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Sample records for acute stress increases

  1. Acute Stress Decreases but Chronic Stress Increases Myocardial Sensitivity to Ischemic Injury in Rodents

    Eisenmann, Eric D.; Rorabaugh, Boyd R.; Zoladz, Phillip R.

    2016-01-01

    Cardiovascular disease (CVD) is the largest cause of mortality worldwide, and stress is a significant contributor to the development of CVD. The relationship between acute and chronic stress and CVD is well evidenced. Acute stress can lead to arrhythmias and ischemic injury. However, recent evidence in rodent models suggests that acute stress can decrease sensitivity to myocardial ischemia–reperfusion injury (IRI). Conversely, chronic stress is arrhythmogenic and increases sensitivity to myocardial IRI. Few studies have examined the impact of validated animal models of stress-related psychological disorders on the ischemic heart. This review examines the work that has been completed using rat models to study the effects of stress on myocardial sensitivity to ischemic injury. Utilization of animal models of stress-related psychological disorders is critical in the prevention and treatment of cardiovascular disorders in patients experiencing stress-related psychiatric conditions. PMID:27199778

  2. Acute stress increases interstitial fluid amyloid-β via corticotropin-releasing factor and neuronal activity

    Kang, Jae-Eun; Cirrito, John R.; Dong, Hongxin; John G. Csernansky; Holtzman, David M.

    2007-01-01

    Aggregation of the amyloid-β (Aβ) peptide in the extracellular space of the brain is critical in the pathogenesis of Alzheimer's disease. Aβ is produced by neurons and released into the brain interstitial fluid (ISF), a process regulated by synaptic activity. To determine whether behavioral stressors can regulate ISF Aβ levels, we assessed the effects of chronic and acute stress paradigms in amyloid precursor protein transgenic mice. Isolation stress over 3 months increased Aβ levels by 84%. ...

  3. Acute exercise improves endothelial function despite increasing vascular resistance during stress in smokers and nonsmokers.

    Rooks, Cherie R; McCully, Kevin K; Dishman, Rod K

    2011-09-01

    The present study examined the effect of acute exercise on flow mediated dilation (FMD) and reactivity to neurovascular challenges among female smokers and nonsmokers. FMD was determined by arterial diameter, velocity, and blood flow measured by Doppler ultrasonography after forearm occlusion. Those measures and blood pressure and heart rate were also assessed in response to forehead cold and the Stroop Color-Word Conflict Test (CWT) before and after 30 min of rest or an acute bout of cycling exercise (∼50% VO₂ peak). Baseline FMD and stress responses were not different between smokers and nonsmokers. Compared to passive rest, exercise increased FMD and decreased arterial velocity and blood flow responses during the Stroop CWT and forehead cold in both groups. Overall, acute exercise improved endothelial function among smokers and nonsmokers despite increasing vascular resistance and reducing limb blood flow during neurovascular stress. PMID:21457274

  4. Repeated exposure to conditioned fear stress increases anxiety and delays sleep recovery following exposure to an acute traumatic stressor

    Benjamin N Greenwood

    2014-10-01

    Full Text Available Repeated stressor exposure can sensitize physiological responses to novel stressors and facilitate the development of stress-related psychiatric disorders including anxiety. Disruptions in diurnal rhythms of sleep-wake behavior accompany stress-related psychiatric disorders and could contribute to their development. Complex stressors that include fear-eliciting stimuli can be a component of repeated stress experienced by humans, but whether exposure to repeated fear can prime the development of anxiety and sleep disturbances is unknown. In the current study, adult male F344 rats were exposed to either control conditions or repeated contextual fear conditioning for 22 days followed by exposure to either no, mild (10, or severe (100 acute uncontrollable tail shock stress. Exposure to acute stress produced anxiety-like behavior as measured by a reduction in juvenile social exploration and exaggerated shock-elicited freezing in a novel context. Prior exposure to repeated fear enhanced anxiety-like behavior as measured by shock-elicited freezing, but did not alter social exploratory behavior. The potentiation of anxiety produced by prior repeated fear was temporary; exaggerated fear was present 1 day but not 4 days following acute stress. Interestingly, exposure to acute stress reduced REM and NREM sleep during the hours immediately following acute stress. This initial reduction in sleep was followed by robust REM rebound and diurnal rhythm flattening of sleep / wake behavior. Prior repeated fear extended the acute stress-induced REM and NREM sleep loss, impaired REM rebound, and prolonged the flattening of the diurnal rhythm of NREM sleep following acute stressor exposure. These data suggest that impaired recovery of sleep / wake behavior following acute stress could contribute to the mechanisms by which a history of prior repeated stress increases vulnerability to subsequent novel stressors and stress-related disorders.

  5. Acute stress increases depolarization-evoked glutamate release in the rat prefrontal/frontal cortex: the dampening action of antidepressants.

    Laura Musazzi

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: Behavioral stress is recognized as a main risk factor for neuropsychiatric diseases. Converging evidence suggested that acute stress is associated with increase of excitatory transmission in certain forebrain areas. Aim of this work was to investigate the mechanism whereby acute stress increases glutamate release, and if therapeutic drugs prevent the effect of stress on glutamate release. METHODOLOGY/FINDINGS: Rats were chronically treated with vehicle or drugs employed for therapy of mood/anxiety disorders (fluoxetine, desipramine, venlafaxine, agomelatine and then subjected to unpredictable footshock stress. Acute stress induced marked increase in depolarization-evoked release of glutamate from synaptosomes of prefrontal/frontal cortex in superfusion, and the chronic drug treatments prevented the increase of glutamate release. Stress induced rapid increase in the circulating levels of corticosterone in all rats (both vehicle- and drug-treated, and glutamate release increase was blocked by previous administration of selective antagonist of glucocorticoid receptor (RU 486. On the molecular level, stress induced accumulation of presynaptic SNARE complexes in synaptic membranes (both in vehicle- and drug-treated rats. Patch-clamp recordings of pyramidal neurons in the prefrontal cortex revealed that stress increased glutamatergic transmission through both pre- and postsynaptic mechanisms, and that antidepressants may normalize it by reducing release probability. CONCLUSIONS/SIGNIFICANCE: Acute footshock stress up-regulated depolarization-evoked release of glutamate from synaptosomes of prefrontal/frontal cortex. Stress-induced increase of glutamate release was dependent on stimulation of glucocorticoid receptor by corticosterone. Because all drugs employed did not block either elevation of corticosterone or accumulation of SNARE complexes, the dampening action of the drugs on glutamate release must be downstream of these processes

  6. Chronic desipramine prevents acute stress-induced reorganization of medial prefrontal cortex architecture by blocking glutamate vesicle accumulation and excitatory synapse increase

    Nava, Nicoletta; Treccani, Giulia; Liebenberg, Nico;

    2014-01-01

    acute foot-shock (FS)-stress. By means of serial section electron microscopy, the structural remodeling of medial prefrontal cortex (mPFC) glutamate synapses was assessed soon after acute stressor cessation and stress hormone levels were measured. FS-stress induced a remarkable increase in the number of...... docked vesicles and small excitatory synapses, partially and strongly prevented by DMI pretreatment, respectively. Acute stress-induced corticosterone elevation was not affected by drug treatment. Since DMI pretreatment prevented the stress-induced structural plasticity but not the hormone level increase...

  7. INCREASES IN ANXIETY-LIKE BEHAVIOR INDUCED BY ACUTE STRESS ARE REVERSED BY ETHANOL IN ADOLESCENT BUT NOT ADULT RATS

    Varlinskaya, Elena I.; Spear, Linda P.

    2011-01-01

    Repeated exposure to stressors has been found to increase anxiety-like behavior in laboratory rodents, with the social anxiety induced by repeated restraint being extremely sensitive to anxiolytic effects of ethanol in both adolescent and adult rats. No studies, however, have compared social anxiogenic effects of acute stress or the capacity of ethanol to reverse this anxiety in adolescent and adult animals. Therefore, the present study was designed to investigate whether adolescent [postnata...

  8. Posttraumatic stress due to an acute coronary syndrome increases risk of 42-month major adverse cardiac events and all-cause mortality

    Edmondson, Donald; Rieckmann, Nina; Shaffer, Jonathan A.; Joseph E Schwartz; Burg, Matthew M.; Davidson, Karina W.; Clemow, Lynn; Shimbo, Daichi; Kronish, Ian M.

    2011-01-01

    Approximately 15% of patients with acute coronary syndromes (ACS) develop posttraumatic stress disorder (PTSD) due to their ACS event. We assessed whether ACS-induced PTSD symptoms increase risk for major adverse cardiac events (MACE) and all-cause mortality (ACM) in an observational cohort study of 247 patients (aged 25–93 years; 45% women) hospitalized for an ACS at one of 3 academic medical centers in New York and Connecticut between November 2003 and June 2005. Within 1 week of admission,...

  9. Acute Ethanol Pretreatment Increases FAS-Mediated Liver Injury in Mice: Role of Oxidative Stress and CYP2E1-Dependent and Independent Pathways

    Wang, Xiaodong; Cederbaum, Arthur I.

    2006-01-01

    This study evaluated whether acute ethanol pretreatment potentiates Fas-mediated liver injury and if oxidative stress and CYP2E1 play a role in any enhanced hepatotoxicity. There were 3-fold increases of transaminases and more extensive apoptotic necrosis of hepatocytes, and focal hemorrhages of the hepatic lobule in mice treated with Jo2 plus ethanol compared to saline control or to mice treated with Jo2 or ethanol alone. CYP2E1 catalytic activity and protein were increased 2-fold by the acu...

  10. Risk Preferences under Acute Stress

    Cingl, Lubomír; Cahlíková, Jana

    2013-01-01

    Many important decisions are made under stress and they often involve risky alternatives. There has been ample evidence that stress influences decision making in cognitive as well as in affective domains, but still very little is known about whether individual attitudes to risk change with exposure to acute stress. To directly evaluate the causal effect of stress on risk attitudes, we adopt an experimental approach in which we randomly expose participants to a psychosocial stressor in the for...

  11. Effect of acute, slightly increased intra-abdominal pressure on intestinal permeability and oxidative stress in a rat model.

    Yuxin Leng

    Full Text Available INTRODUCTION: Intra-abdominal hypertension (IAH is known as a common, serious complication in critically ill patients. Bacterial translocation and permeability changes are considered the pathophysiological bases for IAH-induced enterogenic endotoxemia and subsequent multiorgan failure. Nevertheless, the effects of slightly elevated intra-abdominal pressures (IAPs on the intestinal mucosa and the associated mechanisms remain unclear. METHODS: To investigate the acute effects of different nitrogen pneumoperitoneum grades on colonic mucosa, male Sprague-Dawley rats were assigned to six groups with different IAPs (0 [control], 4, 8, 12, 16, and 20 mmHg, n = 6/group. During 90 min of exposure, we dynamically monitored the heart rate and noninvasive hemodynamic parameters. After gradual decompression, arterial blood gas analyses were conducted. Thereafter, structural injuries to the colonic mucosa were identified using light microscopy. Colon permeability was determined using the expression of tight junction proteins, combined with fluorescein isothiocyanate dextran (FD-4 absorption. The pro-oxidant-antioxidant balance was determined based on the levels of malondialdehyde (MDA and antioxidant enzymes. RESULTS: IAH significantly affected the histological scores of the colonic mucosa, tight junction protein expression, mucosal permeability, and pro-oxidant-antioxidant balance. Interestingly, elevations of IAP that were lower than the threshold for IAH also showed a similar, undesirable effect. In the 8 mmHg group, mild hyponatremia, hypocalcemia, and hypoxemia occurred, accompanied by reduced blood and abdominal perfusion pressures. Mild microscopic inflammatory infiltration and increased MDA levels were also detected. Moreover, an 8-mm Hg IAP markedly inhibited the expression of tight junction proteins, although no significant differences in FD-4 permeability were observed between the 0- and 8-mmHg groups. CONCLUSIONS: Acute exposure to slightly

  12. Acute Cold / Restraint Stress in Castrated Rats

    Farideh Zafari Zangeneh

    2008-09-01

    Full Text Available Objective: The present study aimed to determine whether castration altered osmotically stimulated vasopressin (VP release and urinary volume and what is the role of endocrine-stress axis in this process.Materials and methods: Totally 108 mice were studied in two main groups of castrated (n=78 and control (n=30. Each group was extracted by acute cold stress (4◦C for 2h/day, restraint stress (by syringes 60cc 2h/day and cold/restraint stress. The castrated group was treated in sub groups of testosterone, control (sesame oil as vehicle of testosterone. Propranolol as blocker of sympathetic nervous system was given to both groups of castrated mice and main control.Results: Our results showed that, there is interactions between testosterone and sympathetic nervous system on vasopressin, because urine volume was decreased only in testoctomized mice with cold/restraint and cold stress (P<0.001; propranolol as the antagonist of sympathetic nervous system could block and increase urine volume in castrated mice. This increased volume of urine was due to acute cold stress, not restraint stress (p<0.001. The role of testosterone, noradrenalin (NA and Vasopressin (VP in the acute cold stress is confirmed, because testosterone could return the effect of decreased urine volume in control group (P<0.001. Conclusion: Considering the effect of cold/restraint stress on urinary volume in castrated mice shows that there is interaction between sex hormone (testosterone, vasopressin and adrenergic systems.

  13. Repeated Exposure to Conditioned Fear Stress Increases Anxiety and Delays Sleep Recovery Following Exposure to an Acute Traumatic Stressor

    Greenwood, Benjamin N.; Thompson, Robert S.; Opp, Mark R.; Fleshner, Monika

    2014-01-01

    Repeated stressor exposure can sensitize physiological responses to novel stressors and facilitate the development of stress-related psychiatric disorders including anxiety. Disruptions in diurnal rhythms of sleep–wake behavior accompany stress-related psychiatric disorders and could contribute to their development. Complex stressors that include fear-eliciting stimuli can be a component of repeated stress experienced by human beings, but whether exposure to repeated fear can prime the develo...

  14. Acute, food-induced moderate elevation of plasma uric acid protects against hyperoxia-induced oxidative stress and increase in arterial stiffness in healthy humans.

    Vukovic, Jonatan; Modun, Darko; Budimir, Danijela; Sutlovic, Davorka; Salamunic, Ilza; Zaja, Ivan; Boban, Mladen

    2009-11-01

    We examined the effects of acute, food-induced moderate increase of plasma uric acid (UA) on arterial stiffness and markers of oxidative damage in plasma in healthy males exposed to 100% normobaric oxygen. Acute elevation of plasma UA was induced by consumption of red wine, combination of ethanol and glycerol, or fructose. By using these beverages we were able to separate the effects of UA, wine polyphenols and ethanol. Water was used as a control beverage. Ten males randomly consumed test beverages in a cross-over design over the period of 4 weeks, one beverage per week. They breathed 100% O(2) between 60(th) and 90(th)min of the 4-h study protocol. Pulse wave augmentation index (AIx) at brachial and radial arteries, plasma antioxidant capacity (AOC), thiobarbituric acid-reactive substances (TBARS), lipid hydroperoxides (LOOH) assessed by xylenol orange method, UA and blood ethanol concentrations were determined before and 60, 90, 120, 150 and 240 min after beverage consumption. Consumption of the beverages did not affect the AIx, TBARS or LOOH values during 60 min before exposure to hyperoxia, while AOC and plasma UA increased except in the water group. Significant increase of AIx, plasma TBARS and LOOH, which occurred during 30 min of hyperoxia in the water group, was largely prevented in the groups that consumed red wine, glycerol+ethanol or fructose. In contrast to chronic hyperuricemia, generally considered as a risk factor for cardiovascular diseases and metabolic syndrome, acute increase of UA acts protectively against hyperoxia-induced oxidative stress and related increase of arterial stiffness in large peripheral arteries. PMID:19457484

  15. Increased cardiovascular reactivity to acute stress and salt-loading in adult male offspring of fat fed non-obese rats.

    Olena Rudyk

    Full Text Available Diet-induced obesity in rat pregnancy has been shown previously to be associated with consistently raised blood pressure in the offspring, attributed to sympathetic over-activation, but the relative contributions to this phenotype of maternal obesity versus raised dietary fat is unknown. Sprague-Dawley female rats were fed either a control (4.3% fat, n = 11 or lard-enriched (23.6% fat, n = 16 chow 10 days prior to mating, throughout pregnancy and lactation. In conscious adult (9-month-old offspring cardiovascular parameters were measured (radiotelemetry. The short period of fat-feeding did not increase maternal weight versus controls and the baseline blood pressure was similar in offspring of fat fed dams (OF and controls (OC. However, adult male OF showed heightened cardiovascular reactivity to acute restraint stress (p<0.01; Δ systolic blood pressure (SBP and Δheart rate (HR with a prolonged recovery time compared to male OC. α1/β-adrenergic receptor blockade normalised the response. Also, after dietary salt-loading (8%-NaCl ad libitum for 1 week male OF demonstrated higher SBP (p<0.05 in the awake phase (night-time and increased low/high frequency ratio of power spectral density of HR variability versus OC. Baroreflex gain and basal power spectral density components of the heart rate or blood pressure were similar in male OF and OC. Minor abnormalities were evident in female OF. Fat feeding in the absence of maternal obesity in pregnant rats leads to altered sympathetic control of cardiovascular function in adult male offspring, and hypertension in response to stressor stimuli.

  16. Oxidative Stress Adaptation with Acute, Chronic and Repeated Stress

    Pickering, Andrew. M.; Vojtovich, Lesya; Tower, John; Davies, Kelvin J. A.

    2012-01-01

    Oxidative stress adaptation or hormesis is an important mechanism by which cells and organisms respond to, and cope with, environmental and physiological shifts in the level of oxidative stress. Most studies of oxidative stress adaption have been limited to adaptation induced by acute stress. In contrast, many if not most environmental and physiological stresses are either repeated or chronic. In this study we find that both cultured mammalian cells, and the fruit fly Drosophila melanogaster,...

  17. Acute Stress Facilitates Trace Eyeblink Conditioning in C57BL/6 Male Mice and Increases the Excitability of Their CA1 Pyramidal Neurons

    Weiss, Craig; Sametsky, Evgeny; Sasse, Astrid; Spiess, Joachim; Disterhoft, John F.

    2005-01-01

    The effects of stress (restraint plus tail shock) on hippocampus-dependent trace eyeblink conditioning and hippocampal excitability were examined in C57BL/6 male mice. The results indicate that the stressor significantly increased the concentration of circulating corticosterone, the amount and rate of learning relative to nonstressed conditioned…

  18. Evaluation of Acute Stress Disorder following Pregnancy Losses

    Hamit Sirri Keten

    2015-06-01

    Conclusion: The study revealed that symptoms of posttraumatic stress disorder increased after pregnancy losses. It is of great importance to provide social and psychological support for the couples experiencing a pregnancy loss in terms of their wellbeing. Inability to implement support mechanisms effectively in cases of increased acute stress such as pregnancy loss can predispose to progression to posttraumatic stress disorder. [Cukurova Med J 2015; 40(2.000: 226-232

  19. Acute stress is detrimental to heart regeneration in zebrafish

    Sallin, Pauline; Jaźwińska, Anna

    2016-01-01

    Psychological stress is one of the factors associated with human cardiovascular disease. Here, we demonstrate that acute perceived stress impairs the natural capacity of heart regeneration in zebrafish. Beside physical and chemical disturbances, intermittent crowding triggered an increase in cortisol secretion and blocked the replacement of fibrotic tissue with new myocardium. Pharmacological simulation of stress by pulse treatment with dexamethasone/adrenaline reproduced the regenerati...

  20. Comparison of the effects of acute and chronic psychological stress on metabolic features in rats

    Fatemeh ROSTAMKHANI; Homeira ZARDOOZ; Saleh ZAHEDIASL; Babak FARROKHI

    2012-01-01

    This study was aimed to compare the effects of acute and chronic psychological stress on metabolic factors.Forty-two male Wistar rats were divided into control and stressed groups.Stress was applied by a communication box acutely (1 d) and chronically (15 and 30 d).Blood sampling was carried out by retro-orbital-puncture method.The plasma levels of glucose,cholesterol,triglyceride,insulin,and corticosterone were measured.In addition,feed and water intake,latency to eat and drink,adrenal and body weights were determined.Acute and chronic psychological stress did not significantly change basal plasma corticosterone levels.However,immediately (1 min) after acute exposure to stress,plasma corticosterone level increased compared to that before stress exposure.Acute stress increased plasma insulin levels significantly.Fifteen days of stress exposure resulted in plasma glucose increase.Chronic stress significantly increased feed intake,latency to eat,and adrenal weight compared to acute stress.The body weights of both control and stressed groups increased markedly during the experiment.Homeostasis model assessment of insulin resistance (HOMA-IR) index did not change significantly in the stressed group.In conclusion,application of acute and chronic psychological stress leads to different metabolic and/or behavioral changes but the metabolic changes resulting from acute exposure to stress seem to be more pronounced.

  1. Individual differences in delay discounting under acute stress: the role of trait perceived stress

    Karolina M. Lempert

    2012-07-01

    Full Text Available Delay discounting refers to the reduction of the value of a future reward as the delay to that reward increases. The rate at which individuals discount future rewards varies as a function of both individual and contextual differences, and high delay discounting rates have been linked with problematic behaviors, including drug abuse and gambling. The current study investigated the effects of acute anticipatory stress on delay discounting, while considering two important factors: individual perceptions of stress and whether the stressful situation is future-focused or present-focused. Half of the participants experienced acute stress by anticipating giving a videotaped speech. This stress was either future-oriented (speech about future job or present-oriented (speech about physical appearance. They then performed a delay discounting task, in which they chose between smaller, immediate rewards and larger, delayed rewards. Their scores on the Perceived Stress Scale were also collected. The way in which one appraises a stressful situation interacts with acute stress to influence choices; under stressful conditions, delay discounting rate was highest in individuals with low perceived stress and lowest for individuals with high perceived stress. This result might be related to individual variation in reward responsiveness under stress. Furthermore, the time orientation of the task interacted with its stressfulness to affect the individual’s propensity to choose immediate rewards. These findings add to our understanding of the intermediary factors between stress and decision making.

  2. Acute stress modulates genotype effects on amygdala processing in humans

    Cousijn, Helena; Rijpkema, Mark; Qin, Shaozheng; van Marle, Hein J. F.; Franke, Barbara; Hermans, Erno J.; van Wingen, Guido; Fernández, Guillén

    2010-01-01

    Probing gene–environment interactions that affect neural processing is crucial for understanding individual differences in behavior and disease vulnerability. Here, we tested whether the current environmental context, which affects the acute brain state, modulates genotype effects on brain function in humans. We manipulated the context by inducing acute psychological stress, which increases noradrenergic activity, and probed its effect on tonic activity and phasic responses in the amygdala us...

  3. Does Acute Stress Disorder Predict Posttraumatic Stress Disorder Following Bank Robbery?

    Hansen, Maj; Elklit, Ask

    2013-01-01

    Unfortunately, the number of bank robberies is increasing and little is known about the subsequent risk of posttraumatic stress disorder (PTSD). Several studies have investigated the prediction of PTSD through the presence of acute stress disorder (ASD). However, there have only been a few studies following nonsexual assault. The present study…

  4. Acute stress may induce ovulation in women

    Cano Antonio

    2010-05-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background This study aims to gather information either supporting or rejecting the hypothesis that acute stress may induce ovulation in women. The formulation of this hypothesis is based on 2 facts: 1 estrogen-primed postmenopausal or ovariectomized women display an adrenal-progesterone-induced ovulatory-like luteinizing hormone (LH surge in response to exogenous adrenocorticotropic hormone (ACTH administration; and 2 women display multiple follicular waves during an interovulatory interval, and likely during pregnancy and lactation. Thus, acute stress may induce ovulation in women displaying appropriate serum levels of estradiol and one or more follicles large enough to respond to a non-midcycle LH surge. Methods A literature search using the PubMed database was performed to identify articles up to January 2010 focusing mainly on women as well as on rats and rhesus monkeys as animal models of interaction between the hypothalamic-pituitary-adrenal (HPA and hypothalamic-pituitary-gonadal (HPG axes. Results Whereas the HPA axis exhibits positive responses in practically all phases of the ovarian cycle, acute-stress-induced release of LH is found under relatively high plasma levels of estradiol. However, there are studies suggesting that several types of acute stress may exert different effects on pituitary LH release and the steroid environment may modulate in a different way (inhibiting or stimulating the pattern of response of the HPG axis elicited by acute stressors. Conclusion Women may be induced to ovulate at any point of the menstrual cycle or even during periods of amenorrhea associated with pregnancy and lactation if exposed to an appropriate acute stressor under a right estradiol environment.

  5. REPEATED ACUTE STRESS INDUCED ALTERATIONS IN CARBOHYDRATE METABOLISM IN RAT

    Nirupama R.

    2010-09-01

    Full Text Available Acute stress induced alterations in the activity levels of rate limiting enzymes and concentration of intermediates of different pathways of carbohydrate metabolism have been studied. Adult male Wistar rats were restrained (RS for 1 h and after an interval of 4 h they were subjected to forced swimming (FS exercise and appropriate controls were maintained. Five rats were killed before the commencement of the experiment (initial controls, 5 control and equal number of stressed rats were killed 2 h after RS and remaining 5 rats in each group were killed 4 h after FS. There was a significant increase in the adrenal 3β- hydroxy steroid dehydrogenase activity following RS, which showed further increase after FS compared to controls and thereby indicated stress response of rats. There was a significant increase in the blood glucose levels following RS which showed further increase and reached hyperglycemic condition after FS. The hyperglycemic condition due to stress was accompanied by significant increases in the activities of glutamate- pyruvate transaminase, glutamate- oxaloacetate transaminase, glucose -6- phosphatase and lactate dehydrogenase and significant decrease in the glucose -6- phosphate dehydrogenase and pyruvate dehydrogenase activities, whereas pyruvate kinase activity did not show any alteration compared to controls. Further, the glycogen and total protein contents of the liver were decreased whereas those of pyruvate and lactate showed significant increase compared to controls after RS as well as FS.The results put together indicate that acute stress induced hyperglycemia results due to increased gluconeogenesis and glycogenolysis without alteration in glycolysis. The study first time reveals that after first acute stress exposure, the subsequent stressful experience augments metabolic stress response leading to hyperglycemia. The results have relevance to human health as human beings are exposed to several stressors in a day and

  6. Increased Risk Taking in Relation to Chronic Stress in Adults

    Ceccato, Smarandita; Kudielka, Brigitte M.; Schwieren, Christiane

    2016-01-01

    Chronic stress is a public health problem that affects a significant part of the population. While the physiological damage it causes is under ongoing scrutiny, its behavioral effects have been overlooked. This is one of the first studies to examine the relation between chronic stress and decision-making, using a standard lottery paradigm. We measured risk taking in the gain domain through binary choices between financially incentivized lotteries. We then measured self-reported chronic stress with the Trier Inventory for the Assessment of Chronic Stress (TICS). We additionally collected hair samples in a subsample of volunteers, in order to quantify accumulation of the stress hormone cortisol. We discovered a significant positive, though modest, correlation between self-reported chronic stress and risk taking that is stronger for women than for men. This confirms part of the findings in acute stress research that show a connection between higher stress and increased risk taking. However, unlike the biologically-based results from acute stress research, we did not identify a significant relation between hair cortisol and behavior. In line with previous literature, we found a clear gender difference in risk taking and self-reports: women generally take less risk and report slightly higher stress levels than men. We conclude that perceived chronic stress can impact behavior in risky situations. PMID:26858663

  7. Cancer, acute stress disorder, and repressive coping

    Pedersen, Anette Fischer; Zachariae, Robert

    2010-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to investigate the association between repressive coping style and Acute Stress Disorder (ASD) in a sample of cancer patients. A total of 112 cancer patients recently diagnosed with cancer participated in the study. ASD was assessed by the Stanford Acute Stress...... Reaction Questionnaire, and repressive coping was assessed by a combination of scores from the Marlowe-Crowne Social Desirability Scale, and the Bendig version of the Taylor Manifest Anxiety Scale. Significantly fewer patients classified as "repressors" were diagnosed with ASD compared to patients...... classified as "non-repressors". However, further investigations revealed that the lower incidence of ASD in repressors apparently was caused by a low score on anxiety and not by an interaction effect between anxiety and defensiveness. Future studies have to investigate whether different psychological...

  8. The catecholamine neurotransmitter precursor tyrosine increases anger during exposure to severe psychological stress

    Lieberman, Harris R; Thompson, Lauren A.; Caruso, Christina M.; Niro, Philip J.; Mahoney, Caroline R.; McClung, James P.; Caron, Gregory R.

    2014-01-01

    Rationale Acute stress produces behavioral and physiological changes modulated by central catecholamines (CA). Stress increases CA activity, and depletion of CA stores reduces responses to stress. Increasing CA activity by administration of the dietary amino acid CA precursor tyrosine may increase responsiveness to stress. This study determined whether tyrosine enhances the ability of humans to respond to severe stress. Methods Severe psychological stress was generated during training at Surv...

  9. Fluoxetine and diazepam acutely modulate stress induced-behavior.

    Giacomini, Ana Cristina V V; Abreu, Murilo S; Giacomini, Luidia V; Siebel, Anna M; Zimerman, Fernanda F; Rambo, Cassiano L; Mocelin, Ricieri; Bonan, Carla D; Piato, Angelo L; Barcellos, Leonardo J G

    2016-01-01

    Drug residue contamination in aquatic ecosystems has been studied extensively, but the behavioral effects exerted by the presence of these drugs are not well known. Here, we investigated the effects of acute stress on anxiety, memory, social interaction, and aggressiveness in zebrafish exposed to fluoxetine and diazepam at concentrations that disrupt the hypothalamic-pituitary-interrenal (HPI) axis. Stress increased the locomotor activity and time spent in the bottom area of the tank (novel tank). Fluoxetine and diazepam prevented these behaviors. We also observed that stress and fluoxetine and diazepam exposures decreased social interaction. Stress also increased aggressive behavior, which was not reversed by fluoxetine or diazepam. These data suggest that the presence of these drugs in aquatic ecosystems causes significant behavioral alterations in fish. PMID:26403161

  10. Anxiety symptom severity differentiates HPA acute stress reactivity in children

    Slattery, Marcia J.; Grieve, Adam J.; Paletz, Elliott M.; Kalin, Ned H.

    2012-01-01

    Rationale/statement of the problem : Considerable research has focused on the relationship of anxiety with alterations in the hypothalamic-pituitary-adrenal (HPA) acute stress response. Findings, however, differ among studies on adults and children, and among different types of anxiety. This study investigates the relationship of anxiety symptom severity with HPA reactivity to the cold pressor task (CPT) in preadolescent children. We hypothesize that children with increased symptoms of anxiet...

  11. Acute stress selectively impairs learning to act.

    de Berker, Archy O; Tirole, Margot; Rutledge, Robb B; Cross, Gemma F; Dolan, Raymond J; Bestmann, Sven

    2016-01-01

    Stress interferes with instrumental learning. However, choice is also influenced by non-instrumental factors, most strikingly by biases arising from Pavlovian associations that facilitate action in pursuit of rewards and inaction in the face of punishment. Whether stress impacts on instrumental learning via these Pavlovian associations is unknown. Here, in a task where valence (reward or punishment) and action (go or no-go) were orthogonalised, we asked whether the impact of stress on learning was action or valence specific. We exposed 60 human participants either to stress (socially-evaluated cold pressor test) or a control condition (room temperature water). We contrasted two hypotheses: that stress would lead to a non-selective increase in the expression of Pavlovian biases; or that stress, as an aversive state, might specifically impact action production due to the Pavlovian linkage between inaction and aversive states. We found support for the second of these hypotheses. Stress specifically impaired learning to produce an action, irrespective of the valence of the outcome, an effect consistent with a Pavlovian linkage between punishment and inaction. This deficit in action-learning was also reflected in pupillary responses; stressed individuals showed attenuated pupillary responses to action, hinting at a noradrenergic contribution to impaired action-learning under stress. PMID:27436299

  12. Acute stress is detrimental to heart regeneration in zebrafish.

    Sallin, Pauline; Jaźwińska, Anna

    2016-03-01

    Psychological stress is one of the factors associated with human cardiovascular disease. Here, we demonstrate that acute perceived stress impairs the natural capacity of heart regeneration in zebrafish. Beside physical and chemical disturbances, intermittent crowding triggered an increase in cortisol secretion and blocked the replacement of fibrotic tissue with new myocardium. Pharmacological simulation of stress by pulse treatment with dexamethasone/adrenaline reproduced the regeneration failure, while inhibition of the stress response with anxiolytic drugs partially rescued the regenerative process. Impaired heart regeneration in stressed animals was associated with a reduced cardiomyocyte proliferation and with the downregulation of several genes, includingigfbp1b, a modulator of IGF signalling. Notably, daily stress induced a decrease in Igf1r phosphorylation. As cardiomyocyte proliferation was decreased in response to IGF-1 receptor inhibition, we propose that the stress-induced cardiac regenerative failure is partially caused by the attenuation of IGF signalling. These findings indicate that the natural regenerative ability of the zebrafish heart is vulnerable to the systemic paracrine stress response. PMID:27030176

  13. Acute short-term mental stress does not influence salivary flow rate dynamics.

    Ella A Naumova

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: Results of studies that address the influence of stress on salivary flow rate and composition are controversial. The aim of this study was to reveal the influence of stress vulnerability and different phases of stress reactivity on the unstimulated and stimulated salivary flow rate. We examined that acute mental stress does not change the salivary flow rate. In addition, we also examined the salivary cortisol and protein level in relation to acute mental stress stimuli. METHODS: Saliva of male subjects was collected for five minutes before, immediately, 10, 30 and 120 min after toothbrushing. Before toothbrushing, the subjects were exposed to acute stress in the form of a 2 min public speech. Salivary flow rate and total protein was measured. The physiological stress marker cortisol was analyzed using enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay. To determine the subjects' psychological stress reaction, the State-Trait-Anxiety Inventory State questionnaire (STAI data were obtained. The subjects were divided into stress subgroup (S1 (psychological reactivity, stress subgroup (S2 (psychological and physiological reactivity and a control group. The area under the curve for salivarycortisol concentration and STAI-State scores were calculated. All data underwent statistical analysis using one-way analysis of variance. RESULTS: Immediately after stress exposure, all participants exhibited a psychological stress reaction. Stress exposure did not change the salivary flow rate. Only 69% of the subjects continued to display a physiological stress reaction 20 minutes after the public talk. There was no significant change in the salivary flow rate during the psychological and the physiological stress reaction phases relative to the baseline. CONCLUSIONS: Acute stress has no impact on the salivary flow rate; however, there may be other responses through salivary proteins that are increased with the acute stress stimuli. Future studies are needed to examine

  14. Does acute stress disorder predict posttraumatic stress disorder following bank robbery?

    Hansen, M.; Elklit, A.

    2013-01-01

    Unfortunately, the number of bank robberies is increasing and little is known about the subsequent risk of posttraumatic stress disorder (PTSD). Several studies have investigated the prediction of PTSD through the presence of acute stress disorder (ASD). However, there have only been a few studies...... following nonsexual assault. The present study investigated the predictive power of different aspects of the ASD diagnosis and symptom severity on PTSD prevalence and symptom severity in 132 bank employees. The PTSD diagnosis, based on the three core symptom clusters, was best identified using cutoff scores...... on the Acute Stress Disorder scale. ASD severity accounted for 40% and the inclusion of other risk factors accounted for 50% of the PTSD severity variance. In conclusion, results indicated that ASD appears to predict PTSD differently following nonsexual assault than other trauma types. ASD severity...

  15. Assessing acute stress with the Implicit Association Test.

    Sato, Hirotsune; Kawahara, Jun-ichiro

    2012-01-01

    Assessments of acute stress using self-report questionnaires can be biased by various factors, including social desirability. The present study used a bias-free method, the Implicit Association Test (IAT), to assess stress. Unlike a previous study (Schmukle & Egloff, 2004) in which acute stress was not detected with the IAT, this study manipulated stress by generating test anxiety and threatening self-esteem. The results revealed that the IAT effect was greater in the high-stress group than in the low-stress group. Participants in the high-stress group associated their concept of self with the concept of anxiety more strongly than did those in the low-stress group. This result suggests that the IAT is a sensitive measure for detecting group differences in acute stress. PMID:21432650

  16. Individual Differences in Delay Discounting Under Acute Stress: The Role of Trait Perceived Stress

    Lempert, Karolina M.; Porcelli, Anthony J.; Delgado, Mauricio R.; Tricomi, Elizabeth

    2012-01-01

    Delay discounting refers to the reduction of the value of a future reward as the delay to that reward increases. The rate at which individuals discount future rewards varies as a function of both individual and contextual differences, and high delay discounting rates have been linked with problematic behaviors, including drug abuse and gambling. The current study investigated the effects of acute anticipatory stress on delay discounting, while considering two important factors: individual per...

  17. Individual differences in delay discounting under acute stress: the role of trait perceived stress

    ElizabethTricomi; KarolinaM.Lempert; AnthonyJ.Porcelli

    2012-01-01

    Delay discounting refers to the reduction of the value of a future reward as the delay to that reward increases. The rate at which individuals discount future rewards varies as a function of both individual and contextual differences, and high delay discounting rates have been linked with problematic behaviors, including drug abuse and gambling. The current study investigated the effects of acute anticipatory stress on delay discounting, while considering two important factors: individual per...

  18. Prenatal Acute Stress Attenuated Epileptiform Activities in Neonate Mice

    Behnam Heshmatian

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available Objective: Development of the central nervous system (CNS is dependent on interactionsbetween genetic and epigenetic factors, some of which could affect the susceptibilityof the developing brain to damaging insults. Gestational stress has been shown as a potentialfactor associated with higher risk of developing certain neurological and psychiatricdisorders. This study tested the hypothesis that maternal stress influences the risk ofepilepsy in offsprings.Materials and Methods: Pregnant mice were exposed to restraint stress twice a day forthree days at the start of the last week of gestation. Ten days after birth, the intact hippocampiof the newborn mice were excised and prepared for investigation. The hippocampiwere bathed in low magnesium artificial cerebrospinal fluid to induce field potential,and the subsequent spontaneous seizure-like events of the CA1 neurons were recorded.Plasma corticosterone was measured using a commercial radioimmunoassay (RIA kitand the values were expressed as μg/100 ml.Results: Both the number of recurrent seizures and the duration of seizure activity werereduced in the stressed group compared to the controls (p<0.001. Stress induced a significantrise in serum corticosterone levels in both pregnant mice and in their newbornpups (p<0.001.Conclusion: These findings suggest that acute prenatal stress, which may mimic acutestress in human pregnancy, is a likely factor affecting seizure control in childhood temporallobe epilepsy. The underlying inhibitory mechanism may be an increase in the level ofneurosteroids both in the blood and the brain.

  19. Ozone Exposure Increases Circulating Stress Hormones and Lipid Metabolites in Humans

    RATIONALE: Air pollution has been associated with increased prevalence of type 2 diabetes; however, the mechanisms remain unknown. We have shown that acute ozone exposure in rats induces release of stress hormones, hyperglycemia, leptinemia, and gluoose intolerance that are assoc...

  20. The role of inflammatory stress in acute coronary syndrome

    沈成兴; 陈灏珠; 葛均波

    2004-01-01

    Objective To summarize current understanding of the roles of anti-inflammatory and proinflammatory mechanisms in the development of atherosclerosis and acute coronary syndrome and to postulate the novel concept of inflammation stress as the most important factor triggering acute coronary syndrome. Moreover, markers of inflammation stress and ways to block involved pathways are elucidated.Data sources A literature search (MEDLINE 1997 to 2002) was performed using the key words "inflammation and cardiovascular disease". Relevant book chapters were also reviewed.Study selection Well-controlled, prospective landmark studies and review articles on inflammation and acute coronary syndrome were selected.Data extraction Data and conclusions from the selected articles providing solid evidence to elucidate the mechanisms of inflammation and acute coronary syndrome were extracted and interpreted in the light of our own clinical and basic research.Data synthesis Inflammation is closely linked to atherosclerosis and acute coronary syndrome. Chronic and long-lasting inflammation stress, present both systemically or in the vascular walls, can trigger acute coronary syndrome.Conclusions Inflammation stress plays an important role in the process of acute coronary syndrome. Drugs which can modulate the balance of pro- and anti-inflammatory processes and attenuate inflammation stress, such as angiotensin-converting enzyme (ACE) inhibitors/angiotensin Ⅱ receptor blockers, statins, and cytokine antagonists may play active roles in the prevention and treatment of acute coronary syndrome when used in addition to conventional therapies (glycoprotein Ⅱb/Ⅲa receptor antagonists, mechanical intervention strategies, etc).

  1. Acute psychological stress induces short-term variable immune response.

    Breen, Michael S; Beliakova-Bethell, Nadejda; Mujica-Parodi, Lilianne R; Carlson, Joshua M; Ensign, Wayne Y; Woelk, Christopher H; Rana, Brinda K

    2016-03-01

    In spite of advances in understanding the cross-talk between the peripheral immune system and the brain, the molecular mechanisms underlying the rapid adaptation of the immune system to an acute psychological stressor remain largely unknown. Conventional approaches to classify molecular factors mediating these responses have targeted relatively few biological measurements or explored cross-sectional study designs, and therefore have restricted characterization of stress-immune interactions. This exploratory study analyzed transcriptional profiles and flow cytometric data of peripheral blood leukocytes with physiological (endocrine, autonomic) measurements collected throughout the sequence of events leading up to, during, and after short-term exposure to physical danger in humans. Immediate immunomodulation to acute psychological stress was defined as a short-term selective up-regulation of natural killer (NK) cell-associated cytotoxic and IL-12 mediated signaling genes that correlated with increased cortisol, catecholamines and NK cells into the periphery. In parallel, we observed down-regulation of innate immune toll-like receptor genes and genes of the MyD88-dependent signaling pathway. Correcting gene expression for an influx of NK cells revealed a molecular signature specific to the adrenal cortex. Subsequently, focusing analyses on discrete groups of coordinately expressed genes (modules) throughout the time-series revealed immune stress responses in modules associated to immune/defense response, response to wounding, cytokine production, TCR signaling and NK cell cytotoxicity which differed between males and females. These results offer a spring-board for future research towards improved treatment of stress-related disease including the impact of stress on cardiovascular and autoimmune disorders, and identifies an immune mechanism by which vulnerabilities to these diseases may be gender-specific. PMID:26476140

  2. Effect of estrogen on plasma ceruloplasmin level in rats exposed to acute stress

    Ganaraja B

    2004-04-01

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: Plasma ceruloplasmin, a copper containing protein, belongs to a class called acute phase proteins. Reduced level of ceruloplasmin was associated with Wilson′s disease and Menke′s kinky hair disease in man, primarily affecting copper metabolism. Stress was known to increase Ceruloplasmin. Several stress associated changes were commonly observed in women at menopause and also those who underwent overiectomy. Present experiment investigated the effect of estrogen on ceruloplasmin level in acute stress. AIMS: To assess the estradiol induced changes in plasma ceruloplasmin concentration on exposure of the rats to acute stress. SETTINGS AND DESIGN: Acute stress was induced by forcing the rats to swim till exhaustion. The rats were overiectomised bilaterally to remove the primary source of sex hormones. And hormone replacement was done later. MATERIAL AND METHODS: Wistar albino female rats were used. Acute stress was induced before overiectomy, following recovery from surgery, and again after Estradiol Valerate injection (for 10 days in same group of rats. The plasma ceruloplasmin was estimated immediately after stress during each stage - that is preoperative control, stressed control, after overiectomy and then following treatment with Estradiol Valerate. STATISTICAL ANALYSIS USED: Paired sample T test was applied to analyze the findings. Results: We found lowest ceruloplasmin level after stress in overiectomised animals, while on substitution of estradiol the trend appeared to be reversed. CONCLUSION: The result suggested a direct effect of estrogen on hepatic ceruloplasmin production/release and this could account for some of the beneficial effects of hormone replacement therapy.

  3. The Effects of Acute Stress on Rainbow Trout (Oncorhynchus mykiss)

    KUBİLAY, Ayşegül

    2002-01-01

    The physiological effects of acute stressors (transport, handling, netting and confinement) on rainbow trout in an aquaculture system were investigated. Serum cortisol level, serum glucose and lysozyme activity were determined in rainbow trout stressed by acute stressors, and compared with those of unstressed (control) fish. Serum cortisol, glucose levels and lysozyme activity were significantly higher(P

  4. Estimation of Subjective Stress in Acute Myocardial Infarction

    Chockalingam A

    2003-01-01

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND and AIMS: Mental stress is considered to be a precipitating factor in acute coronary events. We aimed to assess the association of subjective or 'perceived' mental stress with the occurrence of acute coronary events. SETTINGS AND DESIGN: Prospective case-control survey was carried out in a referral teaching hospital. subjects & METHODS: Consecutive patients with acute myocardial infarction and ST elevation on electrocardiogram who were admitted to the Coronary Care Unit of a referral teaching hospital were enrolled in the study as cases. Controls were unmatched and were enrolled from amongst patients with coronary artery disease who did not have recent acute coronary events. Subjective Stress Functional Classification (SS-FC for the preceding 2-4 weeks was assessed and assigned four grades from I to IV as follows: I - baseline, II - more than usual but not affecting daily routine, III - significantly high stress affecting daily routine and IV - worst stress in life. STATISTICAL ANALYSIS: Proportions of different characteristics were compared using chi-square test with Yates continuity correction. Student's unpaired t test was applied for mean age. 'p' value of < 0.05 was considered statistically significant. RESULTS: SS-FC could be reliably (99% and easily assessed. Eighty (53% of the total 150 patients with acute MI reported 'high' levels of stress (stress class III and IV. This is in contrast to only 30 (20% of 150 healthy controls reporting high stress for the same period (p value < 0.001. CONCLUSION: Patients with acute myocardial infarction report a higher subjective mental stress during 2 to 4 weeks preceding the acute coronary event.

  5. Acute Immobilization Stress Modulate GABA Release from Rat Olfactory Bulb: Involvement of Endocannabinoids—Cannabinoids and Acute Stress Modulate GABA Release

    Alejandra Delgado; Erica H. Jaffé

    2011-01-01

    We studied the effects of cannabinoids and acute immobilization stress on the regulation of GABA release in the olfactory bulb. Glutamate-stimulated 3H-GABA release was measured in superfused slices. We report that cannabinoids as WIN55, 212-2, methanandamide, and 2-arachidonoylglycerol were able to inhibit glutamate- and KCl-stimulated 3H-GABA release. This effect was blocked by the CB1 antagonist AM281. On the other hand, acute stress was able per se to increase endocannabinoid activity. Th...

  6. Acute hypoxia increases the cerebral metabolic rate

    Vestergaard, Mark Bitsch; Lindberg, Ulrich; Aachmann-Andersen, Niels Jacob;

    2016-01-01

    imaging techniques were used to measure global cerebral blood flow and the venous oxygen saturation in the sagittal sinus. Global cerebral metabolic rate of oxygen was quantified from cerebral blood flow and arteriovenous oxygen saturation difference. Concentrations of lactate, glutamate, N......-acetylaspartate, creatine and phosphocreatine were measured in the visual cortex by magnetic resonance spectroscopy. Twenty-three young healthy males were scanned for 60 min during normoxia, followed by 40 min of breathing hypoxic air. Inhalation of hypoxic air resulted in an increase in cerebral blood flow of 15.5% (p = 0.......058), and an increase in cerebral metabolic rate of oxygen of 8.5% (p = 0.035). Cerebral lactate concentration increased by 180.3% ([Formula: see text]), glutamate increased by 4.7% ([Formula: see text]) and creatine and phosphocreatine decreased by 15.2% (p[Formula: see text]). The N-acetylaspartate concentration...

  7. Biogenic amines and acute thermal stress in the rat

    Williams, B. A.; Moberg, G. P.

    1975-01-01

    A study is summarized which demonstrates that depletion of the biogenic amines 5-hydroxytryptamine (5-HT) or norepinephrine (NE) alters the normal thermoregulatory responses to acute temperature stress. Specifically, NE depletion caused a significant depression in equilibrium rectal temperature at 22 C and a greater depression in rectal temperature than controls in response to cold (6 C) stress; NE depletion also resulted in a significantly higher rectal temperature response to acute heat (38 C) stress. Depletion of 5-HT had less severe effects. It remains unclear whether the primary site of action of these agents is central or peripheral.

  8. Acute psychosocial stress and children's memory

    Veld, D.M.J. de; Riksen-Walraven, J.M.A.; Weerth, C. de

    2014-01-01

    We investigated whether children's performance on working memory (WM) and delayed retrieval (DR) tasks decreased after stress exposure, and how physiological stress responses related to performance under stress. About 158 children (83 girls; M-age = 10.61 years, SD = 0.52) performed two WM tasks (WM

  9. Early Age Thermal Conditioning Improves Broiler Chick's Response to Acute Heat Stress at Marketing Age

    Ahmed M. Hassan

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available Problem statement: Acute heat stress at marketing age especially in broiler chickens raised in open houses with reduced means of heat exchange leads to economic losses. The objective of this study was to determine beneficial effects of early age thermal conditioning in reducing adverse effects of acute heat stress and decrease losses. Approach: Ninety one day-old broiler chicks were randomly assigned to one of three treatments (n = 30: (1 control (normally raised, (2 early age thermal conditioning (exposed to temperature of 40±1°C for 24 h at 5th day of age, then raised as control chicks and (3 chronic stress (exposed to 33±2°C from day one till 6 weeks of age. At 42nd day of age, all chicks were subjected to acute heat stress of 39±2°C for 2 h. Blood samples were collected from all groups before and after exposure to acute heat stress. Results: Blood pH increased in both controls and thermally-conditioned chicks after exposure to acute heat stress coinciding with significant decrease in blood carbon dioxide pressure (pCo2 in controls only. Blood potassium level decreased in controls, while in thermally-conditioned or chronically-stressed no significant changes were observed. Blood sodium level showed a trend toward decreased levels in controls while a trend toward increased levels was observed in both thermally-conditioned and chronically-stressed birds. Importantly, significant reductions were observed in total erythrocyte count and hemoglobin level in chronically-stressed birds as compared to other groups before and after acute stress exposure. Hetrophil/lymphocyte ratio increased in both controls and thermally-conditioned chicks after acute heat exposure, but not in chronically-stressed birds. Conclusion: When exposed to acute heat stress at marketing age, chicks subjected to early age thermal conditioning responded very similar to birds adapted to chronic heat stress indicating a protective role of early age thermal conditioning.

  10. Sympathetic neural responses to mental stress during acute simulated microgravity

    Durocher, John J.; Schwartz, Christopher E.; Carter, Jason R.

    2009-01-01

    Neural and cardiovascular responses to mental stress and acute 6° head-down tilt (HDT) were examined separately and combined. We hypothesized sympathoexcitation during mental stress, sympathoinhibition during HDT, and an additive neural interaction during combined mental stress and HDT. Muscle sympathetic nerve activity (MSNA), mean arterial pressure (MAP), and heart rate (HR) were recorded in 16 healthy subjects (8 men, 8 women) in the supine position during three randomized trials: 1) menta...

  11. Acute Stress Reduces Reward Responsiveness: Implications for Depression

    Bogdan, Ryan; Pizzagalli, Diego

    2006-01-01

    Background: Stress, one of the strongest risk factors for depression, has been linked to "anbedonic" behavior and dysfunctional reward-related neural circuitry in preclinical models. Methods: To test if acute stress reduces reward responsiveness (i.e., the ability to modulate behavior as a function of past reward), a signal-detection task coupled with a differential reinforcement schedule was utilized. Eighty female participants completed the task under both a stress condition, either threat-...

  12. Acute stress and cardiovascular health: is there an ACE gene connection?

    Holman, E Alison

    2012-10-01

    Cardiovascular disorders (CVD) are associated with acute and posttraumatic stress responses, yet biological processes underlying this association are poorly understood. This study examined whether renin-angiotensin-aldosterone system activity, as indicated by a functional single nucleotide polymorphism (SNP) in the angiotensin converting enzyme (ACE) gene, is associated with both CVD and acute stress related to the September 11, 2001 (9/11) terrorist attacks. European-American respondents (N = 527) from a nationally representative longitudinal study of coping following 9/11 provided saliva for genotyping. Respondents had completed health surveys before 9/11 and annually for 3 years after, and acute stress assessments 9 to 23 days after 9/11. Respondents with rs4291 AA or TT genotypes reported high acute stress twice as often as those with the AT genotype. Individuals with the TT genotype were 43% more likely to report increased physician-diagnosed CVD over 3 years following 9/11, when the following variables were included in the model: (a) pre-9/11 CVD, mental health, and non-CVD ailments; (b) cardiac risk factors; (c) ongoing endocrine disorders; and (d) significant demographics. The ACE rs4291 TT genotype, which has been associated with HPA axis hyperactivity and higher levels of serum angiotensin converting enzyme (ACE), predicted acute stress response and reports of physician-diagnosed CVD in a national sample following collective stress. ACE gene function may be associated with both mental and physical health disorders following collective stress. PMID:23055331

  13. Temporal Dynamics of Acute Stress-Induced Dendritic Remodeling in Medial Prefrontal Cortex and the Protective Effect of Desipramine

    Nava, Nicoletta; Treccani, Giulia; Alabsi, Abdelrahman;

    2015-01-01

    days after stress. Acute stress produced increased spine density and decreased cofilin phosphorylation at 1 day, paralleled with dendritic retraction. An overall shift in spine population was observed at 1 day, resulting in a stress-induced increase in small spines. Significant atrophy of apical...

  14. The effect of obesity on inflammatory cytokine and leptin production following acute mental stress.

    Caslin, H L; Franco, R L; Crabb, E B; Huang, C J; Bowen, M K; Acevedo, E O

    2016-02-01

    Obesity may contribute to cardiovascular disease (CVD) risk by eliciting chronic systemic inflammation and impairing the immune response to additional stressors. There has been little assessment of the effect of obesity on psychological stress, an independent risk factor for CVD. Therefore, it was of interest to examine interleukin-6, tumor necrosis factor-α, interleukin-1β (IL-1β), interleukin-1 receptor antagonist (IL-1Ra), and leptin following an acute mental stress task in nonobese and obese males. Twenty college-aged males (21.3 ± 0.56 years) volunteered to participate in a 20-min Stroop color-word and mirror-tracing task. Subjects were recruited for obese (body mass index: BMI > 30) and nonobese (BMI < 25) groups, and blood samples were collected for enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay analysis. The acute mental stress task elicited an increase in heart rate, catecholamines, and IL-1β in all subjects. Additionally, acute mental stress increased cortisol concentrations in the nonobese group. There was a significant reduction in leptin in obese subjects 30 min posttask compared with a decrease in nonobese subjects 120 min posttask. Interestingly, the relationship between the percent change in leptin and IL-1Ra at 120 min posttask in response to an acute mental stress task was only observed in nonobese individuals. This is the first study to suggest that adiposity in males may impact leptin and inflammatory signaling mechanisms following acute mental stress. PMID:26511907

  15. Financial stress and outcomes after acute myocardial infarction.

    Sachin J Shah

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: Little is known about the association between financial stress and health care outcomes. Our objective was to examine the association between self-reported financial stress during initial hospitalization and long-term outcomes after acute myocardial infarction (AMI. MATERIALS AND METHODS: We used prospective registry evaluating myocardial infarction: Event and Recovery (PREMIER data, an observational, multicenter US study of AMI patients discharged between January 2003 and June 2004. Primary outcomes were disease-specific and generic health status outcomes at 1 year (symptoms, function, and quality of life (QoL, assessed by the Seattle Angina Questionnaire [SAQ] and Short Form [SF]-12. Secondary outcomes included 1-year rehospitalization and 4-year mortality. Hierarchical regression models accounted for patient socio-demographic, clinical, and quality of care characteristics, and access and barriers to care. RESULTS: Among 2344 AMI patients, 1241 (52.9% reported no financial stress, 735 (31.4% reported low financial stress, and 368 (15.7% reported high financial stress. When comparing individuals reporting low financial stress to no financial stress, there were no significant differences in post-AMI outcomes. In contrast, individuals reporting high financial stress were more likely to have worse physical health (SF-12 PCS mean difference -3.24, 95% Confidence Interval [CI]: -4.82, -1.66, mental health (SF-12 MCS mean difference: -2.44, 95% CI: -3.83, -1.05, disease-specific QoL (SAQ QoL mean difference: -6.99, 95% CI: -9.59, -4.40, and be experiencing angina (SAQ Angina Relative Risk = 1.66, 95%CI: 1.19, 2.32 at 1 year post-AMI. While 1-year readmission rates were increased (Hazard Ratio = 1.50; 95%CI: 1.20, 1.86, 4-year mortality was no different. CONCLUSIONS: High financial stress is common and an important risk factor for worse long-term outcomes post-AMI, independent of access and barriers to care.

  16. Stress does not increase blood-brain barrier permeability in mice.

    Roszkowski, Martin; Bohacek, Johannes

    2016-07-01

    Several studies have reported that exposure to acute psychophysiological stressors can lead to an increase in blood-brain barrier permeability, but these findings remain controversial and disputed. We thoroughly examined this issue by assessing the effect of several well-established paradigms of acute stress and chronic stress on blood-brain barrier permeability in several brain areas of adult mice. Using cerebral extraction ratio for the small molecule tracer sodium fluorescein (NaF, 376 Da) as a sensitive measure of blood-brain barrier permeability, we find that neither acute swim nor restraint stress lead to increased cerebral extraction ratio. Daily 6-h restraint stress for 21 days, a model for the severe detrimental impact of chronic stress on brain function, also does not alter cerebral extraction ratio. In contrast, we find that cold forced swim and cold restraint stress both lead to a transient, pronounced decrease of cerebral extraction ratio in hippocampus and cortex, suggesting that body temperature can be an important confounding factor in studies of blood-brain barrier permeability. To additionally assess if stress could change blood-brain barrier permeability for macromolecules, we measured cerebral extraction ratio for fluorescein isothiocyanate-dextran (70 kDa). We find that neither acute restraint nor cold swim stress affected blood-brain barrier permeability for macromolecules, thus corroborating our findings that various stressors do not increase blood-brain barrier permeability. PMID:27146513

  17. Acute restraint stress enhances hippocampal endocannabinoid function via glucocorticoid receptor activation.

    Wang, Meina; Hill, Matthew N; Zhang, Longhua; Gorzalka, Boris B; Hillard, Cecilia J; Alger, Bradley E

    2012-01-01

    Exposure to behavioural stress normally triggers a complex, multilevel response of the hypothalamic-pituitary-adrenal (HPA) axis that helps maintain homeostatic balance. Although the endocannabinoid (eCB) system (ECS) is sensitive to chronic stress, few studies have directly addressed its response to acute stress. Here we show that acute restraint stress enhances eCB-dependent modulation of GABA release measured by whole-cell voltage clamp of inhibitory postsynaptic currents (IPSCs) in rat hippocampal CA1 pyramidal cells in vitro. Both Ca(2+)-dependent, eCB-mediated depolarization-induced suppression of inhibition (DSI), and muscarinic cholinergic receptor (mAChR)-mediated eCB mobilization are enhanced following acute stress exposure. DSI enhancement is dependent on the activation of glucocorticoid receptors (GRs) and is mimicked by both in vivo and in vitro corticosterone treatment. This effect does not appear to involve cyclooxygenase-2 (COX-2), an enzyme that can degrade eCBs; however, treatment of hippocampal slices with the L-type calcium (Ca(2+)) channel inhibitor, nifedipine, reverses while an agonist of these channels mimics the effect of in vivo stress. Finally, we find that acute stress produces a delayed (by 30 min) increase in the hippocampal content of 2-arachidonoylglycerol, the eCB responsible for DSI. These results support the hypothesis that the ECS is a biochemical effector of glucocorticoids in the brain, linking stress with changes in synaptic strength. PMID:21890595

  18. OSO paradigm--A rapid behavioral screening method for acute psychosocial stress reactivity in mice.

    Brzózka, M M; Unterbarnscheidt, T; Schwab, M H; Rossner, M J

    2016-02-01

    Chronic psychosocial stress is an important environmental risk factor for the development of psychiatric diseases. However, studying the impact of chronic psychosocial stress in mice is time consuming and thus not optimally suited to 'screen' increasing numbers of genetically manipulated mouse models for psychiatric endophenotypes. Moreover, many studies focus on restraint stress, a strong physical stressor with limited relevance for psychiatric disorders. Here, we describe a simple and a rapid method based on the resident-intruder paradigm to examine acute effects of mild psychosocial stress in mice. The OSO paradigm (open field--social defeat--open field) compares behavioral consequences on locomotor activity, anxiety and curiosity before and after exposure to acute social defeat stress. We first evaluated OSO in male C57Bl/6 wildtype mice where a single episode of social defeat reduced locomotor activity, increased anxiety and diminished exploratory behavior. Subsequently, we applied the OSO paradigm to mouse models of two schizophrenia (SZ) risk genes. Transgenic mice with neuronal overexpression of Neuregulin-1 (Nrg1) type III showed increased risk-taking behavior after acute stress exposure suggesting that NRG1 dysfunction is associated with altered affective behavior. In contrast, Tcf4 transgenic mice displayed a normal stress response which is in line with the postulated predominant contribution of TCF4 to cognitive deficits of SZ. In conclusion, the OSO paradigm allows for rapid screening of selected psychosocial stress-induced behavioral endophenotypes in mouse models of psychiatric diseases. PMID:26628400

  19. Depressive Symptoms Are Associated with Mental Stress-Induced Myocardial Ischemia after Acute Myocardial Infarction

    Jingkai Wei; Pratik Pimple; Shah, Amit J.; Cherie Rooks; Douglas Bremner, J.; Nye, Jonathon A.; Ijeoma Ibeanu; Nancy Murrah; Lucy Shallenberger; Paolo Raggi; Viola Vaccarino

    2014-01-01

    Objectives Depression is an adverse prognostic factor after an acute myocardial infarction (MI), and an increased propensity toward emotionally-driven myocardial ischemia may play a role. We aimed to examine the association between depressive symptoms and mental stress-induced myocardial ischemia in young survivors of an MI. Methods We studied 98 patients (49 women and 49 men) age 38–60 years who were hospitalized for acute MI in the previous 6 months. Patients underwent myocardial perfusion ...

  20. Computations of uncertainty mediate acute stress responses in humans.

    de Berker, Archy O; Rutledge, Robb B; Mathys, Christoph; Marshall, Louise; Cross, Gemma F; Dolan, Raymond J; Bestmann, Sven

    2016-01-01

    The effects of stress are frequently studied, yet its proximal causes remain unclear. Here we demonstrate that subjective estimates of uncertainty predict the dynamics of subjective and physiological stress responses. Subjects learned a probabilistic mapping between visual stimuli and electric shocks. Salivary cortisol confirmed that our stressor elicited changes in endocrine activity. Using a hierarchical Bayesian learning model, we quantified the relationship between the different forms of subjective task uncertainty and acute stress responses. Subjective stress, pupil diameter and skin conductance all tracked the evolution of irreducible uncertainty. We observed a coupling between emotional and somatic state, with subjective and physiological tuning to uncertainty tightly correlated. Furthermore, the uncertainty tuning of subjective and physiological stress predicted individual task performance, consistent with an adaptive role for stress in learning under uncertain threat. Our finding that stress responses are tuned to environmental uncertainty provides new insight into their generation and likely adaptive function. PMID:27020312

  1. Acute Anteroseptal Myocardial Infarction after a Negative Exercise Stress Test

    Abdullah M. Al-Alawi; Jyotsna Janardan; Peck, Kah Y.; Alan Soward

    2016-01-01

    A myocardial infarction is a rare complication which can occur after an exercise stress test. We report a 48-year-old male who was referred to the Mildura Cardiology Practice, Victoria, Australia, in August 2014 with left-sided chest pain. He underwent an exercise stress test which was negative for myocardial ischaemia. However, the patient presented to the Emergency Department of the Mildura Base Hospital 30 minutes after the test with severe retrosternal chest pain. An acute anteroseptal ST...

  2. Longitudinal platelet reactivity to acute psychological stress among older men and women.

    Aschbacher, Kirstin; von Känel, Roland; Mills, Paul J; Roepke, Susan K; Hong, Suzi; Dimsdale, Joel E; Mausbach, Brent T; Patterson, Thomas L; Ziegler, Michael G; Ancoli-Israel, Sonia; Grant, Igor

    2009-09-01

    Platelet reactivity to acute stress is associated with increased cardiovascular disease risk; however, little research exists to provide systematic methodological foundations needed to generate strong longitudinal research designs. Study objectives were: 1) to evaluate whether markers of platelet function increase in response to an acute psychological stress test among older adults, 2) to establish whether reactivity remains robust upon repeated administration (i.e. three occasions approximately 1 year apart), and 3) to evaluate whether two different acute speech stress tasks elicit similar platelet responses. The 149 subjects (mean age 71 years) gave a brief impromptu speech on one of two randomly assigned topics involving interpersonal conflict. Blood samples drawn at baseline and post-speech were assayed using flow cytometry for platelet responses on three outcomes (% aggregates, % P-selectin expression, and % fibrinogen receptor expression). Three-level hierarchical linear modeling analyses revealed significant stress-induced increases in platelet activation on all outcomes (p < 0.001). No significant habituation on any measure was found. Additional reactivity differences were associated with male gender, history of myocardial infarction, and use of aspirin, statins, and antidepressants. The results demonstrate that laboratory acute stress tests continued to produce robust platelet reactivity on three activation markers among older adults over 3 years. PMID:19096987

  3. Predicting Performance Under Acute Stress : The Role of Individual Characteristics

    Delahaij, R.; Dam, K. van; Gaillard, A.W.K.; Soeters, J.

    2011-01-01

    This prospective study examined how differences in coping style, coping self-efficacy, and metacognitive awareness influence coping behavior and performance during a realistic acute stressful exercise in 2 military samples (n = 122 and n = 132). Results showed that coping self-efficacy and coping st

  4. Acute Stress Disorder: Conceptual Issues and Treatment Outcomes

    Koucky, Ellen M.; Galovski, Tara E.; Nixon, Reginald D. V.

    2012-01-01

    Acute stress disorder (ASD) was included as a diagnosis to the 4th edition of the "Diagnostic and Statistical Manual" (American Psychiatric Association, 1994) as a way of describing pathological reactions in the first month following a trauma. Since that time, ASD has been the focus of some controversy, particularly regarding the theoretical basis…

  5. The Relationship between Acute Stress Disorder and Posttraumatic Stress Disorder Following Cancer

    Kangas, Maria; Henry, Jane L.; Bryant, Richard A.

    2005-01-01

    In this study, the authors investigated the relationship between acute stress disorder (ASD) and posttraumatic stress disorder (PTSD) following cancer diagnosis. Patients who were recently diagnosed with 1st onset head and neck or lung malignancy (N = 82) were assessed for ASD within the initial month following their diagnosis and reassessed (n =…

  6. Physiological Responses to Acute Psychological Stress Are Reduced by the PPARγ Agonist Rosiglitazone

    Ryan, Karen K.; Grayson, Bernadette E.; Jones, Kenneth R.; Schneider, Alexander L.; Woods, Stephen C.; Seeley, Randy J.; Herman, James P.; Ulrich-Lai, Yvonne M.

    2012-01-01

    Physiological reactions to psychological stress are positively associated with several important chronic conditions including cardiovascular and neurodegenerative diseases and are linked to increased mortality. As such, the identification of cellular and molecular pathways that act to reduce stress responding may represent important targets for therapeutic intervention. Here we report that acute treatment with the peroxisome-proliferator activated receptor-γ (PPARγ) agonist rosiglitazone (RSG...

  7. Corticosterone and dehydroepiandrosterone in songbird plasma and brain: effects of season and acute stress

    Newman, Amy E.M.; Soma, Kiran K.

    2009-01-01

    Prolonged increases in plasma glucocorticoids can exacerbate neurodegeneration. In rats, these neurodegenerative effects can be reduced by dehydroepiandrosterone (DHEA), an androgen precursor with anti-glucocorticoid actions. In song sparrows, season and acute restraint stress affect circulating levels of corticosterone and DHEA, and the effects of stress differ in plasma collected from the brachial and jugular veins. Jugular plasma is an indirect index of the neural steroidal milieu. Here, w...

  8. Acute Stress Induces Hyperacusis in Women with High Levels of Emotional Exhaustion

    Hasson, Dan; Theorell, Tores; Bergquist, Jonas; Canlon, Barbara

    2013-01-01

    Background: Hearing problems is one of the top ten public health disorders in the general population and there is a well-established relationship between stress and hearing problems. The aim of the present study was to explore if an acute stress will increase auditory sensitivity (hyperacusis) in individuals with high levels of emotional exhaustion (EE). Methods: Hyperacusis was assessed using uncomfortable loudness levels (ULL) in 348 individuals (140 men; 208 women; age 23-71 years). Multiv...

  9. Prognostic significance of sinus deceleration during dobutamine stress echocardiography test following acute myocardial infarction

    Šalinger Sonja; Tomašević Miloje; Glasnović Jozef; Apostolović Svetlana; Pavlović Milan; Pešić Zoran; Ranđelović Miomir; Stojković Aleksandar; Krstić Nebojša; Milić Dragan

    2006-01-01

    Background/Aim. Chronotropic incompetence during exercise stress testing after acute myocardial infarction is an indicator of ischemia or impaired left ventricular function. On the other side, infusion of dobutamine leads to a typical dose-dependent increase in heart rate. The aim of this study was to evaluate of paradoxical sinus deceleration during dobutamine stress echocardiography (DSE), as the sign of ischemia and impaired left ventricular function, or the consequence of infarction local...

  10. Effect of estrogen on plasma ceruloplasmin level in rats exposed to acute stress

    Ganaraja B; Pavithran P; Ghosh S

    2004-01-01

    BACKGROUND: Plasma ceruloplasmin, a copper containing protein, belongs to a class called acute phase proteins. Reduced level of ceruloplasmin was associated with Wilson′s disease and Menke′s kinky hair disease in man, primarily affecting copper metabolism. Stress was known to increase Ceruloplasmin. Several stress associated changes were commonly observed in women at menopause and also those who underwent overiectomy. Present experiment investigated the effect of estrogen on cer...

  11. Assessment of oxidative stress parameters of brain-derived neurotrophic factor heterozygous mice in acute stress model

    Gulay Hacioglu

    2016-04-01

    Full Text Available Objective(s: Exposing to stress may be associated with increased production of reactive oxygen species (ROS. Therefore, high level of oxidative stress may eventually give rise to accumulation of oxidative damage and development of numerous neurodegenerative diseases. It has been presented that brain-derived neurotrophic factor (BDNF supports neurons against various neurodegenerative conditions. Lately, there has been growing evidence that changes in the cerebral neurotrophic support and especially in the BDNF expression and its engagement with ROS might be important in various disorders and neurodegenerative diseases. Hence, we aimed to investigate protective effects of BDNF against stress-induced oxidative damage. Materials and Methods: Five- to six-month-old male wild-type and BDNF knock-down mice were used in this study. Activities of catalase (CAT and superoxide dismutase (SOD enzymes, and the amount of malondialdehyde (MDA were assessed in the cerebral homogenates of studied groups in response to acute restraint stress. Results: Exposing to acute physiological stress led to significant elevation in the markers of oxidative stress in the cerebral cortexes of experimental groups. Conclusion: As BDNF-deficient mice were observed to be more susceptible to stress-induced oxidative damage, it can be suggested that there is a direct interplay between oxidative stress indicators and BDNF levels in the brain.

  12. The Nature of Trauma Memories in Acute Stress Disorder in Children and Adolescents

    Salmond, C. H.; Meiser-Stedman, R.; Glucksman, E.; Thompson, P.; Dalgleish, T.; Smith, P.

    2011-01-01

    Background: There is increasing theoretical, clinical and research evidence for the role of trauma memory in the aetiology of acute pathological stress responses in adults. However, research into the phenomenology of trauma memories in young people is currently scarce. Methods: This study compared the nature of trauma narratives to narratives of…

  13. Symptom Differences in Acute and Chronic Presentation of Childhood Post-Traumatic Stress Disorder.

    Famularo, Richard; And Others

    1990-01-01

    Twenty-four child abuse victims, age 5-13, were diagnosed with posttraumatic stress disorder (PTSD). Children with the acute form of PTSD exhibited such symptoms as difficulty falling asleep, hypervigilance, nightmares, and generalized anxiety. Children exhibiting chronic PTSD exhibited increased detachment, restricted range of affect,…

  14. Dual-task performance under acute stress in female adolescents with borderline personality disorder.

    Kaess, Michael; Parzer, Peter; Koenig, Julian; Resch, Franz; Brunner, Romuald

    2016-09-01

    Research to elucidate early alterations of higher cognitive processes in adolescents with BPD is rare. This study investigated differences in dual-task performance in adolescents with BPD during stress and non-stress conditions. The study sample comprised 30 female adolescents with BPD and 34 healthy controls. The impact of stress on dual-task performance was measured using a standardized stressor. Self-reports of distress and measures of heart rate (HR) were obtained to measure stress reactivity. There were no group differences in task performance. Under stress conditions, the performance on the auditory task decreased in both groups but without significant group differences. Healthy controls showed an increase of mean HR after stress induction compared to no change in the BPD group. The finding of attenuated HR response to acute stress in adolescent patients with BPD may contradict current theories that the affective hyperresponsivity in BPD is based on a biologically determined mechanism. PMID:26852226

  15. Acute stress responses: A review and synthesis of ASD, ASR, and CSR.

    Isserlin, Leanna; Zerach, Gadi; Solomon, Zahava

    2008-10-01

    Toward the development of a unifying diagnosis for acute stress responses this article attempts to find a place for combat stress reaction (CSR) within the spectrum of other defined acute stress responses. This article critically compares the diagnostic criteria of acute stress disorder (ASD), acute stress reaction (ASR), and CSR. Prospective studies concerning the predictive value of ASD, ASR, and CSR are reviewed. Questions, recommendations, and implications for clinical practice are raised concerning the completeness of the current acute stress response diagnoses, the heterogeneity of different stressors, the scope of expected outcomes, and the importance of decline in function as an indicator of future psychological, psychiatric, and somatic distress. PMID:19123763

  16. Posttraumatic Stress Disorder and Acute Stress Disorder II: Considerations for Treatment and Prevention

    Cahill, Shawn P.; Pontoski, Kristin; D'Olio, Carla M.

    2005-01-01

    Posttraumatic stress disorder is a common and often chronic and disabling anxiety disorder that can develop after exposure to highly stressful events characterized by actual or threatened harm to the self or others. This is the second of two invited articles summarizing the nature and treatment of PTSD and the associated condition of acute stress disorder (ASD). The present article reviews evidence for the efficacy of psychological and pharmacological treatments for PTSD and ASD. In summary, ...

  17. RAAS and stress markers in acute ischemic stroke

    Back, C.; Thiesen, K L; Olsen, Karsten Skovgaard;

    2015-01-01

    . RESULTS: The acute systolic blood pressure was significantly increased, 148 (141-168) vs 140 (130-147) mmHg post-stroke. Angiotensin I, renin and aldosterone levels were significantly lower, angiotensin II was unchanged, and ACE activity was higher in the acute phase compared to post-stroke. No...... differences in RAAS were detected between jugular and cubital plasma levels. Jugular venous plasma levels of epinephrine and cortisol were elevated in the acute phase compared to cubital levels (P < 0.05). CONCLUSION: Increased epinephrine and cortisol levels in the jugular vein blood may reflect a higher...

  18. Acute stress response and recovery after whiplash injuries. A one-year prospective study

    Kongsted, Alice; Bendix, Tom; Qerama, Erisela;

    2007-01-01

    Chronic whiplash-associated disorder (WAD) represents a major medical and psycho-social problem. The typical symptomatology presented in WAD is to some extent similar to symptoms of post traumatic stress disorder. In this study we examined if the acute stress reaction following a whiplash injury...... response was obtained by 13% of the participants. This was associated with increased risk of considerable persistent pain (OR=3.3; 1.8-5.9), neck disability (OR=3.2; 1.7-6.0), reduced working ability (OR=2.8; 1.6-4.9), and lowered self-reported general health one year after the accident. These associations...... were modified by baseline neck pain intensity. It was not possible to distinguish between participants who recovered and those who did not by means of the IES (AUC=0.6). In conclusion, the association between the acute stress reaction and persistent WAD suggests that post traumatic stress reaction may...

  19. Acute stress response and recovery after whiplash injuries. A one-year prospective study

    Kongsted, Alice; Bendix, Tom; Montvilas, Erisela Qerama;

    2008-01-01

    Chronic whiplash-associated disorder (WAD) represents a major medical and psycho-social problem. The typical symptomatology presented in WAD is to some extent similar to symptoms of post traumatic stress disorder. In this study we examined if the acute stress reaction following a whiplash injury...... response was obtained by 13% of the participants. This was associated with increased risk of considerable persistent pain (OR=3.3; 1.8-5.9), neck disability (OR=3.2; 1.7-6.0), reduced working ability (OR=2.8; 1.6-4.9), and lowered self-reported general health one year after the accident. These associations...... were modified by baseline neck pain intensity. It was not possible to distinguish between participants who recovered and those who did not by means of the IES (AUC=0.6). In conclusion, the association between the acute stress reaction and persistent WAD suggests that post traumatic stress reaction may...

  20. Stress significantly increases mortality following a secondary bacterial respiratory infection

    Hodgson Paul D

    2012-03-01

    Full Text Available Abstract A variety of mechanisms contribute to the viral-bacterial synergy which results in fatal secondary bacterial respiratory infections. Epidemiological investigations have implicated physical and psychological stressors as factors contributing to the incidence and severity of respiratory infections and psychological stress alters host responses to experimental viral respiratory infections. The effect of stress on secondary bacterial respiratory infections has not, however, been investigated. A natural model of secondary bacterial respiratory infection in naive calves was used to determine if weaning and maternal separation (WMS significantly altered mortality when compared to calves pre-adapted (PA to this psychological stressor. Following weaning, calves were challenged with Mannheimia haemolytica four days after a primary bovine herpesvirus-1 (BHV-1 respiratory infection. Mortality doubled in WMS calves when compared to calves pre-adapted to weaning for two weeks prior to the viral respiratory infection. Similar results were observed in two independent experiments and fatal viral-bacterial synergy did not extend beyond the time of viral shedding. Virus shedding did not differ significantly between treatment groups but innate immune responses during viral infection, including IFN-γ secretion, the acute-phase inflammatory response, CD14 expression, and LPS-induced TNFα production, were significantly greater in WMS versus PA calves. These observations demonstrate that weaning and maternal separation at the time of a primary BHV-1 respiratory infection increased innate immune responses that correlated significantly with mortality following a secondary bacterial respiratory infection.

  1. The Effect of Acute Stress on Post-Stress Oxygen Consumption Rate in Southern Catfish, Silurus meridionalis Chen

    Zhen-Dong Cao

    2007-01-01

    Full Text Available The post-stress oxygen consumption rate (VO2 was investigated in southern catfish (47.433.92 g after different acute stress. The stress treatment were chasing for 2.5 min (CH, air exposure for 2.5 min (AE, 12.5C coldwater bath for 2.5 min (CB, 2.5 min chasing plus 2.5 min air exposure (CA and chasing at 12.5C for 2.5 min (CC, respectively. All water and air temperature was 25C except that of coldwater bath group. VO2 of all groups were increased immediately after stress (coldwater bath was increased a little slower and slowly return to a pre-stress level. The VO2peak of CC group was significantly higher than those of all other groups (p2peak of CH group was significantly higher than that of CE group, while the latter was significantly higher than those of AE and CB groups (p2peak/VO2rest in both chasing groups (CH and CC were significantly higher than those of other groups (p2 response of southern catfish to chase was larger that air exposure and acute low-temperature stress, while air exposure and low-temperature stress might have little effects on VO2 response; Compared to chase effect, added air exposure treatment after chase lowered the post-stress VO2 response, while coldwater bath chase might elevated the post-stress VO2 response and as a sit-and-wait forager with poor aerobic and anaerobic capacity, the stress response of southern catfish was relatively lower.

  2. Aged rats are hypo-responsive to acute restraint: implications for psychosocial stress in aging

    Heather M Buechel

    2014-02-01

    Full Text Available Cognitive processes associated with prefrontal cortex and hippocampus decline with age and are vulnerable to disruption by stress. The stress/ stress hormone/ allostatic load hypotheses of brain aging posit that brain aging, at least in part, is the manifestation of life-long stress exposure. In addition, as humans age, there is a profound increase in the incidence of new onset stressors, many of which are psychosocial (e.g., loss of job, death of spouse, social isolation, and aged humans are well-understood to be more vulnerable to the negative consequences of such new-onset chronic psychosocial stress events. However, the mechanistic underpinnings of this age-related shift in chronic psychosocial stress response, or the initial acute phase of that chronic response, have been less well-studied. Here, we separated young (3 mo. and aged (21 mo. male F344 rats into control and acute restraint (an animal model of psychosocial stress groups (n = 9-12/ group. We then assessed hippocampus-associated behavioral, electrophysiological, and transcriptional outcomes, as well as blood glucocorticoid and sleep architecture changes. Aged rats showed characteristic water maze, deep sleep, transcriptome, and synaptic sensitivity changes compared to young. Young and aged rats showed similar levels of distress during the three hour restraint, as well as highly significant increases in blood glucocorticoid levels 21 hours after restraint. However, young, but not aged, animals responded to stress exposure with water maze deficits, loss of deep sleep and hyperthermia. These results demonstrate that aged subjects are hypo-responsive to new-onset acute psychosocial stress, which may have negative consequences for long-term stress adaptation and suggest that age itself may act as a stressor occluding the influence of new onset stressors.

  3. Acute megakaryoblastic leukemia with increased hematogones in children.

    Anton-Harisi, Marieta; Douna, Varvara; Baka, Margarita; Servitzoglou, Marina; Kosmidis, Helen V; Georgouli, Helen; Anastasiou, Theodora

    2012-11-01

    We describe 2 patients, a 4-month-old male and a 17-month-old female, with de novo acute megakaryoblastic leukemia with increased number of hematogones at diagnosis. Both children were admitted in the hospital with thrombocytopenia. The bone marrow smears in the first child revealed the presence of 60% cells with morphologic features consistent with acute megakaryoblastic leukemia. In the other, the initial bone marrow aspirate was dry tap but on the following aspirate 10% cells with lymphoblastic morphology could be seen. The bone marrow flow cytometry showed the presence of hematogones-38% in the first case and 20% in the second-with absence of blasts. Repeated bone marrow aspirates, trephines, and immunophenotypic as well as molecular studies, confirmed the diagnosis of M7. Both children were treated according to the Berlin-Frankfurt-Munster 2004 protocol. PMID:22983420

  4. Acute stress-induced antinociception is cGMP-dependent but heme oxygenase-independent

    Carvalho-Costa, P.G. [Programa de Graduação em Psicobiologia, Faculdade de Filosofia, Ciências e Letras de Ribeirão Preto, Universidade de São Paulo, Ribeirão Preto, SP (Brazil); Branco, L.G.S. [Departamento de Morfologia, Fisiologia e Patologia Básica, Faculdade de Odontologia de Ribeirão Preto, Universidade de São Paulo, Ribeirão Preto, SP (Brazil); Leite-Panissi, C.R.A. [Programa de Graduação em Psicobiologia, Faculdade de Filosofia, Ciências e Letras de Ribeirão Preto, Universidade de São Paulo, Ribeirão Preto, SP (Brazil); Departamento de Morfologia, Fisiologia e Patologia Básica, Faculdade de Odontologia de Ribeirão Preto, Universidade de São Paulo, Ribeirão Preto, SP (Brazil)

    2014-09-19

    Endogenous carbon monoxide (CO), which is produced by the enzyme heme oxygenase (HO), participates as a neuromodulator in physiological processes such as thermoregulation and nociception by stimulating the formation of 3′,5′-cyclic guanosine monophosphate (cGMP). In particular, the acute physical restraint-induced fever of rats can be blocked by inhibiting the enzyme HO. A previous study reported that the HO-CO-cGMP pathway plays a key phasic antinociceptive role in modulating noninflammatory acute pain. Thus, this study evaluated the involvement of the HO-CO-cGMP pathway in antinociception induced by acute stress in male Wistar rats (250-300 g; n=8/group) using the analgesia index (AI) in the tail flick test. The results showed that antinociception induced by acute stress was not dependent on the HO-CO-cGMP pathway, as neither treatment with the HO inhibitor ZnDBPG nor heme-lysinate altered the AI. However, antinociception was dependent on cGMP activity because pretreatment with the guanylate cyclase inhibitor 1H-[1,2,4] oxadiazolo [4,3-a] quinoxaline-1-one (ODQ) blocked the increase in the AI induced by acute stress.

  5. Acute stress-induced antinociception is cGMP-dependent but heme oxygenase-independent

    Endogenous carbon monoxide (CO), which is produced by the enzyme heme oxygenase (HO), participates as a neuromodulator in physiological processes such as thermoregulation and nociception by stimulating the formation of 3′,5′-cyclic guanosine monophosphate (cGMP). In particular, the acute physical restraint-induced fever of rats can be blocked by inhibiting the enzyme HO. A previous study reported that the HO-CO-cGMP pathway plays a key phasic antinociceptive role in modulating noninflammatory acute pain. Thus, this study evaluated the involvement of the HO-CO-cGMP pathway in antinociception induced by acute stress in male Wistar rats (250-300 g; n=8/group) using the analgesia index (AI) in the tail flick test. The results showed that antinociception induced by acute stress was not dependent on the HO-CO-cGMP pathway, as neither treatment with the HO inhibitor ZnDBPG nor heme-lysinate altered the AI. However, antinociception was dependent on cGMP activity because pretreatment with the guanylate cyclase inhibitor 1H-[1,2,4] oxadiazolo [4,3-a] quinoxaline-1-one (ODQ) blocked the increase in the AI induced by acute stress

  6. A Study of Oxidative Stress Biomarkers and Effect of Oral Antioxidant Supplementation in Severe Acute Malnutrition

    Ghone, Rahul A.; Suryakar, Adinath N.; Kulhalli, P. M.; Bhagat, Sonali S.; Padalkar, Ramchandra K.; Karnik, Aarti C.; Hundekar, Prakash S.; Sangle, D. A.

    2013-01-01

    Background: Malnutrition represents one of the most severe health problems in India. Free radicals play an important role in immunological response, which induces the oxidative surplus in severe acute malnutrition. Severe dietary deficiency of nutrients leads to increased oxidative stress in cellular compartments. Aim: The goal of this study was to inspect impact of oxidative stress in the form of serum malondialdehyde as product of lipid peroxidation, vitamin E, zinc and erythrocyte superoxide dismutase in patients with severe acute malnutrition. Material and Methods: Sixty severe acute malnutrition patients were studied before and after supplementation of antioxidants for one month, and their status were compared with those of 60 age and sex matched healthy controls. The level of serum MDA was analyzed by the Kei Satoh method, serum vitamin E concentration was measured by Baker and Frank Method, serum zinc was measured by using Atomic Absorption Spectrophotometer (AAS) and erythrocyte superoxide dismutase was measured by Kajari Das Method. Results: Significantly increased levels of serum malondialdehyde (p0.05) increase in vitamin E levels as compared to those before supplementation results. Conclusion: Harsh deficiency of various nutrients in severe acute malnutrition leads to generation of heavy oxidative stress. These effects may be minimized with supplementation of antioxidants. PMID:24298460

  7. Changes of central haemodynamic parameters during mental stress and acute bouts of static and dynamic exercise.

    Lydakis, C; Momen, A; Blaha, C; Gugoff, S; Gray, K; Herr, M; Leuenberger, U A; Sinoway, L I

    2008-05-01

    Chronic dynamic (aerobic) exercise decreases central arterial stiffness, whereas chronic resistance exercise evokes the opposite effect. Nevertheless, there is little information available on the effects of acute bouts of exercise. Also, there is limited data showing an increase of central arterial stiffness during acute mental stress. This study aimed to determine the effect of acute mental and physical (static and dynamic exercise) stress on indices of central arterial stiffness. Fifteen young healthy volunteers were studied. The following paradigms were performed: (1) 2 min of mental arithmetic, (2) short bouts (20 s) of static handgrip at 20 and 70% of maximal voluntary contraction (MVC), (3) fatiguing handgrip at 40% MVC and (4) incremental dynamic knee extensor exercise. Central aortic waveforms were assessed using SphygmoCor software. As compared to baseline, pulse wave transit time decreased significantly for all four interventions indicating that central arterial stiffness increased. During fatiguing handgrip there was a fall in the ratio of peripheral to central pulse pressure from 1.69+/-0.02 at baseline to 1.56+/-0.05 (Pfatiguing handgrip protocols, whereas there was no change in the knee extensor protocol. We conclude that (1) during all types of acute stress tested in this study (including dynamic exercise) estimated central stiffness increased, (2) during static exercise the workload posed on the left ventricle (expressed as change in central pulse pressure) is relatively higher than that posed during dynamic exercise (given the same pulse pressure change in the periphery). PMID:18273040

  8. Oral administration of lactulose: a novel therapy for acute carbon monoxide poisoning via increasing intestinal hydrogen production.

    Fan, Dan-Feng; Hu, Hui-Jun; Sun, Xue-Jun; Meng, Xiang-En; Zhang, Yu; Pan, Shu-Yi

    2016-01-01

    It has been known that the pathophysiology of carbon monoxide (CO) poisoning is related to hypoxia, the increased production of reactive oxygen species (ROS) and oxidative stress. Studies have shown that the novel, safe and effective free radical scavenger, hydrogen, has neuroprotective effects in both acute CO poisoning and delayed neuropsychological sequelae in CO poisoning. Orally administered lactulose, which may be used by some intestinal bacteria as a food source to produce endogenous hydrogen, can ameliorate oxidative stress. Based on the available findings, we hypothesize that oral administration of lactulose may be a novel therapy for acute CO poisoning via increasing intestinal hydrogen production. PMID:27000012

  9. Experience of acute stressful events and coping strategies of trauma patients with stress

    Nikolina Farčić; Ivana Barać

    2012-01-01

    Aim To affirm experience of acute stress event and strategy of facing stress within trauma patients, so that, nurse/technician in their further work could help overcome mentioned event and it's intensity, with help of their intercession and experience.Methods The Impact of Event Scale – Revised (IES-R), also with sociodemographic questionnaire were used as an instrument of measuring. The research has been conducted on 100 examinees which were hospitalisated at Clinical section of traumatolo...

  10. Angiotensin-converting enzyme inhibition increases glucose-induced insulin secretion in response to acute restraint.

    Schweizer, Júnia R O L; Miranda, Paulo A C; Fóscolo, Rodrigo B; Lemos, Joao P M; Paula, Luciano F; Silveira, Warley C; Santos, Robson A S; Pinheiro, Sérgio V B; Coimbra, Candido C; Ribeiro-Oliveira, Antônio

    2012-12-01

    There is increasing evidence suggesting involvement of the renin-angiotensin system (RAS) in carbohydrate metabolism and its response to stress. Thus, the aim of the present study was to evaluate the effects of chronic inhibition of the RAS on glucose and insulin levels during acute restraint stress. Male Holtzman rats were treated with 10 mg/kg per day enalapril solution or vehicle for 14 days. After 14 days, rats were divided into three experimental groups: enalapril + restraint (ER), vehicle + restraint (VR) and enalapril + saline (ES). Rats in the restraint groups were subjected to 30 min restraint stress, whereas rats in the ES groups were given saline infusion instead. Blood samples were collected at baseline and after 5, 10, 20 and 30 min restraint stress or saline infusion. After restraint, a hyperglycaemic response was observed in the ER and VR groups that peaked at 20 and 10 min, respectively (P inhibition with enalapril may increase glucose-induced insulin secretion in response to acute restraint. PMID:23734984

  11. Effect of acute and repeated restraint stress on glucose oxidation to CO2 in hippocampal and cerebral cortex slices

    Torres I.L.S.

    2001-01-01

    Full Text Available It has been suggested that glucocorticoids released during stress might impair neuronal function by decreasing glucose uptake by hippocampal neurons. Previous work has demonstrated that glucose uptake is reduced in hippocampal and cerebral cortex slices 24 h after exposure to acute stress, while no effect was observed after repeated stress. Here, we report the effect of acute and repeated restraint stress on glucose oxidation to CO2 in hippocampal and cerebral cortex slices and on plasma glucose and corticosterone levels. Male adult Wistar rats were exposed to restraint 1 h/day for 50 days in the chronic model. In the acute model there was a single exposure. Immediately or 24 h after stress, the animals were sacrificed and the hippocampus and cerebral cortex were dissected, sliced, and incubated with Krebs buffer, pH 7.4, containing 5 mM glucose and 0.2 µCi D-[U-14C] glucose. CO2 production from glucose was estimated. Trunk blood was also collected, and both corticosterone and glucose were measured. The results showed that corticosterone levels after exposure to acute restraint were increased, but the increase was smaller when the animals were submitted to repeated stress. Blood glucose levels increased after both acute and repeated stress. However, glucose utilization, measured as CO2 production in hippocampal and cerebral cortex slices, was the same in stressed and control groups under conditions of both acute and chronic stress. We conclude that, although stress may induce a decrease in glucose uptake, this effect is not sufficient to affect the energy metabolism of these cells.

  12. Think aloud: acute stress and coping strategies during golf performances.

    Nicholls, Adam R; Polman, Remco C J

    2008-07-01

    A limitation of the sport psychology coping literature is the amount of time between a stressful episode and the recall of the coping strategies used in the stressful event (Nicholls & Polman, 2007). The purpose of this study was to develop and implement a technique to measure acute stress and coping during performance. Five high-performance adolescent golfers took part in Level 2 verbalization think aloud trials (Ericsson & Simon, 1993), which involved participants verbalizing their thoughts, over six holes of golf. Verbal reports were audio-recorded during each performance, transcribed verbatim, and analyzed using protocol analysis (Ericsson & Simon, 1993). Stressors and coping strategies varied throughout the six holes, which support the proposition that stress and coping is a dynamic process that changes across phases of the same performance (Lazarus, 1999). The results also revealed information regarding the sequential patterning of stress and coping, suggesting that the golfers experienced up to five stressors before reporting a coping strategy. Think aloud appears a suitable method to collect concurrent stress and coping data. PMID:18612855

  13. Acute psychological stress reduces working memory-related activity in the dorsolateral prefrontal cortex.

    Qin, S.; Hermans, E.J.; Marle, H.J.F. van; Luo, J.; Fernandez, G.S.E.

    2009-01-01

    BACKGROUND: Acute psychological stress impairs higher-order cognitive function such as working memory (WM). Similar impairments are seen in various psychiatric disorders that are associated with higher susceptibility to stress and with prefrontal cortical dysfunctions, suggesting that acute stress m

  14. Discharge behaviors of trapezius motor units during exposure to low and high levels of acute psychosocial stress

    Stephenson, Jennifer L.; Maluf, Katrina S

    2010-01-01

    This study investigated the effects of acute psychosocial stress on trapezius single motor unit discharge behaviors. Twenty-one healthy women performed feedback-controlled isometric contractions under conditions of low and high psychosocial stress in the same experimental session. Psychosocial stress was manipulated using a verbal math task combined with social evaluative threat which significantly increased perceived anxiety, heart rate, and blood pressure (P0.121, N=103) and derecruitment (...

  15. Acute Short-Term Mental Stress Does Not Influence Salivary Flow Rate Dynamics

    Naumova, Ella A; Sandulescu, Tudor; Al Khatib, Philipp; Thie, Michael; Lee, Wing-Kee; Zimmer, Stefan; Arnold, Wolfgang H.

    2012-01-01

    Background: Results of studies that address the influence of stress on salivary flow rate and composition are controversial. The aim of this study was to reveal the influence of stress vulnerability and different phases of stress reactivity on the unstimulated and stimulated salivary flow rate. We examined that acute mental stress does not change the salivary flow rate. In addition, we also examined the salivary cortisol and protein level in relation to acute mental stress stimuli. Methods: S...

  16. Myocardial stress in patients with acute cerebrovascular events

    Jespersen, Christian M; Fischer Hansen, Jørgen

    2008-01-01

    Signs of myocardial involvement are common in patients with acute cerebrovascular events. ST segment deviations, abnormal left ventricular function, increased N-terminal pro-brain natriuretic peptide (NT-proBNP), prolonged QT interval, and/or raised troponins are observed in up to one third of the...

  17. Acute phase proteins in cattle after exposure to complex stress

    Lomborg, S. R.; Nielsen, L. R.; Heegaard, Peter M. H.;

    2008-01-01

    Abstract Stressors such as weaning, mixing and transportation have been shown to lead to increased blood concentrations of acute phase proteins (APP), including serum amyloid A (SAA) and haptoglobin, in calves. This study was therefore undertaken to assess whether SAA and haptoglobin levels in bl...

  18. Acute Anteroseptal Myocardial Infarction after a Negative Exercise Stress Test

    Al-Alawi, Abdullah M.; Janardan, Jyotsna; Peck, Kah Y.; Soward, Alan

    2016-01-01

    A myocardial infarction is a rare complication which can occur after an exercise stress test. We report a 48-year-old male who was referred to the Mildura Cardiology Practice, Victoria, Australia, in August 2014 with left-sided chest pain. He underwent an exercise stress test which was negative for myocardial ischaemia. However, the patient presented to the Emergency Department of the Mildura Base Hospital 30 minutes after the test with severe retrosternal chest pain. An acute anteroseptal ST segment elevation myocardial infarction was observed on electrocardiography. After thrombolysis, he was transferred to a tertiary hospital where coronary angiography subsequently revealed significant left anterior descending coronary artery stenosis. Thrombus aspiration and a balloon angioplasty were performed. The patient was discharged three days after the surgical procedure in good health.

  19. The evolution of the painful sensitivity in acute and chronic stress.

    Cristea, A; Ciobanu, A; Stoenescu, M; Rusei, I

    1994-01-01

    The clinical research was made on two groups of young volunteer students. We considered stress consisting in chronic informational overexposure during the examination session and the acute stress from their emotions before a hard examination. The painful sensitivity was analysed by measuring the retraction time of the finger from water at 55 degrees C. The experimental research was made on a group of 100 male mice. The acute stress was performed by subjecting each mouse to swim (behavioral despair test). Painful sensitivity was determined by the test of the hot plate heated at 50 degrees C. Individuals with hyper (H) and hypo (h) painful sensitivity were selected for the tests. In chronic stress, the results proved increased painful sensitivity (hyperalgia) more important at "h" compared to "H" (p behaviors with opposite mechanisms involved in stress analgesia. This hypothesis is related with studies which demonstrate the involvement in stress analgesia of non-opioid monoaminergic mechanisms together with the opioid mechanisms (Lewis, 1980). PMID:8640371

  20. 0268 Is perceived stress related to an increase in salivary cortisol

    Fink, Samuel; Peter Bonde, Jens; Agergaard Vammen, Marianne; Mikkelsen, Sigurd; Frølund Thomsen, Jane

    version of the PSS-scale was used to measure perceived stress and operationalized as the average score. Salivary cortisol samples were taken at 30 min post awakening and at 8 pm. A mean value of cortisol was calculated. In our analysis we applied logarithmic transformation to the concentrations. RESULTS......OBJECTIVES: Perceived Stress is a suspected cause of many psychological and physical illnesses. However it remains to be discovered what physiological measures are involved. While it is widely known that acute stress leads to an increase in cortisol levels, the findings in prolonged stress research...... have not been consistent. This study explores the association between Perceived Stress and salivary cortisol levels using the largest population ever used in this field. METHOD: 4467 public employees in the PRISME cohort in 2007. 3217 of those did a similar follow up study in 2009. A 4-item Danish...

  1. Role of Tyrosine Isomers in Acute and Chronic Diseases Leading to Oxidative Stress - A Review.

    Molnár, Gergő A; Kun, Szilárd; Sélley, Eszter; Kertész, Melinda; Szélig, Lívia; Csontos, Csaba; Böddi, Katalin; Bogár, Lajos; Miseta, Attila; Wittmann, István

    2016-01-01

    Oxidative stress plays a major role in the pathogenesis of a variety of acute and chronic diseases. Measurement of the oxidative stress-related end products may be performed, e.g. that of structural isomers of the physiological para-tyrosine, namely meta- and ortho-tyrosine, that are oxidized derivatives of phenylalanine. Recent data suggest that in sepsis, serum level of meta-tyrosine increases, which peaks on the 2(nd) and 3(rd) days (pglucose product in non-diabetic septic cases (pRats were fed a standard high cholesterol-diet, and were given para-tyrosine or vehicle orally. High-cholesterol feeding lead to a significant increase in aortic wall meta-tyrosine content and a decreased vasorelaxation of the aorta to insulin and the glucagon-like peptide-1 analogue, liraglutide, that both could be prevented by administration of para-tyrosine. Concluding, these data suggest that meta- and ortho-tyrosine are potential markers of oxidative stress in acute diseases related to oxidative stress, and may also interfere with insulin action in septic humans. Competition of meta- and ortho-tyrosine by supplementation of para-tyrosine may exert a protective role in oxidative stress-related diseases. PMID:26785996

  2. Hydrogen-increased dezincification layer-induced stress and susceptibility to stress corrosion cracking of brass

    李会录; 高克玮; 褚武扬; 刘亚萍; 乔利杰

    2003-01-01

    Dezincification layer formed during corrosion or stress corrosion cracking (SCC) of brass in an ammonia solution could induce an additive stress. The effect of hydrogen on the dezincification layer-induced stress and the susceptibility to SCC were studied. The dezincification layer-induced stress was measured using the deflection method and the flowing stress differential method, respectively. The latter measures the difference between the flowing stress of a specimen before unloading and the yield stress of the same specimen after unloading and forming a dezincification layer. The susceptibility to SCC was measured using slow strain rate test. Results show that both the dezincification layer-induced stress and the susceptibility to SCC increase with increasing hydrogen concentration in a specimen. This implies that hydrogen-enhanced dezincification layer-induced stress is consistence with the hydrogen-increased susceptibility to SCC of brass in the ammonia solution.

  3. The effects of acute stress exposure on neural correlates of Pavlovian conditioning with monetary gains and losses

    Andrea H Lewis

    2014-05-01

    Full Text Available Pavlovian conditioning involves the association of an inherently neutral stimulus with an appetitive or aversive outcome, such that the neutral stimulus itself acquires reinforcing properties. Across species, this type of learning has been shown to involve subcortical brain regions such as the striatum and the amygdala. It is less clear, however, how the neural circuitry involved in the acquisition of Pavlovian contingencies in humans is affected by acute stress. In the current study, we investigate the effect of acute stress exposure on Pavlovian conditioning using monetary reinforcers. Participants underwent a partial reinforcement conditioning procedure in which neutral stimuli were paired with high and low magnitude monetary gains and losses. A between-subjects design was used, such that half of the participants were exposed to cold stress while the remaining participants were exposed to a no stress control procedure. Cortisol measurements and subjective ratings were used as measures of stress. We observed an interaction between stress, valence and magnitude in the ventral striatum, with the peak in the putamen. More specifically, the stress group exhibited an increased sensitivity to magnitude in the gain domain. This effect was driven by those participants who experienced a larger increase in circulating cortisol levels in response to the stress manipulation. Taken together, these results suggest that acute stress can lead to individual differences in circulating cortisol levels which influence brain regions involved in associative learning such as the ventral striatum.

  4. Depressive symptoms are associated with mental stress-induced myocardial ischemia after acute myocardial infarction.

    Jingkai Wei

    Full Text Available Depression is an adverse prognostic factor after an acute myocardial infarction (MI, and an increased propensity toward emotionally-driven myocardial ischemia may play a role. We aimed to examine the association between depressive symptoms and mental stress-induced myocardial ischemia in young survivors of an MI.We studied 98 patients (49 women and 49 men age 38-60 years who were hospitalized for acute MI in the previous 6 months. Patients underwent myocardial perfusion imaging at rest, after mental stress (speech task, and after exercise or pharmacological stress. A summed difference score (SDS, obtained with observer-independent software, was used to quantify myocardial ischemia under both stress conditions. The Beck Depression Inventory-II (BDI-II was used to measure depressive symptoms, which were analyzed as overall score, and as separate somatic and cognitive depressive symptom scores.There was a significant positive association between depressive symptoms and SDS with mental stress, denoting more ischemia. After adjustment for demographic and lifestyle factors, disease severity and medications, each incremental depressive symptom was associated with 0.14 points higher SDS. When somatic and cognitive depressive symptoms were examined separately, both somatic [β = 0.17, 95% CI: (0.04, 0.30, p = 0.01] and cognitive symptoms [β = 0.31, 95% CI: (0.07, 0.56, p = 0.01] were significantly associated with mental stress-induced ischemia. Depressive symptoms were not associated with ischemia induced by exercise or pharmacological stress.Among young post-MI patients, higher levels of both cognitive and somatic depressive symptoms are associated with a higher propensity to develop myocardial ischemia with mental stress, but not with physical (exercise or pharmacological stress.

  5. Increased hemoglobin O2 affinity protects during acute hypoxia.

    Yalcin, Ozlem; Cabrales, Pedro

    2012-08-01

    Acclimatization to hypoxia requires time to complete the adaptation mechanisms that influence oxygen (O(2)) transport and O(2) utilization. Although decreasing hemoglobin (Hb) O(2) affinity would favor the release of O(2) to the tissues, increasing Hb O(2) affinity would augment arterial O(2) saturation during hypoxia. This study was designed to test the hypothesis that pharmacologically increasing the Hb O(2) affinity will augment O(2) transport during severe hypoxia (10 and 5% inspired O(2)) compared with normal Hb O(2) affinity. RBC Hb O(2) affinity was increased by infusion of 20 mg/kg of 5-hydroxymethyl-2-furfural (5HMF). Control animals received only the vehicle. The effects of increasing Hb O(2) affinity were studied in the hamster window chamber model, in terms of systemic and microvascular hemodynamics and partial pressures of O(2) (Po(2)). Pimonidazole binding to hypoxic areas of mice heart and brain was also studied. 5HMF decreased the Po(2) at which the Hb is 50% saturated with O(2) by 12.6 mmHg. During 10 and 5% O(2) hypoxia, 5HMF increased arterial blood O(2) saturation by 35 and 48% from the vehicle group, respectively. During 5% O(2) hypoxia, blood pressure and heart rate were 58 and 30% higher for 5HMF compared with the vehicle. In addition, 5HMF preserved microvascular blood flow, whereas blood flow decreased to 40% of baseline in the vehicle group. Consequently, perivascular Po(2) was three times higher in the 5HMF group compared with the control group at 5% O(2) hypoxia. 5HMF also reduced heart and brain hypoxic areas in mice. Therefore, increased Hb O(2) affinity resulted in hemodynamics and oxygenation benefits during severe hypoxia. This acute acclimatization process may have implications in survival during severe environmental hypoxia when logistic constraints prevent chronic acclimatization. PMID:22636677

  6. Behavioral economic analysis of stress effects on acute motivation for alcohol.

    Owens, Max M; Ray, Lara A; MacKillop, James

    2015-01-01

    Due to issues of definition and measurement, the heavy emphasis on subjective craving in the measurement of acute motivation for alcohol and other drugs remains controversial. Behavioral economic approaches have increasingly been applied to better understand acute drug motivation, particularly using demand curve modeling via purchase tasks to characterize the perceived reinforcing value of the drug. This approach has focused on using putatively more objective indices of motivation, such as units of consumption, monetary expenditure, and price sensitivity. To extend this line of research, the current study used an alcohol purchase task to determine if, compared to a neutral induction, a personalized stress induction would increase alcohol demand in a sample of heavy drinkers. The stress induction significantly increased multiple measures of the reinforcing value of alcohol to the individual, including consumption at zero price (intensity), the maximum total amount of money spent on alcohol (Omax), the first price where consumption was reduced to zero (breakpoint), and the general responsiveness of consumption to increases in price (elasticity). These measures correlated only modestly with craving and mood. Self-reported income was largely unrelated to demand but moderated the influence of stress on Omax. Moderation based on CRH-BP genotype (rs10055255) was present for Omax, with T allele homozygotes exhibiting more pronounced increases in response to stress. These results provide further support for a behavioral economic approach to measuring acute drug motivation. The findings also highlight the potential relevance of income and genetic factors in understanding state effects on the perceived reinforcing value of alcohol. PMID:25413719

  7. Effects of Prepubertal Acute Immobilization Stress on Serum Kisspeptin Level and Testis Histology in Rats.

    Maalhagh, Mehrnoosh; Jahromi, Abdolreza Sotoodeh; Yusefi, Alireza; Razeghi, Ali; Zabetiyan, Hassan; Karami, Mohammad Yasin; Madani, Abdol Hossein

    2016-01-01

    Stress has inhibitory effect on HPG axis through increasing cortisol serum level. In this study, the effect of acute prepubertal stress on kisspeptin, which plays essential role in puberty achievement is assessed. To do this experimental study thirty immature healthy male wistar rats of 4 weeks old and without any symptoms of puberty were selected randomly. These rats were divided into three groups, randomly. Two groups were chosen as control and pretest and one as stress (test) group. Immobilization stress was applied for 10 days and serum level of cortisol, testosterone and kisspeptin were measured. Primary and secondary spermatocyte and sertoli cell evaluated and compared among groups. Mean serum level of kisspeptin in pretest group, control group and stress (test) group were 0.0381 ± 0.0079, 91.0500 ± 4.87430 and 15.2156 ± 3.88135 pg mL(-1) respectively. Serum level of kisspeptin had significant differences between three groups (p stress led to decrease in serum level of kisspeptin and testosterone in stress (test) group compared to control groups. Also stress caused a significant decrease in the numbers of secondary spermatocytes of the test group. PMID:26930799

  8. Acute Restraint Stress Enhances Hippocampal Endocannabinoid Function via Glucocorticoid Receptor Activation

    Wang, Meina; Hill, Matthew N.; Zhang, Longhua; Gorzalka, Boris B.; Hillard, Cecilia J.; Alger, Bradley E.

    2011-01-01

    Exposure to behavioral stress normally triggers a complex, multi-level response of the hypothalamic-pituitary-adrenal (HPA) axis that helps maintain homeostatic balance. Although the endocannabinoid (eCB) system (ECS) is sensitive to chronic stress, few studies have directly addressed its response to acute stress. Here we show that acute restraint stress enhances eCB-dependent modulation of GABA release measured by whole-cell voltage clamp of inhibitory post-synaptic currents (IPSCs) in rat h...

  9. The Effects of Hemodynamic Shear Stress on Stemness of Acute Myelogenous Leukemia (AML)

    Raddatz, Andrew; Triantafillu, Ursula; Kim, Yonghyun (John)

    2015-11-01

    Cancer stem cells (CSCs) have recently been identified as the root cause of tumors generated from cancer cell populations. This is because these CSCs are drug-resistant and have the ability to self-renew and differentiate. Current methods of culturing CSCs require much time and money, so cancer cell culture protocols, which maximize yield of CSCs are needed. It was hypothesized that the quantity of Acute myelogenous leukemia stem cells (LSCs) would increase after applying shear stress to the leukemia cells based on previous studies with breast cancer in bioreactors. The shear stress was applied by pumping the cells through narrow tubing to mimic the in vivo bloodstream environment. In support of the hypothesis, shear stress was found to increase the amount of LSCs in a given leukemia population. This work was supported by NSF REU Site Award 1358991.

  10. Social stress increases expression of hemoglobin genes in mouse prefrontal cortex

    Stankiewicz, A.M.; Goscik, J.; Swiergiel, A.H.; Majewska, A.; Wieczorek, M.; Juszczak, G R; Lisowski, P.

    2014-01-01

    Background In order to better understand the effects of social stress on the prefrontal cortex, we investigated gene expression in mice subjected to acute and repeated social encounters of different duration using microarrays. Results The most important finding was identification of hemoglobin genes (Hbb-b1, Hbb-b2, Hba-a1, Hba-a2, Beta-S) as potential markers of chronic social stress in mice. Expression of these genes was progressively increased in animals subjected to 8 and 13 days of repea...

  11. The acute effects of 3,4-methylenedioxymethamphetamine on oxidative stress in rat brain

    Simić Ivan

    2008-01-01

    Full Text Available Introduction Oxidative stress and oxygen free radicals are thought to play an important role in acute effects of a number of neurotoxic processes. 3,4-Methylenedioxymethamphetamine (MDMA, ecstasy, a ring substituted amphetamine derivate, has attracted a great deal of media attention in recent years due to its widespread abuse as recreational drug by the young generation. The aim of the present study was to evaluate the acute effects of 3,4-methylenedioxymethamphetamine on oxidative stress parameters (index of lipid peroxidation - ILP, superoxide radicals O2-, superoxide dismutase - SOD and glutathione - GSH in frontal cortex, striatum and hippocampus in Wistar rats. Materials and methods The study included 40 male Wistar rats (200-250 g, housed 4 per cage having free access to food and water. MDMA was dissolved in distillated water and administered peroraly at 5, 10, 20 or 40 mg/kg. 8 hours following MDMA, the rats were killed by decapitation, their brains were rapidly removed and the brain structures were dissected out on ice and analyzed biochemically. Results Acute peroral administration of a single dose (5, 10, 20 and 40 mg/kg resulted in increase of ILP, O2-, SOD and decrease of GSH. Conclusion The results obtained in the present study suggest that oxidative stress plays a crucial role in MDMA-induced neurotoxicity and that the mechanism of MDMA neurotoxycity may vary between brain regions.

  12. Stress among nurses working in an acute hospital in Ireland.

    Donnelly, Teresa

    2014-01-01

    Stress among nurses leads to absenteeism, reduced efficiency, long-term health problems and a decrease in the quality of patient care delivered. A quantitative cross-sectional study was conducted. The study\\'s aim was to identify perceived stressors and influencing factors among nurses working in the critical and non-critical care practice areas. A convenience sample of 200 nurses were invited to complete the Bianchi Stress Questionnaire. Information was collected on demographics and daily nursing practice. Findings indicated that perceived stressors were similar in both groups. The most severe stressors included redeployment to work in other areas and staffing levels. Results from this study suggest that age, job title, professional experience and formal post-registration qualifications had no influence on stress perception. These results will increase awareness of nurses\\' occupational stress in Ireland.

  13. Acute Stress Symptoms in Children: Results From an International Data Archive

    Kassam-Adams, Nancy; Palmieri, Patrick A.; Rork, Kristine; Delahanty, Douglas L.; Kenardy, Justin; Kohser, Kristen L.; Landolt, Markus A.; Le Brocque, Robyne; Marsac, Meghan L.; Meiser-Stedman, Richard; Nixon, Reginald D.V.; Bui, Eric; McGrath, Caitlin

    2012-01-01

    Objective: To describe the prevalence of acute stress disorder (ASD) symptoms and to examine proposed "DSM-5" symptom criteria in relation to concurrent functional impairment in children and adolescents. Method: From an international archive, datasets were identified that included assessment of acute traumatic stress reactions and concurrent…

  14. Methylprednisolone for acute spinal cord injury: an increasingly philosophical debate

    Bowers, Christian A.; Kundu, Bornali; Hawryluk, Gregory W. J.

    2016-01-01

    Following publication of NASCIS II, methylprednisolone sodium succinate (MPSS) was hailed as a breakthrough for patients with acute spinal cord injury (SCI). MPSS use for SCI has since become very controversial and it is our opinion that additional evidence is unlikely to break the stalemate amongst clinicians. Patient opinion has the potential to break this stalemate and we review our recent findings which reported that spinal cord injured patients informed of the risks and benefits of MPSS reported a preference for MPSS administration. We discuss the implications of the current MPSS debate on translational research and seek to address some misconceptions which have evolved. As science has failed to resolve the MPSS debate we argue that the debate is an increasingly philosophical one. We question whether SCI might be viewed as a serious condition like cancer where serious side effects of therapeutics are tolerated even when benefits may be small. We also draw attention to the similarity between the side effects of MPSS and isotretinoin which is prescribed for the cosmetic disorder acne vulgaris. Ultimately we question how patient autonomy should be weighed in the context of current SCI guidelines and MPSS's status as a historical standard of care.

  15. The impact of acute stress on hormones and cytokines, and how their recovery is affected by music-evoked positive mood

    Koelsch, Stefan; Boehlig, Albrecht; Hohenadel, Maximilian; Nitsche, Ines; Bauer, Katrin; Sack, Ulrich

    2016-01-01

    Stress and recovery from stress significantly affect interactions between the central nervous system, endocrine pathways, and the immune system. However, the influence of acute stress on circulating immune-endocrine mediators in humans is not well known. Using a double-blind, randomized study design, we administered a CO2 stress test to n = 143 participants to identify the effects of acute stress, and recovery from stress, on serum levels of several mediators with immune function (IL-6, TNF-α, leptin, and somatostatin), as well as on noradrenaline, and two hypothalamic–pituitary–adrenal axis hormones (ACTH and cortisol). Moreover, during a 1 h-recovery period, we repeatedly measured these serum parameters, and administered an auditory mood-induction protocol with positive music and a neutral control stimulus. The acute stress elicited increases in noradrenaline, ACTH, cortisol, IL-6, and leptin levels. Noradrenaline and ACTH exhibited the fastest and strongest stress responses, followed by cortisol, IL-6 and leptin. The music intervention was associated with more positive mood, and stronger cortisol responses to the acute stressor in the music group. Our data show that acute (CO2) stress affects endocrine, immune and metabolic functions in humans, and they show that mood plays a causal role in the modulation of responses to acute stress. PMID:27020850

  16. The impact of acute stress on hormones and cytokines, and how their recovery is affected by music-evoked positive mood.

    Koelsch, Stefan; Boehlig, Albrecht; Hohenadel, Maximilian; Nitsche, Ines; Bauer, Katrin; Sack, Ulrich

    2016-01-01

    Stress and recovery from stress significantly affect interactions between the central nervous system, endocrine pathways, and the immune system. However, the influence of acute stress on circulating immune-endocrine mediators in humans is not well known. Using a double-blind, randomized study design, we administered a CO2 stress test to n = 143 participants to identify the effects of acute stress, and recovery from stress, on serum levels of several mediators with immune function (IL-6, TNF-α, leptin, and somatostatin), as well as on noradrenaline, and two hypothalamic-pituitary-adrenal axis hormones (ACTH and cortisol). Moreover, during a 1 h-recovery period, we repeatedly measured these serum parameters, and administered an auditory mood-induction protocol with positive music and a neutral control stimulus. The acute stress elicited increases in noradrenaline, ACTH, cortisol, IL-6, and leptin levels. Noradrenaline and ACTH exhibited the fastest and strongest stress responses, followed by cortisol, IL-6 and leptin. The music intervention was associated with more positive mood, and stronger cortisol responses to the acute stressor in the music group. Our data show that acute (CO2) stress affects endocrine, immune and metabolic functions in humans, and they show that mood plays a causal role in the modulation of responses to acute stress. PMID:27020850

  17. A Diagnostic Interview for Acute Stress Disorder for Children and Adolescents

    Miller, Alisa; Enlow, Michelle Bosquet; Reich, Wendy; Saxe, Glenn

    2009-01-01

    The goal of this study was to develop a semi-structured clinical interview for assessing acute stress disorder (ASD) in youth and test its psychometric properties. Youth (N = 168) with an acute burn or injury were administered the acute stress disorder module of the Diagnostic Interview for Children and Adolescents (DICA-ASD). The DICA-ASD demonstrated strong psychometric properties, including high internal consistency (α = .97) and perfect diagnostic inter-rater agreement (K = 1.00). Partici...

  18. Increased CD40 ligand in patients with acute anterior uveitis

    Øgard, Carsten; Sørensen, Torben Lykke; Krogh, Erik

    2005-01-01

    The inflammatory response in acute anterior uveitis (AU) is believed to be primarily mediated by autoreactive T-cells. We wanted to evaluate whether the T-cell activation marker CD40 ligand is involved in the AU immunopathogenesis.......The inflammatory response in acute anterior uveitis (AU) is believed to be primarily mediated by autoreactive T-cells. We wanted to evaluate whether the T-cell activation marker CD40 ligand is involved in the AU immunopathogenesis....

  19. Attenuation of Acute and Chronic Restraint Stress-induced Perturbations in Experimental Animals by Nelumbo nucifera Gaertn

    Kulkarni, M. P.; Juvekar, A. R.

    2008-01-01

    Aqueous extract of leaves of Nelumbo nucifera was investigated on acute stress (immobilization stress)-induced biochemical alterations in Swiss mice. The animals were also subjected to acute physical stress (swimming endurance test) and acute chemical stress (writhing test) to gauge the antistress potential of the extract. Further to evaluate the antistress activity of Nelumbo nucifera in chronic stress condition, fresh Wistar rats were subjected to cold restraint stress (4° for 1 h) for 7 da...

  20. Attenuation of acute and chronic restraint stress-induced perturbations in experimental animals by Nelumbo nucifera Gaertn

    Kulkarni M; Juvekar A

    2008-01-01

    Aqueous extract of leaves of Nelumbo nucifera was investigated on acute stress (immobilization stress)-induced biochemical alterations in Swiss mice. The animals were also subjected to acute physical stress (swimming endurance test) and acute chemical stress (writhing test) to gauge the antistress potential of the extract. Further to evaluate the antistress activity of Nelumbo nucifera in chronic stress condition, fresh Wistar rats were subjected to cold restraint stress (4° for 1 h) f...

  1. Dioscin alleviates dimethylnitrosamine-induced acute liver injury through regulating apoptosis, oxidative stress and inflammation.

    Zhang, Weixin; Yin, Lianhong; Tao, Xufeng; Xu, Lina; Zheng, Lingli; Han, Xu; Xu, Youwei; Wang, Changyuan; Peng, Jinyong

    2016-07-01

    In our previous study, the effects of dioscin against alcohol-, carbon tetrachloride- and acetaminophen-induced liver damage have been found. However, the activity of it against dimethylnitrosamine (DMN)-induced acute liver injury remained unknown. In the present study, dioscin markedly decreased serum ALT and AST levels, significantly increased the levels of SOD, GSH-Px, GSH, and decreased the levels of MDA, iNOS and NO. Mechanism study showed that dioscin significantly decreased the expression levels of IL-1β, IL-6, TNF-α, IκBα, p50 and p65 through regulating TLR4/MyD88 pathway to rehabilitate inflammation. In addition, dioscin markedly up-regulated the expression levels of SIRT1, HO-1, NQO1, GST and GCLM through increasing nuclear translocation of Nrf2 against oxidative stress. Furthermore, dioscin significantly decreased the expression levels of FasL, Fas, p53, Bak, Caspase-3/9, and upregulated Bcl-2 level through decreasing IRF9 level against apoptosis. In conclusion, dioscin showed protective effect against DMN-induced acute liver injury via ameliorating apoptosis, oxidative stress and inflammation, which should be developed as a new candidate for the treatment of acute liver injury in the future. PMID:27317992

  2. Acute effect of aspartame-induced oxidative stress in Wistar albino rat brain.

    Ashok, Iyaswamy; Sheeladevi, Rathinasamy; Wankhar, Dapkupar

    2015-09-01

    The present study was carried out to investigate the acute effect of aspartame on oxidative stress in the Wistar albino rat brain. We sought to investigate whether acute administration of aspartame (75 mg/kg) could release methanol and induce oxidative stress in the rat brain 24 hours after administration. To mimic human methanol metabolism, methotrexate treated rats were used to study aspartame effects. Wistar strain male albino rats were administered with aspartame orally as a single dose and studied along with controls and methotrexate treated controls. Blood methanol and formate level were estimated after 24 hours and rats were sacrificed and free radical changes were observed in discrete regions by assessing the scavenging enzymes, reduce dglutathione (GSH), lipid peroxidation and protein thiol levels. There was a significant increase in lipid peroxidation levels, superoxide dismutase activity (SOD), glutathione peroxidase levels (GPx), and catalase activity (CAT) with a significant decrease in GSH and protein thiol. Aspartame exposure resulted in detectable methanol even after 24 hours. Methanol and its metabolites may be responsible for the generation of oxidative stress in brain regions. The observed alteration in aspartame fed animals may be due to its metabolite methanol and elevated formate. The elevated free radicals due to methanol induced oxidative stress. PMID:26445572

  3. STRUCTURAL CHANGES OF HEART IN EXPERIMENTAL ANIMALS IN MODELLING OF DIFFERENT VERSIONS OF ACUTE STRESS AND OPPORTUNITIES FOR MEDICAL CORRECTION

    Veber, V.; Gubskaya, P.; V. Bondarenko

    2011-01-01

    We studied the characteristics of cardiac remodeling in Wistar rats in the simulation of different variants of acute stress. The results showed an independent contribution of the parasympathetic nervous system in the development of structural changes in the myocardium. Changes of the extracellular matrix are more characteristic for the cholinergic stress, particularly an increase of extracellular spaces and to a greater extent in the right ventricle of the heart.

  4. Brain aromatase and circulating corticosterone are rapidly regulated by combined acute stress and sexual interaction in a sex specific manner

    Dickens, M.J.; Balthazart, J.; Cornil, C. A.

    2012-01-01

    Neural production of 17β-oestradiol via aromatisation of testosterone may play a critical role in rapid, non-genomic regulation of physiological and behavioural processes. In brain nuclei implicated in the control of sexual behaviour, sexual or stressfull stimuli induce respectively a rapid inhibition or increase in preoptic aromatase activity (AA). Here, we tested quail that were either non-stressed or acutely stressed (15 min restraint) immediately prior to sexual interaction (5 min) with s...

  5. TNF-α from hippocampal microglia induces working memory deficits by acute stress in mice.

    Ohgidani, Masahiro; Kato, Takahiro A; Sagata, Noriaki; Hayakawa, Kohei; Shimokawa, Norihiro; Sato-Kasai, Mina; Kanba, Shigenobu

    2016-07-01

    The role of microglia in stress responses has recently been highlighted, yet the underlying mechanisms of action remain unresolved. The present study examined disruption in working memory due to acute stress using the water-immersion resistant stress (WIRS) test in mice. Mice were subjected to acute WIRS, and biochemical, immunohistochemical, and behavioral assessments were conducted. Spontaneous alternations (working memory) significantly decreased after exposure to acute WIRS for 2h. We employed a 3D morphological analysis and site- and microglia-specific gene analysis techniques to detect microglial activity. Morphological changes in hippocampal microglia were not observed after acute stress, even when assessing ramification ratios and cell somata volumes. Interestingly, hippocampal tumor necrosis factor (TNF)-α levels were significantly elevated after acute stress, and acute stress-induced TNF-α was produced by hippocampal-ramified microglia. Conversely, plasma concentrations of TNF-α were not elevated after acute stress. Etanercept (TNF-α inhibitor) recovered working memory deficits in accordance with hippocampal TNF-α reductions. Overall, results suggest that TNF-α from hippocampal microglia is a key contributor to early-stage stress-to-mental responses. PMID:26551431

  6. Acute Psychosocial Stress and Emotion Regulation Skills Modulate Empathic Reactions to Pain in Others

    Gabriele eBuruck; Johannes eWendsche; Marlen eMelzer; Alexander eStrobel; Denise eDörfel

    2014-01-01

    Psychosocial stress affects resources for adequate coping with environmental demands. A crucial question in this context is the extent to which acute psychosocial stressors impact empathy and emotion regulation. In the present study, 120 participants were randomly assigned to a control group vs. a group confronted with the Trier Social Stress Test, an established paradigm for the induction of acute psychosocial stress. Empathy for pain as a specific subgroup of empathy was assessed via pain i...

  7. Acute psychosocial stress and emotion regulation skills modulate empathic reactions to pain in others

    Buruck, Gabriele; Wendsche, Johannes; Melzer, Marlen; Strobel, Alexander; Dörfel, Denise

    2014-01-01

    Psychosocial stress affects resources for adequate coping with environmental demands. A crucial question in this context is the extent to which acute psychosocial stressors impact empathy and emotion regulation. In the present study, 120 participants were randomly assigned to a control group vs. a group confronted with the Trier Social Stress Test (TSST), an established paradigm for the induction of acute psychosocial stress. Empathy for pain as a specific subgroup of empathy was assessed via...

  8. Stress before and during pregnancy increased risk antepartum depression

    R. I. Ismail

    2003-06-01

    Full Text Available This paper presents the risk of antepartum depression (APD among pregnant women. In particular stress before pregnancy, stress during pregnancy, marital relationship, social support, husband’s mental status and monthly expenditure. The subjects consisted of 580 pregnant women in the third trimester, who attended antenatal care at the Department of Obstetrics of the Persahabatan Hospital Jakarta from November 1, 1999 to August 15, 2001. Antepartum depression was screened by a psychiatrist using the Edinburgh Postnatal Depression Scale (EPDS. Information on demographic and personal characteristics were collected from fill-in form. Through this form, the respondent gave information on stress before and during pregnancy, and from questionnaires Kuestioner Dukungan Sosial (KDS, Kesesuaian Hubungan Suami Istri (KHSI and the Symptom Check List-90 (SCL-90 information about social support, marital relationship, and husband’s mental status were collected respectively. The prevalence of APD was 18%. Antepartum depression and non-antepartum depression were similar in terms of age groups, level of education, occupations, monthly expenditures, number of pregnancies, number of children, number of deliveries, physical health condition, and history of premenstrual syndromes. Pregnant women with stress before pregnancy had a two-fold risk of APD [adjusted odds ratio (OR = 2.04; 95% confidence intervals (CI: 1.12 – 3.74] compared to pregnant women without stress before pregnancy. In addition, when compared to pregnant women without stress during pregnancy, those with stress during pregnancy had 2.2-fold risk of developing APD (adjusted OR=2.13, 95% CI: 1,27-3,74. In conclusion, stress before and during pregnancy increased the risk antepartum depression. Therefore, attention should be paid to pregnant women with these risk factors. (Med J Indones 2003; 12: 81-6 Keywords: antepartum depression, stress before pregnancy, stress during pregnancy

  9. Stress history increases alcohol intake in relapse: Relation to phosphodiesterase 10A

    Logrip, Marian L.; Zorrilla, Eric P.

    2012-01-01

    Stressful experiences in humans can result in elevated alcohol drinking, as exemplified in many individuals with post-traumatic stress disorder. However, how stress history, rather than acute stressors, influences alcohol intake remains uncertain. To model the protracted effects of past stress, male Wistar rats were subjected to light-cued footshock stress (Stress History) or light cues alone (Control) prior to their acquisition of alcohol self-administration (1-h sessions, fixed ratio1–3, 10...

  10. Individual differences in cortisol stress response predict increases in voice pitch during exam stress.

    Pisanski, Katarzyna; Nowak, Judyta; Sorokowski, Piotr

    2016-09-01

    Despite a long history of empirical research, the potential vocal markers of stress remain unclear. Previous studies examining speech under stress most consistently report an increase in voice pitch (the acoustic correlate of fundamental frequency, F0), however numerous studies have failed to replicate this finding. In the present study we tested the prediction that these inconsistencies are tied to variation in the severity of the stress response, wherein voice changes may be observed predominantly among individuals who show a cortisol stress response (i.e., an increase in free cortisol levels) above a critical threshold. Voice recordings and saliva samples were collected from university psychology students at baseline and again immediately prior to an oral examination. Voice recordings included both read and spontaneous speech, from which we measured mean, minimum, maximum, and the standard deviation in F0. We observed an increase in mean and minimum F0 under stress in both read and spontaneous speech, whereas maximum F0 and its standard deviation showed no systematic changes under stress. Our results confirmed that free cortisol levels increased by an average of 74% (ranging from 0 to 270%) under stress. Critically, increases in cortisol concentrations significantly predicted increases in mean F0 under stress for both speech types, but did not predict variation in F0 at baseline. On average, stress-induced increases in voice pitch occurred only when free cortisol levels more than doubled their baseline concentrations. Our results suggest that researchers examining speech under stress should control for individual differences in the magnitude of the stress response. PMID:27188981

  11. Is gill cortisol concentration a good acute stress indicator in fish? A study in rainbow trout and zebrafish

    Gesto, Manuel; Hernandez, Juan; Lopez-Patino, Marcos A.;

    2015-01-01

    -invasive techniques have been developed to measure cortisol directly in the water from fish-holding tanks, in skin mucus or in scales. In this study, we explored the possibility to analyze fish cortisol from gill filaments as a reliable acute stress marker. Our results show that gill cortisol levels correlate well...... with plasma cortisol levels in both rainbow trout and zebrafish exposed or not to an acute stress protocol. Measuring cortisol in gill filaments increases the available possibilities for stress assessment in fish. Although this approach should yet be tested for its use with other stressors, it has......Cortisol is the main biomarker of physiological stress in fish. It is usually measured in plasma, which requires blood collection. Though cortisol is produced in the anterior kidney, it can diffuse easily through cell membranes due to its lipophilic nature. Taking advantage of that, some non...

  12. Cold stress aggravates inflammatory responses in an LPS-induced mouse model of acute lung injury

    Joo, Su-Yeon; Park, Mi-Ju; Kim, Kyun-Ha; Choi, Hee-Jung; Chung, Tae-Wook; Kim, Yong Jin; Kim, Joung Hee; Kim, Keuk-Jun; Joo, Myungsoo; Ha, Ki-Tae

    2016-08-01

    Although the relationship between environmental cold temperature and susceptibility to respiratory infection is generally accepted, the effect of ambient cold temperature on host reactivity in lung inflammation has not been fully studied. To examine the function of ambient cold temperature on lung inflammation, mice were exposed to 4 °C for 8 h each day for 14 days. In the lungs of mice exposed to cold stress, inflammatory cells in bronchoalveolar lavage (BAL) fluid and lung tissues were slightly increased by about twofold. However, the structures of pulmonary epithelial cells were kept within normal limits. Next, we examined the effect of cold stress on the inflammatory responses in a lipopolysaccharide (LPS)-induced acute lung injury (ALI) mouse model. The infiltration of neutrophils and inflammation of lung tissue determined by histology were significantly increased by exposure to ambient cold temperature. In addition, the production of pro-inflammatory cytokines including interleukin (IL)-12, IL-17, and monokine induced by gamma interferon (MIG) was elevated by exposure to cold stress. Therefore, we suggest that cold stress is a factor that exacerbates lung inflammation including ALI. To our knowledge, this is the first report on the relationship between cold stress and severity of lung inflammation.

  13. Developmental stress increases reproductive success in male zebra finches.

    Crino, Ondi L; Prather, Colin T; Driscoll, Stephanie C; Good, Jeffrey M; Breuner, Creagh W

    2014-11-22

    There is increasing evidence that exposure to stress during development can have sustained effects on animal phenotype and performance across life-history stages. For example, developmental stress has been shown to decrease the quality of sexually selected traits (e.g. bird song), and therefore is thought to decrease reproductive success. However, animals exposed to developmental stress may compensate for poor quality sexually selected traits by pursuing alternative reproductive tactics. Here, we examine the effects of developmental stress on adult male reproductive investment and success in the zebra finch (Taeniopygia guttata). We tested the hypothesis that males exposed to developmental stress sire fewer offspring through extra-pair copulations (EPCs), but invest more in parental care. To test this hypothesis, we fed nestlings corticosterone (CORT; the dominant avian stress hormone) during the nestling period and measured their adult reproductive success using common garden breeding experiments. We found that nestlings reared by CORT-fed fathers received more parental care compared with nestlings reared by control fathers. Consequently, males fed CORT during development reared nestlings in better condition compared with control males. Contrary to the prediction that developmental stress decreases male reproductive success, we found that CORT-fed males also sired more offspring and were less likely to rear non-genetic offspring compared with control males, and thus had greater overall reproductive success. These data are the first to demonstrate that developmental stress can have a positive effect on fitness via changes in reproductive success and provide support for an adaptive role of developmental stress in shaping animal phenotype. PMID:25297860

  14. The effect of an acute increase in central blood volume on the response of cerebral blood flow to acute hypotension.

    Ogoh, Shigehiko; Hirasawa, Ai; Sugawara, Jun; Nakahara, Hidehiro; Ueda, Shinya; Shoemaker, J Kevin; Miyamoto, Tadayoshi

    2015-09-01

    The purpose of the present study was to examine whether the response of cerebral blood flow to an acute change in perfusion pressure is modified by an acute increase in central blood volume. Nine young, healthy subjects voluntarily participated in this study. To measure dynamic cerebral autoregulation during normocapnic and hypercapnic (5%) conditions, the change in middle cerebral artery mean blood flow velocity was analyzed during acute hypotension caused by two methods: 1) thigh-cuff occlusion release (without change in central blood volume); and 2) during the recovery phase immediately following release of lower body negative pressure (LBNP; -50 mmHg) that initiated an acute increase in central blood volume. In the thigh-cuff occlusion release protocol, as expected, hypercapnia decreased the rate of regulation, as an index of dynamic cerebral autoregulation (0.236 ± 0.018 and 0.167 ± 0.025 s(-1), P = 0.024). Compared with the cuff-occlusion release, the acute increase in central blood volume (relative to the LBNP condition) with LBNP release attenuated dynamic cerebral autoregulation (P = 0.009). Therefore, the hypercapnia-induced attenuation of dynamic cerebral autoregulation was not observed in the LBNP release protocol (P = 0.574). These findings suggest that an acute change in systemic blood distribution modifies dynamic cerebral autoregulation during acute hypotension. PMID:26159757

  15. Stress during adolescence increases novelty seeking and risk taking behavior in male and female rats

    Maria eToledo

    2011-04-01

    Full Text Available Adolescence is a period of major physical, hormonal and psychological change. It is also characterized by a significant increase in the incidence of psychopathologies and this increase is gender-specific. Likewise, stress during adolescence is associated with the development of psychiatric disorders later in life. Previously, using a rat model of psychogenic stress (exposure to predator odor followed by placement on an elevated platform during the pre-pubertal period (postnatal days 28-30, we reported sex-specific effects on auditory and contextual fear conditioning. Here, we study the short-term impact of psychogenic stress before and during puberty (postnatal days 28-42 on behavior (novelty seeking, risk taking, anxiety and depression and hypothalamus-pituitary-adrenocortical (HPA axis activation during late adolescence (postnatal days 45-51. Peri-pubertal stress decreased anxiety-like behavior and increased risk taking and novelty seeking behaviors during late adolescence (measured with the elevated plus maze, open field and exposure to novel object tests and intake of chocopop pellets before or immediate after stress. Finally neither depressive-like behavior (measured at the forced swim test nor HPA response to stress (blood corticosterone and glucose were affected by peri-pubertal stress. Nevertheless, when controlling for the basal anxiety of the mothers, animals exposed to peri-pubertal stress showed a significant decrease in corticosterone levels immediate after an acute stressor. The results from this study suggest that exposure to mild stressors during the peri-pubertal period induces a broad spectrum of behavioral changes in late adolescence, which may exacerbate the independence-building behaviors naturally happening during this transitional period (increase in curiosity, sensation-seeking and risk taking behaviors.

  16. Lower Electrodermal Activity to Acute Stress in Caregivers of People with Autism Spectrum Disorder: An Adaptive Habituation to Stress

    Ruiz-Robledillo, Nicolás; Moya-Albiol, Luis

    2015-01-01

    Caring for a relative with autism spectrum disorder (ASD) entails being under chronic stress that could alter body homeostasis. Electrodermal activity (EDA) is an index of the sympathetic activity of the autonomic nervous system related to emotionality and homeostasis. This study compares EDA in response to acute stress in the laboratory between…

  17. The effect of acute stress on memory depends on word valence.

    Smeets, Tom; Jelicic, Marko; Merckelbach, Harald

    2006-10-01

    The present study investigated the effect of acute stress on working memory and memory for neutral, emotionally negative, and emotionally positive words in healthy undergraduates. Participants (N=60) were exposed to either the Trier Social Stress Test (stress group) or a non-stressful task (control group). Analyses of salivary cortisol samples taken throughout the study showed elevated glucocorticoid levels after the experimental manipulation in the stress group, but not in the control group. Recall performance was impaired in the stress group, but only so for neutral words. No differences between the stress and control group were found on working memory measures. For the stress group, digit span forward and digit span total scores were associated with correct recall of neutral words. All in all, this study lends further support to the notion that the memory effects of exposure to acute stress depend on the valence of the memory material. PMID:16388863

  18. Loss of Oca2 disrupts the unfolded protein response and increases resistance to endoplasmic reticulum stress in melanocytes

    Cheng, Tsing; Orlow, Seth J.; Manga, Prashiela

    2013-01-01

    Accumulation of proteins in the endoplasmic reticulum (ER) typically induces stress and initiates the unfolded protein response (UPR) to facilitate recovery. If homeostasis is not restored, apoptosis is induced. However, adaptation to chronic UPR activation can increase resistance to subsequent acute ER stress. We therefore investigated adaptive mechanisms in Oculocutaneous albinism type 2 (Oca2)-null melanocytes where UPR signaling is arrested despite continued tyrosinase accumulation leadin...

  19. Cognitive Load Undermines Thought Suppression in Acute Stress Disorder.

    Nixon, Reginald D V; Rackebrandt, Julie

    2016-05-01

    Thought suppression studies demonstrate that attempts to suppress can be undermined by cognitive load. We report the first instance in which this has been tested experimentally in a sample of recently traumatized individuals. Individuals with and without acute stress disorder (ASD) were recruited following recent trauma and randomized to load or no load conditions (N=56). They monitored intrusive memories during baseline, suppression, and think anything phases. The impact of suppression and load on self-reported intrusions, attention bias (dot-probe), and memory priming (word-stem task) was assessed. The ASD load group were less able to suppress memories (d=0.32, CI95 [-0.15, 0.83], p=.088) than the ASD no load group (d=0.63, CI95 [0.08, 1.24], panything phase, the ASD load group reported more intrusions than the ASD no load or non-ASD groups (with and without load). No consistent findings were observed in relation to attentional bias. ASD load individuals exhibited stronger priming responses for motor vehicle accident and assault words than all other groups (ds between 0.35-0.73). Working memory did not moderate any outcomes of interest. The findings indicate that cognitive load interferes with suppression and may enhance access to trauma memories and associated material. The study extends previous research by demonstrating these effects for the first time in a clinical sample of recent survivors of trauma. PMID:27157032

  20. Urinary 1-hydroxypyrene is associated with oxidative stress and inflammatory biomarkers in acute Myocardial Infarction.

    Freitas, Fernando; Brucker, Natália; Durgante, Juliano; Bubols, Guilherme; Bulcão, Rachel; Moro, Angela; Charão, Mariele; Baierle, Marília; Nascimento, Sabrina; Gauer, Bruna; Sauer, Elisa; Zimmer, Marcelo; Thiesen, Flávia; Castro, Iran; Saldiva, Paulo; Garcia, Solange C

    2014-09-01

    Several studies have associated exposure to environmental pollutants, especially polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs), with the development of cardiovascular diseases. Considering that 1-hydroxypyrene (1-OHP) is the major biomarker of exposure to pyrenes, the purpose of this study was to evaluate the potential association between 1-OHP and oxidative stress/inflammatory biomarkers in patients who had suffered an acute myocardial infarction (AMI). After adopting the exclusion criteria, 58 post-infarction patients and 41 controls were sub-divided into smokers and non-smokers. Urinary 1-OHP, hematological and biochemical parameters, oxidative stress biomarkers (MDA, SOD, CAT, GPx and exogenous antioxidants) and the inflammatory biomarker (hs-CRP) were analyzed. 1-OHP levels were increased in post-infarct patients compared to controls (p < 0.05) and were correlated to MDA (r = 0.426, p < 0.01), CAT (r = 0.474, p < 0.001) and β-carotene (r = -0.309; p < 0.05) in non-smokers. Furthermore, post-infarction patients had elevated hs-CRP, MDA, CAT and GPx levels compared to controls for both smokers and non-smokers. Besides, β-carotene levels and SOD activity were decreased in post-infarction patients. In summary, our findings indicate that the exposure to pyrenes was associated to lipid damage and alterations of endogenous and exogenous antioxidants, demonstrating that PAHs contribute to oxidative stress and are associated to acute myocardial infarction. PMID:25257356

  1. Urinary 1-Hydroxypyrene is Associated with Oxidative Stress and Inflammatory Biomarkers in Acute Myocardial Infarction

    Fernando Freitas

    2014-09-01

    Full Text Available Several studies have associated exposure to environmental pollutants, especially polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs, with the development of cardiovascular diseases. Considering that 1-hydroxypyrene (1-OHP is the major biomarker of exposure to pyrenes, the purpose of this study was to evaluate the potential association between 1-OHP and oxidative stress/inflammatory biomarkers in patients who had suffered an acute myocardial infarction (AMI. After adopting the exclusion criteria, 58 post-infarction patients and 41 controls were sub-divided into smokers and non-smokers. Urinary 1-OHP, hematological and biochemical parameters, oxidative stress biomarkers (MDA, SOD, CAT, GPx and exogenous antioxidants and the inflammatory biomarker (hs-CRP were analyzed. 1-OHP levels were increased in post-infarct patients compared to controls (p < 0.05 and were correlated to MDA (r = 0.426, p < 0.01, CAT (r = 0.474, p < 0.001 and β-carotene (r = −0.309; p < 0.05 in non-smokers. Furthermore, post-infarction patients had elevated hs-CRP, MDA, CAT and GPx levels compared to controls for both smokers and non-smokers. Besides, β-carotene levels and SOD activity were decreased in post-infarction patients. In summary, our findings indicate that the exposure to pyrenes was associated to lipid damage and alterations of endogenous and exogenous antioxidants, demonstrating that PAHs contribute to oxidative stress and are associated to acute myocardial infarction.

  2. Acute effects of nandrolone decanoate on oxidative stress in isolated rat heart

    Jevđević Maja

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Abuse of anabolic-androgenic steroids (AAS produces side effects in different tissues, with oxidative stress linked to their pathophysiology, being involved in fibrosis, cellular proliferation, and tumorigenesis. The aim of this study was to examine the acute effects of nandrolone decanoate (ND on oxidative stress in isolated rat heart. The hearts of male Wistar albino were excised and perfused according to the Langendorff technique at gradually increasing coronary perfusion pressures (40-120 cmH2O. The hearts were perfused with ND at doses of 1, 10 and 100 μM. Oxidative stress markers, including the index of lipid peroxidation (thiobarbituric acid reactive substances (TBARS, nitric oxide (nitrites; NO2-, the superoxide anion radical (O2- and hydrogen peroxide (H2O2 were measured in the coronary venous effluent. Our results showed that acute effects of ND do not promote the production of reactive oxygen species (ROS. Our finding pointed out that the highest concentration of ND may even possess some anti-oxidative potential, which should be examined further.

  3. Increased Service Delivery and Adaptation to Occupational Stress.

    Schnabel, John F.; Simoni, Joseph J.

    Effective response by community service agencies to clientele needs is an essential part of community development. A personnel screening instrument, a model for predicting different types of adaptation to occupational stress, is suggested as a means of increasing the responsiveness of service agencies to their local communities. Proposing the use…

  4. Acute stress switches spatial navigation strategy from egocentric to allocentric in a virtual Morris water maze.

    van Gerven, Dustin J H; Ferguson, Thomas; Skelton, Ronald W

    2016-07-01

    Stress and stress hormones are known to influence the function of the hippocampus, a brain structure critical for cognitive-map-based, allocentric spatial navigation. The caudate nucleus, a brain structure critical for stimulus-response-based, egocentric navigation, is not as sensitive to stress. Evidence for this comes from rodent studies, which show that acute stress or stress hormones impair allocentric, but not egocentric navigation. However, there have been few studies investigating the effect of acute stress on human spatial navigation, and the results of these have been equivocal. To date, no study has investigated whether acute stress can shift human navigational strategy selection between allocentric and egocentric navigation. The present study investigated this question by exposing participants to an acute psychological stressor (the Paced Auditory Serial Addition Task, PASAT), before testing navigational strategy selection in the Dual-Strategy Maze, a modified virtual Morris water maze. In the Dual-Strategy maze, participants can chose to navigate using a constellation of extra-maze cues (allocentrically) or using a single cue proximal to the goal platform (egocentrically). Surprisingly, PASAT stress biased participants to solve the maze allocentrically significantly more, rather than less, often. These findings have implications for understanding the effects of acute stress on cognitive function in general, and the function of the hippocampus in particular. PMID:27174311

  5. Edaravone attenuates brain damage in rats after acute CO poisoning through inhibiting apoptosis and oxidative stress.

    Li, Qin; Bi, Ming Jun; Bi, Wei Kang; Kang, Hai; Yan, Le Jing; Guo, Yun-Liang

    2016-03-01

    Acute carbon monoxide (CO) poisoning is the most common cause of death from poisoning all over the world and may result in neuropathologic and neurophysiologic changes. Acute brain damage and delayed encephalopathy are the most serious complication, yet their pathogenesis is poorly understood. The present study aimed to evaluate the neuroprotective effects of Edaravone against apoptosis and oxidative stress after acute CO poisoning. The rat model of CO poisoning was established in a hyperbaric oxygen chamber by exposed to CO. Ultrastructure changes were observed by transmission electron microscopy (TEM). TUNEL stain was used to assess apoptosis. Immunohistochemistry and immunofluorescence double stain were used to evaluate the expression levels of heme oxygenase-1 (HO-1) and nuclear factor erythroid 2-related factor 2 (Nrf-2) protein and their relationship. By dynamically monitored the carboxyhemoglobin (HbCO) level in blood, we successfully established rat model of severe CO poisoning. Ultrastructure changes, including chromatin condensation, cytoplasm dissolution, vacuoles formation, nucleus membrane and cell organelles decomposition, could be observed after CO poisoning. Edaravone could improve the ultrastructure damage. CO poisoning could induce apoptosis. Apoptotic cells were widely distributed in cortex, striatum and hippocampus. Edaravone treatment attenuated neuronal apoptosis as compared with the poisoning group (P < 0.01). Basal expressions of HO-1 and Nrf-2 proteins were found in normal brain tissue. CO poisoning could activate HO-1/Nrf-2 pathway, start oxidative stress response. After the administration of Edaravone, the expression of HO-1 and Nrf-2 significantly increased (P < 0.01). These findings suggest that Edaravone may inhibit apoptosis, activate the Keapl-Nrf/ARE pathway, and thus improve the ultrastructure damage and neurophysiologic changes following acute CO poisoning. © 2014 Wiley Periodicals, Inc. Environ Toxicol 31: 372-379, 2016

  6. Effects of acute and chronic administration of methylprednisolone on oxidative stress in rat lungs* **

    Torres, Ronaldo Lopes; Torres, Iraci Lucena da Silva; Laste, Gabriela; Ferreira, Maria Beatriz Cardoso; Cardoso, Paulo Francisco Guerreiro; Belló-Klein, Adriane

    2014-01-01

    Objective: To determine the effects of acute and chronic administration of methylprednisolone on oxidative stress, as quantified by measuring lipid peroxidation (LPO) and total reactive antioxidant potential (TRAP), in rat lungs. Methods: Forty Wistar rats were divided into four groups: acute treatment, comprising rats receiving a single injection of methylprednisolone (50 mg/kg i.p.); acute control, comprising rats i.p. injected with saline; chronic treatment, comprising rats receiving methy...

  7. Acute Exercise Increases Sex Differences in Amateur Athletes' Risk Taking.

    Pighin, S; Savadori, L; Bonini, N; Andreozzi, L; Savoldelli, A; Schena, F

    2015-10-01

    The research presented here investigates the interaction between acute exercise, biological sex and risk-taking behavior. The study involved 20 amateur athletes (19-33 years old), 10 males and 10 females, who were asked to undergo subsequent experimental sessions designed to compare their risky behaviors on the Balloon Analogue Risk Task (BART) 34 at rest and while exercising at moderate intensity (60% of their maximal aerobic power). Results showed that physical exercise affected male and female participants differently: Whereas males became more risk seeking, females became more risk averse during exercise. PMID:26090877

  8. Peak heart rate decreases with increasing severity of acute hypoxia

    Lundby, C; Araoz, M; Van Hall, Gerrit

    2001-01-01

    , 459, and 404 mmHg) in a hypobaric chamber and while breathing 9% O(2) in N(2). These conditions were equivalent to altitudes of 3300, 4300, 5300, and 6300 m above sea level, respectively. At 4300 m, maximal exercise was also repeated after 4 and 8 h. Peak heart rate (HR) decreased from 191 (182......The purpose of the present study was to investigate the degree to which peak heart rate is reduced during exhaustive exercise in acute hypoxia. Five sea-level lowlanders performed maximal exercise at normobaric normoxia and at three different levels of hypobaric hypoxia (barometric pressures of 518...

  9. MINDFULNESS – MAY DIMINISH STRESS AND INCREASE ENERGY

    Andronicus TORP

    2015-06-01

    Full Text Available Mindfulness is increasingly being applied in companies as a means to increase, among others, employee wellbeing and energy, and in the same time to diminish stress. This paper argues that there seems to be scientific evidence showing that certain mindfulness techniques may diminish stress and increase energy, yet it seems that there is a period in the beginning of the mindfulness practice where the techniques have the opposite effects. These findings seem to be contradictory to past findings, which indicated that only two thirds of people practicing mindfulness techniques have positive effects from that practice. It may be that everybody can have positive effects from the practice of the mentioned techniques, just that some need to practice for a longer period before obtaining these positive effects. Further scientific studies seem to be needed in order to clarify the full spectrum of effects and consequences of practicing different mindfulness techniques, and just as important, if these effects are valid for everybody.

  10. Effects of acute stress on learning and memory processes of malnourished rats

    Lucas Duarte Ferreira Manhas dos Vales; Marisa Tomoe Hebihara Fukuda; Sebastião de Sousa Almeida

    2014-01-01

    The aim of the study was to investigate the effects of acute stress on the processes of learning and memory in malnourished rats tested in the Morris water maze. The animals were divided into eight groups according to nutritional status (malnourished or well nourished) and stress (stressed or unstressed). In Experiment I the animals were subjected to immobilization stress procedure before the learning session and in Experiment II after the learning sessions. The test consisted of two daily se...

  11. The influence of acute stress on the regulation of conditioned fear

    Raio, Candace M.; Phelps, Elizabeth A.

    2014-01-01

    Fear learning and regulation is a prominent model for describing the pathogenesis of anxiety disorders and stress-related psychopathology. Fear expression can be modulated using a number of regulatory strategies, including extinction, cognitive emotion regulation, avoidance strategies and reconsolidation. In this review, we examine research investigating the effects of acute stress and stress hormones on these regulatory techniques. We focus on what is known about the impact of stress on the ...

  12. Effects of acute and chronic social defeat stress are differentially mediated by the dynorphin/kappa-opioid receptor system.

    Donahue, Rachel J; Landino, Samantha M; Golden, Sam A; Carroll, F Ivy; Russo, Scott J; Carlezon, William A

    2015-10-01

    Accumulating evidence indicates that kappa-opioid receptors (KORs) and their endogenous ligand, dynorphin (DYN), can play important roles in regulating the effects of stress. Here, we examined the role of KOR systems in the molecular and behavioral effects of acute (1-day) and chronic (10-day) social defeat stress (SDS) in mice. We found that acute SDS increased DYN mRNA levels within the nucleus accumbens, a key element of brain dopamine (DA) systems. In contrast, chronic SDS produced long-lasting decreases in DYN mRNA levels. We then examined whether disruption of KOR function would affect development of SDS-induced depressive-like behaviors, as measured in the intracranial self-stimulation and social interaction tests. Ablation of KORs from DA transporter-expressing neurons delayed the development of SDS-induced anhedonia in the intracranial self-stimulation test, suggesting increased stress resilience. However, administration of the long-lasting KOR antagonist JDTic (30 mg/kg, intraperitoneally) before the SDS regimen did not affect anhedonia, suggesting that disruption of KOR function outside DA systems can oppose stress resilience. Social avoidance behavior measured after the 10-day SDS regimen was not altered by ablation of KORs in DA transporter-expressing neurons or by JDTic administration before testing. Our findings indicate that KORs expressed in DA systems regulate the effects of acute, but not chronic, social stress. PMID:26110224

  13. Acute stress alters autonomic modulation during sleep in women approaching menopause.

    de Zambotti, Massimiliano; Sugarbaker, David; Trinder, John; Colrain, Ian M; Baker, Fiona C

    2016-04-01

    Hot flashes, hormones, and psychosocial factors contribute to insomnia risk in the context of the menopausal transition. Stress is a well-recognized factor implicated in the pathophysiology of insomnia; however the impact of stress on sleep and sleep-related processes in perimenopausal women remains largely unknown. We investigated the effect of an acute experimental stress (impending Trier Social Stress Task in the morning) on pre-sleep measures of cortisol and autonomic arousal in perimenopausal women with and without insomnia that developed in the context of the menopausal transition. In addition, we assessed the macro- and micro-structure of sleep and autonomic functioning during sleep. Following adaptation to the laboratory, twenty two women with (age: 50.4 ± 3.2 years) and eighteen women without (age: 48.5 ± 2.3 years) insomnia had two randomized in-lab overnight recordings: baseline and stress nights. Anticipation of the task resulted in higher pre-sleep salivary cortisol levels and perceived tension, faster heart rate and lower vagal activity, based on heart rate variability measures, in both groups of women. The effect of the stress manipulation on the autonomic nervous system extended into the first 4 h of the night in both groups. However, vagal tone recovered 4-6 h into the stress night in controls but not in the insomnia group. Sleep macrostructure was largely unaltered by the stress, apart from a delayed latency to REM sleep in both groups. Quantitative analysis of non-rapid eye movement sleep microstructure revealed greater electroencephalographic (EEG) power in the beta1 range (15-≤23 Hz), reflecting greater EEG arousal during sleep, on the stress night compared to baseline, in the insomnia group. Hot flash frequency remained similar on both nights for both groups. These results show that pre-sleep stress impacts autonomic nervous system functioning before and during sleep in perimenopausal women with and without insomnia. Findings also indicate

  14. Acute stress and working memory: The role of sex and cognitive stress appraisal.

    Zandara, M; Garcia-Lluch, M; Pulopulos, M M; Hidalgo, V; Villada, C; Salvador, A

    2016-10-01

    Sex is considered a moderating factor in the relationship between stress and cognitive performance. However, sex differences and the impact of cognitive stress appraisal on working memory performance have not received much attention. The aim of this study was to investigate the role of physiological responses (heart rate and salivary cortisol) and cognitive stress appraisal in Working Memory (WM) performance in males and females. For this purpose, we subjected a comparable number of healthy young adult males (N=37) and females (N=45) to a modified version of the Trier Social Stress Test (TSST), and we evaluated WM performance before and after the stress task. Females performed better on attention and maintenance after the TSST, but males did not. Moreover, we found that attention and maintenance performance presented a negative relationship with cortisol reactivity in females, but not in males. Nevertheless, we observed that only the females who showed a cortisol decrease after the TSST performed better after the stress task, whereas females and males who showed an increase or no change in cortisol levels, and males who showed a cortisol decrease, did not change their performance over time. In females, we also found that the global indexes of cognitive stress appraisal and cognitive threat appraisal were negatively related to attention and maintenance performance, whereas the Self-concept of Own Competence was positively related to it. However, these relationships were not found in males. PMID:27321755

  15. Chronic and acute effects of stress on energy balance: are there appropriate animal models?

    Harris, Ruth B. S.

    2014-01-01

    Stress activates multiple neural and endocrine systems to allow an animal to respond to and survive in a threatening environment. The corticotropin-releasing factor system is a primary initiator of this integrated response, which includes activation of the sympathetic nervous system and the hypothalamic-pituitary-adrenal (HPA) axis. The energetic response to acute stress is determined by the nature and severity of the stressor, but a typical response to an acute stressor is inhibition of food...

  16. Acute stress, depression, and anxiety symptoms among English and Spanish speaking children with recent trauma exposure

    Barber, Beth A.; Kohl, Krista L.; Kassam-Adams, Nancy; Gold, Jeffrey I.

    2014-01-01

    A growing literature suggests the clinical importance of acute stress disorder (ASD) symptoms in youth following potentially traumatic events. A multisite sample of English and Spanish speaking children and adolescents (N=479) between the ages of 8 to 17, along with their caregivers completed interviews and self-report questionnaires between 2 days and one month following the event. The results indicate that children with greater total acute stress symptoms reported greater depressive (r = .4...

  17. Acute effect of aspartame-induced oxidative stress in Wistar albino rat brain

    Ashok, Iyaswamy; Sheeladevi, Rathinasamy; Wankhar, Dapkupar

    2014-01-01

    Abstract The present study was carried out to investigate the acute effect of aspartame on oxidative stress in the Wistar albino rat brain. We sought to investigate whether acute administration of aspartame (75 mg/kg) could release methanol and induce oxidative stress in the rat brain 24 hours after administration. To mimic human methanol metabolism, methotrexate treated rats were used to study aspartame effects. Wistar strain male albino rats were administered with aspartame orally as a sing...

  18. Chronic stress differentially affects antioxidant enzymes and modifies the acute stress response in liver of Wistar rats.

    Djordjevic, J; Djordjevic, A; Adzic, M; Niciforovic, A; Radojcic, M B

    2010-01-01

    Clinical reports suggest close interactions between stressors, particularly those of long duration, and liver diseases, such as hepatic inflammation, that is proposed to occur via reactive oxygen species. In the present study we have used 21-day social isolation of male Wistar rats as a model of chronic stress to investigate protein expression/activity of liver antioxidant enzymes: superoxide dismutases (SODs), catalase (CAT), glutathione peroxidase (GPx) and glutathione reductase (GLR), and protein expression of their upstream regulators: glucocorticoid receptor (GR) and nuclear factor kappa B (NFkB). We have also characterized these parameters in either naive or chronically stressed animals that were challenged by 30-min acute immobilization. We found that chronic isolation caused decrease in serum corticosterone (CORT) and blood glucose (GLU), increase in NFkB signaling, and disproportion between CuZnSOD, peroxidases (CAT, GPx) and GLR, thus promoting H2O2 accumulation and prooxidative state in liver. The overall results suggested that chronic stress exaggerated responsiveness to subsequent stressor at the level of CORT and GLU, and potentiated GLR response, but compromised the restoration of oxido-reductive balance due to irreversible alterations in MnSOD and GPx. PMID:20406049

  19. Alterations in neuronal morphology in infralimbic cortex predict resistance to fear extinction following acute stress.

    Moench, Kelly M; Maroun, Mouna; Kavushansky, Alexandra; Wellman, Cara

    2016-06-01

    Dysfunction in corticolimbic circuits that mediate the extinction of learned fear responses is thought to underlie the perseveration of fear in stress-related psychopathologies, including post-traumatic stress disorder. Chronic stress produces dendritic hypertrophy in basolateral amygdala (BLA) and dendritic hypotrophy in medial prefrontal cortex, whereas acute stress leads to hypotrophy in both BLA and prelimbic cortex. Additionally, both chronic and acute stress impair extinction retrieval. Here, we examined the effects of a single elevated platform stress on extinction learning and dendritic morphology in infralimbic cortex, a region considered to be critical for extinction. Acute stress produced resistance to extinction, as well as dendritic retraction in infralimbic cortex. Spine density on apical and basilar terminal branches was unaffected by stress. However, animals that underwent conditioning and extinction had decreased spine density on apical terminal branches. Thus, whereas dendritic morphology in infralimbic cortex appears to be particularly sensitive to stress, changes in spines may more sensitively reflect learning. Further, in stressed rats that underwent conditioning and extinction, the level of extinction learning was correlated with spine densities, in that rats with poorer extinction retrieval had more immature spines and fewer thin spines than rats with better extinction retrieval, suggesting that stress may have impaired learning-related spine plasticity. These results may have implications for understanding the role of medial prefrontal cortex in learning deficits associated with stress-related pathologies. PMID:26844245

  20. Individual differences in early adolescents' latent trait cortisol (LTC): Relation to recent acute and chronic stress.

    Stroud, Catherine B; Chen, Frances R; Doane, Leah D; Granger, Douglas A

    2016-08-01

    Research suggests that environmental stress contributes to health by altering the regulation of the hypothalamic pituitary adrenal (HPA) axis. Recent evidence indicates that early life stress alters trait indicators of HPA axis activity, but whether recent stress alters such indicators is unknown. Using objective contextual stress interviews with adolescent girls and their mothers, we examined the impact of recent acute and chronic stress occurring during the past year on early adolescent girls' latent trait cortisol (LTC) level. We also examined whether associations between recent stress and LTC level: a) varied according to the interpersonal nature and controllability of the stress; and b) remained after accounting for the effect of early life stress. Adolescents (n=117;M age=12.39years) provided salivary cortisol samples three times a day (waking, 30min post-waking and bedtime) over 3days. Results indicated that greater recent interpersonal acute stress and greater recent independent (i.e., uncontrollable) acute stress were each associated with a higher LTC level, over and above the effect of early adversity. In contrast, greater recent chronic stress was associated with a lower LTC level. Findings were similar in the overall sample and a subsample of participants who strictly adhered to the timed schedule of saliva sample collection. Implications for understanding the impact of recent stress on trait-like individual differences in HPA axis activity are discussed. PMID:27155256

  1. Sleep spindles predict stress-related increases in sleep disturbances

    Thien Thanh eDang-Vu

    2015-02-01

    Full Text Available Background and Aim: Predisposing factors place certain individuals at higher risk for insomnia, especially in the presence of precipitating conditions such as stressful life events. Sleep spindles have been shown to play an important role in the preservation of sleep continuity. Lower spindle density might thus constitute an objective predisposing factor for sleep reactivity to stress. The aim of this study was therefore to evaluate the relationship between baseline sleep spindle density and the prospective change in insomnia symptoms in response to a standardized academic stressor. Methods: 12 healthy students had a polysomnography (PSG recording during a period of lower stress at the beginning of the academic semester, along with an assessment of insomnia complaints using the Insomnia Severity Index (ISI. They completed a second ISI assessment at the end of the semester, a period coinciding with the week prior to final examinations and thus higher stress. Spindle density, amplitude, duration and frequency, as well as sigma power were computed from C4-O2 electroencephalography (EEG derivation during stages N2-N3 of non-rapid-eye-movement (NREM sleep, across the whole night and for each NREM sleep period. To test for the relationship between spindle density and changes in insomnia symptoms in response to academic stress, spindle measurements at baseline were correlated with changes in ISI across the academic semester.Results: Spindle density (as well as spindle amplitude and sigma power, particularly during the first NREM sleep period, negatively correlated with changes in ISI (p < 0.05. Conclusion: Lower spindle activity, especially at the beginning of the night, prospectively predicted larger increases in insomnia symptoms in response to stress. This result indicates that individual differences in sleep spindle activity contribute to the differential vulnerability to sleep disturbances in the face of precipitating factors.

  2. Acute Exercise and Oxidative Stress: CrossFit(™) vs. Treadmill Bout.

    Kliszczewicz, Brian; Quindry, C John; Blessing, L Daniel; Oliver, D Gretchen; Esco, R Michael; Taylor, J Kyle

    2015-09-29

    CrossFit(™), a popular high-intensity training modality, has been the subject of scrutiny, with concerns of elevated risk of injury and health. Despite these concerns empirical evidence regarding physiologic stresses including acute oxidative stress is lacking. Therefore, the purpose of this investigation was to examine the acute redox response to a CrossFit(™) bout. Furthermore, these findings were compared to a high-intensity treadmill bout as a point of reference. Ten males 26.4 ± 2.7 yrs having three or more months of CrossFit(™) experience participated in the present study. Blood plasma was collected at four time points: Pre-exercise (PRE), immediately-post-exercise (IPE), 1 hr-post (1-HP) and 2 hr-post (2-HP), to examine oxidative damage and antioxidant capacity. Regarding plasma oxidative damage, CrossFit(™) and Treadmill elicited a time-dependent increase of lipid peroxides 1-HP (CrossFit(™)=+143%, Treadmill=+115%) and 2-HP (CrossFit(™)=+256%, Treadmill+167%). Protein Carbonyls were increased IPE in CF only (+5%), while a time-dependent decrease occurred 1-HP (CrossFit(™)=-16%, Treadmill=-8%) and 2-HP (CF=-16%, TM=-1%) compared to IPE. Regarding antioxidant capacity, Ferric Reducing Antioxidant Power also demonstrated a time-dependent increase within CrossFit(™) and Treadmill: IPE (CrossFit(™)=+25%, Treadmill=+17%), 1-HP (CrossFit(™)=+26%, Treadmill=+4.8%), 2-HP (CrossFit(™)=+20%, Treadmill=+12%). Total Enzymatic Antioxidant Capacity showed a time-dependent decrease in IPE (CrossFit(™)=-10%, Treadmill=-12%), 1-HP (CrossFit(™)=-12%, Treadmill=-6%), 2-HP (CrossFit(™)=-7%, Treadmill=-11%). No trial-dependent differences were observed in any biomarker of oxidative stress. The CrossFit(™) bout elicited an acute blood oxidative stress response comparable to a traditional bout of high-intensity treadmill running. Results also confirm that exercise intensity and the time course of exercise recovery influence oxidative responses. PMID

  3. Acute Exercise and Oxidative Stress: CrossFit™ vs. Treadmill Bout

    Kliszczewicz Brian

    2015-09-01

    Full Text Available CrossFit™, a popular high-intensity training modality, has been the subject of scrutiny, with concerns of elevated risk of injury and health. Despite these concerns empirical evidence regarding physiologic stresses including acute oxidative stress is lacking. Therefore, the purpose of this investigation was to examine the acute redox response to a CrossFit™ bout. Furthermore, these findings were compared to a high-intensity treadmill bout as a point of reference. Ten males 26.4 ± 2.7 yrs having three or more months of CrossFit™ experience participated in the present study. Blood plasma was collected at four time points: Pre-exercise (PRE, immediately-post-exercise (IPE, 1 hr-post (1-HP and 2 hr-post (2-HP, to examine oxidative damage and antioxidant capacity. Regarding plasma oxidative damage, CrossFit™ and Treadmill elicited a time-dependent increase of lipid peroxides 1-HP (CrossFit™=+143%,Treadmill=+115% and 2-HP (CrossFit™=+256%,Treadmill+167%. Protein Carbonyls were increased IPE in CF only (+5%, while a time-dependent decrease occurred 1-HP (CrossFit™=−16%,Treadmill=−8% and 2-HP (CF=−16%,TM=−1% compared to IPE. Regarding antioxidant capacity, Ferric Reducing Antioxidant Power also demonstrated a time-dependent increase within CrossFit™ and Treadmill: IPE (CrossFit™=+25%,Treadmill=+17%, 1-HP (CrossFit™=+26%,Treadmill=+4.8%, 2-HP (CrossFit™=+20%,Treadmill=+12%. Total Enzymatic Antioxidant Capacity showed a time-dependent decrease in IPE (CrossFit™= −10%,Treadmill=−12%, 1-HP (CrossFit™= −12%,Treadmill=−6%, 2-HP (CrossFit™= −7%,Treadmill=−11%. No trial-dependent differences were observed in any biomarker of oxidative stress. The CrossFit™ bout elicited an acute blood oxidative stress response comparable to a traditional bout of high-intensity treadmill running. Results also confirm that exercise intensity and the time course of exercise recovery influence oxidative responses.

  4. Acute Exercise and Oxidative Stress: CrossFit™ vs. Treadmill Bout

    Kliszczewicz, Brian; Quindry, C. John; Blessing, L. Daniel; Oliver, D. Gretchen; Esco, R. Michael; Taylor, J. Kyle

    2015-01-01

    CrossFit™, a popular high-intensity training modality, has been the subject of scrutiny, with concerns of elevated risk of injury and health. Despite these concerns empirical evidence regarding physiologic stresses including acute oxidative stress is lacking. Therefore, the purpose of this investigation was to examine the acute redox response to a CrossFit™ bout. Furthermore, these findings were compared to a high-intensity treadmill bout as a point of reference. Ten males 26.4 ± 2.7 yrs having three or more months of CrossFit™ experience participated in the present study. Blood plasma was collected at four time points: Pre-exercise (PRE), immediately-post-exercise (IPE), 1 hr-post (1-HP) and 2 hr-post (2-HP), to examine oxidative damage and antioxidant capacity. Regarding plasma oxidative damage, CrossFit™ and Treadmill elicited a time-dependent increase of lipid peroxides 1-HP (CrossFit™=+143%, Treadmill=+115%) and 2-HP (CrossFit™=+256%, Treadmill+167%). Protein Carbonyls were increased IPE in CF only (+5%), while a time-dependent decrease occurred 1-HP (CrossFit™=−16%, Treadmill=−8%) and 2-HP (CF=−16%, TM=−1%) compared to IPE. Regarding antioxidant capacity, Ferric Reducing Antioxidant Power also demonstrated a time-dependent increase within CrossFit™ and Treadmill: IPE (CrossFit™=+25%, Treadmill=+17%), 1-HP (CrossFit™=+26%, Treadmill=+4.8%), 2-HP (CrossFit™=+20%, Treadmill=+12%). Total Enzymatic Antioxidant Capacity showed a time-dependent decrease in IPE (CrossFit™=−10%, Treadmill=−12%), 1-HP (CrossFit™=−12%, Treadmill=−6%), 2-HP (CrossFit™=−7%, Treadmill=−11%). No trial-dependent differences were observed in any biomarker of oxidative stress. The CrossFit™ bout elicited an acute blood oxidative stress response comparable to a traditional bout of high-intensity treadmill running. Results also confirm that exercise intensity and the time course of exercise recovery influence oxidative responses. PMID:26557192

  5. Effects of acute psychosocial stress exposure on endocrine and affective reactivity in college students differing in the 5-HTTLPR genotype and trait neuroticism.

    Verschoor, Ellen; Markus, C Rob

    2011-07-01

    Enhanced stress vulnerability has been implicated in the pathogenesis of affective disorders. Although both genetic (5-HTTLPR) and cognitive (neuroticism) factors are known to increase stress vulnerability, no experimental study has investigated the interaction between these two factors on psychobiological reactivity following acute stress exposure. This study used a balanced experimental design to examine the interaction between the 5-HTTLPR genotype and trait neuroticism in neuroendocrine and affective stress responses. From a large group of 771 students, 48 carriers of the short/short (S/S) allele and 48 carriers of the long/long (L/L) allele with the lowest and the highest neuroticism scores (77 females, 19 males; mean age ± SD: 20.6 ± 2 years) were selected and exposed to an acute psychosocial stressor. Mood was assessed before and after the stressor, and salivary cortisol concentrations were measured before and at 20, 30, and 60 min after stressor onset. Acute stress increased salivary cortisol concentration regardless of either 5-HTTLPR genotype or neuroticism, but it caused a less profound negative mood change in L/L compared to S/S-allele carriers with the lowest neuroticism scores. The 5-HTTLPR genotype influences affective reactivity to acute stress conditional upon neuroticism, improving resilience to acute stress in L/L-allele carriers if they do not already possess high cognitive-affective (neuroticism) vulnerability. PMID:21438771

  6. Differential response of GnIH in the brain and gonads following acute stress in a songbird.

    Ernst, Darcy K; Lynn, Sharon E; Bentley, George E

    2016-02-01

    Gonadotropin-inhibitory hormone (GnIH) acts to inhibit reproduction at all levels of the hypothalamo-pituitary-gonad axis. GnIH expression and/or immunoreactivity in the hypothalamus increase with acute stress in some birds and mammals, and thus may be involved in stress-induced reproductive inhibition. Much is known about GnIH and stress in seasonal and continuous breeders, but far less is known about these interactions in opportunistic breeders. For opportunistically breeding animals, reproductive readiness is closely associated with unpredictable environmental cues, and thus the GnIH system may be more sensitive to stress. To test this, we collected tissues from zebra finches immediately following capture or after 60min of restraint. Restraint significantly increased plasma corticosterone in males and females but, contrary to studies on other species, restrained birds had significantly fewer GnIH immunoreactive (GnIH-ir) cell bodies than control birds. GnIH-ir cell number did not differ between the sexes. Stressed females had lower mRNA expression of the beta subunit of follicle stimulating hormone (FSHβ) in the pituitary, suggesting that the reduction in observed GnIH immunoreactivity in females may have been due to increased GnIH release in response to acute stress. GnIH expression increased in the testes, but not the ovaries, of restrained animals. Our data suggest that although GnIH responsiveness to stress appears to be conserved across species, specific tissue response and direction of GnIH regulation is not. Variation in the GnIH response to stress between species might be the result of ecological adaptations or other species differences in the response of the GnIH system to stress. PMID:26158243

  7. PEG-albumin plasma expansion increases expression of MCP-1 evidencing increased circulatory wall shear stress: an experimental study.

    C Makena Hightower

    Full Text Available Treatment of blood loss with plasma expanders lowers blood viscosity, increasing cardiac output. However, increased flow velocity by conventional plasma expanders does not compensate for decreased viscosity in maintaining vessel wall shear stress (WSS, decreasing endothelial nitric oxide (NO production. A new type of plasma expander using polyethylene glycol conjugate albumin (PEG-Alb causes supra-perfusion when used in extreme hemodilution and is effective in treating hemorrhagic shock, although it is minimally viscogenic. An acute 40% hemodilution/exchange-transfusion protocol was used to compare 4% PEG-Alb to Ringer's lactate, Dextran 70 kDa and 6% Hetastarch (670 kDa in unanesthetized CD-1 mice. Serum cytokine analysis showed that PEG-Alb elevates monocyte chemotactic protein-1 (MCP-1, a member of a small inducible gene family, as well as expression of MIP-1α, and MIP-2. MCP-1 is specific to increased WSS. Given the direct link between increased WSS and production of NO, the beneficial resuscitation effects due to PEG-Alb plasma expansion appear to be due to increased WSS through increased perfusion and blood flow rather than blood viscosity.

  8. Expression and Role of the BDNF Receptor-TrkB in Rat Adrenal Gland under Acute Immobilization Stress

    We reported that plasma brain-derived neurotrophic factor (BDNF) was maximally elevated following a 60-min period of acute immobilization stress and that salivary glands were the main source of plasma BDNF under this stress condition. However, the expression pattern of the BDNF receptor, Tyrosine receptor kinase B (TrkB), under this condition has yet to be determined. We therefore investigated the effect of this stress on the expression level of TrkB in various rat organs using real-time PCR. No significant differences were found between controls and 60 min-stressed rats with respect to TrkB level in various organs. Only adrenal glands showed significantly increased TrkB mRNA levels after 60 min of stress. TrkB mRNA and protein were observed to localize in chromaffin cells. In addition, we investigated whether BDNF-TrkB interaction influences the release of stress hormones from PC12 cells, derived from chromaffin cells. Truncated receptor, TrkB-T1, was identified in PC12 cells using RT-PCR. Exposure of PC12 cells to BDNF induced the release of catecholamine. This BDNF-evoked release was totally blocked by administration of the K252a in which an inhibitor of Trk receptors. Thus, BDNF-TrkB interactions may modulate catecholamine release from adrenal chromaffin cells under acute stress conditions

  9. Exposure of rat hippocampal astrocytes to Ziram increases oxidative stress.

    Matei, Ann-Marie; Trombetta, Louis D

    2016-04-01

    Pesticides have been shown in several studies to be the leading candidates of environmental toxins and may contribute to the pathogenesis of several neurodegenerative diseases. Ziram (zinc-bis(dimethyldithiocarbamate)) is an agricultural dithiocarbamate fungicide that is used to treat a variety of plant diseases. In spite of their generally acknowledged low toxicity, dithiocarbamates are known to cause a wide range of neurobehavioral effects as well as neuropathological changes in the brain. Astrocytes play a key role in normal brain physiology and in the pathology of the nervous system. This investigation studied the effects of 1.0 µM Ziram on rat hippocampal astrocytes. The thiobarbituric acid reactive substance assay performed showed a significant increase in malondialdehyde, a product of lipid peroxidation, in the Ziram-treated cells. Biochemical analysis also revealed a significant increase in the induction of 70 kDa heat shock and heme oxygenase 1 stress proteins. In addition, an increase of glutathione peroxidase (GPx) and a significant increase in oxidized glutathione (GSSG) were observed in the Ziram-treated cells. The ratio GSH to GSSG calculated from the treated cells was also decreased. Light and transmission electron microscopy supported the biochemical findings in Ziram-treated astrocytes. This data suggest that the cytotoxic effects observed with Ziram treatments may be related to the increase of oxidative stress. PMID:24193059

  10. Increased oxidative stress and impaired antioxidant response in Lafora disease.

    Romá-Mateo, Carlos; Aguado, Carmen; García-Giménez, José Luis; Ibáñez-Cabellos, José Santiago; Seco-Cervera, Marta; Pallardó, Federico V; Knecht, Erwin; Sanz, Pascual

    2014-10-01

    Lafora Disease (LD, OMIM 254780, ORPHA501) is a fatal neurodegenerative disorder characterized by the presence of glycogen-like intracellular inclusions called Lafora bodies and caused, in the vast majority of cases, by mutations in either EPM2A or EPM2B genes, encoding respectively laforin and malin. In the last years, several reports have revealed molecular details of these two proteins and have identified several processes affected in LD, but the pathophysiology of the disease still remains largely unknown. Since autophagy impairment has been reported as a characteristic treat in both Lafora disease cell and animal models, and as there is a link between autophagy and mitochondrial performance, we sought to determine if mitochondrial function could be altered in those models. Using fibroblasts from LD patients, deficient in laforin or malin, we found mitochondrial alterations, oxidative stress and a deficiency in antioxidant enzymes involved in the detoxification of reactive oxygen species (ROS). Similar results were obtained in brain tissue samples from transgenic mice deficient in either the EPM2A or EPM2B genes. Furthermore, in a proteomic analysis of brain tissue obtained from Epm2b-/- mice, we observed an increase in a modified form of peroxirredoxin-6, an antioxidant enzyme involved in other neurological pathologies, thus corroborating an alteration of the redox condition. These data support that oxidative stress produced by an increase in ROS production and an impairment of the antioxidant enzyme response to this stress play an important role in development of LD. PMID:26461389

  11. Acute stress alters amygdala microRNA miR-135a and miR-124 expression: inferences for corticosteroid dependent stress response.

    Cecilia Mannironi

    Full Text Available The amygdala is a brain structure considered a key node for the regulation of neuroendocrine stress response. Stress-induced response in amygdala is accomplished through neurotransmitter activation and an alteration of gene expression. MicroRNAs (miRNAs are important regulators of gene expression in the nervous system and are very well suited effectors of stress response for their ability to reversibly silence specific mRNAs. In order to study how acute stress affects miRNAs expression in amygdala we analyzed the miRNA profile after two hours of mouse restraint, by microarray analysis and reverse transcription real time PCR. We found that miR-135a and miR-124 were negatively regulated. Among in silico predicted targets we identified the mineralocorticoid receptor (MR as a target of both miR-135a and miR-124. Luciferase experiments and endogenous protein expression analysis upon miRNA upregulation and inhibition allowed us to demonstrate that mir-135a and mir-124 are able to negatively affect the expression of the MR. The increased levels of the amygdala MR protein after two hours of restraint, that we analyzed by western blot, negatively correlate with miR-135a and miR-124 expression. These findings point to a role of miR-135a and miR-124 in acute stress as regulators of the MR, an important effector of early stress response.

  12. Upregulated Hsp27 expression in the cardioprotection induced by acute stress and oxytocin in ischemic reperfused hearts of the rat.

    Moghimian, Maryam; Faghihi, Mahdieh; Karimian, Seyed Morteza; Imani, AliReza; Mobasheri, Maryam Beigom

    2014-12-31

    In view of the cardioprotective effect of oxytocin (OT) released in response to stress, the aim of this study was to evaluate the role of heat shock proteins Hsps 70, 27 and 20 in stress-induced cardioprotection in isolated, perfused rat hearts. Rats were divided in two main groups: unstressed and stressed rats, and all of them were subjected to i.c.v. infusion of vehicle or drugs: unstressed rats [control: vehicle, OT (100 ng/5 μl), atosiban (ATO; 4.3 μg/5 μl) as OT antagonist, ATO+OT], and stressed rats [St: stress, OT+St, ATO+St]. After anesthesia, hearts were isolated and subjected to 30 min regional ischemia and 60 min subsequent reperfusion (IR). Acute stress protocol included swimming for 10 min before anesthesia. Malondialdehyde in coronary effluent was measured and the expression of Hsp 70, 27 and 20 was measured in myocardium using real-time reverse transcriptase polymerase chain reaction (RT-PCR). The malondialdehyde levels, which decreased in the St and OT groups, increased by the administration of atosiban as an OT antagonist. The expression of Hsp27 increased 4 to 5 folds by stress induction and i.c.v. infusion of OT. Central administration of atosiban prior to both stress and OT decreased Hsp27 mRNA levels. These findings suggest that endogenous OT may participate in stress-induced cardioprotection via Hsp27 over-expression as an early response. PMID:25575521

  13. Serum leptin and cortisol, related to acutely perceived academic examination stress and performance in female university students.

    Haleem, Darakhshan J; Inam, Qurrat-Ul-Aen; Haider, Saida; Perveen, Tahira; Haleem, Muhammad Abdul

    2015-12-01

    Leptin, identified as an antiobesity hormone, also has important role in responses to stress and processing of memory. This study was designed to determine effects of academic examination stress-induced changes in serum leptin and its impact on academic performance. Eighty five healthy female students (age 19-21 years; BMI 21.9 ± 1.6) were recruited for the study. Serum leptin and cortisol were monitored at base line (beginning of academic session) and on the day of examination; using a standardized ELISA kit. Acute perception of academic examination stress was determined with the help of a questionnaire derived from Hamilton Anxiety Scale and self report of stress perception. Academic performance was evaluated by the percentage of marks obtained in the examination. Serum cortisol levels were positively correlated (p < 0.01) with the subjective perception of examination stress but not with academic performance. There was an inverted U-shape relationship between level of stress and academic performance. Leptin increased in all stress groups and correlated (p < 0.01) positively with academic performance. There was an inverted U-shape relationship between level of stress and circulating leptin. The findings suggest the peptide hormone, leptin, is a biomarker of stress perception and a mediator of facilitating effects of stress on cognition. PMID:26187200

  14. Frequency of adverse outcomes of acute myocardial infarction in patients with stress hyperglycem)a

    Objective: To determine the frequency of in-hospital adverse outcomes of acute myocardial infarction in patients with stress hyperglycemia. Methodology: This was a descriptive cross sectional study conducted from August 2010 to January 2011 in Cardiology department, Lady Reading Hospital, Peshawar. Patients of age 25-70 years, of either gender, non-diabetic with acute myocardial infarction with stress hyperglycemia were included. Random blood sugar >144 mg/dl was taken as stress hyperglycemia for patients at presentation of acute myocardial infarction. Patients were monitored for electrical complications such as atrial fibrillation, ventricular tachycardia, ventricular fibrillation and complete heart block and mechanical complications such as cardiac pulmonary edema and cardiogenic shock during hospital stay. The statistical analysis was performed using the statistical package for social sciences (SPSS Ver. 15.0). Results: A total of 341 patients having acute myocardial infarction with stress hyperglycemia were studied. The mean age was 56.35 +- 9.748 (95% CI 57.39 - 55.31). Male were 58.1% (n=198). The frequency of various major in-hospital electrical adverse outcomes of acute myocardial infarction with stress hyperglycemia were atrial fibrillation (AF) 15.8%, ventricular tachycardia (VT) 11.7%, ventricular fibrillation (VF) 10.9% and complete heart block (CHB) 6.7%, while mechanical adverse outcomes were cardiac pulmonary edema (CPE) 7.9% and cardiogenic shock (CS) 11.7%. Conclusion: Stress hyperglycemia has adverse impact on outcomes of patients presenting with acute myocardial infarction. Among electrical and mechanical complications of acute myocardial infarction in patients with stress hyperglycemia, the two most frequent in-hospital adverse outcomes were atrial fibrillation and cardiogenic shock, respectively. (author)

  15. Some biomarkers of acute kidney injury are increased in pre-renal acute injury

    Nejat, Maryam; Pickering, John W; Devarajan, Prasad; Edelstein, Charles L.; Walker, Robert J.; Endre, Zoltán H; Bonventre, Joseph Vincent

    2012-01-01

    Pre-renal acute kidney injury (AKI) is assumed to represent a physiological response to underperfusion. Its diagnosis is retrospective after a transient rise in plasma creatinine, usually associated with evidence of altered tubular transport, particularly that of sodium. In order to test whether pre-renal AKI is reversible because injury is less severe than that of sustained AKI, we measured urinary biomarkers of injury (cystatin C, neutrophil gelatinase-associated lipocalin (NGAL), \\(\\gamma\\...

  16. Acute iron overload and oxidative stress in brain

    An in vivo model in rat was developed by intraperitoneally administration of Fe-dextran to study oxidative stress triggered by Fe-overload in rat brain. Total Fe levels, as well as the labile iron pool (LIP) concentration, in brain from rats subjected to Fe-overload were markedly increased over control values, 6 h after Fe administration. In this in vivo Fe overload model, the ascorbyl (A·)/ascorbate (AH−) ratio, taken as oxidative stress index, was assessed. The A·/AH− ratio in brain was significantly higher in Fe-dextran group, in relation to values in control rats. Brain lipid peroxidation indexes, thiobarbituric acid reactive substances (TBARS) generation rate and lipid radical (LR·) content detected by Electron Paramagnetic Resonance (EPR), in Fe-dextran supplemented rats were similar to control values. However, values of nuclear factor-kappaB deoxyribonucleic acid (NFκB DNA) binding activity were significantly increased (30%) after 8 h of Fe administration, and catalase (CAT) activity was significantly enhanced (62%) 21 h after Fe administration. Significant enhancements in Fe content in cortex (2.4 fold), hippocampus (1.6 fold) and striatum (2.9 fold), were found at 6 h after Fe administration. CAT activity was significantly increased after 8 h of Fe administration in cortex, hippocampus and striatum (1.4 fold, 86, and 47%, respectively). Fe response in the whole brain seems to lead to enhanced NF-κB DNA binding activity, which may contribute to limit oxygen reactive species-dependent damage by effects on the antioxidant enzyme CAT activity. Moreover, data shown here clearly indicate that even though Fe increased in several isolated brain areas, this parameter was more drastically enhanced in striatum than in cortex and hippocampus. However, comparison among the net increase in LR· generation rate, in different brain areas, showed enhancements in cortex lipid peroxidation, without changes in striatum and hippocampus LR· generation rate after 6 h

  17. Acute iron overload and oxidative stress in brain.

    Piloni, Natacha E; Fermandez, Virginia; Videla, Luis A; Puntarulo, Susana

    2013-12-01

    An in vivo model in rat was developed by intraperitoneally administration of Fe-dextran to study oxidative stress triggered by Fe-overload in rat brain. Total Fe levels, as well as the labile iron pool (LIP) concentration, in brain from rats subjected to Fe-overload were markedly increased over control values, 6h after Fe administration. In this in vivo Fe overload model, the ascorbyl (A)/ascorbate (AH(-)) ratio, taken as oxidative stress index, was assessed. The A/AH(-) ratio in brain was significantly higher in Fe-dextran group, in relation to values in control rats. Brain lipid peroxidation indexes, thiobarbituric acid reactive substances (TBARS) generation rate and lipid radical (LR) content detected by Electron Paramagnetic Resonance (EPR), in Fe-dextran supplemented rats were similar to control values. However, values of nuclear factor-kappaB deoxyribonucleic acid (NFκB DNA) binding activity were significantly increased (30%) after 8h of Fe administration, and catalase (CAT) activity was significantly enhanced (62%) 21h after Fe administration. Significant enhancements in Fe content in cortex (2.4 fold), hippocampus (1.6 fold) and striatum (2.9 fold), were found at 6h after Fe administration. CAT activity was significantly increased after 8h of Fe administration in cortex, hippocampus and striatum (1.4 fold, 86, and 47%, respectively). Fe response in the whole brain seems to lead to enhanced NF-κB DNA binding activity, which may contribute to limit oxygen reactive species-dependent damage by effects on the antioxidant enzyme CAT activity. Moreover, data shown here clearly indicate that even though Fe increased in several isolated brain areas, this parameter was more drastically enhanced in striatum than in cortex and hippocampus. However, comparison among the net increase in LR generation rate, in different brain areas, showed enhancements in cortex lipid peroxidation, without changes in striatum and hippocampus LR generation rate after 6h of Fe overload

  18. Chronic stress induces a hyporeactivity of the autonomic nervous system in response to acute mental stressor and impairs cognitive performance in business executives.

    Teixeira, Renata Roland; Díaz, Miguel Mauricio; Santos, Tatiane Vanessa da Silva; Bernardes, Jean Tofoles Martins; Peixoto, Leonardo Gomes; Bocanegra, Olga Lucia; Neto, Morun Bernardino; Espindola, Foued Salmen

    2015-01-01

    The present study examined the incidence of chronic stress in business executives (109 subjects: 75 male and 34 female) and its relationship with cortisol levels, cognitive performance, and autonomic nervous system (ANS) reactivity after an acute mental stressor. Blood samples were collected from the subjects to measure cortisol concentration. After the sample collection, the subjects completed the Lipp Inventory of Stress Symptoms for Adults and the Stroop Color-Word Test to evaluate stress and cognitive performance levels, respectively. Saliva samples were collected prior to, immediately after, and five minutes after the test. The results revealed that 90.1% of the stressed subjects experienced stress phases that are considered chronic stress. At rest, the subjects with chronic stress showed higher cortisol levels, and no gender differences were observed. No differences were found between the stressed and non-stressed subjects regarding salivary amylase activity prior to test. Chronic stress also impaired performance on the Stroop test, which revealed higher rates of error and longer reaction times in the incongruent stimulus task independently of gender. For the congruent stimulus task of the Stroop test, the stressed males presented a higher rate of errors than the non-stressed males and a longer reaction time than the stressed females. After the acute mental stressor, the non-stressed male group showed an increase in salivary alpha-amylase activity, which returned to the initial values five minutes after the test; this ANS reactivity was not observed in the chronically stressed male subjects. The ANS responses of the non-stressed vs stressed female groups were not different prior to or after the Stroop test. This study is the first to demonstrate a blunted reactivity of the ANS when male subjects with chronic psychological stress were subjected to an acute mental stressor, and this change could contribute to impairments in cognitive performance. PMID:25807003

  19. Chronic stress induces a hyporeactivity of the autonomic nervous system in response to acute mental stressor and impairs cognitive performance in business executives.

    Renata Roland Teixeira

    Full Text Available The present study examined the incidence of chronic stress in business executives (109 subjects: 75 male and 34 female and its relationship with cortisol levels, cognitive performance, and autonomic nervous system (ANS reactivity after an acute mental stressor. Blood samples were collected from the subjects to measure cortisol concentration. After the sample collection, the subjects completed the Lipp Inventory of Stress Symptoms for Adults and the Stroop Color-Word Test to evaluate stress and cognitive performance levels, respectively. Saliva samples were collected prior to, immediately after, and five minutes after the test. The results revealed that 90.1% of the stressed subjects experienced stress phases that are considered chronic stress. At rest, the subjects with chronic stress showed higher cortisol levels, and no gender differences were observed. No differences were found between the stressed and non-stressed subjects regarding salivary amylase activity prior to test. Chronic stress also impaired performance on the Stroop test, which revealed higher rates of error and longer reaction times in the incongruent stimulus task independently of gender. For the congruent stimulus task of the Stroop test, the stressed males presented a higher rate of errors than the non-stressed males and a longer reaction time than the stressed females. After the acute mental stressor, the non-stressed male group showed an increase in salivary alpha-amylase activity, which returned to the initial values five minutes after the test; this ANS reactivity was not observed in the chronically stressed male subjects. The ANS responses of the non-stressed vs stressed female groups were not different prior to or after the Stroop test. This study is the first to demonstrate a blunted reactivity of the ANS when male subjects with chronic psychological stress were subjected to an acute mental stressor, and this change could contribute to impairments in cognitive

  20. Acute social stress and cardiac electrical activity in rats

    Sgoifo, A; Stilli, D; de Boer, SF; Koolhaas, JM; Musso, E; Koolhaas, Jaap M.

    1998-01-01

    This paper summarizes the results of experiments aimed at describing electrocardiographic responses to different acute social stressors in healthy male rats. Electrocardiograms were telemetrically recorded during maternal aggression, social defeat, and psychosocial stimulation, as obtained using the

  1. Social Support, Social Intimacy, and Cardiovascular Reactions to Acute Psychological Stress

    Anna C Phillips; Gallagher, Stephen; Carroll, Douglas

    2009-01-01

    peer-reviewed Background: Exaggerated cardiovascular reactions to psychological stress are considered a risk factor for cardiovascular morbidity. Social support may reduce such risk by attenuating cardiovascular reactivity to stress. Purpose: To examine the effects of three independent social support variables and their interaction on cardiovascular reactivity to acute stress. The variables were stranger or friend presence; active supportive or passive presence, and male or ...

  2. High-fat diet did not change metabolic response to acute stress in rats

    Farrokhi, Babak; Ghalami, Jamileh; Hedayati, Mehdi; Rostamkhani, Fatemeh; Zardooz, Homeira

    2011-01-01

    This study investigated the effects of high-fat diet on metabolic factors in the presence of acute foot-shock and psychological stresses in male Wistar rats. The animals were divided into high-fat (45 % cow intra-abdominal fat) and normal (standard pellets) diet groups; then, each group was allocated into stressed and control groups. Stress was induced by a communication box. Blood samples were collected by retro-orbital-puncture method under isoflurane anesthesia. Plasma levels of gluc...

  3. Working memory performance after acute exposure to the cold pressor stress in healthy volunteers

    Duncko, Roman; Johnson, Linda; Merikangas, Kathleen; Grillon, Christian

    2009-01-01

    Effects of acute stress exposure on learning and memory have been frequently studied in both animals and humans. However, only a few studies have focused specifically on working memory performance and the available data are equivocal. The present study examined working memory performance during the Sternberg item recognition task after exposure to a predominantly adrenergic stressor. Twenty four healthy subjects were randomly assigned to a stress group or a control group. The stress group was...

  4. Deficiency of Antinociception and Excessive Grooming Induced by Acute Immobilization Stress in Per1 Mutant Mice

    Jing Zhang; Zhouqiao Wu; Linglin Zhou; Huili Li; Huajing Teng; Wei Dai; Yongqing Wang; Zhong Sheng Sun

    2011-01-01

    Acute stressors induce changes in numerous behavioral parameters through activation of the hypothalamic-pituitary-adrenal (HPA) axis. Several important hormones in paraventricular nucleus of the hypothalamus (PVN) play the roles in these stress-induced reactions. Corticotropin-releasing hormone (CRH), arginine-vasopressin (AVP) and corticosterone are considered as molecular markers for stress-induced grooming behavior. Oxytocin in PVN is an essential modulator for stress-induced antinocicepti...

  5. Media's role in broadcasting acute stress following the Boston Marathon bombings.

    Holman, E Alison; Garfin, Dana Rose; Silver, Roxane Cohen

    2014-01-01

    We compared the impact of media vs. direct exposure on acute stress response to collective trauma. We conducted an Internet-based survey following the Boston Marathon bombings between April 29 and May 13, 2013, with representative samples of residents from Boston (n = 846), New York City (n = 941), and the remainder of the United States (n = 2,888). Acute stress symptom scores were comparable in Boston and New York [regression coefficient (b) = 0.43; SE = 1.42; 95% confidence interval (CI), -2.36, 3.23], but lower nationwide when compared with Boston (b = -2.21; SE = 1.07; 95% CI, -4.31, -0.12). Adjusting for prebombing mental health (collected prospectively), demographics, and prior collective stress exposure, six or more daily hours of bombing-related media exposure in the week after the bombings was associated with higher acute stress than direct exposure to the bombings (continuous acute stress symptom total: media exposure b = 15.61 vs. direct exposure b = 5.69). Controlling for prospectively collected prebombing television-watching habits did not change the findings. In adjusted models, direct exposure to the 9/11 terrorist attacks and the Sandy Hook School shootings were both significantly associated with bombing-related acute stress; Superstorm Sandy exposure wasn't. Prior exposure to similar and/or violent events may render some individuals vulnerable to the negative effects of collective traumas. Repeatedly engaging with trauma-related media content for several hours daily shortly after collective trauma may prolong acute stress experiences and promote substantial stress-related symptomatology. Mass media may become a conduit that spreads negative consequences of community trauma beyond directly affected communities. PMID:24324161

  6. Acute Modulation of Sugar Transport in Brain Capillary Endothelial Cell Cultures during Activation of the Metabolic Stress Pathway*

    Cura, Anthony J.; Carruthers, Anthony

    2010-01-01

    GLUT1-catalyzed equilibrative sugar transport across the mammalian blood-brain barrier is stimulated during acute and chronic metabolic stress; however, the mechanism of acute transport regulation is unknown. We have examined acute sugar transport regulation in the murine brain microvasculature endothelial cell line bEnd.3. Acute cellular metabolic stress was induced by glucose depletion, by potassium cyanide, or by carbonyl cyanide p-trifluoromethoxyphenylhydrazone, which reduce or deplete i...

  7. The Effects of Acute Stress-Induced Sleep Disturbance on Acoustic Trauma-Induced Tinnitus in Rats

    2014-01-01

    Chronic tinnitus is a debilitating condition and often accompanied by anxiety, depression, and sleep disturbance. It has been suggested that sleep disturbance, such as insomnia, may be a risk factor/predictor for tinnitus-related distress and the two conditions may share common neurobiological mechanisms. This study investigated whether acute stress-induced sleep disturbance could increase the susceptibility to acoustic trauma-induced tinnitus in rats. The animals were exposed to unilateral a...

  8. Increased serum oxidative stress markers in women with uterine leiomyoma.

    Pietro Santulli

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: Uterine leiomyomas (fibroids are the most common gynaecological benign tumors in premenopausal women. Evidences support the role of oxidative stress in the development of uterine leiomyoma. We have analysed oxidative stress markers (thiols, advanced oxidized protein products (AOPP, protein carbonyls and nitrates/nitrites in preoperative sera from women with histologically proven uterine leiomyoma. METHODOLOGY/PRINCIPAL FINDINGS: We conducted a laboratory study in a tertiary-care university hospital. Fifty-nine women with histologically proven uterine leiomyoma and ninety-two leiomyoma-free control women have been enrolled in this study. Complete surgical exploration of the abdominopelvic cavity was performed in each patient. Preoperative serum samples were obtained from all study participants to assay serum thiols, AOPP, protein carbonyls and nitrates/nitrites. Concentrations of serum protein carbonyl groups and AOPP were higher in leiomyoma patients than in the control group (p=0.005 and p<0.001, respectively. By contrast, serum thiol levels were lower in leiomyoma patients (p<0.001. We found positive correlations between serum AOPP concentrations and total fibroids weight (r=0.339; p=0.028, serum AOPP and serum protein carbonyls with duration of infertility (r=0.762; p=0.006 and r=0.683; p=0.021, respectively. CONCLUSIONS/SIGNIFICANCE: This study, for the first time, reveals a significant increase of protein oxidative stress status and reduced antioxidant capacity in sera from women with uterine leiomyoma.

  9. Acute physiological stress down-regulates mRNA expressions of growth-related genes in coho salmon.

    Toshiki Nakano

    Full Text Available Growth and development in fish are regulated to a major extent by growth-related factors, such as liver-derived insulin-like growth factor (IGF -1 in response to pituitary-secreted growth hormone (GH binding to the GH receptor (GHR. Here, we report on the changes in the expressions of gh, ghr, and igf1 genes and the circulating levels of GH and IGF-1 proteins in juvenile coho salmon (Oncorhynchus kisutch in response to handling as an acute physiological stressor. Plasma GH levels were not significantly different between stressed fish and prestressed control. Plasma IGF-1 concentrations in stressed fish 1.5 h post-stress were the same as in control fish, but levels in stressed fish decreased significantly 16 h post-stress. Real-time quantitative PCR (qPCR analysis showed that ghr mRNA levels in pituitary, liver, and muscle decreased gradually in response to the stressor. After exposure to stress, hepatic igf1 expression transiently increased, whereas levels decreased 16 h post-stress. On the other hand, the pituitary gh mRNA level did not change in response to the stressor. These observations indicate that expression of gh, ghr, and igf1 responded differently to stress. Our results show that acute physiological stress can mainly down-regulate the expressions of growth-related genes in coho salmon in vivo. This study also suggests that a relationship between the neuroendocrine stress response and growth-related factors exists in fish.

  10. Maintenance of a positive outlook during acute stress protects against pro-inflammatory reactivity and future depressive symptoms

    Aschbacher, K; Epel, E; Wolkowitz, O M; Prather, A A; Puterman, E; Dhabhar, F.S.

    2011-01-01

    Cognitive and affective responses to acute stress influence pro-inflammatory cytokine reactivity, and peripheral cytokines (particularly lnterleukin-1 beta (IL-1β)), can act on the brain to promote depressive symptoms. It is unknown whether acute stress-induced changes in positive affect and cognitions (POS) and pro-inflammatory reactivity predict future depressive symptoms. We examined acute stress responses among women, to determine prospective predictors of depressive symptoms. Hypotheses:...

  11. Differential expression of heat shock transcription factors and heat shock proteins after acute and chronic heat stress in laying chickens (Gallus gallus.

    Jingjing Xie

    Full Text Available Heat stress due to high environmental temperature negatively influences animal performances. To better understand the biological impact of heat stress, laying broiler breeder chickens were subjected either to acute (step-wisely increasing temperature from 21 to 35°C within 24 hours or chronic (32°C for 8 weeks high temperature exposure. High temperature challenges significantly elevated body temperature of experimental birds (P<0.05. However, oxidation status of lipid and protein and expression of heat shock transcription factors (HSFs and heat shock proteins (HSPs 70 and 90 were differently affected by acute and chronic treatment. Tissue-specific responses to thermal challenge were also found among heart, liver and muscle. In the heart, acute heat challenge affected lipid oxidation (P = 0.05 and gene expression of all 4 HSF gene expression was upregulated (P<0.05. During chronic heat treatment, the HSP 70 mRNA level was increased (P<0.05 and HSP 90 mRNA (P<0.05 was decreased. In the liver, oxidation of protein was alleviated during acute heat challenge (P<0.05, however, gene expression HSF2, 3 and 4 and HSP 70 were highly induced (P<0.05. HSP90 expression was increased by chronic thermal treatment (P<0.05. In the muscle, both types of heat stress increased protein oxidation, but HSFs and HSPs gene expression remained unaltered. Only tendencies to increase were observed in HSP 70 (P = 0.052 and 90 (P = 0.054 gene expression after acute heat stress. The differential expressions of HSF and HSP genes in different tissues of laying broiler breeder chickens suggested that anti-heat stress mechanisms might be provoked more profoundly in the heart, by which the muscle was least protected during heat stress. In addition to HSP, HSFs gene expression could be used as a marker during acute heat stress.

  12. INFLUENCE OF ACUTE EXERCISE ON OXIDATIVE STRESS IN CHRONIC SMOKERS

    Zehra Serdar

    2003-09-01

    Full Text Available The relative oxidative insult caused by exercise and smoking on biological systems are well documented, however, their cumulative influence needs to be clarified. In order to examine the collective effects of exercise and smoking on oxidant and antioxidant parameters, young male smokers (n=10 and non-smokers (n=10 made to perform a negative slope (10% cycling exercise for 30 minutes at individual load equivalent to 60% maximal oxygen consumption (VO2max. Pre- and post-exercise (post-ex haematocrit, haemoglobin, white blood cells, plasma malondialdehyde (MDA levels, protein carbonyl formation and non-HDL oxidation, erythrocyte superoxide dismutase (SOD and glutathione peroxidase (GPX activities, serum ceruloplasmin (CER and urinary cotinine concentrations were evaluated. Pre-ex CER and urinary cotinine concentrations of smokers were significantly higher (p<0.05 and p<0.01, respectively compared to that of non-smokers and pre-ex CER concentrations were significantly correlated with cotinine levels in all subjects (p<0.05. Significant (p<0.01 increases were observed in non-HDL oxidation following the exercise in both groups and the elevations were more pronounced in smokers. Pre-ex SOD and GPX activities were not different between the two groups, however post-ex enzyme activities were significantly reduced in smokers (p<0.05. MDA and protein carbonyl concentrations were not different between the two groups and there were not any significant changes due to exercise.In conclusion, according to the results of the present study, we suggest that erythrocyte antioxidants SOD and GPX and plasma non-HDL are more prone to the possible oxidant damage of acute physical exercise in chronic smokers.

  13. Neonatal stress tempers vulnerability of acute stress response in adult socially isolated rats

    Mariangela Serra

    2014-06-01

    Full Text Available Adverse experiences occurred in early life and especially during childhood and adolescence can have negative impact on behavior later in life and the quality of maternal care is considered a critical moment that can considerably influence the development and the stress responsiveness in offspring. This review will assess how the association between neonatal and adolescence stressful experiences such as maternal separation and social isolation, at weaning, may influence the stress responsiveness and brain plasticity in adult rats. Three hours of separation from the pups (3-14 postnatal days significantly increased frequencies of maternal arched-back nursing and licking-grooming by dams across the first 14 days postpartum and induced a long-lasting increase in their blood levels of corticosterone. Maternal separation, which per sedid not modified brain and plasma allopregnanolone and corticosterone levels in adult rats, significantly reduced social isolation-induced decrease of the levels of these hormones. Moreover, the enhancement of corticosterone and allopregnanolone levels induced by foot shock stress in socially isolated animals that were exposed to maternal separation was markedly reduced respect to that observed in socially isolated animals. Our results suggest that in rats a daily brief separation from the mother during the first weeks of life, which per se did not substantially alter adult function and reactivity of hypothalamic-pituitary-adrenal (HPA axis, elicited a significant protection versus the subsequent long-term stressful experience such that induced by social isolation from weaning. Proceedings of the 10th International Workshop on Neonatology · Cagliari (Italy · October 22nd-25th, 2014 · The last ten years, the next ten years in NeonatologyGuest Editors: Vassilios Fanos, Michele Mussap, Gavino Faa, Apostolos Papageorgiou

  14. Prenatal Stress and Acute Stress Later in Life Impacts the Responses in Tests for Depressive-Like Behavior in a Sex-Specific Manner

    Sickmann, Helle Mark; Skoven, Christian; Arentzen, Tina S.;

    Prenatal maternal stress increases the predisposition for affective disorders. Furthermore, women appear twice as likely as men to develop stress- and depression-related disorders. Comparable behavioral changes characteristic of clinical depression are found in rat offspring following prenatal...... stress (PS). These include increased helplessness, altered anxiety indicators and sleep modifications. Our purpose was to further investigate behavioral depression indices following PS as well as CNS structural changes including sex specificity of these variables. Pregnant Sprague-Dawley rats were...... locomotor activity, depressive- and anxiety-like behavior as well as sleep architecture. Some animals were analyzed for CNS microstructural changes based on diffusion MRI. Subsets of PS and control rats were exposed to an acute stressor prior to the behavioral tests. Rearing/climbing activity in a familiar...

  15. Global left ventricular longitudinal strain is closely associated with increased neurohormonal activation after acute myocardial infarction in patients with both reduced and preserved ejection fraction

    Ersbøll, Mads; Valeur, Nana; Mogensen, Ulrik Madvig;

    2012-01-01

    N-terminal pro brain natriuretic peptide (NT-proBNP) is released in response to increased myocardial wall stress and is associated with adverse outcome in acute myocardial infarction. However, little is known about the relationship between longitudinal deformation indices and NT-proBNP....

  16. Nest ectoparasites increase physiological stress in breeding birds: an experiment

    Martínez-de La Puente, Josué; Merino, Santiago; Tomás, Gustavo; Moreno, Juan; Morales, Judith; Lobato, Elisa; Martínez, Javier

    2011-02-01

    Parasites are undoubtedly a biotic factor that produces stress. Heat shock proteins (HSPs) are important molecules buffering cellular damage under adverse conditions. During the breeding season, blue tit Cyanistes caeruleus (L.) adults are affected by blood parasites, nest-dwelling parasites and biting flies, potentially affecting their HSP-mediated responses. Here, we treated females with primaquine to reduce blood parasites and fumigated nests with permethrin to reduce nest-dwelling parasites to test whether these treatments affect HSP60 level during the breeding season. Medicated females, but not controls, had a significant reduction of the intensity of infection by Haemoproteus spp. blood parasites. However, final intensity of infection did not differ significantly between groups, and we did not find an effect of medication on change in HSP60 level. Fumigation reduced the abundance of nest-dwelling parasites (mites, fleas and blowfly larvae) and engorged biting midges in nests. Females breeding in non-fumigated nests increased HSP60 levels during the season more than those breeding in fumigated nests. Furthermore, the change in HSP60 level was positively correlated with the abundance of biting midges. These results show how infections by nest ectoparasites during the breeding period can increase the level of HSPs and suggest that biting midges impose physiological costs on breeding female blue tits. Although plausible, the alternative that biting midges prefer to feed on more stressed birds is poorly supported by previous studies.

  17. Oxidative stress contributes to orthopedic trauma-induced acute kidney injury in obese rats

    Mittwede, Peter N.; Xiang, Lusha; Lu, Silu; Clemmer, John S.

    2014-01-01

    After trauma, obese patients have an increased risk of developing acute kidney injury (AKI). We have demonstrated that obese Zucker (OZ) rats, but not lean Zucker (LZ) rats, develop AKI 24 h after orthopedic trauma. ROS have been implicated in the pathophysiology of AKI in models of critical illness. However, the contribution of ROS to trauma-induced AKI in the setting of obesity has not been determined. We hypothesized that AKI in OZ rats after trauma is mediated by increased oxidative stress. Male LZ and OZ rats were divided into control and trauma groups, with a subset receiving treatment after trauma with the antioxidant apocynin (50 mg/kg ip, 2 mM in drinking water). The day after trauma, glomerular filtration rate, plasma creatinine, urine kidney injury molecule-1, and albumin excretion as well as renal oxidant and antioxidant activity were measured. After trauma, compared with LZ rats, OZ rats exhibited a significant decrease in glomerular filtration rate along with significant increases in plasma creatinine and urine kidney injury molecule-1 and albumin excretion. Additionally, oxidative stress was significantly increased in OZ rats, as evidenced by increased renal NADPH oxidase activity and urine lipid peroxidation products (thiobarbituric acid-reactive substances), and OZ rats also had suppressed renal superoxide dismutase activity. Apocynin treatment significantly decreased oxidative stress and AKI in OZ rats but had minimal effects in LZ rats. These results suggest that ROS play an important role in AKI in OZ rats after traumatic injury and that ROS may be a potential future therapeutic target in the obese after trauma. PMID:25428128

  18. Predictable Chronic Mild Stress in Adolescence Increases Resilience in Adulthood

    Suo, Lin; Zhao, Liyan; Si, Jijian; Liu, Jianfeng; Zhu, Weili; Chai, Baisheng; Zhang, Yan; Feng, Jiajia; Ding, Zengbo; Luo, Yixiao; Shi, Haishui; Shi, Jie; Lu, Lin

    2013-01-01

    Stress in adolescence has been widely demonstrated to have a lasting impact in humans and animal models. Developmental risk and protective factors play an important role in the responses to stress in adulthood. Mild-to-moderate stress in adolescence may resist the negative impacts of adverse events in adulthood. However, little research on resilience has been conducted. In this study, we used a predictable chronic mild stress (PCMS) procedure (5 min of daily restraint stress for 28 days) in a...

  19. ESTIMATION OF INCREASE OF STRESS RESISTANCE AMONG STUDENTS

    Drobysheva O. M.

    2015-01-01

    By results of the estimation of stress resistance on dynamics of the regulation-adaptive status we can observe, that the autogenic training at the end of one academic year did not cause authentic changes in stress resistance in students with high and low levels of stress resistance. At the same time, it raised stress resistance for persons with a moderate level of stress resistance

  20. Acute stress modulates feedback processing in men and women: differential effects on the feedback-related negativity and theta and beta power.

    Stella Banis

    Full Text Available Sex-specific prevalence rates in mental and physical disorders may be partly explained by sex differences in physiological stress responses. Neural networks that might be involved are those underlying feedback processing. Aim of the present EEG study was to investigate whether acute stress alters feedback processing, and whether stress effects differ between men and women. Male and female participants performed a gambling task, in a control and a stress condition. Stress was induced by exposing participants to a noise stressor. Brain activity was analyzed using both event-related potential and time-frequency analyses, measuring the feedback-related negativity (FRN and feedback-related changes in theta and beta oscillatory power, respectively. While the FRN and feedback-related theta power were similarly affected by stress induction in both sexes, feedback-related beta power depended on the combination of stress induction condition and sex. FRN amplitude and theta power increases were smaller in the stress relative to the control condition in both sexes, demonstrating that acute noise stress impairs performance monitoring irrespective of sex. However, in the stress but not in the control condition, early lower beta-band power increases were larger for men than women, indicating that stress effects on feedback processing are partly sex-dependent. Our findings suggest that sex-specific effects on feedback processing may comprise a factor underlying sex-specific stress responses.

  1. Exposure to acute stress enhances decision-making competence: Evidence for the role of DHEA.

    Shields, Grant S; Lam, Jovian C W; Trainor, Brian C; Yonelinas, Andrew P

    2016-05-01

    Exposure to acute stress can impact performance on numerous cognitive abilities, but little is known about how acute stress affects real-world decision-making ability. In the present study, we induced acute stress with a standard laboratory task involving uncontrollable socio-evaluative stress and subsequently assessed decision-making ability using the Adult Decision Making Competence index. In addition, we took baseline and post-test saliva samples from participants to examine associations between decision-making competence and adrenal hormones. Participants in the stress induction group showed enhanced decision-making competence, relative to controls. Further, although both cortisol and dehydroepiandrosterone (DHEA) reactivity predicted decision-making competence when considered in isolation, DHEA was a significantly better predictor than cortisol when both hormones were considered simultaneously. Thus, our results show that exposure to acute stress can have beneficial effects on the cognitive ability underpinning real-world decision-making and that this effect relates to DHEA reactivity more than cortisol. PMID:26874561

  2. Psychological stress and 30-day all-cause hospital readmission in acute coronary syndrome patients: an observational cohort study.

    Donald Edmondson

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: Many acute coronary syndrome (ACS; myocardial infarction and unstable angina patients are rehospitalized within 30 days of discharge, and recent US health policy initiatives have tied hospital Medicare reimbursement to 30-day readmission rates. Patient-perceived psychological stress is thought to impact prognosis after ACS. A recently offered "posthospital syndrome" model of 30-day readmissions posits that the stress level at the time of the index hospitalization itself may increase 30-day risk for readmission in ACS patients. We tested whether self-reported stress in the days surrounding the ACS hospitalization was associated with increased risk for readmission within 30 days. METHODS: A mean of 8.5 days after discharge, 342 consecutively hospitalized ACS patients reported on how often they felt stress during the past two weeks. Readmission within 30 days of hospital discharge for any cause was determined by follow-up telephone calls to patients and confirmed by hospital records. RESULTS: Overall, 40 (11.7% participants were readmitted within 30 days, and 22 (6.4% reported high stress. Readmission within 30 days was more common in patients with high stress (5 admissions, 23% than in patients with low stress (35 admissions, 11%. After adjustment for demographic and clinical factors, as well as depression, high stress was associated with a 3-fold increased risk of 30-day readmission (HR = 3.21, 95% CI = 1.13, 9.10. CONCLUSIONS: Previous research has shown that stress in the days surrounding a hospitalization can mark long-term cardiovascular risk, but this is the first study to test a hypothesis of the posthospital syndrome model of early readmission. Further research is needed to confirm the association between stress and readmission risk, and to identify the processes of hospitalization that could be modified to both reduce the stress experienced and that would also be effective for reducing readmissions.

  3. Myocardial stress in patients with acute cerebrovascular events

    Jespersen, C.M.; Hansen, J.F.

    2008-01-01

    patients. The huge majority of these findings are fully reversible. The changes may mimic myocardial infarction, but are not necessarily identical to coronary thrombosis. Based on the literature these signs may represent an acute catecholamine release provoked by the cerebrovascular catastrophe itself and...

  4. Nandrolone-pretreatment enhances cardiac beta(2)-adrenoceptor expression and reverses heart contractile down-regulation in the post-stress period of acute-stressed rats.

    Penna, Claudia; Abbadessa, Giuliana; Mancardi, Daniele; Spaccamiglio, Angela; Racca, Silvia; Pagliaro, Pasquale

    2007-10-01

    To investigate whether nandrolone decanoate (ND)-pretreatment can modulate (1) beta-adrenoceptor expression and (2) myocardial contractility in response to beta-adrenoceptors stimulation with isoproterenol (ISO), in hearts of both normal and stressed rats. Rats were treated with 15 mg/(kgday) of Deca-Durabolin (ND, 1 ml i.m.) or with vehicle (oil) for 14 days. The day after the last injection, the dose-response to ISO (1 x 10(-8), 5 x 10(-8) and 10(-7)M), was studied in isolated rat hearts harvested from unstressed animals (unstressed+vehicle (control) or unstressed+ND) or from stressed animals (stressed+vehicle or stressed+ND): acute stress protocol consisted in restrain for 1h immediately before sacrifice. ND-pretreatment increased beta(2)-adrenoceptor expression. In baseline conditions all hearts had a similar left ventricular developed pressure (LVDP) and maximum rate of increase of LVDP (dP/dt(max)). In hearts of unstressed+vehicle or unstressed+ND, ISO caused a similar increase in LVDP (+90-100%) and dP/dt(max) (+120-150%). However, hearts of stressed+vehicle animals showed a marked depression of inotropic response to ISO (i.e. for ISO 1 x 10(-8),-55% in LVDP response versus unstressed). Yet, in hearts of stressed+ND-animals the effect of stress was reversed, showing the highest response to ISO (i.e. for ISO 1 x 10(-7), +30% LVDP response versus unstressed). The ND-induced beta(2)-adrenoceptor overexpression does not affect ISO-response in unstressed animals. However, acute stress induces a down-regulation of ISO-response, which is reversed by ND-pretreatment. Since the physiological post-stress down-regulation of adrenergic-response is absent after nandrolone treatment, the heart may be exposed to a sympathetic over-stimulation. This might represent a risk for cardiovascular incidents in anabolic steroid addicts under stressing conditions. PMID:17611100

  5. Effects of acute laboratory stress on executive functions

    Katrin Starcke

    2016-03-01

    Full Text Available Recent research indicates that stress can affect executive functioning. However, previous results are mixed with respect to the direction and size of effects, especially when considering different subcomponents of executive functions. The current study systematically investigates the effects of stress on the five components of executive functions proposed by Smith and Jonides (1999: Attention and inhibition; task management; planning; monitoring; and coding. Healthy participants (N = 40 were either exposed to the computerized version of the Paced Auditory Serial Addition Test as a stressor (N = 20, or to a rest condition (N = 20. Stress reactions were assessed with heart rate and subjective measures. After the experimental manipulation, all participants performed tasks that measure the different executive functions. The manipulation check indicates that stress induction was successful (i.e., the stress group showed a higher heart rate and higher subjective responses than the control group. The main results demonstrate that stressed participants show a poorer performance compared with unstressed participants in all executive subcomponents, with the exception of monitoring. Effect sizes for the tasks that reveal differences between stressed and unstressed participants are high. We conclude that the laboratory stressor used here overall reduced executive functioning.

  6. Acute Exercise and Oxidative Stress: CrossFit™ vs. Treadmill Bout

    Kliszczewicz Brian; John Quindry C.; Daniel Blessing L.; Gretchen Oliver D.; Michael Esco R.; Kyle Taylor J.

    2015-01-01

    CrossFit™, a popular high-intensity training modality, has been the subject of scrutiny, with concerns of elevated risk of injury and health. Despite these concerns empirical evidence regarding physiologic stresses including acute oxidative stress is lacking. Therefore, the purpose of this investigation was to examine the acute redox response to a CrossFit™ bout. Furthermore, these findings were compared to a high-intensity treadmill bout as a point of reference. Ten males 26.4 ± 2.7 yrs havi...

  7. Effect of iron supplementation on oxidative stress and intestinal inflammation in rats with acute colitis.

    Aghdassi, E; Carrier, J; Cullen, J; Tischler, M; Allard, J P

    2001-05-01

    In this study, we investigated the effect of intraperitoneal iron dextran (100 mg/100 g body weight) on oxidative stress and intestinal inflammation in rats with acute colitis induced by 5% dextran sulfate sodium. In both colitis and healthy animals, disease activity index, crypt and inflammatory scores, colon length, plasma and colonic lipid peroxides, and plasma vitamins E, C, and retinol were assessed. The results showed that iron-supplemented groups had moderate iron deposition in the colonic submucosa and lamina propria. In the colitis group supplemented with iron, colon length was significantly shorter; disease activity index, crypt, and inflammatory scores and colonic lipid peroxides were significantly higher; and plasma alpha-tocopherol was significantly lower compared to the colitis group without iron supplementation. There was no intestinal inflammation and no significant increase in colonic lipid peroxides in healthy rats supplemented with iron. In conclusion, iron injection resulted in an increased oxidative stress and intestinal inflammation in rats with colitis but not in healthy rats. PMID:11341654

  8. Acute Psychosocial Stress and Emotion Regulation Skills Modulate Empathic Reactions to Pain in Others

    Gabriele eBuruck

    2014-05-01

    Full Text Available Psychosocial stress affects resources for adequate coping with environmental demands. A crucial question in this context is the extent to which acute psychosocial stressors impact empathy and emotion regulation. In the present study, 120 participants were randomly assigned to a control group vs. a group confronted with the Trier Social Stress Test, an established paradigm for the induction of acute psychosocial stress. Empathy for pain as a specific subgroup of empathy was assessed via pain intensity ratings during a pain-picture task. Self-reported emotion regulation skills were measured as predictors using an established questionnaire. Stressed individuals scored significantly lower on the appraisal of pain pictures. A regression model was chosen to find variables that further predict the pain ratings. These findings implicate that acute psychosocial stress might impair empathic processes to observed pain in another person and the ability to accept one’s emotion additionally predicts the empathic reaction. Furthermore, the ability to tolerate negative emotions modulated the relation between stress and pain judgments, and thus influenced core cognitive-affective functions relevant for coping with environmental challenges. In conclusion, our study emphasizes the necessity of reducing negative emotions in terms of empathic distress when confronted with pain of another person under psychosocial stress, in order to be able to retain pro-social behavior.

  9. Some physiological and biochemical methods for acute and chronic stress evaluation in dairy cows

    Giuseppe Bertoni

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available Stress factors are so numerous and so diverse in their strength and duration that the consequences on animal welfare can be quite varied. The first important distinction concerns the characterization of acute and chronic stress conditions. Acute stress is a short-lived negative situation that allows a quick and quite complete recovery of the physiological balance (adaptation, while chronic stress is a long lasting condition from which the subject cannot fully recover (maladaptation. In the latter case, the direct effects of the stress factors (heat, low energy, anxiety, suffering etc., as well as the indirect ones (changes occurring at endocrinological, immune system or function level can be responsible for pre-pathological or pathological consequences which reduce animal welfare. To evaluate the possible chronic stress conditions in single animals or on a farm (in particular a farm of dairy cows, some parameters of the direct or indirect effects can be utilised. They are physiological (mainly hormone changes: cortisol, β-endorphin, behavioural (depression, biochemical (metabolites, acute phase proteins, glycated proteins etc., as well as performance parameters (growing rate, milk yield, fertility, etc.. Special attention has been paid to the interpretation of cortisol levels and to its changes after an ACTH challenge. Despite fervent efforts, well established and accepted indices of chronic stress (distress are currently lacking; but without this objective evaluation, the assessment of animal welfare and, therefore, the optimization of the livestock production, could prove more difficult.

  10. Acute psychosocial stress and emotion regulation skills modulate empathic reactions to pain in others.

    Buruck, Gabriele; Wendsche, Johannes; Melzer, Marlen; Strobel, Alexander; Dörfel, Denise

    2014-01-01

    Psychosocial stress affects resources for adequate coping with environmental demands. A crucial question in this context is the extent to which acute psychosocial stressors impact empathy and emotion regulation. In the present study, 120 participants were randomly assigned to a control group vs. a group confronted with the Trier Social Stress Test (TSST), an established paradigm for the induction of acute psychosocial stress. Empathy for pain as a specific subgroup of empathy was assessed via pain intensity ratings during a pain-picture task. Self-reported emotion regulation skills were measured as predictors using an established questionnaire. Stressed individuals scored significantly lower on the appraisal of pain pictures. A regression model was chosen to find variables that further predict the pain ratings. These findings implicate that acute psychosocial stress might impair empathic processes to observed pain in another person and the ability to accept one's emotion additionally predicts the empathic reaction. Furthermore, the ability to tolerate negative emotions modulated the relation between stress and pain judgments, and thus influenced core cognitive-affective functions relevant for coping with environmental challenges. In conclusion, our study emphasizes the necessity of reducing negative emotions in terms of empathic distress when confronted with pain of another person under psychosocial stress, in order to be able to retain pro-social behavior. PMID:24910626

  11. Continuous positive airway pressure increases haemoglobin O2 saturation after acute but not prolonged altitude exposure.

    p. Agostoni, Caldara G, Bussotti M, Revera M, Valentini M, Gregorini F, Faini A, Lombardi C, Bilo G, Giuliano A, Veglia F, Savia G, P.A. Modesti, Mancia G, Parati G

    2010-01-01

    Abstract: It is unknown whether subclinical high-altitude pulmonary oedema reduces spontaneously after prolonged altitude exposure. Continuous positive airway pressure (CPAP) removes extravascular lung fluids and improves haemoglobin oxygen saturation in acute cardiogenic oedema. We evaluated the presence of pulmonary extravascular fluid increase by assessing CPAP effects on haemoglobin oxygen saturation under acute and prolonged altitude exposure. We applied 7 cm H2O CPAP for 30 min to he...

  12. Acute supplementation of amino acids increases net protein accretion in IUGR fetal sheep

    Brown, Laura D.; Rozance, Paul J.; Thorn, Stephanie R.; FRIEDMAN, Jacob E.; Hay, William W.

    2012-01-01

    Placental insufficiency decreases fetal amino acid uptake from the placenta, plasma insulin concentrations, and protein accretion, thus compromising normal fetal growth trajectory. We tested whether acute supplementation of amino acids or insulin into the fetus with intrauterine growth restriction (IUGR) would increase net fetal protein accretion rates. Late-gestation IUGR and control (CON) fetal sheep received acute, 3-h infusions of amino acids (with euinsulinemia), insulin (with euglycemia...

  13. Cinnamon (Cinnamomum sp.) inclusion in diets for Nile tilapia submitted to acute hypoxic stress.

    M Dos Santos, Welliene; S de Brito, Túlio; de A Prado, Samuel; G de Oliveira, Camila; C De Paula, Andréia; C de Melo, Daniela; A P Ribeiro, Paula

    2016-07-01

    The aim of this study was to evaluate the possible effects of diets supplemented with probiotics and different cinnamon levels (powder and essential oil) on immunological parameters of Nile tilapia after being subjected to acute stress by hypoxia. Three hundred and thirty juvenile male tilapia fish (66.08 ± 2.79 g) were distributed in 30 tanks of 100 L capacity (11/cage) with a water recirculation system. The animals were fed for 71 days with diets containing extruded cinnamon powder at different levels (0.5, 1, 1.5, 2%), cinnamon essential oil (0.05, 0.1, 0.15; 0.2%) and probiotics (0.4%), all in triplicate. At the end of the experiment, the fish (200.36 ± 19.88 g) of the different groups were subjected to stress by hypoxia. Hypoxia was achieved by capturing the animals with a net, keeping them out of the water for three minutes, and then sampling the blood 30 min after the procedure to determine the levels of cortisol, glucose, haematocrit, lysozyme, bactericidal index, total protein, and its fractions. The animals kept blood homeostasis after hypoxic stress. Diet supplementation with 0.5% cinnamon powder improved the fish immune response, since it resulted in an increase of 0.5% in γ-globulin level. Administration of 0.15% cinnamon essential oil resulted in an increase of α1 and α2-globulins, which may be reflected in increased lipid content of the carcass and the hepatosomatic index. More studies are necessary to better understand the effects of these additives for fish immunity. PMID:27142937

  14. Blunted Electrodermal and Psychological Response to Acute Stress in Family Caregivers of People with Eating Disorders.

    Ruiz-Robledillo, Nicolás; Romero-Martínez, Ángel; Moya-Albiol, Luis

    2016-01-01

    Caring for an offspring with an eating disorder (ED) is associated with high levels of distress, and health problems. Indeed, ED caregivers have to cope with a range of challenges related to their caring role, which represents a chronic stress situation. This tends to alter body homeostasis and caregivers' health status. This study aimed to analyse the electrodermal reactivity and psychological response to acute stress in ED caregivers compared to non-caregivers. As expected, caregivers showed lower electrodermal (p < .001, η2partial = .269 for SCL and p < .01, η2partial = .214 for NSCRs) and psychological response (p < .05, η2partial = .198) to acute stress than non-caregivers. The findings suggest the existence of physiological adaptation to chronic stress in family caregivers of people with EDs. PMID:27160010

  15. Role for leptin in promoting glucose mobilization during acute hyperosmotic stress in teleost fishes.

    Baltzegar, David A; Reading, Benjamin J; Douros, Jonathon D; Borski, Russell J

    2014-01-01

    Osmoregulation is critical for survival in all vertebrates, yet the endocrine regulation of this metabolically expensive process is not fully understood. Specifically, the function of leptin in the regulation of energy expenditure in fishes, and among ectotherms, in general, remains unresolved. In this study, we examined the effects of acute salinity transfer (72  h) and the effects of leptin and cortisol on plasma metabolites and hepatic energy reserves in the euryhaline fish, the tilapia (Oreochromis mossambicus). Transfer to 2/3 seawater (23  ppt) significantly increased plasma glucose, amino acid, and lactate levels relative to those in the control fish. Plasma glucose levels were positively correlated with amino acid levels (R2=0.614), but not with lactate levels. The mRNA expression of liver leptin A (lepa), leptin receptor (lepr), and hormone-sensitive and lipoprotein lipases (hsl and lpl) as well as triglyceride content increased during salinity transfer, but plasma free fatty acid and triglyceride levels remained unchanged. Both leptin and cortisol significantly increased plasma glucose levels in vivo, but only leptin decreased liver glycogen levels. Leptin decreased the expression of liver hsl and lpl mRNAs, whereas cortisol significantly increased the expression of these lipases. These findings suggest that hepatic glucose mobilization into the blood following an acute salinity challenge involves both glycogenolysis, induced by leptin, and subsequent gluconeogenesis of free amino acids. This is the first study to report that teleost leptin A has actions that are functionally distinct from those described in mammals acting as a potent hyperglycemic factor during osmotic stress, possibly in synergism with cortisol. These results suggest that the function of leptin may have diverged during the evolution of vertebrates, possibly reflecting differences in metabolic regulation between poikilotherms and homeotherms. PMID:24194509

  16. Acute exercise increases fibroblast growth factor 21 in metabolic organs and circulation.

    Tanimura, Yuko; Aoi, Wataru; Takanami, Yoshikazu; Kawai, Yukari; Mizushima, Katsura; Naito, Yuji; Yoshikawa, Toshikazu

    2016-06-01

    Fibroblast growth factor 21, a metabolic regulator, plays roles in lipolysis and glucose uptake in adipose tissues and skeletal muscles. Its expression in skeletal muscle is upregulated upon activation of the phosphatidylinositol 3-kinase/Akt signaling pathway, which is induced by exercise and muscle contraction. We examined the increase of fibroblast growth factor 21 after acute exercise in metabolic organs, especially skeletal muscles and circulation. Participants exercised on bicycle ergometers for 60 min at 75% of their V˙O2max. Venous blood samples were taken before exercise and immediately after exercise. In an animal study, male ICR mice were divided into sedentary and exercise groups. Mice in the exercise group performed treadmill exercises at 30 m min(-1) for 60 min. Shortly thereafter, blood, liver, and skeletal muscle samples were taken from mice. Acute exercise induced the increase of serum fibroblast growth factor 21 in both humans and mice, and increased fibroblast growth factor 21 expression in the skeletal muscles and the liver of mice. Acute exercise activated Akt in mice skeletal muscle. Acute exercise increases fibroblast growth factor 21 concentrations in both serum and metabolic organs. Moreover, results show that acute exercise increased the expression of fibroblast growth factor 21 in skeletal muscle, accompanied by the phosphorylation of Akt in mice. PMID:27335433

  17. Graded stress radiography in acute injury to the lateral ligaments of the ankle

    The diagnostic accuracy of graded stress radiography in 26 patients with acute injury to the lateral ankle ligaments has been compared with findings at arthrography and surgery. Measuring talar tilt angles and anterior talar displacement over a range of pressures applied to the distal tibia using a commercially available stress device allows diagnostic distinction between isolated anterior talofibular ligament injury and a combined lesion that involves the calcaneofibular ligament. The results compare well with arthrographic and surgical findings. (orig.)

  18. Sex differences in physiological reactivity to acute psychosocial stress in adolescence

    Ordaz, Sarah; Luna, Beatriz

    2012-01-01

    Females begin to demonstrate greater negative affective responses to stress than males in adolescence. This may reflect the concurrent emergence of underlying differences in physiological response systems, including corticolimbic circuitries, the hypothalamic—pituitary— adrenal axis (HPAA), and the autonomic nervous system (ANS). This review examines when sex differences in physiological reactivity to acute psychosocial stress emerge and the directionality of these differences over developmen...

  19. Freeze, Flight, Fight, Fright, Faint: Adaptationist Perspectives on the Acute Stress Response Spectrum

    Bracha, Dr. H. Stefan

    2004-01-01

    This article reviews the existing evolutionary perspectives on the acute stress response habitual faintness and blood-injection-injury type-specific phobia (BIITS phobia). In this article, an alternative evolutionary perspective, based on recent advances in evolutionary psychology, is proposed. Specifically, that fear-induced faintness (eg, fainting following the sight of a syringe, blood, or following a trivial skin injury) is a distinct Homo sapiens-specific extreme-stress survival response...

  20. Acute Stress and Depression 3 Days after Vaginal Delivery – Observational, Comparative Study

    Srkalović Imširagić, Azijada; Begić, Dražen; Martić-Biočina, Sanja

    2009-01-01

    During the first month postpartum, 85% of women experience some form of mood disorders. The most common are: postpartum blues, non-psychotic postpartum depression, puerperal psychosis. Delivery of a child can be traumatic for some women. Several authors have found that women could get symptoms of one form of posttraumatic stress disorder (PTSD) after childbirth. However, etiology of established postpartum disorders is still unknown. The aim of this study is to detect symptoms of acute stress ...

  1. Soluble CD163 is increased in patients with acute pancreatitis independent of disease severity.

    Karrasch, Thomas; Brünnler, Tanja; Hamer, Okka W; Schmid, Karin; Voelk, Markus; Herfarth, Hans; Buechler, Christa

    2015-10-01

    Macrophages are crucially involved in the pathophysiology of acute pancreatitis. Soluble CD163 (sCD163) is specifically released from macrophages and systemic levels are increased in inflammatory diseases. Here, sCD163 was measured in serum of 50 patients with acute pancreatitis to find out possible associations with disease activity. Admission levels of systemic sCD163 were nearly three-fold higher in patients with acute pancreatitis compared to controls. In patients sCD163 did not correlate with C-reactive protein and leukocyte count as established markers of inflammation. Levels were not associated with disease severity assessed by the Schroeder score, Balthazar score, Acute Physiology, Age, and Chronic Health Evaluation (Apache) II score and peripancreatic necrosis score. Soluble CD163 was not related to complications of acute pancreatitis. These data show that serum sCD163 is increased in acute pancreatitis indicating activation of macrophages but is not associated with disease severity and outcome. PMID:26209500

  2. Mating with stressed males increases the fitness of ant queens.

    Alexandra Schrempf

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: According to sexual conflict theory, males can increase their own fitness by transferring substances during copulation that increase the short-term fecundity of their mating partners at the cost of the future life expectancy and re-mating capability of the latter. In contrast, sexual cooperation is expected in social insects. Mating indeed positively affects life span and fecundity of young queens of the male-polymorphic ant Cardiocondyla obscurior, even though males neither provide nuptial gifts nor any other care but leave their mates immediately after copulation and die shortly thereafter. PRINCIPAL FINDINGS: Here, we show that mating with winged disperser males has a significantly stronger impact on life span and reproductive success of young queens of C. obscurior than mating with wingless fighter males. CONCLUSIONS: Winged males are reared mostly under stressful environmental conditions, which force young queens to disperse and found their own societies independently. In contrast, queens that mate with wingless males under favourable conditions usually start reproducing in the safety of the established maternal nest. Our study suggests that males of C. obscurior have evolved mechanisms to posthumously assist young queens during colony founding under adverse ecological conditions.

  3. Social stress modulates the cortisol response to an acute stressor in rainbow trout (Oncorhynchus mykiss).

    Jeffrey, J D; Gollock, M J; Gilmour, K M

    2014-01-15

    In rainbow trout (Oncorhynchus mykiss) of subordinate social status, circulating cortisol concentrations were elevated under resting conditions but the plasma cortisol and glucose responses to an acute stressor (confinement in a net) were attenuated relative to those of dominant trout. An in vitro head kidney preparation, and analysis of the expression of key genes in the stress axis prior to and following confinement in a net were then used to examine the mechanisms underlying suppression of the acute cortisol stress response in trout experiencing chronic social stress. With porcine adrenocorticotropic hormone (ACTH) as the secretagogue, ACTH-stimulated cortisol production was significantly lower for head kidney preparations from subordinate trout than for those from dominant trout. Dominant and subordinate fish did not, however, differ in the relative mRNA abundance of melanocortin-2 receptor (MC2R), steroidogenic acute regulatory protein (StAR) or cytochrome P450 side chain cleavage enzyme (P450scc) within the head kidney, although the relative mRNA abundance of these genes was significantly higher in both dominant and subordinate fish than in sham trout (trout that did not experience social interactions but were otherwise treated identically to the dominant and subordinate fish). The relative mRNA abundance of all three genes was significantly higher in trout exposed to an acute net stressor than under control conditions. Upstream of cortisol production in the stress axis, plasma ACTH concentrations were not affected by social stress, nor was the relative mRNA abundance of the binding protein for corticotropin releasing factor (CRF-BP). The relative mRNA abundance of CRF in the pre-optic area of subordinate fish was significantly higher than that of dominant or sham fish 1h after exposure to the stressor. Collectively, the results indicate that chronic social stress modulates cortisol production at the level of the interrenal cells, resulting in an attenuated

  4. Relationship between oxygen free radicals, cytokines, cortisol and stress complications in patients with acute cerebrovascular disease

    Objective: To investigate the relationship between oxygen free radicals, cytokines, cortisol and stress complications in patients with acute cerebrovascular disease (ACVD). Methods: Serum levels of superoxide dismutases (SOD), malonaldehyde (MDA) (with biochemistry) interleukin-6 (IL-6), tumor necrosis factor (TNF-α) and cortisol (with RIA) were measured in 32 patients with acute cerebrovascular disease (ACVD) plus stress complications and 48 patients without stress complications as well as 36 controls. Results: Serum SOD contents in non-stressed group were higher than those in stressed group (P<0.05) but lower than those of the controls (P<0.05). However the levels of MDA, IL-6, TNF-α and cortisol were highest in the stressed group and lowest in the controls (all P<0.05). Conclusion: Oxygen free radicals, IL-6, TNF-α and cortisol were involved in stress complications in patients with ACVD. Monitoring the levels of serum SOD, MDA, IL-6, TNF-α and cortisol could be useful for predicting stress complications and evaluating the therapeutic effect. (authors)

  5. Increased incidence of acute kidney injury with aprotinin use during cardiac surgery detected with urinary NGAL

    Wagener, G.; Gubitosa, G.; Wang, S.;

    2008-01-01

    BACKGROUND: Use of aprotinin has been associated with acute kidney injury after cardiac surgery. Neutrophil gelatinase-associated lipocalin (NGAL) is a novel, very sensitive marker for renal injury. Urinary NGAL may be able to detect renal injury caused by aprotinin. This study determined if the...... use of aprotinin is associated with an increased incidence of acute kidney injury and increased levels of urinary NGAL. METHODS: In this prospective, observational study 369 patients undergoing cardiac surgery were enrolled. 205 patients received aprotinin and 164 received epsilon amino-caproic acid...... intraoperatively. Urinary NGAL was measured before and immediately after cardiac surgery and 3, 18 and 24 h later. The association of aprotinin use with the incidence of acute kidney injury (increase of serum creatinine >0.5 mg/dl) and NGAL levels was determined using logistic and linear regression models. RESULTS...

  6. Cumulative exposure to prior collective trauma and acute stress responses to the Boston marathon bombings.

    Garfin, Dana Rose; Holman, E Alison; Silver, Roxane Cohen

    2015-06-01

    The role of repeated exposure to collective trauma in explaining response to subsequent community-wide trauma is poorly understood. We examined the relationship between acute stress response to the 2013 Boston Marathon bombings and prior direct and indirect media-based exposure to three collective traumatic events: the September 11, 2001 (9/11) terrorist attacks, Superstorm Sandy, and the Sandy Hook Elementary School shooting. Representative samples of residents of metropolitan Boston (n = 846) and New York City (n = 941) completed Internet-based surveys shortly after the Boston Marathon bombings. Cumulative direct exposure and indirect exposure to prior community trauma and acute stress symptoms were assessed. Acute stress levels did not differ between Boston and New York metropolitan residents. Cumulative direct and indirect, live-media-based exposure to 9/11, Superstorm Sandy, and the Sandy Hook shooting were positively associated with acute stress responses in the covariate-adjusted model. People who experience multiple community-based traumas may be sensitized to the negative impact of subsequent events, especially in communities previously exposed to similar disasters. PMID:25896419

  7. Glucose intolerance induced by blockade of central FGF receptors is linked to an acute stress response

    Jennifer M. Rojas

    2015-08-01

    Conclusions: The effect of acute inhibition of central FGFR signaling to impair glucose tolerance likely involves a stress response associated with pronounced, but transient, sympathoadrenal activation and an associated reduction of insulin secretion. Whether this effect is a true consequence of FGFR blockade or involves an off-target effect of the FGFR inhibitor requires additional study.

  8. Family Stress Management Following Acute Myocardial Infarction: An Educational and Skills Training Intervention Program.

    Nelson, David V.; Cleveland, Sidney E.; Baer, Paul E.

    1998-01-01

    Provides a conceptual background for specific behavioral-therapy approach to family stress management in dealing with the sequelae of acute myocardial infarction for all family members with the goal of reducing morbidity for all family members as they cope with ongoing survivorship issues. Describes the program and discusses its pilot…

  9. Early life stress increases stress vulnerability through BDNF gene epigenetic changes in the rat hippocampus.

    Seo, Mi Kyoung; Ly, Nguyen Ngoc; Lee, Chan Hong; Cho, Hye Yeon; Choi, Cheol Min; Nhu, Le Hoa; Lee, Jung Goo; Lee, Bong Ju; Kim, Gyung-Mee; Yoon, Bong June; Park, Sung Woo; Kim, Young Hoon

    2016-06-01

    Early life stress (ELS) exerts long-lasting epigenetic influences on the brain and makes an individual susceptible to later depression. It is poorly understood whether ELS and subsequent adult chronic stress modulate epigenetic mechanisms. We examined the epigenetic mechanisms of the BDNF gene in the hippocampus, which may underlie stress vulnerability to postnatal maternal separation (MS) and adult restraint stress (RS). Rat pups were separated from their dams (3 h/day from P1-P21). When the pups reached adulthood (8 weeks old), we introduced RS (2 h/day for 3 weeks) followed by escitalopram treatment. We showed that both the MS and RS groups expressed reduced levels of total and exon IV BDNF mRNA. Furthermore, RS potentiated MS-induced decreases in these expression levels. Similarly, both the MS and RS groups showed decreased levels of acetylated histone H3 and H4 at BDNF promoter IV, and RS exacerbated MS-induced decreases of H3 and H4 acetylation. Both the MS and RS groups had increased MeCP2 levels at BDNF promoter IV, as well as increased HDAC5 mRNA, and the combination of MS and RS exerted a greater effect on these parameters than did RS alone. In the forced swimming test, the immobility time of the MS + RS group was significantly higher than that of the RS group. Additionally, chronic escitalopram treatment recovered these alterations. Our results suggest that postnatal MS and subsequent adult RS modulate epigenetic changes in the BDNF gene, and that these changes may be related to behavioral phenotype. These epigenetic mechanisms are involved in escitalopram action. PMID:26877199

  10. Stress significantly increases mortality following a secondary bacterial respiratory infection

    Hodgson Paul D; Aich Palok; Stookey Joseph; Popowych Yurij; Potter Andrew; Babiuk Lorne; Griebel Philip J

    2012-01-01

    Abstract A variety of mechanisms contribute to the viral-bacterial synergy which results in fatal secondary bacterial respiratory infections. Epidemiological investigations have implicated physical and psychological stressors as factors contributing to the incidence and severity of respiratory infections and psychological stress alters host responses to experimental viral respiratory infections. The effect of stress on secondary bacterial respiratory infections has not, however, been investig...

  11. Low mercury concentration produces vasoconstriction, decreases nitric oxide bioavailability and increases oxidative stress in rat conductance artery.

    Núbia Belem Lemos

    Full Text Available Mercury is an environmental pollutant that reduces nitric oxide (NO bioavailability and increases oxidative stress, having a close link with cardiovascular diseases, as carotid atherosclerosis, myocardial infarction, coronary heart disease and hypertension. One of the main sites affected by oxidative stress, which develops atherosclerosis, is the aorta. Under acute exposure to low mercury concentrations reactive oxygen species (ROS production were only reported for resistance vessels but if low concentrations of mercury also affect conductance arteries it is still unclear. We investigated the acute effects of 6 nM HgCl(2 on endothelial function of aortic rings measuring the reactivity to phenylephrine in rings incubated, or not, with HgCl(2 for 45 min, the protein expression for cyclooxygenase 2 (COX-2 and the AT1 receptor. HgCl(2 increased Rmax and pD2 to phenylephrine without changing the vasorelaxation induced by acetylcholine and sodium nitroprusside. Endothelial damage abolished the increased reactivity to phenylephrine. The increase of Rmax and pD2 produced by L-NAME was smaller in the presence of HgCl(2. Enalapril, losartan, indomethacin, furegrelate, the selective COX-2 inhibitor NS 398, superoxide dismutase and the NADPH oxidase inhibitor apocynin reverted HgCl(2 effects on the reactivity to phenylephrine, COX-2 protein expression was increased, and AT1 expression reduced. At low concentration, below the reference values, HgCl(2 increased vasoconstrictor activity by reducing NO bioavailability due to increased ROS production by NADPH oxidase activity. Results suggest that this is due to local release of angiotensin II and prostanoid vasoconstrictors. Results also suggest that acute low concentration mercury exposure, occurring time to time could induce vascular injury due to endothelial oxidative stress and contributing to increase peripheral resistance, being a high risk factor for public health.

  12. The influence of acute stress on attention mechanisms and its electrophysiological correlates

    Jessica Sänger

    2014-10-01

    By means of the EEG, subjects who got stressed showed a reduced allocation to the relevant luminance change apparent in a modulation of the N1pc. The following N2pc, which reflects a re-allocation of attentional resources, supports the error pattern. There was only an N2pc in conditions, which required to bias the less salient luminance change. Moreover, this N2pc was decreased as a consequence of the induced stress. These results allow the conclusion that acute stress impairs the intention-based attentional allocation and enhances the stimulus-driven selection, leading to a strong distractibility during attentional information selection.

  13. Effect of Celastrus paniculatus seed oil (Jyothismati oil on acute and chronic immobilization stress induced in swiss albino mice

    George Lekha

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available Stress alters the homeostasis and is produced by several factors. Immobilization stress induced due to reduced floor area provided for the mobility results in the imbalance of oxidant and antioxidant status. The modern computer savvy world decreases human mobility in the working environment, leading to the formation of oxygen free radicals and if left untreated might result in severe health problems like hypertension, cardiovascular disease, premature aging and brain dysfunction. Hence, modern medicines rely upon the medicinal plants for some drugs with zero side effects. In this context, Jyothismati oil (JO, extracted from Celastrus paniculatus seeds, was used to treat acute and chronic immobilization induced experimentally. C. paniculatus plant is considered to be rich in antioxidant content and so the seed oil extract′s efficacy was tested against immobilization stress in albino mice. The animals were kept in a restrainer for short and long durations, grouped separately and fed with the drug. Animals were sacrificed and the samples were analyzed. The antioxidant enzyme levels of the animals regained and markedly increased in the acute and chronic immobilized groups, respectively. The results suggested that the extract of C. paniculatus seed was highly efficacious in reducing the stress induced by least mobility for hours.

  14. Development of gene expression markers of acute heat-light stress in reef-building corals of the genus Porites.

    Carly D Kenkel

    Full Text Available Coral reefs are declining worldwide due to increased incidence of climate-induced coral bleaching, which will have widespread biodiversity and economic impacts. A simple method to measure the sub-bleaching level of heat-light stress experienced by corals would greatly inform reef management practices by making it possible to assess the distribution of bleaching risks among individual reef sites. Gene expression analysis based on quantitative PCR (qPCR can be used as a diagnostic tool to determine coral condition in situ. We evaluated the expression of 13 candidate genes during heat-light stress in a common Caribbean coral Porites astreoides, and observed strong and consistent changes in gene expression in two independent experiments. Furthermore, we found that the apparent return to baseline expression levels during a recovery phase was rapid, despite visible signs of colony bleaching. We show that the response to acute heat-light stress in P. astreoides can be monitored by measuring the difference in expression of only two genes: Hsp16 and actin. We demonstrate that this assay discriminates between corals sampled from two field sites experiencing different temperatures. We also show that the assay is applicable to an Indo-Pacific congener, P. lobata, and therefore could potentially be used to diagnose acute heat-light stress on coral reefs worldwide.

  15. Modification of hippocampal markers of synaptic plasticity by memantine in animal models of acute and repeated restraint stress: implications for memory and behavior.

    Amin, Shaimaa Nasr; El-Aidi, Ahmed Amro; Ali, Mohamed Mostafa; Attia, Yasser Mahmoud; Rashed, Laila Ahmed

    2015-06-01

    Stress is any condition that impairs the balance of the organism physiologically or psychologically. The response to stress involves several neurohormonal consequences. Glutamate is the primary excitatory neurotransmitter in the central nervous system, and its release is increased by stress that predisposes to excitotoxicity in the brain. Memantine is an uncompetitive N-methyl D-aspartate glutamatergic receptors antagonist and has shown beneficial effect on cognitive function especially in Alzheimer's disease. The aim of the work was to investigate memantine effect on memory and behavior in animal models of acute and repeated restraint stress with the evaluation of serum markers of stress and the expression of hippocampal markers of synaptic plasticity. Forty-two male rats were divided into seven groups (six rats/group): control, acute restraint stress, acute restraint stress with Memantine, repeated restraint stress, repeated restraint stress with Memantine and Memantine groups (two subgroups as positive control). Spatial working memory and behavior were assessed by performance in Y-maze. We evaluated serum cortisol, tumor necrotic factor, interleukin-6 and hippocampal expression of brain-derived neurotrophic factor, synaptophysin and calcium-/calmodulin-dependent protein kinase II. Our results revealed that Memantine improved spatial working memory in repeated stress, decreased serum level of stress markers and modified the hippocampal synaptic plasticity markers in both patterns of stress exposure; in ARS, Memantine upregulated the expression of synaptophysin and brain-derived neurotrophic factor and downregulated the expression of calcium-/calmodulin-dependent protein kinase II, and in repeated restraint stress, it upregulated the expression of synaptophysin and downregulated calcium-/calmodulin-dependent protein kinase II expression. PMID:25680935

  16. Interaction between diazepam and hippocampal corticosterone after acute stress: impact on memory in middle-aged mice

    Daniel eBeracochea

    2011-04-01

    Full Text Available Benzodiazepines (BDZ are widely prescribed in the treatment of anxiety disorders associated to aging. Interestingly, whereas a reciprocal interaction between the GABAergic system and HPA axis has been evidenced, there is to our knowledge no direct evaluation of the impact of BDZ on both hippocampus (HPC corticosterone concentrations and HPC-dependent memory in stressed middle-aged subjects. We showed previously that an acute stress induced in middle-aged mice severe memory impairments in a hippocampus-dependent task, and increased in parallel hippocampus corticosterone concentrations, as compared to non stressed middle-aged controls (Tronche et al., 2010. Based on these findings, the aims of the present study were to evidence the impact of diazepam (a positive allosteric modulator of the GABA-A receptor on HPC glucocorticoids concentrations and in parallel on HPC-dependent memory in acutely stressed middle-aged mice.Microdialysis experiments showed an interaction between diazepam doses and corticosterone concentrations into the HPC. From 0.25 mg/kg to 0.5 mg/kg, diazepam dose-dependently reduces intra-HPC corticosterone concentrations and in parallel, dose-dependently increased hippocampal-dependent memory performance. In contrast, the highest (1.0mg/kg diazepam dose induces a reduction in HPC corticosterone concentration, which was of greater magnitude as compared to the two other diazepam doses, but however decreased the hippocampal-dependent memory performance. In summary, our study provides first evidence that diazepam restores in stressed middle-aged animals the hippocampus-dependent response, in relation with HPC corticosterone concentrations. Overall, our data illustrate how stress and benzodiazepines could modulate cognitive functions depending on hippocampus activity.

  17. Differential Expression of Heat Shock Transcription Factors and Heat Shock Proteins after Acute and Chronic Heat Stress in Laying Chickens (Gallus gallus)

    Jingjing Xie; Li Tang; Lin Lu; Liyang Zhang; Lin Xi; Hsiao-Ching Liu; Jack Odle; Xugang Luo

    2014-01-01

    Heat stress due to high environmental temperature negatively influences animal performances. To better understand the biological impact of heat stress, laying broiler breeder chickens were subjected either to acute (step-wisely increasing temperature from 21 to 35°C within 24 hours) or chronic (32°C for 8 weeks) high temperature exposure. High temperature challenges significantly elevated body temperature of experimental birds (P

  18. The implicit affiliation motive moderates cortisol responses to acute psychosocial stress in high school students.

    Wegner, Mirko; Schüler, Julia; Budde, Henning

    2014-10-01

    It has been previously shown that the implicit affiliation motive - the need to establish and maintain friendly relationships with others - leads to chronic health benefits. The underlying assumption for the present research was that the implicit affiliation motive also moderates the salivary cortisol response to acute psychological stress when some aspects of social evaluation and uncontrollability are involved. By contrast we did not expect similar effects in response to exercise as a physical stressor. Fifty-nine high school students aged M=14.8 years were randomly assigned to a psychosocial stress (publishing the results of an intelligence test performed), a physical stress (exercise intensity of 65-75% of HRmax), and a control condition (normal school lesson) each lasting 15min. Participants' affiliation motives were assessed using the Operant Motive Test and salivary cortisol samples were taken pre and post stressor. We found that the strength of the affiliation motive negatively predicted cortisol reactions to acute psychosocial but not to physical stress when compared to a control group. The results suggest that the affiliation motive buffers the effect of acute psychosocial stress on the HPA axis. PMID:25016451

  19. Loss of Oca2 disrupts the unfolded protein response and increases resistance to endoplasmic reticulum stress in melanocytes.

    Cheng, Tsing; Orlow, Seth J; Manga, Prashiela

    2013-11-01

    Accumulation of proteins in the endoplasmic reticulum (ER) typically induces stress and initiates the unfolded protein response (UPR) to facilitate recovery. If homeostasis is not restored, apoptosis is induced. However, adaptation to chronic UPR activation can increase resistance to subsequent acute ER stress. We therefore investigated adaptive mechanisms in Oculocutaneous albinism type 2 (Oca2)-null melanocytes where UPR signaling is arrested despite continued tyrosinase accumulation leading to resistance to the chemical ER stressor thapsigargin. Although thapsigargin triggers UPR activation, instead of Perk-mediated phosphorylation of eIF2α, in Oca2-null melanocytes, eIF2α was rapidly dephosphorylated upon treatment. Dephosphorylation was mediated by the Gadd34-PP1α phosphatase complex. Gadd34-complex inhibition blocked eIF2α dephosphorylation and significantly increased Oca2-null melanocyte sensitivity to thapsigargin. Thus, Oca2-null melanocytes adapt to acute ER stress by disruption of pro-apoptotic Perk signaling, which promotes cell survival. This is the first study to demonstrate rapid eIF2α dephosphorylation as an adaptive mechanism to ER stress. PMID:23962237

  20. Understanding recovery in children following traffic-related injuries: Exploring acute traumatic stress reactions, child coping, and coping assistance

    Marsac, Meghan L; Donlon, Katharine A.; Hildenbrand, Aimee K.; Winston, Flaura K.; Kassam-Adams, Nancy

    2013-01-01

    Millions of children incur potentially traumatic physical injuries every year. Most children recover well from their injury but many go on to develop persistent traumatic stress reactions. This study aimed to describe children’s coping and coping assistance (i.e., the ways in which parents and peers help children cope) strategies and to explore the association between coping and acute stress reactions following an injury. Children (N = 243) rated their acute traumatic stress reactions within ...

  1. Induction of Heat Shock Protein 72 in RGCs of Rat Acute Glaucoma Model after Heat Stress or Zinc Administration

    Guoping Qing; Xuanchu Duan; Youqin Jiang

    2004-01-01

    Purpose :To investigate the dynamics of heat shock protein 72 (HSP72) expression in retinal ganglion cells (RGCs) in rat model of acute glaucoma treated with heat stress or intraperitoneal injection of zinc sulfate.Methods: Twenty-seven male Wistar rats were used to make acute glaucoma models. Five others served as normal control. Acute glaucoma models were made by intracameral irrigation in the right eyes with balanced salt saline (BSS) at 102 mmHg for 2 hours. Nine model rats were killed at different intervals after intracameral irrigation without treatment, which served as damage control. Ten were treated with heat stress 40℃~42℃, and 8 were used for zinc sulfate administration 2 days posterior to intracameral irrigation.Treated model rats were sacrificed at designed intervals after treatment. Right eyes were enucleated immediately, and the retinas were dissected for Western blot.Results: No HSP72 was found in RGCs of normal Wistar rats. In damage control group,slight HSP72 was detected during 6~36 hours posterior to intracameral irrigation. HSP72was detected significantly expressed in RGCs of both heat shock group and zinc sulfate group. But the dynamics of HSP72 production were quite different in these two treated groups. In heat shock group, HSP72 appeared at the sixth hour after treatment, and increased gradually until its peak production emerged at the 48th hour. HSP72 vanished 8days later after treatment. In zinc sulfate group, HSP72 expression began 24 hours later after zinc administration, and reached its highest level at the 72th hour posterior to treatment. HSP72 expression then decreased slowly, and disappeared 21 days later after treatment.Conclusion:HSP72 can be induced in RGCs of rat acute glaucoma models with heat stress or zinc sulfate adddministration. But the dynamics of the HSP72 induction in those two groups were quite different. Eye Science 2004;20:30-33.

  2. Dorsal and ventral hippocampus modulate autonomic responses but not behavioral consequences associated to acute restraint stress in rats.

    Scopinho, América A; Lisboa, Sabrina F S; Guimarães, Francisco S; Corrêa, Fernando M A; Resstel, Leonardo B M; Joca, Sâmia R L

    2013-01-01

    Recent evidence has suggested that the dorsal (DH) and the ventral (VH) poles of the hippocampus are structurally, molecularly and functionally different regions. While the DH is preferentially involved in the modulation of spatial learning and memory, the VH modulates defensive behaviors related to anxiety. Acute restraint is an unavoidable stress situation that evokes marked and sustained autonomic changes, which are characterized by elevated blood pressure (BP), intense heart rate (HR) increases, skeletal muscle vasodilatation and cutaneous vasoconstriction, which are accompanied by a rapid skin temperature drop followed by body temperature increases. In addition to those autonomic responses, animals submitted to restraint also present behavioral changes, such as reduced exploration of the open arms of an elevated plus-maze (EPM), an anxiogenic-like effect. In the present work, we report a comparison between the effects of pharmacological inhibition of DH and VH neurotransmission on autonomic and behavioral responses evoked by acute restraint stress in rats. Bilateral microinjection of the unspecific synaptic blocker cobalt chloride (CoCl2, 1mM) into the DH or VH attenuated BP and HR responses, as well as the decrease in the skin temperature, elicited by restraint stress exposure. Moreover, DH or VH inhibition before restraint did not change the delayed increased anxiety behavior observed 24 h later in the EPM. The present results demonstrate for the first time that both DH and VH mediate stress-induced autonomic responses to restraint but they are not involved in the modulation of the delayed emotional consequences elicited by such stress. PMID:24147071

  3. Stress before and during pregnancy increased risk antepartum depression

    R. I. Ismail

    2003-01-01

    This paper presents the risk of antepartum depression (APD) among pregnant women. In particular stress before pregnancy, stress during pregnancy, marital relationship, social support, husband’s mental status and monthly expenditure. The subjects consisted of 580 pregnant women in the third trimester, who attended antenatal care at the Department of Obstetrics of the Persahabatan Hospital Jakarta from November 1, 1999 to August 15, 2001. Antepartum depression was screened by a psychiatrist usi...

  4. Increased Serum Oxidative Stress Markers in Women with Uterine Leiomyoma

    Santulli, Pietro; Borghese, Bruno; Lemaréchal, Herve; Leconte, Mahaut; Millischer, Anne-Elodie; Batteux, Frédéric; Chapron, Charles; Borderie, Didier

    2013-01-01

    Background Uterine leiomyomas (fibroids) are the most common gynaecological benign tumors in premenopausal women. Evidences support the role of oxidative stress in the development of uterine leiomyoma. We have analysed oxidative stress markers (thiols, advanced oxidized protein products (AOPP), protein carbonyls and nitrates/nitrites) in preoperative sera from women with histologically proven uterine leiomyoma. Methodology/Principal Findings We conducted a laboratory study in a tertiary-care ...

  5. Time course of systemic oxidative stress and inflammatory response induced by an acute exposure to Residual Oil Fly Ash

    It is suggested that systemic oxidative stress and inflammation play a central role in the onset and progression of cardiovascular diseases associated with the exposure to particulate matter (PM). The aim of this work was to evaluate the time changes of systemic markers of oxidative stress and inflammation, after an acute exposure to Residual Oil Fly Ash (ROFA). Female Swiss mice were intranasally instilled with a ROFA suspension (1.0 mg/kg body weight) or saline solution, and plasma levels of oxidative damage markers [thiobarbituric acid reactive substances (TBARSs) and protein carbonyls], antioxidant status [reduced (GSH) and oxidized (GSSG) glutathione, ascorbic acid levels, and superoxide dismutase (SOD) activity], cytokines levels, and intravascular leukocyte activation were evaluated after 1, 3 or 5 h of exposure. Oxidative damage to lipids and decreased GSH/GSSG ratio were observed in ROFA-exposed mice as early as 1 h. Afterwards, increased protein oxidation, decreased ascorbic acid content and SOD activity were found in this group at 3 h. The onset of an adaptive response was observed at 5 h after the ROFA exposure, as indicated by decreased TBARS plasma content and increased SOD activity. The observed increase in oxidative damage to plasma macromolecules, together with systemic antioxidants depletion, may be a consequence of a systemic inflammatory response triggered by the ROFA exposure, since increased TNF-α and IL-6 plasma levels and polymorphonuclear leukocytes activation was found at every evaluated time point. These findings contribute to the understanding of the increase in cardiovascular morbidity and mortality, in association with environmental PM inhalation. - Highlights: • An acute exposure to ROFA triggers the occurrence of systemic oxidative stress. • Changes in plasmatic oxidative stress markers appear as early as 1 h after exposure. • ROFA induces proinflammatory cytokines release and intravascular leukocyte activation. • PMN

  6. Time course of systemic oxidative stress and inflammatory response induced by an acute exposure to Residual Oil Fly Ash

    Marchini, T.; Magnani, N.D. [Cátedra de Química General e Inorgánica, Instituto de Bioquímica y Medicina Molecular (IBIMOL UBA-CONICET), Facultad de Farmacia y Bioquímica, Universidad de Buenos Aires, Junín 954, C1113AAB Buenos Aires (Argentina); Paz, M.L. [Cátedra de Inmunología, Instituto de Estudios de la Inmunidad Humoral (IDEHU UBA-CONICET), Facultad de Farmacia y Bioquímica, Universidad de Buenos Aires, Junín 954, C1113AAB Buenos Aires (Argentina); Vanasco, V. [Cátedra de Química General e Inorgánica, Instituto de Bioquímica y Medicina Molecular (IBIMOL UBA-CONICET), Facultad de Farmacia y Bioquímica, Universidad de Buenos Aires, Junín 954, C1113AAB Buenos Aires (Argentina); Tasat, D. [CESyMA, Facultad de Ciencia Tecnología, Universidad Nacional de General San Martín, Martín de Irigoyen 3100, 1650 San Martín, Buenos Aires (Argentina); González Maglio, D.H. [Cátedra de Inmunología, Instituto de Estudios de la Inmunidad Humoral (IDEHU UBA-CONICET), Facultad de Farmacia y Bioquímica, Universidad de Buenos Aires, Junín 954, C1113AAB Buenos Aires (Argentina); and others

    2014-01-15

    It is suggested that systemic oxidative stress and inflammation play a central role in the onset and progression of cardiovascular diseases associated with the exposure to particulate matter (PM). The aim of this work was to evaluate the time changes of systemic markers of oxidative stress and inflammation, after an acute exposure to Residual Oil Fly Ash (ROFA). Female Swiss mice were intranasally instilled with a ROFA suspension (1.0 mg/kg body weight) or saline solution, and plasma levels of oxidative damage markers [thiobarbituric acid reactive substances (TBARSs) and protein carbonyls], antioxidant status [reduced (GSH) and oxidized (GSSG) glutathione, ascorbic acid levels, and superoxide dismutase (SOD) activity], cytokines levels, and intravascular leukocyte activation were evaluated after 1, 3 or 5 h of exposure. Oxidative damage to lipids and decreased GSH/GSSG ratio were observed in ROFA-exposed mice as early as 1 h. Afterwards, increased protein oxidation, decreased ascorbic acid content and SOD activity were found in this group at 3 h. The onset of an adaptive response was observed at 5 h after the ROFA exposure, as indicated by decreased TBARS plasma content and increased SOD activity. The observed increase in oxidative damage to plasma macromolecules, together with systemic antioxidants depletion, may be a consequence of a systemic inflammatory response triggered by the ROFA exposure, since increased TNF-α and IL-6 plasma levels and polymorphonuclear leukocytes activation was found at every evaluated time point. These findings contribute to the understanding of the increase in cardiovascular morbidity and mortality, in association with environmental PM inhalation. - Highlights: • An acute exposure to ROFA triggers the occurrence of systemic oxidative stress. • Changes in plasmatic oxidative stress markers appear as early as 1 h after exposure. • ROFA induces proinflammatory cytokines release and intravascular leukocyte activation. • PMN

  7. Modulated expression and enzymatic activities of Darkbarbel catfish, Pelteobagrus vachelli for oxidative stress induced by acute hypoxia and reoxygenation.

    Zhang, Guosong; Mao, Jianqiang; Liang, Fenfei; Chen, Jiawei; Zhao, Cheng; Yin, Shaowu; Wang, Li; Tang, Zhonglin; Chen, Shuqiao

    2016-05-01

    Large changes in oxygen availability in aquatic environments, ranging from anoxia through to hyperoxia, can lead to corresponding wide variation in the production of reactive oxygen species (ROS) by fish with aquatic respiration. In order to evaluate the effects of hypoxia and reoxygenation on oxidative stress in fish, the mRNA and protein expression of SODs (Cu/Zn-SOD and Mn-SOD) as well as indices (CP, LPO and MDA) and enzymatic activities (SOD, CAT, GPx, GR and GST) were analyzed in liver and brain tissues of Pelteobagrus vachelli. Predominant expression of PvSOD2 was detected in heart, brain, and liver. In contrast, PvSOD1 was highly expressed in liver. Based on the expression patterns of above parameters, we inferred that brain tissue of P. vachelli under 0.7 mg/L degree of acute hypoxia condition could experience hypometabolic states or no suffering stress, but brain tissue has effective mechanisms to minimize or prevent oxidative stress during the transition from hypoxia to reoxygenation. Our results also demonstrated an increased expression of SODs and enzymatic activities for oxidative stress in liver under hypoxic conditions, which supports the hypothesis that anticipatory preparation takes place in order to deal with the encountered oxidative stress during the recovery from hypoxia as proposed by M. Hermes-Lima. Therefore, this study will provide a clue to better understand the action mode of antioxidant genes and enzymes under oxidative stress in fish. PMID:26945243

  8. Early-Life Social Isolation Stress Increases Kappa Opioid Receptor Responsiveness and Downregulates the Dopamine System.

    Karkhanis, Anushree N; Rose, Jamie H; Weiner, Jeffrey L; Jones, Sara R

    2016-08-01

    Chronic early-life stress increases vulnerability to alcoholism and anxiety disorders during adulthood. Similarly, rats reared in social isolation (SI) during adolescence exhibit augmented ethanol intake and anxiety-like behaviors compared with group housed (GH) rats. Prior studies suggest that disruption of dopamine (DA) signaling contributes to SI-associated behaviors, although the mechanisms underlying these alterations are not fully understood. Kappa opioid receptors (KORs) have an important role in regulating mesolimbic DA signaling, and other kinds of stressors have been shown to augment KOR function. Therefore, we tested the hypothesis that SI-induced increases in KOR function contribute to the dysregulation of NAc DA and the escalation in ethanol intake associated with SI. Our ex vivo voltammetry experiments showed that the inhibitory effects of the kappa agonist U50,488 on DA release were significantly enhanced in the NAc core and shell of SI rats. Dynorphin levels in NAc tissue were observed to be lower in SI rats. Microdialysis in freely moving rats revealed that SI was also associated with reduced baseline DA levels, and pretreatment with the KOR antagonist nor-binaltorphimine (nor-BNI) increased DA levels selectively in SI subjects. Acute ethanol elevated DA in SI and GH rats and nor-BNI pretreatment augmented this effect in SI subjects, while having no effect on ethanol-stimulated DA release in GH rats. Together, these data suggest that KORs may have increased responsiveness following SI, which could lead to hypodopaminergia and contribute to an increased drive to consume ethanol. Indeed, SI rats exhibited greater ethanol intake and preference and KOR blockade selectively attenuated ethanol intake in SI rats. Collectively, the findings that nor-BNI reversed SI-mediated hypodopaminergic state and escalated ethanol intake suggest that KOR antagonists may represent a promising therapeutic strategy for the treatment of alcohol use disorders, particularly

  9. Acute attenuation of glycocalyx barrier properties increases coronary blood volume independently of coronary flow reserve

    J. Brands; J.A.E. Spaan; B.M. van den Berg; H. Vink; J.W.G.E. VanTeeffelen

    2010-01-01

    Brands J, Spaan JA, Van den Berg BM, Vink H, VanTeeffelen JW. Acute attenuation of glycocalyx barrier properties increases coronary blood volume independently of coronary flow reserve. Am J Physiol Heart Circ Physiol 298: H515-H523, 2010. First published November 25, 2009; doi:10.1152/ajpheart.01306

  10. Determinants of exercise-induced increase of mitral regurgitation in patients with acute coronary syndromes

    Pecini, Redi; Hammer-Hansen, Sophia; Dalsgaard, Morten; Gøtze, Jens Peter; Hassager, Christian; Køber, Lars

    2010-01-01

    Mechanisms behind exercise-induced increase of mitral regurgitation (MR) in patients with chronic ischemic heart disease have been described earlier. We describe the determinants of exercise-induced changes in MR in patients with non-ST-elevation acute coronary syndrome (NSTACS)....

  11. Pulse pressure variation and volume responsiveness during acutely increased pulmonary artery pressure: an experimental study

    Daudel, Fritz; Tüller, David; Krähenbühl, Stefanie; Jakob, Stephan M; Takala, Jukka

    2010-01-01

    Introduction We found that pulse pressure variation (PPV) did not predict volume responsiveness in patients with increased pulmonary artery pressure. This study tests the hypothesis that PPV does not predict fluid responsiveness during an endotoxin-induced acute increase in pulmonary artery pressure and right ventricular loading. Methods Pigs were subjected to endotoxemia (0.4 μg/kg/hour lipopolysaccharide), followed by volume expansion, subsequent hemorrhage (20% of estimated blood volume), ...

  12. Psychological stress increases expression of aortic plaque intercellular adhesion molecule-1 and serum inflammatory cytokines in atherosclerotic rabbit model

    Muwei Li; Xianpei Wang; Lei Yang; Chuanyu Gao; Yexin Ma

    2008-01-01

    Plaque rupture,platelet aggregation,and thrombogenesis are the main mechanisms of acute coronary syndrome (ACS),and inflammation factors play key roles in plaque unstability.Psychological stress promotes acute inflammatory response,leading to increased circulating levels of C-reactive protein (CRP),IL-6,and serum intercellular adhesion molecule (sICAM)-1.But it is not clear that whether psychological stress has a direct effect on atherosclerotic plaque stability.The purpose of this study was to investigate effects of chronic psychological stress on inflammatory marker (ICAM-1 ) in atherosclerotic plaque,and inflammatory markers in peripheral blood.Materials and methods Sixty male rabbits were randomized into 2 groups:the control group (n =10) and the atherosclerotic group (n =50).The latter were fed on high fatty diet and were given a large dose of vitamin D3 (3 600 000IU/kg) via intraperitoneal injection.After 8 weeks,the atherosclerotic model was estaslished.Then the 50 atherosclerotic model rabbits were divided into 3 subgroups:no-stress subgroup (n = 16),physiological stress subgroup (n = 16) and psychological stress subgroup (n =18).In physiological stress subgroup and psychological stress subgroup,drinking was cut from twice a day to once a day.At the same time,psychological stress subgroup was given empty bottle stress,and this process lasted for 2 weeks.One hour after the last stress,the blood samples were collected and the serum levels of CRP,IL-6 amd ICAM-1 were tested by radioimmunoassay or enzyme linked immunosorbent assay.The aorta and heart were extracted for pathology examination,and the express of ICAM-1 was tested by immunohistochemical examination.Results (1) After effective atherosclerotic animal model construction,the expression of ICAM-1 in aorta was higher in atherosclerotic group than that in control group (P<0.01),and was notably higher in psychological stress subgroup than that in no-stress subgroup or in physiological stress subgroup (2

  13. Influence of Vitamin C Supplementation on Oxidative Stress and Neutrophil Inflammatory Response in Acute and Regular Exercise

    Ljiljana M. Popovic

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Exercise induces a multitude of physiological and biochemical changes in blood affecting its redox status. Tissue damage resulting from exercise induces activation of inflammatory cells followed by the increased activity of myeloperoxidase (MPO in circulation. Vitamin C readily scavenges free radicals and may thereby prevent oxidative damage of important biological macromolecules. The aim of this study was to examine the effect of vitamin C supplementation on oxidative stress and neutrophil inflammatory response induced by acute and regular exercise. Experiment was conducted on acute exercise group (performing Bruce Treadmill Protocol (BTP and regular training group. Markers of lipid peroxidation, malondialdehyde (MDA, MPO activity, and vitamin C status were estimated at rest and after BTP (acute exercise group and before and after vitamin C supplementation in both groups. Our results showed increased postexercise Asc in serum independently of vitamin supplementation. They also showed that vitamin C can significantly decrease postexercise MDA level in both experimental groups. Increased postexercise MPO activity has been found in both groups and was not affected by vitamin C supplementation. We concluded that vitamin C supplementation can suppress lipid peroxidation process during exercise but cannot affect neutrophil inflammatory response in either exercise group.

  14. Memory CD8(+) T Cells Require Increased Concentrations of Acetate Induced by Stress for Optimal Function.

    Balmer, Maria L; Ma, Eric H; Bantug, Glenn R; Grählert, Jasmin; Pfister, Simona; Glatter, Timo; Jauch, Annaïse; Dimeloe, Sarah; Slack, Emma; Dehio, Philippe; Krzyzaniak, Magdalena A; King, Carolyn G; Burgener, Anne-Valérie; Fischer, Marco; Develioglu, Leyla; Belle, Réka; Recher, Mike; Bonilla, Weldy V; Macpherson, Andrew J; Hapfelmeier, Siegfried; Jones, Russell G; Hess, Christoph

    2016-06-21

    How systemic metabolic alterations during acute infections impact immune cell function remains poorly understood. We found that acetate accumulates in the serum within hours of systemic bacterial infections and that these increased acetate concentrations are required for optimal memory CD8(+) T cell function in vitro and in vivo. Mechanistically, upon uptake by memory CD8(+) T cells, stress levels of acetate expanded the cellular acetyl-coenzyme A pool via ATP citrate lyase and promoted acetylation of the enzyme GAPDH. This context-dependent post-translational modification enhanced GAPDH activity, catalyzing glycolysis and thus boosting rapid memory CD8(+) T cell responses. Accordingly, in a murine Listeria monocytogenes model, transfer of acetate-augmented memory CD8(+) T cells exerted superior immune control compared to control cells. Our results demonstrate that increased systemic acetate concentrations are functionally integrated by CD8(+) T cells and translate into increased glycolytic and functional capacity. The immune system thus directly relates systemic metabolism with immune alertness. PMID:27212436

  15. Identification, quantification, and functional aspects of skeletal muscle protein-carbonylation in vivo during acute oxidative stress.

    Fedorova, Maria; Kuleva, Nadezhda; Hoffmann, Ralf

    2010-05-01

    Reactive oxidative species (ROS) play important roles in cellular signaling but can also modify and often functionally inactivate other biomolecules. Thus, cells have developed effective enzymatic and nonenzymatic strategies to scavenge ROS. However, under oxidative stress, ROS production is able to overwhelm the scavenging systems, increasing the levels of functionally impaired proteins. A major class of irreversible oxidative modifications is carbonylation, which refers to reactive carbonyl-groups. In this investigation, we have studied the production and clearance rates for skeletal muscle proteins in a rat model of acute oxidative stress over a time period of 24 h using a gel-based proteomics approach. Optimized ELISA and Western blots with 10-fold improved sensitivities showed that the carbonylation level was stable at 4 nmol per mg protein 3 h following ROS induction. The carbonylation level then increased 3-fold over 6 h and then remained stable. In total, the oxidative stress changed the steady state levels of 20 proteins and resulted in the carbonylation of 38 skeletal muscle proteins. Carbonylation of these proteins followed diverse kinetics with some proteins being highly carbonylated very quickly, whereas others peaked in the 9 h sample or continued to increase up to 24 h after oxidative stress was induced. PMID:20377239

  16. Aged rats are hypo-responsive to acute restraint: implications for psychosocial stress in aging

    Eric Blalock

    2014-01-01

    Cognitive processes associated with prefrontal cortex and hippocampus decline with age and are vulnerable to disruption by stress. The stress/ stress hormone/ allostatic load hypotheses of brain aging posit that brain aging, at least in part, is the manifestation of life-long stress exposure. In addition, as humans age, there is a profound increase in the incidence of new onset stressors, many of which are psychosocial (e.g., loss of job, death of spouse, social isolation), and aged humans ar...

  17. Genome-wide transcriptional analysis of genes associated with acute desiccation stress in Anopheles gambiae.

    Mei-Hui Wang

    Full Text Available Malaria transmission in sub-Saharan Africa varies seasonally in intensity. Outbreaks of malaria occur after the beginning of the rainy season, whereas, during the dry season, reports of the disease are less frequent. Anopheles gambiae mosquitoes, the main malaria vector, are observed all year long but their densities are low during the dry season that generally lasts several months. Aestivation, seasonal migration, and local adaptation have been suggested as mechanisms that enable mosquito populations to persist through the dry season. Studies of chromosomal inversions have shown that inversions 2La, 2Rb, 2Rc, 2Rd, and 2Ru are associated with various physiological changes that confer aridity resistance. However, little is known about how phenotypic plasticity responds to seasonally dry conditions. This study examined the effects of desiccation stress on transcriptional regulation in An. gambiae. We exposed female An. gambiae G3 mosquitoes to acute desiccation and conducted a genome-wide analysis of their transcriptomes using the Affymetrix Plasmodium/Anopheles Genome Array. The transcription of 248 genes (1.7% of all transcripts was significantly affected in all experimental conditions, including 96 with increased expression and 152 with decreased expression. In general, the data indicate a reduction in the metabolic rate of mosquitoes exposed to desiccation. Transcripts accumulated at higher levels during desiccation are associated with oxygen radical detoxification, DNA repair and stress responses. The proportion of transcripts within 2La and 2Rs (2Rb, 2Rc, 2Rd, and 2Ru (67/248, or 27% is similar to the percentage of transcripts located within these inversions (31%. These data may be useful in efforts to elucidate the role of chromosomal inversions in aridity tolerance. The scope of application of the anopheline genome demonstrates that examining transcriptional activity in relation to genotypic adaptations greatly expands the number of

  18. Critical job events, acute stress, and strain: a multiple interrupted time series.

    Eden, D

    1982-12-01

    A critical job event (CJE) is defined as a time-bounded peak of performance demand made on the individual as an integral part of his job. Though such events are an important source of acute job stress and are amenable to longitudinal study, relevant research has been scant. In the present study, the effects of acute objective stress on subjective stress and on psychological and physiological strain were assessed among 39 first-year nursing students in an interrupted time series with multiple replications. Strain was measured five times, twice in anticipation of CJE interspersed by three low-stress occasions. The CJEs were providing the first comprehensive patient care and the final exam in nursing. A consistently confirmatory pattern of significantly rising and falling strain was found for anxiety, systolic blood pressure, and pulse rate: qualitative overload and serum uric acid changed as predicted four times out of five. CJE research can redress past overemphasis on chronic organizational stress and strengthen causal interpretation. PMID:10257633

  19. Reflectants Application for Increasing Wheat Plant Tolerance Against Salt Stress

    M.S. Gaballah

    2004-01-01

    Full Text Available A pot trial was executed on two wheat varieties (Sakha 69 and Giza 168 grown in clay soil under saline conditions at the greenhouse of National Research Centre, for improving salinity tolerance of wheat plant and reducing moisture loss through transpiration by spraying plants twice with two types of reflectants (magnesium carbonate and kaolinite, during plant growth. Salinity stress had a drastic effect on plant growth and yield, however reflectant treatments improved growth and yield characters under salinity stress. The use of reflectants also reduced water loss and limited the potential for evaporative leaf cooling. Reflectants lowered Na/K ratio compared to untreated plants. On the other hand the use of reflectants did not show any significant accumulation or decrease in proline content compared to untreated plants. Also, reflectant application has no effect on carbohydrate reserves.

  20. Symptoms of acute posttraumatic stress disorder in prostate cancer patients following radical prostatectomy.

    Anastasiou, Ioannis; Yiannopoulou, Konstantina G; Mihalakis, Anastasios; Hatziandonakis, Nikolaos; Constantinides, Constantinos; Papageorgiou, Charalambos; Mitropoulos, Dionisios

    2011-01-01

    Psychological morbidity is increasingly reported in cancer survivors. The authors' objective was to determine the presence of acute posttraumatic stress disorder (PTSD) symptoms in prostate cancer (PC) patients following radical prostatectomy. Fifteen patients who underwent radical prostatectomy for localized prostate cancer were assessed for the presence of PTSD-related symptoms by completing the Davidson Trauma Scale (DTS), a month following the procedure. A group of 20 patients who underwent surgery for benign prostate hyperplasia (BPH) served as the control group. PTSD total scores were significantly higher in PC patients when compared with BPH patients, whose PTSD scores did not differ from those reported in the general population (32.6 ± 18.5 vs. 11.3 ± 9.7, p = .001). PTSD did not vary among PC patients when adjusted for educational status. PTSD symptoms are common among patients undergoing radical prostatectomy and independent of their educational level. Research investigating these aspects of posttreatment psychological adjustment is needed for developing well-targeted psychological interventions. PMID:20483867

  1. Oxidative stress and nitric oxide in rats with alcohol-induced acute pancreatitis

    Gülnur Andican; Remisa Gelisgen; Gülden Burcak; Ethem Unal; Osman Baran Tortum; Tayfun Karahasanoglu

    2005-01-01

    AIM: Oxygen free radical mediated tissue damage is well established in pathogenesis of acute pancreatitis (AP).Whether nitric oxide (NO) plays a deleterious or a protective role is unknown. In alcohol-induced AP, we studied NO, lipooxidative damage and glutathione in pancreas, lung and circulation.METHODS: AP was induced in rats (n = 25) by injection of ethyl alcohol into the common biliary duct. A sham laparatomy was performed in controls (n = 15). After 24 h the animals were killed, blood and tissue sampling were done.RESULTS: Histopathologic evidence confirmed the development of AP. Marked changes were observed in the pulmonary tissue. Compared with controls, the AP group displayed higher values for NO metabolites in pancreas and lungs, and thiobarbituric acid reactive substances in circulation. Glutathione was lower in pancreas and in circulation. Glutathione and NO were positively correlated in pancreas and lungs of controls but negatively correlated in circulation of experimental group. In the experimental group, plasma thiobarbituric acid reactive substances were negatively correlated with pancreas thiobarbituric acid reactive substances but positively correlated with pancreas NO.CONCLUSION: NO increases in both pancreas and lungs in AP and NO contributes to the pathogenesis of AP under oxidative stress.

  2. The effect of transport stress on turkey (Meleagris gallopavo) liver acute phase proteins gene expression.

    Marques, Andreia Tomás; Lecchi, Cristina; Grilli, Guido; Giudice, Chiara; Nodari, Sara Rota; Vinco, Leonardo J; Ceciliani, Fabrizio

    2016-02-01

    The aim of this study was to investigate the effects of transport-related stress on the liver gene expression of four acute phase proteins (APP), namely α1-acid glycoprotein (AGP), C-Reactive Protein (CRP), Serum Amyloid A (SAA) and PIT54, in turkeys (Meleagris gallopavo). A group of seven BUT BIG 6 commercial hens was subjected to a two-hour long road transportation and the quantitative gene expression of APP in the liver was compared to that of a non transported control group. The expression of AGP and CRP mRNA was found to be increased in animals slaughtered after road transport. The presence of AGP protein was also confirmed by immunohistochemistry and Western blotting. The results of this study showed that road-transport may induce the mRNA expression of immune related proteins. The finding that AGP and CRP can be upregulated during transport could suggest their use as for the assessment of turkey welfare during transport. PMID:26850544

  3. Urinary 1-Hydroxypyrene is Associated with Oxidative Stress and Inflammatory Biomarkers in Acute Myocardial Infarction

    Fernando Freitas; Natália Brucker; Juliano Durgante; Guilherme Bubols; Rachel Bulcão; Angela Moro; Mariele Charão; Marília Baierle; Sabrina Nascimento; Bruna Gauer; Elisa Sauer; Marcelo Zimmer; Flávia Thiesen; Iran Castro; Paulo Saldiva

    2014-01-01

    Several studies have associated exposure to environmental pollutants, especially polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs), with the development of cardiovascular diseases. Considering that 1-hydroxypyrene (1-OHP) is the major biomarker of exposure to pyrenes, the purpose of this study was to evaluate the potential association between 1-OHP and oxidative stress/inflammatory biomarkers in patients who had suffered an acute myocardial infarction (AMI). After adopting the exclusion criteria, 58 po...

  4. Cumulative Exposure to Prior Collective Trauma and Acute Stress Responses to the Boston Marathon Bombings

    Garfin, DR; Holman, EA; Silver, RC

    2015-01-01

    © The Author(s) 2015 The role of repeated exposure to collective trauma in explaining response to subsequent community-wide trauma is poorly understood. We examined the relationship between acute stress response to the 2013 Boston Marathon bombings and prior direct and indirect media-based exposure to three collective traumatic events: the September 11, 2001 (9/11) terrorist attacks, Superstorm Sandy, and the Sandy Hook Elementary School shooting. Representative samples of residents of metrop...

  5. Acute Stress Differentially Affects Aromatase Activity in Specific Brain Nuclei of Adult Male and Female Quail

    Dickens, Molly J; Cornil, Charlotte; Balthazart, Jacques

    2011-01-01

    The rapid and temporary suppression of reproductive behavior is often assumed to be an important feature of the adaptive acute stress response. However, how this suppression operates at the mechanistic level is poorly understood. The enzyme aromatase converts testosterone to estradiol in the brain to activate reproductive behavior in male Japanese quail (Coturnix japonica). The discovery of rapid and reversible modification of aromatase activity (AA) provides a potential mechanism for fast, s...

  6. The effects of acute anticipatory stress on frontal executive functions in healthy females

    Brookmann, Frieda

    2010-01-01

    Objective Results from previous studies show effects of stress hormones (cortisol) on cognitive functions, particularly those mediated by the hippocampus, but little research has examined the effects of cortisol on frontal executive functions, despite a preponderance of cortisol receptors in the frontal lobes. Existing research has focused on traditional measures of executive functions and the findings are inconsistent. The aim of the present study was to examine the effects of acute stres...

  7. Time profile of oxidative stress and neutrophil activation in ovine acute lung injury and sepsis

    Lange, Matthias; Szabo, Csaba; Traber, Daniel L.; Horvath, Eszter; Hamahata, Atsumori; Nakano, Yoshimitsu; Traber, Lillian D.; Cox, Robert A.; Schmalstieg, Frank C.; Herndon, David N.; Enkhbaatar, Perenlei

    2012-01-01

    The formation of oxidative stress in the lung and activation of neutrophils are major determinants in the development of respiratory failure following acute lung injury (ALI) and sepsis. However, the time changes of these pathogenic factors have not been sufficiently described. Twenty-four chronically instrumented sheep were subjected to cotton smoke inhalation injury and instillation of live Pseudomonas aeruginosa into both lungs. The sheep and were euthanized at 4, 8, 12, 18, and 24 hours p...

  8. Effect of Beta vulgaris Linn. leaves extract on anxiety- and depressive-like behavior and oxidative stress in mice after acute restraint stress

    Kunjbihari Sulakhiya

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Background: Stress plays a significant role in the pathogenesis of neuropsychiatric disorders such as anxiety and depression. Beta vulgaris is commonly known as "beet root" possessing antioxidant, anticancer, hepatoprotective, nephroprotective, wound healing, and anti-inflammatory properties. Objective: To study the protective effect of Beta vulgaris Linn. ethanolic extract (BVEE of leaves against acute restraint stress (ARS-induced anxiety- and depressive-like behavior and oxidative stress in mice. Materials and Methods: Mice (n = 6 were pretreated with BVEE (100 and 200 mg/kg, p. o. for 7 days and subjected to ARS for 6 h to induce behavioral and biochemical changes. Anxiety- and depressive-like behavior were measured by using different behavioral paradigms such as open field test (OFT, elevated plus maze (EPM, forced swim test (FST, and tail suspension test (TST 40 min postARS. Brain homogenate was used to analyze oxidative stress parameters, that is, malondialdehyde (MDA and reduced glutathione (GSH level. Results: BVEE pretreatment significantly (P < 0.05 reversed the ARS-induced reduction in EPM parameters, that is, percentage entries and time spent in open arms and in OFT parameters, that is, line crossings, and rearings in mice. ARS-induced increase in the immobility time in FST and TST was attenuated significantly (P < 0.05 by BVEE pretreatment at both the dosage. An increase in MDA and depletion of GSH level postARS was prevented significantly (P < 0.05 with BVEE pretreatment at both the dosage (100 and 200 mg/kg. Conclusion: BVEE exhibits anxiolytic and antidepressant activity in stressed mice along with good antioxidant property suggesting its therapeutic potential in the treatment of stress-related psychiatric disorders.

  9. Interactive Effects of Elevated CO2 and Growth Temperature on the Tolerance of Photosynthesis to Acute Heat Stress in C3 and C4 Species

    E. William Hamilton Ⅲ; Scott A. Heckathorn; Puneet Joshi; Dan Wang; Deepak Barua

    2008-01-01

    Determining effects of elevated CO2 on the tolerance of photosynthesis to acute heat-stress (heat wave) is necessary for predicting plant responses to global warming, as photosynthesis is thermolabile and acute heat-stress and atmospheric CO2 will increase in the future. Few studies have examined this, and past results are variable, which may be due to methodological variation. To address this, we grew two C3 and two C4 species at current or elevated CO2 and three different growth temperatures (GT). We assessed photosynthetic thermotolerance in both unacclimated (basal tolerance) and preheat-stressed (preHS = acclimated) plants. In C3 species, basal thermotolerance of net photosynthesis (Pn) was increased In high CO2, but in C4 species, Pn thermotlerance was decreased by high CO2 (except Zea maya at low GT); CO2 effects in preHS plants were mostly small or absent, though high CO2 was detrimental in one C3 and one C4 species at warmer GT. Though high CO2 generally decreased stomatal conductance, decreases in Pn during heat stress were mostly due to non-stomatal effects. Photosystem II (PSII) efficiency was often decreased by high CO2 during heat stress, especially at high GT; CO2 effects on post-PSll electron transport were variable. Thus, high CO2 often affected photosynthetic theromotolerance, and the effects varied with photosynthetic pathway, growth temperature, and acclimation state. Most importantly, in heat-stressed plants at normal or warmer growth temperatures, high CO2 may often decrease, or not benefit as expected, tolerance of photosynthesis to acute heat stress. Therefore, interactive effects of elevated CO2 and warmer growth temperatures on acute heat tolerance may contribute to future changes in plant productivity, distribution, and diversity.

  10. Prenatal Stress Produces Sex Specific Changes in Depression-like Behavior in Rats: Implications for Increased Vulnerability in Females

    Sickmann, Helle Mark; Arentzen, Tine S; Dyrby, Tim;

    2015-01-01

    -like behavior as well as circadian patterning of motor activity in both male and female offspring. For this purpose, we exposed pregnant Sprague-Dawley rats to multiple stressors during gestational days 13-21. Subsequently, we monitored locomotor and rearing/climbing activities in home-like cages for 24 h and...... measured anxiety- (elevated plus maze, EPM) and depression-like (forced swim test, FST) behaviors in the offspring at a young adult age. As a stressful event later in life (in addition to PS) may be needed to actually trigger an episode of clinical depression, half of the animals were exposed to an acute...... affected in control animals after acute stressor exposure, however, this response was blunted in PS offspring. Moreover, FST immobility, as an indicator of depressive-like behavior, was increased in female but not male PS rats. Altogether, our results identify both sex- and circadian phase-specific effects...

  11. Effects of resolvin D1 on inflammatory responses and oxidative stress of lipopolysaccharide-induced acute lung injury in mice

    Wang Lei; Yuan Ruixia; Yao Chengyue; Wu Qingping; Marie Christelle; Xie Wanli; Zhang Xingcai

    2014-01-01

    Background A variety of inflammatory mediators and effector cells participate together in acute lung injury,and lead to secondary injury that is due to an inflammatory cascade and secondary diffuse lung parenchyma injury.Inflammation is associated with an oxidative stress reaction,which is produced in the development of airway inflammation,and which has positive feedback on inflammation itself.Resolvin D1 can reduce the infiltration of neutrophils,regulate cytokine levels and reduce the inflammation reaction,and thereby promote the resolution of inflammation.The purpose of this study is to investigate the effects of resolvin D1 on an inflammatory response and oxidative stress during lipopolysaccharide (LPS)-induced acute lung injury.Methods LPS (3 mg/kg) was used to induce the acute lung injury model.Pretreatment resolvin D1 (100 ng/mouse) was given to mice 30 minutes before inducing acute lung injury.Mice were observed at 6 hours,12 hours,1 day,2 days,3 days,4 days and 7 days after LPS was administrated,then they were humanely sacrificed.We collected bronchoalveolar lavage fluid (BALF) and the lung tissues for further analysis.Paraffin section and HE staining of the lung tissues were made for histopathology observations.Parts of the lung tissues were evaluated for wet-to-dry (W/D) weight ratio.tumor necrosis factor (TNF)-α,inter leukin (IL)-1β,IL-10 and myeloperoxidase (MPO) were detected by enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay (ELISA).A lipid peroxidation malondialdehyde (MDA) assay kit was used to detect MDA.A total superoxide dismutase assay kit with WST-1 was used to analyze superoxide dismutase (SOD).We determined the apoptosis of neutrophils by Flow Cytometry.A real-time quantitative PCR Detecting System detected the expression of mRNA for heme oxygenase (HO)-1.Results Pretreatment with resolvin D1 reduced the pathological damage in the lung,decreased the recruitment of neutrophils and stimulated their apoptosis.It markedly decreased the expressions of TNF

  12. EFFECT OF HELICOBACTER PYLORI INFECTION ON ACUTE STRESS-RELATED GASTRIC MUCOSAL DAMAGE OF SERIOUSLY ILL PATIENTS

    赵超; 肖文; 叶光福; 周建平; 周其璋

    2002-01-01

    Emergency endoscopy studies have shown that the most of seriously ill patients develop acute stress-related mucosal damage and ulceration within 24 hours of admission, which manifest the upper gastrointestinal tract

  13. Perturbations in Effort-Related Decision-Making Driven by Acute Stress and Corticotropin-Releasing Factor.

    Bryce, Courtney A; Floresco, Stan B

    2016-07-01

    Acute stress activates numerous systems in a coordinated effort to promote homeostasis, and can exert differential effects on mnemonic and cognitive functions depending on a myriad of factors. Stress can alter different forms of cost/benefit decision-making, yet the mechanisms that drive these effects, remain unclear. In the present study, we probed how corticotropin-releasing factor (CRF) may contribute to stress-induced alterations in cost/benefit decision-making, using an task where well-trained rats chose between a low effort/low reward lever (LR; two pellets) and a high effort/high reward lever (HR; four pellets), with the effort requirement increasing over a session (2, 5, 10, and 20 presses). One-hour restraint stress markedly reduced preference for the HR option, but this effect was attenuated by infusions of the CRF antagonist, alpha-helical CRF. Conversely, central CRF infusion mimicked the effect of stress on decision-making, as well as increased decision latencies and reduced response vigor. CRF infusions did not alter preference for larger vs smaller rewards, but did reduce responding for food delivered on a progressive ratio, suggesting that these treatments may amplify perceived effort costs that may be required to obtain rewards. CRF infusions into the ventral tegmental area recapitulated the effect of central CRF treatment and restraint on choice behavior, suggesting that these effects may be mediated by perturbations in dopamine transmission. These findings highlight the involvement of CRF in regulating effort-related decisions and suggest that increased CRF activity may contribute to motivational impairments and abnormal decision-making associated with stress-related psychiatric disorders such as depression. PMID:26830960

  14. Differences in maladaptive schemas between patients suffering from chronic and acute posttraumatic stress disorder and healthy controls

    Ahmadian, Alireza; Mirzaee, Jafar; Omidbeygi, Maryam; Holsboer-Trachsler, Edith; Brand, Serge

    2015-01-01

    Background War, as a stressor event, has a variety of acute and chronic negative consequences, such as posttraumatic stress disorder (PTSD). In this context, early maladaptive schema-based problems in PTSD have recently become an important research area. The aim of this study was to assess early maladaptive schemas in patients with acute and chronic PTSD. Method Using available sampling methods and diagnostic criteria, 30 patients with chronic PTSD, 30 patients with acute PTSD, and 30 normal ...

  15. Acute Kidney Injury Is Common in Pediatric Severe Malaria and Is Associated With Increased Mortality

    Conroy, Andrea L.; Hawkes, Michael; Elphinstone, Robyn E.; Morgan, Catherine; Hermann, Laura; Barker, Kevin R.; Namasopo, Sophie; Opoka, Robert O.; John, Chandy C.; Liles, W. Conrad; Kain, Kevin C.

    2016-01-01

    Background. Acute kidney injury (AKI) is a well recognized complication of severe malaria in adults, but the incidence and clinical importance of AKI in pediatric severe malaria (SM) is not well documented. Methods. One hundred eighty children aged 1 to 10 years with SM were enrolled between 2011 and 2013 in Uganda. Kidney function was monitored daily for 4 days using serum creatinine (Cr). Acute kidney injury was defined using the Kidney Disease: Improving Global Outcomes (KDIGO) guidelines. Blood urea nitrogen (BUN) and Cr were assessed using i-STAT, and cystatin C (CysC) was measured by enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay. Results. Eighty-one (45.5%) children had KDIGO-defined AKI in the study: 42 (51.9%) stage 1, 18 (22.2%) stage 2, and 21 (25.9%) stage 3. Acute kidney injury evolved or developed in 50% of children after admission of hospital. There was an increased risk of AKI in children randomized to inhaled nitric oxide (iNO), with 47 (54.0%) of children in the iNO arm developing AKI compared with 34 (37.4%) in the placebo arm (relative risk, 1.36; 95% confidence interval [CI], 1.03–1.80). Duration of hospitalization increased across stages of AKI (P = .002). Acute kidney injury was associated with neurodisability at discharge in the children receiving placebo (25% in children with AKI vs 1.9% in children with no AKI, P = .002). Mortality increased across stages of AKI (P = .006) in the placebo arm, reaching 37.5% in stage 3 AKI. Acute kidney injury was not associated with neurodisability or mortality at discharge in children receiving iNO (P > .05 for both). Levels of kidney biomarkers were predictive of mortality with areas under the curves (AUCs) of 0.80 (95% CI, .65–.95; P = .006) and 0.72 (95% CI, .57–.87; P < .001), respectively. Admission levels of CysC and BUN were elevated in children who died by 6 months (P < .0001 and P = .009, respectively). Conclusions. Acute kidney injury is an underrecognized complication in young children with SM

  16. Carvacrol modulates oxidative stress and decreases cell injury in pancreas of rats with acute pancreatitis.

    Kılıç, Yeliz; Geyikoglu, Fatime; Çolak, Suat; Turkez, Hasan; Bakır, Murat; Hsseinigouzdagani, Mirkhalil

    2016-08-01

    Acute pancreatitis (AP) is considered as major problem around the world and the incidence of AP is increasing. Carvacrol (CAR), a monoterpenic phenol, has good antioxidant activity. This in vivo study was designed to evaluate whether CAR provide protection against AP that developed by pancreas injury. The rats were randomised into groups to receive (I) no therapy; (II) 50 µg/kg cerulein at 1 h intervals by four intraperitonally (i.p.) injections; (III) 50, 100 and 200 mg/kg CAR by one i.p. injection; and (IV) cerulein plus CAR after 2 h of cerulein administration. 12 h later, serum samples were obtained to assess pancreatic function, the lipase and amylase values. The oxidative stress markers were evaluated by changes in the amount of lipid peroxides measured as malondialdehyde (MDA) and changes in main tissue antioxidant enzyme levels including SOD, CAT and GSH-PX. Histopathological examination was performed using scoring systems. Additionally, oxidative DNA damage was determined by measuring the increases of 8-hydroxy-deoxyguanosine (8-OH-dG) formations. We found that the increasing doses of CAR decreased AP-induced MDA and 8-OH-dG levels. Moreover, the pancreas antioxidant enzyme activities were higher than that of the rats in the AP group when compared to the AP plus CAR group. In the treatment groups, the lipase and amylase were reduced. Besides, histopathological findings in the pancreatic tissue were alleviated (p < 0.05). We suggest that CAR could be a safe and potent new drug candidate for treating AP through its antioxidative mechanism of action for the treatment of a wide range of disorders related to pancreas. PMID:26093481

  17. BEHAVIORAL CHARACTERISTICS OF RATS ON VARIOUS HIERARCHICAL LEVEL CAUSED BY ACUTE INFORMATIONAL STRESS.

    Matitaishvili, T; Domianidze, T; Emukhvari, N; Khananashvili, M

    2016-03-01

    The aim of our research was to study behavioral indices of rats standing on various hierarchical level in the conditions of acute informational stress as well as their resistance to stress taking into account their social status. The Animal's behavior has been studied in conflict and agonist conditions against the background of high food and thirst motivation. After determination of hierarchical relations the stressing procedure of two active avoidance reactions was performed simultaneously during one trial (14 days). During the experiment, behavioral indices of rats induced by stressing procedure were registered. We used "open field" test in order to assess animals' emotional state. The studies performed by us demonstrated behavioral characteristics of animals standing on various hierarchical level. The obtained results showed that after stressing all the animals of the group under stressogenic influence of equal strength, behavior of rats did nor reliably differ in conflict situations. Dominants standing on high hierarchical level remained active in both conflict situations. The impact of stress on their behavior was less detected. Dominant animal maintained its hierarchical status. Submissive rats were more greatly influenced by stress. The obtained results confirmed that dominant animals were characterized with more comprehensively developed self-regulating mechanisms of brain. PMID:27119838

  18. Biomarkers for oxidative stress in acute lung injury induced in rabbits submitted to different strategies of mechanical ventilation

    Oxidative damage has been said to play an important role in pulmonary injury, which is associated with the development and progression of acute respiratory distress syndrome (ARDS). We aimed to identify biomarkers to determine the oxidative stress in an animal model of acute lung injury (ALI) using ...

  19. Honey bee (Apis mellifera) drones survive oxidative stress due to increased tolerance instead of avoidance or repair of oxidative damage

    Oxidative stress can lead to premature aging symptoms and cause acute mortality at higher doses in a range of organisms. Oxidative stress resistance and longevity are mechanistically and phenotypically linked: considerable variation in oxidative stress resistance exists among and within species and ...

  20. Mice lacking sulfonylurea receptor 2 (SUR2) ATP sensitive potassium channels are resistant to acute cardiovascular stress

    Stoller, Douglas; Kakkar, Rahul; Smelley, Matthew; Chalupsky, Karel; Earley, Judy U.; Shi, Nian-Qing; Makielski, Jonathan C.; McNally, Elizabeth M.

    2007-01-01

    Adenosine triphosphate sensitive potassium (KATP) channels are thought to mediate stress response by sensing intracellular ATP concentration. Cardiomyocyte KATP channels are composed of the pore-forming Kir6.2 subunit and the regulatory sulfonylurea receptor 2 (SUR2). We studied the response to acute isoproterenol in SUR2 null mice as a model of acute adrenergic stress and found that the episodic coronary vasospasm observed at baseline in SUR2 null mice was alleviated. Similar results were ob...

  1. Asg1 is a stress-inducible gene which increases stomatal resistance in salt stressed potato

    Batelli, Giorgia; Massarelli, Immacolata; Van Oosten, Michael; Nurcato, Roberta; Vannini, Candida; Raimondi, Giampaolo; Leone, Antonella; Zhu, Jian-Kang; Maggio, Albino; Grillo, Stefania

    2012-01-01

    The identification of critical components in plant salt stress adaptation has greatly benefitted, in the last two decades, from fundamental discoveries in Arabidopsis and close model systems. Nevertheless, this approach has also highlighted a non-complete overlap between stress tolerance mechanisms in Arabidopsis and agricultural crops. Within a long-running research program aimed at identifying salt stress genetic determinants in potato by functional screening in Escherichia coli, we isolate...

  2. ACUTE STRESS DISORDER VERSUS CHRONIC POSTTRAUMATIC STRESS DISORDER: INHIBITION OF FEAR AS A FUNCTION OF TIME SINCE TRAUMA

    Jovanovic, Tanja; Sakoman, Andrea Jambrošić; Kozarić-Kovačić, Dragica; Meštrović, Ana Havelka; Duncan, Erica J.; Davis, Michael; Norrholm, Seth D.

    2013-01-01

    Background Previous work has shown that inhibition of fear is impaired in posttraumatic stress disorder (PTSD) resulting from both civilian and combat trauma. The purpose of the present study was to investigate the inhibition of learned fear in traumatized individuals diagnosed with either acute stress disorder (ASD) or PTSD. This is the first study to use a conditioned inhibition paradigm with traumatized individuals within a month of trauma exposure. We hypothesized that impaired fear inhibition would be evident in PTSD, but not ASD. Method Using established translational, psychophysiological methods including fear-potentiated startle, and skin conductance, we examined fear acquisition, stimulus discrimination, and the transfer of learned safety in a Croatian population with ASD or PTSD. This cross-sectional study included three age-matched groups: healthy nontrauma controls (n = 27), a group with chronic PTSD (10 or more years since trauma exposure, n = 24), and a group with ASD (30 days or less since trauma exposure, n = 27). Results The presence of trauma-related psychopathology, whether acute or chronic, was associated with an impaired ability to transfer learned safety based on fear-potentiated startle measures, while healthy control subjects showed significant fear inhibition in the presence of the safety cue compared to the danger cue, F(1,26) = 12.64, P = .001. Conclusions These data expand our previously observed findings of PTSD-associated fear inhibition deficits by demonstrating that trauma-related impairments in safety learning are evident within 30 days of trauma exposure. PMID:22907890

  3. The impact of acute stress on hormones and cytokines, and how their recovery is affected by music-evoked positive mood

    Stefan Koelsch; Albrecht Boehlig; Maximilian Hohenadel; Ines Nitsche; Katrin Bauer; Ulrich Sack

    2016-01-01

    Stress and recovery from stress significantly affect interactions between the central nervous system, endocrine pathways, and the immune system. However, the influence of acute stress on circulating immune-endocrine mediators in humans is not well known. Using a double-blind, randomized study design, we administered a CO2 stress test to n = 143 participants to identify the effects of acute stress, and recovery from stress, on serum levels of several mediators with immune function (IL-6, TNF-α...

  4. Effect of acute stresses on zebra fish (Danio rerio) metabolome measured by NMR-based metabolomics.

    Mushtaq, Mian Yahya; Marçal, Rosilene Moretti; Champagne, Danielle L; van der Kooy, Frank; Verpoorte, Robert; Choi, Young Hae

    2014-09-01

    We applied an acute stress model to zebra fish in order to measure the changes in the metabolome due to biological stress. This was done by submitting the fish to fifteen minutes of acute confinement (netting) stress, and then five minutes for the open field and light/dark field tests. A polar extract of the zebra fish was then subjected to (1)H nuclear magnetic spectroscopy. Multivariate data analysis of the spectra showed a clear separation associated to a wide range of metabolites between zebra fish that were submitted to open field and light/dark field tests. Alanine, taurine, adenosine, creatine, lactate, and histidine were high in zebra fish to which the light/dark field test was applied, regardless of stress, while acetate and isoleucine/lipids appeared to be higher in zebra fish exposed to the open field test. These results show that any change in the environment, even for a small period of time, has a noticeable physiological impact. This research provides an insight of how different mechanisms are activated under different environments to maintain the homeostasis of the body. It should also contribute to establish zebra fish as a model for metabolomics studies. PMID:25098933

  5. Increased functional connectivity in the resting-state basal ganglia network after acute heroin substitution.

    Schmidt, A; Denier, N; Magon, S; Radue, E-W; Huber, C G; Riecher-Rossler, A; Wiesbeck, G A; Lang, U E; Borgwardt, S; Walter, M

    2015-01-01

    Reinforcement signals in the striatum are known to be crucial for mediating the subjective rewarding effects of acute drug intake. It is proposed that these effects may be more involved in early phases of drug addiction, whereas negative reinforcement effects may occur more in later stages of the illness. This study used resting-state functional magnetic resonance imaging to explore whether acute heroin substitution also induced positive reinforcement effects in striatal brain regions of protracted heroin-maintained patients. Using independent component analysis and a dual regression approach, we compared resting-state functional connectivity (rsFC) strengths within the basal ganglia/limbic network across a group of heroin-dependent patients receiving both an acute infusion of heroin and placebo and 20 healthy subjects who received placebo only. Subsequent correlation analyses were performed to test whether the rsFC strength under heroin exposure correlated with the subjective rewarding effect and with plasma concentrations of heroin and its main metabolites morphine. Relative to the placebo treatment in patients, heroin significantly increased rsFC of the left putamen within the basal ganglia/limbic network, the extent of which correlated positively with patients' feelings of rush and with the plasma level of morphine. Furthermore, healthy controls revealed increased rsFC of the posterior cingulate cortex/precuneus in this network relative to the placebo treatment in patients. Our results indicate that acute heroin substitution induces a subjective rewarding effect via increased striatal connectivity in heroin-dependent patients, suggesting that positive reinforcement effects in the striatum still occur after protracted maintenance therapy. PMID:25803496

  6. Acute ethanol exposure increases the susceptibility of the donor hearts to ischemia/reperfusion injury after transplantation in rats.

    Shiliang Li

    contractility and relaxation, oxidative stress and altered protein expression were observed. CONCLUSIONS: These results demonstrate acute alcohol abuse increases the susceptibility of donor hearts to ischemia/reperfusion in a rat heart transplant model even though the global contractile function recovers 6 h after ethanol-administration.

  7. Acute lead exposure increases arterial pressure: role of the renin-angiotensin system.

    Maylla Ronacher Simões

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: Chronic lead exposure causes hypertension and cardiovascular disease. Our purpose was to evaluate the effects of acute exposure to lead on arterial pressure and elucidate the early mechanisms involved in the development of lead-induced hypertension. METHODOLOGY/PRINCIPAL FINDINGS: Wistar rats were treated with lead acetate (i.v. bolus dose of 320 µg/Kg, and systolic arterial pressure, diastolic arterial pressure and heart rate were measured during 120 min. An increase in arterial pressure was found, and potential roles of the renin-angiotensin system, Na(+,K(+-ATPase and the autonomic reflexes in this change in the increase of arterial pressure found were evaluated. In anesthetized rats, lead exposure: 1 produced blood lead levels of 37±1.7 µg/dL, which is below the reference blood concentration (60 µg/dL; 2 increased systolic arterial pressure (Ct: 109±3 mmHg vs Pb: 120±4 mmHg; 3 increased ACE activity (27% compared to Ct and Na(+,K(+-ATPase activity (125% compared to Ct; and 4 did not change the protein expression of the α1-subunit of Na(+,K(+-ATPase, AT(1 and AT(2. Pre-treatment with an AT(1 receptor blocker (losartan, 10 mg/Kg or an ACE inhibitor (enalapril, 5 mg/Kg blocked the lead-induced increase of arterial pressure. However, a ganglionic blockade (hexamethonium, 20 mg/Kg did not prevent lead's hypertensive effect. CONCLUSION: Acute exposure to lead below the reference blood concentration increases systolic arterial pressure by increasing angiotensin II levels due to ACE activation. These findings offer further evidence that acute exposure to lead can trigger early mechanisms of hypertension development and might be an environmental risk factor for cardiovascular disease.

  8. An empirical study on managing stress in guided schools to increase educational skills

    Leila Zeinalian

    2012-01-01

    The primary objective of this paper is to study the impact of stress on educational school- children who are enrolled in guided schools. Teenagers are normally facing with stress and feelings and when the level of stress increases, they may face with problems, which would become more serious as they get older. In this study, we perform a standard stress relief program (CS-R Coping With Stress-Revised) and try to reduce the burden of stress among 1240 students who attended guided schools. We s...

  9. Increases in Acute Hepatitis B Virus Infections - Kentucky, Tennessee, and West Virginia, 2006-2013.

    Harris, Aaron M; Iqbal, Kashif; Schillie, Sarah; Britton, James; Kainer, Marion A; Tressler, Stacy; Vellozzi, Claudia

    2016-01-01

    As many as 2.2 million persons in the United States are chronically infected with hepatitis B virus (HBV) (1), and approximately 15%-25% of persons with chronic HBV infection will die prematurely from cirrhosis or liver cancer (2). Since 2006, the overall U.S. incidence of acute HBV infection has remained stable; the rate in 2013 was 1.0 case per 100,000 persons (3). Hepatitis B vaccination is highly effective in preventing HBV infection and is recommended for all infants (beginning at birth), all adolescents, and adults at risk for HBV infection (e.g., persons who inject drugs, men who have sexual contact with men, persons infected with human immunodeficiency virus [HIV], and others). Hepatitis B vaccination coverage is low among adults: 2013 National Health Interview Survey data indicated that coverage with ≥3 doses of hepatitis B vaccine was 32.6% for adults aged 19-49 years (4). Injection drug use is a risk factor for both hepatitis C virus (HCV) and HBV. Among young adults in some rural U.S. communities, an increased incidence of HCV infection has been associated with a concurrent increase of injection drug use (5); and recent data indicate an increase of acute HCV infection in the Appalachian region associated with injection drug use (6). Using data from the National Notifiable Diseases Surveillance System (NNDSS) during 2006-2013, CDC assessed the incidence of acute HBV infection in three of the four Appalachian states (Kentucky, Tennessee, and West Virginia) included in the HCV infection study (6). Similar to the increase of HCV infections recently reported, an increase in incident cases of acute HBV infection in these three states has occurred among non-Hispanic whites (whites) aged 30-39 years who reported injection drug use as a common risk factor. Since 2009, cases of acute HBV infection have been reported from more non-urban than urban regions. Evidence-based services to prevent HBV infection are needed. PMID:26821369

  10. The Latent Factor Structure of Acute Stress Disorder following Bank Robbery

    Hansen, M.; Lasgaard, M.; Elklit, A.

    2013-01-01

    OBJECTIVE: Acute stress disorder (ASD) was introduced into the fourth edition of the Diagnostic and Statistical Manual of Mental Disorders (DSM-IV; American Psychiatric Association, 1994) to identify posttraumatic stress reactions occurring within the first month after a trauma and thus help to...... identify victims at risk of developing posttraumatic stress disorder (PTSD). Since its introduction, research into ASD has focused on the prediction of PTSD, whereas only a few studies have investigated the latent structure of ASD. Results of the latter have been mixed. In light of the current proposal for...... the ASD diagnosis in the pending DSM-5, there is a profound need for empirical studies that investigate the latent structure of ASD prior to the DSM-5 being finalized. DESIGN: Based on previous factor analytic research, the DSM-IV, and the proposed DSM-5 formulation of ASD, four different models of...

  11. Acute caffeine treatment increases extracellular nucleotide hydrolysis from rat striatal and hippocampal synaptosomes.

    da Silva, Rosane Souza; Bruno, Alessandra Nejar; Battastini, Ana Maria Oliveira; Sarkis, João José Freitas; Lara, Diogo Rizzato; Bonan, Carla Denise

    2003-08-01

    The psychostimulant caffeine promotes behavioral effects such as hyperlocomotion, anxiety, and disruption of sleep by blockade of adenosine receptors. The availability of extracellular adenosine depends on its release by transporters or by the extracellular ATP catabolism performed by the ecto-nucleotidase pathway. This study verified the effect of caffeine on NTPDase 1 (ATP diphosphohydrolase) and 5'-nucleotidase of synaptosomes from hippocampus and striatum of rats. Caffeine and theophylline tested in vitro were unable to modify nucleotide hydrolysis. Caffeine chronically administered in the drinking water at 0.3 g/L or 1 g/L for 14 days failed to affect nucleotide hydrolysis. However, acute administration of caffeine (30 mg/kg, i.p.) produced an enhancement of ATP (50%) and ADP (32%) hydrolysis in synaptosomes of hippocampus and striatum, respectively. This activation of ATP and ADP hydrolysis after acute treatment suggests a compensatory effect to increase adenosine levels and counteract the antagonist action of caffeine. PMID:12834266

  12. Thermomechanical processing of 5083 aluminum to increase strength without increasing susceptibility to stress corrosion cracking

    Edstrom, C. M.; Blakeslee, J. J.

    1980-09-30

    5083 aluminium with 25% cold work must be processed above 215/sup 0/C or below 70/sup 0/C to avoid forming continuous precipitate in the grain boundaries which makes the material susceptible to stress corrosion cracking. Time at temperature above 215/sup 0/C should be held to minimum (less than 30 min) to retain some strength from the 25% cold work.

  13. Thermomechanical processing of 5083 aluminum to increase strength without increasing susceptibility to stress corrosion cracking

    5083 aluminium with 25% cold work must be processed above 2150C or below 700C to avoid forming continuous precipitate in the grain boundaries which makes the material susceptible to stress corrosion cracking. Time at temperature above 2150C should be held to minimum (less than 30 min) to retain some strength from the 25% cold work

  14. Acute hypoxia increases the cerebral metabolic rate - a magnetic resonance imaging study.

    Vestergaard, Mark B; Lindberg, Ulrich; Aachmann-Andersen, Niels Jacob; Lisbjerg, Kristian; Christensen, Søren Just; Law, Ian; Rasmussen, Peter; Olsen, Niels V; Larsson, Henrik Bw

    2016-06-01

    The aim of the present study was to examine changes in cerebral metabolism by magnetic resonance imaging of healthy subjects during inhalation of 10% O2 hypoxic air. Hypoxic exposure elevates cerebral perfusion, but its effect on energy metabolism has been less investigated. Magnetic resonance imaging techniques were used to measure global cerebral blood flow and the venous oxygen saturation in the sagittal sinus. Global cerebral metabolic rate of oxygen was quantified from cerebral blood flow and arteriovenous oxygen saturation difference. Concentrations of lactate, glutamate, N-acetylaspartate, creatine and phosphocreatine were measured in the visual cortex by magnetic resonance spectroscopy. Twenty-three young healthy males were scanned for 60 min during normoxia, followed by 40 min of breathing hypoxic air. Inhalation of hypoxic air resulted in an increase in cerebral blood flow of 15.5% (p = 0.058), and an increase in cerebral metabolic rate of oxygen of 8.5% (p = 0.035). Cerebral lactate concentration increased by 180.3% ([Formula: see text]), glutamate increased by 4.7% ([Formula: see text]) and creatine and phosphocreatine decreased by 15.2% (p[Formula: see text]). The N-acetylaspartate concentration was unchanged (p = 0.36). In conclusion, acute hypoxia in healthy subjects increased perfusion and metabolic rate, which could represent an increase in neuronal activity. We conclude that marked changes in brain homeostasis occur in the healthy human brain during exposure to acute hypoxia. PMID:26661163

  15. Stress increases in nozzle areas of pieces of spherical and cylindrical shells

    Strength calculations for heat exchangers or pressure vessels are made by means of design formulas which are to guarantee a suitable safety margin between membrane stresses and the materials yield point. The sectional areas are of particular importance, as they are characterized by distinct stress increases as compared with the piece's basic stresses, and in these areas locally confined, permanent tensile stresses may build up. The contribution explains stress-increasing factors for the case of internal pressures on nozzle areas of cylinders by means of comparing rotation-symmetrical and three-dimensional strength calculations. (orig./HP)

  16. Increase in perceived stress is correlated to lower heart rate variability in healthy young subjects

    Ana Gabriela Câmara Batista da Silva; Diego Neves Araujo; Amanda Caroline Muñoz Costa; Bruna Alice Lima Dias; Guilherme Augusto de Freitas Fregonezi; Fernando Augusto Lavezzo Dias

    2015-01-01

    Emotional stress is a risk factor for cardiovascular disease. Decreased heart rate variability (HRV) is associated to increased mortality rates in certain heart diseases. Current study assessed the co-relation between perceived stress and HRV parameters. The correlation between psychological stress, measured by the perceived stress scale (PSS-14), and HRV parameters obtained during 5 min. at rest was evaluated. Data from 35 healthy young volunteers demonstrated a significant correlation betwe...

  17. Association between Oxidative Stress and Outcome in Different Subtypes of Acute Ischemic Stroke

    Nai-Wen Tsai

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Objectives. This study investigated serum thiobarbituric acid-reactive substances (TBARS and free thiol levels in different subtypes of acute ischemic stroke (AIS and evaluated their association with clinical outcomes. Methods. This prospective study evaluated 100 AIS patients, including 75 with small-vessel and 25 with large-vessel diseases. Serum oxidative stress (TBARS and antioxidant (thiol were determined within 48 hours and days 7 and 30 after stroke. For comparison, 80 age- and sex-matched participants were evaluated as controls. Results. Serum TBARS was significantly higher and free thiol was lower in stroke patients than in the controls on days 1 and 7 after AIS. The level of free thiol was significantly lower in the large-vessel disease than in the small-vessel disease on day 7 after stroke. Using the stepwise logistic regression model for potential variables, only stroke subtype, NIHSS score, and serum TBARS level were independently associated with three-month outcome. Higher TBARS and lower thiol levels in the acute phase of stroke were associated with poor outcome. Conclusions. Patients with large-vessel disease have higher oxidative stress but lower antioxidant defense compared to those with small-vessel disease after AIS. Serum TBARS level at the acute phase of stroke is a potential predictor for three-month outcome.

  18. Evidence that ship noise increases stress in right whales

    Rolland, Rosalind M.; Susan E Parks; Hunt, Kathleen E.; Castellote, Manuel; Corkeron, Peter J.; Nowacek, Douglas P.; Wasser, Samuel K.; Scott D Kraus

    2012-01-01

    Baleen whales (Mysticeti) communicate using low-frequency acoustic signals. These long-wavelength sounds can be detected over hundreds of kilometres, potentially allowing contact over large distances. Low-frequency noise from large ships (20–200 Hz) overlaps acoustic signals used by baleen whales, and increased levels of underwater noise have been documented in areas with high shipping traffic. Reported responses of whales to increased noise include: habitat displacement, behavioural changes ...

  19. Effects of Acute and Chronic Cold Stress on Expression of Cyclooxygenase-2 and Prostaglandin E Synthase mRNA in Quail Intestine

    J Fu, CP Liu1, ZW Zhang1, W Liao2 and SW Xu1,*

    2013-07-01

    Full Text Available The cold temperature, a common environmental stress, reduces the immunity and re-production activities of the poultry. This study aims to investigate the role of acute and chronic cold exposure in the regulation of cyclooxygenase-2 (COX-2 and prostaglandin E synthase (PTGES expression in the duodenum, jejunum, and ileum of quail. A total of 96 quail with 15 days of age were randomly allocated into 12 groups (8 each group for exposure to acute (up to 12 h and chronic (up to 20 days cold temperature (12±1°C. After that, different segments of the intestine were harvested and subjected to morphology observations under the light and electronic microscopes. qRT-PCR was performed to analyze expression of COX-2 and PTGES, and DNA sequencing was performed to analyze PCR products. The data showed that under acute cold stress, expression of COX-2 and PTGES mRNA was first decreased and then increased in the duodenum, jejunum, and ileum of quail. However, chronic cold stress induced expression of COX-2 and PTGES mRNA in the duodenum, jejunum and ileum of quail, which was then reduced after 20 days of cold exposure. Morphologically, significant changes were also observed in the duodenum, jejunum and ileum after both acute and chronic cold stresses to the animals. The data from the current study indicated that both acute and chronic cold stresses were able to induce inflammation responses in the duodenum, jejunum and ileum, which might be due to the cold-damaged intestinal morphology.

  20. Chronic and Acute Stress, Gender, and Serotonin Transporter Gene-Environment Interactions Predicting Depression Symptoms in Youth

    Hammen, Constance; Brennan, Patricia A.; Keenan-Miller, Danielle; Hazel, Nicholas A.; Najman, Jake M.

    2010-01-01

    Background: Many recent studies of serotonin transporter gene by environment effects predicting depression have used stress assessments with undefined or poor psychometric methods, possibly contributing to wide variation in findings. The present study attempted to distinguish between effects of acute and chronic stress to predict depressive…

  1. Rising to the Challenge: Acute Stress Appraisals and Selection Centre Performance in Applicants to Postgraduate Specialty Training in Anaesthesia

    Roberts, Martin J.; Gale, Thomas C. E.; McGrath, John S.; Wilson, Mark R.

    2016-01-01

    The ability to work under pressure is a vital non-technical skill for doctors working in acute medical specialties. Individuals who evaluate potentially stressful situations as challenging rather than threatening may perform better under pressure and be more resilient to stress and burnout. Training programme recruitment processes provide an…

  2. The Impact of Sleep Restriction and Simulated Physical Firefighting Work on Acute Inflammatory Stress Responses.

    Alexander Wolkow

    Full Text Available This study investigated the effect restricted sleep has on wildland firefighters' acute cytokine levels during 3 days and 2 nights of simulated physical wildfire suppression work.Firefighters completed multiple days of physical firefighting work separated by either an 8-h (Control condition; n = 18 or 4-h (Sleep restriction condition; n = 17 sleep opportunity each night. Blood samples were collected 4 times a day (i.e., 06:15, 11:30, 18:15, 21:30 from which plasma cytokine levels (IL-6, IL-8, IL-1β, TNF-α, IL-4, IL-10 were measured.The primary findings for cytokine levels revealed a fixed effect for condition that showed higher IL-8 levels among firefighters who received an 8-h sleep each night. An interaction effect demonstrated differing increases in IL-6 over successive days of work for the SR and CON conditions. Fixed effects for time indicated that IL-6 and IL-4 levels increased, while IL-1β, TNF-α and IL-8 levels decreased. There were no significant effects for IL-10 observed.Findings demonstrate increased IL-8 levels among firefighters who received an 8-h sleep when compared to those who had a restricted 4-h sleep. Firefighters' IL-6 levels increased in both conditions which may indicate that a 4-h sleep restriction duration and/or period (i.e., 2 nights was not a significant enough stressor to affect this cytokine. Considering the immunomodulatory properties of IL-6 and IL-4 that inhibit pro-inflammatory cytokines, the rise in IL-6 and IL-4, independent of increases in IL-1β and TNF-α, could indicate a non-damaging response to the stress of simulated physical firefighting work. However, given the link between chronically elevated cytokine levels and several diseases, further research is needed to determine if firefighters' IL-8 and IL-6 levels are elevated following repeated firefighting deployments across a fire season and over multiple fire seasons.

  3. Decreased reaction time variability is associated with greater cardiovascular responses to acute stress.

    Wawrzyniak, Andrew J; Hamer, Mark; Steptoe, Andrew; Endrighi, Romano

    2016-05-01

    Cardiovascular (CV) responses to mental stress are prospectively associated with poor CV outcomes. The association between CV responses to mental stress and reaction times (RTs) in aging individuals may be important but warrants further investigation. The present study assessed RTs to examine associations with CV responses to mental stress in healthy, older individuals using robust regression techniques. Participants were 262 men and women (mean age = 63.3 ± 5.5 years) from the Whitehall II cohort who completed a RT task (Stroop) and underwent acute mental stress (mirror tracing) to elicit CV responses. Blood pressure, heart rate, and heart rate variability were measured at baseline, during acute stress, and through a 75-min recovery. RT measures were generated from an ex-Gaussian distribution that yielded three predictors: mu-RT, sigma-RT, and tau-RT, the mean, standard deviation, and mean of the exponential component of the normal distribution, respectively. Decreased intraindividual RT variability was marginally associated with greater systolic (B = -.009, SE = .005, p = .09) and diastolic (B = -.004, SE = .002, p = .08) blood pressure reactivity. Decreased intraindividual RT variability was associated with impaired systolic blood pressure recovery (B = -.007, SE = .003, p = .03) and impaired vagal tone (B = -.0047, SE = .0024, p = .045). Study findings offer tentative support for an association between RTs and CV responses. Despite small effect sizes and associations not consistent across predictors, these data may point to a link between intrinsic neuronal plasticity and CV responses. PMID:26894967

  4. Investigation of risk factors for acute stress reaction following induced abortion

    Vukelić Jelka

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available Introduction. Termination of pregnancy - induced abortion is inevitable in family planning as the final solution in resolving unwanted pregnancies. It can be the cause of major physical and phychological concequences on women’s health. Diverse opinions on psychological consequences of induced abortion can be found in literature. Material and methods. A prospective study was performed in order to predict acute stress disorder (ASD after the induced abortion and the possibility of post-traumatic stress disorder (PTSD. Seven days after the induced abortion, 40 women had to fill in: 1. a special questionnaire made for this investigation, with questions linked to some risk factors inducing stress, 2. Likert’s emotional scale and 3. Bryant’s acute stress reaction scale. Results. After an induced abortion 52.5% women had ASD and 32.5% women had PTSD. Women with ASD after the abortion developed more sense of guilt, irritability, shame, self-judgement, fear from God and self-hatred. They were less educated, had lower income, they were more religious, did not approve of abortion and had worse relationship with their partners after the abortion in comparison to women without ASD. Age, number of previous abortions and decision to abort did not differ between the two groups. Discussion and conclusion. Induced abortion represents a predisposing factor for ASD and PTSD in women. Some psychosocial factors contribute to the development of stress after abortion. Serbia has a task to reduce the number of abortions which is very high, in order, to preserve reproductive and phychological health of women.

  5. Acute hyperammonemia and systemic inflammation is associated with increased extracellular brain adenosine in rats

    Bjerring, Peter Nissen; Dale, Nicholas; Larsen, Fin Stolze

    2015-01-01

    Acute liver failure (ALF) can lead to brain edema, cerebral hyperperfusion and intracranial hypertension. These complications are thought to be mediated by hyperammonemia and inflammation leading to altered brain metabolism. As increased levels of adenosine degradation products have been found in...... cerebral blood flow (CBF). We measured the adenosine concentration with biosensors in rat brain slices exposed to ammonia and in a rat model with hyperammonemia and systemic inflammation. Exposure to ammonia in concentrations from 0.15-10 mM led to increases in the cortical adenosine concentration up to 18...... µM in brain slices. In vivo recordings showed a tendency towards increased adenosine levels in rats with hyperammonemia and systemic inflammation compared to a control group (3.7 ± 0.7 vs. 0.8 ± 0.2 µM, P = 0.06). This was associated with a significant increase in ICP and CBF. Intervention with the...

  6. Increased Oxidative Stress as a Selective Anticancer Therapy

    Jiahui Liu; Zhichong Wang

    2015-01-01

    Reactive oxygen species (ROS) are closely related to tumorgenesis. Under hypoxic environment, increased levels of ROS induce the expression of hypoxia inducible factors (HIFs) in cancer stem cells (CSCs), resulting in the promotion of the upregulation of CSC markers, and the reduction of intracellular ROS level, thus facilitating CSCs survival and proliferation. Although the ROS level is regulated by powerful antioxidant defense mechanisms in cancer cells, it is observed to remain higher than...

  7. The effect of increased gravitational stress on bone

    Riggins, R. S.; Chacko, K. A.

    1977-01-01

    A group of 34 adult male chickens were chronically accelerated over an 18-week period; for the last 4 weeks the surviving animals were subjected to a 3-g field. Males of a similar weight and age were used as static controls. The objective was to evaluate the effects of an altered gravitational state on the physical properties of the tibia bone tested for torsional fracture. Of the 34 initial animals, 15 survived for the entire period and were subjected to analysis. The results suggest that the altered morphology produced by increased gravitational fields does not materially affect bone strength, at least in torsion. Decreased bone diameters were accompanied by increased cortical thickness without change in the bone resistance to torsion. The findings of increased cortical thickness with decreased bone diameter suggest reversal of the usual cellular dynamics of adult bone. Data on bone ash and density failed to reveal any substantial changes in bone mineral or organic content. Histological examination of the cortical bone did not disclose any evidence of pathology.

  8. Future Climate CO2 Levels Mitigate Stress Impact on Plants: Increased Defense or Decreased Challenge?

    AbdElgawad, Hamada; Zinta, Gaurav; Beemster, Gerrit T S; Janssens, Ivan A; Asard, Han

    2016-01-01

    Elevated atmospheric CO2 can stimulate plant growth by providing additional C (fertilization effect), and is observed to mitigate abiotic stress impact. Although, the mechanisms underlying the stress mitigating effect are not yet clear, increased antioxidant defenses, have been held primarily responsible (antioxidant hypothesis). A systematic literature analysis, including "all" papers [Web of Science (WoS)-cited], addressing elevated CO2 effects on abiotic stress responses and antioxidants (105 papers), confirms the frequent occurrence of the stress mitigation effect. However, it also demonstrates that, in stress conditions, elevated CO2 is reported to increase antioxidants, only in about 22% of the observations (e.g., for polyphenols, peroxidases, superoxide dismutase, monodehydroascorbate reductase). In most observations, under stress and elevated CO2 the levels of key antioxidants and antioxidant enzymes are reported to remain unchanged (50%, e.g., ascorbate peroxidase, catalase, ascorbate), or even decreased (28%, e.g., glutathione peroxidase). Moreover, increases in antioxidants are not specific for a species group, growth facility, or stress type. It seems therefore unlikely that increased antioxidant defense is the major mechanism underlying CO2-mediated stress impact mitigation. Alternative processes, probably decreasing the oxidative challenge by reducing ROS production (e.g., photorespiration), are therefore likely to play important roles in elevated CO2 (relaxation hypothesis). Such parameters are however rarely investigated in connection with abiotic stress relief. Understanding the effect of elevated CO2 on plant growth and stress responses is imperative to understand the impact of climate changes on plant productivity. PMID:27200030

  9. Prickly Pear Cactus (Opuntia ficus indica var. saboten) Protects Against Stress-Induced Acute Gastric Lesions in Rats

    Kim, Seung Hyun; Jeon, Byung Ju; Kim, Dae Hyun; Kim, Tae Il; Lee, Hee Kyoung; Han, Dae Seob; Lee, Jong-Hwan; Kim, Tae Bum; Kim, Jung Wha; Sung, Sang Hyun

    2012-01-01

    The protective activity of prickly pear cactus (Opuntia ficus indica var. saboten) fruit juice and its main constituent, betanin, were evaluated against stress-induced acute gastric lesions in rats. After 6 h of water immersion restraint stress (WIRS), gastric mucosal lesions with bleeding were induced in Sprague–Dawley rats. Pretreatment of a lyophilized powder containing O. ficus indica var. saboten fruit juice and maltodextrin (OFSM) and betanin significantly reduced stress lesions (800–16...

  10. Challenges for the implementation of World Health Organization guidelines for acute stress, PTSD, and bereavement: a qualitative study in Uganda

    Kane, Jeremy C.; Adaku, Alex; Nakku, Juliet; Odokonyero, Raymond; Okello, James; Musisi, Seggane; Augustinavicius, Jura; Greene, M. Claire; Alderman, Steve; Tol, Wietse A.

    2016-01-01

    Background In 2013, the World Health Organization (WHO) published new guidelines for the management of conditions specifically related to stress, including symptoms of acute stress, bereavement, and post-traumatic stress disorder (PTSD). It is important to evaluate potential challenges for the implementation of these guidelines in low-resource settings, however, there is a dearth of research in this area. The current qualitative study aimed to assess perspectives on the feasibility and accept...

  11. The Prefrontal Cortex Communicates with the Amygdala to Impair Learning after Acute Stress in Females but Not in Males

    Lisa Y. Maeng; Waddell, Jaylyn; Shors, Tracey J.

    2010-01-01

    Acute stress exposure enhances classical eyeblink conditioning in male rats, whereas exposure to the same event dramatically impairs performance in females (Wood & Shors, 1998; Wood et al., 2001). We hypothesized that stress affects learning differently in males and females because different brain regions and circuits are being activated. In the first experiment, we determined that neuronal activity within the medial prefrontal cortex (mPFC) during the stressful event is necessary to disrupt ...

  12. Secretory leukocyte proteinase inhibitor is preferentially increased in patients with acute respiratory distress syndrome.

    Sallenave, J M; Donnelly, S C; Grant, I S; Robertson, C; Gauldie, J; Haslett, C

    1999-05-01

    Inappropriate release of proteases from inflammatory and stromal cells can lead to destruction of the lung parenchyma. Antiproteinases such as alpha-1-proteinase inhibitor (alpha1-Pi), secretory leukocyte proteinase inhibitor (SLPI) and elastase-specific inhibitor (elafin) control excess production of human neutrophil elastase. In the present study, the concentrations of alpha1-Pi, SLPI and elafin found in bronchoalveolar lavage (BAL) fluid from control subjects, patients at risk of developing acute respiratory distress syndrome (ARDS) and patients with established ARDS were determined. Levels of all three inhibitors were raised in patients compared with normal subjects. SLPI was increased in the group of patients who were at risk of ARDS and went on to develop the condition, compared with the "at-risk" group who did not progress to ARDS (p=0.0083). Alpha1-Pi and elafin levels were similar in these two populations. In patients with established ARDS, both alpha1-Pi and SLPI levels were significantly increased, compared to patients at risk of ARDS who did (p=0.0089) or did not (p=0.0003) progress to ARDS. The finding of increased antiproteinases shortly before the development of acute respiratory distress syndrome provide further evidence for enhanced inflammation prior to clinical disease. PMID:10414400

  13. Oxytocin in the ventromedial hypothalamic nucleus reduces feeding and acutely increases energy expenditure.

    Noble, Emily E; Billington, Charles J; Kotz, Catherine M; Wang, ChuanFeng

    2014-09-15

    Central oxytocin reduces food intake and increases energy expenditure. The ventromedial hypothalamic nucleus (VMN) is associated with energy balance and contains a high density of oxytocin receptors. We hypothesized that oxytocin in the VMN is a negative regulator of energy balance acting to reduce feeding and increase energy expenditure. To test this idea, oxytocin or vehicle was injected directly into the VMN of Sprague-Dawley rats during fasted and nonfasted conditions. Energy expenditure (via indirect calorimetry) and spontaneous physical activity (SPA) were recorded simultaneously. Animals were also exposed to a conditioned taste aversion test, to determine whether oxytocin's effects on food intake were associated with malaise. When food was available during testing, oxytocin-induced elevations in energy expenditure lasted for 1 h, after which overall energy expenditure was reduced. In the absence of food during the testing period, oxytocin similarly increased energy expenditure during the first hour, but differences in 12-h energy expenditure were eliminated, implying that the differences may have been due to the thermic effects of feeding (digestion, absorption, and metabolic processing). Oxytocin acutely elevated SPA and reduced feeding at doses that did not cause a conditioned taste aversion during both the fed and fasted states. Together, these data suggest that oxytocin in the VMN promotes satiety and acutely elevates energy expenditure and SPA and implicates the VMN as a relevant site for the antiobesity effects of oxytocin. PMID:24990860

  14. Thought Control Strategies and Rumination in Youth with Acute Stress Disorder and Posttraumatic Stress Disorder Following Single-Event Trauma

    Shepperd, Alicia; Glucksman, Ed; Dalgleish, Tim; Yule, William; Smith, Patrick

    2014-01-01

    Abstract Objective: Certain thought control strategies for managing the intrusive symptoms of posttraumatic stress disorder (PTSD) are thought to play a key role in its onset and maintenance. Whereas measures exist for the empirical assessment of such thought control strategies in adults, relatively few studies have explored how children and adolescents manage posttraumatic intrusive phenomena. Methods: In a prospective longitudinal study of 10–16-year-olds with PTSD, who were survivors of road traffic collisions and assaults, a variety of thought control strategies were assessed in the acute phase. These included strategies thought to be protective (reappraisal, social support) as well as maladaptive (distraction, punishment, worry). Ruminative responses to the trauma were assessed at the follow-up assessment. Results: Posttraumatic stress symptoms (PTSS) at each assessment were associated with the use of punishment and reappraisal, whereas social support and rumination were associated with PTSS symptoms at follow-up. Distraction was unrelated to PTSS at any time point. Rumination accounted for variance in PTSS symptoms at follow-up, even when accounting for baseline PTSS, and was found to mediate the relationships between reappraisal and punishment at baseline and PTSS at the follow-up assessment. Conclusions: The present study found no evidence to support advocating any particular thought control strategy for managing the intrusive symptoms of PTSD in youth in the acute posttrauma phase, and raised concerns over the use of reappraisal coping strategies. The study underscores the importance of ruminative responses in the onset and maintenance of PTSD in trauma-exposed youth. PMID:24521228

  15. Differences in acute stress responses between wild-caught and captive-bred birds: A physiological mechanism contributing to current avian invasions?

    Cabezas, Sonia; Carrete, Martina; Tella, José Luis; Marchant, Tracy A.; Bortolotti, Gary R.

    2013-01-01

    Current avian invasions are often the result of exotic birds accidentally escaping from cages. It has been hypothesised that the higher invasiveness of wild-caught cage-birds compared to captive-bred ones could be related to the loss of ability in captive-bred birds to cope with new environments. The acute stress response plays an important role in how animals cope with challenges because elevated corticosterone (CORT) levels can mediate learning and memory consolidation and help to increase ...

  16. Selection for increased desiccation resistance in Drosophila melanogaster: Additive genetic control and correlated responses for other stresses

    Previously we found that Drosophila melanogaster lines selected for increased desiccation resistance have lowered metabolic rate and behavioral activity levels, and show correlated responses for resistance to starvation and a toxic ethanol level. These results were consistent with a prediction that increased resistance to many environmental stresses may be genetically correlated because of a reduction in metabolic energy expenditure. Here we present experiments on the genetic basis of the selection response and extend the study of correlated responses to other stresses. The response to selection was not sex-specific and involved X-linked and autosomal genes acting additively. Activity differences contributed little to differences in desiccation resistance between selected and control lines. Selected lines had lower metabolic rates than controls in darkness when activity was inhibited. Adults from selected lines showed increased resistance to a heat shock, 60Co-gamma-radiation, and acute ethanol and acetic acid stress. The desiccation, ethanol and starvation resistance of isofemale lines set up from the F2s of a cross between one of the selected and one of the control lines were correlated. Selected and control lines did not differ in ether-extractable lipid content or in resistance to acetone, ether or a cold shock

  17. Acute exposure to a 60 Hz magnetic field increases DNA strand breaks in rat brain cells

    Lai, H.; Singh, N.P. [Univ. of Washington, Seattle, WA (United States)

    1997-05-01

    Acute exposure of rats to a 60 Hz magnetic field caused a dose-dependent increase in DNA strand breaks in brain cells of the animals (assayed by a microgel electrophoresis method at 4 h postexposure). An increase in single-strand DNA breaks was observed after exposure to magnetic fields of 0.1, 0.25, and 0.5 mT, whereas an increase in double-strand DNA breaks was observed at 0.25 and 0.5 mT. Because DNA strand breaks may affect cellular functions, lead to carcinogenesis and cell death, and be related to onset of neurodegenerative diseases, the data may have important implications for the possible health effects of exposure to 60 Hz magnetic fields.

  18. Acute exercise increases adipose tissue interstitial adiponectin concentration in healthy overweight and lean subjects

    Højbjerre, Lise; Rosenzweig, Mary; Dela, Flemming;

    2007-01-01

    OBJECTIVE: We studied how an acute bout of exercise influences expression and concentration of adiponectin and regulators of adiponectin in adipose tissue and plasma. DESIGN AND METHODS: Eight overweight and eight lean males were examined by large-pore microdialysis in s.c. abdominal adipose tissue...... increased the SCAAT interstitial adiponectin concentration in both overweight and lean subjects and concentrations did not differ between groups. Plasma adiponectin did not increase during exercise and was similar in overweight and lean subjects. Adiponectin mRNA in SCAAT decreased during exercise and was...... similar in overweight and lean subjects. Surprisingly, the interstitial adiponectin concentration in SCAAT was only 20% of the plasma concentration. SCAAT interleukin-6 (IL-6) microdialyzate and plasma concentrations and SCAAT IL-6 mRNA increased during exercise in both groups. Tumor necrosis factor- (TNF...

  19. Increases in acute hepatitis C (HCV incidence across Europe: which regions and patient groups are affected?

    Rockstroh J

    2012-11-01

    Full Text Available Background In the last decade, several outbreaks of sexually acquired acute HCV have been described in men who have sex with men (MSM infected with HIV in Australia, Europe, and North America. The aims of this study were to determine the incidence of acute HCV within the large EuroSIDA cohort and to explore possible regional differences throughout Europe and in different HIV transmission risk groups. Methods Baseline was defined as 1st Jan of 2002 or entry into EuroSIDA, whichever comes later. All patients from EuroSIDA who were HCV antibody-negative at baseline and had at least 2 HCV antibody test results available were included into the study. HCV seroconversion was defined as change from negative to positive HCV-antibody test within the observation period from 2002 onwards. Follow-up was counted from baseline to HCV antibody positivity for seroconverters and to the last HCV antibody-negative test result for those that did not seroconvert for HCV. Poisson regression analyses were performed to identify predictive factors for HCV seroconversion. Results A total of 150 HCV seroconversions (95 [63.3%] in MSM occurred in 4295 patients during 18,928 person years of follow-up (PYFU, overall incidence of 0.79 acute infections per 100 PYFU (95% CI: 0.67–0.92 (see figure. The incidence of HCV seroconversions increased from 0.47 (CI: 0.19–0.74 in 2002 to 2.34 (CI: 1.24–3.44 in 2010. Similar patterns were observed across all European regions (p=0.89, test for interaction. In multivariate analysis, IDU was associated with a higher incidence rate ratio (IRR than MSM: 4.59 (2.40–8.80; p<0.0001, South and East Europe both had higher IRR compared to Western Europe, respectively (1.98 [1.12–3.49]; p=0.018 and 2.41 [1.41–4.12]; p=0.0014. Calendar year per 2 years was also associated with a higher IRR (1.29 [1.19–1.39]; p<0.0001. Conclusion The incidence of acute HCV within EuroSIDA increased over time. Although, the incidence of seroconversion was

  20. Acute aerobic exercise increases brain-derived neurotrophic factor levels in elderly with Alzheimer's disease.

    Coelho, Flávia Gomes de Melo; Vital, Thays Martins; Stein, Angelica Miki; Arantes, Franciel José; Rueda, André Veloso; Camarini, Rosana; Teodorov, Elizabeth; Santos-Galduróz, Ruth Ferreira

    2014-01-01

    Studies indicate the involvement of brain-derived neurotrophic factor (BDNF) in the pathogenesis of Alzheimer's disease (AD). Decreased BDNF levels may constitute a lack of trophic support and contribute to cognitive impairment in AD. The benefits of acute and chronic physical exercise on BDNF levels are well-documented in humans, however, exercise effects on BDNF levels have not been analyzed in older adults with AD. The aim of this study was to investigate the effects of acute aerobic exercise on BDNF levels in older adults with AD and to verify associations among BDNF levels, aerobic fitness, and level of physical activity. Using a controlled design, twenty-one patients with AD (76.3 ± 6.2 years) and eighteen healthy older adults (74.6 ± 4.7 years) completed an acute aerobic exercise. The outcomes included measures of BDNF plasma levels, aerobic fitness (treadmill grade, time to exhaustion, VO2, and maximal lactate) and level of physical activity (Baecke Questionnaire Modified for the Elderly). The independent t-test shows differences between groups with respect to the BDNF plasma levels at baseline (p = 0.04; t = 4.53; df = 37). In two-way ANOVA, a significant effect of time was found (p = 0.001; F = 13.63; df = 37), the aerobic exercise significantly increased BDNF plasma levels in AD patients and healthy controls. A significant correlation (p = 0.04; r = 0.33) was found between BDNF levels and the level of physical activity. The results of our study suggest that aerobic exercise increases BDNF plasma levels in patients with AD and healthy controls. In addition to that, BDNF levels had association with level of physical activity. PMID:24164734

  1. miRNA-dysregulation associated with tenderness variation induced by acute stress in Angus cattle

    Zhao Chunping

    2012-06-01

    Full Text Available Abstract miRNAs are a class of small, single-stranded, non-coding RNAs that perform post-transcriptional repression of target genes by binding to 3’ untranslated regions. Research has found that miRNAs involved in the regulation of many metabolic processes. Here we uncovered that the beef quality of Angus cattle sharply diversified after acute stress. By performing miRNA microarray analysis, 13 miRNAs were significantly differentially expressed in stressed group compared to control group. Using a bioinformatics method, 135 protein-coding genes were predicted as the targets of significant differentially expressed miRNAs. Gene Ontology (GO term and Ingenuity Pathway Analysis (IPA mined that these target genes involved in some important pathways, which may have impact on meat quality and beef tenderness.

  2. Effects of hyperflexion on acute stress responses in ridden dressage horses

    Christensen, Janne Winther; Beekmans, M.; van Dalum, M.;

    2014-01-01

    The effects of hyperflexion on the welfare of dressage horses have been debated. This study aimed to investigate acute stress responses of dressage horses ridden in three different Head-and-Neck-positions (HNPs). Fifteen dressage horses were ridden by their usual rider in a standardised 10-min...... concentrations were measured 60 min before and 0, 5, 15 and 30 min after the test. Rein tension was significantly lower in LF and did not differ between CF and LDR; however approx. 15% of recordings in CF and LDR were above the sensor detection limit of 5 kg. The horses had significantly higher cortisol...... concentrations directly after LDR compared to LF. In addition, the horses showed more distinctive head movements, including head waving, during LDR. There were no significant treatment effects on HR and HRV. In conclusion, the results indicate that LDR may be more stressful to these horses during riding....

  3. Posterior midline activation during symptom provocation in acute stress disorder: An fMRI study

    Jan Christopher Cwik

    2014-05-01

    Full Text Available Functional imaging studies of patients with Posttraumatic Stress Disorder showed wide-spread activation of mid-line cortical areas during symptom provocation i.e., exposure to trauma-related cues. The present study aimed at investigating neural activation during exposure to trauma-related pictures in patients with Acute Stress Disorder (ASD shortly after the traumatic event. Nineteen ASD patients and 19 healthy control participants were presented with individualized pictures of the traumatic event and emotionally neutral control pictures during the acquisition of whole-brain data with a 3-T fMRI scanner. Compared to the control group and to control pictures, ASD patients showed significant activation in mid-line cortical areas in response to trauma-related pictures including precuneus, cuneus, postcentral gyrus and pre-supplementary motor area. The results suggest that the trauma-related pictures evoke emotionally salient self-referential processing in ASD patients.

  4. Increasing stress on disaster risk finance due to large floods

    Jongman, Brenden; Hochrainer-Stigler, Stefan; Feyen, Luc; Aerts, Jeroen; Mechler, Reinhard; Botzen, Wouter; Bouwer, Laurens; Pflug, Georg; Rojas, Rodrigo; Ward, Philip

    2014-05-01

    Recent major flood disasters have shown that single extreme events can affect multiple countries simultaneously, which puts high pressure on trans-national risk reduction and risk transfer mechanisms. To date, little is known about such flood hazard interdependencies across regions, and the corresponding joint risks at regional to continental scales. Reliable information on correlated loss probabilities is crucial for developing robust insurance schemes and public adaptation funds, and for enhancing our understanding of climate change impacts. Here we show that extreme discharges are strongly correlated across European river basins and that these correlations can, or should, be used in national to continental scale risk assessment. We present probabilistic trends in continental flood risk, and demonstrate that currently observed extreme flood losses could more than double in frequency by 2050 under future climate change and socioeconomic development. The results demonstrate that accounting for tail dependencies leads to higher estimates of extreme losses than estimates based on the traditional assumption of independence between basins. We suggest that risk management for these increasing losses is largely feasible, and we demonstrate that risk can be shared by expanding risk transfer financing, reduced by investing in flood protection, or absorbed by enhanced solidarity between countries. We conclude that these measures have vastly different efficiency, equity and acceptability implications, which need to be taken into account in broader consultation, for which our analysis provides a basis.

  5. Uncoupling and oxidative stress in liver mitochondria isolated from rats with acute iron overload

    Pardo Andreu, G.L. [Centro de Quimica Farmaceutica, Departamento de Investigaciones Biomedicas, Ciudad de La Habana (Cuba); Inada, N.M.; Vercesi, A.E. [Universidade Estadual de Campinas, Departamento de Patologia Clinica, Faculdade de Ciencias Medicas, Campinas, SP (Brazil); Curti, C. [Universidade de Sao Paulo, Departamento de Fisica e Quimica, Faculdade de Ciencias Farmaceuticas de Ribeirao Preto, SP (Brazil)

    2009-01-15

    One hypothesis for the etiology of cell damage arising from iron overload is that its excess selectively affects mitochondria. Here we tested the effects of acute iron overload on liver mitochondria isolated from rats subjected to a single dose of i.p. 500 mg/kg iron-dextran. The treatment increased the levels of iron in mitochondria (from 21{+-}4 to 130{+-}7 nmol/mg protein) and caused both lipid peroxidation and glutathione oxidation. The mitochondria of iron-treated rats showed lower respiratory control ratio in association with higher resting respiration. The mitochondrial uncoupling elicited by iron-treatment did not affect the phosphorylation efficiency or the ATP levels, suggesting that uncoupling is a mitochondrial protective mechanism against acute iron overload. Therefore, the reactive oxygen species (ROS)/H{sup +} leak couple, functioning as a mitochondrial redox homeostatic mechanism could play a protective role in the acutely iron-loaded mitochondria. (orig.)

  6. Myocardial Infarction - Stress PRevention INTervention (MI-SPRINT) to reduce the incidence of posttraumatic stress after acute myocardial infarction through trauma-focused psychological counseling: study protocol for a randomized controlled trial

    Meister, Rebecca; Princip, Mary; Schmid, Jean-Paul; Schnyder, Ulrich; Barth, Jürgen; Znoj, Hansjörg; Herbert, Claudia; von Känel, Roland

    2013-01-01

    BACKGROUND Posttraumatic Stress Disorder (PTSD) may occur in patients after exposure to a life-threatening illness. About one out of six patients develop clinically relevant levels of PTSD symptoms after acute myocardial infarction (MI). Symptoms of PTSD are associated with impaired quality of life and increase the risk of recurrent cardiovascular events. The main hypothesis of the MI-SPRINT study is that trauma-focused psychological counseling is more effective than non-trauma focused co...

  7. Stressful task increases drive for thinness and bulimia: a laboratory study.

    Sandra eSassaroli

    2015-05-01

    Full Text Available The scientific literature has suggested that stress undergirds the development of eating disorders (ED. Therefore, this study explored whether laboratory induced stress increases self-reported drive for thinness and bulimic symptoms measured via self-report. The relationship between control, perfectionism, stress, and cognition related to ED was examined using correlational methodology. 86 participants completed an experimental task using a personal computer. All individuals completed a battery of tests before and after the stressful task. Analyses showed a significant statistical increase in average scores on the drive for thinness and bulimia measured before and after a stressful task, and path analysis revealed two different cognitive models for the mechanism leading to drive for thinness and bulimia. These findings suggest that stress is an important factor in the development of the drive for thinness and bulimia.

  8. An empirical study on managing stress in guided schools to increase educational skills

    Leila Zeinalian

    2012-10-01

    Full Text Available The primary objective of this paper is to study the impact of stress on educational school- children who are enrolled in guided schools. Teenagers are normally facing with stress and feelings and when the level of stress increases, they may face with problems, which would become more serious as they get older. In this study, we perform a standard stress relief program (CS-R Coping With Stress-Revised and try to reduce the burden of stress among 1240 students who attended guided schools. We split the people into two groups of experiment and witness and performed the study among one group. Before the exam, there was no meaningful difference between their average markings but after performing the exam, the average marking of the experienced students was increase by 0.53. The results clearly indicate that it is possible to make significant change on students' personal characteristics.

  9. Prenatal stress may increase vulnerability to life events comparison with the effects of prenatal dexamethasone

    Hougaard, Karin; Andersen, Maibritt B; Kjaer, Sanna L;

    2005-01-01

    Prenatal stress has been associated with a variety of alterations in the offspring. The presented observations suggest that rather than causing changes in the offspring per se, prenatal stress may increase the organism's vulnerability to aversive life events. Offspring of rat dams stressed...... gestationally by chronic mild stress (CMS, a variable schedule of different stressors) or dexamethasone (DEX, a synthetic glucocorticoid, i.e., a pharmacological stressor) was tested for reactivity by testing their acoustic startle response (ASR). Two subsets of offspring were tested. One was experimentally...... naïve at the time of ASR testing, whereas the other had been through blood sampling for assessment of the hormonal stress response to restraint, 3 months previously. Both prenatal CMS and dexamethasone increased ASR in the offspring compared to controls, but only in prenatally stressed offspring that...

  10. Differential effects of mental concentration and acute psychosocial stress on cervical muscle activity and posture.

    Shahidi, Bahar; Haight, Ashley; Maluf, Katrina

    2013-10-01

    Physical and psychosocial stressors in the workplace have been independently associated with the development of neck pain, yet interactions among these risk factors remain unclear. The purpose of this study was to compare the effects of mentally challenging computer work performed with and without exposure to a psychosocial stressor on cervical muscle activity and posture. Changes in cervical posture and electromyography of upper trapezius, cervical extensor, and sternocleidomastoid muscles were compared between a resting seated posture at baseline, a low stress condition with mental concentration, and a high stress condition with mental concentration and psychosocial stress in sixty healthy office workers. Forward head posture significantly increased with mental concentration compared to baseline, but did not change with further introduction of the stressor. Muscle activity significantly increased from the low stress to high stress condition for both the dominant and non-dominant upper trapezius, with no corresponding change in activity of the cervical extensors or flexors between stress conditions. These findings suggest that upper trapezius muscles are selectively activated by psychosocial stress independent of changes in concentration or posture, which may have implications for the prevention of stress-related trapezius myalgia in the workplace. PMID:23800438

  11. Differential effects of mental concentration and acute psychosocial stress on cervical muscle activity and posture

    Shahidi, Bahar; Haight, Ashley; Maluf, Katrina

    2013-01-01

    Physical and psychosocial stressors in the workplace have been independently associated with the development of neck pain, yet interactions among these risk factors remain unclear. The purpose of this study was to compare the effects of mentally challenging computer work performed with and without exposure to a psychosocial stressor on cervical muscle activity and posture. Changes in cervical posture and electromyography of upper trapezius, cervical extensor, and sternocleidomastoid muscles were compared between a resting seated posture at baseline, a low stress condition with mental concentration, and a high stress condition with mental concentration and psychosocial stress in sixty healthy office workers. Forward head posture significantly increased with mental concentration compared to baseline, but did not change with further introduction of the stressor. Muscle activity significantly increased from the low stress to high stress condition for both the dominant and non-dominant upper trapezius, with no corresponding change in activity of the cervical extensors or flexors between stress conditions. These findings suggest that upper trapezius muscles are selectively activated by psychosocial stress independent of changes in concentration or posture, which may have implications for the prevention of stress-related trapezius myalgia in the workplace. PMID:23800438

  12. Future Climate CO2 Levels Mitigate Stress Impact on Plants: Increased Defense or Decreased Challenge?

    AbdElgawad, Hamada; Zinta, Gaurav; Beemster, Gerrit T.S.; Janssens, Ivan A; Asard, Han

    2016-01-01

    Elevated atmospheric CO2 can stimulate plant growth by providing additional C (fertilization effect), and is observed to mitigate abiotic stress impact. Although, the mechanisms underlying the stress mitigating effect are not yet clear, increased antioxidant defenses, have been held primarily responsible (antioxidant hypothesis). A systematic literature analysis, including “all” papers [Web of Science (WoS)-cited], addressing elevated CO2 effects on abiotic stress responses and antioxidants (...

  13. Increased oxidative stress in patients with depression and its relationship to treatment

    Chung, Cecilia P.; Schmidt, Dennis; Stein, C. Michael; Morrow, Jason D.; Salomon, Ronald M.

    2012-01-01

    Oxidative stress may play a role in the pathogenesis of depression. We tested the hypothesis that urinary F2 isoprostane, a robust marker of oxidative stress, was increased in patients with depression and associated with symptoms and response to treatment. Urinary F2 isoprostane was compared in 18 patients with depression and 36 age and sex matched control subjects. In patients, we tested the association between oxidative stress, depression questionnaires and antidepressant treatment. Urinary...

  14. Preconditioning L6 Muscle Cells with Naringin Ameliorates Oxidative Stress and Increases Glucose Uptake

    R. Dhanya; K B Arun; Nisha, V. M.; Syama, H. P.; Nisha, P.; Santhosh Kumar, T. R.; Jayamurthy, P.

    2015-01-01

    Enhanced oxidative stress contributes to pathological changes in diabetes and its complications. Thus, strategies to reduce oxidative stress may alleviate these pathogenic processes. Herein, we have investigated Naringin mediated regulation of glutathione (GSH) & intracellular free radical levels and modulation of glucose uptake under oxidative stress in L6 cell lines. The results from the study demonstrated a marked decrease in glutathione with a subsequent increase in free radical levels, w...

  15. Respiratory sinus arrhythmia during worry forecasts stress-related increases in psychological distress.

    Gouin, Jean-Philippe; Deschênes, Sonya S; Dugas, Michel J

    2014-09-01

    Respiratory sinus arrhythmia (RSA) has been conceptualized as an index of emotion regulation abilities. Although resting RSA has been associated with both concurrent and prospective affective responses to stress, the impact of RSA reactivity on emotional responses to stress is inconsistent across studies. The type of emotional stimuli used to elicit these phasic RSA responses may influence the adaptive value of RSA reactivity. We propose that RSA reactivity to a personally relevant worry-based stressor might forecast future affective responses to stress. To evaluate whether resting RSA and RSA reactivity to worry inductions predict stress-related increases in psychological distress, an academic stress model was used to prospectively examine changes in psychological distress from the well-defined low- and high-stress periods. During the low-stress period, 76 participants completed self-report mood measures and had their RSA assessed during a resting baseline, free worry period and worry catastrophizing interview. Participants completed another mood assessment during the high-stress period. Results indicated that baseline psychological distress predicted larger decreases in RSA during the worry inductions. Lower resting RSA and greater RSA suppression to the worry inductions at baseline prospectively predicted larger increases in psychological distress from the low- to high-stress period, even after accounting for the impact of baseline distress on RSA. These results provide further evidence that RSA may represent a unique index of emotion regulation abilities in times of stress. PMID:25089936

  16. Acute extracellular fluid volume changes increase ileocolonic resistance to saline flow in anesthetized dogs

    Santiago Jr. A.T.

    1997-01-01

    Full Text Available We determined the effect of acute extracellular fluid volume changes on saline flow through 4 gut segments (ileocolonic, ileal, ileocolonic sphincter and proximal colon, perfused at constant pressure in anesthetized dogs. Two different experimental protocols were used: hypervolemia (iv saline infusion, 0.9% NaCl, 20 ml/min, volume up to 5% body weight and controlled hemorrhage (up to a 50% drop in mean arterial pressure. Mean ileocolonic flow (N = 6 was gradually and significantly decreased during the expansion (17.1%, P<0.05 and expanded (44.9%, P<0.05 periods while mean ileal flow (N = 7 was significantly decreased only during the expanded period (38%, P<0.05. Mean colonic flow (N = 7 was decreased during expansion (12%, P<0.05 but returned to control levels during the expanded period. Mean ileocolonic sphincter flow (N = 6 was not significantly modified. Mean ileocolonic flow (N = 10 was also decreased after hemorrhage (retracted period by 17% (P<0.05, but saline flow was not modified in the other separate circuits (N = 6, 5 and 4 for ileal, ileocolonic sphincter and colonic groups, respectively. The expansion effect was blocked by atropine (0.5 mg/kg, iv both on the ileocolonic (N = 6 and ileal (N = 5 circuits. Acute extracellular fluid volume retraction and expansion increased the lower gastrointestinal resistances to saline flow. These effects, which could physiologically decrease the liquid volume being supplied to the colon, are possible mechanisms activated to acutely balance liquid volume deficit and excess.

  17. Administration of MPTP acutely increases glucose utilization in the substantia nigra of primates.

    Palombo, E; Porrino, L J; Bankiewicz, K S; Crane, A M; Kopin, I J; Sokoloff, L

    1988-06-21

    The quantitative 2-[14C]deoxyglucose autoradiographic method was used to map the regional distribution of the acute effects of administration of the neurotoxin, 1-methyl-4-phenyl-1,2,3,6-tetrahydropyridine (MPTP), on local cerebral glucose utilization in rhesus monkeys. Metabolic activity was increased (+80%) in the substantia nigra pars compacta, which has been shown to be the main target site of MPTP toxicity. Metabolic activity was also increased in the nucleus paranigralis, nucleus parabrachialis pigmentosus, and ventral lamella of the inferior olive. In contrast, substantial decreases in glucose utilization were found diffusely distributed throughout many of the other structures examined, most prominently in portions of the cerebral cortex, thalamus, and cerebellum. PMID:3261197

  18. Acute low-intensity microwave exposure increases DNA single-strand breaks in rat brain cells

    Lai, H.; Singh, N.P. [Univ. of Washington, Seattle, WA (United States)

    1995-08-01

    Levels of DNA single-strand break were assayed in brain cells from rats acutely exposed to low-intensity 2,450 MHz microwaves using an alkaline microgel electrophoresis method. Immediately after 2 h of exposure to pulsed (2 {mu}s width, 500 pulses/s) microwaves, no significant effect was observed, whereas a dose rate-dependent [0.6 and 1.2 W/kg whole body specific absorption rate (SAR)] increase in DNA single-strand breaks was found in brain cells of rats at 4 h postexposure. Furthermore, in rats exposed for 2 h to continuous-wave 2,450 MHz microwaves (SAR 1.2 W/kg), increases in brain cell DNA single-strand breaks were observed immediately as well as at 4 h postexposure.

  19. Acute ammonia neurotoxicity in vivo involves increase in cytoplasmic protein P53 without alterations in other markers of apoptosis.

    Kosenko, Elena; Kaminsky, Yuri; Solomadin, Ilia; Marov, Nikolay; Venediktova, Natalia; Felipo, Vicente; Montoliu, Carmina

    2007-08-15

    Acute intoxication with large ammonia doses leads to activation of NMDA receptors in the brain, resulting in oxidative stress and disturbance of mitochondrial function. Altered mitochondrial function is a crucial step in some mechanisms of cellular apoptosis. This study assesses whether ammonia intoxication in vivo leads to induction of apoptotic markers such as permeability transition pore (PTP) formation, caspase-3, and caspase-9 activation, changes in p53 protein, or cytochrome c release. Acute ammonia intoxication did not affect caspase-9 or caspase-3 activities. The mitochondrial membrane potential also remained unaltered in non-synaptic brain mitochondria after injection of ammonia, indicating that ammonia did not induce PTP formation in brain in vivo. The nuclear level of p53 did not change, whereas its cytoplasmic level increased approximately two-fold. In agreement with the theory that translocation of the p53 from cytosol to nuclei is an essential step for induction of apoptosis we did not find apoptotic nuclei in brain of rats injected with ammonia. This supports the idea that ammonia neurotoxicity does not involve apoptosis and points to impaired p53 transfer from cytoplasm to nuclei as a possible preventer of apoptosis. We did not find any release of cytochrome c from mitochondria to cytosol after ammonia injection. Cytochrome c content was significantly reduced (30%) in brain mitochondria from rats injected with ammonia. This decrease may contribute to the reduced state 3 respiration, decreased respiratory control index, and disturbances in the mitochondrial electron transport chain in brain mitochondria from rats injected with ammonia. PMID:17551980

  20. Acute exposure to lead increases myocardial contractility independent of hypertension development

    We studied the effects of the acute administration of small doses of lead over time on hemodynamic parameters in anesthetized rats to determine if myocardial contractility changes are dependent or not on the development of hypertension. Male Wistar rats received 320 µg/kg lead acetate iv once, and their hemodynamic parameters were measured for 2 h. Cardiac contractility was evaluated in vitro using left ventricular papillary muscles as were Na+,K+-ATPase and myosin Ca2+-ATPase activities. Lead increased left- (control: 112 ± 3.7 vs lead: 129 ± 3.2 mmHg) and right-ventricular systolic pressures (control: 28 ± 1.2 vs lead: 34 ± 1.2 mmHg) significantly without modifying heart rate. Papillary muscles were exposed to 8 µM lead acetate and evaluated 60 min later. Isometric contractions increased (control: 0.546 ± 0.07 vs lead: 0.608 ± 0.06 g/mg) and time to peak tension decreased (control: 268 ± 13 vs lead: 227 ± 5.58 ms), but relaxation time was unchanged. Post-pause potentiation was similar between groups (n = 6 per group), suggesting no change in sarcoplasmic reticulum activity, evaluated indirectly by this protocol. After 1-h exposure to lead acetate, the papillary muscles became hyperactive in response to a β-adrenergic agonist (10 µM isoproterenol). In addition, post-rest contractions decreased, suggesting a reduction in sarcolemmal calcium influx. The heart samples treated with 8 µM lead acetate presented increased Na+,K+-ATPase (approximately 140%, P < 0.05 for control vs lead) and myosin ATPase (approximately 30%, P < 0.05 for control vs lead) activity. Our results indicated that acute exposure to low lead concentrations produces direct positive inotropic and lusitropic effects on myocardial contractility and increases the right and left ventricular systolic pressure, thus potentially contributing to the early development of hypertension

  1. Protective action of a hexane crude extract of Pterodon emarginatus fruits against oxidative and nitrosative stress induced by acute exercise in rats

    Alfredo Patrícia P

    2005-08-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background The aim of the present work was to evaluate the effect of a hexane crude extract (HCE of Pterodon emarginatus on the oxidative and nitrosative stress induced in skeletal muscle, liver and brain of acutely exercised rats. Methods Adult male rats were subjected to acute exercise by standardized contractions of the tibialis anterior (TA muscle (100 Hz, 15 min and treated orally with the HCE (once or three times with a fixed dose of 498 mg/kg, before and after acute exercise. Serum creatine kinase activity was determined by a kinetic method and macrophage infiltration by histological analyses of TA muscle. Lipid peroxidation was measured as malondialdehyde (MDA levels. Nitric oxide production was evaluated by measuring nitrite formation, using Griess reagent, and nitrotyrosine was assessed by western blotting. Results Serum creatine kinase activities in the controls (111 U/L increased 1 h after acute exercise (443 U/L. Acute exercise also increased the infiltration of macrophages into TA muscle; lipid peroxidation levels in TA muscle (967%, liver (55.5% and brain (108.9%, as well as the nitrite levels by 90.5%, 30.7% and 60%, respectively. The pattern of nitrotyrosine formation was also affected by acute exercise. Treatment with HCE decreased macrophage infiltration, lipid peroxidation, nitrite production and nitrotyrosine levels to control values. Conclusion Acute exercise induced by functional electrical stimulation in rats resulted in increase in lipid peroxidation, nitrite and nitrotyrosine levels in brain, liver and skeletal muscle. The exercise protocol, that involved eccentric muscle contraction, also caused some muscle trauma, associated with over-exertion, leading to inflammation. The extract of P. emarginatus abolished most of these oxidative processes, thus confirming the high antioxidant activity of this oil which infusions are used in folk medicine against inflammatory processes.

  2. Chronic psychosocial stress results in sensitization of the HPA axis to acute heterotypic stressors despite a reduction of adrenal in vitro ACTH responsiveness.

    Uschold-Schmidt, Nicole; Nyuyki, Kewir D; Füchsl, Andrea M; Neumann, Inga D; Reber, Stefan O

    2012-10-01

    Although chronic psychosocial stress is often accompanied by changes in basal hypothalamo-pituitary-adrenal (HPA) axis activity, it is vital for a chronically-stressed organism to mount adequate glucocorticoid (GC) responses when exposed to acute challenges. The main aim of the present study was to test whether this is true or not for the chronic subordinate colony housing (CSC, 19 days) paradigm, an established and clinically relevant mouse model of chronic psychosocial stress. As shown previously, CSC mice are characterized by unaffected morning and decreased evening plasma corticosterone (CORT) levels despite enlarged adrenals, suggesting a maladaptive breakdown of adrenal functioning. Plasma CORT levels, determined by repeated blood sampling via jugular vein catheters, as well as relative right adrenal CORT content were increased in CSC compared with single-housed control (SHC) mice in response to acute elevated platform (EPF, 5min) exposure. However, in vitro stimulation of adrenal explants with physiological and pharmacological doses of ACTH revealed an attenuated responsiveness of both the left and right adrenal glands following CSC, despite mRNA and/or protein expression of melanocortin 2 receptor (Mc2r), Mc2r accessory protein (MRAP), and key enzymes of steroidogenesis were not down-regulated. Taken together, we show that chronic psychosocial stressor exposure impairs in vitro ACTH responsiveness of both the left and right adrenal glands, whereas it increases adrenal responsiveness to an acute heterotypic stressor in vivo. This suggests that an additional factor present during acute stressor exposure in vivo rescues left and right adrenal ACTH sensitivity, or itself acts as CORT secretagogue in chronically stressed CSC mice. PMID:22444976

  3. A precursor-inducible zebrafish model of acute protoporphyria with hepatic protein aggregation and multiorganelle stress.

    Elenbaas, Jared S; Maitra, Dhiman; Liu, Yang; Lentz, Stephen I; Nelson, Bradley; Hoenerhoff, Mark J; Shavit, Jordan A; Omary, M Bishr

    2016-05-01

    Protoporphyria is a metabolic disease that causes excess production of protoporphyrin IX (PP-IX), the final biosynthetic precursor to heme. Hepatic PP-IX accumulation may lead to end-stage liver disease. We tested the hypothesis that systemic administration of porphyrin precursors to zebrafish larvae results in protoporphyrin accumulation and a reproducible nongenetic porphyria model. Retro-orbital infusion of PP-IX or the iron chelator deferoxamine mesylate (DFO), with the first committed heme precursor α-aminolevulinic acid (ALA), generates high levels of PP-IX in zebrafish larvae. Exogenously infused or endogenously produced PP-IX accumulates preferentially in the liver of zebrafish larvae and peaks 1 to 3 d after infusion. Similar to patients with protoporphyria, PP-IX is excreted through the biliary system. Porphyrin accumulation in zebrafish liver causes multiorganelle protein aggregation as determined by mass spectrometry and immunoblotting. Endoplasmic reticulum stress and induction of autophagy were noted in zebrafish larvae and corroborated in 2 mouse models of protoporphyria. Furthermore, electron microscopy of zebrafish livers from larvae administered ALA + DFO showed hepatocyte autophagosomes, nuclear membrane ruffling, and porphyrin-containing vacuoles with endoplasmic reticulum distortion. In conclusion, systemic administration of the heme precursors PP-IX or ALA + DFO into zebrafish larvae provides a new model of acute protoporphyria with consequent hepatocyte protein aggregation and proteotoxic multiorganelle alterations and stress.-Elenbaas, J. S., Maitra, D., Liu, Y., Lentz, S. I., Nelson, B., Hoenerhoff, M. J., Shavit, J. A., Omary, M. B. A precursor-inducible zebrafish model of acute protoporphyria with hepatic protein aggregation and multiorganelle stress. PMID:26839379

  4. Acute effects of traditional Thai massage on cortisol levels, arterial blood pressure and stress perception in academic stress condition: A single blind randomised controlled trial.

    Bennett, Surussawadi; Bennett, Michael John; Chatchawan, Uraiwon; Jenjaiwit, Patcharaporn; Pantumethakul, Rungthip; Kunhasura, Soontorn; Eungpinichpong, Wichai

    2016-04-01

    Traditional Thai massage (TTM) has been applied widely to promote relaxation. However, there is little evidence to support its efficacy on academic stress. A randomised controlled trial was performed to examine the acute effects of TTM on cortisol level, blood pressure, heart rate and stress perception in academic stress. This prospective trial included 36 physiotherapy students with a self perceived stress score of between 3 and 5. They were randomly allocated into the TTM (18 people) group or the control group (18 people). Saliva cortisol level, blood pressure, heart rate and stress perception rating were measured before and after the intervention. Both groups showed a significant reduction in cortisol level and heart rate when compared with baseline (p < 0.001). There were no significant differences in cortisol level between the two groups. The results suggest the need for further study into other possible physiological effects on stress of TTM. PMID:27210845

  5. Prenatal stress may increase vulnerability to life events comparison with the effects of prenatal dexamethasone

    Hougaard, Karin; Andersen, Maibritt B; Kjaer, Sanna L;

    2005-01-01

    Prenatal stress has been associated with a variety of alterations in the offspring. The presented observations suggest that rather than causing changes in the offspring per se, prenatal stress may increase the organism's vulnerability to aversive life events. Offspring of rat dams stressed gestat...... the very beginning of life affect the individual's sensitivity towards experiences in life after birth. The prenatal environment may thus form part of the explanation of the considerable individual variation in the development of psychopathology.......Prenatal stress has been associated with a variety of alterations in the offspring. The presented observations suggest that rather than causing changes in the offspring per se, prenatal stress may increase the organism's vulnerability to aversive life events. Offspring of rat dams stressed...... naïve at the time of ASR testing, whereas the other had been through blood sampling for assessment of the hormonal stress response to restraint, 3 months previously. Both prenatal CMS and dexamethasone increased ASR in the offspring compared to controls, but only in prenatally stressed offspring that...

  6. The Effects of Acute Stress-Induced Sleep Disturbance on Acoustic Trauma-Induced Tinnitus in Rats

    Stiles, Lucy; Darlington, Cynthia L.; Smith, Paul F.

    2014-01-01

    Chronic tinnitus is a debilitating condition and often accompanied by anxiety, depression, and sleep disturbance. It has been suggested that sleep disturbance, such as insomnia, may be a risk factor/predictor for tinnitus-related distress and the two conditions may share common neurobiological mechanisms. This study investigated whether acute stress-induced sleep disturbance could increase the susceptibility to acoustic trauma-induced tinnitus in rats. The animals were exposed to unilateral acoustic trauma 24 h before sleep disturbance being induced using the cage exchange method. Tinnitus perception was assessed behaviourally using a conditioned lick suppression paradigm 3 weeks after the acoustic trauma. Changes in the orexin system in the hypothalamus, which plays an important role in maintaining long-lasting arousal, were also examined using immunohistochemistry. Cage exchange resulted in a significant reduction in the number of sleep episodes and acoustic trauma-induced tinnitus with acoustic features similar to a 32 kHz tone at 100 dB. However, sleep disturbance did not exacerbate the perception of tinnitus in rats. Neither tinnitus alone nor tinnitus plus sleep disturbance altered the number of orexin-expressing neurons. The results suggest that acute sleep disturbance does not cause long-term changes in the number of orexin neurons and does not change the perception of tinnitus induced by acoustic trauma in rats. PMID:25162023

  7. Glucose-6-phosphate dehydrogenase-deficient mice have increased renal oxidative stress and increased albuminuria

    Xu, Yizhen; Zhang, Zhaoyun; Hu, Ji; Stillman, Isaac E.; Leopold, Jane A.; Handy, Diane E.; Loscalzo, Joseph; Stanton, Robert C.

    2010-01-01

    Glucose-6-phosphate dehydrogenase (G6PD) is the rate-limiting enzyme of the pentose phosphate pathway and the principal source of NADPH, a major cellular reductant, and is central to cell survival. Our previous work showed that diabetes and increased aldosterone are acquired forms of G6PD deficiency, leading to decreased G6PD activity and NADPH levels and damage to kidney tissue and endothelial cells. In this study, G6PD-deficient mice were studied to test the hypothesis that decreased G6PD a...

  8. Accelerated Growth Rate and Increased Drought Stress Resilience of the Model Grass Brachypodium distachyon Colonized by Bacillus subtilis B26.

    François Gagné-Bourque

    Full Text Available Plant growth-promoting bacteria (PGB induce positive effects in plants, for instance, increased growth and reduced abiotic stresses susceptibility. The mechanisms by which these bacteria impact the host plant are numerous, diverse and often specific. Here, we studied the agronomical, molecular and biochemical effects of the endophytic PGB Bacillus subtilis B26 on the full life cycle of Brachypodium distachyon Bd21, an established model species for functional genomics in cereal crops and temperate grasses. Inoculation of Brachypodium with B. subtilis strain B26 increased root and shoot weights, accelerated growth rate and seed yield as compared to control plants. B. subtilis strain B26 efficiently colonized the plant and was recovered from roots, stems and blades as well as seeds of Brachypodium, indicating that the bacterium is able to migrate, spread systemically inside the plant, establish itself in the aerial plant tissues and organs, and is vertically transmitted to seeds. The presence of B. subtilis strain B26 in the seed led to systemic colonization of the next generation of Brachypodium plants. Inoculated Brachypodium seedlings and mature plants exposed to acute and chronic drought stress minimized the phenotypic effect of drought compared to plants not harbouring the bacterium. Protection from the inhibitory effects of drought by the bacterium was linked to upregulation of the drought-response genes, DREB2B-like, DHN3-like and LEA-14-A-like and modulation of the DNA methylation genes, MET1B-like, CMT3-like and DRM2-like, that regulate the process. Additionally, total soluble sugars and starch contents increased in stressed inoculated plants, a biochemical indication of drought tolerance. In conclusion, we show a single inoculation of Brachypodium with a PGB affected the whole growth cycle of the plant, accelerating its growth rates, shortening its vegetative period, and alleviating drought stress effects. These effects are relevant to

  9. Oral contraceptive therapy increases oxidative stress in pre-menopausal women

    Jui Tung Chen

    2012-01-01

    Conclusions: The use of OCT may increase oxidative stress levels, independent of traditional cardiovascular risk factors, in pre-menopausal women, providing new insights to the primary prevention of vascular complications in these subjects.

  10. Glucose intolerance induced by blockade of central FGF receptors is linked to an acute stress response

    Rojas, Jennifer M.; Matsen, Miles E.; Mundinger, Thomas O.; Morton, Gregory J.; Stefanovski, Darko; Bergman, Richard N.; Kaiyala, Karl J.; Taborsky, Gerald J.; Schwartz, Michael W.

    2015-01-01

    iv glucose (given during the FSIGT) contributed to the rapid resolution of the sympathoadrenal response induced by icv FGFRi, we performed an additional study comparing groups that received iv saline or iv glucose 30 min after icv FGFRi. Our finding that elevated plasma catecholamine levels returned rapidly to baseline irrespective of whether rats subsequently received an iv bolus of saline or glucose indicates that the rapid reversal of sympathoadrenal activation following icv FGFRi was unrelated to the subsequent glucose bolus. Conclusions The effect of acute inhibition of central FGFR signaling to impair glucose tolerance likely involves a stress response associated with pronounced, but transient, sympathoadrenal activation and an associated reduction of insulin secretion. Whether this effect is a true consequence of FGFR blockade or involves an off-target effect of the FGFR inhibitor requires additional study. PMID:26266088

  11. Acute sleep deprivation increases portion size and affects food choice in young men.

    Hogenkamp, Pleunie S; Nilsson, Emil; Nilsson, Victor C; Chapman, Colin D; Vogel, Heike; Lundberg, Lina S; Zarei, Sanaz; Cedernaes, Jonathan; Rångtell, Frida H; Broman, Jan-Erik; Dickson, Suzanne L; Brunstrom, Jeffrey M; Benedict, Christian; Schiöth, Helgi B

    2013-09-01

    Acute sleep loss increases food intake in adults. However, little is known about the influence of acute sleep loss on portion size choice, and whether this depends on both hunger state and the type of food (snack or meal item) offered to an individual. The aim of the current study was to compare portion size choice after a night of sleep and a period of nocturnal wakefulness (a condition experienced by night-shift workers, e.g. physicians and nurses). Sixteen men (age: 23 ± 0.9 years, BMI: 23.6 ± 0.6 kg/m(2)) participated in a randomized within-subject design with two conditions, 8-h of sleep and total sleep deprivation (TSD). In the morning following sleep interventions, portion size, comprising meal and snack items, was measured using a computer-based task, in both fasted and sated state. In addition, hunger as well as plasma levels of ghrelin were measured. In the morning after TSD, subjects had increased plasma ghrelin levels (13%, p=0.04), and chose larger portions (14%, p=0.02), irrespective of the type of food, as compared to the sleep condition. Self-reported hunger was also enhanced (pmeal items did not differ between the sleep interventions (6%, p=0.13). Our results suggest that overeating in the morning after sleep loss is driven by both homeostatic and hedonic factors. Further, they show that portion size choice after sleep loss depend on both an individual's hunger status, and the type of food offered. PMID:23428257

  12. Pressor recovery after acute stress is impaired in high fructose-fed Lean Zucker rats.

    Thompson, Jennifer A; D'Angelo, Gerard; Mintz, James D; Fulton, David J; Stepp, David W

    2016-06-01

    Insulin resistance is a powerful predictor of cardiovascular disease; however, the mechanistic link remains unclear. This study aims to determine if early cardiovascular changes associated with short-term fructose feeding in the absence of obesity manifest as abnormal blood pressure control. Metabolic dysfunction was induced in Lean Zucker rats by short-term high-fructose feeding. Rats were implanted with telemetry devices for the measurement of mean arterial blood pressure (MAP) and subjected to air jet stress at 5 and 8 weeks after feeding. Additional animals were catheterized under anesthesia for the determination of MAP and blood flow responses in the hind limb and mesenteric vascular beds to intravenous injection of isoproterenol (0.001-0.5 μm), a β-adrenergic agonist. Metabolic dysfunction in high-fructose rats was not accompanied by changes in 24-h MAP Yet, animals fed a high-fructose diet for 8 weeks exhibited a marked impairment in blood pressure recovery after air-jet stress. Dose-dependent decreases in MAP and peripheral blood flow in response to isoproterenol treatment were significantly attenuated in high-fructose rats. These data suggest that impaired blood pressure recovery to acute mental stress precedes the onset of hypertension in the early stages of insulin resistance. Further, blunted responses to isoproterenol implicate β2-adrenergic sensitivity as a possible mechanism responsible for altered blood pressure control after short-term high-fructose feeding. PMID:27335430

  13. Cigarette Smoke Disrupted Lung Endothelial Barrier Integrity and Increased Susceptibility to Acute Lung Injury via Histone Deacetylase 6.

    Borgas, Diana; Chambers, Eboni; Newton, Julie; Ko, Junsuk; Rivera, Stephanie; Rounds, Sharon; Lu, Qing

    2016-05-01

    Epidemiologic evidence indicates that cigarette smoke (CS) is associated with the development of acute lung injury (ALI). We have previously shown that brief CS exposure exacerbates lipopolysaccharide (LPS)-induced ALI in vivo and endothelial barrier dysfunction in vitro. In this study, we found that CS also exacerbated Pseudomonas-induced ALI in mice. We demonstrated that lung microvascular endothelial cells (ECs) isolated from mice exposed to CS had a greater permeability or incomplete recovery after challenges by LPS and thrombin. Histone deacetylase (HDAC) 6 deacetylates proteins essential for maintenance of endothelial barrier function. We found that HDAC6 phosphorylation at serine-22 was increased in lung tissues of mice exposed to CS and in lung ECs exposed to cigarette smoke extract (CSE). Inhibition of HDAC6 attenuated CSE-induced increases in EC permeability and CS priming of ALI. Similar barrier protection was provided by the microtubule stabilizer taxol, which preserved α-tubulin acetylation. CSE decreased α-tubulin acetylation and caused microtubule depolymerization. In coordination with increased HDAC6 phosphorylation, CSE inhibited Akt and activated glycogen synthase kinase (GSK)-3β; these effects were ameliorated by the antioxidant N-acetyl cysteine. Our results suggest that CS increases lung EC permeability, thereby enhancing susceptibility to ALI, likely through oxidative stress-induced Akt inactivation and subsequent GSK-3β activation. Activated GSK-3β may activate HDAC6 via phosphorylation of serine-22, leading to α-tubulin deacetylation and microtubule disassembly. Inhibition of HDAC6 may be a novel therapeutic option for ALI in cigarette smokers. PMID:26452072

  14. Stress during adolescence increases novelty seeking and risk-taking behavior in male and female rats

    Maria eToledo; Carmen eSandi

    2011-01-01

    Adolescence is a period of major physical, hormonal, and psychological change. It is also characterized by a significant increase in the incidence of psychopathologies and this increase is gender-specific. Likewise, stress during adolescence is associated with the development of psychiatric disorders later in life. Previously, using a rat model of psychogenic stress (exposure to predator odor followed by placement on an elevated platform) during the pre-pubertal period (postnatal days 28–30),...

  15. Binary stress induces an increase in indole alkaloid biosynthesis in Catharanthus roseus

    Wei ZHU; Yang, Bingxian; Komatsu, Setsuko; Lu, Xiaoping; Li, Ximin; Tian, Jingkui

    2015-01-01

    Catharanthus roseus is an important medicinal plant, which produces a variety of indole alkaloids of significant pharmaceutical relevance. In the present study, we aimed to investigate the potential stress-induced increase of indole alkaloid biosynthesis in C. roseus using proteomic technique. The contents of the detectable alkaloids ajmalicine, vindoline, catharanthine, and strictosidine in C. roseus were significantly increased under binary stress. Proteomic analysis revealed that the abund...

  16. Binary Stress Induces an Increase in Indole Alkaloid Biosynthesis in Catharanthus roseus

    Wei eZhu; Bingxian eYang; Setsuko eKomatsu; Xiaoping eLu; Ximin eLi; Jingkui eTian

    2015-01-01

    Catharanthus roseus is an important medicinal plant, which produces a variety of indole alkaloids of significant pharmaceutical relevance. In the present study, we aimed to investigate the potential stress-induced increase of indole alkaloid biosynthesis in C. roseus using proteomic technique. The contents of the detectable alkaloids ajmalicine, vindoline, catharanthine, and strictosidine in C. roseus were significantly increased under binary stress. Proteomic analysis revealed that the abund...

  17. Acute lung injury induced by whole gastric fluid: hepatic acute phase response contributes to increase lung antiprotease protection

    Ayala, Pedro; Meneses, Manuel; Olmos, Pablo; Montalva, Rebeca; Droguett, Karla; Ríos, Mariana; Borzone, Gisella

    2016-01-01

    Background Gastric contents aspiration in humans is a risk factor for severe respiratory failure with elevated mortality. Although aspiration-induced local lung inflammation has been studied in animal models, little is known about extrapulmonary effects of aspiration. We investigated whether a single orotracheal instillation of whole gastric fluid elicits a liver acute phase response and if this response contributes to enrich the alveolar spaces with proteins having antiprotease activity. Met...

  18. Irradiation increased oxidative stress levels in thymocytes in B6 mice

    It is generally accepted that radiation induces genetic instability in progenitor cells, accumulation of somatic mutations in descendant cells and finally increases transformation frequency, although the mechanism is still elusive. In addition to cancer, RERF reported that A-bomb exposure increased the incidence of atherosclerosis and cardiovascular diseases. Since oxidative stress is one of causes of atherosclerosis, and because alpha-ray irradiation elevated oxidative stress levels for prolonged period in cultured cells, we asked whether radiation might induce long-lasting oxidative stress in mice. Four weeks old B6 female mice were X-irradiated by 1.6 Gy once a week for 4 successive weeks. This radiation protocol is a standard one that induces thymic lymphoma effectively in B6 mice. Oxidative stress levels were measured 8-10 weeks after the final irradiation by two methods. One was the staining of thymocytes with dihydro-rhodamine-123 (DHR) that accumulated in mitochondria and converted into a fluorescent dye, rhodamine-123, upon oxidation. Another was an EIA measurement of an oxidative stress marker, urinary 8-isoprostane, which reflected the oxidation of lipid membranes. Oxidative stress levels in thymocytes increased in 9 out of 15 irradiated mice, especially those mice showing abnormal thymic regeneration. The levels of urinary 8-isoprastane increased in irradiated mice. These results support an idea that radiation induces long-lasting oxidative stress in vivo and at least in part through this mechanism induces cardiovascular diseases

  19. Reduction in plasma vasopressin levels of dehydrated rats following acute stress

    Keil, L. C.; Severs, W. B.

    1977-01-01

    Results are presented for an investigation directed to substantiate and extend preliminary findings of stress-induced reduction in plasma arginine vasopressin (pAVP). Since normally hydrated rats have very low levels of pAVP, it is difficult to measure reliably any decrease in pAVP that may result from stress. To overcome this problem, the pAVP levels of the tested rats were raised by dehydration prior to application of stress. A radioimmunoassay for pAVP is described and used to determine the levels of vasopressin in the plasma of nondehydrated and dehydrated rats after exposure to ether or acceleration stress. Plasma pAVP is also determined in rats following nicotine administration. It is shown that exposure of nondehydrated rats to ether or acceleration stress does not elicit any significant alterations in circulating pAVP levels while nicotine injections stimulate a marked increase. In particular, ether and acceleration stress produce a rapid reduction in the pAVP level of dehydrated rats, the decrease being observed in both large and small animals. The mechanism for this reduction in pAVP level following stress is yet unknown.

  20. Low levels of tissue factor lead to alveolar hemorrhage, potentiating murine acute lung injury and oxidative stress

    Bastarache, J.A.; Sebag, S. C.; Clune, J.K.; Grove, B.S.; Lawson, W.E.; Janz, D. R.; Roberts, L. J.; Dworski, R; Mackman, N.; Ware, L. B.

    2013-01-01

    Background Systemic blockade of Tissue Factor (TF) attenuates acute lung injury (ALI) in animal models of sepsis but the effects of global TF deficiency are unknown. Hypothesis We used mice with complete knockout of mouse TF and low levels (~1%) of human TF (LTF mice) to test the hypothesis that global TF deficiency attenuates lung inflammation in direct lung injury. Methods LTF mice were treated with 10 μg of lipopolysaccharide (LPS) or vehicle administered by direct intratracheal (IT) injection and studied at 24 hours. Results Contrary to our hypothesis, LTF mice had increased lung inflammation and injury as measured by bronchoalveolar lavage cell count (3.4 × 105 WT LPS versus 3.3 × 105 LTF LPS, p=0.947) and protein (493 μg/ml WT LPS versus 1014 μg/ml LTF LPS, p=0.006), proinflammatory cytokines (TNF-α, IL-10, IL-12, p<0.035 WT LPS versus LTF LPS) and histology compared to wild type mice. LTF mice also had increased hemorrhage and free hemoglobin in the airspace accompanied by increased oxidant stress as measured by lipid peroxidation products (F2-Isoprostanes and Isofurans). Conclusions These findings indicate that global TF deficiency does not confer protection in a direct lung injury model. Rather, TF deficiency causes increased intra-alveolar hemorrhage following LPS leading to increased lipid peroxidation. Strategies to globally inhibit tissue factor may be deleterious in patients with ALI. PMID:23033361

  1. Acute Aerobic Exercise Increases Cortical Activity during Working Memory: A Functional MRI Study in Female College Students

    Lin Li; Wei-Wei Men; Yu-Kai Chang; Ming-Xia Fan; Liu Ji; Gao-Xia Wei

    2014-01-01

    There is increasing evidence that acute aerobic exercise is associated with improved cognitive function. However, neural correlates of its cognitive plasticity remain largely unknown. The present study examined the effect of a session of acute aerobic exercise on working memory task-evoked brain activity as well as task performance. A within-subjects design with a counterbalanced order was employed. Fifteen young female participants (M = 19.56, SD = 0.81) were scanned using functional magneti...

  2. Hypertensive disorders of pregnancy and the recent increase in obstetric acute renal failure in Canada: population based retrospective cohort study

    Mehrabadi, Azar; Liu, Shiliang; Bartholomew, Sharon; Hutcheon, Jennifer A; Magee, Laura A.; Kramer, Michael S; Liston, Robert M; Joseph, K. S.

    2014-01-01

    Objective To examine whether changes in postpartum haemorrhage, hypertensive disorders of pregnancy, or other risk factors explain the increase in obstetric acute renal failure in Canada. Design Retrospective cohort study. Setting Canada (excluding the province of Quebec). Participants All hospital deliveries from 2003 to 2010 (n=2 193 425). Main outcome measures Obstetric acute renal failure identified by ICD-10 diagnostic codes. Methods Information on all hospital deliveries in Canada (excl...

  3. Endoplasmic reticulum stress is increased in adipose tissue of women with gestational diabetes.

    Stella Liong

    Full Text Available Maternal obesity and gestational diabetes mellitus (GDM are two increasingly common and important obstetric complications that are associated with severe long-term health risks to mothers and babies. IL-1β, which is increased in obese and GDM pregnancies, plays an important role in the pathophysiology of these two pregnancy complications. In non-pregnant tissues, endoplasmic (ER stress is increased in diabetes and can induce IL-1β via inflammasome activation. The aim of this study was to determine whether ER stress is increased in omental adipose tissue of women with GDM, and if ER stress can also upregulate inflammasome-dependent secretion of IL-1β. ER stress markers IRE1α, GRP78 and XBP-1s were significantly increased in adipose tissue of obese compared to lean pregnant women. ER stress was also increased in adipose tissue of women with GDM compared to BMI-matched normal glucose tolerant (NGT women. Thapsigargin, an ER stress activator, induced upregulated secretion of mature IL-1α and IL-1β in human omental adipose tissue explants primed with bacterial endotoxin LPS, the viral dsRNA analogue poly(I:C or the pro-inflammatory cytokine TNF-α. Inhibition of capase-1 with Ac-YVAD-CHO resulted in decreased IL-1α and IL-1β secretion, whereas inhibition of pannexin-1 with carbenoxolone suppressed IL-1β secretion only. Treatment with anti-diabetic drugs metformin and glibenclamide also reduced IL-1α and IL-1β secretion in infection and cytokine-primed adipose tissue. In conclusion, this study has demonstrated ER stress to activate the inflammasome in pregnant adipose tissue. Therefore, increased ER stress may contribute towards the pathophysiology of obesity in pregnancy and GDM.

  4. Dehydroepiandrosterone and Corticosterone Are Regulated by Season and Acute Stress in a Wild Songbird: Jugular Versus Brachial Plasma

    Newman, Amy E.M.; Pradhan, Devaleena S.; Soma, Kiran K.

    2008-01-01

    Stress has well-known effects on adrenal glucocorticoid secretion, and chronic elevation of glucocorticoids can have detrimental effects on the brain. Dehydroepiandrosterone (DHEA), an androgen precursor synthesized in the adrenal glands or the brain itself, has anti-glucocorticoid properties, but little is known about the role of DHEA in the stress response, particularly in the brain. Here, we measured the effects of acute restraint on circulating corticosterone (CORT) and DHEA levels in wil...

  5. Vacuum-Cleaner Noise and Acute Stress Responses in Female C57BL/6 Mice (Mus musculus)

    Jensen, Kelly; Hahn, Nina E; Palme, Rupert; Saxton, Katherine; Francis, Darlene D.

    2010-01-01

    Audiogenic stress is a well-documented phenomenon in laboratory rodents. Despite the recommendation in the Guide for the Care and Use of Laboratory Animals to consider noise a concern in the animal facility, only a small body of literature empirically addresses the effects of facility noise on laboratory rodents, particularly mice. The objective of this study was to determine whether facility noise generated by a vacuum cleaner induces an acute stress response in a commonly used strain of lab...

  6. Preliminary evidence that exercise dependence is associated with blunted cardiac and cortisol reactions to acute psychological stress

    Heaney, Jennifer L. J.; Ginty, Annie T; Carroll, Douglas; Phillips, Anna C

    2011-01-01

    Low or blunted cardiovascular and cortisol reactions to acute psychological stress have been shown to characterise those with a tobacco or alcohol dependency. The present study tested the hypothesis that exercise dependency would be similarly associated with blunted reactivity. Young female exercisers (N = 219) were screened by questionnaire for exercise dependence. Ten women with probable exercise dependence and 10 non dependent controls were selected for laboratory stress testing....

  7. Gastroprotective role of bioflavonoid silymarin in animal model of acute cold-restraint stress induced gastric ulceration

    Shobha V. Huilgol; Jamadar, M. G.

    2013-01-01

    Introduction: Imbalance between the aggressive and defensive factors and presence of acid- pepsin is supposed to play a major role in aetiopathogenesis of peptic ulcer disease. Recently, role of oxidative free radicals have been implicated in mediating cold-restraint stress, H.pylori, NSAID induced gastric injury. Objective: The present study was undertaken to evaluate the possible role of antioxidant bioflavonoid silymarin in acute cold- restraint stress model of gastric ulceration. Method...

  8. Targeted disruption of the orphanin FQ/nociceptin gene increases stress susceptibility and impairs stress adaptation in mice

    Köster, Anja; Montkowski, Alexandra; Schulz, Stefan; Stübe, Eva-Maria; Knaudt, Kristina; Jenck, Francois; Moreau, Jean-Luc; Nothacker, Hans-Peter; Civelli, Olivier; Reinscheid, Rainer K.

    1999-01-01

    The neuropeptide orphanin FQ (also known as nociceptin; OFQ/N) has been implicated in modulating stress-related behavior. OFQ/N was demonstrated to reverse stress-induced analgesia and possess anxiolytic-like activity after central administration. To further study physiological functions of OFQ/N, we have generated OFQ/N-deficient mice by targeted disruption of the OFQ/N gene. Homozygous mice display increased anxiety-like behavior when exposed to a novel and threatening environment. OFQ/N-nu...

  9. Chronic Psychosocial Factors and Acute Physiological Responses to Laboratory-Induced Stress in Healthy Populations: A Quantitative Review of 30 Years of Investigations

    Chida, Yoichi; Hamer, Mark

    2008-01-01

    This meta-analysis included 729 studies from 161 articles investigating how acute stress responsivity (including stress reactivity and recovery of hypothalamic-pituitary-adrenal [HPA] axis, autonomic, and cardiovascular systems) changes with various chronic psychosocial exposures (job stress; general life stress; depression or hopelessness;…

  10. The Stressed Female Brain: Neuronal activity in the prelimbic but not infralimbic region of the medial prefrontal cortex suppresses learning after acute stress

    Lisa Y. Maeng

    2013-12-01

    Full Text Available Women are nearly twice as likely as men to suffer from anxiety and post-traumatic stress disorder (PTSD, indicating that many females are especially vulnerable to stressful life experience. A profound sex difference in the response to stress is also observed in laboratory animals. Acute exposure to an uncontrollable stressful event disrupts associative learning during classical eyeblink conditioning in female rats but enhances this same type of learning process in males. These sex differences in response to stress are dependent on neuronal activity in similar but also different brain regions. Neuronal activity in the basolateral nucleus of the amygdala (BLA is necessary in both males and females. However, neuronal activity in the medial prefrontal cortex (mPFC during the stressor is necessary to modify learning in females but not in males. The mPFC is often divided into its prelimbic (PL and infralimbic (IL subregions, which differ both in structure and function. Through its connections to the BLA, we hypothesized that neuronal activity within the PL, but not IL, during the stressor is necessary to suppress learning in females. To test this hypothesis, either the PL or IL of adult female rats was bilaterally inactivated with GABAA agonist muscimol during acute inescapable swim stress. 24h later, all subjects were trained with classical eyeblink conditioning. Though stressed, females without neuronal activity in the PL learned well. In contrast, females with IL inactivation during the stressor did not learn well, behaving similar to stressed vehicle-treated females. These data suggest that exposure to a stressful event critically engages the PL, but not IL, to disrupt associative learning in females. Together with previous studies, these data indicate that the PL communicates with the BLA to suppress learning after a stressful experience in females. This circuit may be similarly engaged in women who become cognitively impaired after stressful

  11. Femoral diaphyseal stress fracture as the initial presentation of acute leukaemia in an adolescent.

    Chase, Helen Emily; Pang, Joe Hwong; Sanghrajka, Anish Pradip

    2016-01-01

    A 14-year-old boy was referred to the orthopaedic clinic by his general practitioner, reporting of a 6-week history of left thigh pain. Clinical examination was unremarkable. Radiographs demonstrated a periosteal reaction at the proximal femur. MRI scans demonstrated a stress fracture of the femur, with no associated sinister features and no evidence of a pathological lesion. As the fracture healed and symptoms improved, the patient became unwell with weight loss, lethargy, chest and jaw pain and fevers. After multiple blood tests over a 25-day period, including five full blood counts and two normal blood films, a third blood film finally demonstrated blasts in keeping with acute leukaemia. We discuss a literature review of musculoskeletal manifestations of leukaemia and the often atypical presentations found. PMID:27353177

  12. Khat use and trait anger: effects on affect regulation during an acute stressful challenge.

    Bongard, Stephan; al'Absi, Mustafa; Khalil, Najat Sayem; Al Habori, Molham

    2011-01-01

    Khat (Catha edulis) is a widely used stimulating drug often consumed in daily routine in Yemen and East African countries. Chewing khat acutely elicits states of euphoria and feelings of well-being which later shift into emotional instability and low mood. Little is known about emotional regulation in habitual khat chewers. In this study, we compared self-reports on trait anger as well as positive and negative affect responses to a mental arithmetic challenge. Participants included 135 men and women from Yemen who chew khat regularly, occasionally or not at all. Participants attended a laboratory session that involved resting periods and performing a math challenge. Analyses of variance and regression show that regular khat chewing is associated with higher trait anger, more pronounced negative responses during stress and less pronounced positive emotional states. These results suggest that regular khat chewing is associated with disturbances in emotion regulation processes. PMID:21860244

  13. The wheat MAP kinase phosphatase 1 alleviates salt stress and increases antioxidant activities in Arabidopsis.

    Zaidi, Ikram; Ebel, Chantal; Belgaroui, Nibras; Ghorbel, Mouna; Amara, Imène; Hanin, Moez

    2016-04-01

    Mitogen-activated protein kinase phosphatases (MKPs) are important negative regulators in the MAPK signaling pathways, which play crucial roles in plant growth, development and stress responses. We have previously shown that the heterologous expression of a durum wheat MKP, TMKP1, results in increased tolerance to salt stress in yeast but its particular contribution in salt stress tolerance in plants was not investigated. Here, TMKP1 was overexpressed in Arabidopsis thaliana and physiological changes were assessed in transgenic plants exposed to stress conditions. Under salt stress and especially LiCl, the TMKP1 overexpressors displayed higher germination rates in comparison to wild type plants. The enhancement of salt stress tolerance was accompanied by increased antioxidant enzyme activities, namely superoxide dismutase, catalase and peroxydases. Such increases in antioxidant activities were concomitant with lower malondialdehyde, superoxide anion O2(-) and hydrogen peroxide levels in the TMKP1 transgenic seedlings. Moreover, we provide evidence that, in contrast to the Arabidopsis ortholog AtMKP1, TMKP1 acts as a positive regulator of salt stress tolerance via its ectopic expression in the Arabidopsis mkp1 mutant. PMID:26927025

  14. Exploration of the decrease of leptin levels induced by acute stress factors

    To explore the role and the rule of leptin levels in acute inflammation, platelet activating factor(PAF), noradrenaline (NE), lipopolysaccharide (LPS), and endothelin-1 (ET-1) were utilized to induce vascular endothelial cells, and an ischemia-reperfusion injury model was established to observe the change of leptin levels. Leptin concentrations in supernatant and serum were measured by leptin radioimmunoassay. The results showed that the supernatant leptin level was significantly decreased after PAF and ET-1 treatment of 6 hours and 24 hours versus the control group, serum leptin level was significantly decreased after and injury of 60 minutes ischemia and 30 minutes' reperfusion versus pre-experimental serum values, and leptin level in serum showed a increase trend as reperfusion time extended. It can be concluded that leptin may be an inflammatory cytokine to play a role in acute inflammation responses. (authors)

  15. Long-term academic stress increases the late component of error processing: an ERP study.

    Wu, Jianhui; Yuan, Yiran; Duan, Hongxia; Qin, Shaozheng; Buchanan, Tony W; Zhang, Kan; Zhang, Liang

    2014-05-01

    Exposure to long-term stress has a variety of consequences on the brain and cognition. Few studies have examined the influence of long-term stress on event related potential (ERP) indices of error processing. The current study investigated how long-term academic stress modulates the error related negativity (Ne or ERN) and the error positivity (Pe) components of error processing. Forty-one male participants undergoing preparation for a major academic examination and 20 non-exam participants completed a Go-NoGo task while ERP measures were collected. The exam group reported higher perceived stress levels and showed increased Pe amplitude compared with the non-exam group. Participants' rating of the importance of the exam was positively associated with the amplitude of Pe, but these effects were not found for the Ne/ERN. These results suggest that long-term academic stress leads to greater motivational assessment of and higher emotional response to errors. PMID:24657630

  16. Oxidative stress related to chlorpyrifos exposure in rainbow trout: Acute and medium term effects on genetic biomarkers.

    Benedetto, A; Brizio, P; Squadrone, S; Scanzio, T; Righetti, M; Gasco, L; Prearo, M; Abete, M C

    2016-05-01

    Organophosphates (OPs) are derivatives of phosphoric acid widely used in agriculture as pesticides. Chlorpyrifos (CPF) is an OP that is extremely toxic to aquatic organisms. Rainbow trout (Oncorhynchus mykiss) is considered as a sentinel model species for ecotoxicology assessment in freshwater ecosystems. An exposure study was carried out on rainbow trout to investigate genetic responses to CPF-induced oxidative stress by Real-Time PCR, and to determine the accumulation dynamics of CPF and toxic metabolite chlorpyrifos-oxon (CPF-ox) in edible parts, by HPLC-MS/MS. Among the genes considered to be related to oxidative stress, a significant increase in HSP70 mRNA levels was observed in liver samples up to 14days after CPF exposure (0.05mg/L). CPF concentrations in muscle samples reach mean values of 285.25ng/g within 96hours of exposure, while CPF-ox concentrations were always under the limit of quantification (LOQ) of the applied method. Our findings lead us to consider HSP70 as a suitable genetic marker in rainbow trout for acute and medium-term monitoring of CPF exposure, complementary to analytical determinations. PMID:27017883

  17. Astaxanthin Attenuates Early Acute Kidney Injury Following Severe Burns in Rats by Ameliorating Oxidative Stress and Mitochondrial-Related Apoptosis

    Song-Xue Guo

    2015-04-01

    Full Text Available Early acute kidney injury (AKI is a devastating complication in critical burn patients, and it is associated with severe morbidity and mortality. The mechanism of AKI is multifactorial. Astaxanthin (ATX is a natural compound that is widely distributed in marine organisms; it is a strong antioxidant and exhibits other biological effects that have been well studied in various traumatic injuries and diseases. Hence, we attempted to explore the potential protection of ATX against early post burn AKI and its possible mechanisms of action. The classic severe burn rat model was utilized for the histological and biochemical assessments of the therapeutic value and mechanisms of action of ATX. Upon ATX treatment, renal tubular injury and the levels of serum creatinine and neutrophil gelatinase-associated lipocalin were improved. Furthermore, relief of oxidative stress and tubular apoptosis in rat kidneys post burn was also observed. Additionally, ATX administration increased Akt and Bad phosphorylation and further down-regulated the expression of other downstream pro-apoptotic proteins (cytochrome c and caspase-3/9; these effects were reversed by the PI3K inhibitor LY294002. Moreover, the protective effect of ATX presents a dose-dependent enhancement. The data above suggested that ATX protects against early AKI following severe burns in rats, which was attributed to its ability to ameliorate oxidative stress and inhibit apoptosis by modulating the mitochondrial-apoptotic pathway, regarded as the Akt/Bad/Caspases signalling cascade.

  18. Acute-phase proteins, oxidative stress biomarkers, proinflammatory cytokines, and cardiac troponin in Arabian mares affected with pyometra.

    El-Bahr, S M; El-Deeb, W M

    2016-09-01

    New biomarkers are essential for diagnosis of pyometra in mares. In this context, 12 subfertile Arabian mares suffered from pyometra were admitted to the Veterinary Teaching Hospital. The basis for diagnosis of pyometra was positive findings of clinical examination and rectal palpation. Blood samples were collected from diseased animals and from five Arabian healthy mares, which were considered as control group. Acute-phase proteins (APP), oxidative stress biomarkers, proinflammatory cytokines, and cardiac troponin I were estimated in the harvested sera of both groups. Clinical examination revealed purulent yellowish fluid discharged from vagina of affected animals and rectal palpation of the reproductive tract revealed uterine distention. The biochemical analysis of the serum revealed significant increase in cardiac troponin I, creatin kinase, alkaline phosphatase, malondialdehyde, tumor necrosis factor α, interleukins 6, prostaglandin F2α, haptoglobin, and serum amyloid A and significant decrease in reduced glutathione, superoxide dismutase (SOD), total antioxidant capacity, and nitric oxide (NO) of mares affected with pyometra compare to control. Cardiac troponin I was positively correlated with aspartate aminotransferase, creatin kinase, malondialdehyde, alkaline phosphatase, tumor necrosis factor α, interleukins 6, prostaglandin F2α, haptoglobin and serum amyloid A and negatively correlated with glutathione, superoxide dismutase, total antioxidant capacity and nitric oxide in serum of mares affected with pyometra. Moreover, there was high positive correlation between proinflammatory cytokines and APP in serum of mares affected with pyometra. The present study suggests cardiac troponin I together with APP, proinflammatory cytokines, and oxidative stress parameters as biomarkers for pyometra in Arabian mares. PMID:27177966

  19. Impact of physical activity on energy balance, food intake and choice in normal weight and obese children in the setting of acute social stress: a randomized controlled trial

    Horsch A.; Wobmann M.; Kriemler S.; Munsch S.; Borloz S.; Balz A.; Marques-Vidal P.; Borghini A.; Puder J. J.

    2015-01-01

    BACKGROUND: Psychological stress negatively influences food intake and food choices, thereby contributing to the development of childhood obesity. Physical activity can also moderate eating behavior and influence calorie intake. However, it is unknown if acute physical activity influences food intake and overall energy balance after acute stress exposure in children. We therefore investigated the impact of acute physical activity on overall energy balance (food intake minus energy expenditure...

  20. Locus of Control Predicts Cortisol Reactivity and Speech Performance in Response to Acute Stress in Undergraduate Students

    Szabo, Yvette Z.; Chang, Andrew; Chancellor-Freeland, Cheryl

    2015-01-01

    Previous studies have found that an individual's perception of control in a situation (Locus of Control; LOC) can serve as a protective factor that has physiological and psychological benefits. The present study examines LOC in an acute stress paradigm to examine the relationship between LOC and hypothalamic-pituitary-adrenal axis functioning as…

  1. Acute Exposure to Stress Improves Performance in Trace Eyeblink Conditioning and Spatial Learning Tasks in Healthy Men

    Duncko, Roman; Cornwell, Brian; Cui, Lihong; Merikangas, Kathleen R.; Grillon, Christian

    2007-01-01

    The present study investigated the effects of acute stress exposure on learning performance in humans using analogs of two paradigms frequently used in animals. Healthy male participants were exposed to the cold pressor test (CPT) procedure, i.e., insertion of the dominant hand into ice water for 60 sec. Following the CPT or the control procedure,…

  2. Roles of inter-individual differences and intra-individual acute elevations in early smoking lapse in people with posttraumatic stress disorder.

    Dedert, Eric A; Hicks, Terrell A; Dennis, Paul A; Calhoun, Patrick S; Beckham, Jean C

    2016-09-01

    Existing models of the role of posttraumatic stress disorder (PTSD) symptoms and smoking have almost exclusively examined mean symptom levels, rather than the acute elevations that might trigger smoking lapse immediately or increase risk of a smoking lapse in the next few hours. We examined ecological momentary assessments (EMA) of PTSD symptom clusters and smoking in the first week of a quit attempt in 52 people with PTSD. In multilevel models including PTSD symptom means, acute elevations, and lagged acute elevations together as simultaneous predictors of odds of smoking in the same models, pre-quit smoking occasions were significantly related to acute elevations in symptoms, including PTSD totals (OR=1.20; 95% CI, 1.10 to 1.31), PTSD re-experiencing symptoms (OR=1.16; 95% CI, 1.06 to 1.27), PTSD avoidance symptoms (OR=1.20; 95% CI, 1.10 to 1.31), PTSD numbing symptoms (OR=1.14; 95% CI, 1.04 to 1.24), and PTSD hyperarousal symptoms (OR=1.20; 95% CI, 1.09 to 1.31). In contrast, post-quit smoking was related to lagged acute elevations in PTSD re-experiencing (OR=1.24, 95% CI, 1.03 to 1.50) avoidance (OR=1.27, 95% CI, 1.05 to 1.53), and numbing symptoms (OR=1.24, 95% CI, 1.02 to 1.51). During a quit attempt, individuals with PTSD delayed smoking in response to acute elevations in PTSD re-experiencing and Avoidance. This period presents an opportunity to use mobile health interventions to prevent smoking lapse and to use coping skills acquired in trauma-focused therapy to respond to acute PTSD symptom elevation. PMID:27155244

  3. Acute exercise increases oxygenated and deoxygenated hemoglobin in the prefrontal cortex.

    Giles, Grace E; Brunyé, Tad T; Eddy, Marianna D; Mahoney, Caroline R; Gagnon, Stephanie A; Taylor, Holly A; Kanarek, Robin B

    2014-11-12

    Both acute and chronic exercise is consistently associated with a number of benefits to physical and mental health, including cardiovascular function, body weight, mood, and cognition. Near-infrared spectroscopy is an ideal method to measure changes in oxygenated and deoxygenated hemoglobin (O2Hb and dHb) levels in the prefrontal cortex (PFC) during exercise, to better understand the locus of such changes in affective and cognitive processes. The present study tracked time-dependent changes in O2Hb and dHb levels in the PFC as a function of parametrically manipulated target exercise intensity. Near-infrared spectroscopy was conducted as regular exercisers completed a 30-min bout of exercise with one of three target intensities: 52% (low condition), 68% (moderate condition), or 84% (high condition) of age-adjusted maximum heart rate. Heart rate data confirmed that the participants reached their goal intensities immediately, after 10 min, or after 20 min, respectively. Data showed that O2Hb and dHb levels in the PFC increased as a function of both exercise load and duration. An 84%>68%>52% difference was evident after 18 min of cycling for O2Hb and after 23 min of cycling for dHb. The present results add to the growing body of literature showing that at submaximal levels, increasing exercise intensities reliably promote prefrontal cerebral oxygenation. PMID:25275640

  4. Investigating the role of acute mental stress on endothelial dysfunction: a systematic review and meta-analysis.

    Xue, Yi-Tao; Tan, Qi-Wen; Li, Ping; Mou, Shan-Fang; Liu, Shu-Juan; Bao, Yue; Jiao, Hua-Chen; Su, Wen-Ge

    2015-04-01

    Chronic stress is a known risk factor for both endothelial dysfunction and cardiovascular disease (CVD), but less is known of how acute mental stress affects the vasculature. In this systematic review and meta-analysis, we analyzed the impact of acute mental stress on flow-mediated dilation (FMD), an indicator of endothelial function. We searched the Medline, Cochrane, EMBASE, and ISI Web of Knowledge databases through May 2014, to identify publications in English-language journals. The primary outcome was the change in FMD from baseline to the time of measurement. We also assessed the risk of bias and the heterogeneity of included studies. Our search identified eight prospective studies, which displayed significant heterogeneity. Four studies measured FMD while the subject was performing the task; six measured FMD after the task had been completed. The total number of participants was 164. The pooled results indicate that FMD did not change significantly while the task was being performed (pooled difference in means: -0.853; 95 % confidence interval (CI), -3.926/2.220; P = 0.586); however, FMD measured after the task was completed was significantly less than baseline (pooled difference in means: -2.450; 95 %CI, -3.925/-0.975; P = 0.001). In conclusions, our findings provide evidence that an acute stressful experience has a delayed, negative impact on the function of the endothelium. Repeated exposure to short-term stress may lead to permanent injury of the vasculature. Therefore, assessment of patients' exposure to both repeated acute mental stress and chronic stress may be useful in determining their risk of developing CVD. PMID:25391292

  5. Rest/stress myocardial perfusion imaging: A means to prevent missed acute ischemic coronary syndrome diagnoses

    Aim: The sensitivity and specificity of rest/stress (R/S) myocardial perfusion imaging (MPI) in detecting an acute ischemic coronary syndrome (AICS) was determined in 100 consecutive patients (pts) admitted to the Chest Pain Clinic-Observation Unit (CPC-OU) with chest pain (CP) of suspected cardiac etiology and a negative (neg) or non diagnostic (dx) EKG. There were 57 females and 43 males, 30-83 years of age. 50 studies were performed from 1/15/98 to 4/2/98; 50 from 11/19/99 to 1/10/00. Material and Methods: An AICS was deemed present if a reversible perfusion defect was demonstrated scintigraphically; a ?50% luminal narrow angiographically. No AICS if the pt had a normal R/S MPI, a fixed defect with normal wall motion and thickening, a neg cardiac catheterization, or was free of cardiac symptoms and had no history of a vascular event for 2-3 years post CPC-OU admission. 13 pts with a positive MPI had a cardiac catheterization, none with a neg MPI. SPECT rest MPI's were performed 30-90 minutes (mins) post 10.0 mCi of technetium 99m Sestamibi. SPECT stress MPI's were performed following a 6-8 hour acute myocardial infarction enzyme (CP-MB/Troponin 1) rule out and 30-90 mins post 30.0 mCi of technetium 99m Sestamibi. Results: 29 pts were lost to follow-up. There were 12 true positive, 5 false positive, 54 true negative and 0 false negative studies. The sensitivity, specificity, positive and negative predictive value of a R/S MPI in detecting an AICS is 100%, 91%, 70% and 100%, respectively. An AICS was detected in 12% of pts admitted to the CPC-OU; a finding that correlates with its reported incidence of 2-12%. 6 were managed medically, 3 required emergent bypass surgery, 3 were stented. Conclusion: R/S MPI should be included in the CPC-OU dx work-up of pts with CP of suspected cardiac etiology to prevent missed AICS diagnoses. Patient care will be optimized and health care and medical malpractice awards for failure to diagnosis an acute myocardial infarction

  6. Increased ER–mitochondrial coupling promotes mitochondrial respiration and bioenergetics during early phases of ER stress

    Bravo, Roberto; Vicencio, Jose Miguel; Parra, Valentina; Troncoso, Rodrigo; Munoz, Juan Pablo; Bui, Michael; Quiroga, Clara; Rodriguez, Andrea E.; Verdejo, Hugo E.; Ferreira, Jorge; Iglewski, Myriam; Chiong, Mario; Simmen, Thomas; Zorzano, Antonio; Hill, Joseph A.; Rothermel, Beverly A.; Szabadkai, Gyorgy; Lavandero, Sergio

    2011-01-01

    Increasing evidence indicates that endoplasmic reticulum (ER) stress activates the adaptive unfolded protein response (UPR), but that beyond a certain degree of ER damage, this response triggers apoptotic pathways. The general mechanisms of the UPR and its apoptotic pathways are well characterized. However, the metabolic events that occur during the adaptive phase of ER stress, before the cell death response, remain unknown. Here, we show that, during the onset of ER stress, the reticular and mitochondrial networks are redistributed towards the perinuclear area and their points of connection are increased in a microtubule-dependent fashion. A localized increase in mitochondrial transmembrane potential is observed only in redistributed mitochondria, whereas mitochondria that remain in other subcellular zones display no significant changes. Spatial re-organization of these organelles correlates with an increase in ATP levels, oxygen consumption, reductive power and increased mitochondrial Ca2+ uptake. Accordingly, uncoupling of the organelles or blocking Ca2+ transfer impaired the metabolic response, rendering cells more vulnerable to ER stress. Overall, these data indicate that ER stress induces an early increase in mitochondrial metabolism that depends crucially upon organelle coupling and Ca2+ transfer, which, by enhancing cellular bioenergetics, establishes the metabolic basis for the adaptation to this response. PMID:21628424

  7. N-Methyl-3,4-methylenedioxyamphetamine-induced hepatotoxicity in rats: Oxidative stress after acute and chronic administration

    Ninković Milica

    2004-01-01

    Full Text Available Background. The underlying mechanisms of N-Methyl-3,4-methylenedioxyamphetamine-MDMA-induced hepatotoxicity are still unknown. The aim of this study was to evaluate hepatic oxido-reductive status in the rats liver after the single and repeated administration of MDMA. Methods. MDMA was dissolved in distilled water and administered in the doses of 5 mg, 10 mg, 20 mg, and 40 mg/kg. The animals from the acute experiment were treated per os with the single dose of the appropriate solution, through the orogastric tube. The animals from the chronic experiment were treated per os, with the doses of 5, 10, or 20 mg/kg of MDMA every day during 14 days. The control groups were treated with water only. Eight hours after the last dose, the animals were sacrificed, dissected their livers were rapidly removed, frozen and stored at -70°C until the moment of analysis. The parameters of oxidative stress in the crude mitochondrial fractions of the livers were analyzed. Results. Superoxide dismutase (SOD activity increased in the livers of the animals that were treated with single doses of MDMA. Chronically treated animals showed the increased SOD activity only after the highest dose (20 mg/kg. The content of reduced glutathione decreased in both groups, but the depletion was much more expressed after the single administration. Lipid peroxidation index increased in dose-dependent manner in both groups, being much higher after the single administration. Conclusion. The increased index of lipid peroxidation and the decreased reduced glutathione levels suggested that MDMA application induced the state of oxidative stress in the liver. These changes were much more expressed after the single administration of MDMA.

  8. Acute social stress before the planning phase improves memory performance in a complex real life-related prospective memory task.

    Glienke, Katharina; Piefke, Martina

    2016-09-01

    Successful execution of intentions, but also the failure to recall are common phenomena in everyday life. The planning, retention, and realization of intentions are often framed as the scientific concept of prospective memory. The current study aimed to examine the influence of acute stress on key dimensions of complex "real life" prospective memory. To this end, we applied a prospective memory task that involved the planning, retention, and performance of intentions during a fictional holiday week. Forty healthy males participated in the study. Half of the subjects were stressed with the Socially Evaluated Cold Pressor Test (SECPT) before the planning of intentions, and the other half of the participants underwent a control procedure at the same time. Salivary cortisol was used to measure the effectiveness of the SECPT stress induction. Stressed participants did not differ from controls in planning accuracy. However, when we compared stressed participants with controls during prospective memory retrieval, we found statistically significant differences in PM across the performance phase. Participants treated with the SECPT procedure before the planning phase showed improved prospective memory retrieval over time, while performance of controls declined. Particularly, there was a significant difference between the stress and control group for the last two days of the holiday week. Interestingly, control participants showed significantly better performance for early than later learned items, which could be an indicator of a primacy effect. This differential effect of stress on performance was also found in time- and event-dependent prospective memory. Our results demonstrate for the first time, that acute stress induced before the planning phase may improve prospective memory over the time course of the performance phase in time- and event-dependent prospective memory. Our data thus indicate that prospective memory can be enhanced by acute stress. PMID:27370532

  9. THE EFFECTS OF ACUTE AND CHRONIC STRESS ON ERYTHROCYTE DYNAMIC IN COMBINATION WITH ß–ADRENERGIC RECEPTORS BLOCKADE IN RATS

    Lucian Hritcu

    2005-08-01

    Full Text Available : 3 consecutive days propranolol hydrochloride administration (5 mg/kg b.w., subcutaneous injections under acute and chronic stress conditions causes changes of peripheral erythrocyte distribution in rats. The effects of acute stress and its combination with ȕ-adrenergic receptor blockade on erythrocyte dynamic were more pregnant beside the effects of chronic stress and its combination with ȕ-adrenergic receptor blockade, respectively. ȕ-adrenergic mechanisms were shown to be involved in regulation of erythrocyte dynamic in acute and chronic stress response.

  10. Increased blood-brain transfer in a rabbit model of acute liver failure

    The blood-to-brain transfer of [14C]alpha-aminoisobutyric acid was investigated by quantitative autoradiography in normal rabbits and rabbits with acute liver failure induced by the selective hepatotoxin galactosamine. The blood-to-brain transfer of alpha-aminoisobutyric acid was similar in control animals and animals 2 and 7 h after galactosamine injections, but was increased five- to tenfold in certain gray-matter areas of the brain in animals 11 and 18 h after galactosamine treatment. No detectable differences in white-matter uptake of [14C]alpha-aminoisobutyric acid were found between the control and treated groups. The increase in alpha-aminoisobutyric acid transfer within the gray-matter areas suggested that a general or nonspecific increase in brain capillary permeability occurred in these areas. No clinical signs of early hepatic encephalopathy were observed in the treated rabbits, except for 1 animal from the 18-h postgalactosamine group. Thus, enhanced blood-brain transfer of alpha-aminoisobutyric acid preceded the development of overt hepatic encephalopathy. The distribution of radioactivity after the intravenous administration of [14C]galactosamine showed that virtually none of the hepatotoxin localized in the brain, suggesting that the drug itself does not have a direct effect upon the blood-brain barrier or the brain. The increased uptake of alpha-aminoisobutyric acid at 11 and 18 h implies that the transfer of other solutes would also be enhanced, that central nervous system homeostasis would be compromised, and that the resulting changes in brain fluid composition could contribute to or cause hepatic encephalopathy

  11. Changes of mouse cytokines and Th1/Th2 balance in acute stress induced by millimeter-wave

    Rong SUN

    2013-11-01

    cytokines increase due to stress, the Th1/Th2 balance drifts significantly to Th1 immune response, thus indicating that immune-regulation may play an important regulatory role in acute stress induced by MMW exposure. DOI: 10.11855/j.issn.0577-7402.2013.10.017

  12. Increased resistance to oxidative stress in transgenic plants that overexpress chloroplastic Cu/Zn superoxide dismutase.

    Gupta, A. S.; Heinen, J L; Holaday, A S; Burke, J. J.; Allen, R D

    1993-01-01

    Transgenic tobacco plants that express a chimeric gene that encodes chloroplast-localized Cu/Zn superoxide dismutase (SOD) from pea have been developed. To investigate whether increased expression of chloroplast-targeted SOD could alter the resistance of photosynthesis to environmental stress, these plants were subjected to chilling temperatures and moderate (500 mumol of quanta per m2 per s) or high (1500 mumol of quanta per m2 per s) light intensity. During exposure to moderate stress, tran...

  13. Facilitation of the HPA Axis to a Novel Acute Stress Following Chronic Stress Exposure Modulates Histone Acetylation and the ERK/MAPK Pathway in the Dentate Gyrus of Male Rats

    Ferland, Chantelle L.; Harris, Erin P.; Lam, Mai; Schrader, Laura A.

    2014-01-01

    Evidence suggests that when presented with novel acute stress, animals previously exposed to chronic homotypic or heterotypic stressors exhibit normal or enhanced hypothalamic-pituitary-adrenal (HPA) response compared with animals exposed solely to that acute stressor. The molecular mechanisms involved in this effect remain unknown. The extracellular signal-regulated kinase (ERK) is one of the key pathways regulated in the hippocampus in both acute and chronic stress. The aim of this study wa...

  14. Increased non-Gaussianity of heart rate variability predicts cardiac mortality after an acute myocardial infarction

    JunichiroHayano

    2011-09-01

    Full Text Available Non-Gaussianity index (λ is a new index of heart rate variability (HRV that characterizes increased probability of the large heart rate deviations from its trend. A previous study has reported that increased λ is an independent mortality predictor among patients with chronic heart failure. The present study examined predictive value of λ in patients after acute myocardial infarction (AMI. Among 670 post-AMI patients, we performed 24-hr Holter monitoring to assess λ and other HRV predictors, including standard deviation of normal-to-normal interval, very-low frequency power, scaling exponent α1 of detrended fluctuation analysis, deceleration capacity, and heart rate turbulence (HRT. At baseline, λ was not correlated substantially with other HRV indices (|r| <0.4 with either indices and was decreased in patients taking β-blockers (P = 0.04. During a median follow up period of 25 months, 45 (6.7% patients died (32 cardiac and 13 non-cardiac and 39 recurrent nonfatal AMI occurred among survivors. While all of these HRV indices but λ were significant predictors of both cardiac and non-cardiac deaths, increased λ predicted exclusively cardiac death (RR [95% CI], 1.6 [1.3-2.0] per 1 SD increment, P <0.0001. The predictive power of increased λ was significant even after adjustments for clinical risk factors, such as age, diabetes, left ventricular function, renal function, prior AMI, heart failure, and stroke, Killip class, and treatment ([95% CI], 1.4 [1.1-2.0] per 1 SD increment, P = 0.01. The prognostic power of increased λ for cardiac death was also independent of all other HRV indices and the combination of increased λ and abnormal HRT provided the best predictive model for cardiac death. Neither λ nor other HRV indices was an independent predictor of AMI recurrence. Among post-AMI patients, increased λ is associated exclusively with increased cardiac mortality risk and its predictive power is independent of clinical risk factors and

  15. Ulinastatin suppresses endoplasmic reticulum stress and apoptosis in the hippocampus of rats with acute paraquat poisoning

    Hai-feng Li

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Lung injury is the main manifestation of paraquat poisoning. Few studies have addressed brain damage after paraquat poisoning. Ulinastatin is a protease inhibitor that can effectively stabilize lysosomal membranes, prevent cell damage, and reduce the production of free radicals. This study assumed that ulinastatin would exert these effects on brain tissues that had been poisoned with paraquat. Rat models of paraquat poisoning were intraperitoneally injected with ulinastatin. Simultaneously, rats in the control group were administered normal saline. Hematoxylin-eosin staining showed that most hippocampal cells were contracted and nucleoli had disappeared in the paraquat group. Fewer cells in the hippocampus were concentrated and nucleoli had disappeared in the ulinastatin group. Western blot assay showed that expressions of GRP78 and cleaved-caspase-3 were significantly lower in the ulinastatin group than in the paraquat group. Immunohistochemical findings showed that CHOP immunoreactivity was significantly lower in the ulinastatin group than in the paraquat group. Terminal deoxynucleotidyl transferase-mediated dUTP nick end labeling staining showed that the number of apoptotic cells was reduced in the paraquat and ulinastatin groups. These data confirmed that endoplasmic reticular stress can be induced by acute paraquat poisoning. Ulinastatin can effectively inhibit this stress as well as cell apoptosis, thereby exerting a neuroprotective effect.

  16. Effects of Breaking Sitting by Standing and Acute Exercise on Postprandial Oxidative Stress

    Takahashi

    2015-09-01

    Full Text Available Background Sedentary behavior, which includes sitting and TV viewing, has been identified as an independent risk factor for type 2 diabetes and cardiovascular disease. Breaking sedentary behavior improves metabolic health such as postprandial glycaemia and insulinemia. However, the mechanisms underlying this effect are unclear. Objectives Here, we examined whether breaking sitting by standing and acute exercise reduces postprandial oxidative stress. Patient and Methods Fifteen participants performed 3 trials (sitting, standing, and exercise, each lasting 2 days, in a randomised order. On day one of sitting trial, participants sat in a chair. For the standing trial, the participants stood 6 times, for a 45-minute period each time. For the exercise trial, the participants walked or ran at approximately 60% of age-predicted maximum heart rate for 30 minutes. On day two of each trial, participants rested and consumed the standardised breakfast and lunch. Blood samples were collected in the morning and afternoon on day one, and fasting and at 2, 4, and 6 hours postprandially on day two. Results The concentrations of serum derivatives of reactive oxygen metabolites (d-ROMs measured at 4 hours (P = 0.064 and 6 hours (P = 0.071 tended to be higher than that in the fasting state in the sitting trial, but not standing and exercise trial (two-factor analysis of variance (ANOVA, trial × time interaction, P = 0.006. Conclusions Our results indicate the importance of reducing sitting time for improving postprandial oxidative stress status.

  17. Acute predator stress impairs the consolidation and retrieval of hippocampus-dependent memory in male and female rats

    Collin R Park; Zoladz, Phillip R.; Conrad, Cheryl D.; Fleshner, Monika; Diamond, David M

    2008-01-01

    We have studied the effects of an acute predator stress experience on spatial learning and memory in adult male and female Sprague-Dawley rats. All rats were trained to learn the location of a hidden escape platform in the radial-arm water maze (RAWM), a hippocampus-dependent spatial memory task. In the control (non-stress) condition, female rats were superior to the males in the accuracy and consistency of their spatial memory performance tested over multiple days of training. In the stress ...

  18. Is cognitive impairment in cirrhotic patients due to increased peroxynitrite and oxidative stress?

    Gimenez-Garzó, Carla; Urios, Amparo; Agustí, Ana; González-López, Olga; Escudero-García, Desamparados; Escudero-Sanchis, Amparo; Serra, Miguel Angel; Giner-Durán, Remedios; Montoliu, Carmina; Felipo, Vicente

    2015-04-01

    Cirrhotic patients may suffer minimal hepatic encephalopathy (MHE), with mild cognitive impairment. 3-Nitro-tyrosine levels are a good biomarker for diagnosis of the cognitive impairment and MHE in cirrhotic patients. This suggests that oxidative stress could be involved in the induction of cognitive and motor alterations in MHE. We have observed that patients with MHE show increased oxidative stress in blood compared with cirrhotic patients without MHE, with increased lipid peroxidation, DNA oxidation, protein carbonylation, 3-nitrotyrosine, oxidized glutathione (GSSG)/reduced glutathione (GSH) ratio, and GSH levels. The activities of antioxidant enzymes are enhanced in erythrocytes and mononuclear cells from patients with and without MHE compared with control subjects. Only glutathione peroxidase activity was increased in MHE patients compared with patients without MHE. Oxidative stress markers in blood, especially GSSG/GSH ratio, GSH, malondialdehyde, and 3-nitrotyrosine, correlate with deficits in attention and motor coordination. The increase in antioxidant activities in patients would be an adaptive mechanism to cope with enhanced oxidative stress, although it is not effective enough to normalize it. Our observations lead to the hypothesis that oxidative stress and increased peroxynitrite formation would mediate the synergistic effects of hyperammonemia and inflammation on cognitive and motor impairment in MHE. PMID:25557123

  19. Post-traumatic stress disorder (PTSD symptoms predict delay to hospital in patients with acute coronary syndrome.

    Jonathan D Newman

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: Increased delay to hospital presentation with acute coronary syndrome (ACS is associated with poor outcomes. While demographic factors associated with this delay have been well described, scarce data are available on the role of modifiable factors, such as psychosocial disorders, on pre-hospital delay. Patients with symptoms of post-traumatic stress disorder (PTSD often avoid stressful situations and may delay presenting for care when they experience cardiac symptoms. It is unknown, however, whether PTSD symptoms negatively impact the time to presentation during an ACS. METHODS: We assessed the relationship between PTSD symptoms and pre-hospital delay in 241 adults with an ACS in the ongoing Prescription Use, Lifestyle, Stress Evaluation (PULSE study. RESULTS: Overall, 66% of patients were male; 40% were Hispanic or Latino. The mean age was 61.9±11.6 years old. PTSD symptoms were present in 17.8% of patients. Pre-hospital delay was longer for patients with PTSD symptoms compared to those without [geometric mean: 25.8 hours (95% CI 13.8-44.8 vs. 10.7 hours (95% CI 8.3-13.8]; P = 0.005. After multivariable adjustment for age, sex, ethnicity, depression, left ventricular ejection fraction and history of myocardial infarction, the mean pre-hospital delay was 173% (95% CI: 36%-450% longer for patients with versus without PTSD symptoms. CONCLUSION: Among patients presenting with an ACS, PTSD symptoms were independently associated with longer pre-hospital delays. Future studies of pre-hospital delay should examine the mechanisms underlying this association.

  20. Neuronal and inducible nitric oxide synthase upregulation in the rat medial prefrontal cortex following acute restraint stress: A dataset.

    Spiers, Jereme G; Chen, Hsiao-Jou Cortina; Lee, Johnny K; Sernia, Conrad; Lavidis, Nickolas A

    2016-03-01

    This data article provides additional evidence on gene expression changes in the neuronal and inducible isoforms of nitric oxide synthase in the medial prefrontal cortex following acute stress. Male Wistar rats aged 6-8 weeks were exposed to control or restraint stress conditions for up to four hours in the dark cycle after which the brain was removed and the medial prefrontal cortex isolated by cryodissection. Following RNA extraction and cDNA synthesis, gene expression data were measured using quantitative real-time PCR. The mRNA levels of the neuronal and inducible nitric oxide synthase isoforms, and the inhibitory subunit of NF-κB, I kappa B alpha were determined using the ΔΔCT method relative to control animals. This data article presents complementary results related to the research article entitled 'Acute restraint stress induces specific changes in nitric oxide production and inflammatory markers in the rat hippocampus and striatum' [1]. PMID:26909371

  1. Repetitive acute intermittent hypoxia increases growth/neurotrophic factor expression in non-respiratory motor neurons.

    Satriotomo, I; Nichols, N L; Dale, E A; Emery, A T; Dahlberg, J M; Mitchell, G S

    2016-05-13

    Repetitive acute intermittent hypoxia (rAIH) increases growth/trophic factor expression in respiratory motor neurons, thereby eliciting spinal respiratory motor plasticity and/or neuroprotection. Here we demonstrate that rAIH effects are not unique to respiratory motor neurons, but are also expressed in non-respiratory, spinal alpha motor neurons and upper motor neurons of the motor cortex. In specific, we used immunohistochemistry and immunofluorescence to assess growth/trophic factor protein expression in spinal sections from rats exposed to AIH three times per week for 10weeks (3×wAIH). 3×wAIH increased brain-derived neurotrophic factor (BDNF), its high-affinity receptor, tropomyosin receptor kinase B (TrkB), and phosphorylated TrkB (pTrkB) immunoreactivity in putative alpha motor neurons of spinal cervical 7 (C7) and lumbar 3 (L3) segments, as well as in upper motor neurons of the primary motor cortex (M1). 3×wAIH also increased immunoreactivity of vascular endothelial growth factor A (VEGFA), the high-affinity VEGFA receptor (VEGFR-2) and an important VEGF gene regulator, hypoxia-inducible factor-1α (HIF-1α). Thus, rAIH effects on growth/trophic factors are characteristic of non-respiratory as well as respiratory motor neurons. rAIH may be a useful tool in the treatment of disorders causing paralysis, such as spinal injury and motor neuron disease, as a pretreatment to enhance motor neuron survival during disease, or as preconditioning for cell-transplant therapies. PMID:26944605

  2. Intrathecal Clonidine Pump Failure Causing Acute Withdrawal Syndrome With 'Stress-Induced' Cardiomyopathy.

    Lee, Hwee Min D; Ruggoo, Varuna; Graudins, Andis

    2016-03-01

    Clonidine is a central alpha(2)-agonist antihypertensive used widely for opioid/alcohol withdrawal, attention deficit hyperactivity disorder and chronic pain management. We describe a case of clonidine withdrawal causing life-threatening hypertensive crisis and stress-induced cardiomyopathy. A 47-year-old man with chronic back pain, treated with clonidine for many years via intrathecal pump (550 mcg/24 h), presented following a collapse and complaining of sudden worsening of back pain, severe headache, diaphoresis, nausea and vomiting. A few hours prior to presentation, his subcutaneous pump malfunctioned. On presentation, vital signs included pulse 100 bpm, BP 176/103 mmHg, temperature 37.8 °C and O2 saturation 100 % (room air). Acute clonidine withdrawal with hypertensive crisis was suspected. Intravenous clonidine loading dose and a 50 mcg/h infusion were commenced. Five hours later, severe chest pain, dyspnoea, tachycardia, hypoxia, with BP 180/120 mmHg and pulmonary edema ensued. ECG showed sinus tachycardia with no ST elevation. Repeated intravenous clonidine doses were given (25 mcg every 5-10 min), with ongoing clonidine infusion to control blood pressure. Glyceryl trinitrate infusion, positive pressure ventilation and intravenous benzodiazepines were added. Bedside echocardiogram showed stress-induced cardiomyopathy pattern. Serum troponin-I was markedly elevated. His coronary angiography showed minor irregularities in the major vessels. Over the next 3 days in the ICU, drug infusions were weaned. Discharge was 12 days later on oral clonidine, metoprolol, perindopril, aspirin and oxycodone-SR. Two months later, his echocardiogram was normal. The intrathecal pump was removed. We report a case of stress-induced cardiomyopathy resulting from the sudden cessation of long-term intrathecal clonidine. This was managed by re-institution of clonidine and targeted organ-specific therapies. PMID:26370679

  3. EFFECT OF ACUTE STRESS ON PLASMA B-CORTICOSTERONE, ESTRADIOL-17B AND TESTOSTERONE CONCENTRATIONS IN JUVENILE AMERICAN ALLIGATORS COLLECTED FROM THREE SITES WITHIN THE KISSIMMEE-EVERGLADES DRAINAGE BASIN IN FLORIDA (USA)

    The effect of acute stress on plasma b-corticosterone (B), testosterone (T) and estradiol-17b (E2), concentrations in juvenile alligators collected from sites with varying sediment contaminants was examined in this study. Dramatic increases in plasma B concentrations were observe...

  4. Effects of acute ingestion of different fats on oxidative stress and inflammation in overweight and obese adults

    Peairs Abigail D

    2011-11-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Studies show that obese individuals have prolonged elevations in postprandial lipemia and an exacerbated inflammatory response to high fat meals, which can increase risk for cardiovascular diseases. As epidemiological studies indicate an association between type of fat and circulating inflammatory markers, the purpose of this study was to investigate the acute effect of different fat sources on inflammation and oxidative stress in overweight and obese individuals. Methods Eleven overweight and obese subjects consumed three high fat milkshakes rich in monounsaturated fat (MFA, saturated fat (SFA, or long-chain omega 3 polyunsaturated fat (O3FA in random order. Blood samples collected at baseline, 1, 2, 4, and 6 hours postprandial were analyzed for markers of inflammation (soluble intercellular adhesion molecule-1 (ICAM-1, vascular cell adhesion molecule-1 (VCAM-1, tumor necrosis factor- α (TNF-α, and C-reactive protein (CRP, oxidative stress (8-epi-prostaglandin-F2α (8-epi and nuclear factor-κB (NF-κB, and metabolic factors (glucose, insulin, non-esterified free fatty acids, and triglycerides (TG. Results O3FA enhanced NF-kB activation compared to SFA, but did not increase any inflammatory factors measured. Conversely, SFA led to higher ICAM-1 levels than MFA (p = 0.051, while MFA increased TG more than SFA (p Conclusions While most of the inflammatory factors measured had modest or no change following the meal, ICAM-1 and NF-κB responded differently by meal type. These results are provocative and suggest that type of fat in meals may differentially influence postprandial inflammation and endothelial activation.

  5. Sub-nephrotoxic cisplatin sensitizes rats to acute renal failure and increases urinary excretion of fumarylacetoacetase.

    Vicente-Vicente, Laura; Sánchez-Juanes, Fernando; García-Sánchez, Omar; Blanco-Gozalo, Víctor; Pescador, Moisés; Sevilla, María A; González-Buitrago, José Manuel; López-Hernández, Francisco J; López-Novoa, José Miguel; Morales, Ana Isabel

    2015-04-16

    Nephrotoxicity limits the therapeutic efficacy of the antineoplastic drug cisplatin. Due to dosage adjustment and appropriate monitoring, most therapeutic courses with cisplatin produce no or minimal kidney damage. However, we studied whether even sub-nephrotoxic dosage of cisplatin poses a potential risk for the kidneys by predisposing to acute kidney injury (AKI), specifically by lowering the toxicity threshold for a second nephrotoxin. With this purpose rats were treated with a single sub-nephrotoxic dosage of cisplatin (3mg/kg, i.p.) and after two days, with a sub-nephrotoxic regime of gentamicin (50mg/kg/day, during 6 days, i.p.). Control groups received only one of the drugs or the vehicle. Renal function and renal histology were monitored throughout the experiment. Cisplatin treatment did not cause any relevant functional or histological alterations in the kidneys. Rats treated with cisplatin and gentamicin, but not those under single treatments, developed an overt renal failure characterized by both renal dysfunction and massive tubular necrosis. In addition, the urinary excretion of fumarylacetoacetase was increased in cisplatin-treated animals at subtoxic doses, which might be exploited as a cisplatin-induced predisposition marker. In fact, the urinary level of fumarylacetoacetase prior to the second nephrotoxin correlated with the level of AKI triggered by gentamicin in predisposed animals. PMID:25677510

  6. Glutathione depletion and acute exercise increase O-GlcNAc protein modification in rat skeletal muscle.

    Peternelj, Tina Tinkara; Marsh, Susan A; Strobel, Natalie A; Matsumoto, Aya; Briskey, David; Dalbo, Vincent J; Tucker, Patrick S; Coombes, Jeff S

    2015-02-01

    Post-translational modification of intracellular proteins with O-linked β-N-acetylglucosamine (O-GlcNAc) profoundly affects protein structure, function, and metabolism. Although many skeletal muscle proteins are O-GlcNAcylated, the modification has not been extensively studied in this tissue, especially in the context of exercise. This study investigated the effects of glutathione depletion and acute exercise on O-GlcNAc protein modification in rat skeletal muscle. Diethyl maleate (DEM) was used to deplete intracellular glutathione and rats were subjected to a treadmill run. White gastrocnemius and soleus muscles were analyzed for glutathione status, O-GlcNAc and O-GlcNAc transferase (OGT) protein levels, and mRNA expression of OGT, O-GlcNAcase and glutamine:fructose-6-phosphate amidotransferase. DEM and exercise both reduced intracellular glutathione and increased O-GlcNAc. DEM upregulated OGT protein expression. The effects of the interventions were significant 4 h after exercise (P exercise. PMID:25416863

  7. Increased extravascular lung water reduces the efficacy of alveolar recruitment maneuver in acute respiratory distress syndrome.

    Smetkin, Alexey A; Kuzkov, Vsevolod V; Suborov, Eugeny V; Bjertnaes, Lars J; Kirov, Mikhail Y

    2012-01-01

    Introduction. In acute respiratory distress syndrome (ARDS) the recruitment maneuver (RM) is used to reexpand atelectatic areas of the lungs aiming to improve arterial oxygenation. The goal of our paper was to evaluate the response to RM, as assessed by measurements of extravascular lung water index (EVLWI) in ARDS patients. Materials and Methods. Seventeen adult ARDS patients were enrolled into a prospective study. Patients received protective ventilation. The RM was performed by applying a continuous positive airway pressure of 40 cm H(2)O for 40 sec. The efficacy of the RM was assessed 5 min later. Patients were identified as responders if PaO(2)/FiO(2) increased by >20% above the baseline. EVLWI was assessed by transpulmonary thermodilution before the RM, and patients were divided into groups of low EVLWI (recruitment maneuver might be related to the severity of pulmonary edema. In patients with incresed EVLWI, the recruitment maneuver is less effective. PMID:22649717

  8. Reciprocal relationship between acute stress and acute fatigue in everyday life in a sample of university students.

    Doerr, Johanna M; Ditzen, Beate; Strahler, Jana; Linnemann, Alexandra; Ziemek, Jannis; Skoluda, Nadine; Hoppmann, Christiane A; Nater, Urs M

    2015-09-01

    We investigated whether stress may influence fatigue, or vice versa, as well as factors mediating this relationship. Fifty healthy participants (31 females, 23.6±3.2 years) completed up to 5 momentary assessments of stress and fatigue during 5 days of preparation for their final examinations (exam condition) and 5 days of a regular semester week (control condition). Sleep quality was measured by self-report at awakening. A sub-group of participants (n=25) also collected saliva samples. Fatigue was associated with concurrent stress, stress reported at the previous measurement point, and previous-day stress. However, momentary stress was also predicted by concurrent fatigue, fatigue at the previous time point, and previous-day fatigue. Sleep quality mediated the association between stress and next-day fatigue. Cortisol and alpha-amylase did not mediate the stress-fatigue relationship. In conclusion, there is a reciprocal stress-fatigue relationship. Both prevention and intervention programs should comprehensively cover how stress and fatigue might influence one another. PMID:26143479

  9. Altered stress patterns and increased risk for postpartum depression among low-income pregnant women.

    Scheyer, Kathryn; Urizar, Guido G

    2016-04-01

    Postpartum depression (PPD) has been associated with a number of negative maternal and infant health outcomes. Despite these adverse health effects, few studies have prospectively examined patterns of pre- and postnatal stress that may increase a woman's risk for PPD. The current study examined whether the timing of altered salivary cortisol patterns and perceived stress levels during pregnancy and at 3 months postpartum was associated with PPD symptoms among 100 low-income mothers. Higher levels of PPD were found among women with a lower cortisol awakening response (first and second trimester), lower average daily cortisol (second trimester), a flatter diurnal cortisol pattern (second and third trimester and at 3 months postpartum), and a less abrupt drop in both cortisol and perceived stress from the third trimester to 3 months postpartum. These results support the need for early screening and regulation of stress levels to promote depression prevention efforts in at-risk populations. PMID:26275372

  10. Hepatic and renal oxidative stress in acute toxicity of N-nitrosodiethylamine in rats.

    Bansal, A K; Trivedi, R; Soni, G L; Bhatnagar, D

    2000-09-01

    Nitrosoamines such as N-nitrosodiethylamine (NDEA) produce oxidative stress due to generation of reactive oxygen species and may alter antioxidant defence system in the tissues. NDEA was administered ip as a single dose to rats in LD50 or in lower amounts and the animals were sacrificed after 0-48 hr of treatment. The results showed that lipid peroxidation in liver increased, however no significant increase in kidney LPO was observed after NDEA administration. Superoxide dismutase (SOD) and glutathione reductase (GSH-R) activity increased in liver, however, catalase (CAT) activity in liver was inhibited in NDEA treated rats. Kidney showed an increase in SOD activity after an initial decrease along with increase in GSH-R activity in NDEA treated rats. However, kidney CAT activity was not significantly altered in NDEA intoxicated rats. Serum transaminases, serum alkaline phosphatase blood urea nitrogen, serum creatinine and scrum proteins were elevated in NDEA treated rats. The results indicate NDEA-induced oxidative stress and alteration in antioxidant enzymes in liver and kidney to neutralise oxidative stress. PMID:12561951

  11. The expression of REG 1A and REG 1B is increased during acute amebic colitis

    Peterson, Kristine M.; Guo, Xiaoti; Elkahloun, Abdel G.; Mondal, Dinesh; Bardhan, Pradip K.; Sugawara, Akira; Duggal, Priya; Haque, Rashidul; Petri, William A.

    2011-01-01

    Entamoeba histolytica, a protozoan parasite, is an important cause of diarrhea and colitis in the developing world. Amebic colitis is characterized by ulceration of the intestinal mucosa. We performed microarray analysis of intestinal biopsies during acute and convalescent amebiasis in order to identify genes potentially involved in tissue injury or repair. Colonic biopsy samples were obtained from 8 patients during acute E. histolytica colitis and again 60 days after recovery. Gene expressio...

  12. Increased T cell glucose uptake reflects acute rejection in lung grafts

    Chen, Delphine L.; Wang, Xingan; Yamamoto, Sumiharu; Carpenter, Danielle; Engle, Jacquelyn T.; Li, Wenjun; Lin, Xue; Kreisel, Daniel; Krupnick, Alexander S.; Huang, Howard J.; Gelman, Andrew E.

    2013-01-01

    Although T cells are required for acute lung rejection, other graft-infiltrating cells such as neutrophils accumulate in allografts and are also high glucose utilizers. Positron emission tomography (PET) with the glucose probe [18F]fluorodeoxyglucose ([18F]FDG) has been employed to image solid organ acute rejection, but the sources of glucose utilization remain undefined. Using a mouse model of orthotopic lung transplantation, we analyzed glucose probe uptake in the graft...

  13. Increased functional connectivity in the resting-state basal ganglia network after acute heroin substitution

    Schmidt, A.; Denier, N; Magon, S; Radue, E-W; Huber, C. G.; Riecher-Rossler, A; Wiesbeck, G A; Lang, U E; Borgwardt, S; Walter, M

    2015-01-01

    Reinforcement signals in the striatum are known to be crucial for mediating the subjective rewarding effects of acute drug intake. It is proposed that these effects may be more involved in early phases of drug addiction, whereas negative reinforcement effects may occur more in later stages of the illness. This study used resting-state functional magnetic resonance imaging to explore whether acute heroin substitution also induced positive reinforcement effects in striatal brain regions of prot...

  14. Acute aerobic exercise increases cortical activity during working memory: a functional MRI study in female college students.

    Lin Li

    Full Text Available There is increasing evidence that acute aerobic exercise is associated with improved cognitive function. However, neural correlates of its cognitive plasticity remain largely unknown. The present study examined the effect of a session of acute aerobic exercise on working memory task-evoked brain activity as well as task performance. A within-subjects design with a counterbalanced order was employed. Fifteen young female participants (M = 19.56, SD = 0.81 were scanned using functional magnetic resonance imaging while performing a working memory task, the N-back task, both following an acute exercise session with 20 minutes of moderate intensity and a control rest session. Although an acute session of exercise did not improve behavioral performance, we observed that it had a significant impact on brain activity during the 2-back condition of the N-back task. Specifically, acute exercise induced increased brain activation in the right middle prefrontal gyrus, the right lingual gyrus, and the left fusiform gyrus as well as deactivations in the anterior cingulate cortexes, the left inferior frontal gyrus, and the right paracentral lobule. Despite the lack of an effect on behavioral measures, significant changes after acute exercise with activation of the prefrontal and occipital cortexes and deactivation of the anterior cingulate cortexes and left frontal hemisphere reflect the improvement of executive control processes, indicating that acute exercise could benefit working memory at a macro-neural level. In addition to its effects on reversing recent obesity and disease trends, our results provide substantial evidence highlighting the importance of promoting physical activity across the lifespan to prevent or reverse cognitive and neural decline.

  15. Endoplasmic Reticulum Stress Is Increased in Adipose Tissue of Women with Gestational Diabetes

    Liong, Stella; Lappas, Martha

    2015-01-01

    Maternal obesity and gestational diabetes mellitus (GDM) are two increasingly common and important obstetric complications that are associated with severe long-term health risks to mothers and babies. IL-1β, which is increased in obese and GDM pregnancies, plays an important role in the pathophysiology of these two pregnancy complications. In non-pregnant tissues, endoplasmic (ER) stress is increased in diabetes and can induce IL-1β via inflammasome activation. The aim of this study was to de...

  16. Underestimation of acute pancreatitis: patients with only a small increase in amylase/lipase levels can also have or develop severe acute pancreatitis

    Lankisch, P; Burchard-Reckert, S; Lehnick, D

    1999-01-01

    BACKGROUND—In most treatment studies on acute pancreatitis, pancreatologists base their diagnosis on amylase/lipase levels more than three times above the upper limit of normal (>3n) and thus exclude patients with smaller enzyme level increases. The recommendations derived from the results of treatment studies do not take into account such patients. Non-pancreatologists frequently believe that only patients with high enzyme levels have a serious prognosis. 
AIMS—To questi...

  17. Random Lead Time of the acute ghrelin response to a psychological stress

    Geetha.T

    2014-12-01

    Full Text Available Ghrelin is a growth hormone and cortisol secretagogue that plays an important role in appetite and weight regulation. It is not known whether ghrelin is involved in the eating response to stress in humans. In the present study we examined the effects of psychologically induced stress on plasma ghrelin levels in patients with bingeeating disorder (BED and in healthy subjects of normal or increased body mass index (BMI. Volunteers were subjected to the standardized trier social stress test (TSST. Basal ghrelin levels in patients were at an intermediate level between thin and healthy obese subjects, but this difference did not attain statistical significance. There were no differences in ghrelin levels throughout the test among the groups after correction for BMI, age and gender. A significant difference in the trend time of ghrelin was revealed when the three groups were analyzed according to their cortisol response to stress. Ghrelin levels increased in cortisol responders whereas no change or a decrease in ghrelin levels occurred in cortisol non-responders. We also found Optimal time T*, Minimal Repair δ and Random Lead Time g to minimize the ghrelin level.

  18. Arabidopsis DREB1B in transgenic Salvia miltiorrhiza increased tolerance to drought stress without stunting growth.

    Wei, Tao; Deng, Kejun; Gao, Yonghong; Liu, Yu; Yang, Meiling; Zhang, Lipeng; Zheng, Xuelian; Wang, Chunguo; Song, Wenqin; Chen, Chengbin; Zhang, Yong

    2016-07-01

    Multiple stress response genes are controlled by transcription factors in a coordinated manner; therefore, these factors can be used for molecular plant breeding. CBF1/DREB1B, a known stress-inducible gene, was isolated from Arabidopsis thaliana and introduced into Salvia miltiorrhiza under the control of the CaMV35S or RD29A promoter. Under drought stress, relative water content, chlorophyll content, and the net photosynthetic rate were observed to be higher in the transgenic lines than in the wild type (WT). Moreover, O2(-) and H2O2 accumulation was observed to be lower in the transgenic lines. Additional analyses revealed that the AtDREB1B transgenic plants generally displayed lesser malondialdehyde (MDA) but higher superoxide dismutase (SOD), catalase (CAT), and peroxidase (POD) activities than the WT under drought stress. Quantitative real-time polymerase chain reaction of a subset of genes involved in photosynthesis, stress response, carbohydrate metabolism, and cell protection further verified that AtDREB1B could enhance tolerance to drought by activating different downstream DREB/CBF genes in the transgenic plants. Furthermore, no growth inhibition was detected in transgenic S. miltiorrhiza plants that expressed AtDREB1B driven by either the constitutive CaMV35S promoter or the stress-inducible RD29A promoter. Together, these results suggest that AtDREB1B is a good candidate gene for increasing drought tolerance in transgenic S. miltiorrhiza. PMID:27002402

  19. When depth is no refuge: cumulative thermal stress increases with depth in Bocas del Toro, Panama

    Neal, B. P.; Condit, C.; Liu, G.; dos Santos, S.; Kahru, M.; Mitchell, B. G.; Kline, D. I.

    2014-03-01

    Coral reefs are increasingly affected by high-temperature stress events and associated bleaching. Monitoring and predicting these events have largely utilized sea surface temperature data, due to the convenience of using large-scale remotely sensed satellite measurements. However, coral bleaching has been observed to vary in severity throughout the water column, and variations in coral thermal stress across depths have not yet been well investigated. In this study, in situ water temperature data from 1999 to 2011 from three depths were used to calculate thermal stress on a coral reef in Bahia Almirante, Bocas del Toro, Panama, which was compared to satellite surface temperature data and thermal stress calculations for the same area and time period from the National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration Coral Reef Watch Satellite Bleaching Alert system. The results show similar total cumulative annual thermal stress for both the surface and depth-stratified data, but with a striking difference in the distribution of that stress among the depth strata during different high-temperature events, with the greatest thermal stress unusually recorded at the deepest measured depth during the most severe bleaching event in 2005. Temperature records indicate that a strong density-driven temperature inversion may have formed in this location in that year, contributing to the persistence and intensity of bleaching disturbance at depth. These results indicate that depth may not provide a stress refuge from high water temperature events in some situations, and in this case, the water properties at depth appear to have contributed to greater coral bleaching at depth compared to near-surface locations. This case study demonstrates the importance of incorporating depth-stratified temperature monitoring and small-scale oceanographic and hydrologic data for understanding and predicting local reef responses to elevated water temperature events.

  20. KCNQ/Kv7 channel activator flupirtine protects against acute stress-induced impairments of spatial memory retrieval and hippocampal LTP in rats.

    Li, C; Huang, P; Lu, Q; Zhou, M; Guo, L; Xu, X

    2014-11-01

    Spatial memory retrieval and hippocampal long-term potentiation (LTP) are impaired by stress. KCNQ/Kv7 channels are closely associated with memory and the KCNQ/Kv7 channel activator flupirtine represents neuroprotective effects. This study aims to test whether KCNQ/Kv7 channel activation prevents acute stress-induced impairments of spatial memory retrieval and hippocampal LTP. Rats were placed on an elevated platform in the middle of a bright room for 30 min to evoke acute stress. The expression of KCNQ/Kv7 subunits was analyzed at 1, 3 and 12 h after stress by Western blotting. Spatial memory was examined by the Morris water maze (MWM) and the field excitatory postsynaptic potential (fEPSP) in the hippocampal CA1 area was recorded in vivo. Acute stress transiently decreased the expression of KCNQ2 and KCNQ3 in the hippocampus. Acute stress impaired the spatial memory retrieval and hippocampal LTP, the KCNQ/Kv7 channel activator flupirtine prevented the impairments, and the protective effects of flupirtine were blocked by XE-991 (10,10-bis(4-Pyridinylmethyl)-9(10H)-anthracenone), a selective KCNQ channel blocker. Furthermore, acute stress decreased the phosphorylation of glycogen synthase kinase-3β (GSK-3β) at Ser9 in the hippocampus, and flupirtine inhibited the reduction. These results suggest that the KCNQ/Kv7 channels may be a potential target for protecting both hippocampal synaptic plasticity and spatial memory retrieval from acute stress influences. PMID:25234320

  1. Cutaneous interstitial nitric oxide concentration does not increase during heat stress in humans

    Crandall, C. G.; MacLean, D. A.

    2001-01-01

    Inhibition of cutaneous nitric oxide (NO) synthase reduces the magnitude of cutaneous vasodilation during whole body heating in humans. However, this observation is insufficient to conclude that NO concentration increases in the skin during a heat stress. This study was designed to test the hypothesis that whole body heating increases cutaneous interstitial NO concentration. This was accomplished by placing 2 microdialysis membranes in the forearm dermal space of 12 subjects. Both membranes were perfused with lactated Ringer solutions at a rate of 2 microl/min. In both normothermia and during whole body heating via a water perfused suit, dialysate from these membranes were obtained and analyzed for NO using the chemiluminescence technique. In six of these subjects, after the heat stress, the membranes were perfused with a 1 M solution of acetylcholine to stimulate NO release. Dialysate from these trials was also assayed to quantify cutaneous interstitial NO concentration. Whole body heating increased skin temperature from 34.6 +/- 0.2 to 38.8 +/- 0.2 degrees C (P 0.05). After the heat stress, administration of acetylcholine in the perfusate significantly increased skin blood flow (128 +/- 6 perfusion units) relative to both normothermic and heat stress values and significantly increased NO concentration in the dialysate (15.8 +/- 2.4 microM). These data suggest that whole body heating does not increase cutaneous interstitial NO concentration in forearm skin. Rather, NO may serve in a permissive role in facilitating the effects of an unknown neurotransmitter, leading to cutaneous vasodilation during a heat stress.

  2. Combined exercise circuit session acutely attenuates stress-induced blood pressure reactivity in healthy adults

    Sérgio R. Moreira

    2014-03-01

    Full Text Available Objective: To investigate the blood pressure (BP responses to cardiovascular stress test after a combined exercise circuit session at moderate intensity. Method: Twenty individuals (10 male/10 fem; 33.4± 6.9 years; 70.2± 15.8 kg; 170.4± 11.5 cm; 22.3± 6.8% body fat were randomized in a different days to control session with no exercise or exercise session consisting of 3 laps of the following circuit: knee extension, bench press, knee flexion, rowing in the prone position, squats, shoulder press, and 5 min of aerobic exercise at 75-85% of age-predicted maximum heart rate and/or 13 on the Borg Rating of Perceived Exertion [scale of 6 to 20]. The sets of resistance exercise consisted of 15 repetitions at ~50% of the estimated 1 repetition maximum test. Systolic blood pressure (SBP and diastolic blood pressure (DBP were measured at rest and during 1h of recovery in both experimental sessions. After that, blood pressure reactivity (BPR was evaluated using the Cold Pressor Test. Results: During 1h of exercise recovery, there was a reduction in SBP (3-6 mmHg and DBP (2-5 mmHg in relation to pre-session rest (p<0.01, while this reduction was not observed in the control session. A decline in BPR (4-7 mmHg; p<0.01 was observed 1h post-exercise session, but not in the control session. Post-exercise reductions in SBP and DBP were significantly correlated with BPR reductions (r=0.50-0.45; p<0.05. Conclusion: A combined exercise circuit session at moderate intensity promoted subsequent post-exercise hypotension and acutely attenuated BPR in response to a cardiovascular stress test. In addition, the post-exercise BP reduction was correlated with BPR attenuation in healthy adults of both genders.

  3. Social stress increases cortisol and hampers attention in adolescents with excess weight.

    Antonio Verdejo-Garcia

    Full Text Available To experimentally examine if adolescents with excess weight are more sensitive to social stress and hence more sensitive to harmful effects of stress in cognition.We conducted an experimental study in 84 adolescents aged 12 to 18 years old classified in two groups based on age adjusted Body Mass Index percentile: Normal weight (n=42 and Excess weight (n=42. Both groups were exposed to social stress as induced by the virtual reality version of the Trier Social Stress Task--participants were requested to give a public speech about positive and negative aspects of their personalities in front of a virtual audience. The outcome measures were salivary cortisol levels and performance in cognitive tests before and after the social stressor. Cognitive tests included the CANTAB Rapid Visual Processing Test (measuring attention response latency and discriminability and the Iowa Gambling Task (measuring decision-making.Adolescents with excess weight compared to healthy weight controls displayed increased cortisol response and less improvement of attentional performance after the social stressor. Decision-making performance decreased after the social stressor in both groups.Adolescents who are overweight or obese have increased sensitivity to social stress, which detrimentally impacts attentional skills.

  4. A solid dietary fat containing fish oil redistributes lipoprotein subclasses without increasing oxidative stress in men

    Tholstrup, T.; Hellgren, Lars; Petersen, M.;

    2004-01-01

    , a solid dietary fat containing (n-3) PUFA decreased plasma TAG, VLDL, and IDL cholesterol, and redistributed lipoprotein subclasses in LDL and HDL, with a higher concentration of the larger and less atherogenic subfractions. These changes took place without an increase in oxidative stress as measured...

  5. Preconditioning L6 Muscle Cells with Naringin Ameliorates Oxidative Stress and Increases Glucose Uptake.

    R Dhanya

    Full Text Available Enhanced oxidative stress contributes to pathological changes in diabetes and its complications. Thus, strategies to reduce oxidative stress may alleviate these pathogenic processes. Herein, we have investigated Naringin mediated regulation of glutathione (GSH & intracellular free radical levels and modulation of glucose uptake under oxidative stress in L6 cell lines. The results from the study demonstrated a marked decrease in glutathione with a subsequent increase in free radical levels, which was reversed by the pretreatment of Naringin. We also observed that the increased malondialdehyde level, the marker of lipid peroxidation on induction of oxidative stress was retrieved on Naringin pretreatment. Addition of Naringin (100 μM showed approximately 40% reduction in protein glycation in vitro. Furthermore, we observed a twofold increase in uptake of fluorescent labeled glucose namely 2-(N-(7-Nitrobenz-2-oxa-1,3-diazol-4-ylAmino-2-Deoxyglucose (2-NBDG on Naringin treatment in differentiated L6 myoblast. The increased uptake of 2-NBDG by L6 myotubes may be attributed due to the enhanced translocation of GLUT4. Our results demonstrate that Naringin activate GSH synthesis through a novel antioxidant defense mechanism against excessive Reactive Oxygen Species (ROS production, contributing to the prevention of oxidative damage in addition to its effect on glycemic control.

  6. Correlation between the serum and tissue levels of oxidative stress markers and the extent of inflammation in acute appendicitis

    Ersin Gürkan Dumlu

    2014-12-01

    Full Text Available OBJECTIVES: To determine the serum and tissue levels of markers of impaired oxidative metabolism and correlate these levels with the histopathology and Alvarado score of acute appendicitis patients. METHOD: Sixty-five acute appendicitis patients (mean age, 31.4±12.06 years; male/female, 30/35 and 30 healthy control subjects were studied. The Alvarado score was recorded. Serum samples were obtained before surgery and 12 hours postoperatively to examine the total antioxidant status, total oxidant status, paraoxonase, stimulated paraoxonase, arylesterase, catalase, myeloperoxidase, ceruloplasmin, oxidative stress markers (advanced oxidized protein products and total thiol level and ischemia-modified albumin. Surgical specimens were also evaluated. RESULTS: The diagnoses were acute appendicitis (n = 37, perforated appendicitis (n = 8, phlegmonous appendicitis (n = 12, perforated+phlegmonous appendicitis (n = 4, or no appendicitis (n = 4. The Alvarado score of the acute appendicitis group was significantly lower than that of the perforated+phlegmonous appendicitis group (p = 0.004. The serum total antioxidant status, total thiol level, advanced oxidized protein products, total oxidant status, catalase, arylesterase, and ischemia-modified albumin levels were significantly different between the acute appendicitis and control groups. There was no correlation between the pathological extent of acute appendicitis and the tissue levels of the markers; additionally, there was no correlation between the tissue and serum levels of any of the parameters. CONCLUSIONS: The imbalance of oxidant/antioxidant systems plays a role in the pathogenesis acute appendicitis. The Alvarado score can successfully predict the presence and extent of acute appendicitis.

  7. Exposure to Discrimination and Heart Rate Variability Reactivity to Acute Stress among Women with Diabetes.

    Wagner, Julie; Lampert, Rachel; Tennen, Howard; Feinn, Richard

    2015-08-01

    Exposure to racial discrimination has been linked to physiological reactivity. This study investigated self-reported exposure to racial discrimination and parasympathetic [high-frequency heart rate variability (HF-HRV)] and sympathetic (norepinephrine and cortisol) activity at baseline and then again after acute laboratory stress. Lifetime exposure to racial discrimination was measured with the Schedule of Racist Events scale. Thirty-two women (16 Black and 16 White) with type 2 diabetes performed a public speaking stressor. Beat-to-beat intervals were recorded on electrocardiograph recorders, and HF-HRV was calculated using spectral analysis and natural log transformed. Norepinephrine and cortisol were measured in blood. Higher discrimination predicted lower stressor HF-HRV, even after controlling for baseline HF-HRV. When race, age, A1c and baseline systolic blood pressure were also controlled, racial discrimination remained a significant independent predictor of stressor HF-HRV. There was no association between lifetime discrimination and sympathetic markers. In conclusion, preliminary data suggest that among women with type 2 diabetes mellitus (T2DM), exposure to racial discrimination is adversely associated with parasympathetic, but not sympathetic, reactivity. PMID:24194397

  8. Oxidative stress in post-acute ischemic stroke patients after intensive neurorehabilitation.

    Ciancarelli, Irene; De Amicis, Daniela; Di Massimo, Caterina; Carolei, Antonio; Ciancarelli, Maria Giuliana Tozzi

    2012-11-01

    We investigated in post-acute ischemic stroke patients the influence of intensive neurorehabilitation on oxidative stress balance during recovery of neurological deficits. For this purpose, fourteen patients were included in the study within 30 days of stroke onset. Outcome measures were the National Institutes of Health Stroke Scale (NIHSS), the modified Rankin Scale (mRS), the Barthel Index, and the Katz Index. Redox balance was assessed by measuring plasma peroxidative by-products, nitrite/nitrate metabolites (NOx), as an index of nitric oxide (NO), Cu/Zn Superoxide Dismutase (Cu/Zn SOD) activity, serum urate concentration, autoantibodies against ox-LDL (OLAB) serum level and plasma antioxidant capacity. Assessments were made before and after neurorehabilitation. Fifteen apparently healthy controls were investigated to compare redox markers. Intensive neurorehabilitation was associated with an improvement of all the outcome measures (P Changes observed before and after neurorehabilitation in NIHSS scores (Δ NIHSS scores) and in plasma NOx amount (Δ NOx) correlated positively (r=0.79; P concentrations were found between stroke patients and controls, before and after neurorehabilitation. Total plasma antioxidant capacity, lower in stroke patients than in controls before neurorehabilitation, was unchanged thereafter. Our data provide evidence of the effectiveness of neurorehabilitation on reducing redox unbalance in stroke patients and hints the role of NO as a messenger involved in post-ischemic neuronal plasticity influencing recovery of neurological deficits. PMID:22873723

  9. Ginseng administration protects skeletal muscle from oxidative stress induced by acute exercise in rats

    J. Voces

    2004-12-01

    Full Text Available Enzymatic activity was analyzed in the soleus, gastrocnemius (red and white and plantaris muscles of acutely exercised rats after long-term administration of Panax ginseng extract in order to evaluate the protective role of ginseng against skeletal muscle oxidation. Ginseng extract (3, 10, 100, or 500 mg/kg was administered orally for three months to male Wistar rats weighing 200 ± 50 g before exercise and to non-exercised rats (N = 8/group. The results showed a membrane stabilizing capacity of the extract since mitochondrial function measured on the basis of citrate synthase and 3-hydroxyacyl-CoA dehydrogenase activities was reduced, on average, by 20% (P < 0.05 after exercise but the activities remained unchanged in animals treated with a ginseng dose of 100 mg/kg. Glutathione status did not show significant changes after exercise or treatment. Lipid peroxidation, measured on the basis of malondialdehyde levels, was significantly higher in all muscles after exercise, and again was reduced by about 74% (P < 0.05 by the use of ginseng extract. The administration of ginseng extract was able to protect muscle from exercise-induced oxidative stress irrespective of fiber type.

  10. Moderate abiotic stresses increase rhizome growth and outgrowth of axillary buds in Alstroemeria cultured in vitro

    Pumisutapon, P.; Visser, R. G. F.; Klerk, de, L.A.

    2012-01-01

    Alstroemeria is multiplied in vitro by forced outgrowth of lateral rhizomes from rhizome explants. The multiplication rate is very low because of strong apical dominance and poor rhizome growth. We report here that moderate abiotic stresses stimulate both rhizome growth and outgrowth of lateral rhizomes, and accordingly increase multiplication. Rhizome explants were exposed to heat by a hot-water treatment (HWT) or by a hot-air treatment. Both increased rhizome growth when applied for 1 or 2 ...

  11. Coordinated regulation of photosynthesis in rice increases yield and tolerance to environmental stress

    Ambavaram, Madana M. R.; Basu, Supratim; Krishnan, Arjun; Ramegowda, Venkategowda; Batlang, Utlwang; Rahman, Lutfor; Baisakh, Niranjan; Pereira, Andy

    2014-01-01

    Plants capture solar energy and atmospheric carbon dioxide (CO2) through photosynthesis, which is the primary component of crop yield, and needs to be increased considerably to meet the growing global demand for food. Environmental stresses, which are increasing with climate change, adversely affect photosynthetic carbon metabolism (PCM) and limit yield of cereals such as rice (Oryza sativa) that feeds half the world. To study the regulation of photosynthesis, we developed a rice gene regulat...

  12. Hypoxia increases the behavioural activity of schooling herring: a response to physiological stress or respiratory distress?

    Herbert, Neill A.; Steffensen, John F.

    2006-01-01

    Atlantic herring, Clupea harengus, increase their swimming speed during low O2 (hypoxia) and it has been hypothesised that the behavioural response is modulated by the degree of "respiratory distress" (i.e. a rise in anaerobic metabolism and severe physiological stress). To test directly whether a...... deviation in physiological homeostasis is associated with any change in behavioural activity, we exposed C. harengus in a school to a progressive stepwise decline in water oxygen pressure  and measured fish swimming speed and valid indicators of primary and secondary stress (i.e. blood cortisol, lactate...

  13. Acute stress enhances adult rat hippocampal neurogenesis and activation of newborn neurons via secreted astrocytic FGF2

    Kirby, Elizabeth D.; Muroy, Sandra E; Sun, Wayne G.; Covarrubias, David; Leong, Megan J; Barchas, Laurel A; Kaufer, Daniela

    2013-01-01

    eLife digest A little stress can be good for you. Just over 100 years ago, psychologists Robert Yerkes and John Dodson suggested that cognitive performance improves as stress increases, although it falls off again if stress levels continue to rise. The hippocampus is a key brain region for both memory and the regulation of emotion, and is highly sensitive to the main class of stress hormones, glucocorticoids. One particular subregion of the hippocampus, the dentate gyrus, contains a high dens...

  14. Hindlimb unloading increases oxidative stress and disrupts antioxidant capacity in skeletal muscle

    Lawler, John M.; Song, Wook; Demaree, Scott R.; Bloomfield, S. A. (Principal Investigator)

    2003-01-01

    Skeletal muscle disuse with space-flight and ground-based models (e.g., hindlimb unloading) results in dramatic skeletal muscle atrophy and weakness. Pathological conditions that cause muscle wasting (i.e., heart failure, muscular dystrophy, sepsis, COPD, cancer) are characterized by elevated "oxidative stress," where antioxidant defenses are overwhelmed by oxidant production. However, the existence, cellular mechanisms, and ramifications of oxidative stress in skeletal muscle subjected to hindlimb unloading are poorly understood. Thus we examined the effects of hindlimb unloading on hindlimb muscle antioxidant enzymes (e.g., superoxide dismutase, catalase, glutathione peroxidase), nonenzymatic antioxidant scavenging capacity (ASC), total hydroperoxides, and dichlorohydrofluorescein diacetate (DCFH-DA) oxidation, a direct indicator of oxidative stress. Twelve 6 month old Sprague Dawley rats were divided into two groups: 28 d of hindlimb unloading (n = 6) and controls (n = 6). Hindlimb unloading resulted in a small decrease in Mn-superoxide dismutase activity (10.1%) in the soleus muscle, while Cu,Zn-superoxide dismutase increased 71.2%. In contrast, catalase and glutathione peroxidase, antioxidant enzymes that remove hydroperoxides, were significantly reduced in the soleus with hindlimb unloading by 54.5 and 16.1%, respectively. Hindlimb unloading also significantly reduced ASC. Hindlimb unloading increased soleus lipid hydroperoxide levels by 21.6% and hindlimb muscle DCFH-DA oxidation by 162.1%. These results indicate that hindlimb unloading results in a disruption of antioxidant status, elevation of hydroperoxides, and an increase in oxidative stress.

  15. Binary stress induces an increase in indole alkaloid biosynthesis in Catharanthus roseus.

    Zhu, Wei; Yang, Bingxian; Komatsu, Setsuko; Lu, Xiaoping; Li, Ximin; Tian, Jingkui

    2015-01-01

    Catharanthus roseus is an important medicinal plant, which produces a variety of indole alkaloids of significant pharmaceutical relevance. In the present study, we aimed to investigate the potential stress-induced increase of indole alkaloid biosynthesis in C. roseus using proteomic technique. The contents of the detectable alkaloids ajmalicine, vindoline, catharanthine, and strictosidine in C. roseus were significantly increased under binary stress. Proteomic analysis revealed that the abundance of proteins related to tricarboxylic acid cycle and cell wall was largely increased; while, that of proteins related to tetrapyrrole synthesis and photosynthesis was decreased. Of note, 10-hydroxygeraniol oxidoreductase, which is involved in the biosynthesis of indole alkaloid was two-fold more abundant in treated group compared to the control. In addition, mRNA expression levels of genes involved in the indole alkaloid biosynthetic pathway indicated an up-regulation in their transcription in C. roseus under UV-B irradiation. These results suggest that binary stress might negatively affect the process of photosynthesis in C. roseus. In addition, the induction of alkaloid biosynthesis appears to be responsive to binary stress. PMID:26284098

  16. Binary Stress Induces an Increase in Indole Alkaloid Biosynthesis in Catharanthus roseus

    Wei eZhu

    2015-07-01

    Full Text Available Catharanthus roseus is an important medicinal plant, which produces a variety of indole alkaloids of significant pharmaceutical relevance. In the present study, we aimed to investigate the potential stress-induced increase of indole alkaloid biosynthesis in C. roseus using proteomic technique. The contents of the detectable alkaloids ajmalicine, vindoline, catharanthine, and strictosidine in C. roseus were significantly increased under binary stress. Proteomic analysis revealed that the abundance of proteins related to tricarboxylic acid cycle and cell wall was largely increased; while, that of proteins related to tetrapyrrole synthesis and photosynthesis was decreased. Of note, 10-hydroxygeraniol oxidoreductase, which is involved in the biosynthesis of indole alkaloid was two-fold more abundant in treated group compared to that in control. In addition, mRNA expression levels of genes involved in the indole alkaloid biosynthetic pathway indicated an up-regulation in their transcription in C. roseus under UV-B irradiation. These results suggest that binary stress might negatively affect the process of photosynthesis in C. roseus. In addition, the induction of alkaloid biosynthesis appears to be responsive to binary stress.

  17. Acute dyskerin depletion triggers cellular senescence and renders osteosarcoma cells resistant to genotoxic stress-induced apoptosis

    Lin, Ping; Mobasher, Maral E.; Alawi, Faizan, E-mail: falawi@upenn.edu

    2014-04-18

    Highlights: • Dyskerin depletion triggers cellular senescence in U2OS osteosarcoma cells. • Dyskerin-depleted cells are resistant to apoptosis induced by genotoxic stress. • Chromatin relaxation sensitizes dyskerin-depleted cells to apoptosis. - Abstract: Dyskerin is a conserved, nucleolar RNA-binding protein implicated in an increasing array of fundamental cellular processes. Germline mutation in the dyskerin gene (DKC1) is the cause of X-linked dyskeratosis congenita (DC). Conversely, wild-type dyskerin is overexpressed in sporadic cancers, and high-levels may be associated with poor prognosis. It was previously reported that acute loss of dyskerin function via siRNA-mediated depletion slowed the proliferation of transformed cell lines. However, the mechanisms remained unclear. Using human U2OS osteosarcoma cells, we show that siRNA-mediated dyskerin depletion induced cellular senescence as evidenced by proliferative arrest, senescence-associated heterochromatinization and a senescence-associated molecular profile. Senescence can render cells resistant to apoptosis. Conversely, chromatin relaxation can reverse the repressive effects of senescence-associated heterochromatinization on apoptosis. To this end, genotoxic stress-induced apoptosis was suppressed in dyskerin-depleted cells. In contrast, agents that induce chromatin relaxation, including histone deacetylase inhibitors and the DNA intercalator chloroquine, sensitized dyskerin-depleted cells to apoptosis. Dyskerin is a core component of the telomerase complex and plays an important role in telomere homeostasis. Defective telomere maintenance resulting in premature senescence is thought to primarily underlie the pathogenesis of X-linked DC. Since U2OS cells are telomerase-negative, this leads us to conclude that loss of dyskerin function can also induce cellular senescence via mechanisms independent of telomere shortening.

  18. Critical features of acute stress-induced cross-sensitization identified through the hypothalamic-pituitary-adrenal axis output.

    Belda, Xavier; Nadal, Roser; Armario, Antonio

    2016-01-01

    Stress-induced sensitization represents a process whereby prior exposure to severe stressors leaves animals or humans in a hyper-responsive state to further stressors. Indeed, this phenomenon is assumed to be the basis of certain stress-associated pathologies, including post-traumatic stress disorder and psychosis. One biological system particularly prone to sensitization is the hypothalamic-pituitary-adrenal (HPA) axis, the prototypic stress system. It is well established that under certain conditions, prior exposure of animals to acute and chronic (triggering) stressors enhances HPA responses to novel (heterotypic) stressors on subsequent days (e.g. raised plasma ACTH and corticosterone levels). However, such changes remain somewhat controversial and thus, the present study aimed to identify the critical characteristics of the triggering and challenging stressors that affect acute stress-induced HPA cross-sensitization in adult rats. We found that HPA cross-sensitization is markedly influenced by the intensity of the triggering stressor, whereas the length of exposure mainly affects its persistence. Importantly, HPA sensitization is more evident with mild than strong challenging stressors, and it may remain unnoticed if exposure to the challenging stressor is prolonged beyond 15 min. We speculate that heterotypic HPA sensitization might have developed to optimize biologically adaptive responses to further brief stressors. PMID:27511270

  19. Acute stress-related psychological impact in children following devastating natural disaster, the Sikkim earthquake (2011, India

    Rakesh Mondal

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Background: Psychological stress following natural disaster is common. Despite several earthquakes in India, data on evaluation of acute stress among the child victims in the early postdisaster period is scarce. Immediately following a devastating earthquake (6.9 Richter at Sikkim on September, 18 2011, many children attended North Bengal Medical College, the nearest government tertiary care institution, with unusual stress symptoms. Objective: Evaluation of acute stress symptoms in children in the immediate postearthquake period. Materials and Methods: This was a cross-sectional study done over 4 weeks and includes all the children from 1 to 12 years presenting with unusual physical or behavioral symptoms. Those with major injuries requiring admission were excluded. They were divided into two age groups. For older children (8-12 years the 8-item Children Impact of Event Scale (CIES was used for screening of stress. Unusual symptoms were recorded in younger children (1-8 years as CIES is not validated < 8 years. Result: A total of 84 children (2.66% out of 3154 had stress symptoms. Maximum attendance was noted in first 3 days (65.47% and declined gradually. In children ≥ 8 years, 48.78% had psychological stress, which was statistically significant on CIES scores without any gender predilection. Static posturing (41.86%, sleeplessness (32.55%, anorexia (9.30%, recurrent vomiting (13.95%, excessive crying (13.95%, or night-awakenings (4.65% were found in younger children ( n = 43 and three required admission. Conclusion: This study represent the first Indian data showing statistically significant psychological impact in older children (8-12 years and various forms of physical stress symptoms in young children (1-8 years following earthquake.

  20. Voluntary exercise and increased food intake after mild chronic stress improve social avoidance behavior in mice.

    Otsuka, Airi; Shiuchi, Tetsuya; Chikahisa, Sachiko; Shimizu, Noriyuki; Séi, Hiroyoshi

    2015-11-01

    It is well-established that exercise can influence psychological conditions, cognitive function, and energy metabolism in peripheral tissues including the skeletal muscle. However, it is not clear whether exercise can influence social interaction with others and alleviate defeat stress. This study investigated the effect of voluntary wheel running on impaired social interaction induced by chronic social defeat stress (SDS) using the resident-intruder social defeat model. Mice were divided into three groups: control, stress alone, and stress+exercise. SDS was performed by exposing C57BL/6 mice to retired ICR mice for 2.5 min. The C57BL/6 mice were continuously defeated by these resident (aggressor) mice and, following 5 days of SDS, experienced 2 days of rest with no SDS. Mice in the stress+exercise group were allowed to voluntarily run on a wheel for 2h after every SDS exposure. Two weeks later, compared to the control group, the stress group showed a higher ratio of time spent in the corner zone of a social interaction paradigm even though SDS did not elicit depressive- and anxiety-like behaviors. We also observed that voluntary exercise, which did not affect muscle weight and gene expression, decreased social avoidance behavior of stressed mice without clear changes in brain monoamine levels. Interestingly, food intake in the stress+exercise group was the greatest among the three groups. To test the effect of the exercise-induced increase in food intake on social behavior, we set up a pair-fed group where food intake was restricted. We then compared these mice to mice in the stress alone group. We found that the ratio of time spent in the corner zone of the social interaction test was not different between ad libitum- and pair-fed groups, although pair-fed mice spent more time in the corner zone when an aggressor mouse was present than when it was absent. In addition, pair-feeding did not show exercise-induced reductions of adrenal gland weight and enhanced the

  1. Oxidative Stress is Increased in Serum from Mexican Patients with Relapsing-Remitting Multiple Sclerosis

    Ortiz, Genaro Gabriel; Macías-Islas, Miguel Ángel; Pacheco-Moisés, Fermín P.; Cruz-Ramos, José A.; Sustersik, Silvia; Barba, Elías Alejandro; Aguayo, Adriana

    2009-01-01

    Objective: To determine the oxidative stress markers in serum from patients with relapsing-remitting multiple sclerosis. Methods: Blood samples from healthy controls and 22 patients 15 women (7 aged from 20 to 30 and 8 were > 40 years old) and 7 men (5 aged from 20 to 30 and 2 were > 40 years old) fulfilling the McDonald Criteria and classified as having Relapsing-Remitting Multiple Sclerosis accordingly with Lublin were collected for oxidative stress markers quantification. Results: Nitric oxide metabolites (nitrates/nitrites), lipid peroxidation products (malondialdehyde plus 4-hidroxialkenals), and glutathione peroxidase activity were significantly increased in serum of subjects with relapsing-remitting multiple sclerosis in comparison with that of healthy controls. These data support the hypothesis that multiple sclerosis is a component closely linked to oxidative stress. PMID:19242067

  2. Oxidative Stress is Increased in Serum from Mexican Patients with Relapsing-Remitting Multiple Sclerosis

    Genaro Gabriel Ortiz

    2009-01-01

    Full Text Available Objective: To determine the oxidative stress markers in serum from patients with relapsing-remitting multiple sclerosis. Methods: Blood samples from healthy controls and 22 patients 15 women (7 aged from 20 to 30 and 8 were > 40 years old and 7 men (5 aged from 20 to 30 and 2 were > 40 years old fulfilling the McDonald Criteria and classified as having Relapsing-Remitting Multiple Sclerosis accordingly with Lublin were collected for oxidative stress markers quantification. Results: Nitric oxide metabolites (nitrates/nitrites, lipid peroxidation products (malondialdehyde plus 4-hidroxialkenals, and glutathione peroxidase activity were significantly increased in serum of subjects with relapsing-remitting multiple sclerosis in comparison with that of healthy controls. These data support the hypothesis that multiple sclerosis is a component closely linked to oxidative stress.

  3. Cardiac peroxisome proliferator-activated receptor-γ expression is modulated by oxidative stress in acutely infrasound-exposed cardiomyocytes.

    Pei, Zhaohui; Meng, Rongsen; Zhuang, Zhiqiang; Zhao, Yiqiao; Liu, Fangpeng; Zhu, Miao-Zhang; Li, Ruiman

    2013-12-01

    The aim of the present study was to examine the effects of acute infrasound exposure on oxidative damage and investigate the underlying mechanisms in rat cardiomyocytes. Neonatal rat cardiomyocytes were cultured and exposed to infrasound for several days. In the study, the expression of CAT, GPx, SOD1, and SOD2 and their activities in rat cardiomyocytes in infrasound exposure groups were significantly decreased compared to those in the various time controls, along with significantly higher levels of O2 (-) and H2O2. Decreased cardiac cell viability was not observed in various time controls. A significant reduction in cardiac cell viability was observed in the infrasound group compared to the control, while significantly increased cardiac cell viability was observed in the infrasound exposure and rosiglitazone pretreatment group. Compared to the control, rosiglitazone significantly upregulated CAT, GPx, SOD1, and SOD2 expression and their activities in rat cardiomyocytes exposed to infrasound, while the levels of O2 (-) or H2O2 were significantly decreased. A potential link between a significant downregulation of PPAR-γ expression in rat cardiomyocytes in the infrasound group was compared to the control and infrasound-induced oxidative stress. These findings indicate that infrasound can induce oxidative damage in rat cardiomyocytes by inactivating PPAR-γ. PMID:23632742

  4. Acute hypothalamic administration of L-arginine increases feed intake in rats

    Carlos Ricardo Maneck Malfatti; Luiz Augusto da Silva; Ricardo Aparecido Pereira; Renan Garcia Michel; André Luiz Snak; Fabio Seidel dos Santos

    2015-01-01

    Objective: This study investigated the chronic (oral) and acute (hypothalamic infusion) effects of L-arginine supplementation on feed intake, body composition, and behavioral changes in rats. Methods: Twenty rats were divided into two groups treated orally for 60 days; one group received L-arginine (1 g/kg body weight) and one group received saline (1 mL/NaCl ...

  5. PUFAs acutely affect triacylglycerol-derived skeletal muscle fatty acid uptake and increase postprandial insulin sensitivity

    Jans, A.; Konings, E.; Goossens, G.H.; Bouwman, F.G.; Moors, C.C.; Boekschoten, M.V.; Afman, L.A.; Muller, M.R.; Mariman, E.C.; Blaak, E.E.

    2012-01-01

    Background: Dietary fat quality may influence skeletal muscle lipid processing and fat accumulation, thereby modulating insulin sensitivity. Objective: The objective was to examine the acute effects of meals with various fatty acid (FA) compositions on skeletal muscle FA processing and postprandial

  6. Increased platelet aggregation and turnover in the acute phase of ST-elevation myocardial infarction

    Jensen, Kristian Løkke Funck; Dalsgaard, Jens; Grove, Erik Lerkevang;

    2013-01-01

    Newly produced platelets are present in the acute phase of ST-elevation myocardial infarction (STEMI). This may influence the antiplatelet effect of aspirin and clopidogrel administered prior to primary percutaneous coronary intervention (PPCI). The aims of this study were to investigate the...

  7. Acute exposure to stress improves performance in trace eyeblink conditioning and spatial learning tasks in healthy men

    Duncko, Roman; Cornwell, Brian; Cui, Lihong; Merikangas, Kathleen R.; Grillon, Christian

    2007-01-01

    The present study investigated the effects of acute stress exposure on learning performance in humans using analogs of two paradigms frequently used in animals. Healthy male participants were exposed to the cold pressor test (CPT) procedure, i.e., insertion of the dominant hand into ice water for 60 sec. Following the CPT or the control procedure, participants completed a trace eyeblink conditioning task followed by a virtual navigation Morris water task (VNMWT). Hypothalamic-pituitary-adreno...

  8. Increased resistance to a generalist herbivore in a salinity-stressed non-halophytic plant.

    Renault, Sylvie; Wolfe, Scott; Markham, John; Avila-Sakar, Germán

    2016-01-01

    Plants often grow under the combined stress of several factors. Salinity and herbivory, separately, can severely hinder plant growth and reproduction, but the combined effects of both factors are still not clearly understood. Salinity is known to reduce plant tissue nitrogen content and growth rates. Since herbivores prefer tissues with high N content, and biochemical pathways leading to resistance are commonly elicited by salt-stress, we hypothesized that plants growing in saline conditions would have enhanced resistance against herbivores. The non-halophyte, Brassica juncea, and the generalist herbivore Trichoplusia ni were used to test the prediction that plants subjected to salinity stress would be both more resistant and more tolerant to herbivory than those growing without salt stress. Plants were grown under different NaCl levels, and either exposed to herbivores and followed by removal of half of their leaves, or left intact. Plants were left to grow and reproduce until senescence. Tissue quality was assessed, seeds were counted and biomass of different organs measured. Plants exposed to salinity grew less, had reduced tissue nitrogen, protein and chlorophyll content, although proline levels increased. Specific leaf area, leaf water content, transpiration and root:shoot ratio remained unaffected. Plants growing under saline condition had greater constitutive resistance than unstressed plants. However, induced resistance and tolerance were not affected by salinity. These results support the hypothesis that plants growing under salt-stress are better defended against herbivores, although in B. juncea this may be mostly through resistance, and less through tolerance. PMID:27169610

  9. Myocardial Infarction - Stress PRevention INTervention (MI-SPRINT) to reduce the incidence of posttraumatic stress after acute myocardial infarction through trauma-focused psychological counseling: study protocol for a randomized controlled trial

    2013-01-01

    Background Posttraumatic Stress Disorder (PTSD) may occur in patients after exposure to a life-threatening illness. About one out of six patients develop clinically relevant levels of PTSD symptoms after acute myocardial infarction (MI). Symptoms of PTSD are associated with impaired quality of life and increase the risk of recurrent cardiovascular events. The main hypothesis of the MI-SPRINT study is that trauma-focused psychological counseling is more effective than non-trauma focused counseling in preventing posttraumatic stress after acute MI. Methods/Design The study is a single-center, randomized controlled psychological trial with two active intervention arms. The sample consists of 426 patients aged 18 years or older who are at 'high risk’ to develop clinically relevant posttraumatic stress symptoms. 'High risk’ patients are identified with three single-item questions with a numeric rating scale (0 to 10) asking about 'pain during MI’, 'fear of dying until admission’ and/or 'worrying and feeling helpless when being told about having MI’. Exclusion criteria are emergency heart surgery, severe comorbidities, current severe depression, disorientation, cognitive impairment and suicidal ideation. Patients will be randomly allocated to a single 45-minute counseling session targeting either specific MI-triggered traumatic reactions (that is, the verum intervention) or the general role of psychosocial stress in coronary heart disease (that is, the control intervention). The session will take place in the coronary care unit within 48 hours, by the bedside, after patients have reached stable circulatory conditions. Each patient will additionally receive an illustrated information booklet as study material. Sociodemographic factors, psychosocial and medical data, and cardiometabolic risk factors will be assessed during hospitalization. The primary outcome is the interviewer-rated posttraumatic stress level at three-month follow-up, which is hypothesized to be

  10. Silicon dioxide nanoparticles increase macrophage atherogenicity: Stimulation of cellular cytotoxicity, oxidative stress, and triglycerides accumulation.

    Petrick, Lauren; Rosenblat, Mira; Paland, Nicole; Aviram, Michael

    2016-06-01

    Nanoparticle research has focused on their toxicity in general, while increasing evidence points to additional specific adverse effects on atherosclerosis development. Arterial macrophage cholesterol and triglyceride (TG) accumulation and foam cell formation are the hallmark of early atherogenesis, leading to cardiovascular events. To investigate the in vitro atherogenic effects of silicon dioxide (SiO2 ), J774.1 cultured macrophages (murine cell line) were incubated with SiO2 nanoparticle (SP, d = 12 nm, 0-20 µg/mL), followed by cellular cytotoxicity, oxidative stress, TG and cholesterol metabolism analyses. A significant dose-dependent increase in oxidative stress (up to 164%), in cytotoxicity (up to 390% measured by lactate dehydrogenase (LDH) release), and in TG content (up to 63%) was observed in SiO2 exposed macrophages compared with control cells. A smaller increase in macrophage cholesterol mass (up to 22%) was noted. TG accumulation in macrophages was not due to a decrease in TG cell secretion or to an increased TG biosynthesis rate, but was the result of attenuated TG hydrolysis secondary to decreased lipase activity and both adipose triglyceride lipase (ATGL) and hormone-sensitive lipase (HSL) protein expression (by 42 and 25%, respectively). Overall, SPs showed pro-atherogenic effects on macrophages as observed by cytotoxicity, increased oxidative stress and TG accumulation. © 2014 Wiley Periodicals, Inc. Environ Toxicol 31: 713-723, 2016. PMID:25448404

  11. Abdominal Muscle Activity during Mechanical Ventilation Increases Lung Injury in Severe Acute Respiratory Distress Syndrome.

    Xianming Zhang

    Full Text Available It has proved that muscle paralysis was more protective for injured lung in severe acute respiratory distress syndrome (ARDS, but the precise mechanism is not clear. The purpose of this study was to test the hypothesis that abdominal muscle activity during mechanically ventilation increases lung injury in severe ARDS.Eighteen male Beagles were studied under mechanical ventilation with anesthesia. Severe ARDS was induced by repetitive oleic acid infusion. After lung injury, Beagles were randomly assigned into spontaneous breathing group (BIPAPSB and abdominal muscle paralysis group (BIPAPAP. All groups were ventilated with BIPAP model for 8h, and the high pressure titrated to reached a tidal volume of 6ml/kg, the low pressure was set at 10 cmH2O, with I:E ratio 1:1, and respiratory rate adjusted to a PaCO2 of 35-60 mmHg. Six Beagles without ventilator support comprised the control group. Respiratory variables, end-expiratory volume (EELV and gas exchange were assessed during mechanical ventilation. The levels of Interleukin (IL-6, IL-8 in lung tissue and plasma were measured by qRT-PCR and ELISA respectively. Lung injury scores were determined at end of the experiment.For the comparable ventilator setting, as compared with BIPAPSB group, the BIPAPAP group presented higher EELV (427±47 vs. 366±38 ml and oxygenation index (293±36 vs. 226±31 mmHg, lower levels of IL-6(216.6±48.0 vs. 297.5±71.2 pg/ml and IL-8(246.8±78.2 vs. 357.5±69.3 pg/ml in plasma, and lower express levels of IL-6 mRNA (15.0±3.8 vs. 21.2±3.7 and IL-8 mRNA (18.9±6.8 vs. 29.5±7.9 in lung tissues. In addition, less lung histopathology injury were revealed in the BIPAPAP group (22.5±2.0 vs. 25.2±2.1.Abdominal muscle activity during mechanically ventilation is one of the injurious factors in severe ARDS, so abdominal muscle paralysis might be an effective strategy to minimize ventilator-induce lung injury.

  12. Increased Serum Phospholipase A2 Activity in Advanced Chronic Liver Disease as an Expression of the Acute Phase Response

    Mario Pirisi

    1993-01-01

    Full Text Available Phospholipase A2 (PLA2 modifications were investigated in patients with acute and chronic liver diseases, PLA2 variations were related to indices of liver function as well as to parameters of the acute phase response. Serum PLA2 activity modifications were f1uorimetrically measured in 105 patients affected by acute and chronic liver diseases or extra-hepatic diseases. One-way ANOV A demonstrated a significant difference among groups (F= 4.53, P<0.001; Bonferroni’s test for pairwise comparisons showed that patients with hepatocellular carcinoma had higher mean values than subjects with benign extra-hepatic diseases (p<0.0 I and mild chronic liver disease (p<0.0S J. Multiple regression analysis, performed choosing PLA2 as the dependent variable and blood urea nitrogen, C-reacti ve protein, alkaline phosphatase and al-fetoprotein as predictor variables was significant (multiple R= 0.7056, multiple R2= 0.4978, F= 15.36, P= <0.0001. The standardized regression coefficients found to be significant were those of Creactive protein, blood urea nitrogen and al-fetoprotein. In conclusion, in patients with chronic liver disease, serum PLA2 activity increases parallel to disease severity and accompanies the expression of proteins of the acute phase response that. like PLA2 activity, increase in serum while liver synthesis declines.

  13. Stress induced Salmonella Typhimurium recrudescence in pigs coincides with cortisol induced increased intracellular proliferation in macrophages

    Verbrugghe Elin

    2011-12-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Salmonella Typhimurium infections in pigs often result in the development of carriers that intermittently excrete Salmonella in very low numbers. During periods of stress, for example transport to the slaughterhouse, recrudescence of Salmonella may occur, but the mechanism of this stress related recrudescence is poorly understood. Therefore, the aim of the present study was to determine the role of the stress hormone cortisol in Salmonella recrudescence by pigs. We showed that a 24 h feed withdrawal increases the intestinal Salmonella Typhimurium load in pigs, which is correlated with increased serum cortisol levels. A second in vivo trial demonstrated that stress related recrudescence of Salmonella Typhimurium in pigs can be induced by intramuscular injection of dexamethasone. Furthermore, we found that cortisol, but not epinephrine, norepinephrine and dopamine, promotes intracellular proliferation of Salmonella Typhimurium in primary porcine alveolar macrophages, but not in intestinal epithelial cells and a transformed cell line of porcine alveolar macrophages. A microarray based transcriptomic analysis revealed that cortisol did not directly affect the growth or the gene expression or Salmonella Typhimurium in a rich medium, which implies that the enhanced intracellular proliferation of the bacterium is probably caused by an indirect effect through the cell. These results highlight the role of cortisol in the recrudescence of Salmonella Typhimurium by pigs and they provide new evidence for the role of microbial endocrinology in host-pathogen interactions.

  14. Mental stress in atopic dermatitis--neuronal plasticity and the cholinergic system are affected in atopic dermatitis and in response to acute experimental mental stress in a randomized controlled pilot study.

    Eva Milena Johanne Peters

    Full Text Available RATIONALE: In mouse models for atopic dermatitis (AD hypothalamus pituitary adrenal axis (HPA dysfunction and neuropeptide-dependent neurogenic inflammation explain stress-aggravated flares to some extent. Lately, cholinergic signaling has emerged as a link between innate and adaptive immunity as well as stress responses in chronic inflammatory diseases. Here we aim to determine in humans the impact of acute stress on neuro-immune interaction as well as on the non-neuronal cholinergic system (NNCS. METHODS: Skin biopsies were obtained from 22 individuals (AD patients and matched healthy control subjects before and after the Trier social stress test (TSST. To assess neuro-immune interaction, nerve fiber (NF-density, NF-mast cell contacts and mast cell activation were determined by immunohistomorphometry. To evaluate NNCS effects, expression of secreted mammal Ly-6/urokinase-type plasminogen activator receptor-related protein (SLURP 1 and 2 (endogenous nicotinic acetylcholine receptor ligands and their main corresponding receptors were assessed by quantitative RT-PCR. RESULTS: With respect to neuro-immune interaction we found higher numbers of NGF+ dermal NF in lesional compared to non-lesional AD but lower numbers of Gap43+ growing NF at baseline. Mast cell-NF contacts correlated with SCORAD and itch in lesional skin. With respect to the NNCS, nicotinic acetylcholine receptor α7 (α7nAChR mRNA was significantly lower in lesional AD skin at baseline. After TSST, PGP 9.5+ NF numbers dropped in lesional AD as did their contacts with mast cells. NGF+ NF now correlated with SCORAD and mast cell-NF contacts with itch in non-lesional skin. At the same time, SLURP-2 levels increased in lesional AD skin. CONCLUSIONS: In humans chronic inflammatory and highly acute psycho-emotional stress interact to modulate cutaneous neuro-immune communication and NNCS marker expression. These findings may have consequences for understanding and treatment of chronic

  15. A comparative evaluation of acute stress and corticosterone on the process of learning and emotional memory in rat

    Vafaei AA

    2009-07-01

    Full Text Available "nBackground: Previous studies suggested that stressful events that release Glucocorticoid from adrenal cortex and also injection of agonists of glucocorticoids receptors probably affect emotional learning and memory process and modulate them. The aim of this study was to determine the effects of acute stress and systemic injection of Corticosterone (as agonist of glucocorticoid receptors on acquisition (ACQ, consolidation (CONS and retrieval (RET of emotional memory in rat. "nMethods: In this experimental study we used 180 male Wistar rats (220-250. At the first rats was training in one trial inhibitory avoidance task. On the retention test given 48 h after training, the latency to re-enter the dark compartment of the apparatus (Step-through latency, STL and the time spent in light chamber (TLC were recorded during 10 min test. Intraperitoneal corticosterone in doses of 0.5, 1 and 3mg/kg injected 30min before, immediately after instruction and 30min before retrieval test. Also some groups received 10min stressful stimulation by restrainer at the same time. At the end locomotor's activity was measured for all animals. "nResults: The data indicated that administration of corticosterone 30min before ACQ (1mg/kg, and immediately after CONS (1, 3mg/kg enhance and 30min before RET (1, 3mg/kg impair emotional memory (p<0.05. Acute stress impaired emotional memory in all phases (p<0.05. Also acute stress and injection of Corticosterone have not significantly affect motor activity.  "nConclusions: These findings show that Glucocorticoid receptors in activation dependently plays an important role in modulation of emotional spatial memory processes (ACQ, CONS and RET in new information for emotional events and these effects varies in different phases.

  16. Changes of cytosolic [Ca2+]i in neutrophils in pancreatic microcirculation of rats with caerulein-induced acute pancreatitis under fluid shear stress

    Zong-Guang Zhou; You-Qin Chen; Xu-Bao Liu; Wei-Ming Hu; Bo-Le Tian; Huai-Qing Chen

    2004-01-01

    AIM: To investigate the fluid shear stress induced changes of [Ca2+]i in neutrophils in pancreatic microcirculation of experimental acute pancreatitis (AP).METHODS: Wistar rats (n = 36) were randomized into three groups. A model of AP was established by subcutaneous injection of caerulein. Low-shear 30 viscometer was used to provide steady fluid shear stress on separated neutrophils.The mean fluorescent intensity tested by flow cytometry was used as the indication of [Ca2+]i quantity.RESULTS: Under steady shear, cytosolic [Ca2+]i showed biphasic changes. The shear rate changed from low to high,[Ca2+]i in different groups decreased slightly and then increased gradually to a high level (P<0.05). A close correlation was observed between the cytosolic [Ca2+]i level and the alteration of fluid shear stress in regional microcirculation of AP.CONCLUSION: The increase of [Ca2+]i is highly related to the activation of neutrophils, which contributes to neutrophil adhesion to endothelium in the early phase of AP. The effect of fluid shear stress on [Ca2+]i may play a crucial role in pancreatic microcirculatory failure of AP.

  17. Complexity and time asymmetry of heart rate variability are altered in acute mental stress

    We aimed to study the complexity and time asymmetry of short-term heart rate variability (HRV) as an index of complex neurocardiac control in response to stress using symbolic dynamics and time irreversibility methods. ECG was recorded at rest and during and after two stressors (Stroop, arithmetic test) in 70 healthy students. Symbolic dynamics parameters (NUPI, NCI, 0V%, 1V%, 2LV%, 2UV%), and time irreversibility indices (P%, G%, E) were evaluated. Additionally, HRV magnitude was quantified by linear parameters: spectral powers in low (LF) and high frequency (HF) bands. Our results showed a reduction of HRV complexity in stress (lower NUPI with both stressors, lower NCI with Stroop). Pattern classification analysis revealed significantly higher 0V% and lower 2LV% with both stressors, indicating a shift in sympathovagal balance, and significantly higher 1V% and lower 2UV% with Stroop. An unexpected result was found in time irreversibility: significantly lower G% and E with both stressors, P% index significantly declined only with arithmetic test. Linear HRV analysis confirmed vagal withdrawal (lower HF) with both stressors; LF significantly increased with Stroop and decreased with arithmetic test. Correlation analysis revealed no significant associations between symbolic dynamics and time irreversibility. Concluding, symbolic dynamics and time irreversibility could provide independent information related to alterations of neurocardiac control integrity in stress-related disease. (paper)

  18. Honey bee (Apis mellifera) drones survive oxidative stress due to increased tolerance instead of avoidance or repair of oxidative damage.

    Li-Byarlay, Hongmei; Huang, Ming Hua; Simone-Finstrom, Michael; Strand, Micheline K; Tarpy, David R; Rueppell, Olav

    2016-10-01

    Oxidative stress can lead to premature aging symptoms and cause acute mortality at higher doses in a range of organisms. Oxidative stress resistance and longevity are mechanistically and phenotypically linked; considerable variation in oxidative stress resistance exists among and within species and typically covaries with life expectancy. However, it is unclear whether stress-resistant, long-lived individuals avoid, repair, or tolerate molecular damage to survive longer than others. The honey bee (Apis mellifera L.) is an emerging model system that is well-suited to address this question. Furthermore, this species is the most economically important pollinator, whose health may be compromised by pesticide exposure, including oxidative stressors. Here, we develop a protocol for inducing oxidative stress in honey bee males (drones) via Paraquat injection. After injection, individuals from different colony sources were kept in common social conditions to monitor their survival compared to saline-injected controls. Oxidative stress was measured in susceptible and resistant individuals. Paraquat drastically reduced survival but individuals varied in their resistance to treatment within and among colony sources. Longer-lived individuals exhibited higher levels of lipid peroxidation than individuals dying early. In contrast, the level of protein carbonylation was not significantly different between the two groups. This first study of oxidative stress in male honey bees suggests that survival of an acute oxidative stressor is due to tolerance, not prevention or repair, of oxidative damage to lipids. It also demonstrates colony differences in oxidative stress resistance that might be useful for breeding stress-resistant honey bees. PMID:27422326

  19. Increased plasma levels of microparticles expressing CD39 and CD133 in acute liver injury

    Schmelzle, Moritz; Splith, Katrin; Wiuff Andersen, Lars;

    2013-01-01

    BACKGROUND: We have previously demonstrated that CD133 and CD39 are expressed by hematopoietic stem cells (HSC), which are mobilized after liver injury and target sites of injury, limit vascular inflammation, and boost hepatic regeneration. Plasma microparticles (MP) expressing CD39 can block...... endothelial activation. Here, we tested whether CD133 MP might be shed in a CD39-dependent manner in a model of liver injury and could potentially serve as biomarkers of liver failure in the clinic. METHODS: Wild-type and Cd39-null mice were subjected to acetaminophen-induced liver injury. Mice were...... sacrificed and plasma MP were isolated by ultracentrifugation. HSC and CD133 MP levels were analyzed by fluorescence-activated cell sorting. Patients were enrolled with acute (n=5) and acute on chronic (n=5) liver injury with matched controls (n=7). Blood was collected at admission and plasma CD133 and CD39...

  20. Whole transcriptome analysis of transgenic barley with altered cytokinin homeostasis and increased tolerance to drought stress.

    Vojta, Petr; Kokáš, Filip; Husičková, Alexandra; Grúz, Jiří; Bergougnoux, Veronique; Marchetti, Cintia F; Jiskrová, Eva; Ježilová, Eliška; Mik, Václav; Ikeda, Yoshihisa; Galuszka, Petr

    2016-09-25

    Cytokinin plant hormones have been shown to play an important role in plant response to abiotic stresses. Herein, we expand upon the findings of Pospíšilová et al. [30] regarding preparation of novel transgenic barley lines overexpressing cytokinin dehydrogenase 1 gene from Arabidopsis under the control of mild root-specific promotor of maize β-glycosidase. These lines showed drought-tolerant phenotype mainly due to alteration of root architecture and stronger lignification of root tissue. A detailed transcriptomic analysis of roots of transgenic plants subjected to revitalization after drought stress revealed attenuated response through the HvHK3 cytokinin receptor and up-regulation of two transcription factors implicated in stress responses and abscisic acid sensitivity. Increased expression of several genes involved in the phenylpropanoid pathway as well as of genes encoding arogenate dehydratase/lyase participating in phenylalanine synthesis was found in roots during revitalization. Although more precursors of lignin synthesis were present in roots after drought stress, final lignin accumulation did not change compared to that in plants grown under optimal conditions. Changes in transcriptome indicated a higher auxin turnover in transgenic roots. The same analysis in leaves revealed that genes encoding putative enzymes responsible for production of jasmonates and other volatile compounds were up-regulated. Although transgenic barley leaves showed lower chlorophyll content and down-regulation of genes encoding proteins involved in photosynthesis than did wild-type plants when cultivated under optimal conditions, they did show a tendency to return to initial photochemical activities faster than did wild-type leaves when re-watered after severe drought stress. In contrast to optimal conditions, comparative transcriptomic analysis of revitalized leaves displayed up-regulation of genes encoding enzymes and proteins involved in photosynthesis, and especially

  1. Admission hyperuricemia increases the risk of acute kidney injury in hospitalized patients *

    Cheungpasitporn, Wisit; Thongprayoon, Charat; Harrison, Andrew M.; Erickson, Stephen B.

    2015-01-01

    Background The association between elevated admission serum uric acid (SUA) and risk of in-hospital acute kidney injury (AKI) is limited. The aim of this study was to assess the risk of developing AKI in all hospitalized patients with various admission SUA levels. Methods This is a single-center retrospective study conducted at a tertiary referral hospital. All hospitalized adult patients who had admission SUA available from January 2011 through December 2013 were analyzed in this study. Admi...

  2. Increased Extravascular Lung Water Reduces the Efficacy of Alveolar Recruitment Maneuver in Acute Respiratory Distress Syndrome

    Alexey A. Smetkin; Kuzkov, Vsevolod V; Eugeny V. Suborov; Bjertnaes, Lars J; Kirov, Mikhail Y.

    2012-01-01

    Introduction. In acute respiratory distress syndrome (ARDS) the recruitment maneuver (RM) is used to reexpand atelectatic areas of the lungs aiming to improve arterial oxygenation. The goal of our paper was to evaluate the response to RM, as assessed by measurements of extravascular lung water index (EVLWI) in ARDS patients. Materials and Methods. Seventeen adult ARDS patients were enrolled into a prospective study. Patients received protective ventilation. The RM was performed by applying a ...

  3. Acute supramaximal exercise increases the brain oxygenation in relation to cognitive workload

    Cem Seref Bediz; Adile eOniz; Cagdas eGuducu; Enise eUral Demirci; Hilmi eOgut; Erkan eGunay; Caner eCetinkaya; Murat eOzgoren

    2016-01-01

    Single bout of exercise can improve the performance on cognitive tasks. However, cognitive responses may be controversial due to different type, intensity, and duration of exercise. In addition, the mechanism of the effect of acute exercise on brain is still unclear. This study was aimed to investigate the effects of supramaximal exercise on cognitive tasks by means of brain oxygenation monitoring. The brain oxygenation of Prefrontal cortex (PFC) was measured on 35 healthy male volunteers via...

  4. Acute Supramaximal Exercise Increases the Brain Oxygenation in Relation to Cognitive Workload

    Bediz, Cem Seref; Oniz, Adile; Guducu, Cagdas; Ural Demirci, Enise; Ogut, Hilmi; Gunay, Erkan; Cetinkaya, Caner; Ozgoren, Murat

    2016-01-01

    Single bout of exercise can improve the performance on cognitive tasks. However, cognitive responses may be controversial due to different type, intensity, and duration of exercise. In addition, the mechanism of the effect of acute exercise on brain is still unclear. This study was aimed to investigate the effects of supramaximal exercise on cognitive tasks by means of brain oxygenation monitoring. The brain oxygenation of Prefrontal cortex (PFC) was measured on 35 healthy male volunteers via...

  5. Violent Video Games Don't Increase Hostility in Teens, but They Do Stress Girls Out.

    Ferguson, Christopher J; Trigani, Benjamin; Pilato, Steven; Miller, Stephanie; Foley, Kimberly; Barr, Hayley

    2016-03-01

    The impact of violent video games (VVGs) on youth remains unclear given inconsistent results in past literature. Most previous experimental studies have been done with college students, not youth. The current study examined the impact of VVGs in an experimental study of teens (12-18). Participants were randomized to play either a violent or non-violent video game. Teens also reported their levels of stress and hostility both before and after video game play. Hostility levels neither decreased nor increased following violent game play, and Bayesian analyzes confirmed that results are supportive of the null hypothesis. By contrast, VVG exposure increased stress, but only for girls. The impact of VVGs on teen hostility is minimal. However, players unfamiliar with such games may find them unpleasant. These results are put into the context of Uses and Gratifications Theory with suggestions for how medical professionals should address the issue of VVG play with concerned parents. PMID:25896582

  6. Acute deep brain stimulation in the thalamic reticular nucleus protects against acute stress and modulates initial events of adult hippocampal neurogenesis.

    Magdaleno-Madrigal, Víctor Manuel; Pantoja-Jiménez, Christopher Rodrigo; Bazaldúa, Adrián; Fernández-Mas, Rodrigo; Almazán-Alvarado, Salvador; Bolaños-Alejos, Fernanda; Ortíz-López, Leonardo; Ramírez-Rodriguez, Gerardo Bernabé

    2016-11-01

    Deep brain stimulation (DBS) is used as an alternative therapeutic procedure for pharmacoresistant psychiatric disorders. Recently the thalamic reticular nucleus (TRN) gained attention due to the description of a novel pathway from the amygdala to this nucleus suggesting that may be differentially disrupted in mood disorders. The limbic system is implicated in the regulation of these disorders that are accompanied by neuroplastic changes. The hippocampus is highly plastic and shows the generation of new neurons, process affected by stress but positively regulated by antidepressant drugs. We explored the impact of applying acute DBS to the TRN (DBS-TRN) in male Wistar rats exposed to acute stress caused by the forced-swim Porsolt's test (FST) and on initial events of hippocampal neurogenesis. After the first session of forced-swim, rats were randomly subdivided in a DBS-TRN and a Sham group. Stimulated rats received 10min of DBS, thus the depressant-like behavior reflected as immobility was evaluated in the second session of forced-swim. Locomotricity was evaluated in the open field test. Cell proliferation and doublecortin-associated cells were quantified in the hippocampus of other cohorts of rats. No effects of electrode implantation were found in locomotricity. Acute DBS-TRN reduced immobility in comparison to the Sham group (pcell proliferation (Ki67 or BrdU-positive cells; p=0.02, p=0.02) and the number of doublecortin-cells compared to the Sham group (p<0.02). Similar effects were found in rats previously exposed to the first session of forced-swim. Our data could suggest that TRN brain region may be a promising target for DBS to treat intractable depression. PMID:27435420

  7. Overexpression of TFAM or twinkle increases mtDNA copy number and facilitates cardioprotection associated with limited mitochondrial oxidative stress.

    Masataka Ikeda

    Full Text Available Mitochondrial DNA (mtDNA copy number decreases in animal and human heart failure (HF, yet its role in cardiomyocytes remains to be elucidated. Thus, we investigated the cardioprotective function of increased mtDNA copy number resulting from the overexpression of human transcription factor A of mitochondria (TFAM or Twinkle helicase in volume overload (VO-induced HF.Two strains of transgenic (TG mice, one overexpressing TFAM and the other overexpressing Twinkle helicase, exhibit an approximately 2-fold equivalent increase in mtDNA copy number in heart. These TG mice display similar attenuations in eccentric hypertrophy and improved cardiac function compared to wild-type (WT mice without any deterioration of mitochondrial enzymatic activities in response to VO, which was accompanied by a reduction in matrix-metalloproteinase (MMP activity and reactive oxygen species after 8 weeks of VO. Moreover, acute VO-induced MMP-2 and MMP-9 upregulation was also suppressed at 24 h in both TG mice. In isolated rat cardiomyocytes, mitochondrial reactive oxygen species (mitoROS upregulated MMP-2 and MMP-9 expression, and human TFAM (hTFAM overexpression suppressed mitoROS and their upregulation. Additionally, mitoROS were equally suppressed in H9c2 rat cardiomyoblasts that overexpress hTFAM or rat Twinkle, both of which exhibit increased mtDNA copy number. Furthermore, mitoROS and mitochondrial protein oxidation from both TG mice were suppressed compared to WT mice.The overexpression of TFAM or Twinkle results in increased mtDNA copy number and facilitates cardioprotection associated with limited mitochondrial oxidative stress. Our findings suggest that increasing mtDNA copy number could be a useful therapeutic strategy to target mitoROS in HF.

  8. Biosynthesis of vitamin C by yeast leads to increased stress resistance.

    Paola Branduardi

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: In industrial large scale bio-reactions micro-organisms are generally exposed to a variety of environmental stresses, which might be detrimental for growth and productivity. Reactive oxygen species (ROS play a key role among the common stress factors--directly--through incomplete reduction of O(2 during respiration, or indirectly--caused by other stressing factors. Vitamin C or L-ascorbic acid acts as a scavenger of ROS, thereby potentially protecting cells from harmful oxidative products. While most eukaryotes synthesize ascorbic acid, yeast cells produce erythro-ascorbic acid instead. The actual importance of this antioxidant substance for the yeast is still a subject of scientific debate. METHODOLOGY/PRINCIPAL FINDINGS: We set out to enable Saccharomyces cerevisiae cells to produce ascorbic acid intracellularly to protect the cells from detrimental effects of environmental stresses. We report for the first time the biosynthesis of L-ascorbic acid from D-glucose by metabolically engineered yeast cells. The amount of L-ascorbic acid produced leads to an improved robustness of the recombinant cells when they are subjected to stress conditions as often met during industrial fermentations. Not only resistance against oxidative agents as H(2O(2 is increased, but also the tolerance to low pH and weak organic acids at low pH is increased. CONCLUSIONS/SIGNIFICANCE: This platform provides a new tool whose commercial applications may have a substantial impact on bio-industrial production of Vitamin C. Furthermore, we propose S. cerevisiae cells endogenously producing vitamin C as a cellular model to study the genesis/protection of ROS as well as genotoxicity.

  9. Absence of functional TolC protein causes increased stress response gene expression in Sinorhizobium meliloti

    Moreira Leonilde M

    2010-06-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background The TolC protein from Sinorhizobium meliloti has previously been demonstrated to be required for establishing successful biological nitrogen fixation symbiosis with Medicago sativa. It is also needed in protein and exopolysaccharide secretion and for protection against osmotic and oxidative stresses. Here, the transcriptional profile of free-living S. meliloti 1021 tolC mutant is described as a step toward understanding its role in the physiology of the cell. Results Comparison of tolC mutant and wild-type strains transcriptomes showed 1177 genes with significantly increased expression while 325 had significantly decreased expression levels. The genes with an increased expression suggest the activation of a cytoplasmic and extracytoplasmic stress responses possibly mediated by the sigma factor RpoH1 and protein homologues of the CpxRA two-component regulatory system of Enterobacteria, respectively. Stress conditions are probably caused by perturbation of the cell envelope. Consistent with gene expression data, biochemical analysis indicates that the tolC mutant suffers from oxidative stress. This is illustrated by the elevated enzyme activity levels detected for catalase, superoxide dismutase and glutathione reductase. The observed increase in the expression of genes encoding products involved in central metabolism and transporters for nutrient uptake suggests a higher metabolic rate of the tolC mutant. We also demonstrated increased swarming motility in the tolC mutant strain. Absence of functional TolC caused decreased expression mainly of genes encoding products involved in nitrogen metabolism and transport. Conclusion This work shows how a mutation in the outer membrane protein TolC, common to many bacterial transport systems, affects expression of a large number of genes that act in concert to restore cell homeostasis. This finding further underlines the fundamental role of this protein in Sinorhizobium meliloti biology.

  10. Heat stress attenuates the increase in arterial blood pressure during the cold pressor test

    Cui, Jian; Shibasaki, Manabu; Low, David A.; Keller, David M.; Davis, Scott L.; Crandall, Craig G.

    2010-01-01

    The mechanisms by which heat stress impairs the control of blood pressure leading to compromised orthostatic tolerance are not thoroughly understood. A possible mechanism may be an attenuated blood pressure response to a given increase in sympathetic activity. This study tested the hypothesis that whole body heating attenuates the blood pressure response to a non-baroreflex-mediated sympathoexcitatory stimulus. Ten healthy subjects were instrumented for the measurement of integrated muscle sy...

  11. Examination of the efficacy of acute L-alanyl-L-glutamine ingestion during hydration stress in endurance exercise

    Yamamoto Linda M

    2010-02-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background The effect of acute L-alanyl-L-glutamine (AG; Sustamine™ ingestion on performance changes and markers of fluid regulation, immune, inflammatory, oxidative stress, and recovery was examined in response to exhaustive endurance exercise, during and in the absence of dehydration. Methods Ten physically active males (20.8 ± 0.6 y; 176.8 ± 7.2 cm; 77.4 ± 10.5 kg; 12.3 ± 4.6% body fat volunteered to participate in this study. During the first visit (T1 subjects reported to the laboratory in a euhydrated state to provide a baseline (BL blood draw and perform a maximal exercise test. In the four subsequent randomly ordered trials, subjects dehydrated to -2.5% of their baseline body mass. For T2, subjects achieved their goal weight and were not rehydrated. During T3 - T5, subjects reached their goal weight and then rehydrated to 1.5% of their baseline body mass by drinking either water (T3 or two different doses (T4 and T5 of the AG supplement (0.05 g·kg-1 and 0.2 g·kg-1, respectively. Subjects then exercised at a workload that elicited 75% of their VO2 max on a cycle ergometer. During T2 - T5 blood draws occurred once goal body mass was achieved (DHY, immediately prior to the exercise stress (RHY, and immediately following the exercise protocol (IP. Resting 24 hour (24P blood samples were also obtained. Blood samples were analyzed for glutamine, potassium, sodium, aldosterone, arginine vasopressin (AVP, C-reactive protein (CRP, interleukin-6 (IL-6, malondialdehyde (MDA, testosterone, cortisol, ACTH, growth hormone and creatine kinase. Statistical evaluation of performance, hormonal and biochemical changes was accomplished using a repeated measures analysis of variance. Results Glutamine concentrations for T5 were significantly higher at RHY and IP than T2 - T4. When examining performance changes (difference between T2 - T5 and T1, significantly greater times to exhaustion occurred during T4 (130.2 ± 340.2 sec and T5 (157.4

  12. Cinnamon intake alleviates the combined effects of dietary-induced insulin resistance and acute stress on brain mitochondria.

    Couturier, Karine; Hininger, Isabelle; Poulet, Laurent; Anderson, Richard A; Roussel, Anne-Marie; Canini, Frédéric; Batandier, Cécile

    2016-02-01

    Insulin resistance (IR), which is a leading cause of the metabolic syndrome, results in early brain function alterations which may alter brain mitochondrial functioning. Previously, we demonstrated that rats fed a control diet and submitted to an acute restraint stress exhibited a delayed mitochondrial permeability transition pore (mPTP) opening. In this study, we evaluated the combined effects of dietary and emotional stressors as found in western way of life. We studied, in rats submitted or not to an acute stress, the effects of diet-induced IR on brain mitochondria, using a high fat/high fructose diet (HF(2)), as an IR inducer, with addition or not of cinnamon as an insulin sensitizer. We measured Ca(2+) retention capacity, respiration, ROS production, enzymatic activities and cell signaling activation. Under stress, HF(2) diet dramatically decreased the amount of Ca(2+) required to open the mPTP (13%) suggesting an adverse effect on mitochondrial survival. Cinnamon added to the diet corrected this negative effect and resulted in a partial recovery (30%). The effects related to cinnamon addition to the diet could be due to its antioxidant properties or to the observed modulation of PI3K-AKT-GSK3β and MAPK-P38 pathways or to a combination of both. These data suggest a protective effect of cinnamon on brain mitochondria against the negative impact of an HF(2) diet. Cinnamon could be beneficial to counteract deleterious dietary effects in stressed conditions. PMID:26878796

  13. Increased levels of thioredoxin in patients with abdominal aortic aneurysms (AAAs). A potential link of oxidative stress with AAA evolution

    Martinez-Pinna, R; Lindholt, Jes S.; Blanco-Colio, L M;

    2010-01-01

    Oxidative stress is a main mechanism involved in vascular pathologies. Increased thioredoxin (TRX) levels have been observed in several oxidative stress-associated cardiovascular diseases. We aim to test the potential role of TRX as a biomarker of oxidative stress in abdominal aortic aneurysm (AAA)....

  14. Systemic inflammatory changes and increased oxidative stress in rural Indian women cooking with biomass fuels

    The study was undertaken to investigate whether regular cooking with biomass aggravates systemic inflammation and oxidative stress that might result in increase in the risk of developing cardiovascular disease (CVD) in rural Indian women compared to cooking with a cleaner fuel like liquefied petroleum gas (LPG). A total of 635 women (median age 36 years) who cooked with biomass and 452 age-matched control women who cooked with LPG were enrolled. Serum interleukin-6 (IL-6), C-reactive protein (CRP), tumor necrosis factor-alpha (TNF-α) and interleukin-8 (IL-8) were measured by ELISA. Generation of reactive oxygen species (ROS) by leukocytes was measured by flow cytometry, and erythrocytic superoxide dismutase (SOD) was measured by spectrophotometry. Hypertension was diagnosed following the Seventh Report of the Joint Committee. Tachycardia was determined as pulse rate > 100 beats per minute. Particulate matter of diameter less than 10 and 2.5 μm (PM10 and PM2.5, respectively) in cooking areas was measured using real-time aerosol monitor. Compared with control, biomass users had more particulate pollution in indoor air, their serum contained significantly elevated levels of IL-6, IL-8, TNF-α and CRP, and ROS generation was increased by 37% while SOD was depleted by 41.5%, greater prevalence of hypertension and tachycardia compared to their LPG-using neighbors. PM10 and PM2.5 levels were positively associated with markers of inflammation, oxidative stress and hypertension. Inflammatory markers correlated with raised blood pressure. Cooking with biomass exacerbates systemic inflammation, oxidative stress, hypertension and tachycardia in poor women cooking with biomass fuel and hence, predisposes them to increased risk of CVD development compared to the controls. Systemic inflammation and oxidative stress may be the mechanistic factors involved in the development of CVD. -- Highlights: ► Effect of chronic biomass smoke exposure on cardiovascular health was

  15. Systemic inflammatory changes and increased oxidative stress in rural Indian women cooking with biomass fuels

    Dutta, Anindita, E-mail: anidu14@gmail.com [College of Environmental Sciences and Engineering, Peking University, Beijing (China); Department of Experimental Hematology, Chittaranjan National Cancer Institute, 37, S.P. Mukherjee Road, Kolkata-700 026 (India); Ray, Manas Ranjan; Banerjee, Anirban [Department of Experimental Hematology, Chittaranjan National Cancer Institute, 37, S.P. Mukherjee Road, Kolkata-700 026 (India)

    2012-06-15

    The study was undertaken to investigate whether regular cooking with biomass aggravates systemic inflammation and oxidative stress that might result in increase in the risk of developing cardiovascular disease (CVD) in rural Indian women compared to cooking with a cleaner fuel like liquefied petroleum gas (LPG). A total of 635 women (median age 36 years) who cooked with biomass and 452 age-matched control women who cooked with LPG were enrolled. Serum interleukin-6 (IL-6), C-reactive protein (CRP), tumor necrosis factor-alpha (TNF-α) and interleukin-8 (IL-8) were measured by ELISA. Generation of reactive oxygen species (ROS) by leukocytes was measured by flow cytometry, and erythrocytic superoxide dismutase (SOD) was measured by spectrophotometry. Hypertension was diagnosed following the Seventh Report of the Joint Committee. Tachycardia was determined as pulse rate > 100 beats per minute. Particulate matter of diameter less than 10 and 2.5 μm (PM{sub 10} and PM{sub 2.5}, respectively) in cooking areas was measured using real-time aerosol monitor. Compared with control, biomass users had more particulate pollution in indoor air, their serum contained significantly elevated levels of IL-6, IL-8, TNF-α and CRP, and ROS generation was increased by 37% while SOD was depleted by 41.5%, greater prevalence of hypertension and tachycardia compared to their LPG-using neighbors. PM{sub 10} and PM{sub 2.5} levels were positively associated with markers of inflammation, oxidative stress and hypertension. Inflammatory markers correlated with raised blood pressure. Cooking with biomass exacerbates systemic inflammation, oxidative stress, hypertension and tachycardia in poor women cooking with biomass fuel and hence, predisposes them to increased risk of CVD development compared to the controls. Systemic inflammation and oxidative stress may be the mechanistic factors involved in the development of CVD. -- Highlights: ► Effect of chronic biomass smoke exposure on

  16. Diminished acute phase response and increased hepatic inflammation of aged rats in response to intraperitoneal injection of lipopolysaccharide.

    Gomez, Christian R; Acuña-Castillo, Claudio; Pérez, Claudio; Leiva-Salcedo, Elías; Riquelme, Denise M; Ordenes, Gamaliel; Oshima, Kiyoko; Aravena, Mauricio; Pérez, Viviana I; Nishimura, Sumiyo; Sabaj, Valeria; Walter, Robin; Sierra, Felipe

    2008-12-01

    Aging is associated with a deterioration of the acute phase response to inflammatory challenges. However, the nature of these defects remains poorly defined. We analyzed the hepatic inflammatory response after intraperitoneal administration of lipopolysaccharide (LPS) given to Fisher 344 rats aged 6, 15, and 22-23 months. Induction of the acute phase proteins (APPs), haptoglobin, alpha-1-acid glycoprotein, and T-kininogen was reduced and/or retarded with aging. Initial induction of interleukin-6 in aged rats was normal, but the later response was increased relative to younger counterparts. An exacerbated hepatic injury was observed in aged rats receiving LPS, as evidenced by the presence of multiple microabscesses in portal tracts, confluent necrosis, higher neutrophil accumulation, and elevated serum levels of alanine aminotransferase, relative to younger animals. Our results suggest that aged rats displayed a reduced expression of APPs and increased hepatic injury in response to the inflammatory insult. PMID:19126842

  17. Differences in maladaptive schemas between patients suffering from chronic and acute posttraumatic stress disorder and healthy controls

    Ahmadian A

    2015-07-01

    Full Text Available Alireza Ahmadian,1,2 Jafar Mirzaee,1 Maryam Omidbeygi,1 Edith Holsboer-Trachsler,3 Serge Brand3,41Department of Psychology, Kharazmi University, 2Sadr Psychiatric Hospital, Janbazan Medical and Engineering Research Center (JMERC, Tehran, Iran; 3Psychiatric Clinics of the University of Basel, Center for Affective, Stress and Sleep Disorders, 4Department of Sport, Exercise and Health, Sport Science Section, University of Basel, Basel, Switzerland Background: War, as a stressor event, has a variety of acute and chronic negative consequences, such as posttraumatic stress disorder (PTSD. In this context, early maladaptive schema-based problems in PTSD have recently become an important research area. The aim of this study was to assess early maladaptive schemas in patients with acute and chronic PTSD.Method: Using available sampling methods and diagnostic criteria, 30 patients with chronic PTSD, 30 patients with acute PTSD, and 30 normal military personnel who were matched in terms of age and wartime experience were selected and assessed with the Young Schema Questionnaire-Long Form, Beck Depression Inventory second version (BDI-II, the Beck Anxiety Inventory (BAI, and the Impact of Events Scale (IES.Results: Both acute and chronic PTSD patients, when compared with normal military personnel, had higher scores for all early maladaptive schemas. Additionally, veterans suffering from chronic PTSD, as compared with veterans suffering from acute PTSD and veterans without PTSD, reported more impaired schemas related, for instance, to Self-Control, Social Isolation, and Vulnerability to Harm and Illness.Discussion: The results of the present study have significant preventative, diagnostic, clinical, research, and educational implications with respect to PTSD. Keywords: veterans, PTSD, depression, anxiety 

  18. Gradually Increased Training Intensity Benefits Rehabilitation Outcome after Stroke by BDNF Upregulation and Stress Suppression

    Jing Sun

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Physical training is necessary for effective rehabilitation in the early poststroke period. Animal studies commonly use fixed training intensity throughout rehabilitation and without adapting it to the animals' recovered motor ability. This study investigated the correlation between training intensity and rehabilitation efficacy by using a focal ischemic stroke rat model. Eighty male Sprague-Dawley rats were induced with middle cerebral artery occlusion/reperfusion surgery. Sixty rats with successful stroke were then randomly assigned into four groups: control (CG, n=15, low intensity (LG, n=15, gradually increased intensity (GIG, n=15, and high intensity (HG, n=15. Behavioral tests were conducted daily to evaluate motor function recovery. Stress level and neural recovery were evaluated via plasma corticosterone and brain-derived neurotrophic factor (BDNF concentration, respectively. GIG rats significantly (P<0.05 recovered motor function and produced higher hippocampal BDNF (112.87 ± 25.18 ng/g. GIG and LG rats exhibited similar stress levels (540.63 ± 117.40 nM/L and 508.07 ± 161.30 nM/L, resp., which were significantly lower (P<0.05 than that (716.90 ± 156.48 nM/L of HG rats. Training with gradually increased intensity achieved better recovery with lower stress. Our observations indicate that a training protocol that includes gradually increasing training intensity should be considered in both animal and clinical studies for better stroke recovery.

  19. Pharyngeal oxygen administration increases the time to serious desaturation at intubation in acute lung injury: an experimental study

    Engström, Joakim; Hedenstierna, Göran; Larsson, Anders

    2010-01-01

    Introduction Endotracheal intubation in critically ill patients is associated with severe life-threatening complications in about 20%, mainly due to hypoxemia. We hypothesized that apneic oxygenation via a pharyngeal catheter during the endotracheal intubation procedure would prevent or increase the time to life-threatening hypoxemia and tested this hypothesis in an acute lung injury animal model. Methods Eight anesthetized piglets with collapse-prone lungs induced by lung lavage were ventila...

  20. Oxidative stress in retinal pigment epithelium cells increases exosome secretion and promotes angiogenesis in endothelial cells.

    Atienzar-Aroca, Sandra; Flores-Bellver, Miguel; Serrano-Heras, Gemma; Martinez-Gil, Natalia; Barcia, Jorge M; Aparicio, Silvia; Perez-Cremades, Daniel; Garcia-Verdugo, Jose M; Diaz-Llopis, Manuel; Romero, Francisco J; Sancho-Pelluz, Javier

    2016-08-01

    The retinal pigment epithelium (RPE), a monolayer located between the photoreceptors and the choroid, is constantly damaged by oxidative stress, particularly because of reactive oxygen species (ROS). As the RPE, because of its physiological functions, is essential for the survival of the retina, any sustained damage may consequently lead to loss of vision. Exosomes are small membranous vesicles released into the extracellular medium by numerous cell types, including RPE cells. Their cargo includes genetic material and proteins, making these vesicles essential for cell-to-cell communication. Exosomes may fuse with neighbouring cells influencing their fate. It has been observed that RPE cells release higher amounts of exosomes when they are under oxidative stress. Exosomes derived from cultured RPE cells were isolated by ultracentrifugation and quantified by flow cytometry. VEGF receptors (VEGFR) were analysed by both flow cytometry and Western blot. RT-PCR and qPCR were conducted to assess mRNA content of VEGFRs in exosomes. Neovascularization assays were performed after applying RPE exosomes into endothelial cell cultures. Our results showed that stressed RPE cells released a higher amount of exosomes than controls, with a higher expression of VEGFR in the membrane, and enclosed an extra cargo of VEGFR mRNA. Angiogenesis assays confirmed that endothelial cells increased their tube formation capacity when exposed to stressed RPE exosomes. PMID:26999719

  1. Thioredoxin-1 Increases Survival in Sepsis by Inflammatory Response Through Suppressing Endoplasmic Reticulum Stress.

    Chen, Guobing; Li, Xiang; Huang, Mengbing; Li, Mei; Zhou, Xiaoshuang; Li, Ye; Bai, Jie

    2016-07-01

    Sepsis is the main cause of death in critically ill patients, pathogenesis of which is still unclear. The nuclear factor κB (NF-κB) inflammatory signal pathway mediated by endoplasmic reticulum stress is involved in sepsis. Thioredoxin-1 (Trx-1) is an important protein of regulating oxidative stress. It plays a crucial role in the anti-oxidation, anti-apoptosis, and anti-inflammation. However, the role and the mechanism of Trx-1 in sepsis have not been extensively studied. In the present study, we showed that the survival was longer in sepsis induced by cecal ligation and puncture in Trx-1 overexpression transgenic (Tg) mice compared with wild-type mice. Wet/dry lung weight ratio was decreased in Trx-1 Tg mice. The levels of TNF-α and IL-1β in plasma and lung tissue were inhibited in Tg mice. The expressions of glucose-regulated protein 78, inositol-requiring enzyme 1α (IRE1α), tumor necrosis factor receptor-associated factor 2, C/EBP homologous protein, NF-κB, and inhibitors of NF-κBα were increased in lung tissue. More importantly, the overexpression of Trx-1 in transgenic mice suppressed NF-κB inflammatory signal pathway by inhibiting the activation of molecules involved in ER stress. Our results suggest that Trx-1 may play protective role in extending survival in sepsis by regulating inflammatory response through suppressing ER stress. PMID:27299588

  2. Color It Real: A Program to Increase Condom Use and Reduce Substance Abuse and Perceived Stress.

    Zellner, Tiffany; Trotter, Jennie; Lenoir, Shelia; Walston, Kelvin; Men-Na'a, L'dia; Henry-Akintobi, Tabia; Miller, Assia

    2016-01-01

    Few interventions have targeted perceived stress as a co-occurring construct central to substance use and subsequent HIV/AIDS risk reduction among African American urban young adults. The Color It Real Program was a seven session, weekly administered age-specific and culturally-tailored intervention designed to provide substance abuse and HIV education and reduce perceived stress among African Americans ages 18 to 24 in Atlanta, GA. Effectiveness was assessed through a quasi-experimental study design that consisted of intervention (n = 122) and comparison (n = 70) groups completing a pre- and post-intervention survey. A series of Analysis of Variance (ANOVA) tests were used to assess pre- to post-intervention changes between study groups. For intervention participants, perceived stress levels were significantly reduced by the end of the intervention (t(70) = 2.38, p = 0.020), condom use at last sexual encounter significantly increased (F = 4.43, p = 0.0360), intervention participants were significantly less likely to drink five or more alcoholic drinks in one sitting (F = 5.10, p = 0.0245), and to use clean needles when injecting the drug (F = 36.99, p = 0.0001). This study is among the first of its kind to incorporate stress management as an integral approach to HIV/SA prevention. The program has implications for the design of other community-based, holistic approaches to addressing substance use and risky behaviors for young adults. PMID:26703653

  3. Stress changes from the 2008 Wenchuan earthquake and increased hazard in the Sichuan basin

    Parsons, T.; Ji, C.; Kirby, E.

    2008-01-01

    On 12 May 2008, the devastating magnitude 7.9 (Wenchuan) earthquake struck the eastern edge of the Tibetan plateau, collapsing buildings and killing thousands in major cities aligned along the western Sichuan basin in China. After such a large-magnitude earthquake, rearrangement of stresses in the crust commonly leads to subsequent damaging earthquakes. The mainshock of the 12 May earthquake ruptured with as much as 9 m of slip along the boundary between the Longmen Shan and Sichuan basin, and demonstrated the complex strike-slip and thrust motion that characterizes the region. The Sichuan basin and surroundings are also crossed by other active strike-slip and thrust faults. Here we present calculations of the coseismic stress changes that resulted from the 12 May event using models of those faults, and show that many indicate significant stress increases. Rapid mapping of such stress changes can help to locate fault sections with relatively higher odds of producing large aftershocks. ??2008 Macmillan Publishers Limited. All rights reserved.

  4. Color It Real: A Program to Increase Condom Use and Reduce Substance Abuse and Perceived Stress

    Tiffany Zellner

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available Few interventions have targeted perceived stress as a co-occurring construct central to substance use and subsequent HIV/AIDS risk reduction among African American urban young adults. The Color It Real Program was a seven session, weekly administered age-specific and culturally-tailored intervention designed to provide substance abuse and HIV education and reduce perceived stress among African Americans ages 18 to 24 in Atlanta, GA. Effectiveness was assessed through a quasi-experimental study design that consisted of intervention (n = 122 and comparison (n = 70 groups completing a pre- and post-intervention survey. A series of Analysis of Variance (ANOVA tests were used to assess pre- to post-intervention changes between study groups. For intervention participants, perceived stress levels were significantly reduced by the end of the intervention (t(70 = 2.38, p = 0.020, condom use at last sexual encounter significantly increased (F = 4.43, p = 0.0360, intervention participants were significantly less likely to drink five or more alcoholic drinks in one sitting (F = 5.10, p = 0.0245, and to use clean needles when injecting the drug (F = 36.99, p = 0.0001. This study is among the first of its kind to incorporate stress management as an integral approach to HIV/SA prevention. The program has implications for the design of other community-based, holistic approaches to addressing substance use and risky behaviors for young adults.

  5. Memory function after stress : the effects of acute stress and cortisol on memory and the inhibition of emotional distraction

    Oei, Nicole Yü Lan

    2010-01-01

    The present thesis contains five experimental studies into the effects of stress on memory I healthy males. Hydrocortisone (and propranolol) administration or the induction of social stress are used to heighten cortisol levels, and consequently to study its effects on working memory performance and

  6. Effects of caloric restriction on learning and recovery of a spatial task in rats exposed to acute stress

    Lamprea Rodríguez, Marisol

    2009-06-01

    Full Text Available The purpose of the present study was to describe the effects of caloric restriction on spatial learning and recovery in the Barnes maze in animals experimentally stressed before recovery of the spatial task. Male Wistar rats were exposed for two months to one of two conditions: ad libitum (AL or intermittent fasting (IF. Both groups were exposed then to an experimental form of acute stress, induced by movement restriction for 4 hours. IF subjects had better performance in learning tasks during the acquisition trials but required more time to complete the task after the stressor was applied. These results are discussed in light of previous data reported in the literature emphasizing differences in the instruments used to evaluate spatial learning and its interaction with experimentally induced stress.

  7. Increased oxidative stress and antioxidant expression in mouse keratinocytes following exposure to paraquat

    Paraquat (1,1'-dimethyl-4,4'-bipyridinium) is a widely used herbicide known to induce skin toxicity. This is thought to be due to oxidative stress resulting from the generation of cytotoxic reactive oxygen intermediates (ROI) during paraquat redox cycling. The skin contains a diverse array of antioxidant enzymes which protect against oxidative stress including superoxide dismutase (SOD), catalase, glutathione peroxidase-1 (GPx-1), heme oxygenase-1 (HO-1), metallothionein-2 (MT-2), and glutathione-S-transferases (GST). In the present studies we compared paraquat redox cycling in primary cultures of undifferentiated and differentiated mouse keratinocytes and determined if this was associated with oxidative stress and altered expression of antioxidant enzymes. We found that paraquat readily undergoes redox cycling in both undifferentiated and differentiated keratinocytes, generating superoxide anion and hydrogen peroxide as well as increased protein oxidation which was greater in differentiated cells. Paraquat treatment also resulted in increased expression of HO-1, Cu,Zn-SOD, catalase, GSTP1, GSTA3 and GSTA4. However, no major differences in expression of these enzymes were evident between undifferentiated and differentiated cells. In contrast, expression of GSTA1-2 was significantly greater in differentiated relative to undifferentiated cells after paraquat treatment. No changes in expression of MT-2, Mn-SOD, GPx-1, GSTM1 or the microsomal GST's mGST1, mGST2 and mGST3, were observed in response to paraquat. These data demonstrate that paraquat induces oxidative stress in keratinocytes leading to increased expression of antioxidant genes. These intracellular proteins may be important in protecting the skin from paraquat-mediated cytotoxicity

  8. Transgenic mice with increased astrocyte expression of IL-6 show altered effects of acute ethanol on synaptic function.

    Hernandez, Ruben V; Puro, Alana C; Manos, Jessica C; Huitron-Resendiz, Salvador; Reyes, Kenneth C; Liu, Kevin; Vo, Khanh; Roberts, Amanda J; Gruol, Donna L

    2016-04-01

    A growing body of evidence has revealed that resident cells of the central nervous system (CNS), and particularly the glial cells, comprise a neuroimmune system that serves a number of functions in the normal CNS and during adverse conditions. Cells of the neuroimmune system regulate CNS functions through the production of signaling factors, referred to as neuroimmune factors. Recent studies show that ethanol can activate cells of the neuroimmune system, resulting in the elevated production of neuroimmune factors, including the cytokine interleukin-6 (IL-6). Here we analyzed the consequences of this CNS action of ethanol using transgenic mice that express elevated levels of IL-6 through increased astrocyte expression (IL-6-tg) to model the increased IL-6 expression that occurs with ethanol use. Results show that increased IL-6 expression induces neuroadaptive changes that alter the effects of ethanol. In hippocampal slices from non-transgenic (non-tg) littermate control mice, synaptically evoked dendritic field excitatory postsynaptic potential (fEPSP) and somatic population spike (PS) at the Schaffer collateral to CA1 pyramidal neuron synapse were reduced by acute ethanol (20 or 60 mM). In contrast, acute ethanol enhanced the fEPSP and PS in hippocampal slices from IL-6 tg mice. Long-term synaptic plasticity of the fEPSP (i.e., LTP) showed the expected dose-dependent reduction by acute ethanol in non-tg hippocampal slices, whereas LTP in the IL-6 tg hippocampal slices was resistant to this depressive effect of acute ethanol. Consistent with altered effects of acute ethanol on synaptic function in the IL-6 tg mice, EEG recordings showed a higher level of CNS activity in the IL-6 tg mice than in the non-tg mice during the period of withdrawal from an acute high dose of ethanol. These results suggest a potential role for neuroadaptive effects of ethanol-induced astrocyte production of IL-6 as a mediator or modulator of the actions of ethanol on the CNS, including

  9. Does mixing acute medical admissions with burn patients increase infective complications from paediatric thermal injuries?

    Shaban, Fadlo; Stewart, Ken; Kalima, Pota

    2010-01-01

    In the winter of 2005–2006, the management at our children's hospital elected to admit ‘overspill’ acute medical admissions to the ward used for plastic surgery and burns for logistical reasons. This study was conducted to assess the effects of that change on the incidence of infective complications in thermally-injured patients. Seventy-three patients were studied, 23 in the sample winter and 50 in the two preceding control winters. The data gathered included days on IV fluids and antibiotic...

  10. Salivary alpha-amylase, secretory IgA and free cortisol as neurobiological components of the stress response in the acute phase of anorexia nervosa.

    Paszynska, E; Dmitrzak-Weglarz, M; Tyszkiewicz-Nwafor, M; Slopien, A

    2016-06-01

    Objectives One novel hypothesis of the pathogenesis of anorexia nervosa (AN) is the possible role of mental stress in hyperactivity of the autonomic nervous system (ANS) and of the hypothalamic-pituitary-adrenal (HPA) axis. Two components of stress response - salivary alpha-amylase (sAA) and free cortisol - have been proposed. They can be determined in saliva, which closely reflects their concentrations in plasma. The purpose of this study was to measure salivary free cortisol, sAA and their correlation to secretory IgA (sIgA) of patients with AN in comparison to the average population. Methods A controlled clinical trial was designed for a matched group of 47 AN patients and 54 healthy individuals. After clinical examination, unstimulated salivary samples were taken during the acute stage of AN (BMI < 15 kg/m(2)) in the first week of hospitalisation. An enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay (ELISA) suitable for measuring sAA, sIgA and free cortisol were used. Results Anorexic patients exhibited disturbances in sAA secretion, and significantly increased cortisol and sIgA levels with a distinct correlation between these two parameters. Conclusions The behaviour of cortisol, sAA and sIgA levels can be assessed as an effect of stress reaction among AN patients with hyperactivity of the HPA axis and ANS dysregulation. The effect of stress response can be assessed reliably in saliva. PMID:26983011

  11. Increased cerebral output of free radicals during hypoxia: implications for acute mountain sickness?

    Bailey, Damian M; Taudorf, Sarah; Berg, Ronan M G;

    2009-01-01

    oxygen) and neuronal integrity (NSE) were preserved (P > 0.05 vs. normoxia). These findings indicate that hypoxia stimulates cerebral oxidative-nitrative stress, which has broader implications for other clinical models of human disease characterized by hypoxemia. This may prove a risk factor for AMS by a...

  12. Quercetin and vitamin E attenuate Bonny Light crude oil-induced alterations in testicular apoptosis, stress proteins and steroidogenic acute regulatory protein in Wistar rats.

    Ebokaiwe, Azubuike P; Mathur, Premendu P; Farombi, Ebenezer O

    2016-10-01

    Studies have shown the reproductive effects of Bonny Light crude oil (BLCO) via the mechanism of oxidative stress and testicular apoptosis. We investigated the protective role of quercetin and vitamin E on BLCO-induced testicular apoptosis. Experimental rats were divided into four groups of four each. Animals were orally administered 2 ml/kg corn oil (control: group 1), BLCO-800 mg/kg body weight + 10 mg/kg quercetin (group 2), BLCO-800 mg/kg body weight + 50 mg/kg vitamin E (group 3) and BLCO-800 mg/kg body weight only (group 4) for 7 d. Protein levels of caspase 3, FasL, NF-kB, steroidogenic acute regulatory protein and stress response proteins were determined by sodium dodecyl sulfate-polyacrylamide gel electrophoresis. Immunofluorescence staining was used to quantify the expression of caspase 3, FasL and NF-kB. Apoptosis was quantified by the terminal deoxynucleotidyl transferase-mediated dUTP nick end-labeling (TUNEL) assay. Administration of BLCO resulted in a significant increase in the levels of stress response proteins and apoptosis-related proteins by 50% and above after 7 d following BLCO exposure and a concomitant increase in expression of caspase 3, FasL and NF-kB expression by immunofluorescence staining. Apoptosis showed a significant increase in TUNEL positive cells. Co-administration with quercetin or vitamin E reversed BLCO-induced apoptosis and levels of stress protein, relative to control. These findings suggest that quercetin and vitamin E may confer protection against BLCO-induced testicular oxidative stress-related apoptosis. PMID:26821606

  13. Paleolimnological evidence for increased sexual reproduction in chydorids (Chydoridae, Cladocera under environmental stress

    Marina MANCA

    2011-08-01

    Full Text Available To investigate the extent to which anthropogenic perturbations such as eutrophication and trace metal pollution (i.e., environmental stress sensu Odum 1985 influence the reproductive modes of cladoceran populations, we analyzed the abundance of subfossils of the chydorids Alonella nana (Baird, 1850 and Alona affinis (Leydig, 1860 in sediment cores from three Finnish lakes. Reconstruction of lakes' pollutant history and the biological response of chydorids indicate that in two of the lakes the proportion of individuals reproducing sexually increased with environmental stressors. More specifically, A. nana responded to eutrophication in Lake Hampträsk with greater production of ephippia, while A. affinis responded to aluminum pollution or acidification in Lake Pieni Majaslampi. In contrast, the reference lake, Lake Iso Lehmälampi, showed no radical changes in sexual reproduction over the twomillennium long sediment record. We conclude that chydorids may use sexual reproduction as a strategy for overcoming unexpected environmental stresses.

  14. MRI of acute cerebral infarcts: increased contrast enhancement with continuous infusion of gadolinium

    We compared contrast enhancement on T1-weighted MRI of acute cerebral infarcts after conventional bolus administration and continuous infusion of gadolinium. We examined 12 patients with a history of acute stroke with contrast-enhanced MRI once a week for a 1 month. Only ischaemic lesions were investigated after cerebral haemorrhage had been excluded by CT. Each MRI study included T2- and proton density-weighted sequences for determination of the size and site of the infarct, immediate postinjection T1-weighted imaging after bolus administration of 0.1 mmol/kg gadolinium-DPTA and delayed T1-weighted imaging after additional continuous infusion of 0.1 mmol/kg over 2 h. A total of 42 MRI studies was performed. In the first week after the onset of stroke, most infarcts (8 of 10) did not enhance after bolus administration, whereas all showed distinct contrast enhancement after the infusion. In the following weeks all but two infarcts showed contrast enhancement after bolus administration; after continuous infusion contrast enhancement could be seen in all cases. While contrast enhancement after bolus administration showed the typical gyriform pattern, enhanced areas were more extensive after the infusion and usually covered the entire infarcted area shown on T2- and proton density-weighted images. We presume that the disturbed blood-brain barrier in ischaemic areas favours delivery of contrast medium to the infarcted tissue if it is offered continuously so that a steady state can develop. (orig.)

  15. Stress-Induced In Vivo Recruitment of Human Cytotoxic Natural Killer Cells Favors Subsets with Distinct Receptor Profiles and Associates with Increased Epinephrine Levels.

    Marc B Bigler

    Full Text Available Acute stress drives a 'high-alert' response in the immune system. Psychoactive drugs induce distinct stress hormone profiles, offering a sought-after opportunity to dissect the in vivo immunological effects of acute stress in humans.3,4-methylenedioxymethamphetamine (MDMA, methylphenidate (MPH, or both, were administered to healthy volunteers in a randomized, double-blind, placebo-controlled crossover-study. Lymphocyte subset frequencies, natural killer (NK cell immune-phenotypes, and changes in effector function were assessed, and linked to stress hormone levels and expression of CD62L, CX3CR1, CD18, and stress hormone receptors on NK cells.MDMA/MPH > MDMA > MPH robustly induced an epinephrine-dominant stress response. Immunologically, rapid redistribution of peripheral blood lymphocyte-subsets towards phenotypically mature NK cells occurred. NK cytotoxicity was unaltered, but they expressed slightly reduced levels of the activating receptor NKG2D. Preferential circulation of mature NK cells was associated with high epinephrine receptor expression among this subset, as well as expression of integrin ligands previously linked to epinephrine-induced endothelial detachment.The acute epinephrine-induced stress response was characterized by rapid accumulation of mature and functional NK cells in the peripheral circulation. This is in line with studies using other acute stressors and supports the role of the acute stress response in rapidly mobilizing the innate immune system to counteract incoming threats.

  16. Salt stress increases content and size of glutenin macropolymers in wheat grain.

    Zhang, Xiaxiang; Shi, Zhiqiang; Tian, Youjia; Zhou, Qin; Cai, Jian; Dai, Tingbo; Cao, Weixing; Pu, Hanchun; Jiang, Dong

    2016-04-15

    Addition of salt solution in making wheat dough improves viscoelasticity. However, the effect of native salt fortification on dough quality is unclear. Here, wheat plants were subjected to post-anthesis salt stress to modify salt ion content in grains. The contents of Na(+) and K(+), high-molecular-weight glutenin subunits (HMW-GS), glutenin macropolyers (GMP) and amino acids in mature grains were measured. As NaCl concentration in soil increased, grain yield decreased while Na(+) and K(+) contents increased. The contents of amino acids, HMW-GS and GMP in grains also increased, especially when NaCl concentration exceeded 0.45%. Fraction of GMP larger than 10 μm was also increased. Na(+) and K(+) contents were significantly positively correlated to GMP and total HMW-GS contents, and to large GMP fraction. PMID:26616983

  17. Ménage à trois: increased prevalence of syphilis infection in HIV-positive MSM with acute hepatitis C

    I Krznaric

    2012-11-01

    Full Text Available In recent years, an increase in acute hepatitis C (HCV infection has been observed in human immuno-deficiency virus (HIV-positive men who have sex with men (MSM. Since sexual transmission of hepatitis C does not play as significant a role in other populations, there is much speculation surrounding its transmission in HIV-infected MSM. While injection-drug use appears to play only a minor role, other drug use and specific sexual practices are frequently reported. The purpose of this observational study was to investigate for a correlation with other sexually transmitted diseases (STDs. Data on 133 HIV-positive MSM with documented acute HCV infection were included in the analysis. We investigated for new or recurrent infections with Chlamydia trachomatis, Neisseria gonorrhea (direct detection of the pathogen and Treponema pallidum (serological examination within a time frame of 24 weeks prior to or after the acute HCV infection. The control group consisted of 1034 HIV-positive MSM without HCV infection with a follow-up of one year. HIV-infected MSM with acute HCV had a higher rate of syphilis infection when compared to HIV-positive HCV-negative controls (73% vs. 43%. 31% of patients in the HCV group acquired a new (seroconversion or recurrent syphilis infection (significant titre increase using the Treponema pallidum particle agglutination test=TPPA compared to 12% of controls (p<0.05. Further, 12 cases of Neisseria gonorrhea and 6 cases of Chlamydia trachomatis infection were observed in the HCV group. Due to the lack of routine screening for these infections in the control group, a comparison could not be made. Conclusions: We report a higher prevalence of other sexually transmitted diseases in HIV-infected MSM within 24 weeks before or after acute HCV infection. This observation however does not prove a pathophysiological connection between acute hepatitis C and other STDs. The high frequency of syphilis infections primarily affecting the ano

  18. Agmatine increases proliferation of cultured hippocampal progenitor cells and hippocampal neurogenesis in chronically stressed mice

    Yun-feng LI; Hong-xia CHEN; Ying LIU; You-zhi ZHANG; Yan-qin LIU; Jin LI

    2006-01-01

    Aim:To explore the mechanism of agmatine's antidepressant action.Methods: Male mice were subjected to a variety of unpredictable stressors on a daily basis over a 24-d period.The open-field behaviors of the mice were displayed and recorded using a Videomex-V image analytic system automatically.For bromodeoxyuridine (BrdU;thymidine analog as a marker for dividing cells) labeling,the mice were injected with BrdU (100 mg/kg,ip,twice per d for 2 d),and the hippocampal neurogenesis in stressed mice was measured by immunohistochemistry.The proliferation of cultured hippocampal progenitor cells from neonatal rats was determined by colorimetric assay (cell counting kit-8) and 3H-thymidine incorporation assay.Results:After the onset of chronic stress,the locomotor activity of the mice in the open field significantly decreased,while coadministration of agmatine 10 mg/kg (po) blocked it.Furthermore,the number of BrdU-labeled cells in the hippocampal dentate gyrus significantly decreased in chronically stressed mice, which was also blocked by chronic coadministration with agmatine 10 mg/kg (po). Four weeks after the BrdU injection, some of the new born cells matured and became neurons, as determined by double labeling for BrdU and neuron specific enolase (NSE), a marker for mature neurons.In vitro treatment with agmatine 0.1-10 μmo1/L for 3 d significantly increased the proliferation of the cultured hippocampal progenitor cells in a dose-dependent manner.Conclusion:We have found that agmatine increases proliferation of hippocampal progenitor cells in vitro and the hippocampal neurogenesis in vivo in chronically stressed mice.This may be one of the important mechanisms involved in agmatine's antidepressant action.

  19. High glucose alters retinal astrocytes phenotype through increased production of inflammatory cytokines and oxidative stress.

    Eui Seok Shin

    Full Text Available Astrocytes are macroglial cells that have a crucial role in development of the retinal vasculature and maintenance of the blood-retina-barrier (BRB. Diabetes affects the physiology and function of retinal vascular cells including astrocytes (AC leading to breakdown of BRB. However, the detailed cellular mechanisms leading to retinal AC dysfunction under high glucose conditions remain unclear. Here we show that high glucose conditions did not induce the apoptosis of retinal AC, but instead increased their rate of DNA synthesis and adhesion to extracellular matrix proteins. These alterations were associated with changes in intracellular signaling pathways involved in cell survival, migration and proliferation. High glucose conditions also affected the expression of inflammatory cytokines in retinal AC, activated NF-κB, and prevented their network formation on Matrigel. In addition, we showed that the attenuation of retinal AC migration under high glucose conditions, and capillary morphogenesis of retinal endothelial cells on Matrigel, was mediated through increased oxidative stress. Antioxidant proteins including heme oxygenase-1 and peroxiredoxin-2 levels were also increased in retinal AC under high glucose conditions through nuclear localization of transcription factor nuclear factor-erythroid 2-related factor-2. Together our results demonstrated that high glucose conditions alter the function of retinal AC by increased production of inflammatory cytokines and oxidative stress with significant impact on their proliferation, adhesion, and migration.

  20. Effects of cumulative stressful and acute variation episodes of farm climate conditions on late embryo/early fetal loss in high producing dairy cows

    Santolaria, Pilar; López-Gatius, Fernando; García-Ispierto, Irina; Bech-Sàbat, Gregori; Angulo, Eduardo; Carretero, Teresa; Sánchez-Nadal, Jóse Antonio; Yániz, Jesus

    2010-01-01

    The aim of this study was to determine possible relationships between farm climate conditions, recorded from day 0 to day 40 post-artificial insemination (AI), and late embryo/early fetal loss in high producing dairy cows. Pregnancy was diagnosed by rectal ultrasonography between 28 and 34 days post-AI. Fetal loss was registered when a further 80- to 86-day diagnosis proved negative. Climate variables such as air temperature and relative humidity (RH) were monitored in the cubicles area for each 30-min period. Temperature-humidity indices (THI); cumulative stressful values and episodes of acute change (defined as the mean daily value 1.2 times higher or lower than the mean daily values of the 10 previous days) of the climate variables were calculated. The data were derived from 759 cows in one herd. A total of 692 pregnancies (91.2%) carried singletons and 67 (8.8%) carried twins. No triplets were recorded. Pregnancy loss was recorded in 6.7% (51/759) of pregnancies: 5.6% (39/692) in single and 17.9% (12/67) in twin pregnancies. Using logistic regression procedures, a one-unit increase in the daily cumulative number of hours for the THI values higher than 85 during days 11-20 of gestation caused a 1.57-fold increase in the pregnancy loss, whereas the likelihood of fetal loss increased by a factor of 1.16 for each additional episode of acute variation for the maximum THI values during gestation days 0-40. THI values higher than 85 and episodes of acute variation for the maximum THI values were only recorded during the warm and cool periods, respectively. The presence of twins led to a 3.98-fold increase in pregnancy loss. In conclusion, our findings show that cumulative stressful and episodes of acute variation of climatic conditions can compromise the success of gestation during both the cool and warm periods of the year. Twin pregnancy was confirmed as a main factor associated with pregnancy loss.