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Sample records for acute toxicity tests

  1. Acute oral toxicity test of chemical compounds in silkworms.

    Usui, Kimihito; Nishida, Satoshi; Sugita, Takuya; Ueki, Takuro; Matsumoto, Yasuhiko; Okumura, Hidenobu; Sekimizu, Kazuhisa

    2016-02-01

    This study performed an acute oral toxicity test of 59 compounds in silkworms. These compounds are listed in OECD guidelines as standard substances for a cytotoxicity test, and median lethal dose (LD(50)) werecalculated for each compound. Acute oral LD(50) values in mammals are listed in OECD guidelines and acute oral LD(50) values in silkworms were determined in this study. R(2) for the correlation between LD(50) values in mammals and LD(50) values in silkworms was 0.66. In addition, the acute oral toxicity test in silkworms was performed by two different facilities, and test results from the facilities were highly reproducible. These findings suggest that an acute oral toxicity test in silkworms is a useful way to evaluate the toxicity of compounds in mammals. PMID:26971557

  2. EURL ECVAM Recommendation on the Zebrafish Embryo Acute Toxicity Test Method (ZFET) for Acute Aquatic Toxicity Testing

    HALDER MARIA ELISABETH; GRIESINGER Claudius; AMCOFF SVEN PATRIK; ZUANG Valerie; Whelan, Maurice

    2014-01-01

    Acute fish toxicity testing is an important component of the environmental hazard assessment of chemicals. Since many years, (zebra-)fish embryo-based methods have been proposed as alternatives to the acute fish toxicity test carried out with juvenile or adult fish. On behalf of the Organisation for Economic Cooperation and Development (OECD), the European Union Reference Laboratory for Alternatives to Animal Testing (EURL ECVAM) coordinated during 2008-2012 the validation of the zebrafish em...

  3. Non-animal Replacements for Acute Toxicity Testing.

    Barker-Treasure, Carol; Coll, Kevin; Belot, Nathalie; Longmore, Chris; Bygrave, Karl; Avey, Suzanne; Clothier, Richard

    2015-07-01

    Current approaches to predicting adverse effects in humans from acute toxic exposure to cosmetic ingredients still heavily necessitate the use of animals under EU legislation, particularly in the context of the REACH system, when cosmetic ingredients are also destined for use in other industries. These include the LD50 test, the Up-and-Down Procedure and the Fixed Dose Procedure, which are regarded as having notable scientific deficiencies and low transferability to humans. By expanding on previous in vitro tests, such as the animal cell-based 3T3 Neutral Red Uptake (NRU) assay, this project aims to develop a truly animal-free predictive test for the acute toxicity of cosmetic ingredients in humans, by using human-derived cells and a prediction model that does not rely on animal data. The project, funded by Innovate UK, will incorporate the NRU assay with human dermal fibroblasts in animal product-free culture, to generate an in vitro protocol that can be validated as an accepted replacement for the currently available in vivo tests. To date, the project has successfully completed an assessment of the robustness and reproducibility of the method, by using sodium lauryl sulphate (SLS) as a positive control, and displaying analogous results to those of the original studies with mouse 3T3 cells. Currently, the testing of five known ingredients from key groups (a surfactant, a preservative, a fragrance, a colour and an emulsifier) is under way. The testing consists of initial range-finding runs followed by three valid runs of a main experiment with the appropriate concentration ranges, to generate IC50 values. Expanded blind trials of 20 ingredients will follow. Early results indicate that this human cell-based test holds the potential to replace aspects of in vivo animal acute toxicity testing, particularly with reference to cosmetic ingredients. PMID:26256397

  4. [Acute toxicity testing (LD50) of Chinese mineral drugs].

    Yue, W; Liu, W H; Wang, L F; Fu, S X; Li, Y S; Kong, Z K; Tang, Z X; Chen, Z L

    1989-02-01

    Acute toxicity and LD50 of 62 mineral drugs were determined by ig, ip or iv in mice, in order to provide some guidelines for safety in clinical use, as well as for pharmacological and toxicological studies. In the present investigation, the difference in the acute toxicity and LD50 between raw drugs and medicines prepared by roasting is explained. PMID:2506896

  5. Acute toxicity testing of chemicals-Opportunities to avoid redundant testing and use alternative approaches.

    Creton, Stuart; Dewhurst, Ian C; Earl, Lesley K; Gehen, Sean C; Guest, Robert L; Hotchkiss, Jon A; Indans, Ian; Woolhiser, Michael R; Billington, Richard

    2010-01-01

    Assessment of the acute systemic oral, dermal, and inhalation toxicities, skin and eye irritancy, and skin sensitisation potential of chemicals is required under regulatory schemes worldwide. In vivo studies conducted to assess these endpoints can sometimes be associated with substantial adverse effects in the test animals, and their use should always be scientifically justified. It has been argued that while information obtained from such acute tests provides data needed to meet classification and labelling regulations, it is of limited value for hazard and risk assessments. Inconsistent application of in vitro replacements, protocol requirements across regions, and bridging principles also contribute to unnecessary and redundant animal testing. Assessment of data from acute oral and dermal toxicity testing demonstrates that acute dermal testing rarely provides value for hazard assessment purposes when an acute oral study has been conducted. Options to waive requirements for acute oral and inhalation toxicity testing should be employed to avoid unnecessary in vivo studies. In vitro irritation models should receive wider adoption and be used to meet regulatory needs. Global requirements for sensitisation testing need continued harmonisation for both substance and mixture assessments. This paper highlights where alternative approaches or elimination of tests can reduce and refine animal use for acute toxicity requirements. PMID:20144136

  6. Use of fish embryo toxicity tests for the prediction of acute fish toxicity to chemicals.

    Belanger, Scott E; Rawlings, Jane M; Carr, Gregory J

    2013-08-01

    The fish embryo test (FET) is a potential animal alternative for the acute fish toxicity (AFT) test. A comprehensive validation program assessed 20 different chemicals to understand intra- and interlaboratory variability for the FET. The FET had sufficient reproducibility across a range of potencies and modes of action. In the present study, the suitability of the FET as an alternative model is reviewed by relating FET and AFT. In total, 985 FET studies and 1531 AFT studies were summarized. The authors performed FET-AFT regressions to understand potential relationships based on physical-chemical properties, species choices, duration of exposure, chemical classes, chemical functional uses, and modes of action. The FET-AFT relationships are very robust (slopes near 1.0, intercepts near 0) across 9 orders of magnitude in potency. A recommendation for the predictive regression relationship is based on 96-h FET and AFT data: log FET median lethal concentration (LC50) = (0.989 × log fish LC50) - 0.195; n = 72 chemicals, r = 0.95, p acute fish-acute fish toxicity relationships with the following species: fathead minnow, rainbow trout, bluegill sunfish, Japanese medaka, and zebrafish. The FET is scientifically supportable as a rational animal alternative model for ecotoxicological testing of acute toxicity of chemicals to fish. PMID:23606235

  7. Cross-Sector Review of Drivers and Available 3Rs Approaches for Acute Systemic Toxicity Testing

    Seidle, Troy; Robinson, Sally; Holmes, Tom; Creton, Stuart; Prieto, Pilar; Scheel, Julia; Chlebus, Magda

    2010-01-01

    Acute systemic toxicity studies are carried out in many sectors in which synthetic chemicals are manufactured or used and are among the most criticized of all toxicology tests on both scientific and ethical grounds. A review of the drivers for acute toxicity testing within the pharmaceutical industry led to a paradigm shift whereby in vivo acute toxicity data are no longer routinely required in advance of human clinical trials. Based on this experience, the following review was undertaken to ...

  8. Acute aquatic toxicity of heavy fuel oils. Summary of relevant test data

    Comber, M.I.H.; Den Haan, K.; Djemel, N.; Eadsforth, C.V.; King, D.; Parkerton, T.; Paumen, M.L.; Dmytrasz, B.

    2011-12-15

    This report describes the experimental procedures and results obtained in acute ecotoxicity tests on several heavy fuel oil (HFO) samples. Water accommodated fractions (WAFs) of these samples were tested for toxicity to the rainbow trout (Oncorhynchus mykiss), the crustacean zooplankter (Daphnia magna) and green algae (Selenastrum capricornutum). These results assist in determining the environmental hazard from heavy fuel oil.

  9. Acute and chronic aquatic toxicity of aromatic extracts. Summary of relevant test data

    Comber, M.I.H.; Den Haan, K.; Djemel, N.; Eadsforth, C.V.; King, D.; Parkerton, T.; Leon Paumen, M.; Dmytrasz, B.; Del Castillo, F.

    2013-09-15

    This report describes the experimental procedures and the results obtained in acute and chronic ecotoxicity tests on several aromatic extracts samples. The samples were tested for toxicity to the rainbow trout (Oncorhynchus mykiss), the crustacean zooplankter, Daphnia magna and the algae, Selenastrum capricornutum using water accommodated fractions. These results assist in determining the environmental hazard posed by aromatic extracts.

  10. Acute aquatic toxicity of heavy fuel oils. Summary of relevant test data

    This report describes the experimental procedures and results obtained in acute ecotoxicity tests on several heavy fuel oil (HFO) samples. Water accommodated fractions (WAFs) of these samples were tested for toxicity to the rainbow trout (Oncorhynchus mykiss), the crustacean zooplankter (Daphnia magna) and green algae (Selenastrum capricornutum). These results assist in determining the environmental hazard from heavy fuel oil.

  11. Developmental toxicity, acute toxicity and mutagenicity testing in freshwater snails Biomphalaria glabrata (Mollusca: Gastropoda) exposed to chromium and water samples.

    Tallarico, Lenita de Freitas; Borrely, Sueli Ivone; Hamada, Natália; Grazeffe, Vanessa Siqueira; Ohlweiler, Fernanda Pires; Okazaki, Kayo; Granatelli, Amanda Tosatte; Pereira, Ivana Wuo; Pereira, Carlos Alberto de Bragança; Nakano, Eliana

    2014-12-01

    A protocol combining acute toxicity, developmental toxicity and mutagenicity analysis in freshwater snail Biomphalaria glabrata for application in ecotoxicological studies is described. For acute toxicity testing, LC50 and EC50 values were determined; dominant lethal mutations induction was the endpoint for mutagenicity analysis. Reference toxicant potassium dichromate (K2Cr2O7) was used to characterize B. glabrata sensitivity for toxicity and cyclophosphamide to mutagenicity testing purposes. Compared to other relevant freshwater species, B. glabrata showed high sensitivity: the lowest EC50 value was obtained with embryos at veliger stage (5.76mg/L). To assess the model applicability for environmental studies, influent and effluent water samples from a wastewater treatment plant were evaluated. Gastropod sensitivity was assessed in comparison to the standardized bioassay with Daphnia similis exposed to the same water samples. Sampling sites identified as toxic to daphnids were also detected by snails, showing a qualitatively similar sensitivity suggesting that B. glabrata is a suitable test species for freshwater monitoring. Holding procedures and protocols implemented for toxicity and developmental bioassays showed to be in compliance with international standards for intra-laboratory precision. Thereby, we are proposing this system for application in ecotoxicological studies. PMID:25259848

  12. Development of a standard acute dietary toxicity test for the silkworm (Bombyx mori L.)

    Sun, X.; Valk, H.; Jiang, H.; Wang, X.; Yuan, S.; Zhang, Y.; Roessink, I.; Gao, X.

    2012-01-01

    Larvae of the silkworm (Bombyx mod L.) may be exposed to pesticide residues on the leaves of their food plant, the mulberry tree (Morus spp.), which can lead to adverse effects on silk production. A new acute dietary toxicity test method was evaluated as the basis for pesticide risk assessment. A se

  13. 40 CFR 797.1050 - Algal acute toxicity test.

    2010-07-01

    ... 400 ft-c) measured adjacent to the test chambers at the level of test solution. (iii) Stock algal... monitored at least daily during the test at the level of the test solution. (e) Reporting. The sponsor shall... 72 hour LC50's and 95 percent confidence limits, the methods used to derive these values, the...

  14. Toxicity of 8-Hydroxyquinoline in Cryprinus carpio Using the Acute Toxicity Test, Hepatase Activity Analysis and the Comet Assay.

    Yan, Shuaiguo; Chen, Lili; Dou, Xiaofei; Qi, Meng; Du, Qiyan; He, Qiaoqiao; Nan, Mingge; Chang, Zhongjie; Nan, Ping

    2015-08-01

    To evaluate the environmental toxicity of 8-hydroxyquinoline (8-HOQ), an important industrial raw material found in China's major ornamental fish, Cryprinus carpio, using the acute toxicity test, hepatase activity analysis and the comet assay. The results indicated that 8-HOQ had significant acute toxicity in adult C. carpio with a 96 h-LC50 of 1.15 and 0.22 mg L(-1) hepatic quinoline residues as assessed by HPLC. 8-HOQ also induced genotoxicity in the form of strand breaks in the DNA of hepatic cells as shown by the comet assay. With regard to physiological toxicity, 8-HOQ induced a decrease in the activities of hepatic GOT and GPT with increased exposure concentration and time. These data suggest that 8-HOQ may be toxic to the health of aquatic organisms when accidentally released into aquatic ecosystems. The data also suggest that the comet assay may be used in biomonitoring to determine 8-HOQ genotoxicity and hepatic GPT and GOT activities may be potential biomarkers of physiological toxicity. PMID:26067700

  15. 40 CFR 795.120 - Gammarid acute toxicity test.

    2010-07-01

    ... aquaria. As these leaves are eaten, more aged leaves should be added. Pelleted fish food may also be added... minimize sorption of test substances. Glass, stainless steel, and perfluorocarbon plastic should be used wherever possible. Concrete, fiberglass, or plastic (e.g., PVC) may be used for holding tanks,...

  16. 40 CFR 797.1300 - Daphnid acute toxicity test.

    2010-07-01

    ... and abnormal individuals shall be discarded. Organisms that touch dry surfaces or are dropped or... containers with stainless steel or nylon screen bottoms. The containers should be suspended in the test..., treatments, feeding history, acclimation procedures, and culture method. The age of the daphnids used in...

  17. 40 CFR 797.1930 - Mysid shrimp acute toxicity test.

    2010-07-01

    ... from a ground or surface water source, conductivity and total organic carbon (or chemical oxygen demand... observed periodically during the test, the dead mysids removed and the findings recorded. Dissolved oxygen... added. (v) The dissolved oxygen concentration temperature, salinity, and pH shall be measured at...

  18. Critique on the use of the standardized avian acute oral toxicity test for first generation anticoagulant rodenticides

    Vyas, Nimish B.; Rattner, Barnett A.

    2012-01-01

    Avian risk assessments for rodenticides are often driven by the results of standardized acute oral toxicity tests without regards to a toxicant's mode of action and time course of adverse effects. First generation anticoagulant rodenticides (FGARs) generally require multiple feedings over several days to achieve a threshold concentration in tissue and cause adverse effects. This exposure regimen is much different than that used in the standardized acute oral toxicity test methodology. Median lethal dose values derived from standardized acute oral toxicity tests underestimate the environmental hazard and risk of FGARs. Caution is warranted when FGAR toxicity, physiological effects, and pharmacokinetics derived from standardized acute oral toxicity testing are used for forensic confirmation of the cause of death in avian mortality incidents and when characterizing FGARs' risks to free-ranging birds.

  19. Acute toxicity testing with the tropical marine copepod Acartia sinjiensis: optimisation and application.

    Gissi, F; Binet, M T; Adams, M S

    2013-11-01

    Globally there is limited toxicity data for tropical marine species, and there has been a call for further research and development in the area of tropical marine ecotoxicology. An increase in developmental pressures in northern tropical Australia is causing a higher demand for toxicity test protocols with ecologically relevant species. Copepods are a diverse group of zooplankton that are major components of marine food webs. The calanoid copepod Acartia sinjiensis is widely distributed across tropical and sub-tropical brackish to marine waters of Australia and was identified in a recent comprehensive review of marine tropical toxicity testing in Australia as a suitable test organism. Through a number of optimisation steps including feeding trials, changes to culture and test conditions; a 48-h acute toxicity test with A. sinjiensis was modified to become a highly reliable and reproducible standard test protocol. Control mobility was improved significantly, and the sensitivity of A. sinjiensis to copper (EC50 of 33µg/L), ammonia (EC50 of 10mg/L) and phenol (EC50 of 13mg/L) fell within the ranges of those reported previously, indicating that the modifications did not alter its sensitivity. In a comprehensive literature search we found that this species was the most sensitive to copper out of a range of marine copepods. The test was also successfully applied in toxicity assessments of four environmental samples: two produced formations waters (PFWs) and two mine tailing liquors (MTLs). The toxicity assessments utilised toxicity data from a suite of marine organisms (bacteria, microalgae, copepods, sea urchins, oysters, prawns, and fish). For the PFWs, which were predominantly contaminated with organic chemicals, A. sinjiensis was the most sensitive species (EC50 value 2-17 times lower than for any other test species). For the predominantly metal-contaminated mine tailing liquors, its sensitivity was similar to that of other test species used. The modified 48-h acute

  20. An Evaluation of Select Test Variables Potentially Affecting Acute Oil Toxicity.

    Echols, Brandi S; Smith, A; Gardinali, P; Rand, G

    2016-02-01

    In the wake of the Deepwater Horizon incident (2010) in the Gulf of Mexico, an abundance of research studies have been performed, but the methodologies used have varied making comparisons and replication difficult. In this study, acute toxicity tests with mysids and inland silversides were performed to examine the effect of different variables on test results. The toxicity test variables evaluated in this study included (1) open versus closed static test chambers, (2) natural versus artificial diluent, (3) aerated versus nonaerated test solution, and (4) low versus medium energy water-accommodated (WAF) mixing energies. The use of tests using natural or artificial diluent showed no difference in either toxicity test or analytical chemistry results. Based on median lethal concentrations (LC50) of WAFs of unweathered oil (MASS), mysid tests performed in closed chambers were approximately 41 % lower than LC50 values from open-chamber studies, possibly a result of the presence of low-molecular weight volatile aromatics (i.e., naphthalenes). This research also showed that using a medium-energy WAF (with a 20–25 % vortex) increases the number of chemical components compared with low-energy WAF, thus affecting the composition of the exposure media and increasing toxicity. The comparison of toxic units as a measure of the potential toxicity of fresh and weathered oils showed that weathered oils (e.g., Juniper, CTC) are less toxic than the unweathered MASS oil. In the event of future oil spills, these variables should be considered to ensure that data regarding the potential toxicity and environmental risk are of good quality and reproducible. PMID:26467150

  1. Low malathion concentrations influence metabolism in Chironomus sancticaroli (Diptera, Chironomidae in acute and chronic toxicity tests

    Débora Rebechi

    2014-09-01

    Full Text Available Low malathion concentrations influence metabolism in Chironomus sancticaroli (Diptera, Chironomidae in acute and chronic toxicity tests. Organophosphate compounds are used in agro-systems, and in programs to control pathogen vectors. Because they are continuously applied, organophosphates often reach water sources and may have an impact on aquatic life. The effects of acute and chronic exposure to the organophosphate insecticide malathion on the midge Chironomus sancticaroli are evaluated. To that end, three biochemical biomarkers, acetylcholinesterase (AChE, alpha (EST-α and beta (EST-β esterase were used. Acute bioassays with five concentrations of malathion, and chronic bioassays with two concentrations of malathion were carried out. In the acute exposure test, AChE, EST-α and EST-β activities declined by 66, 40 and 37%, respectively, at 0.251 µg L-1 and more than 80% at 1.37, 1.96 and 2.51 µg L-1. In chronic exposure tests, AChE and EST-α activities declined by 28 and 15% at 0.251 µg L-1. Results of the present study show that low concentrations of malathion can influence larval metabolism, indicating high toxicity for Chironomus sancticaroli and environmental risk associated with the use of organophosphates.

  2. 77 FR 43089 - Evaluation of an Up-and-Down Procedure for Acute Dermal Systemic Toxicity Testing: Request for...

    2012-07-23

    ... testing is required by multiple agencies, can involve large numbers of animals, and can result in... dermal exposures; in vivo dermal and oral toxicity testing; and test method validation. Each nomination... HUMAN SERVICES Evaluation of an Up-and-Down Procedure for Acute Dermal Systemic Toxicity...

  3. Test of the acute lethal toxicity of pollutants to marine fish and invertebrates

    This reference method describes the measurement of the acute lethal toxicity of pollutants to marine animals (fish and invertebrates) by a static (non-continuous flow) method. Procedures are given for the determination of the toxicity curve (survival time-concentration relationship) and for the estimation of median lethal concentrations (LC50). The method is suitable for use with fish and macro-invertebrate species. It is not suitable for planktonic organisms nor for determining the toxicity of oil, oil dispersants or other petroleum products. Those methods are described in Reference Methods Nos. 44 and 45, respectively. The test animals are exposed, in groups of approximately ten, to each of several concentrations of the pollutant. The animals are observed, at intervals, for several days, the test solutions being renewed regularly. A record is maintained of the survival times of individual animals exposed to each concentration of pollutant. The medial survival time of each group of animals is determined from a graphical plot of the raw data after a log-probability transformation. Median survival times and their confidence limits are plotted against concentrations of test substance to give a toxicity curve. Additionally, the same experimental data can be used to estimate the median lethal concentration (LC50) of the test substance to the animals after different periods of exposure. 3 refs, 5 figs, 3 tabs

  4. Increased RO concentrate toxicity following application of antiscalants – Acute toxicity tests with the amphipods Gammarus pulex and Gammarus roeseli

    In reverse osmosis, a frequently used technology in water desalination processes, wastewater (RO concentrate) is generated containing the retained solutes as well as so-called antiscalants (AS), i.e. chemical substances that are commonly applied to prevent membrane-blocking. In this study, a risk assessment of a possible discharge of concentrate into a small stream was conducted. The acute toxicity of two concentrates containing two different ASs and of concentrate without AS to the amphipods Gammarus pulex and Gammarus roeseli was studied. Mortality of gammarids exposed to the concentrate without AS was not different to the control, whereas concentrates including ASs caused mortality rates up to 100% at the highest test concentrations after 168 h. Resulting EC50-values were 36.2–39.4% (v/v) after 96 h and 26.6–58.0% (v/v) after 168 h. These results suggest that the ecotoxicological relevance of antiscalants is greater than currently assumed. - Highlights: • Antiscalants used in drinking water treatment interact with RO concentrate. • RO concentrate without antiscalant was not toxic to Gammarids. • Antiscalants increased concentrate toxicity to Gammarus pulex and G. roeseli. • No difference in sensitivity of the Gammarus species was evident. • Ecotoxicological effects of antiscalants seem to be underestimated. - Antiscalants – officially containing no environmentally hazardous ingredients – increased toxicity of reverse osmosis concentrate to Gammarus pulex and Gammarus roeseli

  5. Study on methyl iodide prepared without acute toxicant and its trial application in iodine adsorber test

    This paper studied a method of substitution, which substituted the non-toxic chlorotrimethylsilane (Me3SiCl) /sodium iodide (NaI) for the acutely toxic dimethyl sulphate (DMS) as a dealkylating agent for the first time to react with phosphate methylesters in preparing the gaseous radioactive methyl iodide. Comparative tests were carried out between substitution method and DMS method to measure respective cleaning efficiencies of iodine absorber both in lab and in the ventilation system of nuclear power plant. The impact of the substitutes on the organic material components of methyl iodide generator was also evaluated. The results showed that the substitution method was comparable to the former DMS method, and the substitutes was also compatible with the generator. Therefore, the substitution method can be preliminary judged applicable to both workshop and in-place tests of iodine adsorber in nuclear power plants. (authors)

  6. Comparison of feeding strategies in acute toxicity tests of crude oil and commercial bioremediation agents

    Proposed modifications to the National Oil and Hazardous Substance Pollution Contingency Plan have prompted examinations of the methodology used in toxicity testing of the water soluble fraction (WSF) of oil, commercial bioremediation agents (CBA), and a combination of the two. The organisms currently used in acute (96 hr) testing of these agents are the inland silverside, Menidia beryllina, and an estuarine mysid, Mysidopsis bahia. The mysid is a carnivorous species that must be fed during a test in order to prevent predation within the test chambers. Currently proposed methodology for silverside testing also includes feeding. The high oxygen demand of CBAs and the WSF of oil causes dissolved oxygen to be a factor in toxicity. This effect can be intensified by the addition of brine shrimp (Artemia sp.) to the test chambers. The purpose of this study was to compare the toxicity of CBAs in combination with the WSF of oil to silversides with and without the addition of food. Tests were conducted using both 24-hour and 14-day spinning times for the CBA/WSF mixture. With the 24-hour spinning time, LC50 values from each day of the 4-day test were consistently lower in the Artemia fed test (47.8--22.6%) as compared to the unfed test (72.1--43.0%). A similar trend was seen in the 24 and 48 hour LC50's in the 14-day spinning time. Overall, low dissolved oxygen was found to be most relevant at the highest CBA/WSF concentrations where D.O. dropped below 2 mg/l in Artemia fed tests

  7. Field and laboratory tests on acute toxicity of cadmium to freshwater crayfish

    1986-09-01

    Environmental regulatory standards for cadmium (EPA 1980), like those for most pollutants, are based on acute, laboratory toxicity tests of single species. Such tests can be conducted rapidly and inexpensively in comparison to acute or chronic field studies, but their validity has often been questioned. Laboratory-based criteria are subject to two criticisms: (1) chemical and physical conditions differ greatly in degree and variability from laboratory to field, and (2) species are not isolated, but live in an ecosystem of interacting taxa and biofeedback. To investigate the validity of basing field toxicity standards on laboratory data, the authors subjected the freshwater crayfish Orconectes immunis for 96 h to various levels of cadmium in laboratory aquaria and experimental ponds. The study was designed to evaluate in part the first criticism of lab-based criteria. The studies were conducted concurrently with similar short-term experiments on the fathead minnow, Pimephales promelas, and coincided with studies of chronic cadmium stress on fathead minnows in experimental ponds.

  8. Use of various acute, sublethal and early life-stage tests to evaluate the toxicity of refinery effluents

    Sherry, J.; Scott, B.; Dutka, B. [National Water Research Inst., Burlington, Ontario (Canada)

    1997-11-01

    The toxicities of effluents from three Ontario, Canada, refineries were assessed with microbes, plants, invertebrates, and fish. Acute toxicity was assessed by the Microtox test, an assay based on electron transport activity in submitochondrial particles, and Daphnia magna (water flea); growth of Selenastrum capricornutum (alga); growth of Lemna minor (aquatic plant); germination of Lactuca sativa (nonaquatic plant); survival, growth, and maturation of Panagrellus redivivus (nematode); and genotoxicity in the SOS-Chromotest. Only the Microtox test and the submitochondrial particle test detected acute toxicity in the effluent samples. Reduced survival and sublethal responses were caused by some effluents, but not all effluents were toxic, and none caused a response in all of the tests applied. The results suggest that the effluent treatment systems used at Ontario refineries have largely eliminated acute toxicity to the organisms in their test battery. Although reduced survival and sublethal effects were detected in some of the effluents, the effects were minor. Some of the tests provided evidence, albeit weak, of variations in the responses of the test organisms to a temporal series of effluent samples. Not unexpectedly, there were also minor differences in the responses of the tests to effluents from the three refineries. The fathead minnow test seems to be a sensitive indicator of the sublethal toxicity of Ontario refinery effluents.

  9. Use of various acute, sublethal and early life-stage tests to evaluate the toxicity of refinery effluents

    The toxicities of effluents from three Ontario, Canada, refineries were assessed with microbes, plants, invertebrates, and fish. Acute toxicity was assessed by the Microtox test, an assay based on electron transport activity in submitochondrial particles, and Daphnia magna (water flea); growth of Selenastrum capricornutum (alga); growth of Lemna minor (aquatic plant); germination of Lactuca sativa (nonaquatic plant); survival, growth, and maturation of Panagrellus redivivus (nematode); and genotoxicity in the SOS-Chromotest. Only the Microtox test and the submitochondrial particle test detected acute toxicity in the effluent samples. Reduced survival and sublethal responses were caused by some effluents, but not all effluents were toxic, and none caused a response in all of the tests applied. The results suggest that the effluent treatment systems used at Ontario refineries have largely eliminated acute toxicity to the organisms in their test battery. Although reduced survival and sublethal effects were detected in some of the effluents, the effects were minor. Some of the tests provided evidence, albeit weak, of variations in the responses of the test organisms to a temporal series of effluent samples. Not unexpectedly, there were also minor differences in the responses of the tests to effluents from the three refineries. The fathead minnow test seems to be a sensitive indicator of the sublethal toxicity of Ontario refinery effluents

  10. Use of butterflies as nontarget insect test species and the acute toxicity and hazard of mosquito control insecticides.

    Hoang, Tham C; Pryor, Rachel L; Rand, Gary M; Frakes, Robert A

    2011-04-01

    Honeybees are the standard insect test species used for toxicity testing of pesticides on nontarget insects for the U.S. Environmental Protection Agency (U.S. EPA) under the Federal Insecticide Fungicide and Rodenticide Act (FIFRA). Butterflies are another important insect order and a valued ecological resource in pollination. The current study conducted acute toxicity tests with naled, permethrin, and dichlorvos on fifth larval instar (caterpillars) and adults of different native Florida, USA, butterfly species to determine median lethal doses (24-h LD50), because limited acute toxicity data are available with this major insect group. Thorax- and wing-only applications of each insecticide were conducted. Based on LD50s, thorax and wing application exposures were acutely toxic to both caterpillars and adults. Permethrin was the most acutely toxic insecticide after thorax exposure to fifth instars and adult butterflies. However, no generalization on acute toxicity (sensitivity) of the insecticides could be concluded based on exposures to fifth instars versus adult butterflies or on thorax versus wing exposures of adult butterflies. A comparison of LD50s of the butterflies from this study (caterpillars and adults) with honeybee LD50s for the adult mosquito insecticides on a µg/organism or µg/g basis indicates that several butterfly species are more sensitive to these insecticides than are honeybees. A comparison of species sensitivity distributions for all three insecticides shows that permethrin had the lowest 10th percentile. Using a hazard quotient approach indicates that both permethrin and naled applications in the field may present potential acute hazards to butterflies, whereas no acute hazard of dichlorvos is apparent in butterflies. Butterflies should be considered as potential test organisms when nontarget insect testing of pesticides is suggested under FIFRA. PMID:21309017

  11. Acute Methylenedioxypyrovalerone Toxicity.

    Froberg, Blake A; Levine, Michael; Beuhler, Michael C; Judge, Bryan S; Moore, Philip W; Engebretsen, Kristin M; Mckeown, Nathanael J; Rosenbaum, Christopher D; Young, Amy C; Rusyniak, Daniel E

    2015-06-01

    The objective of this study was to characterize the acute clinical effects, laboratory findings, complications, and disposition of patients presenting to the hospital after abusing synthetic cathinone. We conducted a retrospective multicenter case series of patients with synthetic cathinone abuse by searching for the terms bath salts, MDPV, methylenedioxypyrovalerone, mephedrone, methcathinone, methylone, methedrone, and cathinone within the "agent" field of a national clinical toxicology database (ToxIC). The medical records of these patients were obtained and abstracted by investigators at each study site. Patients with confirmatory testing that identified a synthetic cathinone in either blood or urine were included in the series. Patients who had either an undetectable synthetic cathinone test or no confirmatory testing were excluded. A data abstraction sheet was used to obtain information on each patient. We entered data into an Excel spreadsheet and calculated descriptive statistics. We identified 23 patients with confirmed synthetic cathinone exposure--all were positive for methylenedioxyprovalerone (MDPV). Eighty-three percent were male and 74 % had recreational intent. The most common reported clinical effects were tachycardia (74 %), agitation (65 %), and sympathomimetic syndrome (65 %). Acidosis was the most common laboratory abnormality (43 %). Seventy-eight percent of patients were treated with benzodiazepines and 30 % were intubated. Ninety-six percent of patients were hospitalized and 87 % were admitted to the ICU. The majority (61 %) of patients was discharged home but 30 % required inpatient psychiatric care. There was one death in our series. The majority of patients presenting to the hospital after abusing MDPV have severe sympathomimetic findings requiring hospitalization. A number of these patients require inpatient psychiatric care after their acute presentation. PMID:25468313

  12. Acute toxicity of oil sands wastewater: A toxic balance

    A study was conducted to identify and determine the relative importance of the acutely toxic fractions of wastewater from oil sands extraction using a bioassay directed toxicity identification evaluation (TIE), to use these data to construct a toxic balance, and to determine whether the same fractions were acutely toxic to Microtox, Daphnia, and rainbow trout. Samples of extraction wastewater were obtained from the Mildred Lake tailings pond in Alberta during summer 1991 and 1992. The samples were centrifuged to remove suspended solids and the toxicity of the supernatant was evaluated. Seven manipulations, each of which was designed to remove a different class of compounds, was performed on the supernatant samples. A complete TIE was performed using the Microtox bacterial bioassay. All acute toxicity of the surface tailings pond water to Microtox was removed by precipitation of organic acids or by removal of nonpolar organics. These results suggest that the main toxic fraction was a surfactant. In the interstitial water of the fine tails, volatiles accounted for 15% of the acute toxicity. However, all the acute toxicity of interstitial water was removed by precipitation of organic acids or by removal of nonpolar organics. Organic acids accounted for all the acute toxicity of tailings pond water to Daphnia and rainbow trout. Differences in relative sensitivity of test organisms to the toxic fraction demonstrate the importance of using more than one test organism to evaluate acute toxicity. Daphnia was 0.4 times less sensitive and rainbow trout 3 times more sensitive than Microtox. 20 refs., 6 tabs

  13. EURL ECVAM Recommendation on the 3T3 Neutral Red Uptake Cytotoxicity Assay for Acute Oral Toxicity Testing

    PRIETO PERAITA Maria Del Pilar; GRIESINGER Claudius; AMCOFF SVEN PATRIK; Whelan, Maurice

    2013-01-01

    Acute oral toxicity is currently being assessed by a suite of refinement test methods based on the traditional LD50 lethality test and is, besides skin sensitisation, the only remaining animal test required under REACH Annex VII. In view of assessing the use of alternatives for this health endpoint, EURL ECVAM conducted a study on the 3T3 Neutral Red Uptake cytotoxicity test method addressing the method's capacity to support specifically the identification substances not requiring classificat...

  14. Aqueous CO2 vs. aqueous extraction of soils as a preparative procedure for acute toxicity testing

    This study was to determine if contaminated soils extracted with supercritical CO2 (SFE) would yield different results from soils extracted with an aqueous media. Soil samples from an abandoned oil refinery were subjected to aqueous and SFE extraction. Uncontaminated control sites were compared with contaminated sites. Each extract was analyzed for 48 hour acute Ceriodaphnia LC50s and Microtox reg-sign EC50s. Comparisons were then made between the aqueous extracts and the SFE extracts. An additional study was made with HPLC chromatographs of the SFE contaminated site extracts to determine if there was a correlation between LC50 results and peak area of different sections of the chromatograph. The 48 hour Ceriodaphnia LC50 of one contaminated site showed a significant increase in toxicity with the supercritical extract compared to the aqueous extract. All contaminated sites gave toxic responses with the supercritical procedure. The Microtox reg-sign assay showed a toxic response with 2 of the 3 contaminated sites for both aqueous and SFE extracts. Results indicate that the Ceriodaphnia assays were more sensitive than Microtox reg-sign to contaminants found in the refinery soil. SFE controls did not show adverse effects with the Ceriodaphnia, but did have a slight effect with Microtox reg-sign. The best correlation (r2 > 0.90) between the Ceriodaphnia LC50s and the peak areas of the chromatographs was obtained for sections with an estimated log Kow of 1 to 5. SFE extraction provided a fast, efficient and inexpensive method of collecting and testing moderately non-polar to strongly non-polar organic contaminants from contaminated soils

  15. The value of acute toxicity testing of pharmaceuticals for estimation of human response.

    Barle, Ester Lovšin; Looser, Roland; Cerne, Manica; Bechter, Rudolf

    2012-04-01

    The determination of single high doses of active pharmaceutical ingredients (API) is used mostly to fulfill regulatory demands. Oral LD(50) values in animals for over 300 API were compared to the minimal effective therapeutic doses (METD) in humans in order to find a correlation between animal and human data. The highest correlation between human METD and animal LD(50) was found for the dog (R=0.323), the lowest for the rat (0.287). It was determined that acute oral LD(50) of rats have poor correlation with the METD, and cannot be used as a classification criteria into official acute toxic categories. Only 13% of API has been classified as fatal if swallowed according to the EU CLP regulation, none of the substances with very low therapeutic dose have been identified as EU CLP acute toxicity category 1. Substances with very low therapeutic doses, which could potentially have toxic effects in humans, are not identified with the use of oral LD(50) and current classification system. We propose that the acute toxicity based on rat LD(50) dose is not used as a basis for classification of pharmaceuticals, and that the METD is applied as basis for classification. PMID:22306828

  16. Acute toxicity tests with the tropical cladoceran Pseudosida ramosa: The importance of using native species as test organisms.

    Freitas, Emanuela Cristina; Rocha, Odete

    2011-02-01

    Cladocerans have long been used for toxicological assessments of a diverse range of substances. The use of cladocerans in toxicity tests has many advantages, such as their short life cycle, parthenogenetic reproduction (clones), and high sensitivity to toxicants, as well as the easy laboratory maintenance of cultures. The most commonly used cladoceran in ecotoxicological studies of aquatic environments is undoubtedly Daphnia magna. Standard methods using cladocerans as test organisms have been documented and adopted by major international organizations and regulatory agencies of many countries. However, today there is a growing need for improving test organisms and protocols to better reflect local species sensitivity or site-specific conditions. The present study aimed to assess the tropical species Pseudosida ramosa as a potential test organism for ecotoxicological purposes, by carrying out standard acute tests with six reference compounds. Based on the results obtained in the present study and in comparison with other cladocerans, it was found that P. ramosa was more sensitive than Daphnia magna, had a sensitivity similar to that of Daphnia similis, and was less sensitive compared to Ceriodaphnia dubia and C. silvestrii (Neotropical species), except for the salts, sodium chloride and potassium chloride. Also, when P. ramosa was compared with test organisms of other taxonomic groups, we observed that it was more sensitive than most of the others, from simple coelenterates to complex fish. Considering these results and the wide distribution of the cladoceran P. ramosa in tropical and subtropical regions, we suggest that this species can be adopted as a test organism, being a good substitute for the exotic daphnid D. magna, for monitoring of toxicants in freshwaters. PMID:20464548

  17. Acute toxicity test of pesticide abamectin on common carp (Cyprinus carpio)

    Aliakbar Hedayati; Mohammad Forouhar Vajargah; Ahmad Mohamadi Yalsuyi; Safoura Abarghoei; Michael Hajiahmadyan

    2014-01-01

    Objective: To determine acute toxicity of abamectin (abamectin used for agricultural fields and also is a common acaridae used in farms) to common carp (Cyprinus carpio). Methods: In this research, common carps were exposed to abamectin for 96 h. LC50 values of 24 h, 48 h, 72 h and 96 h were attained by probit analysis software SPSS Version 16. Fish were exposed to different concentrations (1, 2, 3, 6, 12 and 15 mg/L) of abamectin for 96 h and physicochemical properties of water used for these experiments were stable and every mortality was recorded daily. Results:The 96 h LC50 of abamectin for Cyprinus carpio was 1.243 mg/L. Conclusions: Eventually toxicity values indicated that abamectin has same toxicity in studied other specie and we can state lower value of LC50 for studied specie in compare with most species.

  18. The added value of the 90-day repeated dose oral toxicity test for industrial chemicals with a low (sub)acute toxicity profile in a high quality dataset.

    Taylor, Katy; Andrew, David J; Rego, Laura

    2014-08-01

    A survey conducted on the EU Notification of New Substances (NONS) database suggested that for industrial chemicals with a profile of low toxicity in (sub)acute toxicity tests there is little added value to the conduct of the 90-day repeated dose study. Avoiding unnecessary animal testing is a central aim of the EU REACH chemicals legislation; therefore we sought to verify the profile using additional data. The OECD's eChemPortal was searched for substances that had both a 28-day and a 90-day study and their robust study summaries were then examined from the ECHA CHEM database. Out of 182 substances with high quality 28-day and 90-day study results, only 18 reported no toxicity of any kind in the (sub)acute tests. However, for 16 of these there were also no reported signs of toxicity at or close to the limit dose (1000mg/kgbw/d) in the 90-day study. Restricting the 'low (sub)acute toxicity in a high quality dataset' profile to general industrial chemicals of no known biological activity, whilst allowing irritant substances, increases the data set and improves the prediction to 95% (20 substances out of 21 substances). The low toxicity profile appears to be of low prevalence within industrial chemicals (10-15%), nevertheless, avoidance of the conduct of a redundant 90-day study for this proportion of the remaining REACH phase-in substances would avoid the use of nearly 50,000 animals and save industry 50million Euros, with no impact on the assessment of human health. PMID:24768988

  19. The effect of food on the acute toxicity of silver nitrate to four freshwater test species and acute-to-chronic ratios.

    Naddy, Rami B; McNerney, Gina R; Gorsuch, Joseph W; Bell, Russell A; Kramer, James R; Wu, Kuen B; Paquin, Paul R

    2011-11-01

    Acute silver toxicity studies were conducted with and without food for four common freshwater test species: Daphnia magna, Ceriodaphnia dubia, Pimephales promelas (fathead minnow-FHM), and Oncorhynchus mykiss (rainbow trout-RBT) in order to generate acute-to-chronic ratios (ACR). The studies were conducted similarly (i.e., static-renewal or flow-through) to chronic/early-life stage studies that were previously performed in this laboratory. The acute toxicity (EC/LC50 values) of silver without food ranged from 0.57 μg dissolved Ag/l for C.dubia to 9.15 μg dissolved Ag/l for RBT. The presence of food resulted in an increase in EC/LC50 values from 1.25× for RBT to 22.4× for C. dubia. Invertebrate food type was also shown to effect acute silver toxicity. Food did not affect EC/LC50s or ACRs as greatly in fish studies as in invertebrate studies. ACRs for both invertebrate species were acute studies without food but were 1.22 and 1.33 when using acute studies with food. ACRs for FHMs ranged from 4.06 to 7.19, while RBT ACRs ranged from 28.6 to 35.8 depending on whether food was present in acute studies. The data generated from this research program should be useful in re-determining a final ACR for silver in freshwater as well as in risk assessments. PMID:21779820

  20. Assessing variability in chemical acute toxicity of unionid mussels: Influence of intra- and inter-laboratory testing, life stage, and species - SETAC Abstract

    We developed a toxicity database for unionid mussels to examine the extent of intra- and inter-laboratory variability in acute toxicity tests with mussel larvae (glochidia) and juveniles; the extent of differential sensitivity of the two life stages; and the variation in sensitiv...

  1. Assessing variability in chemical acute toxicity of unionid mussels: Influence of intra- and inter-laboratory testing, life stage, and species

    The authors developed a toxicity database for unionid mussels to examine the extent of intra- and interlaboratory variability in acute toxicity tests with mussel larvae (glochidia) and juveniles; the extent of differential sensitivity of the 2 life stages; and the variation in se...

  2. Acute toxicity of the cationic surfactant C12-benzalkonium in different bioassays: how test design affects bioavailability and effect concentrations.

    Chen, Yi; Geurts, Marc; Sjollema, Sascha B; Kramer, Nynke I; Hermens, Joop L M; Droge, Steven T J

    2014-03-01

    Using an ion-exchange-based solid-phase microextraction (SPME) method, the freely dissolved concentrations of C12-benzalkonium were measured in different toxicity assays, including 1) immobilization of Daphnia magna in the presence or absence of dissolved humic acid; 2) mortality of Lumbriculus variegatus in the presence or absence of a suspension of Organisation for Economic Co-Operation and Development (OECD) sediment; 3) photosystem II inhibition of green algae Chlorella vulgaris; and 4) viability of in vitro rainbow trout gill cell line (RTgill-W1) in the presence or absence of serum proteins. Furthermore, the loss from chemical adsorption to the different test vessels used in these tests was also determined. The C12-benzalkonium sorption isotherms to the different sorbent phases were established as well. Our results show that the freely dissolved concentration is a better indicator of the actual exposure concentration than the nominal or total concentration in most test assays. Daphnia was the most sensitive species to C12-benzalkonium. The acute Daphnia and Lumbriculus tests both showed no enhanced toxicity from possible ingestion of sorbed C12-benzalkonium in comparison with water-only exposure, which is in accordance with the equilibrium partitioning theory. Moreover, the present study demonstrates that commonly used sorbent phases can strongly affect bioavailability and observed effect concentrations for C12-benzalkonium. Even stronger effects of decreased actual exposure concentrations resulting from sorption to test vessels, cells, and sorbent phases can be expected for more hydrophobic cationic surfactants. PMID:24273010

  3. Testing an application of a biotic ligand model to predict acute toxicity of metal mixtures to rainbow trout.

    Iwasaki, Yuichi; Kamo, Masashi; Naito, Wataru

    2015-04-01

    The authors tested the applicability of a previously developed biotic ligand model (BLM) to predict acute toxicity of single metals and metal mixtures (cadmium, lead, and zinc) to rainbow trout fry (Oncorhynchus mykiss) from a single available dataset. The BLM used in the present study hypothesizes that metals inhibit an essential cation (calcium) and organisms die as a result of its deficiency, leading to an assumption that the proportion of metal-binding ligand (f) is responsible for the toxic effects of metals on the survival of rainbow trout. The f value is a function of free-ion concentrations of metals computed by a chemical speciation model, and the function has affinity constants as model parameters. First, the survival effects of single metals were statistically modeled separately (i.e., f-survival relationship) by using the generalized linear mixed model with binomial distribution. The modeled responses of survival rates to f overlapped reasonably irrespective of metals tested, supporting the theoretical prediction from the BLM that f-survival relationships are comparable regardless of metal species. The authors thus developed the generalized linear mixed model based on all data pooled across the single-metal tests. The best-fitted model well predicted the survival responses observed in mixture tests (r = 0.97), providing support for the applicability of the BLM to predict effects of metal mixtures. PMID:25323464

  4. Differential toxicity of Disperse Red 1 and Disperse Red 13 in the Ames test, HepG2 cytotoxicity assay, and Daphnia acute toxicity test.

    Ferraz, E R A; Umbuzeiro, G A; de-Almeida, G; Caloto-Oliveira, A; Chequer, F M D; Zanoni, M V B; Dorta, D J; Oliveira, D P

    2011-10-01

    Azo dyes are of environmental concern due to their degradation products, widespread use, and low-removal rate during conventional treatment. Their toxic properties are related to the nature and position of the substituents with respect to the aromatic rings and amino nitrogen atom. The dyes Disperse Red 1 and Disperse Red 13 were tested for Salmonella mutagenicity, cell viability by annexin V, and propidium iodide in HepG2 and by aquatic toxicity assays using daphnids. Both dyes tested positive in the Salmonella assay, and the suggestion was made that these compounds induce mainly frame-shift mutations and that the enzymes nitroreductase and O-acetyltransferase play an important role in the observed effect. In addition, it was shown that the presence of the chlorine substituent in Disperse Red 13 decreased the mutagenicity about 14 times when compared with Disperse Red 1, which shows the same structure as Disperse Red 13, but without the chlorine substituent. The presence of this substituent did not cause cytotoxicity in HepG2 cells, but toxicity to the water flea Daphnia similis increased in the presence of the chlorine substituent. These data suggest that the insertion of a chlorine substituent could be an alternative in the design of dyes with low-mutagenic potency, although the ecotoxicity should be carefully evaluated. PMID:20549607

  5. Acute and chronic arsenic toxicity

    Ratnaike, R.

    2003-01-01

    Arsenic toxicity is a global health problem affecting many millions of people. Contamination is caused by arsenic from natural geological sources leaching into aquifers, contaminating drinking water and may also occur from mining and other industrial processes. Arsenic is present as a contaminant in many traditional remedies. Arsenic trioxide is now used to treat acute promyelocytic leukaemia. Absorption occurs predominantly from ingestion from the small intestine, though minimal absorption o...

  6. A rapid bioassay for detecting saxitoxins using a Daphnia acute toxicity test

    Ferrao-Filho, Aloysio da S., E-mail: aloysio@ioc.fiocruz.b [Laboratorio de Avaliacao e Promocao da Saude Ambiental, Departamento de Biologia, Instituto Oswaldo Cruz, FIOCRUZ, Av. Brasil 4365, Manguinhos, Rio de Janeiro, RJ 21045-900 (Brazil); Soares, Maria Carolina S., E-mail: mcarolsoares@gmail.co [Departamento de Engenharia Sanitaria e Ambiental Faculdade de Engenharia, Universidade Federal de Juiz de Fora, Juiz de Fora, MG 36036-900 (Brazil); Freitas de Magalhaes, Valeria, E-mail: valeria@biof.ufrj.b [Laboratorio de Ecofisiologia e Toxicologia de Cianobacterias, Instituto de Biofisica Carlos Chagas Filho, CCS, Universidade Federal do Rio de Janeiro, Ilha do Fundao, Rio de Janeiro, RJ 21949-900 (Brazil); Azevedo, Sandra M.F.O., E-mail: sazevedo@biof.ufrj.b [Laboratorio de Ecofisiologia e Toxicologia de Cianobacterias, Instituto de Biofisica Carlos Chagas Filho, CCS, Universidade Federal do Rio de Janeiro, Ilha do Fundao, Rio de Janeiro, RJ 21949-900 (Brazil)

    2010-06-15

    Bioassays using Daphnia pulex and Moina micrura were designed to detect cyanobacterial neurotoxins in raw water samples. Phytoplankton and cyanotoxins from seston were analyzed during 15 months in a eutrophic reservoir. Effective time to immobilize 50% of the exposed individuals (ET{sub 50}) was adopted as the endpoint. Paralysis of swimming movements was observed between approx0.5-3 h of exposure to lake water containing toxic cyanobacteria, followed by an almost complete recovery of the swimming activity within 24 h after being placed in control water. The same effects were observed in bioassays with a saxitoxin-producer strain of Cylindrospermopsis raciborskii isolated from the reservoir. Regression analysis showed significant relationships between ET{sub 50}vs. cell density, biomass and saxitoxins content, suggesting that the paralysis of Daphnia in lake water samples was caused by saxitoxins found in C. raciborskii. Daphnia bioassay was found to be a sensitive method for detecting fast-acting neurotoxins in natural samples, with important advantages over mouse bioassays. - A new Daphnia bioassay, as an alternative to the mouse bioassay, is able to detect effects of fast-acting, potent neurotoxins in raw water.

  7. Acute and chronic toxicity testing of TPH-contaminated soils with the earthworm, Eisenia foetida

    Responses of Eisenia foetida to petroleum-contaminated soils are being assessed using a 21-day test described previously. The authors prepared dilutions of two soils, referred to as A and B, using their reference-soil counterparts, collected from near the contaminated sites. The total petroleum hydrocarbon (TPH) content of each soil was measured by latroscan before the dilutions were prepared. References for the A and B soils contained 167 and 1,869 ppm of TPH, respectively. Thus, neither reference soil was pristine. Dilutions of the A soil tested with E. foetida contained from 179 to 305 ppm TPH; dilutions of the B soil contained from 1,875 to 1,950 ppm TPH. E foetida survival was 100% in both dilution series. Mean growth of Eisenia in dilutions of the A soil ranged from 48 to 74 mg dry-weight growth per pair of worms; these values were lower than those in any dilution of the B soil series. Lipid levels of worms in higher concentrations of the A and B soils were similar to one another and to published values, suggesting little inhibition of feeding in either dilution series. Earthworm reproduction was zero in the A series, but moderately high in the B series. Thus, the A soil apparently contained materials other than TPH that inhibited earthworm growth and reproduction. This study shows that (1) TPH at concentrations as high as 1,800 ppm may not always be inhibitor to earthworm growth or reproduction and (2) that earthworm survival, as a test endpoint, is much less sensitive than either growth or reproduction

  8. Development of methods for laboratory culture and toxicity testing of the endangered desert pupfish, Cyprinodon macularius, and evaluation of the acute toxicity of selenium

    US Fish and Wildlife Service, Department of the Interior — We conducted a series of studies to evaluate methods for laboratory culture and toxicity testing with the endangered desert pupfish, Cyprinodon macularius. This...

  9. Ethylene Oxide: Acute Four-Hour and One-Hour Inhalation Toxicity Testing in Rats

    William M. Snellings

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available Ethylene oxide was tested on groups of rats for either 4-hour or 1-hour inhalation exposure, followed by 14 days of observation. Groups of five Sprague-Dawley rats/sex were exposed, and clinical signs and mortality were recorded. Clinical signs noted included irregular breathing, absence of certain reflexes, and tremors. Rats that died had moderate to severe pulmonary congestion. The calculated LC50 values, reported as ppm by volume (with 95% confidence limits, were as follows. 4-hour LC50 values were 1972 (1887 to 2061 ppm for males; 1537 (1391 to 1698 ppm for females; 1741 (1655 to 1831 ppm for the combined sexes. The 1-hour LC50 values were 5748 (5276 to 6262 ppm for males; 4439 (4034 to 4884 ppm for females; 5029 (4634 to 5459 ppm for the combined sexes.

  10. The Historical Development of Animal Toxicity Testing

    Gertler, N.

    1997-01-01

    This paper traces the historical development of animal toxicity testing, from its ancient origins through the period of standardization following World War II. It explores the roots of toxicity testing in physiology and experimental medicine, drug development, and the detection and identification of poisons. The discussion then turns to the shift in focus from acute to chronic toxicity which occurred around the turn of the century. The controversy over the potential toxicity of preservatives ...

  11. Acute toxicity of metals and reference toxicants to a freshwater ostracod, Cypris subglobosa Sowerby, 1840 and correlation to EC{sub 50} values of other test models

    Khangarot, B.S., E-mail: bkhangarot@hotmail.com [Ecotoxicology Division, Indian Institute of Toxicology Research (Formerly: Industrial Toxicology Research Centre), Post Box No. 80, Mahatma Gandhi Marg, Lucknow 226001 (India); Das, Sangita [Ecotoxicology Division, Indian Institute of Toxicology Research (Formerly: Industrial Toxicology Research Centre), Post Box No. 80, Mahatma Gandhi Marg, Lucknow 226001 (India)

    2009-12-30

    The ostracod Cypris subglobosa Sowerby, 1840 static bioassay test on the basis of a 48 h of 50% of immobilization (EC{sub 50}) has been used to measure the toxicity of 36 metals and metalloids and 12 reference toxicants. Among the 36 metals and metalloids, osmium (Os) was found to be the most toxic in the test while boron (B), the least toxic. The EC{sub 50} values of this study revealed positive linear relationship with the established test models of cladoceran (Daphnia magna), sludge worm (Tubifex tubifex), chironomid larvae (Chironomus tentans), protozoan (Tetrahymena pyriformis), fathead minnow (Pimephales promelas), bluegill sunfish (Lepomis macrochirus), and aquatic macrophyte duckweed (Lemna minor). Correlation coefficients (r{sup 2}) for 17 physicochemical properties of metals or metal ions and EC{sub 50}s (as pM) were examined by linear regression analysis. The electronegativity, ionization potential, melting point, solubility product of metal sulfides (pK{sub sp}), softness parameter and some other physicochemical characteristics were significantly correlated with EC{sub 50}s of metals to C. subglobosa. The reproducibility of toxicity test was determined using 12 reference toxicants. The coefficient of variability of the EC{sub 50}s ranged from 6.95% to 55.37% and variability was comparable to that noticed for D. magna and other aquatic test models. The study demonstrated the need to include crustacean ostracods in a battery of biotests to detect the presence of hazardous chemicals in soils, sewage sludges, sediments and aquatic systems.

  12. Acute toxicity of metals and reference toxicants to a freshwater ostracod, Cypris subglobosa Sowerby, 1840 and correlation to EC(50) values of other test models.

    Khangarot, B S; Das, Sangita

    2009-12-30

    The ostracod Cypris subglobosa Sowerby, 1840 static bioassay test on the basis of a 48h of 50% of immobilization (EC(50)) has been used to measure the toxicity of 36 metals and metalloids and 12 reference toxicants. Among the 36 metals and metalloids, osmium (Os) was found to be the most toxic in the test while boron (B), the least toxic. The EC(50) values of this study revealed positive linear relationship with the established test models of cladoceran (Daphnia magna), sludge worm (Tubifex tubifex), chironomid larvae (Chironomus tentans), protozoan (Tetrahymena pyriformis), fathead minnow (Pimephales promelas), bluegill sunfish (Lepomis macrochirus), and aquatic macrophyte duckweed (Lemna minor). Correlation coefficients (r(2)) for 17 physicochemical properties of metals or metal ions and EC(50)s (as pM) were examined by linear regression analysis. The electronegativity, ionization potential, melting point, solubility product of metal sulfides (pK(sp)), softness parameter and some other physicochemical characteristics were significantly correlated with EC(50)s of metals to C. subglobosa. The reproducibility of toxicity test was determined using 12 reference toxicants. The coefficient of variability of the EC(50)s ranged from 6.95% to 55.37% and variability was comparable to that noticed for D. magna and other aquatic test models. The study demonstrated the need to include crustacean ostracods in a battery of biotests to detect the presence of hazardous chemicals in soils, sewage sludges, sediments and aquatic systems. PMID:19683870

  13. Acute toxicity of metals and reference toxicants to a freshwater ostracod, Cypris subglobosa Sowerby, 1840 and correlation to EC50 values of other test models

    The ostracod Cypris subglobosa Sowerby, 1840 static bioassay test on the basis of a 48 h of 50% of immobilization (EC50) has been used to measure the toxicity of 36 metals and metalloids and 12 reference toxicants. Among the 36 metals and metalloids, osmium (Os) was found to be the most toxic in the test while boron (B), the least toxic. The EC50 values of this study revealed positive linear relationship with the established test models of cladoceran (Daphnia magna), sludge worm (Tubifex tubifex), chironomid larvae (Chironomus tentans), protozoan (Tetrahymena pyriformis), fathead minnow (Pimephales promelas), bluegill sunfish (Lepomis macrochirus), and aquatic macrophyte duckweed (Lemna minor). Correlation coefficients (r2) for 17 physicochemical properties of metals or metal ions and EC50s (as pM) were examined by linear regression analysis. The electronegativity, ionization potential, melting point, solubility product of metal sulfides (pKsp), softness parameter and some other physicochemical characteristics were significantly correlated with EC50s of metals to C. subglobosa. The reproducibility of toxicity test was determined using 12 reference toxicants. The coefficient of variability of the EC50s ranged from 6.95% to 55.37% and variability was comparable to that noticed for D. magna and other aquatic test models. The study demonstrated the need to include crustacean ostracods in a battery of biotests to detect the presence of hazardous chemicals in soils, sewage sludges, sediments and aquatic systems.

  14. EDIT: A New International Multicentre Programme to Develop and Evaluate Batteries of In Vitro Tests for Acute and Chronic Systemic Toxicity.

    Ekwall, B; Clemedson, C; Ekwall, B; Ring, P; Romert, L

    1999-01-01

    The Multicenter Evaluation of In Vitro Cytotoxicity (MEIC) programme provided a battery of three basal cytotoxicity tests with a good (R2 = 0.77) prediction of human acute lethal blood concentrations. The predictive power of this battery would be considerably improved by the addition of new supplementary in vitro tests. The development of these new tests will be facilitated by a close coupling of test development to evaluation. The Cytotoxicology Laboratory, Uppsala (CTLU), is therefore inviting all interested in vitro toxicologists to take part in the Evaluation-guided Development of In Vitro Toxicity and Toxicokinetic Tests (EDIT). All EDIT activities (subprojects) will be designed on a case-by-case basis, but will follow a common pattern. The CTLU will use the accumulated MEIC/EDIT data, and its experience from the previous MEIC evaluation, to suggest priority areas, i.e. the need for certain in vitro toxicity data/tests as supplements to existing in vitro models/batteries on human systemic toxicity. Detailed research programmes corresponding to these areas will be published on the Internet. The CTLU will also try to raise funds for some projects and will coordinate multilaboratory studies. Interested laboratories developing or already using priority tests are encouraged to join the subprojects and to test specific sets of substances (usually sets of MEIC reference chemicals) in their new assays. The CTLU will provide adequate human reference data and will also evaluate results as single components of complex models, together with the laboratory conducting the test. At present, ten priority areas have been identified: a) repeat dose toxicity in vitro; b) urgent mechanistic information from in vitro studies of protein denaturation, morphology of cell injury, differential toxicity between various rapidly measured endpoints (10-60 minutes) and 24-hour cytotoxicity, toxicity to aerobic cells, and discrimination between rapid and slow cytotoxic mechanisms; c) in

  15. Acute central nervous system (CNS) toxicity of total body irradiation (TBI) measured using neuropsychological testing of attention functions

    Purpose: The purpose of this study was to investigate acute normal tissue damage of low irradiation doses to the healthy, adult central nervous system (CNS) using neuropsychological testing of attention functions. Methods and Materials: Neuropsychological testing (IQ, attention [modified Trail-Making Test A, Digit Symbol Test, D2 Test, Wiener Determination Machine]) was used to examine 40 patients (43 ± 10 years) before and immediately after the first fraction (1.2 Gy) of hyperfractionated total body irradiation (TBI) at the University of Heidelberg. The patients received antiemetic premedication. Test results are given as mean percentiles ± standard deviation, with 50 ± 34 being normal. Thirty-eight control patients (53 ± 15 years) were studied to quantify the influence of hospitalization, stress, and repeated testing. Results: The patients showed normal baseline test results (IQ = 101 ± 14, attention = 54 ± 28) and no decrease in test results after 1.2 Gy TBI. Attention functions improved (66 ± 25) corresponding to a practice effect of repeated testing that was seen in the control group, although alternate versions of the tests were used (IQ = 104 ± 10, attention before = 42 ± 29, attention after = 52 ± 31). Conclusion: Our data show no deterioration of neuropsychologic test results acutely after 1.2 Gy whole body exposure in adult patients without CNS disease receiving antiemetic medication

  16. Acute toxicity test of a natural iron chelator and an antioxidant, extracted from Triticum aestivum Linn. (wheat grass).

    Das, Priyabrata; Mukhopadhyay, Soma; Mandal, Suvra; Chakraborty, Abhijit; Pal, Amartya; Sarkar, Nirmal Kumar; Mukhopadhyay, Ashis

    2014-01-01

    Triticum aestivum (wheat grass) is widely used in traditional medicine to treat various diseases. Previously the purified compounds and crude extract of T. aestivum were established to have iron chelation potency and antioxidant activity. So it is necessary to evaluate the toxic properties of any compound isolated from plant extract to prevent any untoward side effects. The aim of this study was to determine the acute oral toxicity level of our purified compounds, i.e. mugineic acids and methylpheophorbide a., and crude extract of T. aestivum, on Swiss albino mice at dosage of 2000 mg/kg for a period of 14 days using the organisation for economic co-operation and development guidelines 423. There was no mortality. No change in behavioural pattern, clinical signs, body weight and blood biochemistry profile were observed. Kidney and liver showed normal histo-pathological architecture. Hence, the oral administration of compounds and extract of T. aestivum did not produce any significant toxic effect on mice. Thus we may conclude that the extract can be utilised for pharmaceutical formulations as iron chelator and antioxidant agent for various diseases. PMID:24697628

  17. Acute aquatic toxicity and biodegradation potential of biodiesel fuels

    Recent studies on the biodegradation potential and aquatic toxicity of biodiesel fuels are reviewed. Biodegradation data were obtained using the shaker flask method observing the appearance of CO2 and by observing the disappearance of test substance with gas chromatography. Additional BOD5 and COD data were obtained. The results indicate the ready biodegradability of biodiesel fuels as well as the enhanced co-metabolic biodegradation of biodiesel and petroleum diesel fuel mixtures. The study examined reference diesel, neat soy oil, neat rape oil, and the methyl and ethyl esters of these vegetable oils as well as various fuel blends. Acute toxicity tests on biodiesel fuels and blends were performed using Oncorhynchus mykiss (Rainbow Trout) in a static non-renewal system and in a proportional dilution flow replacement system. The study is intended to develop data on the acute aquatic toxicity of biodiesel fuels and blends under US EPA Good Laboratory Practice Standards. The test procedure is designed from the guidelines outlined in Methods for Measuring the Acute Toxicity of Effluents and Receiving Waters to Freshwater and Marine Organisms and the Fish Acute Aquatic Toxicity Test guideline used to develop aquatic toxicity data for substances subject to environmental effects test regulations under TSCA. The acute aquatic toxicity is estimated by an LC50, a lethal concentration effecting mortality in 50% of the test population

  18. Effects of polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs) on an aquatic ecosystem: acute toxicity and community-level toxic impact tests of benzo[a]pyrene using lake zooplankton community.

    Ikenaka, Yoshinori; Sakamoto, Masaki; Nagata, Takamaru; Takahashi, Hirokazu; Miyabara, Yuichi; Hanazato, Takayuki; Ishizuka, Mayumi; Isobe, Tomohiko; Kim, Jun-Woo; Chang, Kwang-Hyeon

    2013-02-01

    We estimated acute toxicity of benzo[a]pyrene (B[a]P) using two cladoceran species, Ceriodaphnia reticulata and Daphnia magna, and also analyzed its impact on zooplankton community throughout an exposure experiment using small-scale mesocosms. LC(50) of B[a]P for C. reticulata and D. magna was 4.3 and 4.7 µg/l, respectively. However, individuals fed with Chlorella showed higher LC(50), 6.1 µg/l for C. reticulata and 8.0 µg/l for D. magna. In the exposure experiment, we examined the impact of B[a]P on zooplankton community using conceivable concentrations in the environment (5 and 10 µg/l) using typical zooplankton community in eutrophicated systems. Despite the residence time of B[a]P in the water column was short as recovery pattern was different among cladocerans and rotifers. Consequently, B[a]P showed insecticide-like impacts, suppressing cladoceran populations and inducing the dominance of rotifers particularly under high concentration (10 µg/l). Results have suggested that, even such short duration of B[a]P in the water body can have impact on zooplankton abundance and community structure. Since B[a]P easily precipitate to the bottom and rapidly disappears from the water body, careful monitoring and further assessment of the potential toxicity of polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons are necessary. PMID:23358147

  19. Acute contact toxicity test of insecticides (Cipermetrina 25, Lorsban 48E, Thionex 35) on honeybees in the southwestern zone of Uruguay.

    Carrasco-Letelier, Leonidas; Mendoza-Spina, Yamandú; Branchiccela, María Belén

    2012-07-01

    Glyphosate-resistant soybean cultivation is expanding rapidly in Uruguay, with its land area having increased by 95 times during the past 10 years. Because of the region's Neotropical conditions, insecticide use is required to ensure adequate soybean productivity. However, in areas shared by soybean crops and beekeepers - such as the southwestern zone of Uruguay (SWZU) - the use of insecticides can increase the risks of honeybee death and honey contamination. Uruguayan commercial and legal guidelines set out practices and field doses designed to prevent acute intoxication with insecticides. However, honeybees in the SWZU are predominantly a polyhybrid subspecies different from that used to set international reference values, and hence they may have a different acute toxicity response, thus rendering such precautions ineffective. The aim of this work was to assess the acute toxicity response of polyhybrid honeybees in the SWZU to cypermethrin (commercial formulation: Cipermetrina 25 Agrin®), chlorpyrifos (commercial formulation: Lorsban 48E®), and endosulfan (commercial formulation: Thionex 35®). Acute toxicity bioassays were conducted to determine the median lethal dose (LD(50)) of each insecticide for the honeybees. The results indicate that, compared with EU reference values, SWZU honeybees have a higher toxicological sensitivity to chlorpyrifos and endosulfan, and a lower toxicological sensitivity to cypermethrin, based on the commercial formulations tested. However, when these results were adjusted according to their field dose equivalents, only chlorpyrifos emerged as a potential problem for beekeeping, as the maximum recommended field dose of Lorsban 48E® for soybean crops in Uruguay is 23 times the corresponding LD(50) for honeybees in the SWZU. PMID:22440636

  20. Acute toxicity of gasoline and some additives.

    Reese, E.; Kimbrough, R D

    1993-01-01

    The acute toxicity of gasoline; its components benzene, toluene, and xylene; and the additives ethanol, methanol, and methyl tertiary butyl ether are reviewed. All of these chemicals are only moderately to mildly toxic at acute doses. Because of their volatility, these compounds are not extensively absorbed dermally unless the exposed skin is occluded. Absorption through the lungs and the gastrointestinal tract is quite efficient. After ingestion, the principal danger for a number of these ch...

  1. 40 CFR 799.9130 - TSCA acute inhalation toxicity.

    2010-07-01

    ...) Definitions. The definitions in section 3 of TSCA and the definitions in 40 CFR Part 792—Good Laboratory... minimize the need for animal testing, the Agency encourages the review of existing acute toxicity... need for further animal testing. (ii) Limit test. When data on structurally related chemicals...

  2. 大型蚤急性毒性试验的质量控制%Quality Control for Daphnia Magna Straus Acute Toxicity Tests

    张哲海; 陈明; 梅卓华; 赵春霞; 赵宏飞

    2011-01-01

    The toxic effect tests with the offspring of female Daphnia Magna at different ages using potassium dichromate were performed to strengthen quality control of Daphnia Magna acute toxicity tests.The research results from the offspring of 11 ~ 56 days' female Daphnia Magna showed the highest sensitivity to potassium dichromate was the offspring of 35 days' female Daphnia Magna, the lowest sensitivity to potassium dichromate was the offspring of 47 days' female Daphnia Magna.In a certain condition, increase of dilution water hardness could significantly reduce sensitivity of Daphnia magna to potassium dichromate.Test precision of 24h-EC50 for potassium dichromate with the offspring of 29 ~ 42 days' female Daphnia magna was the best,followed by that of 15 ~ 28 days'.The student test indicated the mean 24h-EC50 value of the group of the offspring of old than 42 days' female Daphnia Magna had significant different to the group of that of 15 ~ 28 days' ( P < 0.05 ), and highly significant different to the group of that of 29 ~ 42 days' ( P < 0.01 ).The offspring of 15 ~ 42 days' female Daphnia Magna in the culture at 20℃ is recommended for Daphnia Magna acute toxicity tests.The laboratory of acute toxicity tests should periodically check tests by the reference toxicant tests and reference toxicant quality control chart to demonstrate the continuing ability of the tests.%为加强大型蚤急性毒性试验的质量控制,采用重铬酸钾作为参考毒物分析了不同日龄母蚤所产幼蚤的毒性效应变化.研究发现,在大型蚤急性毒性试验中,对于在11~56日龄期间的母蚤,以35日龄母蚤所产幼蚤对重铬酸钾的敏感度最高,47日龄母蚤所产幼蚤的敏感度最低.在一定范围内,提高稀释水硬度可显著降低大型蚤对重铬酸钾的敏感度.重铬酸钾的24h-EC50值的实验室精密度以29~42日龄母蚤组所产幼蚤最好,其次为15~28日龄母蚤组;经t检验,大于42日龄母蚤

  3. Portable, accurate toxicity testing

    Ever tightening environmental regulations, severe penalties for non-compliance, and expensive remediation costs have stimulated development of methods to detect and measure toxins. Most of these methods are bioassays that must be performed in the laboratory; none previously devised has been truly portable. The US Army, through the Small Business Innovative Research program, has developed a hand-held, field deployable unit for testing toxicity of battlefield water supplies. This patented system employs the measurable quenching, in the presence of toxins, of the natural bioluminescence produced by the marine dinoflagellate alga Pyrocystis lunula. The procedure's inventor used it for years to measure toxicity concentrations of chemical warfare agents actually, their simulants, primarily in the form of pesticides and herbicides plus assorted toxic reagents, waterbottom samples, drilling fluids, even blood. While the procedure is more precise, cheaper, and faster than most bioassays, until recently it was immobile. Now it is deployable in the field. The laboratory apparatus has been proven to be sensitive to toxins in concentrations as low as a few parts per billion, repeatable within a variation of 10% or less, and unlike some other bioassays effective in turbid or colored media. The laboratory apparatus and the hand-held tester have been calibrated with the EPA protocol that uses the shrimplike Mysidopsis bahia. The test organism tolerates transportation well, but must be rested a few hours at the test site for regeneration of its light-producing powers. Toxicity now can be measured confidently in soils, water columns, discharge points, and many other media in situ. Most significant to the oil industry is that drilling fluids can be monitored continuously on the rig

  4. 《圣济总录》芎附汤急性毒性实验%Acute Toxicity Test of Xiongfu Decoction

    郭炜; 韩涛

    2012-01-01

    Objective: Through animal experiments to determine the acute toxicity of Xiongfu Decoction, it provides a safe basis for clinical use. Method : Firstly judge the possibilities of determined half lethal dose( LD50) by the pre-experiment, and determine LD50 or the maximum tolerated dose ( MTD ). Result : Acute toxicity test can't measure the LD50. The largest dose ( MTD ) was 240g · kg-1, equivalent to clinical dose by 243 times. Conclusion, Xiongfu Decoction is safe and reliable and can be used in clinic.%目的:通过动物实验判断芎附汤的急性毒性,为临床用药提供安全依据.方法:给予小鼠灌胃芎附汤,通过预实验测定半数致死量(LD50),并据此测定最大耐受量(MTD).结果:急性毒性实验未能测出LD50,改测最大耐受量为240g/kg,相当于临床人用量的243倍.结论:芎附汤是安全有效的药物,可以在临床使用.

  5. ECVAM's ongoing activities in the area of acute oral toxicity.

    Kinsner-Ovaskainen, Agnieszka; Bulgheroni, Anna; Hartung, Thomas; Prieto, Pilar

    2009-12-01

    The 7th Amendment of the Cosmetics Directive (2003/15/EC) set up timelines for banning animal testing and marketing of cosmetic products and their ingredients tested on animals. For most of the human health effects, including acute toxicity, the deadline for these bans was in March 2009. Moreover, the new Regulation EC 1907/2006 on Registration, Evaluation, Authorisation and Restriction of Chemicals (REACH) provided a strong impetus towards the application of alternative approaches to reduce the number of animals used for toxicological testing. Therefore, the European Centre for the Validation of Alternative Methods (ECVAM) is currently putting considerable effort into developing and validating alternative methods in the field of acute toxicity. The main activities in this area include: (1) the Integrated Project ACuteTox, funded by the European Commission's 6th Framework Programme in 2005 with the aim to develop and pre-validate a testing strategy to fully replace acute oral toxicity testing in vivo; (2) a follow-up validation study to assess the predictive capacity of the validated BALB/3T3 Neutral Red Uptake cytotoxicity assay to discriminate between toxic/hazardous (LD(50)2,000 mg/kg); (3) an approach to identify compounds with LD(50)>2,000 mg/kg using information from 28-days repeated dose toxicity studies. PMID:19591916

  6. Acute Toxicity of Justicia gendarussa Burm. Leaves

    Juheini Amin

    2010-11-01

    Full Text Available Acute Toxicity of Justicia gendarussa Burm. Leaves. Preminelary experiment showed that ethanolic extract ofgandarusa leaves (Justicia gendarussa Burm. could decreased uric acid blood level on rats. The aim of this experimentwas to determine of the value LD50 and liver function based on activities of aminotransferase. Animals test which wereused in this experiment were 50 males and 50 females white mice. They were divided into 5 groups. Group 1 as controlgroup was given aquadest. Group 2-5 were treated by ethanolic extract of gandarusa leaves with dosage 4, 8, 16, and 32g/kg bw. The LD50 value was determined by the amount of death in group during 24 hours after giving a single dose oftest substance. The result showed that the highest dose was practically non toxic with LD50 value of 31.99 g/kg bw(male groups and 27.85 g/kg bw (female groups. Measurement of aminotransferase activity was done by usingcolorimetric method. The result of ANOVA analysis for liver function showed that the giving test substance 4 g/kg bw–16 g/kg bw was not significantly different between treated groups and control group.

  7. The use of mice as animal model for testing acute toxicity (LD-50) of toxic shock syndrome toxin Utilização de camundongos como modelo animal para a verificação da toxicidade aguda da toxina-1 da síndrome do choque tóxico

    Dias, R. S.; L.S. Carmo; L.G.D. Heneine; P.H. Rocha; Barbosa, C. F.; Rodrigues, R.J.; V.R. Linardi

    2009-01-01

    Acute toxicity test (LD-50) using toxic shock syndrome toxin (TSST-1) was tested in BALB/c, C57BL/6 and Swiss mice. Animals (n = 10) were intraperitoneally injected with TSST-1 (0.01-10.0µg/mouse) followed 4h later by potentiating dose of lipopolysaccharide (75.0µg of LPS - E. coli O111:B4) and cumulative mortality was recorded over 72h. Control animals received either TSST-1 or LPS alone. The data were submitted to qui-Square test and acute toxicity test was calculated by probit analysis (co...

  8. Acute and subacute toxicity of 18F-FDG

    Before starting clinical trials of a new drug, it is necessary to perform a battery of safety tests for assessing human risk. Radiopharmaceuticals like any new drug must be tested taking into account its specificity, duration of treatment and especially the toxicity of both parties, the unlabeled molecule and its radionuclide, apart from impurities emanating from radiolysis. Regulatory agencies like the Food and Drug Administration - USA (FDA) and the European Medicine Agency (EMEA), establish guidelines for the regulation of production and research of radiopharmaceuticals. In Brazil the production of radiopharmaceuticals was not regulated until the end of 2009, when were established by the National Agency for Sanitary Surveillance (ANVISA) resolutions No. 63, which refers to the Good Manufacturing Practices of Radiopharmaceuticals and No. 64 which seeks the registration of record radiopharmaceuticals. To obtain registration of radiopharmaceuticals are necessary to prove the quality, safety, efficacy and specificity of the drug . For the safety of radiopharmaceuticals must be presented studies of acute toxicity, subacute and chronic toxicity as well as reproductive, mutagenic and carcinogenic. Nowadays IPEN-CNEN/SP produces one of the most important radiopharmaceutical of nuclear medicine, the 18F-FDG, which is used in many clinical applications, particularly in the diagnosis and staging of tumors. The objective of this study was to evaluate the systemic toxicity (acute/ subacute) radiopharmaceutical 18F-FDG in an in vivo test system, as recommended by the RDC No. 64, which will serve as a model for protocols toxicity of radiopharmaceuticals produced at IPEN. The following tests were performed: tests of acute and subacute toxicity, biodistribution studies of 18F-FDG, comet assay and reproductive toxicity. In acute toxicity, healthy rats were injected . (author)

  9. ACUTE AND SUBCHRONIC TOXICITY OF MULBERRY FRUITS

    Jintanaporn Wattanathorn

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available At present, the application of phytomedicine worldwide is substantial increase. The data of the acute and subchronic toxicity studies on medicinal plants or fruits and vegetables used for medicinal purposes should be obtained in order to increase the confidence in its safety to human, particularly for the application as functional food. Despite the widely consumption of mulberry (Morus alba L, Maraceae family fruits both as fruit and as medicine, no systematic evaluation of the toxicity of mulberry fruits is available until now. This study aimed to determine the acute and subchronic oral toxicities of mulberry fruits in male and female Wistar rats. A single acute mulberry fruits extract dose of 2000 mg kg-1 dissolved in distilled water was administered by oral gavage for acute toxicity. Subchronic doses of 2, 10 and 500 mg kg-1 day-1 were also administered the same way for 90 days. The major toxicological endpoints examined included animal body weight, water and food intake, selected tissue weights and histopathological examinations. In addition, we also examined hematological and clinical chemistry values. The results showed no abnormalities in treated groups as compared to the controls. Although significantly different BUN and glucose were also observed, all of the values were within normal limits. Neither gross abnormalities nor histopathological changes were observed. The results suggest that mulberry fruits do not produce acute or subchronic toxicity in either female or male rats. Therefore mulberry fruits have the potential to be use as functional food. However, a chronic toxicity study should be further carried out to assure the safety for repetitive administration of this fruit before the application of functional food.

  10. Mechanisms of acute cocaine toxicity

    Heard, Kennon; Palmer, Robert; Zahniser, Nancy R.

    2008-01-01

    Patients with acute cocaine poisoning present with life-threatening symptoms involving several organ systems. While the effects of cocaine are myriad, they are the result of a limited number of cocaine-protein interactions, including monoamine transporters, neurotransmitter receptors and voltage-gated ion channels. These primary interactions trigger a cascade of events that ultimately produce the clinical effects. The purpose of this article is to review the primary interactions of cocaine an...

  11. Acute methanol toxicity in minipigs

    Dorman, D.C.; Dye, J.A.; Nassise, M.P.; Ekuta, J.; Bolon, B.

    1993-01-01

    The pig has been proposed as a potential animal model for methanol-induced neuro-ocular toxicosis in humans because of its low liver tetrahydrofolate levels and slower rate of formate metabolism compared to those of humans. To examine the validity of this animal model, 12 4-month-old female minipigs (minipig YU) were given a single oral dose of water or methanol at 1.0, 2.5, or 5.0 g/kg body wt by gavage (n = 3 pigs/dose). Dose-dependent signs of acute methanol intoxication, which included mild CNS depression, tremors, ataxia, and recumbency, developed within 0.5 to 2.0 hr, and resolved by 52 hr. Methanol- and formate-dosed pigs did not develop optic nerve lesions, toxicologically significant formate accumulation, or metabolic acidosis. Based on results following a single dose, female minipigs do not appear to be overtly sensitive to methanol and thus may not be a suitable animal model for acute methanol-induced neuroocular toxicosis.

  12. Rethinking guideline toxicity testing.

    Saghir, Shakil Ahmed

    2015-07-01

    The guidelines for risk assessment of plant protection products (PPPs) and other non-pharmaceuticals were developed over three decades ago and have generally not been updated to incorporate advancements in toxicology and exposure sciences. These guidelines recommend using maximum-tolerated-dose (MTD) even when human relevance of such high doses is mostly limited due to orders of magnitude margin-of-exposure. Conducting animal studies at such high doses often requires further mode-of-action (MoA) studies elucidating human relevance. In order to improve data, ILSI/HESI-ACSA technical committee proposed a tiered approach with emphasis on determining systemic dose of parent and/or metabolite(s) in test animals as biological effects are reflective of systemic rather than administered dose. Any deviation from linearity in systemic dose (saturation of absorption or elimination) in animal studies may have profound toxic effect(s) not expected to occur in likely human exposure scenarios and should be avoided. Toxicity studies should ideally be conducted at kinetically linear doses or slightly above the point of departure from linearity or kinetically-derived maximum dose (KMD) as the systemic dose nonlinearity is a more sensitive parameter occurring much earlier than the MTD endpoints. Therefore, determining systemic dose, especially KMD, in study animals is an improvement to hazard assessment of PPPs and other non-pharmaceuticals allowing toxicologists to better understand findings in animals at systemically linear as well as nonlinear doses to likely human exposures which can easily be accomplished using core study animals as outlined below. Determining systemic dose in studies will also increase the understanding of initial potential MoA of a PPPs and other non-pharmaceuticals and reduce the use of animals by avoiding unnecessary additional MoA studies. PMID:25980640

  13. Duration of Acute and Chronic Toxicity Testing in Animals (ICH S4A and S4B)

    Spindler, Per; Van Cauteren, Herman

    2013-01-01

    clinical development has progressed within the ICH (M3): we therefore consider options such as prospective evaluation, biomarker-based mechanistic understanding, toxicokinetics and the use of evidence-based medicine to support further joint activities to harmonise the duration of non-rodent toxicity...

  14. 锂电池泄露对大型蚤的急性和慢性毒性%Acute Toxicity and Chronic Toxicity Test of Lithium Battery Leakag on Daphnia magna

    戴朝霞; 王世和

    2012-01-01

    [Objective] The research aimed to study the acute toxicity and chronic toxicity of lithium battery leakage on Daphnia magna. [ Method] Choosing Daphnia magna as test biology,the acute and chronic toxicity of nanometer nickel hydroxide to model aquatic was studied. [ Result] The tolerance of the Daphnia magna to nanometer nickel hydroxide varied wildly with time. The concentration in 24 h was 0 -3. 83 mg/L while reduced to 0 - 0.69 mg/L in 48 h, and changed little after 48 - 96 h. Nanometer nickel hydroxide caused Daphnia magna to and reproductive -delayed die in two days. [ Conclusion ] The study provides the reference for environmental impact analysis of nanometer nickel hydroxide from lithium battery leakage.%[目的]研究锂电池泄露对大型蚤的急性和慢性毒性.[方法]选择大型蚤作为受试生物,进行纳米氢氧化镍对典型水生生物大型蚤的急性和慢性毒性试验.[结果]大型蚤对纳米氢氧化镍的耐受浓度随着时间变化差异很大,在24 h内大型蚤耐受浓度为0~3.83mg/L,在48 h内耐受浓度迅速降低至0~0.69 mg/L,而48~ 96 h后耐受浓度变化不大;纳米氢氧化镍在短时间(0~2 d)引起大型蚤死亡并引起大型蚤繁殖延迟.[结论]该研究为锂电池泄露后纳米氢氧化镍对环境的影响分析提供参考依据.

  15. Acute and subacute toxicity of 18F-FDG

    Before initiating clinical trials of a new drug, it is necessary to perform a battery of safety tests, for evaluating the risk in humans. Radiopharmaceuticals must be tested taking into account its specificity, duration of treatment and especially the toxicity of both, the unlabelled molecule and its radionuclide, apart from impurities emanating from radiolysis. In Brazil the production of radiopharmaceuticals was not regulated until the end of 2009, when ANVISA established the Resolutions No. 63, which refers to the Good Manufacturing Practices of radiopharmaceuticals and No. 64 which seeks the registration of radiopharmaceuticals. Nowadays IPEN produces one of the most important radiopharmaceutical for nuclear medicine, the 18F-FDG, which is used in the diagnosis. The objective of this study is to assess systemic toxicity (acute / subacute) of 18F-FDG in an in vivo test system, as recommended by the RDC No. 64. In acute tests the administration occurred on the first day, healthy rats were observed for 14 days reporting their clinical signs and water consumption, and on the 15th day they were euthanized and necropsied. The assay of subacute toxicity observations were made over a period of 28 days and the first dose was administered at the beginning of the test and after a fortnight a second dose was administered. The parameters evaluated were the necropsy, histopathology of target organs, hematology studies and liver and kidney function. The results are being processed and evaluated. Initial observations did not show any acute toxicity in animals when compared to control animals. (author)

  16. Acute inhalation toxicity of carbonyl sulfide

    Benson, J.M.; Hahn, F.F.; Barr, E.B. [and others

    1995-12-01

    Carbonyl sulfide (COS), a colorless gas, is a side product of industrial procedures sure as coal hydrogenation and gasification. It is structurally related to and is a metabolite of carbon disulfide. COS is metabolized in the body by carbonic anhydrase to hydrogen sulfide (H{sub 2}S), which is thought to be responsible for COS toxicity. No threshold limit value for COS has been established. Results of these studies indicate COS (with an LC{sub 50} of 590 ppm) is slightly less acutely toxic than H{sub 2}S (LC{sub 50} of 440 ppm).

  17. Saving two birds with one stone: using active substance avian acute toxicity data to predict formulated plant protection product toxicity

    Maynard, Samuel K; Edwards, Peter; Wheeler, James R.

    2014-01-01

    Environmental safety assessments for exposure of birds require the provision of acute avian toxicity data for both the pesticidal active substance and formulated products. As an example, testing on the formulated product is waived in Europe using an assessment of data for the constituent active substance(s). This is often not the case globally, because some countries require acute toxicity tests with every formulated product, thereby triggering animal welfare concerns through unnecessary test...

  18. Assessing acute toxicities of pre- and post-treatment industrial wastewaters with Hydra attenuata: A comparative study of acute toxicity with the fathead minnow, Pimephales promelas

    Fu, L.J.; Staples, R.E.; Stahl, R.G. Jr. (E.I. DuPont de Nemours and Co., Newark, DE (United States). Haskell Lab. for Toxicology and Industrial Medicine)

    1994-04-01

    This study was undertaken to (a) determine wastewater treatment effectiveness using two freshwater organisms, (b) compare acute toxicity results from the two species exposed to the wastewaters, and (c) link acute and potential developmental toxicity of wastewaters in one organism. The acute toxicities of several pretreatment and post-treatment industrial waste-water samples wee evaluated with adult Hydra attenuata and fathead minnows. The acute LC50s agreed closely when results in Hydra attenuata were compared with those from fathead minnow tests. Acute LC50s ranged from 3 to >100% of samples with hydra, and from 1.0 to >100% of sample with fathead minnows. The results provided strong evidence of treatment effectiveness because toxicity decreased with progressive stages of treatment. Previously the Hydra Developmental Toxicity Assay was used as a prescreen mainly for in vitro assessment of developmental toxicity with pure compounds and to prioritized toxicants according to selective toxicity to the developing embryo. Recently the authors modified the assay for testing natural waters and wastewaters; hence, some of the wastewater samples also were tested for their developmental toxicity. In this case, the relative selective toxicity of these wastewater samples ranged from 0.7 to 2.1, indicating that no sample was uniquely toxic to the developing embryo, although acute toxicity was manifested. Overall, their results indicate the Hydra Assay functions appropriately in assessments of acute and developmental toxicity of industrial wastewaters and may be a simple and useful tool in a battery of tests for broader scale detection of environmental hazards.

  19. Assessment of the predictive capacity of the 3T3 Neutral Red Uptake cytotoxicity test method to identify substances not classified for acute oral toxicity (LD50>2000 mg/kg): results of an ECVAM validation study.

    Prieto, Pilar; Cole, Thomas; Curren, Rodger; Gibson, Rosemary M; Liebsch, Manfred; Raabe, Hans; Tuomainen, Anita M; Whelan, Maurice; Kinsner-Ovaskainen, Agnieszka

    2013-04-01

    Assessing chemicals for acute oral toxicity is a standard information requirement of regulatory testing. However, animal testing is now prohibited in the cosmetics sector in Europe, and strongly discouraged for industrial chemicals. Building on the results of a previous international validation study, a follow up study was organised to assess if the 3T3 Neutral Red Uptake cytotoxicity assay could identify substances not requiring classification as acute oral toxicants under the EU regulations. Fifty-six coded industrial chemicals were tested in three laboratories, each using one of the following protocols: the previously validated protocol, an abbreviated version of the protocol and the protocol adapted for an automation platform. Predictions were very similar among the three laboratories. The assay exhibited high sensitivity (92-96%) but relatively low specificity (40-44%). Three chemicals were under predicted. Assuming that most industrial chemicals are not likely to be acutely toxic, this test method could prove a valuable component of an integrated testing strategy, a read-across argument, or weight-of-evidence approach to identify non toxic chemicals (LD50>2000 mg/kg). However, it is likely to under predict chemicals acting via specific mechanisms of action not captured by the 3T3 test system, or which first require biotransformation in vivo. PMID:23246604

  20. Toxicology Selective Toxicity dan Test

    Mansyur

    2002-01-01

    Toxicology adalah pemahaman-pemahaman mengenai effek-effek bahan kimia yang merugikan bagi organisme. Dari definisi tersebut, jelas terdapat unsur-unsur bahan kimia dan organisme, dimana didalam kedua unsur-unsur ini terdapat istilah-istilah toksisitas dan animal test-test. Tulisan ini bermaskud membicarakan mengenai selective toxicity dan animal toxicity tetst. kedokteran-mansyur5

  1. Acute aqueous toxicities of diesel-biodiesel blends

    Hollebone, B.P.; Ho, N.; Landriault, M. [Environment Canada, Ottawa, ON (Canada). Emergencies Science and Technology Division, Science and Technology Branch, Environmental Science and Technology Centre; Harrison, S. [Science Applications International Corp., SAIC Canada, Ottawa, ON (Canada); Doe, K.; Jackman, P. [Environment Canada, Moncton, NB (Canada). Toxicology Laboratory, Environmental Science Centre

    2008-07-01

    The renewed interest in biodiesels as a new transportation fuel was discussed. Although there are several advantages to using biodiesels, their environmental behaviours and effects need to be evaluated along with the risks associated with their use, such as accidental releases of these biodiesels to the environment. The wide variability of biodiesels may result in different toxicological impacts, depending on the fuel feedstock. This study evaluated the aqueous effects of biodiesels from several commonly available feedstocks and their blends with petroleum diesel. Since most of the commercial uses of these products are currently focused on road-use, this study focused on the effects of these fuels in fresh-water. Biodiesels derived from soy, canola and waste restaurant oil feedstocks were used in the study. The acute toxicities of these biodiesels and biodiesel/petroleum diesel fuel blends were reported for 3 test species used by Environment Canada for toxicological evaluation, notably rainbow trout, the water flea, and a luminescent bacterium. The correlations between acute toxicity, water accommodated fractions (WAF) concentrations and fuel property data were examined. The study revealed that biodiesel is significantly less acutely toxic than petroleum diesels in potential ecological impacts. However, the biodiesel-diesel blends were found to be more acutely toxic than a linear dilution model predicts. 11 refs., 6 tabs., 3 figs.

  2. Effect of Cinnamon on Strychnos Studied by Sequential Acute Toxicity Test%序贯法观察肉桂对马钱子的减毒作用

    朱建伟; 闫雪生; 刘瑾

    2011-01-01

    Objective: To study the attenuated effect of cinnamon on strychnos. Method: The mice were administrated with strychnos decoction or strychnos-cinnamon decoction ( strychnos:cinnamon = 1:5) intragastrically. The half lethal dose ( LD50 ) of both decoctions were studieded and compared by the sequential acute toxicity test. Result; LD30 of the two decoction were strychnos decoction = ( 173. 161 ± 18. 289)mg·kg-1, strychnos-cinnamon decoction = (781. 345 ± 214. 744) mg·kg-1. In addition, the average time from poisoning to death of the mice administrated with strychnos-cinnamon decoction was significantly longer than that of mice with strychnos deconction. Conclusion; Cinnamon can reduce the toxicity of strychnos significantly.%目的:研究肉桂对马钱子的减毒作用.方法:单纯马钱子煎液、马钱子肉桂煎液(马桂煎液1:5),其中马钱子生药含量都是20%.用序贯试验测定两种马钱子制剂的LD50.比较其毒性.结果:单纯马钱子LD5o= (173.161±18.289) mg·kg-1,马桂煎液LD50=(781.345±214.744) mg·kg-1,马桂煎液从中毒至死亡时间明显延长.结论:马钱子与肉桂合煎后毒性明显降低.

  3. Acute and subchronic dermal toxicity of nanosilver in guinea pig

    Arbabi Bidgoli S

    2011-04-01

    Full Text Available M Korani1, SM Rezayat1,2,4, K Gilani3, S Arbabi Bidgoli4, S Adeli11Department of Pharmacology, Faculty of Medicine, Tehran University of Medical Sciences; 2Department of Nanotechnology, Faculty of Advanced Sciences and Technology in Medicine, Tehran University of Medical Sciences; 3Department of Pharmaceutics, Faculty of Pharmacy, Tehran University of Medical Sciences; 4Department of Toxicology & Pharmacology, Faculty of Pharmacy, Pharmaceutical Sciences Branch, Islamic Azad University (IAUPS, Tehran, IranAbstract: Silver has been used as an antimicrobial agent for a long time in different forms, but silver nanoparticles (nanosilver have recently been recognized as potent antimicrobial agents. Although nanosilver is finding diverse medical applications such as silver-based dressings and silver-coated medical devices, its dermal and systemic toxicity via dermal use has not yet been identified. In this study, we analyzed the potential toxicity of colloidal nanosilver in acute and subchronic guinea pigs. Before toxicity assessments, the size of colloidal nanosilver was recorded in sizes <100 nm by X-ray diffraction and transmission electron microscopy. For toxicological assessments, male guinea pigs weighing 350 to 400 g were exposed to two different concentrations of nanosilver (1000 and 10,000 µg/mL in an acute study and three concentrations of nanosilver (100, 1000, and 10,000 µg/mL in a subchronic study. Toxic responses were assessed by clinical and histopathologic parameters. In all experimental animals the sites of exposure were scored for any type of dermal toxicity and compared with negative control and positive control groups. In autopsy studies during the acute test, no significant changes in organ weight or major macroscopic changes were detected, but dose-dependent histopathologic abnormalities were seen in skin, liver, and spleen of all test groups. In addition, experimental animals subjected to subchronic tests showed greater

  4. Acute toxicity tests of a textile mill wastewater effluent and a "detergent wash" with a Hermit crab (Climbinarius Africanus) (Aurivillius)

    Ajao, E.A.

    1985-01-01

    Bioassay tests were conducted with wastewater effluents from a textile mili and a detergent packing plant using the hermit crab. Clibinarius africanus. (Aurivillus) as experimental animal. LC50 values were evaluated using static testing procedures for 24, 48 and 96 hour. For the textile effluent, means of 79.0, 50.24 and 51.81 percentage effluent by volume were obtained in respect of crabs in the “medium” weight range (0.3 – 0.7grams) for the test periods. For the “detergent wash”, 95.16, 8...

  5. Acute and subchronic toxicity of sucralose.

    Goldsmith, L A

    2000-01-01

    The toxicity of sucralose has been evaluated in acute and subchronic toxicity studies. Acute oral toxicity studies in male and female mice and male rats documented no deaths or treatment-related signs at doses of 16g/kg for mice and 10g/kg for rats. Sucralose was administered to male and female rats for 4 and 8 weeks at dietary concentrations of 1.0, 2.5 or 5.0%. Achieved dose ranges (mg/kg/day) for the respective dietary levels were 737-1287, 1865-3218 and 2794-6406. There were no toxicologically significant effects observed at the 1.0% or 2.5% dietary levels. However, decreases in food consumption, body weight gain and selected organ weights and ratios as well as splenic and thymic histopathologic changes occurred in rats administered 5.0% for 4 or 8 weeks. A gavage study wherein doses of 0, 750, 1500 or 3000mg/kg/day were administered to male and female rats for 26 weeks investigated further the observations from the dietary study as well as general subchronic toxicity. The gavage study documented no sucralose-related toxicity. These results implicate the reduced palatability and digestibility of diets containing high concentrations of sucralose seen in the diet study as the cause for the decreased food consumption and other accompanying alterations. Dose selection for chronic toxicity studies in rats took into consideration the effect of high concentrations of sucralose on digestion and food consumption and the limitations that would be imposed on subsequent studies. In male and female dogs, no sucralose-related adverse effects were observed following the dietary administration of 0.3, 1.0 or 3.0% for 12 months achieving doses of approximately 90, 300 and 900mg/kg/day respectively. These studies establish that sucralose is non-toxic in rodents following acute oral administration. The rat no-observed-adverse-effect level ranged between 2.5 and 5.0% following subchronic dietary administration. A 3.0% dietary concentration equivalent to a dose of 900mg

  6. Acute toxicity of leachates of tire wear material to Daphnia magna--variability and toxic components.

    Wik, Anna; Dave, Göran

    2006-09-01

    Large amounts of tire rubber are deposited along the roads due to tread wear. Several compounds may leach from the rubber and cause toxicity to aquatic organisms. To investigate the toxic effects of tire wear material from different tires, rubber was abraded from the treads of twenty-five tires. Leachates were prepared by allowing the rubber to equilibrate with dilution water at 44 degrees C for 72 h. Then the rubber was filtered from the leachates, and test organisms (Daphnia magna) were added. Forty-eight hour EC50s ranged from 0.5 to >10.0 g l(-1). The toxicity identification evaluation (TIE) indicated that non-polar organic compounds caused most of the toxicity. UV exposure of the filtered tire leachates caused no significant increase in toxicity. However, when tested as unfiltered leachates (the rubber was not filtered from the leachates before addition of D. magna) photo-enhanced toxicity was considerable for some tires, which means that test procedures are important when testing tire leachates for aquatic (photo) toxicity. The acute toxicity of tire wear for Daphnia magna was found to be tire component found in environmental samples, which emphasizes the need for a more extensive risk assessment of tire wear for the environment. PMID:16466775

  7. Acute Toxicity Test of Betel Nut Seed on KM Mice%槟榔仁对KM小鼠的急性毒性研究

    刘书伟; 王燕; 胡劲召; 赵牧秋; 史云峰

    2015-01-01

    The acute oxicity was tested in mice in order to study the oral toxicity of the juice of betel nut seeds.According to preliminary experiments to determine the range of the official test administered dose,KM mice were selected and administered drug by intragastric infusion at single dose,the toxic effect and death condition of the mice were observed for 7 days after being administered, and the method of korbor was used to determine LD50 and 95% confidence level.The results showed that the high dose of betel nut juice to mice appeared toxic reactions and death, and the main reason was gastrointestinal and lung disease after autopsy;low dose group was no pathological change in viscera in mice.The LD50 of betel nut juice in mice was 12.425 g/kg and its 95% confidence level was 10.610~14.551 g/kg,which indicated that the betel nut juice was actual non-toxic substances.The LD50 of dry matter of betel nut juice was 1.349 g/kg and its 95% confidence level was 1.152~1.580 g/kg and it was considered the drug of low toxicity.%为研究口服槟榔(Areca catechu Linnaeus)仁汁液的毒性,进行了小鼠的经口急性毒性试验. 根据预试验确定正式试验给药剂量的范围,选用KM小鼠经口灌胃,一次给药,给药后连续观察7 d,记录小白鼠的中毒反应及死亡情况,采用寇氏法计算 LD50及LD50的95%可信限.结果表明,高剂量给药组小白鼠出现中毒反应并死亡,解剖后检查发现主要原因是胃肠和肺部的病变,测得槟榔仁汁液的LD50及LD50的95%可信限分别为12.425 g/(kg.bw)﹑10.610~14.551 g/(kg.bw), 表明槟榔仁汁液可以被认为是实际无毒物质. 槟榔仁原液干物质的LD50及LD50的95%可信限分别为1.349 g/(kg.bw)﹑1.152~1.580 g/(kg.bw),属于低毒物质.

  8. ACUTE DERMAL TOXICITY STUDIES OF TROISTM IN NEWZEALAND WHITE RABBITS

    Anurag Payasi

    2010-06-01

    Full Text Available The study was performed to assess the acute dermal toxicity of TroisTM in Newzealand white rabbit. Test substance was applied as such to the shaven skin of group of rabbits at the dose of 2000 mg/Kg body weight. Control group of animals were similarly treated but only with base. Following dosing up to 14 days the rabbits were observed for mortality and clinical sign of toxicity. No visible signs of toxicity after treatment were observed on the animals of both control and treated animals up to 14 days. Various haematological and biochemical parameters were evaluated and found to be in the normal limit, which indicates that no sign of toxicity in NewZealand white rabbits after 14 days treatment in respect to control group, proving safety of TroisTM in topical application.

  9. Acute toxicity of 50 metals to Daphnia magna.

    Okamoto, Akira; Yamamuro, Masumi; Tatarazako, Norihisa

    2015-07-01

    Metals are essential for human life and physiological functions but may sometimes cause disorders. Therefore, we conducted acute toxicity testing of 50 metals in Daphnia magna: EC50s of seven elements (Be, Cu, Ag, Cd, Os, Au and Hg) were Mo) were > 100,000 µg l(-1) ; and. 7 elements (Ti, Zr, Bi, Nb, Hf, Re and Ta) did not show EC50 at the upper limit of respective aqueous solubility, and EC50s were not obtained. Ga, Ru and Pd adhered to the body of D. magna and physically retarded the movement of D. magna. These metals formed hydroxides after adjusting the pH. Therefore, here, we distinguished this physical effect from the physiological toxic effect. The acute toxicity results of 40 elements obtained in this study were not correlated with electronegativity. Similarly, the acute toxicity results of metals including the rare metals were also not correlated with first ionization energy, atomic weight, atomic number, covalent radius, atomic radius or ionic radius. PMID:25382633

  10. Acute toxicity and mutagenicity test of Chia seed%奇亚籽急性毒性及遗传毒性研究

    李淑琴; 李建国; 李学敏; 边林秀

    2013-01-01

    目的:了解奇亚籽的毒理学安全性。方法:采用小鼠急性毒性试验和遗传毒性试验(Ames试验、小鼠骨髓嗜多染红细胞微核试验、小鼠精子畸形试验)对奇亚籽进行研究,小鼠急性经口毒性试验剂量为22.5 g/kg,观察经口给予受试物后14 d内动物的死亡情况;Ames试验设5个剂量,分别为每皿0.008、0.04、0.20、1.0和5.0 mg (每皿给受试物体积为0.1mL),同时设自发回变、溶剂对照(丙酮)和阳性对照(9-芴酮、2-AF、NaN3、MMC、1.8-二羟蒽锟),接种后,在37℃下培养48 h,计数每皿回变菌落数;小鼠骨髓嗜多染红细胞微核试验和小鼠精子畸形试验均设3个剂量组,分别为1.875、3.750和7.500 g/kg,同时设溶剂对照组(玉米油)和阳性对照组(环磷酰胺,50 mg/kg),分别观察骨髓涂片中嗜多染红细胞中的微核发生率和精子标本中精子畸形的类型和相应的数量。结果:奇亚籽的小鼠经口最大耐受剂量(maximum tolerated dose,MTD)>22.5 g/kg,为无毒级物质;在Ames试验、小鼠骨髓嗜多染红细胞微核试验和小鼠精子畸形试验中结果均呈阴性;结论:奇亚籽属于无毒级物质,亦不具有遗传毒性。%OBJECTIVE:To explore the toxicological safety of Chia seed. METHODS:Acute toxicity tests and mutagenicity tests (Ames test,micronucleus test of bone marrow cell in mice and sperm shape abnormality test in mice) were used. The dose of 22.5 g/kg was chosen for the acute toxicity tests. The amounts of Chia seed of 22.5 g/kg were fed to mice through mouth,and the mice were observed for 14 days. The doses of 0.008, 0.04, 0.20, 1.0 and 5.0 mg/plate were chosen for the Ames test. The treated plates were cultured at 37℃ for 48 h,the number of bacterial colony was counted. The doses of 1.875, 3.750 and 7.500 g/kg were used for the micronucleus test. The number of micronucleus of bone marrow cell was counted,the types and numbers of sperm shape

  11. Methotrexate-induced acute toxic leukoencephalopathy

    Parag R Salkade

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available Acute lymphoblastic leukemia (ALL is one of the most common malignancies of childhood, which is treated with high doses of methotrexate (MTX, as it crosses the blood-brain barrier and can be administered intravenously and via intrathecal route to eradicate leukemic cells from central nervous system (CNS. Additionally, high doses of MTX not only prevent CNS recurrence but also hematologic relapses. Although, standard treatment protocol for ALL includes multimodality therapy, MTX is usually associated with neurotoxicity and affects periventricular deep white matter region. Methotrexate-induced ′acute toxic leukoencephalopathy′ has varying clinical manifestations ranging from acute neurological deficit to seizures or encephalopathy. Diffusion weighted magnetic resonance imaging (DW-MRI is widely available and routinely used in clinical practice to identify acute stroke and also to distinguish acute stroke from non-stroke like conditions. We report a local teenage Chinese girl who developed 2 discrete episodes of left upper and lower limb weakness with left facial nerve paresis after receiving the 2 nd and 3 rd cycle of high dose of intravenous and intrathecal methotrexate, without having cranial irradiation. After each episode of her neurological deficit, the DW-MRI scan showed focal restricted diffusion in right centrum semiovale. Her left sided focal neurological deficit and facial nerve paresis almost completely subsided on both these occasions within 3 days of symptom onset. Follow-up DW-MRI, after her neurological recovery, revealed almost complete resolution of previously noted restricted diffusion in right centrum semiovale, while the lesion was not evident on concurrent T2W (T2-weighted and FLAIR (Fluid-Attenuated Inversion recovery sequences, nor showed any post contrast enhancement on post gadolinium enhanced T1W (T1-weighted sequences. No residual neurological deficit or intellectual impairment was identified on clinical follow up

  12. Toxic Test Chambers

    Federal Laboratory Consortium — Description/History: Hazardous material test facility Both facilities have 16,000 cubic foot chambers, equipped with 5000 CFM CBR filter systems with an air change...

  13. Acute and subacute toxicity of {sup 18F}-FDG

    Dantas, Danielle M.; Silva, Natanael G. da; Manetta, Ana Paula; Osso Junior, Joao A., E-mail: danielle_2705@hotmail.com, E-mail: jaossoj@yahoo.com.br, E-mail: ngsilva@ipen.br, E-mail: apaulasp2008@hotmail.co [Instituto de Pesquisas Energeticas e Nucleares (IPEN/CNEN-SP), Sao Paulo, SP (Brazil)

    2013-07-01

    Before initiating clinical trials of a new drug, it is necessary to perform a battery of safety tests, for evaluating the risk in humans. Radiopharmaceuticals must be tested taking into account its specificity, duration of treatment and especially the toxicity of both, the unlabelled molecule and its radionuclide, apart from impurities emanating from radiolysis. In Brazil the production of radiopharmaceuticals was not regulated until the end of 2009, when ANVISA established the Resolutions No. 63, which refers to the Good Manufacturing Practices of radiopharmaceuticals and No. 64 which seeks the registration of radiopharmaceuticals. Nowadays IPEN produces one of the most important radiopharmaceutical for nuclear medicine, the {sup 18}F-FDG, which is used in the diagnosis. The objective of this study is to assess systemic toxicity (acute / subacute) of {sup 18}F-FDG in an in vivo test system, as recommended by the RDC No. 64. In acute tests the administration occurred on the first day, healthy rats were observed for 14 days reporting their clinical signs and water consumption, and on the 15th day they were euthanized and necropsied. The assay of subacute toxicity observations were made over a period of 28 days and the first dose was administered at the beginning of the test and after a fortnight a second dose was administered. The parameters evaluated were the necropsy, histopathology of target organs, hematology studies and liver and kidney function. The results are being processed and evaluated. Initial observations did not show any acute toxicity in animals when compared to control animals. (author)

  14. Acute Toxic Myocarditis and Pulmonary Oedema Developing from Scorpion Sting

    Cem Sahin; Ethem Acar; Halil Beydilli; Kadir Ugur Mert; Fatih Akin; Ibrahim Altun

    2015-01-01

    The majority of scorpion stings are generally seen with a set of simple clinical findings, such as pain, oedema, numbness, and tenderness in the area of the sting. However, occasionally events, such as toxic myocarditis, acute heart failure, acute pulmonary oedema, and Acute Respiratory Distress Syndrome (ARDS), which occur in scorpion sting cases are a significant problem which determine mortality and morbidity. The case presented here was a 38-year-old man who developed acute toxic myocardi...

  15. Evaluation of Acute and Subacute Oral Toxicity of the Ethanol Extract from Antidesma Acidum Retz.

    Sireeratawong, Seewaboon; Thamaree, Sopit; Ingkaninan, Kornkanok; Piyabhan, Pritsana; Vannasiri, Supaporn; Khonsung, Parirat; Singhalak, Tipaya; Jaijoy, Kanjana

    2012-01-01

    Toxicity tests of 95% ethanol extract of the root of Antidesma acidum were studied in male and female rats. The oral acute toxicity test at 5,000 mg/kg revealed that the ethanol extract did not produce toxic effects on signs, general behavious, mortality and gross appearance of internal organs of rats. Furthermore, the oral sub-acute toxicity test at the dose of 1,000 mg/kg/day displayed no significant changes in body and internal organs' weights, normal hematological and clinical blood chemi...

  16. Acute Toxicity of Four Organophosphorus Pesticide Products

    2012-01-01

    Acute toxicity of phoxim,acephate,isofenphos-methyl and isocarbophos on male SD rats of clean grade was carried out by gastric lavage method at room temperature of 18℃. These rats are 4 to 5 months old with body weight of 180 to 220 kg. The results indicate that the orders of the toxicity of these four pesticides on SD rats are isofenphos-methyl,isocarbophos,acephate,phoxim. We found that the median lethal concentration of phoxim in 24 h,48 h,72 h and 96 h is 3. 892 g /kg,3. 051 g /kg,2. 618 g /kg and 2. 458 g /kg respectively; the median lethal concentration of isofenphos-methyl in 24 h,48 h,72 h and 96 h is 0. 015 g /kg,0. 013g /kg,0. 012g /kg and 0. 011 g /kg respectively; the median lethal concentration of isocarbophos in 24 h,48 h,72 h and 96 h is 0. 049 g /kg,0. 046 g /kg,0. 043 g /kg,0. 041 g /kg respectively; and the median lethal concentration of acephate in 24 h,48 h,72 h and 96 h is 0. 137 g /kg,0. 113 g /kg,0. 100 g /kg,0. 085 g /kg respectively. Finally,we evaluated the characteristics of toxicity effect and safe concentration of these pesticides to SD rats.

  17. Evaluation of acute toxicity potential of water hyacinth leaves.

    Wu, Wenbiao; Guo, Xiaoguang; Huang, Mingliang

    2014-06-01

    Although higher protein yield per hectare of water hyacinth than that of soy, high protein content of its leaves and good essential amino acid pattern have been proven, its dietary toxicity for human or animal consumption has not yet been evaluated. Therefore, the acute toxicity of water hyacinth leaves has been evaluated by an animal feeding test. The concentrations of common toxic metals including cadmium, lead, platinum, palladium, tin, mercury, barium, silver, stibium and aluminum in the water hyacinth leaf powder (WHLP) used for the animal feeding test were within their maximum limits in food additives as reported by the World Health Organization. The median lethal dose (LD50) of WHLP was more than 16 g kg(-1) body weight. In the study, after feeding for 7 and 28 days, the body weight of all the mice increased. The results of hematological analysis, clinical biochemical analysis, histopathological evaluation, general dissection or investigations of internal organs, appearance and behavior observations did not indicate any adverse effects from the diet containing WHLP. It is therefore concluded that water hyacinth leaves are not acutely toxic. PMID:22933551

  18. Combinatorial QSAR Modeling of Rat Acute Toxicity by Oral Exposure

    Quantitative Structure-Activity Relationship (QSAR) toxicity models have become popular tools for identifying potential toxic compounds and prioritizing candidates for animal toxicity tests. However, few QSAR studies have successfully modeled large, diverse mammalian toxicity end...

  19. Fialuridine induces acute liver failure in chimeric TK-NOG mice: a model for detecting hepatic drug toxicity prior to human testing.

    Dan Xu; Toshi Nishimura; Sachiko Nishimura; Haili Zhang; Ming Zheng; Ying-Ying Guo; Marylin Masek; Michie, Sara A.; Jeffrey Glenn; Gary Peltz

    2014-01-01

    Editors' Summary Background Before new drugs are approved for clinical use, they undergo extensive preclinical (laboratory-based) and clinical testing. In the preclinical studies, scientists investigate the causes of diseases, identify potential new drugs, and test promising drug candidates in animals. Animal testing is performed to determine whether the new drug is likely to work, and to screen for drug-induced toxicity. In preclinical toxicology studies, new drugs are given to two or more a...

  20. Influence of sulfate, Ca, and Mg on the acute toxicity of potassium dichromate to Daphnia similis

    Hosokawa, Mamoru; Kuroda, Koichi (Osaka City Inst. of Public Health and Environmental Sciences (Japan)); Endo, Ginji; Horiguchi, Shunichi (Osaka City Univ. Medical School (Japan))

    1991-03-01

    In the Daphnia test which is commonly employed for assessing effects of chemicals to aquatic environments, it is well known that the toxicity of chemicals is variable with test animals and also with the chemistry of test waters. However, it is not clear what constituents in water affect toxicity of chemicals. The authors report here experimental results which show that sulfate, calcium and magnesium, commonly contained in aquatic environments, decrease the toxicity of K{sub 2}Cr{sub 2}O{sub 7} which is recommended as a reference toxicant in the acute toxicity test.

  1. Acute toxicity of intravenously administered titanium dioxide nanoparticles in mice.

    Jiaying Xu

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: With a wide range of applications, titanium dioxide (TiO₂ nanoparticles (NPs are manufactured worldwide in large quantities. Recently, in the field of nanomedicine, intravenous injection of TiO₂ nanoparticulate carriers directly into the bloodstream has raised public concerns on their toxicity to humans. METHODS: In this study, mice were injected intravenously with a single dose of TiO₂ NPs at varying dose levels (0, 140, 300, 645, or 1387 mg/kg. Animal mortality, blood biochemistry, hematology, genotoxicity and histopathology were investigated 14 days after treatment. RESULTS: Death of mice in the highest dose (1387 mg/kg group was observed at day two after TiO₂ NPs injection. At day 7, acute toxicity symptoms, such as decreased physical activity and decreased intake of food and water, were observed in the highest dose group. Hematological analysis and the micronucleus test showed no significant acute hematological or genetic toxicity except an increase in the white blood cell (WBC count among mice 645 mg/kg dose group. However, the spleen of the mice showed significantly higher tissue weight/body weight (BW coefficients, and lower liver and kidney coefficients in the TiO₂ NPs treated mice compared to control. The biochemical parameters and histological tissue sections indicated that TiO₂ NPs treatment could induce different degrees of damage in the brain, lung, spleen, liver and kidneys. However, no pathological effects were observed in the heart in TiO₂ NPs treated mice. CONCLUSIONS: Intravenous injection of TiO₂ NPs at high doses in mice could cause acute toxicity effects in the brain, lung, spleen, liver, and kidney. No significant hematological or genetic toxicity was observed.

  2. ACUTE TOXICITY STUDY FOR TINOSPORA CORDIFOLIA

    Shirish Sadashiv Pingale

    2011-05-01

    Full Text Available The aim of the present work is to examine acute toxicity studies for decoction of aerial parts (leaves and stem as well as whole plant powder of Tinospora cordifolia in the form of aqueous slurry as per OECD guidelines in Swiss mice weighing 35 to 45gm. The dose of 3, 5, 7 and 9 ml per kg body weight of decoction and 2, 4, 6 and 8 gm/kg body weight of the whole plant powder were administered orally. All the groups of animals were almost continuously observed for mortality and behavioral changes during first 24 hrs and then daily for a fortnight. The observations of behavioral changes and changes in body weight, food and water intake as well as cage side observations were reported. There was no abnormality observed in all groups. The decoction of fresh leaves and stem as well as whole plant powder have no any significant toxic effect in Swiss mice and the plant material was found to be nontoxic.

  3. Phenytoin toxicity presenting as acute meningo-encephalitis in children

    Vijay Gupta

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available Phenytoin can produce significant dose-related toxicity because of its zero order pharmacokinetics and is an important issue in pediatric emergency medicine. It is important to differentiate phenytoin toxicity manifesting with symptoms like fever, vomiting, seizures, ataxia masquerading as acute meningo-encephalitic illness, more so at centers where facilities to measure serum phenytoin levels are not available. Here we describe two children with phenytoin toxicity, presenting to the emergency department with features suggestive of acute meningo-encephalitis.

  4. Phytochemical and acute toxicity studies of ethanol extract from Pedada (Sonneratia caseolaris) fruit flour (PFF)

    Jariyah Jariyah; Simon B Widjanarko; Yunianta Yunianta; T. Estiasih

    2015-01-01

    Studies on the phytochemical and acute toxicity of pedada fruit flour (PFF) were carried out. In acute toxicity test, oral administration of the extract to Swiss albino mice at four levels dose, i.e. 0, 10.50; 15.75 and 21.00 g/kg body weight.  Phytochemical analysis of the ethanol extract of PFF showed the presence of saponins, sapogenins, terpenoids, flavonoids, tannins,  polyphenols. Phytochemicals such as alkaloids were not detected. The results of acute toxicity (LD50) showed that the et...

  5. Metal and pharmaceutical mixtures: Is ion loss the mechanism underlying acute toxicity and widespread additive toxicity in zebrafish?

    Highlights: •Zebrafish larvae were used to test the acute toxicity of contaminant mixtures. •Interactions were observed between metals, ammonia and pharmaceuticals. •Larval Na+ loss was observed with exposure to all acutely toxic contaminants tested. •Water quality criteria should recognize the toxic interactions between contaminants. -- Abstract: The acute toxicities and mechanisms of action of a variety of environmental contaminants were examined using zebrafish larvae (Danio rerio; 4–8 days post fertilization). Toxic interactions were observed between metals. For example, the addition of a sublethal level of nickel (15% of the LC50, one third of the LC01) to all copper treatments decreased the copper 96 h LC50 by 58%, while sublethal copper exposure (6% of the copper LC50, 13% of the LC01) decreased the cadmium 96 h LC50 by 47%. Two predictive models were assessed, the concentration addition (CA) model, which assumes similar mechanisms of action, and the independent action (IA) model, which assumes different mechanisms of action. Quantitative comparisons indicated the CA model performed better than the IA model; the latter tended to underestimate combined toxicity to a greater extent. The effects of mixtures with nickel or ammonia were typically additive, while mixtures with copper or cadmium were typically greater than additive. Larvae exposed to cadmium, copper or nickel experienced whole body ion loss. Decreases were greatest for Na+ followed by K+ (as high as 19% and 9%, respectively, in 24 h). Additive toxicity between copper and other pharmaceutical compounds such as fluoxetine (Prozac™), β-naphthoflavone, estrogen and 17α-ethinylestradiol were also observed. Similar to metals, acutely toxic concentrations of fluoxetine, β-naphthoflavone and ammonia all decreased whole body Na+ and K+. Overall, whole body Na+ loss showed the greatest correlation with mortality across a variety of toxicants. We theorize that a disruption of ion homeostasis

  6. Radiation therapy in prostate cancer: evaluation of acute toxicity

    Goals: The present work documents the increasing demand of curative intent radiation therapy (CIRT) for localized prostate cancer and assesses acute reactions caused by ionizing radiation to intrapelvic organs. Patients and methods: From January 1995 to December 2001, 166 patients with prostatic cancer received radiation therapy, 70% of them (n=116) with curative intent. Treatment was completed as planned in 108 patients: 55 with pelvic irradiation and prostatic boost (PRT), 42 with three-dimensional conformal radiotherapy (3DCRT), 10 with a permanent 125 I implant (IPI) and 1 with combined radiotherapy. Patients were classified as at high- or low-risk according to tumor volume, Gleason score, regional lymph node status and pretreatment specific prostatic antigen level. High-risk patients were assigned to PRT and low-risk patients to local treatment only (either 3DCRT or IPI). Mean doses were 46 Gy for pelvis and 73 Gy for prostate with PRT; 75 Gy with 3DCRT and 127 Gy with IPI and combined radiation therapy. Acute rectal toxicity (ART) and acute urinary toxicity (AUT) were assessed according to the RTOG scale. Statistical analysis was performed with Fischer's exact test. Results: The proportion of patients receiving CIRT increased from 46% (n=28) in 1995-1998 to 84% (n=88) in 1999-2001; p < 0.0001. No patient developed ART or AUT beyond degree 2. ART was lower with 3DCRT (71% degree 0 or 1) than with PRT (45% degree 0 or 1); p= 0.0134. No significant difference was found in AUT. Conclusions: In recent years the demand for CIRT has almost doubled, with a concomitant decrease in palliative radiotherapy. In high-risk patients, pelvic irradiation increased mild and moderate ART, without compromising their life quality. None of the techniques employed was associated with severe acute toxicity. (author)

  7. Acute oral and percutaneous toxicity of pesticides to mallards: Correlations with mammalian toxicity data

    Hudson, R.H.; Haegele, M.A.; Tucker, R.K.

    1979-01-01

    Acute oral (po) and 24-hr percutaneous (perc) LD50 values for 21 common pesticides (19 anticholinesterases, of which 18 were organophosphates, and one was a carbamate; one was an organochlorine central nervous system stimulant; and one was an organonitrogen pneumotoxicant) were determined in mallards (Anas platyrhynchos). Three of the pesticides tested were more toxic percutaneously than orally. An index to the percutaneous hazard of a pesticide, the dermal toxicity index (DTI = po LD50/perc LD50 ? 100), was also calculated for each pesticide. These toxicity values in mallards were compared with toxicity data for rats from the literature. Significant positive correlations were found between log po and log percutaneous LD50 values in mallards (r = 0.65, p 0.10). Variations in percutaneous methodologies are discussed with reference to interspecies variation in toxicity values. It is recommended that a mammalian DTI value approaching 30 be used as a guideline for the initiation of percutaneous toxicity studies in birds, when the po LD50 and/or projected percutaneous LD50 are less than expected field exposure levels.

  8. Acute oral toxicities of wildland fire control chemicals to birds

    Vyas, N.B.; Spann, J.W.; Hill, E.F.

    2009-01-01

    Wildland fire control chemicals are released into the environment by aerial and ground applications to manage rangeland, grassland, and forest fires. Acute oral 24 h median lethal dosages (LD50) for three fire retardants (Fire-Trol GTS-R?, Phos-Chek D-75F?, and Fire-Trol LCG-R?) and two Class A fire suppressant foams (Silv-Ex? and Phos-Chek WD881?) were estimated for northern bobwhites, Colinus virginianus, American kestrels, Falco sparverius, and red-winged blackbirds, Agelaius phoeniceus. The LD50s of all chemicals for the bobwhites and red-winged blackbirds and for kestrels dosed with Phos-Chek WD881? and Silv-Ex? were above the predetermined 2000 mg chemical/kg body mass regulatory limit criteria for acute oral toxicity. The LD50s were not quantifiable for kestrels dosed with Fire-Trol GTS-R?, Phos-Chek D-75F?, and Fire-Trol LCG-R? because of the number of birds which regurgitated the dosage. These chemicals appear to be of comparatively low order of acute oral toxicity to the avian species tested.

  9. Saving two birds with one stone: using active substance avian acute toxicity data to predict formulated plant protection product toxicity.

    Maynard, Samuel K; Edwards, Peter; Wheeler, James R

    2014-07-01

    Environmental safety assessments for exposure of birds require the provision of acute avian toxicity data for both the pesticidal active substance and formulated products. As an example, testing on the formulated product is waived in Europe using an assessment of data for the constituent active substance(s). This is often not the case globally, because some countries require acute toxicity tests with every formulated product, thereby triggering animal welfare concerns through unnecessary testing. A database of 383 formulated products was compiled from acute toxicity studies conducted with northern bobwhite (Colinus virginianus) or Japanese quail (Coturnix japonica) (unpublished regulatory literature). Of the 383 formulated products studied, 159 contained only active substances considered functionally nontoxic (median lethal dose [LD50] > highest dose tested). Of these, 97% had formulated product LD50 values of >2000 mg formulated product/kg (limit dose), indicating that no new information was obtained in the formulated product study. Furthermore, defined (point estimated) LD50 values for formulated products were compared with LD50 values predicted from toxicity of the active substance(s). This demonstrated that predicted LD50 values were within 2-fold and 5-fold of the measured formulated product LD50 values in 90% and 98% of cases, respectively. This analysis demonstrates that avian acute toxicity testing of formulated products is largely unnecessary and should not be routinely required to assess avian acute toxicity. In particular, when active substances are known to be functionally nontoxic, further formulated product testing adds no further information and unnecessarily increases bird usage in testing. A further analysis highlights the fact that significant reductions (61% in this dataset) could be achieved by using a sequential testing design (Organisation for Economic Co-operation and Development test guideline 223), as opposed to established single

  10. Acute Contact Toxicity Test of Oxalic Acid on Honeybees in the Southwestern Zone of Uruguay Prueba de Toxicidad Aguda por Contacto de Ácido Oxálico en Abejas de la Zona Sudoeste de Uruguay

    Leonidas Carrasco-Letelier; Yamandu Mendoza; Gustavo Ramallo

    2012-01-01

    This work studies the acute contact toxicity of oxalic acid (OA) on a honeybee polyhybrid subspecies (Apis mellifera), which is the dominant biotype in southwestern zone of Uruguay (SWZU) and the country's most important honey-producing region. We determined the mean lethal dose (LD50), as well as the no observed effect level (NOEL) and the lowest observed effect level (LOEL) values. We also estimated the total number of honeybees per hive in the test area. The aim was to assess the relations...

  11. ACUTE AND CHRONIC TOXICITY OF CHLORDANE TO FISH AND INVERTEBRATES

    The acute and chronic toxicity of technical chlordane to bluegill (Lepomis macrochirus), fathead minnow (Pimephales promelas), brook trout (Salvelinus fontinalis), Daphnia magna, Hyallela azteca, and Chironomus No. 51 were determined with flow-through conditions. The purpose was ...

  12. Acute and chronic toxicity of veterinary antibiotics to Daphnia magna

    Wollenberger, Leah; Halling-Sørensen, B.; Kusk, Kresten Ole

    2000-01-01

    The acute and chronic toxicity of nine antibiotics used both therapeutically and as growth promoters in intensive farming was investigated on the freshwater crustacean Daphnia magna. The effect of the antibiotics metronidazole (M), olaquindox (OL), oxolinic acid (OA), oxytetracycline (OTC...

  13. Review on the acute Daphnia magna toxicity test – Evaluation of the sensitivity and the precision of assays performed with organisms from laboratory cultures or hatched from dormant eggs

    G. Persoone

    2009-08-01

    Full Text Available One of the most internationally used bioassays for toxicity screening of chemicals and for toxicity monitoring of effluents and contaminated waters is the acute toxicity test with daphnid crustaceans, and in particular that performed with Daphnia magna.Standard methods have been developed for this assay that were gradually endorsed by national and international organisations dealing with toxicity testing procedures, in view of its application within a regulatory framework. As for all toxicity tests, the organisms used for the acute D. magna assay have to be obtained from live stocks which are cultured in the laboratory on live food (micro-algae.Unsurprisingly the various standard protocols of this particular assay differ – at least to a certain extent – with regard to the test organism culturing conditions. In addition, some technical aspects of the toxicity test such as the effect criterion (mortality of immobility, the exposure time, the type of dilution water, etc., also vary from one standard to another.Although this particular assay is currently used in many countries, the technical and biological problems inherent in year-round culturing and availability of the biological material and the culturing/maintenance costs of live stocks restrict its application to a limited number of highly specialised laboratories.This fundamental bottleneck in toxicity testing triggered investigations which brought forward the concept of “microbiotests” or “small-scale” toxicity tests. “Culture/maintenance free” aquatic microbiotests with species of different phylogenetic groups were developed in the early 1990s at the Laboratory for Environmental Toxicology and Aquatic Ecology at the Ghent University in Belgium.These assays which were given the generic name “Toxkits”, are unique in that they employ dormant stages (“cryptobiotic eggs” of the test species, which can be stored for long periods of time and “hatched” at the time of

  14. Preliminary acute toxicity study on imidacloprid in Swiss albino mice

    Preeti Bagri

    2013-12-01

    Full Text Available Aim: To ascertain the maximum tolerated dose (MTD and to investigate the acute oral toxic effects of imidacloprid towards Swiss albino male mice.Materials and Methods: The MTD of imidacloprid was determined in pilot dose range finding study following the standard method. Animals were observed for toxic signs and symptoms after oral administration of MTD of imidacloprid in single dose. The body weights of animals were recorded on alternate day. Animals were sacrificed on 14th day and changes in hematological parameters (Hb, TEC, TLC and DLC and morphometric measurements (length, breadth, thickness and weight of various body organs (heart, liver, spleen, kidney, testis and epididymis were examined. The student's t-test was applied to statistically analyze the results.Results: The MTD of imidacloprid was determined to be 110 mg/kg body weight. The sign and symptoms of acute toxicity were ataxia, rigidity and fasciculation of muscles, protrusion of eye ball and tremors of head. Imidacloprid treatment resulted in decreased body weight gain as compared to the control group. The changes in hematological parameters were not significant between imidacloprid treated and control groups. Also the values of relative organ weights and morphometric measurements of various body organs did not differ significantly between the control and imidacloprid treated animals.Conclusions: MTD of imidacloprid in Swiss albino male mice through oral route was determined for the first time. Study revealed a non-toxic effect of imidacloprid on body weight, relative organs weight, hematological parameters and morphometric measurements of various body organs in mice.

  15. A New Method for Determining Acute Toxicity in Animal Models

    Chinedu, Enegide; Arome, David; Ameh, Fidelis Solomon

    2013-01-01

    Background: The intake of pharmacological substances by man has solely increased and this may be in the form of food, medicines and beverages, other industrial and household products. These substances are capable of eliciting chronic and acute toxicity, which may be mild or severe, depending upon their nature. Acute toxicity is defined as the unwanted effect(s) that occurs either immediately or at a short time interval after a single or multiple administration of such substance within 24 hour...

  16. Acute toxicity evaluation of cutting fluids used in manufacturing processes to Poecilia reticulata and Daphnia magna

    William Gerson Matias; Cátia Regina Silva de Carvalho-Pinto; Débora Monteiro Brentano; Alexandre Magno de Paula Dias

    2006-01-01

    Grinding operations are very significant among the manufacturing processes of the metal-mechanic industry. In conventional grinding, cutting fluids are of great concern for improving productivity, but also for being hazardous to the environment. In order to contribute to the knowledge of the actual toxic effects of these products in aquatic environments, the present work assesses the toxicity potential through acute toxicity tests of three different kinds of cutting fluids, with three differe...

  17. Ecotoxicological evaluation of leachate from the Limeira sanitary landfill with a view to identifying acute toxicity

    José Euclides Stipp Paterniani; Ronaldo Teixeira Pelegrini; Núbia Natália de Brito Pelegrini

    2007-01-01

    Final disposal of solid waste is still a cause for serious impacts on the environment. In sanitary landfills, waste undergoes physical, chemical, and biological decomposition, generating biogas and leachate. Leachate is a highly toxic liquid with a very high pollution potential. The purpose of this work is to evaluate toxicity of in natura leachate samples collected from Limeira Sanitary Landfill, in Limeira, SP. The ecotoxicological evaluation comprised acute toxicity assays using as test or...

  18. ACUTE TOXICITY STUDY OF TOMATO POMACE EXTRACT IN RODENT

    Wathita Phachonpai

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Tomato and tomato products are considered to be healthy food for the human diet. Although tomatoes have been widely studied for their phenolic content, less emphasize has been laid on toxicological effect of this plant. Thus, the purpose of the present study is to determine the acute toxicity effect of Lycopersicon esculentum, or commonly known as tomato, was administered orally in the form of dried tomato pomace extract in vivo. Adult male rats were orally administrated single dose of 1000 and 5000 mg kg-1 dried tomato pomace extract. There were 10 rats in each group. All animals were sacrificed after 2 weeks of treatment. Seven parameters were tested: cage side observation, body weight gain measurement, food and water consumption, absolute organ weight, hematology, biochemical analysis and histopathology, to look for evidence of acute toxicity. No mortality was observed when varying doses of the extracts were administered per day for a period of 2 weeks. There were no significant differences in body weight, behavior, food consumption, absolute organ weights between controls and treated animals. Hematological analysis showed no differences in most parameters examined. In the biochemistry parameter measurement, no significant change occurred. Pathologically, neither gross abnormalities nor histopathological changes were observed. These finding suggest that none of the organs appeared to be target and the data could provide satisfactory preclinical evidence of safety to launch clinical trial on standardized formulation of tomato pomace extracts to be the dietary supplement.

  19. Cannabidiol Rescues Acute Hepatic Toxicity and Seizure Induced by Cocaine

    Luciano Rezende Vilela; Lindisley Ferreira Gomides; Bruna Araújo David; Maísa Mota Antunes; Ariane Barros Diniz; Fabrício de Araújo Moreira; Gustavo Batista Menezes

    2015-01-01

    Cocaine is a commonly abused illicit drug that causes significant morbidity and mortality. The most severe and common complications are seizures, ischemic strokes, myocardial infarction, and acute liver injury. Here, we demonstrated that acute cocaine intoxication promoted seizure along with acute liver damage in mice, with intense inflammatory infiltrate. Considering the protective role of the endocannabinoid system against cell toxicity, we hypothesized that treatment with an anandamide hyd...

  20. Investigation of acute toxicity of chlorpyrifos-methyl on Nile tilapia (Oreochromis niloticus L.) larvae.

    Gül, Ali

    2005-04-01

    Chlorpyrifos-methyl, a wide-spectrum organophosphorus insecticide and potential toxic pollutant contaminating aquatic ecosystems, was investigated for acute toxicity. Larvae of the freshwater fish Nile tilapia (Oreochromis niloticus L.) were selected for the bioassay experiments. The experiments were repeated three times and the 96 h LC50 was determined for the larvae. The static test method for assessing acute toxicity was used. Water temperature was maintained at 25+/-1 degrees C. In addition, behavioral changes at each chlorpyrifos-methyl concentration were observed for the individual fish. Data obtained from the chlorpyrifos-methyl acute toxicity tests were evaluated using Finney's probit analysis statistical method. The 96 h LC50 value for Nile tilapia larvae was calculated to be 1.57 mg/l. PMID:15722087

  1. Acute and subacute oral toxicity of Litsea elliptica Blume essential oil in rats*

    Budin, Siti Balkis; Siti Nor Ain, Seri Masran; Omar, Baharuddin; Taib, Izatus Shima; Hidayatulfathi, Othman

    2012-01-01

    Litsea elliptica Blume has been traditionally used to treat headache, fever, and stomach ulcer, and has also been used as an insect repellent. The acute and subacute toxicities of L. elliptica essential oil were evaluated orally by gavage in female Sprague-Dawley rats. For the acute toxicity study, L. elliptica essential oil was administered in doses from 500 to 4 000 mg/kg (single dose), and in the subacute toxicity test, the following doses were used: 125, 250, and 500 mg/kg, for 28 consecu...

  2. Evaluation of the acute and sub acute toxicity ofAnnona senegalensis root bark extracts

    Theophine C Okoye; Peter A Akah; Adaobi C Ezike; Maureen O Okoye; Collins A Onyeto; Frankline Ndukwu; Ejike Ohaegbulam; Lovelyn Ikele

    2012-01-01

    ABSTRACT Objective:To investigate the safety profile ofAnnona senegalensis (A. senegalensis).Methods:Dried powdered root-bark of A. senegalensis was prepared by Sohxlet extraction using methanol-methylene chloride (1:1) solution and concentrated to obtain the methanol-methylene chloride extract (MME).MME was fractionated to obtain then-hexane (HF), ethylacetate (EF) and methanol (MF) fractions. Acute toxicity (LD50) test was performed withMME, HF, EF andMF in mice by oral route. The sub acute toxicity studies were performed in rats after14 days ofMME administration while haematological and biochemical parameters were monitored.Results:Medium lethal (LD50) values of1 296, 3 808, 1 265 and 2 154mg/kg were obtained for theMME, MF, HF andEF, respectively. The sub-acute toxicity studies indicated a significant (P<0.05) increase in the body weight of both the treated rats and the control. The haematological tests indicated no change in the packed cell volume values but a significant (P<0.05) increase in the totalWBC count at100and 400 mg/kg doses. The differential analysis showed a decrease in the nutrophils and a non-significant increase in the lymphocyte counts. The liver transaminase enzymes, alanin transaminase and aspartate transaminase showed no significant increase compared to the control. Histopathological examination of the liver sections also indicted no obvious signs of hepatotoxicity except with the400 mg/kg dose that showed degeneration and necrosis of the hepatocytes.Conclusions:These results indicated that the root bark extracts ofA. Senegalensis are safe at the lower doses tested, and calls for caution in use at higher doses in treatment.

  3. Acute and chronic toxicity of short chained perfluoroalkyl substances to Daphnia magna

    The aim of this study was to evaluate the aquatic toxicity of a C4–C6 chemistry based fluoroalkylated polymer and the perfluoroalkyl carboxylic acids, PFBA, PFHxA and PFOA to Daphnia magna. The acute toxicity decreased with decreasing carbon chain length, but the polymer did not show a dose related effect. In a chronic toxicity test performed with PFHxA, mortality was observed at similar concentrations as in the acute toxicity test, indicating that toxicity did not increase with increasing exposure time. Effects on mortality, reproduction and population growth rate occurred at similar concentrations, indicating no specific effect of PFHxA on sublethal endpoints. C4–C6 chemistry is thus less hazardous to daphnids than C7–C8 chemistry. Yet, these compounds are persistent, hard to remove from the environment and production volumes are increasing. - Highlights: • This study provides toxicity data of newly used, shorter PFAAs and a fluoropolymer. • Capstone© P-620HS did not show a dose–response relationship. • PFHxA toxicity did not increase with increasing exposure time. • Acute toxicity to Daphnia magna decreased with decreasing carbon chain length. - Toxicity to Daphnia magna of perfluoroalkyl substances decreased with decreasing carbon chain length and did not increase with exposure time

  4. Identification of the cause of weak acute toxicity to rainbow trout at a petroleum refinery

    The refinery in question performs flow through acute toxicity tests on its effluent four times per month using three fish species: fathead minnows (Pimephales promelas), threespine sticklebacks (Gasterosteus oculeatus) and rainbow trout (Oncorhynchus mykiss). Several months of monitoring data indicated a transient low level acute toxicity to rainbow trout. In most cases, several days were required for mortality to occur in the flow through tests and numerous attempts to reproduce toxicity in static and static renewal tests were unsuccessful. A decision was made to manipulate the effluent in an attempt to enhance the toxic effect in the static mode so that conventional methods could be used to identify the cause. these tests indicated that toxicity was pH dependent. Additional testing, using EPA's Phase 1 Toxicity Identification Evaluation methods suggested that the cause of toxicity was probably an organic acid. Experiments were subsequently begun to identify the specific cause and source of toxicity. This paper reviews the problems confronted during the various phases of the study and the decisions that were made that eventually led to an understanding of the basis of toxicity

  5. Sensitivity or artifact? -- IQ Toxicity Test -- effluent values

    Hayes, K.R.; Novotny, A.N.; Batista, N.

    1995-12-31

    Several complex effluents were DAPHNIA MAGNA IQ TOXICITY TESTED -- (1.25 hours) and conventionally tested with Daphnia magna (48 hours). In many samples the IQ Technology yielded low EC50 values while the 48 hour exposures yielded no acute toxicity. Possible explanations have been suggested for this occurrence such as: genotoxicity, mutagenicity, substrate interference, and enzyme satiation. To identify the causative agent(s) of this response a Toxicity Identification Evaluation was performed on one of the samples. To define the nature of the response, THE SOS-CHROMOTEST KIT and THE MUTA-CHROMOPLATE KIT were utilized to characterize genotoxicity and mutagenicity respectively. The sample did not test positive for genotoxicity but tested positive for mutagenicity only after activation with S9 enzymes, suggesting the presence of promutagens. Additional work needs to be performed to correlate IQ TOXICITY TEST sensitivity with positive MUTA-CHROMOPLATE response.

  6. Methods of acute biological assays in guinea-pigs for the study of toxicity and innocuity of drugs and chemicals

    Gui Mi Ko; Adela Rosenkranz; Clélia Rejane Antonio Bertoncini; Neide Hyppolito Jurkiewicz; Mirian Ghiraldini Franco; Aron Jurkiewicz

    2010-01-01

    In this study, 602 samples were tested by the following assays performed at the animal facilities (Cedeme) of the Federal University of São Paulo (UNIFESP): 385 for dermal irritability, 90 for ocular irritability (discontinued in 1995), 31 for systemic toxicity by injection, 26 for oral acute toxicity, 15 for toxicity by intracutaneous injection, 15 for skin sensitization, 15 for toxicity of serum and vaccines for human use, 14 for toxicity by intramuscular implantation, 7 for pyrogens, 2 for...

  7. Acute toxicity of heavy metals towards freshwater ciliated protists

    The acute toxicity of five heavy metals to four species of freshwater ciliates (Colpidium colpoda, Dexiotricha granulosa, Euplotes aediculatus, and Halteria grandinella) was examined in laboratory tests. After exposing the ciliates to soluble compound of cadmium, copper, chromium, lead, and nickel at several selected concentrations, the mortality rate was registered and the LC5 values (with 95% confidence intervals) were calculated. Large differences appeared in sensitivities of the four species to the metals. H. grandinella showed the highest sensitivity for cadmium (0.07 mg l-1, LC5) and lead (0.12 mg l-1, LC5), whilst E. aediculatus showed the highest sensitivity for nickel (0.03 mg l-1, LC5). The comparison with data obtained with other species indicate that Halteria grandinella and Euplotes aediculatus are excellent and convenient bioindicator for evaluating the toxicity of waters and wastewaters polluted by heavy metals. The short time (24 h) and simplicity of the test procedure enable this test to be used in laboratory studies. - Ciliated protozoa are suitable bioindicators of heavy metal pollution in freshwater environments

  8. Toxicity test: Fluorescent silicon nanoparticles

    Fujoka, K; Hoshino, A; Manome, Y [Department of Molecular Cell Biology, Jikei University School of Medicine, Minatoku, Tokyo 105-8461 (Japan); Hanada, S; Kanaya, F; Yamamoto, K [Research Institute, National Centre for Global Health and Medicine, Shinjuku-ku, Tokyo 162-8655 (Japan); Sato, K; Yokosuka, S; Takigami, Y; Hirakuri, K [Department of Electrical and Electronic Engineering, Tokyo Denki University, Chiyoda-ku, Tokyo 101-8457 (Japan); Shiohara, A; Tilley, R D [MacDiarmid Institute of Advanced Materials and Nanotechnology, Victoria University of Wellington, Wellington (New Zealand); Manabe, N, E-mail: kfujioka@jikei.ac.jp [Institute of Multidisciplinary Research for Advance Materials, Tohoku University, Sendai, Miyagi 980-8577 (Japan)

    2011-07-06

    Semiconductor nanoparticles ('quantum dots', QDs) are useful fluorescent materials because of their high fluorescent stability compared with existing organic fluorescent dyes. QDs were tested in many biochemical experiments, and the reported results suggested their advantages. However, when we consider their application at the clinical level, their large-scale use may be problematic because of their influence on the environment and the living body as a result of cadmium contained in existing mainstream QDs. Here we report on the characteristics of silicon particles (synthesised using the gas phase method and liquid phase method, currently in the development stage) as a substitute material, focusing on cell-level safety and the potential mechanisms of toxicity.

  9. Toxicity test: Fluorescent silicon nanoparticles

    Semiconductor nanoparticles ('quantum dots', QDs) are useful fluorescent materials because of their high fluorescent stability compared with existing organic fluorescent dyes. QDs were tested in many biochemical experiments, and the reported results suggested their advantages. However, when we consider their application at the clinical level, their large-scale use may be problematic because of their influence on the environment and the living body as a result of cadmium contained in existing mainstream QDs. Here we report on the characteristics of silicon particles (synthesised using the gas phase method and liquid phase method, currently in the development stage) as a substitute material, focusing on cell-level safety and the potential mechanisms of toxicity.

  10. Reproductive toxicity testing of vaccines

    Vaccines play a major role in the prevention of human birth defects by protecting the pregnant woman from teratogenic or otherwise harmful infections. Until now, it has not been common practice to perform preclinical developmental toxicity tests for new vaccines. Despite the excellent safety record of vaccines, increased attention is now being given to the feasibility of screening new vaccines for developmental hazards in animals before their use in humans. Contrary to previous assumptions, many vaccines are now given to potentially pregnant women. Any new components of the vaccine formulation (adjuvants, excipients, stabilisers, preservatives, etc...) could also be tested for influences on development, although based on past experience the risks are limited by the very low dosages used. The conferred immunity following vaccination lasts for several years. Therefore, the developing conceptus may theoretically be exposed to the induced antibodies and/or sensitised T-cells, even if the pregnant woman was last vaccinated during childhood (particularly if she encounters the antigen during pregnancy through exposure to infection). However, it should be kept in mind that viral or bacterial infections represent a higher risk for a pregnant woman than the potential adverse effects related to vaccination or the associated immune response. Non-clinical safety studies may be employed as an aid for hazard identification. In these studies interactions of the vaccine with the maternal immune system or with the developmental systems of the offspring are considered. Post-natal examinations are necessary to detect all possible manifestations of developmental toxicity, such as effects on the immune system. Species selection for the preclinical studies is based on immunogenicity to the vaccine and the relative timing and rate of transfer of maternal antibodies to the offspring. A single study design is proposed for the pre- and post-natal developmental assessments of vaccines in

  11. Evaluation of Acute Chromium (III) Toxicity in Relation to Daphnia Similis

    Petr Melnikov; Tânia C. M. de Freitas

    2011-01-01

    Acute chromium (III) toxicity in relation to Daphnia similis, most appropriate for Brazilian environment has been evaluated. The preliminary toxicity test showed that the median effective concentration was 10 mg/l. After having performed the final test, the immobility percentage was calculated for each concentration in relation to the total number of the used organisms within the chosen pH range. It was shown that the proposed methodology rendered realistic results and the 48-h CE50 value und...

  12. Acute toxicity of seeds of the sapodilla (Achras sapota L.).

    Singh, P D; Simon, W R; West, M E

    1984-01-01

    An aqueous extract of the sapodilla seed (Achras sapota L.) was acutely toxic to mice and rats (i.p. LD50 = 190 and 250 mg/kg, respectively) with symptoms of dyspnoea, apnoea and convulsions. Soxhlet extraction and chromatographic separation of the seed constituents yielded a brown amorphous solid containing saponin. This was heat-stable and toxic by the i.p. route (LD50 = 30-50 mg/kg) but non-toxic by the oral route in mice and rats. It is proposed that the toxicity of the sapodilla seed is due mainly to the saponin content. PMID:6719472

  13. Extrapolation of toxic indices among test objects

    Tichý, Miloň; Rucki, Marián; Roth, Zdeněk; Hanzlíková, Iveta; Vlková, Alena; Tumová, Jana; Uzlová, Rút

    2010-01-01

    Oligochaeta Tubifex tubifex, fish fathead minnow (Pimephales promelas), hepatocytes isolated from rat liver and ciliated protozoan are absolutely different organisms and yet their acute toxicity indices correlate. Correlation equations for special effects were developed for a large heterogeneous series of compounds (QSAR, quantitative structure-activity relationships). Knowing those correlation equations and their statistic evaluation, one can extrapolate the toxic indices. The reason is that...

  14. Review of Quantitative Structure - Activity Relationships for Acute Mammalian Toxicity

    Iglika Lessigiarska

    2006-12-01

    Full Text Available This paper reviews Quantitative Structure-Activity Relationship (QSAR models for acute mammalian toxicity published in the last decade. A number of QSAR models based on cytotoxicity data from mammalian cell lines are also included because of their possible use as a surrogate system for predicting acute toxicity to mammals. On the basis of the review, the following conclusions can be made: i a relatively small number of models for in vivo toxicity are published in the literature. This is due to the nature of the endpoint - acute systemic toxicity is usually related to whole body phenomena and therefore is very complex. The complexity of the mechanisms involved leads to difficulties in the QSAR modelling; ii most QSAR models identify hydrophobicity as a parameter of high importance for the modelled toxicity. In addition, many models indicate the role of the electronic and steric effects; iii most of the literature-based models are restricted to single chemical classes. Models based on more heterogeneous data sets are those incorporated in expert systems. In general, the QSAR models for mammalian toxicity identified in this review are considered useful for investigating the mechanisms of toxicity of defined chemical classes. However, for predictive purposes in the regulatory assessment of chemicals most of the models require additional information to satisfy internationally agreed validation principles. In addition, the development of new models covering larger chemical domains would be useful for the regulatory assessment of chemicals.

  15. The Study on Acute and Subacute Toxicity and Sarcoma-180 Anti-cancer Effects of Vermilionum

    Ki-Rok Kwon

    2003-12-01

    Full Text Available Background & Methods : In order to measure the acute and subacute toxicity of Vermilionum and it's anti-cancer effects, Sarcoma-180 abdominal cancer cells were injected intravenously. The following results were obtained after measuring the survival rate, toxicity of the NK cells, and IL-2 productivity. Results : 1. It was impossible to measure LD50 value in the acute toxicity test and no toxic effects were witnessed in the clinical observation. 2. No significant differences were shown in the weight changes between the experiment groups and the control group in the acute toxicity test. 3. No peculiar toxic effects were shown in the subacute toxicity test and the weight changes were insignificant between the experiment groups and the control group. 4. In measuring the survival rate after inducing abdominal cancer by Sarcoma-180, the experiment groups showed increased of 9,52% compared to the control group. 5. In measuring the activity of NK cells, no significant changes were shown between the experiment groups and the control group. 6. In measuring the productivity of IL-2, significant reduction was shown in the experiment groups compared to the normal group, but no significance was witnessed compared to the control group.

  16. Metal and pharmaceutical mixtures: Is ion loss the mechanism underlying acute toxicity and widespread additive toxicity in zebrafish?

    Alsop, Derek, E-mail: alsopde@mcmaster.ca; Wood, Chris M.

    2013-09-15

    Highlights: •Zebrafish larvae were used to test the acute toxicity of contaminant mixtures. •Interactions were observed between metals, ammonia and pharmaceuticals. •Larval Na{sup +} loss was observed with exposure to all acutely toxic contaminants tested. •Water quality criteria should recognize the toxic interactions between contaminants. -- Abstract: The acute toxicities and mechanisms of action of a variety of environmental contaminants were examined using zebrafish larvae (Danio rerio; 4–8 days post fertilization). Toxic interactions were observed between metals. For example, the addition of a sublethal level of nickel (15% of the LC{sub 50}, one third of the LC{sub 01}) to all copper treatments decreased the copper 96 h LC{sub 50} by 58%, while sublethal copper exposure (6% of the copper LC{sub 50}, 13% of the LC{sub 01}) decreased the cadmium 96 h LC{sub 50} by 47%. Two predictive models were assessed, the concentration addition (CA) model, which assumes similar mechanisms of action, and the independent action (IA) model, which assumes different mechanisms of action. Quantitative comparisons indicated the CA model performed better than the IA model; the latter tended to underestimate combined toxicity to a greater extent. The effects of mixtures with nickel or ammonia were typically additive, while mixtures with copper or cadmium were typically greater than additive. Larvae exposed to cadmium, copper or nickel experienced whole body ion loss. Decreases were greatest for Na{sup +} followed by K{sup +} (as high as 19% and 9%, respectively, in 24 h). Additive toxicity between copper and other pharmaceutical compounds such as fluoxetine (Prozac™), β-naphthoflavone, estrogen and 17α-ethinylestradiol were also observed. Similar to metals, acutely toxic concentrations of fluoxetine, β-naphthoflavone and ammonia all decreased whole body Na{sup +} and K{sup +}. Overall, whole body Na{sup +} loss showed the greatest correlation with mortality across a

  17. Uranium Exerts Acute Toxicity by Binding to Pyrroloquinoline Quinone Cofactor

    Michael R. VanEngelen; Robert I. Szilagyi; Robin Gerlach; Brady E. Lee; William A. Apel; Brent M. Peyton

    2011-02-01

    Uranium as an environmental contaminant has been shown to be toxic to eukaryotes and prokaryotes; however, no specific mechanisms of uranium toxicity have been proposed so far. Here a combination of in vivo, in vitro, and in silico studies are presented describing direct inhibition of pyrroloquinoline quinone (PQQ)-dependent growth and metabolism by uranyl cations. Electrospray-ionization mass spectroscopy, UV-vis optical spectroscopy, competitive Ca2+/uranyl binding studies, relevant crystal structures, and molecular modeling unequivocally indicate the preferred binding of uranyl simultaneously to the carboxyl oxygen, pyridine nitrogen, and quinone oxygen of the PQQ molecule. The observed toxicity patterns are consistent with the biotic ligand model of acute metal toxicity. In addition to the environmental implications, this work represents the first proposed molecular mechanism of uranium toxicity in bacteria, and has relevance for uranium toxicity in many living systems.

  18. [Synthesis, structures, and acute toxicity of gossypol nonsymmetrical aldehyde derivatives].

    Tiliabaev, K Z; Kamaev, F G; Vypova, N L; Iuldashev, A M; Ibragimov, B T; Talipov, S A

    2010-01-01

    Nonsymmetrical aldehyde derivatives of gossypol, a yellow polyphenolic pigment of cottonseed, were synthesized by reactions with ammonia, aniline, 4-aminoantipyrine, and barbituric acid. Their structures were determined by UV spectrophotometry and IR and (1)H NMR spectroscopy methods. Their acute toxicities in white mice were compared with those of gossypol and the corresponding symmetrical analogues. It was demonstrated that in general, the fewer free aldehyde groups that contained the gossypol derivative, the lower its acute toxicity. Only in the case of a nonsymmetrical gossypol derivative bearing a 4-aminoantipyrine residue did we observe a deviation from the above correlation: its symmetrical counterpart was even more toxic, but still less toxic than gossypol. PMID:20644599

  19. BIOEQUIVALENCE APPROACH FOR WHOLE EFFLUENT TOXICITY TESTING

    Increased use of whole effluent toxicity (WET) tests in the regulatory arena has brought increased concern over the statistical analysis of WET test data and the determination of toxicity. One concern is the issue of statistical power. A number of WET tests may pass the current...

  20. Acute toxicity evaluation of cutting fluids used in manufacturing processes to Poecilia reticulata and Daphnia magna

    William Gerson Matias

    2006-09-01

    Full Text Available Grinding operations are very significant among the manufacturing processes of the metal-mechanic industry. In conventional grinding, cutting fluids are of great concern for improving productivity, but also for being hazardous to the environment. In order to contribute to the knowledge of the actual toxic effects of these products in aquatic environments, the present work assesses the toxicity potential through acute toxicity tests of three different kinds of cutting fluids, with three different usage times. The tests were carried out using the fish Poecilia reticulate and the microcrustacean Daphnia magna as test organisms. These tests made it possible to determine the Median Lethal Concentration (LC50 for the fish and the Median Effective Concentration (EC50 for the microcrustacean. The results indicate that, after storage, the toxicity potential of cutting fluids decreases. However, in the three situations investigated, the product presented a high toxicity potential, which reinforces the need of special care in its handling, usage and disposal.

  1. Review on the acute Daphnia magna toxicity test – Evaluation of the sensitivity and the precision of assays performed with organisms from laboratory cultures or hatched from dormant eggs

    Persoone G.

    2009-08-01

    “Culture/maintenance free” aquatic microbiotests with species of different phylogenetic groups were developed in the early 1990s at the Laboratory for Environmental Toxicology and Aquatic Ecology at the Ghent University in Belgium. These assays which were given the generic name “Toxkits”, are unique in that they employ dormant stages (“cryptobiotic eggs” of the test species, which can be stored for long periods of time and “hatched” at the time of performance of the assays. One of these microbiotests is the Daphtoxkit F magna, which is currently used in many laboratories worldwide for research as well as for toxicity monitoring purposes. The microbiotest technology has several advantages in comparison to the “traditional” tests based on laboratory cultures, especially its independence of the stock culturing burden. However, the acceptance (or possible non-acceptance of performing assays with test organisms obtained from “dormant eggs” should be clearly dictated by the “sensitivity” and “precision” criteria of the former assays in comparison to the latter. The first part of this review therefore thoroughly reviews the scientific literature and of data obtained from various laboratories for assays performed with either D. magna test organisms obtained from lab cultures or hatched from dormant eggs. Attention has focused on data of quality control tests performed on reference chemicals, and in particular on potassium dichromate (K2Cr2O7 for which an acceptability range of 0.6–2.1 mg·L–1 has been set in ISO standard 6341 for the 24 h EC50 of the acute D. magna assay. Mean EC50s, standard deviations and variation coefficients were calculated from the collected data, all of which are presented in tables and figures and discussed in detail. The major conclusions drawn from the analysis of the large number of quality control (QC data on the acute D. magna toxicity test are that : (1 Virtually all results from assays performed with

  2. ACUTE ORAL TOXICITY OF MUCUNA PRURIENS IN SWISS ALBINO MICE

    Parekar Sushant Shahaji; Somkuwar Arju Parnu

    2011-01-01

    Mucuna pruriens, belonging to the botanical family Fabaceae, has been used in traditional Ayurvedic Indian medicine for various ailments including Parkinson’s disease. The current study reports the outcome of acute oral toxicity investigation of ethanolic extract of M. pruriens (whole plant) on Swiss albino mice. No mortalities or evidence of adverse effects have been observed in Swiss albino mice following acute oral administration of ethanolic extract of M. pruriens at the dose of 2000 mg/...

  3. ACUTE TOXICITY OF LEAD NITRATE ON FRESHWATER CRAB BARYTELPHUSA GUERINI

    DUBE, KAUSHAL V

    2012-01-01

    Industrial effluents contributing to aquatic pollution contain vast array of toxic substances including heavy metals.  Indiscriminate discharge of these wastes alters the quality of water and cause hazards to aquatic fauna including important members of food chain of man. Hence, in present investigation the freshwater crab, Barytelphusa guerini was exposed to acute toxicity of lead nitrate for 0, 24, 48, 72 and 96 hours exposure. The percentage mortality of crab was studied and the LC50 deter...

  4. Preliminary acute toxicity study on imidacloprid in Swiss albino mice

    Preeti Bagri; Vinod Kumar; Anil Kumar Sikka; Joginder Singh Punia

    2013-01-01

    Aim: To ascertain the maximum tolerated dose (MTD) and to investigate the acute oral toxic effects of imidacloprid towards Swiss albino male mice.Materials and Methods: The MTD of imidacloprid was determined in pilot dose range finding study following the standard method. Animals were observed for toxic signs and symptoms after oral administration of MTD of imidacloprid in single dose. The body weights of animals were recorded on alternate day. Animals were sacrificed on 14th day and changes ...

  5. Acute Toxicity and Environmental Risks of Five Veterinary Pharmaceuticals for Aquatic Macroinvertebrates.

    Bundschuh, Mirco; Hahn, Torsten; Ehrlich, Bert; Höltge, Sibylla; Kreuzig, Robert; Schulz, Ralf

    2016-02-01

    Due to the high use of antibiotics and antiparasitics for the treatment of livestock, there is concern about the potential impacts of the release of these compounds into freshwater ecosystems. In this context, the present study quantified the acute toxicity of two antibiotics (sulfadiazine and sulfadimidine), and three antiparasitic agents (flubendazole, fenbendazole, ivermectin) for nine freshwater invertebrate species. These experiments revealed a low degree of toxicity for the sulfonamide antibiotics, with limited implications in the survival of all test species at the highest test concentrations (50 and 100 mg/L). In contrast, all three antiparasitic agents indicated on the basis of their acute toxicity risks for the aquatic environment. Moreover, chronic toxicity data from the literature for antiparasitics, including effects on reproduction in daphnids, support the concern about the integrity of aquatic ecosystems posed by releases of these compounds. Thus, these pharmaceuticals warrant further careful consideration by environmental risk managers. PMID:26408031

  6. A comparison of acute and chronic toxicity tests used to examine the temporal stability of a gradient in copper tolerance of Hediste diversicolor from the Fal estuary, Cornwall, UK.

    Burlinson, F C; Lawrence, A J

    2007-01-01

    The aim of this study was to use two different toxicity tests to verify the existence of a gradient in tolerance along Rostronguet Creek. Hediste diversicolor was collected from five populations in the Fal estuary previously shown to vary in copper tolerance. Exposure to 4 mgL(-1) of copper in an acute assay demonstrated that Mylor Creek worms were sensitive (LT(50) 86 h) and the tolerance of Rostronguet Creek worms increased moving upstream from the mouth of the creek (LT(50)s 100-258 h). There was no significant difference in tolerance between Mylor worms and worms from the mouth of Rostronguet Creek. This is in agreement with a previous study [Grant, A., Hateley, J.G., Jones, N.V., 1989. Mapping the ecological impact of heavy metals on the estuarine polychaete Nereis diversicolor using inherited metal tolerance. Marine Pollution Bulletin 20, 235-238] and demonstrates temporal stability of the gradient. Copper tolerance was also measured using a chronic toxicity test run for 90 d using step-wise increases in challenge concentration. A significant difference in tolerance was shown between populations from Mylor Creek and those at the mouth of Rostronguet Creek, which has not been reported previously. Experimental protocol was therefore an important factor in detecting population variation in tolerance. PMID:17113608

  7. The Study on Acute and Subacute Toxicity and Anti-Cancer Effects of cultivated wild ginseng Herbal acupuncture

    Ki-Rok, Kwon

    2003-06-01

    Full Text Available Objectives : The purpose of this study was to investigate acute and subacute toxicity and sarcoma-180 anti-cancer effects of herbal acupuncture with cultivated wild ginseng (distilled in mice and rats. Methods : Balb/c mice were injected intravenous with cultivated wild ginseng herbal acupuncture for LD50 and acute toxicity test. Sprague-Dawley rats were injected intravenous with cultivated wild ginseng herbal acupuncture for subacute toxicity test. The cultivated wild ginseng herbal-acupuncture was injected at the tail vein of mice. Results : 1. In acute LD50 toxicity test, there was no mortality thus unable to attain the value. 2. Examining the toxic response in the acute toxicity test, there was no sign of toxication. 3. In acute toxic test, running biochemical serum test couldn't yield any differences between the control and experiment groups. 4. In subacute toxicity test, there was no sign of toxication in the experimental groups and didn't show any changes in weight compared to the normal group. 5. In subacute toxicity test, biochemical serum test showed significant increase of Total albumin, Albumin, and Glucose in the experimental group I compared with the control group. Significant decrease of GOT, ALP, GPT, and Triglyceride were shown. In experiment group II, only Glucose showed significant increase compared with the control group. 6. Measuring survival rate for anti-cancer effects of Sarcoma-180 cancer cell line, all the experimental groups showed significant increase in survival rate. 7. Measuring NK cell activity rate, no significant difference was shown throughout the groups. 8. Measuring Interleukin-2 productivity rate, all the experimental groups didn't show significant difference. 9. For manifestation of cytokine mRNA, significant decrease of interleukin-10 was witnessed in the experimental group compared to the control group. Conclusion : According to the results, we can conclude cultivated wild ginseng herbal acupuncture

  8. Acute Oral Toxicity and Brine Shrimp Lethality of Elaeis guineensis Jacq., (Oil Palm Leaf) Methanol Extract

    Yeng Chen; Lai Ngit Shin; Yee Ling Lau; Sreenivasan Sasidharan; Yuet Ping Kwan; Lachimanan Yoga Latha; Soundararajan Vijayarathna; Abdul Rani Muhamad Syahmi

    2010-01-01

    Elaeis guineensis (Arecaceae) is widely used in West African traditional medicine for treating various ailments. An evaluation on the toxicity of extracts of this plant is crucial to support the therapeutic claims. The acute oral toxicity and brine shrimp lethality of a methanolic extract of this plant was tested. Oral administration of crude extract at the highest dose of 5,000 mg/kg resulted in no mortalities or evidence of adverse effects, implying that E. guineensis is nontoxic. Normal be...

  9. Toxicity testing (Stormwater mitigation effectiveness)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — Numerous low impact development (LID; green infrastructure) technologies are being developed and implemented to reduce the impacts of toxic stormwater runoff on...

  10. ACEPHATE, ALDICARB, CARBOPHENOTHION, DEF, EPN, ETHOPROP, METHYL PARATHION, AND PHORATE; THEIR ACUTE AND CHRONIC TOXICITY, BIOCONCENTRATION POTENTIAL, AND PERSISTENCE AS RELATED TO MARINE ENVIRONMENTS

    The toxicity, bioconcentration, and persistence of the pesticides acephate, aldicarb, carbophenothion, DEF, EPN, ethoprop, methyl parathion, and phorate were determined for estuarine environments. Static acute toxicity tests were conducted to determine the 96-h EC50 values for al...

  11. Safety Evaluation of Turmeric Polysaccharide Extract: Assessment of Mutagenicity and Acute Oral Toxicity

    Chandrasekaran Chinampudur Velusami; Srinivasa Rao Boddapati; Srikanth Hongasandra Srinivasa; Edwin Jothie Richard; Joshua Allan Joseph; Murali Balasubramanian; Amit Agarwal

    2013-01-01

    Curcuma longa Linn. (Zingiberaceae) commonly known as turmeric has long been used for centuries as a spice and household remedy. The present study was carried out to assess the possible mutagenic potential and acute oral toxicity of polysaccharide extract of turmeric rhizome (NR-INF-02) using standard tests. The standard battery of in vitro genotoxicity tests, bacterial reverse mutation test (BRMT), chromosome aberration (CA), and micronucleus (MN) tests were employed to assess the possible m...

  12. Acute toxicity of pinnatoxins E, F and G to mice.

    Munday, Rex; Selwood, Andrew I; Rhodes, Lesley

    2012-11-01

    The acute toxicities to mice of pinnatoxins E, F and G, members of the cyclic imine group of phycotoxins, by intraperitoneal injection and/or oral administration, have been determined. These substances were all very toxic by intraperitoneal injection, with LD(50) values between 12.7 and 57 μg/kg. Pinnatoxin E was much less toxic by oral administration than by intraperitoneal injection, but this was not the case for pinnatoxin F. The median lethal doses of the latter substance by gavage and by voluntary intake were only 2 and 4 times higher than that by injection. The high oral toxicity of pinnatoxin F raises concerns as to the possibility of adverse effects of this substance in shellfish consumers, although it should be noted that no toxic effects in humans have been recorded with pinnatoxins or with any other compound of the cyclic imine group. PMID:22813782

  13. Phytochemical and acute toxicity studies of ethanol extract from Pedada (Sonneratia caseolaris fruit flour (PFF

    Jariyah Jariyah

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Studies on the phytochemical and acute toxicity of pedada fruit flour (PFF were carried out. In acute toxicity test, oral administration of the extract to Swiss albino mice at four levels dose, i.e. 0, 10.50; 15.75 and 21.00 g/kg body weight.  Phytochemical analysis of the ethanol extract of PFF showed the presence of saponins, sapogenins, terpenoids, flavonoids, tannins,  polyphenols. Phytochemicals such as alkaloids were not detected. The results of acute toxicity (LD50 showed that the ethanol extract of PFF in mice was found more than 21.00 g/kg body weight. It could be concluded that the PFF belongs to relatively less dangerous category ‘non toxic’ and ‘safe’ for food products.

  14. Acute and sub-acute toxicity studies of aqueous and methanol extracts of Nelsonia campestris in rats

    Janet Mobolaji Olaniyan; Hadiza Lami Muhammad; Hussaini Anthony Makun; Musa Bola Busari; Abubakar Siddique Abdullah

    2016-01-01

    Objective: To evaluate the acute and sub-acute toxicity of aqueous and methanol ex-tracts of Nelsonia campestris (N. campestris) in rats. Methods: Acute oral toxicity study of aqueous and methanol extracts was carried out by administration of 10, 100, 1 000, 1 600, 2 900 and 5 000 mg/kg body weight of N. campestris extracts to rats in the respective groups. Sub-acute toxicity study was conducted by oral administration of the extracts at daily doses of 100, 300 and 600 mg/kg body weight to another group of rats for 28 days, while rats in the control group received 0.5 mL of normal saline. Results: The LD50 of the N. campestris extracts in rats was determined to be greater than 5 000 mg/kg body weight. There was no significant difference (P>0.05) between the test groups administered with aqueous and methanol extracts in relation to the control group for serum electrolytes (Na+, K+, Cl−, HCO3−), serum albumin, total and conjugated bili-rubin. Similarly, mean organ-to-body weight ratio and all haematological parameters (white blood cell, red blood cell, mean cell volume, mean corpuscular haemoglobin, mean corpuscular haemoglobin concentration, packed cell volume) evaluated were not significantly different (P > 0.05) from the control. There was a significant increase (P Conclusions: Intake of high doses of this plant extracts may exhibit mild organ toxicity.

  15. ACUTE ORAL TOXICITY OF MUCUNA PRURIENS IN SWISS ALBINO MICE

    Parekar Sushant Shahaji

    2011-05-01

    Full Text Available Mucuna pruriens, belonging to the botanical family Fabaceae, has been used in traditional Ayurvedic Indian medicine for various ailments including Parkinson’s disease. The current study reports the outcome of acute oral toxicity investigation of ethanolic extract of M. pruriens (whole plant on Swiss albino mice. No mortalities or evidence of adverse effects have been observed in Swiss albino mice following acute oral administration of ethanolic extract of M. pruriens at the dose of 2000 mg/ kg. This is the first report on the acute oral toxicity of M. pruriens and thus the findings of this study provide scientific validation on the use of the M. pruriens as a medicine for treating various ailments.

  16. Isolation and characterization of the acutely toxic compounds in oil sands process water from Syncrude and Suncor

    The hot water process for the extraction of bitumen from oil sands leads to the production of large volumes of wastewater and the formation of a large inventory of fine clay tailings. This fine tailings material and its associated water are acutely toxic to various aquatic test organisms during bioassays. A study was carried out to assess the acute toxicity of wastewater from tailings ponds and to identify the acutely toxic fraction of the wastewater. The Microtox bacterial bioassay was used to assess the acute toxicity before and after various treatments. Where significant reductions in acute toxicity were found, further tests were carried out using Daphnia magna and rainbow trout. The Microtox effective concentration (EC50; analogous to the LC50, lethal concentration at which 50% mortality occurs) of all centrifuged tailings pond water samples varied between 265 and 460 ml of sample water per liter of test solution. Daphnia LC50 varied between 760-980 ml/l and rainbow trout LC50 was 125 ml/l. All, or part of the acute toxicity of the process water can be accounted for by the following classes of compounds. Organic compounds that have a non-polar component, removed by solid phase extraction with C18 sorbent account for 100% of acute toxicity of all samples. Organic acids, as removed by precipitation at pH 2.5, also account for 100% of acute toxicity except from pond 1A at Suncor. In this pond organic acids account for 55-60% of acute toxicity and non-polar organic volatile compounds account for 20-35% with the balance being composed of non-polar organic compounds that are neither volatile nor organic acids that precipitate at pH 2.5. 22 refs., 17 figs

  17. Partial Life-Cycle and Acute Toxicity of Perfluoroalkyl Acids to Freshwater Mussels

    Freshwater mussels are among the most sensitive aquatic organisms to many contaminants and have complex life-cycles that include several distinct life stages with unique contaminant exposure pathways. Standard acute (24–96 h) and chronic (28 d) toxicity tests with free larva (glo...

  18. ACUTE ORAL TOXICITY STUDY OF CLINACANTHUS NUTANS IN MICE

    Xiu Wen P'ng, Gabriel Akyirem Akowuah and Jin Han Chin*

    2012-11-01

    Full Text Available Clinacanthus nutans Lindau (Family: Acanthaceae has attracted public interest recently due to its high medicinal values for the treatment of cancer, inflammation and various skin problems. This study was aimed to determine the oral LD50 value of the methanol leaves extract of C. nutans and identify the targeted organs in mice. This acute oral toxicity study was conducted in accordance to OECD 423 guidelines by using male Swiss albino mice weighing 25-35 g. First group was served as control group which received distilled water (vehicle while second and third group were orally treated with single daily dose of 0.9 g/kg and 1.8 g/kg of methanol leaves extract of C. nutans, respectively. All the animals were closely observed for 14 days. Body weight for each mouse was recorded at day-0, day-3, day-7 and day-14. Relative organ weights for liver, kidney, spleen, lung and heart were also determined. All the results were presented as mean ± standard deviation and analyzed using Dunnett’s Test after ANOVA test. From the results obtained, no mortality was observed in both treatment groups either post 24 hours or 14 days of oral administration of C. nutans. Body weight for each mouse and relative organ weight showed insignificant difference when compared to the control group. In conclusion, acute exposure of 1.8 g/kg of C. nutans was safe in male mice without causing any adverse effects or mortality. The oral LD50 of methanol leaves extract of C. nutans was suggested to be greater than 1.8 g/kg bw in male mice.

  19. The acute toxicity of ethanol extract from irradiated Temulawak (curcuma xanthorrizha roxb.) which have anticancer activity

    Pasteurization of herbs and herbal medicinal products have been carried out by several herbal industries, but information about the safety of irradiated herbal medicine is still a little, even the influence of gamma irradiation for pasteurization purpose on the toxicity of crude Temulawak has never been investigated. The ethanol extract of Curcuma xanthorrizha Roxb. has cytotoxic activity which potential as an anticancer. In this research, the acute toxicity tests were carried out to the ethanol extract from Curcuma xanthorrizha without irradiation and irradiated with doses of 5 and 10 kGy. The acute toxicity tests of ethanol extract were conducted in mice by observing the effect of extracts on animal behavior (pharmacologic profile) after a single dose of test material, the development of animal body weight and death every day for 14 days and observed several organ weights on day 14. Acute toxicity test results after administration of extracts on male and female mice a dose up to 7500 mg/kg body weight (BW) showed that no deaths and no significant toxic effect, so that the ethanol extract of Curcuma xanthorrizha without irradiation and irradiated with doses of 5 and 10 kGy can be declared safe. Thus LD50 from ethanol extract of Curcuma xanthorrizha without irradiation and irradiated (5 and 10 kGY) in mice was greater than 7500 mg/kg body weight. (author)

  20. Using acute bioassay screens to predict compliance with chronic toxicity permit limits

    Acute bioassay screens can be cost-effective surrogates for chronic toxicity tests for screening a large number of discharges. Other uses of acute bioassay screens include real time measurement of effluent toxicity and variability, prioritizing discharges for TIE/TRE studies, and evaluating effluent treatability studies. A study was conducted to assess the utility of using 48-hour LC50 data to predict the probability of complying with new chronic toxicity permit limits for produced water discharges from Outer Continental Shelf (OCS) oil and gas platforms in the Gulf of Mexico. Although mysid 48-hour LC50s were correlated with 7-day mysid NOECS, the variability was too great to enable accurate prediction of sub-lethal NOECs based on growth and fecundity. Instead, a decision flowchart was constructed to classify OCS produced water discharges into three categories based on the probability of achieving compliance with future chronic toxicity permit limits. Using toxicity test results from over 50 platforms, the 48-hour LC50 data correctly classified approximately 85% of the discharges. Most importantly, there were no cases where a discharge classified as having a high probability of compliance would have failed its chronic toxicity permit limit. The classification results were used to prioritize platforms for additional toxicity testing and for evaluating improvements to produced water treatment systems

  1. Acute and chronic toxicity of sodium sulfate to four freshwater organisms in water-only exposures

    Wang, Ning; Consbrock, Rebecca A.; Ingersoll, Christopher G.; Hardesty, Douglas K.; Brumbaugh, William G.; Hammer, Edward J.; Bauer, Candice R.; Mount, David R.

    2015-01-01

    The acute and chronic toxicity of sulfate (tested as sodium sulfate) was determined in diluted well water (hardness of 100 mg/L and pH 8.2) with a cladoceran (Ceriodaphnia dubia; 2-d and 7-d exposures), a midge (Chironomus dilutus; 4-d and 41-d exposures), a unionid mussel (pink mucket, Lampsilis abrupta; 4-d and 28-d exposures), and a fish (fathead minnow, Pimephales promelas; 4-d and 34-d exposures). Among the 4 species, the cladoceran and mussel were acutely more sensitive to sulfate than the midge and fathead minnow, whereas the fathead minnow was chronically more sensitive than the other 3 species. Acute-to-chronic ratios ranged from 2.34 to 5.68 for the 3 invertebrates but were as high as 12.69 for the fish. The fathead minnow was highly sensitive to sulfate during the transitional period from embryo development to hatching in the diluted well water, and thus, additional short-term (7- to 14-d) sulfate toxicity tests were conducted starting with embryonic fathead minnow in test waters with different ionic compositions at a water hardness of 100 mg/L. Increasing chloride in test water from 10 mg Cl/L to 25 mg Cl/L did not influence sulfate toxicity to the fish, whereas increasing potassium in test water from 1mg K/L to 3mg K/L substantially reduced the toxicity of sulfate. The results indicate that both acute and chronic sulfate toxicity data, and the influence of potassium on sulfate toxicity to fish embryos, need to be considered when environmental guidance values for sulfate are developed or refined.

  2. Cannabidiol Rescues Acute Hepatic Toxicity and Seizure Induced by Cocaine

    Luciano Rezende Vilela

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Cocaine is a commonly abused illicit drug that causes significant morbidity and mortality. The most severe and common complications are seizures, ischemic strokes, myocardial infarction, and acute liver injury. Here, we demonstrated that acute cocaine intoxication promoted seizure along with acute liver damage in mice, with intense inflammatory infiltrate. Considering the protective role of the endocannabinoid system against cell toxicity, we hypothesized that treatment with an anandamide hydrolysis inhibitor, URB597, or with a phytocannabinoid, cannabidiol (CBD, protects against cocaine toxicity. URB597 (1.0 mg/kg abolished cocaine-induced seizure, yet it did not protect against acute liver injury. Using confocal liver intravital microscopy, we observed that CBD (30 mg/kg reduced acute liver inflammation and damage induced by cocaine and prevented associated seizure. Additionally, we showed that previous liver damage induced by another hepatotoxic drug (acetaminophen increased seizure and lethality induced by cocaine intoxication, linking hepatotoxicity to seizure dynamics. These findings suggest that activation of cannabinoid system may have protective actions on both liver and brain induced by cocaine, minimizing inflammatory injury promoted by cocaine, supporting its further clinical application in the treatment of cocaine abuse.

  3. Cannabidiol rescues acute hepatic toxicity and seizure induced by cocaine.

    Vilela, Luciano Rezende; Gomides, Lindisley Ferreira; David, Bruna Araújo; Antunes, Maísa Mota; Diniz, Ariane Barros; Moreira, Fabrício de Araújo; Menezes, Gustavo Batista

    2015-01-01

    Cocaine is a commonly abused illicit drug that causes significant morbidity and mortality. The most severe and common complications are seizures, ischemic strokes, myocardial infarction, and acute liver injury. Here, we demonstrated that acute cocaine intoxication promoted seizure along with acute liver damage in mice, with intense inflammatory infiltrate. Considering the protective role of the endocannabinoid system against cell toxicity, we hypothesized that treatment with an anandamide hydrolysis inhibitor, URB597, or with a phytocannabinoid, cannabidiol (CBD), protects against cocaine toxicity. URB597 (1.0 mg/kg) abolished cocaine-induced seizure, yet it did not protect against acute liver injury. Using confocal liver intravital microscopy, we observed that CBD (30 mg/kg) reduced acute liver inflammation and damage induced by cocaine and prevented associated seizure. Additionally, we showed that previous liver damage induced by another hepatotoxic drug (acetaminophen) increased seizure and lethality induced by cocaine intoxication, linking hepatotoxicity to seizure dynamics. These findings suggest that activation of cannabinoid system may have protective actions on both liver and brain induced by cocaine, minimizing inflammatory injury promoted by cocaine, supporting its further clinical application in the treatment of cocaine abuse. PMID:25999668

  4. ACUTE AND SUBACUTE TOXICITY STUDY ON SPERMATOGENIC SIDDHA DRUG ‘ISAPPUKOL CHOORANAM’ (IC

    S. Thillaivanan*, K. Kanagavalli , P. Sathiyarajeswaran and P. Parthiban

    2013-11-01

    Full Text Available Herbal medicines have been broadly used in developed countries hence they are natural and comparatively safe. They contain plant materials as their pharmacologically active components. Infertility is one of the most extremely tragic all over the world. Despite recent advances in the treatment of male infertility, the problem has not been satisfactorily tackled. The male infertility is mainly due to an inadequate number of spermatozoa in the semen, the failure of the spermatozoa to move with sufficient vigor towards their goal. Aim of the study is to evaluate the acute and sub-acute toxicity of the spermatogenic siddha drug Isappukol Chooranam (IC (siddha drug.For acute studies, different doses of IC were administered orally to rats once daily for one week. Forsub-acute studies, different doses of IC were administered orally to rats once daily for 28 days in various doses at 50,100,200 mg/kg of body weight. Detailed hematological, biochemical, necropsy and Histopathological evaluation of organs was performed for all animals. Histopathological analysis revealed that Spleen, Testes, Pancreas, Lung, Liver, Brain, Heart, Stomach, Intestine, Bone, Ovary, and Kidney tissues of treated groups did not show any signs of toxicity. No impairment in hepatic, renal, haemopoietic functions were observed throughout the study. No mortality was observed up to 200 mg/kg of body weight in acute and sub-acute toxicity studies.

  5. Joint acute toxicity of the herbicide butachlor and three insecticides to the terrestrial earthworm, Eisenia fetida.

    Wang, Yanhua; Cang, Tao; Yu, Ruixian; Wu, Shenggan; Liu, Xinju; Chen, Chen; Wang, Qiang; Cai, Leiming

    2016-06-01

    The herbicide butachlor and three insecticides phoxim, chlorpyrifos, and lambda-cyhalotrhin are widely used pesticides with different modes of action. As most previous laboratory bioassays for these pesticides have been conducted solely based on acute tests with a single compound, only limited information is available on the possible combined toxicity of these common chemicals to soil organisms. In this study, we evaluated their mixture toxicity on the terrestrial earthworm, Eisenia fetida, with binary, ternary, and quaternary mixtures. Two different types of bioassays were employed in our work, including a contact filter paper toxicity test and a soil toxicity test. Mixture toxicity effects were assessed using the additive index method. For all of the tested binary mixtures (butachlor-phoxim, butachlor-chlorpyrifos, and butachlor-lambda-cyhalothrin), significant synergistic interactions were observed after 14 days in the soil toxicity assay. However, greater additive toxicity was found after 48 h in the contact toxicity bioassay. Most of the ternary and quaternary mixtures exhibited significant synergistic effects on the worms in both bioassay systems. Our findings would be helpful in assessing the ecological risk of these pesticide mixtures to soil invertebrates. The observed synergistic interactions underline the necessity to review soil quality guidelines, which are likely underestimating the adverse combined effects of these compounds. PMID:26946506

  6. Development of a biotic ligand model to predict the acute toxicity of cadmium to Daphnia pulex

    The goal of this study was to develop a biotic ligand model (BLM) to predict the acute toxicity of cadmium to Daphnia pulex. Organisms were cultured in moderately soft water and standard 48 h acute toxicity tests were used to determine EC50s in various water chemistries where the effects of Ca2+, Na+, Mg2+, Cl-, K+, pH, and two sources of natural organic matter (Suwannee River and Nordic Reservoir) were evaluated. Overall, toxicity responses were consistent with the free-ion activity model and the principles inherent in the BLM. Increases in Ca2+ resulted in higher EC50s, indicating that Cd2+ competes with Ca2+ for uptake at the biotic ligand. Similar cation competition effects were observed when Mg2+ was varied but with a less pronounced protective effect relative to Ca2+. Changes in Na+ and K+ concentrations had no significant effect on Cd toxicity. EC50 values did not change significantly when pH was adjusted over a range from 8.0 to 6.1. Additions of natural organic matter resulted in elevated dissolved organic carbon (DOC) concentrations that significantly reduced Cd bioavailability via complexation of Cd2+. An existing biotic ligand model (HydroQual BLM ver 2.2.3) was tested for its ability to predict acute Cd toxicity to D. pulex. Once the BLM was adjusted for the relatively sensitivity of D. pulex the protective effects of Ca and DOC could be predicted reasonably well but other test chemistries did not match with measured EC50s. Binding constants derived from the test results were used to develop a modified BLM for the effects of Cd on D. pulex that accounted for the moderating effect of Ca and Mg on acute toxicity but overestimated the protective effect of DOC.

  7. Development of a biotic ligand model to predict the acute toxicity of cadmium to Daphnia pulex

    Clifford, Matthew [Department of Biology, Wilfrid Laurier University, Waterloo, ON N2L 3C5 (Canada); McGeer, James C., E-mail: jmcgeer@wlu.ca [Department of Biology, Wilfrid Laurier University, Waterloo, ON N2L 3C5 (Canada)

    2010-06-01

    The goal of this study was to develop a biotic ligand model (BLM) to predict the acute toxicity of cadmium to Daphnia pulex. Organisms were cultured in moderately soft water and standard 48 h acute toxicity tests were used to determine EC50s in various water chemistries where the effects of Ca{sup 2+}, Na{sup +}, Mg{sup 2+}, Cl{sup -}, K{sup +}, pH, and two sources of natural organic matter (Suwannee River and Nordic Reservoir) were evaluated. Overall, toxicity responses were consistent with the free-ion activity model and the principles inherent in the BLM. Increases in Ca{sup 2+} resulted in higher EC50s, indicating that Cd{sup 2+} competes with Ca{sup 2+} for uptake at the biotic ligand. Similar cation competition effects were observed when Mg{sup 2+} was varied but with a less pronounced protective effect relative to Ca{sup 2+}. Changes in Na{sup +} and K{sup +} concentrations had no significant effect on Cd toxicity. EC50 values did not change significantly when pH was adjusted over a range from 8.0 to 6.1. Additions of natural organic matter resulted in elevated dissolved organic carbon (DOC) concentrations that significantly reduced Cd bioavailability via complexation of Cd{sup 2+}. An existing biotic ligand model (HydroQual BLM ver 2.2.3) was tested for its ability to predict acute Cd toxicity to D. pulex. Once the BLM was adjusted for the relatively sensitivity of D. pulex the protective effects of Ca and DOC could be predicted reasonably well but other test chemistries did not match with measured EC50s. Binding constants derived from the test results were used to develop a modified BLM for the effects of Cd on D. pulex that accounted for the moderating effect of Ca and Mg on acute toxicity but overestimated the protective effect of DOC.

  8. Acute toxicity of uranium hexafluoride, uranyl fluoride and hydrogen fluoride

    Uranium hexafluoride (UF6) released into the atmosphere will react rapidly with moisture in the air to form the hydrolysis products uranyl fluoride (UO2F2) and hydrogen fluoride (HF). Uranium compounds such as UF6 and UO2F2 exhibit both chemical toxicity and radiological effects, while HF exhibits only chemical toxicity. This paper describes the development of a methodology for assessing the human health consequences of a known acute exposure to a mixture of UF6, UO2F2, and HF. 4 refs., 2 figs., 5 tabs

  9. Web-based Interspecies Correlation Estimation (Web-ICE) for Acute Toxicity: User Manual Version 3.3

    Information on the acute toxicity to multiple species is needed for the assessment of the risks to, and the protection of, individuals, populations, and ecological communities. However, toxicity data are limited for the majority of species, while standard test species are general...

  10. Automated Test Systems for Toxic Vapor Detectors

    Mattson, C. B.; Hammond, T. A.; Schwindt, C. J.

    1997-01-01

    The NASA Toxic Vapor Detection Laboratory (TVDL) at the Kennedy Space Center (KSC), Florida, has been using Personal Computer based Data Acquisition and Control Systems (PCDAS) for about nine years. These systems control the generation of toxic vapors of known concentrations under controlled conditions of temperature and humidity. The PCDAS also logs the test conditions and the test article responses in data files for analysis by standard spreadsheets or custom programs. The PCDAS was originally developed to perform standardized qualification and acceptance tests in a search for a commercial off-the-shelf (COTS) toxic vapor detector to replace the hydrazine detectors for the Space Shuttle launch pad. It has since become standard test equipment for the TVDL and is indispensable in producing calibration standards for the new hydrazine monitors at the 10 part per billion (ppb) level. The standard TVDL PCDAS can control two toxic vapor generators (TVG's) with three channels each and two flow/ temperature / humidity (FTH) controllers and it can record data from up to six toxic vapor detectors (TVD's) under test and can deliver flows from 5 to 50 liters per minute (L/m) at temperatures from near zero to 50 degrees Celsius (C) using an environmental chamber to maintain the sample temperature. The concentration range for toxic vapors depends on the permeation source installed in the TVG. The PCDAS can provide closed loop control of temperature and humidity to two sample vessels, typically one for zero gas and one for the standard gas. This is required at very low toxic vapor concentrations to minimize the time required to passivate the sample delivery system. Recently, there have been several requests for information about the PCDAS by other laboratories with similar needs, both on and off KSC. The purpose of this paper is to inform the toxic vapor detection community of the current status and planned upgrades to the automated testing of toxic vapor detectors at the

  11. ECVAM and new technologies for toxicity testing.

    Bouvier d'Yvoire, Michel; Bremer, Susanne; Casati, Silvia; Ceridono, Mara; Coecke, Sandra; Corvi, Raffaella; Eskes, Chantra; Gribaldo, Laura; Griesinger, Claudius; Knaut, Holger; Linge, Jens P; Roi, Annett; Zuang, Valérie

    2012-01-01

    The development of alternative empirical (testing) and non-empirical (non-testing) methods to traditional toxicological tests for complex human health effects is a tremendous task. Toxicants may potentially interfere with a vast number of physiological mechanisms thereby causing disturbances on various levels of complexity of human physiology. Only a limited number of mechanisms relevant for toxicity ('pathways' of toxicity) have been identified with certainty so far and, presumably, many more mechanisms by which toxicants cause adverse effects remain to be identified. Recapitulating in empirical model systems (i.e., in vitro test systems) all those relevant physiological mechanisms prone to be disturbed by toxicants and relevant for causing the toxicity effect in question poses an enormous challenge. First, the mechanism(s) of action of toxicants in relation to the most relevant adverse effects of a specific human health endpoint need to be identified. Subsequently, these mechanisms need to be modeled in reductionist test systems that allow assessing whether an unknown substance may operate via a specific (array of) mechanism(s). Ideally, such test systems should be relevant for the species of interest, i.e., based on human cells or modeling mechanisms present in humans. Since much of our understanding about toxicity mechanisms is based on studies using animal model systems (i.e., experimental animals or animal-derived cells), designing test systems that model mechanisms relevant for the human situation may be limited by the lack of relevant information from basic research. New technologies from molecular biology and cell biology, as well as progress in tissue engineering, imaging techniques and automated testing platforms hold the promise to alleviate some of the traditional difficulties associated with improving toxicity testing for complex endpoints. Such new technologies are expected (1) to accelerate the identification of toxicity pathways with human

  12. ACUTE TOXICITY STUDY OF TOMATO POMACE EXTRACT IN RODENT

    Wathita Phachonpai; Supaporn Muchimapura; Terdthai Tong-Un; Jintanaporn Wattanathorn; Wipawee Thukhammee; Chonlathip Thipkaew; Bungorn Sripanidkulchai; Panakaporn Wannanon

    2013-01-01

    Tomato and tomato products are considered to be healthy food for the human diet. Although tomatoes have been widely studied for their phenolic content, less emphasize has been laid on toxicological effect of this plant. Thus, the purpose of the present study is to determine the acute toxicity effect of Lycopersicon esculentum, or commonly known as tomato, was administered orally in the form of dried tomato pomace extract in vivo. Adult male rats were orally administrated single dose of 1000 a...

  13. ACUTE ORAL TOXICITY STUDY OF CLINACANTHUS NUTANS IN MICE

    Xiu Wen P'ng, Gabriel Akyirem Akowuah and Jin Han Chin*

    2012-01-01

    Clinacanthus nutans Lindau (Family: Acanthaceae) has attracted public interest recently due to its high medicinal values for the treatment of cancer, inflammation and various skin problems. This study was aimed to determine the oral LD50 value of the methanol leaves extract of C. nutans and identify the targeted organs in mice. This acute oral toxicity study was conducted in accordance to OECD 423 guidelines by using male Swiss albino mice weighing 25-35 g. First group was served as control g...

  14. Severe hypotension and hypothermia caused by acute ethanol toxicity

    Wilson, E; W. S. Waring

    2007-01-01

    This article reports the time course and clinical features of acute ethanol poisoning in an elderly man who had previously abstained from alcohol. Several hours after ingestion, severe hypotension and hypothermia developed, and the consciousness level was reduced. Supportive measures were sufficient to allow the patient's blood pressure and temperature to recover by 24 h post ingestion. The clinical manifestations of ethanol toxicity are often confounded by coexistent drug ingestion and varia...

  15. Antioxidant Capacity, Cytotoxicity, and Acute Oral Toxicity of Gynura bicolor

    Wuen Yew Teoh; Kae Shin Sim; Jaime Stella Moses Richardson; Norhanom Abdul Wahab; See Ziau Hoe

    2013-01-01

    Gynura bicolor (Compositae) which is widely used by the locals as natural remedies in folk medicine has limited scientific studies to ensure its efficacy and nontoxicity. The current study reports the total phenolic content, antioxidant capacity, cytotoxicity, and acute oral toxicity of crude methanol and its fractionated extracts (hexane, ethyl acetate, and water) of G. bicolor leaves. Five human colon cancer cell lines (HT-29, HCT-15, SW480, Caco-2, and HCT 116), one human breast adenocarci...

  16. Evaluation of acute toxicity of babassu mesocarp in mice

    Elizabeth S. B. Barroqueiro; Fernanda S. B. Barroqueiro; Mayara T. Pinheiro; Márcia C. G. Maciel; Priscila S. Barcellos; Silva, Lucilene A.; Adelson de S. Lopes; Flávia R.F. Nascimento; Rosane N. M. Guerra

    2011-01-01

    The safety of babassu mesocarp (Orbignya phalerata Mart., Arecaceae), which exhibited anti-inflammatory and antithrombotic activities, was evaluated by determining the potential acute toxicity in mice. A lyophilized ethanol extract of babassu mesocarp (BME) was administered to C3H/HePas mice (10/group) in a single dose of 1000, 3000 and 5000 mg/kg, by gavage. General behavior adverse effects and mortality were determined for up to fourteen days. Selected biochemical parameters including gluco...

  17. Aquatic toxicity testing for hazard identification of engineered nanoparticles

    Sørensen, Sara Nørgaard

    , which is often related to a high surface-to-volume ratio. These properties have also caused concern amongst scientists and regulators, who have called for timely identification of the potential adverse effects of ENPs to human health and the environment. Despite intensive research on the aquatic...... and the response axes. The actual exposure experienced by organisms may not be reflected by the ENPconcentration in medium, commonly applied as the exposure metric, and the responses of organisms may result from various toxic and non-toxic mechanisms occurring simultaneously. In this thesis, the...... algae, shorter exposure duration was obtained through the application of an acute 2h 14C-assimilation test. For daphnids, a short-term (1-3h) pulse exposure was applied, followed by transfer of the organisms to pure medium, where acute and chronic effects were monitored according to standard guidelines...

  18. Studies on acute toxicity and mutagenicity of 60Co irradiated pollens

    The acute toxicity test showed that the oral LD50 values were >21500 mg/kg for male and female mice, indicating that irradiated pollens belong to low toxicity grade or practically non-toxic. Mutagenicity were studied in three short-term tests. Ames test showed that irradiated pollens did not induce mutation towards strains TA99, TA97, TA100 and TA102. Micronucleus test in the bone marrow cells indicated that the percentage of polychromatic erythrocytes with micronuclei in exposed groups had no significant difference in comparison with the controlled ones. Chromosomal test for reproduction cells showed that the increase of chromosomal aberration rate was not observed. All the above results suggest that irradiated pollens are safe for human consumption

  19. Hyalella IQ Toxicity Test{trademark} as a predictor of whole sediment toxicity with diversely contaminated sediments

    Douglas, W.S.; Hayes, K.R. [Aqua Survey, Inc., Flemington, NJ (United States)

    1994-12-31

    The IQ TOXICITY TEST{trademark} is a toxicity screening test that evaluates the organism`s galactosidase enzyme system functionality as a predictor of acute toxicity. Organisms are exposed to a potentially toxic solution for approximately one hour. Following the exposure, the organisms are exposed to a slurry of a galactoside sugar tagged with a fluorescent marker (methylumbelliferyl galactoside) for 15--20 minutes. A black light can then be used to examine whether the hemolymph of the organism contains free umbelliferone, which brightly fluoresces. The organisms are then scored as ``on`` or ``off`` with respect to free umbelliferone. This endpoint can then be used to calculate an EC50, which is comparable to a whole effluent, pure compound, or sediment toxicity test. Slightly different methodologies are used for different toxicity test organisms. The objective of this presentation is to discuss the use of the IQ{trademark} methodology with porewater extract exposures of the amphipod Hyalella azteca as a predictor of results of whole sediment toxicity tests. The results of over thirty 10 and 28-day whole sediment toxicity tests and the concurrent Hyalella azteca 10 TOXICITY TESTS{trademark} are compared and discussed. The use of screening tests as a reduced cost method for initial site assessment will be discussed.

  20. Acute and delayed toxicities of total body irradiation

    Deeg, H.J.

    1983-12-01

    Total body irradiation is being used with increasing frequency for the treatment of lymphopoietic malignancies and in preparation for marrow transplantation. Acute toxicities include reversible gastroeneritis, mucositis, myelosuppression alopecia. As the success of treatment improves and more patients become long-term survivors, manifestations of delayed and chronic toxicity become evident. These include impairment of growth and development, gonadal failure and sterility, cataract formation and possibly secondary malignancies. The contribution of total body irradiation to the development of pneumonitis and pulmonary fibrosis is still poorly understood. Some of these changes are reversible or correctable, whereas others are permanent. Nevertheless, until equally effective but less toxic regimens become available, total body irradiation appears to be the treatment of choice to prepare patients with leukemia for marrow transplantation.

  1. Acute and delayed toxicities of total body irradiation

    Total body irradiation is being used with increasing frequency for the treatment of lymphopoietic malignancies and in preparation for marrow transplantation. Acute toxicities include reversible gastroeneritis, mucositis, myelosuppression alopecia. As the success of treatment improves and more patients become long-term survivors, manifestations of delayed and chronic toxicity become evident. These include impairment of growth and development, gonadal failure and sterility, cataract formation and possibly secondary malignancies. The contribution of total body irradiation to the development of pneumonitis and pulmonary fibrosis is still poorly understood. Some of these changes are reversible or correctable, whereas others are permanent. Nevertheless, until equally effective but less toxic regimens become available, total body irradiation appears to be the treatment of choice to prepare patients with leukemia for marrow transplantation

  2. Acute Toxicity Assessment of Reactive Red 120 to Certain Aquatic Organisms.

    Darsana, R; Chandrasehar, G; Deepa, V; Gowthami, Y; Chitrikha, T; Ayyappan, S; Goparaju, A

    2015-11-01

    Laboratory experiments were conducted to evaluate the acute toxicity of a widely used textile dye namely Reactive Red 120 (RR 120) on certain aquatic species such as Pseudokirchneriella subcapitata (green alga), Lemna gibba (duck weed), Daphnia magna (water flea) and Oncorhynchus mykiss (Rainbow trout). All experiments were performed as per the OECD Guidelines for Testing of Chemicals. The toxicity end points of EC50, LC50, NOEC and LOEC for RR 120 were determined with 95% confidence limits using TOX STAT version 3.5. The EC50 of RR 120 for green alga, duck weed and water flea are >100.00, 64.34, 10.40 mg L(-1), respectively and LC50 for Rainbow trout is 78.84 mg L(-1). Based on the results, the test item RR 120 could be classified as non-toxic to green alga, harmful to duck weed and Rainbow trout, toxic to water flea. PMID:26350898

  3. Reduction of acute toxicity of the pharmaceutical fluoxetine (Prozac) submitted to ionizing radiation to Vibrio fischeri

    Santos, Dymes R.A.; Garcia, Vanessa S.G.; Vilarrubia, Anna C.S.; Borrely, Sueli I., E-mail: vanessagarcia@usp.br, E-mail: sborrely@ipen.br [Instituto de Pesquisas Energeticas e Nucleares (IPEN/CNEN-SP), Sao Paulo, SP (Brazil)

    2011-07-01

    The constant use of pharmaceutical drugs by great part of the population and its continuous input into the environment creates a growing need of investigating its presence, behavior and the effects on aquatic biota, as well as new ways to treat wastewater containing such substances. The fluoxetine hydrochloride (FH) present in the drug Prozac is an active ingredient used in the treatment of depressive and anxiety disorders. Generally, these compounds enter the aquatic environment by sewage collectors systems after undergoing prior treatment in sewage treatment plants (STPs) or without any treatment. This study focused on evaluating the reduction of acute toxicity of the pharmaceutical FH, under its manipulated formula, for the marine bacterium Vibrio fischeri. It was also evaluated the acute toxicity of the aqueous solution containing the FH after its exposition to ionizing radiation from industrial electron accelerator. It was performed acute toxicity tests lasting 15 minutes, where the average EC (50) of the non-irradiated CF water solution was approximately 0.68 mg L-1. While the CF water solution irradiated with 1 kGy, 2.5 kGy, 7.5 kGy and 10 kGy, presented an average EC(50) 1.63 mg.L{sup -1}, 2.34 mg.L{sup -1}, 2.35 mg.L{sup -1} and 1.80 mg.L{sup -1}, respectively, showing a notable reduction of the acute toxicity for this organism. (author)

  4. Reduction of acute toxicity of the pharmaceutical fluoxetine (Prozac) submitted to ionizing radiation to Vibrio fischeri

    The constant use of pharmaceutical drugs by great part of the population and its continuous input into the environment creates a growing need of investigating its presence, behavior and the effects on aquatic biota, as well as new ways to treat wastewater containing such substances. The fluoxetine hydrochloride (FH) present in the drug Prozac is an active ingredient used in the treatment of depressive and anxiety disorders. Generally, these compounds enter the aquatic environment by sewage collectors systems after undergoing prior treatment in sewage treatment plants (STPs) or without any treatment. This study focused on evaluating the reduction of acute toxicity of the pharmaceutical FH, under its manipulated formula, for the marine bacterium Vibrio fischeri. It was also evaluated the acute toxicity of the aqueous solution containing the FH after its exposition to ionizing radiation from industrial electron accelerator. It was performed acute toxicity tests lasting 15 minutes, where the average EC (50) of the non-irradiated CF water solution was approximately 0.68 mg L-1. While the CF water solution irradiated with 1 kGy, 2.5 kGy, 7.5 kGy and 10 kGy, presented an average EC(50) 1.63 mg.L-1, 2.34 mg.L-1, 2.35 mg.L-1 and 1.80 mg.L-1, respectively, showing a notable reduction of the acute toxicity for this organism. (author)

  5. The use of mice as animal model for testing acute toxicity (LD-50 of toxic shock syndrome toxin Utilização de camundongos como modelo animal para a verificação da toxicidade aguda da toxina-1 da síndrome do choque tóxico

    R.S. Dias

    2009-02-01

    Full Text Available Acute toxicity test (LD-50 using toxic shock syndrome toxin (TSST-1 was tested in BALB/c, C57BL/6 and Swiss mice. Animals (n = 10 were intraperitoneally injected with TSST-1 (0.01-10.0µg/mouse followed 4h later by potentiating dose of lipopolysaccharide (75.0µg of LPS - E. coli O111:B4 and cumulative mortality was recorded over 72h. Control animals received either TSST-1 or LPS alone. The data were submitted to qui-Square test and acute toxicity test was calculated by probit analysis (confidence limits expressed as µg toxin/kg. BALB/c mice was the most sensitive (20.0µg/kg, 95% confidence limits: 9.0-92.0 followed by C57BL/6 (38.5µg/kg, 95% confidence limits: 9.11- 401.6. Data from Swiss mice was not conclusive, indicating only low sensitivity. Selection of the animal model and standardization of the experiment are fundamental for the development of serum neutralization tests used for final quality control of vaccine production.A toxicidade aguda (DL-50 da toxina da síndrome do choque tóxico (TSST-1 foi testada em linhagens de camundongos BALB/c, C57BL/6 e Suíça. Os animais (n=10 inoculados intraperitoneal com doses crescentes de toxina (0,01 - 10,0µg/animal receberam 4h após 75µg de LPS (E. coli O111: B4. A toxicidade aguda (DL50 foi observada por um período de 72h e os dados submetidos ao teste de qui- quadrado. Os resultados e os limites de confiança foram expressos em µg de toxina/kg. A linhagem BALB/c apresentou maior sensibilidade (20µg/kg - limite de confiança a 95% entre 9,0- 92,0, seguida da C57BL/6 (38,5µg/kg - limite de confiança a 95% entre 9,11 - 401,6. A amplitude dos limites de confiança deve-se à natureza da toxina, ao mecanismo de ação, a via de inoculação e ao animal utilizado. A seleção do modelo animal e a padronização do experimento são fundamentais para o desenvolvimento de testes de soro neutralização para fins de controle de qualidade do processo de produção de vacinas.

  6. A test of the additivity of acute toxicity of binary-metal mixtures of ni with Cd, Cu, and Zn to Daphnia magna, using the inflection point of the concentration-response curves.

    Traudt, Elizabeth M; Ranville, James F; Smith, Samantha A; Meyer, Joseph S

    2016-07-01

    Mixtures of metals are often present in surface waters, leading to toxicity that is difficult to predict. To provide data for development of multimetal toxicity models, Daphnia magna neonates were exposed to individual metals (Cd, Cu, Ni, Zn) and to binary combinations of those metals in standard 48-h lethality tests conducted in US Environmental Protection Agency moderately hard reconstituted water with 3 mg dissolved organic carbon (DOC)/L added as Suwannee River fulvic acid. Toxicity tests were performed with mixtures of Ni and 1) Cd, which is considerably more toxic than Ni; 2) Cu, which is less toxic than Cd but more toxic than Ni; and 3) Zn, which has a toxicity threshold similar to Ni. For each combination of metals in the binary mixtures, the concentration of 1 metal was held constant while the second metal was varied through a series that ranged from nonlethal to lethal concentrations; then the roles of the metals were reversed. Inflection points of the concentration-response curves were compared to test for additivity of toxicity. Sublethal concentrations of Ni caused less-than-additive toxicity with Cd, slightly less-than-additive toxicity with Zn, and greater-than-additive toxicity with Cu. One explanation of these results might be competition among the metals for binding to biological ligands and/or dissolved organic matter. Therefore, models might have to incorporate sometimes competing chemical interactions to accurately predict metal-mixture toxicity. Environ Toxicol Chem 2016;35:1843-1851. © 2015 SETAC. PMID:26681657

  7. Phytochemical Screening, Physicochemical Properties, Acute Toxicity Testing and Screening of Hypoglycaemic Activity of Extracts of Eremurus himalaicus Baker in Normoglycaemic Wistar Strain Albino Rats

    Ahlam Mushtaq; Seema Akbar; Zargar, Mohammad A.; Adil F. Wali; Malik, Akhtar H.; Dar, Mohammad Y.; Rabia Hamid; Ganai, Bashir A

    2014-01-01

    In the present study EtOAc, MeOH, and aqueous extracts of Eremurus himalaicus were evaluated for hypoglycaemic effect in normal rats using both oral glucose tolerance test and 14-day oral administration study. Phytochemical and physicochemical screening was also done. In oral glucose tolerance test the aqueous and MeOH extracts of Eremurus himalaicus at a dose level of 500 mg/kg body weight prior to glucose load resulted in a significant fall in blood glucose level within 150 min. of glucose ...

  8. Bioequivalence approach for whole effluent toxicity testing

    Shukla, R.; Wang, Q.; Fulk, F.; Deng, C.; Denton, D.

    2000-01-01

    Increased use of whole effluent toxicity (WET) tests in the regulatory arena has brought increased concern over the statistical analysis of WET test data and the determination of toxicity. One concern is the issue of statistical power. A number of WET tests may pass the current hypothesis test approach because they lack statistical power to detect relevant toxic effects because of large within-test variability. Additionally, a number of WET tests may fail the current approach because they possess excessive statistical power, as a result of small within-test variability, and detect small differences that may not be biologically relevant. The strengths and limitations of both the traditional hypothesis test approach and the bioequivalence approach for use in the National Pollutant Discharge Elimination System program were evaluated. Data from 5,213 single-concentration, short-term chronic WET tests with Ceriodaphnia dubia provided the database for analysis. Comparison of results between the current approach and the bioequivalence approach indicates that the current approach to WET testing is generally sound but that adopting the proposed bioequivalence approach resolves concerns of statistical power. Specifically, within this data set, applying the bioequivalence approach resulted in failure for tests with relatively large test variability and a pass for tests with relatively small within-test variability.

  9. Acute aquatic toxicity of tire and road wear particles to alga, daphnid, and fish.

    Marwood, Christopher; McAtee, Britt; Kreider, Marisa; Ogle, R Scott; Finley, Brent; Sweet, Len; Panko, Julie

    2011-11-01

    Previous studies have indicated that tire tread particles are toxic to aquatic species, but few studies have evaluated the toxicity of such particles using sediment, the likely reservoir of tire wear particles in the environment. In this study, the acute toxicity of tire and road wear particles (TRWP) was assessed in Pseudokirchneriella subcapita, Daphnia magna, and Pimephales promelas using a sediment elutriate (100, 500, 1000 or 10000 mg/l TRWP). Under standard test temperature conditions, no concentration response was observed and EC/LC(50) values were greater than 10,000 mg/l. Additional tests using D. magna were performed both with and without sediment in elutriates collected under heated conditions designed to promote the release of chemicals from the rubber matrix to understand what environmental factors may influence the toxicity of TRWP. Toxicity was only observed for elutriates generated from TRWP leached under high-temperature conditions and the lowest EC/LC(50) value was 5,000 mg/l. In an effort to identify potential toxic chemical constituent(s) in the heated leachates, toxicity identification evaluation (TIE) studies and chemical analysis of the leachate were conducted. The TIE coupled with chemical analysis (liquid chromatography/mass spectrometry/mass spectrometry [LC/MS/MS] and inductively coupled plasma/mass spectrometry [ICP/MS]) of the leachate identified zinc and aniline as candidate toxicants. However, based on the high EC/LC(50) values and the limited conditions under which toxicity was observed, TRWP should be considered a low risk to aquatic ecosystems under acute exposure scenarios. PMID:21789673

  10. Paradigm Shift in Toxicity Testing and Modeling

    Sun, Hongmao; Xia, Menghang; Austin, Christopher P.; Huang, Ruili

    2012-01-01

    The limitations of traditional toxicity testing characterized by high-cost animal models with low-throughput readouts, inconsistent responses, ethical issues, and extrapolability to humans call for alternative strategies for chemical risk assessment. A new strategy using in vitro human cell-based assays has been designed to identify key toxicity pathways and molecular mechanisms leading to the prediction of an in vivo response. The emergence of quantitative high-throughput screening (qHTS) te...

  11. Acute toxicity of eight oil spill response chemicals to temperate, boreal, and Arctic species.

    Hansen, Bjørn Henrik; Altin, Dag; Bonaunet, Kristin; Overjordet, Ida Beathe

    2014-01-01

    The objectives of this study were to (1) determine the acute toxicity of selected shoreline washing agents (SWA) and dispersants, and (2) assess interspecies differences in sensitivity to the products. Eight shoreline washing agents (Hela saneringsvæske, Bios, Bioversal, Absorrep K212, and Corexit 9580) and chemical dispersants (Corexit 9500, Dasic NS, and Gamlen OD4000) were tested on five marine species, algae Skeletonema costatum, planktonic copepod species Acartia tonsa (temperate species), Calanus finmarchicus (boreal species) and Calanus glacialis (Arctic species), and benthic amphipod Corophium volutator. For most products, A. tonsa was the most sensitive species, whereas C. volutator was the least sensitive; however, these species were exposed through different media (water/sediment). In general, all copepod species displayed a relatively similar sensitivity to all products. However, A. tonsa was somewhat more sensitive than other copepods to most of the tested products. Thus, A. tonsa appears to be a candidate species for boreal and Arctic copepods for acute toxicity testing, and data generated on this species may be used as to provide conservative estimates. The benthic species (C. volutator) had a different sensitivity pattern relative to pelagic species, displaying higher sensitivity to solvent-based SWA than to water-based SWA. Comparing product toxicity, the dispersants were in general most toxic while the solvent-based SWA were least toxic to pelagic species. PMID:24754387

  12. Mollusc reproductive toxicity tests - Development and validation of test guidelines

    Ducrot, Virginie; Holbech, Henrik; Kinnberg, Karin Lund

    ). Cumulated fecundity per individual over the test period was SETAC 6th World Congress/SETAC Europe 22nd Annual Meeting 223 the main test endpoint. Tested animals came from a single laboratory culture (i.e. the University of Frankfurt for P. antipodarum and INRA for L. stagnalis). Snails were acclimated in...... experimental conditions and test procedures is required before the SOPs are ready to be proposed as OECD test guidelines.......The Organisation for Economic Cooperation and Development is promoting the development and validation of mollusc toxicity tests within its test guidelines programme, eventually aiming for the standardization of mollusc apical toxicity tests. Through collaborative work between academia, industry and...

  13. Implications of Animal Welfare on Toxicity Testing

    Meyer, Otto A.

    1993-01-01

    The testing strategy for chemical substances is discussed with regard to obtaining improved quality of data for health assessment while respecting the ethical responsibility for consideration of the welfare of the animals involved. Ensuring animal welfare without indulging too much in...... anthropomorphism leads to better research/testing. Current trends in toxicity testing will result in tests involving more sophisticated techniques, better quality of laboratory animals, and eventually the use of fewer animals....

  14. Acute toxicity, cytotoxicity, genotoxicity and antigenotoxic effects of a cellulosic exopolysaccharide obtained from sugarcane molasses.

    Pinto, Flávia Cristina Morone; De-Oliveira, Ana Cecília A X; De-Carvalho, Rosangela R; Gomes-Carneiro, Maria Regina; Coelho, Deise R; Lima, Salvador Vilar C; Paumgartten, Francisco José R; Aguiar, José Lamartine A

    2016-02-10

    The acute toxicity, cytotoxicity, genotoxicity and antigenotoxic effects of BC were studied. Cytotoxicity of BC was evaluated in cultured C3A hepatoma cells (HepG2/C3A) using a lactate dehydrogenase (LDH) activity assay. Acute toxicity was tested in adults Wistar rats treated with a single dose of BC. The genotoxicity of BC was evaluated in vivo by the micronucleus assay. BC (0.33-170 μg/mL) added to C3A cell culture medium caused no elevation in LDH release over the background level recorded in untreated cell wells. The treatment with the BC in a single oral dose (2000 mg/kg body weight) caused no deaths or signs of toxicity. BC attenuated CP-induced and inhibition the incidence of MNPCE (female: 46.94%; male: 22.7%) and increased the ratio of PCE/NCE (female: 46.10%; male: 35.25%). There was no alteration in the LDH release in the wells where C3A cells were treated with increasing concentrations of BC compared to the wells where the cells received the cell culture medium only (background of approximately 20% cell death), indicated that in the dose range tested BC was not cytotoxic. BC was not cytotoxic, genotoxic or acutely toxic. BC attenuated CP-induced genotoxic and myelotoxic effects. PMID:26686163

  15. Extrapolation of toxic indices among test objects.

    Tichý, Miloň; Rucki, Marián; Roth, Zdeněk; Hanzlíková, Iveta; Vlková, Alena; Tumová, Jana; Uzlová, Rút

    2010-12-01

    Oligochaeta Tubifex tubifex, fish fathead minnow (Pimephales promelas), hepatocytes isolated from rat liver and ciliated protozoan are absolutely different organisms and yet their acute toxicity indices correlate. Correlation equations for special effects were developed for a large heterogeneous series of compounds (QSAR, quantitative structure-activity relationships). Knowing those correlation equations and their statistic evaluation, one can extrapolate the toxic indices. The reason is that a common physicochemical property governs the biological effect, namely the partition coefficient between two unmissible phases, simulated generally by n-octanol and water. This may mean that the transport of chemicals towards a target is responsible for the magnitude of the effect, rather than reactivity, as one would assume suppose. PMID:21331180

  16. Acute and subacute oral toxicity of Litsea elliptica Blume essential oil in rats

    Siti Balkis BUDIN; Seri Masran SITINOR AIN; Baharuddin OMAR; Izatus Shima TAIB; Othman HIDAYATULFATHI

    2012-01-01

    Litsea elliptica Blume has been traditionally used to treat headache,fever,and stomach ulcer,and has also been used as an insect repellent.The acute and subacute toxicities of L.el/iptica essential oil were evaluated orally by gavage in female Sprague-Dawley rats.For the acute toxicity study,L.e//iptica essential oil was administered in doses from 500 to 4000 mg/kg (single dose),and in the subacute toxicity test,the following doses were used:125,250,and 500 mg/kg,for 28 consecutive days.In the acute toxicity study,L.elliptica essential oil caused dose-dependent adverse behaviours and mortality.The median lethal dose value was 3488.86 mg/kg and the acute non-observed-adversed-effect level value was found to be 500 mg/kg.The subacute toxicity study of L.elliptica essential oil did not reveal alterations in body weight,and food and water consumptions.The haematological and biochemical analyses did not show significant differences between control and treated groups in most of the parameters examined,except for the hemoglobin,mean cell hemoglobin concentration,mean cell volume,mean cell hemoglobin,serum albumin,and serum sodium.However,these differences were still within the normal range.No abnormalities or histopathological changes were observed in the liver,pancreatic islet of Langerhans,and renal glomerulous and tubular cells of all treated groups.In conclusion,L.el/iptica essential oil can be classified in the U group,which is defined as a group unlikely to present an acute hazard according to World Health Organization (WHO) classification.

  17. Phytochemical Screening, Physicochemical Properties, Acute Toxicity Testing and Screening of Hypoglycaemic Activity of Extracts of Eremurus himalaicus Baker in Normoglycaemic Wistar Strain Albino Rats

    Ahlam Mushtaq

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available In the present study EtOAc, MeOH, and aqueous extracts of Eremurus himalaicus were evaluated for hypoglycaemic effect in normal rats using both oral glucose tolerance test and 14-day oral administration study. Phytochemical and physicochemical screening was also done. In oral glucose tolerance test the aqueous and MeOH extracts of Eremurus himalaicus at a dose level of 500 mg/kg body weight prior to glucose load resulted in a significant fall in blood glucose level within 150 min. of glucose administration. The aqueous extract at a dose level of 250 mg/kg body weight and 500 mg/kg body weight also showed good hypoglycaemic response (P < 0.001; this was followed by MeOH extract at a dose level of 500 mg/kg body weight (P < 0.05, while MeOH extract at dose level of 250 mg/kg body weight and ethyl acetate extract at dose level of 250 mg/kg body weight and 500 mg/kg body weight exhibited insignificant effect. Phytochemical screening of extracts revealed the presence of alkaloids, terpenoids, phenolics, tannins, saponins, cardiac glycosides, and flavonoids. The results indicate that aqueous extract possess significant hypoglycaemic activity in normoglycaemic rats which may be attributed to the above-mentioned chemical constituents.

  18. Phytochemical screening, physicochemical properties, acute toxicity testing and screening of hypoglycaemic activity of extracts of Eremurus himalaicus baker in normoglycaemic Wistar strain albino rats.

    Mushtaq, Ahlam; Akbar, Seema; Zargar, Mohammad A; Wali, Adil F; Malik, Akhtar H; Dar, Mohammad Y; Hamid, Rabia; Ganai, Bashir A

    2014-01-01

    In the present study EtOAc, MeOH, and aqueous extracts of Eremurus himalaicus were evaluated for hypoglycaemic effect in normal rats using both oral glucose tolerance test and 14-day oral administration study. Phytochemical and physicochemical screening was also done. In oral glucose tolerance test the aqueous and MeOH extracts of Eremurus himalaicus at a dose level of 500 mg/kg body weight prior to glucose load resulted in a significant fall in blood glucose level within 150 min. of glucose administration. The aqueous extract at a dose level of 250 mg/kg body weight and 500 mg/kg body weight also showed good hypoglycaemic response (P < 0.001); this was followed by MeOH extract at a dose level of 500 mg/kg body weight (P < 0.05), while MeOH extract at dose level of 250 mg/kg body weight and ethyl acetate extract at dose level of 250 mg/kg body weight and 500 mg/kg body weight exhibited insignificant effect. Phytochemical screening of extracts revealed the presence of alkaloids, terpenoids, phenolics, tannins, saponins, cardiac glycosides, and flavonoids. The results indicate that aqueous extract possess significant hypoglycaemic activity in normoglycaemic rats which may be attributed to the above-mentioned chemical constituents. PMID:24864262

  19. Antioxidant Capacity, Cytotoxicity, and Acute Oral Toxicity of Gynura bicolor

    Wuen Yew Teoh

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Gynura bicolor (Compositae which is widely used by the locals as natural remedies in folk medicine has limited scientific studies to ensure its efficacy and nontoxicity. The current study reports the total phenolic content, antioxidant capacity, cytotoxicity, and acute oral toxicity of crude methanol and its fractionated extracts (hexane, ethyl acetate, and water of G. bicolor leaves. Five human colon cancer cell lines (HT-29, HCT-15, SW480, Caco-2, and HCT 116, one human breast adenocarcinoma cell line (MCF7, and one human normal colon cell line (CCD-18Co were used to evaluate the cytotoxicity of G. bicolor. The present findings had clearly demonstrated that ethyl acetate extract of G. bicolor with the highest total phenolic content among the extracts showed the strongest antioxidant activity (DPPH radical scavenging assay and metal chelating assay, possessed cytotoxicity, and induced apoptotic and necrotic cell death, especially towards the HCT 116 and HCT-15 colon cancer cells. The acute oral toxicity study indicated that methanol extract of G. bicolor has negligible level of toxicity when administered orally and has been regarded as safe in experimental rats. The findings of the current study clearly established the chemoprevention potential of G. bicolor and thus provide scientific validation on the therapeutic claims of G. bicolor.

  20. Antioxidant Capacity, Cytotoxicity, and Acute Oral Toxicity of Gynura bicolor.

    Teoh, Wuen Yew; Sim, Kae Shin; Moses Richardson, Jaime Stella; Abdul Wahab, Norhanom; Hoe, See Ziau

    2013-01-01

    Gynura bicolor (Compositae) which is widely used by the locals as natural remedies in folk medicine has limited scientific studies to ensure its efficacy and nontoxicity. The current study reports the total phenolic content, antioxidant capacity, cytotoxicity, and acute oral toxicity of crude methanol and its fractionated extracts (hexane, ethyl acetate, and water) of G. bicolor leaves. Five human colon cancer cell lines (HT-29, HCT-15, SW480, Caco-2, and HCT 116), one human breast adenocarcinoma cell line (MCF7), and one human normal colon cell line (CCD-18Co) were used to evaluate the cytotoxicity of G. bicolor. The present findings had clearly demonstrated that ethyl acetate extract of G. bicolor with the highest total phenolic content among the extracts showed the strongest antioxidant activity (DPPH radical scavenging assay and metal chelating assay), possessed cytotoxicity, and induced apoptotic and necrotic cell death, especially towards the HCT 116 and HCT-15 colon cancer cells. The acute oral toxicity study indicated that methanol extract of G. bicolor has negligible level of toxicity when administered orally and has been regarded as safe in experimental rats. The findings of the current study clearly established the chemoprevention potential of G. bicolor and thus provide scientific validation on the therapeutic claims of G. bicolor. PMID:24369485

  1. Acute toxicity of inorganics associated with irrigation drainwater, singly and in mixtures, to endangered fish

    Two early life stages of three federally-endangered fish, Colorado squawfish (Ptychocheiluslucius), razorbacksucker (Xyrauchen texanus), and bonytail (Gila elegans) were exposed for 96 hours to copper, selenate, selenite, and zinc singly, and two mixtures of nine inorganics simulating environmental ratios in two tributaries, Ashley Creek and Stewart Lake outlet, of the Green River, Utah. Acute tests were conducted in a water quality simulating the Green River. Colorado squawfish larvae were consistently more sensitive to the four inorganics and two mixtures than the juveniles, whereas there was no consistent response between these two life stages for the other two species. There was no consistent difference in sensitivity to the inorganics among the three species. The toxicity of the two mixtures exhibited either additive or greater than additive toxicity to the fish. The primary toxic components in the mixtures were copper and zinc based on toxic units. Arsenate, boron, molybdenum, selenate, selenite, uranium, and vanadium contributed ≤ 10% of the summed toxic units for each mixture. Comparison of acute toxicity values, as the biological effects concentration, with measured environmental concentrations in the two tributaries produced margin of uncertainty values of 12 for the Ashley Creek mixture and 9 for the Stewart Lake outlet mixture. These low margins of uncertainty suggest that inorganics derived from irrigation activities may be adversely affecting endangered fish in the Green River

  2. Acute oral toxicity and biodistribution study of zinc-aluminium-levodopa nanocomposite

    Kura, Aminu Umar; Saifullah, Bullo; Cheah, Pike-See; Hussein, Mohd Zobir; Azmi, Norazrina; Fakurazi, Sharida

    2015-03-01

    Layered double hydroxide (LDH) is an inorganic-organic nano-layered material that harbours drug between its two-layered sheets, forming a sandwich-like structure. It is attracting a great deal of attention as an alternative drug delivery (nanodelivery) system in the field of pharmacology due to their relative low toxic potential. The production of these nanodelivery systems, aimed at improving human health through decrease toxicity, targeted delivery of the active compound to areas of interest with sustained release ability. In this study, we administered zinc-aluminium-LDH-levodopa nanocomposite (ZAL) and zinc-aluminium nanocomposite (ZA) to Sprague Dawley rats to evaluate for acute oral toxicity following OECD guidelines. The oral administration of ZAL and ZA at a limit dose of 2,000 mg/kg produced neither mortality nor acute toxic signs throughout 14 days of the observation. The percentage of body weight gain of the animals showed no significant difference between control and treatment groups. Animal from the two treated groups gained weight continuously over the study period, which was shown to be significantly higher than the weight at the beginning of the study ( P animal serum showed no significant difference between rats treated with ZAL, ZA and controls. There was no gross lesion or histopathological changes observed in vital organs of the rats. The results suggested that ZAL and ZA at 2,000 mg/kg body weight in rats do not induce acute toxicity in the animals. Elemental analysis of tissues of treated animals demonstrated the wider distribution of the nanocomposite including the brain. In summary, findings of acute toxicity tests in this study suggest that zinc-aluminium nanocomposite intercalated with and the un-intercalated were safe when administered orally in animal models for short periods of time. It also highlighted the potential distribution ability of Tween-80 coated nanocomposite after oral administration.

  3. Whole acute toxicity removal from industrial and domestic effluents treated by electron beam radiation: emphasis on anionic surfactants

    Electron beam radiation has been applied to improve real industrial and domestic effluents received by Suzano wastewater treatment plant. Radiation efficacy has been evaluated as toxicity reduction, using two biological assays. Three sites were sampled and submitted for toxicity assays, anionic surfactant determination and electron beam irradiation. This paper shows the reduction of acute toxicity for both test-organisms, the marine bacteria Vibrio fischeri and the crustacean Daphnia similis. The raw toxic effluents exibitted from 0.6 ppm up to 11.67 ppm for anionic surfactant before being treated by the electron beam. Radiation processing resulted in reduction of the acute toxicity as well as surfactant removal. The final biological effluent was in general less toxic than other sites but the presence of anionic surfactants was evidenced

  4. Whole acute toxicity removal from industrial and domestic effluents treated by electron beam radiation: emphasis on anionic surfactants

    Moraes, M.C.F. E-mail: mariacristinafm@uol.com.br; Romanelli, M.F; Sena, H.C.; Pasqualini da Silva, G.; Sampa, M.H.O.; Borrely, S.I

    2004-10-01

    Electron beam radiation has been applied to improve real industrial and domestic effluents received by Suzano wastewater treatment plant. Radiation efficacy has been evaluated as toxicity reduction, using two biological assays. Three sites were sampled and submitted for toxicity assays, anionic surfactant determination and electron beam irradiation. This paper shows the reduction of acute toxicity for both test-organisms, the marine bacteria Vibrio fischeri and the crustacean Daphnia similis. The raw toxic effluents exibitted from 0.6 ppm up to 11.67 ppm for anionic surfactant before being treated by the electron beam. Radiation processing resulted in reduction of the acute toxicity as well as surfactant removal. The final biological effluent was in general less toxic than other sites but the presence of anionic surfactants was evidenced.

  5. Whole acute toxicity removal from industrial and domestic effluents treated by electron beam radiation: emphasis on anionic surfactants

    Moraes, M. C. F.; Romanelli, M. F.; Sena, H. C.; Pasqualini da Silva, G.; Sampa, M. H. O.; Borrely, S. I.

    2004-09-01

    Electron beam radiation has been applied to improve real industrial and domestic effluents received by Suzano wastewater treatment plant. Radiation efficacy has been evaluated as toxicity reduction, using two biological assays. Three sites were sampled and submitted for toxicity assays, anionic surfactant determination and electron beam irradiation. This paper shows the reduction of acute toxicity for both test-organisms, the marine bacteria Vibrio fischeri and the crustacean Daphnia similis. The raw toxic effluents exibitted from 0.6 ppm up to 11.67 ppm for anionic surfactant before being treated by the electron beam. Radiation processing resulted in reduction of the acute toxicity as well as surfactant removal. The final biological effluent was in general less toxic than other sites but the presence of anionic surfactants was evidenced.

  6. Toxicological evaluation of neem (Azadirachta indica) oil: acute and subacute toxicity.

    Deng, Yun-xia; Cao, Mei; Shi, Dong-xia; Yin, Zhong-qiong; Jia, Ren-yong; Xu, Jiao; Wang, Chuan; Lv, Cheng; Liang, Xiao-xia; He, Chang-liang; Yang, Zhi-rong; Zhao, Jian

    2013-03-01

    Neem (Azadirachta indica), popularly known as traditional medicine is a native plant in India. Neem oil is a vegetable oil derived from seeds or fruits of the neem tree through pressing or solvent extraction, and largely used in popular medicine to have antifungal, antibacterial, antimalarial, antiparasitic, anti-inflammatory, as well as immunemodulatory properties in different animal species. In the present study, acute and 28-day subacute toxicity tests were carried out. In the acute toxicity test, the LD50 values of neem oil were found to be 31.95g/kg. The subacute treatment with neem oil failed to change body weight gain, food and water consumption. Serum biochemistry analysis showed no significant differences in any of the parameters examined under the dose of 1600mg/kg/day. Histopathological exams showed that the target organs of neem oil were testicle, liver and kidneys up to the dose of 1600mg/kg/day. PMID:23353547

  7. Acute toxicity study of the oil from Azadirachta indica seed (neem oil).

    Gandhi, M; Lal, R; Sankaranarayanan, A; Banerjee, C K; Sharma, P L

    1988-01-01

    The seed oil of Azadirachta indica (neem oil) is well known for its medicinal properties in the indigenous Indian system of medicine. Its acute toxicity was documented in rats and rabbits by the oral route. Dose-related pharmacotoxic symptoms were noted along with a number of biochemical and histopathological indices of toxicity. The 24-h LD50 was established as 14 ml/kg in rats and 24 ml/kg in rabbits. Prior to death, animals of both species exhibited comparable pharmacotoxic symptoms in order and severity, with lungs and central nervous system as the target organs of toxicity. Edible mustard seed oil (80 ml/kg) was tested in the same manner to document the degree to which the physical characteristics of an oil could contribute to the oral toxicity of neem oil. PMID:3419203

  8. Environmental effects of produced water from offshore petroleum industry 2: Identification of acute toxicity

    The purpose of the present study was to identify the sources of acute toxicity in produced water from two North Sea oilfields, Statfjord and Gullfaks. The experiments were designed in a way that has not previously been employed in such studies, including the combination of statistical experimental design and multivariate statistical analysis. Produced waters were synthesized by adding the components identified as possible toxicants to sea water in different concentrations reflecting their presence in real produced water. The selected components were: oil (represented by dissolved aromatic hydrocarbons), phenol and alkylated phenols, production chemicals and heavy metals (Cu, Cr, Mn, Zn, Hg, Pb, Sr and Ba). The toxicity of the mixtures were determined by the Microtox test. The effects of single components and their first and second order interactions were identified. The results show that the aromatic fraction is the most important contributor to the produced water toxicity, measured by Microtox. Within the aromatic fraction, the naphthalenes are the most toxic group, while the volatile (benzene, toluene and xylenes) and the heavy fractions (3--6 ring aromatics) only influence the observed toxicity to a minor degree. The results also suggest that alkylated phenols are of significant importance to the total produced water toxicity, with C3-phenols as the most toxic compounds. The heavy metals and the process chemicals play a minor role in the production water from the two fields

  9. Acute dysprosium toxicity to Daphnia pulex and Hyalella azteca and development of the biotic ligand approach.

    Vukov, Oliver; Smith, D Scott; McGeer, James C

    2016-01-01

    The toxicological understanding of rare earth elements (REEs) in the aquatic environment is very limited but of increasing concern. The objective of this research is to compare the toxicological effect of the REE dysprosium to the freshwater invertebrates Daphnia pulex and Hyalella azteca and in the more sensitive organism, understand the toxicity modifying influence of Ca, Na, Mg, pH and dissolved organic matter (DOM). Standard methods (Environment Canada) were followed for testing and culture in media of intermediate hardness (60mg CaCO3 mg/L) at pH 7.8 with Ca at 0.5, Na 0.5, Mg 0.125 (mM) and 23°C. Acute toxicity tests were done with complexation (at dissolved organic carbon (DOC) concentrations of 9 and 13mg C/L) were evaluated. Dissolved Dy concentrations were lower than total (unfiltered) indicating precipitation, particularly at higher concentrations. Acute toxicity of Dy to H. azteca and D. pulex revealed Hyalella to be 1.4 times more sensitive than Daphnia. Additions of Ca and Na but not Mg provided significant protection against Dy toxicity to Hyalella. Similarly, low pH was associated with reduction in toxicity. Exposures which were pH buffered with and without MOPS were significantly different and indicated that MOPS enhanced Dy toxicity. DOM also mitigated Dy toxicity. Biotic ligand based parameters (LogK values) were calculated based on free ion relationships as determined by geochemical equilibrium modeling software (WHAM ver. 7.02). The logK value for Dy(3+) toxicity to Hyalella was 7.75 while the protective influence of Ca and Na were 3.95 and 4.10, respectively. This study contributes data towards the development of site specific water quality guidelines and criteria for Dy and possibly REEs in general and offers insight into the complex bio-geochemical nature of this element. PMID:26655658

  10. Acute toxicity of copper, ammonia, and chlorine to glochidia and juveniles of freshwater mussels (Unionidae)

    Wang, N.; Ingersoll, C.G.; Hardesty, D.K.; Ivey, C.D.; Kunz, J.L.; May, T.W.; Dwyer, F.J.; Roberts, A.D.; Augspurger, T.; Kane, C.M.; Neves, R.J.; Barnhart, M.C.

    2007-01-01

    The objective of the present study was to determine acute toxicity of copper, ammonia, or chlorine to larval (glochidia) and juvenile mussels using the recently published American Society for Testing and Materials (ASTM) Standard guide for conducting laboratory toxicity tests with freshwater mussels. Toxicity tests were conducted with glochidia (24- to 48-h exposures) and juveniles (96-h exposures) of up to 11 mussel species in reconstituted ASTM hard water using copper, ammonia, or chlorine as a toxicant. Copper and ammonia tests also were conducted with five commonly tested species, including cladocerans (Daphnia magna and Ceriodaphnia dubia; 48-h exposures), amphipod (Hyalella azteca; 48-h exposures), rainbow trout (Oncorhynchus mykiss; 96-h exposures), and fathead minnow (Pimephales promelas; 96-h exposures). Median effective concentrations (EC50s) for commonly tested species were >58 ??g Cu/L (except 15 ??g Cu/L for C. dubia) and >13 mg total ammonia N/L, whereas the EC50s for mussels in most cases were 40 ??g/L and above the FAV in the WQC for chlorine. The results indicate that the early life stages of mussels generally were more sensitive to copper and ammonia than other organisms and that, including mussel toxicity data in a revision to the WQC, would lower the WQC for copper or ammonia. Furthermore, including additional mussel data in 2007 WQC for copper based on biotic ligand model would further lower the WQC. ?? 2007 SETAC.

  11. Toxicity levels to humans during acute exposure to hydrogen fluoride

    A literature review was conducted of the acute toxicity of hydrogen fluoride (HF) with emphasis on the effects of inhalation of gaseous HF. The data and findings of the relevant references were summarized under four categories: animal studies, controlled human studies, community exposure and industrial exposure. These were critically reviewed and then lethal concentration-time relationships were developed for humans, corresponding to LCsub(LO), LCsub(10) and LCsub(50) levels. The effects of age, health and other physiological variables on the sensitivity to HF were discussed, as well as antagonistic and synergistic effects with other substances

  12. Development of a model to predict the effect of water chemistry on the acute toxicity of cadmium to Photobacterium phosphoreum

    Highlights: • Acute cadmium toxicity was evaluated with P. phosphoreum as a test organism. • The effect of Ca2+, Mg2+, K+, pH and complexants on Cd toxicity was investigated. • Each factor has its own distinct characteristics on the toxicity-modifying effects. • A model was developed to predict Cd toxicity towards P. phosphoreum. -- Abstract: Cadmium (Cd) compounds are widely distributed toxic environmental and industrial pollutants, and they may bring danger to growth and development of aquatic organisms. The effects of Ca2+ (as CaCl2), Mg2+ (as MgSO4), K+ (as KCl), pH and complexants (EDTA, the commercial DOM, and three homemade DOMs) on Cd toxicity to Photobacterium phosphoreum were evaluated in standardized 15 min acute toxicity tests. Increases in Ca2+ concentration resulted in higher EC50 values, indicating the competition between the two ions for uptake sites at the biotic ligand. Increased waterborne Mg2+ also reduced Cd toxicity, but to a slightly lesser degree compared with Ca2+. The overall decline in EC50 data with increasing K+ in test solutions suggested that Cd toxicity was enhanced at larger K+ concentration. The toxicity alleviation by H+ was observed over the tested pH range of 5.0–9.0. Additions of complexing agents into the exposure water reduced Cd bioavailability via complexation of Cd2+, and complexants from different sources displayed different protective effect. The influence of these toxicity modifying factors was finally incorporated into a model that can predict acute cadmidum toxicity for Photobacterium phosphoreum. After validation with laboratory and natural waters, the developed model could support efforts to improve the ecological relevance of presently applied risk assessment procedures

  13. Development of a model to predict the effect of water chemistry on the acute toxicity of cadmium to Photobacterium phosphoreum

    Qu, Ruijuan; Wang, Xinghao [State Key Laboratory of Pollution Control and Resources Reuse, School of Environment, Xianlin Campus, Nanjing University, Jiangsu Nanjing 210023 (China); Liu, Zhengtao; Yan, Zhenguang [State Key Laboratory of Environmental Criteria and Risk Assessment and State Environmental Protection Key Laboratory of Ecological Effect and Risk Assessment, Chinese Research Academy of Environmental Sciences, Beijing 100012 (China); Wang, Zunyao, E-mail: wangzun315cn@163.com [State Key Laboratory of Pollution Control and Resources Reuse, School of Environment, Xianlin Campus, Nanjing University, Jiangsu Nanjing 210023 (China)

    2013-11-15

    Highlights: • Acute cadmium toxicity was evaluated with P. phosphoreum as a test organism. • The effect of Ca{sup 2+}, Mg{sup 2+}, K{sup +}, pH and complexants on Cd toxicity was investigated. • Each factor has its own distinct characteristics on the toxicity-modifying effects. • A model was developed to predict Cd toxicity towards P. phosphoreum. -- Abstract: Cadmium (Cd) compounds are widely distributed toxic environmental and industrial pollutants, and they may bring danger to growth and development of aquatic organisms. The effects of Ca{sup 2+} (as CaCl{sub 2}), Mg{sup 2+} (as MgSO{sub 4}), K{sup +} (as KCl), pH and complexants (EDTA, the commercial DOM, and three homemade DOMs) on Cd toxicity to Photobacterium phosphoreum were evaluated in standardized 15 min acute toxicity tests. Increases in Ca{sup 2+} concentration resulted in higher EC{sub 50} values, indicating the competition between the two ions for uptake sites at the biotic ligand. Increased waterborne Mg{sup 2+} also reduced Cd toxicity, but to a slightly lesser degree compared with Ca{sup 2+}. The overall decline in EC{sub 50} data with increasing K{sup +} in test solutions suggested that Cd toxicity was enhanced at larger K{sup +} concentration. The toxicity alleviation by H{sup +} was observed over the tested pH range of 5.0–9.0. Additions of complexing agents into the exposure water reduced Cd bioavailability via complexation of Cd{sup 2+}, and complexants from different sources displayed different protective effect. The influence of these toxicity modifying factors was finally incorporated into a model that can predict acute cadmidum toxicity for Photobacterium phosphoreum. After validation with laboratory and natural waters, the developed model could support efforts to improve the ecological relevance of presently applied risk assessment procedures.

  14. Acute and subacute toxicity of the Carapa guianensis Aublet (Meliaceae) seed oil.

    Costa-Silva, J H; Lima, C R; Silva, E J R; Araújo, A V; Fraga, M C C A; Ribeiro E Ribeiro, A; Arruda, A C; Lafayette, S S L; Wanderley, A G

    2008-03-28

    Carapa guianensis (Meliaceae), known as Andiroba in Brazil, has been used by Amazon Rainforest indigenous communities for treatment of coughs, convulsions, skin diseases, arthritis, rheumatism, ear infections, to heal wounds and bruises and as an insect repellent. Carapa guianensis seed oil (SO) was evaluated for its acute and subacute toxicity (30 days) by the oral route in Wistar rats. In the acute toxicity test, SO (0.625-5.0g/kg, n=5/sex) did not produce any hazardous symptoms or deaths. The subacute treatment with SO (0.375, 0.75 and 1.5g/kg, n=10/group) failed to change body weight gain, food and water consumption. Hematological analysis showed no significant differences in any of the parameters examined. However, in the biochemical parameters, there was an increase in the alanine aminotransferase (ALT) serum level (29%) in the group SO 1.5g/kg. In addition, absolute and relative liver weights were increased at the doses of 0.75g/kg (23.4 and 19.1%) and 1.5g/kg (18.7 and 33.1%). In conclusion, acute and subacute administration of Carapa guianensis seed oil did not produce toxic effects in male Wistar rats. However, the increase in the ALT serum level and in both absolute and relative liver weights may indicate a possible hepatic toxicity. PMID:18281172

  15. Technical considerations regarding toxicity testing of commercial bioremediation agents

    The toxicological evaluation of commercial bioremediation agents (CBAs) for use on oil spills is under consideration by the USEPA. Currently, acute and chronic bioassays are conducted with the CBA alone and with CBA that has been diluted with the water soluble fraction (WSF) of a crude oil. Endpoints are expressed as a concentration of the CBA. This approach may not address the toxicological issue of CBA use since it (1) does not determine if the CBA affects toxicity of the oil itself, and (2) does not consider temporal aspects associated with byproducts of oil degradation. The present study was conducted to address these issues. A CBA was mixed with unweathered crude oil from 1 to 42 days. The WSF of the mixture was then drawn off and acute bioassays were conducted with silverside minnows, Menidia beryllina, and mysid shrimp, Mysidopsis bahia. For silversides, 96-hr LC50 values ranged from 42.7% WSF after 1 day mixing to 10.5% after 42 days. Toxicity increased sharply between days 4 and 7 when the 96-hr LC50 dropped from 39.0 to 18.2% WSF. A similar trend occurred for mysid shrimp. The presence of the CBA caused a more rapid increase in the toxicity of the oil as compared to bioassays in which oil was mixed alone and then tested. These data indicate that the interaction of CBAs with oil, and associated temporal trends in toxicity, are important aspects to consider in hazard evaluation of these products. The current proposed CBA toxicity testing protocol does not effectively address these issues

  16. Acute Toxicity-Supported Chronic Toxicity Prediction: A k-Nearest Neighbor Coupled Read-Across Strategy

    Swapnil Chavan

    2015-05-01

    Full Text Available A k-nearest neighbor (k-NN classification model was constructed for 118 RDT NEDO (Repeated Dose Toxicity New Energy and industrial technology Development Organization; currently known as the Hazard Evaluation Support System (HESS database chemicals, employing two acute toxicity (LD50-based classes as a response and using a series of eight PaDEL software-derived fingerprints as predictor variables. A model developed using Estate type fingerprints correctly predicted the LD50 classes for 70 of 94 training set chemicals and 19 of 24 test set chemicals. An individual category was formed for each of the chemicals by extracting its corresponding k-analogs that were identified by k-NN classification. These categories were used to perform the read-across study for prediction of the chronic toxicity, i.e., Lowest Observed Effect Levels (LOEL. We have successfully predicted the LOELs of 54 of 70 training set chemicals (77% and 14 of 19 test set chemicals (74% to within an order of magnitude from their experimental LOEL values. Given the success thus far, we conclude that if the k-NN model predicts LD50 classes correctly for a certain chemical, then the k-analogs of such a chemical can be successfully used for data gap filling for the LOEL. This model should support the in silico prediction of repeated dose toxicity.

  17. 4种常用水产药物对大鳞巴的急性毒性试验%Acute Toxicity Test of 4 Common Drugs on Barbus capito

    耿龙武; 徐伟; 金国雄; 李池陶; 蔺玉华

    2011-01-01

    采用静水试验方法,研究了硫酸铜、敌百虫、高锰酸钾、漂白粉对大鳞钯的急性毒性效应.结果得出4种药物对大鳞鲃96h的LC50值分别为0.65,0.76,4.00,1.12 mg/L,安全浓度分别为0.129,0.234,1.620,0.326 mg/L,对大鳞鲃的毒性由大到小依次为硫酸铜、敌百虫、漂白粉、高锰酸钾.除高锰酸钾的安全浓度与常用浓度相当外,其余3种药物的安全浓度均低于常用质量浓度,表明在大鳞鲃疾病防治中,高锰酸钾可安全使用,其余3种药物均有一定中毒风险,应谨慎使用.%The acute toxicity effects of 4 common drugs (copper sulfate, dipterex, potassium permanganate and bleaching powder) on Barbus capit were tested in still water under normal temperature. The median lethal concentrations (LC50) at 96 h were found as follows: 0.65 mg/L for copper sulfate, 0.76 mg/L for dipterex, 4.00 mg/L for potassium permanganate, 1. 12 mg/L for bleaching powder. The safe concentrations (SC) were 0.129 mg/L,0. 234 mg/L, 1. 620 mg/L and 0. 326 mg/L respectively. The descending order of drug toxicity observed was as follows: copper sulfate > dipterex > bleaching powder > potassium permanganate. The safe concentrations of 3 drugs were lower than their application concentrations, that of potassium permanganate SC was equal to its application concentration. According to the results, potassium permanganate could be used to control the corresponding diseases of Barbus capito, the rest of the drugs should be carefully used to cure the diseases of Barbus capito.

  18. Reduction of acute toxicity of landfill leachate in co-treatement with domestic sewage by integrated fixed-film activated sludge reactor

    Fábio Campos; Roque Passos Piveli

    2016-01-01

    This study used acute toxicity tests on the marine bacteria Allivibrio fischeri and on microcrustaceans Daphnia similis to evaluate the reduction of acute toxicity in effluent generated by the IFAS (Integrated Fixed Film Activated Sludge) hybrid process, treating landfill leachate with domestic sewage. In order to evaluate the treatment’s ability to lessen the toxicity of the effluent, three experimental stages were developed with leachate contributions of 5, 10 and 20% of the total load of B...

  19. Acute and subchronic toxicity of hydroxylammonium nitrate in Wistar rats

    An Hui; Liu Jinyi; Yang Lujun; Liu Shengxue; Zhou Yanhong; Yang Huan; Jia Qingjun; Cui Zhihong; Cao Jia

    2008-01-01

    Hydroxylammonium nitrate (HAN) is a major constituent in a class of liquid monopropellants and is extensively used in nuclear industry and space propulsion. Previous toxicological studies have focused on oral, inhalation and dermal routes of exposure to HAN-based propellant blends. In this study, acute and subchronic toxicity of HAN in Wistar rats by intraperitoneal injections were evaluated. In this acute study, doses of HAN at 115, 125, 135, 147, 160 or 174 mg/kg were administered. No adverse effects were observed during a 14-day period and at gross histopathological examination. In the subchronic study, HAN at 7, 14 or 28 mg/kg were administered for 13 weeks. The treatment with HAN caused significant changes in the weight of spleen, in the level of hematological parameters, total bilirubin, direct bilirubin, uric acid and carbondioxidecombining power and histopathological damages of the lung, liver, spleen and kidney. Overall, the study suggests that 13-week HAN treatment caused abnormal hematological changes and tissue lesions, and the risk of toxicity to mammals is not negligible.

  20. Acute toxicity of live and decomposing green alga Ulva ( Enteromorpha) prolifera to abalone Haliotis discus hannai

    Wang, Chao; Yu, Rencheng; Zhou, Mingjiang

    2011-05-01

    From 2007 to 2009, large-scale blooms of green algae (the so-called "green tides") occurred every summer in the Yellow Sea, China. In June 2008, huge amounts of floating green algae accumulated along the coast of Qingdao and led to mass mortality of cultured abalone and sea cucumber. However, the mechanism for the mass mortality of cultured animals remains undetermined. This study examined the toxic effects of Ulva ( Enteromorpha) prolifera, the causative species of green tides in the Yellow Sea during the last three years. The acute toxicity of fresh culture medium and decomposing algal effluent of U. prolifera to the cultured abalone Haliotis discus hannai were tested. It was found that both fresh culture medium and decomposing algal effluent had toxic effects to abalone, and decomposing algal effluent was more toxic than fresh culture medium. The acute toxicity of decomposing algal effluent could be attributed to the ammonia and sulfide presented in the effluent, as well as the hypoxia caused by the decomposition process.

  1. Consensus definitions of 14 severe acute toxic effects for childhood lymphoblastic leukaemia treatment

    Schmiegelow, Kjeld; Attarbaschi, Andishe; Barzilai, Shlomit;

    2016-01-01

    toxic effects, that no two protocols shared identical definitions of all toxic effects, and that no toxic effect definition was shared by all protocols. Using the Delphi method over three face-to-face plenary meetings, consensus definitions were obtained for all 14 toxic effects. In the overall......Although there are high survival rates for children with acute lymphoblastic leukaemia, their outcome is often counterbalanced by the burden of toxic effects. This is because reported frequencies vary widely across studies, partly because of diverse definitions of toxic effects. Using the Delphi...... method, 15 international childhood acute lymphoblastic leukaemia study groups assessed acute lymphoblastic leukaemia protocols to address toxic effects that were to be considered by the Ponte di Legno working group. 14 acute toxic effects (hypersensitivity to asparaginase, hyperlipidaemia, osteonecrosis...

  2. Neurobehavioral aspects of developmental toxicity testing.

    Ulbrich, B; Palmer, A K

    1996-01-01

    Tests for detection of neurobehavioral changes in the offspring have been a regulatory requirement in developmental toxicity testing of drugs for almost 20 years. Keeping their purpose of hazard identification and risk assessment for humans in mind, investigators and agency reviewers have become deeply ingrained with some stereotyped behaviors with respect to such relevant issues as choice of animal species and data evaluation. Other problematic areas of study design and conduct, selection of...

  3. EFFECT OF FLUCTUATING EXPOSURES ON THE ACUTE TOXICITY OF AMMONIA TO RAINBOW TROUT (SALMO GAIRDNERI) AND CUTTHROAT TROUT (S. CLARKI)

    Acute toxicity bioassays in which fish were exposed to short-term cyclic fluctuations of ammonia were conducted on rainbow trout (Salmo gairdneri) and on cutthroat trout (S. clarki). Companion tests were also conducted in which test fish were subjected to ammonia at constant conc...

  4. Quantitative structure-activity relationship to predict acute fish toxicity of organic solvents.

    Levet, A; Bordes, C; Clément, Y; Mignon, P; Chermette, H; Marote, P; Cren-Olivé, C; Lantéri, P

    2013-10-01

    REACH regulation requires ecotoxicological data to characterize industrial chemicals. To limit in vivo testing, Quantitative Structure-Activity Relationships (QSARs) are advocated to predict toxicity of a molecule. In this context, the topic of this work was to develop a reliable QSAR explaining the experimental acute toxicity of organic solvents for fish trophic level. Toxicity was expressed as log(LC50), the concentration in mmol.L(-1) producing the 50% death of fish. The 141 chemically heterogeneous solvents of the dataset were described by physico-chemical descriptors and quantum theoretical parameters calculated via Density Functional Theory. The best subsets of solvent descriptors for LC50 prediction were chosen both through the Kubinyi function associated with Enhanced Replacement Method and a stepwise forward multiple linear regressions. The 4-parameters selected in the model were the octanol-water partition coefficient, LUMO energy, dielectric constant and surface tension. The predictive power and robustness of the QSAR developed were assessed by internal and external validations. Several techniques for training sets selection were evaluated: a random selection, a LC50-based selection, a balanced selection in terms of toxic and non-toxic solvents, a solvent profile-based selection with a space filling technique and a D-optimality onions-based selection. A comparison with fish LC50 predicted by ECOSAR model validated for neutral organics confirmed the interest of the QSAR developed for the prediction of organic solvent aquatic toxicity regardless of the mechanism of toxic action involved. PMID:23866172

  5. Acute toxicity of copper, ammonia, and chlorine to glochidia and juveniles of freshwater mussels (Unionidae).

    Wang, Ning; Ingersoll, Christopher G; Hardesty, Douglas K; Ivey, Christopher D; Kunz, James L; May, Thomas W; Dwyer, F James; Roberts, Andy D; Augspurger, Tom; Kane, Cynthia M; Neves, Richard J; Barnhart, M Chris

    2007-10-01

    The objective of the present study was to determine acute toxicity of copper, ammonia, or chlorine to larval (glochidia) and juvenile mussels using the recently published American Society for Testing and Materials (ASTM) Standard guide for conducting laboratory toxicity tests with freshwater mussels. Toxicity tests were conducted with glochidia (24- to 48-h exposures) and juveniles (96-h exposures) of up to 11 mussel species in reconstituted ASTM hard water using copper, ammonia, or chlorine as a toxicant. Copper and ammonia tests also were conducted with five commonly tested species, including cladocerans (Daphnia magna and Ceriodaphnia dubia; 48-h exposures), amphipod (Hyalella azteca; 48-h exposures), rainbow trout (Oncorhynchus mykiss; 96-h exposures), and fathead minnow (Pimephales promelas; 96-h exposures). Median effective concentrations (EC50s) for commonly tested species were >58 microg Cu/L (except 15 microg Cu/L for C. dubia) and >13 mg total ammonia N/L, whereas the EC50s for mussels in most cases were copper and 1999 acute WQC for ammonia. However, the chlorine EC50s for mussels generally were >40 microg/L and above the FAV in the WQC for chlorine. The results indicate that the early life stages of mussels generally were more sensitive to copper and ammonia than other organisms and that, including mussel toxicity data in a revision to the WQC, would lower the WQC for copper or ammonia. Furthermore, including additional mussel data in 2007 WQC for copper based on biotic ligand model would further lower the WQC. PMID:17867873

  6. Acute Toxicity Comparison of Single-Walled Carbon Nanotubes in Various Freshwater Organisms

    Eun Kyung Sohn

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available While the commercialization of single-walled carbon nanotubes (SWCNTs is rapidly expanding, the environmental impact of this nanomaterial is not well understood. Therefore, the present study evaluates the acute aquatic toxicity of SWCNTs towards two freshwater microalgae (Raphidocelis subcapitata and Chlorella vulgaris, a microcrustacean (Daphnia magna, and a fish (Oryzias latipes based on OECD test guidelines (201, 202, and 203. According to the results, the SWCNTs inhibited the growth of the algae R. subcapitata and C. vulgaris with a median effective concentration (EC50 of 29.99 and 30.96 mg/L, respectively, representing “acute category 3” in the Globally Harmonized System (GHS of classification and labeling of chemicals. Meanwhile, the acute toxicity test using O. latipes and D. magna did not show any mortality/immobilizing effects up to a concentration of 100.00 mg/L SWCNTs, indicating no hazard category in the GHS classification. In conclusion, SWCNTs were found to induce acute ecotoxicity in freshwater microalgae, yet not in D. magna and medaka fish.

  7. ACUTE TOXICITY OF AMMONIA AND NITRITE TO CUTTHROAT TROUT FRY

    The toxicity of ammonia and of nitrite was tested on cutthroat trout (Salmo clarki) fry (1-3 g) for periods up to a month in eight laboratory flow-through bioassays. Median lethal concentration (LC50) values for ammonia (mg/liter un-ionized NH3) were 0.5-0.8 for 96 hours, and 0.3...

  8. Topic acute toxicity of Bioenraiz in honey bees (Apis mellifera

    Odette Beiro Castro

    2007-05-01

    Full Text Available Introduction. Bioenraiz is a phytohormone which active ingredient is indolacetic acid (AIA, an auxina that promotes vegetable vegetable growth. The most important feature is that it regulates growth by inducing the synthesis of ribonucleic acid (RNA or specific enzymes, which in turn are linked into a central genetic as biological modulators.Objective. To evaluate the potential toxicity of Bioenraiz when is administered to honey bees. Method. The product was applied in single and topic doses of 0.650 mg/ bee; equivalent to a concentration of 130 mg/ L. Two hundred honey bees of the Apis mellifera specie were used and distributed in two experimental groups: a control one (non treated and a group treated with Bioenraiz. The mortality of the bee and the appearance of toxicity signs at the 4, 24 and 48 hours of the test, were the variables analyzed. Results and Discussion. Bioenraiz caused a 2 percent of mortality, a non biological and statistical significant value according to the validation criteria of the test. Concerning clinical observations, the animals did not show toxic signs nor alterations in their behavor attribute to the administration of the test substance. Conclusions. According to the results obtained in this highly sensitive specie for ecotoxicological tests, this product did not provoke neither mortality, nor toxicity for the Apis mellifera bee.

  9. Test systems to identify reproductive toxicants.

    Riecke, K; Stahlmann, R

    2000-09-01

    Experience with drugs and other xenobiotics indicates that both animal testing and epidemiological studies are necessary to provide adequate data for an estimation of risks that might be associated with exposure to a chemical substance. In this review, the pros and cons of test systems for reproductive toxicity are discussed. Usually, several studies are performed to cover the different phases of the reproductive cycle. In the preclinical development of drugs, the three so-called 'segment testing protocols' have been used for several decades now. More recently, new testing concepts have been accepted internationally which include more flexibility in implementation. Several examples of compounds with the potential for reproductive toxicity are presented in more detail in a discussion of some pitfalls of the tests for fertility (phthalates and fluoroquinolones), teratogenicity (acyclovir and protease inhibitors) and postnatal developmental toxicity (fluoroquinolones). In addition, important aspects of kinetics and metabolism as a prerequisite for a rational interpretation of results from toxicological studies are briefly discussed. In vitro assays are useful for supplementing the routinely used in vivo approaches or for studying an expected or defined effect, but they are not suitable for revealing an unknown effect of a chemical on the complex reproductive process. PMID:11021511

  10. Collection and cultivation methods of Acartia tonsa for toxicity testing

    Hood, C.A. [Baker Hughes INTEQ, Houston, TX (United States); Mayo, R.R. [ENSR Environmental Toxicology Lab., Houston, TX (United States)

    1995-12-31

    Acartia tonsa were located and collected from Galveston Bay, Texas in June 1995, using plankton nets and transported to the laboratory for culture. After literature searching and laboratory experimentation. A simple reliable method was designed to culture A. tonsa. This method requires a minimum of glassware and supplies. Adult A. tonsa are placed in one gallon bell jars filled with natural seawater. The jars are then maintained in a water bath at a constant temperature. Water changes are conducted twice weekly and organisms are fed daily with a mixture of algae, Skeletonema costatum, isocrysis galbana, and Thalassiosira sp. Gravid females are then isolated in generators for 24 hours to obtain known age neonates. The neonates are maintained up to a specific age and then are used in toxicity tests such as the ``Determination of the Acute Lethal Toxicity to Marine Copepods,`` required in the United Kingdom for all chemicals used for offshore drilling fluid applications.

  11. Collection and cultivation methods of Acartia tonsa for toxicity testing

    Acartia tonsa were located and collected from Galveston Bay, Texas in June 1995, using plankton nets and transported to the laboratory for culture. After literature searching and laboratory experimentation. A simple reliable method was designed to culture A. tonsa. This method requires a minimum of glassware and supplies. Adult A. tonsa are placed in one gallon bell jars filled with natural seawater. The jars are then maintained in a water bath at a constant temperature. Water changes are conducted twice weekly and organisms are fed daily with a mixture of algae, Skeletonema costatum, isocrysis galbana, and Thalassiosira sp. Gravid females are then isolated in generators for 24 hours to obtain known age neonates. The neonates are maintained up to a specific age and then are used in toxicity tests such as the ''Determination of the Acute Lethal Toxicity to Marine Copepods,'' required in the United Kingdom for all chemicals used for offshore drilling fluid applications

  12. Ecotoxicological evaluation of leachate from the Limeira sanitary landfill with a view to identifying acute toxicity

    José Euclides Stipp Paterniani

    2007-12-01

    Full Text Available Final disposal of solid waste is still a cause for serious impacts on the environment. In sanitary landfills, waste undergoes physical, chemical, and biological decomposition, generating biogas and leachate. Leachate is a highly toxic liquid with a very high pollution potential. The purpose of this work is to evaluate toxicity of in natura leachate samples collected from Limeira Sanitary Landfill, in Limeira, SP. The ecotoxicological evaluation comprised acute toxicity assays using as test organisms Daphnia Similis, seeds of Eruca sativa (arugula, and Allium cepa roots (onion. Analyses of color, pH, turbidity, conductivity, hardness, nitrogen, total organic carbon (TOC, adsorbable organic halogen (AOX, and metals were also carried out. The main results for Eruca sativa (arugula and Allium cepa (onion indicated that the diluted leachate 50% presented similar toxicity to the phenol solution of 1000 mg.L-1 for arugula and 2000 mg.L-1 for onion. With the solution of Cr+6 concentrations of 3000 mg.L-1 for arugula and 2000 mg.L-1 for onion were found. For analyses with Daphnia Similis the EC50 was 9.3% on average. This way it was possible to observe that biological tests are necessary to evaluate the pollution in the effluents or water bodies. These tests serve to determine the toxic potential of a chemical agent or complex mixture.

  13. Acute embryo toxicity and teratogenicity of three potential biofuels also used as flavor or solvent.

    Bluhm, Kerstin; Seiler, Thomas-Benjamin; Anders, Nico; Klankermayer, Jürgen; Schaeffer, Andreas; Hollert, Henner

    2016-10-01

    The demand for biofuels increases due to concerns regarding greenhouse gas emissions and depletion of fossil oil reserves. Many substances identified as potential biofuels are solvents or already used as flavors or fragrances. Although humans and the environment may be readily exposed little is known regarding their (eco)toxicological effects. In this study, the three potential biofuels ethyl levulinate (EL), 2-methyltetrahydrofuran (2-MTHF) and 2-methylfuran (2-MF) were investigated for their acute embryo toxicity and teratogenicity using the fish embryo toxicity (FET) test to identify unknown hazard potentials and to allow focusing further research on substances with low toxic potentials. In addition, two fossil fuels (diesel and gasoline) and an established biofuel (rapeseed oil methyl ester) were investigated as references. The FET test is widely accepted and used in (eco)toxicology. It was performed using the zebrafish Danio rerio, a model organism useful for the prediction of human teratogenicity. Testing revealed a higher acute toxicity for EL (LC50: 83mg/L) compared to 2-MTHF (LC50: 2980mg/L), 2-MF (LC50: 405mg/L) and water accommodated fractions of the reference fuels including gasoline (LC50: 244mg DOC/L). In addition, EL caused a statistically significant effect on head development resulting in elevated head lengths in zebrafish embryos. Results for EL reduce its likelihood of use as a biofuel since other substances with a lower toxic potential are available. The FET test applied at an early stage of development might be a useful tool to avoid further time and money requiring steps regarding research on unfavorable biofuels. PMID:27243931

  14. Influence of water hardness and sulfate on the acute toxicity of chloride to sensitive freshwater invertebrates.

    Soucek, David J; Linton, Tyler K; Tarr, Christopher D; Dickinson, Amy; Wickramanayake, Nilesh; Delos, Charles G; Cruz, Luis A

    2011-04-01

    Total dissolved solids (TDS) represent the sum of all common ions (e.g., Na, K, Ca, Mg, chloride, sulfate, and bicarbonate) in freshwater. Currently, no federal water quality criteria exist for the protection of aquatic life for TDS, but because the constituents that constitute TDS are variable, the development of aquatic life criteria for specific ions is more practical than development of aquatic life criteria for TDS. Chloride is one such ion for which aquatic life criteria exist; however, the current aquatic life criteria dataset for chloride is more than 20 years old. Therefore, additional toxicity tests were conducted in the current study to confirm the acute toxicity of chloride to several potentially sensitive invertebrates: water flea (Ceriodaphnia dubia), fingernail clams (Sphaerium simile and Musculium transversum), snail (Gyraulus parvus), and worm (Tubifex tubifex), and determine the extent to which hardness and sulfate modify chloride toxicity. The results indicated a significant ameliorating effect of water hardness (calcium and magnesium) on chloride toxicity for all species tested except the snail; for example, the 48-h chloride median lethal concentration (LC50) for C. dubia at 50 mg/L hardness (977 mg Cl(-) /L) was half that at 800 mg/L hardness (1,836 mg Cl(-) /L). Conversely, sulfate over the range of 25 to 600 mg/L exerted a negligible effect on chloride toxicity to C. dubia. Rank order of LC50 values for chloride at a given water hardness was in the order (lowest to highest): S. simile tubifex. Results of the current study support the contention that the specific conductivity or TDS concentration of a water body alone is not a sufficient predictor of acute toxicity and that knowledge of the specific ion composition is critical. PMID:21191883

  15. Amiodarone-induced pulmonary toxicity mimicking acute pulmonary edema.

    Fabiani, Iacopo; Tacconi, Danilo; Grotti, Simone; Brandini, Rossella; Salvadori, Claudia; Caremani, Marcello; Bolognese, Leonardo

    2011-05-01

    Amiodarone is a highly effective antiarrhythmic drug. Its long-term use may, however, lead to several adverse effects, with pulmonary toxicity being the most serious. The article presents the case of a 78-year-old woman with a history of cardiac surgery, who after 2 years of amiodarone therapy for prophylactic treatment of atrial fibrillation developed amiodarone pneumonitis mimicking an acute pulmonary edema. The patient failed to respond to diuretic therapy and several courses of anti-infective therapy. Differential diagnosis of different causes of pulmonary infiltrates did not demonstrate any other abnormality. Lung biopsy findings were consistent with the diagnosis of amiodarone pneumonitis. Given the widespread use of amiodarone as an antiarrhythmic agent, pneumologists and cardiologists should consider this important adverse effect as a differential diagnosis of pulmonary distress refractory to therapy in all patients treated with amiodarone who present with respiratory symptoms and pneumonia-like illness. PMID:19924000

  16. ACUTE AND SUB-CHORONIC ORAL TOXICITY OF ASIATICOSIDE TO MICE

    Uvarajan Sampath

    2012-09-01

    Full Text Available The components in Centellaasiatica (gotukala, vallarai was reported to possess different biological activities in various in vitro and in vivo test models including gastric ulcer healing, wound healing, memory enhancing, immunomodulating effects along with cytotoxic, neuroprotective, antioxidant potential. Asiaticoside is one of the major triterpenoid saponin isolated from Centellaasiatica. Currently, there is no evidence for safety details of asiaticoside in experimental mice. The purpose of this study is to explore the acute and sub-chronic oral toxicities of asiaticoside. Acute oral toxicity study was conducted by giving 300-5000 mgkg-1 bodyweight of asiaticoside and the animals were observed after 1 h administration of the drug and also examined after 14 days of administration for mortality and morbidity.The lethal dose (LD50 was found to greater than 2000 mgkg⁻¹ bodyweight. In sub-chronic oral toxicity studies, the selected oral doses were 200, 500, 1000 mgkg⁻¹and the evaluation was carried out after 90 days of oral administration of asiaticoside. Biochemical, histopathological and hematological changes along with body and relative organ weights of the mice were analysed and significant changes were observed in the mice treated with 1000 mgkg-1 of asiaticoside.. The observed results were statistically analyzed using one way ANOVA which suggested that Asiaticoside does not possess any toxic effect up to 500mg/kg bodyweight and it is best suited for any kind of future application related to its efficacy.

  17. Acute and sub-chronic toxicity of aqueous extracts of Chenopodium ambrosioides leaves in rats.

    da Silva, Marcel Gianni C; Amorim, Raimundo Neilson L; Câmara, Carlos C; Fontenele Neto, José Domingues; Soto-Blanco, Benito

    2014-09-01

    The present study aimed to evaluate the toxicity of aqueous extract of Chenopodium ambrosioides leaves. To measure acute toxicity, rats were administered 0, 0.3, 1.0, or 3.0 g/kg of aqueous extract from C. ambrosioides leaves by gavage. To analyze sub-chronic toxicity, rats were treated by oral gavage for 15 consecutive days with 0, 0.3, or 1.0 g/kg of extract of C. ambrosioides leaves. No animals from either trial exhibited any signs of toxicity. In the acute study, the highest dose of the extract led to an increase in the serum activities of alanine transaminase (ALT) and aspartate transaminase (AST) and a decrease in the serum levels of urea. In the sub-chronic test, rats treated with 1.0 g/kg for 15 days exhibited increased serum ALT activity and creatinine levels and mild cytoplasmic vacuolation of hepatocytes. The results indicate that aqueous extract from C. ambrosioides leaves produce slight hepatotoxic lesions in rats. PMID:24892475

  18. Acute toxicity profile of radiotherapy in 690 children and adolescents: RiSK data

    Background and purpose: The 'Registry for the evaluation of side effects after radiation in childhood and adolescence' (risk) was introduced to characterize adverse effects of radiotherapy in childhood and adolescence prospectively. The aim of this analysis was to characterize the pattern of acute side effects. Materials and methods: Since 2001, patients receiving radiotherapy in one of the German pediatric therapy trials have been registered in RiSK with detailed information regarding radiation doses to organs at risk and characterization of acute toxicities. Results: From 2001 to May 2009, 690 patients have been characterized for acute toxicity in primary therapy. Acute toxicity ≥ grade 1 was observed in 506 patients. In patients irradiated in their lung and liver, patients with grade 1 or 2 acute toxicities showed higher organ volumes exposed to radiation doses <20 Gray (Gy) compared to patients without toxicities. For the salivary glands, there was a positive correlation between the acute toxicity grade and the maximum radiation dose to the organ; the lower GI tract showed a similar trend. The impact of different chemotherapy regimens on these acute side effects remains unclear. Age did not have any impact on side effects. Conclusion: This analysis gives a comprehensive overview of the acute toxicities of radiotherapy in children and adolescents. With prolongation of follow-up, detailed analyses regarding late toxicities will be possible with the characterization of dose-volume-effect relationships.

  19. Antinociceptive, antiinflammatory and acute toxicity effects of Salvia leriifolia Benth seed extract in mice and rats.

    Hosseinzadeh, Hossein; Haddadkhodaparast, Mohammad H; Arash, Ali R

    2003-04-01

    The antinociceptive and antiinflammatory effects as well as the acute toxicity of Salvia leriifolia aqueous seed extract were studied in mice and rats. Antinociceptive activity was assessed using the hot-plate and tail flick tests. The effect on acute inflammation was studied using vascular permeability increased by acetic acid and xylene-induced ear oedema in mice. The activity against chronic inflammation was assessed using the cotton pellet test in rats. The LD(50) of the extract was found to be 19.5 g/kg (i.p.) in mice. The aqueous seed extract showed significant and dose-dependent (1.25-10 g/kg) antinociceptive activity over 7 h, and was inhibited by naloxone pretreatment. Significant and dose-dependent (2.5-10 g/kg) activity was observed against acute inflammation induced by acetic acid and in the xylene ear oedema test. In the chronic inflammation test the extract (2.5-5 g/kg) showed significant and dose-dependent antiinflammatory activity. The aqueous seed extract of S. leriifolia may therefore have supraspinal antinociceptive effects which may be mediated by opioid receptors, and showed considerable effects against acute and chronic inflammation. PMID:12722156

  20. Ocular Toxicity Testing of Lunar Dust

    Meyers, Valerie E.

    2010-01-01

    This slide presentation reviews the use of ocular testing to determine the toxicity of lunar dust. The OECD recommendations are reviewed. With these recommendations in mind the test methodology was to use EpiOcular, tissues derived from normal human epidermal keratinocytes, the cells of which have been differentiated on cell culture inserts to form a multi-layered structure, which closely parallels the corneal epithelium and to dose the tissue with 100 mg dust from various sources. The in-vitro study provides evidence that lunar dust is not severely corrosive or irritating, however, in vitro tests have limitations, and in vivo tests provides a more complete scenario, and information, it is recommended that in vivo tests be performed.

  1. Implications of Animal Welfare on Toxicity Testing

    Meyer, Otto A.

    1993-01-01

    The testing strategy for chemical substances is discussed with regard to obtaining improved quality of data for health assessment while respecting the ethical responsibility for consideration of the welfare of the animals involved. Ensuring animal welfare without indulging too much in anthropomor...... in anthropomorphism leads to better research/testing. Current trends in toxicity testing will result in tests involving more sophisticated techniques, better quality of laboratory animals, and eventually the use of fewer animals.......The testing strategy for chemical substances is discussed with regard to obtaining improved quality of data for health assessment while respecting the ethical responsibility for consideration of the welfare of the animals involved. Ensuring animal welfare without indulging too much...

  2. Feasibility and acute toxicities of radioimmunoguided prostate brachytherapy

    Purpose: We present a technique that fuses pelvic CT scans and ProstaScint images to localize areas of disease within the prostate gland to customize prostate implants. Additionally, the acute toxicity results from the first 43 patients treated with this technique are reviewed. Methods and Materials: Between 2/97 and 8/98, 43 patients with clinical stage II prostate adenocarcinoma received ultrasound-guided transperineal implantation of I-125 or Pd-103 seeds. The median patient age was 70 years (range 49-79). Prior to treatment, the median Gleason score and prostate-specific antigen (PSA) were 6 (range 3-8) and 7.5 (range 1.8-16.6 ng/mL), respectively. The median follow-up was 10 months (range 2.9-20.4 months). Results: The median PSA value at 10 months is 0.7 ng/mL. Significant acute complications within the first month following implantation included 13 Grade I urinary symptoms, 24 Grade II urinary symptoms, 6 Grade III symptoms, and no Grade IV complications. Beyond 4 months, complications included 12 Grade I urinary symptoms, 17 Grade II urinary symptoms, 1 Grade III, and 1 Grade IV complications. Conclusions: The image fusion of the pelvic CT scan and ProstaScint scans helped identify regions within the prostate at high risk of local failure, which were targeted with additional seeds during implantation

  3. Acute toxicity and practical value of extended field radiotherapy

    The course of supradiaphragmatic and/or infradiaphragmatic irradiation, which was carried out using the extended field technique in 198 patients diagnosed with non-hodgkin lymphomas or hodgkins disease, was investigated for side-effect levels and required interruptions and withdrawals of treatment. Further studies had the aim to elucidate the acute toxicity of field-integrated dose modification as compared to that associated with the conventional diaphragmatic technique. The available body of evidence appears to suggest that dose-modified irradiation, rather than giving rise to a greater number of acute side-effects, permitted a stricter adherence to treatment plans and reduced the need for interruptions and withdrawals, even though the individual dose and, thus, the oncolytic effect of irradiation was increased. Using field-integrated dose modification, more stringent therapeutic strategies could be followed even in complicated cases. As fas as radiobiology is concerned, it is to be expected for dose-modified irradiation that the frequency of delayed effects will be reduced. (orig./Vhe)

  4. On the possibility of using biological toxicity tests to monitor the work of wastewater treatment plants

    Zorić Jelena

    2008-01-01

    Full Text Available The aim of this study was to ascertain the possibility of using biological toxicity tests to monitor influent and effluent wastewaters of wastewater treatment plants. The information obtained through these tests is used to prevent toxic pollutants from entering wastewater treatment plants and discharge of toxic pollutants into the recipient. Samples of wastewaters from the wastewater treatment plants of Kragujevac and Gornji Milanovac, as well as from the Lepenica and Despotovica Rivers immediately before and after the influx of wastewaters from the plants, were collected between October 2004 and June 2005. Used as the test organism in these tests was the zebrafish Brachydanio rerio Hamilton - Buchanon (Cyprinidae. The acute toxicity test of 96/h duration showed that the tested samples had a slight acutely toxic effect on B. rerio, except for the sample of influent wastewater into the Cvetojevac wastewater treatment plant, which had moderately acute toxicity, indicating that such water should be prevented from entering the system in order to eliminate its detrimental effect on the purification process.

  5. Acute Contact Toxicity Test of Oxalic Acid on Honeybees in the Southwestern Zone of Uruguay Prueba de Toxicidad Aguda por Contacto de Ácido Oxálico en Abejas de la Zona Sudoeste de Uruguay

    Leonidas Carrasco-Letelier

    2012-06-01

    Full Text Available This work studies the acute contact toxicity of oxalic acid (OA on a honeybee polyhybrid subspecies (Apis mellifera, which is the dominant biotype in southwestern zone of Uruguay (SWZU and the country's most important honey-producing region. We determined the mean lethal dose (LD50, as well as the no observed effect level (NOEL and the lowest observed effect level (LOEL values. We also estimated the total number of honeybees per hive in the test area. The aim was to assess the relationship between the maximum OA dose used in Uruguay (3.1 g OA per hive and the toxicological parameters of honeybees from SWZU. The current dose of 3.1 g OA per hive corresponds to 132.8 OA per honeybee since determined NOEL is 400 OA per honeybee; our results indicate that the current dose could be increased to 9.3 g OA per hive. The results also highlight some differences between the LD50 value in SWZU honeybees (548.95 OA per honeybee and some published LD50 values for other honeybee subspecies.Este trabajo estudió la toxicidad aguda por contacto del ácido oxálico (AO sobre una subespecie poli-híbrida de abejas (Apis mellifera, la cual es el biotipo dominante en la zona sudoeste de Uruguay (SWZU, la región más importante para la producción de miel en este país. Este estudio determinó la dosis letal 50 (DL50, así como el nivel de efecto no observado (NOEL, el nivel de efecto mínimo observado (LOEL, y el número total de individuos por colmena. El propósito fue evaluar la relación entre la dosis máxima de AO usada en Uruguay (3.1 g AO por colmena y los parámetros toxicológicos de las abejas de la SWZU. Los resultados mostraron que es posible elevar la dosis actual de AO por colmena a 9.3 g, ya que la dosis actual de 3.1 g de AO corresponde a 132.8 AO por abeja, y el NOEL determinado es 400 AO por abeja. Los resultados también destacaron algunas diferencias entre la DL50 de las abejas del SWZU (548.95 AO por abeja y algunos valores de DL50 publicados

  6. CT and MR manifestations of acute methyl alcohol toxic encephalopathy

    Objective: To analyze the CT and MR manifestations of methyl alcohol toxic encephalopathy and to improve the diagnosing value of CT and MRI. Methods: 40 patients with methyl alcohol intoxication were collected in this study, in which CT scan was performed on 40 cases and MRI on 4 cases. All CT and MRI radiological data of brain were retrospectively studied. Results: 13 of 40 cases showed abnormal findings on brain CT and MRI. The most common manifestation (6/13, 46%)was hypodensity in frontal parietal white matter and external capsule-putamen on CT, which showed long or short T1 and long T2 on MR. Hemorrhage in right putamen was found only in 1 patient (1/13,7%). CT showed low density inbilateral external capsule in 4 cases (4/13,31%), in which MR showed long or short T1 and long T2. Low density lesions in subcortical white matter of bilateral frontal and parietal lobes, cingulate gyms and insular lobes were found in 2 patients (2/13,15%). The more severe clinic manifestation, the more obvious brain lesion CT and MRI showed. Conclusion: Brain CT and MR manifestations have great diagnostic value of acute methyl alcohol toxic encephalopathy. MRI was more sensitive and better than CT in finding early brain damage caused by methanol intoxication. (authors)

  7. Acute toxicity study of stone-breaker (Phyllanthus tenellus Roxb.

    Tássia Campos de Lima e Silva

    2012-04-01

    Full Text Available Phyllanthus tenellus Roxb. is a herbaceous plant native to Brazil and appears frequently in humid environments. This plant is used to treat urolithiasis, inflammatory bowel disease, diabetes and hepatitis B. The acute toxicity and LD50 of an aqueous extract of P. tenellus were determined in laboratory mice and their behavior was analyzed. The intraperitoneal LD50 was calculated by the Karber & Behrens (1964 method, for which a 96% alcoholic extract was concentrated in a rotary evaporator. Male albino mice (Mus musculus were divided into three batches of six animals and observed for 24 hours after administration of the extract, diluted in 0.9% saline, at doses of 500, 1000, 1500, 2000 and 2500 mg / kg. Short-term studies have demonstrated this plant to be non-toxic; however, we found that this species induced agitation in animals, with stereotyped movements, spasms and increased respiratory frequency, as well as signs of depression, such as sleepiness, prostration, dyspnea and a reduction in respiratory frequency.

  8. Acute toxicity and laxative activity of Aloe ferox resin

    Vanessa R. L. Celestino

    2013-04-01

    Full Text Available Aloe ferox Mill., Xanthorrhoeaceae, resin is the solid residue obtained by evaporating the latex that drains from the leaves transversally cut. Aloe ferox has been used in folk medicine as anti-inflammatory, immunostimulant, anti-bacterial, anti-fungal, antitumor, laxative and to heal wounds and burns. The effects of the oral administration of A. ferox resin (10, 25, 50, 100 and 200 mg/kg were evaluated on intestinal transit in mice and its acute toxicity (5.0 g/kg in Wistar rats. The hydroxyanthracene derivatives present in the resin were expressed as aloin, identified by thin layer chromatography and quantified by spectrophotometry. The aloin (Rf 0.35 was identified and the percentage of hydroxyanthracene derivates expressed as aloin was 33.5%. A. ferox resin extract (50, 100 and 200 mg/kg increased the gastrointestinal motility at a 30 min interval at 93.5, 91.8 and 93.8%, respectively, when compared to control group (46.5%. A single oral dose of the A. ferox resin extract did not induce signs of toxicity or death. Thus, the results demonstrate that A. ferox has laxative activity and that it is nontoxic, since LD50 could not be estimated and it is possibly higher than 5.0 g/kg.

  9. Development and application of a marine sediment porewater toxicity test using algal spores

    Hooten, R. [Texas A and M Univ., Corpus Christi, TX (United States); Carr, R.S. [National Biological Service, Corpus Christi, TX (United States)

    1995-12-31

    An acute pore water toxicity test protocol using germination and growth of marine macroalgae as endpoints was developed to indicate the presence of toxic compounds in marine/estuarine and sediment porewater samples. Zoospores collected from Ulva fasciata and U. lactuca were used as test organisms. Preliminary results with sodium dodecyl sulfate (SDS, a reference toxicant) indicate that zoospores germination and growth of embryonic gametophytes are as sensitive as the sea urchin fertilization and embryological development toxicity tests. Algal germination and growth data for copper, mercury and other metals will be presented. The results of tests utilizing this algal assay with sediment pore water from contaminated sediments will be compared with more traditional sediment toxicity test methods.

  10. CHIRONOMIDAE TOXICITY TESTS--BIOLOGICAL BACKGROUND AND PROCEDURES

    Toxicity tests must be based on an understanding of the test animal's life cycle. The first section of this report describes the biological information needed to develop toxicity test procedures. The second section describes three categories of toxicity test systems - short-expos...

  11. Comparative evaluation of acute and chronic toxicities of CuO nanoparticles and bulk using Daphnia magna and Vibrio fischeri.

    Rossetto, Ana Letícia de O F; Melegari, Silvia Pedroso; Ouriques, Luciane Cristina; Matias, William Gerson

    2014-08-15

    Copper oxide (CuO) has various applications, as highlighted by the incorporation of this compound as a biocide of antifouling paints for coating ships and offshore oil platforms. The objective of this study was to evaluate and compare the aquatic toxicity of CuO nanoparticles (NPs) and microparticles (MPs) through acute and chronic toxicity tests with the freshwater microcrustacean Daphnia magna and an acute toxicity test with the bioluminescent marine bacteria Vibrio fischeri. Acute toxicity results for D. magna in tests with CuO NPs (EC50, 48 h=22 mg L(-1)) were ten times higher than those for tests with CuO MPs (EC50, 48 h=223.6 mg L(-1)). In both periods of exposure of V. fischeri, the CuO NPs (EC50, 15m 248±56.39 - equivalent to 12.40%; EC50, 30 m 257.6±30.8 mg L(-1) - equivalent to 12.88%) were more toxic than the CuO MPs (EC50, 15m 2404.6±277.4 - equivalent to 60.10%; EC50, 30 m 1472.9±244.7 mg L(-1) - equivalent to 36.82%). In chronic toxicity tests, both forms of CuO showed significant effects (pmagna relative to the control. Additionally, morphological changes, such as lack of apical spine development and malformed carapaces in D. magna, were observed for organisms after the chronic test. The toxicity results demonstrate that CuO NPs have a higher level of toxicity than CuO MPs, emphasizing the need for comparative toxicological studies to correctly classify these two forms of CuO with identical CAS registration numbers. PMID:24907615

  12. Toxicity assessing for chlorpyrifos-contaminated soil with three different earthworm test methods

    ZHOU Shi-ping; DUAN Chang-qun; FU Hui; CHEN Yu-hui; WANG Xue-hua; YU Ze-fen

    2007-01-01

    Earthworm toxicity tests are useful tools for terrestrial risk assessment but require a hierarchy of test designs that differ in effect levels (behavior, sublethal, lethal). In this study, the toxicity of chlorpyrifos contaminated soil on earthworms was assessed. In addition to the acute and chronic tests, an avoidance response test was applied. Earthworms were exposed to sublethal and lethal concentration of chlorpyrifos, and evaluated for acute toxicity, growth, fecundity and avoidance response after a certain exposure period. The test methods covered all important ecological relevant endpoints (acute, chronic, behavioral). Concentration of 78.91 mg/kg, chlorpyrifos caused significant toxic effects in all test methods, but at lower test concentrations, only significant chronic toxic effects could be observed. In the present study, chlorpyrifos had adverse effect on growth and fecundity in earthworm exposed to 5 mg/kg chlorpyrifos after eight weeks. The avoidance response test, however, showed significant repellent effects concentration of 40 mg/kg chlorpyrifos. For chlorpyrifos, concentration affecting avoidance response was far greater than growth and fecundity, it seemed likely that earthworms were not able to escape from pesticide-contaminated soil into the clean soil in field and hence were exposed continuously to elevated concentrations of pesticides.

  13. In vitro studies of acute toxicity mechanisms and structure-activity relationships of nonionic surfactants in fish

    Bodishbauah, D.F. [Duke Univ. Marine Lab., Beaufort, NC (United States)

    1994-12-31

    In fish, gills are believed to be a primary target for a number of toxicants. Gills perform the essential systemic functions of gas exchange, waste elimination, and ion/pH balance, and are exposed to ambient environmental toxicant levels. Qualitative gill morphology changes are easily observed, but quantitative measures of impaired function are difficult. This in vitro technique utilizes the opercular epithelium of the mummichog, Fundulus heteroclitus, as a surrogate for gill epithelium in mechanistic toxicity and structure-activity studies. This model has long been used by electrophysiologists studying osmoregulation in marine fish. Effects on trans-epithelial potential (TEP) and/or short-circuit current (I{sub sc}) across the opercular epithelium can be made for any pollutant of interest, using an epithelial voltage clamp and Ussing chamber. The nonionic synthetic surfactant class, alkylphenol ethoxylates, were chosen as a model toxicant class to test this experimental model. Synthetic surfactants are ubiquitous waterborne pollutants, with annual North American usage approaching eight billion pounds. Surfactants are recognized as potent, acute gill toxicants in fish. The exact mechanism of toxicity has yet to be elucidated. These compounds proved to be potent inhibitors of both TEP and I{sub sc} in vitro, at dose levels comparable to those causing lethality, suggesting that impaired osmoregulation plays a role in their acute toxicity. Similar structure-activity relationships were found for the endpoints of acute lethality to F. heteroclitus and impaired in vitro epithelial transport.

  14. Safety Evaluation of Turmeric Polysaccharide Extract: Assessment of Mutagenicity and Acute Oral Toxicity

    Chandrasekaran Chinampudur Velusami

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Curcuma longa Linn. (Zingiberaceae commonly known as turmeric has long been used for centuries as a spice and household remedy. The present study was carried out to assess the possible mutagenic potential and acute oral toxicity of polysaccharide extract of turmeric rhizome (NR-INF-02 using standard tests. The standard battery of in vitro genotoxicity tests, bacterial reverse mutation test (BRMT, chromosome aberration (CA, and micronucleus (MN tests were employed to assess the possible mutagenic activity of NR-INF-02 (Turmacin. The results showed no mutagenic effect with NR-INF-02 up to a dose of 5000 µg/mL in BRMT. The results on CA and MN tests revealed the non clastogenic activity of NR-INF-02 in a dose range of 250.36 to 2500 µg/mL with and without metabolic activation (S9. In acute oral toxicity study, NR-INF-02 was found to be safe up to 5 g/kg body weight in Wistar rats. Overall, results indicated that polysaccharide extract of C. longa was found to be genotoxically safe and also exhibited maximum tolerable dose of more than 5 g/kg rat body weight.

  15. Genotoxicity and acute and subchronic toxicity studies of a standardized methanolic extract of Ficus deltoidea leaves

    Elham Farsi

    2013-06-01

    Full Text Available OBJECTIVE: Ficus deltoidea leaves have been used in traditional medicine in Southeast Asia to treat diabetes, inflammation, diarrhea, and infections. The present study was conducted to assess the genotoxicity and acute and subchronic toxicity of a standardized methanol extract of F. deltoidea leaves. METHODS: Sprague Dawley rats were orally treated with five different single doses of the extract and screened for signs of toxicity for two weeks after administration. In the subchronic study, three different doses of the extract were administered for 28 days. Mortality, clinical signs, body weight changes, hematological and biochemical parameters, gross findings, organ weights, and histological parameters were monitored during the study. Genotoxicity was assessed using the Ames test with the TA98 and TA100 Salmonella typhimurium strains. Phytochemical standardization was performed using a colorimeter and high-performance liquid chromatography. Heavy metal detection was performed using an atomic absorption spectrometer. RESULTS: The acute toxicity study showed that the LD50 of the extract was greater than 5000 mg/kg. In the subchronic toxicity study, there were no significant adverse effects on food consumption, body weight, organ weights, mortality, clinical chemistry, hematology, gross pathology, or histopathology. However, a dose-dependent increase in the serum urea level was observed. The Ames test revealed that the extract did not have any potential to induce gene mutations in S. typhimurium, either in the presence or absence of S9 activation. Phytochemical analysis of the extract revealed high contents of phenolics, flavonoids, and tannins. High-performance liquid chromatography analysis revealed high levels of vitexin and isovitexin in the extract, and the levels of heavy metals were below the toxic levels. CONCLUSION: The no-observed adverse effect level of F. deltoidea in rats was determined to be 2500 mg/kg.

  16. Acute toxicity of zinc to several aquatic species native to the Rocky Mountains.

    Brinkman, Stephen F; Johnston, Walter D

    2012-02-01

    National water-quality criteria for the protection of aquatic life are based on toxicity tests, often using organisms that are easy to culture in the laboratory. Species native to the Rocky Mountains are poorly represented in data sets used to derive national water-quality criteria. To provide additional data on the toxicity of zinc, several laboratory acute-toxicity tests were conducted with a diverse assortment of fish, benthic invertebrates, and an amphibian native to the Rocky Mountains. Tests with fish were conducted using three subspecies of cutthroat trout (Colorado River cutthroat trout Oncorhynchus clarkii pleuriticus, greenback cutthroat trout O. clarkii stomias, and Rio Grande cutthroat trout O. clarkii virginalis), mountain whitefish (Prosopium williamsoni), mottled sculpin (Cottus bairdi), longnose dace (Rhinichthys cataractae), and flathead chub (Platygobio gracilis). Aquatic invertebrate tests were conducted with mayflies (Baetis tricaudatus, Drunella doddsi, Cinygmula sp. and Ephemerella sp.), a stonefly (Chloroperlidae), and a caddis fly (Lepidostoma sp.). The amphibian test was conducted with tadpoles of the boreal toad (Bufo boreas). Median lethal concentrations (LC(50)s) ranged more than three orders of magnitude from 166 μg/L for Rio Grande cutthroat trout to >67,000 μg/L for several benthic invertebrates. Of the organisms tested, vertebrates were the most sensitive, and benthic invertebrates were the most tolerant. PMID:21811884

  17. Acute toxicity of plant essential oils to scarab larvae (Coleoptera: Scarabaeidae) and their analysis by gas chromatography-mass spectrometry.

    Ranger, Christopher M; Reding, Michael E; Oliver, Jason B; Moyseenko, James J; Youssef, Nadeer; Krause, Charles R

    2013-02-01

    Larvae of scarab beetles (Coleoptera: Scarabaeidae) are important contaminant and root-herbivore pests of ornamental crops. To develop alternatives to conventional insecticides, 24 plant-based essential oils were tested for their acute toxicity against third instars of the Japanese beetle Popillia japonica Newman, European chafer Rhizotrogus majalis (Razoumowsky), oriental beetle Anomala orientalis (Waterhouse), and northern masked chafer Cyclocephala borealis Arrow. Diluted solutions were topically applied to the thorax, which allowed for calculating LD50 and LD90 values associated with 1 d after treatment. A wide range in acute toxicity was observed across all four scarab species. Of the 24 oils tested, allyl isothiocyanate, cinnamon leaf, clove, garlic, and red thyme oils exhibited toxicity to all four species. Allyl isothiocyanate was the most toxic oil tested against the European chafer, and among the most toxic against the Japanese beetle, oriental beetle, and northern masked chafer. Red thyme was also comparatively toxic to the Japanese beetle, oriental beetle, European chafer, and northern masked chafer. Interspecific variability in susceptibility to the essential oils was documented, with 12, 11, 8, and 6 of the 24 essential oils being toxic to the oriental beetle, Japanese beetle, European chafer, and northern masked chafer, respectively. Analysis of the active oils by gas chromatography-mass spectrometry revealed a diverse array of compounds, mostly consisting of mono- and sesquiterpenes. These results will aid in identifying active oils and their constituents for optimizing the development of plant essential oil mixtures for use against scarab larvae. PMID:23448028

  18. Study on Extraction Technology of Pianzheng Granules and Acute Toxicity Test%偏正颗粒的提取工艺优选及其急性毒性试验

    王华; 王莉; 马金秋

    2011-01-01

    Objective To optimize the extraction process and condition of Pianzheng Granules and to investigate the alcohol precipitation technology and the acute toxic reactions of Pianzheng Granules. Methods The extracting technology for Pianzheng Granules was optimized by orthogonal design with the imperatorin content as index. Mice were given the drug by gavage and their acute toxic reactions were observed. Results The optimum extraction conditions were adding 6 times amount of water, soaking for 1 h and decocting twice, I h for each time and selecting 50% ethanol for precipitation. The obvious pathologic changes were not observed in the dead animal. Conclusion The optimized extracting technology of Pianzheng Granules is rational and feasible. Pianzheng Granules is safe and reliable in regulated doses.%目的 优选偏正颗粒的提取工艺并考察其醇沉工艺,观察偏正颗粒的急性毒性反应.方法 以欧前胡素含量为指标,采用正交试验法优选偏正颗粒的提取工艺;通过对小鼠灌胃给药,观察偏正颗粒对小鼠的毒性反应.结果 优化的提取工艺为加6倍量水,浸泡1 h,煎煮2次,每次1 h,并选用50%的乙醇沉淀;将因偏正颗粒的毒性反应出现死亡的动物解剖,未见明显病理改变.结论 优选的工艺合理、可行.偏正颗粒在规定剂量下使用安全.

  19. Acute toxicity of mosquitocidal compounds to young mosquitofish, Gambusia affinis.

    Tietze, N S; Hester, P G; Hallmon, C F; Olson, M A; Shaffer, K R

    1991-06-01

    Toxicity of Florida mosquito larvicides and adulticides to 3-5 day old Gambusia affinis was determined in the laboratory. After 24-h exposure, the larvicides, temephos, fenoxycarb and petroleum distillates had LC50 values of 5.60, 1.05 and 593.4 ppm, respectively. After 24 h the adulticides resmethrin, fenthion, naled and malathion had LC50 values of 0.007, 2.94, 3.50 and 12.68 ppm, respectively. The only compound toxic to young mosquitofish at maximum field application rates was resmethrin. However, in the light of earlier tests, aerially applied adulticides generally reach the water surface at reduced concentrations and thus probably pose little or no risk to mosquitofish populations. PMID:1716659

  20. Toxicity of Uranium Adsorbent Materials using the Microtox Toxicity Test

    Park, Jiyeon [Pacific Northwest National Lab. (PNNL), Richland, WA (United States); Jeters, Robert T. [Pacific Northwest National Lab. (PNNL), Richland, WA (United States); Gill, Gary A. [Pacific Northwest National Lab. (PNNL), Richland, WA (United States); Kuo, Li-Jung [Pacific Northwest National Lab. (PNNL), Richland, WA (United States); Bonheyo, George T. [Pacific Northwest National Lab. (PNNL), Richland, WA (United States)

    2015-10-01

    The Marine Sciences Laboratory at the Pacific Northwest National Laboratory evaluated the toxicity of a diverse range of natural and synthetic materials used to extract uranium from seawater. The uranium adsorbent materials are being developed as part of the U. S. Department of Energy, Office of Nuclear Energy, Fuel Resources Program. The goal of this effort was to identify whether deployment of a farm of these materials into the marine environment would have any toxic effects on marine organisms.

  1. Systematic Review of the Relationship between Acute and Late Gastrointestinal Toxicity after Radiotherapy for Prostate Cancer

    Matthew Sean Peach

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available A small but meaningful percentage of men who are treated with external beam radiation therapy for prostate cancer will develop late gastrointestinal toxicity. While numerous strategies to prevent gastrointestinal injury have been studied, clinical trials concentrating on late toxicity have been difficult to carry out. Identification of subjects at high risk for late gastrointestinal injury could allow toxicity prevention trials to be performed using reasonable sample sizes. Acute radiation therapy toxicity has been shown to predict late toxicity in several organ systems. Late toxicities may occur as a consequential effect of acute injury. In this systematic review of published reports, we found that late gastrointestinal toxicity following prostate radiotherapy seems to be statistically and potentially causally related to acute gastrointestinal morbidity as a consequential effect. We submit that acute gastrointestinal toxicity may be used to identify at-risk patients who may benefit from additional attention for medical interventions and close follow-up to prevent late toxicity. Acute gastrointestinal toxicity could also be explored as a surrogate endpoint for late effects in prospective trials.

  2. 16 CFR 1500.40 - Method of testing toxic substances.

    2010-01-01

    ... 16 Commercial Practices 2 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Method of testing toxic substances. 1500.40... testing toxic substances. The method of testing the toxic substances referred to in § 1500.3(c) (1)(ii)(C... with additional strips and should fit snugly around the trunk of the animal. The ends of the sleeve...

  3. Influence of pH on the acute toxicity of ammonia to juvenile freshwater mussels (fatmucket, Lampsills siliquoidea)

    Wang, N.; Erickson, R.J.; Ingersoll, C.G.; Ivey, C.D.; Brunson, E.L.; Augspurger, T.; Barnhart, M.C.

    2008-01-01

    The objective of the present study was to evaluate the influence of pH on the toxicity of ammonia to juvenile freshwater mussels. Acute 96-h ammonia toxicity tests were conducted with 10-d-old juvenile mussels (fatmucket, Lampsilis siliquoidea) at five pH levels ranging from 6.5 to 9.0 in flow-through diluter systems at 20??C. Acute 48-h tests with amphipods (Hyalella azteca) and 96-h tests with oligochaetes (Lumbriculus variegatus) were conducted concurrently under the same test conditions to determine the sensitivity of mussels relative to these two commonly tested benthic invertebrate species. During the exposure, pH levels were maintained within 0.1 of a pH unit and ammonia concentrations were relatively constant through time (coefficient of variation for ammonia concentrations ranged from 2 to 30% with a median value of 7.9%). The median effective concentrations (EC50s) of total ammonia nitrogen (N) for mussels were at least two to six times lower than the EC50s for amphipods and oligochaetes, and the EC50s for mussels decreased with increasing pH and ranged from 88 mg N/L at pH 6.6 to 0.96 mg N/L at pH 9.0. The EC50s for mussels were at or below the final acute values used to derive the U.S. Environmental Protection Agency's acute water quality criterion (WQC). However, the quantitative relationship between pH and ammonia toxicity to juvenile mussels was similar to the average relationship for other taxa reported in the WQC. These results indicate that including mussel toxicity data in a revision to the WQC would lower the acute criterion but not change the WQC mathematical representation of the relative effect of pH on ammonia toxicity. ?? 2008 SETAC.

  4. The mysid Siriella armata as a model organism in marine ecotoxicology: comparative acute toxicity sensitivity with Daphnia magna.

    Pérez, Sara; Beiras, Ricardo

    2010-01-01

    Siriella armata (Crustacea, Mysidacea) is a component of the coastal zooplankton that lives in swarms in the shallow waters of the European neritic zone, from the North Sea to the Mediterranean. Juveniles of this species were examined as standard test organisms for use in marine acute toxicity tests. The effects of reference toxicants, three trace metals (Copper, Cadmium and Zinc), and one surfactant, sodium dodecyl sulfate (SDS) were studied on S. armata neonates (\\24 h) reared in the laboratory. Acute toxicity tests were carried out with filtered sea water on individual chambers (microplate wells for metals or glass vials for SDS) incubated in an isothermal room at 20 degrees C, with 16 h light: 8 h dark photoperiod for 96 h. Each neonate was fed daily with 10-15 nauplii of Artemia salina. Acute (96 h) LC50 values, in increasing order, were 46.9 lg/L for Cu, 99.3 lg/L for Cd, 466.7 lg/L for Zn and 8.5 mg/L for SDS. The LC(10), NOEC and LOEC values were also calculated. Results were compared with Daphnia magna, a freshwater cladoceran widely used as a standard ecotoxicological test organism. Acute (48 h) LC(50) values were 56.2 lg/L for Cu, 571.5 lg/L for Cd, 1.3 mg/L for Zn and 27.3 mg/L for SDS. For all the reference toxicants studied, the marine mysid Siriella armata showed higher sensitivity than the freshwater model organism Daphnia magna, validating the use of Siriella mysids as model organisms in marine acute toxicity tests. PMID:19757032

  5. Acute and subchronic toxicity study of the water extract from root of Citrus aurantifolia (Christm. et Panz.) Swingle in rats

    Kanjana Jaijoy; Nadthaganya Suwanlikhid; Anongnad Ngamjariyawat; Amornnat Thuppia; Nirush Lertprasertsuke; Umarat Srisawat; Siharat Chunlaratthanaphorn

    2007-01-01

    Acute and subchronic toxicities of the water extract from the roots of Citrus aurantifolia were studied in both male and female rats. Oral administration of the extract at a single dose of 5,000 mg/kg body weight (5 male, 5 female) did not produce signs of toxicity, behavioral changes, mortality or differences on gross appearance of internal organs. The subchronic toxicity was determined by oral feeding the test substance at the doses of 300, 600 and 1,200 mg/kg body weight for 90 days (10 ma...

  6. Acute toxicity and risk assessment of permethrin, naled, and dichlorvos to larval butterflies via ingestion of contaminated foliage.

    Hoang, Tham C; Rand, Gary M

    2015-02-01

    Three Florida native larval butterflies (Junonia coenia, Anartia jatrophae, Eumaeus atala) were used in the present study to determine the acute toxicity, hazard, and risk of a 24h ingestion of leaves contaminated with the adult mosquito control insecticides permethrin, naled, and dichlorvos to late 4th and early 5th in-star caterpillars. Based on 24-h LD50s for ingestion, naled was more acutely toxic than permethrin and dichlorvos to caterpillars. Hazard quotients using the ratio of the highest doses and the 90th percentile doses from field measurements in host plant foliage following actual mosquito control applications to the toxicological benchmarks from laboratory toxicity tests indicate potential high acute hazard for naled compared to permethrin and dichlorvos. Based on probabilistic ecological risk methods, naled exposure doses in the environment also presented a higher acute risk to caterpillars than permethrin and dichlorvos. The acute toxicity laboratory results and ecological risk assessment are based only on dietary ingestion and single chemical doses. It does not include other typical exposure scenarios that may occur in the environment. It is thus plausible to state that the ecological risk assessment presented here underestimates the potential risks in the field to caterpillars. However, one assumption that is scientifically feasible and certainly real from the results - if the environmental exposure doses of mosquito control operations are similar or higher to those presented here in leaves from the field, after applications, there will likely be significant mortalities and other adverse effects on caterpillar populations. PMID:25462317

  7. Evaluation of Daphnia ambigua for Routine Aquatic Toxicity Testing at the Savannah River Site

    that the life-cycle characteristics of this species were conducive to traditional acute and chronic aquatic toxicity test methods. Acute toxicity tests showed that when comparing LC50 values for C. dubia and D. ambigua, D. ambigua was less sensitive to some toxicants (sodium chloride, copper sulfate, and sodium lauryl sulfate) while more sensitive to others (chlorpyrifos). Results of chronic tests with copper sulfate and sodium chloride resulted in the same NOEC/LOEC values for both species. When exposed to unaltered SRS stream water, C. dubia demonstrated a 'toxic' response for two of the three streams tested, while reproduction for D. ambigua was higher in all stream samples. Acute toxicity tests with sodium chloride in stream water, generally followed the sensitivity trend noted in tests conducted with regular laboratory water

  8. Rosette nanotubes show low acute pulmonary toxicity in vivo

    W Shane Journeay

    2008-10-01

    Full Text Available W Shane Journeay1, Sarabjeet S Suri1, Jesus G Moralez2, Hicham Fenniri2, Baljit Singh11Immunology Research Group, Toxicology Graduate Program and Department of Veterinary Biomedical Sciences, Western College of Veterinary Medicine, University of Saskatchewan, 52 Campus Drive, Saskatoon, SK, S7N 5B4, Canada; 2National Institute of Nanotechnology, National Research Council (NINT-NRC and Department of Chemistry, University of Alberta, 11421 Saskatchewan Drive, Edmonton, AB, T6G 2M9, CanadaAbstract: Nanotubes are being developed for a large variety of applications ranging from electronics to drug delivery. Common carbon nanotubes such as single-walled and multi-walled carbon nanotubes have been studied in the greatest detail but require solubilization and removal of catalytic contaminants such as metals prior to being introduced to biological systems for medical application. The present in vivo study characterizes the degree and nature of inflammation caused by a novel class of self-assembling rosette nanotubes, which are biologically inspired, naturally water-soluble and free of metal content upon synthesis. Upon pulmonary administration of this material we examined responses at 24 h and 7d post-exposure. An acute inflammatory response is triggered at 50 and 25 μg doses by 24 h post-exposure but an inflammatory response is not triggered by a 5 μg dose. Lung inflammation observed at a 50 μg dose at 24 h was resolving by 7d. This work suggests that novel nanostructures with biological design may negate toxicity concerns for biomedical applications of nanotubes. This study also demonstrates that water-soluble rosette nanotube structures represent low pulmonary toxicity, likely due to their biologically inspired design, and their self-assembled architecture.Keywords: nanotoxicology, biocompatibility, nanomedicine, pulmonary drug delivery, lung inflammation

  9. Methods For Collecting , Culturing And Performing Toxicity Tests With Daphnia ambigua

    Specht, Winona L.

    2005-07-01

    Toxicity tests conducted on water collected from impacted locations in SRS streams often failed chronic toxicity tests and sometimes failed acute toxicity tests (Specht 1995). These findings prompted SRS to determine the cause of the failures. Some SRS NPDES outfalls were also failing chronic toxicity tests, even though no toxicant could be identified and when TIEs were performed, none of the TIE treatments removed the toxicity. Ultimately, it was determined that the failures were due to the low hardness of SRS surface waters, rather than to the presence of a toxicant. The species of cladoceran that the EPA recommends for toxicity testing, Ceriodaphnia dubia, is stressed by the very low hardness of SRS waters. SRS developed an alternate species toxicity test that is similar to the EPA test, but uses an indigenous cladoceran, Daphnia ambigua (Specht and Harmon, 1997; Harmon et al., 2003). In 2001, SCDHEC approved the use of D. ambigua for toxicity testing at SRS, contingent upon approval by EPA Region 4. In 2002, EPA Region 4 approved the use of this species for compliance toxicity testing at SRS. Ultimately, the use of this species demonstrated that SRS effluents were not toxic, and most toxicity testing requirements were removed from the NPDES permit that was issued in December 2003, with the exception of one round of chronic definitive testing on outfalls A-01, A-11, and G-10 just before the next NPDES permit application is submitted to SCDHEC. Although the alternate species test was developed at SRS (1996-1998), the culture was transferred to a contract toxicity testing lab (ETT Environmental) located in Greer, SC in 1998. ETT Environmental became certified by SCDHEC to perform toxicity tests using D. ambigua in 2002, and at this time is the only laboratory certified by SCDHEC to perform tests with this species. Because of the expense associated with maintaining the D. ambigua culture for several years when no toxicity testing is required, SRS decided to suspend

  10. Subchronic and acute preclinical toxicity and some pharmacological effects of the water extract from leaves of Petiveria alliacea (Phytolaccaceae)

    The effects of the aqueous extract of Petiveria alliacea, leaves were tested on acute and sub-chronic toxicity, hematocrit and blood glucose level and intestinal motility of male albino NGP mice, of 20 to 25 g mean weight. Treatments were in all cases doses of 1000 and 2000 mg/kg animal weight and a control treatment with 0.5 ml distilled water, using 10 animals per treatment and administered orally every day (5 days per week). Experimental periods were 18 and 70 days for acute and sub chronic toxicity, respectively. No mortality nor any toxicity signs could be observed in both tests. A slight but significant increase in the glucose levels during the first three weeks was observed with the 1000 mg/kg dose but not for the higher 2000 mg/kg doses. After administering the dose once after a starving period of six hours, no significant differences in intestinal motility could be found. (author)

  11. Acute toxicity screening of Hanford Site waste grouts using aquatic invertebrates

    Liquid wastes containing radioactive, hazardous, and regulated chemicals have been generated throughout the 50 years operation of the Hanford Site of the US Department of Energy near Richland, Washington. The current strategy for the disposal of the low-level radioactive portion of these wastes involves immobilization of the waste in the form of grout. Because the potential risk of animal and plant exposure to grouts is unknown, acute toxicity screening of grouts is needed. Grouts were prepared by mixing a surrogate nonradioactive liquid waste with a blend consisting of cement, fly ash, and clay. Aqueous extracts of the grout were then screened for acute toxicity using aquatic invertebrates as test organisms and a fluorogenic substrate as the toxic stress indicator. After a 1-hour exposure of juvenile daphnids (D, magna, D. pulex, and C. dubia) to the grout extracts followed by a 15-minute reaction with the fluorogenic substrate, the degree of in vivo enzymatic inhibition was measured by the number of resulting fluorescent daphnids. The EC50 values calculated by probit analysis were 2,877 mg/L, 2,983 mg/L, and 3,174 mg/L for D. pulex, D. magna, and C. dubia, respectively. The slight difference in the responses may be attributed to the subjective pass-fail scoring of the fluorescence criterion. The results indicated that the grout studied is nonhazardous and nondangerous

  12. Temperature-dependent acute toxicity of methomyl pesticide on larvae of 3 Asian amphibian species.

    Lau, Edward Tak Chuen; Karraker, Nancy Elizabeth; Leung, Kenneth Mei Yee

    2015-10-01

    Relative to other animal taxa, ecotoxicological studies on amphibians are scarce, even though amphibians are experiencing global declines and pollution has been identified as an important threat. Agricultural lands provide important habitats for many amphibians, but often these lands are contaminated with pesticides. The authors determined the acute toxicity, in terms of 96-h median lethal concentrations, of the carbamate pesticide methomyl on larvae of 3 Asian amphibian species, the Asian common toad (Duttaphrynus melanostictus), the brown tree frog (Polypedates megacephalus), and the marbled pygmy frog (Microhyla pulchra), at 5 different temperatures (15 °C, 20 °C, 25 °C, 30 °C, and 35 °C) to examine the relationships between temperature and toxicity. Significant interspecific variation in methomyl sensitivity and 2 distinct patterns of temperature-dependent toxicity were found. Because high proportions of malformation among the surviving tadpoles were observed, a further test was carried out on the tree frog to determine effect concentrations using malformation as the endpoint. Concentrations as low as 1.4% of the corresponding 96-h median lethal concentrations at 25 °C were sufficient to cause malformation in 50% of the test population. As the toxicity of pesticides may be significantly amplified at higher temperatures, temperature effects should not be overlooked in ecotoxicological studies and derivation of safety limits in environmental risk assessment and management. PMID:25959379

  13. Acute Oral Toxicity and Brine Shrimp Lethality of Elaeis guineensis Jacq., (Oil Palm Leaf Methanol Extract

    Yeng Chen

    2010-11-01

    Full Text Available Elaeis guineensis (Arecaceae is widely used in West African traditional medicine for treating various ailments. An evaluation on the toxicity of extracts of this plant is crucial to support the therapeutic claims. The acute oral toxicity and brine shrimp lethality of a methanolic extract of this plant was tested. Oral administration of crude extract at the highest dose of 5,000 mg/kg resulted in no mortalities or evidence of adverse effects, implying that E. guineensis is nontoxic. Normal behavioral pattern, clinical signs and histology of vital organs confirm this evidence. The E. guineensis extracts screened for toxicity against brine shrimp had 50% lethal concentration (LC50 values of more than 1.0 mg/mL (9.00 and 3.87 mg/mL, at 6 and 24 h, respectively, confirming that the extract was not toxic. Maximum mortalities occurred at 100 mg/mL concentration while the least mortalities happened to be at 0.195 mg/mL concentration. The results of both tests confirm that E. guineensis is nontoxic and hence safe for commercial utilization.

  14. Predicting acute aquatic toxicity of structurally diverse chemicals in fish using artificial intelligence approaches.

    Singh, Kunwar P; Gupta, Shikha; Rai, Premanjali

    2013-09-01

    The research aims to develop global modeling tools capable of categorizing structurally diverse chemicals in various toxicity classes according to the EEC and European Community directives, and to predict their acute toxicity in fathead minnow using set of selected molecular descriptors. Accordingly, artificial intelligence approach based classification and regression models, such as probabilistic neural networks (PNN), generalized regression neural networks (GRNN), multilayer perceptron neural network (MLPN), radial basis function neural network (RBFN), support vector machines (SVM), gene expression programming (GEP), and decision tree (DT) were constructed using the experimental toxicity data. Diversity and non-linearity in the chemicals' data were tested using the Tanimoto similarity index and Brock-Dechert-Scheinkman statistics. Predictive and generalization abilities of various models constructed here were compared using several statistical parameters. PNN and GRNN models performed relatively better than MLPN, RBFN, SVM, GEP, and DT. Both in two and four category classifications, PNN yielded a considerably high accuracy of classification in training (95.85 percent and 90.07 percent) and validation data (91.30 percent and 86.96 percent), respectively. GRNN rendered a high correlation between the measured and model predicted -log LC50 values both for the training (0.929) and validation (0.910) data and low prediction errors (RMSE) of 0.52 and 0.49 for two sets. Efficiency of the selected PNN and GRNN models in predicting acute toxicity of new chemicals was adequately validated using external datasets of different fish species (fathead minnow, bluegill, trout, and guppy). The PNN and GRNN models showed good predictive and generalization abilities and can be used as tools for predicting toxicities of structurally diverse chemical compounds. PMID:23764236

  15. Studies of the ionizing radiation effects on the effluents acute toxicity due to anionic surfactants

    Several studies have shown the negative effects of surfactants, as detergents active substance, when discharged on biological sewage wastewater treatment plants. High toxicity may represent a lower efficiency for biological treatment. When surfactants are in aquatic environment they may induce a loss of grease revetment on birds (feather). Depending on the surfactant concentration, several damages to all biotic systems can happen. Looking for an alternative technology for wastewater treatment, efficient for surfactant removal, the present work applied ionizing radiation as an advanced oxidation process for affluents and effluents from Suzano Treatment Station. Such wastewater samples were submitted to radiation using an electron beam from a Dynamic Electron Beam Accelerator from Instituto de Pesquisas Energeticas e Nucleares. In order to assess this proposed treatment efficacy, it was performed acute toxicity evaluation with two test-organisms, the crustacean Daphnia similis and the luminescent bacteria Vibrio fischeri. The studied effluents were: one from a chemical industry (IND), three from sewage plant (affluents - GG, GM and Guaio) and the last biologically treated secondary effluent (EfF), discharged at Tiete river. The applied radiation doses varied from 3 kGy to 50 kGy, being 50 kGy enough for surfactant degradation contained at industrial effluent. For GG, GM and Guaio samples, doses of 6 kGy and 10 kGy were efficient for surfactant and toxicity reduction, representing an average removal that varied from 71.80% to 82.76% and toxicity from 30% to 91% for most the effluents. The final effluent was less toxic than the others and the radiation induced an average 11% removal for anionic surfactant. The industrial effluents were also submitted to an aeration process in order to quantify the contribution of surfactant to the whole sample toxicity, once it was partially removed as foam and several fractions were evaluated for toxicity. (author)

  16. Acute toxicity of fire-control chemicals, nitrogenous chemicals, and surfactants to rainbow trout

    Buhl, K.J.; Hamilton, S.J.

    2000-01-01

    Laboratory studies were conducted to determine the acute toxicity of three ammonia-based fire retardants (Fire-Trol LCA-F, Fire-Trol LCM-R, and Phos-Chek 259F), five surfactant-based fire-suppressant foams (FireFoam 103B, FireFoam 104, Fire Quench, ForExpan S, and Pyrocap B-136), three nitrogenous chemicals (ammonia, nitrate, and nitrite), and two anionic surfactants (linear alkylbenzene sulfonate [LAS] and sodium dodecyl sulfate [SDS]) to juvenile rainbow trout Oncorhynchus mykiss in soft water. The descending rank order of toxicity (96-h concentration lethal to 50% of test organisms [96-h LC50]) for the fire retardants was as follows: Phos-Chek 259F (168 mg/L) > Fire-Trol LCA-F (942 mg/L) = Fire-Trol LCM-R (1,141 mg/L). The descending rank order of toxicity for the foams was as follows: FireFoam 103B (12.2 mg/L) = FireFoam 104 (13.0 mg/L) > ForExpan S (21.8 mg/L) > Fire Quench (39.0 mg/L) > Pyrocap B-136 [156 mg/L). Except for Pyrocap B-136, the foams were more toxic than the fire retardants. Un-ionized ammonia (NH3; 0.125 mg/L as N) was about six times more toxic than nitrite (0.79 mg/L NO2-N) and about 13,300 times more toxic than nitrate (1,658 mg/L NO3-N). Linear alkylbenzene sulfonate (5.0 mg/L) was about five times more toxic than SDS (24.9 mg/L). Estimated total ammonia and NH3 concentrations at the 96-h LC50s of the fire retardants indicated that ammonia was the primary toxic component in these formulations. Based on estimated anionic surfactant concentrations at the 96-h LC50s of the foams and reference surfactants, LAS was intermediate in toxicity and SDS was less toxic to rainbow trout when compared with the foams. Comparisons of recommended application concentrations to the test results indicate that accidental inputs of these chemicals into streams require substantial dilutions (100-1,750-fold to reach concentrations nonlethal to rainbow trout.

  17. Inverse Relationship Between Biochemical Outcome and Acute Toxicity After Image-Guided Radiotherapy for Prostate Cancer

    Purpose: Prostate cancer patients exhibit variability in normal tissue reactions and biochemical failure. With the use of image-guided radiotherapy (IGRT), there is a greater likelihood that the differences in normal tissue and tumor response are due to biological rather than physical factors. We tested the hypothesis that prospectively scored acute toxicity is associated with biochemical failure-free rate (BFFR) in prostate cancer patients treated with IGRT. Methods and Materials: We retrospectively analyzed BFFR in 362 patients with localized prostate cancer treated with IGRT. We compared BFFR with prospectively collected Radiation Therapy Oncology Group (RTOG) maximum acute gastrointestinal (GI) and genitourinary (GU) toxicity scores. Median follow-up for all patients was 58.3 months after total radiotherapy doses of 75.6–79.8 Gy. Results: Patients reporting RTOG acute GU or GI toxicity scores of ≥2 were considered “sensitive” (n = 141, 39%) and patients reporting scores <2 were considered “nonsensitive” (n = 221, 61%). When calculating biochemical failure (BF) using the American Society for Therapeutic Radiology and Oncology definition at 5 years, 76% (CI 70–82%) of the “nonsensitive” patients were failure free, compared with only 53% (CI 43–62%) of the “sensitive” patients (log–rank test, p < 0.0001). This difference was also observed using the Phoenix definition; “nonsensitive” 5-year BFFR was 81% (CI 74–86%) vs. “sensitive” BFFR was 68% (CI 58–76%; log–rank test p = 0.0012). The difference in BF between cohorts remained significant when controlled for radiation dose (75.6 vs. 79.8 Gy), prognostic stratification (T category, prostate-specific antigen, and Gleason score), and prostate volume. Conclusions: This study unexpectedly shows that prostate cancer patients who develop ≥Grade 2 RTOG acute toxicity during radiotherapy are less likely to remain BFF at 5 years. These results deserve further study and, if validated

  18. Inverse Relationship Between Biochemical Outcome and Acute Toxicity After Image-Guided Radiotherapy for Prostate Cancer

    Vesprini, Danny [Radiation Medicine Program, Princess Margaret Hospital (University Health Network) and Department of Radiation Oncology, University of Toronto, Toronto, Ontario (Canada); Department of Radiation Oncology, Sunnybrook Odette Cancer Centre, Toronto, Ontario (Canada); Catton, Charles [Radiation Medicine Program, Princess Margaret Hospital (University Health Network) and Department of Radiation Oncology, University of Toronto, Toronto, Ontario (Canada); Jacks, Lindsay; Lockwood, Gina [Department of Biostatistics, Princess Margaret Hospital (University Health Network), Toronto, Ontario (Canada); Rosewall, Tara; Bayley, Andrew; Chung, Peter; Gospodarowicz, Mary; Menard, Cynthia; Milosevic, Michael; Nichol, Alan; Skala, Marketa; Warde, Padraig [Radiation Medicine Program, Princess Margaret Hospital (University Health Network) and Department of Radiation Oncology, University of Toronto, Toronto, Ontario (Canada); Bristow, Robert G., E-mail: robert.bristow@rmp.uhn.on.ca [Radiation Medicine Program, Princess Margaret Hospital (University Health Network) and Department of Radiation Oncology, University of Toronto, Toronto, Ontario (Canada)

    2012-06-01

    Purpose: Prostate cancer patients exhibit variability in normal tissue reactions and biochemical failure. With the use of image-guided radiotherapy (IGRT), there is a greater likelihood that the differences in normal tissue and tumor response are due to biological rather than physical factors. We tested the hypothesis that prospectively scored acute toxicity is associated with biochemical failure-free rate (BFFR) in prostate cancer patients treated with IGRT. Methods and Materials: We retrospectively analyzed BFFR in 362 patients with localized prostate cancer treated with IGRT. We compared BFFR with prospectively collected Radiation Therapy Oncology Group (RTOG) maximum acute gastrointestinal (GI) and genitourinary (GU) toxicity scores. Median follow-up for all patients was 58.3 months after total radiotherapy doses of 75.6-79.8 Gy. Results: Patients reporting RTOG acute GU or GI toxicity scores of {>=}2 were considered 'sensitive' (n = 141, 39%) and patients reporting scores <2 were considered 'nonsensitive' (n = 221, 61%). When calculating biochemical failure (BF) using the American Society for Therapeutic Radiology and Oncology definition at 5 years, 76% (CI 70-82%) of the 'nonsensitive' patients were failure free, compared with only 53% (CI 43-62%) of the 'sensitive' patients (log-rank test, p < 0.0001). This difference was also observed using the Phoenix definition; 'nonsensitive' 5-year BFFR was 81% (CI 74-86%) vs. 'sensitive' BFFR was 68% (CI 58-76%; log-rank test p = 0.0012). The difference in BF between cohorts remained significant when controlled for radiation dose (75.6 vs. 79.8 Gy), prognostic stratification (T category, prostate-specific antigen, and Gleason score), and prostate volume. Conclusions: This study unexpectedly shows that prostate cancer patients who develop {>=}Grade 2 RTOG acute toxicity during radiotherapy are less likely to remain BFF at 5 years. These results deserve further

  19. Preclinical animal acute toxicity studies of new developed MRI contrast agent based on gadolinium

    Nam, I. F.; Zhuk, V. V.

    2015-04-01

    Acute toxicity test of new developed MRI contrast agent based on disodium salt of gadopentetic acid complex were carried out on Mus musculus and Sprague Dawley rats according to guidelines of preclinical studies [1]. Groups of six animals each were selected for experiment. Death and clinical symptoms of animals were recorded during 14 days. As a result the maximum tolerated dose (MTD) for female mice is 2.8 mM/kg of body weight, male mice - 1.4 mM/kg, female rats - 2.8 mM/kg, male rats - 5.6 mM/kg of body weight. No Observed Adverse Effect Dose (NOAEL) for female mice is 1.4 mM/kg, male mice - 0.7 mM/kg, male and female rats - 0.7 mM/kg. According to experimental data new developed MRI contrast agent based on Gd-DTPA complex is low-toxic.

  20. Acute toxicities to larval rainbow trout of representative compounds detected in Great Lakes fish

    Edsall, Carol Cotant

    1991-01-01

    In recent years the National Fisheries Research Center-Great Lakes has ranked the potential hazard to fish and invertebrates of various chemical compounds detected in two Great Lakes fishes-- lake trout, Salvelinus namaycush, and walleye, Stizostedion vitreum vitreum (Hesselberg and Seelye 1982). This hazard assessment has included the identification of the potential sources of the compounds, determination of the occurrence and abundance of the compounds in Great Lakes fish, and the determination of acute toxicities of representative compounds of 19 chemical classes (Passino and Smith 1987a). In further studies Smith et al. (1988) focused on 6 of the 19 classes of compounds using the zooplankter Daphnia pulex as the test organism. They ranked the six classes as follows (in decreasing order of toxicity): polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs), alkyl halides, nitrogen-containing compounds, cyclic alkanes, heterocyclic nitrogen compounds, and silicon-containing compounds.

  1. Acute Toxicity and Efficacy of Psidium guajava Leaves Water Extract on Salmonella Typhi Infected Wistar Rats

    E.U. Etuk

    2003-01-01

    Full Text Available The acute toxicity and efficacy of Psidium guajava leaves water extract on Salmonella typhi infected wistar rats had been studied. Oral administration of 10–50 mg/100 g of the extract showed no significant harmful effect in the animals after 72 h. The administration of 10-30 mg/100 g of the extract 12 h through the same route to rats infected with Salmonella typhi produced a recovery within seven days. The Salmonella infection equally responded to chloramphenicol, a conventional antibiotic used in the treatment of this infection. These results suggested that the water extract of Psidium guajava leave was non toxic at the tested doses and effective against Salmonella infection in wistar rats.

  2. Medical image of the week: acute amiodarone pulmonary toxicity

    Mazursky K

    2015-10-01

    Full Text Available No abstract available. Article truncated after 150 words. A 71 year old man with a medical history significant for chronic obstructive pulmonary disease, coronary artery disease with post-operative status coronary artery bypass grafting, heart failure with reduced ejection fraction (25% and atrial fibrillation/flutter underwent an elective ablation of the tachyarrhythmia at another facility and was prescribed amiodarone post procedure. He started complaining of cough and dyspnea one day post procedure and was empirically treated with 2 weeks of broad spectrum antibiotics. He subsequently was transferred to our facility due to worsening symptoms. He also complained of nausea, anorexia with resultant weight loss since starting amiodarone, which was stopped 5 days prior to transfer. Infectious work up was negative. On arrival to our facility, he was diagnosed with small sub-segmental pulmonary emboli, pulmonary edema and possible acute amiodarone toxicity. His was profoundly hypoxic requiring high flow nasal cannula or 100% non-rebreather mask at all times. His symptoms persisted despite ...

  3. Promoting the 3Rs to enhance the OECD fish toxicity testing framework.

    Hutchinson, Thomas H; Wheeler, James R; Gourmelon, Anne; Burden, Natalie

    2016-04-01

    Fish toxicity testing has been conducted since the 1860's in order to help define safe levels of chemical contaminants in lakes, rivers and coastal waters. The historical emphasis on acute lethality testing of chemicals has more recently focussed on long term sublethal effects of chemicals on fish and their prey species. Fish toxicity testing is now embedded in much environment legislation on chemical safety while it is recognized that animal use should be Replaced, Reduced and Refined (the 3Rs) where possible. The OECD Fish Toxicity Testing Framework provides a useful structure with which to address the needs of environmental safety assessment whilst implementing the 3Rs. This commentary aims to promote the implementation of the recommendations of the OECD Fish Toxicity Testing Framework. PMID:26873775

  4. Importance of structural information in predicting human acute toxicity from in vitro cytotoxicity data

    In this study, we tried to assess the utility of the structural information of drugs for predicting human acute toxicity from in vitro basal cytotoxicity, and to interpret the informative quality and the pharmacokinetic meaning of each structural descriptor. For this, human acute toxicity data of 67 drugs were taken from literature with their basal cytotoxicity data, and used to develop predictive models. A series of multiple linear regression analyses were performed to construct feasible regression models by combining molecular descriptors and cytotoxicity data. We found that although the molecular descriptors alone had only moderate correlation with human acute toxicity, they were highly useful for explaining the discrepancy between in vitro cytotoxicity and human acute toxicity. Among many possible models, we selected the most explanatory models by changing the number and the type of combined molecular descriptors. The results showed that our selected models had high predictive power (R2: between 0.7 and 0.87). Our analysis indicated that those successful models increased the prediction accuracies by providing the information on human pharmacokinetic parameters which are the major reason for the difference between human acute toxicity and cytotoxicity. In addition, we performed a clustering analysis on selected molecular descriptors to assess their informative qualities. The results indicated that the number of single bonds, the number of hydrogen bond donors and valence connectivity indices are closely related to linking cytotoxicity to acute toxicity, which provides insightful explanation about human toxicity beyond cytotoxicity.

  5. Acute Toxicity-Supported Chronic Toxicity Prediction : A k-Nearest Neighbor Coupled Read-Across Strategy

    Swapnil Chavan; Ran Friedman; Ian A. Nicholls

    2015-01-01

    A k-nearest neighbor (k-NN) classification model was constructed for 118 RDT NEDO (Repeated Dose Toxicity New Energy and industrial technology Development Organization; currently known as the Hazard Evaluation Support System (HESS)) database chemicals, employing two acute toxicity (LD50)-based classes as a response and using a series of eight PaDEL software-derived fingerprints as predictor variables. A model developed using Estate type fingerprints correctly predicted the LD50 classes for 7...

  6. Antibiofilm Activity, Compound Characterization, and Acute Toxicity of Extract from a Novel Bacterial Species of Paenibacillus

    Saad Musbah Alasil

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available The effectiveness of many antimicrobial agents is currently decreasing; therefore, it is important to search for alternative therapeutics. Our study was carried out to assess the in vitro antibiofilm activity using microtiter plate assay, to characterize the bioactive compounds using Ultra Performance Liquid Chromatography-Diode Array Detection and Liquid Chromatography-Mass Spectrometry and to test the oral acute toxicity on Sprague Dawley rats of extract derived from a novel bacterial species of Paenibacillus strain 139SI. Our results indicate that the crude extract and its three identified compounds exhibit strong antibiofilm activity against a broad range of clinically important pathogens. Three potential compounds were identified including an amino acid antibiotic C8H20N3O4P (MW 253.237, phospholipase A2 inhibitor C21H36O5 (MW 368.512, and an antibacterial agent C14H11N3O2 (MW 253.260. The acute toxicity test indicates that the mortality rate among all rats was low and that the biochemical parameters, hematological profile, and histopathology examination of liver and kidneys showed no significant differences between experimental groups P>0.05. Overall, our findings suggest that the extract and its purified compounds derived from novel Paenibacillus sp. are nontoxic exhibiting strong antibiofilm activity against Gram-positive and Gram-negative pathogens that can be useful towards new therapeutic management of biofilm-associated infections.

  7. QSARS for Acute Toxicity of Halogenated Benzenes to Bacteria in Natural Waters

    GUAN-GHUA LU; CHAO WANG; YU-MEI LI

    2006-01-01

    Objective To measure the acute toxicity of halogenated benzenes to bacteria in natural waters and to study quantitative relationships between the structure and activity of chemicals. Methods The concentration values causing 50% inhibition of bacteria growth (24h-IC50) were determined according to the bacterial growth inhibition test method. The energy of the lowest unoccupied molecular orbital and the net charge of carbon atom of 20 halogenated benzenes were calculated by the quantum chemical MOPAC program. Results The log1/IC50 values ranged from 4.79 for 2,4-dinitrochlorobenzene to 3.65 for chlorobenzene. A quantitative structure-activity relationship model was derived from the toxicity and structural parameters: log1/IC50 =-0.531(ELUMO)+1.693(Qc)+0.163(logP)+3.375. This equation was found to fit well (r2=0.860, s=0.106), and the average percentage error was only 1.98%. Conclusion Halogenated benzenes and alkyl halogenated benzenes are non-polar narcotics, and have hydrophobicity-dependent toxicity. The halogenated phenols and anilines exhibit a higher toxic potency than their hydrophobicity, whereas 2,4-dinitrochlorobenzene is electrophile with the halogen acting as the leaving group.

  8. Impact of bioavailability on the correlation between in vitro cytotoxic and in vivo acute fish toxic concentrations of chemicals

    The lower sensitivity of in vitro cytotoxicity assays currently restricts their use as alternative to the fish acute toxicity assays for hazard assessment of chemicals in the aquatic environment. In vitro cytotoxic potencies mostly refer to nominal concentrations. The main objective of the present study was to investigate, whether a reduced availability of chemicals in vitro can account for the lower sensitivity of in vitro toxicity test systems. For this purpose, the bioavailable free fractions of the nominal cytotoxic concentrations (EC50) of chemicals determined with a cytotoxicity test system using Balb/c 3T3 cells and the corresponding free cytotoxic concentrations (ECu50) were calculated. The algorithm applied is based on a previously developed simple equilibrium distribution model for chemicals in cell cultures with serum-supplemented culture media. This model considers the distribution of chemicals between water, lipids and serum albumin. The algorithm requires the relative lipid volume of the test system, the octanol-water partition coefficient (K ow) and the in vitro albumin-bound fraction of the chemicals. The latter was determined from EC50-measurements in the presence of different albumin concentrations with the Balb/c 3T3 test system. Organic chemicals covering a wide range of cytotoxic potency (EC50: 0.16-527000 μM) and lipophilicity (log K ow: -5.0-6.96) were selected, for which fish acute toxicity data (LC50-values) from at least one of the three fish species, medaka, rainbow trout and fathead minnow, respectively, were available. The availability of several chemicals was shown to be extensively reduced either by partitioning into lipids or by serum albumin binding, or due to both mechanisms. Reduction of bioavailability became more important with increasing cytotoxic potency. The sensitivity of the Balb/c 3T3 cytotoxicity assay and the correspondence between in vivo and in vitro toxic potencies were increased when the free cytotoxic

  9. Impact of bioavailability on the correlation between in vitro cytotoxic and in vivo acute fish toxic concentrations of chemicals

    Guelden, Michael [Institute of Toxicology and Pharmacology for Natural Scientists, University Medical School Schleswig-Holstein, Campus Kiel, Brunswiker Street 10, D-24105 Kiel (Germany)]. E-mail: guelden@toxi.uni-kiel.de; Seibert, Hasso [Institute of Toxicology and Pharmacology for Natural Scientists, University Medical School Schleswig-Holstein, Campus Kiel, Brunswiker Street 10, D-24105 Kiel (Germany)

    2005-05-15

    The lower sensitivity of in vitro cytotoxicity assays currently restricts their use as alternative to the fish acute toxicity assays for hazard assessment of chemicals in the aquatic environment. In vitro cytotoxic potencies mostly refer to nominal concentrations. The main objective of the present study was to investigate, whether a reduced availability of chemicals in vitro can account for the lower sensitivity of in vitro toxicity test systems. For this purpose, the bioavailable free fractions of the nominal cytotoxic concentrations (EC{sub 50}) of chemicals determined with a cytotoxicity test system using Balb/c 3T3 cells and the corresponding free cytotoxic concentrations (ECu{sub 50}) were calculated. The algorithm applied is based on a previously developed simple equilibrium distribution model for chemicals in cell cultures with serum-supplemented culture media. This model considers the distribution of chemicals between water, lipids and serum albumin. The algorithm requires the relative lipid volume of the test system, the octanol-water partition coefficient (K {sub ow}) and the in vitro albumin-bound fraction of the chemicals. The latter was determined from EC{sub 50}-measurements in the presence of different albumin concentrations with the Balb/c 3T3 test system. Organic chemicals covering a wide range of cytotoxic potency (EC{sub 50}: 0.16-527000 {mu}M) and lipophilicity (log K {sub ow}: -5.0-6.96) were selected, for which fish acute toxicity data (LC{sub 50}-values) from at least one of the three fish species, medaka, rainbow trout and fathead minnow, respectively, were available. The availability of several chemicals was shown to be extensively reduced either by partitioning into lipids or by serum albumin binding, or due to both mechanisms. Reduction of bioavailability became more important with increasing cytotoxic potency. The sensitivity of the Balb/c 3T3 cytotoxicity assay and the correspondence between in vivo and in vitro toxic potencies were

  10. Effect of chlorination and ozone pre-oxidation on the photobacteria acute toxicity for dissolved organic matter from sewage treatment plants

    2010-01-01

    The effect of chlorination and ozone pre-oxidation on the photobacteria acute toxicity for dissolved organic matter(DOM) from sewage treatment plants was investigated in this study.The results show that ozone pre-oxidation enhanced the photobacteria acute toxicity of the water samples.DOM before and after ozone pre-oxidation was fractionated by resins into six kinds of hydrophobic and hydrophilic organics.The six fractions were chlorinated individually and the photobacteria acute toxicity before and after chlorination was tested.It was found that the percentage of hydrophilic organics in DOM significantly increased after ozone pre-oxidation and hydrophilic organics exhibited remarkably higher acute toxicity than hydrophobic organics.In view of potentiometric titration and fourier transform infrared(FTIR) analysis,the hydrophilic organics showed a rather higher content of ph-OH structures than hydrophobic organics.

  11. Evaluation of the sensitivity of freshwater organisms used in toxicity tests of wastewater from explosives company.

    Ribeiro, Elaine Nolasco; da Silva, Flávio Teixeira; de Paiva, Teresa Cristina Brazil

    2012-10-01

    Explosives industries are a source of toxic discharge. The aim of this study was to compare organisms sensitivity (Daphnia similis, Danio rerio, Escherichia coli and Pseudomonas putida) in detecting acute toxicity in wastewater from two explosives, 2,4,6-TNT (TNT) and nitrocellulose. The samples were collected from an explosives company in the Paraiba Valley, São Paulo, Brazil. The effluents from TNT and nitrocellulose production were very toxic for tested organisms. Statistical tests indicated that D. similis and D. rerio were the most sensitive organisms for toxicity detection in effluents from 2,4,6-TNT and nitrocellulose production. The P. putida bacteria was the organism considered the least sensitive in indicating toxicity in effluents from nitrocellulose. PMID:22872378

  12. Acute toxicity and effect of some petroleum hydrocarbon on the metabolic index in Etroplus suratensis

    Ansari, Z.A.; Farshchi, P.

    Acute toxicity (LC sub(50)) and effect of some petroleum hydrocarbons (Toluene, Quinoline, Pyridine and Naphthalene) on the metabolic index (oxygen consumption rate) of an estuarine fish. Etroplus suratensis is reported. The LC sub(50) values were...

  13. Effect of azole antifungal therapy on vincristine toxicity in childhood acute lymphoblastic leukaemia

    Schie, R.M. van; Bruggemann, R.J.M.; Hoogerbrugge, P.M.; Loo, D.M. te

    2011-01-01

    BACKGROUND: Vincristine is one of the cornerstones of the treatment of children with acute lymphoblastic leukaemia (ALL). Constipation, and peripheral and central neurotoxicities are the most common side effects. A comparative study exploring vincristine toxicity in individual patients receiving vin

  14. FISH ACUTE TOXICITY SYNDROMES IN THE DEVELOPMENT OF MECHANISM-SPECIFIC QSARS.

    The focus of this report is to summarize the development and status of the fish acute toxicity syndrome (FATS) research effort. hus far, FATS associated with nonpolar narcotics, oxidative phosphorylation uncouplers, respiratory membrane irritants, acetylcholinesterase (AChE) inhi...

  15. PRELIMINARY PHYTOCHEMICAL SCREENING AND ACUTE ORAL TOXICITY STUDY OF THE FLOWER OF PHLOGACANTHUS THYRSIFLORUS NEES IN ALBINO MICE

    Chakravarty Sharmistha

    2012-04-01

    Full Text Available Medicinal plants contains a variety of chemical substances with important therapeutic properties that can be utilised in the treatment of human diseases. Phlogacanthus thyrsiflorus Nees of family Acanthaceae is used in folklore remedies for treatment of Cough, Bronchitis, Fever, Asthama, Cancer and many other ailments. The present investigation was carried out to assess the qualitative phytochemical analysis of aqueous extract of the flower of Phlogacanthus thyrsiflorus Nees. The phytochemical screening reveals the presence of Tannin, Saponin, Flavonoid, Steroid, Triterpenoid, Phenol. For Acute Oral Toxicity study aqueous extract of the flower was used. The Acute Oral Toxicity test showed no mortality upto 1000 mg/kg body weight. The presence of these phytochemicals reveals its medicinal properties and non toxic nature of the plant indicated the value of the plant as medicine. This result suggests that the flower of Phlogacanthus thyrsiflorus can be used to cure various ailments.

  16. Protective effect of berberine on doxorubicin‑induced acute hepatorenal toxicity in rats.

    Chen, Xueyan; Zhang, Yu; Zhu, Zhongning; Liu, Huanlong; Guo, Huicai; Xiong, Chen; Xie, Kerang; Zhang, Xiaofei; Su, Suwen

    2016-05-01

    Doxorubicin (DOX), a potent broad‑spectrum chemotherapeutic agent used for the treatment of several types of cancer, is largely limited due to its serious side effects on non‑target organs. Thus, the present study aimed to investigate whether berberine (Ber), an isoquinoline alkaloid, could reduce DOX‑induced acute hepatorenal toxicity in rats. Fifty rats were randomly divided into five groups: i) Control group, ii) DOX group, iii) DOX+Ber (5 mg kg) group; iv) DOX+Ber (10 mg kg), and v) DOX+Ber (20 mg kg) group. In the tests, body weight, organ index, general condition and mortality were observed. In addition, the serum levels of alanine transaminase (ALT), aspartate aminotransferase (AST), total cholesterol (TCHO) and blood urea nitrogen (BUN) were determined to evaluate hepatorenal function. Hepatorenal toxicity was further assessed using hematoxylin and eosin stained sections. Furthermore, the levels of superoxide dismutase (SOD), catalase (CAT), glutathione peroxidase (GPx) and malondialdehyde (MDA) in rat serum or tissue homogenate were also assessed to determine the mechanisms of action. Results suggested that pretreatment with Ber ameliorated the DOX‑induced liver and kidney injury by lowering the serum ALT, AST, TCHO and BUN levels, and the damage observed histologically, such as hemorrhage and focal necrosis of liver and kidney tissues induced by DOX were also attenuated by Ber. Furthermore, Ber also exerted certain antioxidative properties through reversing the changes in the levels of MDA, SOD, GSH and MDA induced by DOX. These findings indicate that Ber has protective effects against DOX‑induced acute hepatorenal toxicity in rats. Combination of Ber with DOX is a novel strategy that has the potential for protecting against DOX‑induced hepatorenal toxicity in clinical practice. PMID:27035423

  17. The epidemiology and patterns of acute and chronic toxicity associated with recreational ketamine use

    Sarbjeet S. Kalsi

    2011-04-01

    Full Text Available Ketamine was originally synthesised for use as a dissociative anaesthetic, and it remains widely used legitimately for this indication. However, there is increasing evidence of non-medical recreational use of ketamine, particularly in individuals who frequent the night-time economy. The population-level and sub-population (clubbers prevalence of recreational use of ketamine is not known but is likely to be similar, or slightly lower than, that of other recreational drugs such as cocaine, MDMA, and amphetamine.The predominant features of acute toxicity associated with the recreational use of ketamine are neuro-behavioural abnormalities such as agitation, hallucinations, anxiety, and psychosis. Secondary to these, individuals put themselves at greater risk of physical harm/trauma. Cardiovascular features (hypertension and tachycardia occur less frequently and the risk of death from recreational use is low and is predominately due to the physical harm/trauma.Long-term recreational use of ketamine can be associated with the development of psychological dependence and tolerance. There are reports of gastro-intestinal toxicity, particularly abdominal pain and abnormal liver function tests, and of neuropsychiatric disorders, typically a schizophrenia-like syndrome, in long-term users. Finally, there are increasing reports of urological disorders, particularly haemorrhagic cystitis, associated with long-term use. The management of these problems associated with the long-term use of ketamine is largely supportive and abstinence from ongoing exposure to ketamine.In this review we will collate the available information on the epidemiology of recreational use of ketamine and describe the patterns of acute and chronic toxicity associated with its recreational use and the management of this toxicity.

  18. Acute toxicity assessment of Osthol content in bio-pesticides using two aquatic organisms

    Yim, Eun-Chae; Kim, Hyeon Joe; Kim, Seong-Jun

    2014-01-01

    Objectives This study focused on the assessment of acute toxicity caused by Osthol, a major component of environment-friendly biological pesticides, by using two aquatic organisms. Methods The assessment of acute toxicity caused by Osthol was conducted in Daphnia magna and by examining the morphological abnormalities in Danio rerio embryos. Results The median effective concentration value of Osthol in D. magna 48 hours after inoculation was 19.3 μM. The median lethal concentration of D. rerio...

  19. ACUTE TOXICITY, PHYTOCHEMISTRY AND ANTIBACTERIAL ACTIVITY OF AQUEOUS AND ETHANOLIC LEAF EXTRACTS OF CASSIA ALATA LINN

    Timothy SY; Lamu FW; Rhoda AS; Adati RG; Maspalma ID; Askira M

    2012-01-01

    Cassia alata Linn is an important medicinal plant as well as an ornamental flowering plant that has diverse reported medicinal values. This study focused on the evaluation of the phytochemical components, antibacterial as well as acute toxicity studies. The leaves of the plant were collected, dried, ground and extracted using 95% ethanol and water. The extracts were used for acute toxicity study, phytochemical screening and antibacterial assay using cup-plate method. The result from this stud...

  20. Acute toxicity, brine shrimp cytotoxicity, anthelmintic and relaxant potentials of fruits of Rubus fruticosus Agg

    Ali, Niaz; Aleem, Umer; Ali Shah, Syed Wadood; Shah, Ismail; Junaid, Muhammad; Ahmed, Ghayour; Ali, Waqar; Ghias, Mehreen

    2013-01-01

    Background Rubus fruticosus is used in tribal medicine as anthelmintic and an antispasmodic. In the current work, we investigated the anthelmintic and antispasmodic activities of crude methanol extract of fruits of R. fruticosus on scientific grounds. Acute toxicity and brine shrimp cytotoxicity activity of the extract were also performed. Methods Acute toxicity study of crude methanol extract of R. fruticosus was performed on mice. In vitro Brine shrimp cytotoxicity assay was performed on sh...

  1. Acute Toxicity Study and Antipyretic Effect of the Brown Alga Turbinaria Conoides (J. Agardh) Kuetz

    Kumar, S Sadish; Kumar, Y; Khan, M. S. Y; J Anbu; Sam, K G

    2009-01-01

    The active principles of brown alga, Turbinaria conoides (J.Agardh) Kuetz. (Sargassaceae) was extracted with n-hexane, cyclohexane, methanol and ethanol-water (1:1) and investigated for acute toxicity and antipyretic activity. Phytochemical analysis of the extracts revealed the presence of steroids, flavonoids and reducing sugars. Acute toxicity study was performed in Wistar rats after administration of extracts orally. No mortality was observed up to the dose of 5g/kg for methanol and ethano...

  2. Human solvent exposure. Factors influencing the pharmacokinetics and acute toxicity

    Bælum, Jesper

    1991-01-01

    symptoms. The pharmacokinetics of toluene is complex and there is a large individual variation in the excretion of the metabolites. This variation can only to a limited extend be related to known variables. Intake of alcohol during exposure inhibits the metabolism of toluene and increases the internal dose...... exposed to mixtures of solvents experience an increased frequency of work related irritative and neurological symptoms although the exposure has been far below the occupational exposure limits. A series of controlled human exposure studies was carried out. Different groups of persons were exposed to the...... most frequent solvent, toluene. Toluene in alveolar air and the urinary excretion of the metabolites were measured and the acute effects of toluene were assessed by the performance in a series of test of the perceptual and psychomotor functions as well as a standardized registration of annoyance and...

  3. Consensus definitions of 14 severe acute toxic effects for childhood lymphoblastic leukaemia treatment: a Delphi consensus.

    Schmiegelow, Kjeld; Attarbaschi, Andishe; Barzilai, Shlomit; Escherich, Gabriele; Frandsen, Thomas Leth; Halsey, Christina; Hough, Rachael; Jeha, Sima; Kato, Motohiro; Liang, Der-Cherng; Mikkelsen, Torben Stamm; Möricke, Anja; Niinimäki, Riitta; Piette, Caroline; Putti, Maria Caterina; Raetz, Elizabeth; Silverman, Lewis B; Skinner, Roderick; Tuckuviene, Ruta; van der Sluis, Inge; Zapotocka, Ester

    2016-06-01

    Although there are high survival rates for children with acute lymphoblastic leukaemia, their outcome is often counterbalanced by the burden of toxic effects. This is because reported frequencies vary widely across studies, partly because of diverse definitions of toxic effects. Using the Delphi method, 15 international childhood acute lymphoblastic leukaemia study groups assessed acute lymphoblastic leukaemia protocols to address toxic effects that were to be considered by the Ponte di Legno working group. 14 acute toxic effects (hypersensitivity to asparaginase, hyperlipidaemia, osteonecrosis, asparaginase-associated pancreatitis, arterial hypertension, posterior reversible encephalopathy syndrome, seizures, depressed level of consciousness, methotrexate-related stroke-like syndrome, peripheral neuropathy, high-dose methotrexate-related nephrotoxicity, sinusoidal obstructive syndrome, thromboembolism, and Pneumocystis jirovecii pneumonia) that are serious but too rare to be addressed comprehensively within any single group, or are deemed to need consensus definitions for reliable incidence comparisons, were selected for assessment. Our results showed that none of the protocols addressed all 14 toxic effects, that no two protocols shared identical definitions of all toxic effects, and that no toxic effect definition was shared by all protocols. Using the Delphi method over three face-to-face plenary meetings, consensus definitions were obtained for all 14 toxic effects. In the overall assessment of outcome of acute lymphoblastic leukaemia treatment, these expert opinion-based definitions will allow reliable comparisons of frequencies and severities of acute toxic effects across treatment protocols, and facilitate international research on cause, guidelines for treatment adaptation, preventive strategies, and development of consensus algorithms for reporting on acute lymphoblastic leukaemia treatment. PMID:27299279

  4. The value of brain CT findings in acute methanol toxicity

    Taheri, Morteza Sanei [Department of Radiology, Shohada Hospital, Shahid Beheshti University of Medical Sciences, Tehran (Iran, Islamic Republic of); Poison Control Center, Loghman-Hakim Poison Hospital, Shahid Beheshti University of Medical Sciences, Tehran (Iran, Islamic Republic of)], E-mail: saneim@yahoo.com; Moghaddam, Hossein Hassanian [Poison Control Center, Loghman-Hakim Poison Hospital, Shahid Beheshti University of Medical Sciences, Tehran (Iran, Islamic Republic of); Moharamzad, Yashar; Dadgari, Shahrzad [Department of Radiology, Shohada Hospital, Shahid Beheshti University of Medical Sciences, Tehran (Iran, Islamic Republic of); Nahvi, Vahideh [Poison Control Center, Loghman-Hakim Poison Hospital, Shahid Beheshti University of Medical Sciences, Tehran (Iran, Islamic Republic of)

    2010-02-15

    Objective: Due to depressant effects of methanol on the central nervous system, brain computed tomography (CT) scan has been introduced as a diagnostic device in methanol intoxication. The authors aimed to present brain CT findings in patients with acute methanol intoxication and to determine signs associated with death. Materials and methods: This cohort study involved 42 consecutive patients with acute methanol intoxication. Inclusion criteria were consisted of characteristic clinical presentation of methanol poisoning, and metabolic acidosis with increased anion and osmolar gaps. Brain CT scans without contrast medium were obtained. To determine the association between the CT findings and death, the chi-square test or the Fisher's exact test, odds ratio (OR) and its 95% confidence interval (95% CI) were calculated. Results: Twenty-eight patients (66.6%) had a total of 55 abnormal findings on brain CT, in which bilateral putaminal hypodense lesions was the most common manifestation (27 cases, 96.4%). Putaminal hemorrhage with varying degrees was observed in 7 patients (25%). Six patients (21.4%) had low attenuation lesions in the subcortical white matter of the insula. A significant association was observed between putaminal hemorrhage (OR = 8, 95% CI = 1.187-53.93, P = 0.018) and subcortical necrosis of the insula (OR = 11, 95% CI = 1.504-80.426, P = 0.007) with death. Conclusion: In addition to clinical and laboratory findings, presence of putaminal hemorrhage and insular subcortex white matter necrosis are associated with a poor clinical outcome in patients with methanol poisoning.

  5. The Impact of Pretreatment Prostate Volume on Severe Acute Genitourinary Toxicity in Prostate Cancer Patients Treated With Intensity-Modulated Radiation Therapy

    Purpose: To assess the impact of pretreatment prostate volume on the development of severe acute genitourinary toxicity in patients undergoing intensity-modulated radiation therapy (IMRT) for prostate cancer. Methods and Materials: Between 2004 and 2007, a consecutive sample of 214 patients who underwent IMRT (75.6 Gy) for prostate cancer at two referral centers was analyzed. Prostate volumes were obtained from computed tomography scans taken during treatment simulation. Genitourinary toxicity was defined using the National Cancer Institute Common Terminology Criteria for Adverse Events Version 3.0 guidelines. Acute toxicity was defined as any toxicity originating within 90 days of the completion of radiation therapy. Patients were characterized as having a small or large prostate depending on whether their prostate volume was less than or greater than 50 cm3, respectively. Genitourinary toxicity was compared in these groups using the chi-square or Fisher's exact test, as appropriate. Bivariate and multivariate logistic regression analysis was performed to further assess the impact of prostate volume on severe (Grade 3) acute genitourinary toxicity. Results: Patients with large prostates (>50 cm3) had a higher rate of acute Grade 3 genitourinary toxicity (p = .02). Prostate volume was predictive of the likelihood of developing acute Grade 3 genitourinary toxicity on bivariate (p = .004) and multivariate (p = .006) logistic regression. Every 27.0 cm3 increase in prostate volume doubled the likelihood of acute Grade 3 genitourinary toxicity. Conclusions: Patients with larger prostates are at higher risk for the development of severe acute genitourinary toxicity when treated with IMRT for prostate cancer.

  6. Applicability of ambient toxicity testing to national or regional water-quality assessment

    Elder, John F.

    1990-01-01

    Comprehensive assessment of the quality of natural waters requires a multifaceted approach. Descriptions of existing conditions may be achieved by various kinds of chemical and hydrologic analyses, whereas information about the effects of such conditions on living organisms depends on biological monitoring. Toxicity testing is one type of biological monitoring that can be used to identify possible effects of toxic contaminants. Based on experimentation designed to monitor responses of organisms to environmental stresses, toxicity testing may have diverse purposes in water-quality assessments. These purposes may include identification of areas that warrant further study because of poor water quality or unusual ecological features, verification of other types of monitoring, or assessment of contaminant effects on aquatic communities. Toxicity-test results are most effective when used as a complement to chemical analyses, hydrologic measurements, and other biological monitoring. However, all toxicity-testing procedures have certain limitations that must be considered in developing the methodology and applications of toxicity testing in any large-scale water-quality-assessment program. A wide variety of toxicity-test methods have been developed to fulfill the needs of diverse applications. The methods differ primarily in the selections made relative to four characteristics: (1) test species, (2) endpoint (acute or chronic), (3) test-enclosure type, and (4) test substance (toxicant) that functions as the environmental stress. Toxicity-test approaches vary in their capacity to meet the needs of large-scale assessments of existing water quality. Ambient testing, whereby the test organism is exposed to naturally occurring substances that contain toxicant mixtures in an organic or inorganic matrix, is more likely to meet these needs than are procedures that call for exposure of the test organisms to known concentrations of a single toxicant. However, meaningful

  7. Acute toxicity of Nigerian crude oil (Bonny Light to Desmocaris trispinosa (Crustacea, Palaemonidaec

    P. Emeka Ndimele

    2011-12-01

    Full Text Available The acute toxic effects of a Nigerian crude oil (Bonny Light to freshwater shrimp, DesmocarisTrispinosa were studied in toxicity bioassay. The test organisms were exposed to crude oil in a staticrenewal bioassay for 96 hrs. There was an initial range-finding test to determine the concentrations ofcrude oil to be administered on the test organisms in the definitive test. Five concentrations of the crudeoil were prepared in the definitive test as 40, 80, 160, 240 and 320 mgL-1 and a control experiment (0mgL-1. The median lethal concentration (LC50 at 24-hr, 48-hr, 72-hr and 96-hr was 0, 0, 281.84 and120.23 mgL-1 respectively. The median lethal time (LT50 at crude oil concentrations of 160 mgL-1, 240mgL-1 and 320 mgL-1 were 89.5hrs, 80.7hrs and 53.3hrs respectively while the LT50 at concentrations of40 mgL-1 and 80 mgL-1 was 0hr. Mortality increased with increase in crude oil concentration and thedifference was significant (pD. trispinosa and may adversely affect other aquatic organisms.

  8. Dispersed oil toxicity tests with biological species indigenous to the Gulf of Mexico. Final report

    Fucik, K.W.; Carr, K.A.; Balcom, B.J.

    1994-08-01

    Static and flowthrough aquatic acute toxicity testing protocols were utilized on eggs and larvae of seven commercially important invertebrates and fishes from the Gulf of Mexico. Test organisms were exposed to Central and Western Gulf oils, dispersed oil, and Corexit 9527. Species included brown shrimp (Penaeus aztecus), white shrimp (Penaeus setiferus), blue crab (Callinectes sapidus), eastern oyster (Crassostrea virginica), red drum (Sciaenops ocellatus), inland silverside (Menidia berylina), and spot (Leiosomus xanthurus). Atlantic menhaden (Brevoortia tyrannus) was also tested because gulf menhaden were not available. Mysids (Mysidopsis bahia) were evaluated as part of a chronic toxicity assessment.

  9. Ecotoxicity of engineered nanoparticles to aquatic invertebrates: a brief review and recommendations for future toxicity testing

    Baun, Anders; Hartmann, Nanna Isabella Bloch; Grieger, Khara Deanne;

    2008-01-01

    . Results show that there is a pronounced lack of data in this field (less than 20 peer-reviewed papers are published so far), and the most frequently tested engineered nanoparticles in invertebrate tests are C-60, carbon nanotubes, and titanium dioxide. In addition, the majority of the studies have used...... Daphnia magna as the test organism. To date, the limited number of studies has indicated acute toxicity in the low mgl(-1) range and higher of engineered nanoparticles to aquatic invertebrates, although some indications of chronic toxicity and behavioral changes have also been described at concentrations...

  10. Alternative testing strategies for predicting developmental toxicity of antifungal compound

    Li, H.

    2016-01-01

    Determination of safe human exposure levels of chemicals in toxicological risk assessments largely relies on animal toxicity data. In these toxicity studies, the highest number of animals are used for reproductive and developmental toxicity testing. Because of economic and ethical reasons, there is

  11. Safety assessment of hydroethanolic rambutan rind extract: acute and sub-chronic toxicity studies.

    Thinkratok, Aree; Suwannaprapha, Parin; Srisawat, Rungrudee

    2014-10-01

    This study evaluated the safety of rambutan rind extract (RRE) in male Wistar rats. While acute toxicity was evaluated by feeding the rats with single doses of RRE (1000, 2000, 3000, 4000, and 5000 mg/kg) and its sub-chronic toxicity was observed in rats orally administered with RRE (500, 1000, and 2000 mg/kg) daily for 30 days. In acute toxicity study, the LD50 was found to be greater than 5000 mg/kg of RRE. In sub-chronic toxicity study, no mortality and sign of toxicity was found up to 1000 mg/kg/day of RRE. At 2000 mg/kg/day dose, the mortality rate was 12.5%. Significant decreases in body weight gain and food consumption were found in both acute and sub-chronic toxicity studies. In acute toxicity study, all the studied doses of RRE did not alter serum levels of triglyceride (TG), aspartate aminotransferase (AST) andalanine aminotransferase (ALT). In sub-chronic toxicity study, all studied doses of RRE significantly decreased plasma levels of TG and blood urea nitrogen, but did not alter plasma levels of AST and ALT. TC levels did not show any significant change in both the studies. The obtained results provide basic information for in vivo experimental studies of the pharmacological potentiality of RRE. PMID:25345248

  12. Acute toxicity and the 28-day repeated dose study of a Siddha medicine Nuna Kadugu in rats

    Ramaswamy Ramaswamy

    2012-10-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Nuna Kadugu (NK, a Siddha medicine prepared from leaves and fruits of Morinda Pubescens, used for the treatment of various skin diseases. Though NK has been widely used for several decades, no scientific report was available on its safety. Present study was undertaken to demonstrate the oral toxicity of NK in Sprague Dawley rats. Methods Acute and 28-day repeated oral toxicity studies were performed following OECD test guidelines 423 and 407, respectively, with minor modifications. In acute oral toxicity study, NK was administered at 2000mg/kg b.wt., p.o and animals were observed for toxic signs at 0, 0.5, 1, 4, 24 h and for next 14 days. Gross pathology was performed at the end of the study. In repeated dose, the 28- day oral toxicity study, NK was administered at 300, 600 and 900 mg/kg b.wt./p.o/day. Two satellite groups (control and high dose were also maintained to determine the delayed onset toxicity of NK. Animals were observed for mortality, morbidity, body weight changes, feed and water intake. Haematology, clinical biochemistry, electrolytes, gross pathology, relative organ weight and histopathological examination were performed. Results In acute toxicity study, no treatment related death or toxic signs were observed with NK administration. In the repeated dose study, no significant differences in body weight changes, food / water intake, haematology, clinical biochemistry and electrolytes content were observed between control and NK groups. No gross pathological findings and difference in relative organ weights were observed between control and NK treated rats. Histopathological examination revealed no abnormalities with NK treatment. Conclusion Acute study reveals that the LD50 of NK is greater than 2000mg/kg, b.wt. in fasted female rats and can be classified as Category 5. 28-day repeated oral toxicity demonstrates that the No Observed Adverse Effect Level of NK is greater than 900 mg/kg b.wt./day, p.o in rats

  13. ACUTE AND CHRONIC TOXICITY OF PHENYL QUINOLINE ON WATER FLEA DAPHNIA MAGNA

    Hildebrando Ayala

    2012-06-01

    Full Text Available The aquatic ecotoxicological determination of phytonematicide products using the zooplanktonic cladoceran Daphnia magna is important for environmental risk assessment. Evaluations were made of the acute median lethal concentration (LC50 of phenyl quinoline on D. magna, that was 4.12 ug i.a. L-1 at 48 h of exposure. The chronic effects of phenyl quinoline in the mortality rate of the cladoceran D. magna at 17 d of exposure, with 0.18 ug ai L-1 of LOEC (Lowest Observed Effect Concentration and 0.072 ug ai L-1 of NOEC (No Observed Effect Concentration were determined. Evaluations of the chronic effect of phenyl quinoline on three parameters of growth of D. magna (total length, antenna length and caudal length to 17 d of exposure, only showed significant differences in length of the antenna between the control and 0.072 ug ai L-1 been this the value of LOEC and thus the lower concentration 0.0288 ug ai L-1, the NOEC value for phenyl quinoline. The ratio between acute and chronic toxicity (RAC for the relationship showed acute 48 h exposure on mortality NOEC 17 d a value of 57.22, and for the ratio of acute NOEC on of the length of the antenna to 17 d was a value of 143. The environmental risk assessment (ERA shows that the PEC (Probable Effect Concentration / PNEC (Predicted No-Effect Concentration for acute assay was 582 524 and for the PEC / PNEC for chronic test was 83 333 333. These results demonstrate that phenyl quinoline has a high impact on aquatic biota represented by the trophic level that belongs to D. magna, and therefore shows that the substance is a candidate for a comprehensive ecotoxicological assessment.

  14. Acute toxicity of cadmium, lead, zinc, and their mixtures to stream-resident fish and invertebrates.

    Mebane, Christopher A; Dillon, Frank S; Hennessy, Daniel P

    2012-06-01

    The authors conducted 150 tests of the acute toxicity of resident fish and invertebrates to Cd, Pb, and Zn, separately and in mixtures, in waters from the South Fork Coeur d'Alene River watershed, Idaho, USA. Field-collected shorthead sculpin (Cottus confusus), westslope cutthroat trout (Oncorhynchus clarkii lewisi), two mayflies (Baetis tricaudatus and Rhithrogena sp.), a stonefly (Sweltsa sp.), a caddisfly (Arctopsyche sp.), a snail (Gyraulus sp.), and hatchery rainbow trout (Oncorhynchus mykiss), were tested with all three metals. With Pb, the mayflies (Drunella sp., Epeorus sp., and Leptophlebiidae), a Simuliidae black fly, a Chironomidae midge, a Tipula sp. crane fly, a Dytiscidae beetle, and another snail (Physa sp.), were also tested. Adult westslope cutthroat trout were captured to establish a broodstock to provide fry of known ages for testing. With Cd, the range of 96-h median effect concentrations (EC50s) was 0.4 to >5,329 µg/L, and the relative resistances of taxa were westslope cutthroat trout ≈ rainbow trout ≈ sculpin trout trout trout trout ≈ sculpin trout fry, a pattern of decreasing resistance with increasing fish size was observed. In metal mixtures, the toxicities of the three metals were less than additive on a concentration-addition basis. PMID:22488500

  15. Comparisons of antidotal efficacy of chelating drugs upon acute toxicity of Ni(II) in rats

    Horak, E.; Sunderman, F.W. Jr.; Sarkar, B.

    1976-05-01

    Six chelating drugs were administered to rats by im injection at equimolar dosages in order to compare their relative effectiveness in prevention of death after a single parenteral injection of NiCl/sub 2/. Triethylenetetramine and d-penicillamine were the most effective antidotes for acute Ni(II)-toxicity. In order of decreasing antidotal effectiveness, diglycyl-L-histidine-N-methylamide, sodium diethyldithiocarbamate and calcium disodium versenate significantly reduced the acute mortality of rats following ip injection of Ni(II). ..cap alpha..-Lipoic acid was not effective as an antidote for acute Ni(II)-toxicity.

  16. 5-FU induced acute toxic leukoencephalopathy: early recognition and reversibility on DWI-MRI.

    Maheen Anwar, Shayan Sirat; Mubarak, Fatima; Sajjad, Zafar; Azeemuddin, Muhammad

    2014-03-01

    Acute toxic leukoencephalopathy (ATL) is a rare adverse effect of 5-Fluorouracil (5-FU) chemotherapeutic agent. It is imperative for the radiologist to confidently identify the white matter changes caused by this agent in case of toxicity. This will help in early detection and appropriate management of patient, as the condition is reversible both clinically and on imaging. We report a case of a 29 years old gentleman, known case of carcinoma of esophagus who suffered from acute toxic leukoencephalopathy secondary to leukotoxic therapeutic agent 5-FU, and illustrate the reversible imaging findings of this condition on withdrawal of the inciting agent. PMID:24718016

  17. Prostate Hypofractionated Radiation Therapy With Injection of Hyaluronic Acid: Acute Toxicities in a Phase 2 Study

    Chapet, Olivier, E-mail: olivier.chapet@chu-lyon.fr [Department of Radiation Oncology, Hospices Civils de Lyon, Centre Hospitalier Lyon Sud, Pierre Benite (France); EMR3738, Université Lyon 1, Lyon (France); Decullier, Evelyne; Bin, Sylvie [Pole Information Médicale Evaluation Recherche, Hospices Civils de Lyon, Lyon (France); Université Lyon 1, Lyon (France); EA SIS, Université de Lyon, Lyon (France); Faix, Antoine [Department of Urology, Clinique Beausoleil, Montpellier (France); Ruffion, Alain [Université Lyon 1, Lyon (France); Department of Urology, Hospices Civils de Lyon, Centre Hospitalier Lyon Sud, Pierre Benite (France); Jalade, Patrice [Department of Medical Physics, Hospices Civils de Lyon, Centre Hospitalier Lyon Sud, Pierre Benite (France); Fenoglietto, Pascal [Department of Radiation Oncology and Physics, Institut du Cancer de Montpellier, Montpellier (France); Udrescu, Corina; Enachescu, Ciprian [Department of Radiation Oncology, Hospices Civils de Lyon, Centre Hospitalier Lyon Sud, Pierre Benite (France); Azria, David [Department of Radiation Oncology and Physics, Institut du Cancer de Montpellier, Montpellier (France)

    2015-03-15

    Purpose: Hypofractionated radiation therapy (RT) in prostate cancer can be developed only if the risk of rectal toxicity is controlled. In a multicenter phase 2 trial, hypofractionated irradiation was combined with an injection of hyaluronic acid (HA) to preserve the rectal wall. Tolerance of the injection and acute toxicity rates are reported. Methods and Materials: The study was designed to assess late grade 2 toxicity rates. The results described here correspond to the secondary objectives. Acute toxicity was defined as occurring during RT or within 3 months after RT and graded according to the Common Terminology Criteria for Adverse Events version 4.0. HA tolerance was evaluated with a visual analog scale during the injection and 30 minutes after injection and then by use of the Common Terminology Criteria at each visit. Results: From 2010 to 2012, 36 patients with low-risk to intermediate-risk prostate cancer were included. The HA injection induced a mean pain score of 4.6/10 ± 2.3. Thirty minutes after the injection, 2 patients still reported pain (2/10 and 3/10), which persisted after the intervention. Thirty-three patients experienced at least 1 acute genitourinary toxicity and 20 patients at least 1 acute gastrointestinal toxicity. Grade 2 toxicities were reported for 19 patients with urinary obstruction, frequency, or both and for 1 patient with proctitis. No grade 3 or 4 toxicities were reported. At the 3-month visit, 4 patients described grade 2 obstruction or frequency, and no patients had any grade 2 gastrointestinal toxicities. Conclusions: The injection of HA makes it possible to deliver hypofractionated irradiation over 4 weeks with a dose per fraction of > 3 Gy, with limited acute rectal toxicity.

  18. Systemic Lupus Erythematosus, Radiotherapy, and the Risk of Acute and Chronic Toxicity: The Mayo Clinic Experience

    Purpose: To determine the acute and chronic toxic effects of radiotherapy in patients with systemic lupus erythematosus (SLE). Methods and Materials: Medical records of 21 consecutive patients with SLE, who had received 34 courses of external beam radiotherapy and one low-dose-rate prostate implant, were retrospectively reviewed. Patients with discoid lupus erythematosus were excluded. Results: Median survival was 2.3 years and median follow-up 5.6 years. Eight (42%) of 19 patients evaluable for acute toxicity during radiotherapy experienced acute toxicity of Grade 1 or greater, and 4 (21%) had acute toxicity of Grade 3 or greater. The 5- and 10-year incidence of chronic toxicity of Grade 1 or greater was 45% (95% confidence interval [CI], 22-72%) and 56% (95% CI, 28-81%), respectively. The 5- and 10-year incidence of chronic toxicity of Grade 3 or greater was 28% (95% CI, 18-60%) and 40% (95% CI, 16-72%), respectively. Univariate analysis showed that chronic toxicity of Grade 1 or greater correlated with SLE renal involvement (p < 0.006) and possibly with the presence of five or more American Rheumatism Association criteria (p < 0.053). Chronic toxicity of Grade 3 or greater correlated with an absence of photosensitivity (p < 0.02), absence of arthritis (p < 0.03), and presence of a malar rash (p < 0.04). Conclusions: The risk of acute and chronic toxicity in patients with SLE who received radiotherapy was moderate but was not prohibitive of the use of radiotherapy. Patients with more advanced SLE may be at increased risk for chronic toxicity

  19. Prostate Hypofractionated Radiation Therapy With Injection of Hyaluronic Acid: Acute Toxicities in a Phase 2 Study

    Purpose: Hypofractionated radiation therapy (RT) in prostate cancer can be developed only if the risk of rectal toxicity is controlled. In a multicenter phase 2 trial, hypofractionated irradiation was combined with an injection of hyaluronic acid (HA) to preserve the rectal wall. Tolerance of the injection and acute toxicity rates are reported. Methods and Materials: The study was designed to assess late grade 2 toxicity rates. The results described here correspond to the secondary objectives. Acute toxicity was defined as occurring during RT or within 3 months after RT and graded according to the Common Terminology Criteria for Adverse Events version 4.0. HA tolerance was evaluated with a visual analog scale during the injection and 30 minutes after injection and then by use of the Common Terminology Criteria at each visit. Results: From 2010 to 2012, 36 patients with low-risk to intermediate-risk prostate cancer were included. The HA injection induced a mean pain score of 4.6/10 ± 2.3. Thirty minutes after the injection, 2 patients still reported pain (2/10 and 3/10), which persisted after the intervention. Thirty-three patients experienced at least 1 acute genitourinary toxicity and 20 patients at least 1 acute gastrointestinal toxicity. Grade 2 toxicities were reported for 19 patients with urinary obstruction, frequency, or both and for 1 patient with proctitis. No grade 3 or 4 toxicities were reported. At the 3-month visit, 4 patients described grade 2 obstruction or frequency, and no patients had any grade 2 gastrointestinal toxicities. Conclusions: The injection of HA makes it possible to deliver hypofractionated irradiation over 4 weeks with a dose per fraction of > 3 Gy, with limited acute rectal toxicity

  20. Effect of gamma irradiation on acute oral toxicity of ethanolic extract of red ginger (zingiber officinale)

    Red ginger is widely used in traditional medicine to treat various types of diseases. Evaluation of the toxic properties of red ginger is very important to know the negative harmful impact to human health. Therefore, before it is consumed by humans, it is needed to conduct acute oral toxicity of red ginger extract in mice. Thin rhizome of red ginger in poly ethylene plastic packaging was irradiated by gamma rays at a dose of 10 kGy with a dose rate of 10 kGy/h. The ethanol extract of unirradiated as well as irradiated red ginger was then tested for the acute oral toxicity using OECD Guideline test method. The results showed that throughout the 14 days of treatment there was a change in behavior pattern, clinical symptoms and body weight of control mice and treatment groups. Histopathological examination of kidneys, heart, liver, lungs and spleen of the dose less than 1250 mg/kg body weight showed normal condition and no significant side effects observation. While central venous damage and a reduced number of hepatocyte cells in male mice occurred in the test dose higher than 2000 mg/kg body weight, whereas in female mice it occurred in the test group dose higher than 1250 mg/kg bw. Based on renal histology of male and female mice at doses higher than 1250 mg/kg body weight, there were damage to Bowman's capsule, glomerulus, proximal vessel and distal vessels. LD50 of unirradiated and irradiated with 10 kGy of ethanol extract of red ginger were 1887 mg/kg body weight and 2639 mg/kg body weight, respectively, and it can be categorized as moderately toxic. Oral administration of ethanol extract of red ginger with dose of 1250 mg/kg body weight gave an effect in mice organs. From these results it can be concluded that oral administration of both unirradiated and irradiated with a dose 10 kGy of ethanol extract consider safe at a dose less than 1250 mg/kg body weigh. (author)

  1. Safety Evaluation of Chrysanthemum indicum L. Flower Oil by Assessing Acute Oral Toxicity, Micronucleus Abnormalities, and Mutagenicity

    Hwang, Eun-Sun; Kim, Gun-Hee

    2013-01-01

    Chrysanthemum indicum is widely used to treat immune-related and infectious disorders in East Asia. C. indicum flower oil contains 1,8-cineole, germacrene D, camphor, α-cadinol, camphene, pinocarvone, β-caryophyllene, 3-cyclohexen-1-ol, and γ-curcumene. We evaluated the safety of C. indicum flower oil by conducting acute oral toxicity, bone marrow micronucleus, and bacterial reverse mutation tests. Mortality, clinical signs and gross findings of mice were measured for 15 days after the oral s...

  2. Photosynthesis tests as an alternative to growth tests for hazard assessment of toxicant

    Petersen, S.; Kusk, Kresten Ole

    2000-01-01

    Acute (3- and 6-h) toxic responses toward Cu, linear alkylbenzene sulfonate (LAS), and tributyltin (TBT) of lightsaturated and unsaturated photosynthesis were investigated for Rhodomonas salina and Skeletonema costatum obtained from exponentially growing batch cultures and from chemostat cultures...

  3. Development and application of a marine sediment pore-water toxicity test using Ulva fasciata zoospores

    Hooten, R.L.; Carr, R.S. [Texas A and M Univ., Corpus Christi, TX (United States). Geological Survey

    1998-01-01

    An acute (96 h) pore-water toxicity test protocol using germination and growth of Ulva fasciata zoospores as endpoints was developed to test the toxicity of marine and estuarine sediment pore-water samples. Tests with an organic toxicant (sodium dodecyl sulfate; SDS), three metals (Cd, Cu, and Zn), and ammonia (NH{sub 3}) were conducted to determine zoospore sensitivity. Zoospore germination and gametophyte growth were as sensitive to SDS as sea urchin (Arbacia punctulata) fertilization and embryological development. Zoospore sensitivity to metals was greater than or comparable to that of adult macroalgae. Zoospores were less sensitive to NH{sub 3} than were other commonly used toxicity test organisms. Test results using this algal assay with sediment pore-water samples with high NH{sub 3} concentrations were compared with results from sea urchin fertilization and embryological development tests for the same samples. Ulva fasciata zoospore germination was not affected by samples with high NH{sub 3} concentrations that were toxic in both sea urchin tests. Zoospore tolerance of NH{sub 3} and sensitivity to other contaminants indicate that their response may be useful in toxicity identification evaluation studies with pore-water samples that contain high concentrations of unionized NH{sub 3}.

  4. Development and application of a marine sediment pore-water toxicity test using Ulva fasciata zoospores

    Hooten, R.L.; Carr, R.S.

    1998-01-01

    An acute (96 h) pore-water toxicity test protocol using germination and growth of Ulva fasciata zoospores as endpoints was developed to test the toxicity of marine and estuarine sediment pore-water samples. Tests with an organic toxicant (sodium dodecyl sulfate; SDS), three metals (Cd, Cu, and Zn), and ammonia (NH3) were conducted to determine zoospore sensitivity. Zoospore germination and gametophyte growth were as sensitive to SDS as sea urchin (Arbacia punctulata) fertilization and embryological development. Zoospore sensitivity to metals was greater than or comparable to that of adult macroalgae. Zoospores were less sensitive to NH3 than were other commonly used toxicity test organisms. Test results using this algal assay with sediment pore-water samples with high NH3 concentrations were compared with results from sea urchin fertilization and embryological development tests for the same samples. Ulva fasciata zoospore germination was not affected by samples with high NH3 concentrations that were toxic in both sea urchin tests. Zoospore tolerance of NH3 and sensitivity to other contaminants indicate that their response may be useful in toxicity identification evaluation studies with pore-water samples that contain high concentrations of unionized NH3.

  5. Acute and chronic toxicity studies of the water extract from dried fruits of Terminalia chebula Rezt. in rats

    W Panunto

    2010-12-01

    Full Text Available Summary: Terminalia chebula Retz. has been extensively used in traditional medicine for laxative, carminative, astringent, expectorant, and tonic. The chronic toxicity of water extract has not yet been studied. To evaluate its safety, the water extract from the dried fruits of T. chebula was orally administrated in rats. For acute toxicity, a single oral administration was performed at a dose of 5,000 mg/kg body weight (five females, five males. The study of chronic toxicity was determined by oral feeding both female and male rats (ten females, ten males daily with the test substance at the dose of 300, 600 and 1,200 mg/kg body weight continuously for 270 days. The results of acute toxicity showed no signs of toxicity such as general behavior changes, mortality, changes on gross appearance or histophatological changes of the internal organs of rats. The examinations of signs of chronic toxicity showed no abnormalities in the test groups as compared to the controls. Hematological and blood chemical values in treated groups were normal in comparison with the control group. Non-toxicity effect of T. chebula was present as no changes in body weight, internal organ weight, and general behaviors. Macroscopic or microscopic of internal organs or tissues in treated rats showed no changes. Therefore, the water extract of T. chebula given orally to female and male rats did not produce both acute and chronic toxicities in rats. Industrial relevance: The use of medicinal plants and preparations derived from them as dietary supplements, nutraceuticals, functional foods and herbal medicinal products has become more widely accepted in developing countries. Therefore, it is important to evaluate the adverse effects of these plants and their preparations. Among them, T. chebula has received high attention because decoction of its fresh and dried fruits is used in traditional medicine for the treatment of several illnesses such as laxative, carminative

  6. Simple test guidelines for screening oilspill sorbents for toxicity

    Environment Canada's Emergencies Science Division has established a program to develop a standard test method suitable for evaluating the toxicity of common sorbent materials. Sorbents are used to absorb or adsorb spilled oil and other hazardous materials. They vary widely in composition and packaging. They are often treated with oleophilic and hydrophobic compounds to improve performance and have been used in large quantities during oil spills. Until now, their potential toxicity has never been considered. Three tests have been evaluated to determine how appropriate they are in screening the toxicity of sorbents. Seven toxicity test recommendations for sorbents were presented. 7 refs., 3 tabs., 2 figs

  7. Developing acute-to-chronic toxicity ratios for lead, cadmium, and zinc using rainbow trout, a mayfly, and a midge

    Mebane, C.A.; Hennessy, D.P.; Dillon, F.S.

    2008-01-01

    In order to estimate acute-to-chronic toxicity ratios (ACRs) relevant to a coldwater stream community, we exposed rainbow trout (Oncorhynchus mykiss) to cadmium (Cd), lead (Pb), and zinc (Zn) in 96-h acute and 60+ day early-life stage (ELS) exposures. We also tested the acute and sublethal responses of a mayfly (Baetis tricaudatus) and a midge (Chironomus dilutus, formerly C. tentans) with Pb. We examine the statistical interpretation of test endpoints and the acute-to-chronic ratio concept. Increasing the number of control replicates by 2 to 3x decreased the minimum detectable differences by almost half. Pb ACR estimates mostly increased with increasing acute resistance of the organisms (rainbow trout ACRs trout and Cd were 0.6 and 0.95; Zn about 1.0; and for Pb 3.3 and 11. The comparable Pb ACRs for the mayfly and Chironomus were 5.2 and 51 respectively. Our rainbow trout ACRs with Pb were about 5-20x lower than earlier reports with salmonids. We suggest discounting previous ACR results that used larger and older fish in their acute tests. ?? 2007 GovernmentEmployee: U.S. Geological Survey.

  8. Relative sensitivity of bull trout (Salvelinus confluentus) and rainbow trout (Oncorhynchus mykiss) to acute copper toxicity.

    Hansen, James A; Lipton, Josh; Welsh, Paul G

    2002-03-01

    Bull trout (Salvelinus confluentus) were recently listed as threatened in the United States under the federal Endangered Species Act. Past and present habitat for this species includes waterways contaminated with heavy metals released from mining activities. Because the sensitivity of this species to copper was previously unknown, we conducted acute copper toxicity tests with bull and rainbow trout (Oncorhynchus mykiss) in side-by-side comparison tests. Bioassays were conducted using water at two temperatures (8 degrees C and 16 degrees C) and two hardness levels (100 and 220 mg/L as CaCO3). At a water hardness of 100 mg/L, both species were less sensitive to copper when tested at 16 degrees C compared to 8 degrees C. The two species had similar sensitivity to copper in 100-mg/ L hardness water, but bull trout were 2.5 to 4 times less sensitive than rainbow trout in 220-mg/L hardness water. However, when our results were viewed in the context of the broader literature on rainbow trout sensitivity to copper, the sensitivities of the two species appeared similar. This suggests that adoption of toxicity thresholds that are protective of rainbow trout would be protective of bull trout; however, an additional safety factor may be warranted because of the additional level of protection necessary for this federally threatened species. PMID:11878477

  9. Alternative testing strategies for predicting developmental toxicity of antifungal compound

    Li, H.

    2016-01-01

    Determination of safe human exposure levels of chemicals in toxicological risk assessments largely relies on animal toxicity data. In these toxicity studies, the highest number of animals are used for reproductive and developmental toxicity testing. Because of economic and ethical reasons, there is large interest in the development of in vitro and/or in silico test systems as alternatives for the animal studies. The aim of the present thesis was to evaluate the applicability of combined in vi...

  10. Effects of diet on seven-day Ceriodaphnia dubia toxicity tests

    Cerda, B.; Olive, J.H. (Univ. of Akron, OH (United States))

    1993-06-01

    The purpose of this study was to evaluate the effects of four diets on the results of seven-day Ceriodaphnia dubia toxicity tests. Survival and reproduction were used as indices to detect the sensitivity of this species to acute and chronic copper stress. All toxicity tests were conducted using the moderately hard reconstituted water recommended in 1989 by the U.S. Environmental Protection Agency. Diet differentially affected the acute and chronic toxicity of copper. Daphnids fed Selenastrum capricornutum (alga) showed the greatest sensitivity, followed by those fed the alga Chlamydomonas reinhardti, then by animals fed a Yeast-Cerophyll[sup TM]-Trout Food (YCTF) mixture plus Selenastrum, and finally by animals fed YCTF alone. These differences may result from the poor nutritional adequacy of Selenastrum when fed alone, the different caloric contents of the diets, the increased toxicant uptake by the organisms through ingestion of copper-laden algal cells, and/or copper ions sequestered by fats and insoluble substances in YCTF. The authors recognize that diet is an important variable in seven-day toxicity tests, and that the selection of a diet should not be based only on its effects on long-term culturing of C. dubia, but also on its possible effects on test results.

  11. Effects of water hardness and temperature on the acute toxicity of mercuric chloride on rainbow trout (Oncorhynchus mykiss).

    Terzi, Ertugrul; Verep, Bulent

    2012-07-01

    In this study, the toxicity of mercuric chloride (HgCl(2)), an important pollutant threatening water resources for many years, and the effects of water temperature and hardness on the toxicity in cultured rainbow trout Oncorhynchus mykiss (4.79 ± 0.16 g; 7.38 ± 0.24 cm; mean ± SD) were investigated at different temperatures (12 and 17°C) and hardness concentrations (35, 70 and 120 mg l(-1) as calcium carbonate, CaCO(3)). For this purpose, the acute toxicity tests were performed by 96-h static tests in different water temperatures and water hardness concentrations. For acute toxicity tests, solutions ranging from 0.4 to 1.2 mg l(-1) were used at 12°C and solutions ranging from 0.4 to 1.0 mg l(-1) at 17°C. The LC(50) values of HgCl(2) that killed 50% of rainbow trout within 96 h in the hardness concentrations of 35, 70 and 120 mg l(-1) CaCO(3) were calculated using probit analysis, and were found to be 0.725, 0.788, 0.855 mg l(-1) at 12°C and 0.670, 0.741, 0.787 mg l(-1) at 17°C, respectively. Consequently, the toxicity of HgCl(2) on rainbow trout decreased when the temperature decreased from 17 to 12°C. Toxicity increased when the hardness decreased from 120 to 35 mg l(-1) CaCO(3). In contrast to temperature, water hardness presents a negative effect on the toxicity of HgCl(2). PMID:22033427

  12. Cerebrovascular Acute Radiation Syndrome : Radiation Neurotoxins, Mechanisms of Toxicity, Neuroimmune Interactions.

    Popov, Dmitri; Maliev, Slava

    . Radiation Toxins (SRD-1)had been isolated from Central Lymph of irradiated animals (cows, sheep, pigs). Experiments to study toxicity of Radiation Neurotoxins had been performed. Intravenous (IV) and intramuscular (IM) administration of RT SRD-1 to radiation naive animals had induced acute toxicity which referred to the harmful effects generated by high doses of radiation. In-jection of toxic doses of RT SRD-1 (Toxic doses: 0,1 mg/kg, 0,5mg/kg, 1 mg/kg, 10mg/kg,30 mg/kg, 50mg/kg,70 mg/kg,100 mg/kg, 110mg/kg)were compared to the similar effects caused by high doses of radiation. Results: Injection of SRD-1 ( Neurotoxin Cv ARS)of all ten tested toxic doses had caused a death of radiation naive animals within the first hours after admin-istration of toxins. For all animals in all experiments, a short period of extreme agitation was replaced by deep coma, and suppression of blood circulation and breathing. The results of postmortem section had showed characteristics of intra-cortical hemorrhage. Conclusions: Acute radiation injury induces a disorder of blood supply of the Central Nervous System (CNS). However, administration of SRD-1 Radiation Toxins to radiation naive animals produces crit-ically important inflammatory reactions with hemorrhagic stroke development. Neurotoxicity and Excitotoxicity are two stages of the pathological processes resulted in damaging and killing nerve cells thorough apoptotic necrosis. Excitotoxicity is well known as a pathological process that occurs when important excitatory neurotransmitters (glutamate, serotonin) over-activate the receptors -NMDA, AMPA, 5HT1, 5HT2, 5H3. Radiation Neurotoxins possibly act on the same receptors and activate the cell death mechanisms through direct or indirect excessive activation of same receptors.

  13. Field Validation of Toxicity Tests to Evaluate the Potential for Beneficial Use of Produced Water

    Joseph Bidwell; Jonathan Fisher; Naomi Cooper

    2008-03-31

    This study investigated potential biological effects of produced water contamination derived from occasional surface overflow and possible subsurface intrusion at an oil production site along the shore of Skiatook Lake, Oklahoma. We monitored basic chemistry and acute toxicity to a suite of standard aquatic test species (fathead minnow-Pimephales promelas, Daphnia pulex, Daphnia magna, and Ceriodaphnia dubia) in produced water and in samples taken from shallow groundwater wells on the site. Toxicity identification evaluations and ion toxicity modeling were used to identify toxic constituents in the samples. Lake sediment at the oil production site and at a reference site were also analyzed for brine intrusion chemically and by testing sediment toxicity using the benthic invertebrates, Chironomus dilutus, and Hyallela azteca. Sediment quality was also assessed with in situ survival and growth studies with H. azteca and the Asian clam, Corbicula fluminea, and by benthic macroinvertebrate community sampling. The produced water was acutely toxic to the aquatic test organisms at concentrations ranging from 1% to 10% of the whole produced water sample. Toxicity identification evaluation and ion toxicity modeling indicated major ion salts and hydrocarbons were the primary mixture toxicants. The standardized test species used in the laboratory bioassays exhibited differences in sensitivity to these two general classes of contaminants, which underscores the importance of using multiple species when evaluating produced water toxicity. Toxicity of groundwater was greater in samples from wells near a produced water injection well and an evaporation pond. Principle component analyses (PCA) of chemical data derived from the groundwater wells indicated dilution by lake water and possible biogeochemical reactions as factors that ameliorated groundwater toxicity. Elevated concentrations of major ions were found in pore water from lake sediments, but toxicity from these ions was

  14. Evaluation of ability of reference toxicity tests to identify stress in laboratory populations of the amphipod Hyalella azteca

    McNulty, E.W.; Ellersieck, M.R.; Rabeni, C.F. [Univ. of Missouri, Columbia, MO (United States); Dwyer, F.J.; Greer, E.I.; Ingersoll, C.G. [Geological Survey, Columbia, MO (United States). Columbia Environmental Research Center

    1999-03-01

    Standard methods for conducting toxicity tests imply that the condition of test organisms can be established using reference toxicity tests. However, only a limited number of studies have evaluated whether reference toxicity tests can actually be used to determine if organisms are in good condition, at the start of a test. The authors evaluated the ability of reference toxicants to identify stress associated with starvation in laboratory populations of the amphipod Hyalella azteca using acute toxicity tests and four reference toxicants: KCl, CdCl{sub 2}, sodium pentachlorophenate (NaPCP), and carbaryl. Stress associated with severe starvation was observed with exposure of amphipods to carbaryl or NaPCP but not with exposure to KCl or CdCl{sub 2} (i.e., lower LC50 with severe starvation). Although the LC50s for NaPCP and carbaryl were statistically different between starved and fed amphipods, this difference may not be biologically significant given the variability expected in acute lethality tests. Stress associated with sieving, heat shock, or cold shock of amphipods before the start of a test was not evident with exposure to carbaryl or KCl as reference toxicants. The chemicals evaluated in this study provided minimal information about the condition of the organisms used to start a toxicity test. Laboratories should periodically perform reference toxicity tests to assess the sensitivity of life stages or strains of test organisms. However, use of other test acceptability criteria required in standard methods, such as minimum survival, growth, or reproduction of organisms in the control treatment at the end of a test, provides more useful information about the condition of organisms used to start a test compared to data generated from reference toxicity tests.

  15. Neurofunctional endpoints assessed in human neuroblastoma SH-SY5Y cells for estimation of acute systemic toxicity

    The objective of the EU-funded integrated project ACuteTox is to develop a strategy in which general cytotoxicity, together with organ-specific toxicity and biokinetic features, are used for the estimation of human acute systemic toxicity. Our role in the project is to characterise the effect of reference chemicals with regard to neurotoxicity. We studied cell membrane potential (CMP), noradrenalin (NA) uptake, acetylcholine esterase (AChE) activity, acetylcholine receptor (AChR) signalling and voltage-operated calcium channel (VOCC) function in human neuroblastoma SH-SY5Y cells after exposure to 23 pharmaceuticals, pesticides or industrial chemicals. Neurotoxic alert chemicals were identified by comparing the obtained data with cytotoxicity data from the neutral red uptake assay in 3T3 mouse fibroblasts. Furthermore, neurotoxic concentrations were correlated with estimated human lethal blood concentrations (LC50). The CMP assay was the most sensitive assay, identifying eight chemicals as neurotoxic alerts and improving the LC50 correlation for nicotine, lindane, atropine and methadone. The NA uptake assay identified five neurotoxic alert chemicals and improved the LC50 correlation for atropine, diazepam, verapamil and methadone. The AChE, AChR and VOCC assays showed limited potential for detection of acute toxicity. The CMP assay was further evaluated by testing 36 additional reference chemicals. Five neurotoxic alert chemicals were generated and orphendrine and amitriptyline showed improved LC50 correlation. Due to the high sensitivity and the simplicity of the test protocol, the CMP assay constitutes a good candidate assay to be included in an in vitro test strategy for prediction of acute systemic toxicity.

  16. Acute and subchronic toxicity study of the water extract from dried fruits of Piper nigrum L. in rats

    Kanjana Jaijoy

    2007-03-01

    Full Text Available The study was carried out to evaluate acute and subchronic toxicities of the water extract from the dried fruits of Piper nigrum L. A single oral administration of the extract at a dose of 5,000 mg/kg body weight (5 male, 5 female did not produce signs of toxicity, behavioral changes, mortality, changes on gross appearance or histopathological changes of internal organs. The subchronic toxicity was determined by oral feeding both male and female rats (10 male, 10 female daily with the test substance at the doses of 300, 600 and 1,200 mg/kg body weight continuously for 90 days. The examinations of signs, animal behavior and health monitoring showed no abnormalities in the test groups as compared to the controls. The test and control groups (on the 90th day and the satellite group (on the 118th day were analyzed by measuring their final body and organ weights, taking necropsy, and examining hematology, blood clinical chemistry and histopathology. The results suggest that the water extract from the dried fruits of P. nigrum does not cause acute or subchronic toxicities in either male or female rats.

  17. ADMET evaluation in drug discovery: 15. Accurate prediction of rat oral acute toxicity using relevance vector machine and consensus modeling

    Lei, Tailong; Li, Youyong; Song, Yunlong; Li, Dan; Sun, Huiyong; Hou, Tingjun

    2016-01-01

    Background Determination of acute toxicity, expressed as median lethal dose (LD50), is one of the most important steps in drug discovery pipeline. Because in vivo assays for oral acute toxicity in mammals are time-consuming and costly, there is thus an urgent need to develop in silico prediction models of oral acute toxicity. Results In this study, based on a comprehensive data set containing 7314 diverse chemicals with rat oral LD50 values, relevance vector machine (RVM) technique was employ...

  18. Comparison of acute toxicity of process chemicals used in the oil refinery industry, tested with the diatom Chaetoceros gracilis, the flagellate Isochrysis galbana, and the zebra fish, Brachydanio rerio

    Chemicals under the trade names Nalco 537-DA, Nalco 625, Nalco 7607, Nalco 5165, Ivamin, and technical monoethanolamine are used extensively in the oil refinery industry. Aquatic toxicity tests were conducted using zebra fish fry (Brachydanio rerio) and the unicellular algae Isochrysis galbana (a flagellate) and Chaetoceros gracilis (a diatom). Inhibition of cell division, chlorophyll content, and 14CO2 uptake in the algae were sensitive end points. The effective concentrations (EC50s) of growth inhibition were 0.1 mg/L (Ivamin; I. galbana), 0.8 mg/L (Nalco 7607; I. galbana), 6 mg/L (Nalco 625; I. galbana), 10 mg/L (Nalco 5165; C. gracilis), and 15 mg/L (Nalco 537-DA; C. gracilis). The lethal concentrations (LC50s) (96 h) toward zebra fish fry was 1 mg/L for Nalco 7607, 6.5 mg/L for Nalco 537-DA, 7.1 mg/L for Nalco 625, and 20 mg/L for Ivamin 803. Monoethanolamine had an LC50 higher than 5,000 mg/L. Nalco 5165 was not tested on fish fry. The heartbeat frequency of fish embryos was reduced by 2.5 mg/L Nalco 537-DA, but this was an insensitive end point for the other chemicals

  19. Application of OECD Guideline 423 in assessing the acute oral toxicity of moniliformin.

    Jonsson, Martina; Jestoi, Marika; Nathanail, Alexis V; Kokkonen, Ulla-Maija; Anttila, Marjukka; Koivisto, Pertti; Karhunen, Pirkko; Peltonen, Kimmo

    2013-03-01

    Moniliformin is a Fusarium mycotoxin highly prevalent in grains and grain-based products worldwide. In this study, the acute oral toxicity of moniliformin was assessed in Sprague-Dawley male rats according to OECD Guideline 423 with a single-dose exposure. Clinical observations and histopathological changes were recorded together with the excretion of moniliformin via urine and feces, utilizing a novel liquid chromatography-mass spectrometry method. According to our study, moniliformin is acutely toxic to rats with a rather narrow range of toxicity. Moniliformin can be classified into category 2 (LD(50) cut-off value 25 mg/kg b.w.), according to the Globally Harmonized System for the classification of chemicals. The clinical observations included muscular weakness, respiratory distress and heart muscle damage. Pathological findings confirmed that heart is the main target tissue of acute moniliformin toxicity. A significant proportion (about 38%) of the administered moniliformin was rapidly excreted in urine in less than 6 h. However, the toxicokinetics of the majority of the administered dose still requires clarification, as the total excretion was only close to 42%. Considering the worldwide occurrence of moniliformin together with its high acute toxicity, research into the subchronic toxicity is of vital importance to identify the possible risk in human/animal health. PMID:23201451

  20. n overview of current techniques for ocular toxicity testing.

    Ahearne, Mark

    2015-01-01

    Abstract Given the hazardous nature of many materials and substances, ocular toxicity testing is required to evaluate the dangers associated with these substances after their exposure to the eye. Historically, animal tests such as the Draize test were exclusively used to determine the level of ocular toxicity by applying a test substance to a live rabbit’s eye and evaluating the biological response. In recent years, legislation in many developed countries has been introduced to try to redu...

  1. Evaluation of acute and subacute toxicity induced by methanol extract ofTerminalia citrina leaves in Sprague Dawley rats

    Narhari Das; Durajan Goshwami; Md. Sharif Hasan; Sheikh Zahir Raihan

    2015-01-01

    Objective: To evaluate acute and subacute toxicity of methanol extract ofTerminalia citrina leaves (family: Combretaceae) in Sprague Dawley rats. Methods: The acute toxicity studies were conducted where the limit test dose of 3 200 mg/kg body weight used. Observations were made and recorded systemically on 1, 2, 4, 24 and 48 h after dose administration for behavior, breathing, cutaneous effects, sensory nervous system response or gastrointestinal effects. For the subacute toxicity, four groups of 10 female rats were received; distilled water (control), 250, 500 and 1 000 mg/kg of extracts respectively every 24 h orally for 28 days. Results: No significant variation in the body and organ weights between the control and the treated group was observed after 28 days of treatment. Haematological analysis and biochemical parameters revealed no toxic effects of the extract. Pathologically, neither gross abnormalities nor histopathological changes were observed. No mortality was recorded in 28 days. Conclusions: It was safer and non toxic to rats even at higher doses and therefore could be well considered for further investigation for its medicinal and therapeutic efficacy.

  2. Toxicity and Antioxidant Tests of Morinda citrifolia (noni) Seed Extract

    West, Brett J.; C. Jarakae Jensen; Afa K Palu; Shixin Deng

    2011-01-01

    The aim of the current study was to evaluate Morinda citrifolia (noni) seed extract, a food ingredient, for potential toxicity and antioxidant activity. Nitrates, nitrites, phytic acid, oxalic acid, as well as aflatoxins B1, B2, G1 and G2 were not detected in the extract. The extract was also non-cytoxic (LC50 > 1 mg/mL) in the 24 and 40 h brine shrimp toxicity test. There were no symptoms of toxicity in a subacute (28 day) oral toxicity test in Sprague-Dawley rats. Noni seed extract did not ...

  3. Acute and Chronic Toxicity of an Aqueous Fraction of the Stem Bark of Stryphnodendron adstringens (Barbatimão in Rodents

    Marco Antonio Costa

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Stryphnodendron adstringens has a high tannin content and is used as an antiseptic and antimicrobial and in the treatment of leucorrhea, gonorrhea, wound healing, and gastritis. The present study evaluated the toxic effects of the heptamer prodelphinidin (F2 from the stem bark of S. adstringens in rodents. In the acute toxicity test, the mice that received oral doses exhibited reversible effects, with an LD50 of 3.015 mg·kg−1. In the chronic toxicity test at 90 days, Wistar rats were treated with different doses of F2 (10, 100, and 200 mg·kg−1. In the biochemical, hematological, and histopathological examinations and open-field test, the different dose groups did not exhibit significant differences compared with controls. The present results indicate that F2 from the stem bark of S. adstringens caused no toxicity with acute and chronic oral treatment in rodents at the doses administered.

  4. Acute toxicity and mutagenic activity of Mexican plants used in traditional medicine.

    Déciga-Campos, Myrna; Rivero-Cruz, Isabel; Arriaga-Alba, Myriam; Castañeda-Corral, Gabriela; Angeles-López, Guadalupe E; Navarrete, Andrés; Mata, Rachel

    2007-03-21

    The present work was undertaken to determine safety parameters of selected Mexican medicinal plants chosen on the basis of their frequency of medicinal use and commercial importance. The medicinal herbs included Amphipteryngium adstringens, Hintonia standleyana, Hintonia latiflora, Piper sanctum, Haemathoxylon brasiletto, Iostephane heterophylla, Valeriana procera, Arracacia tolucensis, Brickellia veronicaefolia, Scaphyglottis livida, Exostema caribaeum, Hippocratea excelsa, Ligusticum porteri, Poliomintha longiflora and Gnaphalium sp. In the acute toxicity studies in mice performed according to the Lorke procedure, Exostema caribaeum, Hippocratea excelsa, Ligusticum porteri and Poliomintha longiflora were the most toxic with LD(50) values between 1085 and 2mg/kg. The Ames test revealed that Gnaphalium sp. and Valeriana procera extracts induced mutations of S. typhimurium TA98 with or without the S9 microsomal fraction, and TA100 in the presence of the enzymatic fraction, respectively. The tincture of Valeriana procera, however, was non-mutagenic. Finally, in the Artemia salina lethality test Brickellia veronicaefolia, Arracacia tolucensis, Poliomintha longiflora and Piper sanctum caused significant mortality of the crustacean larvae with LC(50) in the range of 37-227 microg/mL. PMID:17101253

  5. Evaluation of the acute toxicity of Orimulsion and Fuel Oil No. 6 using standard estuarine species

    Fuel Oil No.6 is a typical fuel used nationwide by power plants in the generation of electricity and orimulsion is an alternative fuel also used for this purpose in facilities in Canada, Japan and the United Kingdom. Orimulsion is currently being evaluated for combustion in the US by Florida Power and Light Company. Several cute and partial life cycle toxicity tests were conducted in order to assess the potential aquatic toxicity and environmental consequences of an accidental Orimulsion spill in seawater. Environmental studies conducted using Orimulsion indicate that in the case of a spill into seawater, Orimulsion will become a bitumen particle suspension in seawater and a floating slick is not expected to form. Therefore, the typical acute effects associated with oil slicks were not anticipated for the dispersed bitumen. In the case of Orimulsion, all of the bitumen can be assumed to be in the water column following an accidental spill. Therefore, Orimulsion potential environmental impacts are expected to be observed primarily on organisms inhabiting the water column. Test species included mysid shrimp, inland silversides, polychaetes, amphipods, eastern oysters, and sheepshead minnows

  6. Study on the Acute Toxicity and Genetics Toxicity of Bensulfuronk-methyl on Danio rerio%苄嘧磺隆对斑马鱼的急性毒性和遗传毒性研究

    姜罡丞

    2009-01-01

    [Objective] The aim was to study the effect of bensulfuron-methyl herbicide on acute toxicity and genetics toxicity of Danio rerio. [Method] Median lethal concentration was calculated by acute toxicity test, and analyzing the herbicide whether existing in potential toxicity to aquatic organisms or not. Based on the study of acute toxicity, genetics toxicity was carried out, by calculating the micronucleus rate to judge bensulfuron-methyl herbicide whether existing in potential toxicity or not. [Result] The LD50 (24 h and 48 h) of bensulfuron-methyl herbicide are 0.698 ml/L and 0.637 ml/L respectively, the safe concentration was 0.159 ml/L. The results on the effects of micronucleus (MN) in erythrocytes of Danio rerio induced by bensulfuron-methyl at different times and different concentrations showed that the MN rate of control group was 0.010 3%, the highest MN rate of experimental group reached to 0.372%, it also indicated that bensulfuron-methyl herbicide had genetics toxicity to Danio rerio. At the same detection time, there was dose-effect relationship of MN rate in erythrocytes between treatment and control groups with different concentrations. In the same treatment group, the MN rate in erythrocytes reached to peak value at 24 h, and decreased at 48 h and 72 h with the infection time was prolonged. [Conclusion] The study provides some basis for scientifically selecting and reasonably using herbicide.

  7. Safety evaluation of the ethyl acetate extract on irradiated tea parasite: Acute toxicity study on mice

    Many studies of the pharmacological efficacy of tea parasite and the use of ionizing radiation for decontamination of microbes and extending shelf life have been reported, but there is no information on its safety, such as the acute toxicity. In this study, the acute toxicity of two ethyl acetate extracts from unirradiated and irradiated (irradiation dose of 10 kGy) tea parasites Scurrula atropurpurea on Swiss Webster mice have been examined. The observation was done after the treatment of a single oral dose of ethyl acetate extract in various dose groups, i.e.: control (0 g/kg of mice body weight), D1 (0.625 g/kg), D2 (1.25 g/kg), D3 (2.5 g/kg) D4 (5 g/kg), D5 (10 g/kg) by observing the effect on behavioral response (pharmacological profile), the body weight gains and mortality until the day 14th. At the last day, the observation of vital organs has also been done. The result showed that no acute toxicity was found in mice treated with a single oral dose of ethyl acetate extract from unirradiated tea parasite and irradiated tea parasite at the dose of 10 kGy. At the dose up to 10 g/kg (equivalent to 77.6 g of extract which administered to human), the normal body weight gains were observed in mice of all dose groups, no mice deaths in any of the dose groups, and no significant change (p > 0.05) in organ weights relative to the body weight i.e.: liver, spleen, kidneys, lung, heart, testes and seminal vesicle (for male), and ovaries and uterus (for female). The approximate lethal doses for male and female mice were determined to be higher than 10 g/kg of mice body weight. It is suggested that the treatment of ethyl acetate extract from unirradiated and irradiated tea parasites until dose up to 10 g/kg of mice body weight was still safe. (author)

  8. Development of marine sediment bioassays and toxicity tests for monitoring and regulation in Europe

    Thain, J.; Matthiessen, P.

    1995-12-31

    There is a need in Europe and elsewhere for a broad suite of whole-sediment bioassays and toxicity tests which can be used for routine monitoring and assessment of the marine environment and for evaluating the toxic effects of chemicals which may find their way into sediments. Until recently, few European species had been incorporated into such tests but the availability of suitable methodologies is now increasing rapidly. Perhaps the most important recent activity in this area consisted of an international ring test of acute sediment toxicity test methods which was organized by the Oslo and Paris Commissions in 1993, using up to 4 offshore chemicals as test materials. It evaluated the performance of 4 acute (5--10 day) tests involving: the sea urchin Echinocardium cordatum, the bivalve mollusc Abra alba, the amphipod crustacean Corophium volutator, and the polychaete worm Arenicola marina. The ring test concluded that the C. volutator test was the most appropriate for evaluating offshore chemicals, but all these methods are now widely used in Europe, both as toxicity tests and as bioassays. For example, the A. marina procedure (which has both lethal and sublethal endpoints), in combination with the C. volutator method, is now routinely used in the UK for monitoring the toxicity of estuarine sediments. Further activities are in progress. Perhaps the most important is the development of chronic marine sediment tests and bioassays which can be used to assess the long-term effects of the many sedimentary contaminants which are able to persist in this type of habitat and possibly cause delayed effects on the growth and reproduction, etc. of benthic fauna.

  9. High-Grade Acute Organ Toxicity as a Positive Prognostic Factor in Primary Radiochemotherapy for Anal Carcinoma

    Purpose: To test for a possible correlation between high-grade acute organ toxicity during primary radiochemotherapy and treatment outcome for patients with anal carcinoma. Methods and Materials: From 1991 to 2009, 72 patients with anal carcinoma were treated at our department (10 patients had stage I, 28 patients had stage II, 11 patients had stage IIIA, and 13 patients had stage IIIB cancer [Union Internationale Contre le Cancer criteria]). All patients received normofractionated (1.8 Gy/day, five times/week) whole-pelvis irradiation including iliac and inguinal lymph nodes with a cumulative dose of 50.4 Gy. Concomitant chemotherapy regimen consisted of two cycles of 5-fluorouracil (1,000 mg/m2total body surface area (TBSA)/day as continuous intravenous infusion on days 1-4 and 29-32) and mitomycin C (10 mg/m2/TBSA, intravenously on days 1 and 29). Toxicity during treatment was monitored weekly, and any incidence of Common Toxicity Criteria (CTC) grade of ≥3 for skin reaction, cystitis, proctitis, or enteritis was assessed as high-grade acute organ toxicity for later analysis. Results: We found significant correlation between high-grade acute organ toxicity and overall survival, locoregional control, and stoma-free survival, which was independent in multivariate analysis from other possible prognostic factors: patients with a CTC acute organ toxicity grade of ≥3 had a 5-year overall survival rate of 97% compared to 30% in patients without (p < 0.01, multivariate analysis; 97% vs. 48%, p = 0.03 for locoregional control, and 95% vs. 59%, p = 0.05 for stoma-free survival). Conclusions: Our data indicate that normal tissue and tumor tissue may behave similarly with respect to treatment response, since high-grade acute organ toxicity during radiochemotherapy showed itself to be an independent prognostic marker in our patient population. This hypothesis should be further analyzed by using biomolecular and clinical levels in future clinical trials.

  10. In vitro anti oxidant activity and acute oral toxicity of Terminalia paniculata bark ethanolic extract on Sprague Dawley rats

    Ramgopal Mopuri; Balaji Meriga

    2014-01-01

    Objective: To ensure the safety and evaluate the anti oxidant activity of Terminalia paniculata (T.paniculata) ethanolic extract in Sprague Dawley rats. Methods: The solvent extracts (hexane, ethyl acetate and ethanol) of T. paniculata were subjected to phytochemical analysis and their DPPH radical scavenging activity was assayed. The oral acute toxicity was evaluated using ethanolic extract of T. paniculata. Results:Ethyl acetate and ethanolic extracts showed more phytochemicals, whereas highest DPPH scavenging activity was found in ethanolic extract. In an acute toxicity study, T. paniculata ethanolic extract was orally administered (1 000 mg/kg body weight) to rats and observed for 72 h for any toxic symptoms and the dose was continued up to 14 d. On the 15th day rats were sacrificed and blood samples were collected from control and test animals and analyzed for some biochemical parameters. We did not observe any behavioral changes in test groups in comparison with their controls. Also, there were no significant alterations in biochemical, hematological (hemoglobin content and blood cells count) and liver function parameters such as serum glutamate pyruvate transaminase, serum glutamate oxaloacetate transaminase, alkaline phosphatase, total proteins, albumin and bilirubin levels between T. paniculata ethanolic extract treated and normal control groups. Conclusions:Together our results demonstrated that T. paniculata ethanolic possessed potent antioxidant activity and it was safer and non toxic to rats even at higher doses and therefore could be well considered for further investigation for its medicinal and therapeutic efficacy.

  11. Acute and Chronic Toxicity of Soluble Fractions of Industrial Solid Wastes on Daphnia magna and Vibrio fischeri

    Letícia Flohr

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available Industrial wastes may produce leachates that can contaminate the aquatic ecosystem. Toxicity testing in acute and chronic levels is essential to assess environmental risks from the soluble fractions of these wastes, since only chemical analysis may not be adequate to classify the hazard of an industrial waste. In this study, ten samples of solid wastes from textile, metal-mechanic, and pulp and paper industries were analyzed by acute and chronic toxicity tests with Daphnia magna and Vibrio fischeri. A metal-mechanic waste (sample MM3 induced the highest toxicity level to Daphnia magna(CE50,48 h=2.21%. A textile waste induced the highest toxicity level to Vibrio fischeri (sample TX2, CE50,30 min=12.08%. All samples of pulp and paper wastes, and a textile waste (sample TX2 induced chronic effects on reproduction, length, and longevity of Daphnia magna. These results could serve as an alert about the environmental risks of an inadequate waste classification method.

  12. Acute and chronic toxicity of uranium compounds to Ceriodaphnia-Daphnia dubia

    A study to determine the acute and chronic toxicity of uranyl nitrate, hydrogen uranyl phosphate, and uranium dioxide to the organism Ceriodaphnia dubia was conducted. The toxicity tests were conducted by two independent environmental consulting laboratories. Part of the emphasis for this determination was based on concerns expressed by SCDHEC, which was concerned that a safety factor of 100 must be applied to the previous 1986 acute toxicity result of 0.22 mg/L for Daphnia pulex, This would have resulted in the LETF release limits being based on an instream concentration of 0.0022 mg/L uranium. The NPDES Permit renewal application to SCDHEC utilized the results of this study and recommended that the LETF release limit for uranium be based an instream concentration of 0.004 mg/L uranium. This is based on the fact that the uranium releases from the M-Area LETF will be in the hydrogen uranyl phosphate form, or a uranyl phosphate complex at the pH (6--10) of the Liquid Effluent Treatment Facility effluent stream, and at the pH of the receiving stream (5.5 to 7.0). Based on the chronic toxicity of hydrogen uranyl phosphate, a lower uranium concentration limit for the Liquid Effluent Treatment Facility outfall vs. the existing NPDES permit was recommended: The current NPDES permit ''Guideline'' for uranium at outfall M-004 is 0.500 mg/L average and 1.0 mg/L maximum, at a design flowrate of 60 gpm. It was recommended that the uranium concentration at the M-004 outfall be reduced to 0.28 mg/L average, and 0.56 mg/L, maximum, and to reduce the design flowrate to 30 gpm. The 0.28 mg/L concentration will provide an instream concentration of 0.004 mg/L uranium. The 0.28 mg/L concentration at M-004 is based on the combined flows from A-014, A-015, and A-011 outfalls (since 1985) of 1840 gpm (2.65 MGD) and was the flow rate which was utilized in the 1988 NPDES permit renewal application

  13. Acute and Subchronic Toxic Effects of the Fruits of Physalis peruviana L.

    Basak Ozlem Perk; Sinem Ilgin; Ozlem Atli; Hale Gamze Duymus; Basar Sirmagul

    2013-01-01

    The fruit of Physalis peruviana L. (PPL) has been traditionally used as antispasmodic, diuretic, antiseptic, sedative, and analgesic all over the world. We aimed to perform qualitative content analysis of the fruits of PPL and to clarify the in vitro genotoxicity and in vivo acute and subchronic toxicity of the fruit. Lyophilized fruit juice does not induce genetic damage. In the acute toxicity studies, LD50 value of the fruit was found to be more than 5000 mg kg−1 for both sexes. According t...

  14. Hypofractionated IMRT of the Prostate Bed After Radical Prostatectomy: Acute Toxicity in the PRIAMOS-1 Trial

    Katayama, Sonja, E-mail: sonja.katayama@med.uni-heidelberg.de [Department of Radiation Oncology, University Hospital Heidelberg, Im Neuenheimer Feld, Heidelberg (Germany); Striecker, Thorbjoern; Kessel, Kerstin [Department of Radiation Oncology, University Hospital Heidelberg, Im Neuenheimer Feld, Heidelberg (Germany); Sterzing, Florian [Department of Radiation Oncology, University Hospital Heidelberg, Im Neuenheimer Feld, Heidelberg (Germany); Department of Radiation Oncology, German Cancer Research Center, Im Neuenheimer Feld, Heidelberg (Germany); Habl, Gregor [Department of Radiation Oncology, University Hospital Heidelberg, Im Neuenheimer Feld, Heidelberg (Germany); Edler, Lutz [Department of Biostatistics, German Cancer Research Center, Im Neuenheimer Feld, Heidelberg (Germany); Debus, Juergen [Department of Radiation Oncology, University Hospital Heidelberg, Im Neuenheimer Feld, Heidelberg (Germany); Department of Radiation Oncology, German Cancer Research Center, Im Neuenheimer Feld, Heidelberg (Germany); Herfarth, Klaus [Department of Radiation Oncology, University Hospital Heidelberg, Im Neuenheimer Feld, Heidelberg (Germany)

    2014-11-15

    Purpose: Hypofractionated radiation therapy as primary treatment for prostate cancer is currently being investigated in large phase 3 trials. However, there are few data on postoperative hypofractionation. The Radiation therapy for the Prostate Bed With or Without the Pelvic Lymph Nodes (PRIAMOS 1) trial was initiated as a prospective phase 2 trial to assess treatment safety and toxicity of a hypofractionated intensity modulated radiation therapy (IMRT) of the prostate bed. Methods and Materials: From February to September 2012, 40 patients with indications for adjuvant or salvage radiation therapy were enrolled. One patient dropped out before treatment. Patients received 54 Gy in 18 fractions to the prostate bed with IMRT and daily image guidance. Gastrointestinal (GI) and genitourinary (GU) toxicities (according to National Cancer Institute Common Terminology Criteria for Adverse Events, version 4.0) were recorded weekly during treatment and 10 weeks after radiation therapy. Results: Overall acute toxicity was favorable, with no recorded adverse events grade ≥3. Acute GI toxicity rates were 56.4% (grade 1) and 17.9% (grade 2). Acute GU toxicity was recorded in 35.9% of patients (maximum grade 1). Urinary stress incontinence was not influenced by radiation therapy. The incidence of grade 1 urinary urge incontinence increased from 2.6% before to 23.1% 10 weeks after therapy, but grade 2 urge incontinence remained unchanged. Conclusions: Postoperative hypofractionated IMRT of the prostate bed is tolerated well, with no severe acute side effects.

  15. Hypofractionated IMRT of the Prostate Bed After Radical Prostatectomy: Acute Toxicity in the PRIAMOS-1 Trial

    Purpose: Hypofractionated radiation therapy as primary treatment for prostate cancer is currently being investigated in large phase 3 trials. However, there are few data on postoperative hypofractionation. The Radiation therapy for the Prostate Bed With or Without the Pelvic Lymph Nodes (PRIAMOS 1) trial was initiated as a prospective phase 2 trial to assess treatment safety and toxicity of a hypofractionated intensity modulated radiation therapy (IMRT) of the prostate bed. Methods and Materials: From February to September 2012, 40 patients with indications for adjuvant or salvage radiation therapy were enrolled. One patient dropped out before treatment. Patients received 54 Gy in 18 fractions to the prostate bed with IMRT and daily image guidance. Gastrointestinal (GI) and genitourinary (GU) toxicities (according to National Cancer Institute Common Terminology Criteria for Adverse Events, version 4.0) were recorded weekly during treatment and 10 weeks after radiation therapy. Results: Overall acute toxicity was favorable, with no recorded adverse events grade ≥3. Acute GI toxicity rates were 56.4% (grade 1) and 17.9% (grade 2). Acute GU toxicity was recorded in 35.9% of patients (maximum grade 1). Urinary stress incontinence was not influenced by radiation therapy. The incidence of grade 1 urinary urge incontinence increased from 2.6% before to 23.1% 10 weeks after therapy, but grade 2 urge incontinence remained unchanged. Conclusions: Postoperative hypofractionated IMRT of the prostate bed is tolerated well, with no severe acute side effects

  16. Acute and subacute toxicity of {sup 18}F-FDG; Toxicidade aguda e subaguda do radiofarmaco {sup 18}F-FDG

    Dantas, Danielle Maia

    2013-07-01

    Before starting clinical trials of a new drug, it is necessary to perform a battery of safety tests for assessing human risk. Radiopharmaceuticals like any new drug must be tested taking into account its specificity, duration of treatment and especially the toxicity of both parties, the unlabeled molecule and its radionuclide, apart from impurities emanating from radiolysis. Regulatory agencies like the Food and Drug Administration - USA (FDA) and the European Medicine Agency (EMEA), establish guidelines for the regulation of production and research of radiopharmaceuticals. In Brazil the production of radiopharmaceuticals was not regulated until the end of 2009, when were established by the National Agency for Sanitary Surveillance (ANVISA) resolutions No. 63, which refers to the Good Manufacturing Practices of Radiopharmaceuticals and No. 64 which seeks the registration of record radiopharmaceuticals. To obtain registration of radiopharmaceuticals are necessary to prove the quality, safety, efficacy and specificity of the drug . For the safety of radiopharmaceuticals must be presented studies of acute toxicity, subacute and chronic toxicity as well as reproductive, mutagenic and carcinogenic. Nowadays IPEN-CNEN/SP produces one of the most important radiopharmaceutical of nuclear medicine, the {sup 18}F-FDG, which is used in many clinical applications, particularly in the diagnosis and staging of tumors. The objective of this study was to evaluate the systemic toxicity (acute/ subacute) radiopharmaceutical {sup 18}F-FDG in an in vivo test system, as recommended by the RDC No. 64, which will serve as a model for protocols toxicity of radiopharmaceuticals produced at IPEN. The following tests were performed: tests of acute and subacute toxicity, biodistribution studies of {sup 18}F-FDG, comet assay and reproductive toxicity. In acute toxicity, healthy rats were injected . (author)

  17. Towards Global QSAR Model Building for Acute Toxicity: Munro Database Case Study

    Swapnil Chavan

    2014-10-01

    Full Text Available A series of 436 Munro database chemicals were studied with respect to their corresponding experimental LD50 values to investigate the possibility of establishing a global QSAR model for acute toxicity. Dragon molecular descriptors were used for the QSAR model development and genetic algorithms were used to select descriptors better correlated with toxicity data. Toxic values were discretized in a qualitative class on the basis of the Globally Harmonized Scheme: the 436 chemicals were divided into 3 classes based on their experimental LD50 values: highly toxic, intermediate toxic and low to non-toxic. The k-nearest neighbor (k-NN classification method was calibrated on 25 molecular descriptors and gave a non-error rate (NER equal to 0.66 and 0.57 for internal and external prediction sets, respectively. Even if the classification performances are not optimal, the subsequent analysis of the selected descriptors and their relationship with toxicity levels constitute a step towards the development of a global QSAR model for acute toxicity.

  18. Acute Toxicity of Opuntia Ficus Indica and Pistacia Lentiscus Seed Oils in Mice

    Boukeloua, A; Belkhiri, A; Djerrou, Z; Bahri, L; Boulebda, N; Pacha, Y Hamdi

    2012-01-01

    Opuntia ficus indica and Pistacia lentiscus L. seeds are used in traditional medicine. The objective of this study was to investigate the toxicity of the fixed oil of Opuntia ficus indica and Pistacia lentiscus L. seeds in mice through determination of LD50 values, and also the physicochemical characteristics of the fixed oil of these oils. The acute toxicity of their fixed oil were also investigated in mice using the method of Kabba and Berhens. The fixed oil of Pistacia lentiscus and Opunti...

  19. Brine shrimp lethality and acute oral toxicity studies on Swietenia mahagoni (Linn.) Jacq. seed methanolic extract

    Geethaa Sahgal; Surash Ramanathan; Sreenivasan Sasidharan; Mohd. Nizam Mordi; Sabariah Ismail; Sharif Mahsufi Mansor

    2010-01-01

    Background: The seeds of Swietenia mahagoni have been applied in folk medicine for the treatment of hypertension, diabetes, malaria, amoebiasis, cough, chest pain, and intestinal parasitism. Here we are the first to report on the toxicity of the Swietenia mahagoni crude methanolic (SMCM) seed extract. Methods: SMCM seed extract has been studied for its brine shrimp lethality and acute oral toxicity, in mice. Results: The brine shrimp lethality bioassay shows a moderate cytotoxicity at high co...

  20. Sensitivity of mottled sculpins (Cottus bairdi) and rainbow trout (Onchorhynchus mykiss) to acute and chronic toxicity of cadmium, copper, and zinc

    Besser, J.M.; Mebane, C.A.; Mount, D.R.; Ivey, C.D.; Kunz, J.L.; Greer, I.E.; May, T.W.; Ingersoll, C.G.

    2007-01-01

    Studies of fish communities of streams draining mining areas suggest that sculpins (Cottus spp.) may be more sensitive than salmonids to adverse effects of metals. We compared the toxicity of zinc, copper, and cadmium to mottled sculpin (C. bairdi) and rainbow trout (Onchorhynchus mykiss) in laboratory toxicity tests. Acute (96-h) and early life-stage chronic (21- or 28-d) toxicity tests were conducted with rainbow trout and with mottled sculpins from populations in Minnesota and Missouri, USA, in diluted well water (hardness = 100 mg/L as CaCO3). Acute and chronic toxicity of metals to newly hatched and swim-up stages of mottled sculpins differed between the two source populations. Differences between populations were greatest for copper, with chronic toxicity values (ChV = geometric mean of lowest-observed-effect concentration and no-observed-effect concentration) of 4.4 ??g/L for Missouri sculpins and 37 ??g/L for Minnesota sculpins. Cadmium toxicity followed a similar trend, but differences between sculpin populations were less marked, with ChVs of 1.1 ??g/L (Missouri) and 1.9 ??g/L (Minnesota). Conversely, zinc was more toxic to Minnesota sculpins (ChV = 75 ??g/L) than Missouri sculpins (chronic ChV = 219 ??g/L). Species-average acute and chronic toxicity values for mottled sculpins were similar to or lower than those for rainbow trout and indicated that mottled sculpins were among the most sensitive aquatic species to toxicity of all three metals. Our results indicate that current acute and chronic water quality criteria for cadmium, copper, and zinc adequately protect rainbow trout but may not adequately protect some populations of mottled sculpins. Proposed water quality criteria for copper based on the biotic ligand model would be protective of both sculpin populations tested. ?? 2007 SETAC.

  1. Acute toxicity bioassays using Daphnia magna Straus (Cladocera, Daphniidae maintained in a modified culture medium

    Mónica Núñez

    2013-05-01

    Full Text Available Daphnia magna is a test organism used in ecotoxicological assays of freshwater; however, traditional culture systems for this organism could result expensive, for that the aim of this research was to developed a new economic culture medium. With this purpose, 10 strains of D. magna were isolated, their population development was evaluated by total count of organisms and pregnant females using 3 different culture media: (A alfalfa juice, (B solved yeast and (C a mixture of alfalfa juice plus solved yeast. Successful development of 4 strains was observed in the A medium, but the same strains failed to survive in the B and the C media. The 24h and 48h EC50 average values in acute ecotoxicological assays with potassium dicromate were 0,4045 mg/L ± 0,0389 and 0,1857 mg/L ± 0,0072 respectively. Also, acute ecotoxicological assays with these 4 strains were performed using potassium cyanide, which is a toxic reactive frequently used in mining operations. In this case 24h EC50 value was 1,5388 mg/L ± 0,1146 and 48h EC50 values were 0,6359 mg/L ± 0,0516. 48h EC50 values were lower than the cyanide permissible effluent values established by the Energy and Mining Authority.

  2. Acute and additive toxicity of ten photosystem-II herbicides to seagrass

    Wilkinson, Adam D.; Collier, Catherine J.; Flores, Florita; Negri, Andrew P.

    2015-11-01

    Photosystem II herbicides are transported to inshore marine waters, including those of the Great Barrier Reef, and are usually detected in complex mixtures. These herbicides inhibit photosynthesis, which can deplete energy reserves and reduce growth in seagrass, but the toxicity of some of these herbicides to seagrass is unknown and combined effects of multiple herbicides on seagrass has not been tested. Here we assessed the acute phytotoxicity of 10 PSII herbicides to the seagrass Halophila ovalis over 24 and/or 48 h. Individual herbicides exhibited a broad range of toxicities with inhibition of photosynthetic activity (∆F/Fm‧) by 50% at concentrations ranging from 3.5 μg l-1 (ametryn) to 132 μg l-1 (fluometuron). We assessed potential additivity using the Concentration Addition model of joint action for binary mixtures of diuron and atrazine as well as complex mixtures of all 10 herbicides. The effects of both mixture types were largely additive, validating the application of additive effects models for calculating the risk posed by multiple PSII herbicides to seagrasses. This study extends seagrass ecotoxicological data to ametryn, metribuzin, bromacil, prometryn and fluometuron and demonstrates that low concentrations of PSII herbicide mixtures have the potential to impact ecologically relevant endpoints in seagrass, including ∆F/Fm‧.

  3. Toxicological evaluation of advanced glycation end product Nε-(carboxymethyl)lysine: Acute and subacute oral toxicity studies.

    Liu, Xin; Zheng, Liangqing; Zhang, Rong; Liu, Gang; Xiao, Shensheng; Qiao, Xiaoting; Wu, Yongning; Gong, Zhiyong

    2016-06-01

    Nε-(carboxymethyl)lysine (CML) as a novel potential noxious compound in various food products has aroused extensive concern in recent years. This study aimed to investigate the oral acute and subacute toxicity of CML in mice as per OECD 420 and 407 guidelines. Acute administration of 2000 and 5000 mg/kg CML did not induce any mortality within 14 days, nevertheless some toxicological symptoms and histopathological changes were observed. The estimated LD50 of CML was >5000 mg/kg. In subacute toxicity test, CML was dosed at 200, 500 and 1000 mg/kg in both genders for 28 days. The body weights reduced which was accompanied with the decrease of food consumptions. Hematology parameters viz. RBC, HGB and MCH showed minor alteration but these were still within normal range. Biochemical analysis of hepatic and renal function markers showed significant elevating in AST, ALT, Cr and BUN etc. Histopathological alterations were observed in lung, liver, kidney and spleen. Subacute toxicity of CML involved oxidative stress caused by reducing antioxidant enzyme (SOD and GSH-Px) activities, and significantly increasing lipid peroxide (MDA) level. In conclusion, CML was unlikely to present an acute hazard, but repeated administration could produce deleterious effects on mice especially inducing liver and kidney damage through oxidative stress. PMID:26921796

  4. High-grade acute organ toxicity as positive prognostic factor in primary radio(chemo)therapy for locally advanced, inoperable head and neck cancer

    Purpose: to test for a possible correlation between high-grade acute organ toxicity during primary radio(chemo)therapy and treatment outcome in patients with locally advanced head and neck squamous cell carcinoma (HNSCC). Patients and methods: from 05/1994 to 01/2009, 216 HNSCC patients were treated with radio(chemo)therapy in primary approach. They received normofractionated (2 Gy/fraction) irradiation including associated nodal drainage sites to a cumulative dose of 70 Gy. 151 patients received additional concomitant chemotherapy (111 patients 5-fluorouracil/mitomycin C, 40 patients cisplatin-based). Toxicity during treatment was monitored weekly according to the Common Toxicity Criteria (CTC), and any toxicity grade CTC ≥ 3 of mucositis, dysphagia or skin reaction was assessed as high-grade acute organ toxicity for later analysis. Results: a statistically significant coherency between high-grade acute organ toxicity and overall survival as well as locoregional control was found: patients with CTC ≥ 3 acute organ toxicity had a 5-year overall survival rate of 4% compared to 8% in patients without (p < 0.01). Thereby, multivariate analyses revealed that the correlation was independent of other possible prognostic factors or factors that may influence treatment toxicity, especially concomitant chemotherapy and radiotherapy technique or treatment-planning procedure. Conclusion: these data indicate that normal tissue and tumor tissue may behave similarly with respect to treatment response, as high-grade acute organ toxicity during radio(chemo)therapy showed to be an independent prognostic marker in the own patient population. However, the authors are aware of the fact that a multivariate analysis in a retrospective study generally has statistical limitations. Therefore, their hypothesis should be further analyzed on biomolecular and clinical levels and other tumor entities in prospective trials. (orig.)

  5. Evaluation of new aquatic toxicity test methods for oil dispersants

    Pace, C.B.; Clark, J.R.; Bragin, G.E. [Exxon Biomedical Sciences, Inc., East Millstone, NJ (United States)

    1994-12-31

    Current aquatic toxicity test methods used for dispersant registration do not address real world exposure scenarios. Current test methods require 48 or 96 hour constant exposure conditions. In contrast, environmentally realistic exposures can be described as a pulse in which the initial concentration declines over time. Recent research using a specially designed testing apparatus (the California system) has demonstrated that exposure to Corexit 9527{reg_sign} under pulsed exposure conditions may be 3 to 22 times less toxic compared to continuous exposure scenarios. The objectives of this study were to compare results of toxicity tests using the California test system to results from standardized tests, evaluate sensitivity of regional (Holmesimysis cast and Atherinops affinis) vs. standard test species (Mysidopsis bahia and Menidia beryllina) and determine if tests using the California test system and method are reproducible. All tests were conducted using Corexit 9527{reg_sign} as the test material. Standard toxicity tests conducted with M. bahia and H. cast resulted in LC50s similar to those from tests using the California apparatus. LC50s from tests conducted in the authors` laboratory with the California system and standard test species were within a factor of 2 to 6 of data previously reported for west coast species. Results of tests conducted with H. cast in the laboratory compared favorably to data reported by Singer et al. 1991.

  6. Optimization of Hyalella azteca IQ Toxicity Test{trademark} for prediction of 28-day sediment toxicity tests

    Novotny, A.N.; Ezzard, C.L.; Douglas, W.S.; Home, M.T. [Aqua Survey, Inc., Flemington, NJ (United States)

    1995-12-31

    The IQ Toxicity Test, which is a rapid screening toxicity test consisting of the observation of in-vivo inhibition of an enzymatic process using a fluorescent substrate, has proven successful for the determination of 24 and 48-hour EC50`s of D. magna, C. dubia, D. pulex and M. bahia. The application of this concept to utilize the freshwater amphipod Hyalella azteca may be an excellent way in which to reduce the standard 28-day chronic sediment toxicity test to possibly one hour`s time. This study incorporates an additive experimental design to explore the effects of and interactions between five specific variables: size of the amphipod, exposure time to the toxicant, concentration of substrate, exposure time to the substrate, and length of time starved prior to testing. The results of the IQ toxicity test were compared to those of a 28-day chronic sediment toxicity test. Preliminary data indicate that there is an optimal combination of these variables which results in a concise, reproducible toxicity test for use with Hyalella azteca, and would potentially be applicable to other freshwater amphipods in the future.

  7. Tests for bioequivalence of control media and test media in studies of toxicity

    Erickson, W.P.; McDonald, L.L. [Western EcoSystems Technology, Inc., Cheyenne, WY (United States)

    1995-07-01

    Statistical tests of the classical (null) hypothesis--that there is no difference in effects of control media and tested--are commonly used to make statistical inferences toward the no-observed-adverse-effect concentration. However, failing to rejects this hypothesis is not considered as scientific proof the hypothesis is true. An effect may exist, but high variation due to inadequate replication, variation in experimental units, or imprecise measurement techniques may yield data for which the hypothesis is not rejected. An experiment may also be too precise, yielding effects that are statistically significant but not biologically important. The authors propose the use of tests of bioequivalence of control media and test media to alleviate these unsatisfactory characteristics of tests and of the classical hypotheses for regulatory decisions. They review and illustrate the test for bioequivalence using acute and chronic toxicity data. They also define a procedure for determining the level of effect at which there will be high power to refute the hypothesis that there is a lack of bioequivalence if in fact the biological response in the control media is identical to the responses in the test media.

  8. Acute toxicity of anionic and non-ionic surfactants to aquatic organisms.

    Lechuga, M; Fernández-Serrano, M; Jurado, E; Núñez-Olea, J; Ríos, F

    2016-03-01

    The environmental risk of surfactants requires toxicity measurements. As different test organisms have different sensitivity to the toxics, it is necessary to establish the most appropriate organism to classify the surfactant as very toxic, toxic, harmful or safe, in order to establish the maximum permissible concentrations in aquatic ecosystems. We have determined the toxicity values of various anionic surfactants ether carboxylic derivatives using four test organisms: the freshwater crustacean Daphnia magna, the luminescent bacterium Vibrio fischeri, the microalgae Selenastrum capricornutum (freshwater algae) and Phaeodactylum tricornutum (seawater algae). In addition, in order to compare and classify the different families of surfactants, we have included a compilation of toxicity data of surfactants collected from literature. The results indicated that V. fischeri was more sensitive to the toxic effects of the surfactants than was D. magna or the microalgae, which was the least sensitive. This result shows that the most suitable toxicity assay for surfactants may be the one using V. fischeri. The toxicity data revealed considerable variation in toxicity responses with the structure of the surfactants regardless of the species tested. The toxicity data have been related to the structure of the surfactants, giving a mathematical relationship that helps to predict the toxic potential of a surfactant from its structure. Model-predicted toxicity agreed well with toxicity values reported in the literature for several surfactants previously studied. Predictive models of toxicity is a handy tool for providing a risk assessment that can be useful to establish the toxicity range for each surfactant and the different test organisms in order to select efficient surfactants with a lower impact on the aquatic environment. PMID:26650419

  9. Effect of surfactants on the removal and acute toxicity of aqueous nC60 aggregates in water treatment process.

    Ge, Ling; Kirumba, George; Zhang, Bo; Pal, Amrita; He, Yiliang

    2015-07-01

    This work aimed to evaluate the effect of surfactants on the removal of aqueous nC60 aggregates by coagulation-filtration process and assess the acute toxicity of filtrates by Microtox test. Three surfactants including cetyltrimethylammonium bromide (CTAB), sodium dodecyl sulfate (SDS), and Triton X-100 (TX100) were selected representing cationic, anionic, and nonionic types, respectively. Results showed that the change of physicochemical properties of nC60 associating with different types of surfactants determined nC60's removal efficiency and acute toxicity. CTAB increased the number of large particles. It also changed the zeta potential of nC60 from negative to positive, leading to the low removal rates (17.3-50.2%) when CTAB concentration was designed in the range of 0.03-1 g/L, and the filtrates showed acute toxicity to bioluminescent bacteria (inhibition rate > 80%). On the contrary, TX100 obviously increased the proportion of small particles, and it is noteworthy that even less than 1 mg/L of nC60 (20% of the initial concentration) with TX100 remaining in filtrates could evoke phototoxicity due to reactive oxygen species (ROS) generation under UV irradiation. Compared to CTAB and TX100, SDS exerted an effect on the removal process and toxicity of nC60 only when concentration was beyond the critical micelle concentration (CMC; 2.5 g/L). These findings collectively suggest that characteristics of nC60 are flexible and strongly dependent on surfactant modification, as a result of which these particles could potentially find their way through water treatment route and exert a potential toxicity risk. PMID:25631739

  10. Acute bilateral ureteral obstruction secondary to guaifenesin toxicity.

    Cockerill, Patrick A; de Cógáin, Mitra R; Krambeck, Amy E

    2013-10-01

    Several medications or their metabolites have been associated with urolithiasis, although overall they remain an infrequent cause of urolithiasis. Guaifenesin stones were originally reported as complexed with ephedrine, and subsequent reports have demonstrated pure guaifenesin stones, occurring after long term abuse. We report a case of a 23-year-old male who ingested a large, one time dose of guaifenesin, resulting in acute bilateral ureteral obstruction, which, to our knowledge, is the first such reported case in the literature. PMID:24128843

  11. Acute Liver Toxicity due to Efavirenz/Emtricitabine/Tenofovir

    Rashmee Patil

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available The fixed-dose combination of Efavirenz/Emtricitabine/Tenofovir is a first-line agent for the treatment of HIV; however few cases have reported hepatotoxicity associated with the drug. We report a case of Efavirenz/Emtricitabine/Tenofovir-associated hepatotoxicity presenting mainly with hepatocellular injury characterized by extremely elevated aminotransferase levels, which resolved without acute liver failure or need for liver transplant referral.

  12. UTILITY OF SHORT-TERM TESTS FOR GENETIC TOXICITY

    By definition, short-term test (STTs) for genetic toxicity detect genotoxic agents, not carcinogens specifically. owever, there is ufficient evidence, based on mechanistic considerations alone, to say that genotoxic agents are potential carcinogens. TTs have high statistical powe...

  13. Toxicity and Antioxidant Tests of Morinda citrifolia (noni Seed Extract

    Brett J. West

    2011-08-01

    Full Text Available The aim of the current study was to evaluate Morinda citrifolia (noni seed extract, a food ingredient, for potential toxicity and antioxidant activity. Nitrates, nitrites, phytic acid, oxalic acid, as well as aflatoxins B1, B2, G1 and G2 were not detected in the extract. The extract was also non-cytoxic (LC50 > 1 mg/mL in the 24 and 40 h brine shrimp toxicity test. There were no symptoms of toxicity in a subacute (28 day oral toxicity test in Sprague-Dawley rats. Noni seed extract did not display any genotoxic potential in a primary DNA damage test in E. coli PQ37. The extract did exhibit significant antioxidant activity in the Oxygen Radical Absorbance Capacity (ORAC and Ferric Reducing Antioxidant Power (FRAP tests.

  14. Recreating the seawater mixture composition of HOCs in toxicity tests with Artemia franciscana by passive dosing

    Rojo-Nieto, E., E-mail: elisa.rojo@uca.es [Andalusian Centre of Marine Science and Technology (CACYTMAR), Department of Environmental Technologies, University of Cadiz, 11510 Puerto Real (Spain); Smith, K.E.C. [Department of Environmental Science, Aarhus University, DK-4000 Roskilde (Denmark); Perales, J.A. [Andalusian Centre of Marine Science and Technology (CACYTMAR), Department of Environmental Technologies, University of Cadiz, 11510 Puerto Real (Spain); Mayer, P. [Department of Environmental Science, Aarhus University, DK-4000 Roskilde (Denmark)

    2012-09-15

    The toxicity testing of hydrophobic organic compounds (HOCs) in aquatic media is generally challenging, and this is even more problematic for mixtures. The hydrophobic properties of these compounds make them difficult to dissolve, and subsequently to maintain constant exposure concentrations. Evaporative and sorptive losses are highly compound-specific, which can alter not only total concentrations, but also the proportions between the compounds in the mixture. Therefore, the general aim of this study was to explore the potential of passive dosing for testing the toxicity of a PAH mixture that recreates the mixture composition found in seawater from a coastal area of Spain, the Bay of Algeciras. First, solvent spiking and passive dosing were compared for their suitability to determine the acute toxicity to Artemia franciscana nauplii of several PAHs at their respective solubility limits. Second, passive dosing was applied to recreate the seawater mixture composition of PAHs measured in a Spanish monitoring program, to test the toxicity of this mixture at different levels. HPLC analysis was used to confirm the reproducibility of the dissolved exposure concentrations for the individual PAHs and mixtures. This study shows that passive dosing has some important benefits in comparison with solvent spiking for testing HOCs in aquatic media. These include maintaining constant exposure concentrations, leading to higher reproducibility and a relative increase in toxicity. Passive dosing is also able to faithfully reproduce real mixtures of HOCs such as PAHs, in toxicity tests, reproducing both the levels and proportions of the different compounds. This provides a useful approach for studying the toxicity of environmental mixtures of HOCs, both with a view to investigating their toxicity but also for determining safety factors before such mixtures result in detrimental effects.

  15. Recreating the seawater mixture composition of HOCs in toxicity tests with Artemia franciscana by passive dosing

    The toxicity testing of hydrophobic organic compounds (HOCs) in aquatic media is generally challenging, and this is even more problematic for mixtures. The hydrophobic properties of these compounds make them difficult to dissolve, and subsequently to maintain constant exposure concentrations. Evaporative and sorptive losses are highly compound-specific, which can alter not only total concentrations, but also the proportions between the compounds in the mixture. Therefore, the general aim of this study was to explore the potential of passive dosing for testing the toxicity of a PAH mixture that recreates the mixture composition found in seawater from a coastal area of Spain, the Bay of Algeciras. First, solvent spiking and passive dosing were compared for their suitability to determine the acute toxicity to Artemia franciscana nauplii of several PAHs at their respective solubility limits. Second, passive dosing was applied to recreate the seawater mixture composition of PAHs measured in a Spanish monitoring program, to test the toxicity of this mixture at different levels. HPLC analysis was used to confirm the reproducibility of the dissolved exposure concentrations for the individual PAHs and mixtures. This study shows that passive dosing has some important benefits in comparison with solvent spiking for testing HOCs in aquatic media. These include maintaining constant exposure concentrations, leading to higher reproducibility and a relative increase in toxicity. Passive dosing is also able to faithfully reproduce real mixtures of HOCs such as PAHs, in toxicity tests, reproducing both the levels and proportions of the different compounds. This provides a useful approach for studying the toxicity of environmental mixtures of HOCs, both with a view to investigating their toxicity but also for determining safety factors before such mixtures result in detrimental effects.

  16. Hypersalinity toxicity thresholds for nine California ocean plan toxicity test protocols.

    Voorhees, Jennifer P; Phillips, Bryn M; Anderson, Brian S; Siegler, Katie; Katz, Scott; Jennings, Lydia; Tjeerdema, Ron S; Jensen, Joanna; de la Paz Carpio-Obeso, Maria

    2013-11-01

    Currently, several desalination facilities have been proposed to operate or are actually operating in California. These facilities' use of reverse osmosis (RO) may discharge hypersaline reject brine into the marine environment. The risks, if any, this brine would pose to coastal receiving waters are unknown. To test the toxicity of hypersaline brine in the absence of any additional toxic constituents, we prepared brine and tested it with the seven toxicity test organisms listed in the 2009 California Ocean Plan. The most sensitive protocols were the marine larval development tests, whereas the most tolerant to increased salinities were the euryhaline topsmelt, mysid shrimp, and giant kelp tests. Reject brines from the Monterey Bay Aquarium's RO desalination facility were also tested with three species. The effects of the aquarium's brine effluent on topsmelt, mussels, and giant kelp were consistent with those observed in the salinity tolerance experiments. This information will be used by regulators to establish receiving water limitations for hypersaline discharges. PMID:23821235

  17. Normal Tissue Complication Probability Analysis of Acute Gastrointestinal Toxicity in Cervical Cancer Patients Undergoing Intensity Modulated Radiation Therapy and Concurrent Cisplatin

    Purpose: To test the hypothesis that increased bowel radiation dose is associated with acute gastrointestinal (GI) toxicity in cervical cancer patients undergoing concurrent chemotherapy and intensity-modulated radiation therapy (IMRT), using a previously derived normal tissue complication probability (NTCP) model. Methods: Fifty patients with Stage I–III cervical cancer undergoing IMRT and concurrent weekly cisplatin were analyzed. Acute GI toxicity was graded using the Radiation Therapy Oncology Group scale, excluding upper GI events. A logistic model was used to test correlations between acute GI toxicity and bowel dosimetric parameters. The primary objective was to test the association between Grade ≥2 GI toxicity and the volume of bowel receiving ≥45 Gy (V45) using the logistic model. Results: Twenty-three patients (46%) had Grade ≥2 GI toxicity. The mean (SD) V45 was 143 mL (99). The mean V45 values for patients with and without Grade ≥2 GI toxicity were 176 vs. 115 mL, respectively. Twenty patients (40%) had V45 >150 mL. The proportion of patients with Grade ≥2 GI toxicity with and without V45 >150 mL was 65% vs. 33% (p = 0.03). Logistic model parameter estimates V50 and γ were 161 mL (95% confidence interval [CI] 60–399) and 0.31 (95% CI 0.04–0.63), respectively. On multivariable logistic regression, increased V45 was associated with an increased odds of Grade ≥2 GI toxicity (odds ratio 2.19 per 100 mL, 95% CI 1.04–4.63, p = 0.04). Conclusions: Our results support the hypothesis that increasing bowel V45 is correlated with increased GI toxicity in cervical cancer patients undergoing IMRT and concurrent cisplatin. Reducing bowel V45 could reduce the risk of Grade ≥2 GI toxicity by approximately 50% per 100 mL of bowel spared.

  18. Acute Hypoxic Test in Patients with Prediabetes.

    Shatylo, Valerii B; Serebrovska, Tatiana V; Gavalko, Anna V; Egorov, Egor; Korkushko, Oleg V

    2016-06-01

    Shatylo, Valerii B., Tetiana V. Serebrovska, Anna V. Gavalko, Egor Egorov, and Oleg V. Korkushko. Acute hypoxic test in patients with prediabetes. High Alt Med Biol. 17:101-107, 2016.-Prediabetes is a state of impaired carbohydrate metabolism when not all of the symptoms required to label a person as diabetic are present, but blood glucose is higher than in healthy subjects. Recent evidence suggests that intermittent hypoxia training (IHT) might provide a cost-effective strategy for improving metabolic functioning. One of the most important aspects of the successful IHT application is individualized approach to hypoxic dose and regimen prescription. To establish the relationships between indices of carbohydrate metabolism and individual resistance to hypoxia, the acute hypoxic test (AHT, breathing gas mixture with 12% O2 during 20 minutes) was performed in 33 healthy volunteers (mean age, 63.0, range, 44-76; fasting plasma glucose (FPG) less than 5.6 mmol/L and 2 hours postoral glucose tolerance test (OGTT) glycemia less than 7.8 mmol/L) and 30 patients with impaired glucose metabolism (mean age, 65.5, range, 44-75; FPG from 5.6 to 6.9 mmol/L and 2 hours post-OGTT glycemia from 7.8 to 11 mmol/L). Negative correlation was found between the SaO2 level at 20th minute AHT and FPG (r = -0.83; p recovery time and less effective functioning of respiratory and cardiovascular systems were also registered in patients with prediabetes showing that their cardiovascular resilience is impaired compared to normoglycemic controls. These patterns of relationship must be considered when assigning the individual modes of IHT. PMID:27213550

  19. 40 CFR 799.9110 - TSCA acute oral toxicity.

    2010-07-01

    ..., testing in animals of the other sex may be dispensed with. An acceptable option would be to test at least... of test substance per unit weight of test animal (milligrams per kilogram). (d) Alternative... CONTROL ACT (CONTINUED) IDENTIFICATION OF SPECIFIC CHEMICAL SUBSTANCE AND MIXTURE TESTING...

  20. 40 CFR 799.9120 - TSCA acute dermal toxicity.

    2010-07-01

    ... mixtures. In order to minimize the need for animal testing, the Agency encourages the review of existing... evaluations that may reduce the need for further animal testing. (ii) Limit test. When data on structurally... available to demonstrate that animals of the sex tested are markedly more sensitive, testing in animals...

  1. Acute and sub-chronic toxicity studies of an aqueous stem bark extract of Sclerocarya birrea using a rat model

    Tariro Mawoza

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Background: Sclerocarya birrea, a plant that is commonly available in many communities, is used as a source of food and for ethnomedicinal and cultural practices. Stem-bark toxicity studies for the plant are however lacking. This study was therefore conducted in an effort to determine its toxic effects using a rat model. Methods: Acute toxicity was performed using a single oral administration of 50, 100, 200, 400, 800, 1000 and 2000mg/kg body weight of S. birrea to determine the lethal dose. Test animals in the sub-chronic study received 50, 100, 200, 400, 800, 1000 and 2000mg/kg body weight of S. birrea for 28 days. Results: No animal mortality occurred during acute toxicity testing, suggesting that the lethal dose is probably higher than 2000mg/kg body weight. Behavioural and posture changes were however observed with the higher doses. During the sub-chronic test, animals in the 1000mg/kg and 2000mg/kg groups showed a significantly (p<0.05 smaller growth rate as compared to the animals in the other groups. Significant organ to body weight ratio changes were observed only in the livers and kidneys of animals that received 800, 1000mg/kg and 2000mg/kg body weight of S. birrea suggesting possible toxicity. This was supported by increases in direct bilirubin, total protein, albumin, AST and ALT. In addition, histopathological changes to the liver and kidneys were observed with increasing dosages of the plant extract. Conclusions: The results of the study indicate that at doses of ≥1000mg/kg, the extract affects growth rate as well as liver and kidney function. Therefore, high doses should be used with caution.

  2. Acute toxicity of four heavy metals to benthic fish food organisms from the River Khan, Ujjain

    Qureshi, S.A.; Saksena, A.B.; Singh, V.P.

    1980-01-01

    The acute toxicity of four heavy metals (Hg, Zn, Cd and Pb) to two benthic invertebrates viz. Tubifex tubifex and 4th instar larvae of chironomous sp. from the River Khan (Ujjain) have been determined by static bioassay experiments. Although both Tubifex tubifex and chironomous larvae have been found to be resistant to heavy metals (Hg, Zn, Cd and Pb), the experiments led to an observation that chironomous larvae are comparatively less tolerant than Tubifex tubifex. However, when the individual toxicity of heavy metals is considered it seems that the toxicity of metals is in the following order viz. Hg>Zn>Cd>Pb. The investigations reveal variation in the sensitivity of different organisms to the same toxicant and the same organisms to different toxicants.

  3. Diffusion-weighted magnetic resonance imaging in acute reversible toxic leukoencephalopathy: A report of two cases

    Acute toxic leukoencephalopathy may be caused by endogenous or exogenous toxins. It may reverse clinically if the offending agent is withdrawn or the underlying condition is treated. However, demonstration of reversibility on imaging, especially with diffusion-weighted MRI, has been reported only very recently. We report two such cases

  4. EVALUATION OF MINIMUM DATA REQUIREMENTS FOR ACUTE TOXICITY VALUE EXTRAPOLATION WITH AQUATIC ORGANISMS

    Buckler, Denny R., Foster L. Mayer, Mark R. Ellersieck and Amha Asfaw. 2003. Evaluation of Minimum Data Requirements for Acute Toxicity Value Extrapolation with Aquatic Organisms. EPA/600/R-03/104. U.S. Environmental Protection Agency, National Health and Environmental Effects Re...

  5. Acute dermal toxicity of guanidine hydrochloride in rabbits. Report for 18 May-1 August 1984

    Hiatt, G.F.; Sanso, S.K.; Korte, D.W.

    1989-12-01

    The acute dermal toxicity of guanidine hydrochloride was evaluated in five male and five female New Zealand White rabbits. Guanidine hydrochloride (2 g/kg) was applied topically to the clipped dorsal skin surface for 24 hours. No compound-related deaths or clinical signs were observed; however, guanidine hydrochloride did produce dermal irritation, necrosis, and eschar formation under conditions of the study.

  6. ACUTE AND CHRONIC TOXICITY OF BREVETOXIN TO OYSTERS AND GRASS SHRIMP

    Walker, Calvin C., James T. Winstead, Steven S. Foss, Janis C. Kurtz, James Watts, Jeanne E. Scott and William S. Fisher. In press. Acute and Chronic Toxicity of Brevetoxin to Oysters and Grass Shrimp (Abstract). To be presented at the SETAC Fourth World Congress, 14-18 November ...

  7. THE ACUTE TOXICITY OF PRAZIQUANTEL TO GRASS CARP AND GOLDEN SHINERS

    Acute praziquantel toxicity and no observable effect concentrations (NOEC), were determined in the laboratory for grass carp and golden shiners, two commercially raised cyprinids known to harbor Asian tapeworm Bothriocephalus acheilognathi. Praziquantel is an anthelmintic used to treat fish with ta...

  8. Acute toxicity of praziquantel (an anthelmintic) to grass carp and golden shiners

    Praziquantel is an anthelmintic that can be applied to the water to kill tapeworm and trematode parasites in fish. Effective praziquantel treatment rates have been determined but there is little information on the toxicity of this chemical to fish hosts of the parasites. Acute praziquantel toxicit...

  9. Acute urinary toxicity following transperineal prostate brachytherapy using a modified Quimby loading method

    Purpose: To examine the acute urinary toxicity following transperineal prostate implant using a modified Quimby loading method with regard to time course, severity, and factors that may be associated with a higher incidence of morbidity. Methods and Materials: One hundred thirty-nine patients with prostate adenocarcinoma treated with brachytherapy from 1997 through 1999 had follow-up records available for review. Patients considered for definitive brachytherapy alone included those with prostate specific antigen (PSA) ≤6, Gleason score (GS) ≤6, clinical stage 6, PSA>6, or Stage>T2a were treated with external beam radiation therapy followed by brachytherapy boost. Sources were loaded according to a modified Quimby method. At each follow-up, toxicity was graded based on a modified RTOG urinary toxicity scale. Results: Acute urinary toxicity occurred in 88%. Grade I toxicity was reported in 23%, grade II in 45%, and grade III in 20%, with 14% requiring prolonged (greater than 1 week) intermittent or indwelling catheterization. Overall median duration of symptoms was 12 months. There was no difference in duration of symptoms between patients treated with I-125 or Pd-103 sources (p=0.71). After adjusting for GS and PSA, multivariate logistic regression analysis showed higher incidence of grade 3 toxicity in patients with larger prostate volumes (p=0.002), and those with more seeds implanted (p<0.001). Higher incidence of prolonged catheterization was found in patients receiving brachytherapy alone (p=0.01), with larger prostate volumes (p=0.01), and those with more seeds implanted (p<0.001). Conclusion: Interstitial brachytherapy for prostate cancer leads to a high incidence of acute urinary toxicity, most of which is mild to moderate in severity. A prolonged need for catheterization can occur in some patients. Patients receiving brachytherapy alone, those with prostate volumes greater than 30 cc, and those implanted with a greater number of seeds have the highest

  10. Acute toxicity profile in prostate cancer with conventional and hypofractionated treatment

    To compare the acute toxicities in radical treatment of prostate cancer between conventional schedule (C-ARM) with 78 Gy/39 fractions and hypofractionation conformal treatment (H-ARM) with 69 Gy/23 fractions. This prospective double arm study consisted of 217 patients with prostate cancer, 112 in H-ARM and 105 in C-ARM arm. C-ARM received conventional six- field conformal radiotherapy with 78 Gy in 39 fractions while H-ARM received hypofractionation with 69 Gy in 23 fractions. Weekly assessment of acute reactions was done during treatment and with one, and 3 months using RTOG scale. Univariated analysis was performed to evaluate differences between the incidences of acute reaction in the treatment arms. Variables with p value less than 0.1 were included in the multivariated logistic regression. There was no difference between H-ARM versus C-ARM for severity and incidence in genitourinary (GU) and gastrointestinal (GI) acute toxicity. During the treatment comparing H-ARM with C-ARM no differences was observed for GI toxicity (grade 0–3; H-ARM = 45.5%, 34%, 18.7% and 1.8% versus C-ARM = 47.6%, 35.2%, 17.2% and 0). For acute GU toxicity no difference was detected between H-ARM (grade 0–3; 22.3%, 54.5%, 18.7% and 4.5%) and C-ARM (grade 0–3; 25.8%, 53.3%, 17.1% and 3.8%). At the 3- months follow-up, persistent Grade > =2 acute GU and GI toxicity were 2.5% and 1.8% in H-ARM versus 5.7% and 3% in C-ARM (p > 0.05). In univariated and multivariated analyses, there was not any dosimetric predictor for GI and GU toxicity. Our data demonstrate that hypofractionated radiotherapy achieving high biological effective dose using conformal radiotherapy is feasible for prostate cancer, being well tolerated with minimal severe acute toxicity

  11. Harmonization of standard toxicity test methods used in North America

    Ingersoll, C.G.; Dwyer, F.J. [NBS, Columbia, MO (United States); Ankley, G.T. [Environmental Protection Agency, Duluth, MN (United States)] [and others

    1995-12-31

    Over the past two years, Environment Canada (EC) and the US Environmental Protection Agency (EPA) have developed standard methods for conducting toxicity and bioaccumulation tests with freshwater, estuarine, and marine sediments. Existing ASTM methods were used as a basis to harmonize these methods for conducting testing with either field-collected or laboratory-spiked sediments. For freshwater toxicity tests, methods are described by EC and EPA for the amphipod Hyalella azteca and the midges Chironomus tentans and C. riparius. Endpoints include 10- to 14-d survival of growth. Methods are also described by EPA for conducting 28-d bioaccumulation tests with the oligochaete Lumbriculus variegatus. For estuarine and marine toxicity tests, methods are described for several amphipods (i.e., Rhepoxynius abronius, Ampelisca abdita, Eohaustorius estuarius, Leptocheirus plumulosus). Endpoints include 10-d survival and reburial. EC is also developing methods for conducting toxicity tests with Atlantic, Pacific, and Arctic Canadian species of polychaetes. Methods are described by EPA for conducting 28-d bioaccumulation tests with a variety of mollusks (i.e., Macoma spp.) and polychaetes (i.e., Nereis spp.). Slight inconsistencies in methods between freshwater and estuarine/marine testing or between EC and EPA testing include: (1) static vs. flow-through conditions, (2) sieving of sediment, (3) types and quantity of food, (4) age of test organisms, or (4) duration of the test and required endpoints. Additional research is in progress to: (1) develop chronic toxicity tests with amphipods and midges measuring survival, growth, or reproduction, (2) develop whole-sediment toxicity identification evaluation (TIE) procedures, (3) refine sediment spiking procedures, and (4) field-validate laboratory tests.

  12. Acute toxic encephalopathies: CT and MR imaging features

    An endless variety of toxins can cause degenerative brain lesions both by chronic use of small amounts and by acute exposures from industrial accidents or suicide attempts. The more commonly occurring toxins encountered clinically include carbon monoxide, cyanide, methanol, and ethylene glycol. CT and MR imaging are of great importance in the assessment of the comatose patient. Some of these toxins have a propensity for selective bilateral and symmetric involvement of the basal ganglia as well as the white matter. CT and MR can demonstrate the extent and distribution of the morphologic brain changes

  13. Acute toxicity of Ag and CuO nanoparticle suspensions against Daphnia magna: the importance of their dissolved fraction varying with preparation methods.

    Jo, Hun Je; Choi, Jae Woo; Lee, Sang Hyup; Hong, Seok Won

    2012-08-15

    A variety of methods to prepare nanoparticle suspensions have been employed for aquatic toxicity tests, although they can influence the dispersion property and subsequent toxicity of nanoparticles. Thus, in this study, we prepared stock suspensions of silver (Ag) and copper oxide (CuO) nanoparticles using different methods and compared their acute toxicity against Daphnia magna. The results showed that the dispersion method, filtration and initial concentration largely affected their toxicity, when the toxicity was expressed as the total concentrations of Ag and Cu. In case of Ag nanoparticles, the toxicity was also influenced by their different particle size. However, negligible differences in 24h-median effect concentration (EC(50)) values, which were calculated in terms of their dissolved concentrations, were observed. When expressing toxicity on the basis of dissolved concentrations, 24h-EC(50) values of the Ag and CuO nanoparticles were also found to be similar to those of the counterpart ionic species, i.e., Ag (as AgNO(3)) and Cu (as CuCl(2)·2H(2)O). These findings indicate that the dissolved fraction of nanoparticles largely contributes to their acute toxicity. Our results may help in establishing a useful guideline for preparing nanoparticle suspensions with reproducible toxicity. PMID:22682800

  14. Acute and late toxicity in prostate cancer patients treated by dose escalated intensity modulated radiation therapy and organ tracking

    To report acute and late toxicity in prostate cancer patients treated by dose escalated intensity-modulated radiation therapy (IMRT) and organ tracking. From 06/2004 to 12/2005 39 men were treated by 80 Gy IMRT along with organ tracking. Median age was 69 years, risk of recurrence was low 18%, intermediate 21% and high in 61% patients. Hormone therapy (HT) was received by 74% of patients. Toxicity was scored according to the CTC scale version 3.0. Median follow-up (FU) was 29 months. Acute and maximal late grade 2 gastrointestinal (GI) toxicity was 3% and 8%, late grade 2 GI toxicity dropped to 0% at the end of FU. No acute or late grade 3 GI toxicity was observed. Grade 2 and 3 pre-treatment genitourinary (GU) morbidity (PGUM) was 20% and 5%. Acute and maximal late grade 2 GU toxicity was 56% and 28% and late grade 2 GU toxicity decreased to 15% of patients at the end of FU. Acute and maximal late grade 3 GU toxicity was 8% and 3%, respectively. Decreased late ≥ grade 2 GU toxicity free survival was associated with higher age (P = .025), absence of HT (P = .016) and higher PGUM (P < .001). GI toxicity rates after IMRT and organ tracking are excellent, GU toxicity rates are strongly related to PGUM

  15. Acute toxicity and environmental risk of teflubenzuron to Daphnia magna, Poecilia reticulata and Lemna minor in the absence and presence of sediment.

    Medeiros, Louise S; Souza, Jaqueline P; Winkaler, Elissandra U; Carraschi, Silvia P; Cruz, Claudinei; Souza-Júnior, Severino C; Machado-Neto, Joaquim G

    2013-01-01

    This study aimed to estimate the acute toxicity of teflubenzuron (1-(3,5-dichloro-2,4-difluorophenyl)-3-(2,6-difluorobenzoyl)urea) (TFB) for Daphnia magna, Lemna minor and Poecilia reticulata, in the absence and presence of sediment; evaluate the effect of sediment on the TFB bioavailability; and to classify this insecticide according to its environmental poisoning risk for agricultural and aquaculture uses. The tests of TFB acute toxicity were conducted in static system in a completely randomized design with increasing TFB concentrations, and a control group. The TFB has been classified according to the estimated values of EC50 and LC50 by its acute toxicity and environmental risk. The sediment significantly reduced toxicity and bioavailability of TFB in water column. Therefore, the insecticide can be classified as being highly toxic to Daphnia magna, which means the agricultural and aquacultural uses of TFB pose a high risk of environmental toxicity to non-target organisms. However, it was practically non-toxic to L. minor and P. reticulata. PMID:23581694

  16. Whole effluent toxicity of agricultural irrigation drainwater entering Stillwater National Wildlife Refuge, NV : Acute toxicity studies with fish and aquatic invertebrates

    US Fish and Wildlife Service, Department of the Interior — This report covers the acute toxicity studies conducted with samples collected from Stillwater National Wildlife Refuge. The objective of these studies was to...

  17. Acute and chronic toxicity of neonicotinoids to nymphs of a mayfly species and some notes on seasonal differences

    Brink, van den, R.B.A.; Smeden, Van, J.M.; Bekele, R.S.; Dierick, Wiebe; Gelder, de, B.; Noteboom, Maarten; Roessink, Ivo

    2016-01-01

    Mayfly nymphs are among the most sensitive taxa to neonicotinoids. The present study presents the acute and chronic toxicity of 3 neonicotinoids (imidacloprid, thiacloprid, and thiamethoxam) to a mayfly species (Cloeon dipterum) and some notes on the seasonality of the toxicity of imidacloprid to C. dipterum and 5 other invertebrate species. Imidacloprid and thiamethoxam showed equal acute and chronic toxicity to a winter generation of C. dipterum, whereas thiacloprid was approximately twice ...

  18. Organophosphorus insecticides: Toxic effects and bioanalytical tests for evaluating toxicity during degradation processes

    Čolović Mirjana B.

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Organophosphorus insecticides have been the most applied group of insecticides for the last two decades. Their main toxic effects are related to irreversible inactivation of acetylcholinesterase (AChE. Actually, they covalently bind to serine OH group in the enzyme active site forming phosphorylated enzyme that cannot hydrolyze acetylcholine. Organophosphorus insecticides in the environment undergo the natural degradation pathway including mainly homogeneous and heterogeneous hydrolysis (especially at high pH generating non-inhibiting products. Additionally, thio organophosphates are easily oxidized by naturally present oxidants and UV light, forming more toxic and stable oxons. Thus, oxidative degradation procedures, generally referred as advanced oxidation processes (AOP, have been applied for their efficient removal from contaminated waters. The most applied bioassays to monitor the organophosphate toxicity i.e. the detoxification degree during AOP are Vibrio fischeri and AChE bioassays. Vibrio fischeri toxicity test exploits bioluminescence as the measure of luciferase activity of this marine bacterium, whereas AChE bioassay is based on AChE activity inhibition. Both bioanalytical techniques are rapid (several minutes, simple, sensitive and reproducible. Vibrio fischeri test seems to be a versatile indicator of toxic compounds generated in AOP for organophosphorus insecticides degradation. However, detection of neurotoxic AChE inhibitors, which can be formed in AOP of some organophosphates, requires AChE bioassays. Therefore, AChE toxicity test is more appropriate for monitoring the degradation processes of thio organophosphates, because more toxic oxo organophosphates might be formed and overlooked by Vibrio fischeri bioluminescence inhibition. In addition, during organophosphates removal by AOP, compounds with strong genotoxic potential may be formed, which cannot be detected by standard toxicity tests. For this reason, determination of

  19. The Acute Oral Toxicity of Commonly Used Pesticides in Iran, to Honeybees (Apis Mellifera Meda

    Rasuli Farhang

    2015-06-01

    Full Text Available The honey bee is credited with approximately 85% of the pollinating activity necessary to supply about one-third of the world’s food supply. Well over 50 major crops depend on these insects for pollination. The crops produce more abundantly when honey bees are plentiful. Worker bees are the ones primarily affected by pesticides. Poisoning symptoms can vary depending on the developmental stage of the individual bee, and the kind of chemical employed. The oral toxicity of these insecticides: (phosalone and pirimicarb, acaricide (propargite, insecticide and acaricide (fenpropathrin, fungicides, and bactericides (copper oxychloride and the Bordeaux mixture, were evaluated for the purposes of this research. The results showed that fenpropathrin had high acute oral toxicity (LC50-24h and LC50-48 were 0.54 and 0.3 ppm, respectively. Propargite had 7785 ppm (active ingredient for LC50-24h and 6736 ppm (active ingredient for LC50-48h in honeybees and is therefore, non-toxic to Apis mellifera. On the other hand, copper oxychloride had minimum acute oral toxicity to honeybees (LC50-24h and LC50-48 were 4591.5 and 5407.9 ppm, respectively and was therefore considered non-toxic. Also, the Bordeaux mixture was safe to use around honeybees. Phosalone and primicarb were considered highly and moderately toxic to honeybees, respectively.

  20. Acute benzodiazepine toxicity exacerbated by concomitant oral olanzapine.

    Hoffmann, Marc S; Overman, Michael J; Nates, Joseph L

    2016-04-01

    Improvements in antiemetic therapy constitute a major advance in oncology. A recent poll of the oncology community by the American Society of Clinical Oncology ranked it as one of the top 5 advances in cancer in the last 50 years. Emetogenicity of chemotherapy is defined by risk of emesis in the patient given no antiemetics; high-risk regimens cause nausea and vomiting in >90% of patients, moderate risk in 30%-90%, and low risk in <30%. This risk profile serves as the basis for empiric antiemetic prophylaxis and offers alternatives to refractory patients. Modern antiemetic prophylaxis is extremely effective for high-risk chemotherapy, reducing the risk for breakthrough nausea and vomiting to 0%-13% in the acute setting (<24 hours from receipt of chemotherapy) and to 25%-30% in the delayed setting (24-72 hours from receipt of chemotherapy). PMID:27152518

  1. Perspectives on testing for toxic agents.

    Nelson, N

    1987-01-01

    A series of observations and comments are made with respect to several areas of toxicology: these are briefly discussed. Some innovative areas receive discussion as representing substantial progress made in the field of toxicology in recent years. Topics included raise a number of questions: what agents should we test, and how should we go about selecting them; what is the importance of allowing for genetic diversity in carrying out tests that are meaningful for humans; and what is the releva...

  2. Evaluation of alternative reference toxicants for use in the earthworm toxicity test

    Yeardley, R.B. Jr. [DynCorp-TAI, Cincinnati, OH (United States); Lazorchak, J.M. [Environmental Protection Agency, Cincinnati, OH (United States); Pence, M.A. [Technology Applications, Inc., Cincinnati, OH (United States)

    1995-07-01

    The use of the 14-d earthworm toxicity test to aid in the evaluation of the ecological impact of contaminated soils is becoming increasingly widespread. However, the method is in need of further standardization. As part of this continuing process, the choice of reference toxicants was evaluated. Reference toxicants were rated in relation to the following criteria: (a) reproducibility, (b) low human health hazard, (c) feasibility of measurement, and (d) chemical stability. Potassium chloride (KCl) and ammonium chloride (NH{sub 4}Cl) were evaluated as possible alternatives to the one currently in common use, 2-chloroacetamide. Potassium chloride rated the best for the combination of the four criteria, followed by NH{sub 4}Cl and 2-chloroacetamide. Coefficients of variation (C.V.s) from control charts of six definitive tests were use to measure reproducibility. The best reproducibility (lowest C.V.) was shown by KCl, followed by NH{sub 4}Cl and 2-chloroacetamide. Toxicants ranked KCl < NH{sub 4}Cl {much_lt} 2-chloroacetamide in terms of health hazard; and KCl = NH{sub 4}Cl > 2-chloroacetamide in terms of measurement feasibility. Both 2-chloroacetamide and NH{sub 4}Cl changed in concentration during testing. Evidence is also presented that 2-chloroacetamide degrades rapidly during testing, and that, as dead worms decay, ammonification may be adding another toxicant, ammonia, to tests.

  3. Acute toxicity study of Vilocym Premix (herbal growth promoter for Livestockin Wistar Albino Rat

    A.H. Ahmad

    2009-06-01

    Full Text Available An experimental study with the objective of safety evaluation of Vilocym Premix, herbal growth promoter for Livestock (supplied by Ayurvet Ltd., Baddi, India, was done as per standard guidelines of OECD-423 for acute toxicity testing. Vilocym Premix is a scientifically developed combination of herbs that contains herbal ingredients namely Azadirachta indica, Curcuma longa & many more alongwith natural zeolites. The study was done in 3 males and 3 female Wistar Albino rats, which were administered an initial dose of 50 mg/kg body weight followed by dose rates of 300, 500 & 5000 mg/kg body weight of test compound. The animals were observed for signs of convulsions, tremors, circling, depression, excitement and mortality. Body weight was recorded at 0,7th and 14th day and plasma total protein, albumin; AST and ALT were measured after 3rd day of experiment. No abnormal sign of symptoms were observed in any of the animal fed with Vilocym Premix at the dose rate of 50, 300, 500 & 5000 mg/kg. No mortality was observed indicating safety of herbal premix. [Vet. World 2009; 2(3.000: 100-102

  4. Helical tomotherapy in the treatment of pediatric malignancies: a preliminary report of feasibility and acute toxicity

    Radiation therapy plays a central role in the management of many childhood malignancies and Helical Tomotherapy (HT) provides potential to decrease toxicity by limiting the radiation dose to normal structures. The aim of this article was to report preliminary results of our clinical experience with HT in pediatric malignancies. In this study 66 consecutive patients younger than 14 years old, treated with HT at our center between January 2006 and April 2010, have been included. We performed statistical analyses to assess the relationship between acute toxicity, graded according to the RTOG criteria, and several clinical and treatment characteristics such as a dose and irradiation volume. The median age of patients was 5 years. The most common tumor sites were: central nervous system (57%), abdomen (17%) and thorax (6%). The most prevalent histological types were: medulloblastoma (16 patients), neuroblastoma (9 patients) and rhabdomyosarcoma (7 patients). A total of 52 patients were treated for primary disease and 14 patients were treated for recurrent tumors. The majority of the patients (72%) were previously treated with chemotherapy. The median prescribed dose was 51 Gy (range 10-70 Gy). In 81% of cases grade 1 or 2 acute toxicity was observed. There were 11 cases (16,6%) of grade 3 hematological toxicity, two cases of grade 3 skin toxicity and one case of grade 3 emesis. Nine patients (13,6%) had grade 4 hematological toxicity. There were no cases of grade 4 non-hematological toxicities. On the univariate analysis, total dose and craniospinal irradiation (24 cases) were significantly associated with severe toxicity (grade 3 or more), whereas age and chemotherapy were not. On the multivariate analysis, craniospinal irradiation was the only significant independent risk factor for grade 3-4 toxicity. HT in pediatric population is feasible and safe treatment modality. It is characterized by an acceptable level of acute toxicity that we have seen in this highly

  5. Helical tomotherapy in the treatment of pediatric malignancies: a preliminary report of feasibility and acute toxicity

    Beltrán César

    2011-08-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Radiation therapy plays a central role in the management of many childhood malignancies and Helical Tomotherapy (HT provides potential to decrease toxicity by limiting the radiation dose to normal structures. The aim of this article was to report preliminary results of our clinical experience with HT in pediatric malignancies. Methods In this study 66 consecutive patients younger than 14 years old, treated with HT at our center between January 2006 and April 2010, have been included. We performed statistical analyses to assess the relationship between acute toxicity, graded according to the RTOG criteria, and several clinical and treatment characteristics such as a dose and irradiation volume. Results The median age of patients was 5 years. The most common tumor sites were: central nervous system (57%, abdomen (17% and thorax (6%. The most prevalent histological types were: medulloblastoma (16 patients, neuroblastoma (9 patients and rhabdomyosarcoma (7 patients. A total of 52 patients were treated for primary disease and 14 patients were treated for recurrent tumors. The majority of the patients (72% were previously treated with chemotherapy. The median prescribed dose was 51 Gy (range 10-70 Gy. In 81% of cases grade 1 or 2 acute toxicity was observed. There were 11 cases (16,6% of grade 3 hematological toxicity, two cases of grade 3 skin toxicity and one case of grade 3 emesis. Nine patients (13,6% had grade 4 hematological toxicity. There were no cases of grade 4 non-hematological toxicities. On the univariate analysis, total dose and craniospinal irradiation (24 cases were significantly associated with severe toxicity (grade 3 or more, whereas age and chemotherapy were not. On the multivariate analysis, craniospinal irradiation was the only significant independent risk factor for grade 3-4 toxicity. Conclusion HT in pediatric population is feasible and safe treatment modality. It is characterized by an acceptable level of

  6. Environmental toxicity testing of contaminated soil based on microcalorimetry.

    Gruiz, K; Feigl, V; Hajdu, Cs; Tolner, M

    2010-10-01

    Contaminated site assessment and monitoring requires efficient risk-management tools including innovative environmental toxicity tests. The first application of microcalorimetry for toxicity testing draw the attention to a possible new tool to increase sensitivity, to eliminate matrix effect and to study effect-mechanism. A Thermal Activity Monitor (TAM) microcalorimeter was used for measuring the heat production of various test organisms when getting in contact with sterile toxic soils. Well known bacterial (Azomonas agilis), animal (Folsomia candida) and plant test organisms (Sinapis alba) were tested for heat production. The heat response of selected testorganisms was measured in case of metal (Cu and Zn) and organic pollutant (Diesel oil, DBNPA and PCP) contaminated soils. In addition to the quantitative determination of the heat production, the mechanism of the toxic effect can be characterized from the shape of the power-time curve (slope of the curve, height and time of the maximum). In certain concentration ranges the higher the pollutant concentration of the soil the lower the maximum of the time-heat curve. At low pollutant concentrations an increased heat production was measured in case of A. agile and 20 and 200 mg Zn kg(-1) soil. The microcalorimetric testing was more sensitive in all cases than the traditional test methods. Our results showed that the microcalorimetric test method offers a new and sensitive option in environmental toxicology, both for research and routine testing. PMID:20549622

  7. Study on irradiation of freshening ginseng and toxicity test

    The ginsengs irradiated by 1 or 2 kGy of γ-rays have been stored for 6 months under room temperature. Its freshening rates was 86.67% and 88.33% respectively. The saponin content was maintained. The irradiated ginsengs had the vigour of sap fully and beautiful colour. Therefore they can be stored much longer for sell. The toxicity test showed that there was no toxicity for irradiated ginsengs

  8. Assessment of acute toxicity of thiamethoxam (Actara® 25WG) to Achatina fulica and its potential ecological applications

    Maria Kim Feliz N. Abog; Jose Jaime Lorenzo C. de Rivera; Sarah Christina W. Estacio; Jay S. Fidelino; Orlie John Y. Lavilla; John Christopher A. Pilapil; Ma. Dolores C. Tongco

    2012-01-01

    Achatina fulica is considered as one of the world’s worst invasive species and is known to cause ecological disruption as well as agricultural and health problems in the Philippines. The study evaluated the use of the insecticide thiamethoxam (Actara® 25WG) in the control of A. fulica populations. This was done by performing an acute toxicity test of thiamethoxam to A. fulica. Six individuals each were exposedto thiamethoxam concentrations of 0, 50, 100, 200, and 400 μg/L for 72 hours. The pe...

  9. Suitability of Daphnia similis as an alternative organism in ecotoxicological tests: implications for metal toxicity.

    Rodgher, Suzelei; Espíndola, Evaldo Luiz Gaeta; Lombardi, Ana Teresa

    2010-08-01

    The acute toxicity of metals to Daphnia similis was determined and compared to other daphnid species to evaluate the suitability of this organism in ecotoxicology bioassays. To verify the performance D. similis in toxicity tests, we also investigated the effect of Pseudokirchneriella subcapitata at 1 x 10(5) and 1 x 10(6) cells ml(-1) on Cd and Cr acute toxicity to the cladoceran. Daphnid neonates were exposed to a range of chromium and cadmium concentrations in the absence and presence of the algal cells. Metal speciation calculations using MINEQL(+) showed that total dissolved metal concentrations in zooplankton culture corresponded to 96.2% free Cd and 100% free Cr concentrations. Initial total dissolved metal concentrations were used for 48 h-LC(50) determination. LC(50) for D. similis was 5.15 x 10(-7) mol l(-1) dissolved Cd without algal cells, whereas with 1 x 10(5) cells ml(-1), it was significantly higher (7.15 x 10(-7) mol l(-1) dissolved Cd). For Cr, the 48 h-LC(50) value of 9.17 x 10(-7) mol l(-1) obtained for the cladoceran in tests with 1 x 10(6) cells ml(-1) of P. subcapitata was also significantly higher than that obtained in tests without algal cells (5.28 x 10(-7) mol l(-1) dissolved Cr). The presence of algal cells reduced the toxicity of metals to D. similis, as observed in other studies that investigated the effects of food on metal toxicity to standard cladocerans. Comparing our results to those of literature, we observed that D. similis is as sensitive to metals as other standardized Daphnia species and may serve as a potential test species in ecotoxicological evaluations. PMID:20306222

  10. ACUTE TOXICITY OF PESTICIDES IN ADULT AND WEANLING RATS

    LD sub 50 values were determined for 57 pesticides administered by the oral or dermal route to adult male and female Sherman rats. Nine pesticides tested by the oral route (bufencarb, cacodylic acid, dialifor, deltamethrin, dicamba, diquat, quintozene, phoxim, pyrazon) and 4 test...

  11. Reproductive and developmental toxicity testing: Examination of the extended one-generation reproductive toxicity study guideline.

    Saghir, Shakil A; Dorato, Michael A

    2016-08-01

    An important aspect of safety assessment of chemicals (industrial and agricultural chemicals and pharmaceuticals) is determining their potential reproductive and developmental toxicity. A number of guidelines have outlined a series of separate reproductive and developmental toxicity studies from fertilization through adulthood and in some cases to second generation. The Extended One-Generation Reproductive Toxicity Study (EOGRTS) is the most recent and comprehensive guideline in this series. EOGRTS design makes toxicity testing progressive, comprehensive, and efficient by assessing key endpoints across multiple life-stages at relevant doses using a minimum number of animals, combining studies/evaluations and proposing tiered-testing approaches based on outcomes. EOGRTS determines toxicity during preconception, development of embryo/fetus and newborn, adolescence, and adults, with specific emphasis on the nervous, immunological, and endocrine systems, EOGRTS also assesses maternal and paternal toxicity. However, EOGRTS guideline is complex, criteria for selecting doses is unclear, and monitoring systemic dose during the course of the study for better interpretation and human relevance is not clear. This paper discusses potential simplification of EOGRTS, suggests procedures for relevant dose selection and monitors systemic dose at multiple life-stages for better interpretation of data and human relevance. PMID:27074386

  12. Acute and sub acute toxicity and efficacy studies of Hippophae rhamnoides based herbal antioxidant supplement

    Rashid Ali

    2012-01-01

    Conclusion: The data obtained indicate no toxicity of this antioxidant supplement up to the highest dose studied. Efficacy in terms of increased bioavailability of vitamin A and C in human volunteers indicates the clinical usefulness of the supplement.

  13. The status of toxicity tests with sediment in Brazil

    Araujo, R.P.A. [Companhia de Tecnologia e Saneamento Ambiental, Sao Paulo (Brazil)

    1995-12-31

    The earliest studies in Brazil aiming to evaluate sediment quality through toxicity tests started in the beginning of the 80`s. These were developed by the Environmental Sanitation Agency of Sao Paulo State (CETESB) in Cubatao River and Billings Reservoir, which are located in industrialized and populous regions. Elutriate phase sediment toxicity tests were run with Daphnia similis. In the Cubatao River Basin the combination of toxicity, chemistry data and benthic community structure provided clear indications of sites with different levels of pollution. At this time there was a consensus that the study of a complex compartment such as sediment needed improvements in sampling and analysis procedures. Only in the 90`s the investigations involving sediment toxicity assessment were resumed by CETESB, and it was clear that integrative studies were needed in order to make environmental quality assessment. This kind of studies were conducted by CETESB in some highly polluted areas of Sao Paulo State, Ceriodaphnia dubia and Photobacterium phosphoreum interstitial water tests and Hyalella sp whole sediment tests were run, and the results correlated with several sediment organic and inorganic contaminants. The Sediment Quality Triad proposed by Chapman was applied in one of these studies. This approach was extremely useful in interpreting the data. At the same time marine sediment toxicity tests were developed by CETESB in collaboration with Sao Paulo University, and tests were run with the amphipods Tiburonella viscana, Battyporeiapus bisetosus; tanaidacean Kalliapseudes shubarti and the echinoderm Lytechinus variegatus. The embryo test with L. variegatus was the most adequate in these studies. Nowadays there are other groups in some universities developing sediment toxicity tests with Hyalella and Chironomus in response to a growing concern in Brazil to establish adequate sediment quality assessment guidelines.

  14. Assessment of Jatropha curcas L. biodiesel seed cake toxicity using the zebrafish (Danio rerio) embryo toxicity (ZFET) test.

    Hallare, Arnold V; Ruiz, Paulo Lorenzo S; Cariño, J C Earl D

    2014-05-01

    Consequent to the growing demand for alternative sources of energy, the seeds from Jatropha curcas remain to be the favorite for biodiesel production. However, a significant volume of the residual organic mass (seed cake) is produced during the extraction process, which raises concerns on safe waste disposal. In the present study, we assessed the toxicity of J. curcas seed cake using the zebrafish (Danio rerio) embryotoxicity test. Within 1-h post-fertilization (hpf), the fertilized eggs were exposed to five mass concentrations of J. curcas seed cake and were followed through 24, 48, and 72 hpf. Toxicity was evaluated based on lethal endpoints induced on zebrafish embryos namely egg coagulation, non-formation of somites, and non-detachment of tail. The lowest concentration tested, 1 g/L, was not able to elicit toxicity on embryos whereas 100 % mortality (based also on lethal endpoints) was recorded at the highest concentration at 2.15 g/L. The computed LC50 for the J. curcas seed cake was 1.61 g/L. No further increase in mortality was observed in the succeeding time points (48 and 72 hpf) indicating that J. curcas seed cake exerted acute toxicity on zebrafish embryos. Sublethal endpoints (yolk sac and pericardial edema) were noted at 72 hpf in zebrafish embryos exposed to higher concentrations. The observed lethal endpoints induced on zebrafish embryos were discussed in relation to the active principles, notably, phorbol esters that have remained in the seed cake even after extraction. PMID:24464135

  15. Acute toxicity modeling of rainbow trout and silver sea bream exposed to waterborne metals.

    Liao, C M; Lin, M C

    2001-01-01

    Of three proposed acute toxicity models, the uptake-depuration (UD) model, the time-integrated concentration (TIC) model, and the concentration-time (CT) model are derived and verified with acute toxicity data to estimate the internal residues of waterborne metals in fish as a function of a few constants and variables. The main factors are the exposure time, the external exposure concentration, the bioconcentration factor (BCF), and the depuration rate constant (k2). The UD model is based on the concept of residue levels at the cell membrane well correlating with the whole-body concentrations, whereas the TIC and the CT models are based on the idea of irreversible inhibition of the enzyme acetylcholinesterase (AChE) governing the metal acute toxicity in that metals in the entire fish or in the aqueous phase can be described by the critical area under the time-concentration curve that is associated with a critical TIC of toxicant in the target tissue. A highly significant correlation (r2 > 0.9) was found between predictions and LC50(t) data for both the TIC and the CT models, indicating successfully describe 4- to 18-d LC50(t) data of arsenic (As), cobalt (Co), copper (Cu), and Co/Cu mixture in rainbow trout (Oncorhyuchus mykiss) and of Cu in fingerlings and subadults of silver sea bream (Sparus sarba). The time-dependent lethal internal concentration at the site of action that causes 50% mortality is also predicted for a given compound and species. It concludes that the TIC and the CT models can be applied to regulate the acute toxicity and to estimate incipient LC50 values and internal residues of waterborne metals in fish. PMID:11501285

  16. Intensity-Modulated Radiation Therapy Significantly Improves Acute Gastrointestinal Toxicity in Pancreatic and Ampullary Cancers

    Purpose: Among patients with upper abdominal malignancies, intensity-modulated radiation therapy (IMRT) can improve dose distributions to critical dose-limiting structures near the target. Whether these improved dose distributions are associated with decreased toxicity when compared with conventional three-dimensional treatment remains a subject of investigation. Methods and Materials: 46 patients with pancreatic/ampullary cancer were treated with concurrent chemoradiation (CRT) using inverse-planned IMRT. All patients received CRT based on 5-fluorouracil in a schema similar to Radiation Therapy Oncology Group (RTOG) 97-04. Rates of acute gastrointestinal (GI) toxicity for this series of IMRT-treated patients were compared with those from RTOG 97-04, where all patients were treated with three-dimensional conformal techniques. Chi-square analysis was used to determine if there was a statistically different incidence in acute GI toxicity between these two groups of patients. Results: The overall incidence of Grade 3-4 acute GI toxicity was low in patients receiving IMRT-based CRT. When compared with patients who had three-dimensional treatment planning (RTOG 97-04), IMRT significantly reduced the incidence of Grade 3-4 nausea and vomiting (0% vs. 11%, p = 0.024) and diarrhea (3% vs. 18%, p = 0.017). There was no significant difference in the incidence of Grade 3-4 weight loss between the two groups of patients. Conclusions: IMRT is associated with a statistically significant decrease in acute upper and lower GI toxicity among patients treated with CRT for pancreatic/ampullary cancers. Future clinical trials plan to incorporate the use of IMRT, given that it remains a subject of active investigation.

  17. A Mini-Nitrification Test for Toxicity Screening, Minntox

    Arvin, Erik; Dyreborg, Søren; Menck, C.;

    1994-01-01

    There is a high demand for a rapid, simple, and inexpensive test for screening of the toxicity of wastewater, polluted groundwater and chemicals in order to protect sewage treatment plants and aquatic and terrestrial recipients. The mini-nitrification test, MINNTOX, presented here, fulfils this...

  18. ACUTE AND SUBACUTE TOXICITY STUDIES ON SHODHANA PROCESSED GUGGUL

    Poonam Taru, Mukta Abhyankar*, Vaishali Undale and Ashok Bhosale

    2013-02-01

    Full Text Available Ayurveda– The science of life is known to the mankind since time immemorial. It prolongs life span, maintains positive health and cures diseases. Due to its high effectiveness, popularity and the socio-economic status it was recognized as an independent branch of learning and has been known as “Rasa Shastra” and “Rasa chikitsa” in the field of Ayurveda. After the development of rasa Shastra it was made possible for the minerals and metals, precious and semiprecious stones to pass through various pharmaceutical processes like shodhana, Marana etc. for several times so as to convert these in to a form or compound which may suit to the human body and could be observed and assimilated easily into the system without exhibiting any toxic symptom. There are two objectives to purify a natural herb. There are two objectives of purification. First is to remove the external and internal impurities. The second reason is to increase the medicinal value. The shodhana processes of guggul can be done by general purification and specific purification. Present work involves study of hematological, biochemical, Histopathological changes in mice treated with Guggul before and after shodhana process.

  19. Kinetics, intermediates and acute toxicity of arsanilic acid photolysis.

    Zhu, Xiang-Dong; Wang, Yu-Jun; Liu, Cun; Qin, Wen-Xiu; Zhou, Dong-Mei

    2014-07-01

    Arsanilic acid (4-amino phenyl arsenic acid, ASA) is widely used in poultry production as feed additives, while most of ASA in the feed is excreted in the animal manure and released into the environment. However, the environmental behaviors of ASA were not well understood. In the present study, the photolysis behaviors of ASA and the toxicity of its metabolites to luminescent bacterium were studied. The results showed that ASA could be photodegraded and this process was strongly affected by solution pH, humic acid and dissolved oxygen. Upon UV irradiation for 360 min, ASA could be completely eliminated, but the reduction of total organic carbon (TOC) was not significant. In addition, NH4(+) ions and inorganic arsenic including arsenite and arsenate were identified as the predominant end-products. The conversion of ASA included both direct and indirect photolysis involving radicals, and its possible photolysis pathways were proposed on the basis of the identified intermediates. Unfortunately, higher adverse effects of the conversion products of ASA on bacteria were observed during the photolysis reaction. The results of present study might be helpful for assessing the environmental persistence and risks of ASA. PMID:24405966

  20. Evaluation of the acute and subchronic oral toxicity of ethanol extract from Valeriana pavonii species in Wistar rats

    María Del Pilar Olaya

    2010-10-01

    Full Text Available Introduction: One of the most frequent problems found in medicinal plants is the absence of clinical, toxicological, and pharmacological studies. Valeriana pavonii is one of the species used in Colombia as an anxiolytic.  Further study of this specie is rendered to add information in the toxicological area. Objective: The acute and subchronic oral toxicity of V. pavonii ethanolic extract was evaluated in Wistar rats of both sexes. Materials and methods: The rats were distributed into four groups: the control group received the vehicle (0.5 mL/100 g of corporal weight and the other three groups received increasing levels of the dosage for 90 days to evaluate characteristics like physical exam, laboratory test (blood chemistry and  haematology, and anatomopathological findings. Results: This study reveals that there were no signs of toxicity, mortality, or significant alterations attributable to the ethanolic extract of V. pavonii. Conclusions: The Not Observed Adverse Effect Levels (NOAEL of V. pavonii ethanolic extract were 2000 and 1000 mg/kg of body weight for the acute and subchronic toxicity studies, respectively.

  1. Evaluation of the acute and subchronic oral toxicity of ethanol extract from Valeriana pavonii species in Wistar rats

    Mario Francisco Guerrero

    2010-09-01

    Full Text Available Introduction: One of the most frequent problems found in medicinal plants is the absence of clinical, toxicological, and pharmacological studies. Valeriana pavonii is one of the species used in Colombia as an anxiolytic. Further study of this specie is rendered to add information in the toxicological area.Objective: The acute and subchronic oral toxicity of V. pavonii ethanolic extract was evaluated in Wistar rats of both sexes.Materials and methods: The rats were distributed into four groups: the control group received the vehicle (0.5 mL/100 g of corporal weight and the other three groups received increasing levels of the dosage for 90 days to evaluate characteristics like physical exam, laboratory test (blood chemistry and haematology, and anatomopathological findings.Results: This study reveals that there were no signs of toxicity, mortality, or significant alterations attributable to the ethanolic extract of V. pavonii.Conclusions: The Not Observed Adverse Effect Levels (NOAEL of V. pavonii ethanolic extract were 2000 and 1000 mg/kg of body weight for the acute and subchronic toxicity studies, respectively.

  2. Acute aquatic toxicity of western juniper (Juniperus occidentalis) foliage and Port Orford cedar (Chamaecyparis lawsoniana) heartwood oils.

    Duringer, Jennifer M; Swan, Laurence R; Walker, Douglas B; Craig, A Morrie

    2010-11-01

    Recently, interest has developed for using essential oils from Western juniper (Juniperus occidentalis) foliage and Port Orford cedar (Chamaecyparis lawsoniana) heartwood in commercial products such as pest repellents and cosmetics. In order to gauge the relative toxicological risk that these oils pose to freshwater and marine organisms, the acute aquatic toxicity of these oils was evaluated using OPPTS guidelines to the cladoceran Daphnia magna, the rainbow trout Oncorhynchus mykiss and the green alga Selenastrum capricornutum. For western juniper foliage oil, no toxicity was exhibited toward D. magna or O. mykiss, even at 5.0 mg/L (the highest concentration tested and limit of solubility). For toxicity to S. capricornutum using algal cell density, the 72 and 96 h EC50 value was 1.7 mg/L and the no observable effect concentration (NOEC) was 0.63 mg/L. For Port Orford cedar heartwood oil, no toxicity was exhibited toward O. mykiss or S. capricornutum, even at 5.0 mg/L (the highest concentration tested and limit of solubility). The 48-h D. magna EC50 value was 1.9 mg/L; the NOEC values for algal cell density were 1.25 mg/L (72 h) and 0.63 mg/L (96 h). In summary, this study shows that western juniper foliage and Port Orford cedar heartwood oils demonstrate little to no risk to aquatic organisms. PMID:20033284

  3. Use of solar advanced oxidation processes for wastewater treatment: Follow-up on degradation products, acute toxicity, genotoxicity and estrogenicity.

    Brienza, M; Mahdi Ahmed, M; Escande, A; Plantard, G; Scrano, L; Chiron, S; Bufo, S A; Goetz, V

    2016-04-01

    Wastewater tertiary treatment by advanced oxidation processes is thought to produce a treated effluent with lower toxicity than the initial influent. Here we performed tertiary treatment of a secondary effluent collected from a Waste Water Treatment Plant via homogeneous (solar/HSO5(-)/Fe(2+)) and heterogeneous (solar/TiO2) solar advanced oxidation aiming at the assessment of their effectiveness in terms of contaminants' and toxicity abatement in a plain solar reactor. A total of 53 organic contaminants were qualitatively identified by liquid chromatography coupled to high-resolution mass spectrometry after solid phase extraction. Solar advanced oxidation totally or partially removed the major part of contaminants detected within 4.5 h. Standard toxicity tests were performed using Vibrio fischeri, Daphnia magna, Pseudokirchneriella subcapitata and Brachionus calyciflorus organisms to evaluate acute and chronic toxicity in the secondary or tertiary effluents, and the EC50% was calculated. Estrogenic and genotoxic tests were carried out in an attempt to obtain an even sharper evaluation of potential hazardous effects due to micropollutants or their degradation by-products in wastewater. Genotoxic effects were not detected in effluent before or after treatment. However, we observed relevant estrogenic activity due to the high sensitivity of the HELN ERα cell line. PMID:26841289

  4. Laboratory test surveillance following acute kidney injury.

    Michael E Matheny

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: Patients with hospitalized acute kidney injury (AKI are at increased risk for accelerated loss of kidney function, morbidity, and mortality. We sought to inform efforts at improving post-AKI outcomes by describing the receipt of renal-specific laboratory test surveillance among a large high-risk cohort. METHODS: We acquired clinical data from the Electronic health record (EHR of 5 Veterans Affairs (VA hospitals to identify patients hospitalized with AKI from January 1st, 2002 to December 31st, 2009, and followed these patients for 1 year or until death, enrollment in palliative care, or improvement in renal function to estimated GFR (eGFR ≥ 60 L/min/1.73 m(2. Using demographic data, administrative codes, and laboratory test data, we evaluated the receipt and timing of outpatient testing for serum concentrations of creatinine and any as well as quantitative proteinuria recommended for CKD risk stratification. Additionally, we reported the rate of phosphorus and parathyroid hormone (PTH monitoring recommended for chronic kidney disease (CKD patients. RESULTS: A total of 10,955 patients admitted with AKI were discharged with an eGFR<60 mL/min/1.73 m2. During outpatient follow-up at 90 and 365 days, respectively, creatinine was measured on 69% and 85% of patients, quantitative proteinuria was measured on 6% and 12% of patients, PTH or phosphorus was measured on 10% and 15% of patients. CONCLUSIONS: Measurement of creatinine was common among all patients following AKI. However, patients with AKI were infrequently monitored with assessments of quantitative proteinuria or mineral metabolism disorder, even for patients with baseline kidney disease.

  5. A Lymnaea stagnalis Embryo Test for Toxicity Bioindication of Acidification and Ammonia Pollution in Water

    Robert Mazur

    2016-07-01

    Full Text Available The paper presents a study leading to a new acute toxicity test on embryonic and juvenile organisms of the great pond snail (Lymnaea stagnalis Linnaeus. Sulfuric acid, nitric acid, and ammonium hydroxide were used as waterborne toxicants in laboratory experiments. The exposure time was 24 h. Tests were conducted in 5–10 replications for each toxicant. The toxicity of the substances was classified according to different scales and the test’s sensitivity was compared to that of the commonly used bioindicator Daphnia magna Straus. The assessment of toxicity impact was supported by microscopic observations. The probit method was used as a parametric statistical procedure to estimate LC50 and the associated 95% confidence interval. Our study showed that the early developmental stages of Lymnaea stagnalis are very sensitive bioindicators, making it possible to detect even very low levels of the above-mentioned water toxicants. The highest toxicity is shown by ammonium hydroxide with LC50/24h values, respectively, 24.27 for embryos and 24.72 for juvenile forms, and the lowest is shown by nitric acid ions with LC50/24h values, respectively, 105.19 for embryos and 170.47 for juvenile forms. It is highly cost-effective due to simple and efficient breeding and the small size of the organisms in the bioassay population. Compared with Daphnia magna, relatively low concentrations of toxicants caused a lethal effect on embryonic and juvenile organisms of the great pond snail. Owing to their common occurrence and sensitivity, early developmental forms of Lymnaea stagnalis can be a valuable new tool in biomonitoring of the freshwater environment.

  6. Intensity modulated whole pelvic radiotherapy in patients with cervix cancer: analysis of acute toxicity

    Choi, Young Min; Lee, Hyung Sik; Hur, Won Joo; Cha, Moon Seok; Kim, Hyun Ho [School of Medicine, Dong-A University, Busan (Korea, Republic of)

    2006-12-15

    To evaluate acute toxicities in cervix cancer patients receiving intensity modulated whole pelvic radiation therapy (IM-WPRT). Between August 2004 and April 2006, 17 patients who underwent IM-WPRT were analysed. An intravenous contrast agent was used for radiotherapy planning computed tomography (CT). The central clinical target volume (CTV) included the primary tumor, uterus, vagina, and parametrium. The nodal CTV was defined as the lymph nodes larger than 1 cm seen on CT and the contrased-enhanced pelvic vessels. The planning target volume (PTV) was the 1-cm expanded volume around the central CTV, except for a 5-mm expansion from the posterior vagina, and the nodal PTV was defined as the nodal CTV plus a 1.5 cm margin. IM-WPRT was prescribed to deliver a dose of 50 Gy to more than 95% of the PTV. Acute toxicity was assessed with common toxicity criteria up to 60 days after radiotherapy. Grade 1 nausea developed in 10 (58.9%) patients, and grade 1 and 2 diarrhea developed in 11 (64.7%) and 1 (5.9%) patients, respectively. No grade 3 or higher gastrointestinal toxicity was seen. Leukopenia, anemia, and thrombocytopenia occurred in 15 (88.2%). 7 (41.2%), and 2 (11.8%) patients, respectively, as hematologic toxicities. Grade 3 leukopenia developed in 2 patients who were treated with concurrent chemoradiotherapy. IM-WPRT can be a useful treatment for cervix cancer patients with decreased severe acute toxicities and a resultant improved compliance to whole pelvic irradiation.

  7. Reduced Acute Bowel Toxicity in Patients Treated With Intensity-Modulated Radiotherapy for Rectal Cancer

    Samuelian, Jason M. [Department of Radiation Oncology, Mayo Clinic, Scottsdale, AZ (United States); Callister, Matthew D., E-mail: Callister.matthew@mayo.edu [Department of Radiation Oncology, Mayo Clinic, Scottsdale, AZ (United States); Ashman, Jonathan B. [Department of Radiation Oncology, Mayo Clinic, Scottsdale, AZ (United States); Young-Fadok, Tonia M. [Division of Colorectal Surgery, Mayo Clinic, Scottsdale, AZ (United States); Borad, Mitesh J. [Division of Hematology-Oncology, Mayo Clinic, Scottsdale, AZ (United States); Gunderson, Leonard L. [Department of Radiation Oncology, Mayo Clinic, Scottsdale, AZ (United States)

    2012-04-01

    Purpose: We have previously shown that intensity-modulated radiotherapy (IMRT) can reduce dose to small bowel, bladder, and bone marrow compared with three-field conventional radiotherapy (CRT) technique in the treatment of rectal cancer. The purpose of this study was to review our experience using IMRT to treat rectal cancer and report patient clinical outcomes. Methods and Materials: A retrospective review was conducted of patients with rectal cancer who were treated at Mayo Clinic Arizona with pelvic radiotherapy (RT). Data regarding patient and tumor characteristics, treatment, acute toxicity according to the Common Terminology Criteria for Adverse Events v 3.0, tumor response, and perioperative morbidity were collected. Results: From 2004 to August 2009, 92 consecutive patients were treated. Sixty-one (66%) patients were treated with CRT, and 31 (34%) patients were treated with IMRT. All but 2 patients received concurrent chemotherapy. There was no significant difference in median dose (50.4 Gy, CRT; 50 Gy, IMRT), preoperative vs. postoperative treatment, type of concurrent chemotherapy, or history of previous pelvic RT between the CRT and IMRT patient groups. Patients who received IMRT had significantly less gastrointestinal (GI) toxicity. Sixty-two percent of patients undergoing CRT experienced {>=}Grade 2 acute GI side effects, compared with 32% among IMRT patients (p = 0.006). The reduction in overall GI toxicity was attributable to fewer symptoms from the lower GI tract. Among CRT patients, {>=}Grade 2 diarrhea and enteritis was experienced among 48% and 30% of patients, respectively, compared with 23% (p = 0.02) and 10% (p = 0.015) among IMRT patients. There was no significant difference in hematologic or genitourinary acute toxicity between groups. In addition, pathologic complete response rates and postoperative morbidity between treatment groups did not differ significantly. Conclusions: In the management of rectal cancer, IMRT is associated with a

  8. Acute and subchronic (13-week) toxicity of fermented Acanthopanax koreanum extracts in Sprague Dawley rats.

    Cho, MyoungLae; Shin, Gi-Hae; Kim, Jae-Min; Lee, Jin-Ha; Park, Sun-Ok; Lee, Sang-Jong; Shin, HyunMu; Lee, Boo-Yong; Kang, Il-Jun; Lee, Ok-Hwan

    2016-06-01

    The biological fermentation of plants is usually used to improve their product properties, including their biological activity. Acanthopanax koreanum is a plant indigenous to Jeju, Korea; however, fermented A. koreanum (FAK) has not been guaranteed to be safe. Therefore, in this study, a safety evaluation of aqueous extracts of FAK was performed using Sprague Dawley rats. The acute toxicity of FAK did not influence animal mortality, body weight changes or the animals' clinical appearance at a concentration of 5000 mg/kg body weight. Using doses of 500, 1000 and 2000 mg/kg/day in a subchronic (13-week) toxicity study, the administration of FAK in male rats increased their body weight, food consumption, absolute liver weight, liver-associated enzymes and total cholesterol content. However, these effects of FAK were not considered toxic because the changes were not accompanied by any evidence of clinical signs or any change in the histopathological examination. On the other hand, the FAK-treated female rats did not exhibit significant changes in their body weight, food consumption, absolute and relative organ weights or liver enzymes. These results suggest that the acute oral administration of FAK is non-toxic to rats, and 13 weeks of repeated dosing demonstrated no FAK-related toxicity at a concentration of 2000 mg/kg. Therefore, the no-observed-adverse-effect level (NOAEL) of FAK was determined to be 2000 mg/kg/day for both male and female rats. PMID:26925497

  9. Acute and chronic oral toxicity of a partially purified plaunotol extract from Croton stellatopilosus Ohba.

    Chaotham, Chatchai; Chivapat, Songpol; Chaikitwattana, Anan; De-Eknamkul, Wanchai

    2013-01-01

    Plaunotol, an acyclic diterpenoid with highly effective antigastric ulcer properties, has been commercially isolated from leaves of Croton stellatopilosus Ohba. This Thai medicinal plant was traditionally used in the form of crude extracts, suggesting that it is possible to administer these plaunotol-containing extracts without toxicity. To confirm its safety, the oral toxicity of a partially purified plaunotol extract (PPE) was evaluated in vivo. The PPE was simply prepared by 95% ethanol reflux extraction followed by hexane partition. The obtained extract was analyzed and found to contain 43% w/w of plaunotol and another compound, likely a fatty acid-plaunotol conjugate that is considered a major impurity. Oral administration of PPE to ICR mice and Wistar rats was conducted to evaluate acute and chronic toxicity of the plaunotol extract, respectively. The acute toxicity study demonstrated that PPE was practically nontoxic based on its high median lethal dose value (LD₅₀ = 10.25 g/kg). The chronic toxicity studies also showed the absence of mortality and clinical symptoms in all rats treated with 11-1,100 mg/kg/day of PPE during a 6-month period. Histopathological and hematological analyses revealed that altered liver and kidney function and increased blood platelet number, but only at the high doses (550-1,100 mg/kg/day). These results suggest that PPE is potentially safe for further development as a therapeutic agent in humans. PMID:24286075

  10. Acute and Chronic Oral Toxicity of a Partially Purified Plaunotol Extract from Croton stellatopilosus Ohba

    Chatchai Chaotham

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Plaunotol, an acyclic diterpenoid with highly effective antigastric ulcer properties, has been commercially isolated from leaves of Croton stellatopilosus Ohba. This Thai medicinal plant was traditionally used in the form of crude extracts, suggesting that it is possible to administer these plaunotol-containing extracts without toxicity. To confirm its safety, the oral toxicity of a partially purified plaunotol extract (PPE was evaluated in vivo. The PPE was simply prepared by 95% ethanol reflux extraction followed by hexane partition. The obtained extract was analyzed and found to contain 43% w/w of plaunotol and another compound, likely a fatty acid-plaunotol conjugate that is considered a major impurity. Oral administration of PPE to ICR mice and Wistar rats was conducted to evaluate acute and chronic toxicity of the plaunotol extract, respectively. The acute toxicity study demonstrated that PPE was practically nontoxic based on its high median lethal dose value (LD50=10.25 g/kg. The chronic toxicity studies also showed the absence of mortality and clinical symptoms in all rats treated with 11–1,100 mg/kg/day of PPE during a 6-month period. Histopathological and hematological analyses revealed that altered liver and kidney function and increased blood platelet number, but only at the high doses (550–1,100 mg/kg/day. These results suggest that PPE is potentially safe for further development as a therapeutic agent in humans.

  11. Acute and Subchronic Toxic Effects of the Fruits of Physalis peruviana L.

    Perk, Basak Ozlem; Ilgin, Sinem; Atli, Ozlem; Duymus, Hale Gamze; Sirmagul, Basar

    2013-01-01

    The fruit of Physalis peruviana L. (PPL) has been traditionally used as antispasmodic, diuretic, antiseptic, sedative, and analgesic all over the world. We aimed to perform qualitative content analysis of the fruits of PPL and to clarify the in vitro genotoxicity and in vivo acute and subchronic toxicity of the fruit. Lyophilized fruit juice does not induce genetic damage. In the acute toxicity studies, LD50 value of the fruit was found to be more than 5000 mg kg(-1) for both sexes. According to the subchronic toxicity studies, hepatic, renal, and hematological toxic effects were not induced in both sexes. Plasma troponin I (only in the group treated with 5000 mg kg(-1) of lyophilized fruit juice) and troponin T levels were significantly increased in male groups treated with lyophilized fruit juice compared to the control group. Furthermore, potassium level was significantly increased in the male group treated with 5000 mg kg(-1) of lyophilized fruit juice. These findings were considered to indicate the myocardial damage particularly in the male group treated with 5000 mg kg(-1) of lyophilized fruit juice. In conclusion, lyophilized fruit juice of PPL is shown to induce cardiac toxicity only at high doses and in male gender. PMID:24369482

  12. Acute and Subchronic Toxic Effects of the Fruits of Physalis peruviana L.

    Basak Ozlem Perk

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available The fruit of Physalis peruviana L. (PPL has been traditionally used as antispasmodic, diuretic, antiseptic, sedative, and analgesic all over the world. We aimed to perform qualitative content analysis of the fruits of PPL and to clarify the in vitro genotoxicity and in vivo acute and subchronic toxicity of the fruit. Lyophilized fruit juice does not induce genetic damage. In the acute toxicity studies, LD50 value of the fruit was found to be more than 5000 mg kg−1 for both sexes. According to the subchronic toxicity studies, hepatic, renal, and hematological toxic effects were not induced in both sexes. Plasma troponin I (only in the group treated with 5000 mg kg−1 of lyophilized fruit juice and troponin T levels were significantly increased in male groups treated with lyophilized fruit juice compared to the control group. Furthermore, potassium level was significantly increased in the male group treated with 5000 mg kg−1 of lyophilized fruit juice. These findings were considered to indicate the myocardial damage particularly in the male group treated with 5000 mg kg−1 of lyophilized fruit juice. In conclusion, lyophilized fruit juice of PPL is shown to induce cardiac toxicity only at high doses and in male gender.

  13. Reduction of acute toxicity of landfill leachate in co-treatement with domestic sewage by integrated fixed-film activated sludge reactor

    Fábio Campos

    2016-04-01

    Full Text Available This study used acute toxicity tests on the marine bacteria Allivibrio fischeri and on microcrustaceans Daphnia similis to evaluate the reduction of acute toxicity in effluent generated by the IFAS (Integrated Fixed Film Activated Sludge hybrid process, treating landfill leachate with domestic sewage. In order to evaluate the treatment’s ability to lessen the toxicity of the effluent, three experimental stages were developed with leachate contributions of 5, 10 and 20% of the total load of BOD in the effluent composition. In general, the results show that, even with the greatest contribution of leachate, no significant alterations were observed in the behavior and efficiency of the biological process; however, with regard to the degree of acute toxicity observed in the affluent, the classification of the effluents changed from Very Toxic to Toxic in three phases of operation, even reaching the reduction levels around 70% in the last stage of the study, highlighting the need for greater control and evaluation of this variable. The methodology of using the Microtox® technique proved to be more sensitive to compounds present in the samples when compared to the technique using the microcrustaceans D. similis.

  14. Acute Copper and Cupric Ion Toxicity in an Estuarine Microbial Community

    Jonas, Robert B.

    1989-01-01

    Copper was acutely toxic to the estuarine microbial community of Middle Marshes, N.C. Under ambient water quality conditions, 10 μg of added total copper [Cu(II)] liter−1 reduced the CFU bacterial abundance by up to 60% and inhibited the amino acid turnover rate (AATR) by as much as 30%. Copper toxicity, however, was a quantitative function of free cupric ion (Cu2+) activity that was not directly related to Cu(II) or ligand-bound copper. By using a nitrilotriacetic acid-cupric ion buffer to c...

  15. Sub-Acute Toxicity Studies of Paracetamol Infusion in Albino Wistar Rats

    Anurag Payasi

    2010-04-01

    Full Text Available The objective of the present study was to evaluate the sub-acute toxicity of paracetamol infusion in albino wistar rats (male and female at different dose levels, ranging from 16 to 66 mg/kg body weight. No mortality was seen in any of the treatment groups during the course of study. Various physiological, hematological as well as biochemical parameters were studied and found not to be changed significantly, indicating that paracetamol infusion is non toxic even at higher dose level in wistar rats. Overall safety and tolerability profile of paracetamol infusion is proved good and does not appear to carry risk of serious adverse effects.

  16. Acute toxicity of water soluble fraction of crude oil to the early life stages of the african catfish (clarias gariepinus)

    Acute toxicity bioassay of water soluble fraction of crude oil (Escravos blend), was conducted to evaluate the toxicity on the early life stages of the African catfish (Clarias gariepinus) under static bioassay conditions. Five concentrations of water soluble fraction (WSF) of the crude oil (0, 1.25, 2.5, 5, 10 and 20%) were constituted in glass aquaria (25 cm 24 cm 10 cm). Twenty laboratory-reared frys were introduced in triplicate in each of the test aquaria and exposure conducted for 96 h. The median lethal concentration (LC/sub 50/) and the 95% confidence interval was estimated using Trimmed Spearman-Karber method. The physicochemical characteristic of the test media was also evaluated. The 96 h median lethal concentration (LC/sub 50/) at 95% confidence interval was estimated to give 2.84% (upper and lower confidence interval of 3.83% and 2.10%) of the water soluble fraction. There was no marked change in pH of the test media compared to the control. However, the dissolved oxygen content and the conductivity showed a concentration dependent decline in the test media when compared to the control. The frys were observed to be weak and swimming activities were reduced. It can be concluded from the study that the water soluble fraction of crude oil (Escravos blend) is toxic to early life stages of C. gariepinus. (author)

  17. Exercise test in acute myocardial infarction.

    Hsi, W L; Lai, J S

    1996-01-01

    Although maximal oxygen consumption (VO2max) and oxygen consumption at anaerobic threshold (VO2AT) were used to measure cardiac function, the clinical significance in acute myocardial infarction (MI) has not been reported. The purpose of this study was to compare VO2max and VO2AT between post-MI patients and healthy men and to correlate the parameters to other clinical measures. Forty-three active healthy men, 44 sedentary healthy men, and 43 post-MI patients were studied using incremental cycle exercise test. Their work rates, oxygen consumption, heart rates, oxygen pulses, ventilation, and other parameters at VO2max and VO2AT were determined with spirometer, gas concentration analyzer, and electrocardiograph. Anaerobic threshold was determined by analyzing the ventilatory parameters. Most of the exercise test parameters at VO2max were greatest in the active men, intermediate in the sedentary men, and least in the post-MI patients (P pressure products of the active men and sedentary men were not significantly different from each other and were greater than those of the post-MI patients (P < 0.01). In the post-MI patients, VO2max was inversely correlated to the peak serum level of creatine phosphokinase MB isoenzyme (P < 0.01) and associated with extensive infarction (P < 0.05). Most of the parameters at VO2AT were greater in the active men than in the sedentary men (P < 0.01) but not significantly different between the sedentary men and post-MI patients. In the post-MI patients, VO2AT was significantly correlated to left ventricular ejection fraction (P < 0.01) and associated with heart failure (P < 0.05). The results revealed that VO2max and VO2AT had different clinical significance in post-MI patients; VO2max was related to the infarct size, and VO2AT was related to the pumping function of heart. PMID:8777021

  18. Ca2+ toxicity and mitochondrial damage in acute pancreatitis: translational overview.

    Maléth, József; Hegyi, Péter

    2016-08-01

    Acute pancreatitis (AP) is a leading cause of hospitalization among non-malignant gastrointestinal disorders. The mortality of severe AP can reach 30-50%, which is most probably owing to the lack of specific treatment. Therefore, AP is a major healthcare problem, which urges researchers to identify novel drug targets. Studies from the last decades highlighted that the toxic cellular Ca(2+) overload and mitochondrial damage are key pathogenic steps in the disease development affecting both acinar and ductal cell functions. Moreover, recent observations showed that modifying the cellular Ca(2+) signalling might be beneficial in AP. The inhibition of Ca(2+) release from the endoplasmic reticulum or the activity of plasma membrane Ca(2+) influx channels decreased the severity of AP in experimental models. Similarly, inhibition of mitochondrial permeability transition pore (MPTP) opening also seems to improve the outcome of AP in in vivo animal models. At the moment MPTP blockers are under detailed clinical investigation to test whether interventions in MPTP openings and/or Ca(2+) homeostasis of the cells can be specific targets in prevention or treatment of cell damage in AP.This article is part of the themed issue 'Evolution brings Ca(2+) and ATP together to control life and death'. PMID:27377719

  19. Assessment of acute toxicity and histopathology of the fungicide captan in rainbow trout.

    Boran, Halis; Capkin, Erol; Altinok, Ilhan; Terzi, Ertugrul

    2012-03-01

    Acute toxicity of the fungicide, captan, to juvenile rainbow trout was evaluated under static-renewal test condition. Actual concentrations of captan ranged from 0.05 to 1.00 mg/L. The concentrations of captan that killed 50% of the rainbow trout (3.11±0.8 g) within 24 (24 h; LC(50)), 48, 72 and 96 h were 0.57±0.09, 0.49±0.10, 0.44±0.11 and 0.38±0.13 mg/L (95% confidence limits), respectively. None of the unexposed control fish died and the first fish died 6 h after exposure to captan (≥0.65 mg/L). Hypertrophy, separation of epithelium from lamellae, lamellar fusion, and epithelial cell necrosis were observed on captan exposed fish. Gills also had scattered areas of focal lamellar hyperplasia. Fish exposed to fungicide had inflammation and necrosis in liver, trunk kidney and spleen. In order, the most affected organs were gill, trunk kidney and liver. PMID:20817491

  20. Acute Toxicity and Neurotoxicity of Chlorpyrifos in Black Tiger Shrimp, Penaeus monodon

    Tassanee Eamkamon

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available Acute toxicity and neurotoxicity of chlorpyrifos were determined in black tiger shrimp, P. monodon. LC50 values after 24 to 96 h of exposure were between 149.55 and 59.16 nmol/L. To determine the neurotoxicity of chlorpyrifos, the inhibition of acetylcholinesterase was monitored in the gill of the shrimps exposed to lethal (0.019, 0.194, and 1.942 µmol/L and sub-lethal (0.019, 0.194, and 1.942 nmol/L concentrations of chlorpyrifos. In lethal dose exposure, the AChE activities observed in shrimp exposed to 0.194, and 1.942 µmol/L of chlorpyrifos were significantly lower (1.7 and 3.3 times than that of control shrimp after 30 min of exposure (p<0.05. In sub-lethal exposure tests, the AChE activity of shrimp was significantly lower (1.9 times than that of control shrimp after exposure to 1.942 nmol/L of chlorpyrifos for 72 h (p<0.05. The sensitive reduction of AChE activity at the sub-lethal concentration, which was 30 times lower than 96 h LC50 value found in this study, indicates the potential use as a biomarker of chlorpyrifos exposure.

  1. Acute toxicity estimation by calculation--Tubifex assay and quantitative structure-activity relationships.

    Tichý, Milon; Rucki, Marian; Hanzlíková, Iveta; Roth, Zdenek

    2008-11-01

    A quantitative structure-activity relationship (QSAR) model dependent on log P(n - octanol/water), or log P(OW), was developed with acute toxicity index EC50, the median effective concentration measured as inhibition of movement of the oligochaeta Tubifex tubifex with 3 min exposure, EC50(Tt) (mol/L): log EC50(Tt) = -0.809 (+/-0.035) log P(OW) - 0.495 (+/-0.060), n=82, r=0.931, r2=0.867, residual standard deviation of the estimate 0.315. A learning series for the QSAR model with the oligochaete contained alkanols, alkenols, and alkynols; saturated and unsaturated aldehydes; aniline and chlorinated anilines; phenol and chlorinated phenols; and esters. Three cross-validation procedures proved the robustness and stability of QSAR models with respect to the chemical structure of compounds tested within a series of compounds used in the learning series. Predictive ability was described by q2 .801 (cross-validated r2; predicted variation estimated with cross-validation) in LSO (leave-a structurally series-out) cross-validation. PMID:18522479

  2. Acute Toxicity and the Effect of Andrographolide on Porphyromonas gingivalis-Induced Hyperlipidemia in Rats

    Rami Al Batran

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available The aim of the current study is to evaluate the effect of andrographolide on hyperlipidemia induced by Porphyromonas gingivalis in rats. Thirty male Sprague Dawley (SD rats were divided into five groups as follows: group 1 (vehicle and four experimental groups (groups 2, 3, 4, and 5 were challenged orally with P. gingivalis ATCC 33277 (0.2 mL of bacterial cells/mL in 2% carboxymethylcellulose (CMC with phosphate-buffered saline (PBS five times a week for one month to induce hyperlipidemia. Then, group 3 received a standard oral treatment with simvastatin 100 mg/kg, and groups 4 and 5 received oral treatment with andrographolide 20 mg/kg and 10 mg/kg, respectively, for another month. The results showed that total cholesterol (TC, low-density lipoprotein (LDL-C, and triglycerides (TG were reduced significantly in groups treated with andrographolide. The malondialdehyde (MDA level was low in treated groups, while antioxidant enzymes, superoxide dismutase (SOD, and glutathione peroxidase (GPx were significantly increased in these groups (. Liver tissues of the groups treated with andrographolide reduce the accumulation of lipid droplets in hepatic tissue cells. An acute toxicity test did not show any toxicological symptoms in rats.

  3. Acute toxicity and the effect of andrographolide on Porphyromonas gingivalis-induced hyperlipidemia in rats.

    Al Batran, Rami; Al-Bayaty, Fouad; Al-Obaidi, Mazen M Jamil; Abdulla, Mahmood A

    2013-01-01

    The aim of the current study is to evaluate the effect of andrographolide on hyperlipidemia induced by Porphyromonas gingivalis in rats. Thirty male Sprague Dawley (SD) rats were divided into five groups as follows: group 1 (vehicle) and four experimental groups (groups 2, 3, 4, and 5) were challenged orally with P. gingivalis ATCC 33277 (0.2 mL of 1.5 ×10(12) bacterial cells/mL in 2% carboxymethylcellulose (CMC) with phosphate-buffered saline (PBS)) five times a week for one month to induce hyperlipidemia. Then, group 3 received a standard oral treatment with simvastatin 100 mg/kg, and groups 4 and 5 received oral treatment with andrographolide 20 mg/kg and 10 mg/kg, respectively, for another month. The results showed that total cholesterol (TC), low-density lipoprotein (LDL-C), and triglycerides (TG) were reduced significantly in groups treated with andrographolide. The malondialdehyde (MDA) level was low in treated groups, while antioxidant enzymes, superoxide dismutase (SOD), and glutathione peroxidase (GPx) were significantly increased in these groups (P < 0.05). Liver tissues of the groups treated with andrographolide reduce the accumulation of lipid droplets in hepatic tissue cells. An acute toxicity test did not show any toxicological symptoms in rats. PMID:23844365

  4. Relationships between acute toxicities of para nitrophenol (p-NP) and nitrobenzene (NB) to Daphnia magna and Photobacterium phosphoreum: Physicochemical properties and metabolites under anaerobic/aerobic sequentials

    In this study, the acute toxicities of nitrobenzene (NB) and para nitrophenol (p-NP) were investigated in a high rate sequential anaerobic migrating blanket (AMBR)/aerobic completely stirred tank reactor (CSTR) using Microtox and Daphnia magna tests. After sequential anaerobic and aerobic treatments, the inhibitions in the Microtox bacteria decreased from an initial 78.10-48.20% and 4.00%, respectively, in wastewater containing 40.00 mg/L p-NP. The inhibitions of the influent wastewater containing 60.00 mg/L NB decreased from 72.10% to 45.30% and to 4.00% after anaerobic and aerobic treatment, respectively. The acute toxicity removals were 94% and 93% in the effluent of the whole sequential system, for p-NP and NB, respectively. The acute toxicity in the influent was dependent on the parent NB and p-NP concentrations and ons their physicochemical properties such as hydrophobicity, octanol/water partition coefficient and vapour density for both Microtox bacteria and Daphnia magna while the toxicity in the effluent of the anaerobic reactor was strongly dependent on the metabolites of p-NP (p-amino phenol, phenol, NH4-N) and NB (aniline) for Microtox test. This effluent was not toxic to Daphnia magna.

  5. Acute silver toxicity in aquatic animals is a function of sodium uptake rate

    Bianchini, A.; Grosell, Martin Hautopp; Gregory, S.;

    2002-01-01

    and body mass of the same species was also observed. Furthermore, the whole body Na+ uptake rate was inversely related to body mass in unexposed animals. The combination of these last two results explains why the small animals in this study were more sensitive to Ag+ than the larger ones. Taken together......-specific surface area of the gills depends on animal body mass; and (iv) the gill surface is also the major site of Na+ loss by diffusion, we hypothesized that whole body Na+ uptake rate (i.e., turnover rate) and secondarily body mass would be good predictors of acute silver toxicity. Results obtained from...... hypothesis. Therefore, sensitivity to AgNO3, in terms of either total measured silver or free Ag+, was reliably predicted from the whole body Na+ uptake rate in animals with body mass ranging over 6 orders of magnitude (from micrograms to grams). A positive log-log correlation between acute AgNO3 toxicity...

  6. Acute and 28-Day Subchronic Oral Toxicity of an Ethanol Extract of Zingiber zerumbet (L.) Smith in Rodents

    Yuan-Shiun Chang; Shorong-Shii Liou; I-Min Liu; Thing-Fong Tzeng; Chia Ju Chang

    2012-01-01

    The objective of this study was to evaluate the acute and subacute toxicity (28 days) of the ethanol extract of Z. zerumbet rhizomes (EEZZ) via the oral route in Wistar rats of both sexes. In the acute toxicity study, Wistar rats were administered a single dose of 15 g kg−1 of body weight by gavage, and were monitored for 14 days. EEZZ did not produce any toxic signs or deaths; the 50% lethal dose must be higher than 15 g kg−1. In the subchronic toxicity study, EEZZ was administered by gavage...

  7. Acute toxicity assessment of camphor in biopesticides by using Daphnia magna and Danio rerio

    Yim, Eun-Chae; Kim, Hyeon-Joe; Kim, Seong-Jun

    2014-01-01

    Objectives An ecofriendly alternative to chemical pesticides is bio-pesticides, which are derived from natural sources. The interest in bio-pesticides is based on the disadvantages associated with chemical pesticides. Methods We conducted acute toxicity assessments of camphor, a major component of bio-pesticides, by using Daphnia magna (D. magna) as well as assessed the morphological abnormalities that occurred in Danio rerio (D. rerio) embryos. Results The median effective concentration of c...

  8. PRELIMINARY PHYTOCHEMICAL ANALYSIS AND ACUTE ORAL TOXICITY STUDY OF MUCUNA PRURIENS LINN. IN ALBINO MICE

    Deka Manalisha; Kalita Jogen Chandra

    2012-01-01

    Mucuna Pruriens Linn. is an annual, climbing shrub which has an important place among aphrodisiac herbs in India since the ancient times. The plant has been using traditionally for many medicinal purposes such as Infertility, Parkinson’s disease, Loss of libido, Antioxidant, Anti venom, Anti microbial etc. The present study was carried out to investigate the preliminary phytochemical analysis and acute oral toxicity of the seeds of M.pruriens on albino mice. Matured seeds of M.pruriens were d...

  9. Acute Toxicity of the Antifouling Compound Butenolide in Non-Target Organisms

    Yi-Fan Zhang; Kang Xiao; Chandramouli, Kondethimmanahalli H.; Ying Xu; Ke Pan; Wen-Xiong Wang; Pei-Yuan Qian

    2011-01-01

    Butenolide [5-octylfuran-2(5H)-one] is a recently discovered and very promising anti-marine-fouling compound. In this study, the acute toxicity of butenolide was assessed in several non-target organisms, including micro algae, crustaceans, and fish. Results were compared with previously reported results on the effective concentrations used on fouling (target) organisms. According to OECD's guideline, the predicted no effect concentration (PNEC) was 0.168 µg l(-1), which was among one of the h...

  10. Emerging Biomarkers and Metabolomics for Assessing Toxic Nephropathy and Acute Kidney Injury (AKI in Neonatology

    M. Mussap

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Identification of novel drug-induced toxic nephropathy and acute kidney injury (AKI biomarkers has been designated as a top priority by the American Society of Nephrology. Increasing knowledge in the science of biology and medicine is leading to the discovery of still more new biomarkers and of their roles in molecular pathways triggered by physiological and pathological conditions. Concomitantly, the development of the so-called “omics” allows the progressive clinical utilization of a multitude of information, from those related to the human genome (genomics and proteome (proteomics, including the emerging epigenomics, to those related to metabolites (metabolomics. In preterm newborns, one of the most important factors causing the pathogenesis and the progression of AKI is the interaction between the individual genetic code, the environment, the gestational age, and the disease. By analyzing a small urine sample, metabolomics allows to identify instantly any change in phenotype, including changes due to genetic modifications. The role of liquid chromatography-mass spectrometry (LC-MS, proton nuclear magnetic resonance (1H NMR, and other emerging technologies is strategic, contributing basically to the sudden development of new biochemical and molecular tests. Urine neutrophil gelatinase-associated lipocalin (uNGAL and kidney injury molecule-1 (KIM-1 are closely correlated with the severity of kidney injury, representing noninvasive sensitive surrogate biomarkers for diagnosing, monitoring, and quantifying kidney damage. To become routine tests, uNGAL and KIM-1 should be carefully tested in multicenter clinical trials and should be measured in biological fluids by robust, standardized analytical methods.

  11. The study of acute toxicity and antihypoxic activity of new metal complexes of iron

    Shakhmardanova S.A.

    2015-03-01

    Full Text Available The Purpose: to determine the acute toxicity of new metal complexes of iron derived vinylimidazole and to reveal their antihypoxic activity in comparison with Acyzol and other known antihypoxic etomersol and hypoxen. Material and methods. Antihypoxic activity was studied in experiments on nonlinear white mice-males 4 models of acute hypoxia (hypobaric, hypoxia with hypercapnia, hemic, histotoxic. Rates of acute toxicity (LD16, LD LD were calculated graphically by the method of Miller and Tainter. Changes in oxidative metabolism in mice under the influence of the most active compounds were assessed by the values of oxygen consumption and rectal temperature. Results. The studied metal complexes of iron are small and moderately toxic. The connection under the code of Tetravim on the severity of antihypoxic effect (the increase in life expectancy male mice compared to control groups on 20-127% in the range of doses studied (5-250 mg/kg, i/p is superior to other derivatives of vinylimidazole known and antihypoxic: etomersol (25-100mg/kg, i/p and hypoxen (50-150 mg/kg, i/p. Conclusion. The obtained data on the pharmacological activity of Tetravim require further clarification of the mechanism of antihypoxic effect and clinical trials with the aim of putting it on the drugs market as a promising antihypoxic agent.

  12. Evaluación de la toxicidad aguda de extractos de plantas medicinales por un método alternativo (Evaluation of acute toxicity of extracts of medicinal plants by an alternative testing

    Deodelsy Bermúdez Toledo:

    2007-03-01

    Full Text Available Se evaluó la toxicidad a dosis única de seis extractos de plantas medicinales: Psidium guajava L. (guayaba, Eucalyptus citriodoraHooker (eucalipto de limón, Cymbopogon citratus (DC Stapf (caña santa, hierba de limón, Hibiscus elatus Sw. (majagua, Justicia pectoralis Jacq. (tilo, Plectranthus amboinicus (Lour. Spreng (orégano francés mediante un método alternativo e internacionalmente validado y aceptado (procedimiento de dosis fijas en ratasSprague Dawley. El grupo tratado recibió por vía oral una dosis límite de 2000 mg/kg de masa corporal y el control negativocloruro de sodio 0,9%. En las condiciones del ensayo no se produjo mortalidad ni se manifestaron síntomas indicativos de toxicidad en los animales. Los estudios anatomopatológicos macroscópicos nomostraron ninguna alteración en los órganos estudiados. La DL50 de los extractos de estudio se encuentra por encima de 2000mg/kg de masa corporal, calificándose éstos, según el Sistema Global Armonizado, como “No clasificadas” (”No tóxicas”.A single dose toxicity study in six extracts of medicinal plants: Psidium guajava L. (guava, Eucalyptus citriodora Hooker (lemon eucalyptus, Cymbopogon citratus (DC Stapf (lemon grass, Hibiscus elatus Sw. (majagua, Justicia pectoralis Jacq. (linden, lectranthus amboinicus (Lour. Spreng (French oregano was done, using an alternative internationally validated and accepted method (Fix Dose Procedure in Sprague Dawley rats. The treated group received by oral route a dose limit of 2000 mg/kg of corporal mass and the controlnegative chloride of sodium 0.9%. Under the assay conditions didn't produced mortality neither they showed indicative symptoms oftoxicity in the animals. The macroscopic anatomopathology studies didn't show any alteration in the studied organs. The LD50 ofthe study extracts is above 2000 mg/kg of corporal mass, being qualified these, according to the Harmonized Global System,as "Not classified" ("Not toxic".

  13. Functional toxicology: tools to advance the future of toxicity testing

    Brandon David Gaytán

    2014-05-01

    Full Text Available The increased presence of chemical contaminants in the environment is an undeniable concern to human health and ecosystems. Historically, by relying heavily upon costly and laborious animal-based toxicity assays, the field of toxicology has often neglected examinations of the cellular and molecular mechanisms of toxicity for the majority of compounds – information that, if available, would strengthen risk assessment analyses. Functional toxicology, where cells or organisms with gene deletions or depleted proteins are used to assess genetic requirements for chemical tolerance, can advance the field of toxicity testing by contributing data regarding chemical mechanisms of toxicity. Functional toxicology can be accomplished using available genetic tools in yeasts, other fungi and bacteria, and eukaryotes of increased complexity, including zebrafish, fruit flies, rodents, and human cell lines. Underscored is the value of using less complex systems such as yeasts to direct further studies in more complex systems such as human cell lines. Functional techniques can yield (1 novel insights into chemical toxicity; (2 pathways and mechanisms deserving of further study; and (3 candidate human toxicant susceptibility or resistance genes.

  14. Acute toxicity in prostate cancer patients treated with and without image-guided radiotherapy

    Image-guided radiotherapy (IGRT) increases the accuracy of treatment delivery through daily target localisation. We report on toxicity symptoms experienced during radiotherapy treatment, with and without IGRT in prostate cancer patients treated radically. Between 2006 and 2009, acute toxicity data for ten symptoms were collected prospectively onto standardized assessment forms. Toxicity was scored during radiotherapy, according to the Common Terminology Criteria Adverse Events V3.0, for 275 prostate cancer patients before and after the implementation of a fiducial marker IGRT program and dose escalation from 74Gy in 37 fractions, to 78Gy in 39 fractions. Margins and planning constraints were maintained the same during the study period. The symptoms scored were urinary frequency, cystitis, bladder spasm, urinary incontinence, urinary retention, diarrhoea, haemorrhoids, proctitis, anal skin discomfort and fatigue. Analysis was conducted for the maximum grade of toxicity and the median number of days from the onset of that toxicity to the end of treatment. In the IGRT group, 14228 toxicity scores were analysed from 249 patients. In the non-IGRT group, 1893 toxicity scores were analysed from 26 patients. Urinary frequency ≥G3 affected 23% and 7% in the non-IGRT and IGRT group respectively (p = 0.0188). Diarrhoea ≥G2 affected 15% and 3% of patients in the non-IGRT and IGRT groups (p = 0.0174). Fatigue ≥G2 affected 23% and 8% of patients in the non-IGRT and IGRT groups (p = 0.0271). The median number of days with a toxicity was higher for ≥G2 (p = 0.0179) and ≥G3 frequency (p = 0.0027), ≥G2 diarrhoea (p = 0.0033) and ≥G2 fatigue (p = 0.0088) in the non-IGRT group compared to the IGRT group. Other toxicities were not of significant statistical difference. In this study, prostate cancer patients treated radically with IGRT had less severe urinary frequency, diarrhoea and fatigue during treatment compared to patients treated with non-IGRT. Onset of these

  15. Acute toxicity in prostate cancer patients treated with and without image-guided radiotherapy

    Williams Scott

    2011-10-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Image-guided radiotherapy (IGRT increases the accuracy of treatment delivery through daily target localisation. We report on toxicity symptoms experienced during radiotherapy treatment, with and without IGRT in prostate cancer patients treated radically. Methods Between 2006 and 2009, acute toxicity data for ten symptoms were collected prospectively onto standardized assessment forms. Toxicity was scored during radiotherapy, according to the Common Terminology Criteria Adverse Events V3.0, for 275 prostate cancer patients before and after the implementation of a fiducial marker IGRT program and dose escalation from 74Gy in 37 fractions, to 78Gy in 39 fractions. Margins and planning constraints were maintained the same during the study period. The symptoms scored were urinary frequency, cystitis, bladder spasm, urinary incontinence, urinary retention, diarrhoea, haemorrhoids, proctitis, anal skin discomfort and fatigue. Analysis was conducted for the maximum grade of toxicity and the median number of days from the onset of that toxicity to the end of treatment. Results In the IGRT group, 14228 toxicity scores were analysed from 249 patients. In the non-IGRT group, 1893 toxicity scores were analysed from 26 patients. Urinary frequency ≥G3 affected 23% and 7% in the non-IGRT and IGRT group respectively (p = 0.0188. Diarrhoea ≥G2 affected 15% and 3% of patients in the non-IGRT and IGRT groups (p = 0.0174. Fatigue ≥G2 affected 23% and 8% of patients in the non-IGRT and IGRT groups (p = 0.0271. The median number of days with a toxicity was higher for ≥G2 (p = 0.0179 and ≥G3 frequency (p = 0.0027, ≥G2 diarrhoea (p = 0.0033 and ≥G2 fatigue (p = 0.0088 in the non-IGRT group compared to the IGRT group. Other toxicities were not of significant statistical difference. Conclusions In this study, prostate cancer patients treated radically with IGRT had less severe urinary frequency, diarrhoea and fatigue during treatment

  16. Toxicity levels to humans during acute exposure to hydrogen fluoride - An update

    In March 1993, the Atomic Energy Control Board (AECB) commissioned and update of a 1984 review on the acute toxicity of hydrogen fluoride (HF). The study places particular emphasis on the effects of inhalation of gaseous HF and is divided into two main parts: a literature review and a lethal concentration (LC) estimation. The literature review summarizes data under four categories: animal studies, controlled human studies, community exposure, and industrial exposure. Data in these areas were critically reviewed for their relevance to lethal concentrations at LCLO, LC10 and LC50 levels that were derived in the 1984 report. In the last ten years, only one relevant animal study has been published. No new controlled human studies were found but a community exposure incident was reported. There were three new industrial/accidental exposures reported since 1984. Evaluation of new data does not change the lethal concentration estimates made in the 1984 report, but does indicate the absence of appropriate models to estimate the lethality of irritant and corrosive gases. In the last 10 years, much literature on the evaluation of major hazards has been published and suggests that such assessments are of growing political, economic and social importance. Numerous articles have been published on the acute toxicity of HF from skin contact and chronic toxicity from repeated airborne exposure. These publications offer important insights into the nature of HF toxicity. Several avenues of investigative research are suggested. (author). 55 refs., 4 tabs

  17. Hypofractionated radiotherapy after conservative surgery for breast cancer: analysis of acute and late toxicity

    A variety of hypofractionated radiotherapy schedules has been proposed after breast conserving surgery in the attempt to shorten the overall treatment time. The aim of the present study is to assess acute and late toxicity of using daily fractionation of 2.25 Gy to a total dose of 45 Gy to the whole breast in a mono-institutional series. Eighty-five women with early breast cancer were assigned to receive 45 Gy followed by a boost to the tumour bed. Early and late toxicity were scored according to the Radiation Therapy Oncology Group criteria. For comparison, a group of 70 patients with similar characteristics and treated with conventional fractionation of 2 Gy to a total dose of 50 Gy in 25 fractions followed by a boost, was retrospectively selected. Overall median treatment duration was 29 days for hypofractionated radiotherapy and 37 days for conventional radiotherapy. Early reactions were observed in 72/85 (85%) patients treated with hypofractionation and in 67/70 (96%) patients treated with conventional fractionation (p = 0.01). Late toxicity was observed in 8 patients (10%) in the hypofractionation group and in 10 patients (15%) in the conventional fractionation group, respectively (p = 0.4). The hypofractionated schedule delivering 45 Gy in 20 fractions shortened the overall treatment time by 1 week with a reduction of skin acute toxicity and no increase of late effects compared to the conventional fractionation. Our results support the implementation of hypofractionated schedules in clinical practice

  18. [Lipid peroxidation and antioxidant system status in patients with acute myeloblast leukemia and toxic damage of the liver].

    Kuzieva, G Z; Kholmatova, N M; Shevchenko, L I; Khuzhakhmedov, Zh D; Zavgorodniaia, S V

    2009-01-01

    Patients with acute myelogenous leucosis with toxic damage of the liver against polychemotherapy have an expressed disbalance in the lipid peroxidation-anti-oxidant system, which is possible to correct effectively using S-adenozilmetionin (heptral) was observed. PMID:19953992

  19. Chemical comparison and acute toxicity of water accommodated fraction (WAF) of source and field collected Macondo oils from the Deepwater Horizon spill.

    Faksness, Liv-Guri; Altin, Dag; Nordtug, Trond; Daling, Per S; Hansen, Bjørn Henrik

    2015-02-15

    Two Source oils and five field collected oil residues from the Deepwater Horizon incident were chemically characterized. Water accommodated fractions (WAFs) of the Source oils and two of the field-weathered oils were prepared to evaluate the impact of natural weathering on the chemical composition and the acute toxicity of the WAFs. Toxicity test species representing different tropic levels were used (the primary producer Skeletonema costatum (algae) and the herbivorous copepod Acartia tonsa). The results suggest that the potential for acute toxicity is higher in WAFs from non-weathered oils than WAFs from the field weathered oils. The Source oils contained a large fraction of soluble and bioavailable components (such as BTEX (benzene, toluene, ethyl benzene, xylenes) and naphthalene), whereas in the surface collected oils these components were depleted by dissolution into the water column as the oil rose to the surface and by evaporative loss after reaching the sea surface. PMID:25534626

  20. TOXICITY TEST USING LIFE STAGES OF 'CHAMPIA PARVULA' (RHODOPHYTA)

    A static-renewal, 11- to 14-day toxicity test has been developed using the life cycle of the marine red alga Champia parvula (C. Ag.) Harv. It measures the vegetative growth, formation of tetrasporangia (meiosis), and formation of cystocarps (sexual fusion). The procedure has bee...

  1. Acute toxicity of second generation HIV protease-inhibitors in combination with radiotherapy: a retrospective case series

    There is little data on the safety of combining radiation therapy and human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) protease inhibitors to treat cancers in HIV-positive patients. We describe acute toxicities observed in a series of HIV-positive patients receiving modern radiation treatments, and compare patients receiving HIV protease inhibitors (PI) with patients not receiving HIV PIs. By reviewing the clinical records beginning January 1, 2009 from the radiation oncology department, we identified 29 HIV-positive patients who received radiation therapy to 34 body sites. Baseline information, treatment regimen, and toxicities were documented by review of medical records: patient age, histology and source of the primary tumor, HIV medication regimen, pre-radiation CD4 count, systemic chemotherapy, radiation therapy dose and fractionation, irradiated body region, toxicities, and duration of follow-up. Patients were grouped according to whether they received concurrent HIV PIs and compared using Pearson's chi-square test. At baseline, the patients in the two groups were similar with the exception of HIV medication regimens, CD4 count and presence of AIDS-defining malignancy. Patients taking concurrent PIs were more likely to be taking other HIV medications (p = 0.001) and have CD4 count >500 (p = 0.006). Patients taking PIs were borderline less likely to have an AIDS-defining malignancy (p = 0.06). After radiation treatment, 100 acute toxicities were observed and were equally common in both groups (64 [median 3 per patient, IQR 1-7] with PIs; 36 [median 3 per patient, IQR 2-3] without PIs). The observed toxicities were also equally severe in the two groups (Grades I, II, III respectively: 30, 30, 4 with PIs; 23, 13, 0 without PIs: p = 0.38). There were two cases that were stopped early, one in each group; these were not attributable to toxicity. In this study of recent radiotherapy in HIV-positive patients taking second generation PIs, no difference in toxicities was

  2. Acute toxicity of second generation HIV protease-inhibitors in combination with radiotherapy: a retrospective case series

    Tran Phuoc T

    2011-03-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background There is little data on the safety of combining radiation therapy and human immunodeficiency virus (HIV protease inhibitors to treat cancers in HIV-positive patients. We describe acute toxicities observed in a series of HIV-positive patients receiving modern radiation treatments, and compare patients receiving HIV protease inhibitors (PI with patients not receiving HIV PIs. Methods By reviewing the clinical records beginning January 1, 2009 from the radiation oncology department, we identified 29 HIV-positive patients who received radiation therapy to 34 body sites. Baseline information, treatment regimen, and toxicities were documented by review of medical records: patient age, histology and source of the primary tumor, HIV medication regimen, pre-radiation CD4 count, systemic chemotherapy, radiation therapy dose and fractionation, irradiated body region, toxicities, and duration of follow-up. Patients were grouped according to whether they received concurrent HIV PIs and compared using Pearson's chi-square test. Results At baseline, the patients in the two groups were similar with the exception of HIV medication regimens, CD4 count and presence of AIDS-defining malignancy. Patients taking concurrent PIs were more likely to be taking other HIV medications (p = 0.001 and have CD4 count >500 (p = 0.006. Patients taking PIs were borderline less likely to have an AIDS-defining malignancy (p = 0.06. After radiation treatment, 100 acute toxicities were observed and were equally common in both groups (64 [median 3 per patient, IQR 1-7] with PIs; 36 [median 3 per patient, IQR 2-3] without PIs. The observed toxicities were also equally severe in the two groups (Grades I, II, III respectively: 30, 30, 4 with PIs; 23, 13, 0 without PIs: p = 0.38. There were two cases that were stopped early, one in each group; these were not attributable to toxicity. Conclusions In this study of recent radiotherapy in HIV-positive patients taking

  3. Comparison of acute toxicities of two chemotherapy schedules for head and neck cancers

    Geeta S

    2006-01-01

    Full Text Available Background: Chemo-radiotherapy has become the standard of care for loco-regionally advanced head and neck cancers. Platinum based regimens are the most effective. Although benefits are proven with chemo-radiation, acute toxicities are markedly increased. The dose and delivery schedules of Cisplatin have ranged from intermittent higher dose [100 mg/m2] every 3 weeks to low dose [6 mg/m2] daily administration. At present there is no data indicating which regimen is superior. Purpose: To compare acute toxicities of two chemotherapy schedules for head and neck cancers. Materials and Methods: A total of 83 head and neck cancer patients treated with two schedules of concurrent chemo RT were analyzed, retrospectively, for treatment toxicity. In group A [51 patients], chemotherapy [CT] was administered on week 1, 4 and 7 [cisplatin 100 mg/m2] over a period of 2-3 days. In group B [32 patients], CT was delivered weekly [cisplatin 40 mg/m2]. Radiotherapy dose was 7000 cGy in 35 fractions for definitive concurrent chemo-radiation and 6600 cGy in 33 fractions for adjuvant treatment. Results: Group B patients had increased grade III skin and hematological toxicity, where as patients in group A had more pharyngeal toxicity. Treatment interruptions and percentage of weight loss were higher in group B. Weekly CT schedule had higher rate of severe mucositis, which was statistically significant on both univariate [ P =0.005] and multivariate [ P =0.007] analysis. Conclusions: Three weekly CT is less toxic than weekly. Weekly CT can be made more acceptable by reducing the dose and using feeding tubes for nutrition.

  4. Plant-derived compounds: acute toxicity, synergism, and effects on insect enzyme activity and flight motor responses.

    Waliwitiya, Ranil

    2011-01-01

    Botanical extracts may contain compounds that have insecticidal properties that may be developed as inexpensive insecticides. In this thesis, I used a series of techniques to identify the acute toxicities and modes of action of plant-derived compounds against the Yellow Fever mosquito Aedes aegypti and the blowfly Phaenicia sericata. Initially I evaluated the acute toxicity of 16 phytochemicals on aquatic and terrestrial insects alone or with the synergist piperonyl butoxide (PBO) to quantify...

  5. Feasibility and Acute Toxicity of Hypofractionated Radiation in Large-breasted Patients

    Dorn, Paige L., E-mail: pdorn@radonc.uchicago.edu [Department of Radiation and Cellular Oncology, University of Chicago Hospitals, Chicago, IL (United States); Corbin, Kimberly S.; Al-Hallaq, Hania; Hasan, Yasmin; Chmura, Steven J. [Department of Radiation and Cellular Oncology, University of Chicago Hospitals, Chicago, IL (United States)

    2012-05-01

    Purpose: To determine the feasibility of and acute toxicity associated with hypofractionated whole breast radiation (HypoRT) after breast-conserving surgery in patients excluded from or underrepresented in randomized trials comparing HypoRT with conventional fractionation schedules. Methods and Materials: A review was conducted of all patients consecutively treated with HypoRT at University of Chicago. All patients were treated to 42.56 Gy in 2.66 Gy daily fractions in either the prone or supine position. Planning was performed in most cases using wedges and large segments or a 'field-in-field' technique. Breast volume was estimated using volumetric measurements of the planning target volume (PTV). Dosimetric parameters of heterogeneity (V105, V107, V110, and maximum dose) were recorded for each treatment plan. Acute toxicity was scored for each treated breast. Results: Between 2006 and 2010, 78 patients were treated to 80 breasts using HypoRT. Most women were overweight or obese (78.7%), with a median body mass index of 29.2 kg/m{sup 2}. Median breast volume was 1,351 mL. Of the 80 treated breasts, the maximum acute skin toxicity was mild erythema or hyperpigmentation in 70.0% (56/80), dry desquamation in 21.25% (17/80), and focal moist desquamation in 8.75% (7/80). Maximum acute toxicity occurred after the completion of radiation in 31.9% of patients. Separation >25 cm was not associated with increased toxicity. Breast volume was the only patient factor significantly associated with moist desquamation on multivariable analysis (p = 0.01). Patients with breast volume >2,500 mL experienced focal moist desquamation in 27.2% of cases compared with 6.34% in patients with breast volume <2,500 mL (p = 0.03). Conclusions: HypoRT is feasible and safe in patients with separation >25 cm and in patients with large breast volume when employing modern planning and positioning techniques. We recommend counseling regarding expected increases in skin toxicity in women

  6. Feasibility and Acute Toxicity of Hypofractionated Radiation in Large-breasted Patients

    Purpose: To determine the feasibility of and acute toxicity associated with hypofractionated whole breast radiation (HypoRT) after breast-conserving surgery in patients excluded from or underrepresented in randomized trials comparing HypoRT with conventional fractionation schedules. Methods and Materials: A review was conducted of all patients consecutively treated with HypoRT at University of Chicago. All patients were treated to 42.56 Gy in 2.66 Gy daily fractions in either the prone or supine position. Planning was performed in most cases using wedges and large segments or a “field-in-field” technique. Breast volume was estimated using volumetric measurements of the planning target volume (PTV). Dosimetric parameters of heterogeneity (V105, V107, V110, and maximum dose) were recorded for each treatment plan. Acute toxicity was scored for each treated breast. Results: Between 2006 and 2010, 78 patients were treated to 80 breasts using HypoRT. Most women were overweight or obese (78.7%), with a median body mass index of 29.2 kg/m2. Median breast volume was 1,351 mL. Of the 80 treated breasts, the maximum acute skin toxicity was mild erythema or hyperpigmentation in 70.0% (56/80), dry desquamation in 21.25% (17/80), and focal moist desquamation in 8.75% (7/80). Maximum acute toxicity occurred after the completion of radiation in 31.9% of patients. Separation >25 cm was not associated with increased toxicity. Breast volume was the only patient factor significantly associated with moist desquamation on multivariable analysis (p = 0.01). Patients with breast volume >2,500 mL experienced focal moist desquamation in 27.2% of cases compared with 6.34% in patients with breast volume 25 cm and in patients with large breast volume when employing modern planning and positioning techniques. We recommend counseling regarding expected increases in skin toxicity in women with a PTV volume >2,500 mL.

  7. Testes de toxicidade aguda através de bioensaios no extrato solubilizado dos resíduos classe II A - não inertes e classe II B - inertes Acute toxicity tests by bioassays applied to the solubilized extracts of solid wastes class II A - non inerts and class II B - inerts

    Nébora Liz Vendramin Brasil Rodrigues

    2007-03-01

    Full Text Available A grande diversidade de substâncias potencialmente tóxicas contribuem para a deterioração do meio ambiente. O objetivo deste trabalho foi propor a utilização de bioensaios, através de testes de toxicidade aguda com Daphnia magna e Vibrio fischeri, como mais um parâmetro a ser analisado no extrato solubilizado dos resíduos que, segundo a NBR 10004/04 fossem classificados como classe II A - não inertes ou classe II B - inertes. Realizaram-se, também, testes de toxicidade no drenado dos aterros classe II A e II B. Verificou-se que a toxicidade foi constatada nos extratos solubilizados dos 18 resíduos analisados e que, apenas três das amostras estariam próprias para lançamento, ou seja os resíduos 04, 14 e 15. Já, a toxicidade encontrada no drenado dos aterros, ficou muito superior do que a toxicidade de cada extrato solubilizado analisado separadamente.A great diversity of substances potencially toxic contributes to the deterioration of the environment. The aim of this research was to propose the use of bioassays using Daphnia magna and Vibrio fischeri, as another parameter to be analyzed in the solubilized extraction of waste according to NBR 10004/04 and classified as class II A - non inerts or class II B - inerts. Besides, another test was performed to measure the level of toxicity in the drainage of the landfill class II A and II B. It was verified that the toxicity found in the solubilized extracts of the 18 wastes analysed.Only 3 wastes (04, 14 and 15 were within the emission limits. On the other hand the toxicity found in the drainage of the landfill, from which all the samples came from, was much higher than the individual one.

  8. Insect (Locusta migratoria migratorioides) test monitoring the toxicity of cyanobacteria.

    Hiripi, L; Nagy, L; Kalmár, T; Kovács, A; Vörös, L

    1998-01-01

    An insect test was developed to investigate the toxicity of cyanobacteria. The African locust, Locusta migratoria migratorioides R.F. was used as a test animal instead of mouse. The cyanobacteria tested were Aphanizomenon flos-aque, Anabaena aphanizomenoides, Cylindrospermopsis raciborskii, Microcystis aeruginosa. The toxicity of authentic microcystin-LR was also tested. Cyanobacteria producing toxins killed the animals when the homogenized cell suspension was injected into the animals. The locust test proved to be more sensitive than the mouse test. The LD50 values of the different cyanobacteria for locusts and for mice, respectively were the following: 90 microg/animal (60 mg/kg) and 8000 microg/animal (320 mg/kg), for Aphanizomenon flos-aquae; 255 microg/animal (170.2 mg/kg) and 3750 microg/animal (150 mg/kg), for Anabaena aphanizomenoides; 195 microg/animal (131.4 mg/kg) and 5750 microg/animal (230 mg/kg), for Cylindrospermopsis raciborskii; 22.5 microg/animal (15 mg/kg) and 6000 microg/ animal (240 mg/kg), for Microcystis aeruginosa. In locusts the LD50 value for authentic microcystin-LR was 0.2 microg/animal (130 mg/kg). Since the weight of the mice is 15 to 20 times larger than that of the locusts, hence less toxic cells are needed to kill the locusts. The locust test is cheaper than the mouse test, large number of animals can be used in the experiments and the LD50 values can be estimated more precisely. The toxicity of C. raciborskii was significantly lower when the lyophilized cells were extracted in methanol (LD50 = 767 mg/kg), instead of NaCl solution (LD50 = 131.4 mg/kg). PMID:9745918

  9. Acute Toxicity Evaluation, Antibacterial, Antioxidant and Immunomodulatory Effects of Melastoma malabathricum

    A. Hamid A. Hadi

    2012-03-01

    Full Text Available Melastoma malabathricum (MM is a well-known plant in Malaysian traditional medicine, locally known as senduduk. Its ethanol and aqueous extracts have been used in the present investigation to study the immunomodulatory role on human peripheral blood mononuclear cell (PBMC, and the DPPH, ABTS and FRAP free radical scavenging activities were also measured. Total flavonoids and total phenolic contents were assayed and the antibacterial effect was tested against four species of bacteria; two Gram-positive (Staphylococcus aureus and Streptococcus agalactiae and two Gram-negative (Escherichia coli and Klebsilla pneumonia. The tests were carried out using the disc diffusion, minimum inhibitory concentration (MIC and minimum bactericidal concentration (MBC methods. Moreover, the acute toxicity was evaluated in vivo on the ethanol extract of MM to establish its safety when administered orally. In our results, both extracts of MM showed abilities to scavenge DPPH and ABTS free radicals, IC50 values: (11.599 ± 0.84, 10.573 ± 0.58 µmol/L and (62.657 ± 0.78, 63.939 ± 0.48 µmol/L for ethanol and aqueous extracts respectively. Indeed the ethanol extract evidenced high phenolic content (384.33 ± 0.005 mg/g, flavonoids contents (85.8 ± 0.009 mg/g and ferric reducing antioxidant power (33,590 ± 0.038 mmol/g, with high activity against S. aureus and S. agalactiae (11 ± 0.3 and 12 ± 0.6 mm inhibition zones. Likewise, the percentage of peripheral blood mononuclear cells (PBMC viability was increased in response to MM, IC50 values (1.781 ± 1.2 and 6.545 ± 0.93 µg/mL for ethanol and aqueous extracts, respectively. In addition, our results showed that the MM extract is safe even at a high dose of 5,000 mg/kg and has no oral toxicity. These findings suggest the excellent medicinal bioactivity of MM and explain the popularity of this plant in the folk medicine as a remedy for different illnesses.

  10. An evaluation of the whole effluent toxicity test method

    Whole effluent toxicity (WET) testing has become increasingly more important to the Environmental Protection Agency (EPA) and the States in the permitting of wastewater discharges from industry and municipalities. The primary purpose of the WET test is to protect aquatic life by predicting the effect of an effluent on the receiving stream. However, there are both scientific and regulatory concerns that using WET tests to regulate industrial effluents may result in either false positives and/or false negatives. In order to realistically predict the effect of an effluent on the receiving stream, the test should be as representative as possible of the conditions in the receiving stream. Studies (Rand and Petrocelli 1985) suggested several criteria for an ideal aquatic toxicity test organism, one of which is that the organism be indigenous to, or representative of, the ecosystem receiving the effluent. The other component needed in the development of a predictive test is the use of the receiving stream water or similar synthetic water as the control and dilution water in the test method. Use of an indigenous species and receiving water in the test should help reduce the variability in the method and allow the test to predict the effect of the effluent on the receiving stream. The experience with toxicity testing at the Savannah River Site (SRS) has yielded inconclusive data because of the inconsistency and unreliability of the results. The SRS contention is that the WET method in its present form does not adequately mimic actual biological/chemical conditions of the receiving streams and is neither reasonable nor accurate. This paper discusses the rationale for such a position by SRS on toxicity testing in terms of historical permitting requirements, outfall effluent test results, standard test method evaluation, scientific review of alternate test species, and concerns over the test method expressed by other organizations. This paper presents the Savannah River Site

  11. Acute toxicity study of tilmicosin-loaded hydrogenated castor oil-solid lipid nanoparticles

    Xie Shuyu

    2011-11-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Our previous studies demonstrated that tilmicosin-loaded hydrogenated castor oil solid lipid nanoparticles (Til-HCO-SLN are a promising formulation for enhanced pharmacological activity and therapeutic efficacy in veterinary use. The purpose of this work was to evaluate the acute toxicity of Til-HCO-SLN. Methods Two nanoparticle doses were used for the study in ICR mice. The low dose (766 mg/kg.bw with tilmicosin 7.5 times of the clinic dosage and below the median lethal dose (LD50 was subcutaneously administered twice on the first and 7th day. The single high dose (5 g/kg.bw was the practical upper limit in an acute toxicity study and was administered subcutaneously on the first day. Blank HCO-SLN, native tilmicosin, and saline solution were included as controls. After medication, animals were monitored over 14 days, and then necropsied. Signs of toxicity were evaluated via mortality, symptoms of treatment effect, gross and microscopic pathology, and hematologic and biochemical parameters. Results After administration of native tilmicosin, all mice died within 2 h in the high dose group, in the low dose group 3 died after the first and 2 died after the second injections. The surviving mice in the tilmicosin low dose group showed hypoactivity, accelerated breath, gloomy spirit and lethargy. In contrast, all mice in Til-HCO-SLN and blank HCO-SLN groups survived at both low and high doses. The high nanoparticle dose induced transient clinical symptoms of treatment effect such as transient reversible action retardation, anorexy and gloomy spirit, increased spleen and liver coefficients and decreased heart coefficients, microscopic pathological changes of liver, spleen and heart, and minor changes in hematologic and biochemical parameters, but no adverse effects were observed in the nanoparticle low dose group. Conclusions The results revealed that the LD50 of Til-HCO-SLN and blank HCO-SLN exceeded 5 g/kg.bw and thus the

  12. Carbon ion therapy for advanced sinonasal malignancies: feasibility and acute toxicity

    Ellerbrock Malte

    2011-04-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Purpose To evaluate feasibility and toxicity of carbon ion therapy for treatment of sinonasal malignancies. First site of treatment failure in malignant tumours of the paranasal sinuses and nasal cavity is mostly in-field, local control hence calls for dose escalation which has so far been hampered by accompanying acute and late toxicity. Raster-scanned carbon ion therapy offers the advantage of sharp dose gradients promising increased dose application without increase of side-effects. Methods Twenty-nine patients with various sinonasal malignancies were treated from 11/2009 to 08/2010. Accompanying toxicity was evaluated according to CTCAE v.4.0. Tumor response was assessed according to RECIST. Results Seventeen patients received treatment as definitive RT, 9 for local relapse, 2 for re-irradiation. All patients had T4 tumours (median CTV1 129.5 cc, CTV2 395.8 cc, mostly originating from the maxillary sinus. Median dose was 73 GyE mostly in mixed beam technique as IMRT plus carbon ion boost. Median follow- up was 5.1 months [range: 2.4 - 10.1 months]. There were 7 cases with grade 3 toxicity (mucositis, dysphagia but no other higher grade acute reactions; 6 patients developed grade 2 conjunctivits, no case of early visual impairment. Apart from alterations of taste, all symptoms had resolved at 8 weeks post RT. Overall radiological response rate was 50% (CR and PR. Conclusion Carbon ion therapy is feasible; despite high doses, acute reactions were not increased and generally resolved within 8 weeks post radiotherapy. Treatment response is encouraging though follow-up is too short to estimate control rates or evaluate potential late effects. Controlled trials are warranted.

  13. Carbon ion therapy for advanced sinonasal malignancies: feasibility and acute toxicity

    To evaluate feasibility and toxicity of carbon ion therapy for treatment of sinonasal malignancies. First site of treatment failure in malignant tumours of the paranasal sinuses and nasal cavity is mostly in-field, local control hence calls for dose escalation which has so far been hampered by accompanying acute and late toxicity. Raster-scanned carbon ion therapy offers the advantage of sharp dose gradients promising increased dose application without increase of side-effects. Twenty-nine patients with various sinonasal malignancies were treated from 11/2009 to 08/2010. Accompanying toxicity was evaluated according to CTCAE v.4.0. Tumor response was assessed according to RECIST. Seventeen patients received treatment as definitive RT, 9 for local relapse, 2 for re-irradiation. All patients had T4 tumours (median CTV1 129.5 cc, CTV2 395.8 cc), mostly originating from the maxillary sinus. Median dose was 73 GyE mostly in mixed beam technique as IMRT plus carbon ion boost. Median follow- up was 5.1 months [range: 2.4 - 10.1 months]. There were 7 cases with grade 3 toxicity (mucositis, dysphagia) but no other higher grade acute reactions; 6 patients developed grade 2 conjunctivits, no case of early visual impairment. Apart from alterations of taste, all symptoms had resolved at 8 weeks post RT. Overall radiological response rate was 50% (CR and PR). Carbon ion therapy is feasible; despite high doses, acute reactions were not increased and generally resolved within 8 weeks post radiotherapy. Treatment response is encouraging though follow-up is too short to estimate control rates or evaluate potential late effects. Controlled trials are warranted

  14. Evaluation of the detoxication efficiencies for acrylonitrile wastewater treated by a combined anaerobic oxic-aerobic biological fluidized tank (A/O-ABFT) process: Acute toxicity and zebrafish embryo toxicity.

    Na, Chunhong; Zhang, Ying; Deng, Minjie; Quan, Xie; Chen, Shuo; Zhang, Yaobin

    2016-07-01

    Acrylonitrile (ACN) wastewater generated during ACN production has been reported to be toxic to many aquatic organisms. However, few studies have evaluated toxicity removal of ACN wastewater during and after the treatment process. In this study, the detoxication ability of an ACN wastewater treatment plant (WWTP) was evaluated using Daphnia magna, Danio rerio and zebrafish embryo. This ACN WWTP has a combined anaerobic oxic-aerobic biological fluidized tank (A/O-ABFT) process upgraded from the traditional anaerobic oxic (A/O) process. Moreover, the potential toxicants of the ACN wastewaters were identified by gas chromatography-mass spectrometry (GC-MS). The raw ACN wastewater showed high acute and embryo toxicity. 3-Cyanopyridine, succinonitrile and a series of nitriles were detected as the toxic contributors of ACN wastewater. The A/O process was effective for the acute and embryo toxicity removal, as well as the organic toxicants. However, the A/O effluent still showed acute and embryo toxicity which was attributed by the undegraded and the newly generated toxicants during the A/O process. The residual acute and embryo toxicity as well as the organic toxicants in the A/O effluent were further reduced after going through the downstream ABFT process system. The final effluent displayed no significant acute and embryo toxicity, and less organic toxicants were detected in the final effluent. The upgrade of this ACN WWTP results in the improved removal efficiencies for acute and embryo toxicity, as well as the organic toxicants. PMID:27037768

  15. Acute toxicity after a diverting stoma and spacer prior to chemoradiation in locally advanced rectal cancer

    Background and purpose: Chemoradiotherapy (CRT) followed by surgery is the standard of care for locally advanced rectal cancer (LARC). For grade ⩾3 acute diarrhea there is a relationship between dose and irradiated small bowel volume. The aim of this study was to evaluate whether combined placement of a diverting stoma and sigmoid spacer (DSSS) led to reduced irradiated small bowel volume and less grade ⩾3 acute diarrhea in the treatment of LARC. Materials/methods: Between 2003 and 2010, 54 of 189 LARC patients treated with CRT in two institutions had a DSSS prior to CRT. Data on patient and treatment characteristics and outcomes were collected retrospectively. Delineation of small bowel was performed with planning CT-scans. CTCAE version 4.0 was used for acute toxicity. Results: Patients with a DSSS had significantly less small bowel volume irradiated up to doses of 20 Gy. This difference was not observed for the higher dose levels. CRT induced grade ⩾3 acute diarrhea was not different between the two groups (8.3% vs. 12.8%; p = 0.41). Conclusion: DSSS is not clearly beneficial to reduce grade ⩾3 acute diarrhea, and it must be considered whether placement of a DSSS is justified for this purpose

  16. Acute Toxicity of Atrazine, Endosulfan Sulphate and Chlorpyrifos to Vibrio fischeri , Thamnocephalus platyurus and Daphnia magna, Relative to Their Concentrations in Surface Waters from the Alentejo Region of Portugal

    Palma, P.; Palma, V.; R. Fernandes; Soares, A.; Barbosa, I.

    2008-01-01

    Abstract Ecotoxicological effects of the herbicide atrazine and the insecticides endosulfan sulphate and chlorpyrifos were evaluated using a test battery comprising aquatic organisms from different trophic levels. According to the categories established in the EU legislation, atrazine can be considered non-harmful for the species tested, while the insecticides can be considered very toxic for the crustaceans. The results of acute toxicity tests showed that the sensitivity of organisms were a...

  17. Acute and chronic toxicity of neonicotinoids to nymphs of a mayfly species and some notes on seasonal differences

    Brink, Van den P.J.; Smeden, Van J.M.; Bekele, R.S.; Dierick, Wiebe; Gelder, De Daphne M.; Noteboom, Maarten; Roessink, Ivo

    2016-01-01

    Mayfly nymphs are among the most sensitive taxa to neonicotinoids. The present study presents the acute and chronic toxicity of 3 neonicotinoids (imidacloprid, thiacloprid, and thiamethoxam) to a mayfly species (Cloeon dipterum) and some notes on the seasonality of the toxicity of imidacloprid to

  18. Combined anaerobic–ozonation process for treatment of textile wastewater: Removal of acute toxicity and mutagenicity

    Punzi, Marisa, E-mail: marisa.punzi@biotek.lu.se [Department of Biotechnology, Lund University, P.O. Box 124, SE-221 00 Lund (Sweden); Nilsson, Filip [Water and Environmental Engineering at the Department of Chemical Engineering, Lund University, P.O. Box 124, SE-221 00 Lund (Sweden); Anbalagan, Anbarasan [Department of Biotechnology, Lund University, P.O. Box 124, SE-221 00 Lund (Sweden); Svensson, Britt-Marie [School of Education and Environment, Kristianstad University, SE-291 88 Kristianstad (Sweden); Jönsson, Karin [Water and Environmental Engineering at the Department of Chemical Engineering, Lund University, P.O. Box 124, SE-221 00 Lund (Sweden); Mattiasson, Bo; Jonstrup, Maria [Department of Biotechnology, Lund University, P.O. Box 124, SE-221 00 Lund (Sweden)

    2015-07-15

    Highlights: • COD and UV absorbance were effectively reduced. • The treated effluents were non-toxic to Artemia salina and Vibrio fischeri. • The real textile wastewater was mutagenic. • Mutagenicity persisted after bio treatment and even more after a short ozonation. • Higher ozone doses completely remove mutagenicity. - Abstract: A novel set up composed of an anaerobic biofilm reactor followed by ozonation was used for treatment of artificial and real textile effluents containing azo dyes. The biological treatment efficiently removed chemical oxygen demand and color. Ozonation further reduced the organic content of the effluents and was very important for the degradation of aromatic compounds, as shown by the reduction of UV absorbance. The acute toxicity toward Vibrio fischeri and the shrimp Artemia salina increased after the biological treatment. No toxicity was detected after ozonation with the exception of the synthetic effluent containing the highest concentration, 1 g/l, of the azo dye Remazol Red. Both untreated and biologically treated textile effluents were found to have mutagenic effects. The mutagenicity increased even further after 1 min of ozonation. No mutagenicity was however detected in the effluents subjected to longer exposure to ozone. The results of this study suggest that the use of ozonation as short post-treatment after a biological process can be beneficial for the degradation of recalcitrant compounds and the removal of toxicity of textile wastewater. However, monitoring of toxicity and especially mutagenicity is crucial and should always be used to assess the success of a treatment strategy.

  19. Combined anaerobic–ozonation process for treatment of textile wastewater: Removal of acute toxicity and mutagenicity

    Highlights: • COD and UV absorbance were effectively reduced. • The treated effluents were non-toxic to Artemia salina and Vibrio fischeri. • The real textile wastewater was mutagenic. • Mutagenicity persisted after bio treatment and even more after a short ozonation. • Higher ozone doses completely remove mutagenicity. - Abstract: A novel set up composed of an anaerobic biofilm reactor followed by ozonation was used for treatment of artificial and real textile effluents containing azo dyes. The biological treatment efficiently removed chemical oxygen demand and color. Ozonation further reduced the organic content of the effluents and was very important for the degradation of aromatic compounds, as shown by the reduction of UV absorbance. The acute toxicity toward Vibrio fischeri and the shrimp Artemia salina increased after the biological treatment. No toxicity was detected after ozonation with the exception of the synthetic effluent containing the highest concentration, 1 g/l, of the azo dye Remazol Red. Both untreated and biologically treated textile effluents were found to have mutagenic effects. The mutagenicity increased even further after 1 min of ozonation. No mutagenicity was however detected in the effluents subjected to longer exposure to ozone. The results of this study suggest that the use of ozonation as short post-treatment after a biological process can be beneficial for the degradation of recalcitrant compounds and the removal of toxicity of textile wastewater. However, monitoring of toxicity and especially mutagenicity is crucial and should always be used to assess the success of a treatment strategy

  20. A Quantitative Structure Activity Relationship for acute oral toxicity of pesticides on rats: Validation, domain of application and prediction.

    Hamadache, Mabrouk; Benkortbi, Othmane; Hanini, Salah; Amrane, Abdeltif; Khaouane, Latifa; Si Moussa, Cherif

    2016-02-13

    Quantitative Structure Activity Relationship (QSAR) models are expected to play an important role in the risk assessment of chemicals on humans and the environment. In this study, we developed a validated QSAR model to predict acute oral toxicity of 329 pesticides to rats because a few QSAR models have been devoted to predict the Lethal Dose 50 (LD50) of pesticides on rats. This QSAR model is based on 17 molecular descriptors, and is robust, externally predictive and characterized by a good applicability domain. The best results were obtained with a 17/9/1 Artificial Neural Network model trained with the Quasi Newton back propagation (BFGS) algorithm. The prediction accuracy for the external validation set was estimated by the Q(2)ext and the root mean square error (RMS) which are equal to 0.948 and 0.201, respectively. 98.6% of external validation set is correctly predicted and the present model proved to be superior to models previously published. Accordingly, the model developed in this study provides excellent predictions and can be used to predict the acute oral toxicity of pesticides, particularly for those that have not been tested as well as new pesticides. PMID:26513561

  1. Effects of bifenthrin on Daphnia magna during chronic toxicity test and the recovery test.

    Ye, Wei-Hong; Wen, Yue-Zhong; Liu, Wei-Ping; Wang, Zhong-Qiang

    2004-01-01

    The acute and chronic toxic effects of bifenthrin on Daphnia magna were studied. The results showed that 24 h-EC50, 48 h-LC50 and 96 h-LC50 of bifenthrin on D. magna were 3.24, 12.40 and 1.40 microg/L respectively. And the LOEC and NOEC of bifenthrin were 0.02 and 0.004 microg/L respectively. The recovery test of bifenthrin on Daphnia magna was presented. Daphnia magna (F0 generation) were exposed during 21 d to different bifenthrin concentrations. Offspring (animals from the first and third brood: F1 (1st) and F1 (3rd), respectively) were transferred to a free pesticide medium during a 21 d recovery period. In this recovery study, survival, growth, reproduction (mean total young per female, onset of reproduction and number broods per female) and the intrinsic rate of natural increase (r) were assessed as parameters. Reproduction such as number of young per female as well as length was still reduced in F1 (1st) generation daphnids from parentals (F0) exposed to the bifenthrin. However F, (3rd) individuals from parentals exposed to pesticide concentrations were able to restore reproduction when a recovery period of 21 d was allowed, but the length of F, (3rd) from parentals exposed to the 0.5 and 0.75 microg/L bifenthrin concentration was still significantly effected (P < 0.05). PMID:15559825

  2. Antimicrobial activity and acute and chronic toxicity of the essential oil of Lippia origanoides

    Viviane A. Andrade

    2014-12-01

    Full Text Available Currently, there is a growing interest in medicinal plants, because of an increased demand for alternate therapies. In this study, the antimicrobial activity and toxicity of the essential oil of Lippia origanoides (L. origanoides were investigated. The essential oil of L. origanoides was extracted by steam-dragging distillation and its constituents were identified by chromatography coupled with mass spectrometry. Among the 15 compounds identified, the most abundant were carvacrol (29.00%, o-cymene (25.57%, and thymol methyl ether (11.50%. The essential oil was studied in antimicrobial assays to determine the MIC and MBC. The results indicated that a concentration of 120μL/mL of oil was sufficient to inhibit the growth of the following microorganisms: Escherichia coli (ATCC 25922, Staphylococcus aureus (ATCC 25923 and Salmonella cholerasuis (ATCC 10708. Acute and chronic toxic effects of orally administered oil were investigated in Wistar rats by using standard methods. Doses of 30, 60 and 120mg/kg of the essential oil did not induce significant changes in weight, behavior or hematological and biochemical parameters in the animals. There were no signs of any histopathological changes to the liver, kidneys or heart of the treated rats, suggesting that Lippia origanoides oil is non-toxic after oral administration in acute or chronic toxicity studies. The results obtained in this study show that the essential oil of L. origanoides has a high safety margin, with no detectable toxic effects in rats treated with doses to 120mg/kg. In addition, L. origanoides oil demonstrated potent antimicrobial activity against S. aureus, E. coli and S. cholerasuis. Based on these findings, this essential oil may have practical application as a veterinary antimicrobial.

  3. Rapid testing methods for food contaminants and toxicants

    Jiachi Chiou; Arthur Ho Hon Leung; Hang Wai Lee; Wing-tak Wong

    2015-01-01

    Food safety is one of the major concerns in every country regardless of the economic and social development. The frequent occurrence of food scandals in the world has led the Chinese government to implement several strategies to fortify the food supply system to a high food safety standard. This relies heavily on laboratory testing services but conventional methods for detection of food contaminants and toxicants are limited by sophisticated sample preparation procedures, long analysis time, large instruments and professional personnel to meet the increasing demands. In this review, we have incorporated most of the current and potential rapid detection methods for many notorious food contaminants and toxicants including microbial agents, toxic ions, pesticides, veterinary drugs and preservatives, as wel as detection of geneticaly modiifed food genes and adulterated edible oil. Development of rapid, accurate, easy-to-use and affordable testing methods could urge food handlers and the public to actively screen for food contaminants and toxicants instead of passively relying on monitoring by the government examination facility. This review also provides several recommendations including how to encourage the public to engage in the food safety management system and provide optimal education and ifnancial assistance that may improve the current Chinese food safety control system.

  4. Acute and late toxicities of radiotherapy for patients with discoid lupus erythematosus: a retrospective case-control study

    The purpose of this study was to evaluate acute and late toxicities of radiotherapy for patients with discoid lupus erythematosus (DLE). A retrospective review was performed of patients with DLE who received radiotherapy at our institution between 1980 and 2005. Patients with other connective tissue disorders were excluded. Control patients were matched 2:1 with the DLE treatment courses based on age, cancer diagnosis, year of treatment, radiotherapy dose, and sex. Acute (within 30 days from the completion of radiotherapy) and late toxicities were evaluated for each treatment course using the Common Terminology Criteria for Adverse Events Version 3.0. Twelve patients with DLE received a total of 15 radiotherapy courses. The median follow-up time was 2.6 years (range, 0.0-15.2 years). Acute toxicity of any organ was observed in 10 (67%) treatment courses, of which 2 (13%) were Grade 3 or higher. Acute Grade 1 or 2 dermatologic toxicity was observed in 8 courses (53%). Late toxicity of any organ was observed in 7 of 12 (58%) evaluable treatment courses, of which 3 (23%) were grade 3 or higher. Late grade 1 or 2 dermatologic toxicity was observed in 5 (42%) courses. No patient experienced acute or late Grade 3 or higher dermatologic toxicity. The rates of any organ or dermatologic acute and late toxicity were not significantly different between DLE and control treatment courses. Our findings do not suggest an increased risk of toxicity to the skin or other organs in patients with DLE receiving radiotherapy

  5. Acute and late toxicities of radiotherapy for patients with discoid lupus erythematosus: a retrospective case-control study

    Patel Ajaykumar B

    2012-02-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background The purpose of this study was to evaluate acute and late toxicities of radiotherapy for patients with discoid lupus erythematosus (DLE. Methods A retrospective review was performed of patients with DLE who received radiotherapy at our institution between 1980 and 2005. Patients with other connective tissue disorders were excluded. Control patients were matched 2:1 with the DLE treatment courses based on age, cancer diagnosis, year of treatment, radiotherapy dose, and sex. Acute (within 30 days from the completion of radiotherapy and late toxicities were evaluated for each treatment course using the Common Terminology Criteria for Adverse Events Version 3.0. Results Twelve patients with DLE received a total of 15 radiotherapy courses. The median follow-up time was 2.6 years (range, 0.0-15.2 years. Acute toxicity of any organ was observed in 10 (67% treatment courses, of which 2 (13% were Grade 3 or higher. Acute Grade 1 or 2 dermatologic toxicity was observed in 8 courses (53%. Late toxicity of any organ was observed in 7 of 12 (58% evaluable treatment courses, of which 3 (23% were grade 3 or higher. Late grade 1 or 2 dermatologic toxicity was observed in 5 (42% courses. No patient experienced acute or late Grade 3 or higher dermatologic toxicity. The rates of any organ or dermatologic acute and late toxicity were not significantly different between DLE and control treatment courses. Conclusions Our findings do not suggest an increased risk of toxicity to the skin or other organs in patients with DLE receiving radiotherapy.

  6. Acute Oral Toxicity Study of GAL-57 (Bentazon + Dicamba Herbicide in Rats

    Dragica Brkić

    2009-01-01

    Full Text Available An acute oral toxicity study of the herbicide GAL-57 (Avalon, a mixture of bentazon and dicamba as active ingredients, was conducted to assess its acute oral toxicity to rats, using a new method that has been used in the past several years (2001. Clinical observations were performed for all animals after different time intervals, and gross necropsy was performed at termination of examination. Clinical symptoms (decreased activity, prone position, abnormal limb position, decreased righting reflex, decreased grip and limb tone, decreased body and abdominal tone and dyspnoea from mild to marked degree were noted after administration of 2000 mg/kg. Animals were found dead 30 minutes to one hour after the treatment. GAL-57 did not cause any clinical sings at single 300 mg/kg bw dose. The physical condition and behaviour of animals were normal during the 14-day observation period. The acute oral LD-50 value of the GAL-57 proved to be between 300 and 2000 mg/kg body weight in rats and was ranked into Poison group III according to Serbian criteria, category 4 of the Global Harmonized Classification System and Category III of the EPA classification.

  7. Acute and subchronic toxicity assessment model of Ferula assa-foetida gum in rodents

    Ayman Goudah

    2015-05-01

    Full Text Available Aim: The present study was performed to investigate acute and subchronic oral toxicity of Ferula assa-foetida gum (28 days in Sprague Dawley rats. Materials and Methods: Acute oral administration of F. assa-foetida was done as a single bolus dose up to 5 g/kg in mice and subchronic toxicity study for 28 days was done by oral administration at doses of 0 (control and 250 mg/kg in Sprague Dawley rats. Results: The obtained data revealed that oral administration of F. assa-foetida extract in rats for 28 successive days had no significant changes on body weight, body weight gain, the hematological parameters in rats all over the period of the experiment, and there are no significant increases in the activity of aspartate aminotransferase, alanine aminotransferase, alkaline phosphatase, creatinine and urea. Liver of treated rats showed mild changes as thrombosis and sinusoidal leukocytosis. It also showed portal infiltration with inflammatory cells, while kidney of treated rat showed an atrophy of glomerular tuft, thickening of parietal layer of Bowman capsule, and focal tubular necrosis. It also showed dilatation and congestion of renal blood vessels. Conclusion: We concluded that F. assa-foetida gum had broad safety and little toxicity for short term use in dose of 250 mg/kg.

  8. Acute toxicity study and antipyretic effect of the brown alga Turbinaria conoides (J. Agardh) Kuetz.

    Kumar, S Sadish; Kumar, Y; Khan, M S Y; Anbu, J; Sam, K G

    2009-01-01

    The active principles of brown alga, Turbinaria conoides (J.Agardh) Kuetz. (Sargassaceae) was extracted with n-hexane, cyclohexane, methanol and ethanol-water (1:1) and investigated for acute toxicity and antipyretic activity. Phytochemical analysis of the extracts revealed the presence of steroids, flavonoids and reducing sugars. Acute toxicity study was performed in Wistar rats after administration of extracts orally. No mortality was observed up to the dose of 5 g/kg for methanol and ethanol-water (1:1) extracts whereas n-hexane and cyclohexane extracts were found to be toxic at the dose levels of 1 g/kg and 2 g/kg respectively. In biochemical analysis, n-hexane, cyclohexane and ethanol-water (1:1) extracts caused a significant (P<0.01) increase in serum cholesterol, protein and alkaline phosphatase levels. In haematological studies, a significant difference was observed for cyclohexane and ethanol-water (1:1) extracts in polymorphs, lymphocytes and eosinophils when compared to the control. Antipyretic activity of extracts (100-400 mg/kg doses) was carried out on yeast-induced pyrexia in rats. Cyclohexane extract exhibited more significant antipyretic activity (P<0.01) than the other extracts at a dose of 200 mg/kg (54.43%), which was comparable to that of paracetamol at a dose of 33 mg/kg. The findings validated the use of this brown alga in traditional cure of children's fever. PMID:20448848

  9. Phytochemical screening and acute toxicity evaluation of Telfairia occidentalis aqueous extracts on rats.

    Anthony, Ogbonnaya Enyinnaya; Ojeifo, Uadia Patrick

    2016-05-01

    The phytochemical composition and acute toxicity of Telfairia occidentalis aqueous extracts were investigated in this study. Phytochemical screening was carried out on the pulverized leaf, root, pod and stem samples. Proximate analysis was also conducted for the root to ascertain the effect of drying procedures on its composition. Fifty-six (56) Wister albino rats, male and female were divided into two broad groups of 28 animals per group. The first group was randomly separated into seven (7) groups of four (4) animals per group. The control group received distilled water alone while the other groups received varied doses (1500mg/kg, 2250mg/kg and 3000mg/kg) of the Soluble and Insoluble Tefairia occidentalis root fraction. The second group of 28 animals was also distributed into 7 groups of 4 animals per group. Six test groups received varied doses (1500mg/kg, 2250mg/kg and 3000mg/kg) of Telfairia occidentalis fruit and stem extracts. The animals were observed for the first 12hr for any toxic symptoms and for 48 hr for mortality rate. Surviving animals were sacrificed after 48 hours. Phytochemical screening results reveal the presence of tannins, flavonoid, steroid, terpenoids, saponin, alkaloid, glycosides, proteins and carbohydrates. Flavonoid and saponin was not detected in stem sample; alkaloid is present in all samples except pod; and cyanogenic glycoside was found in both root and pod samples. Except for the fibre content, the method of preparation of the root had no significant effect on the proximate composition of the sample. The root extracts cause insignificant reduction in Alanine aminotransferase (ALT) and Aspartate aminotransferase (AST) activities, except for the significant reduction in ALT activity at highest dose. The pod extract significantly increased the ALT and AST activities, which is dose dependent, while the stem extract only caused increased activity of ALT, but not AST. None of the extracts administered had any significant effect on the

  10. Antioxidant, Antimicrobial Activity and Toxicity Test of Pilea microphylla

    Shaida Fariza Sulaiman

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available A total of 9 plant extracts were tested, using two different kinds of extracting methods to evaluate the antioxidant and antimicrobial activities from Pilea microphylla (Urticaceae family and including toxicity test. Antioxidant activity were tested by using DPPH free radical scavenging, also total phenolic contents and total flavonoid contents were determined. Toxicity assay carried out by using brine shrimps. Methanol extract of method I (ME I showed the highest antioxidant activity at 69.51±1.03. Chloroform extract of method I (CE I showed the highest total phenolic contents at 72.10±0.71 and chloroform extract of method II (CE II showed the highest total flavonoid contents at 60.14±0.33. The antimicrobial activity of Pilea microphylla extract was tested in vitro by using disc diffusion method and minimum inhibitory concentration (MIC. The Pilea microphylla extract showed antibacterial activity against some Gram negative and positive bacteria. The extracts did not exhibit antifungal and antiyeast activity. The hexane extract of method I (HE I was not toxic against brine shrimp (LC50 value was 3880 μg/ml. Therefore, the extracts could be suitable as antimicrobial and antioxidative agents in food industry.

  11. Determination of acute toxicity and the effects of sub-acute concentrations of CuO nanoparticles on blood parameters in Rutilus rutilus

    Abdolreza Jahanbakhshi

    2015-07-01

    Full Text Available Objective(s:Copper oxidenanoparticles have different industrial applications so it is inevitable that nanoparticulate products finally find their way into aquatic ecosystems. Nevertheless there is little information available about their effects on some of edible fish. The present study aims to determine the acute toxicity and evaluate the effect of two sub-acute concentrations (50 and 70% 96 h LC50 of CuO-NPs on some hematological and biochemical parameters of R. rutilus. Materials and Methods:225 healthy specimen of R. rutilus (mean weight 5.52±1.2 g; mean length 6.20±0.2 cm were transported to the laboratory. In order to prepare the stock solution, CuO-NPs was dispersed in pure water with ultrasonication (50-60 kHz for 15 min every day before dosing. At first, R. rutilus was exposed to CuO-NPs to determine the lethal concentration (LC50 value. Following acute test, fish were treated with sub-acute concentrations of CuO-NPs (50 and 70% 96 h-LC50 at with one control group (no CuO-NPs for a week to determine the changes in the level of some plasma hematological and biochemical parameters. Results:The 96 h-LC50 values of CuO-NPs was 2.19±0.003 mg/l. R. rutilus exhibited significantly lower RBC count, Hb and Hct values and a significant increase in the WBC numbers, MCH, MCHC and MCV indices (p

  12. Evidence for links between feeding inhibition, population characteristics, and sensitivity to acute toxicity for Daphnia magna.

    Agatz, Annika; Brown, Colin D

    2013-08-20

    A population experiment with Daphnia magna tested the hypothesis that short-term feeding inhibition provokes a shift in population structure that will vary with conspecific pressure (e.g., pressure occurring from individuals of the same species due to competition for food and space) and increases population sensitivity to a xenobiotic exposure due to size-dependent toxicity (e.g., decreasing sensitivity with increasing body length). Populations were exposed for one week to a feeding inhibitor (imidacloprid, 0.15 or 12.0 mg/L) followed by one week of recovery and one day of exposure to an acute toxin (carbaryl, 0.0098 mg/L). Identical exposure under low and high conspecific pressure was studied by delaying the start of exposure for half of the populations by two weeks; thus populations were in a different stage of population development when exposure occurred. Feeding inhibition of 97% (12.0 mg/L imidacloprid) caused a shift in population structure toward smaller individuals but also reduced population abundance by up to 56 ± 7% with a strong influence of conspecific pressure. Increased population sensitivity to carbaryl was observed after feeding inhibition of 97% as hypothesized. Carbaryl exposure for one day resulted in population decline of up to 23 ± 6% when populations were not previously exposed to imidacloprid. Identical carbaryl exposure provoked a four times stronger decline in population abundance when exposure occurred following feeding inhibition of 97%. In conflict with the hypothesis, this was at least in part due to changes in the reproductive strategy of daphnids following exposure to imidacloprid rather than driven by the shift in population structure. The differences in population sensitivity to additional stress (carbaryl) occurring one week after feeding inhibition caused by exposure to imidacloprid adds a further challenge to understanding potential impacts from multiple stressors as occurring in the field at the population level. PMID

  13. Sub-acute oral toxicity study of methanol leaves extract of Catharanthus roseus in rats

    LYW Kevin; AH Hussin; I Zhari; JH Chin

    2012-01-01

    Objective: To examine the sub-acute (14 d) oral toxic effects of methanol leaves extract ofCatharanthus roseus (C. roseus) (Family: Apocynaceae) on liver and kidney functions in Sprague Dawley (SD) rats. Methods: Twenty four female SD rats were used throughout the experiment. The first group was orally treated with distilled water and served as control, whereas the remaining three groups were orally treated with single dose daily of 0.1 g/kg, 0.5 g/kg, 1 g/kg of C. roseus extract, respectively for 14 d. Cage-side observations were done daily. Any animal died during the experiment was dissected for gross organ examination. Body weight changed, food consumption and water intake were recorded weekly. Blood was collected via cardiac puncture on day-15 and used for determination of serum levels of aspartate aminotransferase, alanine aminotransferase, alkaline phosphatase, creatinine and urea. The relative organ weights were also measured. All results were expressed as mean ± S.E.M and analysed using Dunnett’s test. The level of significance was set at P<0.05 when compared to the control group. Results: Repeated oral administration of 0.5 g/kg and 1 g/kg of methanol leaves extract of C. roseus caused mortality and diarrhoea in rats after few days of treatment. There were no significant changes observed in serum biochemical markers, body weight changed, water and food intake and relative organ weight in rats treated with a single dose daily of 0.1 g/kg of C. roseus extract treatment for 14 d when compared to control group. Conclusionds: Fourteen days repeated oral administration of 0.1 g/kg of methanol leaves extract of C. roseus was safe in female SD rats without causing any significant damages to liver and kidney.

  14. Effect of Water Salinity on Acute Toxicity of Colloidal Silver Nanoparticles in Rainbow Trout (Oncorhynchus Mykiss Larvae

    Hamid Reza Salari-joo

    2012-04-01

    Full Text Available Normal 0 false false false EN-US X-NONE AR-SA MicrosoftInternetExplorer4 Background and Objectives: Nanotechnology defined as understanding and controlling of materials at dimension between 1-100 nm, which show unusual physical and chemical properties. With Increasing development of nanotechnology, concerns associated with release of materials containing nanoparticles into the environment is rising. The purpose of this study is investigation of salinity effect on the acute toxicity of silver nanoparticles in rainbow trout fry (Oncorhynchusmykiss. Materials and Methods: In order to conduct the toxicity tests, the Caspian Seawater(12±0.2 ppt and (0.4 ppt as sources of brackish water and freshwater were used, respectively. Toxicity of silvernano particles were evaluated in brackish water and freshwater at concentrations of1, 2, 4, 8, 16, 32and64ppm and  0.12, 0.25, 0.5, 1, 2, 4 and8 ppm, respectively. In addition, in order to investigate the quality of the used silver nanoparticles the Zetasizer, ICP, and TEM method were applied.Results: Results of 96-hour median lethal concentration(LC50 96h, showed that toxicity of silver nanoparticles for rain bow trout fry in brackish water is 12 times less than its toxicity in freshwater.Conclusion: According to the toxicity categories, analysis of the results showed that, for rainbow trout fry (1g, silver nanoparticles are classified as highly toxic agent substances in fresh water, and little toxic in brackish water, respectively. /* Style Definitions */ table.MsoNormalTable {mso-style-name:"Table Normal"; mso-tstyle-rowband-size:0; mso-tstyle-colband-size:0; mso-style-noshow:yes; mso-style-priority:99; mso-style-qformat:yes; mso-style-parent:""; mso-padding-alt:0cm 5.4pt 0cm 5.4pt; mso-para-margin:0cm; mso-para-margin-bottom:.0001pt; mso-pagination:widow-orphan; font-size:11.0pt; font-family:"Calibri","sans-serif"; mso-ascii-font-family:Calibri; mso-ascii-theme-font:minor-latin; mso

  15. Effect of Lipid Partitioning on Predictions of Acute Toxicity of Oil Sands Process Affected Water to Embryos of Fathead Minnow (Pimephales promelas).

    Morandi, Garrett D; Zhang, Kun; Wiseman, Steve B; Pereira, Alberto Dos Santos; Martin, Jonathan W; Giesy, John P

    2016-08-16

    Dissolved organic compounds in oil sands process affected water (OSPW) are known to be responsible for most of its toxicity to aquatic organisms, but the complexity of this mixture prevents use of traditional bottom-up approaches for predicting toxicities of mixtures. Therefore, a top-down approach to predict toxicity of the dissolved organic fraction of OSPW was developed and tested. Accurate masses (i.e., m/z) determined by ultrahigh resolution mass spectrometry in negative and positive ionization modes were used to assign empirical chemical formulas to each chemical species in the mixture. For each chemical species, a predictive measure of lipid accumulation was estimated by stir-bar sorptive extraction (SBSE) to poly(dimethyl)siloxane, or by partitioning to solid-supported lipid membranes (SSLM). A narcosis mode of action was assumed and the target-lipid model was used to estimate potencies of mixtures by assuming strict additivity. A model developed using a combination of the SBSE and SSLM lipid partitioning estimates, whereby the accumulation of chemicals to neutral and polar lipids was explicitly considered, was best for predicting empirical values of LC50 in 96-h acute toxicity tests with embryos of fathead minnow (Pimephales promelas). Model predictions were within 4-fold of observed toxicity for 75% of OSPW samples, and within 8.5-fold for all samples tested, which is comparable to the range of interlaboratory variability for in vivo toxicity testing. PMID:27420640