Hypothesis Sources of vocal tremor are difficult to categorize perceptually and acoustically. This paper describes a preliminary attempt to discriminate vocal tremor sources through the use of spectral measures of the amplitude envelope. The hypothesis is that different vocal tremor sources are associated with distinct patterns of acoustic amplitude modulations. Study Design Statistical categorization methods (discriminant function analysis) were used to discriminate signals from simulated vocal tremor with different sources using only acoustic measures derived from the amplitude envelopes. Methods Simulations of vocal tremor were created by modulating parameters of a vocal fold model corresponding to oscillations of respiratory driving pressure (respiratory tremor), degree of vocal fold adduction (adductory tremor) and fundamental frequency of vocal fold vibration (F0 tremor). The acoustic measures were based on spectral analyses of the amplitude envelope computed across the entire signal and within select frequency bands. Results The signals could be categorized (with accuracy well above chance) in terms of the simulated tremor source using only measures of the amplitude envelope spectrum even when multiple sources of tremor were included. Conclusions These results supply initial support for an amplitude-envelope based approach to identify the source of vocal tremor and provide further evidence for the rich information about talker characteristics present in the temporal structure of the amplitude envelope. PMID:25532813

  7. Computational acoustic modeling of cetacean vocalizations

    Gurevich, Michael Dixon

    A framework for computational acoustic modeling of hypothetical vocal production mechanisms in cetaceans is presented. As a specific example, a model of a proposed source in the larynx of odontocetes is developed. Whales and dolphins generate a broad range of vocal sounds, but the exact mechanisms they use are not conclusively understood. In the fifty years since it has become widely accepted that whales can and do make sound, how they do so has remained particularly confounding. Cetaceans' highly divergent respiratory anatomy, along with the difficulty of internal observation during vocalization have contributed to this uncertainty. A variety of acoustical, morphological, ethological and physiological evidence has led to conflicting and often disputed theories of the locations and mechanisms of cetaceans' sound sources. Computational acoustic modeling has been used to create real-time parametric models of musical instruments and the human voice. These techniques can be applied to cetacean vocalizations to help better understand the nature and function of these sounds. Extensive studies of odontocete laryngeal morphology have revealed vocal folds that are consistently similar to a known but poorly understood acoustic source, the ribbon reed. A parametric computational model of the ribbon reed is developed, based on simplified geometrical, mechanical and fluid models drawn from the human voice literature. The physical parameters of the ribbon reed model are then adapted to those of the odontocete larynx. With reasonable estimates of real physical parameters, both the ribbon reed and odontocete larynx models produce sounds that are perceptually similar to their real-world counterparts, and both respond realistically under varying control conditions. Comparisons of acoustic features of the real-world and synthetic systems show a number of consistencies. While this does not on its own prove that either model is conclusively an accurate description of the source, it

  8. Activation of frontal neocortical areas by vocal production in marmosets

    Cristiano S Simões

    2010-09-01

    Full Text Available Primates often rely on vocal communication to mediate social interactions. Although much is known about the acoustic structure of primate vocalizations and the social context in which they are usually uttered, our knowledge about the neocortical control of audio-vocal interactions in primates is still incipient, being mostly derived from lesion studies in squirrel monkeys and macaques. To map the neocortical areas related to vocal control in a New World primate species, the common marmoset, we employed a method previously used with success in other vertebrate species: Analysis of the expression of the immediate-early gene Egr-1 in freely behaving animals. The neocortical distribution of Egr-1 immunoreactive cells in three marmosets that were exposed to the playback of conspecific vocalizations and vocalized spontaneously (H/V group was compared to data from three other marmosets that also heard the playback but did not vocalize (H/n group. The anterior cingulate cortex, the dorsomedial prefrontal cortex and the ventrolateral prefrontal cortex presented a higher number of Egr-1 immunoreactive cells in the H/V group than in H/n animals. Our results provide direct evidence that the ventrolateral prefrontal cortex, the region that comprises Broca's area in humans and has been associated with auditory processing of species-specific vocalizations and orofacial control in macaques, is engaged during vocal output in marmosets. Altogether, our results support the notion that the network of neocortical areas related to vocal communication in marmosets is quite similar to that of Old world primates. The vocal production role played by these areas and their importance for the evolution of speech in primates are discussed.

  9. Vocal Cord Paralysis and its Etiologies: A Prospective Study

    Seyed Javad Seyed Toutounchi

    2014-03-01

    Full Text Available Introduction: Vocal cord paralysis is a common symptom of numerous diseases and it may be due to neurogenic or mechanical fixation of the cords. Paralysis of the vocal cords is just a symptom of underlying disease in some cases; so, clinical diagnosis of the underlying cause leading to paralysis of the vocal cords is important. This study evaluates the causes of vocal cord paralysis.Methods: In a prospective study, 45 patients with paralyzed vocal cord diagnosis were examined by tests such as examination of the pharynx, larynx, esophagus, thyroid, cervical, lung, and mediastinum, brain and heart by diagnostic imaging to investigate the cause vocal cord paralysis. The study was ended by diagnosing the reason of vocal cord paralysis at each stage of the examination and the clinical studies.Results: The mean duration of symptoms was 18.95±6.50 months. The reason for referral was phonation changes (97.8% and aspiration (37.8% in the subjects. There was bilateral paralysis in 6.82%, left paralysis in 56.82% and right in 63.36% of subjects. The type of vocal cord placement was midline in 52.8%, paramedian in 44.4% and lateral in 2.8% of the subjects. The causes of vocal cords paralysis were idiopathic paralysis (31.11%, tumors (31.11%, surgery (28.89%, trauma, brain problems, systemic disease and other causes (2.2%.Conclusion: An integrated diagnostic and treatment program is necessary for patients with vocal cord paralysis. Possibility of malignancy should be excluded before marking idiopathic reason to vocal cord paralysis.

  10. Variables associated with disability in male and female long-term survivors from acute myocardial infarction. Results from the MONICA/KORA Myocardial Infarction Registry.

    Kirchberger, Inge; Heier, Margit; Amann, Ute; Kuch, Bernhard; Thilo, Christian; Meisinger, Christa

    2016-07-01

    Increasing attention is paid on functional limitations and disability among people with chronic diseases. However, only few studies have explored disability in persons with acute myocardial infarction (AMI). The objective of this study was to provide a description of disability and to identify determinants of disability in a population-based sample of long-term AMI survivors. The sample consisted of 1943 persons (35-85years) with AMI from the German population-based MONICA/KORA Myocardial Infarction Registry, who responded to a postal follow-up survey in 2011. Disability was assessed with the 12-item version of the World Health Organization Disability Schedule (WHODAS). Multivariate linear regression models were established in order to identify socioeconomic and clinical factors, risk factors and comorbidities which are associated with disability. The mean WHODAS score for the total sample was 7.86±9.38. The regression model includes 26 variables that explained 37.2% of the WHODAS variance. Most of the explained variance could be attributed to the presence of depression, female sex, joint disorders, digestive disorders, and stroke. Depression was the most important determinant of disability in both sexes. Replacement of single comorbidities by the total number of comorbidities resulted in a model with 15 variables explaining 31.9% of the WHODAS variance. Most of the variance was explained by the number of comorbidities. Further significant determinants of disability were female sex, low education level, angina pectoris, and no revascularization therapy. In AMI patients, the number of comorbidities and particularly the presence of depression are important determinants of disability and should be considered in post-AMI health care. PMID:27002251

  11. 16p11.2 Deletion Syndrome Mice Display Sensory and Ultrasonic Vocalization Deficits During Social Interactions.

    Yang, Mu; Mahrt, Elena J; Lewis, Freeman; Foley, Gillian; Portmann, Thomas; Dolmetsch, Ricardo E; Portfors, Christine V; Crawley, Jacqueline N

    2015-10-01

    Recurrent deletions and duplications at chromosomal region 16p11.2 are variably associated with speech delay, autism spectrum disorder, developmental delay, schizophrenia, and cognitive impairments. Social communication deficits are a primary diagnostic symptom of autism. Here we investigated ultrasonic vocalizations (USVs) in young adult male 16p11.2 deletion mice during a novel three-phase male-female social interaction test that detects vocalizations emitted by a male in the presence of an estrous female, how the male changes its calling when the female is suddenly absent, and the extent to which calls resume when the female returns. Strikingly fewer vocalizations were detected in two independent cohorts of 16p11.2 heterozygous deletion males (+/-) during the first exposure to an unfamiliar estrous female, as compared to wildtype littermates (+/+). When the female was removed, +/+ emitted calls, but at a much lower level, whereas +/- males called minimally. Sensory and motor abnormalities were detected in +/-, including higher nociceptive thresholds, a complete absence of acoustic startle responses, and hearing loss in all +/- as confirmed by lack of auditory brainstem responses to frequencies between 8 and 100 kHz. Stereotyped circling and backflipping appeared in a small percentage of individuals, as previously reported. However, these sensory and motor phenotypes could not directly explain the low vocalizations in 16p11.2 deletion mice, since (a) +/- males displayed normal abilities to emit vocalizations when the female was subsequently reintroduced, and (b) +/- vocalized less than +/+ to social odor cues delivered on an inanimate cotton swab. Our findings support the concept that mouse USVs in social settings represent a response to social cues, and that 16p11.2 deletion mice are deficient in their initial USVs responses to novel social cues. PMID:25663600

  12. Unusual Repertoire of Vocalizations in Adult BTBR T+tf/J Mice During Three Types of Social Encounters

    Scattoni, Maria Luisa; Ricceri, Laura; Crawley, Jacqueline N.

    2010-01-01

    BTBR T+tf/J (BTBR) is an inbred mouse strain that displays social deficits and repetitive behaviors analogous to the first and third diagnostic symptoms of autism. We previously reported an unusual pattern of ultrasonic vocalizations in BTBR pups that may represent a behavioral homologue to the second diagnostic symptom of autism, impaired communication. The present study investigated the social and vocal repertoire in adult BTBR mice, to evaluate the role of ultrasonic vocalizations in multiple social situations at the adult stage of development. Three different social contexts were considered: male-female, male-male (resident-intruder) and female-female interactions. Behavioral responses and ultrasonic vocalizations were recorded for BTBR and for the highly social control strain C57BL/6J (B6). No episodes of overt fighting or mating were observed during the short durations of the three different experimental encounters. BTBR displayed lower levels of vocalizations and social investigation in all three social contexts as compared to B6. In addition, the correlation analyses between social investigation and USVs emission rate revealed that in B6 mice the two variables were positively correlated in all the three different social settings, whereas in BTBR mice the positive correlation was significant only in the male-female interactions. These findings strongly support the value of simultaneously recording two aspects of the mouse social repertoire, social motivation and bioacoustic communication. Moreover, our findings in adults are consistent with previous results in pups, showing an unusual vocal repertoire in BTBR as compared to B6. PMID:20618443

  13. The vocal imitation of bottlenose dolphin (Tursiops truncatus) signature whistles: their use in vocal matching interactions and their role as vocal labels

    King, Stephanie Laura

    2012-01-01

    The bottlenose dolphin uses vocal learning to develop its own unique acoustic signal. This signal encodes the identity of the signaller, and is known as the animal’s signature whistle. The dolphin’s ability for vocal learning means that the signature whistle of one animal may be found in the vocal repertoire of other animals. This copying of signature whistle types may allow conspecifics to label or address one another. This thesis investigated the use of signature whistle copying in both cap...

  14. Chemo-port insertion: A cause of vocal cord palsy.

    Alazzawi, Sarmad; Hindi, Khalid; Malik, Ausama; Wee, Chong Aun; Prepageran, Narayanan

    2015-11-01

    We describe extremely rare cases of vocal cord palsy following surgical insertion of a chemo port. Our cohort consisted of patients with cancer who developed hoarseness immediately after central venous line placement for the administration of chemotherapy, with vocal cord palsy confirmed with flexible laryngoscopy. Given the timing, central venous line placement appears to be the most likely cause. PMID:26108861

  15. BENIGN LESIONS OF THE VOCAL FOLDS - HISTOPATHOLOGY AND PHONOTRAUMA

    DIKKERS, FG; NIKKELS, PGJ

    1995-01-01

    Benign lesions of the vocal folds have various appearances. Histopathologic examination might provide the true diagnosis. Therefore, histologic slides of 74 patients (92 vocal folds) with clinically well-defined diagnoses were single-blind examined by a pathologist. Single histologic features did no

  16. Using VOCAL: A Guide for Authors. Technical Report No. 296.

    Davis, Mark Edward; Pettit, Teri

    Factors which affect the overall presentation of computer assisted instruction in the Voice Oriented Curriculum Author Language (VOCAL), and general guidelines for effective use of VOCAL in curriculum development are presented. Four major sections describe course design and review, spoken strings, display features, and six types of exercise…

  17. Determination of West Indian manatee vocalization levels and rate

    Phillips, Richard; Niezrecki, Christopher; Beusse, Diedrich O.

    2004-01-01

    The West Indian manatee (Trichechus manatus latirostris) has become endangered partly because of a growing number of collisions with boats. A system to warn boaters of the presence of manatees, based upon the vocalizations of manatees, could potentially reduce these boat collisions. The feasibility of this warning system would depend mainly upon two factors: the rate at which manatees vocalize and the distance in which the manatees can be detected. The research presented in this paper verifies that the average vocalization rate of the West Indian manatee is approximately one to two times per 5-min period. Several different manatee vocalization recordings were broadcast to the manatees and their response was observed. It was found that during the broadcast periods, the vocalization rates for the manatees increased substantially when compared with the average vocalization rates during nonbroadcast periods. An array of four hydrophones was used while recording the manatees. This allowed for position estimation techniques to be used to determine the location of the vocalizing manatee. Knowing the position of the manatee, the source level was determined and it was found that the mean source level of the manatee vocalizations is approximately 112 dB (re 1 μPa) @ 1 m.

  18. Vocal Fold Mucus Aggregation in Persons with Voice Disorders

    Bonilha, Heather Shaw; White, Lisa; Kuckhahn, Kelsey; Gerlach, Terri Treman; Deliyski, Dimitar D.

    2012-01-01

    Mucus aggregation on the vocal folds is a common finding from laryngeal endoscopy. Patients with voice disorders report the presence of mucus aggregation. Patients also report that mucus aggregation causes them to clear their throat, a behavior believed to be harmful to vocal fold mucosa. Even though clinicians and patients report and discuss…

  19. Ultrasonic vocalization changes and FOXP2 expression after experimental stroke.

    Doran, Sarah J; Trammel, Cassandra; Benashaski, Sharon E; Venna, Venugopal Reddy; McCullough, Louise D

    2015-04-15

    Speech impairments affect one in four stroke survivors. However, animal models of post-ischemic vocalization deficits are limited. Male mice vocalize at ultrasonic frequencies when exposed to an estrous female mouse. In this study we assessed vocalization patterns and quantity in male mice after cerebral ischemia. FOXP2, a gene associated with verbal dyspraxia in humans, with known roles in neurogenesis and synaptic plasticity, was also examined after injury. Using a transient middle cerebral artery occlusion (MCAO) model, we assessed correlates of vocal impairment at several time-points after stroke. Further, to identify possible lateralization of vocalization deficits induced by left and right hemispheric strokes were compared. Significant differences in vocalization quantity were observed between stroke and sham animals that persisted for a month after injury. Injury to the left hemisphere reduced early vocalizations more profoundly than those to the right hemisphere. Nuclear expression of Foxp2 was elevated early after stroke (at 6h), but significantly decreased 24h after injury in both the nucleus and the cytoplasm. Neuronal Foxp2 expression increased in stroke mice compared to sham animals 4 weeks after injury. This study demonstrates that quantifiable deficits in ultrasonic vocalizations (USVs) are seen after stroke. USV may be a useful tool to assess chronic behavioral recovery in murine models of stroke. PMID:25644653

  20. Effects of smoking on the elderly people's vocal cords dimensions

    Vasconcelos, Sandrelli Virginio de

    2009-03-01

    Full Text Available Introduction: Smoking is highly aggressive and the vocal tract is one of the main risk factors for cancer of the larynx. The tobacco may lead to irritation of the vocal tract, edema in the vocal cords, hoarseness, coughing, increased secretion and infections. Objective: To evaluate the dimensions of the vocal cords in elderly smokers and male non-smokers. Method: We studied 15 male corpses, aged from 60 to 90 years, 8 of whom were non-smokers and 7 smokers. For data collection, four sequential steps were followed: 1st Clinical history of the corpse; 2nd Removal of the larynx, 3rd Dissection of the larynx and 4th Morphometry of the vocal cords dimensions. Results: There was no statistically significant difference as for the morphology of the vocal cords dimensions between elderly smokers and nonsmokers, and the length (p = 0.58, width (p = 0.72 and thickness (p = 0.65 were equivalent between both groups. Conclusion: We confirmed it's macroscopically impossible to find differences caused by smoking in the three dimensions of the vocal cords, however, in the histology, smokers are proved to be more susceptible to findings regarding dysplasia and neoplasms in the vocal cords tissue with problems in voice quality.

  1. Non-Linguistic Vocal Event Detection Using Online Random

    Abou-Zleikha, Mohamed; Tan, Zheng-Hua; Christensen, Mads Græsbøll;

    2014-01-01

    Accurate detection of non-linguistic vocal events in social signals can have a great impact on the applicability of speech enabled interactive systems. In this paper, we investigate the use of random forest for vocal event detection. Random forest technique has been successfully employed in many...

  2. Profiles of Vocal Development in Young Cochlear Implant Recipients

    Ertmer, David J.; Young, Nancy M.; Nathani, Suneeti

    2007-01-01

    Purpose: The main purpose of this investigation was to examine the effects of cochlear implant experience on prelinguistic vocal development in young deaf children. Procedure: A prospective longitudinal research design was used to document the sequence and time course of vocal development in 7 children who were implanted between 10 and 36 months…

  3. Effects of Music on Vocal Stereotypy in Children with Autism

    Lanovaz, Marc J.; Sladeczek, Ingrid E.; Rapp, John T.

    2011-01-01

    We examined the effects of manipulating the intensity (i.e., volume) of music on engagement in vocal stereotypy in 2 children with autism. Noncontingent access to music decreased immediate engagement in vocal stereotypy for each participant, but it produced only marginal effects on subsequent engagement in the behavior (i.e., after withdrawal).…

  4. Patterns of Gestural, Vocal, and Verbal Imitation Performance in Infancy.

    Masur, Elise Frank; Ritz, Elsbeth G.

    1984-01-01

    Examines imitation of motor, vocal, and verbal behaviors by infants 10 to 16 months old. The imitation battery consisted of 21 behaviors in four motor and two vocal categories. The familiarity or novelty of individual behaviors was assessed through maternal interviews. Results are discussed in terms of Uzgaris' (1981) conceptualization of two…

  5. Optical characterization of vocal folds using optical coherence tomography

    Lüerßen, Kathrin; Lubatschowski, Holger; Radicke, Nicole; Ptok, Martin

    2006-02-01

    The current standard procedure to ensure the diagnosis, if tissue is malignant, is still an invasive one. Optical coherence tomography (OCT) is a new non-invasive method to investigate biological tissue. In this study OCT was used on porcine and on human vocal folds. The optical penetration depth of the used radiation is up to 2 mm. Three different OCT application systems were used. The first is a high resolution OCT, which works in contact mode. It was used to examine porcine vocal folds ex vivo. Porcine vocal folds were assigned to defined areas and examined by OCT in contact mode followed by traditional histo-morphological analysis. The second OCT is fiber based. It also works in contact mode. Images of human vocal folds were done in contact mode. They were compared with a typical histo-morphological image of a human vocal fold. The third application system works in non contact to the tissue. It was integrated in a conventional laryngoscope. Human vocal folds were examined in vivo. Single layers of the vocal folds could be distinguished from each other with all used systems. Pathological alterations could be seen. Imaging is possible in real time. General anaesthesia is not necessary. OCT makes it possible to get a view under the surface of the vocal fold without being invasive.

  6. The Effect of Vocalization on Melodic Memory Conservation.

    Pembrook, Randall G.

    1987-01-01

    Reports on a study which reinforces prior findings on melodic memory that show a majority of students do not sing accurately enough after only one hearing of a melody to benefit from vocalization memory techniques. Questions whether vocalization can be a memory reinforcer in melodies that are shorter and simpler than those used in this research.…

  7. Determination of sound types and source levels of airborne vocalizations by California sea lions, Zalophus californianus, in rehabilitation at the Marine Mammal Center in Sausalito, California

    Schwalm, Afton Leigh

    California sea lions (Zalophus californianus) are a highly popular and easily recognized marine mammal in zoos, aquariums, circuses, and often seen by ocean visitors. They are highly vocal and gregarious on land. Surprisingly, little research has been performed on the vocalization types, source levels, acoustic properties, and functions of airborne sounds used by California sea lions. This research on airborne vocalizations of California sea lions will advance the understanding of this aspect of California sea lions communication, as well as examine the relationship between health condition and acoustic behavior. Using a PhillipsRTM digital recorder with attached microphone and a calibrated RadioShackRTM sound pressure level meter, acoustical data were recorded opportunistically on California sea lions during rehabilitation at The Marine Mammal Center in Sausalito, CA. Vocalizations were analyzed using frequency, time, and amplitude variables with Raven Pro: Interactive Sound Analysis Software Version 1.4 (The Cornell Lab of Ornithology, Ithaca, NY). Five frequency, three time, and four amplitude variables were analyzed for each vocalization. Differences in frequency, time, and amplitude variables were not significant by sex. The older California sea lion group produced vocalizations that were significantly lower in four frequency variables, significantly longer in two time variables, significantly higher in calibrated maximum and minimum amplitude variables, and significantly lower in frequency at maximum and minimum amplitude compared with pups. Six call types were identified: bark, goat, growl/grumble, bark/grumble, bark/growl, and grumble/moan. The growl/grumble call was higher in dominant beginning, ending, and minimum frequency, as well as in the frequency at maximum amplitude compared with the bark, goat, bark/grumble calls in the first versus last vocalization sample. The goat call was significantly higher in first harmonic interval than any other call type

  8. Dynamical origin of spectrally rich vocalizations in birdsong

    Sitt, J. D.; Amador, A.; Goller, F.; Mindlin, G. B.

    2008-07-01

    Birdsong is a model system for learned vocal behavior with remarkable parallels to human vocal development and sound production mechanisms. Upper vocal tract filtering plays an important role in human speech, and its importance has recently also been recognized in birdsong. However, the mechanisms of how the avian sound source might contribute to spectral richness are largely unknown. Here we show in the most widely studied songbird, the zebra finch (Taeniopygia guttata), that the broad range of upper harmonic content in different low-frequency song elements is the fingerprint of the dynamics displayed by its vocal apparatus, which can be captured by a two-dimensional dynamical model. As in human speech and singing, the varying harmonic content of birdsong is not only the result of vocal tract filtering but of a varying degree of tonality emerging from the sound source. The spectral content carries a strong signature of the intrinsic dynamics of the sound source.

  9. A spectral estimator of vocal jitter

    Mas Soro, Pol

    2011-01-01

    Projecte final de carrera fet en col.klaboració amb l'Université libre de Bruxelles. Faculté des Sciences Appliquées English: The purpose of this thesis is to study and implement a spectral method for short-time jitter estimation. Jitter consists in rapid perturbations of the vocal cycle lengths, which can be observed from one cycle to the next when they are sampled, at least, at the rate of the fundamental frequency. Jitter is analyzed for voice quality assessment given that it provides a...

  10. Vocal Dynamic Visual Pattern for voice characterization

    Voice assessment requires simple and painless exams. Modern technologies provide the necessary resources for voice signal processing. Techniques based on nonlinear dynamics seem to asses the complexity of voice more accurately than other methods. Vocal dynamic visual pattern (VDVP) is based on nonlinear methods and provides qualitative and quantitative information. Here we characterize healthy and Reinke's edema voices by means of perturbation measures and VDVP analysis. VDPD and jitter show different results for both groups, while amplitude perturbation has no difference. We suggest that VDPD analysis improve and complement the evaluation methods available for clinicians.