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Sample records for acute shigella infection

  1. Shigella infections.

    Shears, P

    1996-04-01

    Shigella dysentery is a major public-health problem in many tropical areas. Despite improvements in water supplies and sanitation, it continues to be a disease of poor rural and urban communities and in populations affected by migration and crowding following disasters. Pathogenesis is due to colonic invasion, endotoxin, and, in Shigella dysenteriae 1, shiga toxin. As well as the local manifestations of dysentery, systemic complications include convulsions, haemolytic-uraemic syndrome, hyponatraemia and hypoglycaemia. The spread of shigella infection is most commonly person-person, although water and food-borne outbreaks have been reported. Since 1970, multiple antimicrobial resistance, particularly in Sh. dysenteriae 1, has complicated strategies for management. Multiply resistant strains have occurred in Latin America, Central Africa and southern and south-eastern Asia. No vaccines are currently available, and prevention and control will depend on public-health improvements and improved case management. PMID:8762400

  2. Investigating Shigella sonnei Infections

    2011-11-17

    Dr. Nancy Strockbine, Chief of the Escherichia and Shigella Reference Unit at CDC, discusses Shigella sonnei infections.  Created: 11/17/2011 by National Center for Emerging and Zoonotic Infectious Diseases (NCEZID).   Date Released: 11/21/2011.

  3. Molecular epidemiology of Shigella infection in Central Australia.

    Albert, M J; Singh, K. V.; Murray, B E; Erlich, J.

    1990-01-01

    Shigellosis is endemic in Central Australia and the infections are predominantly due to Shigella flexneri 6, Shigella flexneri 2a and Shigella sonnei. Plasmid profiles of isolates collected from 1985-9, suggested that infections caused by Shigella flexneri 6 were predominantly due to a single clone, whereas those caused by Shigella flexneri 2a and Shigella sonnei were due to several genetically diverse strains, although strains with identical plasmid profiles were found in widely separated ge...

  4. Initial steps of Shigella infection depend on the cholesterol/sphingolipid raft-mediated CD44–IpaB interaction

    Lafont, Frank; Tran Van Nhieu, Guy; Hanada, Kentaro; Sansonetti, Philippe; van der Goot, F. Gisou

    2002-01-01

    Shigellosis is an acute inflammatory bowel disease caused by the enteroinvasive bacterium Shigella. Upon host cell–Shigella interaction, major host cell signalling responses are activated. Deciphering the initial molecular events is crucial to understanding the infectious process. We identified a molecular complex involving proteins of both the host, CD44 the hyaluronan receptor, and Shigella, the invasin IpaB, which partitions during infection within specialized membrane microdomains enriche...

  5. Asymptomatic urinary tract infection caused by Shigella sonnei.

    Ekwall, E; Ljungh, A; Selander, B

    1984-01-01

    The first case of asymptomatic urinary tract infection caused by Shigella sonnei in a patient, a 74-yr-old man, who was not a faecal carrier and had no history of dysentery is reported. Treatment with pivmecillinam 400 mg 3 times daily for 14 days was instituted and the bacteria were eradicated. The time and source of infection is unknown. PMID:6364325

  6. Antimicrobial-resistant Shigella infections from Iran

    Tajbakhsh, Mercedeh; García Migura, Lourdes; Rahbar, Mohammad;

    2012-01-01

    Objectives: In this study, we wanted to assess the level of antimicrobial resistance, the presence of genes encoding resistance to cephalosporins and plasmid-mediated quinolone resistance (PMQR), and genetic relatedness among Shigella isolates obtained from Iranian patients. ; Methods: A total of...

  7. Shigella infection interferes with SUMOylation and increases PML-NB number.

    Saima M Sidik

    Full Text Available Shigellosis is a severe diarrheal disease that affects hundreds of thousands of individuals resulting in significant morbidity and mortality worldwide. Shigellosis is caused by Shigella spp., a gram-negative bacterium that uses a Type 3 Secretion System (T3SS to deliver effector proteins into the cytosol of infected human cells. Shigella infection triggers multiple signaling programs that result in a robust host transcriptional response that includes the induction of multiple proinflammatory cytokines. PML nuclear bodies (PML-NBs are dynamic subnuclear structures that coordinate immune signaling programs and have a demonstrated role in controlling viral infection. We show that PML-NB number increases upon Shigella infection. We examined the effects of Shigella infection on SUMOylation and found that upon Shigella infection the localization of SUMOylated proteins is altered and the level of SUMOylated proteins decreases. Although Shigella infection does not alter the abundance of SUMO activating enzymes SAE1 or SAE2, it dramatically decreases the level of the SUMO conjugating enzyme Ubc9. All Shigella-induced alterations to the SUMOylation system are dependent upon a T3SS. Thus, we demonstrate that Shigella uses one or more T3SS effectors to influence both PML-NB number and the SUMOylation machinery in human cells.

  8. Characterisation of early mucosal and neuronal lesions following Shigella flexneri infection in human colon.

    Emmanuel Coron

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: Shigella, an enteroinvasive bacteria induces a major inflammatory response responsible for acute rectocolitis in humans. However, early effect of Shigella flexneri (S. flexneri infection upon the human mucosa and its microenvironement, in particular the enteric nervous system, remains currently unknown. Therefore, in this study, we sought to characterize ex vivo the early events of shigellosis in a model of human colonic explants. In particular, we aimed at identifying factors produced by S. flexneri and responsible for the lesions of the barrier. We also aimed at determining the putative lesions of the enteric nervous system induced by S. flexneri. METHODOLOGY/PRINCIPAL FINDINGS: We first showed that, following 3 h of infection, the invasive but not the non-invasive strain of S. flexneri induced significant desquamation of the intestinal epithelial barrier and a reduction of epithelial height. These changes were significantly reduced following infection with SepA deficient S. flexneri strains. Secondly, S. flexneri induced rapid neuronal morphological alterations suggestive of cell death in enteric submucosal neurones. These alterations were associated with a significant increase in the proportion of vasoactive intestinal peptide (VIP immunoreactive (IR neurons but not in total VIP levels. The NMDA receptor antagonist MK-801 blocked neuronal morphological changes induced by S. flexneri, but not the increase in the proportion of VIP-IR. CONCLUSIONS/SIGNIFICANCE: This human explant model can be used to gain better insight into the early pathogenic events following S. flexneri infection and the mechanisms involved.

  9. Shigella Outer Membrane Protein PSSP-1 Is Broadly Protective against Shigella Infection

    Kim, Jae-Ouk; Rho, Semi; Kim, Su Hee; Kim, Heejoo; Song, Hyo Jin; Kim, Eun Jin; Kim, Ryang Yeo; Kim, Eun Hye; Sinha, Anuradha; Dey, Ayan; Yang, Jae Seung; Song, Man Ki; Nandy, Ranjan Kumar; Czerkinsky, Cecil; Kim, Dong Wook

    2015-01-01

    In developing countries, Shigella is a primary cause of diarrhea in infants and young children. Although antibiotic therapy is an effective treatment for shigellosis, therapeutic options are narrowing due to the emergence of antibiotic resistance. Thus, preventive vaccination could become the most efficacious approach for controlling shigellosis. We have identified several conserved protein antigens that are shared by multiple Shigella serotypes and species. Among these, one antigen induced c...

  10. Multidrug Resistant Shigella flexneri Infection Simulating Intestinal Intussusception.

    Sreenivasan, Srirangaraj; Kali, Arunava; Pradeep, Jothimani

    2016-01-01

    Shigella enteritis remains an important cause of mortality and morbidity in all age groups, in developing as well as developed countries. Owing to the emerging resistance to multiple antibiotics among Shigella spp., it has been recognized as a major global public health concern and warrants constant monitoring of its resistance pattern. We report a case of segmental ileitis caused by non.-ESBL producing multidrug resistant Shigella flexneri in an infant clinically mimicking intussusception, which was effectively treated by ceftriaxone. PMID:27013815

  11. Multidrug Resistant Shigella flexneri Infection Simulating Intestinal Intussusception

    Srirangaraj Sreenivasan; Arunava Kali; Jothimani Pradeep

    2016-01-01

    Shigella enteritis remains an important cause of mortality and morbidity in all age groups, in developing as well as developed countries. Owing to the emerging resistance to multiple antibiotics among Shigella spp., it has been recognized as a major global public health concern and warrants constant monitoring of its resistance pattern. We report a case of segmental ileitis caused by non.-ESBL producing multidrug resistant Shigella flexneri in an infant clinically mimicking intussusception, w...

  12. Shiga Toxin 1–Producing Shigella sonnei Infections, California, United States, 2014–2015

    Lamba, Katherine; Nelson, Jennifer A.; Kimura, Akiko C.; Poe, Alyssa; Collins, Joan; Kao, Annie S.; Cruz, Laura; Inami, Gregory; Vaishampayan, Julie; Garza, Alvaro; Chaturvedi, Vishnu; Vugia, Duc J.

    2016-01-01

    Shiga toxins (Stx) are primarily associated with Shiga toxin–producing Escherichia coli and Shigella dysenteriae serotype 1. Stx production by other shigellae is uncommon, but in 2014, Stx1-producing S. sonnei infections were detected in California. Surveillance was enhanced to test S. sonnei isolates for the presence and expression of stx genes, perform DNA subtyping, describe clinical and epidemiologic characteristics of case-patients, and investigate for sources of infection. During June 2...

  13. Shigella Infection Interferes with SUMOylation and Increases PML-NB Number

    Sidik, Saima M.; Salsman, Jayme; Dellaire, Graham; Rohde, John R.

    2015-01-01

    Shigellosis is a severe diarrheal disease that affects hundreds of thousands of individuals resulting in significant morbidity and mortality worldwide. Shigellosis is caused by Shigella spp., a gram-negative bacterium that uses a Type 3 Secretion System (T3SS) to deliver effector proteins into the cytosol of infected human cells. Shigella infection triggers multiple signaling programs that result in a robust host transcriptional response that includes the induction of multiple proinflammatory...

  14. Bioimage analysis of Shigella infection reveals targeting of colonic crypts.

    Arena, Ellen T; Campbell-Valois, Francois-Xavier; Tinevez, Jean-Yves; Nigro, Giulia; Sachse, Martin; Moya-Nilges, Maryse; Nothelfer, Katharina; Marteyn, Benoit; Shorte, Spencer L; Sansonetti, Philippe J

    2015-06-23

    Few studies within the pathogenic field have used advanced imaging and analytical tools to quantitatively measure pathogenicity in vivo. In this work, we present a novel approach for the investigation of host-pathogen processes based on medium-throughput 3D fluorescence imaging. The guinea pig model for Shigella flexneri invasion of the colonic mucosa was used to monitor the infectious process over time with GFP-expressing S. flexneri. A precise quantitative imaging protocol was devised to follow individual S. flexneri in a large tissue volume. An extensive dataset of confocal images was obtained and processed to extract specific quantitative information regarding the progression of S. flexneri infection in an unbiased and exhaustive manner. Specific parameters included the analysis of S. flexneri positions relative to the epithelial surface, S. flexneri density within the tissue, and volume of tissue destruction. In particular, at early time points, there was a clear association of S. flexneri with crypts, key morphological features of the colonic mucosa. Numerical simulations based on random bacterial entry confirmed the bias of experimentally measured S. flexneri for early crypt targeting. The application of a correlative light and electron microscopy technique adapted for thick tissue samples further confirmed the location of S. flexneri within colonocytes at the mouth of crypts. This quantitative imaging approach is a novel means to examine host-pathogen systems in a tailored and robust manner, inclusive of the infectious agent. PMID:26056271

  15. PI5P Triggers ICAM-1 Degradation in Shigella Infected Cells, Thus Dampening Immune Cell Recruitment.

    Boal, Frédéric; Puhar, Andrea; Xuereb, Jean-Marie; Kunduzova, Oksana; Sansonetti, Philippe J; Payrastre, Bernard; Tronchère, Hélène

    2016-02-01

    Shigella flexneri, the pathogen responsible for bacillary dysentery, has evolved multiple strategies to control the inflammatory response. Here, we show that Shigella subverts the subcellular trafficking of the intercellular adhesion molecule-1 (ICAM-1), a key molecule in immune cell recruitment, in a mechanism dependent on the injected bacterial enzyme IpgD and its product, the lipid mediator PI5P. Overexpression of IpgD, but not a phosphatase dead mutant, induced the internalization and the degradation of ICAM-1 in intestinal epithelial cells. Remarkably, addition of permeant PI5P reproduced IpgD effects and led to the inhibition of neutrophil recruitment. Finally, these results were confirmed in an in vivo model of Shigella infection where IpgD-dependent ICAM-1 internalization reduced neutrophil adhesion. In conclusion, we describe here an immune evasion mechanism used by the pathogen Shigella to divert the host cell trafficking machinery in order to reduce immune cell recruitment. PMID:26776508

  16. PI5P Triggers ICAM-1 Degradation in Shigella Infected Cells, Thus Dampening Immune Cell Recruitment

    Frédéric Boal

    2016-02-01

    Full Text Available Shigella flexneri, the pathogen responsible for bacillary dysentery, has evolved multiple strategies to control the inflammatory response. Here, we show that Shigella subverts the subcellular trafficking of the intercellular adhesion molecule-1 (ICAM-1, a key molecule in immune cell recruitment, in a mechanism dependent on the injected bacterial enzyme IpgD and its product, the lipid mediator PI5P. Overexpression of IpgD, but not a phosphatase dead mutant, induced the internalization and the degradation of ICAM-1 in intestinal epithelial cells. Remarkably, addition of permeant PI5P reproduced IpgD effects and led to the inhibition of neutrophil recruitment. Finally, these results were confirmed in an in vivo model of Shigella infection where IpgD-dependent ICAM-1 internalization reduced neutrophil adhesion. In conclusion, we describe here an immune evasion mechanism used by the pathogen Shigella to divert the host cell trafficking machinery in order to reduce immune cell recruitment.

  17. Incidence, clinical presentation, and antimicrobial resistance trends in Salmonella and Shigella infections from children in Yucatan, Mexico

    Mussaret Bano Zaidi

    2013-10-01

    Full Text Available Background: Salmonella and Shigella cause significant morbidity and mortality among children worldwide. Increased antimicrobial resistance results in greater burden of disease. Methods: From 2005 to 2011, Salmonella and Shigella isolates collected from ill children at a major hospital in Yucatan, Mexico, were subjected to serotyping and antimicrobial susceptibility testing by disk diffusion and agar dilution. The identification of blaCTX, blaCMY, blaSHV, blaTEM, and blaOXA and qnr resistance genes was conducted by PCR and sequencing. Results: Among 2344 children with acute gastroenteritis, salmonellosis decreased from 17.7% in 2005 to 11.2% in 2011 (p<0.001. In contrast, shigellosis increased from 8.3% in 2010 to 12.1% in 2011. Compared to children with Salmonella, those with Shigella had significantly more bloody stools (59% vs 36%, p<0.001, dehydration (27% vs 15%, p=0.031, and seizures (11% vs 3%, p=0.03. In Salmonella (n=365, there was a significant decrease in resistance to ampicillin (43% to 16%, p<0.001, trimethoprim-sulfamethoxazole (44% to 26%, p=0.014, and extended-spectrum cephalosporins (27% to 10%, p=0.009. Reduced susceptibility to ciprofloxacin in Salmonella rose from 30% to 41% (p<0.001. All ceftriaxone-resistant isolates harbored the blaCMY-2 gene. qnr genes were found in 42 (36% of the 117 Salmonella isolates with a ciprofloxacin MIC ≥ 0.125 µg/ml. Four were qnrA1 and 38 were qnrB19. Resistance to ampicillin (40% and trimethoprim-sulfamethoxazole (58% was common in Shigella (n=218, but isolates remained fully susceptible to ceftriaxone and ciprofloxacin. Conclusions:Illness from Salmonella has decreased while severe Shigella infections have increased among children with gastroenteritis in the Yucatan Peninsula. While Shigella resistance to clinically important antibiotics remained unchanged, resistance to most of these, except ciprofloxacin, declined in Salmonella. blaCMY-2 and qnr genes are common in Salmonella isolates.

  18. Vaccines against Infections Caused by Salmonella, Shigella, and Pathogenic Escherichia coli.

    Guzman, Carlos A; Borsutzky, Stefan; Favre, Didier; Dietrich, Guido

    2004-12-01

    Infectious diseases represent one of the most common causes of death worldwide, with the enteropathogenic bacteria Salmonella and Shigella and pathogenic Escherichia coli being among the most detrimental. Currently, vaccination represents the preferred method of preventing such infections. For stimulating the adaptive immune response, immunizations are frequently based on formulations which include inactivated whole-cell vaccines, live attenuated vaccines, or subunit vaccines. These can be administered via a parenteral or mucosal route, the latter having the advantage that it most closely mimics the actual course of infection. In addition to the type of vaccine and method of application, important consideration needs to be paid to safety, efficacy, and cost, which are often major bottlenecks in the successful implementation of vaccines. In this chapter we take a limited look at the history surrounding vaccinations involving Salmonella, Shigella, and pathogenic E. coli. Salmonella infections, which can lead to typhoid fever, are becoming increasing difficult to treat with antibiotics due to multi-drug-resistant strains. At present, the parenteral Vi-based subunit vaccines and the live attenuated oral vaccine Ty21a have proven to be the vaccines of choice, with high levels of protective efficacy and limited side effects. Shigella infections are responsible for the diarrheal disease shigellosis. Various live and nonliving mucosal and parenteral vaccines have been tested, with the most promising candidates evolving around those that stimulate the production of O-antigen-specific antibodies. Pathogenic Escherichia coli infections can lead to severe diseases due to the bacterium's production of several specific toxins. Vaccines against this bacterium target its toxins, as well as surface-exposed antigens, all of which have been found to be effective as immunogens. PMID:26443352

  19. Shiga Toxin 1–Producing Shigella sonnei Infections, California, United States, 2014–2015

    Nelson, Jennifer A.; Kimura, Akiko C.; Poe, Alyssa; Collins, Joan; Kao, Annie S.; Cruz, Laura; Inami, Gregory; Vaishampayan, Julie; Garza, Alvaro; Chaturvedi, Vishnu; Vugia, Duc J.

    2016-01-01

    Shiga toxins (Stx) are primarily associated with Shiga toxin–producing Escherichia coli and Shigella dysenteriae serotype 1. Stx production by other shigellae is uncommon, but in 2014, Stx1-producing S. sonnei infections were detected in California. Surveillance was enhanced to test S. sonnei isolates for the presence and expression of stx genes, perform DNA subtyping, describe clinical and epidemiologic characteristics of case-patients, and investigate for sources of infection. During June 2014–April 2015, we identified 56 cases of Stx1-producing S. sonnei, in 2 clusters. All isolates encoded stx1 and produced active Stx1. Multiple pulsed-field gel electrophoresis patterns were identified. Bloody diarrhea was reported by 71% of case-patients; none had hemolytic uremic syndrome. Some initial cases were epidemiologically linked to travel to Mexico, but subsequent infections were transmitted domestically. Continued surveillance of Stx1-producing S. sonnei in California is necessary to characterize its features and plan for reduction of its spread in the United States. PMID:26982255

  20. Shiga Toxin 1-Producing Shigella sonnei Infections, California, United States, 2014-2015.

    Lamba, Katherine; Nelson, Jennifer A; Kimura, Akiko C; Poe, Alyssa; Collins, Joan; Kao, Annie S; Cruz, Laura; Inami, Gregory; Vaishampayan, Julie; Garza, Alvaro; Chaturvedi, Vishnu; Vugia, Duc J

    2016-04-01

    Shiga toxins (Stx) are primarily associated with Shiga toxin-producing Escherichia coli and Shigella dysenteriae serotype 1. Stx production by other shigellae is uncommon, but in 2014, Stx1-producing S. sonnei infections were detected in California. Surveillance was enhanced to test S. sonnei isolates for the presence and expression of stx genes, perform DNA subtyping, describe clinical and epidemiologic characteristics of case-patients, and investigate for sources of infection. During June 2014-April 2015, we identified 56 cases of Stx1-producing S. sonnei, in 2 clusters. All isolates encoded stx1 and produced active Stx1. Multiple pulsed-field gel electrophoresis patterns were identified. Bloody diarrhea was reported by 71% of case-patients; none had hemolytic uremic syndrome. Some initial cases were epidemiologically linked to travel to Mexico, but subsequent infections were transmitted domestically. Continued surveillance of Stx1-producing S. sonnei in California is necessary to characterize its features and plan for reduction of its spread in the United States. PMID:26982255

  1. Risk factors for secondary transmission of Shigella infection within households: implications for current prevention policy

    Boveé Lian

    2012-12-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Internationally, guidelines to prevent secondary transmission of Shigella infection vary widely. Cases, their contacts with diarrhoea, and those in certain occupational groups are frequently excluded from work, school, or daycare. In the Netherlands, all contacts attending pre-school (age 0–3 and junior classes in primary school (age 4–5, irrespective of symptoms, are also excluded pending microbiological clearance. We identified risk factors for secondary Shigella infection (SSI within households and evaluated infection control policy in this regard. Methods This retrospective cohort study of households where a laboratory confirmed Shigella case was reported in Amsterdam (2002–2009 included all households at high risk for SSI (i.e. any household member under 16 years. Cases were classified as primary, co-primary or SSIs. Using univariable and multivariable binomial regression with clustered robust standard errors to account for household clustering, we examined case and contact factors (Shigella serotype, ethnicity, age, sex, household size, symptoms associated with SSI in contacts within households. Results SSI occurred in 25/ 337 contacts (7.4%: 20% were asymptomatic, 68% were female, and median age was 14 years (IQR: 4–38. In a multivariable model adjusted for case and household factors, only diarrhoea in contacts was associated with SSI (IRR 8.0, 95% CI:2.7-23.8. In a second model, factors predictive of SSI in contacts were the age of case (0–3 years (IRRcase≥6 years:2.5, 95% CI:1.1-5.5 and 4–5 years (IRRcase≥6 years:2.2, 95% CI:1.1-4.3 and household size (>6 persons (IRR2-4 persons 3.4, 95% CI:1.2-9.5. Conclusions To identify symptomatic and asymptomatic SSI, faecal screening should be targeted at all household contacts of preschool cases (0–3 years and cases attending junior class in primary school (4–5 years and any household contact with diarrhoea. If screening was limited to these groups, only

  2. Shigella septicaemia following renal transplantation.

    Severn, M; Michael, J

    1980-01-01

    Two patients are described who developed septicaemia with Shigella flexneri following renal transplantation. Pre-operative screening had not identified either patient as a chronic carrier of Shigella sp. The acute management and problems posed by unrecognized carriers amongst patients undergoing transplantation in areas of the world where Shigella is endemic, are discussed.

  3. Metabolic events mediating early killing of host cells infected by Shigella flexneri.

    Sansonetti, P J; Mounier, J

    1987-07-01

    J774, a continuous macrophage cell-line, was infected by M90T, an invasive isolate of Shigella flexneri serotype 5 and BS176, its non invasive derivative--which does not harbor the 220 kbase virulence plasmid pWR100. Killing of host cells by intracellular M90T, commenced one hour after infection and was completed by 4 hours. Intracellular BS176 did not kill cells during the same period. Cell protein biosynthesis was totally inhibited by both strains within 2 hours of infection thus indicating that shiga-like toxin 1 (SLT1) could not account for early killing. On the other hand a sharp decrease in intracellular ATP was observed after 1 hour in cells infected with M90T. No significant increase in ATPase activity could be detected. A sharp increase in pyruvate production starting immediately after infection indicated impairement in mitochondrial respiration, which accounts for most ATP produced intracellularly. In addition, fermentation appeared to be totally blocked thus leaving no chance of the infected cells regenerating NAD. Concurrent increase in cAMP concentration within the first hour of infection may contribute to the rapid and efficient cell killing. Cells infected by BS176 always showed an intermediate phenotype (i.e. ATP depletion, pyruvate increase, lactate decrease). Early lysis of the phagocytic vacuole by M90T may account for this difference by allowing toxic products of the bacteria to diffuse more efficiently within the cytosol. PMID:2848171

  4. Host and bacterial proteins that repress recruitment of LC3 to Shigella early during infection.

    Leigh A Baxt

    Full Text Available Shigella spp. are intracytosolic gram-negative pathogens that cause disease by invasion and spread through the colonic mucosa, utilizing host cytoskeletal components to form propulsive actin tails. We have previously identified the host factor Toca-1 as being recruited to intracellular S. flexneri and being required for efficient bacterial actin tail formation. We show that at early times during infection (40 min., the type three-secreted effector protein IcsB recruits Toca-1 to intracellular bacteria and that recruitment of Toca-1 is associated with repression of recruitment of LC3, as well as with repression of recruitment of the autophagy marker NDP52, around these intracellular bacteria. LC3 is best characterized as a marker of autophagosomes, but also marks phagosomal membranes in the process LC3-associated phagocytosis. IcsB has previously been demonstrated to be required for S. flexneri evasion of autophagy at late times during infection (4-6 hr by inhibiting binding of the autophagy protein Atg5 to the Shigella surface protein IcsA (VirG. Our results suggest that IcsB and Toca-1 modulation of LC3 recruitment restricts LC3-associated phagocytosis and/or LC3 recruitment to vacuolar membrane remnants. Together with published results, our findings suggest that IcsB inhibits innate immune responses in two distinct ways, first, by inhibiting LC3-associated phagocytosis and/or LC3 recruitment to vacuolar membrane remnants early during infection, and second, by inhibiting autophagy late during infection.

  5. Shigella Infections

    ... KidsHealth in the Classroom What Other Parents Are Reading Upsetting News Reports? What to Say Vaccines: Which ... Hand Washing So Important? Diarrhea Vomiting Basic Blood Chemistry Tests Fever and Taking Your Child's Temperature "Stomach ...

  6. Alteration of HLA-B27 Peptide Presentation after Infection of Transfected Murine L Cells by Shigella flexneri

    Boisgérault, Florence; Mounier, Joëlle; Tieng, Vannary; Stolzenberg, Marie-Claude; Khalil-Daher, Iman; Schmid, Michel; Sansonetti, Philippe; Charron, Dominique; Toubert, Antoine

    1998-01-01

    Shigella flexneri is a triggering agent for reactive arthritis in HLA-B27-susceptible individuals. Considering the intracellular multiplication of bacteria, it seems likely that bacterial peptides may be presented by the major histocompatibility complex (MHC) class I pathway. To examine this hypothesis, we infected HLA-B*2705- and/or human β2-microglobulin-transfected murine L-cell lines with M90T, an invasive strain of S. flexneri. Bacterial infection induced no detectable modifications in t...

  7. Pathogenicity of Shigella in Chickens

    Shi, Run; Yang, Xia; Chen, Lu; Chang, Hong-tao; Liu, Hong-Ying; Zhao, Jun; Wang, Xin-Wei; Wang, Chuan-qing

    2014-01-01

    Shigellosis in chickens was first reported in 2004. This study aimed to determine the pathogenicity of Shigella in chickens and the possibility of cross-infection between humans and chickens. The pathogenicity of Shigella in chickens was examined via infection of three-day-old SPF chickens with Shigella strain ZD02 isolated from a human patient. The virulence and invasiveness were examined by infection of the chicken intestines and primary chicken intestinal epithelial cells. The results show...

  8. Shigella in Brazilian children with acute diarrhoea: prevalence, antimicrobial resistance and virulence genes

    Mireille Ângela Bernardes Sousa; Edilberto Nogueira Mendes; Guilherme Birchal Collares; Luciano Amedée Péret-Filho; Francisco José Penna; Paula Prazeres Magalhães

    2013-01-01

    Diarrhoeal disease is still considered a major cause of morbidity and mortality among children. Among diarrhoeagenic agents, Shigella should be highlighted due to its prevalence and the severity of the associated disease. Here, we assessed Shigella prevalence, drug susceptibility and virulence factors. Faeces from 157 children with diarrhoea who sought treatment at the Children's Hospital João Paulo II, a reference children´s hospital in Belo Horizonte, state of Minas Gerais, Brazil, were cul...

  9. Prevalence and characterization of human Shigella infections in Henan Province, China, in 2006

    Xia, S.; Xu, B.; Huang, L.; Zhao, J. Y.; Ran, L.; Zhang, J.; Chen, H.; Pulsrikarn, C.; Pornruangwong, S.; Aarestrup, Frank Møller; Hendriksen, Rene S.

    2011-01-01

    In 2006, 3531 fecal samples were collected from patients with diarrhea in Henan Province, China. A total of 467 (13.2%) Shigella strains were isolated and serotyped. Seventy-one Shigella flexneri strains were characterized by MIC determination, pulsed-field gel electrophoresis (PFGE), and detection...

  10. Association Between Shigella Infection and Diarrhea Varies Based on Location and Age of Children.

    Lindsay, Brianna; Saha, Debasish; Sanogo, Doh; Das, Sumon Kumar; Omore, Richard; Farag, Tamer H; Nasrin, Dilruba; Li, Shan; Panchalingam, Sandra; Levine, Myron M; Kotloff, Karen; Nataro, James P; Magder, Laurence; Hungerford, Laura; Faruque, A S G; Oundo, Joseph; Hossain, M Anowar; Adeyemi, Mitchell; Stine, Oscar Colin

    2015-11-01

    Molecular identification of the invasion plasmid antigen-H (ipaH) gene has been established as a useful detection mechanism for Shigella spp. The Global Enteric Multicenter Study (GEMS) identified the etiology and burden of moderate-to-severe diarrhea (MSD) in sub-Saharan Africa and south Asia using a case-control study and traditional culture techniques. Here, we used quantitative polymerase chain reaction (qPCR) to identify Shigella spp. in 2,611 stool specimens from GEMS and compared these results to those using culture. Demographic and nutritional characteristics were assessed as possible risk factors. The qPCR identified more cases of shigellosis than culture; however, the distribution of demographic characteristics was similar by both methods. In regression models adjusting for Shigella quantity, age, and site, children who were exclusively breast-fed had significantly lower odds of MSD compared with children who were not breast-fed (odds ratio [OR] = 0.47, 95% confidence interval (CI) = 0.28-0.81). The association between Shigella quantity and MSD increased with age, with a peak in children of 24-35 months of age (OR = 8.2, 95% CI = 4.3-15.7) and the relationship between Shigella quantity and disease was greatest in Bangladesh (OR = 13.2, 95% CI = 7.3-23.8). This study found that qPCR identified more cases of Shigella and age, site, and breast-feeding status were significant risk factors for MSD. PMID:26324734

  11. Molecular characterization of multidrug-resistant Shigella spp. of food origin.

    Ahmed, Ashraf M; Shimamoto, Tadashi

    2015-02-01

    Shigella spp. are the causative agents of food-borne shigellosis, an acute enteric infection. The emergence of multidrug-resistant clinical isolates of Shigella presents an increasing challenge for clinicians in the treatment of shigellosis. Several studies worldwide have characterized the molecular basis of antibiotic resistance in clinical Shigella isolates of human origin, however, to date, no such characterization has been reported for Shigella spp. of food origin. In this study, we characterized the genetic basis of multidrug resistance in Shigella spp. isolated from 1600 food samples (800 meat products and 800 dairy products) collected from different street venders, butchers, retail markets, and slaughterhouses in Egypt. Twenty-four out of 27 Shigella isolates (88.9%) showed multidrug resistance phenotypes to at least three classes of antimicrobials. The multidrug-resistant Shigella spp. were as follows: Shigella flexneri (66.7%), Shigella sonnei (18.5%), and Shigella dysenteriae (3.7%). The highest resistance was to streptomycin (100.0%), then to kanamycin (95.8%), nalidixic acid (95.8%), tetracycline (95.8%), spectinomycin (93.6%), ampicillin (87.5%), and sulfamethoxazole/trimethoprim (87.5%). PCR and DNA sequencing were used to screen and characterize integrons and antibiotic resistance genes. Our results indicated that 11.1% and 74.1% of isolates were positive for class 1 and class 2 integrons, respectively. Beta-lactamase-encoding genes were identified in 77.8% of isolates, and plasmid-mediated quinolone resistance genes were identified in 44.4% of isolates. These data provide useful information to better understand the molecular basis of antimicrobial resistance in Shigella spp. To the best of our knowledge, this is the first report of the molecular characterization of antibiotic resistance in Shigella spp. isolated from food. PMID:25485847

  12. Serogroup prevalence of Shigellae in Bombay.

    Sonawala M

    1995-10-01

    Full Text Available Prevalence of Shigellae serotypes in Bombay was studied from June 1988 to May 1991. A total of 2758 faecal specimens were collected from paediatric patients (< 12 yrs with acute gastroenteritis. A total of 90 Shigella were isolated giving the isolation rate of 3.2%. Shigella flexneri was the predominant serogroup (73.3% followed by Shigella dysenteriae (16.6%. All the isolates were sensitive to nalidixic acid. Eighty percent of the Shigellae were multidrug resistant. Present data were compared with the study carried out during the period of 1983-87 from the same institute. A change in the serogroup prevalence was noted wherein Shigella flexneri dominated over Shigella dysenteriae since 1985. Increase in resistance to ampicillin and cotrimoxazole was seen in Shigella flexneri strains as compared to previous years.

  13. Expression of bacterial virulence factors and cytokines during in vitro macrophage infection by enteroinvasive Escherichia coli and Shigella flexneri: a comparative study.

    Bando, Silvia Y; Moreno, Ana C R; Albuquerque, José A T; Amhaz, Juliana M K; Moreira-Filho, Carlos A; Martinez, Marina B

    2010-09-01

    Enteroinvasive Escherichia coli (EIEC) and Shigella spp cause bacillary dysentery in humans by invading and multiplying within epithelial cells of the colonic mucosa. Although EIEC and Shigella share many genetic and biochemical similarities, the illness caused by Shigella is more severe. Thus, genomic and structure-function molecular studies on the biological interactions of these invasive enterobacteria with eukaryotic cells have focused on Shigella rather than EIEC. Here we comparatively studied the interactions of EIEC and of Shigella flexneri with cultured J774 macrophage-like cells. We evaluated several phenotypes: (i) bacterial escape from macrophages after phagocytosis, (ii) macrophage death induced by EIEC and S. flexneri, (iii) macrophage cytokine expression in response to infection and (iv) expression of plasmidial (pINV) virulence genes. The results showed that S. flexneri caused macrophage killing earlier and more intensely than EIEC. Both pathogens induced significant macrophage production of TNF, IL-1 and IL-10 after 7 h of infection. Transcription levels of the gene invasion plasmid antigen-C were lower in EIEC than in S. flexneri throughout the course of the infection; this could explain the diminished virulence of EIEC compared to S. flexneri. PMID:20944993

  14. Multidrug-Resistant Shigella Infections in Patients with Diarrhea, Cambodia, 2014–2015

    Poramathikul, Kamonporn; Chiek, Sivhour; Oransathid, Wilawan; Ruekit, Sirigade; Nobthai, Panida; Lurchachaiwong, Woradee; Serichantalergs, Oralak; Lon, Chanthap; Swierczewski, Brett

    2016-01-01

    We observed multidrug resistance in 10 (91%) of 11 Shigella isolates from a diarrheal surveillance study in Cambodia. One isolate was resistant to fluoroquinolones and cephalosporins and showed decreased susceptibility to azithromycin. We found mutations in gyrA, parC, β-lactamase, and mphA genes. Multidrug resistance increases concern about shigellosis treatment options. PMID:27532684

  15. Multidrug-Resistant Shigella Infections in Patients with Diarrhea, Cambodia, 2014-2015.

    Poramathikul, Kamonporn; Bodhidatta, Ladaporn; Chiek, Sivhour; Oransathid, Wilawan; Ruekit, Sirigade; Nobthai, Panida; Lurchachaiwong, Woradee; Serichantalergs, Oralak; Lon, Chanthap; Swierczewski, Brett

    2016-09-01

    We observed multidrug resistance in 10 (91%) of 11 Shigella isolates from a diarrheal surveillance study in Cambodia. One isolate was resistant to fluoroquinolones and cephalosporins and showed decreased susceptibility to azithromycin. We found mutations in gyrA, parC, β-lactamase, and mphA genes. Multidrug resistance increases concern about shigellosis treatment options. PMID:27532684

  16. The roles of the virulence factor IpaB in Shigella spp. in the escape from immune cells and invasion of epithelial cells.

    Yang, Shih-Chun; Hung, Chi-Feng; Aljuffali, Ibrahim A; Fang, Jia-You

    2015-12-01

    Shigellosis is an acute invasive enteric infection by the Gram negative pathogen Shigella, which causes human diarrhea. Shigella, which are highly epidemic and pathogenic, have become a serious public health problem. The virulence plasmid is a large plasmid essential to the infected host cells. Many virulence factors are encoded in the ipa-mxi-spa region by the virulence plasmid. IpaB is a multifunctional and essential virulence factor in the infection process. In this review article, we introduce the recent studies of the effect of IpaB in Shigella-infected host cells. IpaB is involved in a type III secretion system (T3SS) structure. It also controls the secretion of virulence factors and Shigella adhesion to host cells. In addition, it forms the ion pore, destroys phagosomes, and induces the immune cell's apoptosis or necrosis. Moreover, IpaB can become a potential antigen for Shigella vaccine development. PMID:26640051

  17. Shigella Diversity and Changing Landscape: Insights for the Twenty-First Century

    Anderson, Mark; Sansonetti, Philippe J.; Marteyn, Benoit S.

    2016-01-01

    Shigella is a pathovar of Escherichia coli comprising four groups, Shigella flexneri, Shigella sonnei, Shigella dysenteriae, and Shigella boydii, each of them, with the exception of S.sonnei, comprising several serotypes. Shigella accounts for the majority of dysentery causing infections occurring world-wide each year. Recent advancements in the Shigella field have led to a better understanding of the molecular mechanisms underlying host epithelial cell invasion and immune cell function manip...

  18. Interferon production by Shigella flexneri-infected fibroblasts depends upon intracellular bacterial metabolism.

    Hess, C. B.; Niesel, D W; Holmgren, J.; Jonson, G; Klimpel, G R

    1990-01-01

    The role of bacterial invasion and subsequent intracellular metabolism or replication, or both, in the induction of interferon (IFN) production in primary cultures of murine embryo fibroblasts (MEFs) was examined. IFN production appeared to be dependent upon bacterial invasion. MEFs that were challenged with Shigella flexneri cultured at 30 degrees C to inhibit the temperature-dependent virulence gene expression that is essential for invasion failed to produce IFN. Furthermore, inhibition of ...

  19. The worldwide spread of ciprofloxacin-resistant Shigella sonnei among HIV-infected men who have sex with men, Taiwan.

    Chiou, C-S; Izumiya, H; Kawamura, M; Liao, Y-S; Su, Y-S; Wu, H-H; Chen, W-C; Lo, Y-C

    2016-04-01

    Ciprofloxacin-resistant shigellosis outbreaks among men who have sex with men (MSM) have not been reported in Asia. During 3 March to 6 May 2015, the Notifiable Disease Surveillance System detected nine non-imported Shigella sonnei infections among human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) -infected Taiwanese MSM. We conducted a molecular epidemiological investigation using a 1 : 5 matched case-control study and laboratory characterizations for the isolates. Of the nine patients, four reported engagement in oral-anal sex before illness onset. Shigellosis was associated with a syphilis report within 12 months (adjusted odds ratio (aOR) 8.6; 95% CI 1.05-70.3) and no HIV outpatient follow-up within 12 months (aOR 22.3; 95% CI 2.5-201). Shigella sonnei isolates from the nine patients were all ciprofloxacin-resistant and the resistance was associated with S83L and D87G mutations in gyrA and S80I mutation in parC. The nine outbreak isolates were discriminated into two closely related pulsed-field gel electrophoresis (PFGE) genotypes and seven 8-locus multilocus variable-number tandem repeat analysis (MLVA8) types that suggest multiple sources of infections for the outbreak and possible under-recognition of infection among Taiwanese MSM. The outbreak isolates were characterized to be variants of the intercontinentally transmitted SS18.1 clone, which falls into the globally prevalent phylogenetic sub-lineage IIIb. Inter-database pattern similarity searching indicated that the two PFGE genotypes had emerged in the USA and Japan. The epidemiological characteristics of this outbreak suggest roles of risky sexual behaviours or networks in S. sonnei transmission. We urge enhanced surveillance and risk-reduction interventions regionally against the interplay of HIV and shigellosis among MSM. PMID:26806133

  20. Severe acute malnutrition and infection

    Jones, Kelsey D. J.; Berkley, James A

    2014-01-01

    Severe acute malnutrition (SAM) is associated with increased severity of common infectious diseases, and death amongst children with SAM is almost always as a result of infection. The diagnosis and management of infection are often different in malnourished versus well-nourished children. The objectives of this brief are to outline the evidence underpinning important practical questions relating to the management of infectious diseases in children with SAM and to highlight research gaps. Over...

  1. Outbreaks of Shigella sonnei infections in Denmark and Australia linked to consumption of imported raw baby corn

    Lewis, H.C.; Ethelberg, S.; Olsen, K.E.P.;

    2009-01-01

    We investigated an outbreak of Shigella sonnei infections in Denmark and Australia associated with imported baby corn from one packing shed in Thailand. We reviewed nationwide surveillance and undertook case finding, food trace-back and microbiological investigation of human, food and environmental...... samples. A recall of baby corn and sugar snaps was based on descriptive epidemiological evidence. In Denmark, we undertook a retrospective cohort study in one workplace. In total, 215 cases were laboratory-confirmed in Denmark, and 12 in Australia. In a multivariable analysis, baby corn was the only...... independent risk factor. Antibiotic resistance and PFGE outbreak profiles in Denmark and Australia were indistinguishable, linking the outbreaks. Although we did not detect S. sonnei in baby corn, we isolated high levels of other enteric pathogens. We identified a packing shed in Thailand that supplied baby...

  2. Acute pancreatitis: Manifestation of acute HIV infection in an adolescent

    Bitar, Anas; Altaf, Muhammad; Sferra, Thomas J.

    2012-01-01

    Summary Background: Pancreatitis in the pediatric age group is not as common as in adults. Etiologies are various and differ from those in adults. Although infectious etiology accounts for a significant number of cases of pancreatitis, acute infection with Human Immunodeficiency Virus (HIV) was rarely reported as a possible etiology for acute pancreatitis in adults. Acute pancreatitis has never been reported as a presenting manifestation of acute HIV infection in children. Case Report: We des...

  3. Susceptibility of Shigella species to erythromycin.

    Greenberg, R N; Pearson, R D; Innes, D J; Sauer, K T; Halterman, L D; Guerrant, R L

    1982-01-01

    Two of the most common causes of inflammatory enteritis are Campylobacter fetus subsp. jejuni and Shigella species. No single antimicrobial agent is recommended for treatment of both diseases. Erythromycin is used to treat C. fetus subsp. jejuni infections but has not been studied in shigellosis. For this reason, we determined the susceptibility of 22 strains of Shigella to erythromycin and found that Shigella species are susceptible to concentrations of erythromycin which are obtainable in s...

  4. Co-administration of rIpaB domain of Shigella with rGroEL of S. Typhi enhances the immune responses and protective efficacy against Shigella infection.

    Chitradevi, Sekar Tamil Selvi; Kaur, Gurpreet; Uppalapati, Sivaramakrishna; Yadav, Anandprakash; Singh, Dependrapratap; Bansal, Anju

    2015-11-01

    Shigella species cause severe bacillary dysentery in humans and are associated with high morbidity and mortality. The Invasion plasmid antigen (IpaB) protein, which is conserved across all Shigella spp., induces macrophage cell death and is required to invade host cells. The present study evaluates the immunogenicity and protective efficacy of the recombinant (r) domain region of IpaB (rIpaB) of S. flexneri. rIpaB was administered either alone or was co-administered with the rGroEL (heat shock protein 60) protein from S. Typhi as an adjuvant in a mouse model of intranasal immunization. The IpaB domain region (37 kDa) of S. flexneri was amplified from an invasion plasmid, cloned, expressed in BL21 Escherichia coli cells and purified. Immunization with the rIpaB domain alone stimulated both humoral and cell-mediated immune responses. Furthermore, robust antibody (IgG, IgA) and T-cell responses were induced when the rIpaB domain was co-administered with rGroEL. Antibody isotyping revealed higher IgG1 and IgG2a antibody titers and increased interferon-gamma (IFN-γ) secretion in the co-administered group. Immunization of mice with the rIpaB domain alone protected 60%-70% of the mice from lethal infection by S. flexneri, S. boydii and S. sonnei, whereas co-administration with rGroEL increased the protective efficacy to 80%-85%. Organ burden and histopathological studies also revealed a significant reduction in lung infection in the co-immunized mice compared with mice immunized with the rIpaB domain alone. This study emphasizes that the co-administration of the rIpaB domain and rGroEL protein improves immune responses in mice and increases protective efficacy against Shigella infection. This is also the first report to evaluate the potential of the GroEL (Hsp 60) protein of S. Typhi as an adjuvant molecule, thereby overcoming the need for commercial adjuvants. PMID:25640657

  5. Acute focal infections of dental origin

    Olsen, Ingar; van Winkelhoff, Arie J.

    2014-01-01

    This article describes the most important pus-producing acute oral infections (dental infections) that can spread extra-orally. Most of these infections are spread by bacteria entering the bloodstream. However, dental infections have a number of other pathways for dissemination. By forming abscesses

  6. Early infection and prognosis after acute stroke

    Kammersgaard, L P; Jørgensen, H S; Reith, J;

    2001-01-01

    Infection is a frequent complication in the early course of acute stroke and may adversely affect stroke outcome. In the present study, we investigate early infection developing in patients within 3 days of admission to the hospital and its independent relation to recovery and stroke outcome. In...... addition, we identify predictors for early infections, infection subtypes, and their relation to initial stroke severity....

  7. Expression of bacterial virulence factors and cytokines during in vitro macrophage infection by enteroinvasive Escherichia coli and Shigella flexneri: a comparative study

    Silvia Y Bando

    2010-09-01

    Full Text Available Enteroinvasive Escherichia coli (EIEC and Shigellaspp cause bacillary dysentery in humans by invading and multiplying within epithelial cells of the colonic mucosa. Although EIEC and Shigellashare many genetic and biochemical similarities, the illness caused by Shigellais more severe. Thus, genomic and structure-function molecular studies on the biological interactions of these invasive enterobacteria with eukaryotic cells have focused on Shigella rather than EIEC. Here we comparatively studied the interactions of EIEC and of Shigella flexneriwith cultured J774 macrophage-like cells. We evaluated several phenotypes: (i bacterial escape from macrophages after phagocytosis, (ii macrophage death induced by EIEC and S. flexneri, (iii macrophage cytokine expression in response to infection and (iv expression of plasmidial (pINV virulence genes. The results showed thatS. flexneri caused macrophage killing earlier and more intensely than EIEC. Both pathogens induced significant macrophage production of TNF, IL-1 and IL-10 after 7 h of infection. Transcription levels of the gene invasion plasmid antigen-C were lower in EIEC than in S. flexneri throughout the course of the infection; this could explain the diminished virulence of EIEC compared to S. flexneri.

  8. Tsutsugamushi Infection-Associated Acute Rhabdomyolysis and Acute Renal Failure

    Young, Park Chi; Hae, Chung Choon; Lee, Kim Hyun; Hoon, Chung Jong

    2003-01-01

    Rhabdomyolysis is a rare complication that emerges in a variety of infectious diseases, such as tsutsugamushi infection. In this study, we report a 71-year-old female patient with tsutsugamushi infection who exhibiting rhabdomyolysis and acute renal failure. On admission, an eschar, which is characteristic of tsutsugamushi infection, was found on her right flank area. Moreover, her tsutsugamushi antibody titer was 1:40960. The elevated values of serum creatinine phosphokinase (CPK), aldolase,...

  9. Development of Multiplex PCR for Simultaneous Detection of Three Pathogenic Shigella Species

    Reza Ranjbar; Davoud Afshar; Ali Mehrabi Tavana; Ali Najafi; Fatemeh Pourali; Zahra Safiri; Rahim Sorouri Zanjani; Nematollah Jonaidi Jafari

    2014-01-01

    Background: Shigella species are among the common causes of bacterial diarrhoeal diseases. Traditional detection methods are time-consuming resulting in delay in treatment and control of Shigella infections thus there is a need to develop molecular methods for rapid and simultaneous detection of Shigella spp. In this study a rapid multiplex PCR were developed for simultaneous detection of three pathogenic Shigella species. Methods: For detection of Shigella spp., a pair of primers was used to...

  10. Dengue infection presenting as acute hypokalemic quadriparesis

    N Gupta

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Dengue infection is one of the most common viral hemorrhagic fevers seen in the tropical countries, including India. Its presentation varies from an acute self-resolving febrile illness to life-threatening hemorrhagic shock and multiorgan dysfunction leading to death. Neurological presentations are uncommon and limited to case reports only. Most common neurological manifestations being encephalitis, acute inflammatory demyelinating polyradiculoneuropathy, transverse myelitis, and acute disseminated encephalomyelitis.Hypokalemic quadriparesis as a presenting feature of dengue is extremely rare. Here, we report this case of a 33-year-old female, who presented with hypokalemic quadriparesis and was subsequently diagnosed as dengue infection.

  11. Tsutsugamushi infection-associated acute rhabdomyolysis and acute renal failure.

    Young, Park Chi; Hae, Chung Choon; Lee, Kim Hyun; Hoon, Chung Jong

    2003-12-01

    Rhabdomyolysis is a rare complication that emerges in a variety of infectious diseases, such as tsutsugamushi infection. In this study, we report a 71-year-old female patient with tsutsugamushi infection who exhibiting rhabdomyolysis and acute renal failure. On admission, an eschar, which is characteristic of tsutsugamushi infection, was found on her right flank area. Moreover, her tsutsugamushi antibody titer was 1:40960. The elevated values of serum creatinine phosphokinase (CPK), aldolase, creatinine and dark brown urine secondary to myoglobinuria are consistent with indications of rhabdomyolysis and acute renal failure due to tsutsugamushi infection. Her health improved without any residual effects after treatment with doxycyclin and hydration with normal saline. PMID:14717236

  12. Acute cholecystitis associated with infection of Enterobacteriaceae from gut microbiota.

    Liu, J; Yan, Q; Luo, F; Shang, D; Wu, D; Zhang, H; Shang, X; Kang, X; Abdo, M; Liu, B; Ma, Y; Xin, Y

    2015-09-01

    Acute cholecystitis (AC) is one of the most common surgical diseases. Bacterial infection accounts for 50% to 85% of the disease's onset. Since there is a close relationship between the biliary system and the gut, the aims of this study were to characterize and determine the influence of gut microbiota on AC, to detect the pathogenic microorganism in the biliary system, and to explore the relationship between the gut and bile microbiota of patients with AC. A total of 185 713 high-quality sequence reads were generated from the faecal samples of 15 patients and 13 healthy controls by 16S rRNA gene pyrosequencing. Patients' samples were significantly enriched in Akkermansia, Enterobacter and Escherichia/Shigella group. The healthy controls, however, showed significant enrichment of Clostridiales, Coprococcus, Coprobacillaceae, Paraprevotella, Turicibacter and TM7-3 in their faecal samples. Escherichia coli was the main biliary pathogenic microorganism, among others such as Klebsiella spp., Clostridium perfringens, Citrobacter freundii and Enterobacter cloacae in the bile of the patients. Additionally, the amount of bile endotoxin significantly correlated with the number of Enterobacteriaceae, especially E. coli. Our data indicate that Enterobacteriaceae might play essential role in the pathogenesis and/or progress of AC. This was verified in an in vivo model using a pathogenic E. coli isolated from one of the patients in guinea pigs and observed marked gallbladder inflammation and morphologic changes. This study thus provides insight which could be useful for the prevention, diagnosis and treatment of AC and related diseases by controlling the growth of Enterobacteriaceae to alleviate the infection. PMID:26025761

  13. [Associated infections in acute bronchopulmonary infections in children].

    Lykova, E A; Vorob'ev, A A; Bokovoĭ, A G; Karazhas, N V; Evseeva, L F

    2003-01-01

    A total of 189 children with bacterial complications of the acute respiratory viral infection (ARVI)--primarily with pneumonia and bronchitis--were dynamically examined for typical and atypical pneumotropic causative agents of the infection process (Mycoplasma pneumoniae, Chlamydia spp., Streptococcus pneumoniae, Haemophilus influenzae, Pneumocystis carini, and Citomegalovirus). A high frequency rate of the associative infection involving mycoplasmas and pneumocysts was registered (45-50%); it was lower in the cases involving Chlamydias, hemophilic bacteria, pneumococcus, and cytomegalovirus--up to 25-30%. No sharp difference was found between the indices of an infection degree and those of an active clinical infectious process involving the same pneumotropic agent: the biggest difference was observed in Chlamydia infections (9.4%) and the lowest one--in mycoplasma infections (3%). A dynamic comparison of different classes of immunoglobulins revealed that, in acute bronchitis and pneumonias, the Chlamydia and cytomegalovirus infections are, primarily, of the persistent nature; the hemophilic and pneumocystic infections are of a mixed nature; and the pneumococcus one is of the acute nature. The Mycoplasma infection, which is more often encountered in pre-school children, is of the primary type with a trend towards a prolonged clinical course. All pneumonias had a typical clinical course; the clinical picture was compared in 128 patients with the etiological factor (including a description of characteristic symptoms). PMID:12861708

  14. Kocuria kristinae infection associated with acute cholecystitis

    Chan Edmond CH

    2005-07-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Kocuria, previously classified into the genus of Micrococcus, is commonly found on human skin. Two species, K. rosea and K. kristinae, are etiologically associated with catheter-related bacteremia. Case presentation We describe the first case of K. kristinae infection associated with acute cholecystitis. The microorganism was isolated from the bile of a 56-year old Chinese man who underwent laparoscopic cholecystectomy. He developed post-operative fever that resolved readily after levofloxacin treatment. Conclusion Our report of K. kristinae infection associated with acute cholecystitis expands the clinical spectrum of infections caused by this group of bacteria. With increasing number of recent reports describing the association between Kocuria spp. and infectious diseases, the significance of their isolation from clinical specimens cannot be underestimated. A complete picture of infections related to Kocuria spp. will have to await the documentation of more clinical cases.

  15. Acute encephalitis syndrome following scrub typhus infection

    Ayan Kar; Dhanaraj, M.; Devaprasad Dedeepiya; Harikrishna, K.

    2014-01-01

    Objective: The aim was to find the incidence of acute encephalitis syndrome (AES) secondary to scrub infection and to observe the clinical, biochemical, radiological profile, and outcomes in these patients. Materials and Methods: A total of 20 consecutive patients of AES were evaluated for scrub infection using scrub typhus immunoglobulin M enzyme linked immuno-sorbant assay positivity along with the presence or absence of an eschar. Clinical profile, routine laboratory tests, cerebrospinal f...

  16. When to consider acute HIV infection in the differential diagnosis.

    Grimes, Richard M; Hardwicke, Robin L; Grimes, Deanna E; DeGarmo, D Sean

    2016-01-16

    Patients presenting with fever, pharyngitis, and lymphadenopathy are likely to have mononucleosis; however, patients with acute HIV infection may present with similar symptoms. Acute HIV infection should be considered as a differential diagnosis if test results for mononucleosis are negative. This article describes when to order HIV testing and discusses the importance of early intervention for acute HIV infection. PMID:26678418

  17. In vitro adhesion and invasion inhibition of Shigella dysenteriae, Shigella flexneri and Shigella sonnei clinical strains by human milk proteins

    Giugliano Loreny

    2004-04-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Shigella is the etiological agent of shigellosis, a disease responsible for more than 500,000 deaths of children per year, in developing countries. These pathogens colonize the intestinal colon, invade, spreading to the other enterocytes. Breastfeeding plays a very important role in protecting infants from intestinal infections. Amongst milk compounds, glycosylated proteins prevent the adhesion of many enteropathogens in vitro. The aim of this work was to determine the effect of human milk proteins on the colonization potential of Shigella dysenteriae, S. flexneri and S. sonnei. To fulfill this purpose, pooled milk samples from five donors, were fractionated by gel filtration and affinity chromatography. Using tissue culture, the milk fractions obtained were tested in Shigella adhesion and invasion assays. Results Our revealed showed that both adhesion and invasion of Shigella species were inhibited by low concentration of secretory immunoglobulin A, lactoferrin and free secretory component. This work also showed that, these proteins bind to superficial and whole-cell Shigella proteins. Conclusions Our findings suggest that human milk may act inhibiting adhesion and, consequently, invasion of Shigella, thereafter preventing shigellosis in infants.

  18. Comparative efficacies of pivmecillinam and ampicillin in acute shigellosis.

    Kabir, I; Rahaman, M. M.; Ahmed, S. M.; Akhter, S Q; Butler, T

    1984-01-01

    The clinical efficacies of pivmecillinam and ampicillin were compared in a randomized double-blind trial in the treatment of acute shigellosis. Of 44 adult male patients, all culture positive for Shigella strains, 22 patients received 400 mg of pivmecillinam and 22 patients received 500 mg of ampicillin every 6 h. Both drugs were administered orally for 5 days. Four patients receiving ampicillin were infected with Shigella strains that were resistant to ampicillin but susceptible to pivmecill...

  19. Kocuria kristinae infection associated with acute cholecystitis

    Chan Edmond CH; Lai Kristi TW; Wong Chris LP; Ma Edmond SK; Yam WC; Chan Angus CW

    2005-01-01

    Abstract Background Kocuria, previously classified into the genus of Micrococcus, is commonly found on human skin. Two species, K. rosea and K. kristinae, are etiologically associated with catheter-related bacteremia. Case presentation We describe the first case of K. kristinae infection associated with acute cholecystitis. The microorganism was isolated from the bile of a 56-year old Chinese man who underwent laparoscopic cholecystectomy. He developed post-operative fever that resolved readi...

  20. Acute encephalitis syndrome following scrub typhus infection

    Ayan Kar

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Objective: The aim was to find the incidence of acute encephalitis syndrome (AES secondary to scrub infection and to observe the clinical, biochemical, radiological profile, and outcomes in these patients. Materials and Methods: A total of 20 consecutive patients of AES were evaluated for scrub infection using scrub typhus immunoglobulin M enzyme linked immuno-sorbant assay positivity along with the presence or absence of an eschar. Clinical profile, routine laboratory tests, cerebrospinal fluid (CSF analysis, and neuroimaging were analyzed. Patients were treated with doxycycline and followed-up. Results: Among 20 consecutive patients with AES, 6 (30% were due to scrub infection. They presented with acute onset fever, altered sensorium, seizures. "Eschar" was seen in 50% of patients. CSF done in two of them was similar to consistent with viral meningitis. Magnetic resonance imaging brain revealed cerebral edema, bright lesions in the putamen and the thalamus on T2-weighted and fluid-attenuated inversion recovery sequences. Renal involvement was seen in all patients. All patients responded well to oral doxycycline. Conclusion: AES is not an uncommon neurological presentation following scrub typhus infection. It should be suspected in all patients with fever, altered sensorium, and renal involvement. Oral doxycycline should be started as early as possible for better outcomes.

  1. Oral rehydration therapy of acute enteric infections

    S. M. Zacharenko

    2014-01-01

    Analysis of holding rehydration therapy in acute intestinal infections in both civilian and military care facilities showed that the civilian centers of this type of therapy was appointed by 84,5% of patients, and in the military – 50,16%. The average duration of oral rehydration therapy was 4,0 days at the easy degree of weight, at middle – 5,3 and at a heavy flow – 5,7 days. On average, in easy degree of weight, patients received 1423.7 ml of liquid, at middle – 1092.6 ml at and a heavy flo...

  2. Vaccines for viral and bacterial pathogens causing acute gastroenteritis: Part II: Vaccines for Shigella, Salmonella, enterotoxigenic E. coli (ETEC) enterohemorragic E. coli (EHEC) and Campylobacter jejuni.

    O'Ryan, Miguel; Vidal, Roberto; del Canto, Felipe; Carlos Salazar, Juan; Montero, David

    2015-01-01

    In Part II we discuss the following bacterial pathogens: Shigella, Salmonella (non-typhoidal), diarrheogenic E. coli (enterotoxigenic and enterohemorragic) and Campylobacter jejuni. In contrast to the enteric viruses and Vibrio cholerae discussed in Part I of this series, for the bacterial pathogens described here there is only one licensed vaccine, developed primarily for Vibrio cholerae and which provides moderate protection against enterotoxigenic E. coli (ETEC) (Dukoral(®)), as well as a few additional candidates in advanced stages of development for ETEC and one candidate for Shigella spp. Numerous vaccine candidates in earlier stages of development are discussed. PMID:25715096

  3. Development of Multiplex PCR for Simultaneous Detection of Three Pathogenic Shigella Species.

    Reza Ranjbar

    2014-12-01

    Full Text Available Shigella species are among the common causes of bacterial diarrhoeal diseases. Traditional detection methods are time-consuming resulting in delay in treatment and control of Shigella infections thus there is a need to develop molecular methods for rapid and simultaneous detection of Shigella spp. In this study a rapid multiplex PCR were developed for simultaneous detection of three pathogenic Shigella species.For detection of Shigella spp., a pair of primers was used to replicate a chromosomal sequence. Three other sets of primers were also designed to amplify the target genes of three most common species of Shigella in Iran including S. sonnei, S. flexneri and S. boydii. The multiplex PCR assay was optimized for simultaneous detection and differentiation of three pathogenic Shigella species. The assay specificity was investigated by testing different strains of Shigella and other additional strains belonging to non Shigella species, but responsible for foodborne diseases.The Shigella genus specific PCR yielded the expected DNA band of 159 bp in all tested strains belonging to four Shigella species. The standard and multiplex PCR assays also produced the expected fragments of 248 bp, 503 bp, and 314 bp, for S. boydii, S. sonnei and S. flexneri, respectively. Each species-specific primer pair did not show any cross-reactivity.Both standard and multiplex PCR protocols had a good specificity. They can provide a valuable tool for the rapid and simultaneous detection and differentiation of three most prevalent Shigella species in Iran.

  4. Acute neuromuscular weakness associated with dengue infection

    Harmanjit Singh Hira

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available Background: Dengue infections may present with neurological complications. Whether these are due to neuromuscular disease or electrolyte imbalance is unclear. Materials and Methods: Eighty-eight patients of dengue fever required hospitalization during epidemic in year 2010. Twelve of them presented with acute neuromuscular weakness. We enrolled them for study. Diagnosis of dengue infection based on clinical profile of patients, positive serum IgM ELISA, NS1 antigen, and sero-typing. Complete hemogram, kidney and liver functions, serum electrolytes, and creatine phosphokinase (CPK were tested. In addition, two patients underwent nerve conduction velocity (NCV test and electromyography. Results: Twelve patients were included in the present study. Their age was between 18 and 34 years. Fever, myalgia, and motor weakness of limbs were most common presenting symptoms. Motor weakness developed on 2 nd to 4 th day of illness in 11 of 12 patients. In one patient, it developed on 10 th day of illness. Ten of 12 showed hypokalemia. One was of Guillain-Barré syndrome and other suffered from myositis; they underwent NCV and electromyography. Serum CPK and SGOT raised in 8 out of 12 patients. CPK of patient of myositis was 5098 IU. All of 12 patients had thrombocytopenia. WBC was in normal range. Dengue virus was isolated in three patients, and it was of serotype 1. CSF was normal in all. Within 24 hours, those with hypokalemia recovered by potassium correction. Conclusions: It was concluded that the dengue virus infection led to acute neuromuscular weakness because of hypokalemia, myositis, and Guillain-Barré syndrome. It was suggested to look for presence of hypokalemia in such patients.

  5. Helicobacter pylori infection and acute myocardial infarction.

    Nakić, Dario; Vcev, Aleksandar; Jović, Albino; Patrk, Jogen; Zekanović, Drazen; Klarin, Ivo; Ivanac, Kresimir; Mrden, Anamarija; Balen, Sanja

    2011-09-01

    The aim of this investigation was to determine whether H. pylori infection is an independent risk factor for acute myocardial infarction (AMI), determine is there a link between H. pylori infection and severity of disease. In this prospective, single centre study, were enrolled 100 patients with AMI and control group was consisted 93 healthy individuals. The results of this study showed no difference between H. pylori seropositivity distribution in the investigate and control group (29 vs. 26 %) and there was no significant difference on the severity of the disease. There was significant association in the patients with three and more risk factors, where the patients with lower blood pressure (124.4/77.4 vs. 145.9/87.7 mmHg) and better controlled diabetes (HbA1c 6.1% vs. 6.9%) had greater risk for AMI if they are H. pylori seropositive. The large multicentric trials would be needed to define a precise role of H. pylori infection on the developement of AMI. PMID:22053556

  6. Widespread antibiotic resistance of diarrheagenic Escherichia coli and Shigella species

    Azam Fatahi Sadeghabadi

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Background: Antibiotic resistance of enteric pathogens particularly Shigella species, is a critical world-wide problem and monitoring their resistant pattern is essential, because the choice of antibiotics is absolutely dependent on regional antibiotic susceptibility patterns. During summer 2013, an unusual increase in number of diarrheal diseases was noticed in Isfahan, a central province of Iran. Therefore, the antibiotic resistance of diarrheagenic Escherichia coli and Shigella species isolated were evaluated. Materials and Methods: According to the guideline on National Surveillance System for Foodborn Diseases, random samples from patients with acute diarrhea were examined in local laboratories of health centers and samples suspicious of Shigella spp. were further assessed in referral laboratory. Isolated pathogens were identified by standard biochemical and serologic tests and antibiotic susceptibility testing was carried out by disc diffusion method. Results: A total of 1086 specimens were obtained and 58 samples suspicious of Shigella were specifically evaluated. The most prevalent isolated pathogen was Shigella sonnei (26/58 followed by E. coli (25/58 and Shigella flexneri (3/58. A large number of isolated bacteria were resistant to co-trimoxazole (Shigella spp: 100%, E. coli: 80%, azithromycin (Shigella spp: 70.4%, E. coli: 44.0%, ceftriaxone (Shigella spp: 88.9%, E. coli: 56.0% and cefixime (Shigella spp: 85.2%, E. coli: 68.0%. About88.3% of S. sonnei isolates, one S. flexneri isolate, and 56% of E. coli strains were resistant to at least three antibiotic classes (multidrug resistant. Conclusion: Due to high levels of resistance to recommended and commonly used antibiotics for diarrhea, continuous monitoring of antibiotic resistance seems essential for determining best options of empirical therapy.

  7. Clustering of acute respiratory infection hospitalizations in childcare facilities

    Kamper-Jørgensen, Mads; Benn, Christine Stabell; Simonsen, Jacob; Thrane, Nana; Wohlfahrt, Jan

    2010-01-01

    To estimate how risk of acute respiratory infection (ARI) hospitalization in children attending childcare facilities with a recently (within 1 month) hospitalized child is affected by gender, age and other characteristics.......To estimate how risk of acute respiratory infection (ARI) hospitalization in children attending childcare facilities with a recently (within 1 month) hospitalized child is affected by gender, age and other characteristics....

  8. Acute respiratory infections in young Ethiopian children

    Harris RA

    2015-07-01

    Full Text Available Rebecca Arden HarrisDepartment of Family and Social Medicine, Montefiore Medical Center, Albert Einstein College of Medicine, Bronx, NY, USAThe identification of risk factors for acute respiratory infections (ARI is crucial for designing interventions to both minimize transmission and augment the immune response, particularly in Sub-Saharan Africa where poverty-related ARI is still a major cause of preventable death in young children.1 I therefore read with interest Geberetsadik et al’s recent study of the factors associated with ARI in Ethiopian children.2 Their study uses nationally representative data on households and individuals to build a model of the social, demographic, and anthropometric determinants of ARI. A precise understanding of their model, however, requires clarification of several items in their paper.View original paper by Geberetsadik et al.

  9. Oral rehydration therapy of acute enteric infections

    S. M. Zacharenko

    2014-09-01

    Full Text Available Analysis of holding rehydration therapy in acute intestinal infections in both civilian and military care facilities showed that the civilian centers of this type of therapy was appointed by 84,5% of patients, and in the military – 50,16%. The average duration of oral rehydration therapy was 4,0 days at the easy degree of weight, at middle – 5,3 and at a heavy flow – 5,7 days. On average, in easy degree of weight, patients received 1423.7 ml of liquid, at middle – 1092.6 ml at and a heavy flow - 1652.2 ml. Value for patients receiving only oral rehydration solution to patients who received only the infusion therapy and to receive both types of therapy was 1: 6,8: 2,4. Officinal drugs accounted for 62% of all appointments, often used Rehydron (47,7% and ORS (16,5%.

  10. Bilateral optic neuritis in acute human immunodeficiency virus infection

    Larsen, M; Toft, P.B.; Bernhard, P;

    1998-01-01

    PURPOSE: To report a case of acute viral disease accompanied by bilateral optic neuritis with substantial paraclinical evidence that human immunodeficiency virus was the causative agent. METHODS: Clinical and paraclinical examination. Magnetic resonance imaging. RESULTS: Virus and antibody titers...... as well as reverse lymphocytosis were consistent with acute infection by the human immunodeficiency virus-1. CONCLUSIONS: Human immunodeficiency virus infection should be considered in the differential diagnosis of acute optic neuritis...

  11. Probability of HIV Transmission During Acute Infection in Rakai, Uganda

    Pinkerton, Steven D.

    2007-01-01

    Accurate estimates of the probability of HIV transmission during various stages of infection are needed to inform epidemiological models. Very limited information is available about the probability of transmission during acute HIV infection. We conducted a secondary analysis of published data from the Rakai, Uganda seroconversion study. Mathematical and computer-based models were used to quantify the per-act and per-partnership transmission probabilities during acute and chronic HIV infection...

  12. Prevalence of Shigella Serogroups and Their Antimicrobial Resistance Patterns in Southern Trinidad

    Orrett, Fitzroy A.

    2008-01-01

    The serogroup distribution and antimicrobial susceptibility patterns of Shigella isolates obtained from stool specimens of persons with acute diarrhoea in community-based studies from southern Trinidad during 1997-2006 were reviewed. Of the 5,187 stool specimens, 392 (8%) were positive for Shigella organisms. From these 392 isolates, 88.8% were recovered from children aged >0-10 year(s). Shigella sonnei was the most frequently-isolated serogroup (75%), followed by S. flexneri (19%), S. boydii...

  13. Status of vaccine research and development for Shigella.

    Mani, Sachin; Wierzba, Thomas; Walker, Richard I

    2016-06-01

    Shigella are gram-negative bacteria that cause severe diarrhea and dysentery. In 2013, Shigella infections caused an estimated 34,400 deaths in children less than five years old and, in 2010, an estimated 40,000 deaths in persons older than five years globally. New disease burden estimates from newly deployed molecular diagnostic assays with increased sensitivity suggest that Shigella-associated morbidity may be much greater than previous disease estimates from culture-based methods. Primary prevention of this disease should be based on universal provision of potable water and sanitation methods and improved personal and food hygiene. However, an efficacious and low-cost vaccine would complement and accelerate disease reduction while waiting for universal access to water, sanitation, and hygiene improvements. This review article provides a landscape of Shigella vaccine development efforts. No vaccine is yet available, but human and animal challenge-rechallenge trials with virulent Shigella as well as observational studies in Shigella-endemic areas have shown that the incidence of disease decreases following Shigella infection, pointing to biological feasibility of a vaccine. Immunity to Shigella appears to be strain-specific, so a vaccine that covers the most commonly detected strains (i.e., S. flexneri 2a, 3a, 6, and S. sonnei) or a vaccine using cross-species conserved antigens would likely be most effective. Vaccine development and testing may be accelerated by use of animal models, such as the guinea pig keratoconjunctivitis or murine pneumonia models. Because there is no correlate of protection, however, human studies will be necessary to evaluate vaccine efficacy prior to deployment. A diversity of Shigella vaccine constructs are under development, including live attenuated, formalin-killed whole-cell, glycoconjugate, subunit, and novel antigen vaccines (e.g., Type III secretion system and outer membrane proteins). PMID:26979135

  14. Interactions between Shigella flexneri and the Autophagy Machinery

    Krokowski, Sina; Mostowy, Serge

    2016-01-01

    Autophagy, an intracellular degradation process, is increasingly recognized as having important roles in host defense. Interactions between Shigella flexneri and the autophagy machinery were first discovered in 2005. Since then, work has shown that multiple autophagy pathways are triggered by S. flexneri, and autophagic responses can have different roles during Shigella infection. Here, we review the interactions between S. flexneri and the autophagy machinery, highlighting that studies using...

  15. Antibiogram Pattern of Shigella flexneri: Effect of Bio Field Treatment

    Mahendra Kumar Trivedi; Alice Branton; Dahryn Trivedi; Gopal Nayak

    2015-01-01

    Shigellosis is a major public health burden in India and its neighboring countries due to infection of Shigella species. The current study was attempted to investigate the effect of biofield treatment on Shigella flexneri (S. flexneri) with respect of antimicrobial susceptibility assay, biochemical characteristics and biotyping. The American Type Culture Collection (ATCC 9199) strain of S. flexneri was used in this experiment. The study was conducted in revived and lyophilized state of S. fle...

  16. Acute Pancreatitis Complicating Acute Hepatitis E Virus Infection: A Case Report and Review

    Hemanta Kumar Nayak

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Acute pancreatitis complicating fulminant viral hepatitis has been well recognized; however, acute pancreatitis occurring in nonfulminant hepatitis is very rare. The case presented describes moderate pancreatitis in a young male, manifesting during the course of nonfulminant acute hepatitis E infection. The diagnosis of acute viral hepatitis E was confirmed by serology and reverse transcriptase polymerase chain reaction (RT-PCR to demonstrate Hepatitis E virus (HEV RNA in both stool and serum. Patients with acute viral hepatitis presenting with severe abdominal pain should have a diagnosis of acute pancreatitis suspected and appropriate investigations including serum amylase, lipase, biliary ultrasonography and/or contrast-enhanced computed tomography of the abdomen should be undertaken. The identification of this unusual complication of Hepatitis E is important; however, the prognosis for patients with Acute Pancreatitis Complicating Acute Hepatitis E Virus Infection is good, and uncomplicated recovery with conservative treatment is expected.

  17. Acute Pancreatitis Complicating Acute Hepatitis E Virus Infection: A Case Report and Review

    Hemanta Kumar Nayak; Nitish L Kamble; Nishant Raizada; Sandeep Garg,; Mradul Kumar Daga

    2013-01-01

    Acute pancreatitis complicating fulminant viral hepatitis has been well recognized; however, acute pancreatitis occurring in nonfulminant hepatitis is very rare. The case presented describes moderate pancreatitis in a young male, manifesting during the course of nonfulminant acute hepatitis E infection. The diagnosis of acute viral hepatitis E was confirmed by serology and reverse transcriptase polymerase chain reaction (RT-PCR) to demonstrate Hepatitis E virus (HEV) RNA in both stool and ser...

  18. In vitro adhesion and invasion inhibition of Shigella dysenteriae, Shigella flexneri and Shigella sonnei clinical strains by human milk proteins

    Giugliano Loreny; Lima Renato de; Willer Emerson

    2004-01-01

    Abstract Background Shigella is the etiological agent of shigellosis, a disease responsible for more than 500,000 deaths of children per year, in developing countries. These pathogens colonize the intestinal colon, invade, spreading to the other enterocytes. Breastfeeding plays a very important role in protecting infants from intestinal infections. Amongst milk compounds, glycosylated proteins prevent the adhesion of many enteropathogens in vitro. The aim of this work was to determine the eff...

  19. Pathogenic significance of Klebsiella oxytoca in acute respiratory tract infection.

    Power, J T; Calder, M A

    1983-01-01

    A retrospective study of all Klebsiella isolations from patients admitted to hospital with acute respiratory tract infections over a 27-month period was carried out. Ten of the Klebsiella isolations from sputum and one from a blood culture were identified as Klebsiella oxytoca. The clinical and radiological features of six patients are described. Four of these patients had lobar pneumonia, one bronchopneumonia, and one acute respiratory tract infection superimposed on cryptogenic fibrosing al...

  20. Acute cerebellar ataxia with human parvovirus B19 infection

    Shimizu, Y; Ueno, T.; Komatsu, H.; Takada, H.; Nunoue, T.

    1999-01-01

    A 2 year old boy developed acute cerebellar ataxia in association with erythema infectiosum. During the disease, genomic DNA and antibodies against human parvovirus B19 were detected in serum but not in cerebrospinal fluid. Parvovirus B19 associated acute cerebellar ataxia might occur due to transient vascular reaction in the cerebellum during infection.



  1. Shigella flexneri Sepsis in an Infant

    Ju-Bei Yen; Kuei-Wen Chang; Tsu-Lan Wu; An-Jin Kuo; Lin-Hui Su

    2003-01-01

    Shigellosis continues to be an important public health problem in developed countries,since communication in the world village has become more frequent. In addition, this diseaseis difficult to be prevented because only a small number of bacteria are required tocause infection, and it has exhibited steady trends towards multiple drug resistance. Thisreport describes a 7-month-old female infant with Shigella flexneri sepsis presenting initiallywith a high fever, watery diarrhea, and dehydratio...

  2. The porcine acute phase protein response to acute clinical and subclinical experimental infection with Streptococcus suis

    Sørensen, Nanna Skall; Tegtmeier, C.; Andresen, Lars Ole;

    2006-01-01

    The pig acute phase protein (APP) response to experimental Streptococcus suis (S. suis) infection was mapped by the measurement of the positive APPs C-reactive protein (CRP), serum amyloid A (SAA), haptoglobin (Hp) and major acute phase protein (pig-MAP) and the negative APPs albumin and apolipop......The pig acute phase protein (APP) response to experimental Streptococcus suis (S. suis) infection was mapped by the measurement of the positive APPs C-reactive protein (CRP), serum amyloid A (SAA), haptoglobin (Hp) and major acute phase protein (pig-MAP) and the negative APPs albumin and...

  3. Shigella from Humans in Thailand During 1993 to 2006

    Bangtrakulnonth, A.; Wong, Danilo Lo Fo; Vieira, Antonio; Pornreonwong, S.; Pulsrikarn, C.; Sawanpanyalert, P.; Hendriksen, Rene S.; Aarestrup, Frank Møller

    2008-01-01

    In Thailand during 1993-2006, a total of 9063 Shigella isolates from different medical centers were serotyped and trends over time and. spatial clustering analyzed. Of 3583 cases with age information, 1315 (37%) cases were from children between 0 and 4 years and 684 (1.9%) from children between 5...... and 8 years. Most infections were recorded during 1993-1994 (> 1500 per year), decreasing to <200 in 2006. The relative species distribution also changed. During 1993-1994, Shigella flexneri accounted for 2241 (65%) of 3474 isolations. This proportion decreased to 64 (36%) of 176 infections in 2006....... Most infections occurred during July and August, and fewest in December. S. flexneri clustered around Bangkok, and Shigella sonnei in southern Thailand. Most S. flexneri infections were caused by serotype 2a (1590 of 4035) followed by serotype var X (1249). For both serotypes, a pronounced decrease in...

  4. Acute Legionella pneumophila infection masquerading as acute alcoholic hepatitis

    Hunter, Jonathan Michael; Chan, Julian; Reid, Angeline Louise; Tan, Chistopher

    2013-01-01

    A middle-aged man had deteriorated rapidly in hospital after being misdiagnosed with acute alcoholic hepatitis. Acute Legionnaires disease (Legionellosis) was subsequently diagnosed on rapid antigen urinary testing and further confirmed serologically. This led to appropriate antibiotic treatment and complete clinical resolution. Physicians caring for patients with alcohol-related liver disease should consider Legionella pneumophila in their differential diagnosis even with a paucity of respir...

  5. Comparative efficacies of pivmecillinam and ampicillin in acute shigellosis.

    Kabir, I; Rahaman, M M; Ahmed, S M; Akhter, S Q; Butler, T

    1984-05-01

    The clinical efficacies of pivmecillinam and ampicillin were compared in a randomized double-blind trial in the treatment of acute shigellosis. Of 44 adult male patients, all culture positive for Shigella strains, 22 patients received 400 mg of pivmecillinam and 22 patients received 500 mg of ampicillin every 6 h. Both drugs were administered orally for 5 days. Four patients receiving ampicillin were infected with Shigella strains that were resistant to ampicillin but susceptible to pivmecillinam, and two patients receiving pivmecillinam were infected with Shigella strains resistant to both ampicillin and pivmecillinam. The mean duration of diarrhea in all patients receiving pivmecillinam was 3.3 days compared with 4.5 days in patients receiving ampicillin (P less than 0.05). When patients infected with the resistant strains were excluded, the mean duration of diarrhea in patients receiving pivmecillinam was 3.2 days compared with 4.1 days in patients receiving ampicillin. The patients infected with strains susceptible to both antibiotics had mean durations of fecal excretion of Shigella strains of 1.2 days for those treated with pivmecillinam and 1.4 days for those treated with ampicillin. The patients infected with organisms resistant to both drugs had longer durations of diarrhea and fecal excretion of Shigella strains. The results suggest that pivmecillinam is as effective as ampicillin and can be a useful drug for the treatment of shigellosis. PMID:6329092

  6. Acute Sin Nombre hantavirus infection without pulmonary syndrome, United States.

    Kitsutani, P. T.; Denton, R. W.; Fritz, C. L.; Murray, R. A.; Todd, R. L.; Pape, W. J.; Wyatt Frampton, J.; Young, J C; Khan, A. S.; Peters, C. J.; Ksiazek, T. G.

    1999-01-01

    Hantavirus pulmonary syndrome (HPS) occurs in most infections with Sin Nombre virus and other North American hantaviruses. We report five cases of acute hantavirus infection that did not fit the HPS case definition. The patients had characteristic prodromal symptoms without severe pulmonary involvement. These cases suggest that surveillance for HPS may need to be expanded.

  7. Levofloxacin in Preventing Infection in Young Patients With Acute Leukemia Receiving Chemotherapy or Undergoing Stem Cell Transplantation

    2016-04-08

    Acute Leukemias of Ambiguous Lineage; Bacterial Infection; Diarrhea; Fungal Infection; Musculoskeletal Complications; Neutropenia; Recurrent Childhood Acute Lymphoblastic Leukemia; Recurrent Childhood Acute Myeloid Leukemia; Secondary Acute Myeloid Leukemia; Untreated Childhood Acute Myeloid Leukemia and Other Myeloid Malignancies

  8. Detection of Acute Toxoplasmosis: The Genitally Transmittable Infection

    Saeedeh Shojaee

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Objectives: Toxoplasma gondii is an obligate intracellular parasite that infects a broad range of warm- blooded animals including human. Tachyzoites of T.gondii invade the host cell, replicate and finally lead to the lysis of the cell. T. gondii is associated with congenital infection and it can cause encephalitis, or systemic infection in immunocompromised patients. It is important to know whether the infection is recently acquired or is chronic. Differentiation between acute and chronic infection has a dramatic impact, especially for the developing fetus. In this study, Toxoplasma gondii was detected in acute phase of infection in serum sample of a person who had been accidentally infected with tachyzoites of RH strain in the laboratory. Materials and Methods: Anti- T.gondii IgG antibody was prepared by rabbit immunization with soluble antigen of tachyzoites of RH strain. Capture- ELISA, immunoblotting and PCR were performed in the laboratory. Results: Antigenemia and parasitemia was detected in serum sample of infected person by capture_ELISA, immunoblotting and PCR techniques respectively. Conclusion: Acute T.gondii infection could be detectable in a short period of time in the sera of infected person.

  9. The porcine acute phase protein response to acute clinical and subclinical experimental infection with Streptococcus suis

    Sørensen, Nanna Skall; Tegtmeier, C.; Andresen, Lars Ole; Pineiro, M.; Toussaint, M.J.M.; Campbell, F.M.; Lampreave, F.; Heegaard, Peter M. H.

    The pig acute phase protein (APP) response to experimental Streptococcus suis (S. suis) infection was mapped by the measurement of the positive APPs C-reactive protein (CRP), serum amyloid A (SAA), haptoglobin (Hp) and major acute phase protein (pig-MAP) and the negative APPs albumin and apolipop...

  10. Modulation of Caenorhabditis elegans immune response and modification of Shigella endotoxin upon interaction.

    Kesika, Periyanaina; Prasanth, Mani Iyer; Balamurugan, Krishnaswamy

    2015-04-01

    To analyze the pathogenesis at both physiological and molecular level using the model organism, Caenorhabditis elegans at different developmental stages in response to Shigella spp. and its pathogen associated molecular patterns such as lipopolysaccharide. The solid plate and liquid culture-based infection assays revealed that Shigella spp. infects C. elegans and had an impact on the brood size and pharyngeal pumping rate. LPS of Shigella spp. was toxic to C. elegans. qPCR analysis revealed that host innate immune genes have been modulated upon Shigella spp. infections and its LPS challenges. Non-destructive analysis was performed to kinetically assess the alterations in LPS during interaction of Shigella spp. with C. elegans. The modulation of innate immune genes attributed the surrendering of host immune system to Shigella spp. by favoring the infection. LPS appeared to have a major role in Shigella-mediated pathogenesis and Shigella employs a tactic behavior of modifying its LPS content to escape from the recognition of host immune system. PMID:25384571

  11. Acute hantavirus infection induces galectin-3-binding protein.

    Hepojoki, Jussi; Strandin, Tomas; Hetzel, Udo; Sironen, Tarja; Klingström, Jonas; Sane, Jussi; Mäkelä, Satu; Mustonen, Jukka; Meri, Seppo; Lundkvist, Ake; Vapalahti, Olli; Lankinen, Hilkka; Vaheri, Antti

    2014-11-01

    Hantaviruses are zoonotic viruses that cause life-threatening diseases when transmitted to humans. Severe hantavirus infection is manifested by impairment of renal function, pulmonary oedema and capillary leakage. Both innate and adaptive immune responses contribute to the pathogenesis, but the underlying mechanisms are not fully understood. Here, we showed that galectin-3-binding protein (Gal-3BP) was upregulated as a result of hantavirus infection both in vitro and in vivo. Gal-3BP is a secreted glycoprotein found in human serum, and increased Gal-3BP levels have been reported in chronic viral infections and in several types of cancer. Our in vitro experiments showed that, whilst Vero E6 cells (an African green monkey kidney cell line) constitutively expressed and secreted Gal-3BP, this protein was detected in primary human cells only as a result of hantavirus infection. Analysis of Gal-3BP levels in serum samples of cynomolgus macaques infected experimentally with hantavirus indicated that hantavirus infection induced Gal-3BP also in vivo. Finally, analysis of plasma samples collected from patients hospitalized because of acute hantavirus infection showed higher Gal-3BP levels during the acute than the convalescent phase. Furthermore, the Gal-3BP levels in patients with haemorrhagic fever with renal syndrome correlated with increased complement activation and with clinical variables reflecting the severity of acute hantavirus infection. PMID:25013204

  12. Shigella reroutes host cell central metabolism to obtain high-flux nutrient supply for vigorous intracellular growth.

    Kentner, David; Martano, Giuseppe; Callon, Morgane; Chiquet, Petra; Brodmann, Maj; Burton, Olga; Wahlander, Asa; Nanni, Paolo; Delmotte, Nathanaël; Grossmann, Jonas; Limenitakis, Julien; Schlapbach, Ralph; Kiefer, Patrick; Vorholt, Julia A; Hiller, Sebastian; Bumann, Dirk

    2014-07-01

    Shigella flexneri proliferate in infected human epithelial cells at exceptionally high rates. This vigorous growth has important consequences for rapid progression to life-threatening bloody diarrhea, but the underlying metabolic mechanisms remain poorly understood. Here, we used metabolomics, proteomics, and genetic experiments to determine host and Shigella metabolism during infection in a cell culture model. The data suggest that infected host cells maintain largely normal fluxes through glycolytic pathways, but the entire output of these pathways is captured by Shigella, most likely in the form of pyruvate. This striking strategy provides Shigella with an abundant favorable energy source, while preserving host cell ATP generation, energy charge maintenance, and survival, despite ongoing vigorous exploitation. Shigella uses a simple three-step pathway to metabolize pyruvate at high rates with acetate as an excreted waste product. The crucial role of this pathway for Shigella intracellular growth suggests targets for antimicrobial chemotherapy of this devastating disease. PMID:24958876

  13. Differential Diagnosis and Treatment Proposal for Acute Endodontic Infection.

    Keine, Kátia Cristina; Kuga, Milton Carlos; Pereira, Kamila Figueiredo; Diniz, Ana Carolina Soares; Tonetto, Mateus Rodrigues; Galoza, Marina Oliveira Gonçalves; Magro, Miriam Graziele; de Barros, Yolanda Benedita Abadia Martins; Bandéca, Matheus Coelho; de Andrade, Marcelo Ferrarezi

    2015-01-01

    The objective of this study was to describe the main lesions that simulate clinically and propose a treatment protocol for acute endodontic infection. Signs and clinical symptoms of periodontal abscess, gingival abscess, odontoma, herpes simplex, pericoronitis, acute pulpitis and necrotizing ulcerative gingivitis/periodontitis (NUG/NUP) were described and compared with acute endodontic infections. A treatment protocol was described by optimizing the procedures in access cavity, microbial decontamination and detoxification of the root canal, apical debridement, intracanal and systemic medication and surgical drainage procedures. The convenience of the use of 5.25% sodium hypochlorite, root canal instrumentation using a crown-down technique, intracanal medication with 2% chlorhexidine or triple antibiotic paste and the convenience of the use of antibiotics, analgesics, and surgical drainage to solve cases of acute dentoalveolar abscess was discussed. PMID:27018033

  14. Imaging in acute renal infection in children

    Sty, J.R.; Wells, R.G.; Starshak, R.J.; Schroeder, B.A.

    1987-03-01

    Infection is the most common disease of the urinary tract in children, and various imaging techniques have been used to verify its presence and location. On retrospective analysis, 50 consecutive children with documented upper urinary tract infection had abnormal findings on renal cortical scintigraphy with 99mTc-glucoheptonate. The infection involved the renal poles only in 38 and the poles plus other renal cortical areas in eight. Four had abnormalities that spared the poles. Renal sonograms were abnormal in 32 of 50 children. Excretory urograms were abnormal in six of 23 children in whom they were obtained. Vesicoureteral reflux was found in 34 of 40 children in whom voiding cystourethrography was performed. These data show the high sensitivity of renal cortical scintigraphy with 99mTc-glucoheptonate in documenting upper urinary tract infection. The location of the abnormalities detected suggests that renal infections spread via an ascending mode and implies that intrarenal reflux is a major contributing factor.

  15. The role of imaging in adult acute urinary tract infection

    Webb, J.A.W. [Diagnostic Radiology Department, St. Bartholomew`s Hospital, West Smithfield, London EC1A 7BE (United Kingdom)

    1997-08-01

    Imaging is required in only a minority of patients with urinary tract infection. Some patients who present with severe loin pain are imaged because ureteric colic is suspected. If urinary tract infection does not respond normally to antibiotics, imaging is undertaken to check for evidence of renal obstuction or sepsis. Finally, after the acute infection has been treated, imaging is required in some patients to check for factors pre-disposing to renal damage or to relapsing or recurrent infection. This review discusses the appropriate choice of imaging technique to use in each clinical situation and summarises the expected findings. (orig.). With 15 figs., 1 tab.

  16. The role of imaging in adult acute urinary tract infection

    Imaging is required in only a minority of patients with urinary tract infection. Some patients who present with severe loin pain are imaged because ureteric colic is suspected. If urinary tract infection does not respond normally to antibiotics, imaging is undertaken to check for evidence of renal obstuction or sepsis. Finally, after the acute infection has been treated, imaging is required in some patients to check for factors pre-disposing to renal damage or to relapsing or recurrent infection. This review discusses the appropriate choice of imaging technique to use in each clinical situation and summarises the expected findings. (orig.). With 15 figs., 1 tab

  17. Helicobacter Pylori Infection and Acute Myocardial Infarction

    Nakić, Dario; Včev, Aleksandar; Jović, Albino; Patrka, Jogen; Zekanović, Dražen; Klarin, Ivo; Ivanac, Krešimir; Mrđen, Anamarija; Balen, Sanja

    2011-01-01

    The aim of this investigation was to determine whether H. pylori infection is an independent risk factor for acutemyocardial infarction (AMI), determine is there a link between H. pylori infection and severity of disease. In this prospective, single centre study, were enrolled 100 patients with AMI and control group was consisted 93 healthy individuals. The results of this study showed no difference between H. pylori seropositivity distribution in the investigate and control group ...

  18. Macrophage Apoptosis Triggered by IpaD from Shigella flexneri.

    Arizmendi, Olivia; Picking, William D; Picking, Wendy L

    2016-06-01

    Shigellosis, a potentially severe bacillary dysentery, is an infectious gastrointestinal disease caused by Shigella spp. Shigella invades the human colonic epithelium and avoids clearance by promoting apoptosis of resident immune cells in the gut. This process is dependent on the Shigella type III secretion system (T3SS), which injects effector proteins into target cells to alter their normal cellular functions. Invasion plasmid antigen D (IpaD) is a structural component that forms a complex at the tip of the T3SS apparatus needle. Recently, IpaD has also been shown to indirectly induce apoptosis in B lymphocytes. In this study, we explored the cytotoxicity profile during macrophage infection by Shigella and discovered that the pathogen induces macrophage cell death independent of caspase-1. Our results demonstrate that IpaD triggers apoptosis in macrophages through activation of host caspases accompanied by mitochondrial disruption. Additionally, we found that the IpaD N-terminal domain is necessary for macrophage killing and SipD, a structural homologue from Salmonella, was found to promote similar cytotoxicity. Together, these findings indicate that IpaD is a contributing factor to macrophage cell death during Shigella infection. PMID:27068089

  19. Vaccination against acute respiratory virus infections and measles in man.

    Osterhaus, Ab; Vries, Petra

    1992-01-01

    textabstractSeveral viruses may cause more or less severe acute respiratory infections in man, some of which are followed by systemic infection. Only for influenza and measles are licensed vaccines available at present. The protection induced by influenza vaccines, which are based on inactivated whole virus or viral subunits, depends largely on the matching of vaccine strain and circulating virus. Measles vaccines, which are based on attenuated live virus, have been quite effective in control...

  20. Respiratory virus infections and aeroallergens in acute bronchial asthma.

    Carlsen, K H; Orstavik, I; Leegaard, J; Høeg, H

    1984-01-01

    Two hundred and fifty six attacks of acute bronchial asthma occurring in 169 children aged over 2 years were studied during a two year period. More attacks occurred during spring and autumn than at other times of the year. In 73 patients (29%) a respiratory virus infection was diagnosed, with the same seasonal variation as the asthmatic attacks. Most of the virus infections were caused by rhinovirus (45%) and respiratory syncytial virus (19%). There was no significant correlation between asth...

  1. Acute cytomegalovirus infections in leukemic mice.

    Mayo, D. R.; Rapp, F

    1980-01-01

    Mice infected with 2 x 10(3) plaque-forming units of mouse cytomegalovirus (MCMV) 3 days after receiving 300 to 400 spleen focus-forming units of Friend leukemia virus developed a more severe MCMV infection than did normal animals. Increased severity was demonstrated by the increased amounts of MCMV recoverable from the salivary glands of leukemic mice 1 to 5 weeks postinfection. In addition, the difference in the number of virus isolations from the kidneys, spleens, livers, and lungs of anim...

  2. Acute Borrelia infection inducing an APMPPE-like picture.

    Al Mousa, Munjid; Koch, Frank

    2016-12-01

    Acute posterior multifocal placoid pigment epitheliopathy (APMPPE) is an uncommon disorder of unknown etiology affecting the retina, the retinal pigment epithelium, and the choroid. Although several etiological factors have been suggested, none has been confirmed. We report a case of APMPPE associated with acute infection of Borreliosis. A 30-year-old man presented with a decrease in vision in the right eye of about 1-week duration. His visual acuity in the right eye was 6/36. Fundus exam revealed the presence of multiple placoid creamy retinal/subretinal lesions in the right eye. Fundus fluorescein angiography supported the diagnosis of APMPPE. Blood tests revealed the presence of concomitant acute Borreliosis infection, as confirmed by IgM. The patient received oral prednisone therapy and amoxicillin. Six weeks later, the visual acuity returned to 6/6, and the patient was symptom free. Borreliosis can have several manifestations in the eye. One of the less common presentations is an APMPPE-like picture. The clinician should suspect acute Borreliosis infection in patients presenting with APMPPE, especially when there is a history of a tick bite, when the patient has systemic symptoms, or when living in/visiting endemic areas. This may help in the prompt management of APMPPE, avoiding complications due to the condition itself, or systemic involvement secondary to the Borreliosis infection. PMID:27294731

  3. Novel Human Bocavirus in Children with Acute Respiratory Tract Infection

    Song, Jing-Rong; Jin, Yu; Xie, Zhi-Ping; Gao, Han-chun; Xiao, Ni-Guang; Chen, Wei-Xia; Xu, Zi-qian; Yan, Kun-long; Zhao, Yang; Hou, Yun-De; Duan, Zhao-jun

    2010-01-01

    Human bocavirus (HBoV) and HBoV2, two human bocavirus species, were found in 18 and 10 of 235 nasopharyngeal aspirates, respectively, from children hospitalized with acute respiratory tract infection. Our results suggest that, like HBoV, HBoV2 is distributed worldwide and may be associated with respiratory and enteric diseases.

  4. Acute hepatitis e viral infection in pregnancy and maternal morbidity

    To determine the maternal morbidity in pregnant women with acute hepatitis E viral infection. Study Design: Observational, cross-sectional study. Place and Duration of Study: Departments of Obstetrics and Gynaecology and Medicine, Liaquat University of Medical and Health Sciences, Jamshoro, Red Crescent General Hospital and Saint Elizabeth Hospital, Hyderabad, from January 2011 to December 2013. Methodology: The study population was pregnant women with acute hepatitis E infection confirmed by ELIZA technique. Pregnant women with other hepatic viral infections were excluded. All medical and obstetric conditions, and mortality were noted on the predesigned proforma. Results: Out of the total 45 admitted pregnant women with hepatitis E viral infection, 22 women (48.9%) had severe morbidity. The most common were hepatic coma in 8 (36.36%) cases and disseminated intravascular coagulation in 14 (63.63%) cases. Highest mortality rate was seen in women with hepatic coma (100%), while in those with disseminated intravascular coagulation, one out of the 14 cases (7.14%) died. Conclusion: The acute viral hepatitis E infection in pregnant women is associated with maternal morbidities and high mortality rate. (author)

  5. Sentinel surveillance of HIV-1 transmitted drug resistance, acute infection and recent infection.

    Hong-Ha M Truong

    Full Text Available HIV-1 acute infection, recent infection and transmitted drug resistance screening was integrated into voluntary HIV counseling and testing (VCT services to enhance the existing surveillance program in San Francisco. This study describes newly-diagnosed HIV cases and characterizes correlates associated with infection.A consecutive sample of persons presenting for HIV VCT at the municipal sexually transmitted infections (STI clinic from 2004 to 2006 (N = 9,868 were evaluated by standard enzyme-linked immunoassays (EIA. HIV antibody-positive specimens were characterized as recent infections using a less-sensitive EIA. HIV-RNA pooled testing was performed on HIV antibody-negative specimens to identify acute infections. HIV antibody-positive and acute infection specimens were evaluated for drug resistance by sequence analysis. Multivariable logistic regression was performed to evaluate associations. The 380 newly-diagnosed HIV cases included 29 acute infections, 128 recent infections, and 47 drug-resistant cases, with no significant increases or decreases in prevalence over the three years studied. HIV-1 transmitted drug resistance prevalence was 11.0% in 2004, 13.4% in 2005 and 14.9% in 2006 (p = 0.36. Resistance to non-nucleoside reverse transcriptase inhibitors (NNRTI was the most common pattern detected, present in 28 cases of resistance (59.6%. Among MSM, recent infection was associated with amphetamine use (AOR = 2.67; p<0.001, unprotected anal intercourse (AOR = 2.27; p<0.001, sex with a known HIV-infected partner (AOR = 1.64; p = 0.02, and history of gonorrhea (AOR = 1.62; p = 0.03.New HIV diagnoses, recent infections, acute infections and transmitted drug resistance prevalence remained stable between 2004 and 2006. Resistance to NNRTI comprised more than half of the drug-resistant cases, a worrisome finding given its role as the backbone of first-line antiretroviral therapy in San Francisco as well as worldwide. The integration of HIV-1 drug

  6. The absence of exanthema is related with death and illness severity in acute enterovirus infection

    Hong-Tao Zhou

    2014-11-01

    Conclusions: A considerable proportion of children with an acute enterovirus infection in Guangdong Province, China during 2009–2012 presented no exanthema, and the absence of exanthema was found to be related to death and illness severity for these acute enterovirus infections. Clinicians in China should consider enterovirus as the possible pathogen when treating children with an acute pathogen infection without exanthema.

  7. [Anaerobic-aerobic infection in acute appendicitis].

    Mamchich, V I; Ulitovskiĭ, I V; Savich, E I; Znamenskiĭ, V A; Beliaeva, O A

    1998-01-01

    362 patients with acute appendicitis (AA) were examined. For microbiological diagnosis of aerobic and anaerobic nonclostridial microflora we used complex accelerated methods (including evaluation of gram-negative microorganisms in comparison with tinctorial-fermentative method of differential staining according to oxygen sensitivity of catalasopositive together with aerobic and cathalasonegative anaerobic microorganisms) as well as complete bacteriologic examination with determination of sensitivity of the above microorganism to antimicrobial remedies. High rate of aerobic-anaerobic microbial associations and substantial identity of microflora from appendicis and exudate from abdominal cavity was revealed, which evidenced the leading role of endogenous microorganisms in etiology and pathogenesis of AA and peritonitis i. e. autoinfection. In patients with destructive forms of AA, complicated by peritonitis it is recommended to use the accelerated method of examination of pathologic material as well as the complete scheme of examination with the identification of the isolated microorganisms and the correction of antibiotic treatment. PMID:9511291

  8. Treatment of acute upper respiratory tract infections in children

    Rončević-Babin Nevenka P.

    2002-01-01

    Full Text Available Introduction Acute respiratory tract infections are the most common diseases of childhood. A preschool child suffers up to 5-7 infections of upper airways during a year. Upper airway infections make 80 - 90% of all respiratory infections. Etiology and treatment In 75% of all cases respiratory infections are of viral etiology, 15% of bacterial and 10% are caused by mycoplasma, rickettsiae, fungi, parasites. The treatment of respiratory infections includes antimicrobial therapy (causal, relief of symptoms (symptomatic and application of general principles of child treatment. The choice of antimicrobial drug is based on the evidence of agents and their sensitivity to antimicrobial drugs, age, patient's condition, previous treatment and possible allergic reactions to the drug. In cases where adequate specimen cannot be obtained for microbiologic tests, when these tests do not reveal the agent, or therapy must start before evidence of the agent is available, we must decide about the therapy, taking in consideration the most frequent agents, and those that would cause the most devastating clinical picture. This therapy can be modified later, according to the isolated agent and its sensitivity to the drug. Considering the incidence and importance of respiratory infections in morbidity and mortality of children, the aim of this article was to present guidelines in treatment of respiratory infections. The main point remains that the treatment should take into consideration the individual patient before all.

  9. Immunologically Silent Autochthonous Acute Hepatitis E Virus Infection in France

    Mansuy, Jean Michel; Peron, Jean Marie; Bureau, Christophe; Alric, Laurent; Vinel, Jean Pierre; Izopet, Jacques

    2004-01-01

    Hepatitis E is an acute and self-limiting hepatitis, and the causative agent, hepatitis E virus, is excreted in feces and orally transmitted. The disease is common in Asia and Africa, causing outbreaks or sporadic cases. In Europe, the infection is generally observed after a history of travel in an area of endemicity. We report on an autochthonous case in southwestern France in which the diagnosis was based on molecular tools rather than serological testing.

  10. Pteropine orthoreovirus infection among out-patients with acute upper respiratory tract infection in Malaysia.

    Voon, Kenny; Tan, Yeh Fong; Leong, Pooi Pooi; Teng, Cheong Lieng; Gunnasekaran, Rajasekaran; Ujang, Kamsiah; Chua, Kaw Bing; Wang, Lin-Fa

    2015-12-01

    This study aims to assess the incidence rate of Pteropine orthreovirus (PRV) infection in patients with acute upper respiratory tract infection (URTI) in a suburban setting in Malaysia, where bats are known to be present in the neighborhood. Using molecular detection of PRVs directly from oropharyngeal swabs, our study demonstrates that PRV is among one of the common causative agents of acute URTI with cough and sore throat as the commonest presenting clinical features. Phylogenetic analysis on partial major outer and inner capsid proteins shows that these PRV strains are closely related to Melaka and Kampar viruses previously isolated in Malaysia. Further study is required to determine the public health significance of PRV infection in Southeast Asia, especially in cases where co-infection with other pathogens may potentially lead to different clinical outcomes. PMID:26106066

  11. Treatment of acute lower respiratory tract infections in children

    Rončević-Babin Nevenka P.

    2002-01-01

    Full Text Available Introduction Acute respiratory tract infections are the most common childhood diseases. A preschool child suffers up to 5-7 infections of upper airways during a year. Lower airway infections make 5-20% of all respiratory infections. Etiologic factors In developed countries, 75% of pneumonias in childhood are of viral etiology, in 15% of bacterial, and in 10% of some other causative agent (mycoplasma, rickettsiae, fungi, parasites. In developing countries, bacterial pneumonias are present in much higher percentages. Treatment Treatment of respiratory infections includes antimicrobial therapy (causal, relief of symptoms (symptomatic and conduction of general principles in child treatment. The choice of antimicrobial drug is based on evidence of agents and their sensitivity to antimicrobial drugs, age, patient's condition, previous treatment and possible allergic reactions to the drug. In cases where we cannot provide adequate specimen for microbiologic testing, when these tests do not reveal the agent, or when therapy must be started before the agent is available, we must decide about the therapy, taking in consideration the most frequent agents, and those that would cause the most devastating clinical picture. This therapy can later be modified according to the isolated agent and its sensitivity to the drug. Conclusion Having in mind the incidence and importance of respiratory infections in morbidity and mortality of children the aim of this article was to show guidelines in treatment of respiratory infections in children. The main point remains that we should take in consideration the individual patient before all.

  12. Antibiotic Resistance of Shigella Species in Iran

    A.Mehr-Movahed; J. Nikkhah

    1987-01-01

    Antibiotic resistance in Shigella species has been showing a rising trend all over the world. This study was performed to discover the state of antibiotic resistance of Shigella species with regards to six common antibiotics in use in Iran.

  13. RESPIRATORY SYNCYTIAL VIRUS INFECTION AMONG YOUNG CHILDREN WITH ACUTE RESPIRATORY INFECTION

    Milani, M

    2003-01-01

    Respiratory syncytial virus (RSV) is the major cause of lower respiratory tract infections in infants,and also an important factor for hospitalization during the winter months. To determine the prevalence and importance of RSV as a cause of acute lower respiratory tract infection, we carried out a prospective study during 5 months period from November to March 1998 in 6 pediatric hospitals. A nasopharyngeal aspirate was obtained for detection of RSV in all cases. Sociodemographic data, clinic...

  14. Pivmecillinam for the treatment of acute uncomplicated urinary infection.

    Nicolle, L E

    1999-12-01

    Pivmecillinam is a beta-lactam antimicrobial marketed almost two decades ago. It has been used widely for the treatment of acute cystitis in selected areas of the world, particularly in Scandinavia. With increasing resistance of community Escherichia coli isolates to trimethoprim and trimethoprim/sulphamethoxazole, as previously observed for ampicillin and sulphonamides, reassessment of empiric antimicrobial regimens for acute uncomplicated urinary infection is necessary. Thus, it is timely to revisit the role of pivmecillinam for the treatment of acute cystitis. Clinical studies document the efficacy of this antimicrobial with short course therapy for acute cystitis, and clinical practice in countries where it has been used for many years confirms its efficacy and tolerability. If this agent were more widely used for empiric treatment for acute cystitis, use of antimicrobials such as the quinolones might be avoided. Further trials to define the comparative efficacy of pivmecillinam with other antimicrobials, and further studies of community resistance in E. coli isolates to this agent are needed. PMID:10692756

  15. Two Cases of Vulvovaginitis Caused by Shigella flexneri and Shigella sonnei: a Case Report

    Bayramoğlu, Gülçin; Aydın, Faruk; Karagüzel, Gülay; İmamoğlu, Mustafa; Ökten, Ayşenur

    2012-01-01

    Vulvovaginitis caused by Shigella species (Shigella spp.) has rarely been reported. This paper describes two cases of prepubertal vulvovaginitis, presenting with a bloody and purulent vaginal discharge, separately caused by ampicillin-resistant Shigella flexneri and trimethoprim-sulfomethoxazoleresistant Shigella sonnei. Our conclusions are that Shigella spp. is the potential cause of vulvovaginitis in prepubertal girls in developing countries where these pathogens are endemic, and identifica...

  16. Two Cases of Vulvovaginitis Caused by Shigella flexneri and Shigella sonnei: a Case Report

    Gülçin Bayramoğlu; Faruk Aydın; Gülay Karagüzel; Mustafa İmamoğlu; Ayşenur Ökten

    2012-01-01

    Vulvovaginitis caused by Shigella species (Shigella spp.) has rarely been reported. This paper describes two cases of prepubertal vulvovaginitis, presenting with a bloody and purulent vaginal discharge, separately caused by ampicillin-resistant Shigella flexneri and trimethoprim-sulfomethoxazole-resistant Shigella sonnei. Our conclusions are that Shigella spp. is the potential cause of vulvovaginitis in prepubertal girls in developing countries where these pathogens are endemic, and identific...

  17. Bone and Joint Infections in Children: Acute Hematogenous Osteomyelitis.

    Agarwal, Anil; Aggarwal, Aditya N

    2016-08-01

    Acute hematogenous osteomyelitis (AHO) is one of the commonest bone infection in childhood. Staphylococcus aureus is the commonest organism causing AHO. With use of advanced diagnostic methods, fastidious Kingella kingae is increasingly becoming an important organism in etiology of osteoarticular infections in children under the age of 3 y. The diagnosis of AHO is primarily clinical. The main clinical symptom and sign in AHO is pain and tenderness over the affected bone especially in the metaphyseal region. However, in a neonate the clinical presentation may be subtle and misleading. Laboratory and radiological investigations supplement the clinical findings. The acute phase reactants such as C-reactive protein (CRP) and erythrocyte sedimentation rate (ESR) are frequently elevated. Ultrasonography and MRI are key imaging modalities for early detection of AHO. Determination of infecting organism in AHO is the key to the correct antibiotic choice, treatment duration and overall management and therefore, organism isolation using blood cultures and site aspiration should be attempted. Several effective antibiotics regimes are available for managing AHO in children. The choice of antibiotic and its duration and mode of delivery requires individualization depending upon severity of infection, causative organism, regional sensitivity patterns, time elapsed between onset of symptoms and child's presentation and the clinical and laboratory response to the treatment. If pus has been evidenced in the soft tissues or bone region, surgical decompression of abscess is mandatory. PMID:26096866

  18. Anti-infection treatment of iatrogenic acute radiation sickness

    Objective: To occumulatle experience of anti-infection treatment in acute radiation sickness (ARS) induced by medical treatment in order to provide beneficial help for victims of accidental of acute radiation sickness. Methods: The changes of peripheral blood indices, body temperature and clinical symptoms of 17 cases who were clinically irradiated with 6.0-7.2 Gy X-rays were observed both before peripheral blood stem cell transplantation(PBSCT) and after anti-infection treatment. Results: WBC count began to decrease to below 1 x 109/L from the 8th to 10th days after irradiation and maintained at row level for 4 days or for 13.3 days if the patients had not received rhG-CSF treatment. In 29.4% of patients the body temperature was higher than 38.5 degree C. After comprehensive enviromental protection and anti-infection treatment, all patients could successfully tide over the period of bone marrow depression without appearance of the typical critical phase of ARS. Conclusion: PBSCT and rhG-CSF treatment can reduce the time span for reconstruction of bone marrow. Comprehensive enviromental protection and combined anti-infection treatment are key points fm successful treatment. (authors)

  19. Ineffective airway clearance in children with acute respiratory infection

    Lívia Zulmyra Cintra Andrade

    2014-03-01

    Full Text Available This cross-sectional study was performed with 151 children inpatients of a pediatric hospital in Northeastern Brazil, with the objective to analyze the accuracy of the defining characteristics of the diagnoses ineffective airway clearance in children with acute respiratory infection. A thorough respiratory evaluation was performed and the diagnostic inference was developed by specialists. The most frequent defining characteristics were adventitious breath sounds, ineffective cough, dyspnea, and changes in respiratory rate. Ineffective airway clearance was present in 37.7% of the sample. Agitation was the characteristic with the highest sensitivity. Dyspnea, adventitious breath sounds, orthopnea, changes in respiratory rate and agitation presented higher specificity for the diagnosis. In conclusion, the defining characteristics showed different performances to correctly classify children with infective airway clearance. Studies like this can contribute for a correct nursing diagnostic inference and for the implementation of more effective interventions, thus improving the quality of health care. Descriptors: Respiratory Tract Infections; Nursing Diagnosis; Child.

  20. Contemporary management of infected necrosis complicating severe acute pancreatitis

    Jamdar, Saurabh; Siriwardena, Ajith K

    2006-01-01

    Pancreatic necrosis complicating severe acute pancreatitis is a challenging scenario in contemporary critical care practice; it requires multidisciplinary care in a setting where there is a relatively limited evidence base to support decision making. This commentary provides a concise overview of current management of patients with infected necrosis, focusing on detection, the role of pharmacologic intervention, and the timing and nature of surgical interventions. Fine-needle aspiration of necrosis remains the mainstay for establishment of infection. Pharmacological intervention includes antibiotic therapy as an adjunct to surgical debridement/drainage and, more recently, drotrecogin alfa. Specific concerns remain regarding the suitability of drotrecogin alfa in this setting. Early surgical intervention is unhelpful; surgery is indicated when there is strong evidence for infection of necrotic tissue, with the current trend being toward 'less drastic' surgical interventions. PMID:16356213

  1. Primary pneumocystis infection in infants hospitalized with acute respiratory tract infection

    Larsen, Hans Henrik; von Linstow, Marie-Louise; Lundgren, Bettina; Høgh, Birthe; Westh, Henrik; Lundgren, Jens D

    2007-01-01

    Acquisition of Pneumocystis jirovecii infection early in life has been confirmed by serologic studies. However, no evidence of clinical illness correlated with the primary infection has been found in immunocompetent children. We analyzed 458 nasopharyngeal aspirates from 422 patients hospitalized...... with 431 episodes of acute respiratory tract infection (RTI) by using a real-time PCR assay. In 68 episodes in 67 infants, P. jirovecii was identified. The odds ratio (95% confidence interval) of a positive signal compared with the first quartile of age (7-49 days) was 47.4 (11.0-203), 8.7 (1...

  2. Acute respiratory viral infections in pediatric cancer patients undergoing chemotherapy

    Eliana C.A. Benites

    2014-07-01

    Full Text Available OBJECTIVE: to estimate the prevalence of infection by respiratory viruses in pediatric patients with cancer and acute respiratory infection (ARI and/or fever. METHODS: cross-sectional study, from January 2011 to December 2012. The secretions of nasopharyngeal aspirates were analyzed in children younger than 21 years with acute respiratory infections. Patients were treated at the Grupo em Defesa da Criança Com Câncer (Grendacc and University Hospital (HU, Jundiaí, SP. The rapid test was used for detection of influenza virus (Kit Biotrin, Inc. Ireland, and real-time multiplex polymerase chain reaction (FTD, Respiratory pathogens, multiplex Fast Trade Kit, Malta for detection of influenza virus (H1N1, B, rhinovirus, parainfluenza virus, adenovirus, respiratory syncytial virus, human parechovirus, bocavirus, metapneumovirus, and human coronavirus. The prevalence of viral infection was estimated and association tests were used (χ2 or Fisher's exact test. RESULTS: 104 samples of nasopharyngeal aspirate and blood were analyzed. The median age was 12 ± 5.2 years, 51% males, 68% whites, 32% had repeated ARIs, 32% prior antibiotic use, 19.8% cough, and 8% contact with ARIs. A total of 94.3% were in good general status. Acute lymphocytic leukemia (42.3% was the most prevalent neoplasia. Respiratory viruses were detected in 50 samples: rhinoviruses (23.1%, respiratory syncytial virus AB (8.7%, and coronavirus (6.8%. Co-detection occurred in 19% of cases with 2 viruses and in 3% of those with 3 viruses, and was more frequent between rhinovirus and coronavirus 43. Fever in neutropenic patients was observed in 13%, of which four (30.7 were positive for viruses. There were no deaths. CONCLUSIONS: the prevalence of respiratory viruses was relevant in the infectious episode, with no increase in morbidity and mortality. Viral co-detection was frequent in patients with cancer and ARIs.

  3. Shigella reroutes host cell central metabolism to obtain high-flux nutrient supply for vigorous intracellular growth

    Kentner, David; Martano, Giuseppe; Callon, Morgane; Chiquet, Petra; Brodmann, Maj; Burton, Olga; Wahlander, Asa; Nanni, Paolo; Delmotte, Nathanaël; Grossmann, Jonas; Limenitakis, Julien; Schlapbach, Ralph; Kiefer, Patrick; Vorholt, Julia A.; Hiller, Sebastian

    2014-01-01

    Shigella flexneri proliferate in infected human epithelial cells at exceptionally high rates. This vigorous growth has important consequences for rapid progression to life-threatening bloody diarrhea, but the underlying metabolic mechanisms remain poorly understood. Here, we used metabolomics, proteomics, and genetic experiments to determine host and Shigella metabolism during infection in a cell culture model. The data suggest that infected host cells maintain largely normal fluxes through g...

  4. INVESTIGATION OF ECOLOGICAL FEATURES OF ACUTE DIARRHEAL INFECTION PATHOGENS

    Malysh N.G.

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available Introduction. Microbiocenosis of human body also differs in extreme multicomponents and diverse content of microflora representatives forming its part. According to the biotype of bacterial contamination certain inter-bacterial relations are formed, which is reflected in the qualitative and quantitative characteristics of appropriate microbial landscape. Analysis of numerous microbial association manifestations allows evaluating changes in the pathogen properties influenced by associative microbiota. Work objective - based on the study ecological features of microorganisms isolated from intestine of patients with acute intestinal infections and apparently healthy people, identify potential risk factors for diarrheal infections. Materials & methods. A retrospective epidemiological analysis of acute diarrheal infections incidence was conducted during 2004-2013, using the statistics of the Main Department of the State Sanitary and Epidemiological Service of Ukraine in Sumy region. The intestinal microflora of 93 patients with acute diarrheal infections and 60 persons of the control group (apparently healthy people. As the result 130 bacterial cultures were allocated. Permanence rate was used to estimate biocenosis. Relationships between microbiocenosis members were investigated by determining degree of bond conjunction in associations, using Jaccard coefficient (g. Results & discussion. In 2005-2014 acute diarrheal infection incidence rates of Sumy region population were within 163.7 - 193.6 per 100 people without tendency to decrease. Acute intestinal infections and food toxicoinfections caused by opportunistic pathogens and viruses (p<0.05 dominated in nosological structure. In 35.5 % of cases diarrheal infections were of polyetiological nature. Noroviruses in associations with Candida bacteriaand fungi most often occurred (p<0.05 in the intestinal biotypes. Permanence rate of K. pneumonia, noroviruses, S. aureus, C. albicans was the highest and

  5. Local immune response and protection in the guinea pig keratoconjunctivitis model following immunization with Shigella vaccines.

    Hartman, A B; Van De Verg, L L; Collins, H H; Tang, D B; Bendiuk, N O; Taylor, D N; Powell, C J

    1994-01-01

    This study used the guinea pig keratoconjunctivitis model to examine the importance of route of administration (mucosal versus parenteral), frequency and timing of immunization (primary versus boosting immunization), and form of antigen given (live attenuated vaccine strain versus O-antigen-protein conjugate) on the production of protective immunity against Shigella infection. Since local immune response to the lipopolysaccharide (LPS) O-antigen of Shigella spp. is thought to be important for...

  6. Natural and recombinant interferons inhibit epithelial cell invasion by Shigella spp.

    Niesel, D W; Hess, C. B.; Cho, Y J; Klimpel, K D; Klimpel, G R

    1986-01-01

    The effect of natural and recombinant interferons (IFNs) on the abilities of Shigella flexneri, S. sonnei, and Salmonella typhimurium to invade different human and murine cells was examined. Pretreatment of cell monolayers with natural and recombinant IFNs reduced the number of Shigella-infected cells in a dose-dependent manner. Establishment of an anti-invasive cellular state was time dependent, requiring 10 h for 50% inhibition of bacterial invasion. The inhibitory effect of IFN was species...

  7. Applying mathematical tools to accelerate vaccine development: modeling Shigella immune dynamics.

    Courtney L Davis

    Full Text Available We establish a mathematical framework for studying immune interactions with Shigella, a bacteria that kills over one million people worldwide every year. The long-term goal of this novel approach is to inform Shigella vaccine design by elucidating which immune components and bacterial targets are crucial for establishing Shigella immunity. Our delay differential equation model focuses on antibody and B cell responses directed against antigens like lipopolysaccharide in Shigella's outer membrane. We find that antibody-based vaccines targeting only surface antigens cannot elicit sufficient immunity for protection. Additional boosting prior to infection would require a four-orders-of-magnitude increase in antibodies to sufficiently prevent epithelial invasion. However, boosting anti-LPS B memory can confer protection, which suggests these cells may correlate with immunity. We see that IgA antibodies are slightly more effective per molecule than IgG, but more total IgA is required due to spatial functionality. An extension of the model reveals that targeting both LPS and epithelial entry proteins is a promising avenue to advance vaccine development. This paper underscores the importance of multifaceted immune targeting in creating an effective Shigella vaccine. It introduces mathematical models to the Shigella vaccine development effort and lays a foundation for joint theoretical/experimental/clinical approaches to Shigella vaccine design.

  8. Microbial transformation from normal oral microbiota to acute endodontic infections

    Hsiao William WL

    2012-07-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Endodontic infections are a leading cause of oro-facial pain and tooth loss in western countries, and may lead to severe life-threatening infections. These infections are polymicrobial with high bacterial diversity. Understanding the spatial transition of microbiota from normal oral cavities through the infected root canal to the acute periapical abscess can improve our knowledge of the pathogenesis of endodontic infections and lead to more effective treatment. We obtained samples from the oral cavity, infected root canal and periapical abscess of 8 patients (5 with localized and 3 with systemic infections. Microbial populations in these samples were analyzed using next-generation sequencing of 16S rRNA amplicons. Bioinformatics tools and statistical tests with rigorous criteria were used to elucidate the spatial transition of the microbiota from normal to diseased sites. Results On average, 10,000 partial 16S rRNA gene sequences were obtained from each sample. All sequences fell into 11 different bacterial phyla. The microbial diversity in root canal and abscess samples was significantly lower than in the oral samples. Streptococcus was the most abundant genus in oral cavities while Prevotella and Fusobacterium were most abundant in diseased samples. The microbiota community structures of root canal and abscess samples were, however, more similar to each other than to the oral cavity microbiota. Using rigorous criteria and novel bioinformatics tools, we found that Granulicatella adiacens, Eubacterium yurii, Prevotella melaninogenica, Prevotella salivae, Streptococcus mitis, and Atopobium rimae were over-represented in diseased samples. Conclusions We used a novel approach and high-throughput methodologies to characterize the microbiota associated normal and diseased oral sites in the same individuals.

  9. Sudden psychotic episode probably due to meningoencephalitis and Chlamydia pneumoniae acute infection

    Canas Nuno; Coromina Marta; Correa Bernardo; Xavier Miguel; Guimarães João

    2005-01-01

    Abstract Background Since 9% to 20% of all cases of acute psychosis presenting to an Emergency Department (ED) are due to a general medical condition, cautious medical workup should be mandatory in such patients. Differential diagnosis must consider conditions as diverse as renal failure or CNS infection. Acute Chlamydia pneumoniae infection usually causes a self-limited respiratory syndrome. Rarely, acute neurological complications occur, with acute meningoencephalitis most frequently report...

  10. Shigella Sonnei and Shiga Toxin

    2016-07-28

    Katherine Lamba, an infectious disease epidemiologist with the California Department of Public Health, discusses Shiga Toxin producing Shigella sonnei.  Created: 7/28/2016 by National Center for Emerging and Zoonotic Infectious Diseases (NCEZID).   Date Released: 7/28/2016.

  11. Epstein-Barr Virus Infection with Acute Pancreatitis Associated with Cholestatic Hepatitis

    Kang, Seok-Jin; Yoon, Ka-Hyun; Hwang, Jin-Bok

    2013-01-01

    Infection-induced acute hepatitis complicated with acute pancreatitis is associated with hepatitis A virus, hepatitis B virus or hepatitis E virus. Although rare, Epstein-Barr virus (EBV) infection should be considered also in the differential diagnosis if the patient has acute hepatitis combined with pancreatitis. We report a case of EBV infection with cholestatic hepatitis and pancreatitis with review of literature. An 11-year-old female was admitted due to 1-day history of abdominal pain a...

  12. Requirements for Pseudomonas aeruginosa Acute Burn and Chronic Surgical Wound Infection

    Turner, Keith H.; Jake Everett; Urvish Trivedi; Rumbaugh, Kendra P.; Marvin Whiteley

    2014-01-01

    Opportunistic infections caused by Pseudomonas aeruginosa can be acute or chronic. While acute infections often spread rapidly and can cause tissue damage and sepsis with high mortality rates, chronic infections can persist for weeks, months, or years in the face of intensive clinical intervention. Remarkably, this diverse infectious capability is not accompanied by extensive variation in genomic content, suggesting that the genetic capacity to be an acute or a chronic pathogen is present in ...

  13. Cerebral aspergillus infection in pediatric acute lymphoblastic leukemia induction therapy

    Gaurav Prakash

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available Angioinvasive pulmonary infection from filamentous fungi is not an uncommon occurrence in immunocompromised patients like acute lymphoblastic leukemia (ALL. Rarely, these lesions can spread via the hematogenous route and involve multiple visceral organs. We report a case of a 14-year-old boy with ALL who developed angioinvasive pulmonary aspergillosis early in the course of induction therapy, which was followed by hematogenous dissemination and formation of multiple brain abscesses. The patient was treated with intravenous amphotericin B. There was no response to the therapy and the patient succumbed to disseminated infection. Postmortem lung biopsy confirmed angioinvasive pulmonary aspergillosis. Poor penetration of amphotericin B across the blood-brain barrier could be one of the contributory factors for poor response to antifungal therapy. We discuss the various antifungal agents with respect to their penetration in brain.

  14. Research progress in Shigella in the postgenomic era

    2010-01-01

    Gram-negative,facultative intracellular anaerobes of the genus Shigella,the principal etiologic agents of shigellosis,continue to pose a threat to public health. Shigellosis causes 1.1 million deaths with over 164 million annual cases. The Shigella spp. can be divided into four serogroups:Shigella dysenteriae,Shigella flexneri, Shigella boydii and Shigella sonnei. The completion of seven Shigella genome sequences of representative strains from each of the Shigella species has introduced an era of whole-genome study.This paper reviews contemporary understanding of genomics,transcriptomics,proteomics and the structural biology of Shigella.

  15. Human rhinovirus infection in young African children with acute wheezing

    Zar Heather J

    2011-03-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Infections caused by human rhinoviruses (HRVs are important triggers of wheezing in young children. Wheezy illness has increasingly been recognised as an important cause of morbidity in African children, but there is little information on the contribution of HRV to this. The aim of this study was to determine the role of HRV as a cause of acute wheezing in South African children. Methods Two hundred and twenty children presenting consecutively at a tertiary children's hospital with a wheezing illness from May 2004 to November 2005 were prospectively enrolled. A nasal swab was taken and reverse transcription PCR used to screen the samples for HRV. The presence of human metapneumovirus, human bocavirus and human coronavirus-NL63 was assessed in all samples using PCR-based assays. A general shell vial culture using a pool of monoclonal antibodies was used to detect other common respiratory viruses on 26% of samples. Phylogenetic analysis to determine circulating HRV species was performed on a portion of HRV-positive samples. Categorical characteristics were analysed using Fisher's Exact test. Results HRV was detected in 128 (58.2% of children, most (72% of whom were under 2 years of age. Presenting symptoms between the HRV-positive and negative groups were similar. Most illness was managed with ambulatory therapy, but 45 (35% were hospitalized for treatment and 3 (2% were admitted to intensive care. There were no in-hospital deaths. All 3 species of HRV were detected with HRV-C being the most common (52% followed by HRV-A (37% and HRV-B (11%. Infection with other respiratory viruses occurred in 20/128 (16% of HRV-positive children and in 26/92 (28% of HRV-negative samples. Conclusion HRV may be the commonest viral infection in young South African children with acute wheezing. Infection is associated with mild or moderate clinical disease.

  16. RESPIRATORY SYNCYTIAL VIRUS INFECTION AMONG YOUNG CHILDREN WITH ACUTE RESPIRATORY INFECTION

    M. Milani

    2003-08-01

    Full Text Available Respiratory syncytial virus (RSV is the major cause of lower respiratory tract infections in infants,and also an important factor for hospitalization during the winter months. To determine the prevalence and importance of RSV as a cause of acute lower respiratory tract infection, we carried out a prospective study during 5 months period from November to March 1998 in 6 pediatric hospitals. A nasopharyngeal aspirate was obtained for detection of RSV in all cases. Sociodemographic data, clinical signs, diagnosis and hospital admissions were documented. During this study period, 365 young infants (51.5% male, 48.5% female with respiratory tract infection were visited in 6 hospitals. The median age of patients was 24 months (range: 1 month to 5 years.RSV infection was found in 70 out of 365 patients (19.18%.Among the 70 children with RSV infection, 29 patients (41.42% were under 12 months of age.The main clinical manifestations of RSV infection were cough (88.57% and coryza (78.57%. There were no significant differences between patients who were tested positive for RSV and those who were tested negative with regard to demographic variables and clinical diagnoses. This study indicates that RSV is an important cause of respiratory tract infection in infants and young children .Distinguishing RSV from other respiratory infection is difficult because of the similarity in clinical presentation among children.

  17. [Circulating immune complexes in acute and prolonged hepatitis A infection].

    Dautović-Krkić, Sajma; Gribajcević, Mehmed

    2002-01-01

    Level and dynamics activity of circulating immune complexes (CiC) and persistence CiC in the sera in the acute and prolonged HAV-infection was examined. In the same time we explored the relation of level and dynamics CiC compared with level, dynamics and persistence length ALT and IgM anti-HAV in sera, longitude excretion HAV Ag in stool and intensity patohistological damage in liver. Research have been undertaken in the prospected study on two groups with 90 patients in total: 60 patients with prolonged form of the hepatitis A, and 30 patients with HAV-infection with normal development. CiC was prescribe with fotometer in sediment of poliethilenglicol, and IgM anti HAV with ELISA technique. Ag-HAV in stool was prescribe with methodImmuno/electro/osmophoresis. Results of examination showed that high level values of CiC had present in all patients with HAV-infection, bat yet middle values of CiC had significantly higher in prolonged forms (p CiC persistence almost three times longer than in HAV infection with normal development. The highest value of CiC have been found from one to two weeks after e peak ALT in HAV and in PTHA 4-6 weeks later. Persistence of elevated values CiC responded to the middle length persistence of Igm anti HAV-in the sera. PMID:12378858

  18. Defective interfering viral particles in acute dengue infections.

    Dongsheng Li

    Full Text Available While much of the genetic variation in RNA viruses arises because of the error-prone nature of their RNA-dependent RNA polymerases, much larger changes may occur as a result of recombination. An extreme example of genetic change is found in defective interfering (DI viral particles, where large sections of the genome of a parental virus have been deleted and the residual sub-genome fragment is replicated by complementation by co-infecting functional viruses. While most reports of DI particles have referred to studies in vitro, there is some evidence for the presence of DI particles in chronic viral infections in vivo. In this study, short fragments of dengue virus (DENV RNA containing only key regulatory elements at the 3' and 5' ends of the genome were recovered from the sera of patients infected with any of the four DENV serotypes. Identical RNA fragments were detected in the supernatant from cultures of Aedes mosquito cells that were infected by the addition of sera from dengue patients, suggesting that the sub-genomic RNA might be transmitted between human and mosquito hosts in defective interfering (DI viral particles. In vitro transcribed sub-genomic RNA corresponding to that detected in vivo could be packaged in virus like particles in the presence of wild type virus and transmitted for at least three passages in cell culture. DENV preparations enriched for these putative DI particles reduced the yield of wild type dengue virus following co-infections of C6-36 cells. This is the first report of DI particles in an acute arboviral infection in nature. The internal genomic deletions described here are the most extensive defects observed in DENV and may be part of a much broader disease attenuating process that is mediated by defective viruses.

  19. Laboratory based surveillance of travel-related Shigella sonnei and Shigella flexneri in Alberta from 2002 to 2007

    Ferrato Christina

    2010-11-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Between 2002 and 2007, travel related cases of Shigella sonnei and S. flexneri in Alberta, Canada were acquired from Central America, the Indian subcontinent and North America. Of this group, resistance to ciprofloxacin and nalidixic acid was identified in isolates from patients who had travelled to the Indian subcontinent. This study provides a Canadian perspective to a growing body of literature linking ciprofloxacin and nalidixic acid resistance to travel to the Indian subcontinent. Shigella is a common cause of diarrheal illness in North America with a rate of 2.0 per 100,000 in Canada 1 and a rate of 3.2 per 100,000 in the United States 23. Imported cases of Shigella infections have been reported in developed countries following travel to a foreign or developing country 45 and may be impacted by factors including socio-economic factors 6, food distribution networks 5 and microbiologic factors 7. Across multiple geographic regions, high rates of antimicrobial resistance to multiple agents (e.g. sulfonamides, tetracycline, chloramphenicol, ampicillin, and trimethoprim-sulfamethoxazole have limited the choices for empiric antimicrobial therapy required to manage Shigella infections and reduce fecal excretion of the bacteria 8910 with descriptions of shifting species dominance and changes in antimicrobial susceptibility 1011. Generally, Shigella flexneri and Shigella sonnei are the dominant species and are heavily impacted by changes in antimicrobial susceptibility 1213. This study identifies the global regions associated with travel-related cases of S. flexneri and S. sonnei in Alberta, Canada and compares antibiotic resistance patterns of these isolates for 2002 to 2007 inclusive. Specimens collected 2002-2007 (inclusive from S. flexneri and S. sonnei infections in Alberta, Canada were included for study. Data collected at time of specimen submission included: date of specimen collection, outbreak association if present, travel

  20. Shigella IpaH Family Effectors as a Versatile Model for Studying Pathogenic Bacteria.

    Ashida, Hiroshi; Sasakawa, Chihiro

    2015-01-01

    Shigella spp. are highly adapted human pathogens that cause bacillary dysentery (shigellosis). Via the type III secretion system (T3SS), Shigella deliver a subset of virulence proteins (effectors) that are responsible for pathogenesis, with functions including pyroptosis, invasion of the epithelial cells, intracellular survival, and evasion of host immune responses. Intriguingly, T3SS effector activity and strategies are not unique to Shigella, but are shared by many other bacterial pathogens, including Salmonella, Yersinia, and enteropathogenic Escherichia coli (EPEC). Therefore, studying Shigella T3SS effectors will not only improve our understanding of bacterial infection systems, but also provide a molecular basis for developing live bacterial vaccines and antibacterial drugs. One of Shigella T3SS effectors, IpaH family proteins, which have E3 ubiquitin ligase activity and are widely conserved among other bacterial pathogens, are very relevant because they promote bacterial survival by triggering cell death and modulating the host immune responses. Here, we describe selected examples of Shigella pathogenesis, with particular emphasis on the roles of IpaH family effectors, which shed new light on bacterial survival strategies and provide clues about how to overcome bacterial infections. PMID:26779450

  1. An update on vaccines against Shigella

    Ashkenazi, Shai; Cohen, Dani

    2013-01-01

    Despite intensive research efforts for more than 60 years, utilizing diverse vaccine strategies, a safe and efficacious vaccine against shigellosis is not available yet. We are currently witnessing innovative approaches based on elucidation of the virulence mechanisms of Shigella, understanding the immune response to the pathogen and progress in molecular technology for developing Shigella vaccines. It is hoped that these will lead to a licensed effective Shigella vaccine to protect humans ag...

  2. New provisional serovar of Shigella boydii.

    Gross, R. J.; Thomas, L V; Day, N.P.; Cheasty, T; Rowe, B.

    1982-01-01

    Ten bacterial strains are described that give biochemical reactions characteristic of the genus Shigella but do not belong to any of the established or provisional serovars. The strains ferment mannitol and are antigenically indistinguishable. They do not possess any of the group antigens of Shigella flexneri, and it is therefore proposed that they be regarded as members of a new provisional serovar of Shigella boydii. Strain E16553 is designated as the test strain for the new serovar.

  3. Coxsackievirus A21, Enterovirus 68, and Acute Respiratory Tract Infection, China

    Xiang, Zichun; Gonzalez, Richard; Wang, Zhong; Ren, Lili; Xiao, Yan; Li, Jianguo; Li, Yongjun; Vernet, Guy; Paranhos-Baccalà, Gláucia; Jin, Qi; Wang, Jianwei

    2012-01-01

    During August 2006–April 2010, in Beijing, China, 2 rare human enterovirus serotypes, coxsackievirus A21 and enterovirus 68, were detected most frequently in human enterovirus–positive adults with acute respiratory tract infections. Thus, during some years, these 2 viruses cause a substantial proportion of enterovirus-associated adult acute respiratory tract infections.

  4. Sustained CD8+ T-cell responses induced after acute parvovirus B19 infection in humans

    Norbeck, Oscar; Isa, Adiba; Pöhlmann, Christoph;

    2005-01-01

    Murine models have suggested that CD8+ T-cell responses peak early in acute viral infections and are not sustained, but no evidence for humans has been available. To address this, we longitudinally analyzed the CD8+ T-cell response to human parvovirus B19 in acutely infected individuals. We...... observed striking CD8+ T-cell responses, which were sustained or even increased over many months after the resolution of acute disease, indicating that CD8+ T cells may play a prominent role in the control of parvovirus B19 and other acute viral infections of humans, including potentially those generated...

  5. 75 FR 52755 - Draft Guidance for Industry on Acute Bacterial Skin and Skin Structure Infections: Developing...

    2010-08-27

    ... HUMAN SERVICES Food and Drug Administration Draft Guidance for Industry on Acute Bacterial Skin and Skin... guidance for industry entitled ``Acute Bacterial Skin and Skin Structure Infections: Developing Drugs for... the development of antimicrobial drugs for the treatment of acute bacterial skin and skin...

  6. Radioprotective activity of shigella antigens

    The possibility of using experimental microbe antigenous preparation out of Flexner and Zonne shigellas as a protector and a remedy in the case of gamma irradiation, is investigated. The experiments are carried out on mice of both sexes immunized before or after irradiation by two methods: subcutaneously and enerally. It is found that in most cases investigated, the introduction of the experimental preparation 3, 5, 7 and 10 days before irradiation increases the survivability of animals

  7. [Acute tubulointerstitial nephritis following adenovirus and respiratory syncytial virus infection].

    de Suremain, A; Somrani, R; Bourdat-Michel, G; Pinel, N; Morel-Baccard, C; Payen, V

    2015-05-01

    Acute tubulointerstitial nephritis (TIN) is responsible for nearly 10% of acute renal failure (ARF) cases in children. It is mostly drug-induced, but in a few cases viruses are involved, probably by an indirect mechanism. An immune-competent 13-month-old boy was admitted to the intensive care unit for severe ARF with anuria in a context of fever, cough, and rhinorrhea lasting 1 week. The kidney biopsy performed early brought out tubulointerstitial damage with mild infiltrate of lymphocytes, without any signs of necrosis. There were no virus inclusion bodies, no interstitial hemorrhage, and no glomerular or vascular damage. Other causes of TIN were excluded: there was no biological argument for an immunological, immune, or drug-induced cause. Adenovirus (ADV) and respiratory syncytial virus (RSV) were positive in respiratory multiplex polymerase chain reaction (PCR) in nasal aspirate but not in blood, urine, and renal tissue. The patient underwent dialysis for 10 days but the response to corticosteroid therapy was quickly observed within 48 h. The mechanism of TIN associated with virus infection is unknown. However, it may be immune-mediated to be able to link severe renal dysfunction and ADV and/or RSV invasion of the respiratory tract. PMID:25842199

  8. ACG Clinical Guideline: Diagnosis, Treatment, and Prevention of Acute Diarrheal Infections in Adults.

    Riddle, Mark S; DuPont, Herbert L; Connor, Bradley A

    2016-05-01

    Acute diarrheal infections are a common health problem globally and among both individuals in the United States and traveling to developing world countries. Multiple modalities including antibiotic and non-antibiotic therapies have been used to address these common infections. Information on treatment, prevention, diagnostics, and the consequences of acute diarrhea infection has emerged and helps to inform clinical management. In this ACG Clinical Guideline, the authors present an evidence-based approach to diagnosis, prevention, and treatment of acute diarrhea infection in both US-based and travel settings. PMID:27068718

  9. Encephalitis, acute renal failure, and acute hepatitis triggered by a viral infection in an immunocompetent young adult: a case report

    Khattab Mahmoud

    2009-11-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Introduction Cytomegalovirus generally causes self-limited, mild and asymptomatic infections in immunocompetent patients. An aggressive course in immunocompetent healthy patients is unusual. Case presentation We report the case of an immunocompetent 16-year-old Egyptian boy with encephalitis, acute renal failure, and acute hepatitis triggered by viral infection with a complete recovery following antiviral treatment. Conclusion We believe that this case adds to the understanding of the molecular biology, clinical presentation and increasing index of suspicion of many viral infections.

  10. Two Cases of Vulvovaginitis Caused by Shigella flexneri and Shigella sonnei: a Case Report

    Gülçin Bayramoğlu

    2012-03-01

    Full Text Available Vulvovaginitis caused by Shigella species (Shigella spp. has rarely been reported. This paper describes two cases of prepubertal vulvovaginitis, presenting with a bloody and purulent vaginal discharge, separately caused by ampicillin-resistant Shigella flexneri and trimethoprim-sulfomethoxazole-resistant Shigella sonnei. Our conclusions are that Shigella spp. is the potential cause of vulvovaginitis in prepubertal girls in developing countries where these pathogens are endemic, and identification of the bacteria and making antibiotic susceptibility testing in these cases should not be overlooked.

  11. Bacteriophage application to control the contaminated water with Shigella.

    Jun, Jin Woo; Giri, Sib Sankar; Kim, Hyoun Joong; Yun, Sae Kil; Chi, Cheng; Chai, Ji Young; Lee, Byeong Chun; Park, Se Chang

    2016-01-01

    Shigella is one of the most important waterborne and foodborne pathogens around the world. Emergence of antibiotic-resistant Shigella has made the development of alternatives to conventional antibiotics necessary. In this study, a virulent Myoviridae bacteriophage, pSs-1 was isolated from environmental water in South Korea and showed infectivity to S. flexneri as well as S. sonnei strains. One-step growth analysis showed that pSs-1 has a short latent period (25 min) and a large burst size (97 PFU/cell). According to the genomic analysis, pSs-1 contains 164,999 bp of genome with a G + C content of 35.54% and it is considered as a member of the T4-like bacteriophage group. These results showed that pSs-1 may have potential as a biocontrol agent instead of conventional antibiotics for shigellosis. PMID:26971572

  12. Effect of HIV infection on time to recovery from an acute manic episode

    E Nakimuli-Mpungu; B Mutamba; Nshemerirwe, S; Kiwuwa, MS; Musisi, S

    2010-01-01

    Introduction Understanding factors affecting the time to recovery from acute mania is critical in the management of manic syndromes. The aim of this study was to determine the effect of HIV infection on time to recovery from acute mania. Methods We performed a retrospective study in which medical charts of individuals who were treated for acute mania were reviewed. Survival analysis with Cox regression models were used to compare time to recovery from an acute manic episode between human immu...

  13. Acute HIV infection with rapid progression to AIDS

    Marcio de Oliveira Silva

    2010-06-01

    Full Text Available Acute HIV infection is rarely recognized as the signs and symptoms are normally unspecific and can persist for days or weeks. The normal HIV course is characterized by a progressive loss of CD4+ cells, which normally leads to severe immunodeficiency after a variable time interval. The mean time from initial infection to development of clinical AIDS is approximately 8-10 years, but it is variable among individuals and depends on a complex interaction between virus and host. Here we describe an extraordinary case of a man who developed Pneumocisits jiroveci pneumonia within one month after sexual exposure to HIV-1, and then presented with 3 consecutive CD4 counts bellow 200 cells/mm³ within 3 months, with no other opportunistic disease. Although antiretroviral therapy (AZT+3TC+ATZ/r was started, with full adherence of the patient, and genotyping indicating no primary antiretroviral resistance mutations, he required more than six months to have a CD4 restoration to levels above 200 cells/mm³ and 10 months to HIV-RNA to become undetectable.

  14. Acute Cholestatic Hepatitis A Virus Infection Presenting with Hemolytic Anemia and Renal Failure: A Case Report

    Lapp, Robert T.; Fedja Rochling

    2013-01-01

    Hepatitis A virus is the most common acute viral hepatitis worldwide with approximately 1.5 million cases annually. Hepatitis A virus infection in general is self-limited. In rare cases, hepatitis A virus infection may cause renal failure, hemolytic anemia, and/or cholestasis. We report the first case of acute cholestatic hepatitis A virus infection complicated by hemolytic anemia, and renal failure in one patient. A 42-year-old Caucasian male presented with cholestasis, hemolytic anemia and ...

  15. Poorly Regulated Blood Glucose in Diabetic Patients–predictor of Acute Infections

    Burekovic, Azra; Dizdarevic–Bostandzic, Amela; Godinjak, Amina

    2014-01-01

    Introduction: Diabetes mellitus, the most frequent endocrinology disease is a predisposing factor for infections. Diabetic patients have 4,4 times greater risk of systemic infection than non diabetics. Aim: a) To determine the prevalence and characteristics of acute infectious diseases in hospitalized diabetics; b) To correlate values of blood glucose levels and HbA1c with acute infections in hospitalized diabetics; c) To identify the etiology of infectious diseases. Material and methods: The...

  16. Development of ceftazidime resistance in an acute Burkholderia pseudomallei infection

    Sarovich DS

    2012-08-01

    Full Text Available Derek S Sarovich,1,2,* Erin P Price,1,2,* Direk Limmathurotsakul,3 James M Cook,1 Alex T Von Schulze,1 Spenser R Wolken,1 Paul Keim,1 Sharon J Peacock,3,4 Talima Pearson1 1Center for Microbial Genetics and Genomics, Northern Arizona University, Flagstaff, AZ, USA; 2Tropical and Emerging Infectious Diseases Division, Menzies School of Health Research, Darwin, Australia; 3Department of Microbiology and Immunology, Faculty of Tropical Medicine, Mahidol University, Bangkok, Thailand; 4Department of Medicine, University of Cambridge, Cambridge, United Kingdom*These authors contributed equally to this workAbstract: Burkholderia pseudomallei, a bacterium that causes the disease melioidosis, is intrinsically resistant to many antibiotics. First-line antibiotic therapy for treating melioidosis is usually the synthetic β-lactam, ceftazidime (CAZ, as almost all B. pseudomallei strains are susceptible to this drug. However, acquired CAZ resistance can develop in vivo during treatment with CAZ, which can lead to mortality if therapy is not switched to a different drug in a timely manner. Serial B. pseudomallei isolates obtained from an acute Thai melioidosis patient infected by a CAZ susceptible strain, who ultimately succumbed to infection despite being on CAZ therapy for the duration of their infection, were analyzed. Isolates that developed CAZ resistance due to a proline to serine change at position 167 in the β-lactamase PenA were identified. Importantly, these CAZ resistant isolates remained sensitive to the alternative melioidosis treatments; namely, amoxicillin-clavulanate, imipenem, and meropenem. Lastly, real-time polymerase chain reaction-based assays capable of rapidly identifying CAZ resistance in B. pseudomallei isolates at the position 167 mutation site were developed. The ability to rapidly identify the emergence of CAZ resistant B. pseudomallei populations in melioidosis patients will allow timely alterations in treatment strategies

  17. T-Cell-Dependent Control of Acute Giardia lamblia Infections in Mice

    Singer, Steven M.; Nash, Theodore E.

    2000-01-01

    We have studied immune mechanisms responsible for control of acute Giardia lamblia and Giardia muris infections in adult mice. Association of chronic G. lamblia infection with hypogammaglobulinemia and experimental infections of mice with G. muris have led to the hypothesis that antibodies are required to control these infections. We directly tested this hypothesis by infecting B-cell-deficient mice with either G. lamblia or G. muris. Both wild-type mice and B-cell-deficient mice eliminated t...

  18. Antibiotic Resistance of Shigella Species in Iran

    A.Mehr-Movahed

    1987-07-01

    Full Text Available Antibiotic resistance in Shigella species has been showing a rising trend all over the world. This study was performed to discover the state of antibiotic resistance of Shigella species with regards to six common antibiotics in use in Iran.

  19. Local and disseminated acute phase response during bacterial respiratory infection in pigs

    Skovgaard, Kerstin; Mortensen, Shila; Heegaard, Peter M. H.

    2010-01-01

    proteins (APP) outside the liver is increasingly recognized, still little is known of extra-hepatic production of APP in pigs. 14-18 h after experimental infection with Actinobacillus pleuropneumoniae, causing acute pleuropneumonia in pigs, we studied local APP gene expression changes in different......The acute phase response is playing an important role, aiming to restore the healthy state after tissue injury, inflammation and infection. The biological function of this response and its interplay with other parts of innate defense reactions remain somewhat elusive. Expression of acute phase...... differentially expressed between infected and control animals. We demonstrated that acute pleuropneumonia caused by A. pleuropneumoniae leads to a rapid disseminated local intra-lung APP response, also in apparently unaffected areas of the infected lung. Further extrahepatic expression of several acute-phase...

  20. Effect of a Clostridium difficile Infection Prevention Initiative in Veterans Affairs Acute Care Facilities.

    Evans, Martin E; Kralovic, Stephen M; Simbartl, Loretta A; Jain, Rajiv; Roselle, Gary A

    2016-06-01

    Rates of clinically confirmed hospital-onset healthcare facility-associated Clostridium difficile infections from July 1, 2012, through March 31, 2015, in 127 acute care Veterans Affairs facilities were evaluated. Quarterly pooled national standardized infection ratios decreased 15% from baseline by the final quarter of the analysis period (P=.01, linear regression). Infect Control Hosp Epidemiol 2016;37:720-722. PMID:26864803

  1. Three atypical lethal cases associated with acute Zika virus infection in Suriname

    Rens Zonneveld

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Acute Zika virus infection usually presents with a self-limiting triad of fever, rash and arthritis. There is limited information on severe or lethal cases. We report three cases of lethal acute Zika infection, confirmed with polymerase chain reaction, in adult patients with some co-morbidities. The patients showed rapid clinical deterioration with hemorrhagic and septic shock, and exaggerated acute and innate inflammatory responses with pronounced coagulopathy, and died soon after admission to the hospital. It remains unclear whether the fatal outcomes were due to acute Zika virus infection alone or to the combination with exacerbated underlying prior disease or co-infection. Nonetheless, the severity of these cases implies that increased awareness for atypical presentations of Zika virus infection, and careful clinical assessment of patients with symptoms of Zika, is warranted during current and future outbreaks.

  2. Susceptibility to chronic infection with Toxoplasma gondii does not correlate with susceptibility to acute infection in mice.

    Suzuki, Y.; Orellana, M A; Wong, S Y; Conley, F K; Remington, J S

    1993-01-01

    Resistance against acute and chronic infection with Taxoplasma gondii in BALB/c and CBA/Ca mice was compared. Intraperitoneal inoculation of either 20, 40, or 80 cysts of the ME49 strain resulted in mortality rates in BALB/c mice of 12% (2 of 17), 50% (6 of 12), and 75% (9 of 12), respectively, within 3 weeks after infection (acute stage). There was no mortality in the CBA/Ca mice for any of the doses. In marked contrast, CBA/Ca mice were highly sensitive to chronic infection with developing ...

  3. Does Fasciola hepatica infection modify the response of acute hepatitis C virus infection to IFN-α treatment?

    Mehmet Sahin; Mehmet Isler; Altug Senol; Mustafa Demirci; Zeynep Dilek Aydin

    2005-01-01

    Immunologic response to acute hepatitis C is mainly a Th1 response, whereas fasciolopsiasis is associated with a diverse T-cell response. Interferon-alpha has immunomodulatory effects and enhances Th1 immune response. Fasciola infection could theoretically interfere with the Th1 immune response, even when acquired after an initial response to interferon-alpha treatment for acute hepatitis C virus (HCV) infection. We report here the case of a male patient who acquired Fasciola hepatica infection after an initial response to IFN-alpha therapy with a favorable outcome

  4. Caspofungin Acetate or Fluconazole in Preventing Invasive Fungal Infections in Patients With Acute Myeloid Leukemia Who Are Undergoing Chemotherapy

    2016-02-22

    Adult Acute Megakaryoblastic Leukemia (M7); Adult Acute Minimally Differentiated Myeloid Leukemia (M0); Adult Acute Monoblastic Leukemia (M5a); Adult Acute Monocytic Leukemia (M5b); Adult Acute Myeloblastic Leukemia With Maturation (M2); Adult Acute Myeloblastic Leukemia Without Maturation (M1); Adult Acute Myeloid Leukemia in Remission; Adult Acute Myeloid Leukemia With 11q23 (MLL) Abnormalities; Adult Acute Myeloid Leukemia With Del(5q); Adult Acute Myeloid Leukemia With Inv(16)(p13;q22); Adult Acute Myeloid Leukemia With t(16;16)(p13;q22); Adult Acute Myeloid Leukemia With t(8;21)(q22;q22); Adult Acute Myelomonocytic Leukemia (M4); Adult Erythroleukemia (M6a); Adult Pure Erythroid Leukemia (M6b); Childhood Acute Erythroleukemia (M6); Childhood Acute Megakaryocytic Leukemia (M7); Childhood Acute Minimally Differentiated Myeloid Leukemia (M0); Childhood Acute Monoblastic Leukemia (M5a); Childhood Acute Monocytic Leukemia (M5b); Childhood Acute Myeloblastic Leukemia With Maturation (M2); Childhood Acute Myeloblastic Leukemia Without Maturation (M1); Childhood Acute Myeloid Leukemia in Remission; Childhood Acute Myelomonocytic Leukemia (M4); Fungal Infection; Neutropenia; Recurrent Adult Acute Myeloid Leukemia; Recurrent Childhood Acute Myeloid Leukemia; Secondary Acute Myeloid Leukemia; Untreated Adult Acute Myeloid Leukemia; Untreated Childhood Acute Myeloid Leukemia and Other Myeloid Malignancies

  5. Deletion of pic results in decreased virulence for a clinical isolate of Shigella flexneri 2a from China

    Zhang, Junqi; Qian, Lisheng; Wu, Yang; Cai, Xia; Li, Xueping; Cheng, Xunjia; Qu, Di

    2013-01-01

    Background Shigella is a major pathogen responsible for bacillary dysentery, a severe form of shigellosis. Severity of the disease depends on the virulence of the infecting strain. Shigella pathogenicity is a multi-gene phenomenon, involving the participation of genes on an unstable large virulence plasmid and chromosomal pathogenicity islands. Results A multiplex PCR (mPCR) assay was developed to detect S. flexneri 2a from rural regions of Zhengding (Hebei Province, China). We isolated and t...

  6. Strategies to overcome extended-spectrum β-lactamases (ESBLs) and AmpC β-lactamases in shigellae

    Livermore, David M.; Mushtaq, Shazad; Nguyen, Tue; Warner, Marina

    2011-01-01

    Abstract Oral cephalosporins and mecillinam are used to treat Shigella infections but are compromised by extended-spectrum ?-lactamases (ESBLs) and plasmid AmpC ?-lactamases. Potential solutions include combining an oral or intravenous cephalosporin with a ?-lactamase inhibitor (BLI) or using an oral penem. These strategies were examined using Escherichia coli transconjugants and clinical isolates with ESBLs or AmpC as a proxy for shigellae. The Clinical and Laboratory Standards In...

  7. Acute respiratory infections in Pakistan: Have we made any progress?

    Acute respiratory infections (ARI) are the leading cause of death in young children in Pakistan, responsible for 20-30% of child deaths under age 5 years. This paper summarizes the research and technical development efforts over the last 15 years which have contributed to improving the effectiveness of the case management strategy to reduce mortality from 5' pneumonia in children in Pakistan. Community intervention is viable, effective and practical. Rising antimicrobial resistance among commonly used and A low-cost oral agent is of significant concern. Appropriate monitoring and evaluation of the impact of the ARI control programme is lacking. Lack of funding for programmatic activities, lack of coordination with other child survival programs, inadequate training for community health workers and general practitioners in the private sector, lack of public awareness about seeking timely and appropriate care and insufficient planning and support for ARI in the programmatic activities at provincial and district levels are major hindrances in decreasing the burden of ARI in the country. The recent introduction of the community-based Lady Health Worker (LHW) Programme and WHO and UNICEF-sponsored integrated management of childhood illness initiative present ideal opportunities for re-emphasizing early case detection and appropriate case management of ARI. Ultimately, focusing on preventive strategies such as improving nutrition, reducing indoor pollution, improving mass vaccination, as well as introduction of new vaccines effective against important respiratory pathogens will likely have the most impact on reducing severe ARI and deaths from severe disease. (author)

  8. VIRAL ETIOLOGY ACUTE INTESTINAL INFECTIONS MOLECULAR MONITORING IN CHILDREN’S HOSPITAL

    A. V. Sergeeva

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available On the territory of the Russian Federation in the overall structure of acute intestinal infections the proportion of viral diarrhea among children varies from 24 to 78% of cases depending on the season. The acute viral intestinal infections etiological confirmation is performed mainly among patients of infectious hospitals. The prevalence of viral acute intestinal infections in non-infectious hospitals, including infections associated with medical care, remains unclear. Currently estimation of viral component in the acute intestinal infections overall structure mainly consists in determination of rotavirus infection prevalence excluding other pathogens. As the part of viral etiology hospital infections epidemiological surveillance in non-infections children’s hospital the study of acute viral intestinal infections etiological structure and molecular genetics characterization of identified enteric viruses is conducted. The syndrome diagnosis of acute intestinal infections cases was introduced — an identification and evaluation of patients with signs of dysfunction of the gastrointestinal tract, that is not related to the underlying disease. A set of laboratory methods included identification of various intestinal pathogens DNA (RNA by PCR-RT method; genotyping of enteric viruses using sequencing; nucleotide sequence analysis of cDNA fragments using the BLAST software package for identification of closely related strains and an online service for automatic genotyping of noroviruses by Norovirus Genotyping Tool Version 1.0. Alignment of nucleotide sequences and phylogenetic analysis was performed using the software MEGA 5.0. The obtained sequence fragments of the genome was downloaded in GenBank international database. The use of molecular genetics research methods allowed to differentiate viral pathogens of acute intestinal infections and to establish the fact of nosocomial transmission. The proportion of viral etiology acute intestinal

  9. Acute Scedosporium apiospermum Endobronchial Infection in Cystic Fibrosis.

    Padoan, Rita; Poli, Piercarlo; Colombrita, Domenico; Borghi, Elisa; Timpano, Silviana; Berlucchi, Marco

    2016-06-01

    Fungi are known pathogens in cystic fibrosis patients. A boy with cystic fibrosis boy presented with acute respiratory distress. Bronchoscopy showed airways obstruction by mucus plugs and bronchial casts. Scedosporium apiospermum was identified as the only pathogen. Bronchoalveolar lavage successfully resolved the acute obstruction. Plastic bronchitis is a new clinical picture of acute Scedosporium endobronchial colonization in cystic fibrosis patients. PMID:26967814

  10. Rapid and widely disseminated acute phase protein response after experimental bacterial infection of pigs

    Skovgaard, Kerstin; Mortensen, Shila; Boye, Mette;

    2009-01-01

    The acute phase protein response is a well-described generalized early host response to tissue injury, inflammation and infection, observed as pronounced changes in the concentrations of a number of circulating serum proteins. The biological function of this response and its interplay with other...... measurements of interleukin-6 and selected acute phase proteins in serum. C-reactive protein and serum amyloid A were clearly induced 14-18 h after infection. Extrahepatic expression of acute phase proteins was found to be dramatically altered as a result of the lung infection with an extrahepatic acute phase...... protein response occurring concomitantly with the hepatic response. This suggests that the acute phase protein response is a more disseminated systemic response than previously thought. The current study provides to our knowledge the first example of porcine extrahepatic expression and regulation of C...

  11. Acute-on-chronic liver failure due to bacterial infection in liver cirrhosis: causes and management

    Han, Tao

    2015-01-01

    Bacterial infection is a common complication in patients with liver cirrhosis, and acute-on-chronic liver failure due to bacterial infection has become a serious clinical problem. There are still many problems in the research on the pathogenesis and management of bacterial infection in liver cirrhosis, such as insidious onset, difficult early diagnosis, and increased multi-drug resistant bacteria. This article reviews the research progress in the causes and management of bacterial infection i...

  12. Requirements for Pseudomonas aeruginosa acute burn and chronic surgical wound infection.

    Keith H Turner

    2014-07-01

    Full Text Available Opportunistic infections caused by Pseudomonas aeruginosa can be acute or chronic. While acute infections often spread rapidly and can cause tissue damage and sepsis with high mortality rates, chronic infections can persist for weeks, months, or years in the face of intensive clinical intervention. Remarkably, this diverse infectious capability is not accompanied by extensive variation in genomic content, suggesting that the genetic capacity to be an acute or a chronic pathogen is present in most P. aeruginosa strains. To investigate the genetic requirements for acute and chronic pathogenesis in P. aeruginosa infections, we combined high-throughput sequencing-mediated transcriptome profiling (RNA-seq and genome-wide insertion mutant fitness profiling (Tn-seq to characterize gene expression and fitness determinants in murine models of burn and non-diabetic chronic wound infection. Generally we discovered that expression of a gene in vivo is not correlated with its importance for fitness, with the exception of metabolic genes. By combining metabolic models generated from in vivo gene expression data with mutant fitness profiles, we determined the nutritional requirements for colonization and persistence in these infections. Specifically, we found that long-chain fatty acids represent a major carbon source in both chronic and acute wounds, and P. aeruginosa must biosynthesize purines, several amino acids, and most cofactors during infection. In addition, we determined that P. aeruginosa requires chemotactic flagellar motility for fitness and virulence in acute burn wound infections, but not in non-diabetic chronic wound infections. Our results provide novel insight into the genetic requirements for acute and chronic P. aeruginosa wound infections and demonstrate the power of using both gene expression and fitness profiling for probing bacterial virulence.

  13. PD-L1-Expressing Dendritic Cells Contribute to Viral Resistance during Acute HSV-1 Infection

    Bryant-Hudson, Katie M.; Carr, Daniel J.J.

    2012-01-01

    The inhibitory receptor, Programmed Death 1 (PD-1), and its ligands (PD-L1/PD-L2) are thought to play a role in immune surveillance during chronic viral infection. The contribution of the receptor/ligand pair during an acute infection is less understood. To determine the role of PD-L1 and PD-L2 during acute ocular herpes simplex virus type 1 (HSV-1) infection, HSV-1-infected mice administered neutralizing antibody to PD-L1 or PD-L2 were assessed for viral burden and host cellular immune respo...

  14. Guidelines to rational use of antibiotics in acute upper respiratory tract infections in Chinese children

    2001-01-01

    @@Acute respiratory tract infections (ARTIs) is the most common disease afflicting Chinese children and ranks first in numbers of outpatients, hospitalization and fatality rate. ARTI is also the most frequent reason that antibiotics are prescribed.

  15. Enhancing the detection and management of acute hepatitis C virus infection.

    Martinello, Marianne; Matthews, Gail V

    2015-10-01

    Acute HCV infection refers to the 6-month period following infection acquisition, although this definition is somewhat arbitrary. While spontaneous clearance occurs in approximately 25%, the majority will develop chronic HCV infection with the potential for development of cirrhosis, end stage liver disease and hepatocellular carcinoma. Detection of acute HCV infection has been hampered by its asymptomatic or non-specific presentation, lack of specific diagnostic tests and the inherent difficulties in identifying and following individuals at highest risk of transmitting and acquiring HCV infection, such as people who inject drugs (PWID). However, recognition of those with acute infection may have individual and population level benefits and could represent an ideal opportunity for intervention. Despite demonstration that HCV treatment is feasible and successful in PWID, treatment uptake remains low with multiple barriers to care at an individual and systems level. Given the burden of HCV-related disease among PWID, strategies to enhance HCV assessment, treatment and prevention in this group are urgently needed. As the therapeutic landscape of chronic HCV management is revolutionised by the advent of simple, highly effective directly-acting antiviral (DAA) therapy, similar opportunities may exist in acute infection. This review will discuss issues surrounding improving the detection and management of acute HCV infection, particularly in PWID. PMID:26254495

  16. Changes in ovarian follicles following acute infection with bovine viral diarrhea virus.

    Grooms, D L; Brock, K V; Pate, J L; Day, M L

    1998-02-01

    Bovine viral diarrhea virus (BVDV) has been associated with several reproductive problems in cattle, including poor fertility, early embryonic deaths, abortion and congenital anomalies. Little is known about the cause of poor fertility in cows acutely infected with BVDV. The purpose of this study was to identify changes in ovarian function following acute infection with noncytopathic BVDV. The ovaries of 5 BVDV sero-negative and virus-negative pubertal heifers were monitored daily for 4 consecutive estrous cycles. The position and diameter of all follicles (> 5 mm) and luteal structures were recorded. Daily plasma samples were collected to measure peripheral progesterone and estradiol levels. Each heifer was infected intranasally with noncytopathic BVDV following ovulation of the second estrous cycle. The maximum diameter and growth rate of dominant anovulatory and ovulatory follicles were significantly reduced following acute BVDV infection. Similarly, the number of subordinate follicles associated with both the anovulatory and ovulatory follicle was reduced following infection. There were no significant differences in other follicle or luteal dynamic parameters or in peripheral progesterone or estradiol levels. Ovarian follicular growth was different during the first 2 estrous cycles following acute infection with BVDV when compared with the 2 estrous cycles preceding infection. These differences may be important in explaining reduced fertility in herds with acute BVDV infection. PMID:10732038

  17. Prevalence of sapovirus infection among infant and adult patients with acute gastroenteritis in Tehran, Iran

    Romani, Sara; Azimzadeh, Pedram; Mohebbi, Seyed Reza; Bozorgi, Sajad Majidizadeh; Zali, Narges; JADALI, Farzaneh

    2012-01-01

    Aim This study investigated the prevalence of sapovirus infections in patient with acute gastroenteritis in Tehran, Iran. Background Sapovirus, a member of the family Caliciviridae is one of the major causative agents of viral gastroenteritis affecting both children and adult individuals. There isn't enough data about prevalence and genotypes of sapovirus infection in Tehran, the capital city of Iran. Patients and methods A total of 42 fecal samples were collected from patients with acute gas...

  18. Effectiveness of Thrombolytic Therapy in Acute Embolic Stroke due to Infective Endocarditis

    Sontineni, Siva P.; Mooss, Aryan N.; Andukuri, Venkata G.; Susan Marie Schima; Dennis Esterbrooks

    2009-01-01

    Objective. To identify the role of thrombolytic therapy in acute embolic stroke due to infective endocarditis. Design. Case report. Setting. University hospital. Patient. A 70-year-old male presented with acute onset aphasia and hemiparesis due to infective endocarditis. His head computerized tomographic scan revealed left parietal sulcal effacement. He was given intravenous tissue plasminogen activator with significant resolution of the neurologic deficits without complications. Main Outcome...

  19. Radiculoplexopathy with conduction block caused by acute Epstein-Barr virus infection.

    Vucic, Steve; Palmer, William; Cros, Didier

    2005-02-01

    The authors report a case of cervicobrachial radiculoplexopathy with proximal conduction block (CB), associated with acute Epstein-Barr virus (EBV) infection. The patient presented with pain, paresthesias, and monomelic weakness in the left C7-8, and T1 myotomes. The illness was monophasic with rapid recovery. Neurophysiologic studies demonstrated CB in the proximal left median and ulnar nerve segments. The authors conclude that this syndrome resulted from a postinfectious process following acute EBV infection. PMID:15699388

  20. Acute Hepatitis as a Manifestation of Parvovirus B19 Infection

    Hatakka, Aleisha; Klein, Julianne; He, Runtao; Piper, Jessica; Tam, Edward; Walkty, Andrew

    2011-01-01

    There are few reports in the literature of hepatitis as a manifestation of parvovirus B19 infection. We describe a case of parvovirus B19-associated acute hepatitis diagnosed based on a positive serologic test (IgM) and molecular detection of parvovirus B19 DNA in a liver biopsy specimen. Parvovirus B19 infection should be considered in the differential diagnosis of patients presenting with acute hepatitis.

  1. Acute Diffuse and Total Alopecia of the Female Scalp Associated with Borrelia-Infection

    Bhardwaj, Ekta K; Trüeb, Ralph Michel

    2015-01-01

    A case of acute diffuse and total alopecia of the female scalp associated with Borrelia-infection (acrodermatitis chronica atrophicans) is presented. Today, acute diffuse and total alopecia of the female scalp is recognized as a distinct variant of alopecia areata (AA) predominantly observed in women. Cases of AA have formerly been reported in association with infections. AA is understood to represent an organ-specific autoimmune disease of the hair follicle. It is conceivable that the antige...

  2. Varicella Zoster Infection: A Rare Cause of Abdominal Pain Mimicking Acute Abdomen

    Olmez, Deniz; Boz, Alper; Erkan, Nazif

    2009-01-01

    Varicella zoster is an acute viral infection that results from reactivation of a latent varicella zoster virus. It usually occurs in adult population and immune compromised patients. It rarely occurs in healthy children. Here we present a 14 years old male with varicella zoster that had abdominal pain mimicking acute abdomen to alert others who are consulted for the differentiation of acute abdomen and others who may be consulted for pain management. Keywords Varicella zoster; Abdominal pain PMID:22461879

  3. Varicella Zoster Infection: A Rare Cause of Abdominal Pain Mimicking Acute Abdomen

    Olmez, Deniz; Boz, Alper; Erkan, Nazif

    2009-01-01

    Varicella zoster is an acute viral infection that results from reactivation of a latent varicella zoster virus. It usually occurs in adult population and immune compromised patients. It rarely occurs in healthy children. Here we present a 14 years old male with varicella zoster that had abdominal pain mimicking acute abdomen to alert others who are consulted for the differentiation of acute abdomen and others who may be consulted for pain management. Keywords Varicella zoster; Abdominal pain

  4. The porcine acute phase response to infection with Actinobacillus pleuropneumoniae. Haptoglobin, C-reactive protein, major acute phase protein and serum amyloid a protein are sensitive indicators of infection

    Heegaard, Peter M. H.; Klausen, Joan; Nielsen, J.P.;

    1998-01-01

    In an experimental infection model mimicking acute Actinobacillus pleuropneumoniae (Ap) infection in swine (Sus scrofa) by aerosol inoculation, the development of a number of typical clinical signs was accompanied by a prototypic acute phase reaction encompassing fever and an acute phase protein ...

  5. Primary pneumocystis infection in infants hospitalized with acute respiratory tract infection

    Larsen, Hans Henrik; von Linstow, Marie-Louise; Lundgren, Bettina; Høgh, Birthe; Westh, Henrik; Lundgren, Jens D

    2007-01-01

    .9-39.7), and 0.6 (0.1-6.7) for infants in the second (50-112 days), third (113-265 days), and fourth (268-4,430 days) age quartiles, respectively. Infants with an episode of upper RTI (URTI) were 2.0 (1.05-3.82) times more likely to harbor P. jirovecii than infants with a lower RTI. P. jirovecii may manifest...... with 431 episodes of acute respiratory tract infection (RTI) by using a real-time PCR assay. In 68 episodes in 67 infants, P. jirovecii was identified. The odds ratio (95% confidence interval) of a positive signal compared with the first quartile of age (7-49 days) was 47.4 (11.0-203), 8.7 (1...... itself as a self-limiting URTI in infants, predominantly those 1.5-4 months of age....

  6. 78 FR 63220 - Guidance for Industry on Acute Bacterial Skin and Skin Structure Infections: Developing Drugs for...

    2013-10-23

    ... HUMAN SERVICES Food and Drug Administration Guidance for Industry on Acute Bacterial Skin and Skin... guidance for industry entitled ``Acute Bacterial Skin and Skin Structure Infections: Developing Drugs for... drugs to treat acute bacterial skin and skin structure infections (ABSSSI). This guidance finalizes...

  7. Chikungunya virus infection amongst the acute encephalitis syndrome cases in West Bengal, India

    D Taraphdar

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Chikungunya virus (CHIKV infection from the acute encephalitis syndrome cases is an uncommon form and has been observed in the year 2010-11 from West Bengal, India. The case-1 and case-2 had the acute encephalitis syndrome; case-3 was of acute disseminated encephalomyelitis whereas the case-4 had the symptoms of meningo-encephalopathy with bulbar involvement. We are reporting four cases with neurological complications involving central nervous system (CNS due to CHIKV infection from this state for the first time. The virus has spread almost every districts of this state rapidly. At this stage, these cases are public health threat.

  8. Preliminary evidence of mitochondrial dysfunction associated with post-infective fatigue after acute infection with Epstein Barr Virus

    Hickie Ian B

    2006-01-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Acute infectious diseases are typically accompanied by non-specific symptoms including fever, malaise, irritability and somnolence that usually resolve on recovery. However, in some individuals these symptoms persist in what is commonly termed post-infective fatigue. The objective of this pilot study was to determine the gene expression correlates of post-infective fatigue following acute Epstein Barr virus (EBV infection. Methods We followed 5 people with acute mononucleosis who developed post-infective fatigue of more than 6 months duration and 5 HLA-matched control subjects who recovered within 3 months. Subjects had peripheral blood mononuclear cell (PBMC samples collected at varying time points including at diagnosis, then every 2 weeks for 3 months, then every 3 months for a year. Total RNA was extracted from the PBMC samples and hybridized to microarrays spotted with 3,800 oligonucleotides. Results Those who developed post-infective fatigue had gene expression profiles indicative of an altered host response during acute mononucleosis compared to those who recovered uneventfully. Several genes including ISG20 (interferon stimulated gene, DNAJB2 (DnaJ [Hsp40] homolog and CD99, CDK8 (cyclin-dependent kinase 8, E2F2 (E2F transcription factor 2, CDK8 (cyclin-dependent kinase 8, and ACTN2 (actinin, alpha 2, known to be regulated during EBV infection, were differentially expressed in post-infective fatigue cases. Several of the differentially expressed genes affect mitochondrial functions including fatty acid metabolism and the cell cycle. Conclusion These preliminary data provide insights into alterations in gene transcripts associated with the varied clinical outcomes from acute infectious mononucleosis.

  9. HUMAN PAPILLOMAVIRUS TYPE 16 L1 PROTEIN CAN BE EXPRESSED IN LIVE ATTENUATED SHIGELLA FLEXNERI 5A STRAIN SH42

    Qu Xinzhong; Yang Xiaofeng; Zheng Jin; Wang Kai; Si Lüsheng; Wang Yili

    2005-01-01

    Objective Attenuated strains of Shigella are attractive live vaccine candidates for eliciting mucosal immune responses which is a suitable carrier for the prophylactic human papillomaviruses (HPV) vaccine development, To examine the potential of a live Shigella based prophylactic HPV vaccine, HPV16L1should be expressed in attenuated shigella strain. Methods A Shigella large invasive plasmid (icsA/virG) based prokaryotic expression plasmid pHS3199 was constructed. HPV16L1 gene was inserted into plasmid pHS3199 to form pHS3199-HPV16 L1 construct, and pHS3199-hpv16L1 was electroporated into a live attenuated shigella strain sh42. The expression of HPV16L1 protein was demonstrated by Western blotting with monoclonal antibody to HPV16L1, The genetic stability of recombinant strain sh42-HPV16 L1 was monitored by consecutive passage culture. Invasive ability of sh42-HPV16L1 was evaluated by Hela cell infection assay. Results HPV16 L1 protein can be expressed in recombinant strain sh42-HPV16 L1, and the protein stably expressed over 140 generations. The invasive ability of sh42-HPV16L1 was diminished dramatically compared to its parent strain, but not abolished completely. Conclusion HPV16L1 protein was constitutively expressed in the attenuated strain of shigella flexneri sh42, and maintained partial invasive ability. Our strategy may represent a promising vaccine candidate against genital HPV16 infection.

  10. Shigella flexneri modulates stress granule composition and inhibits stress granule aggregation.

    Vonaesch, Pascale; Campbell-Valois, François-Xavier; Dufour, Alexandre; Sansonetti, Philippe J; Schnupf, Pamela

    2016-07-01

    Invasion and multiplication of the facultative, cytosolic, enteropathogen Shigella flexneri within the colonic epithelial lining leads to an acute inflammatory response, fever and diarrhea. During the inflammatory process, infected cells are subjected to numerous stresses including heat, oxidative stress and genotoxic stress. The evolutionarily conserved pathway of cellular stress management is the formation of stress granules that store translationally inactive cellular mRNAs and interfere with cellular signalling pathways by sequestering signalling components. In this study, we investigated the ability of S. flexneri-infected cells to form stress granules in response to exogenous stresses. We found that S. flexneri infection inhibits movement of the stress granule markers eIF3 and eIF4B into stress granules and prevents the aggregation of G3BP1 and eIF4G-containing stress granules. This inhibition occurred only with invasive, but not with non-invasive bacteria and occurred in response to stresses that induce translational arrest through the phosphorylation of eIF2α and by treating cells with pateamine A, a drug that induces stress granules by inhibiting the eIF4A helicase. The S. flexneri-mediated stress granule inhibition could be largely phenocopied by the microtubule-destabilizing drug nocodazole and while S. flexneri infection did not lead to microtubule depolymerization, infection greatly enhanced acetylation of alpha-tubulin. Our data suggest that qualitative differences in the microtubule network or subversion of the microtubule-transport machinery by S. flexneri may be involved in preventing the full execution of this cellular stress response. PMID:27282465

  11. Cytokine responses in acute and persistent human parvovirus B19 infection

    Isa, A; Lundqvist, A; Lindblom, A;

    2007-01-01

    The aim of this study was to characterize the proinflammatory and T helper (Th)1/Th2 cytokine responses during acute parvovirus B19 (B19) infection and determine whether an imbalance of the Th1/Th2 cytokine pattern is related to persistent B19 infection. Cytokines were quantified by multiplex beads...

  12. Development of Chronic and Acute Golden Syrian Hamster Infection Models with Leptospira borgpetersenii serovar Hardjo

    The golden Syrian hamster (Mesocricetus auratus) is frequently used as a model to study virulence for several species of Leptospira. Onset of an acute, lethal infection following infection with several pathogenic Leptospira species has been widely adopted for vaccine testing. An important exceptio...

  13. Varicella-zoster virus reactivation during acute enterovirus infection is associated with CD8 lymphocytopenia

    Chia, John K; Chia, Andrew A

    2009-01-01

    The trigger or triggers for reactivation of varicella-zoster virus have not been well defined in the medical literature. We investigated the role of enterovirus infections in triggering herpes zoster in five patients and correlated the reactivation with transient CD8 T lymphocyte depletion during the acute enterovirus infection.

  14. The Infection of Chlamydia Pneumonia in Patients with Acute Myocardial Infarction

    李涛; 许香广; 张国良; 方卫华

    2004-01-01

    Objectives To study the association between infection with chlamydia pneumonia and acute myocardial infarction (AMI). Methods Serology of chlamydia pneumoniae specific IgG、IgM antibodies were measured by microimmunofluorescence test in groups of acute myocardial infarction (AMI) and health control(HC). Results The total infection positive rates were 30.6% in HC group and 88.1% in AMI group, including the previous infection rates which were 30.6% and 71.4%, while the acute infection rates were 0% and 16.7%. The frequency of total infection, previous infection and acute infection was significantly higher in AMI group than in the HC group. Odds Ratio for the development of AMI were 16.82, 5.68, 14.2, respectively(95% CI 5.83 to 48.54,2.46 to 13.11, 1.68 to 119.97). Geometric mean IgG titre was significantly higher in patients with AMI compared with the HC group (P< 0.01). There is no IgM positive in HC group but there were two cases in AMI group. Conclusions The presence of high titers of immmunoglobulin G in AMI. Chlamydia pneumonia infection may be a risk factor for the AMI .

  15. A novel multiplex PCR for the simultaneous detection of Salmonella enterica and Shigella species

    M. Radhika

    2014-06-01

    Full Text Available Salmonella enterica and Shigella species are commonly associated with food and water borne infections leading to gastrointestinal diseases. The present work was undertaken to develop a sensitive and reliable PCR based detection system for simultaneous detection of Salmonella enterica and Shigella at species level. For this the conserved regions of specific genes namely ipaH1, ipaH, wbgZ, wzy and invA were targeted for detection of Shigella genus, S. flexneri, S. sonnei, S. boydii and Salmonella enterica respectively along with an internal amplification control (IAC. The results showed that twenty Salmonella and eleven Shigella spp., were accurately identified by the assay without showing non-specificity against closely related other Enterobacteriaceae organisms and also against other pathogens. Further evaluation of multiplex PCR was undertaken on 50 natural samples of chicken, eggs and poultry litter and results compared with conventional culture isolation and identification procedure. The multiplex PCR identified the presence of Salmonella and Shigella strains with a short pre-enrichment step of 5 h in peptone water and the same samples were processed by conventional procedures for comparison. Therefore, this reported multiplex PCR can serve as an alternative to the tedious time-consuming procedure of culture and identification in food safety laboratories.

  16. Characterization of Shigella Strains in Iran by Plasmid Profile Analysis and PCR Amplification of ipa Genes

    Farshad, Shohreh; Sheikhi, Raheleh; Japoni, Aziz; Basiri, Ezzatollah; Alborzi, Abdolvahab

    2006-01-01

    To characterize Shigella clinical strains, we studied 82 Shigella strains recovered from 719 stool samples of patients with bloody diarrhea in Shiraz, Iran, over the period from April to October 2003. Serological assay classified the Shigella isolates as follows: 61 (74.39%) Shigella sonnei isolates, 16 (19.51%) Shigella flexneri isolates, 3 (3.65%) Shigella boydii isolates, and 2 (2.43%) Shigella dysenteriae isolates. In an antibiogram test, all Shigella strains were susceptible to ceftazidi...

  17. Prolonged activation of virus-specific CD8+T cells after acute B19 infection

    Isa, Adiba; Kasprowicz, Victoria; Norbeck, Oscar;

    2005-01-01

    : The number and phenotype of B19-specific CD8+ T cell responses during and after acute adult infection was studied using HLA-peptide multimeric complexes. Surprisingly, these responses increased in magnitude over the first year post-infection despite resolution of clinical symptoms and control of...... and intact proliferative capacity. Individuals tested many years after infection exhibited lower frequencies of B19-specific cytotoxic T lymphocytes, typically 0.05%-0.5% of CD8+ T cells, which were perforin, CD38, and CCR7 low. CONCLUSION: This is the first example to our knowledge of an "acute...

  18. Impact of early cART in the gut during acute HIV infection

    Deleage, Claire; Schuetz, Alexandra; Alvord, W. Gregory; Johnston, Leslie; Hao, Xing-Pei; Morcock, David R.; Rerknimitr, Rungsun; Fletcher, James L.K.; Puttamaswin, Suwanna; Phanuphak, Nittaya; Dewar, Robin; McCune, Joseph M.; Sereti, Irini; Robb, Merlin; Kim, Jerome H.; Schacker, Timothy W.; Hunt, Peter; Lifson, Jeffrey D.; Ananworanich, Jintanat; Estes, Jacob D.

    2016-01-01

    Early after HIV infection there is substantial depletion of CD4+ T cells in the gastrointestinal (GI) tract lamina propria (LP), with associated epithelial barrier damage, leading to microbial translocation and systemic inflammation and immune activation. In this study, we analyzed these early events in the GI tract in a cohort of Thai acute HIV-infected patients and determined the effect of early combination antiretroviral treatment (cART). HIV-uninfected and chronically and acutely HIV-infected patients at different Fiebig stages (I–V) underwent colonic biopsies and then received cART. Immunohistochemistry and quantitative image analysis were performed on cross-sectional and longitudinal colon biopsy specimens (day 0 to week 96) to measure GI tract damage (infiltration of polymorphonuclear cells), inflammation (M×1, TNF-α), immune activation (Ki-67), and the CD4+ T cell population in the LP. The magnitude of GI tract damage, immune activation, and inflammation was significantly increased, with significantly depleted CD4+ T cells in the LP in all acutely infected groups prior to cART compared with HIV-uninfected control participants. While most patients treated during acute infection resolved GI tract inflammation and immune activation back to baseline levels after 24 weeks of cART, most acutely infected participants did not restore their CD4+ T cells after 96 weeks of cART.

  19. Hospital Epidemiology and Infection Control in Acute-Care Settings

    Sydnor, Emily R. M.; Perl, Trish M.

    2011-01-01

    Summary: Health care-associated infections (HAIs) have become more common as medical care has grown more complex and patients have become more complicated. HAIs are associated with significant morbidity, mortality, and cost. Growing rates of HAIs alongside evidence suggesting that active surveillance and infection control practices can prevent HAIs led to the development of hospital epidemiology and infection control programs. The role for infection control programs has grown and continues to...

  20. Pseudomonas aeruginosa bacteremia secondary to acute right leg cellulitis: case of community-acquired infection

    Wahab, Asrul Abdul; Rahman, M.M.

    2013-01-01

    Pseudomonas aeruginosa is a gram-negative bacillus that causes wide spectrum clinical infections. However, it is most frequently associated with hospital-acquired infection. In this case a 58-year-old male with underlying hypertension and dyslipidaemia was admitted for acute right leg cellulitis. Pseudomonas aeruginosa was identified from the case, though it was not a usual suspected organism. It might be due to community-acquired infection.

  1. Fungal Infection in Patients with Serpiginous Choroiditis or Acute Zonal Occult Outer Retinopathy▿

    Pisa, Diana; Ramos, Marta; García, Patricia; Escoto, Remberto; Barraquer, Rafael; Molina, Susana; Carrasco, Luis

    2007-01-01

    The etiologies of a number of retinopathies, including serpiginous choroiditis and acute zonal occult outer retinopathy (AZOOR), remain uncertain. Recently, we provided evidence that AZOOR is caused by Candida famata infection. The purpose of this article was to investigate the presence of fungal infection in five patients affected with serpiginous choroiditis and five patients with diagnosis of AZOOR. To assess the presence of fungal infection the presence of antibodies in human serum sample...

  2. Difficult diagnosis of invasive fungal infection predominantly involving the lower gastrointestinal tract in acute lymphoblastic leukaemia

    Avcu, Gulhadiye; Karapinar, Deniz Yilmaz; Yazici, Pinar; Duyu, Muhterem; Polat, Suleyha Hilmioglu; Atabay, Berna; Doganavsargil, Basak; Karapinar, Bulent

    2016-01-01

    Invasive fungal infections are most commonly seen in immunocompromised patients and usually affect the respiratory system. Gastrointestinal system involvement of mucormycosis and invasive aspergillosis is rarely reported in childhood. Here we describe a 5 year old boy with acute lymphoblastic leukaemia who developed invasive fungal infection particularly affecting the lower gastrointestinal system to emphasise the difficulties in diagnosis and management of invasive fungal infections in immun...

  3. Difficult diagnosis of invasive fungal infection predominantly involving the lower gastrointestinal tract in acute lymphoblastic leukaemia

    Gulhadiye Avcu

    2016-03-01

    Full Text Available Invasive fungal infections are most commonly seen in immunocompromised patients and usually affect the respiratory system. Gastrointestinal system involvement of mucormycosis and invasive aspergillosis is rarely reported in childhood. Here we describe a 5 year old boy with acute lymphoblastic leukaemia who developed invasive fungal infection particularly affecting the lower gastrointestinal system to emphasise the difficulties in diagnosis and management of invasive fungal infections in immunocompromised patients.

  4. Pseudomonas aeruginosa Forms Biofilms in Acute Infection Independent of Cell-to-Cell Signaling▿ †

    Schaber, J. Andy; Triffo, W.J.; Suh, Sang J.; Oliver, Jeffrey W.; Hastert, Mary C.; Griswold, John A.; Auer, Manfred; Hamood, Abdul N; Rumbaugh, Kendra P.

    2007-01-01

    Biofilms are bacterial communities residing within a polysaccharide matrix that are associated with persistence and antibiotic resistance in chronic infections. We show that the opportunistic pathogen Pseudomonas aeruginosa forms biofilms within 8 h of infection in thermally injured mice, demonstrating that biofilms contribute to bacterial colonization in acute infections as well. Using light, electron, and confocal scanning laser microscopy, P. aeruginosa biofilms were visualized within burn...

  5. Changes in Lipopolysaccharide O Antigen Distinguish Acute versus Chronic Leptospira interrogans Infections

    Nally, Jarlath E.; Chow, Emilie; Fishbein, Michael C.; Blanco, David R.; Lovett, Michael A.

    2005-01-01

    Leptospirosis is the most geographically widespread zoonotic disease in the world. A severe pulmonary form of leptospirosis (SPFL) is being recognized with increased frequency. We have reported that human SPFL isolates of Leptospira cause acute lethal infection with prominent pulmonary hemorrhage in guinea pigs. We have found that the same SPFL strains cause asymptomatic infection and chronic renal shedding in rats, where infection is restricted to the renal tubules. To address the antigenic ...

  6. Resolution of acute malarial infections by T cell-dependent non-antibody-mediated mechanisms of immunity.

    Cavacini, L A; Parke, L A; Weidanz, W P

    1990-01-01

    While it is generally accepted that acute blood stage malarial infections are resolved through the actions of protective antibodies, we observed that resistance to acute infection with Plasmodium chabaudi adami was mediated by T cell-dependent cellular immune mechanisms independent of antibody. We now report that acute blood stage infections caused by three additional murine hemoprotozoan parasites, Plasmodium vinckei petteri, Plasmodium chabaudi chabaudi, and Babesia microti, appear to be co...

  7. Acute Transient Variety of Autoimmune Hemolytic Anemia Following Varicella Infection

    N. Parmar

    2015-06-01

    Full Text Available We are reporting a case of an 11 year female presenting with Acute Transient variety of Autoimmune hemolytic anemia following chickenpox, the patient was treated with blood transfusion and prednisolone and discharged with successful rise in hemoglobin.

  8. Prevention of bacterial infection and sepsis in acute severe pancreatitis.

    McClelland, P.; Murray, A; Yaqoob, M.; Van Saene, H. K.; Bone, J M; Mostafa, S. M.

    1992-01-01

    Between 1984 and 1986 six patients with acute respiratory failure (requiring ventilation for at least 3 days) complicating acute pancreatitis were managed on the intensive care unit (median ventilation period 6 days; range 3-41 days). Between 1987 and 1989 nine similar patients were managed (median ventilation period 35 days, range 4-69 days), and a regimen of enteral tobramycin, polymyxin and amphotericin to selectively decontaminate the digestive tract (SDD) was introduced. Five of six pati...

  9. Clinical and microbiological characteristics of perianal infections in adult patients with acute leukemia.

    Chien-Yuan Chen

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: Perianal infection is a common problem for patients with acute leukemia. However, neutropenia and bleeding tendency are relatively contraindicated to surgical intervention. The epidemiology, microbiology, clinical manifestations and outcomes of perianal infection in leukemic patients are also rarely discussed. METHOD: The medical records of 1102 adult patients with acute leukemia at a tertiary medical center in Taiwan between 2001 and 2010 were retrospectively reviewed and analyzed. RESULT: The prevalence of perianal infection was 6.7% (74 of 1102 in adult patients with acute leukemia. Twenty-three (31% of the 74 patients had recurrent episodes of perianal infections. Patients with acute myeloid leukemia had higher recurrent rates than acute lymphoblastic leukemia patients (p = 0.028. More than half (n = 61, 53% of the perianal infections were caused by gram-negative bacilli, followed by gram-positive cocci (n = 36, 31%, anaerobes (n = 18, 15% and Candida (n = 1, 1% from pus culture. Eighteen patients experienced bacteremia (n = 24 or candidemia (n = 1. Overall 41 (68% of 60 patients had polymicrobial infection. Escherichia coli (25% was the most common micro-organism isolated, followed by Enterococcus species (22%, Klebsiella pneumoniae (13%, and Bacteroides species (11%. Twenty-five (34% of 74 patients received surgical intervention. Acute leukemia patients with surgically managed anal fistulas tended to have fewer recurrences (p = 0.067. Four (5% patients died within 30 days after diagnosis of perianal infection. Univariate analysis of 30-day survival revealed the elderly (≧ 65 years (p = 0.015 and patients with shock (p<0.001 had worse outcome. Multivariate analysis showed septic shock to be the independent predictive factor of 30-day crude mortality of perianal infections (p = 0.016. CONCLUSION: Perianal infections were common and had high recurrence rate in adult patients with acute

  10. Parvovirus B19V infection in Israel: prevalence and occurrence of acute infection between 2008 and 2013.

    Mor, O; Ofir, I; Pavel, R; Bassal, R; Kra-Oz, Z; Cohen, D; Shohat, T; Mendelson, E

    2016-01-01

    Differences in the seroprevalence and unique pattern of parvovirus B19 (B19V) acute infections have been documented around the world. This study was conducted to estimate the seroprevalence of anti-parvovirus B19V IgG antibodies in the Israeli population and to assess the pattern of acute infection based on data from two laboratories in Israel. The overall IgG prevalence in the 1008 representative sera samples was 61·4% and the age-adjusted prevalence rate was 58·2%. Seropositivity was significantly associated with age, ranging from 25·7% in children aged 20 years. While no significant differences in seropositivity were detected between sexes and population groups, significantly lower seroprevalence was observed in older Jews born in Africa or Asia. Acute infection rates of 4·1% (234 cases) were found based on the positive IgM results identified in samples from 5663 individuals collected between 2008 and 2013. Annual peaks of infection were observed in 2008 and 2011-2012 and major seasonal peak of B19V IgM positivity was identified in June each year. The number of requests for B19V serology was significantly higher for women aged 20-39 years while the majority IgM-positive cases were identified in young children. With more than 30% of the adult population being susceptible to B19V infection, monitoring B19V status should be considered in specific risk groups such as pregnant women. PMID:25990962

  11. Sudden psychotic episode probably due to meningoencephalitis and Chlamydia pneumoniae acute infection

    Canas Nuno

    2005-09-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Since 9% to 20% of all cases of acute psychosis presenting to an Emergency Department (ED are due to a general medical condition, cautious medical workup should be mandatory in such patients. Differential diagnosis must consider conditions as diverse as renal failure or CNS infection. Acute Chlamydia pneumoniae infection usually causes a self-limited respiratory syndrome. Rarely, acute neurological complications occur, with acute meningoencephalitis most frequently reported. Diagnosis requires a high level of suspicion and is difficult to confirm. Case report We describe a 22 year-old female Caucasian who, three days after a mild pharingitis, developed an acute psychosis with exuberant symptoms interspersed with periods of lucidity, in a background of normal consciousness and orientation. Initial medical and imagiological workup were inconclusive. After 20 days of unsuccessful treatment with antipsychotics she developed a high fever and was re-evaluated medically. Lumbar puncture revealed an inflammatory cerebrospinal fluid. MRI showed irregular thickening and nodularity of the lateral ventricles' lining. An anti-Chlamydia pneumoniae IgM antibody titter of 85 IU/ml was detected. All symptoms cleared after treatment with antibiotics and corticosteroids. Conclusion This is, to our knowledge, the first reported case of acute CP-associated meningoencephalitis manifesting as an acute psychotic episode. It illustrates the principle that non-organic psychiatric syndromes must remain a diagnosis of exclusion in first-time acute psychosis.

  12. Foodborne outbreak of shigellosis caused by an unusual Shigella strain.

    Huq, I; Alam, A K; Morris, G K; Wathen, G; Merson, M

    1980-01-01

    A family outbreak of foodborne shigellosis caused by an unusual strain of Shigella is described. The strain was a mannitol-positive variant of Shigella dysenteriae and agglutinated in antiserum prepared against provisional serotype 3341-55.

  13. Spatio-temporal trends and risk factors for Shigella from 2001 to 2011 in Jiangsu Province, People's Republic of China.

    Fenyang Tang

    Full Text Available OBJECTIVE: This study aimed to describe the spatial and temporal trends of Shigella incidence rates in Jiangsu Province, People's Republic of China. It also intended to explore complex risk modes facilitating Shigella transmission. METHODS: County-level incidence rates were obtained for analysis using geographic information system (GIS tools. Trend surface and incidence maps were established to describe geographic distributions. Spatio-temporal cluster analysis and autocorrelation analysis were used for detecting clusters. Based on the number of monthly Shigella cases, an autoregressive integrated moving average (ARIMA model successfully established a time series model. A spatial correlation analysis and a case-control study were conducted to identify risk factors contributing to Shigella transmissions. RESULTS: The far southwestern and northwestern areas of Jiangsu were the most infected. A cluster was detected in southwestern Jiangsu (LLR = 11674.74, P<0.001. The time series model was established as ARIMA (1, 12, 0, which predicted well for cases from August to December, 2011. Highways and water sources potentially caused spatial variation in Shigella development in Jiangsu. The case-control study confirmed not washing hands before dinner (OR = 3.64 and not having access to a safe water source (OR = 2.04 as the main causes of Shigella in Jiangsu Province. CONCLUSION: Improvement of sanitation and hygiene should be strengthened in economically developed counties, while access to a safe water supply in impoverished areas should be increased at the same time.

  14. Antibiotic and Antiinflammatory Therapy Transiently Reduces Inflammation and Hypercoagulation in Acutely SIV-Infected Pigtailed Macaques.

    Ivona Pandrea

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Increased chronic immune activation and inflammation are hallmarks of HIV/SIV infection and are highly correlated with progression to AIDS and development of non-AIDS comorbidities, such as hypercoagulability and cardiovascular disease. Intestinal dysfunction resulting in microbial translocation has been proposed as a lead cause of systemic immune activation and hypercoagulability in HIV/SIV infection. Our goal was to assess the biological and clinical impact of a therapeutic strategy designed to reduce microbial translocation through reduction of the microbial content of the intestine (Rifaximin-RFX and of gut inflammation (Sulfasalazine-SFZ. RFX is an intraluminal antibiotic that was successfully used in patients with hepatic encephalopathy. SFZ is an antiinflammatory drug successfully used in patients with mild to moderate inflammatory bowel disease. Both these clinical conditions are associated with increased microbial translocation, similar to HIV-infected patients. Treatment was administered for 90 days to five acutely SIV-infected pigtailed macaques (PTMs starting at the time of infection; seven untreated SIVsab-infected PTMs were used as controls. RFX+SFZ were also administered for 90 days to three chronically SIVsab-infected PTMs. RFX+SFZ administration during acute SIVsab infection of PTMs resulted in: significantly lower microbial translocation, lower systemic immune activation, lower viral replication, better preservation of mucosal CD4+ T cells and significantly lower levels of hypercoagulation biomarkers. This effect was clear during the first 40 days of treatment and was lost during the last stages of treatment. Administration of RFX+SFZ to chronically SIVsab-infected PTMs had no discernible effect on infection. Our data thus indicate that early RFX+SFZ administration transiently improves the natural history of acute and postacute SIV infection, but has no effect during chronic infection.

  15. Genome diversity of Shigella boydii.

    Kania, Dane A; Hazen, Tracy H; Hossain, Anowar; Nataro, James P; Rasko, David A

    2016-06-01

    ITALIC! Shigella boydiiis one of the four ITALIC! Shigellaspecies that causes disease worldwide; however, there are few published studies that examine the genomic variation of this species. This study compares genomes of 72 total isolates; 28 ITALIC! S. boydiifrom Bangladesh and The Gambia that were recently isolated as part of the Global Enteric Multicenter Study (GEMS), 14 historical ITALIC! S. boydiigenomes in the public domain and 30 ITALIC! Escherichia coliand ITALIC! Shigellareference genomes that represent the genomic diversity of these pathogens. This comparative analysis of these 72 genomes identified that the ITALIC! S. boydiiisolates separate into three phylogenomic clades, each with specific gene content. Each of the clades contains ITALIC! S. boydiiisolates from geographic and temporally distant sources, indicating that the ITALIC! S. boydiiisolates from the GEMS are representative of ITALIC! S. boydii.This study describes the genome sequences of a collection of novel ITALIC! S. boydiiisolates and provides insight into the diversity of this species in comparison to the ITALIC! E. coliand other ITALIC! Shigellaspecies. PMID:27056949

  16. Increases in Acute Hepatitis B Virus Infections - Kentucky, Tennessee, and West Virginia, 2006-2013.

    Harris, Aaron M; Iqbal, Kashif; Schillie, Sarah; Britton, James; Kainer, Marion A; Tressler, Stacy; Vellozzi, Claudia

    2016-01-01

    As many as 2.2 million persons in the United States are chronically infected with hepatitis B virus (HBV) (1), and approximately 15%-25% of persons with chronic HBV infection will die prematurely from cirrhosis or liver cancer (2). Since 2006, the overall U.S. incidence of acute HBV infection has remained stable; the rate in 2013 was 1.0 case per 100,000 persons (3). Hepatitis B vaccination is highly effective in preventing HBV infection and is recommended for all infants (beginning at birth), all adolescents, and adults at risk for HBV infection (e.g., persons who inject drugs, men who have sexual contact with men, persons infected with human immunodeficiency virus [HIV], and others). Hepatitis B vaccination coverage is low among adults: 2013 National Health Interview Survey data indicated that coverage with ≥3 doses of hepatitis B vaccine was 32.6% for adults aged 19-49 years (4). Injection drug use is a risk factor for both hepatitis C virus (HCV) and HBV. Among young adults in some rural U.S. communities, an increased incidence of HCV infection has been associated with a concurrent increase of injection drug use (5); and recent data indicate an increase of acute HCV infection in the Appalachian region associated with injection drug use (6). Using data from the National Notifiable Diseases Surveillance System (NNDSS) during 2006-2013, CDC assessed the incidence of acute HBV infection in three of the four Appalachian states (Kentucky, Tennessee, and West Virginia) included in the HCV infection study (6). Similar to the increase of HCV infections recently reported, an increase in incident cases of acute HBV infection in these three states has occurred among non-Hispanic whites (whites) aged 30-39 years who reported injection drug use as a common risk factor. Since 2009, cases of acute HBV infection have been reported from more non-urban than urban regions. Evidence-based services to prevent HBV infection are needed. PMID:26821369

  17. False positivity of monospot test in an immunocompetent elderly woman with acute cytomegalovirus infection.

    Thamcharoen, Natanong; Sornprom, Suthanya; Permpalung, Nitipong; Hyman, Charles L

    2015-10-01

    A 75-year-old woman presented with altered mental status, septic picture, and influenza-like symptoms. Initial investigations revealed atypical lymphocytosis, thrombocytopenia, elevated liver enzymes, and a positive monospot test result. Further investigation showed the Epstein-Barr virus viral capsid antibody IgM/IgG and Epstein-Barr virus DNA by polymerase chain reaction to be negative; however, interestingly her cytomegalovirus (CMV) IgM and IgG were positive, suggesting that her mononucleosis-like syndrome was due to acute CMV infection. Herein, we report the first case of a heterophile-positive mononucleosis syndrome caused by acute CMV infection in an elderly immunocompetent woman. This case conveys that monospot test can yield false-positive result in the setting of acute CMV infection. PMID:26275628

  18. Human metapneumovirus and respiratory syncytial virus in hospitalized danish children with acute respiratory tract infection

    von Linstow, Marie-Louise; Larsen, Hans Henrik; Eugen-Olsen, Jesper;

    2004-01-01

    The newly discovered human metapneumovirus (hMPV) has been shown to be associated with respiratory illness. We determined the frequencies and clinical features of hMPV and respiratory syncytial virus (RSV) infections in 374 Danish children with 383 episodes of acute respiratory tract infection...... children 1-6 months of age. Asthmatic bronchitis was diagnosed in 66.7% of hMPV and 10.6% of RSV-infected children (p < 0.001). Overall symptoms and clinical findings were similar among hMPV and RSV positive episodes, but more RSV-infected children required respiratory support. hMPV is present in young...

  19. Cytokine expression during early and late phase of acute Puumala hantavirus infection

    Sadeghi Mahmoud; Eckerle Isabella; Daniel Volker; Burkhardt Ulrich; Opelz Gerhard; Schnitzler Paul

    2011-01-01

    Abstract Background Hantaviruses of the family Bunyaviridae are emerging zoonotic pathogens which cause hemorrhagic fever with renal syndrome (HFRS) in the Old World and hantavirus pulmonary syndrome (HPS) in the New World. An immune-mediated pathogenesis is discussed for both syndromes. The aim of our study was to investigate cytokine expression during the course of acute Puumala hantavirus infection. Results We retrospectively studied 64 patients hospitalised with acute Puumala hantavirus i...

  20. Chikungunya Virus Infection and Acute Elevation of Serum Prostate-Specific Antigen

    William Derval Aiken; Anzinger, Joshua J.

    2015-01-01

    A man with prostate cancer on a regime of active surveillance had a laboratory-confirmed acute Chikungunya virus infection. The patient experienced a sudden increase in serum Prostate-Specific Antigen (PSA) during the acute illness that caused him anxiety and confounded interpretation of the PSA test. Six weeks after the onset of Chikungunya Fever symptoms, the elevated serum PSA returned to baseline. The association of Chikungunya Fever and elevated serum PSA may result in misinterpretation ...

  1. Acute transverse myelitis caused by Coxsackie virus B4 infection: a case report.

    Ku, B; Lee, K.

    1998-01-01

    Acute transverse myelitis is a rare clinical manifestation of Coxsackie virus infection which cause acute and progressive debilitating illness associated with loss of spinal cord function in the affected patients. A 62 year-old female developed symptoms of rapidly progressive paraplegia with sensory loss. On spinal MRI, T2 sagittal image showed increased signal intensity with cord swelling at T11-L2 level and 8 folds or greater rise of Coxsackie virus B4 neutralizing antibody titers was obser...

  2. Acute Sinusitis Resulting in a Craniotomy: An Uncommon Complication of a Common Infection

    Allison Price

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available Acute bacterial sinusitis is a common infectious condition. Patients may initially present with an uncomplicated infection and later, despite appropriate initial antibiotic therapy, develop a potentially life-threatening complication. Interventions aimed at alleviating such unexpected events need be prompt and adequate. We describe a case of a patient who initially presented with signs and symptoms of acute sinusitis later to be diagnosed with a frontal epidural abscess.

  3. Characterization of Shigella sonnei in Malaysia, an increasingly prevalent etiologic agent of local shigellosis cases

    Koh Xiu

    2012-05-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Shigellosis is a major public health concern worldwide, especially in developing countries. It is an acute intestinal infection caused by bacteria of the genus Shigella, with a minimum infective dose as low as 10–100 bacterial cells. Increasing prevalence of Shigella sonnei as the etiologic agent of shigellosis in Malaysia has been reported. As there is limited information on the genetic background of S. sonnei in Malaysia, this study aimed to characterize Malaysian S. sonnei and to evaluate the prospect of using multilocus variable-number tandem-repeat (VNTR analysis (MLVA for subtyping of local S. sonnei. Methods Forty non-repeat clinical strains of S. sonnei isolated during the years 1997–2000, and 2007–2009 were studied. The strains were isolated from stools of patients in different hospitals from different regions in Malaysia. These epidemiologically unrelated strains were characterized using biotyping, antimicrobial susceptibility testing, pulsed-field gel electrophoresis (PFGE and MLVA. Results The two biotypes identified in this study were biotype a (n = 29, 73% and biotype g (n = 11, 27%. All the 40 strains were sensitive to kanamycin, ceftriaxone and ciprofloxacin. Highest resistance rate was observed for streptomycin (67.5%, followed by tetracycline (40% and trimethoprim-sulfamethoxazole (37.5%. All the S. sonnei biotype g strains had a core resistance type of streptomycin - trimethoprim-sulfamethoxazole - tetracycline whereas the 29 biotype a strains were subtyped into eight resistotypes. All the strains were equally distinguishable by PFGE and MLVA. Overall, PFGE analysis indicated that S. sonnei biotype a strains were genetically more diverse than biotype g strains. Cluster analysis by MLVA was better in grouping the strains according to biotypes, was reflective of the epidemiological information and was equally discriminative as PFGE. Conclusions The S. sonnei strains circulating in Malaysia

  4. 21 CFR 866.3660 - Shigella spp. serological reagents.

    2010-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 8 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Shigella spp. serological reagents. 866.3660... (CONTINUED) MEDICAL DEVICES IMMUNOLOGY AND MICROBIOLOGY DEVICES Serological Reagents § 866.3660 Shigella spp. serological reagents. (a) Identification. Shigella spp. serological reagents are devices that consist...

  5. Acute cytomegalovirus infection complicated by venous thrombosis: a case report

    Parola Philippe

    2005-08-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background CMV-induced vasculopathy and thrombosis have been reported, but they are rare conditions usually encountered in immunocompromised patients. However more and more complications of CMV infections are recognized in immunocompetent patients. Case presentation We present a case report of a previously healthy adult with cytomegalovirus infection that was complicated by tibiopopliteal deep venous thrombosis and in whom Factor V Leiden heterozygous mutation was found. Conclusion This new case report emphasizes the involvement of cytomegalovirus in induction of vascular thrombosis in patients with predisposing risk factors for thrombosis. It is necessary to screen for CMV infection in patients with spontaneous thrombosis and an history of fever.

  6. Acute eosinophilic pneumonia as a complication of influenza A (H1N1) pulmonary infection.

    Larranaga, Jose Maria; Marcos, Pedro J; Pombo, Francisco; Otero-Gonzalez, Isabel

    2016-01-01

    Acute eosinophilic pneumonia (AEP) is a rare disease characterized by its acute onset and a clinical presentation simulating a bacterial pneumonia. Although it can be idiopathic, it has been described related to drugs, toxic agents and infections, mostly parasitic. We describe the case of influenza A (H1N1) severe pneumonia complicated by an acute eosinophilic pneumonia. Patient presented with respiratory failure and diffuse ground-glass opacities at chest-computed tomography. Clinical suspicion for this complication and bronchoalveolar lavage with cellular count analysis is crucial. PMID:27055842

  7. Acute gross sterile pyuria after oral ciprofloxacin treatment of urinary tract infection

    Pathoom Sukkaromdee; Viroj Wiwanitkit

    2016-01-01

    The sterile pyuria is an interesting problem in urology. Acute gross sterile pyuria is not a common clinical problem and is difficult to make a correct diagnosis. Here, the authors reported a case of acute gross sterile pyuria after oral ciprofloxacin treatment of urinary tract infection. The patient developed problem after complete course of 7-day acute upper urinary tract treatment. The patient was observed with cloudy whitish urine that had never seen before. The urinalysis showed sterile pyuria. This case was treated by conservative method and the problem was resolved within 7 days.

  8. Respiratory viruses in children hospitalized for acute lower respiratory tract infection in Ghana

    Kwofie Theophilus B

    2012-04-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Acute respiratory tract infections are one of the major causes of morbidity and mortality among young children in developing countries. Information on the viral aetiology of acute respiratory infections in developing countries is very limited. The study was done to identify viruses associated with acute lower respiratory tract infection among children less than 5 years. Method Nasopharyngeal samples and blood cultures were collected from children less than 5 years who have been hospitalized for acute lower respiratory tract infection. Viruses and bacteria were identified using Reverse Transcriptase Real-Time Polymerase Chain Reaction and conventional biochemical techniques. Results Out of 128 patients recruited, 33(25.88%%, 95%CI: 18.5% to 34.2% were positive for one or more viruses. Respiratory Syncytial Virus (RSV was detected in 18(14.1%, 95%CI: 8.5% to 21.3% patients followed by Adenoviruses (AdV in 13(10.2%, 95%CI: 5.5% to 16.7%, Parainfluenza (PIV type: 1, 2, 3 in 4(3.1%, 95%CI: 0.9% to 7.8% and influenza B viruses in 1(0.8%, 95%CI: 0.0 to 4.3. Concomitant viral and bacterial co-infection occurred in two patients. There were no detectable significant differences in the clinical signs, symptoms and severity for the various pathogens isolated. A total of 61.1% (22/36 of positive viruses were detected during the rainy season and Respiratory Syncytial Virus was the most predominant. Conclusion The study has demonstrated an important burden of respiratory viruses as major causes of childhood acute respiratory infection in a tertiary health institution in Ghana. The data addresses a need for more studies on viral associated respiratory tract infection.

  9. Acute Respiratory Infections in the Context of the Influenza A (H1N1 Pandemic

    Hilda María Delgado Acosta

    2014-12-01

    Full Text Available Background: acute respiratory infections are among the leading causes of morbidity and mortality worldwide. Objective: to characterize acute respiratory infections in the context of the influenza pandemic in Cienfuegos province. Methods: A case series study including 844 inpatients diagnosed with influenza-like illness, 806 suspected cases and 38 confirmed cases of pandemic influenza, was conducted. An analysis of the acute respiratory infections was performed, describing the pandemic in space and time. Suspected and confirmed cases were compared according to general variables, risk factors and interesting clinical features. Virus isolation and classification of confirmed cases considering source of infection and progress over time were showed. Data was collected from the Statistics Department of the Provincial Hygiene and Epidemiology Center and the inpatient database. Percentages, rates, the mean, standard deviation and Chi-square test with a 5 % margin of error were used.Results: acute respiratory infections morbidity increased since 2008, largely because of the impact of the pandemic and the increased clinical and epidemiological surveillance. Its association with risk factors such as pregnancy, chronic diseases and traveling abroad was demonstrated. Circulation of the pandemic influenza virus with displacement of seasonal viruses and prevalence of indigenous cases were observed. Conclusions: the characteristics of pandemic influenza in the province do not differ greatly from those described nationally and globally.

  10. Peginterferon-alfa mono-therapy in the treatment of acute hepatitis C in HIV-infection

    Boesecke, C.; van Assen, S.; Stellbrink, H. -J.; Baumgarten, A.; Ingiliz, P.; Strassburg, C. P.; Schwarze-Zander, C.; Wasmuth, J. -C.; Hoepelman, A. I. M.; Rockstroh, J. K.; Arends, J. E.

    2014-01-01

    The ongoing epidemic of acute hepatitis C (AHC) infection among MSM highlights the need to identify factors allowing for optimal treatment outcome in HIV co-infected individuals. Cohort study of 105 HIV-infected patients with AHC infection from five centres in two European countries was carried out.

  11. Acute Infections After Fracture Repair: Management With Hardware in Place

    Rightmire, Eric; Zurakowski, David; Vrahas, Mark

    2008-01-01

    Managing infections in fractures treated with open reduction and internal fixation is an ongoing dilemma. Little published data exist to support the current practice of treating these infections with retained hardware, irrigation, débridement, and antibiotic suppression. We evaluated the effectiveness of this approach. We identified potential subjects from a central trauma database and selected them based on chart review and specific inclusion and exclusion criteria. We divided the patients i...

  12. An overview of the microbiology of acute ear, nose and throat infections requiring hospitalisation

    Rusan, Maria; Klug, Tejs Ehlers; Ovesen, Therese

    2009-01-01

    This study is the first to provide an extensive overview of the microbiology of acute ear, nose and throat infections requiring hospitalisation. All 2,028 cases of acute infections admitted between 1 January 2001 and 31 December 2006 were reviewed to assess the use of pre-admission antibiotics......, microbiological results, antibiotic and surgical management and length of hospitalisation. Infections of the oropharynx accounted for the vast majority of admissions, followed by ear infections, and cutaneous neck abscesses. Peritonsillar abscess was the most frequent diagnosis, accounting for over one third...... of admissions (39.8%, 808 out of 2,028). Complete microbiological data were available for 1,430 cultures, and were analysed for trends with respect to diagnosis, age, gender and use of pre-admission antibiotics. Forty-six percent (657 out of 1,430) of cultures yielded no growth or normal flora. This value...

  13. Confirmation of aerogenic strains of Shigella boydii 13 and further study of Shigella serotypes by DNA relatedness.

    Brenner, D. J.; Steigerwalt, A G; Wathen, H G; Gross, R. J.; Rowe, B.

    1982-01-01

    Shigella boydii 13 strains are separable from other Shigella and Escherichia coli strains on the basis of DNA relatedness. From this observation, it was possible to confirm the existence of aerogenic S. boydii 13 strains. DNA relatedness studies also showed that strains of E. coli and strains representing all other serotypes of Shigella, including provisional strains, belong to the same genetic species.

  14. Central Nervous System Viral Invasion and Inflammation During Acute HIV Infection

    Valcour, V.; Chalermchai, T; Sailasuta, N; Marovich, M; Lerdlum, S; Suttichom, D; Suwanwela, NC; Jagodzinski, L.; Michael, N.; Spudich, S; van Griensven, F.; Souza, M.; Kim, J; Ananworanich, J.

    2012-01-01

    BACKGROUND: Understanding the earliest central nervous system (CNS) events during human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) infection is crucial to knowledge of neuropathogenesis, but these have not previously been described in humans. METHODS: Twenty individuals who had acute HIV infection (Fiebig stages I-IV), with average 15 days after exposure, underwent clinical neurological, cerebrospinal fluid (CSF), magnetic resonance imaging, and magnetic resonance spectroscopy (MRS) characterization. RESUL...

  15. Disseminate Fungal Infection after Acute Pancreatitis in a Simultaneous Pancreas-Kidney Recipient

    Gian Luigi Adani; Vittorio Bresadola; Pierluigi Viale; Andrea Risaliti; Dario Lorenzin; Umberto Baccarani; Anna Rossetto

    2010-01-01

    Fungal infections after kidney transplantation are a major cause of morbidity and mortality, and Candida infection of the pancreas is considered an infrequent but important agent in necrotizing pancreatitis. We report the case of a 43-year-old Caucasian patient who underwent simultaneous pancreas-kidney transplantation because of diabetes type I, and chronic renal failure with peritoneal dialysis. The postoperative course was complicated by acute pancreatitis due to the thrombosis of the sple...

  16. Host genome variations and risk of infections during induction treatment for childhood acute lymphoblastic leukaemia

    Lund, Bendik; Wesolowska-Andersen, Agata; Lausen, Birgitte;

    2014-01-01

    Objectives: To investigate association of host genomic variation and risk of infections during treatment for childhood acute lymphoblastic leukaemia (ALL). Methods: We explored association of 34 000 singlenucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs) related primarily to pharmacogenomics and immune function...... to risk of infections among 69 ALL patients on induction therapy. Results: Forty-eight (70%) patients experienced infectious events including 23 with positive blood cultures. Infectious events and positive blood cultures were associated significantly with 24 and 21 SNPs, respectively (P

  17. Acute HIV Infection in Pregnancy: The Case for Third Trimester Rescreening

    Jocelyn Wertz; Jason Cesario; Jennifer Sackrison; Sean Kim; Chi Dola

    2011-01-01

    Combination testing with anti-HIV Elisa and Western blot is both sensitive and specific for diagnosis of established HIV-1 infection but could not detect acute HIV infection (AHI). AHI is a time of extremely high viral load, which may correlate to increased risk of horizontal or vertical transmission. Thus, early identification of AHI could allow for interventions to decrease transmission. However, recognition of AHI can be challenging as symptoms could be absent or nonspecific, therefore, A...

  18. Rapid and widely disseminated acute phase protein response after experimental bacterial infection of pigs

    Skovgaard, Kerstin; Mortensen, Shila; Boye, Mette; Poulsen, Karin T.; Campbell, Fiona M; Eckersall, P. David; Heegaard, Peter M.H.

    2009-01-01

    International audience The acute phase protein response is a well-described generalized early host response to tissue injury, inflammation and infection, observed as pronounced changes in the concentrations of a number of circulating serum proteins. The biological function of this response and its interplay with other parts of innate host defence reactions remain somewhat elusive. In order to gain new insight into this early host defence response in the context of bacterial infection we st...

  19. Intracellular and membrane-damaging activities of methyl gallate isolated from Terminalia chebula against multidrug-resistant Shigella spp.

    Acharyya, Saurabh; Sarkar, Prodipta; Saha, Dhira R; Patra, Amarendra; Ramamurthy, T; Bag, Prasanta K

    2015-08-01

    Shigella spp. (Shigella dysenteriae, Shigella flexneri, Shigella boydii and Shigella sonnei) cause bacillary dysentery (shigellosis), which is characterized by bloody mucous diarrhoea. Although a variety of antibiotics have been effective for treatment of shigellosis, options are becoming limited due to globally emerging drug resistance. In the present study, in vitro antibacterial activity of methyl gallate (MG) isolated from Terminalia chebula was determined by performing MIC, minimal bactericidal concentration (MBC) and time-kill kinetic studies. Bacterial membrane-damaging activity of MG was determined by membrane perturbation and transmission electron microscopy (TEM). Cellular drug accumulation, cell infection and assessment of intracellular activities of MG and reference antibiotics were performed using HeLa cell cultures. The bactericidal activity of MG against multidrug-resistant (MDR) Shigella spp. in comparison with other commonly used drugs including fluoroquinolone was demonstrated here. TEM findings in the present study revealed that MG caused the total disintegration of inner and outer membranes, and leakage of the cytoplasmic contents of S. dysenteriae. The level of accumulation of MG and tetracycline in HeLa cells incubated for 24  h was relatively higher than that of ciprofloxacin and nalidixic acid (ratio of intracellular concentration/extracellular concentration of antibiotic for MG and tetracycline>ciprofloxacin and nalidixic acid). The viable number of intracellular S. dysenteriae was decreased in a time-dependent manner in the presence of MG (4 × MBC) and reduced to zero within 20  h. The significant intracellular activities of MG suggested that it could potentially be used as an effective antibacterial agent for the treatment of severe infections caused by MDR Shigella spp. PMID:26272388

  20. Shigella Strains Are Not Clones of Escherichia coli but Sister Species in the Genus Escherichia

    Zuo, Guanghong; Xu, Zhao; Hao, Bailin

    2012-01-01

    Shigella species and Escherichia coli are closely related organisms. Early phenotyping experiments and several recent molecular studies put Shigella within the species E. coli. However, the whole-genome-based, alignment-free and parameter-free CVTree approach shows convincingly that four established Shigella species, Shigella boydii, Shigella sonnei, Shigella felxneri and Shigella dysenteriae, are distinct from E. coli strains, and form sister species to E. coli within the genus Escherichia. ...

  1. Clinical Trial and In Vitro Study for the Role of Cartilage and Synovia in Acute Articular Infection

    Langenmair, E. R.; Kubosch, E. J.; Salzmann, G. M.;

    2015-01-01

    Objective. Osteoarthritis is a long-term complication of acute articular infections. However, the roles of cartilage and synovia in this process are not yet fully understood. Methods. Patients with acute joint infections were enrolled in a prospective clinical trial and the cytokine composition o...

  2. A child with acute encephalopathy associated with quadruple viral infection

    Keiko eNakata

    2015-04-01

    Full Text Available infection does not always result in AE. The risk factors for developing infantile AE upon such infection remain to be determined. Here we report an infant with AE coinfected with human herpesvirus 6 (HHV-6 and three picornaviruses: coxsackievirus A6 (CVA6, enterovirus D68 (EV-D68, and human parechovirus (HPeV. EV-D68 was vertically transmitted to the infant from his mother. CVA6 and HPeV were likely transmitted to the infant at the nursery school. HHV-6 might have been re-activated in the patient. It remains undetermined which pathogen played the central role in the AE pathogenesis. However, active, simultaneous infection by four viruses likely evoke a cytokine storm, leading to the pathogenesis of AE. Conclusion: Infant cases with active quadruple infection by potentially AE-causing viruses have seldom been reported, partly because systematic nucleic acid-based laboratory tests on picornaviruses are not common. We propose that simultaneous viral infection may serve as a risk factor for the development of AE.

  3. Human bocavirus in children suffering from acute lower respiratory tract infection in Beijing Children's Hospital

    ZHANG Li-li; XU Wen-bo; SHEN Kun-ling; TANG Liu-ying; XIE Zheng-de; TAN Xiao-juan; LI Chong-shan; CUI Ai-li; JI Yi-xin; XU Song-tao; MAO Nai-ying

    2008-01-01

    Background Human bocavirus(HBoV)is a parvovirus recently found to possibly cause respiratory tract disease in children and adults.This studV investigated HBoV infection and its clinical characte rist:ics in children younger than five years of age suffering from acute Iower respiratory tract infection in Beijing Children's Hospital.Methods Nasopharyngeal aspirates were collected from children suffering from acute Iower respiratory tract infection during the winters of 2004 to 2006 (from November through the following February).HBoV was detected by polymerase chain reaction amplification and virus isolation and the amplification products were sequenced for identification.Results HBoV jnfection was detected in 16 of 333 study subjects.Coinfections with respiratory syncytial virus were detected in 3 of 16 HBoV positive patients with acute lower respiratory tract infection.The median age for HBoV positive children was 8 months(mean age,17 months;range,3 to 57 months).Among the HBoV positive children,14 were younger than 3 years old.9 were younger than 1 year old and 7 were younger than 6 months.These 16 positive HBoV children exhibited coughing and abnormal chest radiography findings and more than 60%of these children had wheezing and fever.Ten children were clinically diagnosed with pneumonia,2 bronchiolitis,2 acute bronchitis and 2 asthma.One child died.Conclusions HBoV was detected in about 5%of children with acute Iower respiratory infection seen in Beijing Children's Hospital.Fudher investigations regarding clinical and epidemiologic charactedstics of HBoV infection are needed.

  4. Acute Pancreatitis from Mumps Re-infection in Adulthood. A Case Report

    Atsuko Taii

    2008-05-01

    Full Text Available Context Acute pancreatitis is a complication of mumps which mainly affects children who then usually acquire permanent immunity. We present the case of a woman with acute pancreatitis caused by mumps re-infection in adulthood. Case report A 34-year-old woman developed mild acute pancreatitis caused by re-infection with mumps, as confirmed serologically by enzyme-linked immunosorbent assays mumps -specific IgM and IgG. Acute pancreatitis was indicated by the elevation of amylase and other pancreatic enzymes such as lipase and elastase-1 as well as by swelling of the pancreatic head visualized by abdominal computed tomography. The abdominal symptoms were resolved soon after the administration of a pancreatic enzyme inhibitor. As the swelling of the right and left parotids decreased, serum amylase levels also gradually normalized. Conclusion We believe that this is the first reported case of acute pancreatitis caused by mumps re-infection in an adult. Such reinfection should be considered a possible though rare

  5. Risk Factors and Immune Response to Hepatitis E viral Infection among Acute Hepatitis Patients in Assiut, Egypt

    Seif Eldin, Salwa S.; Seddik, Ismail; Daef, Enas A; Shata, M.T.; Raafat, Marwa; Baky, Laila Abdel; Nafeh, MA

    2010-01-01

    Hepatitis E virus (HEV) infection is a common cause of acute viral hepatitis (AVH) in Egypt. We aimed to identify risk factors of HEV among acute hepatitis cases, measure HEV specific immune response to differentiate between symptomatic and asymptomatic infections. The study included symptomatic acute hepatitis (AH) patients (n=235) and asymptomatic contacts (n=200) to HEV cases. They completed a lifestyle questionnaire, screened for common hepatotropic viruses. Blood and serum samples were c...

  6. Slow clearance of human parvovirus B19 viremia following acute infection

    Lindblom, Anna; Isa, Adiba; Norbeck, Oscar;

    2005-01-01

    Parvovirus B19 is a common, clinically significant pathogen. Reassessment of the viral kinetics after acute infection showed that the virus is not rapidly cleared from healthy hosts, despite early resolution of symptoms. These findings challenge our current conception of the virus' pathogenesis and...

  7. Acute hepatitis associated with autochthonous hepatitis E virus infection--San Antonio, Texas, 2009.

    Tohme, Rania A; Drobeniuc, Jan; Sanchez, Roger; Heseltine, Gary; Alsip, Bryan; Kamili, Saleem; Hu, Dale J; Guerra, Fernando; Teshale, Eyasu H

    2011-10-01

    Locally acquired hepatitis E infection is increasingly being observed in industrialized countries. We report 2 cases of autochthonous acute hepatitis E in the United States. Hepatitis E virus genotype 3a related to US-2 and swine hepatitis E virus strains was isolated from one of the patients, indicating potential food-borne or zoonotic transmission. PMID:21896699

  8. Development of Hamster Models for Acute and Chronic Infections with Leptospira borgpetersenii serovar Hardjo

    The Golden Syrian hamster is frequently used as a small animal model to study acute leptospirosis. However, use of this small animal model to study Leptospira borgpetersenii serovar Hardjo infections has not been well documented. Cattle are the normal maintenance hosts of L. borgpetersenii serovar...

  9. Signs or Symptoms of Acute HIV Infection in a Cohort Undergoing Community-Based Screening

    Hoenigl, Martin; Green, Nella; Camacho, Martha; Gianella, Sara; Mehta, Sanjay R; Smith, Davey M.; Little, Susan J.

    2016-01-01

    We analyzed signs and symptoms in 90 patients diagnosed with acute HIV infection in a community-based program that offered universal HIV-1 nucleic acid amplification testing. Forty-seven (52%) patients reported ongoing signs or symptoms at the time of testing. Another 25 (28%) reported signs or symptoms that had occurred during the 14 days before testing.

  10. Detection of viral acute lower respiratory tract infection in hospitalized infants using real-time PCR

    Bassant Meligy

    2016-03-01

    Conclusions: RV was the most commonly detected virus in children under 3 years admitted with acute lower respiratory tract infections. Coinfection was present in the majority of our patients; however it was not related significantly to parameters of disease severity.