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Sample records for acute viral infection

  1. Acute hepatitis e viral infection in pregnancy and maternal morbidity

    To determine the maternal morbidity in pregnant women with acute hepatitis E viral infection. Study Design: Observational, cross-sectional study. Place and Duration of Study: Departments of Obstetrics and Gynaecology and Medicine, Liaquat University of Medical and Health Sciences, Jamshoro, Red Crescent General Hospital and Saint Elizabeth Hospital, Hyderabad, from January 2011 to December 2013. Methodology: The study population was pregnant women with acute hepatitis E infection confirmed by ELIZA technique. Pregnant women with other hepatic viral infections were excluded. All medical and obstetric conditions, and mortality were noted on the predesigned proforma. Results: Out of the total 45 admitted pregnant women with hepatitis E viral infection, 22 women (48.9%) had severe morbidity. The most common were hepatic coma in 8 (36.36%) cases and disseminated intravascular coagulation in 14 (63.63%) cases. Highest mortality rate was seen in women with hepatic coma (100%), while in those with disseminated intravascular coagulation, one out of the 14 cases (7.14%) died. Conclusion: The acute viral hepatitis E infection in pregnant women is associated with maternal morbidities and high mortality rate. (author)

  2. Defective interfering viral particles in acute dengue infections.

    Dongsheng Li

    Full Text Available While much of the genetic variation in RNA viruses arises because of the error-prone nature of their RNA-dependent RNA polymerases, much larger changes may occur as a result of recombination. An extreme example of genetic change is found in defective interfering (DI viral particles, where large sections of the genome of a parental virus have been deleted and the residual sub-genome fragment is replicated by complementation by co-infecting functional viruses. While most reports of DI particles have referred to studies in vitro, there is some evidence for the presence of DI particles in chronic viral infections in vivo. In this study, short fragments of dengue virus (DENV RNA containing only key regulatory elements at the 3' and 5' ends of the genome were recovered from the sera of patients infected with any of the four DENV serotypes. Identical RNA fragments were detected in the supernatant from cultures of Aedes mosquito cells that were infected by the addition of sera from dengue patients, suggesting that the sub-genomic RNA might be transmitted between human and mosquito hosts in defective interfering (DI viral particles. In vitro transcribed sub-genomic RNA corresponding to that detected in vivo could be packaged in virus like particles in the presence of wild type virus and transmitted for at least three passages in cell culture. DENV preparations enriched for these putative DI particles reduced the yield of wild type dengue virus following co-infections of C6-36 cells. This is the first report of DI particles in an acute arboviral infection in nature. The internal genomic deletions described here are the most extensive defects observed in DENV and may be part of a much broader disease attenuating process that is mediated by defective viruses.

  3. Acute respiratory viral infections in pediatric cancer patients undergoing chemotherapy

    Eliana C.A. Benites

    2014-07-01

    Full Text Available OBJECTIVE: to estimate the prevalence of infection by respiratory viruses in pediatric patients with cancer and acute respiratory infection (ARI and/or fever. METHODS: cross-sectional study, from January 2011 to December 2012. The secretions of nasopharyngeal aspirates were analyzed in children younger than 21 years with acute respiratory infections. Patients were treated at the Grupo em Defesa da Criança Com Câncer (Grendacc and University Hospital (HU, Jundiaí, SP. The rapid test was used for detection of influenza virus (Kit Biotrin, Inc. Ireland, and real-time multiplex polymerase chain reaction (FTD, Respiratory pathogens, multiplex Fast Trade Kit, Malta for detection of influenza virus (H1N1, B, rhinovirus, parainfluenza virus, adenovirus, respiratory syncytial virus, human parechovirus, bocavirus, metapneumovirus, and human coronavirus. The prevalence of viral infection was estimated and association tests were used (χ2 or Fisher's exact test. RESULTS: 104 samples of nasopharyngeal aspirate and blood were analyzed. The median age was 12 ± 5.2 years, 51% males, 68% whites, 32% had repeated ARIs, 32% prior antibiotic use, 19.8% cough, and 8% contact with ARIs. A total of 94.3% were in good general status. Acute lymphocytic leukemia (42.3% was the most prevalent neoplasia. Respiratory viruses were detected in 50 samples: rhinoviruses (23.1%, respiratory syncytial virus AB (8.7%, and coronavirus (6.8%. Co-detection occurred in 19% of cases with 2 viruses and in 3% of those with 3 viruses, and was more frequent between rhinovirus and coronavirus 43. Fever in neutropenic patients was observed in 13%, of which four (30.7 were positive for viruses. There were no deaths. CONCLUSIONS: the prevalence of respiratory viruses was relevant in the infectious episode, with no increase in morbidity and mortality. Viral co-detection was frequent in patients with cancer and ARIs.

  4. VIRAL ETIOLOGY ACUTE INTESTINAL INFECTIONS MOLECULAR MONITORING IN CHILDREN’S HOSPITAL

    A. V. Sergeeva

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available On the territory of the Russian Federation in the overall structure of acute intestinal infections the proportion of viral diarrhea among children varies from 24 to 78% of cases depending on the season. The acute viral intestinal infections etiological confirmation is performed mainly among patients of infectious hospitals. The prevalence of viral acute intestinal infections in non-infectious hospitals, including infections associated with medical care, remains unclear. Currently estimation of viral component in the acute intestinal infections overall structure mainly consists in determination of rotavirus infection prevalence excluding other pathogens. As the part of viral etiology hospital infections epidemiological surveillance in non-infections children’s hospital the study of acute viral intestinal infections etiological structure and molecular genetics characterization of identified enteric viruses is conducted. The syndrome diagnosis of acute intestinal infections cases was introduced — an identification and evaluation of patients with signs of dysfunction of the gastrointestinal tract, that is not related to the underlying disease. A set of laboratory methods included identification of various intestinal pathogens DNA (RNA by PCR-RT method; genotyping of enteric viruses using sequencing; nucleotide sequence analysis of cDNA fragments using the BLAST software package for identification of closely related strains and an online service for automatic genotyping of noroviruses by Norovirus Genotyping Tool Version 1.0. Alignment of nucleotide sequences and phylogenetic analysis was performed using the software MEGA 5.0. The obtained sequence fragments of the genome was downloaded in GenBank international database. The use of molecular genetics research methods allowed to differentiate viral pathogens of acute intestinal infections and to establish the fact of nosocomial transmission. The proportion of viral etiology acute intestinal

  5. PD-L1-Expressing Dendritic Cells Contribute to Viral Resistance during Acute HSV-1 Infection

    Bryant-Hudson, Katie M.; Carr, Daniel J.J.

    2012-01-01

    The inhibitory receptor, Programmed Death 1 (PD-1), and its ligands (PD-L1/PD-L2) are thought to play a role in immune surveillance during chronic viral infection. The contribution of the receptor/ligand pair during an acute infection is less understood. To determine the role of PD-L1 and PD-L2 during acute ocular herpes simplex virus type 1 (HSV-1) infection, HSV-1-infected mice administered neutralizing antibody to PD-L1 or PD-L2 were assessed for viral burden and host cellular immune respo...

  6. A child with acute encephalopathy associated with quadruple viral infection

    Keiko eNakata

    2015-04-01

    Full Text Available infection does not always result in AE. The risk factors for developing infantile AE upon such infection remain to be determined. Here we report an infant with AE coinfected with human herpesvirus 6 (HHV-6 and three picornaviruses: coxsackievirus A6 (CVA6, enterovirus D68 (EV-D68, and human parechovirus (HPeV. EV-D68 was vertically transmitted to the infant from his mother. CVA6 and HPeV were likely transmitted to the infant at the nursery school. HHV-6 might have been re-activated in the patient. It remains undetermined which pathogen played the central role in the AE pathogenesis. However, active, simultaneous infection by four viruses likely evoke a cytokine storm, leading to the pathogenesis of AE. Conclusion: Infant cases with active quadruple infection by potentially AE-causing viruses have seldom been reported, partly because systematic nucleic acid-based laboratory tests on picornaviruses are not common. We propose that simultaneous viral infection may serve as a risk factor for the development of AE.

  7. Encephalitis, acute renal failure, and acute hepatitis triggered by a viral infection in an immunocompetent young adult: a case report

    Khattab Mahmoud

    2009-11-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Introduction Cytomegalovirus generally causes self-limited, mild and asymptomatic infections in immunocompetent patients. An aggressive course in immunocompetent healthy patients is unusual. Case presentation We report the case of an immunocompetent 16-year-old Egyptian boy with encephalitis, acute renal failure, and acute hepatitis triggered by viral infection with a complete recovery following antiviral treatment. Conclusion We believe that this case adds to the understanding of the molecular biology, clinical presentation and increasing index of suspicion of many viral infections.

  8. An accurate two-phase approximate solution to the acute viral infection model

    Perelson, Alan S [Los Alamos National Laboratory

    2009-01-01

    During an acute viral infection, virus levels rise, reach a peak and then decline. Data and numerical solutions suggest the growth and decay phases are linear on a log scale. While viral dynamic models are typically nonlinear with analytical solutions difficult to obtain, the exponential nature of the solutions suggests approximations can be found. We derive a two-phase approximate solution to the target cell limited influenza model and illustrate the accuracy using data and previously established parameter values of six patients infected with influenza A. For one patient, the subsequent fall in virus concentration was not consistent with our predictions during the decay phase and an alternate approximation is derived. We find expressions for the rate and length of initial viral growth in terms of the parameters, the extent each parameter is involved in viral peaks, and the single parameter responsible for virus decay. We discuss applications of this analysis in antiviral treatments and investigating host and virus heterogeneities.

  9. Changes in ovarian follicles following acute infection with bovine viral diarrhea virus.

    Grooms, D L; Brock, K V; Pate, J L; Day, M L

    1998-02-01

    Bovine viral diarrhea virus (BVDV) has been associated with several reproductive problems in cattle, including poor fertility, early embryonic deaths, abortion and congenital anomalies. Little is known about the cause of poor fertility in cows acutely infected with BVDV. The purpose of this study was to identify changes in ovarian function following acute infection with noncytopathic BVDV. The ovaries of 5 BVDV sero-negative and virus-negative pubertal heifers were monitored daily for 4 consecutive estrous cycles. The position and diameter of all follicles (> 5 mm) and luteal structures were recorded. Daily plasma samples were collected to measure peripheral progesterone and estradiol levels. Each heifer was infected intranasally with noncytopathic BVDV following ovulation of the second estrous cycle. The maximum diameter and growth rate of dominant anovulatory and ovulatory follicles were significantly reduced following acute BVDV infection. Similarly, the number of subordinate follicles associated with both the anovulatory and ovulatory follicle was reduced following infection. There were no significant differences in other follicle or luteal dynamic parameters or in peripheral progesterone or estradiol levels. Ovarian follicular growth was different during the first 2 estrous cycles following acute infection with BVDV when compared with the 2 estrous cycles preceding infection. These differences may be important in explaining reduced fertility in herds with acute BVDV infection. PMID:10732038

  10. Chicken pox infection (varicella zoster virus) and acute monoarthritis: evidence against a direct viral mechanism.

    Fink, C G; Read, S J; Giddins, G.; Eglin, R. P.

    1992-01-01

    A 9 year old boy developed acute monoarthritis of the left knee concurrent with the appearance of a varicella zoster virus (VZV) rash. Repeated VZV DNA hybridisation of the cells within the synovial fluid and synovial membrane failed to show any evidence of intracellular virus. Virus was isolated from synovial fluid 24 hours after the start of clinical infection but not later. These findings suggest that the mechanism of the arthritis is not due to viral replication inside the swollen joint.

  11. Acute viral infections with combined involvement of the respiratory and gastrointestinal tracts in children. Therapy with interferon.

    Dondurei, E A; Osidak, L V; Golovacheva, E G; Golovanova, A K; Amosova, I V; Gladchenko, L N

    2009-08-01

    We evaluated the percent of acute respiratory viral infections with gastrointestinal syndrome in the structure of morbidity in babies aging 6 months and elder. Therapeutic efficiency and safety of anaferon (pediatric formuation) as a component of complex therapy of acute respiratory viral infections with involvement of the gastrointestinal tract were proven; more rapid disappearance of all symptoms and improvement of the immune status parameters were demonstrated. PMID:20027348

  12. Acute mucosal pathogenesis of feline immunodeficiency virus is independent of viral dose in vaginally infected cats

    Egan Erin A

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background The mucosal pathogenesis of HIV has been shown to be an important feature of infection and disease progression. HIV-1 infection causes depletion of intestinal lamina propria CD4+ T cells (LPL, therefore, intestinal CD4+ T cell preservation may be a useful correlate of protection in evaluating vaccine candidates. Vaccine studies employing the cat/FIV and macaque/SIV models frequently use high doses of parenterally administered challenge virus to ensure high plasma viremia in control animals. However, it is unclear if loss of mucosal T cells would occur regardless of initial viral inoculum dose. The objective of this study was to determine the acute effect of viral dose on mucosal leukocytes and associated innate and adaptive immune responses. Results Cats were vaginally inoculated with a high, middle or low dose of cell-associated and cell-free FIV. PBMC, serum and plasma were assessed every two weeks with tissues assessed eight weeks following infection. We found that irrespective of mucosally administered viral dose, FIV infection was induced in all cats. However, viremia was present in only half of the cats, and viral dose was unrelated to the development of viremia. Importantly, regardless of viral dose, all cats experienced significant losses of intestinal CD4+ LPL and CD8+ intraepithelial lymphocytes (IEL. Innate immune responses by CD56+CD3- NK cells correlated with aviremia and apparent occult infection but did not protect mucosal T cells. CD4+ and CD8+ T cells in viremic cats were more likely to produce cytokines in response to Gag stimulation, whereas aviremic cats T cells tended to produce cytokines in response to Env stimulation. However, while cell-mediated immune responses in aviremic cats may have helped reduce viral replication, they could not be correlated to the levels of viremia. Robust production of anti-FIV antibodies was positively correlated with the magnitude of viremia. Conclusions Our results indicate

  13. Risk Factors and Immune Response to Hepatitis E viral Infection among Acute Hepatitis Patients in Assiut, Egypt

    Seif Eldin, Salwa S.; Seddik, Ismail; Daef, Enas A; Shata, M.T.; Raafat, Marwa; Baky, Laila Abdel; Nafeh, MA

    2010-01-01

    Hepatitis E virus (HEV) infection is a common cause of acute viral hepatitis (AVH) in Egypt. We aimed to identify risk factors of HEV among acute hepatitis cases, measure HEV specific immune response to differentiate between symptomatic and asymptomatic infections. The study included symptomatic acute hepatitis (AH) patients (n=235) and asymptomatic contacts (n=200) to HEV cases. They completed a lifestyle questionnaire, screened for common hepatotropic viruses. Blood and serum samples were c...

  14. Diagnosing viral and bacterial respiratory infections in acute COPD exacerbations by an electronic nose: a pilot study.

    van Geffen, Wouter H; Bruins, Marcel; Kerstjens, Huib A M

    2016-01-01

    Respiratory infections, viral or bacterial, are a common cause of acute exacerbations of chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (AECOPD). A rapid, point-of-care, and easy-to-use tool distinguishing viral and bacterial from other causes would be valuable in routine clinical care. An electronic nose (e-nose) could fit this profile but has never been tested in this setting before. In a single-center registered trial (NTR 4601) patients admitted with AECOPD were tested with the Aeonose(®) electronic nose, and a diagnosis of viral or bacterial infection was obtained by bacterial culture on sputa and viral PCR on nose swabs. A neural network with leave-10%-out cross-validation was used to assess the e-nose data. Forty three patients were included. In the bacterial infection model, 22 positive cases were tested versus the negatives; and similarly 18 positive cases were tested in the viral infection model. The Aeonose was able to distinguish between COPD-subjects suffering from a viral infection and COPD patients without infection, showing an area under the curve (AUC) of 0.74. Similarly, for bacterial infections, an AUC of 0.72 was obtained. The Aeonose e-nose yields promising results in 'smelling' the presence or absence of a viral or bacterial respiratory infection during an acute exacerbation of COPD. Validation of these results using a new and large cohort is required before introduction into clinical practice. PMID:27310311

  15. Viral etiology and clinical profiles of children with severe acute respiratory infections in China.

    Chen Zhang

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: No comprehensive analysis is available on the viral etiology and clinical characterization among children with severe acute respiratory infection (SARI in China during 2009 H1N1 pandemic and post-pandemic period. METHODS: Cohort of 370 hospitalized children (1 to 72 months with SARI from May 2008 to March 2010 was enrolled in this study. Nasopharyngeal aspirate (NPA specimens were tested by a commercial assay for 18 respiratory viral targets. The viral distribution and its association with clinical character were statistically analyzed. RESULTS: Viral pathogen was detected in 350 (94.29% of children with SARI. Overall, the most popular viruses were: enterovirus/rhinovirus (EV/RV (54.05%, respiratory syncytial virus (RSV (51.08%, human bocavirus (BoCA (33.78%, human parainfluenzaviruse type 3 (PIV3 (15.41%, and adenovirus (ADV (12.97%. Pandemic H1N1 was the dominant influenza virus (IFV but was only detected in 20 (5.41% of children. Moreover, detection rate of RSV and human metapneumovirus (hMPV among suburb participants were significantly higher than that of urban area (P<0.05. Incidence of VSARI among suburb participants was also significant higher, especially among those of 24 to 59 months group (P<0.05. CONCLUSION: Piconaviruses (EV/RV and paramyxoviruses are the most popular viral pathogens among children with SARI in this study. RSV and hMPV significantly increase the risk of SARI, especially in children younger than 24 months. Higher incidence of VSARI and more susceptibilities to RSV and hMPV infections were found in suburban patients.

  16. ADVANCEMENT IN MEDICAL TREATMENT OF PATIENTS WITH ACUTE RESPIRATORY VIRAL INFECTIONS

    Kopcha V.S.

    2015-05-01

    Full Text Available Introduction. Acute respiratory viral infections are the special group of diseases, which in the structure of infectious pathology firmly occupies one of leading places. The problem of morbidity belongs to the number of leading medical problems not only in Ukraine but also in the whole world. In addition, there is a greater risk of epidemic flashes of acute respiratory infections in the conditions of megapolis with the expressed processes of migration and accumulation of people. Purpose of test – to promote efficiency of patients treatment with acute respiratory viral infections by complex application of preparation «Extralact» on a background traditional (base therapy without the use of other antiviral preparations, thoroughly to probe influence on clinical motion of the indicated illnesses, endogenous intoxication and immune status of organism. Patients & methods. Under a supervision was 60 patients (22 men and 38 women of young and middle age (hesitated from 18 to 58, which treated oneself concerning ARVI. Determined the indexes of Extralact efficiency: general duration of disease; frequency of development of complications; dynamics of clinical displays; dynamics of laboratory indexes, indexes of endogenous intoxication, and immunological indexes. Patients were randomised on 2 groups: a I group (30 persons – 50,0 % got treatment of base therapy preparations; the II group (30 patients – 50,0 % on a background base therapy got preparation «Extralact» for 2 capsules 3 times per days during 5 days. Results & discussion. Based on the examination of 60 patients with ARVI established following. Addition of base therapy of such patients of extralact in a dose 2 caps. 3 times daily during 5 days was accompanied by a significant advantage compared with only basic therapy on several grounds: the greater the number of patients advancing recovery up to 7 days, most regressed cough, relatively less there were complications. After 5 days of

  17. Viral etiology of acute respiratory infection in Gansu Province, China, 2011.

    Guohong Huang

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: Acute respiratory infections (ARIs are the leading cause of children and their leading killer. ARIs are responsible for at least six percent of the world's disability and death. Viruses are one of the most common agents causing ARIs. Few studies on the viral etiology and clinical characteristics of ARIs have been performed in the northwest region of China, including Gansu Province. METHODS: Clinical and demographic information and throat swabs were collected from 279 patients from January 1st to December 30st, 2011. Multiplex RT-PCR was performed to detect 16 respiratory viral pathogens. RESULTS: 279 patients were admitted for ARIs. The patients aged from 1 month to 12 years, with the median age of 2 years. Of which, 105 (37.6% were positive for at least one pathogen. A total of 136 respiratory viral pathogens were identified from the 105 patients. Respiratory syncytial virus (RSV was the most frequently detected pathogen (26.5%, 36/136, followed by parainfluenza virus (PIV 1-3 (22.1%, 30/136, human rhinovirus (HRV (21.3%, 29/136, human coronavirus (CoV (10.3%, 14/136 and human adenovirus (HAdV (9.6%, 13/136. Influenza A (Flu A, human metapneumovirus (hMPV and human bocavirus (BoCA were found 4.4%, 3.7% and 2.2%, respectively. Influenza B (Flu B and seasonal influenza A H1N1(sH1N1 were not detected. Single-infections were detected in 30.5% (85/279 of cases. RSV was the most common pathogens in patients under 1 year and showed seasonal variation with peaks during winter and spring. CONCLUSIONS: This paper presents data on the epidemiology of viral pathogens associated with ARIs among children in Gansu Province, China. RSV is most frequently detected in our study. The findings could serve as a reference for local CDC in drawing up further plans to prevent and control ARIs.

  18. Outcome of Severe Dengue Viral Infection-caused Acute Liver Failure in Thai Children.

    Laoprasopwattana, Kamolwish; Jundee, Puthachat; Pruekprasert, Pornpimol; Geater, Alan

    2016-06-01

    To determine clinical course and outcomes of liver functions in children with dengue viral infection-caused acute liver failure (ALF), the records of patients aged dengue hemorrhagic fever grade II, III and IV, respectively. Multiorgan failure including respiratory failure, massive bleeding and acute kidney injury occurred in 80.0%, 96.0% and 84.0% of the ALF cases, respectively, with an overall fatality rate of 68.3%. Aspartate aminotransferase (AST) and alanine aminotransferase (ALT) levels were highest on the day that the patient developed ALF. Lactate dehydrogenase levels had positive correlations with AST (r = 0.95) and ALT (r = 0.87) (all p < 0.01). The median (interquartile range) days before the AST and ALT levels returned to lower than 200 U/L after the ALF were 10.5 (8.8, 12.8) and 10.5 (7.8, 14.0) days, respectively. PMID:26851434

  19. Acute hepatitis C in a chronically HIV-infected patient: Evolution of different viral genomic regions

    Diego Flichman; Veronica Kott; Silvia Sookoian; Rodolfo Campos

    2003-01-01

    AIM: To analyze the molecular evolution of different viral genomic regions of HCV in an acute HCV infected patient chronically infected with HIV through a 42-month follow-up.METHODS: Serum samples of a chronically HIV infected patient that seroconverted to anti HCV antibodies were sequenced, from the event of superinfection through a period of 17 months and in a late sample (42nd month). Hypervariable genomic regions of HIV (V3 loop of the gp120) and HCV (HVR-1 on the E2 glycoprotein gene) were studied. In order to analyze genomic regions involved in different biological functions and with the cellular immune response, HCV core and NS5A were also chosen to be sequenced. Amplification of the different regions was done by RT-PCR and directly sequenced. Confirmation of sequences was done on reamplified material. Nucleotide sequences of the different time points were aligned with CLUSTAL W 1.5, and the corresponding amino acid ones were deduced.RESULTS: Hypervariable genomic regions of both viruses (HVR1 and gp120 V3 loop) presented several nonsynonymous changes but, while in the gp120 V3 loop mutations were detected in the sample obtained right after HCV superinfection and maintained throughout, they occurred following a sequential and cumulative pattern in the HVR1. In the NS5A region of HCV, two amino acid changes were detected during the follow-up period, whereas the core region presented several amino acid replacements, once the HCV chronic infection had been established.CONCLUSION: During the HIV-HCV superinfection, each genomic region analyzed shows a different evolutionary pattem.Most of the nucleotide substitutions observed are nonsynonymous and clustered in previously described epitopes,thus suggesting an immune-driven evolutionary process.

  20. Acute viral infections in patients with systemic lupus erythematosus: description of 23 cases and review of the literature.

    Ramos-Casals, Manuel; Cuadrado, María José; Alba, Paula; Sanna, Giovanni; Brito-Zerón, Pilar; Bertolaccini, Laura; Babini, Alejandra; Moreno, Asunción; D'Cruz, David; Khamashta, Munther A

    2008-11-01

    Few studies have evaluated the impact of viral infections on the daily management of patients with systemic lupus erythematosus (SLE). We analyzed the etiology and clinical features of acute viral infections arising in patients with SLE and their influence on the diagnosis, prognosis, and treatment of SLE. Cases occurring within the last 5 years were selected from the databases of 3 large teaching hospitals. Acute viral infections were confirmed by the identification of specific antiviral IgM antibodies and subsequent seroconversion with detection of specific IgG antibodies. In autopsy studies, macroscopic findings suggestive of viral infection were confirmed by direct identification of the virus or viruses in tissue samples. We performed a MEDLINE search for additional cases reported between January 1985 and March 2008. We included 88 cases (23 from our clinics and 65 from the literature review) of acute viral infections in patients with SLE. Twenty-five patients were diagnosed with new-onset SLE (fulfillment of the 1997 SLE criteria) associated with infection by human parvovirus B19 (n = 15), cytomegalovirus (CMV; n = 6), Epstein-Barr virus (EBV; n = 3), and hepatitis A virus (n = 1). The remaining 63 cases of acute viral infections arose in patients already diagnosed with SLE: in 18 patients, symptoms related to infection mimicked a lupus flare, 36 patients, including 1 patient from the former group who presented with both conditions, presented organ-specific viral infections (mainly pneumonitis, colitis, retinitis, and hepatitis), and 10 patients presented a severe, multiorgan process similar to that described in catastrophic antiphospholipid syndrome-the final diagnosis was hemophagocytic syndrome in 5 cases and disseminated viral infection in 5. Twelve patients died due to infection caused by CMV (n = 5), herpes simplex virus (n = 4), EBV (n = 2), and varicella zoster virus (n = 1). Autopsies were performed in 9 patients and disclosed disseminated herpetic

  1. Acute pancreatitis in acute viral hepatitis

    2007-01-01

    AIM: To elucidate the frequency and characteristics of pancreatic involvement in the course of acute (nonfulminant) viral hepatitis.METHODS: We prospectively assessed the pancreatic involvement in patients with acute viral hepatitis who presented with severe abdomimanl pain.RESULTS: We studied 124 patients with acute viral hepatitis, of whom 24 presented with severe abdominal pain. Seven patients (5.65%) were diagnosed to have acute pancreatitis. All were young males. Five patients had pancreatitis in the first week and two in the fourth week after the onset of jaundice. The pancreatitis was mild and all had uneventful recovery from both pancreatitis and hepatitis on conservative treatment.The etiology of pancreatitis was hepatitis E virus in 4,hepatitis A virus in 2, and hepatitis B virus in 1 patient.One patient had biliary sludge along with HEV infection.The abdominal pain of remaining seventeen patients was attributed to stretching of Glisson's capsule.CONCLUSION: Acute pancreatitis occurs in 5.65% of patients with acute viral hepatitis, it is mild and recovers with conservative management.

  2. ARGUMENTATION OF ACUTE RESPIRATORY VIRAL INFECTIONS NONSPECIFIC PREVENTION IN GROUPS OF CHILDREN

    L. R. Ishrefova

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Acute respiratory viral infections (ARVI and influenza are among the topical problems of healthcare. The children’s morbidity index in preschool educational institutions in Krasnoselsky district of St. Petersburg in 2008–2014 varied from 1359.6 to 1768.5 per 1000 children attending these institutions. In general educational schools the morbidity index in the aforesaid period were 422.6–521.6 (p < 0.001. From 49.3 to 55.4% of children were vaccinated against influenza; from 3600 to 4700 children annually stayed unimmunized due to medical contraindications and parents’ refusals from prophylactic immunization. The research objective is clinical-epidemiological substantiation of effectiveness of application of Echinacea botanical medicine to reduce the ARVI morbidity and the rate of complications after the disease among children attending educational institutions. As a result of the research it was established that the ARVI morbidity index in the group of the children who received the Echinacea preparation was 76.8; in the comparison group it was 94.2 per 100 people (p < 0.01; RR = 0.80; CI = 0.7–0.9. The rate of complications (bronchitis, otitis, adenoiditis, pneumonia, sinusitis among the children who received the preparation was 2–4.8 times lower.

  3. Multiple Inhibitory Pathways Contribute to Lung CD8+ T Cell Impairment and Protect against Immunopathology during Acute Viral Respiratory Infection.

    Erickson, John J; Rogers, Meredith C; Tollefson, Sharon J; Boyd, Kelli L; Williams, John V

    2016-07-01

    Viruses are frequent causes of lower respiratory infection (LRI). Programmed cell death-1 (PD-1) signaling contributes to pulmonary CD8(+) T cell (TCD8) functional impairment during acute viral LRI, but the role of TCD8 impairment in viral clearance and immunopathology is unclear. We now find that human metapneumovirus infection induces virus-specific lung TCD8 that fail to produce effector cytokines or degranulate late postinfection, with minimally increased function even in the absence of PD-1 signaling. Impaired lung TCD8 upregulated multiple inhibitory receptors, including PD-1, lymphocyte activation gene 3 (LAG-3), T cell Ig mucin 3, and 2B4. Moreover, coexpression of these receptors continued to increase even after viral clearance, with most virus-specific lung TCD8 expressing three or more inhibitory receptors on day 14 postinfection. Viral infection also increased expression of inhibitory ligands by both airway epithelial cells and APCs, further establishing an inhibitory environment. In vitro Ab blockade revealed that multiple inhibitory receptors contribute to TCD8 impairment induced by either human metapneumovirus or influenza virus infection. In vivo blockade of T cell Ig mucin 3 signaling failed to enhance TCD8 function or reduce viral titers. However, blockade of LAG-3 in PD-1-deficient mice restored TCD8 effector functions but increased lung pathology, indicating that LAG-3 mediates lung TCD8 impairment in vivo and contributes to protection from immunopathology during viral clearance. These results demonstrate that an orchestrated network of pathways modifies lung TCD8 functionality during viral LRI, with PD-1 and LAG-3 serving prominent roles. Lung TCD8 impairment may prevent immunopathology but also contributes to recurrent lung infections. PMID:27259857

  4. REVIEW OF CLINICAL CASES OF DRUG ALLERGIC REACTIONS IN PATIENTS WITH ACUTE RESPIRATORY VIRAL INFECTIONS

    Sydorchuk A.S.

    2015-05-01

    Full Text Available Introduction. Problem of drug-induced allergic reaction is especially actual both in well-developing countries as well as in countries of Eastern European region. By the WHO data, distribution of allergy is up to 30 %, and main reasons for that are increasing of pharmaceuticals consumption by a person, change of nutrition style towards more chemicals synthetic substitutions. Generally, a quantity of Europeans with allergy reach 150 mln. Reactions of hypersensitivity to medications is so serious discussion question among physicians and their patients, since it is the most important reason to stop treatment and for refuse remedies. Authors hope, that presenting here clinical material will bring benefit both clinicians and patients like cases of drug-induced allergic reactions due to self-prescribed treatment (antipyretics, antibiotics. Thus, this research paper aimed to analyze the clinical cases of drug-induced allergy in patients with acute respiratory illnesses, which had admitted to Infectious diseases department of Municipal Clinical Hospital of Chernivtsi city (Ukraine. Materials & Methods. Descriptional clinical study enrolled six clinical cases of drug-induced allergy in male patients admitted in different time to the Infectious Diseases Department of Municipal Clinical Hospital of Chernivtsi city (Ukraine with clinical manifestation and epidemiological data of acute respiratory viral infections. Mostly cases of drug-induced allergy confirmed by the indirect immune-termomistry for determination of role of a drug. Results & discussion. First case in male 52 years old patient with signs of polymorphic exudative erythema induced by pills against common cold named «Coldflu». Patient had manifestation clinical features of acute respiratory viral infection and was hospitalized to the Department of Droplet infections for detoxicative and desensitization treatment. Within few days his infectious problem had solved, nevertheless skin rash still

  5. Acute viral hepatitis morbidity and mortality associated with hepatitis E virus infection: Uzbekistan surveillance data

    Margolis Harold S

    2009-03-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background In Uzbekistan, routine serologic testing has not been available to differentiate etiologies of acute viral hepatitis (AVH. To determine the age groups most affected by hepatitis E virus (HEV during documented AVH epidemics, trends in AVH-associated mortality rate (MR per 100,000 over a 15-year period and reported incidence of AVH over a 35-year period were examined. Methods Reported AVH incidence data from 1971 to 2005 and AVH-associated mortality data from 1981 to 1995 were examined. Serologic markers for infection with hepatitis viruses A, B, D, and E were determined from a sample of hospitalized patients with AVH from an epidemic period (1987 and from a sample of pregnant women with AVH from a non-epidemic period (1992. Results Two multi-year AVH outbreaks were identified: one during 1975–1976, and one during 1985–1987. During 1985–1987, AVH-associated MRs were 12.3–17.8 per 100,000 for the general population. Highest AVH-associated MRs occurred among children in the first 3 years of life (40–190 per 100,000 and among women aged 20–29 (15–21 per 100,000. During 1988–1995 when reported AVH morbidity was much lower in the general population, AVH-associated MRs were markedly lower among these same age groups. In 1988, AVH-associated MRs were higher in rural (21 per 100,000 than in urban (8 per 100,000 populations (RR 2.6; 95% CI 1.16–5.93; p Conclusion In the absence of the availability of confirmatory testing, inferences regarding probable hepatitis epidemic etiologies can sometimes be made using surveillance data, comparing AVH incidence with AVH-associated mortality with an eye to population-based viral hepatitis control measures. Data presented here implicate HEV as the probable etiology of high mortality observed in pregnant women and in children less than 3 years of age in Uzbekistan during 1985–1987. High mortality among pregnant women but not among children less than 3 years has been observed in

  6. [Emergent viral infections

    Galama, J.M.D.

    2001-01-01

    The emergence and re-emergence of viral infections is an ongoing process. Large-scale vaccination programmes led to the eradication or control of some viral infections in the last century, but new viruses are always emerging. Increased travel is leading to a rise in the importation of exotic infecti

  7. Acute viral hepatitis morbidity and mortality associated with hepatitis E virus infection: Uzbekistan surveillance data

    Margolis Harold S; Onischenko Gennady G; Yashina Tatiana L; Brown Matthew S; Favorov Michael O; Sharapov Makhmudkhan B; Chorba Terence L

    2009-01-01

    Abstract Background In Uzbekistan, routine serologic testing has not been available to differentiate etiologies of acute viral hepatitis (AVH). To determine the age groups most affected by hepatitis E virus (HEV) during documented AVH epidemics, trends in AVH-associated mortality rate (MR) per 100,000 over a 15-year period and reported incidence of AVH over a 35-year period were examined. Methods Reported AVH incidence data from 1971 to 2005 and AVH-associated mortality data from 1981 to 1995...

  8. Central Nervous System Viral Invasion and Inflammation During Acute HIV Infection

    Valcour, V.; Chalermchai, T; Sailasuta, N; Marovich, M; Lerdlum, S; Suttichom, D; Suwanwela, NC; Jagodzinski, L.; Michael, N.; Spudich, S; van Griensven, F.; Souza, M.; Kim, J; Ananworanich, J.

    2012-01-01

    BACKGROUND: Understanding the earliest central nervous system (CNS) events during human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) infection is crucial to knowledge of neuropathogenesis, but these have not previously been described in humans. METHODS: Twenty individuals who had acute HIV infection (Fiebig stages I-IV), with average 15 days after exposure, underwent clinical neurological, cerebrospinal fluid (CSF), magnetic resonance imaging, and magnetic resonance spectroscopy (MRS) characterization. RESUL...

  9. Detection of viral acute lower respiratory tract infection in hospitalized infants using real-time PCR

    Bassant Meligy

    2016-03-01

    Conclusions: RV was the most commonly detected virus in children under 3 years admitted with acute lower respiratory tract infections. Coinfection was present in the majority of our patients; however it was not related significantly to parameters of disease severity.

  10. Induction of anti-viral genes during acute infection with Viral hemorrhagic septicemia virus (VHSV) genogroup IVa in Pacific herring (Clupea pallasii)

    Hansen, John D.; Woodson, James C.; Hershberger, Paul K.; Grady, Courtney; Gregg, Jacob L.; Purcell, Maureen K.

    2012-01-01

    Infection with the aquatic rhabdovirus Viral hemorrhagic septicemia virus (VHSV) genogroup IVa results in high mortality in Pacific herring (Clupea pallasii) and is hypothesized to be a potential limiting factor for herring recovery. To investigate anti-viral immunity in the Pacific herring, four immune response genes were identified: the myxovirus resistance (Clpa-Mx), a major histocompatibility complex IB (named Clpa-UAA.001), the inducible immunoproteosome subunit 9 (Clpa-PSMB9) and the neutrophil chemotactic factor (Clpa-LECT2). Reverse transcriptase quantitative PCR (RT-qPCR) assays were developed based on these gene sequences to investigate the host immune response to acute VHSV infection following both injection and immersion challenge. Virus levels were measured by both plaque assay and RT-qPCR and peaked at day 6 during the 10-day exposure period for both groups of fish. The interferon stimulated genes (Clpa-Mx, −UAA.001, and −PSMB9) were significantly up-regulated in response to VHSV infection at both 6 and 10 days post-infection in both spleen and fin. Results from this study indicate that Pacific herring mount a robust, early antiviral response in both fin and spleen tissues. The immunological tools developed in this study will be useful for future studies to investigate antiviral immunity in Pacific herring.

  11. Acute acalculous cholecystitis in a Lebanese girl with primary Epstein-Barr viral infection.

    Majdalani, Marianne; Milad, Nadine; Sahli, Zeyad; Rizk, Sarah

    2016-01-01

    Acute acalculous cholecystitis (AAC) constitutes 5-10% of all cases of cholecystitis in adults, and is even less common in children. The recent literature has described an association between primary Epstein-Barr virus (EBV) infection and AAC, however, it still remains an uncommon presentation of the infection. Most authors advise that the management of AAC in patients with primary EBV infection should be supportive, since the use of antibiotics does not seem to alter the severity or prognosis of the illness. Furthermore, surgical intervention has not been described as necessary or indicated in the management of uncomplicated AAC associated with EBV infection. We report a case of a 16-year-old Lebanese girl with AAC associated with primary EBV infection. She presented to the emergency department, with high-grade fever, fatigue, vomiting and abdominal pain. Liver enzymes were elevated with a cholestatic pattern, and imaging confirmed the diagnosis of AAC. She was admitted to the regular floor, and initial management was conservative. Owing to persistence of fever, antibiotics were initiated on day 3 of admission. She had a smooth clinical course and was discharged home after a total of 9 days, with no complications. PMID:27090538

  12. Sustained viral response of a case of acute hepatitis C virus infection via needle-stick injury

    Takayuki Kogure; Yu Nakagome; Masashi Ninomiya; Tooru Shimosegawa; Yoshiyuki Ueno; Noriatsu Kanno; Koji Fukushima; Yoko Yamagiwa; Futoshi Nagasaki; Eiji Kakazu; Yasunori Matsuda; Osamu Kido

    2006-01-01

    A 29-year-old nurse with a hepatitis C virus (HCV) infection caused by needle-stick injury was treated with interferon-beta starting about one year after the onset of acute hepatitis. The patient developed acute hepatitis C with symptoms of general fatigues, jaundice, and ascites 4 wk after the needle-stick injury. When these symptoms were presented, the patient was pregnant by artificial insemination. She hoped to continue her pregnancy.After delivery, biochemical liver enzyme returned to normal levels. Nevertheless, HCV RNA was positive and the pathological finding indicated a progression to chronicity. The genotype was 1b with low viral load.Daily intravenous injection of interferon-beta at the dosage of six million units was started and continued for eight weeks. HCV was eradicated without severe adverse effects. In acute hepatitis C, delaying therapy is considered to reduce the efficacy but interferon-beta therapy is one of the useful treatments for hepatitis C infection in chronic phase.

  13. Viral Dose and Immunosuppression Modulate the Progression of Acute BVDV-1 Infection in Calves: Evidence of Long Term Persistence after Intra-Nasal Infection.

    Rebecca Strong

    Full Text Available Bovine viral diarrhoea virus (BVDV infection of cattle causes a diverse range of clinical outcomes from being asymptomatic, or a transient mild disease, to producing severe cases of acute disease leading to death. Four groups of calves were challenged with a type 1 BVDV strain, originating from a severe outbreak of BVDV in England, to study the effect of viral dose and immunosuppression on the viral replication and transmission of BVDV. Three groups received increasing amounts of virus: Group A received 10(2.55TCID50/ml, group B 10(5.25TCID50/ml and group C 10(6.7TCID 50/ml. A fourth group (D was inoculated with a medium dose (10(5.25TCID50/ml and concomitantly treated with dexamethasone (DMS to assess the effects of chemically induced immunosuppression. Naïve calves were added as sentinel animals to assess virus transmission. The outcome of infection was dose dependent with animals given a higher dose developing severe disease and more pronounced viral replication. Despite virus being shed by the low-dose infection group, BVD was not transmitted to sentinel calves. Administration of dexamethasone (DMS resulted in more severe clinical signs, prolonged viraemia and virus shedding. Using PCR techniques, viral RNA was detected in blood, several weeks after the limit of infectious virus recovery. Finally, a recently developed strand-specific RT-PCR detected negative strand viral RNA, indicative of actively replicating virus, in blood samples from convalescent animals, as late as 85 days post inoculation. This detection of long term replicating virus may indicate the way in which the virus persists and/or is reintroduced within herds.

  14. Metagenomic analysis of viral genetic diversity in respiratory samples from children with severe acute respiratory infection in China.

    Wang, Y; Zhu, N; Li, Y; Lu, R; Wang, H; Liu, G; Zou, X; Xie, Z; Tan, W

    2016-05-01

    Severe acute respiratory infection (SARI) in children is thought to be mainly caused by infection with various viruses, some of which have been well characterized; however, analyses of respiratory tract viromes among children with SARI versus those without are limited. In this study, nasopharyngeal swabs from children with and without SARI (135 versus 15) were collected in China between 2008 and 2010 and subjected to multiplex metagenomic analyses using a next-generation sequencing platform. The results show that members of the Paramyxoviridae, Coronaviridae, Parvoviridae, Orthomyxoviridae, Picornaviridae, Anelloviridae and Adenoviridae families represented the most abundant species identified (>50% genome coverage) in the respiratory tracts of children with SARI. The viral population found in the respiratory tracts of children without SARI was less diverse and mainly dominated by the Anelloviridae family with only a small proportion of common epidemic respiratory viruses. Several almost complete viral genomes were assembled, and the genetic diversity was determined among several samples based on next-generation sequencing. This research provides comprehensive mapping of the viromes of children with SARI and indicates high heterogeneity of known viruses present in the childhood respiratory tract, which may benefit the detection and prevention of respiratory disease. PMID:26802214

  15. [Prevention of acute enteric infections and viral hepatitis A in the Stavropol Territory in connection with a natural disaster].

    Kovalev, N G; Balaban, O A; Koval'chuk, I V; Romanova, T I; Kashirina, I B; Pugacheva, O N

    2003-01-01

    Materials on the organization and realization of prophylactic measures with respect to acute enteric infections (AEI) and viral hepatitis A (VHA) at the period of the liquidation of medico-sanitary consequences of the high flood are presented. As shown in these materials, the epidemiological surveillance on AEI and VHA in the areas affected by the emergency situation included the effective system of monitoring on these diseases. On the basis of monitoring optimum decisions were taken and concrete prophylactic measures were realized. This made it possible to detect the foci of infectious diseases in due time and efficiently liquidate them, as well as to prevent the development of the epidemiological consequences of the high flood. PMID:14716992

  16. Viral etiology of acute lower respiratory tract infections in hospitalized young children in a children's referral hospital in Iran.

    Pourakbari, Babak; Mahmoudi, Shima; Movahedi, Zahra; Halimi, Shahnaz; Momeni, Shervin; Hosseinpour-Sadeghi, Reihaneh; Mamishi, Setareh

    2014-01-01

    Viruses are considered major causes of acute respiratory tract infections among children under 5 years old. In this study we investigated the prevalence of three respiratory viruses--respiratory syncytial virus (RSV), influenza virus (INF) and adenovirus (ADV)--among hospitalized children with acute viral lower respiratory tract infections (LRTIs). Nasopharyngeal aspirates were collected from children under five who had been hospitalized for LRTIs. The clinical data, including demographic data (age and sex), vital symptoms and signs at admission, duration of fever, duration of hospitalization, chest X-ray findings and outcome were considered. All inpatient specimens were tested by reverse transcriptase-polymerase chain reaction (RT-PCR) for RSV and the INF-A, INF-B and parainfluenza viruses and by polymerase chain reaction (PCR) for ADV. Out of those from 232 patients, 58 (25%) specimens were positive for either RSV, INF or ADV. The most predominant pathogens were RSV (40 cases, 17.2%), followed by INF (10 cases, 4%; including 8 type A and 2 type B) and ADV (8 cases, 3.4%). A total of 32 (55.1%) viral cases were identified in the spring, followed by 19 (32.7%) in the autumn and 7 (12%) in the winter. There was no significant correlation between clinical symptoms and the individual virus detected. In our study, RSV and INF were the two most common causes of LRTIs. These data are helpful for guiding the development of further vaccines as well as the use of antiviral drugs. Further studies will be needed to investigate other respiratory viruses such as parainfluenza, human metapneumovirus and rhinovirus. PMID:25818953

  17. Tracking of peptide-specific CD4+ T-cell responses after an acute resolving viral infection: a study of parvovirus B19

    Kasprowicz, Victoria; Isa, Adiba; Tolfvenstam, Thomas;

    2006-01-01

    The evolution of peptide-specific CD4(+) T-cell responses to acute viral infections of humans is poorly understood. We analyzed the response to parvovirus B19 (B19), a ubiquitous and clinically significant pathogen with a compact and conserved genome. The magnitude and breadth of the CD4(+) T...

  18. Dengue viral infections

    Malavige, G; Fernando, S; Fernando, D; Seneviratne, S.

    2004-01-01

    Dengue viral infections are one of the most important mosquito borne diseases in the world. They may be asymptomatic or may give rise to undifferentiated fever, dengue fever, dengue haemorrhagic fever (DHF), or dengue shock syndrome. Annually, 100 million cases of dengue fever and half a million cases of DHF occur worldwide. Ninety percent of DHF subjects are children less than 15 years of age. At present, dengue is endemic in 112 countries in the world. No vaccine is available for preventing...

  19. Viral infections of the biliary tract

    Gupta Ekta

    2008-01-01

    Full Text Available Bacterial infections of the biliary tract are often considered to be an important cause of acute cholangitis. Viral infections of the biliary tract however, are very often mistaken as viral hepatitis. This article highlights various viral causes of common biliary tract infections. Viral cholangitis is both less common and less discussed than viral hepatitis. Hepatotropic viruses (A, B, C, and E are generally regarded as hepatocellular pathogens, yet cholangitic manifestations are now well described in association with these diseases. Systemic viral diseases also lead to cholangitis in varying proportion to hepatitis. Human immunodeficiency virus is associated with protean hepatic complications, including cholangitis due to several causes. Other systemic viruses, most notably those of the herpes virus family, also cause hepatic disease including cholangitis and possibly ductopenia in both immunocompromised and immunocompetent patients.

  20. Meloxicam-induced rhabdomyolysis in the context of an acute ross river viral infection.

    Al Kindi, Mahmood; Limaye, Vidya; Hissaria, Pravin

    2012-01-01

    Acute rhabdomyolysis is a clinical and laboratory syndrome resulting from the breakdown of skeletal muscle, with the release of intracellular contents into the circulatory system, which can cause potentially lethal complications. Here, we present the case of a patient who developed acute rhabdomyolysis after consumption of meloxicam for jaw pain and experienced generalized myalgias in the context of an acute febrile illness with generalized urticaria. Further investigation indicated elevated muscle enzymes and acute renal failure. Serological analysis revealed that the patient was positive for Ross River virus (RRV) IgM. Genetic studies to detect CYP2C9 polymorphisms were negative. Meloxicam was discontinued. He responded to conservative measures within 2 weeks. Oral aspirin challenge was negative, suggesting a drug-specific effect of meloxicam rather than a class effect. Our case indicates a causative role for meloxicam and/or acute RRV in rhabdomyolysis. PMID:22211172

  1. Acute respiratory failure and active bleeding are the important fatality predictive factors for severe dengue viral infection.

    Kamolwish Laoprasopwattana

    Full Text Available To determine the outcome of severe dengue viral infection (DVI and the main dengue fatality risk factors.The medical records of patients aged <15 years admitted to Songklanagarind Hospital in southern Thailand during 1989-2011 were reviewed. Patients who had dengue hemorrhagic fever (DHF grades III-IV, organ failure (cardiovascular, respiratory, liver, renal or hematologic, impaired consciousness, or aspartate aminotransferase more than 1,000 units/L, were classified as having severe DVI. To determine the fatality risk factors of severe DVI, the classification trees were constructed based on manual recursive partitioning.Of the 238 children with severe DVI, 30 (12.6% died. Compared to the non-fatal DVI cases, the fatal cases had higher rates of DHF grade IV (96.7% vs 24.5%, repeated shock (93.3% vs 27.9%, acute respiratory failure (ARF (100% vs 6.7%, acute liver failure (ALF (96.6% vs 6.3%, acute kidney injury (AKI (79.3% vs 4.5%, and active bleeding requiring blood transfusion (93.3% vs 5.4%, all p<0.01. The combined risk factors of ARF and active bleeding considered together predicted fatal outcome with sensitivity, specificity, and negative and positive predictive values of 0.93 (0.78-0.99, 0.97 (0.93-0.99, 0.99 (0.97-1.00, and 0.82 (0.65-0.93, respectively. The likelihood ratios for a fatal outcome in the patients who had and did not have this risk combination were 32.4 (14.6-71.7 and 0.07 (0.02-0.26, respectively.Severe DVI patients who have ARF and active bleeding are at a high risk of death, while patients without these things together should survive.

  2. Dengue viral infections

    Gurugama Padmalal; Garg Pankaj; Perera Jennifer; Wijewickrama Ananda; Seneviratne Suranjith

    2010-01-01

    Dengue viral infections are one of the most important mosquito-borne diseases in the world. Presently dengue is endemic in 112 countries in the world. It has been estimated that almost 100 million cases of dengue fever and half a million cases of dengue hemorrhagic fever (DHF) occur worldwide. An increasing proportion of DHF is in children less than 15 years of age, especially in South East and South Asia. The unique structure of the dengue virus and the pathophysiologic responses of the host...

  3. Serological profile of sporadic acute viral hepatitis in an area of hyper-endemic hepatitis B virus infection

    Ayoola Ayobanji

    2001-01-01

    Full Text Available Background: Located in the south western part of Saudi Arabia, the Gizan region is largely a rural community in which hepatitis B and chronic liver disease including hepatocellular carcinoma are highly prevalent. Aim of study: To determine the relative frequencies of acute hepatitis A, B, C and E in acute viral hepatitis in an area of hyperendemic hepatitis B infection. Methods and materials: In a prospective study 246 consecutive patients (179 males and 67 females diagnosed in a 2-year period were tested for markers of Hepatitis A virus (HAV, hepatitis B virus (HBV, hepatitis C (HCV and hepatitis E virus (HEV. Results: Of the patients tested, 131 (53.3% were children (< 10 years, and 42 (17% were 11 - 20 years in age. Ig M anti -HAV, IgM anti-HBV, anti- HCV and IgM anti-HEV were positive in 37%, 19.1%, 3.7% and 13.7% respectively. Markers of these viruses were absent in 24.4%. Among 131 children (< 10 years the commonest cause of AVH was HAV occurring in 57.3% of the cases. In adults (> 21 years HBV was found in 35.6% and IgM anti -HAV was detected in only 6.8%. In contrast to the age- related decline in the frequency of acute HA, the proportion of acute HE were similar in all age groups (13.7% in children, 16.7% in adolescents and 11.0% in adults. Conclusion: The study indicated that HAV is still a common cause of AVH particularly among children in Gizan. Acute 1-113 had a low occurrence among the children, evidently as a consequence of the integration of HB vaccine into the Saudi Arabian national EPI, 10 years ago. With the availability of combined HB and HA vaccines, It should be possible to graft the vaccination against HAV on to the existing program in Saudi Arabia. Affecting 13.4% of the group studied, sporadic HEV constitute a significant cause of AVH in this population. Until HEV vaccine becomes widely available, its prevention would be mainly by the improvement of socio - economic and hygienic standards of the population.

  4. Dengue viral infections

    Gurugama Padmalal

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available Dengue viral infections are one of the most important mosquito-borne diseases in the world. Presently dengue is endemic in 112 countries in the world. It has been estimated that almost 100 million cases of dengue fever and half a million cases of dengue hemorrhagic fever (DHF occur worldwide. An increasing proportion of DHF is in children less than 15 years of age, especially in South East and South Asia. The unique structure of the dengue virus and the pathophysiologic responses of the host, different serotypes, and favorable conditions for vector breeding have led to the virulence and spread of the infections. The manifestations of dengue infections are protean from being asymptomatic to undifferentiated fever, severe dengue infections, and unusual complications. Early recognition and prompt initiation of appropriate supportive treatment are often delayed resulting in unnecessarily high morbidity and mortality. Attempts are underway for the development of a vaccine for preventing the burden of this neglected disease. This review outlines the epidemiology, clinical features, pathophysiologic mechanisms, management, and control of dengue infections.

  5. Greater numbers of nucleotide substitutions are introduced into the genomic RNA of bovine viral diarrhea virus during acute infections of pregnant cattle than of non-pregnant cattle

    Neill John D

    2012-08-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Bovine viral diarrhea virus (BVDV strains circulating in livestock herds show significant sequence variation. Conventional wisdom states that most sequence variation arises during acute infections in response to immune or other environmental pressures. A recent study showed that more nucleotide changes were introduced into the BVDV genomic RNA during the establishment of a single fetal persistent infection than following a series of acute infections of naïve cattle. However, it was not known if nucleotide changes were introduce when the virus crossed the placenta and infected the fetus or during the acute infection of the dam. Methods The sequence of the open reading frame (ORF from viruses isolated from four acutely infected pregnant heifers following exposure to persistently infected (PI calves was compared to the sequences of the virus from the progenitor PI calf and the virus from the resulting progeny PI calf to determine when genetic change was introduced. This was compared to genetic change found in viruses isolated from a pregnant PI cow and its PI calf, and in three viruses isolated from acutely infected, non-pregnant cattle exposed to PI calves. Results Most genetic changes previously identified between the progenitor and progeny PI viruses were in place in the acute phase viruses isolated from the dams six days post-exposure to the progenitor PI calf. Additionally, each progeny PI virus had two to three unique nucleotide substitutions that were introduced in crossing the placenta and infection of the fetus. The nucleotide sequence of two acute phase viruses isolated from steers exposed to PI calves revealed that six and seven nucleotide changes were introduced during the acute infection. The sequence of the BVDV-2 virus isolated from an acute infection of a PI calf (BVDV-1a co-housed with a BVDV-2 PI calf had ten nucleotides that were different from the progenitor PI virus. Finally, twenty nucleotide changes were

  6. Norovirus infections in children under 5 years of age hospitalized due to the acute viral gastroenteritis in northeastern Poland

    Oldak, E.; Sulik, A.; Rozkiewicz, D.; Liwoch-Nienartowicz, N.

    2011-01-01

    The primary aim of this study was to evaluate the frequency and seasonality of norovirus infection in hospitalized Polish children under 5 years of age, and a secondary aim was to compare the clinical severity of norovirus and rotavirus disease. The prospective surveillance study was carried out from July 2009 through June 2010. Stool samples from 242 children hospitalized due to acute viral gastroenteritis were tested for rotavirus group A and adenovirus with commercial immunochromatographic...

  7. Acute renal failure due to rhabdomyolysis following dengue viral infection: a case report

    Wijesinghe, Aruna; Gnanapragash, Nanthini; Ranasinghe, Gayan; Ragunathan, Murugapillai K

    2013-01-01

    Introduction With more than one-third of the world’s population living in areas at risk for transmission, dengue fever is a leading cause of illness and death in the tropics and subtropics. Despite the high incidence of dengue fever, rhabdomyolysis leading to acute renal failure is an extremely rare complication of dengue fever. Only a few such cases have been reported in the literature. Case presentation We describe the case of a 42-year-old, previously healthy Sri Lankan Sinhalese man who d...

  8. An unusual association of pleural effusion with acute viral hepatitis A infection

    Dhakal AK; Shakya A; Shrestha D; Shah SC; Shakya H

    2014-01-01

    Ajaya Kumar Dhakal, Arati Shakya, Devendra Shrestha, Subhash Chandra Shah, Henish Shakya Department of Pediatrics, KIST Medical College Teaching Hospital, Imadol, Lalitpur, Nepal Abstract: Hepatitis A virus infection is a common public health problem in developing countries primarily due to poor hygiene and sanitation. The clinical features of hepatitis A virus are mostly related to the derangement of liver function with occasional extrahepatic complications. Herein, a 2.5-year-old girl pres...

  9. Viral infection, inflammation and schizophrenia

    Kneeland, Rachel E.; Fatemi, S. Hossein

    2012-01-01

    Schizophrenia is a severe neurodevelopmental disorder with genetic and environmental etiologies. Prenatal viral/bacterial infections and inflammation play major roles in the genesis of schizophrenia. In this review, we describe a viral model of schizophrenia tested in mice whereby the offspring of mice prenatally infected with influenza at E7, E9, E16, and E18 show significant gene, protein, and brain structural abnormalities postnatally. Similarly, we describe data on rodents exposed to bact...

  10. Microglia retard dengue virus-induced acute viral encephalitis.

    Tsai, Tsung-Ting; Chen, Chia-Ling; Lin, Yee-Shin; Chang, Chih-Peng; Tsai, Cheng-Chieh; Cheng, Yi-Lin; Huang, Chao-Ching; Ho, Chien-Jung; Lee, Yi-Chao; Lin, Liang-Tzung; Jhan, Ming-Kai; Lin, Chiou-Feng

    2016-01-01

    Patients with dengue virus (DENV) infection may also present acute viral encephalitis through an unknown mechanism. Here, we report that encephalitic DENV-infected mice exhibited progressive hunchback posture, limbic seizures, limbic weakness, paralysis, and lethality 7 days post-infection. These symptoms were accompanied by CNS inflammation, neurotoxicity, and blood-brain barrier destruction. Microglial cells surrounding the blood vessels and injured hippocampus regions were activated by DENV infection. Pharmacologically depleting microglia unexpectedly increased viral replication, neuropathy, and mortality in DENV-infected mice. In microglia-depleted mice, the DENV infection-mediated expression of antiviral cytokines and the infiltration of CD8-positive cytotoxic T lymphocytes (CTLs) was abolished. DENV infection prompted the antigen-presenting cell-like differentiation of microglia, which in turn stimulated CTL proliferation and activation. These results suggest that microglial cells play a key role in facilitating antiviral immune responses against DENV infection and acute viral encephalitis. PMID:27279150

  11. ACUTE ATAXIA, TAKING PLACE AFTER ACUTE RESPIRATORY VIRAL INFECTION IN 2 Y. O. GIRL, AS A DEBUT NEUROLOGIC SIGN OF THE ANGELMAN SYNDROME

    E. B. Voropanova

    2015-04-01

    Full Text Available Angleman syndrome (АS – is a chromosomal syndrome, which is manifested through atypical autism with feeble minding, epilepsy, outrage of the speech development, movement disorders, ataxia, as well as special (happy behavior of patients, combined with outbursts of laugh. The disease is caused by the mutation of 15q11.2–13 maternal locus or by the gene of UBE3A ubiquitinated complex. Such genes regulate the functional activity of hippocampus neurons, of olfactory bulbs, of the parastriate cortex, of the tentorium. We demonstrate the atypical AS case, which clinical presentation developed after acute respiratory viral infection with febrile temperature. The disease started with episodes of acute ataxia, interrupting daily activities of the child. Step by step the speech development was regressing – several words have fallen out,leaving the space for babbling sounds. Also appeared stereotypic movements of upper extremities (bending of arms in elbow joints, its retraction and joggling of hands, unmotivated laugh. Due to the nonrelevant starting presentation in the acute period following conditions were differentially diagnosed: 1 opsoclonus-myoclonus syndrome; 2 cerebral circulation diseases; 3 epilepsy with absences and atonic attacks; 4 paroxysmal dyskenisias and ataxias; 5 start of the neurodegenerative disease; 6 early childhood autism. Results of laboratory research allowed to exclude opsoclonus-myoclonus, the magnetic and resonance tomography and vessels research allowed to exclude the cerebrovascular pathology. Changes, revealed in the course of the videoelectroencephalographic monitoring, as well as anamnesis data (clinical symptoms after fever allowed to narrow the diagnostic search; AS suspected. Provided the combination of ataxia with movement disorders, it was decided to carry out not molecular & genetic, but also micromatrix analysis, in order to exclude the channelopathy, as well as other genetic reasons. The method of

  12. Risk of Severe Acute Exacerbation of Chronic HBV Infection Cancer Patients Who Underwent Chemotherapy and Did Not Receive Anti-Viral Prophylaxis.

    Chih-An Shih

    Full Text Available Reactivation of HBV replication with an increase in serum HBV DNA and alanine aminotransferase (ALT activity has been reported in 20-50% of hepatitis B carriers undergoing cytotoxic chemotherapy for cancer treatment. Manifestation of HBV reactivation ranges from asymptomatic self-limiting hepatitis to severe progressive hepatic failure and fatal consequences.To investigate the risk of severe acute exacerbation of chronic HBV infection in HBsAg-positive cancer patients with solid tumors or hematological malignancies who underwent chemotherapy without antiviral prophylaxis.A retrospective review of charts was conducted for HBsAg-positive cancer patients in our institution who underwent chemotherapy and did not receive anti-viral prophylaxis between the periods of July 2007 to January 2013. We investigate the incidence of severe acute exacerbation of chronic HBV infection if these patients with a variety of solid tumors and hematological malignancies.A total of 156 patients (hematological malignancies: 16; solid tumors: 140 were included. The incidence of severe acute HBV exacerbation in the patients with hematological malignancy was higher than that in solid tumors (25.0% [4/16] vs 4.3% [6/140]; P = 0.005. Additionally, patients receiving rituximab-based chemotherapy had higher acute exacerbation rate than those with non-rituximab-based chemotherapy (40.0% vs 4.1%, P = 0.001. Among the patients with solid tumors, the incidences of severe acute exacerbation of chronic HBV in hepatocellular carcinoma, colorectal cancer, lung cancer, breast cancer, gynecological cancer, urological tract cancer, head/neck cancer and other solid malignancies were 2.3%, 4.0%, 7.1%, 9.0%, 16.7%, 6.7%, 0% and 0%, respectively.Severe acute exacerbation of chronic HBV infection may occur in HBsAg-positive patients with a variety of solid tumors who received chemotherapy without adequate anti-viral prophylaxis. Hematological malignancy and rituximab-based chemotherapy are

  13. Fatal case of acute gastroenteritis with multiple viral coinfections.

    Lupo, Julien; Morel-Baccard, Christine; Michard-Lenoir, Anne-Pascale; Germi, Raphaële; Pothier, Pierre; Ambert-Balay, Katia; Morand, Patrice

    2016-01-01

    We report a fatal case of acute gastroenteritis in a child with autism spectrum disorder. Multiple viral coinfections were detected by PCR in the patient's stool and digestive biopsy specimens. As viral detection is not necessarily associated with symptomatic disease, a semi-quantitative approach using cycle treshold values was proposed for the clinical interpretation of PCR. We discuss whether concomitant viral infections could be a risk factor for severe outcome in gastroenteritis cases. Individual risk factors are also addressed. PMID:26655270

  14. Complement lysis activity in autologous plasma is associated with lower viral loads during the acute phase of HIV-1 infection.

    Michael Huber

    2006-11-01

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: To explore the possibility that antibody-mediated complement lysis contributes to viremia control in HIV-1 infection, we measured the activity of patient plasma in mediating complement lysis of autologous primary virus. METHODS AND FINDINGS: Sera from two groups of patients-25 with acute HIV-1 infection and 31 with chronic infection-were used in this study. We developed a novel real-time PCR-based assay strategy that allows reliable and sensitive quantification of virus lysis by complement. Plasma derived at the time of virus isolation induced complement lysis of the autologous virus isolate in the majority of patients. Overall lysis activity against the autologous virus and the heterologous primary virus strain JR-FL was higher at chronic disease stages than during the acute phase. Most strikingly, we found that plasma virus load levels during the acute but not the chronic infection phase correlated inversely with the autologous complement lysis activity. Antibody reactivity to the envelope (Env proteins gp120 and gp41 were positively correlated with the lysis activity against JR-FL, indicating that anti-Env responses mediated complement lysis. Neutralization and complement lysis activity against autologous viruses were not associated, suggesting that complement lysis is predominantly caused by non-neutralizing antibodies. CONCLUSIONS: Collectively our data provide evidence that antibody-mediated complement virion lysis develops rapidly and is effective early in the course of infection; thus it should be considered a parameter that, in concert with other immune functions, steers viremia control in vivo.

  15. Viral infections of rabbits.

    Kerr, Peter J; Donnelly, Thomas M

    2013-05-01

    Viral diseases of rabbits have been used historically to study oncogenesis (e.g. rabbit fibroma virus, cottontail rabbit papillomavirus) and biologically to control feral rabbit populations (e.g. myxoma virus). However, clinicians seeing pet rabbits in North America infrequently encounter viral diseases although myxomatosis may be seen occasionally. The situation is different in Europe and Australia, where myxomatosis and rabbit hemorrhagic disease are endemic. Advances in epidemiology and virology have led to detection of other lapine viruses that are now recognized as agents of emerging infectious diseases. Rabbit caliciviruses, related to rabbit hemorrhagic disease, are generally avirulent, but lethal variants are being identified in Europe and North America. Enteric viruses including lapine rotavirus, rabbit enteric coronavirus and rabbit astrovirus are being acknowledged as contributors to the multifactorial enteritis complex of juvenile rabbits. Three avirulent leporid herpesviruses are found in domestic rabbits. A fourth highly pathogenic virus designated leporid herpesvirus 4 has been described in Canada and Alaska. This review considers viruses affecting rabbits by their clinical significance. Viruses of major and minor clinical significance are described, and viruses of laboratory significance are mentioned. PMID:23642871

  16. Acute renal failure associated with nonfulminant acute viral hepatitis A

    Sarawgi, S.; Gupta, A. K.; Arora, D S; Jasuja, S.

    2008-01-01

    Hepatitis A runs a benign course in children, but may have atypical presentations in adults. Very rarely acute renal failure complicates nonfulminant hepatitis A. We report a patient with nonfulminant acute viral hepatitis A with multiorgan involvement. Patient had biopsy proven acute interstitial nephritis, acute pancreatitis, acute myocarditis and required hemodialysis for 6 weeks.

  17. Blocking of α4β7 Gut-Homing Integrin during Acute Infection Leads to Decreased Plasma and Gastrointestinal Tissue Viral Loads in Simian Immunodeficiency Virus-Infected Rhesus Macaques

    Aftab A. Ansari; Reimann, Keith A.; Mayne, Ann E.; Takahashi, Yoshiaki; Stephenson, Susan T.; Wang, Rijian; Wang, Xinyue; Li, JiChu; Price, Andrew A.; Little, Dawn M.; Zaidi, Mohammad; Lyles, Robert; Villinger, Francois

    2010-01-01

    Intravenous administration of a novel recombinant rhesus mAb against the α4β7 gut-homing integrin (mAb) into rhesus macaques just prior to and during acute SIV infection resulted in significant decrease in plasma and gastrointestinal (GI) tissue viral load and a marked reduction in GI tissue proviral DNA load as compared with control SIV-infected rhesus macaques. This mAb administration was associated with increases in peripheral blood naive and central memory CD4+ T cells and maintenance of ...

  18. Mast cells in viral infections

    Piotr Witczak

    2012-04-01

    Full Text Available  There are some premises suggesting that mast cells are involved in the mechanisms of anti-virus defense and in viral disease pathomechanisms. Mast cells are particularly numerous at the portals of infections and thus may have immediate and easy contact with the external environment and invading pathogens. These cells express receptors responsible for recognition of virus-derived PAMP molecules, mainly Toll-like receptors (TLR3, TLR7/8 and TLR9, but also RIG-I-like and NOD-like molecules. Furthermore, mast cells generate various mediators, cytokines and chemokines which modulate the intensity of inflammation and regulate the course of innate and adaptive anti-viral immunity. Indirect evidence for the role of mast cells in viral infections is also provided by clinical observations and results of animal studies. Currently, more and more data indicate that mast cells can be infected by some viruses (dengue virus, adenoviruses, hantaviruses, cytomegaloviruses, reoviruses, HIV-1 virus. It is also demonstrated that mast cells can release pre formed mediators as well as synthesize de novo eicosanoids in response to stimulation by viruses. Several data indicate that virus-stimulated mast cells secrete cytokines and chemokines, including interferons as well as chemokines with a key role in NK and Tc lymphocyte influx. Moreover, some information indicates that mast cell stimulation via TLR3, TLR7/8 and TLR9 can affect their adhesion to extracellular matrix proteins and chemotaxis, and influence expression of some membrane molecules. Critical analysis of current data leads to the conclusion that it is not yet possible to make definitive statements about the role of mast cells in innate and acquired defense mechanisms developing in the course of viral infection and/or pathomechanisms of viral diseases.

  19. Viral infections in children with cancer

    Lindblom, Anna

    2009-01-01

    Viral infections are the most common cause of infection morbidity in children. Nevertheless, few studies have been devoted to exploring the viral panorama in children receiving chemotherapy for cancer. The present thesis aims to study viral infections in children with cancer with special focus on Parvovirus B19 (B19) and viral infections during episodes of neutropenic fever. B19 was for many years, believed to be a lytic virus cleared by the humoral response. However, su...

  20. Etiology and outcome of acute viral hepatitis in Korean adults.

    Lee, H. S.; Byun, J. H.; Kim, C. Y.

    1990-01-01

    One hundred and sixteen Korean adults with biopsy-proven acute viral hepatitis were studied to determine the etiology and the outcome of the disease using paired sera obtained during acute and convalescent phases. The prevalence of acute viral hepatitis A, B, D and non-A non-B were 3.4%, 60.3%, 0.9% and 35.3%, respectively: hepatitis B virus infection was the most common cause and the hepatitis D virus superinfection was almost negligible. Only eleven (26.8%) of 41 patients with AVH NANB were...

  1. Integrin Activation and Viral Infection

    Shan-dian GAO; Jun-zheng DU; Jian-hua ZHOU; Hui-yun CHANG; Qing-ge XIE

    2008-01-01

    Integrins are members of a ubiquitous membrane receptor family which includes 18 different α subunits and 8 β subunits forming more than 20 α/β heterodimers. Integrins play key functions in vascular endothelial cell and tumour cell adhesion, lymphocyte trafficking, tumor growth and viral infection. Current understanding of the molecular basis of integrins as viral receptors has been achieved through many decades of study into the biology of transmembrane glycoproteins and their interactions with several viruses. This review provides a summary of the current knowledge on the molecular bases of interactions between viruses and integrins, which are of potential practical significance. Inhibition of virus-integrin interactions at the points of virus attachment or entry will provide a novel approach for the therapeutic treatment of viral diseases.

  2. Recycling Endosomes and Viral Infection.

    Vale-Costa, Sílvia; Amorim, Maria João

    2016-01-01

    Many viruses exploit specific arms of the endomembrane system. The unique composition of each arm prompts the development of remarkably specific interactions between viruses and sub-organelles. This review focuses on the viral-host interactions occurring on the endocytic recycling compartment (ERC), and mediated by its regulatory Ras-related in brain (Rab) GTPase Rab11. This protein regulates trafficking from the ERC and the trans-Golgi network to the plasma membrane. Such transport comprises intricate networks of proteins/lipids operating sequentially from the membrane of origin up to the cell surface. Rab11 is also emerging as a critical factor in an increasing number of infections by major animal viruses, including pathogens that provoke human disease. Understanding the interplay between the ERC and viruses is a milestone in human health. Rab11 has been associated with several steps of the viral lifecycles by unclear processes that use sophisticated diversified host machinery. For this reason, we first explore the state-of-the-art on processes regulating membrane composition and trafficking. Subsequently, this review outlines viral interactions with the ERC, highlighting current knowledge on viral-host binding partners. Finally, using examples from the few mechanistic studies available we emphasize how ERC functions are adjusted during infection to remodel cytoskeleton dynamics, innate immunity and membrane composition. PMID:27005655

  3. Epidemiology of prolonged testicular infections with bovine viral diarrhea virus.

    Givens, M Daniel; Riddell, Kay P; Edmondson, Misty A; Walz, Paul H; Gard, Julie A; Zhang, Yijing; Galik, Patricia K; Brodersen, Bruce W; Carson, Robert L; Stringfellow, David A

    2009-10-20

    Previously, bovine viral diarrhea virus (BVDV) had been found in prolonged testicular infections following acute infection of immunocompetent bulls. The primary purpose of this research was to evaluate the production and maintenance of prolonged testicular infections after exposure to BVDV of seronegative bulls in varying circumstances. The secondary objective was to initiate assessment of the potential for transmission of BVDV via semen of bulls exhibiting a prolonged testicular infection. In total, 10 research trials were conducted. The first trial examined the duration of detectable virus in semen after intranasal inoculation of peri-pubertal bulls. The second to fifth trials examined the potential for prolonged testicular infections resulting from natural exposure of seronegative bulls to persistently infected heifers. In the last five trials, the potential for viral transmission from bulls exhibiting prolonged testicular infections to a small number of exposed animals (n=28) was evaluated. Results of this research demonstrated that prolonged testicular infections could result in detection of viral RNA in semen for 2.75 years with infectious virus grown from testicular tissue 12.5 months after viral exposure. A type 1b strain of BVDV caused prolonged testicular infection after natural exposure of seronegative bulls to a persistently infected heifer. However, transmission of BVDV to susceptible animals was not detected in the final five trials of this research. In conclusion, BVDV can persist in testicular tissue after acute infection for several years, but the potential for viral transmission from these prolonged testicular infections appears to be low. PMID:19473788

  4. NNDSS - Table II. Hepatitis (viral, acute)

    U.S. Department of Health & Human Services — NNDSS - Table II. Hepatitis (viral, acute) - 2014.In this Table, all conditions with a 5-year average annual national total of more than or equals 1,000 cases but...

  5. NNDSS - Table II. Hepatitis (viral, acute)

    U.S. Department of Health & Human Services — NNDSS - Table II. Hepatitis (viral, acute) - 2015.In this Table, provisional cases of selected notifiable diseases (≥1,000 cases reported during the preceding...

  6. NNDSS - Table II. Hepatitis (viral, acute)

    U.S. Department of Health & Human Services — NNDSS - Table II. Hepatitis (viral, acute) - 2016. In this Table, provisional* cases of selected†notifiable diseases (≥1,000 cases reported during the preceding...

  7. [Cycloferon efficacy in the treatment of acute respiratory tract viral infection and influenza during the morbidity outbreak in 2009-2010].

    Romantsov, M G; Golofeevskiĭ, S V

    2010-01-01

    Clinical signs of acute respiratory tract viral infection and influenza in 150 patients under the standard symptomatic therapy with cycloferon, an early interferon 1 and 2 inductor are described. The patients were randomized by the body temperature on the day of the medical advise seeking. The clinical process of the respiratory tract infection was characterized by the second increase of the body temperature stated in 31.8% of the patients. By the clinical signs the infection was mixed (virus-virus) that explained the second increase of the body temperature. Normalization of the temperature was stated on the 4th or 5th day of the observation. The catarrhal and intoxication syndromes were observed for no more than 5 days. When the treatment was started in time (on the day of the medical advise seeking), cycloferon provided minimization of the intoxication and catarrhal syndromes and normalization of the body temperature on the 4th day of the therapy without the use of antibacterial agents. PMID:20583555

  8. Comparison of initial high resolution computed tomography features in viral pneumonia between metapneumovirus infection and severe acute respiratory syndrome

    Objective: To review and compare initial high resolution computed tomography (HRCT) findings in patients with metapneumovirus pneumonia and severe acute respiratory syndrome (SARS-Coronovirus). Materials and methods: 4 cases of metapneumovirus pneumonia (mean age of 52.3 years) in an institutional outbreak (Castle Peak Hospital) in 2008 and 38 cases of SARS-coronovirus (mean age of 39.6 years) admitted to Tuen Mun hospital during an epidemic outbreak in 2003 were included. HRCT findings of the lungs for all patients were retrospectively reviewed by two independent radiologists. Results: In the metapneumovirus group, common HRCT features were ground glass opacities (100%), consolidation (100%), parenchymal band (100%), bronchiectasis (75%). Crazy paving pattern was absent. They were predominantly subpleural and basal in location and bilateral involvement was observed in 50% of patients. In the SARS group, common HRCT features were ground glass opacities (92.1%), interlobular septal thickening (86.8%), crazy paving pattern (73.7%) and consolidation (68%). Bronchiectasis was not seen. Majority of patient demonstrated segmental or lobar in distribution and bilateral involvement was observed in 44.7% of patients. Pleural effusion and lymphadenopathy were of consistent rare features in both groups. Conclusion: Ground glass opacities, interlobular septal thickening and consolidations were consistent HRCT manifestations in both metapneumovirus infection and SARS. The presence of bronchiectasis (0% in SARS) may point towards metapneumovirus while crazy paving pattern is more suggestive of SARS.

  9. Recycling Endosomes and Viral Infection

    Vale-Costa, Sílvia; Amorim, Maria João

    2016-01-01

    Many viruses exploit specific arms of the endomembrane system. The unique composition of each arm prompts the development of remarkably specific interactions between viruses and sub-organelles. This review focuses on the viral–host interactions occurring on the endocytic recycling compartment (ERC), and mediated by its regulatory Ras-related in brain (Rab) GTPase Rab11. This protein regulates trafficking from the ERC and the trans-Golgi network to the plasma membrane. Such transport comprises intricate networks of proteins/lipids operating sequentially from the membrane of origin up to the cell surface. Rab11 is also emerging as a critical factor in an increasing number of infections by major animal viruses, including pathogens that provoke human disease. Understanding the interplay between the ERC and viruses is a milestone in human health. Rab11 has been associated with several steps of the viral lifecycles by unclear processes that use sophisticated diversified host machinery. For this reason, we first explore the state-of-the-art on processes regulating membrane composition and trafficking. Subsequently, this review outlines viral interactions with the ERC, highlighting current knowledge on viral-host binding partners. Finally, using examples from the few mechanistic studies available we emphasize how ERC functions are adjusted during infection to remodel cytoskeleton dynamics, innate immunity and membrane composition. PMID:27005655

  10. Recycling Endosomes and Viral Infection

    Sílvia Vale-Costa

    2016-03-01

    Full Text Available Many viruses exploit specific arms of the endomembrane system. The unique composition of each arm prompts the development of remarkably specific interactions between viruses and sub-organelles. This review focuses on the viral–host interactions occurring on the endocytic recycling compartment (ERC, and mediated by its regulatory Ras-related in brain (Rab GTPase Rab11. This protein regulates trafficking from the ERC and the trans-Golgi network to the plasma membrane. Such transport comprises intricate networks of proteins/lipids operating sequentially from the membrane of origin up to the cell surface. Rab11 is also emerging as a critical factor in an increasing number of infections by major animal viruses, including pathogens that provoke human disease. Understanding the interplay between the ERC and viruses is a milestone in human health. Rab11 has been associated with several steps of the viral lifecycles by unclear processes that use sophisticated diversified host machinery. For this reason, we first explore the state-of-the-art on processes regulating membrane composition and trafficking. Subsequently, this review outlines viral interactions with the ERC, highlighting current knowledge on viral-host binding partners. Finally, using examples from the few mechanistic studies available we emphasize how ERC functions are adjusted during infection to remodel cytoskeleton dynamics, innate immunity and membrane composition.

  11. Viral Infection in Renal Transplant Recipients

    Jovana Cukuranovic

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available Viruses are among the most common causes of opportunistic infection after transplantation. The risk for viral infection is a function of the specific virus encountered, the intensity of immune suppression used to prevent graft rejection, and other host factors governing susceptibility. Although cytomegalovirus is the most common opportunistic pathogen seen in transplant recipients, numerous other viruses have also affected outcomes. In some cases, preventive measures such as pretransplant screening, prophylactic antiviral therapy, or posttransplant viral monitoring may limit the impact of these infections. Recent advances in laboratory monitoring and antiviral therapy have improved outcomes. Studies of viral latency, reactivation, and the cellular effects of viral infection will provide clues for future strategies in prevention and treatment of viral infections. This paper will summarize the major viral infections seen following transplant and discuss strategies for prevention and management of these potential pathogens.

  12. Viral/Host interaction in viral infections

    Le Grand, R. [CEA Fontenay-aux-Roses, Service de Neurovirologie, 92 (France)

    2006-07-01

    The major objectives of the Neuro-virology Department (SNV for 'Service de Neurovirologie') are related to the study of host/pathogen interactions, particularly during primate lentiviral infections. Various experimental models have been developed such as non-human primates infected with the HIV-related simian immunodeficiency viruses (SIV), as an animal model of human AIDS. The current research programs of the SNV following four main directions: 1) Study of the pathogenesis of primate lentiviral infection, including mucosal transmission of HIV/SIV, primary infection, dissemination to various reservoirs, neuro-pathogenesis and hematopoietic disorders; 2) Prevention of HIV transmission, particularly through vaccination but also by means of microbicides applied to genital mucosa and post-exposure treatment with antiviral drugs; 3) Cellular and molecular pharmacology of new antiviral compounds; 4) Development of new primate models of human hematological disorders like chronic myeloid leukemia cells and development on new gene transfer in hematopoietic cells based on the use of lentiviral vectors Main programs of the SNV will be presented as well as the perspective focused on the use of non invasive in vivo imaging approaches for the exploration of immune and hematopoietic cells.

  13. Mosquito Defense Strategies against Viral Infection.

    Cheng, Gong; Liu, Yang; Wang, Penghua; Xiao, Xiaoping

    2016-03-01

    Mosquito-borne viral diseases are a major concern of global health and result in significant economic losses in many countries. As natural vectors, mosquitoes are very permissive to and allow systemic and persistent arbovirus infection. Intriguingly, persistent viral propagation in mosquito tissues neither results in dramatic pathological sequelae nor impairs the vectorial behavior or lifespan, indicating that mosquitoes have evolved mechanisms to tolerate persistent infection and developed efficient antiviral strategies to restrict viral replication to nonpathogenic levels. Here we provide an overview of recent progress in understanding mosquito antiviral immunity and advances in the strategies by which mosquitoes control viral infection in specific tissues. PMID:26626596

  14. Control Measures for Human Respiratory Viral Infection.

    Bennett, Lesley; Waterer, Grant

    2016-08-01

    New viral respiratory pathogens are emerging with increasing frequency and have potentially devastating impacts on the population worldwide. Recent examples of newly emerged threats include severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus, the 2009 H1N1 influenza pandemic, and Middle East respiratory syndrome coronavirus. Experiences with these pathogens have shown up major deficiencies in how we deal globally with emerging pathogens and taught us salient lessons in what needs to be addressed for future pandemics. This article reviews the lessons learnt from past experience and current knowledge on the range of measures required to limit the impact of emerging respiratory infections from public health responses down to individual patient management. Key areas of interest are surveillance programs, political limitations on our ability to respond quickly enough to emerging threats, media management, public information dissemination, infection control, prophylaxis, and individual patient management. Respiratory physicians have a crucial role to play in many of these areas and need to be aware of how to respond as new viral pathogens emerge. PMID:27486741

  15. Eight different viral agents in childhood acute gastroenteritis.

    Bozkurt, Derya; Selimoğlu, Mukadder Ayşe; Otlu, Barış; Sandıkkaya, Ayşe

    2015-01-01

    Viral gastroenteritis is the most frequent cause of acute gastroenteritis (AGE) of childhood. The aim of this study was to determine the prevalence of viral agents including astrovirus, rotavirus, adenovirus, enterovirus, norovirus, parechovirus, Aichivirus and sapovirus in children with AGE in a pediatric Turkish population. Fecal specimens of 240 children with AGE were investigated by polymerase chain reaction, and viral agents were identified in 131 (54.6%) samples. The distribution of viral agents was as follows: 56 (42.8%) norovirus, 44 (33.6%) rotavirus, 29 (22.1%) enterovirus, 21 (16.0%) adenovirus, 21 (16.0%) parechovirus, 5 (3.8%) sapovirus and 1 (0.8%) Aichivirus. Single and multiple viral agents were detected in 38.8% and 15.8% of patients, respectively. The duration of hospitalization was longer in children with multiple viral agents than in those infected with a single viral agent (p<0.001). While the highest rate of rotavirus infection was detected in winter, the highest rate of norovirus was found in the summer. In conclusion, norovirus and rotavirus are the most frequent causes of childhood AGE in our country. PMID:26613223

  16. FEATURES OF THE IMMUNE RESPONSE DURING VIRAL INFECTION

    G. A. Borisov

    2015-06-01

    Full Text Available The aim of the investigation was to select using cluster analysis and comparatively characterize immune disorders types in acute and chronic viral infections. Patients with acute and chronic viral infections (n = 896 were examined: 77 patients with acute viral hepatitis B, 94 — chronic viral hepatitis B, 119 — chronic hepatitis C, 531 — recurrent herpes, 75 — human papillomavirus infection. Healthy persons (n = 466 were examined as control. The research of blood lymphocyte phenotype was performed by flow cytometry. Four-color immunophenotyping were used in the following panels: Т-lymphocytes (CD3+CD19–CD16/56–CD45+, Т-helpers (CD3+CD4+CD45+, cytotoxic Т-cells (CD3+CD8+CD45+, NKcells (CD3–CD16/56+CD45+, B-lymphocytes (CD3–CD19+CD16/56+CD45+. Absolute values were obtained on a dualplatform technology using the results of haematological analysis. The immunoglobulin concentrations were determined by ELISA. The clustering was performed by a single linkage method. The number of clusters was determined on the basis of calculating the values of the Euclidean distance between the mean group values. It was found that the parameters, characterizing the functional state of the various parts of the immune system in acute and chronic viral infections, considerable diversity values. Custer analysis allows to allocate 6 immunotypes defined different states of innate and adaptive immunity: characterized by activation of the innate (increasing the number of neutrophils and NK-cells and adaptive immunity humoral response (increasing the concentration of IgG, characterized by hyperreaction of adaptive immunity (a significant increase in the concentration of IgG, discoordinated (multidirectional changes in the values of immunological parameters, immunodeficiency and unresponsiveness (did not differ from the control parameters immunotypes. It is proved that in patients with viral infections most often determined by the

  17. Neurological manifestations of dengue viral infection

    Carod-Artal FJ

    2014-10-01

    Full Text Available Francisco Javier Carod-Artal1,21Neurology Department, Raigmore hospital, Inverness, UK; 2Universitat Internacional de Catalunya (UIC, Barcelona, Spain Abstract: Dengue is the most common mosquito-borne viral infection worldwide. There is increased evidence for dengue virus neurotropism, and neurological manifestations could make part of the clinical picture of dengue virus infection in at least 0.5%–7.4% of symptomatic cases. Neurological complications have been classified into dengue virus encephalopathy, dengue virus encephalitis, immune-mediated syndromes (acute disseminated encephalomyelitis, myelitis, Guillain–Barré syndrome, neuritis brachialis, acute cerebellitis, and others, neuromuscular complications (hypokalemic paralysis, transient benign muscle dysfunction and myositis, and dengue-associated stroke. Common neuro-ophthalmic complications are maculopathy and retinal vasculopathy. Pathogenic mechanisms include systemic complications and metabolic disturbances resulting in encephalopathy, direct effect of the virus provoking encephalitis, and postinfectious immune mechanisms causing immune-mediated syndromes. Dengue viruses should be considered as a cause of neurological disorders in endemic regions. Standardized case definitions for specific neurological complications are still needed. Keywords: encephalitis, encephalopathy, dengue fever, neurological complications

  18. Pregnancy and sexually transmitted viral infections

    Singhal P; Naswa S; Marfatia Y

    2009-01-01

    Viral infections in pregnancy are a major cause of morbidity and mortality for both mother and fetus. Viral STIs occur as surface infection and then gradually infect immunologically protected sites. Therefore, these are asymptomatic, hidden and hence underdiagnosed, persistent and difficult to treat. HSV, HPV, HBV, HIV and CMV (cytomegalovirus) are the common ones. Most of these are transmitted during intrapartum period. Proper screening, identification and treatment offered during prenatal p...

  19. Changing haematological parameters in dengue viral infections

    Background: Dengue Fever is the most common arboviral disease in the world, and presents cyclically in tropical and subtropical regions of the world. The four serotypes of dengue virus, 1, 2, 3, and 4, form an antigenic subgroup of the flaviviruses (Group B arboviruses). Transmission to humans of any of these serotypes initiates a spectrum of host responses, from in apparent to severe and sometimes lethal infections. Complete Blood count (CBC) is an important part of the diagnostic workup of patients. Comparison of various finding in CBC including peripheral smear can help the physician in better management of the patient. Material and Methods: This cross sectional study was carried out on a series of suspected patients of Dengue viral infection reporting in Ittefaq Hospital (Trust). All were investigated for serological markers of acute infection. Results Out of 341 acute cases 166 (48.7%) were confirmed by IgM against Dengue virus. IgG anti-dengue was used on 200 suspected re-infected patients. Seventy-one (39.5%) were positive and 118 (59%) were negative. Among 245 confirmed dengue fever patients 43 (17.6%) were considered having dengue hemorrhagic fever on the basis of lab and clinical findings. Raised haematocrit, Leukopenia with relative Lymphocytosis and presence atypical lymphocytes along with plasmacytoid cells was consistent finding at presentation in both the patterns of disease, i.e., Dengue Haemorrhagic fever (DHF) and Dengue fever (DF). Conclusion: Changes in relative percentage of cells appear with improvement in the symptoms and recovery from the disease. These findings indicate that in the course of the disease, there are major shifts within cellular component of blood. (author)

  20. US findings in acute viral hepatitis

    Reports on colecystic alterations during acute viral hepatitis are more and more frequent; the pathogenesis and clinical meaning of these alterations are still debated. Consensual periportal lymphnode enlargment has been not yet reported. The authors describe four cases of acute viral hepatites in whichUS showed alterations of colecystic walls and/or contents; in two cases enlarged periportal lymphnodes were demonstrated too. Later US exams showed a complete regression of both colecystic and lymphnodal lesions. Clinical findings and laboratory out-comes are evaluated; the connection of US results with hepatitis and its meaning are discussed. The causes of colecystic alterations are still questionable; they might be related to blood disorders or to an increased portal pressure, or else they might be considered as phlogistic lesions. The authors conclude that both colecystic and lymphnodal alterations have a phlogistic nature; moreover, they are not related to a particulary evolution of hepatitis. The importance of distinguishing colecystic alterations from different pathology is stressed

  1. Additional diagnostic yield of adding serology to PCR in diagnosing viral acute respiratory infections in Kenyan patients 5 years of age and older.

    Feikin, Daniel R; Njenga, M Kariuki; Bigogo, Godfrey; Aura, Barrack; Gikunju, Stella; Balish, Amanda; Katz, Mark A; Erdman, Dean; Breiman, Robert F

    2013-01-01

    The role of serology in the setting of PCR-based diagnosis of acute respiratory infections (ARIs) is unclear. We found that acute- and convalescent-phase paired-sample serologic testing increased the diagnostic yield of naso/oropharyngeal swabs for influenza virus, respiratory syncytial virus (RSV), human metapneumovirus, adenovirus, and parainfluenza viruses beyond PCR by 0.4% to 10.7%. Although still limited for clinical use, serology, along with PCR, can maximize etiologic diagnosis in epidemiologic studies. PMID:23114699

  2. Oxygen tension level and human viral infections

    Morinet, Frédéric, E-mail: frederic.morinet@sls.aphp.fr [Centre des Innovations Thérapeutiques en Oncologie et Hématologie (CITOH), CHU Saint-Louis, Paris (France); Université Denis Diderot, Sorbonne Paris Cité Paris, Paris (France); Casetti, Luana [Institut Cochin INSERM U1016, Paris (France); François, Jean-Hugues; Capron, Claude [Institut Cochin INSERM U1016, Paris (France); Laboratoire d' Hématologie, Hôpital Ambroise Paré, Boulogne (France); Université de Versailles Saint-Quentin en Yvelynes, Versailles (France); Pillet, Sylvie [Laboratoire de Bactériologie-Virologie-Hygiène, CHU de Saint-Etienne, Saint-Etienne (France); Université de Lyon et Université de Saint-Etienne, Jean Monnet, GIMAP EA3064, F-42023 Saint-Etienne, Lyon (France)

    2013-09-15

    The role of oxygen tension level is a well-known phenomenon that has been studied in oncology and radiotherapy since about 60 years. Oxygen tension may inhibit or stimulate propagation of viruses in vitro as well as in vivo. In turn modulating oxygen metabolism may constitute a novel approach to treat viral infections as an adjuvant therapy. The major transcription factor which regulates oxygen tension level is hypoxia-inducible factor-1 alpha (HIF-1α). Down-regulating the expression of HIF-1α is a possible method in the treatment of chronic viral infection such as human immunodeficiency virus infection, chronic hepatitis B and C viral infections and Kaposi sarcoma in addition to classic chemotherapy. The aim of this review is to supply an updating concerning the influence of oxygen tension level in human viral infections and to evoke possible new therapeutic strategies regarding this environmental condition. - Highlights: • Oxygen tension level regulates viral replication in vitro and possibly in vivo. • Hypoxia-inducible factor 1 (HIF-1α) is the principal factor involved in Oxygen tension level. • HIF-1α upregulates gene expression for example of HIV, JC and Kaposi sarcoma viruses. • In addition to classical chemotherapy inhibition of HIF-1α may constitute a new track to treat human viral infections.

  3. Dengue infection presenting as acute hypokalemic quadriparesis

    N Gupta

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Dengue infection is one of the most common viral hemorrhagic fevers seen in the tropical countries, including India. Its presentation varies from an acute self-resolving febrile illness to life-threatening hemorrhagic shock and multiorgan dysfunction leading to death. Neurological presentations are uncommon and limited to case reports only. Most common neurological manifestations being encephalitis, acute inflammatory demyelinating polyradiculoneuropathy, transverse myelitis, and acute disseminated encephalomyelitis.Hypokalemic quadriparesis as a presenting feature of dengue is extremely rare. Here, we report this case of a 33-year-old female, who presented with hypokalemic quadriparesis and was subsequently diagnosed as dengue infection.

  4. A touchdown nucleic acid amplification protocol as an alternative to culture backup for immunofluorescence in the routine diagnosis of acute viral respiratory tract infections

    Feeney Susan A; Mitchell Suzanne J; Mitchell Frederick; De Ornellas Dennis; McCaughey Conall; O'Neill Hugh J; Ong Grace M; Coyle Peter V; Wyatt Dorothy E; Forde Marian; Stockton Joanne

    2004-01-01

    Abstract Background Immunofluorescence and virus culture are the main methods used to diagnose acute respiratory virus infections. Diagnosing these infections using nucleic acid amplification presents technical challenges, one of which is facilitating the different optimal annealing temperatures needed for each virus. To overcome this problem we developed a diagnostic molecular strip which combined a generic nested touchdown protocol with in-house primer master-mixes that could recognise 12 c...

  5. Acute Pancreatitis Complicating Acute Hepatitis E Virus Infection: A Case Report and Review

    Hemanta Kumar Nayak; Nitish L Kamble; Nishant Raizada; Sandeep Garg,; Mradul Kumar Daga

    2013-01-01

    Acute pancreatitis complicating fulminant viral hepatitis has been well recognized; however, acute pancreatitis occurring in nonfulminant hepatitis is very rare. The case presented describes moderate pancreatitis in a young male, manifesting during the course of nonfulminant acute hepatitis E infection. The diagnosis of acute viral hepatitis E was confirmed by serology and reverse transcriptase polymerase chain reaction (RT-PCR) to demonstrate Hepatitis E virus (HEV) RNA in both stool and ser...

  6. Global issues related to enteric viral infections

    Desselberger, Ulrich

    2014-01-01

    Acute viral gastroenteritis is a major health issue worldwide and is associated with high annual mortality, particularly in children of developing countries. Rotaviruses, caliciviruses and astroviruses are the main causes. Accurate diagnoses are possible by recently developed molecular techniques. In many setups, zoonotic transmission is an important epidemiological factor. Treatment consists of rehydration and is otherwise symptomatic. The worldwide introduction of universal rotavirus vaccin...

  7. Lymphocyte subpopulation in acute viral hepatitis.

    Datta, U; Sehgal, S.; Pal, S. R.; Dhall, K; Singh, S.; Datta, D. V.

    1982-01-01

    Studies of peripheral blood lymphocytes were performed in 41 patients with acute viral hepatitis, in grade III-IV coma; 16 patients were in the third trimester of pregnancy. There were significant reductions in absolute lymphocyte count and T cell number in patients who succumbed to the disease, when compared with those who survived. B cell counts were similar in the two groups and migration inhibition test with BCG antigen was normal. It is postulated that a decrease in the number of cells i...

  8. Acute Pancreatitis Complicating Acute Hepatitis E Virus Infection: A Case Report and Review

    Hemanta Kumar Nayak

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Acute pancreatitis complicating fulminant viral hepatitis has been well recognized; however, acute pancreatitis occurring in nonfulminant hepatitis is very rare. The case presented describes moderate pancreatitis in a young male, manifesting during the course of nonfulminant acute hepatitis E infection. The diagnosis of acute viral hepatitis E was confirmed by serology and reverse transcriptase polymerase chain reaction (RT-PCR to demonstrate Hepatitis E virus (HEV RNA in both stool and serum. Patients with acute viral hepatitis presenting with severe abdominal pain should have a diagnosis of acute pancreatitis suspected and appropriate investigations including serum amylase, lipase, biliary ultrasonography and/or contrast-enhanced computed tomography of the abdomen should be undertaken. The identification of this unusual complication of Hepatitis E is important; however, the prognosis for patients with Acute Pancreatitis Complicating Acute Hepatitis E Virus Infection is good, and uncomplicated recovery with conservative treatment is expected.

  9. Neurological manifestations of dengue viral infection

    Carod-Artal FJ

    2014-01-01

    Francisco Javier Carod-Artal1,21Neurology Department, Raigmore hospital, Inverness, UK; 2Universitat Internacional de Catalunya (UIC), Barcelona, Spain Abstract: Dengue is the most common mosquito-borne viral infection worldwide. There is increased evidence for dengue virus neurotropism, and neurological manifestations could make part of the clinical picture of dengue virus infection in at least 0.5%–7.4% of symptomatic cases. Neurological complications have been classified into de...

  10. Bilateral optic neuritis in acute human immunodeficiency virus infection

    Larsen, M; Toft, P.B.; Bernhard, P;

    1998-01-01

    PURPOSE: To report a case of acute viral disease accompanied by bilateral optic neuritis with substantial paraclinical evidence that human immunodeficiency virus was the causative agent. METHODS: Clinical and paraclinical examination. Magnetic resonance imaging. RESULTS: Virus and antibody titers...... as well as reverse lymphocytosis were consistent with acute infection by the human immunodeficiency virus-1. CONCLUSIONS: Human immunodeficiency virus infection should be considered in the differential diagnosis of acute optic neuritis...

  11. PREVALENCE OF DIFFERENT VIRAL MARKERS IN PATIENTS OF ACUTE VIRAL HEPATITIS IN AND AROUND VISAKHAPATNAM : HOSPITAL BASED STUDY

    Aruna Sree

    2015-04-01

    Full Text Available Acute viral hepatitis (AVH is a major public health problem and is an important cause of morbidity and mortality in the developing countries. AIM: The aim of the present study is to study the serological profile of acute viral hepatitis in children and adults admitted in King George Hospital, Visakhapatnam and also age and sex distribution of patients suffering from acute viral hepatitis and also comparing the etiological profile by studying serological markers of common viral agents. SUBJECTS AND METHODS: Samples were collected from 80 individuals with jaundice and other clinical and biochemical evidences of acute viral hepatitis . They were tested for hepatitis surface antigen, HBcIgM, HAVIgM, HEVIgM, Antibodies to HCV by the enzyme - linked immuno sorbent assay. RESULTS: Out of the 80 viral hepatitis cases (47 adults+33 children. In adults 20(42.5% patients presented HBV (26.96% was identified as the most common cause of acute hepatitis followed by HEV14 (29.8%, HEV+HAV4 (8.5% and HAV 6(12.76%. Co - infections with more than one virus were present in 5cases; HAV - HEV co - infection being the most common. In children 16(48.5% presented with HAV, HAV+HEV11 (33.3%, HEV4 (12.12%, HBV1 (3.03% CONCLUSIONS: Vaccination of adults against hepatitis B is indicated, along with sexual education to decrease the incidence of hepatitis which is found as common etiological agent in adults. The incidence of HAV and HEV in children shows that there is need for improvement in sanitation and food habits.

  12. [Associated infections in acute bronchopulmonary infections in children].

    Lykova, E A; Vorob'ev, A A; Bokovoĭ, A G; Karazhas, N V; Evseeva, L F

    2003-01-01

    A total of 189 children with bacterial complications of the acute respiratory viral infection (ARVI)--primarily with pneumonia and bronchitis--were dynamically examined for typical and atypical pneumotropic causative agents of the infection process (Mycoplasma pneumoniae, Chlamydia spp., Streptococcus pneumoniae, Haemophilus influenzae, Pneumocystis carini, and Citomegalovirus). A high frequency rate of the associative infection involving mycoplasmas and pneumocysts was registered (45-50%); it was lower in the cases involving Chlamydias, hemophilic bacteria, pneumococcus, and cytomegalovirus--up to 25-30%. No sharp difference was found between the indices of an infection degree and those of an active clinical infectious process involving the same pneumotropic agent: the biggest difference was observed in Chlamydia infections (9.4%) and the lowest one--in mycoplasma infections (3%). A dynamic comparison of different classes of immunoglobulins revealed that, in acute bronchitis and pneumonias, the Chlamydia and cytomegalovirus infections are, primarily, of the persistent nature; the hemophilic and pneumocystic infections are of a mixed nature; and the pneumococcus one is of the acute nature. The Mycoplasma infection, which is more often encountered in pre-school children, is of the primary type with a trend towards a prolonged clinical course. All pneumonias had a typical clinical course; the clinical picture was compared in 128 patients with the etiological factor (including a description of characteristic symptoms). PMID:12861708

  13. Nanostructures for the Inhibition of Viral Infections

    Sabine Szunerits

    2015-08-01

    Full Text Available Multivalent interactions are omnipresent in biology and confer biological systems with dramatically enhanced affinities towards different receptors. Such multivalent binding interactions have lately been considered for the development of new therapeutic strategies against bacterial and viral infections. Multivalent polymers, dendrimers, and liposomes have successfully targeted pathogenic interactions. While a high synthetic effort was often needed for the development of such therapeutics, the integration of multiple ligands onto nanostructures turned to be a viable alternative. Particles modified with multiple ligands have the additional advantage of creating a high local concentration of binding molecules. This review article will summarize the different nanoparticle-based approaches currently available for the treatment of viral infections.

  14. Viral respiratory infections : Diagnosis and epidemiology

    Rotzén Östlund, Maria

    2008-01-01

    Background. Respiratory viral infections are common causes of human morbidity and mortality in children as well as in adults. Adenovirus, influenza virus, parainfluenza virus and respiratory syncytial virus (RSV) have been recognized for many years. During recent years two main events have influenced both the diagnosis and our knowledge of respiratory virus epidemiology: (1) Five new viruses have been described; (2) the use of molecular methods for the diagnosis of respirato...

  15. Constraints on Viral Evolution during Chronic Hepatitis C Virus Infection Arising from a Common-Source Exposure

    Bailey, Justin R.; Laskey, Sarah; Wasilewski, Lisa N.; Munshaw, Supriya; Liam J. Fanning; Kenny-Walsh, Elizabeth; Ray, Stuart C.

    2012-01-01

    Extraordinary viral sequence diversity and rapid viral genetic evolution are hallmarks of hepatitis C virus (HCV) infection. Viral sequence evolution has previously been shown to mediate escape from cytotoxic T-lymphocyte (CTL) and neutralizing antibody responses in acute HCV infection. HCV evolution continues during chronic infection, but the pressures driving these changes are poorly defined. We analyzed plasma virus sequence evolution in 5.2-kb hemigenomes from multiple longitudinal time p...

  16. Pregnancy and sexually transmitted viral infections

    Singhal P

    2009-01-01

    Full Text Available Viral infections in pregnancy are a major cause of morbidity and mortality for both mother and fetus. Viral STIs occur as surface infection and then gradually infect immunologically protected sites. Therefore, these are asymptomatic, hidden and hence underdiagnosed, persistent and difficult to treat. HSV, HPV, HBV, HIV and CMV (cytomegalovirus are the common ones. Most of these are transmitted during intrapartum period. Proper screening, identification and treatment offered during prenatal period may help in preventing their complications. Twenty five percent of women with a history of genital herpes have an outbreak at some point during the last month of pregnancy. Acyclovir is the accepted efficacious and safe therapy for HSV in pregnancy. Globally, HPV infection is the most common sexually transmitted infection. Neonatal transmission can occur in the absence of clinically evident lesions. HPV 6 or 11 may lead to Juvenile Onset Recurrent Respiratory Papillomatosis (JORRP. TCA, liquid nitrogen, laser ablation or electrocautery can be used to treat external genital HPV lesions at any time during pregnancy. Cesarean section is recommended only if the lesions are obstructing the birth canal. Mother to child transmission (MTCT in HIV accounts for 15-30% during pregnancy and delivery, and a further 5-20% of transmission occurs through breastfeeding. HBV infection during pregnancy does not alter the natural course of the disease. In women who are seropositive for both HBsAg and HBeAg, vertical transmission is approximately 90%. Pregnancy is not a contraindication for HBV vaccination. Cytomegalovirus (CMV is the most common intrauterine infection. Cytomegalic inclusion disease (CID is the most severe form of congenital CMV infection. Treatment is supportive.

  17. Respiratory viral infections in infants:causes, clinical symptoms, virology, and immunology

    Tregoning, John S; Schwarze, Jürgen

    2010-01-01

    In global terms, respiratory viral infection is a major cause of morbidity and mortality. Infancy, in particular, is a time of increased disease susceptibility and severity. Early-life viral infection causes acute illness and can be associated with the development of wheezing and asthma in later life. The most commonly detected viruses are respiratory syncytial virus (RSV), rhinovirus (RV), and influenza virus. In this review we explore the complete picture from epidemiology and virology to c...

  18. The role of viral etiology in the development of acute gastroenteritis in children in Uzbekistan

    JURAEV RIVOJIDDIN

    2016-01-01

    To achieve the objectives prospective epidemiological study was organized, which included a study of children under 5 years of age (from 0 to 59 months) admitted with a diagnosis of acute gastroenteritis in the Department of intestinal infections of Research Institute Virology in the period from January 1, 2013 to January 31, 2014. The study shows a significant prevalence of viral infection of bacterial infection that necessitates a change to the approach in the treatment of gastroenteritis. ...

  19. A review of hepatitis viral infections in Pakistan

    A review of published literature on viral hepatitis infections in Pakistan is presented. A total of 220 abstracts available in the Pakmedinet and Medline have been searched. All relevant articles were reviewed to determine the prevalence of hepatitis viral infections in Pakistan. Two hundred and three (203) relevant articles/abstracts including twenty nine supporting references are included in this review. Of the articles on prevalence of hepatitis infection, seven were related to Hepatitis A, fifteen to Hepatitis E while the remaining articles were on frequency of hepatitis B and C in different disease and healthy population groups. These included eight studies on healthy children, three on vertical transmission, nineteen on pregnant women, fifteen on healthy individuals, six on army recruits, thirty one on blood donors, thirteen on health care workers, five on unsafe injections, seventeen on high risk groups, five on patients with provisional diagnosis of hepatitis, thirty three on patients with chronic liver disease, four on genotypes of HBV and five on genotypes of HCV. This review highlights the lack of community-based epidemiological work as the number of subjects studied were predominantly patients, high risk groups and healthy blood donors. High level of Hepatitis A seroconversion was found in children and this viral infection accounts for almost 50%- 60% of all cases of acute viral hepatitis in children in Pakistan. Hepatitis E is endemic in the country affecting mostly the adult population and epidemic situations have been reported from many parts of the country. The mean results of HBsAg and Anti-HCV prevalence on the basis of data aggregated from several studies was calculated which shows 2.3% and 2.5% prevalence of HBsAg and Anti-HCV in children, 2.5% and 5.2% among pregnant women, 2.6% and 5.3% in general population, 3.5% and 3.1% in army recruits, 2.4% and 3.6% in blood donors, 6.0% and 5.4% in health care workers, 13.0% and 10.3% in high risk groups

  20. Phylodynamic analysis of a viral infection network

    TeiichiroShiino

    2012-07-01

    Full Text Available Viral infections by sexual and droplet transmission routes typically spread through a complex host-to-host contact network. Clarifying the transmission network and epidemiological parameters affecting the variations and dynamics of a specific pathogen is a major issue in the control of infectious diseases. However, conventional methods such as interview and/or classical phylogenetic analysis of viral gene sequences have inherent limitations and often fail to detect infectious clusters and transmission connections. Recent improvements in computational environments now permit the analysis of large datasets. In addition, novel analytical methods have been developed that serve to infer the evolutionary dynamics of virus genetic diversity using sample date information and sequence data. This type of framework, termed “phylodynamics”, helps connect some of the missing links on viral transmission networks, which are often hard to detect by conventional methods of epidemiology. With sufficient number of sequences available, one can use this new inference method to estimate theoretical epidemiological parameters such as temporal distributions of the primary infection, fluctuation of the pathogen population size, basic reproductive number, and the mean time span of disease infectiousness. Transmission networks estimated by this framework often have the properties of a scale-free network, which are characteristic of infectious and social communication processes. Network analysis based on phylodynamics has alluded to various suggestions concerning the infection dynamics associated with a given community and/or risk behavior. In this review, I will summarize the current methods available for identifying the transmission network using phylogeny, and present an argument on the possibilities of applying the scale-free properties to these existing frameworks.

  1. Metagenomic detection of viral pathogens in Spanish honeybees: co-infection by Aphid Lethal Paralysis, Israel Acute Paralysis and Lake Sinai Viruses.

    Fredrik Granberg

    Full Text Available The situation in Europe concerning honeybees has in recent years become increasingly aggravated with steady decline in populations and/or catastrophic winter losses. This has largely been attributed to the occurrence of a variety of known and "unknown", emerging novel diseases. Previous studies have demonstrated that colonies often can harbour more than one pathogen, making identification of etiological agents with classical methods difficult. By employing an unbiased metagenomic approach, which allows the detection of both unexpected and previously unknown infectious agents, the detection of three viruses, Aphid Lethal Paralysis Virus (ALPV, Israel Acute Paralysis Virus (IAPV, and Lake Sinai Virus (LSV, in honeybees from Spain is reported in this article. The existence of a subgroup of ALPV with the ability to infect bees was only recently reported and this is the first identification of such a strain in Europe. Similarly, LSV appear to be a still unclassified group of viruses with unclear impact on colony health and these viruses have not previously been identified outside of the United States. Furthermore, our study also reveals that these bees carried a plant virus, Turnip Ringspot Virus (TuRSV, potentially serving as important vector organisms. Taken together, these results demonstrate the new possibilities opened up by high-throughput sequencing and metagenomic analysis to study emerging new diseases in domestic and wild animal populations, including honeybees.

  2. STUDY OF PERSISTENT VIRAL INFECTION IN AN ANIMAL MODEL OF VIRAL MYOCARDITIS BY PCR

    马睿; 陈曙霞; 刘晶星

    2000-01-01

    ffeStnn6 Objectif Etudier ie r6le de l'infection virale persistante dans ie pethog4de de la myOCardite virale.ANt~ L' ARN viral dens ie my~rde et ie mug et l' alteration potholedque du m~rde ent ate ewilnd per la techniquede PCR adns un mangle de myrmrdite virale chez ies ~ris. Rhaltats L 'ARN viral a ate detects an 3'jour dens ie mug etie myrmrde. An 8'jour, I 'ARN viral an niveau du mug a ate pertiellement dewnu then f lorsque l' alteration pethologiquedu myocarde a atteint un maximum. he 12'jour, L' ARN ...

  3. Regulatory T cells control diabetes without compromising acute anti-viral defense☆

    Sachithanantham, Sowbarnika; Dave, Amy; Rodriguez-Calvo, Teresa; Miller, Jacqueline; von Herrath, Matthias

    2016-01-01

    While previous reports have demonstrated the efficacy of regulatory T cell therapy in the prevention of diabetes, systemic immunocompromise and Treg instability remain key safety concerns. Here we examined the influence of induced Treg (iTreg) cell therapy on anti-viral host defense and autoimmune T cell responses during acute viral infection in a murine model of autoimmune diabetes. Protective transfers of iTregs maintained IL-10 expression, and expanded in vivo and controlled diabetes, despite losing FoxP3 expression. Adoptive transfer of iTregs affected neither the primary anti-viral CD8 T cell response nor viral clearance, although a significant and sustained suppression of CD4 T cell responses was observed. Following acute viral clearance, iTregs transferred early suppressed both CD4 and CD8 T cell responses, which resulted in the reversion of diabetes. These observations indicate that iTregs suppress local autoimmune processes while preserving the immunocompetent host's ability to combat acute viral infection. PMID:24858581

  4. Reverse Genetics for Fusogenic Bat-Borne Orthoreovirus Associated with Acute Respiratory Tract Infections in Humans: Role of Outer Capsid Protein σC in Viral Replication and Pathogenesis.

    Kawagishi, Takahiro; Kanai, Yuta; Tani, Hideki; Shimojima, Masayuki; Saijo, Masayuki; Matsuura, Yoshiharu; Kobayashi, Takeshi

    2016-02-01

    Nelson Bay orthoreoviruses (NBVs) are members of the fusogenic orthoreoviruses and possess 10-segmented double-stranded RNA genomes. NBV was first isolated from a fruit bat in Australia more than 40 years ago, but it was not associated with any disease. However, several NBV strains have been recently identified as causative agents for respiratory tract infections in humans. Isolation of these pathogenic bat reoviruses from patients suggests that NBVs have evolved to propagate in humans in the form of zoonosis. To date, no strategy has been developed to rescue infectious viruses from cloned cDNA for any member of the fusogenic orthoreoviruses. In this study, we report the development of a plasmid-based reverse genetics system free of helper viruses and independent of any selection for NBV isolated from humans with acute respiratory infection. cDNAs corresponding to each of the 10 full-length RNA gene segments of NBV were cotransfected into culture cells expressing T7 RNA polymerase, and viable NBV was isolated using a plaque assay. The growth kinetics and cell-to-cell fusion activity of recombinant strains, rescued using the reverse genetics system, were indistinguishable from those of native strains. We used the reverse genetics system to generate viruses deficient in the cell attachment protein σC to define the biological function of this protein in the viral life cycle. Our results with σC-deficient viruses demonstrated that σC is dispensable for cell attachment in several cell lines, including murine fibroblast L929 cells but not in human lung epithelial A549 cells, and plays a critical role in viral pathogenesis. We also used the system to rescue a virus that expresses a yellow fluorescent protein. The reverse genetics system developed in this study can be applied to study the propagation and pathogenesis of pathogenic NBVs and in the generation of recombinant NBVs for future vaccines and therapeutics. PMID:26901882

  5. Analysis of viral etiology of 254 acute respiratory infection cases%254例急性呼吸道感染病例病原学调查分析

    杨霄星; 杨军勇; 王世斌; 董晓根; 王建芳; 李婧宇; 张建军; 赵建忠

    2013-01-01

    目的 分析急性呼吸道感染病例的病毒病原构成,掌握主要病原体活动水平及变化规律,了解丰台地区急性呼吸道感染病原谱.方法 以2010-2012年成人急性呼吸道感染病例为研究对象,收集病例基础信息,采集鼻咽拭子标本,使用多重PCR及RT-PCR对流感病毒、呼吸道合胞病毒、腺病毒、副流感病毒、偏肺病毒、冠状病毒、鼻病毒、博卡病毒和肺炎支原体等9种病原进行检测,数据分析使用SPSS 17.0软件.结果 254例标本中154例检测阳性,阳性率为60.63%,男女阳性检出率无统计学差异.冬春季致病病原体以流感病毒、副流感病毒及支原体为主,夏季仅检出副流感和支原体.流感样病例的主要病原体为流感病毒及副流感病毒;肺炎病例致病病原体主要为肺炎支原体.2010-2011年流感流行季甲型流感病毒为优势病原,2011-2012年流感流行季乙型流感病毒为优势病原.结论 2010-2012年间,北京丰台地区引起成人急性呼吸道感染的主要病原为流感病毒、支原体和副流感病毒.不同季节的优势病原不同.%Objective To analyze the viral etiology of acute respiratow infection,and to study the activity and epidemiological characteristic of main pathogens,so as to establish pathogen spectrum of acute respiratory infection in Fengtai district of Beijing.Methods Basic information and throat swabs of acute respiratory infection cases during 2010-2012 were collected.Influenza virus,respiratory syncytial virus,adenovirus,parainfluenza virus,metapneumovirus,coronavirus,rhinovirus,human Boca virus and mycoplasma pneumonia were detected by multiplex PCR and RT-PCR.SPSS 17.0 was used for data analysis.Results 154 were positive in all of the 254 samples,the positive ratio was 60.63%.Influenza viruses,parainfluenza virus and mycoplasma pneumoniae were the most frequently detected pathogens in winter and spring.Parainfluenza and mycoplasma were the only detected

  6. T Cell Memory in the Context of Persistent Herpes Viral Infections

    Nicole Torti

    2012-07-01

    Full Text Available The generation of a functional memory T cell pool upon primary encounter with an infectious pathogen is, in combination with humoral immunity, an essential process to confer protective immunity against reencounters with the same pathogen. A prerequisite for the generation and maintenance of long-lived memory T cells is the clearance of antigen after infection, which is fulfilled upon resolution of acute viral infections. Memory T cells play also a fundamental role during persistent viral infections by contributing to relative control and immuosurveillance of active replication or viral reactivation, respectively. However, the dynamics, the phenotype, the mechanisms of maintenance and the functionality of memory T cells which develop upon acute/resolved infection as opposed to chronic/latent infection differ substantially. In this review we summarize current knowledge about memory CD8 T cell responses elicited during α-, β-, and γ-herpes viral infections with major emphasis on the induction, maintenance and function of virus-specific memory CD8 T cells during viral latency and we discuss how the peculiar features of these memory CD8 T cell responses are related to the biology of these persistently infecting viruses.

  7. RT-PCR em pools de soros sangüíneos para o diagnóstico da infecção aguda e de animais persistentemente infectados pelo vírus da diarréia viral bovina RT-PCR in pools of bovine blood serum to detect acute infection and persistently infected animals with bovine viral diarrhea virus

    D. Pilz

    2007-02-01

    of serum from groups D and H resulted in positive reactions in serum samples from 11 cows and 12 calves. For the identification of persistently infected (PI animals, three months after the first examination, blood serum samples from 23 positive animals were reevaluated by RT-PCR, resulting in five positive calves. In two of these calves the BVDV was isolated in MDBK cell culture. The specificity of RT-PCR amplicons from one cow with acute infection, one PI calf, and two wild type BVDV strains isolated in cell culture were confirmed by nucleotide sequencing. The use of RT-PCR in pools of blood sera proved to be a quick and low cost strategy for the etiological diagnosis of the acute infection as well as to detect PI animals thereby favoring the implementation of control and prophylaxis measures.

  8. Effects of cannabinoids and their receptors on viral infections.

    Tahamtan, Alireza; Tavakoli-Yaraki, Masoumeh; Rygiel, Tomasz P; Mokhtari-Azad, Talat; Salimi, Vahid

    2016-01-01

    Cannabinoids, the active ingredient in marijuana, and their derivatives have received remarkable attention in the last two decades because they can affect tumor growth and metastasis. There is a large body of evidence from in vivo and in vitro models showing that cannabinoids and their receptors influence the immune system, viral pathogenesis, and viral replication. The present study reviews current insights into the role of cannabinoids and their receptors on viral infections. The results reported here indicate that cannabinoids and their receptors have different sequels for viral infection. Although activation or inhibition of cannabinoid receptors in the majority of viral infections are proper targets for development of safe and effective treatments, caution is required before using pharmaceutical cannabinoids as a treatment agent for patients with viral infections. PMID:26059175

  9. The Contribution of Infections with Bovine Viral Diarrhea Viruses to Bovine Respiratory Disease

    The contribution of bovine viral diarrhea viruses (BVDV) to the development of bovine respiratory disease is the sum of a number of different factors. These factors include the contribution of acute uncomplicated BVDV infections, the high incidence of respiratory disease in animals persistently inf...

  10. Clinical disease severity of respiratory viral co-infection versus single viral infection: a systematic review and meta-analysis.

    Sandra A Asner

    Full Text Available Results from cohort studies evaluating the severity of respiratory viral co-infections are conflicting. We conducted a systematic review and meta-analysis to assess the clinical severity of viral co-infections as compared to single viral respiratory infections.We searched electronic databases and other sources for studies published up to January 28, 2013. We included observational studies on inpatients with respiratory illnesses comparing the clinical severity of viral co-infections to single viral infections as detected by molecular assays. The primary outcome reflecting clinical disease severity was length of hospital stay (LOS. A random-effects model was used to conduct the meta-analyses.Twenty-one studies involving 4,280 patients were included. The overall quality of evidence applying the GRADE approach ranged from moderate for oxygen requirements to low for all other outcomes. No significant differences in length of hospital stay (LOS (mean difference (MD -0.20 days, 95% CI -0.94, 0.53, p = 0.59, or mortality (RR 2.44, 95% CI 0.86, 6.91, p = 0.09 were documented in subjects with viral co-infections compared to those with a single viral infection. There was no evidence for differences in effects across age subgroups in post hoc analyses with the exception of the higher mortality in preschool children (RR 9.82, 95% CI 3.09, 31.20, p<0.001 with viral co-infection as compared to other age groups (I2 for subgroup analysis 64%, p = 0.04.No differences in clinical disease severity between viral co-infections and single respiratory infections were documented. The suggested increased risk of mortality observed amongst children with viral co-infections requires further investigation.

  11. Genetic vaccination against acute viral disease

    Fleeton, Marina N

    1999-01-01

    This thesis describes the development of recombinant vaccines based on the Semliki Forest virus (SFV) expression system. Immunisation of mice with recombinant virus particles, a layered DNA/RNA plasmid vector, and recombinant self-replicating RNA were carried out and the protective effect of these recombinant vaccines against viral challenge were examined. The construction of a full-length infectious clone formed the basis for the SFV expression system which has previous...

  12. Hepadnavirus infection of peripheral blood lymphocytes in vivo: woodchuck and chimpanzee models of viral hepatitis.

    Korba, B E; Wells, F; Tennant, B C; Yoakum, G H; Purcell, R H; Gerin, J L

    1986-01-01

    The peripheral blood lymphocytes (PBL) of five hepatitis B virus (HBV)-infected chimpanzees and 17 woodchuck hepatitis virus (WHV)-infected woodchucks were examined for the presence of viral DNA and RNA. HBV DNA was detected in the PBL of three of three chronically infected chimpanzees but in neither of two animals with acute HBV infection. WHV DNA was found in the PBL of 11 of 13 chronically infected woodchucks and in the PBL and bone marrow of 1 of 4 woodchucks with antibody to WHV surface ...

  13. Induction and Function of IFNβ During Viral and Bacterial Infection

    Nagarajan, Uma M.

    2011-01-01

    Since the discovery of the protein “interferon” over 50 years ago, IFNβ, an antiviral cytokine has been well studied. In particular the pathways inducing this cytokine during viral infection have been characterized, leading to the discovery of multitude of pattern recognition receptors. IFNβ is also induced during bacterial infection, following recognition of bacterial ligands by the host viral and DNA sensors. However, the function of IFNβ during bacterial infection is variable and -sometime...

  14. Acute encephalitis syndrome following scrub typhus infection

    Ayan Kar

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Objective: The aim was to find the incidence of acute encephalitis syndrome (AES secondary to scrub infection and to observe the clinical, biochemical, radiological profile, and outcomes in these patients. Materials and Methods: A total of 20 consecutive patients of AES were evaluated for scrub infection using scrub typhus immunoglobulin M enzyme linked immuno-sorbant assay positivity along with the presence or absence of an eschar. Clinical profile, routine laboratory tests, cerebrospinal fluid (CSF analysis, and neuroimaging were analyzed. Patients were treated with doxycycline and followed-up. Results: Among 20 consecutive patients with AES, 6 (30% were due to scrub infection. They presented with acute onset fever, altered sensorium, seizures. "Eschar" was seen in 50% of patients. CSF done in two of them was similar to consistent with viral meningitis. Magnetic resonance imaging brain revealed cerebral edema, bright lesions in the putamen and the thalamus on T2-weighted and fluid-attenuated inversion recovery sequences. Renal involvement was seen in all patients. All patients responded well to oral doxycycline. Conclusion: AES is not an uncommon neurological presentation following scrub typhus infection. It should be suspected in all patients with fever, altered sensorium, and renal involvement. Oral doxycycline should be started as early as possible for better outcomes.

  15. Severe acute malnutrition and infection

    Jones, Kelsey D. J.; Berkley, James A

    2014-01-01

    Severe acute malnutrition (SAM) is associated with increased severity of common infectious diseases, and death amongst children with SAM is almost always as a result of infection. The diagnosis and management of infection are often different in malnourished versus well-nourished children. The objectives of this brief are to outline the evidence underpinning important practical questions relating to the management of infectious diseases in children with SAM and to highlight research gaps. Over...

  16. Acute viral hepatitis E presenting with haemolytic anaemia and acute renal failure in a patient with glucose-6-phosphate dehydrogenase deficiency.

    Tomar, Laxmikant Ramkumarsingh; Aggarwal, Amitesh; Jain, Piyush; Rajpal, Surender; Agarwal, Mukul P

    2015-10-01

    The association of acute hepatitis E viral (HEV) infection with glucose-6-phosphate dehydrogenase (G6PD) deficiency leading to extensive intravascular haemolysis is a very rare clinical entity. Here we discuss such a patient, who presented with acute HEV illness, developed severe intravascular haemolysis and unusually high levels of bilirubin, complicated by acute renal failure (ARF), and was later on found to have a deficiency of G6PD. The patient recovered completely with haemodialysis and supportive management. PMID:25500531

  17. MicroRNAs and their role in viral infection

    MU Junjie; YAO Xue; CHEN Qimin; GENG Yunqi; QIAO Wentao

    2007-01-01

    Recently,a class of about 22 nucleotides (nt)small RNA has been discovered in many eukaryotes,termed microRNAs (miRNAs),which have a variety of functions.Many recent findings have demonstrated that viruses can also encode their own miRNAs.Meanwhile,other findings reveal a relationship between host miRNA and viral infection.These findings suggest a tight relationship between host and viral infection via miRNA pathway.This article introduces the miRNAs encoded by viruses and reviews the advances of the interaction of the mammalian host miRNAs and viral infection.

  18. Genetic change in the open reading frame of bovine viral diarrhea virus is introduced more rapidly during the establishment of a single persistent infection than by multiple acute infections

    Bovine viral diarrhea viruses (BVDV) are ubiquitous viral pathogens of cattle. There is a high degree of sequence diversity between strains circulating in livestock herds. The driving force behind change in sequence is not known but the inaccurate replication of the genomic RNA by a viral RNA polyme...

  19. Sustained CD8+ T-cell responses induced after acute parvovirus B19 infection in humans

    Norbeck, Oscar; Isa, Adiba; Pöhlmann, Christoph;

    2005-01-01

    Murine models have suggested that CD8+ T-cell responses peak early in acute viral infections and are not sustained, but no evidence for humans has been available. To address this, we longitudinally analyzed the CD8+ T-cell response to human parvovirus B19 in acutely infected individuals. We...... observed striking CD8+ T-cell responses, which were sustained or even increased over many months after the resolution of acute disease, indicating that CD8+ T cells may play a prominent role in the control of parvovirus B19 and other acute viral infections of humans, including potentially those generated...

  20. Vaccination against acute respiratory virus infections and measles in man.

    Osterhaus, Ab; Vries, Petra

    1992-01-01

    textabstractSeveral viruses may cause more or less severe acute respiratory infections in man, some of which are followed by systemic infection. Only for influenza and measles are licensed vaccines available at present. The protection induced by influenza vaccines, which are based on inactivated whole virus or viral subunits, depends largely on the matching of vaccine strain and circulating virus. Measles vaccines, which are based on attenuated live virus, have been quite effective in control...

  1. Mitochondrial dynamics and viral infections: A close nexus.

    Khan, Mohsin; Syed, Gulam Hussain; Kim, Seong-Jun; Siddiqui, Aleem

    2015-10-01

    Viruses manipulate cellular machinery and functions to subvert intracellular environment conducive for viral proliferation. They strategically alter functions of the multitasking mitochondria to influence energy production, metabolism, survival, and immune signaling. Mitochondria either occur as heterogeneous population of individual organelles or large interconnected tubular network. The mitochondrial network is highly susceptible to physiological and environmental insults, including viral infections, and is dynamically maintained by mitochondrial fission and fusion. Mitochondrial dynamics in tandem with mitochondria-selective autophagy 'mitophagy' coordinates mitochondrial quality control and homeostasis. Mitochondrial dynamics impacts cellular homeostasis, metabolism, and innate-immune signaling, and thus can be major determinant of the outcome of viral infections. Herein, we review how mitochondrial dynamics is affected during viral infections and how this complex interplay benefits the viral infectious process and associated diseases. PMID:25595529

  2. Study on the viral etiology of acute respiratory tract infections in Shanghai area during 2009-2010%2009~2010年上海地区急性呼吸道感染病毒病原谱分析

    何静; 周志统; 胡芸文; 龚燕; 张万菊; 徐磊; 刘祎; 钱方兴; 揭志军; 俞慧菊; 李杨

    2011-01-01

    调查2009~2010年上海地区人群急性呼吸道感染(ARTI)的病毒性病原,探讨2009甲型H1N1流感暴发背景下呼吸道感染病毒病原谱的构成.采用套式多重反转录-聚合酶链反应(RT- PCR)和实时荧光定量RT-PCR方法,对来自2 044例患者的2 044份标本(包括2 005份鼻咽拭子和39份肺泡灌洗液),同时检测腺病毒(ADV)、副流感病毒(PIV)、甲型流感病毒(FluA)、乙型流感病毒(FluB)、微小核糖核酸病毒、呼吸道合胞病毒(RSV)、人偏肺病毒(hMPV)、冠状病毒(CoV)和人博卡病毒(HBoV).其中,656 (32.09%)份标本经呼吸道病毒检测为阳性,52份标本为双重感染.FluA检出率最高(13.36%),其后依次为微小核糖核酸病毒(10.23%)、FluB(4.84%)、ADV(1.96%)、PIV(1.76%)、RSV(1.32%)、CoV(0.59%)、hMPV(0.39%)和HBoV(0.20%).但各月病毒检出率分布不均,2009和2010年呼吸道病毒检出率高峰出现在当年11月(53.07%和65.59%),低谷都出现在当年5月,且2009年5~9月的病毒检出率高于2010年同期(32.02% vs 15.38%,P0.05).呼吸道病毒检出率还与年龄相关,0~4岁组和5~14岁组病毒检出率高于其他年龄组.在0~4岁及≥65岁组中,微小核糖核酸病毒检出率最高,FluA次之;其余年龄组中FluA检出率最高.混合感染中15岁以下儿童占50%(26/52),微小核糖核酸病毒与其他病毒混合感染占84.62%(44/52).本研究表明,上海地区2009~2010年FluA是最常见的急性呼吸道感染病原,2009甲型H1N1流感病毒成为2009年FluA的优势亚型.微小核糖核酸病毒是混合感染中最常见的病原.结果提示,应长期监测主要呼吸道病毒的活动水平,并加强对微小核糖核酸病毒流行病学和致病性的研究.%The present paper aims to understand the viral etiology in patients with acute respiratory tract infections (ARTIs) in Shanghai area during 2009-2010 and to explore the respiratory viral spectrum under the background of 2009 A(H1N1) influenza outbreak

  3. Experimental fetal infection with bovine viral diarrhea virus. II. Morphological reactions and distribution of viral antigen.

    Ohmann, H B

    1982-01-01

    The effect of an infection with bovine viral diarrhea virus on fetal bovine tissues as well as the tissue-localization of viral antigen are described. Four bovine fetuses, 120-165 days of gestation, were inoculated in utero with a second passage virus strain. Lymphoid tissues were studied by light and electron microscopy. The infection induced precocious development of the secondary lymphoid organs. Characteristic changes were seen in postcapillary venules, cells of the mononuclear phagocyte ...

  4. 扬州地区急性散发性诺如病毒感染性腹泻的临床特点分析%Clinical Characteristics of Norovirus infection with Acute Viral Diarrhea of Yangzhou City

    张有江; 程明; 侯建国; 张晋; 徐勤

    2014-01-01

    目的:分析55例急性散发性诺如病毒性腹泻患者的流行病学特征和临床特点,为该病的防治提供科学依据。方法收集扬州市三家哨点医院2013年1月~12月门诊腹泻患者大便标本513份,分析临床资料,同时用 RT-PCR方法检测诺如病毒。结果诺如病毒阳性者55例,阳性率10.7%。感染者的年龄与未感染诺如病毒患者比较差异有统计学意义(χ2=4.27,P<0.05),而性别、职业、是否为食源性疾病与未感染诺如病毒患者比较差异无统计学意义(χ2=0.086~3.21,P值均>0.05)。临床症状的发生诺如病毒感染者更易出现发热(χ2=4.6,P<0.05),而其他症状如腹泻次数(≥5次/天)、腹痛、恶心、呕吐等与未感染诺如病毒患者比较差异无统计学意义(χ2=0.139~3.636,P值均>0.05)。结论诺如病毒是急性腹泻的常见病原体,发病率较高,单凭临床症状很难与其他腹泻相鉴别,需通过病原学诊断确诊。%Objective To investigate the clinical and epidemiological characteristics in 55 patients with Acute Viral Diarrhea caused by Norovirus.And provide basis for preventing and controlling the spread of the disease.Methods A total of 5 1 3 fe-cal samples of diarrhea cases from 3 surveillance hospitals in 2013 from January to December were collected,analyzed the clinical date and detected Norovirus useing RT-PCR.Results The number of Norovirus positive was 55,positive rate was 10.7%.There were significant differences between Norovirus infection and not infected patients for age (χ2=4.27,P0.05).The clinical symptoms of acute gastroenteritis pa-tients caused by Norovirus infection was fever (χ2=4.6,P0.05).Conclusion Norovirus is common pathogens of a-cute diarrhoea,which incidence is higher.Clinical symptoms alone is difficult to differentiate with other diarrheaphases.The confirmed diagnosis is depended on the etiology.

  5. Respiratory viral infections in children with asthma: do they matter and can we prevent them?

    Ahanchian Hamid

    2012-09-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Asthma is a major public health problem with a huge social and economic burden affecting 300 million people worldwide. Viral respiratory infections are the major cause of acute asthma exacerbations and may contribute to asthma inception in high risk young children with susceptible genetic background. Acute exacerbations are associated with decreased lung growth or accelerated loss of lung function and, as such, add substantially to both the cost and morbidity associated with asthma. Discussion While the importance of preventing viral infection is well established, preventive strategies have not been well explored. Good personal hygiene, hand-washing and avoidance of cigarette smoke are likely to reduce respiratory viral infections. Eating a healthy balanced diet, active probiotic supplements and bacterial-derived products, such as OM-85, may reduce recurrent infections in susceptible children. There are no practical anti-viral therapies currently available that are suitable for widespread use. Summary Hand hygiene is the best measure to prevent the common cold. A healthy balanced diet, active probiotic supplements and immunostimulant OM-85 may reduce recurrent infections in asthmatic children.

  6. Viral Hepatitis

    ... Hepatitis viruses B and C can cause both acute and chronic infections. Chronic hepatitis B and C are serious health problems. They can lead to: Cirrhosis (suh-ROH-suhs) Liver failure Liver cancer Return to top How is viral ...

  7. Sonographic changes of liver and gallbladder in acute viral hepatitis

    Ebrahimi Daryani N

    2001-07-01

    Full Text Available Hepatomegaly, decrease in the liver paranchymal echo and increase in the gallbladder wall thickness has been shown in acute viral hepatitis. The present study was done to determine sonographic changes in acute viral hepatitis. We performed liver and bile ducts sonography and specific tests on 42 patients (mean age: 31.5 and 61% male with acute viral hepatitis. Gallbladder wall thickness was seen in 45.2% and hepatomegaly in 33.3% of patients and liver paranchymal echo was decreased in 19.3%. Age, sex, type of hepatitis, cholecystitis like symptoms, aspartate aminotransfrase, alanine aminotransfrase, alkaline phosphatase and bilirubin did not significantly corralate with these changes. Only raised prothrombin time was strongly correlated to the thickening of the gallbladder and decrease in the liver paranchymal echo and cholesistic like symptoms we can postulate that thickening of the gallbladder and decrease in the liver paranchymal echo is not dependent on the severity and speed of the paranchymal necrosis (as considered with ALT and AST but they depend on the liver function disturbance (as considered with PT because the thickening of the gall bladder is present in 45% of the patients and 10% of the normal population have gallbladder stones, one should not perform the diagnosis of acute cholecystitis, only on the basis of sonographic report without attention to the clinical and laboratory data.

  8. A case of acute viral hepatitis interfering with acute fatty liver disease of pregnancy

    Abdulkadir Turgut

    2013-03-01

    Full Text Available Acute hepatitis A is a rarely seen infection during pregnancy.In terms of clinical and laboratory findings, it can beinterfere with acute fatty liver disease which can be quitemortal during pregnancy. Since liver function tests are elevatedin both conditions, hepatitis A infection should alsobe kept in mind in differential diagnosis. We present a 30year-old pregnant woman with 35 weeks of gestation whopresented to our clinic with a suspection of acute fattyliver disease but finally diagnosed as acute hepatitis A infection.J Clin Exp Invest 2013; 4 (1: 123-125Key words: Hepatitis A, pregnancy, acute fatty liver disease

  9. The Ins and Outs of Viral Infection: Keystone Meeting Review

    Sara W. Bird

    2014-09-01

    Full Text Available Newly observed mechanisms for viral entry, assembly, and exit are challenging our current understanding of the replication cycle of different viruses. To address and better understand these mechanisms, a Keystone Symposium was organized in the snowy mountains of Colorado (“The Ins and Outs of Viral Infection: Entry, Assembly, Exit, and Spread”; 30 March–4 April 2014, Beaver Run Resort, Breckenridge, Colorado, organized by Karla Kirkegaard, Mavis Agbandje-McKenna, and Eric O. Freed. The meeting served to bring together cell biologists, structural biologists, geneticists, and scientists expert in viral pathogenesis to discuss emerging mechanisms of viral ins and outs. The conference was organized around different phases of the viral replication cycle, including cell entry, viral assembly and post-assembly maturation, virus structure, cell exit, and virus spread. This review aims to highlight important topics and themes that emerged during the conference.

  10. The role of viral agents in aetiopathogenesis of acute rheumatic fever.

    Olgunturk, Rana; Okur, Ilyas; Cirak, Meltem Y; Oguz, Ayse Deniz; Akalin, Nursel; Turet, Sevgi; Tunaoglu, Sedef

    2011-01-01

    The reason why abnormal immune response exists in acute rheumatic fever is not exactly explained. The influence of co-pathogens like certain viruses were mentioned regarding the initiation of the immunological reaction in acute rheumatic fever patients by several authors since 1970. This study was designed to find the role or effect of some viral infections in the development of rheumatic fever. In this study, 47 cases with acute rheumatic fever (acute rheumatic arthritis, acute rheumatic carditis, and chorea), 20 cases with chronic rheumatic fever, 20 cases with streptococcal pharyngitis, and 20 healthy age- and gender-matched control cases were involved. Serological and molecular tests were made including hepatitis B virus, hepatitis C virus, rubella virus, herpes simplex virus (HSV group 1), and Epstein-Barr virus (EBV). HBsAg, rubella IgM and EBV IgM positivity were not seen in any of patients with rheumatic fever. Although antiHBs seropositivity was higher in the control group, it was not statistically significant (p > 0.05). There was no difference in rubella IgG, HSV IgM seropositivity, either (p > 0.05). EBV DNA was searched by the polymerase chain reaction technique; due to the latent nature of the virus, no significant difference was found between the control group and the other groups (p > 0.05). In this study, no positive correlation could be found to support the synergism theories regarding the streptoccocus infection and viral infections in the development of acute rheumatic fever. Only EBV DNA positivity was found in all acute rheumatic fever cases but not in the control group may lead to further studies with larger series of patients. PMID:20401762

  11. Evaluation of the results of acute viral gastroenteritis data in Refik Saydam National Public Health Agency, Virology Reference and Research Laboratory in 2009

    Nurhan ALBAYRAK

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available Objective: Norovirus, Rotavirus, Adenovirus and Astrovirus are responsible for most non-bacterial acute gastroenteritis. The incidence of these viral agents in Turkey is not well known. In this study, it was aimed to document the viral etiology of the stool samples which were send to Refik Saydam National Public Health Agency (RSNPHA, Virology Reference and Research Laboratory for investigation of viral acute gastroenteritis agents. Method: A total of 147 stool samples from 11 different provinces were send to the Virology Laboratory for Reference and Research of RSNPHA in 2009. Samples were collected from patients admitted because of acute gastroenteritis and from the cases with the signs of illness at different times of the year and sent by the Provincial Health Directorates to our laboratory. The samples were examined in the laboratory using the commercial multiplex real-time PCR kit for norovirus genotype I, norovirus genotype II, rotavirus, adenovirus and astrovirus. Results: 65 (44.2 % samples were found to be positive at least for one viral agent and 10 (6.8 % samples for more than one viral agent. Norovirus (particularly genotype II infections were detected as the most prevalent viral agent in acute gastroenteritis patients in this period. Rotavirus infections were determined as the second most common infection after norovirus infections. Adenovirus infections have been found to be the least prevalent agent in the laboratory. Conclusion: Results of this study showed that norovirus genotype II has been more commonly responsible for acute diarrhea than the other viral pathogens. The viral agents we have studied should be considered as pathogens that can be seen in all seasons. Viral factors should not be underestimated as the cause of acute gastroenteritis; additionally it should be noted that acute gastroenteritis could be caused by coinfection of viral agents.

  12. Epidemiological features of acute lower respiratory tract viral infections in children%儿童急性下呼吸道病毒感染的临床流行特征

    张冰; 王晓; 张微; 陈旭央

    2012-01-01

    To investigate the epidemiological features of acute lower respiratory tract viral infections in chil-dren.MethodsA retrospective epidemiological investigation was conducted to analyze the prevalence rate, seasonality andsusceptible population of seven common respiratory viruses among 4355 hospitalized pediatric patients (<15 y) with acute respiratory tract infection during 2006 to 2010. Nasopharyngeal aspirates were screened for virus by direct immunofluorescent (DIF) assay.ResultsVirus was identified in 1093 out of 4355 patients (25.1%); RSV accounted for 17.6%, followed by PIV-3 (2.7%),ADV( 2%), IV-A( 1.3%), PIV-1 (0.7%), PIV-2(0.3%), IV-B(0.2% )and mixed( 0.3%). The median ages of infected pediatric patients were 4 months for RSV, 9 months for PIV-3, 13 months for ADV, 11 months for PIV-1 and 13.5 months for IV, respectively ( X2= 46.186, P<0.01 ).The infants and younger children were more susceptible for developing RSV and PIV-3 related disease, and RSV often occurred in winter and spring. The prevalence of viral infection in children with bronchiolitis,bronchitis,pneumonia and asthma were 64.5%, 15.6%, 17.6% and 31.7%, respectively.ConclusionThe respiratory viruses are still a main cause oflower respiratory tract infections in children, especially in infants and younger children. RSV remains the main pathogen of bronchiolitis.%目的 了解小儿急性病毒性下呼吸道感染的流行特征.方法 回顾性分析2006 至2010 年住院的急性下呼吸道感染儿童鼻咽吸取物4种7型常见呼吸道病毒的检出情况以及季节和年龄分布特点.直接免疫荧光法检测病毒.结果 4 355例患儿中有1 093例病毒检测阳性,总阳性率25.1%,其中呼吸道合胞病毒(RSV)阳性率17.6%,副流感病毒(PIV)-3 为2.7%,腺病毒(ADV)为2.0%,流感病毒(IV)-A1.3%,PIV-1 为0.7%,PIV-2 为0.3%,IV-B 为0.2%,混合感染0.3%.病毒感染患儿年龄中位数RSV 为4个月,PIV-3 为9个月,ADV 为13 个月,PIV-1 为11 个月,IV 为13.5 个

  13. Acute pancreatitis: Manifestation of acute HIV infection in an adolescent

    Bitar, Anas; Altaf, Muhammad; Sferra, Thomas J.

    2012-01-01

    Summary Background: Pancreatitis in the pediatric age group is not as common as in adults. Etiologies are various and differ from those in adults. Although infectious etiology accounts for a significant number of cases of pancreatitis, acute infection with Human Immunodeficiency Virus (HIV) was rarely reported as a possible etiology for acute pancreatitis in adults. Acute pancreatitis has never been reported as a presenting manifestation of acute HIV infection in children. Case Report: We des...

  14. Myriad presentations of a common viral infection

    In most of the patients Primary EBV infection occurs in childhood as subclinical illness or mild symptomatic disease. In adults EBV infection is almost always a secondary infection due to reactivation of EBV, seen in immunocom-promised patients. In third world countries like Pakistan most of the individuals are exposed to EBV infection in childhood and primary EBV infection in adults is rare. EBV is the primary agent of infectious mononucleosis (IM). We present a patient found to have primary complicated EBV infection in adulthood thus emphasizing that although rare, primary EBV can present in adulthood. Infectious mononucleosis should be suspected in any patient with pharyngitis, posterior cervical lymphadenopathy and splenomegaly.

  15. Redox Imbalance and Viral Infections in Neurodegenerative Diseases

    Dolores Limongi

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Reactive oxygen species (ROS are essential molecules for many physiological functions and act as second messengers in a large variety of tissues. An imbalance in the production and elimination of ROS is associated with human diseases including neurodegenerative disorders. In the last years the notion that neurodegenerative diseases are accompanied by chronic viral infections, which may result in an increase of neurodegenerative diseases progression, emerged. It is known in literature that enhanced viral infection risk, observed during neurodegeneration, is partly due to the increase of ROS accumulation in brain cells. However, the molecular mechanisms of viral infection, occurring during the progression of neurodegeneration, remain unclear. In this review, we discuss the recent knowledge regarding the role of influenza, herpes simplex virus type-1, and retroviruses infection in ROS/RNS-mediated Parkinson’s disease (PD, Alzheimer’s disease (AD, and amyotrophic lateral sclerosis (ALS.

  16. Pituitary-testicular interrelationships in mumps orchitis and other viral infections

    Leydig-cell function was assessed in 27 men with acute mumps orchitis by measuring plasma testosterone concentrations before and after the administration of human chorionic gonadotrophin (HCG). The test was also performed on groups of patients with other febrile viral infections and mumps without orchitis and on healthy euspermic men. The concentrations both before and after HCG were significantly lower in patients in the acute phase of mumps - but not in those with other viral infections and mumps without orchitis - than in the healthy men. Basal concentrations of follicle-stimulating hormone (FSH) and luteinising hormone (LH) were significantly increased in patients with acute mumps orchitis, while an exaggerated response to LH-releasing hormone was noted in four patients after the acute phase of the disease. Raised plasma LH concentrations were also found in several patients with viral infections, including mumps without orchitis. There appeared to be no particular merit of any of the treatments used (aspirin, prednisolone, and cold baths). In patients reevaluated three to five and 10 to 12 months after the acute phase of their disease the basal testosterone concentrations were similar to those of the healthy men, but several of the patients showed a severely impaired response to HCG. Mean basal FSH and LH concentrations were significantly increased 10 to 12 months after the acute phase, while the mean LH concentration was also raised at three to five months. It is concluded that mumps orchitis impairs Leydig-cell function during the acute phase of the disease but may also have a more permanent damaging effect, similar to that found in the germinal epithelium. (author)

  17. Mucosal Immunity and acute viral gastroenteritis: The example rotavirus

    Rose, Markus A

    2014-01-01

    Acute gastroenteritis is a major killer of the very young worldwide. Rotavirus is the most common intestinal virus, causing acute gastroenteritis and extra-intestinal complications especially in young and chronically ill subjects. As early as 1991, the WHO recommended as high priority the development of a vaccine against rotavirus, the major pathogen causing enteric infections. Since the introduction of rotavirus vaccines for infant immunization programmes in different parts of the world in 2...

  18. Contributory role of viral infection in congenital tumour development

    Monajemzadeh, Maryam; Sarmadi, Soheila; Moeini, Maryam; Vasei, Mohammad; Rezaei, Nima; Abbasi, Ata; Shahsiah, Reza; Tanzifi, Parin; Eghbali, Maryam

    2013-01-01

    Congenital tumours are a group of distinct infrequent disorders whose exact aetiologies have not clearly been understood so far. Viral infection seems to be one of the key factors involved in the carcinogenesis of certain tumours. This study was performed to assess whether viral DNAs are present in the congenital tumours or not. Nucleic acid from 31 congenital tumours was extracted. Detection of Epstein–Barr virus, Cytomegalovirus (CMV), adenovirus, Herpes simplex virus 1 (HSV1) and 2, Human ...

  19. A case of acute viral hepatitis interfering with acute fatty liver disease of pregnancy

    Abdulkadir Turgut; Ali Özler; Neval Yaman Görük; Senem Yaman Tunç; Nurullah Peker; Recep Tekin

    2013-01-01

    Acute hepatitis A is a rarely seen infection during pregnancy.In terms of clinical and laboratory findings, it can beinterfere with acute fatty liver disease which can be quitemortal during pregnancy. Since liver function tests are elevatedin both conditions, hepatitis A infection should alsobe kept in mind in differential diagnosis. We present a 30year-old pregnant woman with 35 weeks of gestation whopresented to our clinic with a suspection of acute fattyliver disease but finally diagnosed ...

  20. Comorbidity and high viral load linked to clinical presentation of respiratory human bocavirus infection.

    Ghietto, Lucía María; Majul, Diego; Ferreyra Soaje, Patricia; Baumeister, Elsa; Avaro, Martín; Insfrán, Constanza; Mosca, Liliana; Cámara, Alicia; Moreno, Laura Beatriz; Adamo, Maria Pilar

    2015-01-01

    Human bocavirus (HBoV) is a new parvovirus associated with acute respiratory tract infection (ARTI). In order to evaluate HBoV significance as an agent of acute respiratory disease, we screened 1,135 respiratory samples from children and adults with and without symptoms during two complete calendar years. HBoV1 prevalence in patients with ARTI was 6.33 % in 2011 and 11.64 % in 2012, including neonatal and adult patients. HBoV1 was also detected in 3.77 % of asymptomatic individuals. The co-detection rate was 78.1 %. Among children, 87 % were clinically diagnosed with lower respiratory infection (no significant differences between patients with and without coinfection), and 31 % exhibited comorbidities. Pediatric patients with comorbidities were significantly older than patients without comorbidities. Patients with ARTI had either high or low viral load, while controls had only low viral load, but there were no clinical differences between patients with high or low viral load. In conclusion, we present evidence of the pathogenic potential of HBoV1 in young children with ARTI. Since patients with HBoV1-single infection are not significantly different from those with coinfection with respect to clinical features, the virus can be as pathogenic by itself as other respiratory agents are. Furthermore, an association between high HBoV1 load and disease could not be demonstrated in this study, but all asymptomatic individuals had low viral loads. Also, children with comorbidities are susceptible to HBoV1 infection at older ages than previously healthy children. Thus, the clinical presentation of infection may occur depending on both viral load and the particular interaction between the HBoV1 and the host. PMID:25269520

  1. Global mRNA degradation during lytic gammaherpesvirus infection contributes to establishment of viral latency.

    Justin M Richner

    2011-07-01

    Full Text Available During a lytic gammaherpesvirus infection, host gene expression is severely restricted by the global degradation and altered 3' end processing of mRNA. This host shutoff phenotype is orchestrated by the viral SOX protein, yet its functional significance to the viral lifecycle has not been elucidated, in part due to the multifunctional nature of SOX. Using an unbiased mutagenesis screen of the murine gammaherpesvirus 68 (MHV68 SOX homolog, we isolated a single amino acid point mutant that is selectively defective in host shutoff activity. Incorporation of this mutation into MHV68 yielded a virus with significantly reduced capacity for mRNA turnover. Unexpectedly, the MHV68 mutant showed little defect during the acute replication phase in the mouse lung. Instead, the virus exhibited attenuation at later stages of in vivo infections suggestive of defects in both trafficking and latency establishment. Specifically, mice intranasally infected with the host shutoff mutant accumulated to lower levels at 10 days post infection in the lymph nodes, failed to develop splenomegaly, and exhibited reduced viral DNA levels and a lower frequency of latently infected splenocytes. Decreased latency establishment was also observed upon infection via the intraperitoneal route. These results highlight for the first time the importance of global mRNA degradation during a gammaherpesvirus infection and link an exclusively lytic phenomenon with downstream latency establishment.

  2. Hepatic transcriptome analysis of hepatitis C virus infection in chimpanzees defines unique gene expression patterns associated with viral clearance.

    Santosh Nanda

    Full Text Available Hepatitis C virus infection leads to a high rate of chronicity. Mechanisms of viral clearance and persistence are still poorly understood. In this study, hepatic gene expression analysis was performed to identify any molecular signature associated with the outcome of hepatitis C virus (HCV infection in chimpanzees. Acutely HCV-infected chimpanzees with self-limited infection or progression to chronicity were studied. Interferon stimulated genes were induced irrespective of the outcome of infection. Early induction of a set of genes associated with cell proliferation and immune activation was associated with subsequent viral clearance. Specifically, two of the genes: interleukin binding factor 3 (ILF3 and cytotoxic granule-associated RNA binding protein (TIA1, associated with robust T-cell response, were highly induced early in chimpanzees with self-limited infection. Up-regulation of genes associated with CD8+ T cell response was evident only during the clearance phase of the acute self-limited infection. The induction of these genes may represent an initial response of cellular injury and proliferation that successfully translates to a "danger signal" leading to induction of adaptive immunity to control viral infection. This primary difference in hepatic gene expression between self-limited and chronic infections supports the concept that successful activation of HCV-specific T-cell response is critical in clearance of acute HCV infection.

  3. Transmission spectroscopy of dengue viral infection

    We presented the rapid diagnostic test for dengue infection based on light spectrum of human blood. The transmission spectra of dengue infected whole blood samples have been recorded in ultra violet to near infrared range (400 – 800 nm) of about 30 conformed infected patients and compared to normal blood samples. Transmission spectra of dengue infected blood illustrate a strong band from 400 – 600 nm with prominant peaks at 540 and 580 nm, where is in case of normal blood below 600 nm, total absorption has been observed. These prominent peaks from 400 – 600 nm are characteristics of cells damage and dangue virus antibodies immunoglobulin G (IgG) and immunoglobulin M (IgM) produced against dengue antigen. The presented diagnostic method is non invasive, cost effective, easy and fast screening technique for dengue infected patients

  4. The Incubation Period of Primary Epstein-Barr Virus Infection: Viral Dynamics and Immunologic Events.

    Dunmire, Samantha K; Grimm, Jennifer M; Schmeling, David O; Balfour, Henry H; Hogquist, Kristin A

    2015-12-01

    Epstein-Barr virus (EBV) is a human herpesvirus that causes acute infectious mononucleosis and is associated with cancer and autoimmune disease. While many studies have been performed examining acute disease in adults following primary infection, little is known about the virological and immunological events during EBV's lengthy 6 week incubation period owing to the challenge of collecting samples from this stage of infection. We conducted a prospective study in college students with special emphasis on frequent screening to capture blood and oral wash samples during the incubation period. Here we describe the viral dissemination and immune response in the 6 weeks prior to onset of acute infectious mononucleosis symptoms. While virus is presumed to be present in the oral cavity from time of transmission, we did not detect viral genomes in the oral wash until one week before symptom onset, at which time viral genomes were present in high copy numbers, suggesting loss of initial viral replication control. In contrast, using a sensitive nested PCR method, we detected viral genomes at low levels in blood about 3 weeks before symptoms. However, high levels of EBV in the blood were only observed close to symptom onset-coincident with or just after increased viral detection in the oral cavity. These data imply that B cells are the major reservoir of virus in the oral cavity prior to infectious mononucleosis. The early presence of viral genomes in the blood, even at low levels, correlated with a striking decrease in the number of circulating plasmacytoid dendritic cells well before symptom onset, which remained depressed throughout convalescence. On the other hand, natural killer cells expanded only after symptom onset. Likewise, CD4+ Foxp3+ regulatory T cells decreased two fold, but only after symptom onset. We observed no substantial virus specific CD8 T cell expansion during the incubation period, although polyclonal CD8 activation was detected in concert with viral

  5. The Incubation Period of Primary Epstein-Barr Virus Infection: Viral Dynamics and Immunologic Events.

    Samantha K Dunmire

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available Epstein-Barr virus (EBV is a human herpesvirus that causes acute infectious mononucleosis and is associated with cancer and autoimmune disease. While many studies have been performed examining acute disease in adults following primary infection, little is known about the virological and immunological events during EBV's lengthy 6 week incubation period owing to the challenge of collecting samples from this stage of infection. We conducted a prospective study in college students with special emphasis on frequent screening to capture blood and oral wash samples during the incubation period. Here we describe the viral dissemination and immune response in the 6 weeks prior to onset of acute infectious mononucleosis symptoms. While virus is presumed to be present in the oral cavity from time of transmission, we did not detect viral genomes in the oral wash until one week before symptom onset, at which time viral genomes were present in high copy numbers, suggesting loss of initial viral replication control. In contrast, using a sensitive nested PCR method, we detected viral genomes at low levels in blood about 3 weeks before symptoms. However, high levels of EBV in the blood were only observed close to symptom onset-coincident with or just after increased viral detection in the oral cavity. These data imply that B cells are the major reservoir of virus in the oral cavity prior to infectious mononucleosis. The early presence of viral genomes in the blood, even at low levels, correlated with a striking decrease in the number of circulating plasmacytoid dendritic cells well before symptom onset, which remained depressed throughout convalescence. On the other hand, natural killer cells expanded only after symptom onset. Likewise, CD4+ Foxp3+ regulatory T cells decreased two fold, but only after symptom onset. We observed no substantial virus specific CD8 T cell expansion during the incubation period, although polyclonal CD8 activation was detected in

  6. Acute fulminant subacute sclerosing panencephalitis in two patients: Dual viral hit hypothesis

    Rajesh Verma

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available Subacute sclerosing panencephalitis (SSPE is a rare lethal neurological disorder caused by persistent mutant measles virus (MV in central nervous system. Usually affected individuals have a positive history of measles infection in infancy phase. The disease is characterized by progressive cognitive decline, deterioration in motor functions, repeated myoclonus finally leading to vegetative state and death. Commonly, SSPE patients manifest clinically after 2-10 years of intervening gap from primary measles infection. In last few years, atypical presentations of subacute sclerosing panencephalitis have been reported, many patients initially presenting with vision loss. Why only some patients developed SSPE after long gap of primary measles infection? Various immunological mechanisms have been hypothesized. It has been proven that subacute sclerosing panencephalitis patients failed to form adequate antibodies to measles virus M (matrix protein despite an appropriate response to other viral proteins. In this case report, we hypothesized that viral co-infections could lead to immune abnormalities and immunosuppression resulting into acute fulminant subacute sclerosing panencephalitis. We presented two patients of subacute sclerosing panencephalitis, one patient preceded by dengue virus infection and other by varicella zoster infection.

  7. Transfusions of blood and blood products and viral infections

    Marta Wróblewska

    2002-06-01

    Full Text Available Transfusions of blood and blood products are commonly used in medicine, but being biological materials they carry a risk of transmitting infections--viral, bacterial, parasitic, as well as prions. Laboratory tests used for screening of donated blood for viral infections at present cannot detect all infectious units. Criteria for selection of blood donors therefore must be very strict, while methods of inactivation of viruses and laboratory assays for detection of their presence must be improved. Indications for blood transfusion should be restricted.

  8. Acute Cholestatic Hepatitis A Virus Infection Presenting with Hemolytic Anemia and Renal Failure: A Case Report

    Lapp, Robert T.; Fedja Rochling

    2013-01-01

    Hepatitis A virus is the most common acute viral hepatitis worldwide with approximately 1.5 million cases annually. Hepatitis A virus infection in general is self-limited. In rare cases, hepatitis A virus infection may cause renal failure, hemolytic anemia, and/or cholestasis. We report the first case of acute cholestatic hepatitis A virus infection complicated by hemolytic anemia, and renal failure in one patient. A 42-year-old Caucasian male presented with cholestasis, hemolytic anemia and ...

  9. Acute hantavirus infection induces galectin-3-binding protein.

    Hepojoki, Jussi; Strandin, Tomas; Hetzel, Udo; Sironen, Tarja; Klingström, Jonas; Sane, Jussi; Mäkelä, Satu; Mustonen, Jukka; Meri, Seppo; Lundkvist, Ake; Vapalahti, Olli; Lankinen, Hilkka; Vaheri, Antti

    2014-11-01

    Hantaviruses are zoonotic viruses that cause life-threatening diseases when transmitted to humans. Severe hantavirus infection is manifested by impairment of renal function, pulmonary oedema and capillary leakage. Both innate and adaptive immune responses contribute to the pathogenesis, but the underlying mechanisms are not fully understood. Here, we showed that galectin-3-binding protein (Gal-3BP) was upregulated as a result of hantavirus infection both in vitro and in vivo. Gal-3BP is a secreted glycoprotein found in human serum, and increased Gal-3BP levels have been reported in chronic viral infections and in several types of cancer. Our in vitro experiments showed that, whilst Vero E6 cells (an African green monkey kidney cell line) constitutively expressed and secreted Gal-3BP, this protein was detected in primary human cells only as a result of hantavirus infection. Analysis of Gal-3BP levels in serum samples of cynomolgus macaques infected experimentally with hantavirus indicated that hantavirus infection induced Gal-3BP also in vivo. Finally, analysis of plasma samples collected from patients hospitalized because of acute hantavirus infection showed higher Gal-3BP levels during the acute than the convalescent phase. Furthermore, the Gal-3BP levels in patients with haemorrhagic fever with renal syndrome correlated with increased complement activation and with clinical variables reflecting the severity of acute hantavirus infection. PMID:25013204

  10. Acute focal infections of dental origin

    Olsen, Ingar; van Winkelhoff, Arie J.

    2014-01-01

    This article describes the most important pus-producing acute oral infections (dental infections) that can spread extra-orally. Most of these infections are spread by bacteria entering the bloodstream. However, dental infections have a number of other pathways for dissemination. By forming abscesses

  11. Early infection and prognosis after acute stroke

    Kammersgaard, L P; Jørgensen, H S; Reith, J;

    2001-01-01

    Infection is a frequent complication in the early course of acute stroke and may adversely affect stroke outcome. In the present study, we investigate early infection developing in patients within 3 days of admission to the hospital and its independent relation to recovery and stroke outcome. In...... addition, we identify predictors for early infections, infection subtypes, and their relation to initial stroke severity....

  12. Current approaches on viral infection: proteomics and functional validations

    JieZheng

    2012-11-01

    Full Text Available Viruses could manipulate cellular machinery to ensure their continuous survival and thus become parasites of living organisms. Delineation of sophisticated host responses upon virus infection is a challenging task. It lies in identifying the repertoire of host factors actively involved in the viral infectious cycle and characterizing host responses qualitatively and quantitatively during viral pathogenesis. Mass spectrometry based proteomics could be used to efficiently study pathogen-host interactions and virus-hijacked cellular signaling pathways. Moreover, direct host and viral responses upon infection could be further investigated by activity based functional validation studies. These approaches involve drug inhibition of secretory pathway, immunofluorescence staining, dominant negative mutation of protein target, real time PCR, small interfering siRNA-mediated knockdown, and molecular cloning studies. In this way, functional validation could gain novel insights into the high-content proteomic dataset in an unbiased and comprehensive way.

  13. Prevalence and incidence of bloodborne viral infections among Danish prisoners

    Christensen, P B; Krarup, H B; Niesters, H G; Norder, H; Georgsen, J

    2000-01-01

    In order to determine the prevalence and incidence of bloodborne viral infections among prisoners, we conducted a prospective study in a Danish medium security prison for males. The prisoners were offered an interview and blood test for hepatitis and human immunodeficiency virus HIV at inclusion as

  14. Viral infections as potential triggers of type 1 diabetes

    van der Werf, Nienke; Kroese, Frans G. M.; Rozing, Jan; Hillebrands, Jan-Luuk

    2007-01-01

    During the last decades, the incidence of type 1 diabetes (T1D) has increased significantly, reaching percentages of 3% annually worldwide. This increase suggests that besides genetical factors environmental perturbations (including viral infections) are also involved in the pathogenesis of T1D. T1D

  15. Patterns of viral infection in honey bee queens

    Francis, Roy Mathew; Kryger, Per; Nielsen, Steen Lykke

    2013-01-01

    The well-being of a colony and replenishment of the workers depends on a healthy queen. Diseases in queens are seldom reported, and our knowledge on viral infection in queens is limited. In this study, 86 honey bee queens were collected from beekeepers in Denmark. All queens were tested separately...

  16. Hepatitis C viral infection among prisoners

    Kostić Velimir

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Background/Aim. Hepatitis C virus (HCV infection is an important sociomedical problem worldwide because the chronification of the disease is frequent and the occurance of liver cirrhosis and hepatocellular carcinoma can be expected. The aim of this study was to determine the way of infection, pathohistological changes of the liver, virus genotype presence and sustained virological response after pegylated interferon and ribavirin therapy in prison inmates. Methods. The study included 52 patients with chronic HCV infection classified in two groups managed during 2008-2010. The first group consisted of prisoners (n = 22 and the second one of “non-prisoners” (n = 30. The patients from both groups underwent diagnostic preparation (biochemical analyses, liver biopsy, hepatitis virus detection and genotypisation using polymerase chain reaction issue. The treatment lasted for 24 weeks for virus genotypes 2 and 3, and 48 weeks for genotypes 1 and 4. Results. All the patients were males, approximately the same age (35 ± 4.1 and 31 ± 7.6 years. Virus genotype 1 was significantly more frequent in the prisoners (p < 0.05, that demanded longer treatment (48 weeks. At the same time, statistically significant higher number of patients, “non-prisoners”, achieved a sustained virological response (p < 0.01. Conclusion. Intravenous drug abuse and tattoos, separately or together, are the most frequent way of infection in prisoners. Dominant presence of virus genotype 1 resulted in lower number of patients with sustained virological response, probably regardless prison environment and regime.

  17. Acute Herpes Simplex Viral Esophagitis Occurring in 5 Immunocompetent Individuals With Eosinophilic Esophagitis

    Criblez, Dominique H.; Dellon, Evan S.; Bussmann, Christian; Pfeifer, David; Froh, Matthias; Straumann, Alex

    2016-01-01

    Herpes simplex esophagitis (HSE) is an acute, severe viral infection of the esophagus, rarely occurring in immunocompetent individuals. Eosinophilic esophagitis (EoE) is a rare immune-mediated esophageal disorder. We recently observed 5 severe HSE cases in diagnosed EoE patients. Four of the 5 patients had active, untreated EoE at the time of infection, so HSE is not likely a side effect of swallowed topical corticosteroids, the first-line medical treatment of EoE. However, this coincidence of these 2 rare conditions raises the question of a causal relationship between these 2 forms of esophagitis, and whether active EoE might predispose to HSE infection.

  18. Comparison of the breadth and complexity of bovine viral diarrhea (BVDV) populations circulating in 34 persistently infected cattle generated in one outbreak

    Exposure to bovine viral diarrhea viruses (BVDV) may result in acute and persistent infections. Persistent infections are the consequence of in utero exposure during the first trimester of gestation. The resulting persistently infected (PI) animals are immunotolerant to the virus. Clinical presen...

  19. West Nile viral infection of equids

    Angenvoort, J.; Brault, A.C.; Bowen, R A; Groschup, M.H

    2013-01-01

    West Nile virus (WNV) is a flavivirus transmitted between certain species of birds and mosquito vectors. Tangential infections of equids and subsequent equine epizootics have occurred historically. Although the attack rate has been estimated to be below 10%, mortality rates can approach 50% in horses that present clinical disease. Symptoms are most commonly presenting in the form of encephalitis with ataxia as well as limb weakness, recumbency and muscle fasciculation. The most effective stra...

  20. Use of minocycline in viral infections

    Dutta, Kallol; Basu, Anirban

    2011-01-01

    Repurposing of old drugs is a useful concept as it helps to minimize costs associated with the research and development of a new drug. Minocycline, a common second generation antibiotic, has been shown to possess several other beneficial effects other than its intended uses. The antiviral role of minocycline has generated considerable interest from the last decade. It was first shown to be beneficial in preventing human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) infections and later it was reported to impr...

  1. Mechanism of action and application of virocids in health care-associated viral infections

    Babak Shahbaz

    2016-03-01

    Full Text Available Viruses are important causes of acute and chronic diseases in humans. Newer viruses are still being discovered. Apart from frequently causing infections in the general community, many types of viruses are significant nosocomial pathogens that with emerging viruses has become a real issue in medical field. There are specific treatments, vaccine and physical barrier to fight some of these infections. Health care-associated viral infections are an important source of patient’s morbidity and mortality. The method of sterilization or disinfection depends on the intended use of the medical devices (comprising critical, semicritical and noncritical items and failure to perform proper sterilization or disinfection of these items may leads to introduction of viruses, resulting in infection. Disinfection is an essential way in reducing or disruption of transmission of viruses by environmental surfaces, instruments and hands which achieves by chemical disinfectants and antiseptics, respectively. This review discusses about chemical agents with virocids properties (e.g. alcohols, chlorine compounds, formaldehyde, phenolic compounds, glutaraldehyde, ortho-phthaldehyde, hydrogen peroxide, peracetic acid, iodophor, ammonium compounds quaternary, bigunides and so on., mechanisms of action and their applications in health care-associated viral infection control. As well as, we described an overview for hierarchy of viruses in challenge with disinfantans, effective agents on viral inactivation, i.e.targect viruses, viral stability or survival duration time in enviromental surfaces and hands. We explained disinfection of surfaces, challenges in emerging viral pathogens inactivation, viral resistance to chemical disinfectants and antiseptics. Because, there are laboratory studies and clinical evidences for some viruses which viral resistance to biocide or failure to perform proper disinfection can lead to infection outbreaks. Also, we described virucidal

  2. Airway CD8(+) T Cells Are Associated with Lung Injury during Infant Viral Respiratory Tract Infection.

    Connors, Thomas J; Ravindranath, Thyyar M; Bickham, Kara L; Gordon, Claire L; Zhang, Feifan; Levin, Bruce; Baird, John S; Farber, Donna L

    2016-06-01

    Infants and young children are disproportionately susceptible to severe complications from respiratory viruses, although the underlying mechanisms remain unknown. Recent studies show that the T cell response in the lung is important for protective responses to respiratory infections, although details on the infant/pediatric respiratory immune response remain sparse. The objectives of the present study were to characterize the local versus systemic immune response in infants and young children with respiratory failure from viral respiratory tract infections and its association to disease severity. Daily airway secretions were sampled from infants and children 4 years of age and younger receiving mechanical ventilation owing to respiratory failure from viral infection or noninfectious causes. Samples were examined for immune cell composition and markers of T cell activation. These parameters were then correlated with clinical disease severity. Innate immune cells and total CD3(+) T cells were present in similar proportions in airway aspirates derived from infected and uninfected groups; however, the CD8:CD4 T cell ratio was markedly increased in the airways of patients with viral infection compared with uninfected patients, and specifically in infected infants with acute lung injury. T cells in the airways were phenotypically and functionally distinct from those in blood with activated/memory phenotypes and increased cytotoxic capacity. We identified a significant increase in airway cytotoxic CD8(+) T cells in infants with lung injury from viral respiratory tract infection that was distinct from the T cell profile in circulation and associated with increasing disease severity. Airway sampling could therefore be diagnostically informative for assessing immune responses and lung damage. PMID:26618559

  3. Neuroinvasion and Inflammation in Viral Central Nervous System Infections

    Schroten, Horst

    2016-01-01

    Neurotropic viruses can cause devastating central nervous system (CNS) infections, especially in young children and the elderly. The blood-brain barrier (BBB) and the blood-cerebrospinal fluid barrier (BCSFB) have been described as relevant sites of entry for specific viruses as well as for leukocytes, which are recruited during the proinflammatory response in the course of CNS infection. In this review, we illustrate examples of established brain barrier models, in which the specific reaction patterns of different viral families can be analyzed. Furthermore, we highlight the pathogen specific array of cytokines and chemokines involved in immunological responses in viral CNS infections. We discuss in detail the link between specific cytokines and chemokines and leukocyte migration profiles. The thorough understanding of the complex and interrelated inflammatory mechanisms as well as identifying universal mediators promoting CNS inflammation is essential for the development of new diagnostic and treatment strategies. PMID:27313404

  4. Viral lesions of the mouth in HIV-infected patients.

    Itin, P H; Lautenschlager, S

    1997-01-01

    Viral lesions of the mouth in patients with HIV infection are common and these diseases any be a marker for HIV and disease progression. We review the spectrum of oral viral manifestations and discuss treatment modalities. The most common Epstein-Barr virus (EBV)-induced disorder in HIV-infected patients is oral hairy leukoplakia. EBV-related oral B-cell and T-cell lymphoma in AIDS patients has been described repeatedly. Herpes virus type 1 and rarely type 2 may lead to painful and resistant oral ulcers, and systemic treatment with acyclovir, valaciclovir or famciclovir is indicated. In acyclovir-resistant cases foscarnet is the treatment of choice. In recent years it has been documented that Kaposi's sarcoma, which often affects oral mucosa, is probably induced by herpesvirus type 8. Cytomegalovirus was found in 53% of cases with herpesviridae-induced mucosal ulcers as the only ulcerogenic viral agent in AIDS patients. In severe cytomegalovirus infection treatment with ganciclovir is helpful. Viral warts induced by different HPV may occur in the mouth. Several physical treatment modalities are possible in the oral mucosa. In AIDS patients mollusca contagiosa may occur as large and atypical lesions in the face and lips and rarely in the oral cavity. Cryotherapy is a bloodless treatment in such patients. PMID:9031782

  5. Nonvisualization of the gallbladder lumen on sonogram: a sign of acute viral hepatitis

    Six cases of nonvisulization of the gallbladder lumen in patients with acute viral hepatitis are presented. Follow-up ultrasonographic examinations done during the convalescent period in 2 patients showed normal gallbladders and this was correlated with improvement in enzyme levels. It is suggested that acute viral hepatitis should be considered in the differential diagnosis of nonvisualization of the gallbladder lumen on sonogram.

  6. Procalcitonin and C-reactive protein-based decision tree model for distinguishing PFAPA flares from acute infections

    Barbara Kraszewska-Głomba; Zofia Szymańska-Toczek; Leszek Szenborn

    2016-01-01

    As no specific laboratory test has been identified, PFAPA (periodic fever, aphthous stomatitis, pharyngitis and cervical adenitis) remains a diagnosis of exclusion. We searched for a practical use of procalcitonin (PCT) and C-reactive protein (CRP) in distinguishing PFAPA attacks from acute bacterial and viral infections. Levels of PCT and CRP were measured in 38 patients with PFAPA and 81 children diagnosed with an acute bacterial (n=42) or viral (n=39) infection. Statistical analysis with t...

  7. DMPD: Innate immune response to viral infection. [Dynamic Macrophage Pathway CSML Database

    Full Text Available 18694646 Innate immune response to viral infection. Koyama S, Ishii KJ, Coban C, Ak...ira S. Cytokine. 2008 Sep;43(3):336-41. Epub 2008 Aug 9. (.png) (.svg) (.html) (.csml) Show Innate immune response... to viral infection. PubmedID 18694646 Title Innate immune response to viral infection. Authors Koyama

  8. INADEQUATE ANTIBODY-RESPONSE AGAINST RESPIRATORY VIRAL-INFECTION IN LONG-SURVIVING RAT LUNG ALLOGRAFTS

    WINTER, JB; GROEN, M; VANDERLOGT, K; WILDEVUUR, CRH; PROP, J

    1995-01-01

    Lung transplant recipients suffer from a high number of viral infections. It has been suggested that the defense against viral infections is impaired in lung transplants, Therefore, we investigated in rat lung transplants whether antibody responses against an intrapulmonary viral infection were impa

  9. DMPD: Toll-like receptors regulation of viral infection and disease. [Dynamic Macrophage Pathway CSML Database

    Full Text Available 18280610 Toll-like receptors regulation of viral infection and disease. Thompson JM...how Toll-like receptors regulation of viral infection and disease. PubmedID 18280610 Title Toll-like recepto...rs regulation of viral infection and disease. Authors Thompson JM, Iwasaki A. Pub

  10. The acute phase response of haptoglobin and serum amyloid A (SAA) in cattle undergoing experimental infection with bovine respiratory syncytial virus

    Heegaard, Peter M. H.; Godson, D.L.; Toussaint, M.J.M.; Tjørnehøj, Kirsten; Larsen, Lars Erik; Viuff, B.; Rønsholt, Leif

    The ability of a pure virus infection to induce an acute phase protein response is of interest as viral infections are normally considered to be less efficient in inducing an acute phase protein response than bacterial infections. This was studied in a bovine model for infection with bovine respi...

  11. Acute hemorrhagic leukoencephalomyelitis in a man with viral myocarditis.

    Kitulwatte, Indira D; Kim, Patrick J H; Pollanen, Michael S

    2015-09-01

    We report a case of acute hemorrhagic leukoencephalomyelitis in a man with viral myocarditis. A 48-year-old previously healthy male was found dead in his locked apartment. At autopsy he was found to be malnourished, and his lungs showed gross evidence of bilateral pneumonia with abscess formation and bullous emphysema. Multiple petechial hemorrhages were observed in the brain and mainly involved white matter in the cerebral hemispheres including the corpus callosum and internal capsule, as well as the cerebellum, brainstem, and spinal cord. Microscopy of the brain and spinal cord revealed perivenular hemorrhages, central microthrombi in venules with fibrin exudation into the subcortical white matter, and early perivenular demyelination associated with scanty mixed cellular infiltrates. Other microscopic features included widespread diffuse viral myocarditis, extensive suppurative bronchopneumonia, and chronic bronchitis. This case illustrates the death of a man with a rare fatal disease associated with two other potentially lethal diseases. The case also illustrates the importance of a holistic approach when determining the cause of death, especially when there are competing causes of death. PMID:26148811

  12. Viral infection drives tissue fibrosis in vitro

    Andrea P. Malizia

    2008-04-01

    Full Text Available Idiopathic Pulmonary Fibrosis (IPF is a refractory and lethal interstitial lung disease characterized by loss of alveolar epithelial cells, fibroblast proliferation and extra-cellular matrix protein deposition. EBV, localised to alveolar epithelial cells of pulmonary fibrosis patients is associated with a poor prognosis. In this study we utilised a microarray-based differential gene expression analysis strategy to identify molecular drivers of EBV associated with lung fibrosis. A549 cells and an alveolar epithelial cell line infected with EBV (VAAK were used to identify genes whose expression was altered by EBV reactivation. EBV reactivation by TGFbeta1 drives alterations in expression of non-canonical Wnt pathway mediators, implicating it in epithelial mesenchymal transition (EMT, the molecular event underpinning scar production in tissue fibrosis. Cell invasion, EMT correlated transcripts expression, GSK-3b and c-Jun activation were altered in response to non-canonical Wnt pathway regulation. The role of EBV in promoting fibrosis can be attenuated by antiviral strategies and inhibition of Wnt signalling. Activation of non-canonical Wnt signalling pathway by EBV in epithelial cells suggests a novel mechanism of tissue fibrosis. These data present a framework for further description of the link between infectious agents and fibrosis, a significant disease burden.

  13. Prevalence of sapovirus infection among infant and adult patients with acute gastroenteritis in Tehran, Iran

    Romani, Sara; Azimzadeh, Pedram; Mohebbi, Seyed Reza; Bozorgi, Sajad Majidizadeh; Zali, Narges; JADALI, Farzaneh

    2012-01-01

    Aim This study investigated the prevalence of sapovirus infections in patient with acute gastroenteritis in Tehran, Iran. Background Sapovirus, a member of the family Caliciviridae is one of the major causative agents of viral gastroenteritis affecting both children and adult individuals. There isn't enough data about prevalence and genotypes of sapovirus infection in Tehran, the capital city of Iran. Patients and methods A total of 42 fecal samples were collected from patients with acute gas...

  14. Varicella Zoster Infection: A Rare Cause of Abdominal Pain Mimicking Acute Abdomen

    Olmez, Deniz; Boz, Alper; Erkan, Nazif

    2009-01-01

    Varicella zoster is an acute viral infection that results from reactivation of a latent varicella zoster virus. It usually occurs in adult population and immune compromised patients. It rarely occurs in healthy children. Here we present a 14 years old male with varicella zoster that had abdominal pain mimicking acute abdomen to alert others who are consulted for the differentiation of acute abdomen and others who may be consulted for pain management. Keywords Varicella zoster; Abdominal pain PMID:22461879

  15. Varicella Zoster Infection: A Rare Cause of Abdominal Pain Mimicking Acute Abdomen

    Olmez, Deniz; Boz, Alper; Erkan, Nazif

    2009-01-01

    Varicella zoster is an acute viral infection that results from reactivation of a latent varicella zoster virus. It usually occurs in adult population and immune compromised patients. It rarely occurs in healthy children. Here we present a 14 years old male with varicella zoster that had abdominal pain mimicking acute abdomen to alert others who are consulted for the differentiation of acute abdomen and others who may be consulted for pain management. Keywords Varicella zoster; Abdominal pain

  16. Exosome Biogenesis, Regulation, and Function in Viral Infection

    Marta Alenquer

    2015-09-01

    Full Text Available Exosomes are extracellular vesicles released upon fusion of multivesicular bodies(MVBs with the cellular plasma membrane. They originate as intraluminal vesicles (ILVs duringthe process of MVB formation. Exosomes were shown to contain selectively sorted functionalproteins, lipids, and RNAs, mediating cell-to-cell communications and hence playing a role in thephysiology of the healthy and diseased organism. Challenges in the field include the identificationof mechanisms sustaining packaging of membrane-bound and soluble material to these vesicles andthe understanding of the underlying processes directing MVBs for degradation or fusion with theplasma membrane. The investigation into the formation and roles of exosomes in viral infection is inits early years. Although still controversial, exosomes can, in principle, incorporate any functionalfactor, provided they have an appropriate sorting signal, and thus are prone to viral exploitation.This review initially focuses on the composition and biogenesis of exosomes. It then explores theregulatory mechanisms underlying their biogenesis. Exosomes are part of the endocytic system,which is tightly regulated and able to respond to several stimuli that lead to alterations in thecomposition of its sub-compartments. We discuss the current knowledge of how these changesaffect exosomal release. We then summarize how different viruses exploit specific proteins ofendocytic sub-compartments and speculate that it could interfere with exosome function, althoughno direct link between viral usage of the endocytic system and exosome release has yet beenreported. Many recent reports have ascribed functions to exosomes released from cells infectedwith a variety of animal viruses, including viral spread, host immunity, and manipulation of themicroenvironment, which are discussed. Given the ever-growing roles and importance of exosomesin viral infections, understanding what regulates their composition and levels, and

  17. Managing the Morbidity Associated with Respiratory Viral Infections in Children with Congenital Heart Disease

    Joseph M. Geskey

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available Children with congenital heart disease (CHD are at risk for increased morbidity from viral lower respiratory tract infections because of anatomical cardiac lesions than can worsen an already compromised respiratory status. Respiratory syncytial virus (RSV remains an important pathogen in contributing toward the morbidity in this population. Although the acute treatment of RSV largely remains supportive, the development of monoclonal antibodies, such as palivuzumab, has reduced the RSV-related hospitalization rate in children with CHD. This review highlights the specific cardiac complications of RSV infection, the acute treatment of bronchiolitis in patients with CHD, and the search for new therapies against RSV, including an effective vaccine, because of the high cost associated with immunoprophylaxis and its lack of reducing RSV-related mortality.

  18. Chronic Viral Infection and Primary Central Nervous System Malignancy

    Saddawi-Konefka, Robert; Crawford, John R.

    2010-01-01

    Primary central nervous system (CNS) tumors cause significant morbidity and mortality in both adults and children. While some of the genetic and molecular mechanisms of neuro-oncogenesis are known, much less is known about possible epigenetic contributions to disease pathophysiology. Over the last several decades, chronic viral infections have been associated with a number of human malignancies. In primary CNS malignancies, two families of viruses, namely polyomavirus and herpesvirus, have be...

  19. VIRAL INFECTIONS IN BONE MARROW TRANSPLANTS: IS JC VIRUS INVOLVED?

    Mischitelli, Monica; Fioriti, Daniela; Anzivino, Elena; Bellizzi, Anna; Barucca, Valentina; BOLDORINI, RENZO; Miglio, Umberto; Sica, Simona; Sorà, Federica; De Matteis, Silvia; Chiarini, Fernanda; Pietropaolo, Valeria

    2009-01-01

    Abstract Haemorrhagic cystitis is characterized by haematuria due to inflammation of the bladder. In bone marrow transplants, this disease is linked to the infection by human polyomavirus BK, whereas the role of the human polyomavirus JC is unclear. The transcriptional control regions of both viruses contain important cellular transcription factor binding sites that undergo rearrangement process generating suitable variants that could be more active for viral replication and for th...

  20. Aptamers in Diagnostics and Treatment of Viral Infections

    Tomasz Wandtke; Joanna Woźniak; Piotr Kopiński

    2015-01-01

    Aptamers are in vitro selected DNA or RNA molecules that are capable of binding a wide range of nucleic and non-nucleic acid molecules with high affinity and specificity. They have been conducted through the process known as SELEX (Systematic Evolution of Ligands by Exponential Enrichment). It serves to reach specificity and considerable affinity to target molecules, including those of viral origin, both proteins and nucleic acids. Properties of aptamers allow detecting virus infected cells o...

  1. Severe hindrance of viral infection propagation in spatially extended hosts.

    Capitán, José A; Cuesta, José A; Manrubia, Susanna C; Aguirre, Jacobo

    2011-01-01

    The production of large progeny numbers affected by high mutation rates is a ubiquitous strategy of viruses, as it promotes quick adaptation and survival to changing environments. However, this situation often ushers in an arms race between the virus and the host cells. In this paper we investigate in depth a model for the dynamics of a phenotypically heterogeneous population of viruses whose propagation is limited to two-dimensional geometries, and where host cells are able to develop defenses against infection. Our analytical and numerical analyses are developed in close connection to directed percolation models. In fact, we show that making the space explicit in the model, which in turn amounts to reducing viral mobility and hindering the infective ability of the virus, connects our work with similar dynamical models that lie in the universality class of directed percolation. In addition, we use the fact that our model is a multicomponent generalization of the Domany-Kinzel probabilistic cellular automaton to employ several techniques developed in the past in that context, such as the two-site approximation to the extinction transition line. Our aim is to better understand propagation of viral infections with mobility restrictions, e.g., in crops or in plant leaves, in order to inspire new strategies for effective viral control. PMID:21912595

  2. Acute respiratory distress syndrome due to viral pneumonitis in case of varicella zoster in adult: case report

    Anaz Binazeez; Saurabh Kothari; Dhaval Dave; Manish Pendse; Divya Lala; Smita Patil; Archana Bhate

    2015-01-01

    Chickenpox, is a highly contagious disease caused by infection with varicella zoster virus (VZV). The disease is often more severe in adults than children. Here we present a case of adult male suffering from chicken pox who presented with complication of acute respiratory distress syndrome [ARDS] due to viral pneumonitis. Due to his late presentation, despite of giving antivirals, patient had a fatal outcome. So this case highlights the necessity and importance of early administration of a...

  3. Complexities in Isolation and Purification of Multiple Viruses from Mixed Viral Infections: Viral Interference, Persistence and Exclusion.

    Naveen Kumar

    Full Text Available Successful purification of multiple viruses from mixed infections remains a challenge. In this study, we investigated peste des petits ruminants virus (PPRV and foot-and-mouth disease virus (FMDV mixed infection in goats. Rather than in a single cell type, cytopathic effect (CPE of the virus was observed in cocultured Vero/BHK-21 cells at 6th blind passage (BP. PPRV, but not FMDV could be purified from the virus mixture by plaque assay. Viral RNA (mixture transfection in BHK-21 cells produced FMDV but not PPRV virions, a strategy which we have successfully employed for the first time to eliminate the negative-stranded RNA virus from the virus mixture. FMDV phenotypes, such as replication competent but noncytolytic, cytolytic but defective in plaque formation and, cytolytic but defective in both plaque formation and standard FMDV genome were observed respectively, at passage level BP8, BP15 and BP19 and hence complicated virus isolation in the cell culture system. Mixed infection was not found to induce any significant antigenic and genetic diversity in both PPRV and FMDV. Further, we for the first time demonstrated the viral interference between PPRV and FMDV. Prior transfection of PPRV RNA, but not Newcastle disease virus (NDV and rotavirus RNA resulted in reduced FMDV replication in BHK-21 cells suggesting that the PPRV RNA-induced interference was specifically directed against FMDV. On long-term coinfection of some acute pathogenic viruses (all possible combinations of PPRV, FMDV, NDV and buffalopox virus in Vero cells, in most cases, one of the coinfecting viruses was excluded at passage level 5 suggesting that the long-term coinfection may modify viral persistence. To the best of our knowledge, this is the first documented evidence describing a natural mixed infection of FMDV and PPRV. The study not only provides simple and reliable methodologies for isolation and purification of two epidemiologically and economically important groups of

  4. Complexities in Isolation and Purification of Multiple Viruses from Mixed Viral Infections: Viral Interference, Persistence and Exclusion

    Kumar, Naveen; Barua, Sanjay; Riyesh, Thachamvally; Chaubey, Kundan K.; Rawat, Krishan Dutt; Khandelwal, Nitin; Mishra, Anil K.; Sharma, Nitika; Chandel, Surender S.; Sharma, Shalini; Singh, Manoj K.; Sharma, Dinesh K.; Singh, Shoor V.; Tripathi, Bhupendra N.

    2016-01-01

    Successful purification of multiple viruses from mixed infections remains a challenge. In this study, we investigated peste des petits ruminants virus (PPRV) and foot-and-mouth disease virus (FMDV) mixed infection in goats. Rather than in a single cell type, cytopathic effect (CPE) of the virus was observed in cocultured Vero/BHK-21 cells at 6th blind passage (BP). PPRV, but not FMDV could be purified from the virus mixture by plaque assay. Viral RNA (mixture) transfection in BHK-21 cells produced FMDV but not PPRV virions, a strategy which we have successfully employed for the first time to eliminate the negative-stranded RNA virus from the virus mixture. FMDV phenotypes, such as replication competent but noncytolytic, cytolytic but defective in plaque formation and, cytolytic but defective in both plaque formation and standard FMDV genome were observed respectively, at passage level BP8, BP15 and BP19 and hence complicated virus isolation in the cell culture system. Mixed infection was not found to induce any significant antigenic and genetic diversity in both PPRV and FMDV. Further, we for the first time demonstrated the viral interference between PPRV and FMDV. Prior transfection of PPRV RNA, but not Newcastle disease virus (NDV) and rotavirus RNA resulted in reduced FMDV replication in BHK-21 cells suggesting that the PPRV RNA-induced interference was specifically directed against FMDV. On long-term coinfection of some acute pathogenic viruses (all possible combinations of PPRV, FMDV, NDV and buffalopox virus) in Vero cells, in most cases, one of the coinfecting viruses was excluded at passage level 5 suggesting that the long-term coinfection may modify viral persistence. To the best of our knowledge, this is the first documented evidence describing a natural mixed infection of FMDV and PPRV. The study not only provides simple and reliable methodologies for isolation and purification of two epidemiologically and economically important groups of viruses, but

  5. Complexities in Isolation and Purification of Multiple Viruses from Mixed Viral Infections: Viral Interference, Persistence and Exclusion.

    Kumar, Naveen; Barua, Sanjay; Riyesh, Thachamvally; Chaubey, Kundan K; Rawat, Krishan Dutt; Khandelwal, Nitin; Mishra, Anil K; Sharma, Nitika; Chandel, Surender S; Sharma, Shalini; Singh, Manoj K; Sharma, Dinesh K; Singh, Shoor V; Tripathi, Bhupendra N

    2016-01-01

    Successful purification of multiple viruses from mixed infections remains a challenge. In this study, we investigated peste des petits ruminants virus (PPRV) and foot-and-mouth disease virus (FMDV) mixed infection in goats. Rather than in a single cell type, cytopathic effect (CPE) of the virus was observed in cocultured Vero/BHK-21 cells at 6th blind passage (BP). PPRV, but not FMDV could be purified from the virus mixture by plaque assay. Viral RNA (mixture) transfection in BHK-21 cells produced FMDV but not PPRV virions, a strategy which we have successfully employed for the first time to eliminate the negative-stranded RNA virus from the virus mixture. FMDV phenotypes, such as replication competent but noncytolytic, cytolytic but defective in plaque formation and, cytolytic but defective in both plaque formation and standard FMDV genome were observed respectively, at passage level BP8, BP15 and BP19 and hence complicated virus isolation in the cell culture system. Mixed infection was not found to induce any significant antigenic and genetic diversity in both PPRV and FMDV. Further, we for the first time demonstrated the viral interference between PPRV and FMDV. Prior transfection of PPRV RNA, but not Newcastle disease virus (NDV) and rotavirus RNA resulted in reduced FMDV replication in BHK-21 cells suggesting that the PPRV RNA-induced interference was specifically directed against FMDV. On long-term coinfection of some acute pathogenic viruses (all possible combinations of PPRV, FMDV, NDV and buffalopox virus) in Vero cells, in most cases, one of the coinfecting viruses was excluded at passage level 5 suggesting that the long-term coinfection may modify viral persistence. To the best of our knowledge, this is the first documented evidence describing a natural mixed infection of FMDV and PPRV. The study not only provides simple and reliable methodologies for isolation and purification of two epidemiologically and economically important groups of viruses, but

  6. Tsutsugamushi Infection-Associated Acute Rhabdomyolysis and Acute Renal Failure

    Young, Park Chi; Hae, Chung Choon; Lee, Kim Hyun; Hoon, Chung Jong

    2003-01-01

    Rhabdomyolysis is a rare complication that emerges in a variety of infectious diseases, such as tsutsugamushi infection. In this study, we report a 71-year-old female patient with tsutsugamushi infection who exhibiting rhabdomyolysis and acute renal failure. On admission, an eschar, which is characteristic of tsutsugamushi infection, was found on her right flank area. Moreover, her tsutsugamushi antibody titer was 1:40960. The elevated values of serum creatinine phosphokinase (CPK), aldolase,...

  7. Functional Role of Infective Viral Particles on Metal Reduction

    Coates, John D.

    2014-04-01

    A proposed strategy for the remediation of uranium (U) contaminated sites was based on the immobilization of U by reducing the oxidized soluble U, U(VI), to form a reduced insoluble end product, U(IV). Previous studies identified Geobacter sp., including G. sulfurreducens and G. metallireducens, as predominant U(VI)-reducing bacteria under acetate-oxidizing and U(VI)-reducing conditions. Examination of the finished genome sequence annotation of the canonical metal reducing species Geobacter sulfurreducens strain PCA and G. metallireduceans strain GS-15 as well as the draft genome sequence of G. uraniumreducens strain Rf4 identified phage related proteins. In addition, the completed genome for Anaeromyxobacter dehalogenans and the draft genome sequence of Desulfovibrio desulfuricans strain G20, two more model metal-reducing bacteria, also revealed phage related sequences. The presence of these gene sequences indicated that Geobacter spp., Anaeromyxobacter spp., and Desulfovibrio spp. are susceptible to viral infection. Furthermore, viral populations in soils and sedimentary environments in the order of 6.4×10{sup 6}–2.7×10{sup 10} VLP’s cm{sup -3} have been observed. In some cases, viral populations exceed bacterial populations in these environments suggesting that a relationship may exist between viruses and bacteria. Our preliminary screens of samples collected from the ESR FRC indicated that viral like particles were observed in significant numbers. The objective of this study was to investigate the potential functional role viruses play in metal reduction specifically Fe(III) and U(VI) reduction, the environmental parameters affecting viral infection of metal reducing bacteria, and the subsequent effects on U transport.

  8. The epidemiology of acute viral gastroenteritis in hospitalized children in Cordoba city, Argentina: an insight of disease burden

    GIORDANO Miguel O.

    2001-01-01

    Full Text Available Information concerning the disease burden of viral gastroenteritis has important implications for the use and monitoring the impact of public health policies. The present study, carried out in Córdoba city, Argentina, documents the epidemiology of severe viral diarrhea as well as the burden of viral gastrointestinal disease in the hospital children admission. A total of 133 stools were collected from hospitalized children (Town Childhood Hospital suffering from acute diarrhea and studied for the presence of Group A rotavirus, astrovirus and adenovirus 40/41 by enzyme-immuno assay, between November 1997 and October 1998. Enteric viruses accounted for 42.1% of the total diarrheal cases analyzed. Group A rotaviruses, astroviruses, adenoviruses 40/41 and mixed infections were found in 35.3, 4.5, 1.5, and 0.8% studied specimens respectively. We estimated that 1 in 27 children in the 0-35 month-old cohort/range would be annually hospitalized for a viral gastroenteritis illness. The major impact on viral diarrhea lies on rotaviral infection, accouting for 84.0% of the viral diarrheal cases analyzed and for approximately one third of severe diarrheas requiring hospital admission in Córdoba City, Argentina.

  9. Viral infections, prevalence and costs: A5-year, hospital based, retrospective observational study in shiraz, iran

    Many patients suffering from viral infections attend to health care centers. Data gathered from viral infections is limited to specific cases such as AIDS, viral hepatitis and Influenza. There is a significant lack of reliable documentation about other viral infections. In this study the prevalence and related costs of viral infections in hospitals of Shiraz University of Medical Sciences were reviewed. In this cross-sectional study the data were extracted from files of 1319 patients with viral infection admitted in two university hospitals during a five year period (1999-2004). The frequencies of different viral infections along with their demographic data were analyzed. The mean age of the patients was 29.24 with the range of 90 years. Hospitalization days were 8636 in 40 different wards in two hospitals. US$ 30.84 was the daily mean cost for each admitted patient. Viral meningitis was most frequent (14.2%) and 8.4% of patients died during hospitalization. This study confirms the necessity of expanding management programs for viral infections especially hepatitis B in youths in Iran. Unspecified viral infections cost much more than specified viral diseases. Viral infection costs can be reduced by finding more sensitive and specific diagnostic methods. (author)

  10. Spatiotemporal interplay of severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus and respiratory mucosal cells drives viral dissemination in rhesus macaques.

    Liu, L; Wei, Q; Nishiura, K; Peng, J; Wang, H; Midkiff, C; Alvarez, X; Qin, C; Lackner, A; Chen, Z

    2016-07-01

    Innate immune responses have a critical role in the control of early virus replication and dissemination. It remains unknown, however, how severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus (SARS-CoV) evades respiratory innate immunity to establish a systemic infection. Here we show in Chinese macaques that SARS-CoV traversed the mucosa through the respiratory tract within 2 days, resulting in extensive mucosal infiltration by T cells, MAC387(+), and CD163(+) monocytes/macrophages followed by limited viral replication in the lung but persistent viral shedding into the upper airway. Mucosal monocytes/macrophages sequestered virions in intracellular vesicles together with infected Langerhans cells and migrated into the tonsils and/or draining lymph nodes within 2 days. In lymphoid tissues, viral RNA and proteins were detected in infected monocytes upon differentiation into dendritic cells (DCs) within 3 days. Systemic viral dissemination was observed within 7 days. This study provides a comprehensive overview of the spatiotemporal interactions of SARS-CoV, monocytes/macrophages, and the DC network in mucosal tissues and highlights the fact that, while these innate cells contribute to viral clearance, they probably also serve as shelters and vehicles to provide a mechanism for the virus to escape host mucosal innate immunity and disseminate systemically. PMID:26647718

  11. Viral Co-infections are Common and are Associated with Higher Bacterial Burden in Children with C. difficile Infection

    El Feghaly, Rana E.; Stauber, Jennifer L.; Tarr, Phillip I.; Haslam, David B.

    2013-01-01

    Clostridium difficile infections in children are increasing. In this cohort study, we enrolled 62 children with diarrhea and C. difficile. We performed polymerase chain reaction (PCR) assays to detect viral agents of gastroenteritis and quantify C. difficile burden. Fifteen (24%) children diagnosed with C. difficile infection had a concomitant viral co-infection. These patients tended to be younger and had a higher C. difficile bacterial burden than children with no viral co-infections (media...

  12. Plasma and urine biomarkers in acute viral hepatitis E

    Aggarwal Rakesh

    2009-10-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Hepatitis E, caused by the hepatitis E virus (HEV, is endemic to developing countries where it manifests as waterborne outbreaks and sporadic cases. Though generally self-limited with a low mortality rate, some cases progress to fulminant hepatic failure (FHF with high mortality. With no identified predictive or diagnostic markers, the events leading to disease exacerbation are not known. Our aim is to use proteomic tools to identify biomarkers of acute and fulminant hepatitis E. Results We analyzed proteins in the plasma and urine of hepatitis E patients and healthy controls by two-dimensional Differential Imaging Gel Electrophoresis (DIGE and mass spectrometry, and identified over 30 proteins to be differentially expressed during acute hepatitis E. The levels of one plasma protein, transthyretin, and one urine protein, alpha-1-microglobulin (α1m, were then quantitated by enzyme immunoassay (EIA in clinical samples from a larger group of patients and controls. The results showed decreased plasma transthyretin levels (p Conclusion Our results demonstrate the utility of characterizing plasma and urine proteomes for signatures of the host response to HEV infection. We predict that plasma transthyretin and urine α1m could be reliable biomarkers of acute hepatitis E. Besides the utility of this approach to biomarker discovery, proteome-level changes in human biofluids would also guide towards a better understanding of host-virus interaction and disease.

  13. Bovine viral diarrhea virus type 2 in vivo infection modulates TLR4 responsiveness in differentiated Myeloid cells which is associated with decreased MyD88 expression

    Bovine viral diarrhea virus (BVDV) causes clinical signs in cattle ranging from mild to severe acute infection which can lead to increased susceptibility to secondary bacteria. In this study we examined the effects of BVDV genotype 2 (BVDV2) infection on the ability of myeloid lineage cells derived...

  14. Respiratory viral infections and effects of meteorological parameters and air pollution in adults with respiratory symptoms admitted to the emergency room

    Silva, Denise R.; Viana, Vinícius P; Müller, Alice M; Livi, Fernando P; Dalcin, Paulo de Tarso R

    2013-01-01

    Background Respiratory viral infections (RVIs) are the most common causes of respiratory infections. The prevalence of respiratory viruses in adults is underestimated. Meteorological variations and air pollution are likely to play a role in these infections. Objectives The objectives of this study were to determine the number of emergency visits for influenza-like illness (ILI) and severe acute respiratory infection (SARI) and to evaluate the association between ILI/SARI, RVI prevalence, and ...

  15. Recent viral pathogen in acute gastroenteritis: a retrospective study at a tertiary hospital for 1 year

    Jin, Hye Il; Lee, Yoo Mi; Choi, You Jin; Jeong, Su Jin

    2016-01-01

    Purpose Viral gastroenteritis among children is mainly caused by rotavirus, norovirus, astrovirus, or adenovirus strains. However, changing socioeconomic conditions and a rotavirus vaccination program may be affecting the prevalence of these viral infections. Therefore, we aimed to elucidate the season-specific trends in viral infections for facilitating prophylaxis and surveillance in our region. Methods We evaluated 345 pediatric patients (203 males, 142 females; age, 1 month to 16 years) w...

  16. Treatment of acute upper respiratory tract infections in children

    Rončević-Babin Nevenka P.

    2002-01-01

    Full Text Available Introduction Acute respiratory tract infections are the most common diseases of childhood. A preschool child suffers up to 5-7 infections of upper airways during a year. Upper airway infections make 80 - 90% of all respiratory infections. Etiology and treatment In 75% of all cases respiratory infections are of viral etiology, 15% of bacterial and 10% are caused by mycoplasma, rickettsiae, fungi, parasites. The treatment of respiratory infections includes antimicrobial therapy (causal, relief of symptoms (symptomatic and application of general principles of child treatment. The choice of antimicrobial drug is based on the evidence of agents and their sensitivity to antimicrobial drugs, age, patient's condition, previous treatment and possible allergic reactions to the drug. In cases where adequate specimen cannot be obtained for microbiologic tests, when these tests do not reveal the agent, or therapy must start before evidence of the agent is available, we must decide about the therapy, taking in consideration the most frequent agents, and those that would cause the most devastating clinical picture. This therapy can be modified later, according to the isolated agent and its sensitivity to the drug. Considering the incidence and importance of respiratory infections in morbidity and mortality of children, the aim of this article was to present guidelines in treatment of respiratory infections. The main point remains that the treatment should take into consideration the individual patient before all.

  17. Viral infections acquired indoors through airborne, droplet or contact transmission

    Giuseppina La Rosa

    2013-06-01

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: Indoor human environments, including homes, offices, schools, workplaces, transport systems and other settings, often harbor potentially unsafe microorganisms. Most previous studies of bioaerosols in indoor environments have addressed contamination with bacteria or fungi. Reports on the presence of viral aerosols in indoor air are scarce, however, despite the fact that viruses are probably the most common cause of infection acquired indoor. OBJECTIVE: This review discusses the most common respiratory (influenza viruses, rhino-viruses, coronaviruses, adenoviruses, respiratory syncytial viruses, and enteroviruses and gastrointestinal (noroviruses viral pathogens which can be easily transmitted in indoor environments. RESULTS: The vast majority of studies reviewed here concern hospital and other health facilities where viruses are a well-known cause of occupational and nosocomial infections. Studies on other indoor environments, on the other hand, including homes, non-industrial workplaces and public buildings, are scarce. CONCLUSIONS: The lack of regulations, threshold values and standardized detection methods for viruses in indoor environments, make both research and interpretation of results difficult in this field, hampering infection control efforts. Further research will be needed to achieve a better understanding of virus survival in aerosols and on surfaces, and to elucidate the relationship between viruses and indoor environmental characteristics.

  18. Tsutsugamushi infection-associated acute rhabdomyolysis and acute renal failure.

    Young, Park Chi; Hae, Chung Choon; Lee, Kim Hyun; Hoon, Chung Jong

    2003-12-01

    Rhabdomyolysis is a rare complication that emerges in a variety of infectious diseases, such as tsutsugamushi infection. In this study, we report a 71-year-old female patient with tsutsugamushi infection who exhibiting rhabdomyolysis and acute renal failure. On admission, an eschar, which is characteristic of tsutsugamushi infection, was found on her right flank area. Moreover, her tsutsugamushi antibody titer was 1:40960. The elevated values of serum creatinine phosphokinase (CPK), aldolase, creatinine and dark brown urine secondary to myoglobinuria are consistent with indications of rhabdomyolysis and acute renal failure due to tsutsugamushi infection. Her health improved without any residual effects after treatment with doxycyclin and hydration with normal saline. PMID:14717236

  19. Type I IFN Signaling Is Dispensable during Secondary Viral Infection.

    Hosking, Martin P; Flynn, Claudia T; Whitton, J Lindsay

    2016-08-01

    Innate immune responses in general, and type I interferons (T1IFNs) in particular, play an important and often essential role during primary viral infections, by directly combatting the virus and by maximizing the primary adaptive immune response. Several studies have suggested that T1IFNs also contribute very substantially to the secondary (recall) response; they are thought (i) to be required to drive the early attrition of memory T cells, (ii) to support the subsequent expansion of surviving virus-specific memory cells, and (iii) to assist in the suppression and clearance of the infectious agent. However, many of these observations were predicated upon models in which T1IFN signaling was interrupted prior to a primary immune response, raising the possibility that the resulting memory cells might be intrinsically abnormal. We have directly addressed this by using an inducible-Cre model system in which the host remains genetically-intact during the primary response to infection, and in which T1IFN signaling can be effectively ablated prior to secondary viral challenge. We report that, in stark contrast to primary infection, T1IFN signaling is not required during the recall response. IFNαβR-deficient memory CD8+ and CD4+ memory T cells undergo attrition and expansion with kinetics that are indistinguishable from those of receptor-sufficient cells. Moreover, even in the absence of functional T1IFN signaling, the host's immune capacity to rapidly suppress, and then to eradicate, a secondary infection remains intact. Thus, this study shows that T1IFN signaling is dispensable during the recall response to a virus infection. Moreover, two broader implications may be drawn. First, a T cell's requirement for a cytokine is highly dependent on the cell's maturation / differentiation status. Consequently, second, these data underscore the importance of evaluating a gene's impact by modulating its expression or function in a temporally-controllable manner. PMID:27580079

  20. Prognostic Value of Cytochrome C and Cytokines in Acute Viral Encephalopathy

    J Gordon Millichap

    2006-06-01

    Full Text Available Serum cytochrome c and cytokines were evaluated as prognostic predictors in 29 children (ages 9 mos to 9 yrs 11 mos with viral acute encephalopathies and multiple organ failure at Fukushima Medical University School of Medicine, Japan.

  1. Dynamics of viral replication in blood and lymphoid tissues during SIVmac251 infection of macaques

    Mannioui Abdelkrim

    2009-01-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Extensive studies of primary infection are crucial to our understanding of the course of HIV disease. In SIV-infected macaques, a model closely mimicking HIV pathogenesis, we used a combination of three markers -- viral RNA, 2LTR circles and viral DNA -- to evaluate viral replication and dissemination simultaneously in blood, secondary lymphoid tissues, and the gut during primary and chronic infections. Subsequent viral compartmentalization in the main target cells of the virus in peripheral blood during the chronic phase of infection was evaluated by cell sorting and viral quantification with the three markers studied. Results The evolutions of viral RNA, 2LTR circles and DNA levels were correlated in a given tissue during primary and early chronic infection. The decrease in plasma viral load principally reflects a large decrease in viral replication in gut-associated lymphoid tissue (GALT, with viral RNA and DNA levels remaining stable in the spleen and peripheral lymph nodes. Later, during chronic infection, a progressive depletion of central memory CD4+ T cells from the peripheral blood was observed, accompanied by high levels of viral replication in the cells of this subtype. The virus was also found to replicate at this point in the infection in naive CD4+ T cells. Viral RNA was frequently detected in monocytes, but no SIV replication appeared to occur in these cells, as no viral DNA or 2LTR circles were detected. Conclusion We demonstrated the persistence of viral replication and dissemination, mostly in secondary lymphoid tissues, during primary and early chronic infection. During chronic infection, the central memory CD4+ T cells were the major site of viral replication in peripheral blood, but viral replication also occurred in naive CD4+ T cells. The role of monocytes seemed to be limited to carrying the virus as a cargo because there was an observed lack of replication in these cells. These data may have important

  2. Dengue viral infections as a cause of encephalopathy

    Malavige G

    2007-01-01

    Full Text Available The aim of this study was to determine the clinical characteristics and poor prognostic factors associated with high mortality in dengue encephalopathy. Fifteen patients with confirmed dengue infections, who developed encephalopathy, were recruited from two tertiary care hospitals in Colombo, Sri Lanka. Among the factors that contributed to encephalopathy were: Acute liver failure (73%, electrolyte imbalances (80% and shock (40%. Five (33.3% patients developed seizures. Disseminated intravascular coagulation was seen in five (33.3%. Secondary bacterial infections were observed in 8 (53.3% of our patients. The overall mortality rate was 47%.

  3. Evaluation of physiological parameters before and after respiratory physiotherapy in newborns with acute viral bronchiolitis

    S Gonçalves, Rodrigo A; Feitosa, Sérgio; de Castro Selestrin, Cláudia; Vitor E. Valenti; de Sousa, Fernando H; F Siqueira, Arnaldo A; Petenusso, Márcio; de Abreu, Luiz Carlos

    2014-01-01

    Background Acute viral bronchiolitis is a respiratory disease with high morbidity that affects newborn in the first two years of life. Its treatment with physiotherapy has been highlighted as an important tool, however, there is no consensus regarding its effects on patients improvement. We aimed to evaluate the physiological parameters before and after the procedure respiratory therapy in newborn with acute viral bronchiolitis. Method This was a cross sectional observational study in 30 newb...

  4. 上海闵行地区老年慢性阻塞性肺疾病急性发作患者病毒感染分析%Epidemiology of viral infection causing acute exacerbations of chronic obstructive pulmonary disease in the elderly patients during 2010-2012 in Minhang district of Shanghai

    施劲东; 何静; 胡芸文; 何燕超; 黄琦慧; 梅周芳; 钱凌; 蒋蓉; 揭志军

    2014-01-01

    目的:观察上海闵行地区2010-2012年老年慢性阻塞性肺疾病急性发作期(acute exacerbations of chronic obstructive pulmonary disease, AECOPD )患者病毒感染情况,探讨老年AECOPD病毒感染的相关临床特征。方法选择2010年9月至2012年11月复旦大学附属上海市第五人民医院呼吸科70岁以上老年AECOPD住院患者为研究对象,并排除不能配合肺功能检查的患者。所有患者均采集鼻咽拭子,采用多重巢式PCR检测9种呼吸道病毒及其不同亚型,包括A型流感病毒(FluA)、2009甲型流感病毒(09FluH1)、B型流感病毒(FluB)、呼吸道合胞病毒A型(RSVA)和 B 型(RSVB)、人冠状病毒229E 型(hCOV-229E)、NL-63型(hCOV-NL63)、OC43型(hCOV-OC43)和 HKU1型(hCOV-HKU1)、人副流感病毒1~4型(hPIV1、hPIV2、hPIV3、hPIV4)、腺病毒(hAdV)、博卡病毒(HBoV)、人类偏肺病毒(hMPV)、鼻病毒(hRV)等。根据检测结果将所有病例分为病毒感染组和非病毒感染组,分析病毒感染与AECOPD临床特征的关系。结果入选的60例患者中14例病毒检测阳性,阳性率为23.33%,其中一例为三重感染(FluB、hRV和 hCOV)。检出病毒为9例 hRV (15.00%)、2例 hPIV (3.33%)、2例 hCOV (3.33%)、2例FluB (3.33%)、1例RSV (1.67%)。通过比较两组之间的临床特征,发现病毒感染组病死率高于非病毒感染组,其余一般情况、症状、体征、化验检查和住院时间方面两组之间差异无统计学意义。结论鼻病毒是老年AECOPD患者呼吸道检出最多的病毒。老年AECOPD患者呼吸道病毒感染影响预后,且临床表现缺乏特异性,快速诊断上存在一定困难。%Objective To investigate the epidemiology of viral infection in elderly patients to contract acute exacerbations of chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (AECOPD)in Minhang district of Shanghai from 2010 to

  5. Slow clearance of human parvovirus B19 viremia following acute infection

    Lindblom, Anna; Isa, Adiba; Norbeck, Oscar;

    2005-01-01

    Parvovirus B19 is a common, clinically significant pathogen. Reassessment of the viral kinetics after acute infection showed that the virus is not rapidly cleared from healthy hosts, despite early resolution of symptoms. These findings challenge our current conception of the virus' pathogenesis and...

  6. Pathmorphological investigation of pulmonary infections complications in persons dying from acute radiation sickness after Chernobyl accident

    Lungs of 27 persons who participated in liquidation of Chernobyl accident and died from acute radiation sickness were studied histologically. Pulmonary infections were found, including invasion of viral, bacterial and fungal agents. Being depended on hematopoietic function the inflammatory reactions were areactive during postirradiation aplasia and became typical within the recovery beginning

  7. Treatment of acute lower respiratory tract infections in children

    Rončević-Babin Nevenka P.

    2002-01-01

    Full Text Available Introduction Acute respiratory tract infections are the most common childhood diseases. A preschool child suffers up to 5-7 infections of upper airways during a year. Lower airway infections make 5-20% of all respiratory infections. Etiologic factors In developed countries, 75% of pneumonias in childhood are of viral etiology, in 15% of bacterial, and in 10% of some other causative agent (mycoplasma, rickettsiae, fungi, parasites. In developing countries, bacterial pneumonias are present in much higher percentages. Treatment Treatment of respiratory infections includes antimicrobial therapy (causal, relief of symptoms (symptomatic and conduction of general principles in child treatment. The choice of antimicrobial drug is based on evidence of agents and their sensitivity to antimicrobial drugs, age, patient's condition, previous treatment and possible allergic reactions to the drug. In cases where we cannot provide adequate specimen for microbiologic testing, when these tests do not reveal the agent, or when therapy must be started before the agent is available, we must decide about the therapy, taking in consideration the most frequent agents, and those that would cause the most devastating clinical picture. This therapy can later be modified according to the isolated agent and its sensitivity to the drug. Conclusion Having in mind the incidence and importance of respiratory infections in morbidity and mortality of children the aim of this article was to show guidelines in treatment of respiratory infections in children. The main point remains that we should take in consideration the individual patient before all.

  8. Hepatitis C Viral Infection in Children: Updated Review

    2016-01-01

    Hepatitis C virus (HCV) infection is a major medical challenge affecting around 200 million people worldwide. The main site of HCV replication is the hepatocytes of the liver. HCV is a positive enveloped RNA virus from the flaviviridae family. Six major HCV genotypes are implicated in the human infection. In developed countries the children are infected mainly through vertical transmission during deliveries, while in developing countries it is still due to horizontal transmission from adults. Minimal nonspecific and brief symptoms are initially found in approximately 15% of children. Acute and chronic HCV infection is diagnosed through the recognition of HCV RNA. The main objective for treatment of chronic HCV is to convert detected HCV viremia to below the detection limit. Children with chronic HCV infection are usually asymptomatic and rarely develop severe liver damage. Therefore, the benefits from current therapies, pegylated-Interferon plus ribavirin, must be weighed against their adverse effects. This combined treatment offers a 50-90% chance of clearing HCV infection according to several studies and on different HCV genotype. Recent direct acting antiviral (DAA) drugs which are well established for adults have not yet been approved for children and young adults below 18 years. The most important field for the prevention of HCV infection in children would be the prevention of perinatal and parenteral transmission. There are areas of focus for new lines of research in pediatric HCV-related disease that can be addressed in the near future.

  9. Clinical Factors and Viral Load Influencing Severity of Acute Hepatitis A.

    Hyun Woong Lee

    Full Text Available Clinical manifestations of hepatitis A virus (HAV infection vary from mild to fulminant hepatic failure (FHF in adults. We investigated the relationship between laboratory findings, including viral load, and clinical outcomes in patients with acute hepatitis A (AHA and evaluated predictive factors for severe acute hepatitis (s-AH.We analyzed the clinical manifestations of AHA in 770 patients. Patients with a prothrombin time (PT of less than 40% of normal were classified as s-AH and included 4 patients with FHF, 11 patients with acute renal failure, and 3 patients with prolonged jaundice (n = 128. Other patients were defined as mild acute hepatitis (m-AH (n = 642. Serum samples were obtained from 48 patients with acute hepatitis A. Among them, 20 with s-AH, and 28 with m-AH, were tested for HAV RNA titer.In a multivariate analysis, age (HR = 1.042, P = 0.041, peak creatinine (HR = 4.014, P = 0.001, bilirubin (HR = 1.153, P = 0.003, alanine aminotransferase (ALT (HR = 1.001, P < 0.001, initial lactate dehydrogenase (LDH (HR = 1.000, P = 0.045 and total cholesterol (HR = 0.978, P < 0.001 were independent factors for s-AH. Serum HAV RNA was detected in 20/20 (100% patients with s-AH and 22/28 (78.6% patients with m-AH. In a multivariate analysis of the 48 patients who were tested for HAV RNA, peak ALT (HR = 1.001, P = 0.004 and HAV RNA titer (HR = 2.076, P = 0.012 were independent factors for s-AH.Clinical factors including age, peak creatinine, bilirubin, ALT, initial LDH and total cholesterol were independent factors for s-AH in a multivariate analysis. In particular, HAV load strongly correlated with the severity of hepatitis A.

  10. The Molecular Prevalence of Viral Infections in Transplant Candidates with Bone Marrow Suppression, Shiraz, Southern Iran, 2010

    Mohammadi, B.; Yaghobi, R.; Dehghani, M.; A. Behzad Behbahani3

    2013-01-01

    Background: Transient bone marrow suppression, characterized by acute inability of the bone marrow to produce circulating blood cells, may strongly relate to the pathogenesis of some viral infections. Objective: To study the prevalence of some DNA and RNA viruses in patients with transient bone marrow suppression. Methods: EDTA-treated blood samples were collected from 27 patients with clinically- and laboratory-confirmed transient bone marrow suppression. The genomic DNA of hepatitis B virus...

  11. The Impact of Respiratory Viral Infection on Wheezing Illnesses and Asthma Exacerbations

    Carroll, Kecia N.; Hartert, Tina V

    2008-01-01

    The etiology and morbidity associated with asthma are thought to stem from both genetic factors and potentially modifiable environmental factors, such as viral infections.[1-7] Although it is unclear whether respiratory viral infections cause asthma, observational studies have demonstrated a high rate of asthma in children with a history of severe viral lower respiratory tract infections during infancy, and viruses are the associated with the majority of asthma exacerbations among both childr...

  12. Kocuria kristinae infection associated with acute cholecystitis

    Chan Edmond CH

    2005-07-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Kocuria, previously classified into the genus of Micrococcus, is commonly found on human skin. Two species, K. rosea and K. kristinae, are etiologically associated with catheter-related bacteremia. Case presentation We describe the first case of K. kristinae infection associated with acute cholecystitis. The microorganism was isolated from the bile of a 56-year old Chinese man who underwent laparoscopic cholecystectomy. He developed post-operative fever that resolved readily after levofloxacin treatment. Conclusion Our report of K. kristinae infection associated with acute cholecystitis expands the clinical spectrum of infections caused by this group of bacteria. With increasing number of recent reports describing the association between Kocuria spp. and infectious diseases, the significance of their isolation from clinical specimens cannot be underestimated. A complete picture of infections related to Kocuria spp. will have to await the documentation of more clinical cases.

  13. Acute encephalitis syndrome following scrub typhus infection

    Ayan Kar; Dhanaraj, M.; Devaprasad Dedeepiya; Harikrishna, K.

    2014-01-01

    Objective: The aim was to find the incidence of acute encephalitis syndrome (AES) secondary to scrub infection and to observe the clinical, biochemical, radiological profile, and outcomes in these patients. Materials and Methods: A total of 20 consecutive patients of AES were evaluated for scrub infection using scrub typhus immunoglobulin M enzyme linked immuno-sorbant assay positivity along with the presence or absence of an eschar. Clinical profile, routine laboratory tests, cerebrospinal f...

  14. HIV Replication Is Not Controlled by CD8+ T Cells during the Acute Phase of the Infection in Humanized Mice

    Petit, Nicolas Y.; Lambert-Niclot, Sidonie; Marcelin, Anne-Geneviève; Garcia, Sylvie; Marodon, Gilles

    2015-01-01

    International audience HIV replication follows a well-defined pattern during the acute phase of the infection in humans. After reaching a peak during the first few weeks after infection, viral replication resolves to a set-point thereafter. There are still uncertainties regarding the contribution of CD8 + T cells in establishing this set-point. An alternative explanation, supported by in silico modeling, would imply that viral replication is limited by the number of available targets for i...

  15. [Effect of shengmaisan on serum lipid peroxidation in acute viral myocarditis].

    Zhao, M H; Rong, Y Z; Lu, B J

    1996-03-01

    The effect of Shengmaisan (SMS) on 62 acute viral myocarditis patients and its peroxidation damage was studied. The results revealed that the activities of superoxide dismutase (SOD) and glutathione peroxidase (GSH-Px) in blood were decreased and the content of malondialdehyde (MDA) in plasma was increased in acute viral myocarditis patients in comparison with the healthy controls (P SMS group and placebo group. After treatment, both SOD and GSH-Px activities were increased and the level of MDA decreased (P SMS group, while those in placebo group were not changed (P < 0.05). The results suggested that the myocardial damage of viral myocarditis is closely related with lipid peroxidation SMS acts as an effective free radical scavenger and anti-lipid peroxidation drug. SMS could prevent the damage of myocardia and might be taken as one of the effective therapeutic methods in treatment of acute viral myocarditis. PMID:9208534

  16. A Mathematical Model of T1D Acceleration and Delay by Viral Infection.

    Moore, James R; Adler, Fred

    2016-03-01

    Type 1 diabetes (T1D) is often triggered by a viral infection, but the T1D prevalence is rising among populations that have a lower exposure to viral infection. In an animal model of T1D, the NOD mouse, viral infection at different ages may either accelerate or delay disease depending on the age of infection and the type of virus. Viral infection may affect the progression of T1D via multiple mechanisms: triggering inflammation, bystander activation of self-reactive T-cells, inducing a competitive immune response, or inducing a regulatory immune response. In this paper, we create mathematical models of the interaction of viral infection with T1D progression, incorporating each of these four mechanisms. Our goal is to understand how each viral mechanism interacts with the age of infection. The model predicts that each viral mechanism has a unique pattern of interaction with disease progression. Viral inflammation always accelerates disease, but the effect decreases with age of infection. Bystander activation has little effect at younger ages and actually decreases incidence at later ages while accelerating disease in mice that do get the disease. A competitive immune response to infection can decrease incidence at young ages and increase it at older ages, with the effect decreasing over time. Finally, an induced Treg response decreases incidence at any age of infection, but the effect decreases with age. Some of these patterns resemble those seen experimentally. PMID:27030351

  17. High numbers of IL-2-producing CD8+ T cells during viral infection: correlation with stable memory development

    Kristensen, Nanna Ny; Christensen, Jan Pravsgaard; Thomsen, Allan Randrup

    Using infections with lymphocytic choriomeningitis virus (LCMV) and vesicular stomatitis virus in mice as model systems, we have investigated the ability of antigen-primed CD8+ T cells generated in the context of viral infections to produce IL-2. Our results indicate that acute immunizing infection...... normally leads to generation of high numbers of IL-2-producing antigen-specific CD8+ T cells. By costaining for IL-2 and IFN-gamma intracellularly, we found that IL-2-producing cells predominantly constitute a subset of cells also producing IFN-gamma. Comparison of the kinetics of generation revealed that...... chronic LCMV infection. Furthermore, in MHC class II-deficient mice, which only transiently control LCMV infection, IL-2-producing CD8+ T cells are initially generated, but by 4 weeks after infection this subset has nearly disappeared. Eventually the capacity to produce IFN-gamma also becomes impaired...

  18. Observational prospective study of viral infections in children undergoing allogeneic hematopoietic cell transplantation: a 3-year GETMON experience.

    Verdeguer, A; de Heredia, C D; González, M; Martínez, A M; Fernández-Navarro, J M; Pérez-Hurtado, J M; Badell, I; Gómez, P; González, M E; Muñoz, A; Díaz, M A

    2011-01-01

    We studied surveillance, incidence and outcome of viral infections in children undergoing allogeneic hematopoietic cell transplantation (HCT) in the main pediatric transplant units in Spain. We prospectively collected data from first year post-HCT in every consecutive allogeneic HCT performed during 3 years (N = 215): first HCT = 188 and second HCT = 27; median age = 6.6 years (0.1-20.7). Most patients had acute leukemia (N = 137) and 135 recipients (63%) were CMV seropositive. A total of 46 patients underwent cord blood transplant, 133 patients underwent HCT from alternative donors (62%) and 101 patients received anti-thymocyte globulin. Observational time was completed in 137 patients, whereas the remaining 78 died after a median survival time of 99 days (3-352). CMV was monitored in all patients; adenovirus (ADV) and human herpesvirus 6 (HHV-6) were monitored in 101 and 33 patients, respectively. We found 145 viral infections in 103 patients: CMV (n = 42), ADV (n = 32), HHV-6 (n = 7), polyomavirus (n = 20), EBV (n = 6), VZV (n=17) and others (n = 8). CMV infection was significantly higher in seropositive patients (25 vs 7%) (P = 0.02). Extensive chronic GVHD (cGVHD) was significantly associated with an increased rate of viral infections (12 of 16 patients with cGVHD had infections vs 91 of 199 without GVHD) (P = 0.035). In total, 10 patients (4.6%) died of viral infections (CMV = 5, ADV = 3, respiratory = 2). We found a high incidence of viral infection, but mortality was low. PMID:20228849

  19. Acute HIV Infection in Pregnancy: The Case for Third Trimester Rescreening

    Jocelyn Wertz; Jason Cesario; Jennifer Sackrison; Sean Kim; Chi Dola

    2011-01-01

    Combination testing with anti-HIV Elisa and Western blot is both sensitive and specific for diagnosis of established HIV-1 infection but could not detect acute HIV infection (AHI). AHI is a time of extremely high viral load, which may correlate to increased risk of horizontal or vertical transmission. Thus, early identification of AHI could allow for interventions to decrease transmission. However, recognition of AHI can be challenging as symptoms could be absent or nonspecific, therefore, A...

  20. Surveillance of Acute Respiratory Infections in Mumbai during 2011-12

    R D Chavan

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Purpose: Acute respiratory infections (ARIs are a leading cause of morbidity and mortality in individuals aged less than 5 years. ARI often leads to hospitalisation, and it has been indicated that causative viral and bacterial infections go undetermined and results in the occurrence of resistant strains. The objective of the study was to assess the prevalence of various viral and bacterial infections in patients with ARIs. Materials and Methods: Two hundred samples were collected from July 2011 to July 2012 with patients suffering from ARI. Viral and bacterial infections were determined by real time reverse transcriptase polymerase chain reaction. Results: Influenza-like illness (ILI consisted of 109 patients and ARI consisted of 91 patients. Pandemic influenza A H1N1 was the major viral infection with 21 (19.2% patients in ILI as compared with 16 (17.4% patients in ARI. Respiratory syncytial virus (RSV was found to be 1 (0.9% in ILI and ARI. Viral co-infections were 16 (14.4% in ILI and 4 (4.37% in ARI where pandemic influenza A H1N1 and influenza type B were major contributors. In bacterial infections, Streptococcus pneumoniae with 11 (10.9% cases were predominant in both the groups. Bacterial co-infection accounted for only 1 (1.09% case in both the groups but the most significant finding was the viral-bacterial co-infection in which Haemophilus influenzae was the major co-infecting bacteria with the influenza viruses with 4 (4.36% cases as compared with Streptotoccus pneumoniae. Conclusion: This data indicate the need to undertake continued surveillance that will help to better define the circulation of respiratory viruses along with the bacterial infections.

  1. Global analysis of viral infection in an archaeal model system

    JosephSteffens

    2012-12-01

    Full Text Available The origin and evolutionary relationship of viruses is poorly understood. This makes archaeal virus-host of particular interest because the hosts generally root near the base of phylogenetic trees, while some of the viruses have clear structural similarities to those that infect prokaryotic and eukaryotic cells. Despite the advantageous position for use in evolutionary studies, little is known about archaeal viruses or how they interact with their hosts, compared to viruses of bacteria and eukaryotes. In addition, many archaeal viruses have been isolated from extreme environments and present a unique opportunity for elucidating factors that are important for existence at the extremes.. In this article we focus on virus-host interactions using a proteomics approach to study Sulfolobus Turreted Icosahedral Virus (STIV infection of Sulfolobus solfataricus P2. Using cultures grown from the ATCC cell stock, a single cycle of STIV infection was sampled 6 times over a 72 hr period. More than 700 proteins were identified throughout the course of the experiments. Seventy one host proteins were found to change by nearly two-fold (p<0.05 with 40 becoming more abundant and 31 less abundant. The modulated proteins represent 30 different cell pathways and 14 COG groups. 2D gel analysis showed that changes in post translational modifications were a common feature of the affected proteins. The results from these studies showed that the prokaryotic antiviral adaptive immune system CRISPR associated proteins (CAS proteins were regulated in response to the virus infection. It was found that regulated proteins come from mRNAs with a shorter than average half-life. In addition, activity-based protein profiling (ABPP profiling on 2D gels showed caspase, hydrolase and tyrosine phosphatase enzyme activity labeling at the protein isoform level. Together, this data provides a more detailed global view of archaeal cellular responses to viral infection, demonstrates the

  2. Viral respiratory infections among Hajj pilgrims in 2013.

    Barasheed, Osamah; Rashid, Harunor; Alfelali, Mohammad; Tashani, Mohamed; Azeem, Mohammad; Bokhary, Hamid; Kalantan, Nadeen; Samkari, Jamil; Heron, Leon; Kok, Jen; Taylor, Janette; El Bashir, Haitham; Memish, Ziad A; Haworth, Elizabeth; Holmes, Edward C; Dwyer, Dominic E; Asghar, Atif; Booy, Robert

    2014-12-01

    Middle East respiratory syndrome coronavirus (MERS-CoV) has emerged in the Arabian Gulf region, with its epicentre in Saudi Arabia, the host of the 'Hajj' which is the world's the largest mass gathering. Transmission of MERS-CoV at such an event could lead to its rapid worldwide dissemination. Therefore, we studied the frequency of viruses causing influenza-like illnesses (ILI) among participants in a randomised controlled trial at the Hajj 2013. We recruited 1038 pilgrims from Saudi Arabia, Australia and Qatar during the first day of Hajj and followed them closely for four days. A nasal swab was collected from each pilgrim who developed ILI. Respiratory viruses were detected using multiplex RT-PCR. ILI occurred in 112/1038 (11%) pilgrims. Their mean age was 35 years, 49 (44%) were male and 35 (31%) had received the influenza vaccine pre-Hajj. Forty two (38%) pilgrims had laboratory-confirmed viral infections; 28 (25%) rhinovirus, 5 (4%) influenza A, 2 (2%) adenovirus, 2 (2%) human coronavirus OC43/229E, 2 (2%) parainfluenza virus 3, 1 (1%) parainfluenza virus 1, and 2 (2%) dual infections. No MERS-CoV was detected in any sample. Rhinovirus was the commonest cause of ILI among Hajj pilgrims in 2013. Infection control and appropriate vaccination are necessary to prevent transmission of respiratory viruses at Hajj and other mass gatherings. PMID:25413828

  3. Epidemiological investigation of selected pigeon viral infections in Poland.

    Stenzel, T A; Pestka, D; Tykałowski, B; Śmiałek, M; Koncicki, A

    2012-12-01

    Due to a lack of data in regard to the spread of viral infections in Polish pigeon populations, studies were undertaken to assess the frequency of adeno-, circo- and herpesvirus infections in flocks of pigeons across the entire country. In total, 107 flocks were examined, of which 61 per cent consisted of racing and 39 per cent of fancy pigeons. The flocks were divided into groups according to breed (racing and fancy pigeons) as well as physical condition (healthy and sick). In the studied pigeon flocks, the pigeon circovirus (PiCV) genetic material was the most frequently detected (44.5-100 per cent depending on the group), pigeon herpesvirus genetic material was second in frequency (0-30 per cent depending on the group), while genetic material of pigeon adenovirus was found only in two flocks of young birds with clinical symptoms of Young Pigeon Disease Syndrome (YPDS). The presence of fowl adenovirus (FAdV) genetic material was not detected in any of the studied flocks. Results obtained demonstrate a wide spread of circovirus in pigeon flocks in Poland, and substantiate earlier theories proposed by other authors, that immunosuppression evoked by PiCV infection is one of the main causative agents of YPDS. PMID:23118041

  4. Clinical and laboratory description of a series of cases of acute viral myositis

    Silvana Paula Cardin

    2015-10-01

    Full Text Available ABSTRACT OBJECTIVE: Describe the clinical and laboratory profile, follow-up, and outcome of a series of cases of acute viral myositis. METHOD: A retrospective analysis of suspected cases under observation in the emergency department was performed, including outpatient follow-up with the recording of respiratory infection and musculoskeletal symptoms, measurement of muscle enzymes, creatine phosphokinase (CPK, lactate dehydrogenase (LDH, transaminases (AST and ALT, blood count, C-reactive protein, and erythrocyte sedimentation rate in the acute phase and during follow-up until normalization. RESULTS: Between 2000 and 2009, 42 suspected cases were identified and 35 (27 boys were included. The median age was 7 years and the diagnosis was reported in 89% in the first emergency visit. The observed respiratory symptoms were cough (31%, rhinorrhea (23%, and fever (63%, with a mean duration of 4.3 days. Musculoskeletal symptoms were localized pain in the calves (80%, limited ambulation (57%, gait abnormality (40%, and muscle weakness in the lower limbs (71%, with a mean duration of 3.6 days. There was significant increase in CPK enzymes (5507 ± 9180 U/L, LDH (827 ± 598 U/L, and AST (199 ± 245 U/L, with a tendency to leukopenia (4590 ± 1420 leukocytes/mm3. The complete recovery of laboratory parameters was observed in 30 days (median, and laboratory and clinical recurrence was documented in one case after 10 months. CONCLUSION: Typical symptoms with increased muscle enzymes after diagnosis of influenza and self-limited course of the disease were the clues to the diagnosis. The increase in muscle enzymes indicate transient myotropic activity related to seasonal influenza, which should be considered, regardless of the viral identification, possibly associated with influenza virus or other respiratory viruses.

  5. Viral infection affects sucrose responsiveness and homing ability of forager honey bees, Apis mellifera L.

    Zhiguo Li

    Full Text Available Honey bee health is mainly affected by Varroa destructor, viruses, Nosema spp., pesticide residues and poor nutrition. Interactions between these proposed factors may be responsible for the colony losses reported worldwide in recent years. In the present study, the effects of a honey bee virus, Israeli acute paralysis virus (IAPV, on the foraging behaviors and homing ability of European honey bees (Apis mellifera L. were investigated based on proboscis extension response (PER assays and radio frequency identification (RFID systems. The pollen forager honey bees originated from colonies that had no detectable level of honey bee viruses and were manually inoculated with IAPV to induce the viral infection. The results showed that IAPV-inoculated honey bees were more responsive to low sucrose solutions compared to that of non-infected foragers. After two days of infection, around 10⁷ copies of IAPV were detected in the heads of these honey bees. The homing ability of IAPV-infected foragers was depressed significantly in comparison to the homing ability of uninfected foragers. The data provided evidence that IAPV infection in the heads may enable the virus to disorder foraging roles of honey bees and to interfere with brain functions that are responsible for learning, navigation, and orientation in the honey bees, thus, making honey bees have a lower response threshold to sucrose and lose their way back to the hive.

  6. Viral and atypical bacterial infections in the outpatient pediatric cystic fibrosis clinic

    Olesen, Hanne Vebert; Nielsen, Lars P; Schiotz, Peter Oluf

    2006-01-01

    BACKGROUND: Respiratory viral and atypical bacterial infections are associated with pulmonary exacerbations and hospitalisations in cystic fibrosis patients. We wanted to study the impact of such infections on children attending the outpatient clinic. METHODS: Seventy-five children were followed...

  7. When to consider acute HIV infection in the differential diagnosis.

    Grimes, Richard M; Hardwicke, Robin L; Grimes, Deanna E; DeGarmo, D Sean

    2016-01-16

    Patients presenting with fever, pharyngitis, and lymphadenopathy are likely to have mononucleosis; however, patients with acute HIV infection may present with similar symptoms. Acute HIV infection should be considered as a differential diagnosis if test results for mononucleosis are negative. This article describes when to order HIV testing and discusses the importance of early intervention for acute HIV infection. PMID:26678418

  8. Natural FCoV infection: cats with FIP exhibit significantly higher viral loads than healthy infected cats.

    Kipar, Anja; Baptiste, Keith; Barth, Andreas; Reinacher, Manfred

    2006-02-01

    Natural feline coronavirus (FCoV) infection has been shown to not only induce intestinal infection with viral shedding, but also systemic infection which either remains without clinical signs or leads to feline infectious peritonitis (FIP). As systemic infection is not the key event in the development of FIP, the question arises as to whether a potential difference in viral load might be of importance. Therefore, the purpose of this study was to quantitatively assess feline coronavirus (FCoV) RNA loads in haemolymphatic tissues of healthy, long-term FCoV-infected cats and cats with FIP. In cats that died from FIP, viral loads were significantly higher, indicating a higher rate of viral replication or a reduced capacity for viral clearance in cats developing and/or suffering from FIP. PMID:16213766

  9. Stevens–Johnson Syndrome and Toxic Epidermal Necrolysis Associated with Acetaminophen Use during Viral Infections

    Ban, Ga-Young; Ahn, Seun-Joo; Yoo, Hye-Soo; Park, Hae-Sim

    2016-01-01

    An association between drug treatment for viral infections and severe cutaneous adverse reactions has been noted. We investigated six patients diagnosed with Stevens–Johnson syndrome (SJS) and toxic epidermal necrolysis (TEN) after being prescribed acetaminophen for suspected viral illnesses. Multiplex analysis was performed to measure cytokine levels in sera before and after treatment. IL-2Rα levels significantly decreased during the convalescence phase. Although acetaminophen is relatively safe, the drug can trigger SJS/TEN in patients with suspected viral infections. T-cells and monocytes may be key components of the link between viral infection and acetaminophen-induced SJS/TEN. PMID:27574505

  10. Stevens-Johnson Syndrome and Toxic Epidermal Necrolysis Associated with Acetaminophen Use during Viral Infections.

    Ban, Ga-Young; Ahn, Seun-Joo; Yoo, Hye-Soo; Park, Hae-Sim; Ye, Young-Min

    2016-08-01

    An association between drug treatment for viral infections and severe cutaneous adverse reactions has been noted. We investigated six patients diagnosed with Stevens-Johnson syndrome (SJS) and toxic epidermal necrolysis (TEN) after being prescribed acetaminophen for suspected viral illnesses. Multiplex analysis was performed to measure cytokine levels in sera before and after treatment. IL-2Rα levels significantly decreased during the convalescence phase. Although acetaminophen is relatively safe, the drug can trigger SJS/TEN in patients with suspected viral infections. T-cells and monocytes may be key components of the link between viral infection and acetaminophen-induced SJS/TEN. PMID:27574505

  11. Interplay between viral infections and genetic alterations in liver cancer

    Pierre Hainaut

    2007-02-01

    Full Text Available

    With over 500 000 annual deaths, Hepatocellular carcinoma (HCC is the fifth most common cancer worldwide and a leading cause of death in developing countries where about 80% of the cases arise. Risk factors include chronic hepatitis infections (hepatitis B, (HBV and hepatitis C (HCV viruses, alcohol, dietary contaminants such as falatoxins The incidence shows important geographic variations, accor In southern Asia, HCC development is mainly related to the endemic Hepatitis B Virus (HBV infection, cases with hot spot mutation in codon 249 (249ser of TP53 tumor suppressor gene were also described and associated to a low-intermediate exposure rate to Aflatoxin B1 (AFB1. Presence of Hepatitis C Virus (HCV infection was also detected in 12 - 17% of HCC cases. Despite the increasing number of studies identifying viral/host interactions in viro-induced HCC or describing potential pathways for hepatocarcinogenesis, precise mechanism has not been identified so far. HBV was demonstrated to enhance hepatocarcinogenesis by different manners; HBV chronic infection is associated to active hepatitis (CAH and cirrhosis which are hepatic complications considered as early stage for HCC development. These complications mobilise the host immune response, the resulting inflammation initiates and selects the first genetic alteration at the origin of loss of cell control. Moreover, HBV can also promote carcinogenesis through genetic instability generated by its common integration in host DNA. HBV proteins, as HBx, was proven to interact with a variety of targets in the host cell including protein or host transcription factor such as, in particular, the p53 protein or the transcription factor E4F, which is implicated in growth, differenciation and senescence. Specific HBV mutations or distinct HBV genotypes are associated to higher risks factors for HCC or hepatic complications leading

  12. Pseudo-nitzschia Challenged with Co-occurring Viral Communities Display Diverse Infection Phenotypes

    Carlson, Michael C. G.; McCary, Nicolette D.; Leach, Terence S.; Rocap, Gabrielle

    2016-01-01

    Viruses are catalysts of biogeochemical cycling, architects of microbial community structure, and terminators of phytoplankton blooms. Viral lysis of diatoms, a key group of eukaryotic phytoplankton, has the potential to impact carbon export and marine food webs. However, the impact of viruses on diatom abundance and community composition is unknown. Diatom-virus dynamics were explored by sampling every month at two coastal and estuarine locations in Washington state, USA resulting in 41 new isolates of the pennate diatom Pseudo-nitzschia and 20 environmental virus samples. We conducted a total of 820 pair-wise crosses of the Pseudo-nitzschia isolates and viral communities. Viral communities infected Pseudo-nitzschia isolates in 8% of the crosses overall and 16% of crosses when the host and viral communities were isolated from the same sample. Isolates ranged in their permissivity to infection with some isolates not infected by any viral samples and others infected by up to 10 viral communities. Isolates that were infected by the most viral communities also had the highest maximum observed viral titers (as high as 16000 infectious units ml-1). Titers of the viral communities were host dependent, as titers for one viral sample on eight different hosts spanned four orders of magnitude. Sequencing of the Pseudo-nitzschia Internal Transcribed Spacer 1 (ITS1) of the revealed multiple subgroups of hosts with 100% ITS1 identities that were infected by different viral communities. Indeed, we repeatedly isolated groups of isolates with identical ITS1 sequences from the same water sample that displayed different viral infection phenotypes. The interactions between Pseudo-nitzschia and the viral communities highlight the diversity of diatoms and emphasize the complexity and variability of diatom-virus dynamics in the ocean. PMID:27148216

  13. Recombinant Glycoprotein Vaccines for Human Immunodeficiency Virus-Infected Children and Their Effects on Viral Quasispecies

    Essajee, Shaffiq M.; Yogev, Ram; Pollack, Henry; Greenhouse, Bryan; Krasinski, Keith; Borkowsky, William

    2002-01-01

    In individuals infected with human immunodeficiency virus type 1 (HIV-1), specific immunity is associated with a more diverse viral repertoire and slower disease progression. Attempts to enhance antiviral immunity with therapeutic vaccination have shown that recombinant glycoprotein (RGP) vaccines are safe, well tolerated, and immunogenic, but the effect of RGP vaccines on the viral repertoire is unknown. We evaluated diversification of the viral envelope in 12 HIV-infected children who recei...

  14. Glycolytic control of vacuolar-type ATPase activity: A mechanism to regulate influenza viral infection

    As new influenza virus strains emerge, finding new mechanisms to control infection is imperative. In this study, we found that we could control influenza infection of mammalian cells by altering the level of glucose given to cells. Higher glucose concentrations induced a dose-specific increase in influenza infection. Linking influenza virus infection with glycolysis, we found that viral replication was significantly reduced after cells were treated with glycolytic inhibitors. Addition of extracellular ATP after glycolytic inhibition restored influenza infection. We also determined that higher levels of glucose promoted the assembly of the vacuolar-type ATPase within cells, and increased vacuolar-type ATPase proton-transport activity. The increase of viral infection via high glucose levels could be reversed by inhibition of the proton pump, linking glucose metabolism, vacuolar-type ATPase activity, and influenza viral infection. Taken together, we propose that altering glucose metabolism may be a potential new approach to inhibit influenza viral infection. - Highlights: • Increased glucose levels increase Influenza A viral infection of MDCK cells. • Inhibition of the glycolytic enzyme hexokinase inhibited Influenza A viral infection. • Inhibition of hexokinase induced disassembly the V-ATPase. • Disassembly of the V-ATPase and Influenza A infection was bypassed with ATP. • The state of V-ATPase assembly correlated with Influenza A infection of cells

  15. Glycolytic control of vacuolar-type ATPase activity: A mechanism to regulate influenza viral infection

    Kohio, Hinissan P.; Adamson, Amy L., E-mail: aladamso@uncg.edu

    2013-09-15

    As new influenza virus strains emerge, finding new mechanisms to control infection is imperative. In this study, we found that we could control influenza infection of mammalian cells by altering the level of glucose given to cells. Higher glucose concentrations induced a dose-specific increase in influenza infection. Linking influenza virus infection with glycolysis, we found that viral replication was significantly reduced after cells were treated with glycolytic inhibitors. Addition of extracellular ATP after glycolytic inhibition restored influenza infection. We also determined that higher levels of glucose promoted the assembly of the vacuolar-type ATPase within cells, and increased vacuolar-type ATPase proton-transport activity. The increase of viral infection via high glucose levels could be reversed by inhibition of the proton pump, linking glucose metabolism, vacuolar-type ATPase activity, and influenza viral infection. Taken together, we propose that altering glucose metabolism may be a potential new approach to inhibit influenza viral infection. - Highlights: • Increased glucose levels increase Influenza A viral infection of MDCK cells. • Inhibition of the glycolytic enzyme hexokinase inhibited Influenza A viral infection. • Inhibition of hexokinase induced disassembly the V-ATPase. • Disassembly of the V-ATPase and Influenza A infection was bypassed with ATP. • The state of V-ATPase assembly correlated with Influenza A infection of cells.

  16. Acute respiratory distress syndrome due to viral pneumonitis in case of varicella zoster in adult: case report

    Anaz Binazeez

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available Chickenpox, is a highly contagious disease caused by infection with varicella zoster virus (VZV. The disease is often more severe in adults than children. Here we present a case of adult male suffering from chicken pox who presented with complication of acute respiratory distress syndrome [ARDS] due to viral pneumonitis. Due to his late presentation, despite of giving antivirals, patient had a fatal outcome. So this case highlights the necessity and importance of early administration of antivirals, especially in adult pox, to tackle the complications of disease and get a favourable outcome. [Int J Res Med Sci 2015; 3(12.000: 3924-3927

  17. EV71 infection correlates with viral IgG preexisting at pharyngolaryngeal mucosa in children

    Jingchang; Xue; Yaoming; Li; Xiaoyi; Xu; Jie; Yu; Hu; Yan; Huimin; Yan

    2015-01-01

    Enterovirus 71(EV71) infection causes severe central nervous system damage, particularly for children under the age of 5 years old, which remains a major public health burden worldwide. Clinical data released that children may be repeatedly infected by different members in enterovirus and get even worsen. Mucosa, especially epithelium of alimentary canal, was considered the primary site of EV71 infection. It has been elusive whether the preexsiting viral antibody in mucosa plays a role in EV71 infection. To answer this question, we respectively measured viral antibody response and EV71 RNA copy number of one hundred throat swab specimens from clinically confirmed EV71-infected children. The results released that low-level of mucosal Ig G antibody against EV71 broadly existed in young population. More importantly, it further elucidated that the children with mucosal preexsiting EV71 Ig G were prone to be infected, which suggested a former viral Ig G mediated enhancement of viral infection in vivo.

  18. Blockade of interferon Beta, but not interferon alpha, signaling controls persistent viral infection.

    Ng, Cherie T; Sullivan, Brian M; Teijaro, John R; Lee, Andrew M; Welch, Megan; Rice, Stephanie; Sheehan, Kathleen C F; Schreiber, Robert D; Oldstone, Michael B A

    2015-05-13

    Although type I interferon (IFN-I) is thought to be beneficial against microbial infections, persistent viral infections are characterized by high interferon signatures suggesting that IFN-I signaling may promote disease pathogenesis. During persistent lymphocytic choriomeningitis virus (LCMV) infection, IFNα and IFNβ are highly induced early after infection, and blocking IFN-I receptor (IFNAR) signaling promotes virus clearance. We assessed the specific roles of IFNβ versus IFNα in controlling LCMV infection. While blockade of IFNβ alone does not alter early viral dissemination, it is important in determining lymphoid structure, lymphocyte migration, and anti-viral T cell responses that lead to accelerated virus clearance, approximating what occurs during attenuation of IFNAR signaling. Comparatively, blockade of IFNα was not associated with improved viral control, but with early dissemination of virus. Thus, despite their use of the same receptor, IFNβ and IFNα have unique and distinguishable biologic functions, with IFNβ being mainly responsible for promoting viral persistence. PMID:25974304

  19. Alzheimer's disease gene signature says: beware of brain viral infections

    Ianni Manuela

    2010-12-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Recent findings from a genome wide association investigation in a large cohort of patients with Alzheimer's disease (AD and non demented controls (CTR showed that a limited set of genes was in a strong association (p > l0-5 with the disease. Presentation of the hypothesis In this report we suggest that the polymorphism association in 8 of these genes is consistent with a non conventional interpretation of AD etiology. Nectin-2 (NC-2, apolipoprotein E (APOE, glycoprotein carcinoembryonic antigen related cell adhesion molecule- 16 (CEACAM-16, B-cell lymphoma-3 (Bcl-3, translocase of outer mitochondrial membrane 40 homolog (T0MM-40, complement receptor-1 (CR-l, APOJ or clusterin and C-type lectin domain A family-16 member (CLEC-16A result in a genetic signature that might affect individual brain susceptibility to infection by herpes virus family during aging, leading to neuronal loss, inflammation and amyloid deposition. Implications of the hypothesis We hypothesized that such genetic trait may predispose to AD via complex and diverse mechanisms each contributing to an increase of individual susceptibility to brain viral infections

  20. Conserved Residues in Lassa Fever Virus Z Protein Modulate Viral Infectivity at the Level of the Ribonucleoprotein▿

    Capul, Althea A.; de la Torre, Juan Carlos; Buchmeier, Michael J.

    2011-01-01

    Arenaviruses are negative-strand RNA viruses that cause human diseases such as lymphocytic choriomeningitis, Bolivian hemorrhagic fever, and Lassa hemorrhagic fever. No licensed vaccines exist, and current treatment is limited to ribavirin. The prototypic arenavirus, lymphocytic choriomeningitis virus (LCMV), is a model for dissecting virus-host interactions in persistent and acute disease. The RING finger protein Z has been identified as the driving force of arenaviral budding and acts as the viral matrix protein. While residues in Z required for viral budding have been described, residues that govern the Z matrix function(s) have yet to be fully elucidated. Because this matrix function is integral to viral assembly, we reasoned that this would be reflected in sequence conservation. Using sequence alignment, we identified several conserved residues in Z outside the RING and late domains. Nine residues were each mutated to alanine in Lassa fever virus Z. All of the mutations affected the expression of an LCMV minigenome and the infectivity of virus-like particles, but to greatly varying degrees. Interestingly, no mutations appeared to affect Z-mediated budding or association with viral GP. Our findings provide direct experimental evidence supporting a role for Z in the modulation of the activity of the viral ribonucleoprotein (RNP) complex and its packaging into mature infectious viral particles. PMID:21228230

  1. Conserved residues in Lassa fever virus Z protein modulate viral infectivity at the level of the ribonucleoprotein.

    Capul, Althea A; de la Torre, Juan Carlos; Buchmeier, Michael J

    2011-04-01

    Arenaviruses are negative-strand RNA viruses that cause human diseases such as lymphocytic choriomeningitis, Bolivian hemorrhagic fever, and Lassa hemorrhagic fever. No licensed vaccines exist, and current treatment is limited to ribavirin. The prototypic arenavirus, lymphocytic choriomeningitis virus (LCMV), is a model for dissecting virus-host interactions in persistent and acute disease. The RING finger protein Z has been identified as the driving force of arenaviral budding and acts as the viral matrix protein. While residues in Z required for viral budding have been described, residues that govern the Z matrix function(s) have yet to be fully elucidated. Because this matrix function is integral to viral assembly, we reasoned that this would be reflected in sequence conservation. Using sequence alignment, we identified several conserved residues in Z outside the RING and late domains. Nine residues were each mutated to alanine in Lassa fever virus Z. All of the mutations affected the expression of an LCMV minigenome and the infectivity of virus-like particles, but to greatly varying degrees. Interestingly, no mutations appeared to affect Z-mediated budding or association with viral GP. Our findings provide direct experimental evidence supporting a role for Z in the modulation of the activity of the viral ribonucleoprotein (RNP) complex and its packaging into mature infectious viral particles. PMID:21228230

  2. Sexual dimorphism in lung function responses to acute influenza A infection

    Larcombe, Alexander N.; Foong, Rachel E.; Bozanich, Elizabeth M.; Berry, Luke J.; Garratt, Luke W.; Gualano, Rosa C.; Jones, Jessica E.; Dousha, Lovisa F.; Zosky, Graeme R.; Sly, Peter D.

    2011-01-01

    Please cite this paper as: Larcombe et al. (2011) Sexual dimorphism in lung function responses to acute influenza A infection. Influenza and Other Respiratory Viruses 5(5), 334–342. Background  Males are generally more susceptible to respiratory infections; however, there are few data on the physiological responses to such infections in males and females. Objectives  To determine whether sexual dimorphism exists in the physiological/inflammatory responses of weanling and adult BALB/c mice to influenza. Methods  Weanling and adult mice of both sexes were inoculated with influenza A or appropriate control solution. Respiratory mechanics, responsiveness to methacholine (MCh), viral titre and bronchoalveolar lavage (BAL) cellular inflammation/cytokines were measured 4 (acute) and 21 (resolution) days post‐inoculation. Results  Acute infection impaired lung function and induced hyperresponsiveness and cellular inflammation in both sexes at both ages. Males and females responded differently with female mice developing greater abnormalities in tissue damping and elastance and greater MCh responsiveness at both ages. BAL inflammation, cytokines and lung viral titres were similar between the sexes. At resolution, all parameters had returned to baseline levels in adults and weanling males; however, female weanlings had persisting hyperresponsiveness. Conclusions  We identified significant differences in the physiological responses of male and female mice to infection with influenza A, which occurred in the absence of variation in viral titre and cellular inflammation. PMID:21668688

  3. Respiratory viruses in children hospitalized for acute lower respiratory tract infection in Ghana

    Kwofie Theophilus B

    2012-04-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Acute respiratory tract infections are one of the major causes of morbidity and mortality among young children in developing countries. Information on the viral aetiology of acute respiratory infections in developing countries is very limited. The study was done to identify viruses associated with acute lower respiratory tract infection among children less than 5 years. Method Nasopharyngeal samples and blood cultures were collected from children less than 5 years who have been hospitalized for acute lower respiratory tract infection. Viruses and bacteria were identified using Reverse Transcriptase Real-Time Polymerase Chain Reaction and conventional biochemical techniques. Results Out of 128 patients recruited, 33(25.88%%, 95%CI: 18.5% to 34.2% were positive for one or more viruses. Respiratory Syncytial Virus (RSV was detected in 18(14.1%, 95%CI: 8.5% to 21.3% patients followed by Adenoviruses (AdV in 13(10.2%, 95%CI: 5.5% to 16.7%, Parainfluenza (PIV type: 1, 2, 3 in 4(3.1%, 95%CI: 0.9% to 7.8% and influenza B viruses in 1(0.8%, 95%CI: 0.0 to 4.3. Concomitant viral and bacterial co-infection occurred in two patients. There were no detectable significant differences in the clinical signs, symptoms and severity for the various pathogens isolated. A total of 61.1% (22/36 of positive viruses were detected during the rainy season and Respiratory Syncytial Virus was the most predominant. Conclusion The study has demonstrated an important burden of respiratory viruses as major causes of childhood acute respiratory infection in a tertiary health institution in Ghana. The data addresses a need for more studies on viral associated respiratory tract infection.

  4. Serum level of C-reactive protein is not a parameter to determine the difference between viral and atypical bacterial infections.

    Durán, Anyelo; González, Andrea; Delgado, Lineth; Mosquera, Jesús; Valero, Nereida

    2016-02-01

    C-reactive protein (CRP) is an acute-phase reactant that increases in the circulation in response to a variety of inflammatory stimuli. Elevated levels in serum during several infectious diseases have been reported. In this study, a highly sensitive CRP enzyme immunoassay was used to evaluate serum CRP values in patients with viral and atypical bacterial infections. Patients (n = 139) with different viral or atypical bacterial infections (systemic or respiratory) and healthy controls (n = 40) were tested for circulating CRP values. High levels of IgM antibodies against several viruses: Dengue virus (n = 36), Cytomegalovirus (n = 9), Epstein Barr virus (n = 17), Parvovirus B19 (n = 26), Herpes simplex 1 and 2 virus (n = 3) and Influenza A and B (n = 8) and against atypical bacteria: Legionella pneumophila (n = 15), Mycoplasma pneumoniae (n = 21) and Coxiella burnetii (n = 4) were found. High values of CRP in infected patients compared with controls (P < 0.001) were found; however, no significant differences between viral and atypical bacterial infections were found. Low levels of CRP in respiratory and Coxiella burnetii infections compared with exanthematic viral and other atypical bacterial infections were found. This study suggests that CRP values are useful to define viral and atypical bacterial infections compared with normal values, but, it is not useful to define type of infection. PMID:26241406

  5. Isolation and Genetic Analysis of Bovine Viral Diarrhea Virus from Infected Cattle in Indiana

    Roman M. Pogranichniy

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available Species and biotype distribution was determined in 44 bovine viral diarrhea virus- (BVDV- positive samples submitted to the Animal Disease Diagnostic Laboratory (ADDL in Indiana during 2006–2008. BVDV RNA was detected in the 5′-untranslated region and Npro region using reverse transcriptase PCR followed by sequencing analysis of the PCR product. Additionally, cases were classified into one of six categories according to history and/or lesions: acute symptomatic, hemorrhagic, respiratory distress, reproductive, persistent infection (PI, and mucosal disease (MD. Of 44 BVDV-positive samples, 33 were noncytopathic (ncp, 10 were cytopathic (cp, and one presented both ncp and cp biotypes. Sequencing analysis demonstrated that all samples belonged to BVDV-1a, BVDV-1b, or BVDV-2. The most common isolate was ncp BVDV-1b, (44% followed by ncp BVDV-2a (24%. Among the six categories, respiratory clinical signs were the most common (36% followed by PI (25% and MD (16%.

  6. Severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus papain-like protease: Structure of a viral deubiquitinating enzyme

    RATIA, Kiira; Saikatendu, Kumar Singh; Bernard D. Santarsiero; Barretto, Naina; Baker, Susan C.; Stevens, Raymond C.; MESECAR, Andrew D.

    2006-01-01

    Replication of severe acute respiratory syndrome (SARS) coronavirus (SARS-CoV) requires proteolytic processing of the replicase polyprotein by two viral cysteine proteases, a chymotrypsin-like protease (3CLpro) and a papain-like protease (PLpro). These proteases are important targets for development of antiviral drugs that would inhibit viral replication and reduce mortality associated with outbreaks of SARS-CoV. In this work, we describe the 1.85-Å crystal structure of the catalytic core of ...

  7. A trend towards increasing viral load in newly diagnosed HIV-infected inpatients in southeast China.

    Chen, Y; Wang, Z; Huang, A; Yuan, J; Wei, D; Ye, H

    2016-06-01

    Peripheral blood viral load is an important indicator of viral production and clearance. Previous studies have suggested that viral load might predict the rate of decrease in CD4+ cell count and progression to AIDS and death. Here, we conducted a retrospective analysis of the trends in HIV-1 viral load in southeast China. Among inpatients newly diagnosed with HIV infection, we found that viral load has increased over the past decade from 4·20 log10 copies/ml in 2002 to 6·61 log10 copies/ml in 2014, with a mean increase of 0·19 log10 copies/ml each year. However, the CD4+ cell count was stable and insensitive to changes in viral load. Thus, increasing viral load appears to be an emerging trend in newly diagnosed HIV-infected inpatients. PMID:26732896

  8. Estimating the impact of vaccination in acute SHIV-SIV infection

    Ribeiro, Ruy [Los Alamos National Laboratory

    2008-01-01

    Human Immunodeficiency Virus (HIV) infects approxmately 0.5% of the world population, and is a major cause of morbidity and mortality worldwide. A vaccine for HIV is urgently required, and a variety of vaccine modalities have been tested in animal models of infection. A number of these studies have shown protection in monkey models of infection, although the ability of the vaccine to protect appears to vary with the viral strain and animal model used. The recent failure of a large vaccine study in humans suggests that further understanding of the basic dynamics of infection and impact of vaccination are required, in order to understand the variable efficacy of vaccination in different infections. The dynamics of HIV infection have been studied in humans and in a variety of animal models. The standard model of infection has been used to estimate the basic reproductive ratio (R{sub 0}) of the virus, calculated from the growth rate of virus in acute infection. This method has not been useful in studying the effects of vaccination, since, in the vaccines developed so far, early growth rates of virus do not differ between control and vaccinated animals. Here, we use the standard model of viral dynamics to derive the reproductive ratio from the peak viral load and nadir of target cell numbers in acute infection. We apply this method to data from studies of vaccination in Simian Human Immunodeficiency Virus (SHIV) and Simian Immunodeficiency Virus (SIV) infection and demonstrate that vaccination can reduce the reproductive ratio by 2.3 and 2 fold respectively. This method allows the comparison of vaccination efficacy amongst different viral strains and animal models in vivo.

  9. Kocuria kristinae infection associated with acute cholecystitis

    Chan Edmond CH; Lai Kristi TW; Wong Chris LP; Ma Edmond SK; Yam WC; Chan Angus CW

    2005-01-01

    Abstract Background Kocuria, previously classified into the genus of Micrococcus, is commonly found on human skin. Two species, K. rosea and K. kristinae, are etiologically associated with catheter-related bacteremia. Case presentation We describe the first case of K. kristinae infection associated with acute cholecystitis. The microorganism was isolated from the bile of a 56-year old Chinese man who underwent laparoscopic cholecystectomy. He developed post-operative fever that resolved readi...

  10. Transient nephritis during resolution phase of acute virale hepatitis E

    2009-01-01

    Hepatitis E Virus is a causative agent of hepatitis. Viral E hepatitis is responsible for various clinical manifestations. However, immune reactions due to hepatitis E virus are rarely encountered. A case of membranoproliferative glomerulonephritis associated with hepatitis E virus is reported her.