WorldWideScience

Sample records for acute progressive feed

  1. Genome-wide effects of acute progressive feed restriction in liver and white adipose tissue

    Acute progressive feed restriction (APFR) represents a specific form of caloric restriction in which feed availability is increasingly curtailed over a period of a few days to a few weeks. It is often used for control animals in toxicological and pharmacological studies on compounds causing body weight loss to equalize weight changes between experimental and control groups and thereby, intuitively, to also set their metabolic states to the same phase. However, scientific justification for this procedure is lacking. In the present study, we analyzed by microarrays the impact on hepatic gene expression in rats of two APFR regimens that caused identical diminution of body weight (19%) but differed slightly in duration (4 vs. 10 days). In addition, white adipose tissue (WAT) was also subjected to the transcriptomic analysis on day-4. The data revealed that the two regimens led to distinct patterns of differentially expressed genes in liver, albeit some major pathways of energy metabolism were similarly affected (particularly fatty acid and amino acid catabolism). The reason for the divergence appeared to be entrainment by the longer APFR protocol of peripheral oscillator genes, which resulted in derailment of circadian rhythms and consequent interaction of altered diurnal fluctuations with metabolic adjustments in gene expression activities. WAT proved to be highly unresponsive to the 4-day APFR as only 17 mRNA levels were influenced by the treatment. This study demonstrates that body weight is a poor proxy of metabolic state and that the customary protocols of feed restriction can lead to rhythm entrainment

  2. Acute Glucose Response Properties Beyond Feeding.

    Burnett, C Joseph; Krashes, Michael J

    2016-05-01

    Hypothalamic AgRP neurons potently coordinate feeding behavior to ensure an organism's viability. However, their acute role in glucose-regulatory function remains to be addressed. Steculorum et al. now report that activation of a specific set of AgRP neurons results in an impairment of insulin-stimulated glucose uptake in brown fat through a myogenic signature program. PMID:27052261

  3. Acute glomerulonephritis, rapidly progressive emphasis on commitment

    Adolfo León Castro

    2011-11-01

    Full Text Available Acute glomerulonephritis (GNA is a wide group of diseases with the common characteristics of abrupt onset and proliferation of endocapillary glomerular cells. Clinically, they usually manifest as acute nephritic syndrome: hematuria, acute renal failure, hypertension and mild proteinuria, although they can appear as recurrent hematuria. GNA can be present in association with a variety of bacterial and viral infections, but in most cases the initial antigenic initiating stimulus is unknown. Patients with rapidly progressive glomerulonephritis often present acute onset of manifestations of nephritis, such as azotemia, oliguria, edema, hypertension, proteinuria, and hematuria with «active» urine sediment that often contains red blood cell casts, pigmented casts, and cellular debris. This article, aimed at all primary care staff and seeking to increase their awareness of this disease, discusses in more detail the clinical, pathogenesis, pathology, and treatments available from one of the glomerulonephritis with greater impact on survival patient.

  4. Acute MRI changes in progressive ischemic stroke

    Kalowska, E.; Rostrup, E.; Rosenbaum, S.;

    2008-01-01

    aimed to assess if acute MRI findings could be used for the prediction of stroke in progression (SIP). METHODS: Prospectively 41 patients, 13 with lacunar infarcts and 28 with territorial infarcts, were admitted to an acute stroke unit within 24 h of stroke onset (median 11 h, range 3- 22). Diffusion...... the modified Rankin Scale, Barthel Index and SSS score. Patients with and without SIP were compared using both clinical and MRI data obtained on admission, on day 7 and after 3 months. RESULTS: Fifteen patients (37%) developed SIP. Increased DWI lesion volume on day 7 in all strokes was associated...

  5. Acute MRI Changes in Progressive Ischemic Stroke

    Kalowska, Elizabeth; Rostrup, Egill; Rosenbaum, S;

    2008-01-01

    aimed to assess if acute MRI findings could be used for the prediction of stroke in progression (SIP). Methods: Prospectively 41 patients, 13 with lacunar infarcts and 28 with territorial infarcts, were admitted to an acute stroke unit within 24 h of stroke onset (median 11 h, range 3- 22). Diffusion...... the modified Rankin Scale, Barthel Index and SSS score. Patients with and without SIP were compared using both clinical and MRI data obtained on admission, on day 7 and after 3 months. Results: Fifteen patients (37%) developed SIP. Increased DWI lesion volume on day 7 in all strokes was associated...

  6. Acute Pancreatitis—Progress and Challenges

    Afghani, Elham; Pandol, Stephen J.; Shimosegawa, Tooru; Sutton, Robert; Wu, Bechien U.; Vege, Santhi Swaroop; Gorelick, Fred; Hirota, Morihisa; Windsor, John; Lo, Simon K.; Freeman, Martin L.; Lerch, Markus M.; Tsuji, Yoshihisa; Melmed, Gil Y.; Wassef, Wahid; Mayerle, Julia

    2016-01-01

    An international symposium entitled “Acute pancreatitis: progress and challenges” was held on November 5, 2014 at the Hapuna Beach Hotel, Big Island, Hawaii, as part of the 45th Anniversary Meeting of the American Pancreatic Association and the Japanese Pancreas Society. The course was organized and directed by Drs. Stephen Pandol, Tooru Shimosegawa, Robert Sutton, Bechien Wu, and Santhi Swaroop Vege. The symposium objectives were to: (1) highlight current issues in management of acute pancreatitis, (2) discuss promising treatments, (3) consider development of quality indicators and improved measures of disease activity, and (4) present a framework for international collaboration for development of new therapies. This article represents a compilation and adaptation of brief summaries prepared by speakers at the symposium with the purpose of broadly disseminating information and initiatives. PMID:26465949

  7. Activity of neutrophil elastase reflects the progression of acute pancreatitis

    Novovic, Srdan; Andersen, Anders M; Nord, Magnus;

    2013-01-01

    Abstract Objective. Neutrophil elastase (NE) concentration is associated with progression of acute pancreatitis (AP), but measuring total NE concentration includes biologically inactive NE. This study aims to investigate the relationship between NE activity and the aetiology and severity of AP and...... was associated with predicted severity of AP and AP-associated respiratory failure. Specific NE inhibitors may have therapeutic potential in acute pancreatitis....

  8. Progress in developing an infant and child feeding index

    Arimond, Mary; Ruel, Marie T.

    2002-01-01

    "Feeding practices are an important determinant of the nutritional status of infants and children. It is therefore useful to measure and describe infant and child feeding practices in a number of contexts. Such measurements could enable (1) international comparisons of the adequacy of infant and child feeding, (2) research linking infant and child feeding to determinants or outcomes, (3) advocacy regarding the importance of adequate infant and child feeding, and (4) monitoring and evaluation ...

  9. Is looped nasogastric tube feeding more effective than conventional nasogastric tube feeding for dysphagia in acute stroke?

    Harwood Rowan

    2007-08-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Dysphagia occurs in up to 50% of patients admitted to hospital with acute strokes with up to 27% remaining by seven days. Up to 8% continue to have swallowing problems six months after their stroke with 1.7% still requiring enteral feeding. Nasogastric tubes (NGT are the most commonly used method for providing enteral nutrition in early stroke, however they are easily and frequently removed leading to inadequate nutrition, early PEG (Percutaneous Endoscopic Gastrostomy insertion or abandoning of feeding attempts. Looped nasogastric tube feeding may improve the delivery of nutrition to such patients. Methods Three centre, two arm randomised controlled trial, with 50 participants in each arm comparing loop (the intervention versus conventional nasogastric tube feeding. The primary outcome measure is proportion of intended feed delivered in the first 2 weeks. The study is designed to show a mean increase of feed delivery of 16% in the intervention group as compared with the control group, with 90% power at a 5% significance level. Secondary outcomes are treatment failures, mean volume of feed received, adverse events, cost-effectiveness, number of chest x-rays, number of nasogastric tubes and tolerability. Trial Registration ISRCTN Number: ISRCTN61174381

  10. Effect of Four Approaches to Oral Feeding Progression on Clinical Outcomes in Preterm Infants

    Rita H. Pickler

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Background. The purpose of this study of preterm infants was to test the effect of four approaches to the time of transition from gavage to full oral feedings, time to discharge, and weight gain during the transition. Methods. A randomized experimental design was used with four intervention groups: early start (32 weeks’ postmenstrual age/slow progressing experience (gradually increasing oral feedings offered per day; early start/maximum experience (oral feedings offered at every feeding opportunity; late start (34 weeks’ postmenstrual age/slow progressing experience; and late start/maximum experience. Results. The analysis included 86 preterm infants. Once oral feedings were initiated, infants in the late start/maximum experience group achieved full oral feeding and were discharged to home significantly sooner than infants in either early start group. Although not significantly different, these infants also achieved these outcomes sooner than infants in the late start/slow progressing experience group. There were no differences in weight gain across groups. Conclusions. Results suggest starting oral feedings later in preterm infants may result in more rapid transition to full oral feedings and discharge although not at early postnatal ages. Provision of a more consistent approach to oral feeding may support infant neurodevelopment and reduce length of hospitalization.

  11. Role of macrophages in the progression of acute pancreatitis

    Sabrina; Gea-Sorlí; Daniel; Closa

    2010-01-01

    In addition to pancreatic cells,other inflammatory cell populations contribute to the generation of inflammatory mediators during acute pancreatitis.In particular,macrophages could be activated by mediators released during pancreatitis by a damaged pancreas.It has been reported that peritoneal macrophages,alveolar macrophages and Kupffer cells become activated in different stages of severe acute pancreatitis.However,macrophages display remarkable plasticity and can change their physiology in response to environmental cues.Depending on their microenvironmental stimulation,macrophages could follow different activation pathways resulting in marked phenotypic heterogeneity.This ability has made these cells interesting therapeutical targets and several approaches have been assayed to modulate the progression of inflammatory response secondary to acute pancreatitis.However,despite the recent advances in the modulation of macrophage function in vivo,the therapeutical applications of these strategies require a better understanding of the regulation of gene expression in these cells.

  12. Preemptive mechanical ventilation can block progressive acute lung injury.

    Sadowitz, Benjamin; Jain, Sumeet; Kollisch-Singule, Michaela; Satalin, Joshua; Andrews, Penny; Habashi, Nader; Gatto, Louis A; Nieman, Gary

    2016-02-01

    Mortality from acute respiratory distress syndrome (ARDS) remains unacceptable, approaching 45% in certain high-risk patient populations. Treating fulminant ARDS is currently relegated to supportive care measures only. Thus, the best treatment for ARDS may lie with preventing this syndrome from ever occurring. Clinical studies were examined to determine why ARDS has remained resistant to treatment over the past several decades. In addition, both basic science and clinical studies were examined to determine the impact that early, protective mechanical ventilation may have on preventing the development of ARDS in at-risk patients. Fulminant ARDS is highly resistant to both pharmacologic treatment and methods of mechanical ventilation. However, ARDS is a progressive disease with an early treatment window that can be exploited. In particular, protective mechanical ventilation initiated before the onset of lung injury can prevent the progression to ARDS. Airway pressure release ventilation (APRV) is a novel mechanical ventilation strategy for delivering a protective breath that has been shown to block progressive acute lung injury (ALI) and prevent ALI from progressing to ARDS. ARDS mortality currently remains as high as 45% in some studies. As ARDS is a progressive disease, the key to treatment lies with preventing the disease from ever occurring while it remains subclinical. Early protective mechanical ventilation with APRV appears to offer substantial benefit in this regard and may be the prophylactic treatment of choice for preventing ARDS. PMID:26855896

  13. Acute hypothalamic administration of L-arginine increases feed intake in rats

    Carlos Ricardo Maneck Malfatti; Luiz Augusto da Silva; Ricardo Aparecido Pereira; Renan Garcia Michel; André Luiz Snak; Fabio Seidel dos Santos

    2015-01-01

    Objective: This study investigated the chronic (oral) and acute (hypothalamic infusion) effects of L-arginine supplementation on feed intake, body composition, and behavioral changes in rats. Methods: Twenty rats were divided into two groups treated orally for 60 days; one group received L-arginine (1 g/kg body weight) and one group received saline (1 mL/NaCl ...

  14. Is Progressive Chronic Kidney Disease a Slow Acute Kidney Injury?

    Cowgill, Larry D; Polzin, David J; Elliott, Jonathan; Nabity, Mary B; Segev, Gilad; Grauer, Gregory F; Brown, Scott; Langston, Cathy; van Dongen, Astrid M

    2016-11-01

    International Renal Interest Society chronic kidney disease Stage 1 and acute kidney injury Grade I categorizations of kidney disease are often confused or ignored because patients are nonazotemic and generally asymptomatic. Recent evidence suggests these seemingly disparate conditions may be mechanistically linked and interrelated. Active kidney injury biomarkers have the potential to establish a new understanding for traditional views of chronic kidney disease, including its early identification and possible mediators of its progression, which, if validated, would establish a new and sophisticated paradigm for the understanding and approach to the diagnostic evaluation, and treatment of urinary disease in dogs and cats. PMID:27593574

  15. Feeding Acutely Stimulates Fibrinogen Synthesis in Healthy Young and Elderly Adults12

    CASO, Giuseppe; Mileva, Izolda; Kelly, Patricia; Ahn, Hongshik; Gelato, Marie C.; McNurlan, Margaret A.

    2009-01-01

    Fibrinogen is a positive acute-phase protein and its hepatic synthesis is enhanced following inflammation and injury. However, it is not clear whether fibrinogen synthesis is also responsive to oral nutrients and whether the response to a meal may be affected by age. Our aim in this study was to investigate the acute effect of oral feeding on fibrinogen synthesis in both young and elderly men and women. Fibrinogen synthesis was determined in 3 separate occasions from the incorporation of l[2H...

  16. Oxytocin in the ventromedial hypothalamic nucleus reduces feeding and acutely increases energy expenditure.

    Noble, Emily E; Billington, Charles J; Kotz, Catherine M; Wang, ChuanFeng

    2014-09-15

    Central oxytocin reduces food intake and increases energy expenditure. The ventromedial hypothalamic nucleus (VMN) is associated with energy balance and contains a high density of oxytocin receptors. We hypothesized that oxytocin in the VMN is a negative regulator of energy balance acting to reduce feeding and increase energy expenditure. To test this idea, oxytocin or vehicle was injected directly into the VMN of Sprague-Dawley rats during fasted and nonfasted conditions. Energy expenditure (via indirect calorimetry) and spontaneous physical activity (SPA) were recorded simultaneously. Animals were also exposed to a conditioned taste aversion test, to determine whether oxytocin's effects on food intake were associated with malaise. When food was available during testing, oxytocin-induced elevations in energy expenditure lasted for 1 h, after which overall energy expenditure was reduced. In the absence of food during the testing period, oxytocin similarly increased energy expenditure during the first hour, but differences in 12-h energy expenditure were eliminated, implying that the differences may have been due to the thermic effects of feeding (digestion, absorption, and metabolic processing). Oxytocin acutely elevated SPA and reduced feeding at doses that did not cause a conditioned taste aversion during both the fed and fasted states. Together, these data suggest that oxytocin in the VMN promotes satiety and acutely elevates energy expenditure and SPA and implicates the VMN as a relevant site for the antiobesity effects of oxytocin. PMID:24990860

  17. Research Progress of Grassland Feed-animal Balance at Home and Abroad

    Xiaohu; MAI; Yujuan; ZHANG; Yingjun; ZHANG; Shangli; SHI; Ding; HUANG; Yajun; ZHANG

    2013-01-01

    Feed-animal balance is the key technique on the grassland ecosystem management,and attracts widespread attention in the world.Many studies have been conducted by former researchers,and most of their efforts were intended to keep the balance of feed-animal.However,there are still much more issue needed to be studied in details on the face of grassland degeneration and animal husbandry sustainable development.The author analyzed the feed-animal balance research progress,including the concept of stocking rate and its practical management techniques,especially on the stocking rate calculation methods.In addition,the social and economy effects on feed-animal balance were also discussed during the progress of improving the development of pastoral economy.In order to achieve feed-animal balance more effectively,it was concluded that the focus must be shift from only on animal number to the grassland quality,and it’s necessary to strengthen market tax control.

  18. Progression from acute to chronic pancreatitis: prognostic factors, mortality, and natural course

    Nøjgaard, Camilla; Becker, Ulrik; Matzen, Peter;

    2011-01-01

    Knowledge of the natural course of acute pancreatitis (AP) and risk of progression to chronic pancreatitis (CP) is limited. The aims were to describe: (1) the incidence of progression from AP to CP, (2) prognostic factors for progression, and (3) the natural course and mortality of progressive AP....

  19. Nasogastric Tube Feeding in Predicted Severe Acute Pancreatitis. A Systematic Review of the Literature to Determine Safety and Tolerance

    Maxim S Petrov

    2008-07-01

    Full Text Available Context Nasogastric tube feeding is safe and well tolerated in most critically ill patients. However, its safety and tolerance in the setting of severe acute pancreatitis is debatable. Objective We aimed to review all available studies on nasogastric feeding in patients with severe acute pancreatitis to determine the safety and tolerance of this approach. A further aim was to perform a meta-analysis of the available randomized controlled trials regarding nasogastric versus nasojejunal feeding. Methods Three electronic databases (Cochrane Central Register of Controlled Trials, EMBASE and MEDLINE and the abstracts of major gastroenterological meetings were reviewed. Meta-analysis was performed using the random effects model. Main outcome measures The summary estimates were reported as risk ratio (RR with 95% confidence interval (95% CI. Results A total of four studies on nasogastric tube feeding in 92 patients with predicted severe acute pancreatitis were identified. Documented infected pancreatic necrosis developed in 11 patients (16.9% and multiple organ failure in 10 (15.4% out of 65 patients with available data. Overall, there were 15 deaths (16.3%. An exacerbation of pain after initiation of feeding occurred in 3 (4.3% out of 69 patients with available data. Full tolerance was achieved in 73 (79.3% patients who did not require temporary reduction, stoppage or withdrawal of nasogastric feeding. The results of nasogastric feeding as compared to nasojejunal feeding, were no worse in terms of mortality (RR=0.77; 95% CI: 0.37 to 1.62; P=0.50 or intolerance of feeding (RR=1.09; 95% CI: 0.46 to 2.59; P=0.84. Conclusion Nasogastric feeding appears safe and well tolerated in patients with predicted severe acute pancreatitis. An adequately powered randomized trial on nasogastric versus nasojejunal feeding is required to support this approach as routine clinical management.

  20. Evidence for links between feeding inhibition, population characteristics, and sensitivity to acute toxicity for Daphnia magna.

    Agatz, Annika; Brown, Colin D

    2013-08-20

    A population experiment with Daphnia magna tested the hypothesis that short-term feeding inhibition provokes a shift in population structure that will vary with conspecific pressure (e.g., pressure occurring from individuals of the same species due to competition for food and space) and increases population sensitivity to a xenobiotic exposure due to size-dependent toxicity (e.g., decreasing sensitivity with increasing body length). Populations were exposed for one week to a feeding inhibitor (imidacloprid, 0.15 or 12.0 mg/L) followed by one week of recovery and one day of exposure to an acute toxin (carbaryl, 0.0098 mg/L). Identical exposure under low and high conspecific pressure was studied by delaying the start of exposure for half of the populations by two weeks; thus populations were in a different stage of population development when exposure occurred. Feeding inhibition of 97% (12.0 mg/L imidacloprid) caused a shift in population structure toward smaller individuals but also reduced population abundance by up to 56 ± 7% with a strong influence of conspecific pressure. Increased population sensitivity to carbaryl was observed after feeding inhibition of 97% as hypothesized. Carbaryl exposure for one day resulted in population decline of up to 23 ± 6% when populations were not previously exposed to imidacloprid. Identical carbaryl exposure provoked a four times stronger decline in population abundance when exposure occurred following feeding inhibition of 97%. In conflict with the hypothesis, this was at least in part due to changes in the reproductive strategy of daphnids following exposure to imidacloprid rather than driven by the shift in population structure. The differences in population sensitivity to additional stress (carbaryl) occurring one week after feeding inhibition caused by exposure to imidacloprid adds a further challenge to understanding potential impacts from multiple stressors as occurring in the field at the population level. PMID

  1. Acute HIV infection with rapid progression to AIDS

    Marcio de Oliveira Silva

    2010-06-01

    Full Text Available Acute HIV infection is rarely recognized as the signs and symptoms are normally unspecific and can persist for days or weeks. The normal HIV course is characterized by a progressive loss of CD4+ cells, which normally leads to severe immunodeficiency after a variable time interval. The mean time from initial infection to development of clinical AIDS is approximately 8-10 years, but it is variable among individuals and depends on a complex interaction between virus and host. Here we describe an extraordinary case of a man who developed Pneumocisits jiroveci pneumonia within one month after sexual exposure to HIV-1, and then presented with 3 consecutive CD4 counts bellow 200 cells/mm³ within 3 months, with no other opportunistic disease. Although antiretroviral therapy (AZT+3TC+ATZ/r was started, with full adherence of the patient, and genotyping indicating no primary antiretroviral resistance mutations, he required more than six months to have a CD4 restoration to levels above 200 cells/mm³ and 10 months to HIV-RNA to become undetectable.

  2. Progression From Acute to Chronic Pancreatitis Prognostic Factors, Mortality, and Natural Course

    Nojgaard, C.; Becker, U.; Matzen, Peter;

    2011-01-01

    Objectives: Knowledge of the natural course of acute pancreatitis (AP) and risk of progression to chronic pancreatitis (CP) is limited. The aims were to describe: (1) the incidence of progression from AP to CP, (2) prognostic factors for progression, and (3) the natural course and mortality of.......1%) during follow-up; 48.2% developed from alcoholic AP, 47.0% from idiopathic AP, and 4.8% from other causes. The mortality rate for patients with progressive AP was 2.7 times higher than in patients with nonprogressive acute pancreatitis, and 5.3 to 6.5 times higher than in the background population. In...... Cox regression analyses corrected for age, only smoking was of significance for the progression from AP to CP. Conclusions: Acute pancreatitis can progress to CP, not only from alcoholic but also from nonalcoholic AP. Smoking was the strongest risk factor associated with progression. The mortality...

  3. Non-progressive cerebellar ataxia and previous undetermined acute cerebellar injury: a mysterious clinical condition

    Wladimir Bocca Vieira de Rezende Pinto

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Cerebellar ataxias represent a wide group of neurological diseases secondary to dysfunctions of cerebellum or its associated pathways, rarely coursing with acute-onset acquired etiologies and chronic non-progressive presentation. We evaluated patients with acquired non-progressive cerebellar ataxia that presented previous acute or subacute onset. Clinical and neuroimaging characterization of adult patients with acquired non-progressive ataxia were performed. Five patients were identified with the phenotype of acquired non-progressive ataxia. Most patients presented with a juvenile to adult-onset acute to subacute appendicular and truncal cerebellar ataxia with mild to moderate cerebellar or olivopontocerebellar atrophy. Establishing the etiology of the acute triggering events of such ataxias is complex. Non-progressive ataxia in adults must be distinguished from hereditary ataxias.

  4. Non-progressive cerebellar ataxia and previous undetermined acute cerebellar injury: a mysterious clinical condition

    Wladimir Bocca Vieira de Rezende Pinto

    2015-10-01

    Full Text Available Cerebellar ataxias represent a wide group of neurological diseases secondary to dysfunctions of cerebellum or its associated pathways, rarely coursing with acute-onset acquired etiologies and chronic non-progressive presentation. We evaluated patients with acquired non-progressive cerebellar ataxia that presented previous acute or subacute onset. Clinical and neuroimaging characterization of adult patients with acquired non-progressive ataxia were performed. Five patients were identified with the phenotype of acquired non-progressive ataxia. Most patients presented with a juvenile to adult-onset acute to subacute appendicular and truncal cerebellar ataxia with mild to moderate cerebellar or olivopontocerebellar atrophy. Establishing the etiology of the acute triggering events of such ataxias is complex. Non-progressive ataxia in adults must be distinguished from hereditary ataxias.

  5. What drives progressive motor deficits in patients with acute pontine infarction?

    Jue-bao Li

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Progressive motor deficits are relatively common in acute pontine infarction and frequently associated with increased functional disability. However, the factors that affect the progression of clinical motor weakness are largely unknown. Previous studies have suggested that pontine infarctions are caused mainly by basilar artery stenosis and penetrating artery disease. Recently, lower pons lesions in patients with acute pontine infarctions have been reported to be related to progressive motor deficits, and ensuing that damage to the corticospinal tracts may be responsible for the worsening of neurological symptoms. Here, we review studies on motor weakness progression in pontine infarction and discuss the mechanisms that may underlie the neurologic worsening.

  6. Progress and perspectives in pediatric acute respiratory distress syndrome

    Rotta, Alexandre Tellechea; Piva, Jefferson Pedro; Andreolio, Cinara; de Carvalho, Werther Brunow; Garcia, Pedro Celiny Ramos

    2015-01-01

    Acute respiratory distress syndrome is a disease of acute onset characterized by hypoxemia and infiltrates on chest radiographs that affects both adults and children of all ages. It is an important cause of respiratory failure in pediatric intensive care units and is associated with significant morbidity and mortality. Nevertheless, until recently, the definitions and diagnostic criteria for acute respiratory distress syndrome have focused on the adult population. In this article, we review the evolution of the definition of acute respiratory distress syndrome over nearly five decades, with a special focus on the new pediatric definition. We also discuss recommendations for the implementation of mechanical ventilation strategies in the treatment of acute respiratory distress syndrome in children and the use of adjuvant therapies. PMID:26331971

  7. Feeding acutely stimulates fibrinogen synthesis in healthy young and elderly adults.

    Caso, Giuseppe; Mileva, Izolda; Kelly, Patricia; Ahn, Hongshik; Gelato, Marie C; McNurlan, Margaret A

    2009-11-01

    Fibrinogen is a positive acute-phase protein and its hepatic synthesis is enhanced following inflammation and injury. However, it is not clear whether fibrinogen synthesis is also responsive to oral nutrients and whether the response to a meal may be affected by age. Our aim in this study was to investigate the acute effect of oral feeding on fibrinogen synthesis in both young and elderly men and women. Fibrinogen synthesis was determined in 3 separate occasions from the incorporation of l[(2)H(5)]phenylalanine (43 mg/kg body weight) in 8 young (21-35 y) and 8 elderly (>60 y) participants following the ingestion of water (control), a complete liquid meal (15% protein, 30% fat, and 55% carbohydrate), or only the protein component of the meal. The ingestion of the complete meal enhanced fibrinogen fractional synthesis rates (FSR) by 17 +/- 6% in the young and by 38 +/- 10% in the elderly participants compared with the water meal (P < 0.02). A comparable stimulation of FSR occurred with only the protein component of the meal in both young (29 +/- 7%) and elderly participants (41 +/- 9%) compared with the water meal (P < 0.005). Similar results were obtained when fibrinogen synthesis was expressed as absolute synthesis rates (i.e. mg.kg(-1).d(-1)). The results demonstrate that fibrinogen synthesis is acutely stimulated after ingestion of a meal and that this effect can be reproduced by the protein component of the meal alone, both in young and elderly adults. PMID:19759246

  8. Feeding Acutely Stimulates Fibrinogen Synthesis in Healthy Young and Elderly Adults12

    Caso, Giuseppe; Mileva, Izolda; Kelly, Patricia; Ahn, Hongshik; Gelato, Marie C.; McNurlan, Margaret A.

    2009-01-01

    Fibrinogen is a positive acute-phase protein and its hepatic synthesis is enhanced following inflammation and injury. However, it is not clear whether fibrinogen synthesis is also responsive to oral nutrients and whether the response to a meal may be affected by age. Our aim in this study was to investigate the acute effect of oral feeding on fibrinogen synthesis in both young and elderly men and women. Fibrinogen synthesis was determined in 3 separate occasions from the incorporation of l[2H5]phenylalanine (43 mg/kg body weight) in 8 young (21–35 y) and 8 elderly (>60 y) participants following the ingestion of water (control), a complete liquid meal (15% protein, 30% fat, and 55% carbohydrate), or only the protein component of the meal. The ingestion of the complete meal enhanced fibrinogen fractional synthesis rates (FSR) by 17 ± 6% in the young and by 38 ± 10% in the elderly participants compared with the water meal (P < 0.02). A comparable stimulation of FSR occurred with only the protein component of the meal in both young (29 ± 7%) and elderly participants (41 ± 9%) compared with the water meal (P < 0.005). Similar results were obtained when fibrinogen synthesis was expressed as absolute synthesis rates (i.e. mg·kg−1·d−1). The results demonstrate that fibrinogen synthesis is acutely stimulated after ingestion of a meal and that this effect can be reproduced by the protein component of the meal alone, both in young and elderly adults. PMID:19759246

  9. Oxidative stress: an important phenomenon with pathogenetic significance in the progression of acute pancreatitis

    Tsai, K; Wang, S.; T. Chen; Kong, C; Chang, F.; Lee, S.; Lu, F.

    1998-01-01

    Background—Reactive oxygen species and related oxidative damage have been implicated in the initiation of acute pancreatitis. Changes in these parameters during disease progression merit further investigation. 
Aims—To evaluate changes and the clinical relevance of superoxide radicals, endogenous antioxidants, and lipid peroxidation during the course of acute pancreatitis. 
Patients and methods—Superoxide radicals (measured as lucigenin amplified chemiluminescence), ascorbic...

  10. Compared with parenteral nutrition, enteral feeding attenuates the acute phase response and improves disease severity in acute pancreatitis

    Windsor, A; Kanwar, S; Li, A.; Barnes, E.; Guthrie, J; Spark, J; Welsh, F.; Guillou, P; Reynolds, J

    1998-01-01

    Background—In patients with major trauma and burns, total enteral nutrition (TEN) significantly decreases the acute phase response and incidence of septic complications when compared with total parenteral nutrition (TPN). Poor outcome in acute pancreatitis is associated with a high incidence of systemic inflammatory response syndrome (SIRS) and sepsis. 
Aims—To determine whether TEN can attenuate the acute phase response and improve clinical disease severity in patients with ac...

  11. Evolving Therapies in Acute Myeloid Leukemia: Progress at Last?

    DeAngelo, Daniel J; Stein, Eytan M; Ravandi, Farhad

    2016-01-01

    Acute myeloid leukemia (AML) is an acquired disease characterized by chromosomal translocations and somatic mutations that lead to leukemogenesis. Systemic combination chemotherapy with an anthracycline and cytarabine remains the standard induction regimen for "fit" adults. Patients who achieve complete remission generally receive postinduction therapy with cytarabine-based chemotherapy or an allogeneic bone marrow transplant. Those unfit for induction chemotherapy are treated with hypomethylating agents (HMAs), low-dose cytarabine, or they are offered supportive care alone with transfusions and prophylactic antimicrobials. The revolution in understanding the genetics of AML, facilitated by next-generation sequencing, has led to many new drugs against driver mutations. Better methods of identification of leukemic blasts have provided us with better means to detect the disease left behind after cytotoxic chemotherapy regimens. This measurable residual disease has been correlated with poorer relapse-free survival, demonstrating the need for novel strategies to eradicate it to improve the outcome of patients with acute leukemias. In this article, we discuss adapting and improving AML therapy by age and comorbidities, emerging targeted therapies in AML, and minimal residual disease (MRD) assessment in AML. PMID:27249736

  12. Comparison of feeding strategies in acute toxicity tests of crude oil and commercial bioremediation agents

    Proposed modifications to the National Oil and Hazardous Substance Pollution Contingency Plan have prompted examinations of the methodology used in toxicity testing of the water soluble fraction (WSF) of oil, commercial bioremediation agents (CBA), and a combination of the two. The organisms currently used in acute (96 hr) testing of these agents are the inland silverside, Menidia beryllina, and an estuarine mysid, Mysidopsis bahia. The mysid is a carnivorous species that must be fed during a test in order to prevent predation within the test chambers. Currently proposed methodology for silverside testing also includes feeding. The high oxygen demand of CBAs and the WSF of oil causes dissolved oxygen to be a factor in toxicity. This effect can be intensified by the addition of brine shrimp (Artemia sp.) to the test chambers. The purpose of this study was to compare the toxicity of CBAs in combination with the WSF of oil to silversides with and without the addition of food. Tests were conducted using both 24-hour and 14-day spinning times for the CBA/WSF mixture. With the 24-hour spinning time, LC50 values from each day of the 4-day test were consistently lower in the Artemia fed test (47.8--22.6%) as compared to the unfed test (72.1--43.0%). A similar trend was seen in the 24 and 48 hour LC50's in the 14-day spinning time. Overall, low dissolved oxygen was found to be most relevant at the highest CBA/WSF concentrations where D.O. dropped below 2 mg/l in Artemia fed tests

  13. Acute progression of electrophysiologically affected fellow eye in unilaterally symptomatic acute zonal occult outer retinopathy

    Iriyama A

    2011-08-01

    Full Text Available Kayo Kure, Ryo Obata, Yuji Inoue, Aya Iriyama, Yasuo YanagiDepartment of Ophthalmology, University of Tokyo School of Medicine, Tokyo, JapanAbstract: Some patients with acute zonal occult outer retinopathy (AZOOR show symptomatic acute visual impairment in one eye only, but electrophysiological abnormalities in both eyes. A 46-year-old female who had noticed paracentral scotoma of her right eye six months previously was referred to our hospital. At initial examination, her best-corrected visual acuity was 0.7 in the right eye and 1.2 in the left. Whereas the full-field rod electroretinogram (ERG was normal in both eyes, the cone response was nonrecordable in the right eye and showed a significant decrease in amplitude in the left eye. The 30 Hz flicker ERG showed similar results. Multifocal ERG was nonrecordable in the right eye and showed a residual response in only the central part of the left. Fourteen months after the first visit, the patient presented complaining of acute visual acuity loss in the left eye. Visual acuity in her left eye had decreased to 0.01. The multifocal ERG was nonrecordable. Although the patient chose oral prednisolone therapy, only limited recovery was observed in the patient. Even if only the ERG shows changes and there are no other symptoms, ophthalmologists should continue observation in view of the possibility of an acute exacerbation.Keywords: acute zonal occult outer retinopathy, electroretinogram, scotoma

  14. Progress of feed-in tariff in Malaysia: A year after

    Malaysia enacted the Renewable Energy Act in April 2011. One of its important components is the feed-in tariff (FiT) scheme—launched in December 2011. The scheme is managed and administered by the Sustainable Energy Development Authority (SEDA) of Malaysia. This paper analyses the impact of the FiT mechanism in Malaysia a year after its implementation; particularly on the installation and economical aspects. First, the history of the scheme is presented before summarising the application process for the scheme. Next, a detailed evaluation on the implication of the scheme is discussed. Some of the key findings from the analysis include: (i) the uptake for renewable energy installations has been extremely high, particularly for solar photovoltaic installation; (ii) the foreign and domestic direct investment related to renewable sectors have increased significantly; (iii) more ‘green’ jobs have been created, particularly in the manufacturing and installation sectors, and (iv) there are plans to include wind and thermal energy in the FiT scheme. It can be concluded that the FiT scheme in Malaysia has produced significant impact during the first year of its implementation. With a proper monitoring by SEDA and more awareness among the people, renewable energy will most likely flourish in Malaysia. - Highlights: • Malaysia launched the feed-in tariff (FiT) scheme in December 2011. • The one year progress is evaluated in terms of installation and economical aspects. • The uptake for renewable energy installations has been extremely high. • Investment related to renewable sectors has increased significantly. • More ‘green’ jobs have been created in the country

  15. Progress in Global Surveillance and Response Capacity 10 Years After Severe Acute Respiratory Syndrome

    2013-04-10

    Dr. Mike Miller reads an abridged version of the Emerging Infectious Diseases' synopsis, Progress in Global Surveillance and Response Capacity 10 Years after Severe Acute Respiratory Syndrome.  Created: 4/10/2013 by National Center for Emerging and Zoonotic Infectious Diseases (NCEZID).   Date Released: 4/11/2013.

  16. Acute respiratory infections in Pakistan: Have we made any progress?

    Acute respiratory infections (ARI) are the leading cause of death in young children in Pakistan, responsible for 20-30% of child deaths under age 5 years. This paper summarizes the research and technical development efforts over the last 15 years which have contributed to improving the effectiveness of the case management strategy to reduce mortality from 5' pneumonia in children in Pakistan. Community intervention is viable, effective and practical. Rising antimicrobial resistance among commonly used and A low-cost oral agent is of significant concern. Appropriate monitoring and evaluation of the impact of the ARI control programme is lacking. Lack of funding for programmatic activities, lack of coordination with other child survival programs, inadequate training for community health workers and general practitioners in the private sector, lack of public awareness about seeking timely and appropriate care and insufficient planning and support for ARI in the programmatic activities at provincial and district levels are major hindrances in decreasing the burden of ARI in the country. The recent introduction of the community-based Lady Health Worker (LHW) Programme and WHO and UNICEF-sponsored integrated management of childhood illness initiative present ideal opportunities for re-emphasizing early case detection and appropriate case management of ARI. Ultimately, focusing on preventive strategies such as improving nutrition, reducing indoor pollution, improving mass vaccination, as well as introduction of new vaccines effective against important respiratory pathogens will likely have the most impact on reducing severe ARI and deaths from severe disease. (author)

  17. Infant feeding patterns and risk of acute respiratory infections in Baghdad/Iraq

    Shatha S. Al-Sharbatti

    2012-09-01

    Full Text Available

    Background: exclusive breastfeeding has been shown to protect infants from contracting various diseases. The aims of this study were: to examine the relationships between infant feeding patterns and the risk of Acute Respiratory Infections (ARI, and to assess the importance of some factors that can increase such risk.

    Methods: a case-control study was carried out during the period between February 1st 2005 - May 1st 2005. The study included 137 infants who were hospitalized in the Children Welfare Teaching Hospital for ARIs during the period of study (a case definition of acute lower respiratory infection as given by the WHO (1995 was used. The Control group included 157 healthy infants who were randomly selected from two primary health care centers of the AI-Karkh sector of Baghdad for immunization. The risk of various factors thought to be associated to ARI were studied, these being: non-modifiable (age, gender, birth order, parent education, crowded residence, family history of asthma and history of ARIs in household members in previous 2 weeks and modifiable (short duration of breastfeeding, cigarette smoking in proximity to the infant, delayed immunization and malnutrition. Logistic regression was used to adjust for confounders and for calculating adjusted odds ratios.

    Results: formula fed infants had a 2.7 times higher risk (CI:1.6-4.68 for ARIs compared to breast fed infants. Infants who had undergone a short duration of breastfeeding (<3 months had a 1.4 times increased risk or ARI (CI: 0.89—2.23. Additional factors that were associated with higher ARIs were, female gender (OR= 2.0, CI:1.3-3.3, low educational level of mothers (OR= 6.4, CI:3.2-12.7 and fathers (OR=4.5, CI:2.27-8.78, crowded residence (OR= 4.5, CI: 2.6-7.8, positive history of ARIs in household members in the 2 weeks prior to the study (OR= 5.5, CI:3.3-9.3, family history of asthma (OR = 2.6, CI:1

  18. Progress in research into the mechanism of Radix salviae miltiorrhizae in treatment of acute pancreatitis

    Xi-Ping Zhang; Zhi-Jun Li; Da-Ren Liu

    2006-01-01

    BACKGROUND: Acute pancreatitis (AP) is a common acute abdomen with high mortality, multiple complications and complicated causes. There is no effective therapy for AP. Radix salviae miltiorrhizae (Danshen), a traditional herbal medicine, has a low price and a wide range of clinical applications. It is effective to promote blood lfow, eliminate stagnancy, and relieve pain. It is also found to be effective in treating AP. We reviewed the progress in research into the mechanism of Radix salviae miltiorrhizae in treatment of AP. DATA SOURCES: An english-language literature search was conducted using MEDLINE (1988-2005) on Radix salviae miltiorrhizae (Danshen) and acute pancreatitis. RESULTS:The mechanisms of Danshen in the treatment of AP include improvement of microcirculatory disturbances;elimination of oxygen free radicals; modulation of the metabolism of lipid inlfammatory mediator;and blocking of calcium inlfow and prevention of calcium overload. CONCLUSION:Danshen can effectively reduce the mortality and complications of AP.

  19. Effects of Acute Heat Stress on Lipid Peroxidation and Glutathione Levels in Liver and Muscle Tissues of Kars Native Geese which Feeding Different Cereal Grains

    Serpil Kalaycı; Ökkeş Yılmaz

    2011-01-01

    The objective of the present study was to evaluate the effects of acute heat stress on lipid peroxidation and glutathione levels in liver and muscle tissues of Kars native geese which feeding different cereal grains. Geese were randomly assigned to 5 experimental groups (7 animals/ group) which feeding different cereal grains. The first group was used as the control group. The second group was only fed with barley, the third group with wheat, the fourth group with rye and the fifth group with...

  20. Clinical value of MRI and acute madopar responsiveness test in diagnosing progressive supranuclear palsy

    LI Xiao-hong

    2013-07-01

    Full Text Available Objective To investigate the MRI abnormalities and acute madopar responsiveness test in diagnosing progressive supranuclear palsy (PSP and Parkinson's disease (PD. Methods Seventeen patients with PSP and 17 gender and age matched patients with PD were studied with cranial MRI examinations and results of acute madopar responsiveness test, and the clinical manifestations of PSP were summarized. Results The atrophy of the midbrain tegmentum and hummingbird sign was demonstrated in all of the PSP patients in our study, but was not observed in the PD patients. The areas of the midbrain on mid-sagittal MRI in PSP patients [(77.35 ± 15.30 mm2] were significantly smaller than that in those with PD [(142.35 ± 31.49 mm2]. The average ratio of the area of the midbrain to the area of pons in the patients with PSP [(14.31 ± 2.47%] was significantly smaller than that in those with PD [(24.08 ± 4.73%; P = 0.000, for all]. According to the result of acute madopar responsiveness test, the maximum Unified Parkinson's Disease Rating Scale (UPDRS Ⅲ improvement rate of 2 patients with PSP and 16 patients with PD was more than 30% (χ2 = 23.142, P = 0.000. Conclusion The assessment of the mid-sagittal MRI and acute madopar responsiveness test may be a useful method to differentiate PSP from PD.

  1. Acute liver failure due to primary amyloidosis in a nephrotic syndrome: a swiftly progressive course.

    Cardoso, Brigite Aguiar; Leal, Rita; Sá, Helena; Campos, Mário

    2016-01-01

    AL amyloidosis is a clonal plasma cell proliferative disorder characterised by extracellular tissue deposits of insoluble fibrils derived from κ or λ immunoglobulin light chains. The most common organs affected by AL amyloidosis are the kidney, presenting with nephrotic syndrome and/or progressive renal dysfunction, and the heart, with restrictive cardiomyopathy. Hepatic deposition of fibrils occurs in half the cases but the liver is rarely the predominantly affected organ. The most common presentation of hepatic amyloidosis is hepatomegaly with elevated alkaline phosphatase. Acute liver failure with cholestasis and jaundice is a rare complication, with a prevalence of approximately 5%, and is usually associated with a worse prognosis. We report a case of a 39-year-old man admitted to our nephrology department with an unusual presentation of primary amyloidosis with nephrotic syndrome and acute liver failure, complicated by obstructive cholestasis resulting in death 2 months after diagnosis. PMID:26965175

  2. Controversy and progress for treatment of acute cholangitis after Tokyo Guidelines (TG13).

    Sun, Zhipeng; Zhu, Yubing; Zhu, Bin; Xu, Guangzhong; Zhang, Nengwei

    2016-01-01

    Tokyo Guideline 2013 (TG13) is an international guideline for the diagnosis, classification and treatment of acute cholangitis. Progress and controversy for the two years after TG13 was summarized. Endoscopic ultrasound (EUS) and magnetic resonance cholangiopancreatography (MRCP) are both effective imaging tests for common bile duct (CBD) stones. More factors e.g. obesity may be involved in severity assessment. Initiation of broad-spectrum antibiotics addressing the typical Gram-negative enteric bacteria spectrum and early biliary drainage are the mainstay therapeutic options. Early laparoscopic exploration is also an option for stone-related nonsevere acute cholangitis besides endoscopic retrograde cholangial or percutaneous transhepatic cholangial drainage. Surgical biliary drainage should be avoided in severe cholangitis. PMID:26961212

  3. Interferon-gamma in progression to chronic demyelination and neurological deficit following acute EAE

    Renno, T; Taupin, V; Bourbonnière, L;

    1998-01-01

    The cytokine interferon-gamma (IFNgamma) is implicated in the induction of acute CNS inflammation, but it is less clear what role if any IFNgamma plays in progression to chronic demyelination and neurological deficit. To address this issue, we have expressed IFNgamma in myelinating oligodendrocytes...... of transgenic mice. MHC I immunostaining and iNOS mRNA were upregulated in their CNS, but such transgenic mice showed no spontaneous CNS inflammation or demyelination, and the incidence, severity, and histopathology of experimental autoimmune encephalomyelitis (EAE) were similar to nontransgenic...

  4. Review: Study progress on mechanism of severe acute pancreatitis complicated with hepatic injury

    ZHANG Xi-ping; WANG Lei; ZHANG Jie

    2007-01-01

    Study on the action mechanism of inflammatory mediators generated by the severe acute pancreatitis (SAP) in multiple organ injury is a hotspot in the surgical field. In clinical practice, the main complicated organ dysfunctions are shock, respiratory failure, renal failure, encephalopathy, with the rate of hepatic diseases being closely next to them. The hepatic injury caused by SAP cannot only aggravate the state of pancreatitis, but also develop into hepatic failure and cause patient death. Its complicated pathogenic mechanism is an obstacle in clinical treatment. Among many pathogenic factors, the changes ofvasoactive substances, participation of inflammatory mediators as well as OFR (oxygen free radical), endotoxin, etc. may play important roles in its progression.

  5. Hierarchy in gene expression is predictive of risk, progression, and outcome in adult acute myeloid leukemia

    Cancer progresses with a change in the structure of the gene network in normal cells. We define a measure of organizational hierarchy in gene networks of affected cells in adult acute myeloid leukemia (AML) patients. With a retrospective cohort analysis based on the gene expression profiles of 116 AML patients, we find that the likelihood of future cancer relapse and the level of clinical risk are directly correlated with the level of organization in the cancer related gene network. We also explore the variation of the level of organization in the gene network with cancer progression. We find that this variation is non-monotonic, which implies the fitness landscape in the evolution of AML cancer cells is non-trivial. We further find that the hierarchy in gene expression at the time of diagnosis may be a useful biomarker in AML prognosis. (paper)

  6. Feed Feeds: Managing Feeds Using Feeds

    Wilde, Erik; Pesenson, Igor

    2008-01-01

    Feeds have become an important information channel on the Web, but the management of feed metadata so far has received little attention. It is hard for feed publishers to manage and publish their feed information in a unified format, and for feed consumers to manage and use their feed subscription data across various feed readers, and to share it with other users. We present a system for managing feed metadata using feeds, which we call "feed feeds". Because these feeds are Atom feeds, the wi...

  7. No evidence of real progress in treatment of acute pain, 1993–2012: scientometric analysis

    Correll DJ

    2014-04-01

    Full Text Available Darin J Correll, Kamen V Vlassakov, Igor Kissin Department of Anesthesiology, Perioperative and Pain Medicine, Brigham and Women's Hospital, Harvard Medical School, Boston, MA, USA Abstract: Over the past 2 decades, many new techniques and drugs for the treatment of acute pain have achieved widespread use. The main aim of this study was to assess the progress in their implementation using scientometric analysis. The following scientometric indices were used: 1 popularity index, representing the share of articles on a specific technique (or a drug relative to all articles in the field of acute pain; 2 index of change, representing the degree of growth in publications on a topic compared to the previous period; and 3 index of expectations, representing the ratio of the number of articles on a topic in the top 20 journals relative to the number of articles in all (>5,000 biomedical journals covered by PubMed. Publications on specific topics (ten techniques and 21 drugs were assessed during four time periods (1993–1997, 1998–2002, 2003–2007, and 2008–2012. In addition, to determine whether the status of routine acute pain management has improved over the past 20 years, we analyzed surveys designed to be representative of the national population that reflected direct responses of patients reporting pain scores. By the 2008–2012 period, popularity index had reached a substantial level (≥5% only with techniques or drugs that were introduced 30–50 years ago or more (epidural analgesia, patient-controlled analgesia, nerve blocks, epidural analgesia for labor or delivery, bupivacaine, and acetaminophen. In 2008–2012, promising (although modest changes of index of change and index of expectations were found only with dexamethasone. Six national surveys conducted for the past 20 years demonstrated an unacceptably high percentage of patients experiencing moderate or severe pain with not even a trend toward outcome improvement. Thus

  8. Prediction of acute stroke progression by the National Institutes of Health Stroke Scale

    Vinh Phuong; Tran Van Huy

    2007-01-01

    Objective To determine the occurrence of neurological changes during the first 48 hours after acute stroke as it relates to the initial stroke severity assessment. Methods The assessment with the National Institutes of Health Stroke Scale (NIHSS) was performed serially for the first 48 hours on 68 consecutive ischemic stroke patients admitted to the Department of Geriatric Cardiology at the Khanh Hoa Hospital, Nha Trang, Vietnam. Incidence of stroke progression (a ≥ 3-point increase on the NIHSS) was recorded and analysis performed to determine its association with initial stroke severity and other demographic and physiological variables. Deficit resolution by 48 hours, defined as an NIHSS score of 0 or 1, measured the frequency of functional recovery predicted by the initial deficit.Results Overall progression was noted in 28% of events (19/68). Applying Bayes' solution to the observed frequency of worsening, the greatest likelihood of predicting future patient progression occurred with NIHSS score of =7 and >7. Patients with an initial NIHSS score of =7 experienced a 13% (6/47) worsening rate versus those of an initial score of>7 with a 62% (13/21) worsening rate (P<0.01). 42.5%(20/47) of those with an initial score of =7 were functionally normal at 48 hours, whereas only 4.7% (1/21) of those with scores of >7 retnrned to a normal examination within this period (x2, P<0.05). Conclusions This study suggests that the early clinical course of neurological deficit after acute stroke be dependent on the initial stroke severity and that a dichotomy in early outcome exist surrounding an initial NIHSS score of 7. These findings may have significant implications for the design and patient stratification in treatment protocols with respect to primary clinical outcome.

  9. Acute coagulopathy of trauma: balancing progressive catecholamine induced endothelial activation and damage by fluid phase anticoagulation

    Johansson, P I; Ostrowski, S R

    2010-01-01

    Acute coagulopathy of trauma predicts a poor clinical outcome. Tissue trauma activates the sympathoadrenal system resulting in high circulating levels of catecholamines that influence hemostasis dose-dependently through immediate effects on the two major compartments of hemostasis, i.e., the...... circulating blood and the vascular endothelium. There appears to be a dose-dependency with regards to injury severity and the hemostatic response to trauma evaluated in whole blood by viscoelastic assays like thrombelastography (TEG), changing from normal to hypercoagulable, to hypocoagulable and finally...... evolutionary developed response that counterbalances the injury and catecholamine induced endothelial activation and damage. Given this, the rise in circulating catecholamines in trauma patients may favor a switch from hyper- to hypocoagulability in the blood to keep the progressively more procoagulant...

  10. Feed-in tariffs versus quotas: how to promote renewable s and stimulate technical progress for cost decrease?

    Incentive schemes for the development of renewable energy sources may focus on quantities (defining national targets and setting up bidding systems, or quota systems providing for green certificate trading), or they may focus on prices (feed-in tariffs). Whatever the system chosen, the role of the public authorities is quite specific: to stimulate technical progress and speed up the technological learning processes so that ultimately renewable energy technologies will be able to compete with conventional technologies, once the environmental costs have been internalized. A comparison of instruments must thus take into account the characteristics of the innovation process and adoption conditions (uncertainties regarding cost curves, learning effects) which means also looking at dynamic efficiency criteria. The paper concludes that a system of feed-in tariffs is more efficient than a bidding system, but highlights the theoretical interest of green certificate trading which must be confirmed through practice, given the influence of market structures and rules on the performance of this type of approach. (author)

  11. Early CT signs of progressive hemorrhagic injury following acute traumatic brain injury

    Tong, Wu-song; Zheng, Ping; Xu, Jun-fa; Guo, Yi-jun; Zeng, Jing-song; Yang, Wen-jin; Li, Gao-yi; He, Bin; Yu, Hui [Pudong New Area People' s Hospital, Department of Neurosurgery, Shanghai (China)

    2011-05-15

    Since progressive hemorrhagic injury (PHI) was introduced in neurosurgical literatures, several studies have been performed, the results of which have influenced doctors but do not define guidelines for the best treatment of PHI. PHI may be confirmed by a serial computerized tomography (CT) scan, and it has been shown to be associated with a fivefold increase in the risk of clinical worsening and is a significant cause of morbidity and mortality as well. So, early detection of PHI is practically important in a clinical situation. To analyze the early CT signs of progressive hemorrhagic injury following acute traumatic brain injury (TBI) and explore their clinical significances, PHI was confirmed by comparing the first and repeated CT scans. Data were analyzed and compared including times from injury to the first CT and signs of the early CT scan. Logistic regression analysis was used to show the risk factors related to PHI. A cohort of 630 TBI patients was evaluated, and there were 189 (30%) patients who suffered from PHI. For patients with their first CT scan obtained as early as 2 h post-injury, there were 116 (77.25%) cases who suffered from PHI. The differences between PHIs and non-PHIs were significant in the initial CT scans showing fracture, subarachnoid hemorrhage (SAH), brain contusion, epidural hematoma (EDH), subdural hematoma (SDH), and multiple hematoma as well as the times from injury to the first CT scan (P < 0.01). Logistic regression analysis showed that early CT scans (EDH, SDH, SAH, fracture, and brain contusion) were predictors of PHI (P < 0.01). For patients with the first CT scan obtained as early as 2 h post-injury, a follow-up CT scan should be performed promptly. If the initial CT scan shows SAH, brain contusion, and primary hematoma with brain swelling, an earlier and dynamic CT scan should be performed for detection of PHI as early as possible and the medical intervention would be enforced in time. (orig.)

  12. Early CT signs of progressive hemorrhagic injury following acute traumatic brain injury

    Since progressive hemorrhagic injury (PHI) was introduced in neurosurgical literatures, several studies have been performed, the results of which have influenced doctors but do not define guidelines for the best treatment of PHI. PHI may be confirmed by a serial computerized tomography (CT) scan, and it has been shown to be associated with a fivefold increase in the risk of clinical worsening and is a significant cause of morbidity and mortality as well. So, early detection of PHI is practically important in a clinical situation. To analyze the early CT signs of progressive hemorrhagic injury following acute traumatic brain injury (TBI) and explore their clinical significances, PHI was confirmed by comparing the first and repeated CT scans. Data were analyzed and compared including times from injury to the first CT and signs of the early CT scan. Logistic regression analysis was used to show the risk factors related to PHI. A cohort of 630 TBI patients was evaluated, and there were 189 (30%) patients who suffered from PHI. For patients with their first CT scan obtained as early as 2 h post-injury, there were 116 (77.25%) cases who suffered from PHI. The differences between PHIs and non-PHIs were significant in the initial CT scans showing fracture, subarachnoid hemorrhage (SAH), brain contusion, epidural hematoma (EDH), subdural hematoma (SDH), and multiple hematoma as well as the times from injury to the first CT scan (P < 0.01). Logistic regression analysis showed that early CT scans (EDH, SDH, SAH, fracture, and brain contusion) were predictors of PHI (P < 0.01). For patients with the first CT scan obtained as early as 2 h post-injury, a follow-up CT scan should be performed promptly. If the initial CT scan shows SAH, brain contusion, and primary hematoma with brain swelling, an earlier and dynamic CT scan should be performed for detection of PHI as early as possible and the medical intervention would be enforced in time. (orig.)

  13. 急性轻型胰腺炎进食营养的临床研究%Clinical research of early oral feeding in mild acute pancreatitis patients

    吴伟鸿; 温凌; 王巧瑜; 李翠琼; 沈丽新

    2009-01-01

    Objective: In acute pancreatitis, traditional treatment insists fasting on purpose to avoid activation of proteolytic enzymes and pancreatic enzyme secretion. The aim of our study was to evaluate the efficacy and feasibility of early oral feeding as compared to traditional fasting in patients with mild acute pancreatitis.Methods: Seventy-two patients were randomized to the two treatment groups, fasting or early oral feeding. The inclusion criteria were pancreas amylase≥3times above normal, onset of abdominal pain within 48h, acute physiological and chronic health evaluation-II score<8 and C-reactive protein(CRP)<150 mg/L. Measures were amylase, systemic inflammatory response, length of hospital stay. Results: The groups were comparable with respect to age, sex, etiology, APACHE II, time from onset of pain and amylase at admission. No significant differences were seen between the groups concerning levels of amylase, CRP, leukocytes, abdominal pain or number of gastrointestinal symptoms. The length of hospital stay time was significantly shorter in the oral feeding group (13 vs. 17 days; P<0.05).Conclusion: Early oral feeding would not exacerbate disease process. The differences between treatment groups for amylase or systemic inflammatory response were not obvious. In mild acute pancreatitis, early oral feeding was feasible and safe and may accelerate recovery.%目的: 比较轻型胰腺炎病人早期摄食与禁食两种治疗措施的安全性和对病情转归的影响.方法: 将72例急性轻型胰腺炎病人随机分为A(早期摄食)组与B(禁食治疗)组.对入选病人治疗过程中,淀粉酶水平、炎症反应和平均住院时间进行评价.结果: A组病人淀粉酶水平、C反应蛋白、WBC计数、腹痛或消化道症状与B组无显著性差异,但平均住院时间明显缩短(P<0.05).结论: 在急性轻型胰腺炎病人的治疗过程中,采取早期摄食不仅不会加重病情,而且还会促进病人康复.

  14. Early antiretroviral therapy reduces AIDS progression/death in individuals with acute opportunistic infections: a multicenter randomized strategy trial.

    Andrew Zolopa

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: Optimal timing of ART initiation for individuals presenting with AIDS-related OIs has not been defined. METHODS AND FINDINGS: A5164 was a randomized strategy trial of "early ART"--given within 14 days of starting acute OI treatment versus "deferred ART"--given after acute OI treatment is completed. Randomization was stratified by presenting OI and entry CD4 count. The primary week 48 endpoint was 3-level ordered categorical variable: 1. Death/AIDS progression; 2. No progression with incomplete viral suppression (ie HIV viral load (VL >or=50 copies/ml; 3. No progression with optimal viral suppression (ie HIV VL <50 copies/ml. Secondary endpoints included: AIDS progression/death; plasma HIV RNA and CD4 responses and safety parameters including IRIS. 282 subjects were evaluable; 141 per arm. Entry OIs included Pneumocytis jirovecii pneumonia 63%, cryptococcal meningitis 12%, and bacterial infections 12%. The early and deferred arms started ART a median of 12 and 45 days after start of OI treatment, respectively. THE DIFFERENCE IN THE PRIMARY ENDPOINT DID NOT REACH STATISTICAL SIGNIFICANCE: AIDS progression/death was seen in 20 (14% vs. 34 (24%; whereas no progression but with incomplete viral suppression was seen in 54 (38% vs. 44 (31%; and no progression with optimal viral suppression in 67 (48% vs 63 (45% in the early vs. deferred arm, respectively (p = 0.22. However, the early ART arm had fewer AIDS progression/deaths (OR = 0.51; 95% CI = 0.27-0.94 and a longer time to AIDS progression/death (stratified HR = 0.53; 95% CI = 0.30-0.92. The early ART had shorter time to achieving a CD4 count above 50 cells/mL (p<0.001 and no increase in adverse events. CONCLUSIONS: Early ART resulted in less AIDS progression/death with no increase in adverse events or loss of virologic response compared to deferred ART. These results support the early initiation of ART in patients presenting with acute AIDS-related OIs, absent major contraindications

  15. Effects of Acute Heat Stress on Lipid Peroxidation and Glutathione Levels in Liver and Muscle Tissues of Kars Native Geese which Feeding Different Cereal Grains

    Serpil Kalaycı,

    2011-12-01

    Full Text Available The objective of the present study was to evaluate the effects of acute heat stress on lipid peroxidation and glutathione levels in liver and muscle tissues of Kars native geese which feeding different cereal grains. Geese were randomly assigned to 5 experimental groups (7 animals/ group which feeding different cereal grains. The first group was used as the control group. The second group was only fed with barley, the third group with wheat, the fourth group with rye and the fifth group with corn. This feeding was done for 6 weeks. Water and feed were provided for ad libitum consumption. According to our results, while in liver groups LPO amount was decreased compared to the control group, it was increased in the muscle tissues. In addition, in the liver and muscle tissues the heat stress significantly increases lipid peroxidation. While the amount of GSH was increased in barley, white and corn groups of liver, it was decreased in thigh and back meat compared to the control group.

  16. 急性伤口处置的研究进展%Research progress of acute wound care

    舒勤

    2013-01-01

    Management of acute wound has been achieved much progress in recent years ,thus providing practical references for doctors and nurses in management of acute wounds.This article reviewed some medium and method of acute wound cleaning ,and the environment building methods for acute wound healing through moist heal — ing,infection control,and wound closure aspects.Finally,methods for promoting acute wounds healing and care were discussed.%近年来急性伤口的处置进展颇多,许多新理念及新方法的提出,为急性伤口的正规、标准处置提供了依据.本文回顾了急性伤口的清洁递质及使用方法;并从湿性愈合、感染控制、伤口闭合等方面,阐述了促进急性伤口愈合的环境营造;最后,对促进急性伤口愈合的辅助方法选择及护理等方面的研究热点进行了综述,以期为国内临床医护人员和研究者提供参考.

  17. Progress on Nutrition and Feed in Beef Cattle abroad in 2011%2011年国外肉牛营养与饲料研究进展

    高玉红; 于海川; 顾宪蕊; 李秋风; 卢春莲; 徐敏云; 曹玉凤

    2012-01-01

    The published researches on nutrition of beef cattle abroad in 2011 were collected and analyzed. The review was to discuss the progress on nutrition and feed in beef cattle from five aspects=requirement of protein and energy, exploitation of feed resource, roughage nutrition, nutrition of concentrated feed and regulation of methane emission.%本文总结了国外2011年关于肉牛营养领域的研究成果,主要从肉牛蛋白和能量需要量、饲料资源开发、粗饲料营养、精饲料营养和肉牛甲烷排放调控研究五个方面论述了肉牛营养与饲料的研究进展。

  18. Acute plasma biomarkers of T cell activation set-point levels and of disease progression in HIV-1 infection.

    Anne-Sophie Liovat

    Full Text Available T cell activation levels, viral load and CD4(+ T cell counts at early stages of HIV-1 infection are predictive of the rate of progression towards AIDS. We evaluated whether the inflammatory profile during primary HIV-1 infection is predictive of the virological and immunological set-points and of disease progression. We quantified 28 plasma proteins during acute and post-acute HIV-1 infection in individuals with known disease progression profiles. Forty-six untreated patients, enrolled during primary HIV-1 infection, were categorized into rapid progressors, progressors and slow progressors according to their spontaneous progression profile over 42 months of follow-up. Already during primary infection, rapid progressors showed a higher number of increased plasma proteins than progressors or slow progressors. The plasma levels of TGF-β1 and IL-18 in primary HIV-1 infection were both positively associated with T cell activation level at set-point (6 months after acute infection and together able to predict 74% of the T cell activation variation at set-point. Plasma IP-10 was positively and negatively associated with, respectively, T cell activation and CD4(+ T cell counts at set-point and capable to predict 30% of the CD4(+ T cell count variation at set-point. Moreover, plasma IP-10 levels during primary infection were predictive of rapid progression. In primary infection, IP-10 was an even better predictor of rapid disease progression than viremia or CD4(+ T cell levels at this time point. The superior predictive capacity of IP-10 was confirmed in an independent group of 88 HIV-1 infected individuals. Altogether, this study shows that the inflammatory profile in primary HIV-1 infection is associated with T cell activation levels and CD4(+ T cell counts at set-point. Plasma IP-10 levels were of strong predictive value for rapid disease progression. The data suggest IP-10 being an earlier marker of disease progression than CD4(+ T cell counts or

  19. Progress in promoting breast-feeding, combating malnutrition, and composition and use of infant formula, 1981-2006

    More than 90% of women in developing countries and 50 to 90% of women in industrialized countries now initiate breast-feeding, a marked improvement from 25 y ago. The duration of breast-feeding has lengthened, but fewer than 35% of infants worldwide are still exclusively breast-fed at 4 mo of age. C...

  20. Endoscopic placement of enteral feeding tubes

    2010-01-01

    Malnutrition is common in patients with acute and chronic illness. Nutritional management of these malnourished patients is an essential part of healthcare. Enteral feeding is one component of nutritional support. It is the preferred method of nutritional support in patients that are not receiving adequate oral nutrition and have a functioning gastrointestinal tract (GIT). This method of nutritional support has undergone progression over recent times. The method of placement of enteral feedin...

  1. Rapidly Progressing Severe Cutaneous Adverse Reaction With Acute Kidney Injury After Drug Exposure: An Uncommon Presentation.

    Rodgers, Bradley K; Kumar, Avinash B

    2016-01-01

    Toxic epidermal necrolysis syndrome (TEN) is a rare severe cutaneous adverse drug reaction that involves skin and mucous membranes. We describe a case of TEN presenting with stage III acute kidney injury, rhabdomyolysis, and acute respiratory failure likely triggered by allopurinol for recently diagnosed gout. Prompt diagnosis, multidisciplinary management, including aggressive resuscitation, cardiorespiratory support, intravenous immunoglobulin therapy, and daily wound care resulted in a positive outcome despite a predicted mortality greater than 60%. Although allopurinol is a known triggering agent, TEN presenting with rhabdomyolysis and acute kidney injury is rare. PMID:24832386

  2. Progress of imaging research on the early diagnosis of acute osteomyelitis

    The imaging diagnostic techniques include X-ray plain film, ultrasound, CT, MRI and radionuclide imaging. X-ray plain film is less sensitive to early acute osteomyelitis. Ultrasound can detect abscesses in the soft tissues and subperiosteal space earlier, but there are variations in image quality based on the different operators' levels of proficiency. High-resolution CT can find minimal lesions on bone, but it has a low sensitivity to predict acute osteomyelitis. MRI is superior to other imaging techniques at visualizing bone marrow lesions, but it is less sensitive in detecting sequestrum and calcification than CT. A variety of radionuclide imaging agents have been used in the early diagnosis of acute osteomyelitis in order to find a more sensitive and specific imaging technique. In this paper, different imaging diagnostic techniques of acute osteomyelitis are reviewed. (authors)

  3. Extending supplementary feeding for children younger than 5 years with moderate acute malnutrition leads to lower relapse rates

    Children with moderate acute malnutrition (MAM) have a high rate of relapse and death in the year following recovery. In this pilot study, we evaluate the long-term benefits of an extended course of nutritional therapy for children with MAM. Rural Malawian children 6 to 59 months old with MAM, defin...

  4. Gallbladder Volvulus: A Rare Emergent Cause of Acute Cholecystitis, if Untreated, Progresses to Necrosis and Perforation

    Justin L, Regner, E-mail: Justin.Regner@BSWHealth.org; Angela, Lomas [Department of Surgery, Baylor Scott and White Health and Texas A& M Health Science Center College of Medicine, Temple, TX (United States)

    2016-03-25

    An 86 year-old woman with a past medical history significant for abdominal hernia and Alzheimer dementia presented to the Emergency Department with a 24 hour history of acute right upper quadrant pain associated with nausea and non-bilious emesis. Physical exam revealed right sided abdominal tenderness with associated mass. All laboratory values were within normal ranges. Both abdominal ultrasound and computed tomography of the abdomen/pelvis revealed a large distended gallbladder with wall thickening and gallstones. Based on presentation and radiologic findings, the emergency general surgery service was consulted for suspected acute cholecystitis. The patient was then admitted for intravenous antibiotics and scheduled for laparoscopic cholecystectomy the following day. Intra-operative findings revealed volvulus with acute necrosis of the entire gallbladder. The gallbladder had a long pedunculated cystic duct and artery that was detorsed before proceeding with resection. Postoperatively, the patient did well and was discharged a few days later tolerating a regular diet.

  5. Gallbladder Volvulus: A Rare Emergent Cause of Acute Cholecystitis, if Untreated, Progresses to Necrosis and Perforation

    An 86 year-old woman with a past medical history significant for abdominal hernia and Alzheimer dementia presented to the Emergency Department with a 24 hour history of acute right upper quadrant pain associated with nausea and non-bilious emesis. Physical exam revealed right sided abdominal tenderness with associated mass. All laboratory values were within normal ranges. Both abdominal ultrasound and computed tomography of the abdomen/pelvis revealed a large distended gallbladder with wall thickening and gallstones. Based on presentation and radiologic findings, the emergency general surgery service was consulted for suspected acute cholecystitis. The patient was then admitted for intravenous antibiotics and scheduled for laparoscopic cholecystectomy the following day. Intra-operative findings revealed volvulus with acute necrosis of the entire gallbladder. The gallbladder had a long pedunculated cystic duct and artery that was detorsed before proceeding with resection. Postoperatively, the patient did well and was discharged a few days later tolerating a regular diet

  6. A Double-Blind, Randomised, Controlled Trial to Study the Effects of an Enteral Feed Supplemented with Glutamine, Arginine, and Omega-3 Fatty Acid in Predicted Acute Severe Pancreatitis

    Callum B Pearce

    2006-07-01

    Full Text Available Context :Current best evidence is in favour of early institution of enteral feeding in acute severe pancreatitis with promising results from trials in immunonutrition on other patient groups. Objective: To identify which groups of patients and products are associated with benefit, we investigated immunonutrition in patients with predicted acute severe pancreatitis. Design :A randomised trial of a study feed containing glutamine, arginine, tributyrin and antioxidants versus an isocaloric isonitrogenous control feed was undertaken. Patients: Thirty-one patients with a diagnosis of acute pancreatitis predicted to develop severe disease: 15 study feeds and 16 control feeds. Interventions: Enteral feeding via nasojejunal tube for 3 days. If patients required further feeding the study was continued up to 15 days. Main outcome measures :Reduction in Creactive protein (CRP by 40 mg/L after 3 days of enteral feeding was the primary endpoint. Carboxypeptidase B activation peptide (CAPAP levels were taken at regular intervals. Results :After 3 days of feeding, in the study group 2/15 (13% of patients had reduced their CRP by 40 mg/L or more. In the control group 6/16 (38% of patients had reduced their CRP by this amount. This difference was found to be near the statistical significant limit (P=0.220. Conclusions :The cause of the unexpectedly higher CRP values in the study group is unclear. The rise in CRP was without a commensurate rise in CAPAP or outcome measures so there was no evidence that this represented pancreatic necrosis. The contrast between the CRP and CAPAP results is of interest and we believe that specific pancreatic indices such as CAPAP should be considered in larger future studies.

  7. FLT3 and NPM1 mutations in myelodysplastic syndromes: Frequency and potential value for predicting progression to acute myeloid leukemia.

    Bains, Ashish; Luthra, Rajyalakshmi; Medeiros, L Jeffrey; Zuo, Zhuang

    2011-01-01

    We reviewed FLT3 and NPM1 mutation data in a large cohort of patients with myelodysplastic syndrome (MDS). The frequencies of FLT3 and NPM1 mutation were 2.0% and 4.4%, respectively, and mutations were restricted to cases of intermediate- and high-risk MDS. Cytogenetic abnormalities were identified in 46.9% of cases. FLT3 mutations were associated with a complex karyotype (P = .009), whereas NPM1 mutations were associated with a diploid karyotype (P < .001). FLT3 mutation (P < .001) was associated with progression to acute myeloid leukemia (AML), as were a higher bone marrow (BM) blast count (P < .001) and complex cytogenetics (P = .039). No patient with an NPM1 mutation alone had disease that progressed to AML. Cox proportional regression multivariate analysis indicated that FLT3 mutation, NPM1 mutation, complex cytogenetics, BM blast count, pancytopenia, and age were independent factors that correlated with progression-free survival. We conclude that FLT3 and NPM1 mutations are rare in MDS, but assessment of mutation status is potentially useful for predicting progression to AML. PMID:21173125

  8. Association of Temperament and Acute Stress Responsiveness with Productivity, Feed Efficiency, and Methane Emissions in Beef Cattle: An Observational Study

    Llonch, Pol; Somarriba, Miguel; Duthie, Carol-Anne; Marie J. Haskell; John A Rooke; Troy, Shane; Roehe, Rainer; Turner, Simon P.

    2016-01-01

    The aim of this study was to assess individual differences in temperament and stress response and quantify their impact on feed efficiency, performance, and methane (CH4) emissions in beef cattle. Eighty-four steers (castrated males) (Charolais or Luing) were used. Temperament was assessed using two standardized tests: restlessness when restrained [crush score (CS)] and flight speed (FS) on release from restraint. Over a 56-day period individual animal dry matter intake (DMI) and weekly body ...

  9. Arterial steroid injection therapy can inhibit the progression of severe acute hepatic failure toward fulminant liver failure

    Kazuhiro Kotoh; Tsuyoshi Tajima; Yoshiki Asayama; Kousei Ishigami; Masakazu Hirakawa; Munechika Enjoji; Makoto Nakamuta; Tsuyoshi Yoshimoto; Motoyuki Kohjima; Shusuke Morizono; Shinsaku Yamashita; Yuki Horikawa; Kengo Yoshimitsu

    2006-01-01

    AIM: To utilize transcatheter arterial steroid injection therapy (TASIT) via the hepatic artery to reduce hepatic macrophage activity in patients with severe acute hepatic failure.METHODS: Thirty-four patients with severe acute hepatic failure were admitted to our hospital between June 2002 to June 2006 providing for the possibility of liver transplantation (LT). Seventeen patients were treated using traditional liver supportive procedures, and the other 17 patients additionally underwent TASIT with 1000 mg methylprednisolone per day for 3 continuous days.RESULTS: Of the 17 patients who received TASIT, 13 were cured without any complications, 2 died, and 2 underwent LT. Of the 17 patients who did not receive TASIT, 4 were self-limiting, 7 died, and 6 underwent LT.Univariate logistic analysis revealed that ascites, serum albumin, prothrombin time, platelet count, and TASIT were significant variables for predicating the prognosis.Multivariate logistic regression analysis using stepwise variable selection showed that prothrombin time, platelet count, and TASIT were independent predictive factors.CONCLUSION: TASIT might effectively prevent the progression of severe acute hepatic failure to a fatal stage of fulminant liver failure.

  10. Association of Temperament and Acute Stress Responsiveness with Productivity, Feed Efficiency, and Methane Emissions in Beef Cattle: An Observational Study.

    Llonch, Pol; Somarriba, Miguel; Duthie, Carol-Anne; Haskell, Marie J; Rooke, John A; Troy, Shane; Roehe, Rainer; Turner, Simon P

    2016-01-01

    The aim of this study was to assess individual differences in temperament and stress response and quantify their impact on feed efficiency, performance, and methane (CH4) emissions in beef cattle. Eighty-four steers (castrated males) (Charolais or Luing) were used. Temperament was assessed using two standardized tests: restlessness when restrained [crush score (CS)] and flight speed (FS) on release from restraint. Over a 56-day period individual animal dry matter intake (DMI) and weekly body weight was measured. Ultrasound fat depth was measured at the end of 56 days. Average daily gain (ADG), feed conversion ratio (FCR), and residual feed intake (RFI) were calculated. After the 56-day test period, animals were transported in groups of six/week to respiration chamber facilities. Blood samples were taken before and 0, 3, 6, and 9 h after transport. Plasma cortisol, creatine kinase (CK), glucose, and free fatty acids (FFA) were determined to assess physiological stress response. Subsequently, CH4 emissions were measured over a 3-day period in individual respiration chambers. CS (1.7 ± 0.09) and FS (1.6 ± 0.60 m/s) were repeatable (0.63 and 0.51, respectively) and correlated (r = 0.36, P beef cattle. PMID:27379246

  11. A Case Report on the Progression of Myeloid Sarcoma to Form Multiple Metastatic Deposits without Developing Acute Myeloid Leukaemia

    Sunita Kohli

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Introduction. Myeloid sarcomas (MS are rare tumours occurring at extramedullary sites. They are usually associated with other haematology disorders such as acute myeloid leukaemia, myelodysplastic syndrome, and chronic myeloproliferative neoplasms. They frequently occur with a diagnosis of acute myeloid leukaemia (AML or with relapse of preexisting disease. Patients with myeloid sarcomas without history or evidence of myeloid leukaemia typically progress to form AML. Case Presentation. A case report of a patient diagnosed with an isolated myeloid sarcoma that rarely did not transform to AML but instead spread to form multiple myeloid sarcomas throughout the body. Discussion. This case identifies the risk of metastatic spread of these tumours rather than the development of AML which is poorly documented in the literature, due to the rarity of cases, and may be significant in the investigation and management of isolated myeloid sarcomas. This case highlights the need for clinicians to consider repeat cross-sectional imaging to investigate unexplained clinical decline or symptoms, when there is no sign of AML progression and to consider radiotherapy treatment early.

  12. Acute, rapidly progressive renal failure with simultaneous use of amphotericin B and pentamidine.

    Antoniskis, D.; Larsen, R.A.

    1990-01-01

    We report four cases of acute reversible renal failure in patients with acquired immune deficiency syndrome who received both amphotericin B (for systemic mycoses) and pentamidine isethionate (for Pneumocystis carinii pneumonia). The concurrent use of amphotericin B with either inhaled pentamidine or trimethoprim-sulfamethoxazole did not cause significant renal impairment.

  13. Association of Temperament and Acute Stress Responsiveness with Productivity, Feed Efficiency, and Methane Emissions in Beef Cattle: An Observational Study

    Llonch, Pol; Somarriba, Miguel; Duthie, Carol-Anne; Haskell, Marie J.; Rooke, John A.; Troy, Shane; Roehe, Rainer; Turner, Simon P.

    2016-01-01

    The aim of this study was to assess individual differences in temperament and stress response and quantify their impact on feed efficiency, performance, and methane (CH4) emissions in beef cattle. Eighty-four steers (castrated males) (Charolais or Luing) were used. Temperament was assessed using two standardized tests: restlessness when restrained [crush score (CS)] and flight speed (FS) on release from restraint. Over a 56-day period individual animal dry matter intake (DMI) and weekly body weight was measured. Ultrasound fat depth was measured at the end of 56 days. Average daily gain (ADG), feed conversion ratio (FCR), and residual feed intake (RFI) were calculated. After the 56-day test period, animals were transported in groups of six/week to respiration chamber facilities. Blood samples were taken before and 0, 3, 6, and 9 h after transport. Plasma cortisol, creatine kinase (CK), glucose, and free fatty acids (FFA) were determined to assess physiological stress response. Subsequently, CH4 emissions were measured over a 3-day period in individual respiration chambers. CS (1.7 ± 0.09) and FS (1.6 ± 0.60 m/s) were repeatable (0.63 and 0.51, respectively) and correlated (r = 0.36, P < 0.001). Plasma cortisol, CK, and FFA concentrations increased after transport (P = 0.038, P = 0.006, and P < 0.001, respectively). Temperament (CS) and CK concentration were correlated (r = 0.29; P = 0.015). The extreme group analysis reveals that excitable animals (FS; P = 0.032) and higher stress response (cortisol, P = 0.007; FFA, P = 0.007; and CK, P = 0.003) were associated with lower DMI. ADG was lower in more temperamental animals (CS, P = 0.097, and FS, P = 0.030). Fat depth was greater in steers showing calmer CS (P = 0.026) and lower plasma CK (P = 0.058). Temperament did not show any relationship with RFI or CH4 emissions. However, steers with higher cortisol showed improved feed efficiency (lower

  14. Acute pulmonary emphysema cum pulmonary edema apparently associated with feeding of Brassica juncea in a dairy buffalo

    Muhammad, Ghulam; Saqib, Muhammad; NAUREEN, Abeera

    2010-01-01

    This preliminary report describes the occurrence of acute pulmonary emphysema cum pulmonary edema ensuing in extensive subcutaneous emphysematous swellings in a dairy buffalo (Bubalus bubalis) apparently associated with a sudden shift from berseem (Trifolium alexendrinum) to Brassica juncea fodder. Tachypnea, expiratory dyspnea, open-mouth breathing, loud expiratory grunt with abdominal lift, and crackles in ventral aspects of the lungs with normal rectal temperature characterized the conditi...

  15. Research progress in immunological mechanism of delayed encephalopathy after acute carbon monoxide poisoning

    Kai FENG

    2014-10-01

    Full Text Available Delayed encephalopathy after acute carbon monoxide poisoning (DEACMP is a syndrome constituted by acute dementia, psychiatric symptoms, pyramidal and extrapyramidal symptoms, which can be developed after the original clinical symptoms of carbon monoxide poisoning recovered. Lots of studies have been done to explain the mechanisms of DEACMP, and more and more researches have demonstrated that the immunological mechanism may be involved in or play an important role on the pathogenesis of the process. This article will review the researches of immunological mechanism of DEACMP in recent years and give some prompts to clinical study in the future. doi: 10.3969/j.issn.1672-6731.2014.10.006

  16. Research Progress of Grassland Feed-animal Balance at Home and Abroad%国内外草畜平衡研究进展

    买小虎; 张玉娟; 张英俊; 师尚礼; 黄顶; 张亚军

    2013-01-01

    Feed-animal balance was the key technique on the grassland ecosystem management, and attracts widespread attention in the world. Many studies have been conducted by former researchers, and most of their efforts were intended to keep the balance of feed-animal. However, there were still much more issue needed to be studied in details on the face of grassland degeneration and animal husbandry sustainable development. The author analyzed the feed-animal balance research progress, including the concept of stocking rate and its practical management techniques, especially on the stocking rate calculation methods. In addition, the social and economy effects on feed-animal balance were also discussed during the progress of improving the development of pastoral economy. In order to achieve feed-animal balance more effectively, it was concluded that the focus must be shift from only on animal number to the grassland quality, and it’s necessary to strengthen market tax control.%  草畜平衡长期以来是草地生态系统研究的热点。然而,多年来的研究成果未能有效解决草地退化以及畜牧业可持续发展的管理和技术问题,现有的草畜平衡研究体系尚存在一定缺陷。笔者论述了草畜平衡的国内外研究进展,讨论了确定草原载畜量所涉及的基本概念、基本方法和实践问题,特别是载畜量的确定和牧民收入问题。并通过对草原畜牧业发展、划区轮牧和季节畜牧业等概念的探讨,进一步阐述了在草原牧区提高畜牧业经营水平和维持草畜平衡的相关理论和实践问题。草畜平衡应由侧重牲畜数量监管模式改为以草原质量为依据,以税收等市场手段为主体的市场经济管理新模式。

  17. Superconducting open-gradient magnetic separation for the pretreatment of radioactive or mixed waste vitrification feeds. 1997 annual progress report

    'Vitrification has been selected as a final waste form technology in the US for long-term storage of high-level radioactive wastes (HLW). However, a foreseeable problem during vitrification in some waste feed streams lies in the presence of elements (e.g., transition metals) in the HLW that may cause instabilities in the final glass product. The formation of spinel compounds, such as Fe3O4 and FeCrO4, results in glass phase separation and reduces vitrifier lifetime, and durability of the final waste form. A superconducting open gradient magnetic separation (OGMS) system maybe suitable for the removal of the deleterious transition elements (e.g. Fe, Co, and Ni) and other elements (lanthanides) from vitrification feed streams due to their ferromagnetic or paramagnetic nature. The OGMS systems are designed to deflect and collect paramagnetic minerals as they interact with a magnetic field gradient. This system has the potential to reduce the volume of HLW for vitrification and ensure a stable product. In order to design efficient OGMS and High gradient magnetic separation (HGMS) processes, a fundamental understanding of the physical and chemical properties of the waste feed streams is required. Using HLW simulant and radioactive fly ash and sludge samples from the Savannah River Technology Center, Rocky Flats site, and the Hanford reservation, several techniques were used to characterize and predict the separation capability for a superconducting OGMS system.'

  18. Superconducting open-gradient magnetic separation for the pretreatment of radioactive or mixed waste vitrification feeds. 1997 annual progress report

    Doctor, R.; Nunez, L. [Argonne National Lab., IL (US); Cicero-Herman, C.A. [Westinghouse Savannah River Co., Aiken, SC (US). Savannah River Technology Center; Ritter, J.A. [Univ. of South Carolina, Columbia, SC (US). Chemical Engineering Dept.; Landsberger, S. [Univ. of Texas, Austin, TX (US). Nuclear Engineering Dept.

    1997-01-01

    'Vitrification has been selected as a final waste form technology in the US for long-term storage of high-level radioactive wastes (HLW). However, a foreseeable problem during vitrification in some waste feed streams lies in the presence of elements (e.g., transition metals) in the HLW that may cause instabilities in the final glass product. The formation of spinel compounds, such as Fe{sub 3}O{sub 4} and FeCrO{sub 4}, results in glass phase separation and reduces vitrifier lifetime, and durability of the final waste form. A superconducting open gradient magnetic separation (OGMS) system maybe suitable for the removal of the deleterious transition elements (e.g. Fe, Co, and Ni) and other elements (lanthanides) from vitrification feed streams due to their ferromagnetic or paramagnetic nature. The OGMS systems are designed to deflect and collect paramagnetic minerals as they interact with a magnetic field gradient. This system has the potential to reduce the volume of HLW for vitrification and ensure a stable product. In order to design efficient OGMS and High gradient magnetic separation (HGMS) processes, a fundamental understanding of the physical and chemical properties of the waste feed streams is required. Using HLW simulant and radioactive fly ash and sludge samples from the Savannah River Technology Center, Rocky Flats site, and the Hanford reservation, several techniques were used to characterize and predict the separation capability for a superconducting OGMS system.'

  19. Leptospirosis Presenting with Rapidly Progressing Acute Renal Failure and Conjugated Hyperbilirubinemia: A Case Report.

    Pothuri, Pallavi; Ahuja, Keerat; Kumar, Viki; Lal, Sham; Tumarinson, Taisiya; Mahmood, Khalid

    2016-01-01

    BACKGROUND Unexplained renal insufficiency combined with hepatic failure is a common problem encountered by clinicians. As with many disease processes involving multi-organ systems, reversible causes are usually not readily identifiable, and for many patients their health deteriorates rapidly. We present a rare cause of acute renal failure and hyperbilirubinemia occurring simultaneously, with leptospirosis presenting as Weil's disease. CASE REPORT A 53-year-old male presented to our clinic with complaints of anuria over the past two days. His symptoms started with dark urine, severe cramps in the thighs, and chills. The patient was a visitor to the United States from Guyana. Positive physical examination findings included mild tachycardia and hypotension, scleral icterus, and tenderness over abdomen, costovertebral angles, and thighs. The patient had a high white blood cell count, thrombocytopenia, renal/hepatic insufficiency, and an urinary tract infection (UTI). The patient was initially treated under the suspicion of acute kidney injury secondary to rhabdomyolysis and pyelonephritis. The patient continued to deteriorate with decreasing platelet counts, worsening renal function, hyperbilirubinemia, and respiratory distress, with no improvement with hemodialysis. Broad-spectrum antibiotics were administered, including doxycycline, due to a high suspicion of leptospirosis. The patient's condition drastically improved after initiation of doxycycline. On subsequent days, the patient's Leptospira antibody results were available, showing titers of more than 1:3200. Hemodialysis was discontinued as the patient started producing urine with improved kidney function. CONCLUSIONS As world travel becomes more economically feasible, we will continue to encounter foreign endemic diseases. Leptospirosis presenting as Weil's disease is a common cause of renal and hyperbilirubinemia in endemic areas. Often, as was the case for our patient where the time from presentation to acute

  20. The value of the abdominal radiograph in the assessment of the acute abdomen- work in progress

    Full text: The value of the abdominal radiograph in the assessment of the acute abdomen was evaluated for those patients who also had abdominal ultrasound and/or CT. The value of each modality in patient management is reviewed. Retrospective review of 52 consecutive patients presented to a tertiary hospital emergency department with acute abdominal pain who underwent abdominal radiographs (AXR) and abdominal ultrasound (US) and / or computed tomography (CT) within 24 hours of presentation was undertaken. There were 37 males and 15 females. The mean age was 53 years (range 18-95y). Abdominal radiographs were reviewed by two radiologists.Two patients had two separate admissions one week apart. There were 35 normal abdominal radiographs. 19 studies showed clinically relevant abnormalities. Of the normal group, 14 out of 21 patients had abnormal findings on CT and 8 out of 16 had abnormal US examinations. Of the 19 patients with abnormal AXR, 17 out of 19 patients had abnormal CT and 2 out of 5 had abnormal ultrasound examinations. There were 5 cases where both CT scan and US was performed. The positive and negative predictive value for AXR vs CT scan was 89% and 33% respectively and for AXR vs US scan was 40% and 50% respectively. For patients with normal AXR and abnormal CT, there was only one case (a non calcified abdominal aortic aneurysm) which might have required immediate surgical intervention. The preliminary results suggest that the abnormal radiograph is sensitive in the detection of relevant abnormalities in the acute abdomen in the context of appropriate clinical selection. Both CT and ultrasound provide additional diagnostic accuracy for some indications.A further 50 patients are being reviewed and the combined results will be presented. Copyright (2002) Blackwell Science Pty Ltd

  1. Effect of high saturated free fatty acids feeding on progression of renal failure in rat model of experimental nephrotoxicity

    Zaid O IBRAHEEM; Sattar, Munavvar A; Abdullah, Nor A.; Rathore, Hassaan A.; Johns, Edward J.

    2012-01-01

    The current study evaluates the impact of high saturated fat feeding in rat model of experimental nephrotoxicity induced by gentamicin. Sprague-Dawley rats weighing 200 g were randomized into four groups; the first one received the standard rodents chow for 8 weeks and was treated as control, the second group (HFD)received an experimental high fat diet rich in palm kernel oil (40% of Calories as fat) for the same period. The third group (HFDG) was given 80 mg/kg (body weight)/day gentamicin s...

  2. Feasibility of Progressive Strength Training Implemented in the Acute Ward after Hip Fracture Surgery

    Kronborg, Lise; Bandholm, Thomas; Palm, Henrik;

    2014-01-01

    IMPORTANCE: Patients with a hip fracture lose more than 50% knee-extension strength in the fractured limb within one week of surgery. Hence, immediate progressive strength training following hip fracture surgery may be rational, but the feasibility unknown. OBJECTIVE: To examine the feasibility of...... sample of 36 patients, 18 with a cervical and 18 with a trochanteric hip fracture (27 women and 9 men, mean (SD) age of 79.4 (8.3) years) were included between June and December 2012. INTERVENTION: A daily (on weekdays) program of progressive knee-extension strength training for the fractured limb, using...... ankle weight cuffs in 3 sets of 10 repetition maximum loadings. MAIN OUTCOMES AND MEASURES: The primary outcome was the change in training load (kg) during the knee-extension strength training. The secondary outcomes were changes in hip fracture-related pain and maximal isometric knee-extension strength...

  3. Superconducting open-gradient magnetic separation for the pretreatment of radioactive or mixed waste vitrification feeds. 1998 annual progress report

    'The objective is to reduce the volume and cost of high-level waste glass produced during US DOE remediation activities by demonstrating that magnetic separation can separate crystalline, amorphous, and colloidal constituents in vitrification feed streams known to be deleterious to the production of borosilicate glass. Magnetic separation will add neither chemicals nor generate secondary waste streams. The project includes the systematic study of magnetic interactions of waste constituents under controlled physical and chemical conditions (e.g., hydration, oxidation, temperature) to identify mechanisms that control the magnetic properties. Partitioning of radionuclides to determine their sorption mechanisms is also being studied. The identification of fundamental magnetic properties within the microscopic chemical environment in combination with hydrodynamic and electrodynamic models provides insights into the design of a system for optimal separation. Following this, experimental studies using superconducting open-gradient magnetic separation (OGMS) will be conducted to validate its effectiveness as a pretreatment technique.'

  4. Superconducting open-gradient magnetic separation for the pretreatment of radioactive or mixed waste vitrification feeds. 1998 annual progress report

    Doctor, R.D.; Nunez, L. [Argonne National Lab., IL (US); Crawford, C. [Westinghouse Savannah River Co., Aiken, SC (US); Ritter, J. [Univ. of South Carolina, Columbia, SC (US); Landsberger, S. [Univ. of Texas, Austin, TX (US)

    1998-06-01

    'The objective is to reduce the volume and cost of high-level waste glass produced during US DOE remediation activities by demonstrating that magnetic separation can separate crystalline, amorphous, and colloidal constituents in vitrification feed streams known to be deleterious to the production of borosilicate glass. Magnetic separation will add neither chemicals nor generate secondary waste streams. The project includes the systematic study of magnetic interactions of waste constituents under controlled physical and chemical conditions (e.g., hydration, oxidation, temperature) to identify mechanisms that control the magnetic properties. Partitioning of radionuclides to determine their sorption mechanisms is also being studied. The identification of fundamental magnetic properties within the microscopic chemical environment in combination with hydrodynamic and electrodynamic models provides insights into the design of a system for optimal separation. Following this, experimental studies using superconducting open-gradient magnetic separation (OGMS) will be conducted to validate its effectiveness as a pretreatment technique.'

  5. Gene expression profiling of the short-term adaptive response to acute caloric restriction in liver and adipose tissues of pigs differing in feed efficiency

    Residual feed intake (RFI) is a measure of feed efficiency, where low RFI denotes high feed efficiency. Caloric restriction (CR) is associated with feed efficiency in livestock species and relevant to human health benefits such as longevity and cancer prevention. We generated transcript profiles of ...

  6. Dopaminergic modulation of effort-related choice behavior as assessed by a progressive ratio chow feeding choice task: pharmacological studies and the role of individual differences.

    Patrick A Randall

    Full Text Available Mesolimbic dopamine (DA is involved in behavioral activation and effort-related processes. Rats with impaired DA transmission reallocate their instrumental behavior away from food-reinforced tasks with high response requirements, and instead select less effortful food-seeking behaviors. In the present study, the effects of several drug treatments were assessed using a progressive ratio (PROG/chow feeding concurrent choice task. With this task, rats can lever press on a PROG schedule reinforced by a preferred high-carbohydrate food pellet, or alternatively approach and consume the less-preferred but concurrently available laboratory chow. Rats pass through each ratio level 15 times, after which the ratio requirement is incremented by one additional response. The DA D(2 antagonist haloperidol (0.025-0.1 mg/kg reduced number of lever presses and highest ratio achieved but did not reduce chow intake. In contrast, the adenosine A(2A antagonist MSX-3 increased lever presses and highest ratio achieved, but decreased chow consumption. The cannabinoid CB1 inverse agonist and putative appetite suppressant AM251 decreased lever presses, highest ratio achieved, and chow intake; this effect was similar to that produced by pre-feeding. Furthermore, DA-related signal transduction activity (pDARPP-32(Thr34 expression was greater in nucleus accumbens core of high responders (rats with high lever pressing output compared to low responders. Thus, the effects of DA antagonism differed greatly from those produced by pre-feeding or reduced CB1 transmission, and it appears unlikely that haloperidol reduces PROG responding because of a general reduction in primary food motivation or the unconditioned reinforcing properties of food. Furthermore, accumbens core signal transduction activity is related to individual differences in work output.

  7. Effect of an acute necrotic bacterial gill infection and feed deprivation on the metabolic rate of Atlantic salmon Salmo salar.

    Jones, M A; Powell, M D; Becker, J A; Carter, C G

    2007-10-31

    In this study, experiments were conducted to examine the effect of an acute necrotic bacterial gill infection on the metabolic rate (M(O2)) of Atlantic salmon Salmo salar. Fed and unfed Atlantic salmon smolts were exposed to a high concentration (5 x 10(12) CFU ml(-1)) of the bacteria Tenacibaculum maritimum, their routine and maximum metabolic rates (M(O2rout) and M(O2max), respectively) were measured, and relative metabolic scope determined. A significant decrease in metabolic scope was found for both fed and unfed infected groups. Fed infected fish had a mean +/- standard error of the mean (SEM) decrease of 2.21 +/- 0.97 microM O2 g(-1) h(-1), whilst unfed fish a mean +/- SEM decrease of 3.16 +/- 1.29 microM O2 g(-1) h(-1). The decrease in metabolic scope was a result of significantly increased M(O2rout) of both fed and unfed infected salmon. Fed infected fish had a mean +/- SEM increase in M(O2rout) of 1.86 +/- 0.66 microM O2 g(-1) h(-1), whilst unfed infected fish had a mean +/- SEM increase of 2.16 +/- 0.72 microM O2 g(-1) h(-1). Interestingly, all groups maintained M(O2max) regardless of infection status. Increases in M(O2rout) corresponded to a significant increase in blood plasma osmolality. A decrease in metabolic scope has implications for how individuals allocate energy; fish with smaller metabolic scope will have less energy to allocate to functions such as growth, reproduction and immune response, which may adversely affect the efficiency of fish growth. PMID:18159670

  8. Acute Pancreatitis in Children

    ... a feeding tube or an IV to prevent malnutrition and improve healing. Does my child have to ... intestines. Can my child die from acute pancreatitis? Death from acute pancreatitis is quite rare in children– ...

  9. Novel management options for adult patients with progressive acute lymphoblastic leukemia: introduction.

    Wang, Eunice S

    2015-06-01

    Acute lymphoblastic leukemia (ALL) is a heterogeneous hematologic malignancy characterized by highly proliferative immature lymphoid cells in the bone marrow and peripheral blood. In adults, ALL accounts for approximately 20% of all adult leukemias. ALL carries a poor prognosis in adults. The 5-year overall survival is 24% in patients ages 40 to 59 years and 18% in patients ages 60 to 69 years. ALL can be grouped into different categories according to its cell lineage (B cell or T cell), the presence or absence of the Philadelphia chromosome, and various cytogenetic and molecular classifications. A main goal of treatment is to allow the patient to achieve a complete remission and to consolidate this remission with either a maintenance regimen or an allogeneic stem cell transplant. Although the overall rate of complete remission following frontline therapy for newly diagnosed ALL is high, the majority of patients experience a disease relapse. In general, the duration of initial complete remission impacts the patient’s prognosis and response to further therapies. Subsequent treatments must balance the goal of achieving a remission with the need for the patient to maintain or improve quality of life. Recently approved agents, such as blinatumomab and vincristine sulfate liposome injection, offer the promise of a second remission that can serve as a bridge to allogeneic stem cell transplant while still maintaining quality of life. A novel approach using adoptive cellular immunotherapy with chimeric antigen receptor (CAR) T cells is associated with extremely robust responses. PMID:26431322

  10. [Progress in reperfusion after acute myocardial infarction. The situation in Latin America].

    Mele, Eduardo F

    2010-06-01

    Reperfusion therapy for acute myocardial infarction has dramatically reduced mortality. Coronary angioplasty and thrombolysis are the most effective reperfusion techniques. The controversy about which of the two methods is best has been superseded by a search for the most rapid and effective way of inducing reperfusion, given the overriding importance of time for saving myocardial tissue. Consequently, pharmaco-invasive strategies, prehospital thrombolysis and rapid patient transport systems have all been implemented. Typically, a certain percentage of patients do not undergo reperfusion for a range of reasons, one of the most important being treatment delay. Trends in Latin America are similar to those in other parts of the world: there is an increasing use of angioplasty instead of thrombolysis and a significant number of patients do not undergo reperfusion. Some patient registries indicate that hospital mortality tends to be higher than in Europe or the United States. There are numerous reasons for the difference, among which are a delay in presentation and a lack of access to properly equipped hospitals because of social inequality. Scientific societies have a key role to play in promoting awareness about the importance of early diagnosis and treatment throughout the health-care community, health authorities, and society in general. PMID:20540897

  11. Impact of mechanical ventilation on the pathophysiology of progressive acute lung injury.

    Nieman, Gary F; Gatto, Louis A; Habashi, Nader M

    2015-12-01

    The earliest description of what is now known as the acute respiratory distress syndrome (ARDS) was a highly lethal double pneumonia. Ashbaugh and colleagues (Ashbaugh DG, Bigelow DB, Petty TL, Levine BE Lancet 2: 319-323, 1967) correctly identified the disease as ARDS in 1967. Their initial study showing the positive effect of mechanical ventilation with positive end-expiratory pressure (PEEP) on ARDS mortality was dampened when it was discovered that improperly used mechanical ventilation can cause a secondary ventilator-induced lung injury (VILI), thereby greatly exacerbating ARDS mortality. This Synthesis Report will review the pathophysiology of ARDS and VILI from a mechanical stress-strain perspective. Although inflammation is also an important component of VILI pathology, it is secondary to the mechanical damage caused by excessive strain. The mechanical breath will be deconstructed to show that multiple parameters that comprise the breath-airway pressure, flows, volumes, and the duration during which they are applied to each breath-are critical to lung injury and protection. Specifically, the mechanisms by which a properly set mechanical breath can reduce the development of excessive fluid flux and pulmonary edema, which are a hallmark of ARDS pathology, are reviewed. Using our knowledge of how multiple parameters in the mechanical breath affect lung physiology, the optimal combination of pressures, volumes, flows, and durations that should offer maximum lung protection are postulated. PMID:26472873

  12. A comparative study of MRI findings of experimentally induced rapid progressive glomerulonephritis (RPGN) and acute tubular necrosis (ATN) in rabbits

    To evaluate the usefulness of MR imaging in the differential diagnosis of the underlying causes of early-stage acute renal failure (ARF) by comparing the MRI findings of experimentally-induced crescentic glomerulonephritis (CGN) and acute tubular necrosis (ATN) in rabbits. Experimental CGN was induced by injecting anti-glomerular basement membrane antibody into six rabbits, and ATN by injecting glycerol solution into six rabbits. A normal control group of three rabbits was also used. Renal MR imaging (T1-and T2-weighted coronal images and dynamic MRI : DMRI) was performed the day before, and one,four, and seven days after the induction of CGN; and immediately before, and four, and eight hours, and one, four, and seven days after the induction of ATN. Sequential renal gunbiopsies and blood sampling (serum creatinine, sCr) were performed. Renal area, corticomedullary differentiation (CMD), and the passage of Gd-DTPA (patter of dark band), as seen on MRI, were analyzed and correlated with serial change of sCr. In normal kidneys, CMD was clearly apparent on both T1-and T2-weighted images. DMRI demonstrated a progressively inwardly migrating dark band in the kidneys. CMD was relatively clearly demonstrated in the ATN group but less clearly identified in the CGN group. Renal size (area) and sCr gradually increased in both the CGN and ATN groups, and dark bands were moderately to poorly defined in both. We conclude that DMRI could be used to differentiate and evaluate disease processing and compromised renal function in cases of CGN and ATN. On T1-and T2-weighted images, CMD was relatively well preserved in the ATN group, but was less clear in the CGN group. These MRI findings may be helpful for differentiation of the underlying causes of early-stage ARF, particularly between CGN and ATN

  13. The role of glycerol-3-phosphate dehydrogenase 1 in the progression of fatty liver after acute ethanol administration in mice

    Highlights: • Ethanol administration increased GPD1 mRNA expression. • Ethanol administration increased glucose incorporation into TG glycerol moieties. • No increase in hepatic TG levels was observed in ethanol-injected GPD1 null mice. • We propose that GPD1 is required for ethanol-induced TG accumulation in the liver. - Abstract: Acute ethanol consumption leads to the accumulation of triglycerides (TGs) in hepatocytes. The increase in lipogenesis and reduction of fatty acid oxidation are implicated as the mechanisms underlying ethanol-induced hepatic TG accumulation. Although glycerol-3-phosphate (Gro3P), formed by glycerol kinase (GYK) or glycerol-3-phosphate dehydrogenase 1 (GPD1), is also required for TG synthesis, the roles of GYK and GPD1 have been the subject of some debate. In this study, we examine (1) the expression of genes involved in Gro3P production in the liver of C57BL/6J mice in the context of hepatic TG accumulation after acute ethanol intake, and (2) the role of GPD1 in the progression of ethanol-induced fatty liver using GPD1 null mice. As a result, in C57BL/6J mice, ethanol-induced hepatic TG accumulation began within 2 h and was 1.7-fold greater than that observed in the control group after 6 h. The up-regulation of GPD1 began 2 h after administering ethanol, and significantly increased 6 h later with the concomitant escalation in the glycolytic gene expression. The incorporation of 14C-labelled glucose into TG glycerol moieties increased during the same period. On the other hand, in GPD1 null mice carrying normal GYK activity, no significant increase in hepatic TG level was observed after acute ethanol intake. In conclusion, GPD1 and glycolytic gene expression is up-regulated by ethanol, and GPD1-mediated incorporation of glucose into TG glycerol moieties together with increased lipogenesis, is suggested to play an important role in ethanol-induced hepatic TG accumulation

  14. The role of glycerol-3-phosphate dehydrogenase 1 in the progression of fatty liver after acute ethanol administration in mice

    Sato, Tomoki, E-mail: s13220@u-shizuoka-ken.ac.jp [Laboratory of Nutritional Biochemistry, Graduate School of Nutritional and Environmental Sciences, University of Shizuoka, 52-1 Yada, Suruga-ku, Shizuoka 422-8526 (Japan); Morita, Akihito, E-mail: moritaa@u-shizuoka-ken.ac.jp [Laboratory of Nutritional Biochemistry, Graduate School of Nutritional and Environmental Sciences, University of Shizuoka, 52-1 Yada, Suruga-ku, Shizuoka 422-8526 (Japan); Mori, Nobuko, E-mail: morin@b.s.osakafu-u.ac.jp [Department of Biological Science, Graduate School of Science, Osaka Prefecture University, 1-2 Gakuen-cho, Naka-ku, Sakai 599-8570 (Japan); Miura, Shinji, E-mail: miura@u-shizuoka-ken.ac.jp [Laboratory of Nutritional Biochemistry, Graduate School of Nutritional and Environmental Sciences, University of Shizuoka, 52-1 Yada, Suruga-ku, Shizuoka 422-8526 (Japan)

    2014-02-21

    Highlights: • Ethanol administration increased GPD1 mRNA expression. • Ethanol administration increased glucose incorporation into TG glycerol moieties. • No increase in hepatic TG levels was observed in ethanol-injected GPD1 null mice. • We propose that GPD1 is required for ethanol-induced TG accumulation in the liver. - Abstract: Acute ethanol consumption leads to the accumulation of triglycerides (TGs) in hepatocytes. The increase in lipogenesis and reduction of fatty acid oxidation are implicated as the mechanisms underlying ethanol-induced hepatic TG accumulation. Although glycerol-3-phosphate (Gro3P), formed by glycerol kinase (GYK) or glycerol-3-phosphate dehydrogenase 1 (GPD1), is also required for TG synthesis, the roles of GYK and GPD1 have been the subject of some debate. In this study, we examine (1) the expression of genes involved in Gro3P production in the liver of C57BL/6J mice in the context of hepatic TG accumulation after acute ethanol intake, and (2) the role of GPD1 in the progression of ethanol-induced fatty liver using GPD1 null mice. As a result, in C57BL/6J mice, ethanol-induced hepatic TG accumulation began within 2 h and was 1.7-fold greater than that observed in the control group after 6 h. The up-regulation of GPD1 began 2 h after administering ethanol, and significantly increased 6 h later with the concomitant escalation in the glycolytic gene expression. The incorporation of {sup 14}C-labelled glucose into TG glycerol moieties increased during the same period. On the other hand, in GPD1 null mice carrying normal GYK activity, no significant increase in hepatic TG level was observed after acute ethanol intake. In conclusion, GPD1 and glycolytic gene expression is up-regulated by ethanol, and GPD1-mediated incorporation of glucose into TG glycerol moieties together with increased lipogenesis, is suggested to play an important role in ethanol-induced hepatic TG accumulation.

  15. 重症急性胰腺炎治疗研究进展%Research Progress in the Treatment of Severe Acute Pancreatitis

    黄振鹏; 梁仲惠

    2012-01-01

    急性胰腺炎( acute pancreatitis,AP)是消化系统常见急症,可分为轻症急性胰腺炎(mild acute pancreatits,MAP)和重症急性胰腺炎(sever acute pancreatitis,SAP).SAP起病急,病情危重,常并发感染、腹膜炎、休克等多种并发症,病死率高,常在20%~40%,预后较差.近年来,随着科技发展,SAP治疗有了很大进步,多数患者能避免死亡并获得痊愈.因此,采取及时、有效的治疗对于SAP有着极其重要的意义.文章将近年来抑制胰腺外分泌和胰酶活性药物应用、抗生素预防性使用、内镜技术等发展作一综述.%Acute pancreatitis ( acute pancreatitis, AP ) is one of the most common diseases . It can be divided into mild acute pancreatitis ( mild acute pancreatits, MAP ) and severe acute pancreatitis ( sever acute pancreatitis, SAP ) . SAP is onset rapidly, and it is severly illness. SAP often complicated by infection, peritonitis, shock and other complications. Its mortality rate is very high, in 20%~40%, besides, the prognosis is poor. In recent years, with the development of science and technology, SAP treatment has very great progress, the majority of patients can avoid the death and recover. Therefore, to take timely, effective treatment for SAP has extremely important significance. This article will review in inhibition of pancreatic exocrine secretion and trypsin activity of drug application, antibiotic prophylaxis, using endoscopic techniques and development.

  16. Analysis of the effects of exposure to acute hypoxia on oxidative lesions and tumour progression in a transgenic mouse breast cancer model

    Tumour hypoxia is known to be a poor prognostic indicator, predictive of increased risk of metastatic disease and reduced survival. Genomic instability has been proposed as one of the potential mechanisms for hypoxic tumour progression. Both of these features are commonly found in many cancer types, but their relationship and association with tumour progression has not been examined in the same model. To address this issue, we determined the effects of 6 week in vivo acute hypoxic exposure on the levels of mutagenic lipid peroxidation product, malondialdehyde, and 8-oxo-7,8-dihydro-2'-deoxyguanosine DNA (8-oxo-dG) lesions in the transgenic polyomavirus middle T (PyMT) breast cancer mouse model. We observed significantly increased plasma lipid peroxidation and 8-oxo-dG lesion levels in the hypoxia-exposed mice. Consumption of malondialdehyde also induced a significant increase in the PyMT tumour DNA lesion levels, however, these increases did not translate into enhanced tumour progression. We further showed that the in vivo exposure to acute hypoxia induced accumulation of F4/80 positive tumour-associated macrophages (TAMs), demonstrating a relationship between hypoxia and macrophages in an experimental model. These data suggest that although exposure to acute hypoxia causes an increase in 8-oxo-dG lesions and TAMs in the PyMT tumours, these increases do not translate into significant changes in tumour progression at the primary or metastatic levels in this strong viral oncogene-driven breast cancer model

  17. MiR-146b negatively regulates migration and delays progression of T-cell acute lymphoblastic leukemia.

    Correia, Nádia C; Fragoso, Rita; Carvalho, Tânia; Enguita, Francisco J; Barata, João T

    2016-01-01

    Previous results indicated that miR-146b-5p is downregulated by TAL1, a transcription factor critical for early hematopoiesis that is frequently overexpressed in T-cell acute lymphoblastic leukemia (T-ALL) where it has an oncogenic role. Here, we confirmed that miR-146b-5p expression is lower in TAL1-positive patient samples than in other T-ALL cases. Furthermore, leukemia T-cells display decreased levels of miR-146b-5p as compared to normal T-cells, thymocytes and other hematopoietic progenitors. MiR-146b-5p silencing enhances the in vitro migration and invasion of T-ALL cells, associated with increased levels of filamentous actin and chemokinesis. In vivo, miR-146b overexpression in a TAL1-positive cell line extends mouse survival in a xenotransplant model of human T-ALL. In contrast, knockdown of miR-146b-5p results in leukemia acceleration and decreased mouse overall survival, paralleled by faster tumor infiltration of the central nervous system. Our results suggest that miR-146b-5p is a functionally relevant microRNA gene in the context of T-ALL, whose negative regulation by TAL1 and possibly other oncogenes contributes to disease progression by modulating leukemia cell motility and disease aggressiveness. PMID:27550837

  18. A case control study to find out child feeding practices responsible for severe acute malnutrition among under-five children admitted in MTC at a tertiary care centre, Bikaner, Rajasthan

    Kavita Choudhary

    2014-12-01

    Full Text Available Introduction: There is no significant difference between NFHS II &III with respect to under- nutrition data but Gross national income has increased many times, so poverty and unavailability of food alone cannot be the only reasons of under- nutrition. Under-nutrition is the result of many interrelated factors such as poverty, insufficient household food security, inadequate health services, poor maternal and child care practices and inadequate water and sanitation. For communities with a high prevalence of under- nutrition, it may take years or even decades before all of these factors can be addressed. Aims and Objectives:  to find out child feeding practices responsible for severe acute malnutrition among Under-five Children and to recommend a Community Action Plan based on Positive Deviance Approach to deal with under-nutrition quickly, affordably and sustainably in a culturally acceptable manner. Materials & Methods: Study design: Matched Case Control study. Sample size: 143 cases and age, socio-economic status matched 143 controls. Study place: MTC and Immunization clinic. Study Duration: May, 2013- May, 2014. Study Tool and Data Collection: Semi-structured pre-tested questionnaire. Data analysis: with help of SPSS16 (Mean, SD, Proportion, odds ratio. Results: Strong positive association was found between duration of exclusive breast feeding(both shorter and longer, prelacteals, diluted milk as weaning food, bottle feeding, giving excess milk and less solid protein diet, not able to recognize cue of hunger by mother, lack of demand feeding, and severe acute malnutrition. Conclusion: Not any nutritional programme can help in preventing SAM unless we motivate the mothers for good child feeding and rearing practices. This can be achieved by identification of the Positive Deviant mothers from the same community and SES, who can motivate the mothers of SAM children and can practically demonstrate positive child feeding practices in a culturally

  19. 急性运动轴索性神经病的研究进展%Research progress of acute motor axonal neuropathy

    张刚; 秦新月

    2014-01-01

    Acute motor axonal neuropathy (AMAN) is one of the main subtypes of Guillain-Barré syndrome (GBS), which presents with acute ascending flaccid paralysis like acute inflammatory demyelinating polyneuropathy (AIDP). But AMAN can be different with AIDP in clinical manifestation, immunopathogenesis, electrophysiology, serum antibody, prognosis, et al. This review focused on the research progress of AMAN.%急性运动轴索性神经病(AMAN)是吉兰-巴雷综合征(GBS)的主要亚型之一,与GBS主要亚型急性炎症性脱髓鞘性多发性神经病(AIDP)在临床表现、免疫病理生理机制、神经电生理检查、血清学抗体等方面均有不同。本文就AMAN相关研究进展做一综述。

  20. Assessment of baseline hemodynamic parameters within infarct progression areas in acute stroke patients using perfusion-weighted MRI

    Ritzenthaler, Thomas; Cho, Tae-Hee; Derex, Laurent; Nighoghossian, Norbert [Hospices Civils de Lyon, Cerebrovascular Unit, Hopital Neurologique Pierre Wertheimer, Bron (France); Claude Bernard Lyon 1 University, Creatis-LRMN, UMR 5520-Inserm 630, Lyon (France); Wiart, Marlene; Berthezene, Yves [Claude Bernard Lyon 1 University, Creatis-LRMN, UMR 5520-Inserm 630, Lyon (France); Berthiller, Julien [Hospices Civils de Lyon, Pole Information Medicale Evaluation Recherche, Lyon (France); Universite Lyon 1, Lyon (France); Oestergaard, Leif [University of Aarhus, Center of Functionally Integrative Neuroscience, Aarhus University Hospital, Aarhus (Denmark); Hermier, Marc [Hospices Civils de Lyon, Neuroradiology Department, Hopital Neurologique Pierre Wertheimer, Lyon (France)

    2011-08-15

    The value of perfusion MRI for identifying the tissue at risk has been questioned. Our objective was to assess baseline perfusion-weighted imaging parameters within infarct progression areas. Patients with anterior circulation stroke without early reperfusion were included from a prospective MRI database. Sequential MRI examinations were performed on admission, 2-3 h (H2), 2-3 days (D2), and between 15 and 30 days after the initial MRI. Maps of baseline time-to-peak (TTP), mean transit time (MTT), cerebral blood volume (CBV), and cerebral blood flow (CBF) were calculated. Lesion extension areas were defined as pixels showing de novo lesions between each MRI and were generated by subtracting successive lesion masks: V{sub 0}, baseline diffusion-weighted imaging (DWI) lesion; V{sub 1}, lesion extension between baseline and H2 DWI; V{sub 2}, lesion extension from H2 to D2 DWI; and V{sub 3}, lesion extension from D2 DWI to final FLAIR. Repeated measures analysis was used to compare hemodynamic parameters within the baseline diffusion lesion and subsequent lesion extension areas. Thirty-two patients were included. Baseline perfusion parameters were significantly more impaired within the acute DWI lesion compared to lesion extension areas (TTP, p<0.0001; MTT, p<0.0001; CBF p<0.0001; CBV, p<0.0001). A significant decrease in MTT (p = 0.01) and TTP (p = 0.01) was found within successive lesion growth areas. A decreasing gradient of severity for TTP and MTT was observed within successive infarct growth areas. (orig.)

  1. Assessment of baseline hemodynamic parameters within infarct progression areas in acute stroke patients using perfusion-weighted MRI

    The value of perfusion MRI for identifying the tissue at risk has been questioned. Our objective was to assess baseline perfusion-weighted imaging parameters within infarct progression areas. Patients with anterior circulation stroke without early reperfusion were included from a prospective MRI database. Sequential MRI examinations were performed on admission, 2-3 h (H2), 2-3 days (D2), and between 15 and 30 days after the initial MRI. Maps of baseline time-to-peak (TTP), mean transit time (MTT), cerebral blood volume (CBV), and cerebral blood flow (CBF) were calculated. Lesion extension areas were defined as pixels showing de novo lesions between each MRI and were generated by subtracting successive lesion masks: V0, baseline diffusion-weighted imaging (DWI) lesion; V1, lesion extension between baseline and H2 DWI; V2, lesion extension from H2 to D2 DWI; and V3, lesion extension from D2 DWI to final FLAIR. Repeated measures analysis was used to compare hemodynamic parameters within the baseline diffusion lesion and subsequent lesion extension areas. Thirty-two patients were included. Baseline perfusion parameters were significantly more impaired within the acute DWI lesion compared to lesion extension areas (TTP, p<0.0001; MTT, p<0.0001; CBF p<0.0001; CBV, p<0.0001). A significant decrease in MTT (p = 0.01) and TTP (p = 0.01) was found within successive lesion growth areas. A decreasing gradient of severity for TTP and MTT was observed within successive infarct growth areas. (orig.)

  2. RSS Feeds

    ... www.nlm.nih.gov/medlineplus/rss.html RSS Feeds To use the sharing features on this page, ... NLM RSS Feeds and Podcasts . General Interest RSS Feeds What's New: MedlinePlus Announcements and Special Features The ...

  3. The onset of the progression of acute phase response mechanisms induced by extreme impacts can be followed by the decrease in blood levels of positive acute phase proteins.

    Larina, Olga; Bekker, Anna

    Studies performed at space flights and earth-based simulation models detected the plasma indices of acute phase reaction (APR), i.e. the increase of APR cytokine mediators and alterations in the production of blood acute phase proteins (APP) at the initial stages of adaptation to altered gravity conditions. Acute phase response is the principal constituent of the functional activity of innate immunity system. Changes in plasma APPs contents are considered to serve the restoration of homeostasis state. According to trends of their concentration shifts at the evolving of acute phase reaction APPs are denoted as positive, neutral, or negative. Plasma concentrations of positive acute phase proteins α1-acid glycoprotein (α1-AGP), α1-antitrypsin (α1-AT), and neutral α2-macroglobulin (α2-M) were measured in human study at 12-hour antiorthostatic position (AOP) with 15° head down tilt and hypoxia experiments at 14% oxygen in pressure chamber. Both of these impacts were shown to produce alterations in the APP levels indicative for acute phase response. Nevertheless, in AOP experiment noticeable decrease in α1-AGP concentration occurred by hour 12, and even more pronounced decline of α1-AGP and α1-AT were found on hypoxia hours 12 and 36. Acute phase proteins α1-AGP and α2-M possess the features of proteinase inhibitors. This function is implemented by the formation of complexes with the molecules of proteolytic enzymes which subsequently are removed from the blood flow. Transient decrease in plasma concentrations of protease inhibitors on early phases of APR development was reported to result from the growth of plasma protease activity due to cathepsin release from activated leukocytes, which had not yet been compensated by enhanced APP synthesis. Being a carrier protein for positively charged and neutral substances, α1-AGP shows pronounced elevation in its blood content during APR development. As assumed, it is required for the transportation of the increased

  4. 海洋鱼类摄食生态与食物网研究进展%Marine fish feeding ecology and food web:progress and perspectives

    颜云榕; 卢伙胜; 金显仕

    2011-01-01

    This paper firstly summarized the experimental methods on marine fish feeding ecology and food web ,mainly including stomach contents analysis, stable isotope analysis, compound-specific stable isotope analysis and behavior methods, their development and current applications.Secondly, the progress and achievement of fish diet composition, foraging types, food consumption and distribution in body were introduced.The strategies of marine food web research based on traditional stomach contents analysis,focusing on simplified food web, developing in stable isotope analysis techniques and ecosystem modeling were also presented.Finally, the trends of marine fish feeding ecology and food web research were predicted;furthermore, the problems and deficiency of the development and research in this field in China were discussed.%首先总结归纳了海洋鱼类摄食生态与食物网研究中的实验方法,主要包括胃含物分析法、碳氮稳定同位素法、特定化合物同位素法等实验方法的发展历史和应用现状;随后介绍了海洋鱼类摄食生态与食物网最新研究进展和取得的成绩,主要包括海洋鱼类摄食生态中食物组成、摄食方式、摄食量和食物用于机体各种生命活动分配方式,以及海洋食物网研究中以传统胃含物分析法为基础、以简化食物网为核心,碳氮稳定同位素技术和生态系统模型的应用发展;最后,着重分析了我国海洋鱼类摄食生态和食物网研究中有待解决的问题,并对该领域今后的发展趋势进行了展望.

  5. Analysis of the effects of exposure to acute hypoxia on oxidative lesions and tumour progression in a transgenic mouse breast cancer model

    Lunt Sarah

    2008-05-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Tumour hypoxia is known to be a poor prognostic indicator, predictive of increased risk of metastatic disease and reduced survival. Genomic instability has been proposed as one of the potential mechanisms for hypoxic tumour progression. Both of these features are commonly found in many cancer types, but their relationship and association with tumour progression has not been examined in the same model. Methods To address this issue, we determined the effects of 6 week in vivo acute hypoxic exposure on the levels of mutagenic lipid peroxidation product, malondialdehyde, and 8-oxo-7,8-dihydro-2'-deoxyguanosine DNA (8-oxo-dG lesions in the transgenic polyomavirus middle T (PyMT breast cancer mouse model. Results We observed significantly increased plasma lipid peroxidation and 8-oxo-dG lesion levels in the hypoxia-exposed mice. Consumption of malondialdehyde also induced a significant increase in the PyMT tumour DNA lesion levels, however, these increases did not translate into enhanced tumour progression. We further showed that the in vivo exposure to acute hypoxia induced accumulation of F4/80 positive tumour-associated macrophages (TAMs, demonstrating a relationship between hypoxia and macrophages in an experimental model. Conclusion These data suggest that although exposure to acute hypoxia causes an increase in 8-oxo-dG lesions and TAMs in the PyMT tumours, these increases do not translate into significant changes in tumour progression at the primary or metastatic levels in this strong viral oncogene-driven breast cancer model.

  6. The VMAT-2 inhibitor tetrabenazine affects effort-related decision making in a progressive ratio/chow feeding choice task: reversal with antidepressant drugs.

    Patrick A Randall

    Full Text Available Behavioral activation is a fundamental feature of motivation, and organisms frequently make effort-related decisions based upon evaluations of reinforcement value and response costs. Furthermore, people with major depression and other disorders often show anergia, psychomotor retardation, fatigue, and alterations in effort-related decision making. Tasks measuring effort-based decision making can be used as animal models of the motivational symptoms of depression, and the present studies characterized the effort-related effects of the vesicular monoamine transport (VMAT-2 inhibitor tetrabenazine. Tetrabenazine induces depressive symptoms in humans, and also preferentially depletes dopamine (DA. Rats were assessed using a concurrent progressive ratio (PROG/chow feeding task, in which they can either lever press on a PROG schedule for preferred high-carbohydrate food, or approach and consume a less-preferred lab chow that is freely available in the chamber. Previous work has shown that the DA antagonist haloperidol reduced PROG work output on this task, but did not reduce chow intake, effects that differed substantially from those of reinforcer devaluation or appetite suppressant drugs. The present work demonstrated that tetrabenazine produced an effort-related shift in responding on the PROG/chow procedure, reducing lever presses, highest ratio achieved and time spent responding, but not reducing chow intake. Similar effects were produced by administration of the subtype selective DA antagonists ecopipam (D1 and eticlopride (D2, but not by the cannabinoid CB1 receptor neutral antagonist and putative appetite suppressant AM 4413, which suppressed both lever pressing and chow intake. The adenosine A2A antagonist MSX-3, the antidepressant and catecholamine uptake inhibitor bupropion, and the MAO-B inhibitor deprenyl, all reversed the impairments induced by tetrabenazine. This work demonstrates the potential utility of the PROG/chow procedure as a

  7. 血清铁蛋白与急性脑梗死的关系研究进展%Research Progress of Serum Ferritin and Acute Cerebral Infarction

    李鑫(综述); 丰宏林(审校)

    2015-01-01

    铁是人体必需的微量元素,而血清铁蛋白是机体内重要的铁贮存蛋白,其是检测体内铁的可靠指标。血清铁蛋白通过自由基、纤维蛋白酶原、血脂、血小板等参与了急性脑梗死的发生、发展。该文就血清铁蛋白在急性脑梗死中的作用机制、急性脑梗死与血清铁蛋白关系和治疗现状予以综述,以期为急性脑梗死的治疗提供新的作用靶点。%Iron is an essential trace element,while serum ferritin is not only a significant kind of protein that reserves iron in vivo,but also a reliable indicator for detecting body iron .Serum ferritin is involved in the occurrence and progression of acute cerebral infarction through free radicals,fibrinogen,lipids and platelet, etc.In order to provide new targets for treatment of acute cerebral infarction,here reviews the pathogenesis of serum ferritin in acute cerebral infarction,relationship between acute cerebral infarction and serum ferritin, and the present status of the treatment.

  8. POEMS syndrome with Guillan-Barre syndrome-like acute onset: a case report and review of neurological progression in 30 cases.

    Isose, S; Misawa, S; Kanai, K; Shibuya, K; Sekiguchi, Y; Nasu, S; Fujimaki, Y; Noto, Y; Nakaseko, C; Kuwabara, S

    2011-06-01

    POEMS (polyneuropathy, organomegaly, endocrinopathy, M-protein and skin changes) syndrome is a rare cause of demyelinating neuropathy with monoclonal plasma cell proliferation, and POEMS neuropathy is usually chronically progressive. Herein, the authors report a 34-year-old woman with POEMS syndrome presenting as acute polyneuropathy. Within 2 weeks of disease onset, she became unable to walk with electrodiagnostic features of demyelination and was initially diagnosed as having Guillan-Barré syndrome. Other systemic features (oedema and skin changes) developed later, and an elevated serum level of vascular endothelial growth factor led to the diagnosis of POEMS syndrome. She received high-dose chemotherapy with autologous peripheral blood stem cell transplantation, resulting in good recovery. The authors also reviewed patterns and speed of progression of neuropathy in the 30 patients with POEMS syndrome; 22 (73%) of them were unable to walk independently with the median period of 9.5 months from POEMS onset (range 0.5-51 months). Whereas the speed of neuropathy progression varies considerably among patients, some POEMS patients can show acute or subacute polyneuropathy. The early diagnosis and treatment could result in rapid improvement as shown in the present patient. PMID:20562460

  9. Enteral feeding without pancreatic stimulation

    Kaushik, Neeraj; Pietraszewski, Marie; Holst, Jens Juul;

    2005-01-01

    OBJECTIVE: All forms of commonly practiced enteral feeding techniques stimulate pancreatic secretion, and only intravenous feeding avoids it. In this study, we explored the possibility of more distal enteral infusions of tube feeds to see whether activation of the ileal brake mechanism can result...... in enteral feeding without pancreatic stimulation, with particular reference to trypsin, because the avoidance of trypsin stimulation may optimize enteral feeding in acute pancreatitis. METHODS: The pancreatic secretory responses to feeding were studied in 36 healthy volunteers by standard double...... plasma glucagon-like peptide-1 and peptide YY concentrations. CONCLUSIONS: Our results suggest that enteral feeding can be given without stimulating pancreatic trypsin secretion provided it is delivered into the mid-distal jejunum. The mechanism may involve activation of the ileal brake mechanism....

  10. Predictors of nutritional recovery time and survival status among children with severe acute malnutrition who have been managed in therapeutic feeding centers, Southern Ethiopia: retrospective cohort study

    Gebremichael, Delelegn Yilma

    2015-01-01

    Background Malnutrition remains to be one of the most common causes of morbidity and mortality among children in developing countries. The prevalence of wasting in Ethiopia remained about 10 % for the past ten years. Mortality rate of children with severe acute malnutrition treated in inpatient set ups has remained unacceptably high. Methods A retrospective cohort study was conducted in Southern Ethiopia. The study population were children with severe acute malnutrition aged from 6 to 59 mont...

  11. Human bone marrow mesenchymal stem cell-derived hepatocytes improve the mouse liver after acute acetaminophen intoxication by preventing progress of injury.

    Stock, Peggy; Brückner, Sandra; Winkler, Sandra; Dollinger, Matthias M; Christ, Bruno

    2014-01-01

    Mesenchymal stem cells from human bone marrow (hMSC) have the potential to differentiate into hepatocyte-like cells in vitro and continue to maintain important hepatocyte functions in vivo after transplantation into host mouse livers. Here, hMSC were differentiated into hepatocyte-like cells in vitro (hMSC-HC) and transplanted into livers of immunodeficient Pfp/Rag2⁻/⁻ mice treated with a sublethal dose of acetaminophen (APAP) to induce acute liver injury. APAP induced a time- and dose-dependent damage of perivenous areas of the liver lobule. Serum levels of aspartate aminotransferase (AST) increased to similar levels irrespective of hMSC-HC transplantation. Yet, hMSC-HC resided in the damaged perivenous areas of the liver lobules short-term preventing apoptosis and thus progress of organ destruction. Disturbance of metabolic protein expression was lower in the livers receiving hMSC-HC. Seven weeks after APAP treatment, hepatic injury had completely recovered in groups both with and without hMSC-HC. Clusters of transplanted cells appeared predominantly in the periportal portion of the liver lobule and secreted human albumin featuring a prominent quality of differentiated hepatocytes. Thus, hMSC-HC attenuated the inflammatory response and supported liver regeneration after acute injury induced by acetaminophen. They hence may serve as a novel source of hepatocyte-like cells suitable for cell therapy of acute liver diseases. PMID:24758938

  12. Human Bone Marrow Mesenchymal Stem Cell-Derived Hepatocytes Improve the Mouse Liver after Acute Acetaminophen Intoxication by Preventing Progress of Injury

    Peggy Stock

    2014-04-01

    Full Text Available Mesenchymal stem cells from human bone marrow (hMSC have the potential to differentiate into hepatocyte-like cells in vitro and continue to maintain important hepatocyte functions in vivo after transplantation into host mouse livers. Here, hMSC were differentiated into hepatocyte-like cells in vitro (hMSC-HC and transplanted into livers of immunodeficient Pfp/Rag2−/− mice treated with a sublethal dose of acetaminophen (APAP to induce acute liver injury. APAP induced a time- and dose-dependent damage of perivenous areas of the liver lobule. Serum levels of aspartate aminotransferase (AST increased to similar levels irrespective of hMSC-HC transplantation. Yet, hMSC-HC resided in the damaged perivenous areas of the liver lobules short-term preventing apoptosis and thus progress of organ destruction. Disturbance of metabolic protein expression was lower in the livers receiving hMSC-HC. Seven weeks after APAP treatment, hepatic injury had completely recovered in groups both with and without hMSC-HC. Clusters of transplanted cells appeared predominantly in the periportal portion of the liver lobule and secreted human albumin featuring a prominent quality of differentiated hepatocytes. Thus, hMSC-HC attenuated the inflammatory response and supported liver regeneration after acute injury induced by acetaminophen. They hence may serve as a novel source of hepatocyte-like cells suitable for cell therapy of acute liver diseases.

  13. Genetic and metabolic signals during acute enteric bacterial infection alter the microbiota and drive progression to chronic inflammatory disease

    Kamdar, Karishma; Khakpour, Samira; Chen, Jingyu; Leone, Vanessa; Brulc, Jennifer; Mangatu, Thomas; Antonopoulos, Dionysios A.; Chang, Eugene B; Kahn, Stacy A.; Kirschner, Barbara S; Young, Glenn; DePaolo, R. William

    2016-01-13

    Chronic inflammatory disorders are thought to arise due to an interplay between predisposing host genetics and environmental factors. For example, the onset of inflammatory bowel disease is associated with enteric proteobacterial infection, yet the mechanistic basis for this association is unclear. We have shown previously that genetic defiency in TLR1 promotes acute enteric infection by the proteobacteria Yersinia enterocolitica. Examining that model further, we uncovered an altered cellular immune response that promotes the recruitment of neutrophils which in turn increases metabolism of the respiratory electron acceptor tetrathionate by Yersinia. These events drive permanent alterations in anti-commensal immunity, microbiota composition, and chronic inflammation, which persist long after Yersinia clearence. Deletion of the bacterial genes involved in tetrathionate respiration or treatment using targeted probiotics could prevent microbiota alterations and inflammation. Thus, acute infection can drive long term immune and microbiota alterations leading to chronic inflammatory disease in genetically predisposed individuals.

  14. Acute chlorine gas exposure produces transient inflammation and a progressive alteration in surfactant composition with accompanying mechanical dysfunction

    Acute Cl2 exposure following industrial accidents or military/terrorist activity causes pulmonary injury and severe acute respiratory distress. Prior studies suggest that antioxidant depletion is important in producing dysfunction, however a pathophysiologic mechanism has not been elucidated. We propose that acute Cl2 inhalation leads to oxidative modification of lung lining fluid, producing surfactant inactivation, inflammation and mechanical respiratory dysfunction at the organ level. C57BL/6J mice underwent whole-body exposure to an effective 60 ppm-hour Cl2 dose, and were euthanized 3, 24 and 48 h later. Whereas pulmonary architecture and endothelial barrier function were preserved, transient neutrophilia, peaking at 24 h, was noted. Increased expression of ARG1, CCL2, RETLNA, IL-1b, and PTGS2 genes was observed in bronchoalveolar lavage (BAL) cells with peak change in all genes at 24 h. Cl2 exposure had no effect on NOS2 mRNA or iNOS protein expression, nor on BAL NO3− or NO2−. Expression of the alternative macrophage activation markers, Relm-α and mannose receptor was increased in alveolar macrophages and pulmonary epithelium. Capillary surfactometry demonstrated impaired surfactant function, and altered BAL phospholipid and surfactant protein content following exposure. Organ level respiratory function was assessed by forced oscillation technique at 5 end expiratory pressures. Cl2 exposure had no significant effect on either airway or tissue resistance. Pulmonary elastance was elevated with time following exposure and demonstrated PEEP refractory derecruitment at 48 h, despite waning inflammation. These data support a role for surfactant inactivation as a physiologic mechanism underlying respiratory dysfunction following Cl2 inhalation. - Highlights: • Effect of 60 ppm*hr Cl2 gas on lung inflammation and mechanical function examined. • Pulmonary inflammation is transient and minor. • Alterations in surfactant homeostasis and pulmonary mechanics

  15. A case of progressive hypertension preceding gemcitabine-associated thrombotic microangiopathy complicated by acute kidney injury and stroke.

    Phelan, Paul J

    2009-01-01

    Gemcitabine-associated thrombotic microangiopathy is being increasingly recognized as a serious complication of treatment. We report a normotensive patient who developed progressive hypertension after commencing gemcitabine therapy. She also developed subtle changes in her platelet count and serum creatinine months before her emergent presentation. Clinicians should be aware of new onset or worsening hypertension and \\'mild\\' biochemical changes in gemcitabine-treated patients.

  16. Rapidly progressive Bronchiolitis Obliterans Organising Pneumonia presenting with pneumothorax, persistent air leak, acute respiratory distress syndrome and multi-organ dysfunction: a case report

    Chakravorty Indranil

    2008-05-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Introduction Bronchiolitis Obliterans Organising Pneumonia (BOOP may often present initially as a recurrent spontaneous pneumothorax and then develop multi-system complications. Case presentation A 17-year-old boy presented with a pneumothorax, which developed into rapidly progressive Bronchiolitis Obliterans Organising Pneumonia (BOOP. He developed multi-organ dysfunction (including adult respiratory distress syndrome, oliguric renal failure, acute coronary syndrome, cardiac failure and a right atrial thrombus which necessitated prolonged intensive care. Diagnosis was confirmed on open lung biopsy and he responded well to treatment with corticosteroids. Conclusion BOOP is exquisitely sensitive to oral corticosteroids but if the diagnosis is not considered in such patients and appropriate treatment instituted early, BOOP may often lead to prolonged hospital admission with considerable morbidity.

  17. Acute spontaneous cervical disc herniation causing rapidly progressive myelopathy in a patient with comorbid ossified posterior longitudinal ligament: Case report and literature review

    Harrison J Westwick

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Background: Ossification of the posterior longitudinal ligament (OPLL and cervical disc herniation are commonly encountered neurosurgical conditions. Here we present an unusual case of nontraumatic rapidly progressive myelopathy due to cervical disc herniation with comorbid OPLL and conduct a literature review focusing on the frequency and management of disc herniations with OPLL. Case Description: A 52-year-old healthy female presented with a 72-h history of rapid progression of dense quadriparesis with sensory deficits, with a precedent 4-week history of nontraumatic midline neck pain. Clinical examination revealed profound motor deficits below the C5 myotome. Spinal neuroimaging revealed OPLL (computed tomography [CT] and a cervical disc herniation spanning from C4/5 to C5/6 with significant retrovertebral disease (magnetic resonance imaging [MRI]. Operative management involved an anterior cervical corpectomy and instrumented fusion, with removal of both the sequestered disc material and the locally compressive OPLL. The patient recovered full motor function and independent ambulation with no residual signs or symptoms of myelopathy at the time of discharge. Conclusion: This unique case of a spontaneous cervical disc herniation in the context of OPLL causing rapidly progressive myelopathy illustrates the complementarity of CT and MRI in diagnosing the underlying cause of a rapidly progressive neurologic deficit in the absence of antecedent trauma. Though the optimal surgical management of such pathology remains uncertain; in this case, the anterior approach was motivated by the significant retrovertebral ventrally compressive sequestrum, and provided for excellent neurologic outcome. This article also reviews the occurrence/management of such acute cervical discs with OPLL.

  18. Acute Cocaine Induces Fast Activation of D1 Receptor and Progressive Deactivation of D2 Receptor Strial Neurons: In Vivo Optical Microprobe [Ca2+]i Imaging

    Cocaine induces fast dopamine increases in brain striatal regions, which are recognized to underlie its rewarding effects. Both dopamine D1 and D2 receptors are involved in cocaine's reward but the dynamic downstream consequences of cocaine effects in striatum are not fully understood. Here we used transgenic mice expressing EGFP under the control of either the D1 receptor (D1R) or the D2 receptor (D2R) gene and microprobe optical imaging to assess the dynamic changes in intracellular calcium ([Ca2+]i ) responses (used as marker of neuronal activation) to acute cocaine in vivo separately for D1R- versus D2R-expressing neurons in striatum. Acute cocaine (8 mg/kg, i.p.) rapidly increased [Ca2+]i in D1R-expressing neurons (10.6 ± 3.2%) in striatum within 8.3 ± 2.3 min after cocaine administration after which the increases plateaued; these fast [Ca2+]i increases were blocked by pretreatment with a D1R antagonist (SCH23390). In contrast, cocaine induced progressive decreases in [Ca2+]i in D2R-expressing neurons (10.4 ± 5.8%) continuously throughout the 30 min that followed cocaine administration; these slower [Ca2+]i decreases were blocked by pretreatment with a D2R antagonist (raclopride). Since activation of striatal D1R-expressing neurons (direct-pathway) enhances cocaine reward, whereas activation of D2R expressing neurons suppresses it (indirect-pathway) (Lobo et al., 2010), this suggests that cocaine's rewarding effects entail both its fast stimulation ofD1R (resulting in abrupt activation of direct-pathway neurons) and a slower stimulation of D2R (resulting in longer-lasting deactivation of indirect-pathway neurons). We also provide direct in vivo evidence of D2R and D1R interactions in the striatal responses to acute cocaine administration.

  19. The nursing progress of acute myocardial infarction in eiders%老年人急性心肌梗死的护理进展

    张淑慧

    2008-01-01

    急性心肌梗死(AMI)是在冠状动脉病变基础上发生的心肌坏死,病情凶险,病变迅速,病死率高,在我国发病率呈逐年上升趋势,严重威胁人们,尤其是老年人的生命健康.在积极有效治疗的基础上,提高护理水平,对降低老年AMI患者的病死率至关重要.%Acute myocardial infarction (AMI) is the heart muscle necrosis based on the affection of coronary artery.It's pathogenetic condition is dangerous,affection is rapid and ease fatality is high.It's morbility presents tendency of ascensus year by year in our country.It threatens people's life and health serious,especially the elders.Improving the lever of nursing based on fully therapy is very important to depress the case fatality of the patents with AMI in elders.This article is overview about the nursing progress of Acute Myocardial Infarction in elders.

  20. 急性心肌梗死后贫血的临床研究进展%The Clinical Research Progress of Anemia after Acute Myocardial Infarction

    修丽丽

    2013-01-01

    急性心肌梗死是一严重而危及生命的心脏疾病,急性心肌梗死患者常存在贫血.据报道,其发病率为6%~43%之间.急性心肌梗死后血红蛋白浓度降低会加重心肌缺血,可导致心律失常,增大梗死面积,同时增加心排出量,增加心肌细胞耗氧,急性心肌梗死后贫血可加重心力衰竭进展、增加病死率.现就急性心肌梗死后贫血的研究进展做一综述.%Acute myocardial infarction ( AMI ) is a serious and life-threatening cardiac disease. Patients with AMI often have anemia. According to reports, the incidence of anemia in patients with AMI is between 6% and 43% . After AMI there is a decrease in the concentration of hemoglobin in the blood, which adds to myocardial ischemia and may cause cardiac dysrhythmias thereby increasing the infarction are-a. At the same time, it increases cardiac output and the oxygen consumption of myocardial cells. Anemia after AMI can increase the progression of heart failure and increase mortality. This article reviews the clinical research on anemia after acute myocardial infarction.

  1. Calpastatin overexpression prevents progression of S-1,2-dichlorovinyl-L-cysteine (DCVC)-initiated acute renal injury and renal failure (ARF) in diabetes

    Previously we have shown that 90% of streptozotocin (STZ)-induced type-1 diabetic (DB) mice survive from acute renal failure (ARF) and death induced by a normally LD9 dose (75 mg/kg, i.p.) of the nephrotoxicant S-1,2-dichlorovinyl-L-cysteine (DCVC). This remarkable protection is due to a combination of slower progression of DCVC-initiated renal injury and increased compensatory nephrogenic tissue repair in the DB kidneys. BRDU immunohistochemistry revealed that the DB condition led to 4-fold higher number of proximal tubular cells (PTC) entering S-phase of cell cycle. In the present study, we tested the hypothesis that DB-induced augmentation of PTC into S-phase is accompanied by overexpression of the calpain-inhibitor calpastatin, which endogenously prevents the progression of DCVC-initiated renal injury mediated by the calpain escaping out of damaged PTCs. Immunohistochemical detection of renal calpain and its activity in the urine, over a time course after treatment with the LD9 dose of DCVC, indicated progressive increase in leakage of calpain into the extracellular spaces of the injured PTCs of the non-diabetic (NDB) kidneys as compared to the DB kidneys. Calpastatin expression was minimally detected in the NDB kidneys, using immunohistochemistry, over the time course. On the other hand, consistently higher number of tubules in the DB kidney showed calpastatin expression over the time course. The lower leakage of calpain in the DB kidneys was commensurate with constitutively higher expression of calpastatin in the S-phase-laden PTCs of these mice. To test the protective role of newly divided/dividing PTCs, DB mice were given the anti-mitotic agent colchicine (CLC) (2 mg/kg and 1.5 mg/kg, i.p., on days 8 and 10 after STZ injection) prior to challenge with a LD9 dose of DCVC, which led to 100% mortality by 48 h. Mortality was due to rapid progression of DCVC-initiated renal injury, suggesting that newly divided/dividing cells are instrumental in mitigating the

  2. A study on the effect of using mangrove leaf extracts as a feed additive in the progress of bacterial infections in marine ornamental fish

    Thangavelu Balasubramanian; Kapila Tissera

    2013-01-01

    Objective: To ascertain the feasibility of using sustainable natural resources in maintaining disease free fish in such establishments.Methods:causative bacteria were identified by morphology and biochemical techniques. The antibacterial activity and disease resistant capability of mangrove plant leaf extract were investigated against fish pathogens.Results:The infected marine ornamental fishes were collected from the hatchery condition and inhibition activity at the concentration of 220, 200, 175 and 150 µg/mL against Pseudomonas fluorescens, Pseudomonas aeruginosa, Vibrio parahaemolyticus, and Vibrio anguillarum respectively. The experimental trial reveals feeding marine ornamental fish with feed incorporated with a methanol leaf extract of Avicennia marina, increases their survival and reduces their susceptibility to infections from the isolated bacteria. Based on the in vitro assay, methanol extract of Avicennia marina was exhibited good Conclusions: The mangrove leaves have potential to control the infections caused by Pseudomonas fluorescens, Pseudomonas aeruginosa, Vibrio parahaemolyticus and Vibrio anguillarum.

  3. Acute chlorine gas exposure produces transient inflammation and a progressive alteration in surfactant composition with accompanying mechanical dysfunction

    Massa, Christopher B.; Scott, Pamela; Abramova, Elena; Gardner, Carol; Laskin, Debra L.; Gow, Andrew J., E-mail: Gow@rci.rutgers.edu

    2014-07-01

    Acute Cl{sub 2} exposure following industrial accidents or military/terrorist activity causes pulmonary injury and severe acute respiratory distress. Prior studies suggest that antioxidant depletion is important in producing dysfunction, however a pathophysiologic mechanism has not been elucidated. We propose that acute Cl{sub 2} inhalation leads to oxidative modification of lung lining fluid, producing surfactant inactivation, inflammation and mechanical respiratory dysfunction at the organ level. C57BL/6J mice underwent whole-body exposure to an effective 60 ppm-hour Cl{sub 2} dose, and were euthanized 3, 24 and 48 h later. Whereas pulmonary architecture and endothelial barrier function were preserved, transient neutrophilia, peaking at 24 h, was noted. Increased expression of ARG1, CCL2, RETLNA, IL-1b, and PTGS2 genes was observed in bronchoalveolar lavage (BAL) cells with peak change in all genes at 24 h. Cl{sub 2} exposure had no effect on NOS2 mRNA or iNOS protein expression, nor on BAL NO{sub 3}{sup −} or NO{sub 2}{sup −}. Expression of the alternative macrophage activation markers, Relm-α and mannose receptor was increased in alveolar macrophages and pulmonary epithelium. Capillary surfactometry demonstrated impaired surfactant function, and altered BAL phospholipid and surfactant protein content following exposure. Organ level respiratory function was assessed by forced oscillation technique at 5 end expiratory pressures. Cl{sub 2} exposure had no significant effect on either airway or tissue resistance. Pulmonary elastance was elevated with time following exposure and demonstrated PEEP refractory derecruitment at 48 h, despite waning inflammation. These data support a role for surfactant inactivation as a physiologic mechanism underlying respiratory dysfunction following Cl{sub 2} inhalation. - Highlights: • Effect of 60 ppm*hr Cl{sub 2} gas on lung inflammation and mechanical function examined. • Pulmonary inflammation is transient and minor.

  4. Secretory phospholipase A2 mediates progression of acute liver injury in the absence of sufficient cyclooxygenase-2

    Previous studies have shown that injury initiated by toxicants progresses even after most of the toxicant is eliminated from the body. One mechanism of progression of injury is the extracellular appearance of hydrolytic enzymes following leakage or upon cell lyses. Under normal conditions, after exposure to low to moderate doses of toxicants, secretory phospholipase A2 (sPLA2) and other hydrolytic enzymes are known to appear in the extracellular spaces in order to cleanup the post-necrotic debris in tissues. We tested the hypothesis that sPLA2 contributes to progression of toxicant-initiated liver injury because of hydrolysis of membrane phospholipids of hepatocytes in the perinecrotic areas in the absence of sufficient cyclooxygenase-2 (COX-2). Male Sprague-Dawley rats were administered either a moderately hepatotoxic dose (MD, 2 ml CCl4/kg, ip) or a highly hepatotoxic dose (HD, 3 ml CCl4/kg, ip) of CCl4. After MD, liver sPLA2 and COX-2 were co-localized in the necrotic and perinecrotic areas and their activities in plasma and liver increased before decreasing in tandem with liver injury (ALT and histopathology) leading to 100% survival. In contrast, after the HD, high extracellular and hepatic sPLA2 activities were accompanied by minimal COX-2 activity and localization in the liver throughout the time course. This led to progression of liver injury and 70% mortality. These data suggested a destructive role of sPLA2 in the absence of sufficient COX-2. Time- and dose-dependent destruction of hepatocytes by sPLA2 in isolated hepatocyte incubations confirmed the destructive ability of sPLA2 when present extracellularly, suggesting its ability to spread injury in vivo. These findings suggest that sPLA2, secreted for cleanup of necrotic debris upon initiation of hepatic necrosis, requires the co-presence of sufficiently induced COX-2 activity to prevent the run-away destructive action of sPLA2 in the absence of the tissue protective mechanisms afforded by COX-2

  5. Inflammatory cascades driven by tumor necrosis factor-alpha play a major role in the progression of acute liver failure and its neurological complications.

    Anne Chastre

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND/AIMS: Acute liver failure (ALF due to ischemic or toxic liver injury is a clinical condition that results from massive loss of hepatocytes and may lead to hepatic encephalopathy (HE, a serious neuropsychiatric complication. Although increased expression of tumor necrosis factor-alpha (TNF-α in liver, plasma and brain has been observed, conflicting results exist concerning its roles in drug-induced liver injury and on the progression of HE. The present study aimed to investigate the therapeutic value of etanercept, a TNF-α neutralizing molecule, on the progression of liver injury and HE in mice with ALF resulting from azoxymethane (AOM hepatotoxicity. METHODS/PRINCIPAL FINDINGS: Mice were administered saline or etanercept (10 mg/kg; i.p. 30 minutes prior to, or up to 6 h after AOM. Etanercept-treated ALF mice were sacrificed in parallel with vehicle-treated comatose ALF mice and controls. AOM induced severe hepatic necrosis, leading to HE, and etanercept administered prior or up to 3 h after AOM significantly delayed the onset of coma stages of HE. Etanercept pretreatment attenuated AOM-induced liver injury, as assessed by histological examination, plasma ammonia and transaminase levels, and by hepatic glutathione content. Peripheral inflammation was significantly reduced by etanercept as shown by decreased plasma IL-6 (4.1-fold; p<0.001 and CD40L levels (3.7-fold; p<0.001 compared to saline-treated ALF mice. Etanercept also decreased IL-6 levels in brain (1.2-fold; p<0.05, attenuated microglial activation (assessed by OX-42 immunoreactivity, and increased brain glutathione concentrations. CONCLUSIONS: These results indicate that systemic sequestration of TNF-α attenuates both peripheral and cerebral inflammation leading to delayed progression of liver disease and HE in mice with ALF due to toxic liver injury. These results suggest that etanercept may provide a novel therapeutic approach for the management of ALF patients awaiting

  6. 白腐真菌处理玉米秸秆饲料的研究进展%Research Progress of White Rot Fungi Treatment Corn Straw Feed

    王晓翠; 王浩; 李杰

    2012-01-01

    目前我国的玉米秸秆饲料加工处理方法已日趋成熟,其在缓解饲粮压力、净化养殖环境、促进农业良性循环的作用也逐渐体现出来。在对玉米秸秆处理方法的,选择上,白腐真菌因其能选择性的降解秸秆木质素,提高秸秆的瘤胃干物质降解率和改善秸秆营养价值,而被国内外学者深入的研究,并取得一定的成果,文章就玉米秸秆饲料的特性、白腐真菌的概况,白腐真菌处理玉米秸秆的原理及处理后玉米秸秆的营养特性作一综述。%At present, treatment processing methods of corn straw feed is reach its maturity in China. It was reflected foot by foot that is efficacy relieve stress and purification of the culture environment and promote agricultural virtuous circle. Treatment of corn stalk in the choice, because of white rot fungi can selectively degrade lignin straw, degradation rate of dry matter of straw was increased in the tureen and the nutritional value of straw was improved, thus it was in-depth study by scholars at home and abroad, and then made some the results. This paper summaried characteristics of corn stalk silage, overview of white rot fungi and white rot fungi treatment principle of corn straw feed, as well as after processing the nutritional characteristics of feed corn stalks.

  7. Sporadic Burkitt's lymphoma/acute B-cell leukaemia presenting with progressive proptosis and orbital mass in a child.

    Grasso, Daniela; Borreggine, Carmela; Ladogana, Saverio; De Santis, Raffaela; Delle Noci, Nicola; Grilli, Gianpaolo; Macarini, Luca

    2016-06-01

    Burkitt's lymphoma (BL) is an aggressive B-cell non-Hodgkin lymphoma that is found predominantly in children, with the highest incidence occurring in Africa. The sporadic form occurs in non-endemic areas and typically involves the ileo-caecum and the bowel, whereas orbital and paranasal sinus involvement is rare. Here, we present an unusual case of sporadic BL in a Caucasian male child with rapidly progressive painful proptosis of the right eye. Magnetic resonance imaging showed an oval-shaped, extraconal mass in the supero-lateral part of the right orbit that deformed and dislocated the eyeball antero-inferiorly. The patient underwent anterior orbitotomy, and a biopsy of the excised tissue revealed a starry-sky appearance characteristic of BL. Postoperative aggressive chemotherapy was initiated with a good response after one week. PMID:27006106

  8. Acute chylous peritonitis due to acute pancreatitis

    2012-01-01

    We report a case of acute chylous ascites formation presenting as peritonitis (acute chylous peritonitis) in a patient suffering from acute pancreatitis due to hypertriglyceridemia and alcohol abuse. The development of chylous ascites is usually a chronic process mostly involving malignancy, trauma or surgery, and symptoms arise as a result of progressive abdominal distention. However, when accumulation of “chyle” occurs rapidly, the patient may present with signs of peritonitis. Preoperative...

  9. Depression of Complement Regulatory Factors in Rat and Human Renal Grafts Is Associated with the Progress of Acute T-Cell Mediated Rejection.

    Kazuaki Yamanaka

    Full Text Available The association of complement with the progression of acute T cell mediated rejection (ATCMR is not well understood. We investigated the production of complement components and the expression of complement regulatory proteins (Cregs in acute T-cell mediated rejection using rat and human renal allografts.We prepared rat allograft and syngeneic graft models of renal transplantation. The expression of Complement components and Cregs was assessed in the rat grafts using quantitative real-time PCR (qRT-PCR and immunofluorescent staining. We also administered anti-Crry and anti-CD59 antibodies to the rat allograft model. Further, we assessed the relationship between the expression of membrane cofactor protein (MCP by immunohistochemical staining in human renal grafts and their clinical course.qRT-PCR results showed that the expression of Cregs, CD59 and rodent-specific complement regulator complement receptor 1-related gene/protein-y (Crry, was diminished in the rat allograft model especially on day 5 after transplantation in comparison with the syngeneic model. In contrast, the expression of complement components and receptors: C3, C3a receptor, C5a receptor, Factor B, C9, C1q, was increased, but not the expression of C4 and C5, indicating a possible activation of the alternative pathway. When anti-Crry and anti-CD59 mAbs were administered to the allograft, the survival period for each group was shortened. In the human ATCMR cases, the group with higher MCP expression in the grafts showed improved serum creatinine levels after the ATCMR treatment as well as a better 5-year graft survival rate.We conclude that the expression of Cregs in allografts is connected with ATCMR. Our results suggest that controlling complement activation in renal grafts can be a new strategy for the treatment of ATCMR.

  10. The Role of M2 Macrophages in the Progression of Chronic Kidney Disease following Acute Kidney Injury.

    Myung-Gyu Kim

    Full Text Available Acute kidney injury (AKI is a major risk factor in the development of chronic kidney disease (CKD. However, the mechanisms linking AKI to CKD remain unclear. We examined the alteration of macrophage phenotypes during an extended recovery period following ischemia/reperfusion injury (IRI and determine their roles in the development of fibrosis.The left renal pedicle of mice was clamped for 40 min. To deplete monocyte/macrophage, liposome clodronate was injected or CD11b-DTR and CD11c-DTR transgenic mice were used.Throughout the phase of IRI recovery, M2-phenotype macrophages made up the predominant macrophage subset. On day 28, renal fibrosis was clearly shown with increased type IV collagen and TGF-β. The depletion of macrophages induced by the liposome clodronate injection improved renal fibrosis with a reduction of kidney IL-6, type IV collagen, and TGF-β levels. Additionally, the adoptive transfer of the M2c macrophages partially reversed the beneficial effect of macrophage depletion, whereas the adoptive transfer of the M1 macrophages did not. M2 macrophages isolated from the kidneys during the recovery phase expressed 2.5 fold higher levels of TGF-β than the M1 macrophages. The injection of the diphtheria toxin into CD11b or CD11c-DTR transgenic mice resulted in lesser depletion or no change in M2 macrophages and had little impact on renal fibrosis.Although M2 macrophages are known to be indispensible for short-term recovery, they are thought to be main culprit in the development of renal fibrosis following IRI.

  11. [THE ROLE OF MOTHER'S MILK AND BREAST FEEDING. MEDICAL PROBLEMS DURING THE LACTATION PERIOD LACTOBACILUS FERMENTUM--A NEW APPROACH TOWARDS THE PREVENTION AND THE TREATMENT OF ACUTE AND SUBACUTE MASTITIS].

    Popova, B; Mitev, D; Nikolov, A

    2016-01-01

    Breast feeding provides a lot of short and long-term benefits for the mother and the baby. It prevents the baby of gastrointestinal, urinary and respiratory infections, atopical conditions and assures long-term protection of cardiovascular and metabolic diseases. The breast feeding decreases the risk for the mother of ovary and breast carcinoma and creates a positive emotional bond between the mother and the baby Mother's milk is a species specific; its content is relatively stable regardless of mother's age race, way and place of living. Mother's milk is not sterile. There is a 10 year international trial held in Spanish and Finnish universities. It has identified and count all microorganisms in mother's milk (more than 700) and proved that their content and quantity varies according the age of the baby. Mother's milk is a source of lactobacillus for baby's intestines and most of them have probiotic potential. Lactobacillus fermentum Lc40 (hereditum) is isolated from mother's milk. It has a good viability in gastrointestinal system, high level of adhesion to intestinal epithelium cells, produces glutation--strong antioxidant, good antibacterial activity to entero-pathogens and potential of increasing the immunologic response. Clinical trials reveal that Lactobacillus fermentum plays important role to microflora balance of mother's milk in mastitis during lactation. Many trials estimating the efficiency of lactobacillus fermentum in prevention and treatment of acute and subacute mastitis have been carried out. The results of them open a new door in front of us in the treatment of these conditions--treatment with probiotics instead of antibiotics. PMID:27514147

  12. Progress in the treatment of acute kidney injury%急性肾损伤诊治进展

    杨秀川; 洪大情

    2012-01-01

    The prevalence of acute kidney injury (AKI) is increasing, with its definition, diagnosis and stage being updated. New biomarkers of AKI have become a hot study,but none can be applied clinically as a substitute of serum creatinine. Identificationearly intervention of risk factors are important lor AKI prevention. Management of AKI incluo.es treatment ol primary disease, prevention of multi-organ dysfunction,maintaining the balance of water,electrolytes,and acid-base,and appropriate renal replacement therapy. Early hemodialysis can improve the outcome of AKI. Hemodialysis is better than peritoneal dialysis in removal of small molecule substances and correction of acidosis. Peritoneal dialysis can be used in small children and patients with unstable hemodynamics. Continuous renal replacement therapy has been generally applied in AKI,which can be a complementation of intermittent hemodialysis,although current evidences do not support a higher dosage instead of the traditional prescription of CRRT. High dosage may be effective for several special diseases.%急性肾损伤(AKI)发病率逐年递增,其概念、诊断及分期日趋准确,寻找新的生物标志物的研究已成为热点,但仍无法完全替代血肌酐.AKI的预防在于早期发现并祛除危险因素;其治疗包括治疗原发病,防止多器官功能障碍,维持水、电解质、酸碱平衡以及肾脏替代治疗.早期透析可以改善患者预后,血液透析对小分子物质的清除及酸中毒的纠优于腹膜透析,小儿及血流动力学不稳定患者可选择腹膜透析.连续性肾脏替代治疗(CRRT)已被广泛应用于AKI的治疗,但其与间断性血液透析(IHD)互为补充,可随AKI的不同阶段和病情变化而转换,CRRT的治疗剂量仍然推荐传统剂量,对于某些特殊疾病高剂量CRRT可能有效.

  13. 百草枯中毒的治疗进展%Treatment Progress in Acute Paraquat Poisoning

    陈桂喜

    2013-01-01

    Paraquat is a highly toxic herbicide,which has strong toxicity to humans and animalsThe herbicide effect of paraquat was found at the end of 1950s. Since its introduction in the market in 1962, there were many people died of paraquat poisoning every year. Paraquat has very strong toxicity on various organs of the body with different clinical manifestations, and ultimately the patients died of organ dysfunction syndrome ( multiple organ dysfunction syndrome, MODS ), and hypoxemia caused by pulmonary fibrosis. The domestic and foreign scholars have not discovered the effective drugs for paraquat poisoning, and here is to make a review of the research on the treatment progress of paraquat poisoning in recent years.%百草枯属剧毒除草剂,对人畜有较强的毒性.20世纪50年代末,百草枯的除草作用被发现,1962年首次在市场上销售,每年均有很多人死于百草枯中毒.百草枯对全身各个器官均有极强的毒性,病程进展快,病死率很高,临床表现各异,最终患者多因器官功能障碍综合征以及肺纤维化所致的低氧血症死亡.国内外学者至今仍未发现百草枯的特效解毒药物,该文就近年来百草枯中毒治疗的进展予以综述.

  14. Feeding guilt.

    Byrom, Anna

    2013-03-01

    Breastfeeding is increasingly equated to ideologies of the 'good mother' in our society in response to a growing body of evidence identifying its benefits. Women who choose not to or are unable to breastfeed can experience a sense of guilt in response to cultural expectations that 'breast is best'. These negative feelings can impact upon their adaptation to and enjoyment of motherhood. This discussion paper examines the experience of maternal guilt with specific reference to infant feeding. An exploration of the reasons mothers may feel guilty about their feeding experiences is offered. Finally some suggestions are made about how midwives and breastfeeding advocates might improve care for mothers' emotional wellbeing. PMID:23590082

  15. A complex MLL rearrangement identified five years after initial MDS diagnosis results in out-of-frame fusions without progression to acute leukemia.

    Meyer, Claus; Kowarz, Eric; Yip, Sze-Fai; Wan, Thomas Shek-Kong; Chan, Tai-Kwong; Dingermann, Theo; Chan, Li-Chong; Marschalek, Rolf

    2011-10-01

    Chromosomal rearrangements of the MLL gene are uncommon in myelodysplastic syndromes (MDSs), and few studies of their molecular structures and oncogenic mechanisms exist. Here, we present a case of de novo MDS with a normal karyotype at initial diagnosis and a mild clinical course. Five years after the initial diagnosis, investigators identified a complex rearrangement of the MLL gene without progression to acute leukemia. The 5' part of the MLL gene is fused out of frame with the LOC100131626 gene, and the 3' part of the MLL gene out of frame with the TCF12 gene. Rapid amplification of complementary DNA 3' ends yielded two main fusion transcripts, which is in concordance with the two described isoforms of the LOC100131626 gene. For both isoform-fusion transcripts, the open reading frame terminates shortly after the breakpoint that is predicted to form two de facto truncated MLL proteins and disrupts the open reading frame of the LOC100131626, TCF12, and UBE4A genes. Neither dimerization nor a transcriptional activation domain, each of which is causally linked to MLL protein-mediated transformation, is present. This and other unusual MLL rearrangements probably represent a subclass of MLL gene abnormalities that have intrinsically no ability or only a weak ability to transform hematopoeitic cells and are identified only in the context of other hematopoetic malignancies. PMID:22137486

  16. Lactancia materna y diarrea aguda en los primeros tres meses de vida Breast feeding and the incidence of acute diarrhea during the first three months of life

    Claudia Macías-Carrillo

    2005-02-01

    ón como el aseguramiento de la provisión de agua potable para el recién nacido.OBJECTIVE: To assess the effect of exclusive breastfeeding and its interactions with selected socioeconomic factors, on the incidence of acute infantile diarrhea during the first three months of life. MATERIAL AND METHODS: A prospective cohort study with a follow up of three months was conducted in 327 mother and child pairs, living in the city of Durango, Mexico, between April and June 1994. Data analyses included simple univariate and bivariate cross-tabulations, as well as multivariate logistic regression models with random effects. RESULTS: Infants who were not exclusively breastfed were at a significantly increased risk of having acute diarrhea during early infancy (ORcombined breastfeeding= 3.23; 95% CI 1.84-5.68 and ORartificial breastfeeding=4.36; 95% CI 2.32-8.19. Moreover, the protective effect of breastfeeding was independent from the effects of the following factors: poor maternal education, lack of social support for baby care, and being an adolescent mother. However, lack of potable water and lack of sewerage were potential effect modifiers of type of lactation deltaG=9.26; p=0.09; ORno water/no sewerage= 2.58; 95% CI 1.10-6.03 in the final multivariate model, for simultaneous lack of potable water and sewerage, which is greater than the sum of the individual OR for each variable. CONCLUSIONS: Similar to previous studies, exclusive breastfeeding was found to have great importance, since this practice protects the child's health and allows for a better development, despite unfavorable social and economic conditions. In particular, it seems that the protection conferred by breastfeeding is stronger when home conditions are poor, but this same condition presents an intervention opportunity, particularly the assurance of potable water provision for the infant when breastfeeding is not an option.

  17. Refeeding after acute gastroenteritis: a controlled study.

    Dugdale, A.; Lovell, S; Gibbs, V.; Ball, D.

    1982-01-01

    Children admitted with acute gastroenteritis were managed with clear fluids and then given either the standard graduated feeding regimen or an abrupt reintroduction of normal feeds. The rapid refeeding group lost less weight, went home sooner, and had no increase in complication rate. Rapid refeeding is a reasonable option in the management of acute gastroenteritis.

  18. Acute interstitial pneumonia

    The paper refers to a 71 year-old patient, to who is diagnosed acute interstitial pneumonia; with square of 20 days of evolution of cough dry emetizant, fever, general uneasiness, migraine, progressive dyspnoea and lost of weight

  19. Relationship between Advanced Glycation End Products and Plaque Progression in Patients with Acute Coronary Syndrome: The JAPAN-ACS Sub-study

    Fukushima Yoshifumi

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background The Japan Assessment of Pitavastatin and Atorvastatin in Acute Coronary Syndrome (JAPAN-ACS trial demonstrated that early aggressive statin therapy in patients with ACS significantly reduces plaque volume (PV. Advanced glycation end products (AGEs and the receptors of AGEs (RAGE may lead to angiopathy in diabetes mellitus (DM and may affect on the development of coronary PV. The present sub-study of JAPAN-ACS investigates the association between AGEs and RAGE, and PV. Methods Intravascular ultrasound (IVUS-guided percutaneous coronary intervention (PCI was undertaken, followed by the initiation of statin treatment (either 4 mg/day of pitavastatin or 20 mg/day of atorvastatin, in patients with ACS. In the 208 JAPAN-ACS subjects, PV using IVUS in non-culprit segment > 5 mm proximal or distal to the culprit lesion and, serum levels of AGEs and soluble RAGE (sRAGE were measured at baseline and 8–12 months after PCI. Results At baseline, no differences in the levels of either AGEs or sRAGE were found between patients with DM and those without DM. The levels of AGEs decreased significantly with statin therapy from 8.6 ± 2.2 to 8.0 ± 2.1 U/ml (p Conclusions High baseline AGEs levels were associated with plaque progression in the JAPAN-ACS trial. This relationship was independent of DM. These findings suggest AGEs may be related to long-term glucose control and other oxidative stresses in ACS. Trial registration NCT00242944

  20. Children with Moderate Acute Malnutrition with No Access to Supplementary Feeding Programmes Experience High Rates of Deterioration and No Improvement: Results from a Prospective Cohort Study in Rural Ethiopia

    James, Philip; Sadler, Kate; Wondafrash, Mekitie; Argaw, Alemayehu; Luo, Hanqi; Geleta, Benti; Kedir, Kiya; Getnet, Yilak; Belachew, Tefera; Bahwere, Paluku

    2016-01-01

    Background Children with moderate acute malnutrition (MAM) have an increased risk of mortality, infections and impaired physical and cognitive development compared to well-nourished children. In parts of Ethiopia not considered chronically food insecure there are no supplementary feeding programmes (SFPs) for treating MAM. The short-term outcomes of children who have MAM in such areas are not currently described, and there remains an urgent need for evidence-based policy recommendations. Methods We defined MAM as mid-upper arm circumference (MUAC) of ≥11.0cm and food secure window), collecting anthropometric, socio-demographic and food security data. Results By the end of the study follow up, 32.5% (287/884) remained with MAM, 9.3% (82/884) experienced at least one episode of SAM (MUAC <11cm and/or bilateral pitting oedema), and 0.9% (8/884) died. Only 54.2% of the children recovered with no episode of SAM by the end of the study. Of those who developed SAM half still had MAM at the end of the follow up period. The median (interquartile range) time to recovery was 9 (4–15) weeks. Children with the lowest MUAC at enrolment had a significantly higher risk of remaining with MAM and a lower chance of recovering. Conclusions Children with MAM during the post-harvest season in an area not eligible for SFP experience an extremely high incidence of SAM and a low recovery rate. Not having a targeted nutrition-specific intervention to address MAM in this context places children with MAM at excessive risk of adverse outcomes. Further preventive and curative approaches should urgently be considered. PMID:27100177

  1. Acute pancreatitis

    Al Mofleh Ibrahim

    1997-01-01

    Full Text Available The past few years have witnessed a tremendous progress in our knowledge regarding the pathogenesis, diagnosis, prognostic evaluation and classification of acute pancreatitis. The role of ischemia, lysosomal enzymes, oxygen free radicals, polymorphnuclear cells-byproducts and inflammatory mediators in the pathogenesis of pancreatic necrosis and multiple organ failure has been emphasized. Furthermore, the recent knowledge about agents infecting pancreatic necrosis, routes of infection, bacteriological examination of fine needle aspirate and appropriate antibiotics have changed the concept of acute pancreatitis. New diagnostic tests such as rapid urinary trypsinogen-2 test and inflammatory mediators including polymorphnuclear elastase, C-reactive protein and interleukin-6 contribute to early diagnosis, prognostic evaluation and initiation of an appropriate therapy.

  2. FEED FORMULATION AND FEEDING TECHNOLOGY FOR FISHES

    Govind Pandey

    2013-03-01

    Full Text Available Most fish farmers and ornamental fish hobbyists buy the bulk of their feed from commercial manufacturers. However, small quantities of specialized feeds are often needed for experimental purposes, feeding difficult-to maintain aquarium fishes, larval or small juvenile fishes, brood fish conditioning, or administering medication to sick fish. Small ornamental fish farms with an assortment of fish require small amounts of various diets with particular ingredients. It is not cost effective for commercial manufacturers to produce very small quantities of specialized feeds. Most feed mills will only produce custom formulations in quantities of more than one ton, and medicated feeds are usually sold in 50-pound bags. Small fish farmers, hobbyists and laboratory technicians are, therefore, left with the option of buying large quantities of expensive feed, which often goes to waste. Small quantities of fish feeds can be made quite easily in the laboratory, classroom, or at home, with common ingredients and simple kitchen or laboratory equipment. Hence, this review provides the knowledge about the fish feed formulation and feeding technology concerned with the live feed for fish larvae, fish feeds, fish feed ingredients, common fish feed stuffs, animal and plant sources of feeds for culture fish, and fish feeding methods.

  3. The progress of the relationship between acute postoperative pain and chronic postoperative pain%术后急性疼痛与慢性疼痛关系的研究进展

    董文芳; 陆建华

    2015-01-01

    背景 术后急性疼痛管理仍然不尽人意,如何防治急性疼痛转化为慢性疼痛仍然是临床亟待解决的问题. 目的 阐述术后急性疼痛转化为慢性疼痛的研究进展,为术后疼痛管理以减少慢性疼痛的发生提供参考. 内容 就急性疼痛转化为慢性疼痛的可能性等方面作一综述. 趋向 进一步研究术后急性疼痛转化为慢性疼痛的机制,以明确有效的预防急性疼痛慢性化的方法.%Background Acute postoperative pain management is still unsatisfactory,how to prevent the acute pain changing into chronic pain remains to be a clinical problem to solved.Objective To discuss the advanced progress of how does the acute pain changed into chronic pain for the rational use of drugs in postoperative pain management,and reduce the incidence of chronic pain.Content Mechanisms,contributing factors,treatment and prevention methods are discussed and updated in this review.Trend Further research into the mechanisms of acute postoperative pain changed into chronic pain must being carry out in order to find a clear and effective method to prevention of acute postoperative pain changed into chronic pain.

  4. Breastfeeding vs. Formula Feeding

    ... Things to Know About Zika & Pregnancy Breastfeeding vs. Formula Feeding KidsHealth > For Parents > Breastfeeding vs. Formula Feeding ... with a lactation specialist. previous continue All About Formula Feeding Commercially prepared infant formulas are a nutritious ...

  5. Progress in Research on the Relationship Between Acute cardiovascular disease and Acid-Base Imbalance%酸碱失衡与急性心血管疾病关系研究进展

    孙广昊(综述); 宋杰(审校)

    2014-01-01

    As common diseases of internal medicine,cardiovascular disease progress rapidly with complicated pathological changes, and often cause acid-base balance disturbance in the body, particularly in patients with acute myocardial infarction disease. Many clinical studies have shown that acid-base imbalance in the body can cause acute cardiovascular system damage, affecting the prognosis of the disease,and even leads to cardiogenic shock, therefore,monitoring of the acid-base indicators for diagnosis,treatment.and prognosis of acute cardiovascular disease plays an important role in clinical.%急性心血管疾病作为内科常见疾病,病情进展快,病理变化复杂,常出现体内酸碱平衡紊乱,酸碱失衡尤其见于急性心肌梗死疾病中。临床研究表明,体内酸碱失衡可能会导致急性心血管系统损伤,影响疾病的预后,甚至导致心源性休克发生,因此各项酸碱监测指标对于急性心血管疾病的诊断、治疗监测和预后有着重要临床作用。

  6. Tube feeding patients with dementia.

    Chernoff, Ronni

    2006-04-01

    As the population ages, the incidence of dementia increases. All types of dementia, whether they are reversible or irreversible, lead to loss of intellectual function and judgment, memory impairment, and personality changes. The skills to feed oneself, use eating utensils, and consume items recognized as food, thereby maintaining nutrition status, may be lost as dementia progresses. Reports indicate that nutrition status may be maintained when patients are hand fed, but this is labor intensive and therefore expensive. Feeding via a percutaneous endoscopic gastrostomy tube is often chosen as an acceptable alternative. Research indicates that there is little benefit in this population when aggressive nutrition support is instituted. Providing tube feeding to patients with dementia does not necessarily extend life, increase weight, or reduce the incidence of pressure ulcers or aspiration. There are many legal and ethical issues involved in the decision to place a feeding tube in demented patients. The primary issue in patients with dementia may be autonomy and the right of an individual to decide whether or not a tube should be placed at all. Legally, there is clear precedent that the courts see the insertion of a feeding tube as extraordinary care that the patient has the right to refuse. However, much of case law is derived from cases of patients who were in a persistent vegetative state. Advance directives help to determine what the patient would want for himself. Considering all the options before the patient can no longer make decisions is the most desirable course. PMID:16556924

  7. 急性胰腺炎血感染指标的研究进展%Research Progress of Blood Infection Indexes of Acute Pancreatitis

    陈俊冀; 李昌平

    2015-01-01

    急性胰腺炎(acute pancreatitis, AP)的发病率呈现快速上升的趋势,重症急性胰腺炎(severe acute pancreatitis, SAP)发病快、病情复杂多变、并发症多,死亡率高。AP发病上升与生活水平的提高和饮食结构的改变密切相关。急性胰腺炎感染的早期识别及指导合理应用抗生素对患者治疗及预后十分重要。目前血感染指标包括外周血白细胞(WBC),中性粒细胞率(NR)以及C反应蛋白(CRP)等,该研究做相关的研究报道。%Rapid upward trend of incidence rate is found in the Acute pancreatitis (acute, pancreatitis, AP), the severe one of which has the features of quick onset, complicated and changeable condition, high incidence of complications and mortality rate. Living improvement and dietary adjustment are closely related with this trend. For those with AP, early identification and rational use of antibiotics is very important to improve the treatment and prognosis. This paper makes a report on the blood infection index-es of patients with AP, including the peripheral white blood cell (WBC), neutrophil percentage (NR) and C reactive protein (CRP).

  8. FEED FORMULATION AND FEEDING TECHNOLOGY FOR FISHES

    Govind Pandey

    2013-01-01

    Most fish farmers and ornamental fish hobbyists buy the bulk of their feed from commercial manufacturers. However, small quantities of specialized feeds are often needed for experimental purposes, feeding difficult-to maintain aquarium fishes, larval or small juvenile fishes, brood fish conditioning, or administering medication to sick fish. Small ornamental fish farms with an assortment of fish require small amounts of various diets with particular ingredients. It is not cost effective for c...

  9. Acute Bronchitis

    ... of bronchitis: acute and chronic. Most cases of acute bronchitis get better within several days. But your cough ... that cause colds and the flu often cause acute bronchitis. These viruses spread through the air when people ...

  10. [Acute myocarditis].

    Combes, Alain

    2013-05-01

    Myocarditis is defined as inflammation of the myocardium accompanied by myocellular necrosis. Acute myocarditis must be considered in patients who present with recent onset of cardiac failure or arrhythmia. Fulminant myocarditis is a distinct entity characterized by sudden onset of severe congestive heart failure or cardiogenic shock, usually following a flu-like illness, parvovirus B19, human herpesvirus 6, coxsackievirus and adenovirus being the most frequently viruses responsible for the disease. Treatment of myocarditis remains largely supportive, since immunosuppression has not been proven to be beneficial for acute lymphocytic myocarditis. Trials of antiviral therapies, or immunostimulants such as interferons, suggest a potential therapeutic role but require further investigation. Lastly, early recognition of patients rapidly progressing to refractory cardiac failure and their immediate transfer to a medical-surgical center experienced in mechanical circulatory support is warranted. In this setting, ECMO should be the first-line mechanical assistance. For highly unstable patients, a Mobile Cardiac Assistance Unit, that rapidly travels to primary care hospitals with a portable ECMO system and hooks it up before refractory multiorgan failure takes hold, is the preferred option. PMID:23789482

  11. Nutrition Support in Acute Pancreatitis

    Orestis Ioannidis; Athina Lavrentieva; Dimitrios Botsios

    2008-01-01

    The management of acute pancreatitis differs according to its severity. Approximately 75% of patients with acute pancreatitis have mild disease with a mortality rate below 1%. Mortality increases up to 20% if the disease progresses to its severe necrotizing form and, in the most severe cases, mortality can increase to 30-40%. Severe acute pancreatitis is usually accompanied by systemic inflammatory response syndrome (SIRS) which results in hypermetabolism with prominent protein catabolism. Ac...

  12. Evaluation of acute and sub-chronic toxicities of ulcer fast and reg;: a bi-herbal formula in male Wistar albino rats

    Kingsley C. Patrick-Iwuanyanwu; Jane A. Emerue

    2014-01-01

    The acute and sub-chronic toxicities of ulcer fast and reg; (UF) - A commercial bi-herbal formula prepared with Alstonia boonei and Xylopia aethiopica in male Wistar albino rats was evaluated. There was no mortality in rats administered 2000 mg/kg body weight (BW) of UF in an acute toxicity study. A significant (p and #8804;0.05) increase in daily consumption of feed and fluid intake in experimental rats after 28 days was recorded followed by a progressive increase in BW of rats administered ...

  13. The progress of MTX in acute lymphoblastic leukemia%MTX治疗急性淋巴细胞白血病的研究进展

    张培; 沈佐君

    2012-01-01

      Methotrexate(MTX), a kind of anti-folate and antimetabolite medicine, is one of the commonly used chemotherapy drugs to treat malignant tumor which has a strong immunosuppressive effect. It is selective for acute lymphoid leukemia cells to prevent the proliferation of immunoblastic and inhibit the humoral and cellular immune responses. Tumor cells are prone to resistance and transfer recurrence after the acute lymphoid leukemia patients accept MTX treatment. This paper mainly reviewed the relationship between the mechanism, the dose, the timing selection, the level of DNA methylation and EGFR gene with the transfer and invasion on MTX treatment in acute lymphoid leukemia.%  MTX为抗叶酸类抗代谢药,是临床上治疗各种恶性肿瘤常用化疗药物之一,有很强的免疫抑制作用。它选择性作用于急性淋巴细胞白血病细胞阻止免疫母细胞分裂增殖,同时对体液免疫和细胞免疫均有抑制作用。急性淋巴细胞白血病患者接受MTX治疗后肿瘤细胞易产生耐药与转移复发。本文就MTX治疗急性淋巴细胞白血病作用机制、剂量和作用时间选择、DNA甲基化水平变化、EGFR基因和侵袭转移的关系进行综述。

  14. Acute chylous peritonitis due to acute pancreatitis.

    Georgiou, Georgios K; Harissis, Haralampos; Mitsis, Michalis; Batsis, Haralampos; Fatouros, Michalis

    2012-04-28

    We report a case of acute chylous ascites formation presenting as peritonitis (acute chylous peritonitis) in a patient suffering from acute pancreatitis due to hypertriglyceridemia and alcohol abuse. The development of chylous ascites is usually a chronic process mostly involving malignancy, trauma or surgery, and symptoms arise as a result of progressive abdominal distention. However, when accumulation of "chyle" occurs rapidly, the patient may present with signs of peritonitis. Preoperative diagnosis is difficult since the clinical picture usually suggests hollow organ perforation, appendicitis or visceral ischemia. Less than 100 cases of acute chylous peritonitis have been reported. Pancreatitis is a rare cause of chyloperitoneum and in almost all of the cases chylous ascites is discovered some days (or even weeks) after the onset of symptoms of pancreatitis. This is the second case in the literature where the patient presented with acute chylous peritonitis due to acute pancreatitis, and the presence of chyle within the abdominal cavity was discovered simultaneously with the establishment of the diagnosis of pancreatitis. The patient underwent an exploratory laparotomy for suspected perforated duodenal ulcer, since, due to hypertriglyceridemia, serum amylase values appeared within the normal range. Moreover, abdominal computed tomography imaging was not diagnostic for pancreatitis. Following abdominal lavage and drainage, the patient was successfully treated with total parenteral nutrition and octreotide. PMID:22563182

  15. Acute chylous peritonitis due to acute pancreatitis

    Georgios K Georgiou; Haralampos Harissis; Michalis Mitsis; Haralampos Batsis; Michalis Fatouros

    2012-01-01

    We report a case of acute chylous ascites formation presenting as peritonitis (acute chylous peritonitis) in a patient suffering from acute pancreatitis due to hypertriglyceridemia and alcohol abuse.The development of chylous ascites is usually a chronic process mostly involving malignancy,trauma or surgery,and symptoms arise as a result of progressive abdominal distention.However,when accumulation of "chyle" occurs rapidly,the patient may present with signs of peritonitis.Preoperative diagnosis is difficult since the clinical picture usually suggests hollow organ perforation,appendicitis or visceral ischemia.Less than 100 cases of acute chylous peritonitis have been reported.Pancreatitis is a rare cause of chyloperitoneum and in almost all of the cases chylous ascites is discovered some days (or even weeks) after the onset of symptoms of pancreatitis.This is the second case in the literature where the patient presented with acute chylous peritonitis due to acute pancreatitis,and the presence of chyle within the abdominal cavity was discovered simultaneously with the establishment of the diagnosis of pancreatitis.The patient underwent an exploratory laparotomy for suspected perforated duodenal ulcer,since,due to hypertriglyceridemia,serum amylase values appeared within the normal range.Moreover,abdominal computed tomography imaging was not diagnostic for pancreatitis.Following abdominal lavage and drainage,the patient was successfully treated with total parenteral nutrition and octreotide.

  16. ‘Biologic memory’ in response to acute kidney injury: cytoresistance, toll-like receptor hyper-responsiveness and the onset of progressive renal disease

    Zager, Richard A.

    2013-01-01

    Following the induction of ischemic or toxin-mediated acute kidney injury (AKI), cellular adaptations occur that ‘re-program’ how the kidney responds to future superimposed insults. This re-programming is not simply a short-lived phenomenon; rather it can persist for many weeks, implying that a state of ‘biologic memory’ has emerged. These changes can be both adaptive and maladaptive in nature and they can co-exist in time. A beneficial adaptation is the emergence of acquired cytoresistance, ...

  17. Parvovirus B19 infection presenting as pre-B-cell acute lymphoblastic leukemia: a transient and progressive course in two children.

    Yetgin, Sevgi; Cetin, Mualla; Aslan, Deniz; Ozyurek, Emel; Oyürek, Emel; Anlar, Banu; Uçkan, Duygu

    2004-10-01

    Parvovirus B19 is the causative agent of various forms of hematologic diseases such as aplastic crisis in patients with hemolytic anemia, aplastic anemia, hypoplastic anemia, and idiopathic thrombocytopenic purpura. In addition, parvovirus B19 infection may precede or be associated with acute lymphoblastic leukemia (ALL). The authors present two cases of parvovirus B19 infection and bone marrow infiltration with pre-B-cell lymphoblasts; one patients was diagnosed as having ALL, and the other patient, with neurologic findings, showed total resolution of the blastic morphology and phenotype. PMID:15454845

  18. Human Bone Marrow Mesenchymal Stem Cell-Derived Hepatocytes Improve the Mouse Liver after Acute Acetaminophen Intoxication by Preventing Progress of Injury

    Peggy Stock; Sandra Brückner; Sandra Winkler; Dollinger, Matthias M.; Bruno Christ

    2014-01-01

    Mesenchymal stem cells from human bone marrow (hMSC) have the potential to differentiate into hepatocyte-like cells in vitro and continue to maintain important hepatocyte functions in vivo after transplantation into host mouse livers. Here, hMSC were differentiated into hepatocyte-like cells in vitro (hMSC-HC) and transplanted into livers of immunodeficient Pfp/Rag2−/− mice treated with a sublethal dose of acetaminophen (APAP) to induce acute liver injury. APAP induced a time- and dose-depen...

  19. 2-Methoxyestradiol blocks cell-cycle progression at the G2/M phase and induces apoptosis in human acute T lymphoblastic leukemia CEM cells

    Xueya Zhang; Haobo Huang; Zhenshu Xu; Rong Zhan

    2010-01-01

    2-Methoxyestradiol(2-ME2)is an endogenous metabolite of 17β-estradiol(E2)with estrogen receptor-independent anti-cancer activity.The current study sought to deter mine the mechanism of anti-cancer activity of 2-ME2 in human acute T lymphoblastic leukemia CEM cells.Results showed that 2-ME2 markedly suppressed proliferation of CEM cells in a time-and dose-dependent manner.2-ME2-treated CEM cells underwent typical apoptotic changes.Exposure to 2-ME2 led to G2/M phase cell-cycle arrest,which preceded apoptosis characterized by the appearance of a sub-G1 cell population.In addition,cytosolic cytochrome c release,increased procaspase-9 and-3 expressions,poly(ADP-ribose)polymerase (PARP)cleavage,and induced expression of caspase-8 were detected,suggesting that both the intrinsic apoptotic pathway and extrinsic apoptotic pathway were involved in 2-ME2-induced apoptosis.Moreover,the expression level of p21 protein was upregulated,whereas Bcl-2 and dysfunctional p53 protein were downregulated,which also contributed to 2-ME2-induced apoptosis.Our findings revealed that 2-ME2 might be a potent natural candidate for chemotherapeutic treatment of human acute T lymphoblastic leukemia when the precise effects of 2-ME2 were investigated further in other T leukemia cell lines and in primary T-cell leukemias.

  20. The nutritional management of acute diarrhea

    MacLean William

    1996-01-01

    Full Text Available Acute diarrhea may have a profound effect on nutritional status worldwide. After rehvdra-tion, proper nutritional management can mitigate these effects. This paper discusses the advantages and disadvantages of continued feeding, emphasizing that breastfeeding should not be stopped during episodes of acute diarrhea.

  1. Enteral nutrition and immune modulation of acute pancreatitis

    Hegazi, Refaat A.; DeWitt, Tiffany

    2014-01-01

    Enteral nutrition has been strongly recommended by major scientific societies for the nutritional management of patients with acute pancreatitis. Providing severe acute pancreatitis patients with enteral nutrition within the first 24-48 h of hospital admission can help improve outcomes compared to parenteral nutrition and no feeding. New research is focusing in on when and what to feed to best improve outcomes for acute pancreatitis patients. Early enteral nutrition have the potential to modu...

  2. 重型颅脑损伤急性期病人护理进展%The nursing progress for patients with severe traumatic brain injury in acute phase

    黎艳(综述); 黄丽燕(审校)

    2014-01-01

    Severe traumatic brain injury (sTBI) is a common emergency neurosurgical disease, accounting for about 20%of traumatic brain injury. During the acute phase ,the patients′conditions change qwickly, with much more complications and difficulty to treat and care. Also, it has high rate of disability and mortality, and the mortality rate is about 30%.The quality of nursing care will directly affect the safety of the patients. In this paper, a review is made on disease observation, intracranial pressure monitoring, cerebral protection, enteral nutrition, sedation, treat-ment of dehydration and stress hyperglycemia in patients with sTBI in acut phase.%重型颅脑损伤(severe traumatic brain injury,sTBI)是神经外科常见的急危重症,约占颅脑损伤的20%,其急性期病情变化快,并发症多、治疗困难、护理复杂,致残、致死率高,病死率约30%。而护理质量的高低直接影响着病人的安危。现就重型颅脑损伤急性期病人的病情观察和颅内压监护、脑保护、肠内营养支持、镇痛镇静、脱水治疗、应激性高血糖等重要护理进行综述。

  3. Feed safety in the feed supply chain

    Pinotti, L.

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available A number of issues have weakened the public's confidence in the quality and wholesomeness of foods of animal origin. As a result farmers, nutritionists, industry and governments have been forced to pay serious attention to animal feedstuff production processes, thereby acknowledging that animal feed safety is an essential prerequisite for human food safety. Concerns about these issues have produced a number of important effects including the ban on the use of processed animal proteins, the ban on the addition of most antimicrobials to farm animals diets for growth‐promotion purposes, and the implementation of feed contaminant regulations in the EU. In this context it is essential to integrate knowledge on feed safety and feed supply. Consequently, purchase of new and more economic sources of energy and protein in animal diets, which is expected to conform to adequate quality, traceability, environmental sustainability and safety standards, is an emerging issue in livestock production system.

  4. Magnetic resonance imaging for acute pancreatitis

    Xiao, Bo; Zhang, Xiao-Ming

    2010-01-01

    Acute pancreatitis is characterized by acute chemical injury of the pancreatic parenchyma and peripancreatic tissue. The increased frequency of death in acute pancreatitis is directly correlated with the degree and progress of pancreatic necrosis. Moreover, the occurrence of some local complications in acute pancreatitis, such as pancreatic hemorrhage, peripancreatic abscess or large pseudocyst, and pseudoaneurysm, could influence the choice of treatment for these patients. Magnetic resonance...

  5. Enteral nutrition in acute pancreatitis: A review of the current evidence

    Oláh, Attila; Romics Jr, Laszlo

    2014-01-01

    The use of enteral feeding as part of the management of acute pancreatitis dates back almost two decades. This review describes the indications for and limitations of enteral feeding for the treatment of acute pancreatitis using up-to-date evidence-based data. A systematic review was carried out to analyse current data on the use of enteral nutrition in the management of acute pancreatitis. Relevant literature was analysed from the viewpoints of enteral vs parenteral feeding, early vs delayed...

  6. Acute Pancreatitis and Pregnancy

    ... Acute Pancreatitis > Acute Pancreatitis and Pregnancy test Acute Pancreatitis and Pregnancy Timothy Gardner, MD Acute pancreatitis is ... of acute pancreatitis in pregnancy. Reasons for Acute Pancreatitis and Pregnancy While acute pancreatitis is responsible for ...

  7. ORF5 of porcine reproductive and respiratory syndrome virus (PRRSV) is a target of diversifying selection as infection progresses from acute infection to virus rebound.

    Chen, Nanhua; Trible, Benjamin R; Kerrigan, Maureen A; Tian, Kegong; Rowland, Raymond R R

    2016-06-01

    Genetic variation in both structural and nonstructural genes is a key factor in the capacity of porcine reproductive and respiratory syndrome virus (PRRSV) to evade host defenses and maintain within animals, farms and metapopulations. However, the exact mechanisms by which genetic variation contribute to immune evasion remain unclear. In a study to understand the role of host genetics in disease resistance, a population of pigs were experimentally infected with a type 2 PRRSV isolate. Four pigs that showed virus rebound at 42days post-infection (dpi) were analyzed by 454 sequencing to characterize the rebound quasispecies. Deep sequencing of variable regions in nsp1, nsp2, ORF3 and ORF5 showed the largest number of nucleotide substitutions at day 28 compared to days 4 and 42 post-infection. Differences were also found in genetic variations when comparing tonsil versus serum. The results of dN/dS ratios showed that the same regions evolved under negative selection. However, eight amino acid sites were identified as possessing significant levels of positive selection, including A27V and N32S substitutions in the GP5 ectodomain region. These changes may alter GP5 peptide signal sequence processing and N-glycosylation, respectively. The results indicate that the greatest genetic diversity occurs during the transition between acute and rebound stages of infection, and the introduction of mutations that may result in a gain of fitness provides a potential mechanism for persistence. PMID:26961593

  8. 儿童急性髓系白血病诊治研究进展%Diagnosis and treatment progress of children's acute myeloid leukemia

    刘四喜; 文飞球; 李长钢

    2011-01-01

    Acute mveloid leukemia(AML) is a heterogeneous group of leukemias that arise from clonal transformation of hematopoietic precursors.This review summarizes classification of pediatric AML,more precise risk-group stratification,ongoing phase Ⅲ studies and minimal residual diseasse monitoring.In addition,we discuss the opportunities for innovative chemotherapy drugs in refractory AML and relapsed AML,such as gemtuzumab ozogamicin,liposomal daunorubicin,clofarabine,cladribine and lmatinib.Finally,the roles of allogeneic hematopoietic stem cell transplantation in pediatric AML are also discussed.%急性髓系白血病是由于造血多能干细胞发生不同基因突变而导致的一组异质性克隆性疾病.该文综述了儿童急性髓系白血病分型、危险度分级、正在进行中的三期临床试验治疗结果和微小残留病管理.此外,还简述了新型化疗药物如吉姆单抗奥佐米星、柔红霉素脂质体、氯法拉滨、克拉屈滨和伊马替尼以及异基因造血干细胞移植在儿童急性髓系白血病中的应用.

  9. Potential Harmful Effects of PM2.5 on Occurrence and Progression of Acute Coronary Syndrome: Epidemiology, Mechanisms, and Prevention Measures

    Xu Meng

    2016-07-01

    Full Text Available The harmful effects of particulate matter with an aerodynamic diameter of <2.5 µm (PM2.5 and its association with acute coronary syndrome (ACS has gained increased attention in recent years. Significant associations between PM2.5 and ACS have been found in most studies, although sometimes only observed in specific subgroups. PM2.5-induced detrimental effects and ACS arise through multiple mechanisms, including endothelial injury, an enhanced inflammatory response, oxidative stress, autonomic dysfunction, and mitochondria damage as well as genotoxic effects. These effects can lead to a series of physiopathological changes including coronary artery atherosclerosis, hypertension, an imbalance between energy supply and demand to heart tissue, and a systemic hypercoagulable state. Effective strategies to prevent the harmful effects of PM2.5 include reducing pollution sources of PM2.5 and population exposure to PM2.5, and governments and organizations publicizing the harmful effects of PM2.5 and establishing air quality standards for PM2.5. PM2.5 exposure is a significant risk factor for ACS, and effective strategies with which to prevent both susceptible and healthy populations from an increased risk for ACS have important clinical significance in the prevention and treatment of ACS.

  10. 饲料中玉米赤霉烯酮污染状况及其毒性的研究进展%Research Progress on Pollution and Toxicity of Zearalenone in Feed

    柳永振; 朱凤华; 宁雪娇; 朱连勤

    2012-01-01

    Zearalenone is an estrogenic mycotoxin produced by several fungi of Fusarium genera. As it can contaminate food and feed. it is a risk factor for both public health and agricultural perspectives. The pollution and toxicity of Zearalenone in feed were reviewed in this paper.%玉米赤霉烯酮是由多种镰刀菌产生的一种具有雌激素样作用的霉菌毒素。玉米赤霉烯酮可以污染食品和饲料,对公共健康和农业发展造成严重的危害,文章就饲料中玉米赤霉烯酮污染状况及其毒性的研究进展作一综述。

  11. Research Progress on Methods of Determination of Diet Composition and Feed Intake of Grazing Animals%放牧家畜采食量和择食性测定方法的研究进展

    崔占鸿

    2011-01-01

    文章就国内外关于放牧家畜采食量和采食种类测定方法的研究现状进行了回顾与总结,分析了影响其测定的主要因素,并提出了合理的建议,为今后开展草地放牧家畜的采食量、择食性及其测定方法的研究提供了科学参考.%This article reviewed research developments and current situation of feed intake and diet composition of grazing animals,analyzed the main influencing factors, and presented the reasonable suggestions, which provided scientific references for future study on feed intake, diet composition and their research methods of grazing animals in Qinghai plateau.

  12. Bronchitis - acute

    ... sharing features on this page, please enable JavaScript. Acute bronchitis is swelling and inflammation in the main passages ... present only for a short time. Causes When acute bronchitis occurs, it almost always comes after having a ...

  13. Bronchitis - acute

    Acute bronchitis is swelling and inflammation in the main passages that carry air to the lungs. The swelling narrows ... makes it harder to breathe. Another symptom of bronchitis is a cough. Acute means the symptoms have ...

  14. Acute Bronchitis

    Bronchitis is an inflammation of the bronchial tubes, the airways that carry air to your lungs. It ... chest tightness. There are two main types of bronchitis: acute and chronic. Most cases of acute bronchitis ...

  15. Viral Dose and Immunosuppression Modulate the Progression of Acute BVDV-1 Infection in Calves: Evidence of Long Term Persistence after Intra-Nasal Infection.

    Rebecca Strong

    Full Text Available Bovine viral diarrhoea virus (BVDV infection of cattle causes a diverse range of clinical outcomes from being asymptomatic, or a transient mild disease, to producing severe cases of acute disease leading to death. Four groups of calves were challenged with a type 1 BVDV strain, originating from a severe outbreak of BVDV in England, to study the effect of viral dose and immunosuppression on the viral replication and transmission of BVDV. Three groups received increasing amounts of virus: Group A received 10(2.55TCID50/ml, group B 10(5.25TCID50/ml and group C 10(6.7TCID 50/ml. A fourth group (D was inoculated with a medium dose (10(5.25TCID50/ml and concomitantly treated with dexamethasone (DMS to assess the effects of chemically induced immunosuppression. Naïve calves were added as sentinel animals to assess virus transmission. The outcome of infection was dose dependent with animals given a higher dose developing severe disease and more pronounced viral replication. Despite virus being shed by the low-dose infection group, BVD was not transmitted to sentinel calves. Administration of dexamethasone (DMS resulted in more severe clinical signs, prolonged viraemia and virus shedding. Using PCR techniques, viral RNA was detected in blood, several weeks after the limit of infectious virus recovery. Finally, a recently developed strand-specific RT-PCR detected negative strand viral RNA, indicative of actively replicating virus, in blood samples from convalescent animals, as late as 85 days post inoculation. This detection of long term replicating virus may indicate the way in which the virus persists and/or is reintroduced within herds.

  16. Acute pancreatitis

    Bo-Guang Fan; Åke Andrén-Sandberg

    2010-01-01

    Background : Acute pancreatitis continues to be a serious illness, and the patients with acute pancreatitis are at risk to develop different complications from ongoing pancreatic inflammation. Aims : The present review is to highlight the classification, treatment and prognosis of acute pancreatitis. Material & Methods : We reviewed the English-language literature (Medline) addressing pancreatitis. Results : Acute pancreatitis is frequently caused by gallstone disease or excess alcohol ingest...

  17. Acute pancreatitis

    Bo-Guang Fan; Åke Andrén-Sandberg

    2010-01-01

    Background: Acute pancreatitis continues to be a serious illness, and the patients with acute pancreatitis are at risk to develop different complications from ongoing pancreatic inflammation. Aims: The present review is to highlight the classification, treatment and prognosis of acute pancreatitis. Material & Methods: We reviewed the English-language literature (Medline) addressing pancreatitis. Results: Acute pancreatitis is frequently caused by gallstone disease or excess alcohol ingestion....

  18. Acute Cocaine Induces Fast Activation of D1 Receptor and Progressive Deactivation of D2 Receptor Strial Neurons: In Vivo Optical Microprobe [Ca(superscript)2+]subscript)i Imaging

    Du, C.; Luo, Z.; Volkow, N.D.; Heintz, N.; Pan, Y.; Du, C.

    2011-09-14

    Cocaine induces fast dopamine increases in brain striatal regions, which are recognized to underlie its rewarding effects. Both dopamine D1 and D2 receptors are involved in cocaine's reward but the dynamic downstream consequences of cocaine effects in striatum are not fully understood. Here we used transgenic mice expressing EGFP under the control of either the D1 receptor (D1R) or the D2 receptor (D2R) gene and microprobe optical imaging to assess the dynamic changes in intracellular calcium ([Ca{sup 2+}]{sub i} ) responses (used as marker of neuronal activation) to acute cocaine in vivo separately for D1R- versus D2R-expressing neurons in striatum. Acute cocaine (8 mg/kg, i.p.) rapidly increased [Ca{sup 2+}]{sub i} in D1R-expressing neurons (10.6 {+-} 3.2%) in striatum within 8.3 {+-} 2.3 min after cocaine administration after which the increases plateaued; these fast [Ca{sup 2+}]{sub i} increases were blocked by pretreatment with a D1R antagonist (SCH23390). In contrast, cocaine induced progressive decreases in [Ca{sup 2+}]{sub i} in D2R-expressing neurons (10.4 {+-} 5.8%) continuously throughout the 30 min that followed cocaine administration; these slower [Ca{sup 2+}]{sub i} decreases were blocked by pretreatment with a D2R antagonist (raclopride). Since activation of striatal D1R-expressing neurons (direct-pathway) enhances cocaine reward, whereas activation of D2R expressing neurons suppresses it (indirect-pathway) (Lobo et al., 2010), this suggests that cocaine's rewarding effects entail both its fast stimulation ofD1R (resulting in abrupt activation of direct-pathway neurons) and a slower stimulation of D2R (resulting in longer-lasting deactivation of indirect-pathway neurons). We also provide direct in vivo evidence of D2R and D1R interactions in the striatal responses to acute cocaine administration.

  19. VLBI2010 Feed Comparison

    Petrachenko, Bill

    2013-01-01

    VLBI2010 requires a feed that simultaneously has high efficiency over the full 2.2-14 GHz frequency range. The simultaneity requirement implies that the feed must operate at high efficiency over the full frequency range without the need to adjust its focal position to account for frequency dependent phase centre variations. Two feeds meet this specification: The Eleven Feed developed at Chalmers University. (For more information, contact Miroslav Pantaleev, miroslav.pantaleev@chalmers.se. The Eleven Feed, integrated with LNA's in a cryogenic receiver, is available as a product from Omnisys Instruments, info@omnisys.se). The Quadruple Ridged Flared Horn (QRFH) developed at the California Institute of Technology. (For more information please contact Ahmed Akgiray, aakgiray@ieee.org or Sander Weinreb, sweinreb@caltech.edu) Although not VLBI2010 compliant, two triband S/X/Ka feeds are also being developed for the commissioning of VLBI2010 antennas, for S/X observations during the VLBI2010 transition period, and to support X/Ka CRF observations. The two feeds are: The Twin Telescopes Wettzell (TTW) triband feed developed by Mirad Microwave. (For more information please contact Gerhard Kronschnabl, Gerhard.Kronschnabl@bkg.bund.de) The RAEGE (Spain) triband feed developed at Yebes Observatory. (For more information please contact Jose Antonio Lopez Perez, ja.lopezperez@oan.es)

  20. Acute pancreatitis

    Bo-Guang Fan

    2010-05-01

    Full Text Available Background: Acute pancreatitis continues to be a serious illness, and the patients with acute pancreatitis are at risk to develop different complications from ongoing pancreatic inflammation. Aims: The present review is to highlight the classification, treatment and prognosis of acute pancreatitis. Material & Methods: We reviewed the English-language literature (Medline addressing pancreatitis. Results: Acute pancreatitis is frequently caused by gallstone disease or excess alcohol ingestion. There are a number of important issues regarding clinical highlights in the classification, treatment and prognosis of acute pancreatitis, and treatment options for complications of acute pancreatitis including pancreatic pseudocysts. Conclusions: Multidisciplinary approach should be used for the management of the patient with acute pancreatitis.

  1. Acute pancreatitis

    Bo-Guang Fan

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available Background : Acute pancreatitis continues to be a serious illness, and the patients with acute pancreatitis are at risk to develop different complications from ongoing pancreatic inflammation. Aims : The present review is to highlight the classification, treatment and prognosis of acute pancreatitis. Material & Methods : We reviewed the English-language literature (Medline addressing pancreatitis. Results : Acute pancreatitis is frequently caused by gallstone disease or excess alcohol ingestion. There are a number of important issues regarding clinical highlights in the classification, treatment and prognosis of acute pancreatitis, and treatment options for complications of acute pancreatitis including pancreatic pseudocysts. Conclusions : Multidisciplinary approach should be used for the management of the patient with acute pancreatitis.

  2. Binge Eating Leading to Acute Gastric Dilatation, Ischemic Necrosis and Rupture –A Case Report

    Khare, Manish Kumar; Mishra, Sumanta; Marhual, Jogesh Chandra

    2016-01-01

    Acute gastric dilatation is a rarely encountered clinical scenario in our day to day practice. This is very rapidly progressing condition and can lead to ischemic necrosis and perforation/rupture of the stomach. It could be fatal if not timely intervened. We report such a case of a 17-year-old, otherwise healthy boy, who presented with pain and distension of abdomen following binge eating episode after 24 hours of prolonged fasting. On exploration, stomach was dilated with necrosis and perforation at fundus near greater curvature. He was managed with excision of all the devitalized area and primary repair with feeding jejunostomy. The case is presented due to its rarity. Acute gastric dilatation (AGD) leading to ischemic necrosis and perforation because of binge eating episode in an otherwise healthy person is an exceptional occurrence with only few cases reported in literature. The clinician should be aware of this condition for prompt and appropriate management. PMID:27134932

  3. Feedlot Acute Interstitial Pneumonia.

    Woolums, Amelia R

    2015-11-01

    Acute interstitial pneumonia (AIP) of feedlot cattle is a sporadically occurring respiratory condition that is often fatal. Affected cattle have a sudden onset of labored breathing. There is no confirmed effective treatment of feedlot AIP; however, administration of antibiotics effective against common bacterial respiratory pathogens and nonsteroidal anti-inflammatory drugs, especially aspirin, has been recommended. Protective strategies are not well defined, but efforts to limit dust exposure and heat stress; to ensure consistent formulation, mixing, and delivery of feed; and to identify and treat infectious respiratory disease in a timely manner may decrease rates of feedlot AIP. PMID:26253266

  4. Progress of ultrasound in evaluation on left ventricular remodeling after acute myocardial infarction%超声新技术评价急性心肌梗死后左心室重构的研究进展

    田芳

    2012-01-01

    Left ventricular remodeling after acute myocardial infarction (AMI) affects the prognosis of the patients and the incidence of cardiovascular events. In early stage, testing and evaluating left ventricular remodeling after AMI by ultrasound has important significance to make the plan of clinical treatment for relieving left ventricular remodeling and improving curative effect. The progress in research of evaluating left ventricular remodeling after AMI by ultrasound were reviewed in this article.%急性心肌梗死(AMI)后,左心室重构影响患者预后及心血管事件的发生率.超声可早期检测和评价AMI患者左心室重构情况,对临床制定治疗方案、改善预后有重要意义.本文就超声新技术评价AMI后左心室重构的研究进展进行综述.

  5. The Progress of Non-surgical Therapy for Acute Ankle Sprains%急性踝关节扭伤的非手术疗法治疗进展

    杨晓峰; 李海

    2015-01-01

    急性踝关节扭伤是骨伤科常见的疾病,发病原因虽然单一,但在临床上却较为多见,加之其发病的年龄段跨度较大,扭伤后症状较重,越来越引起临床医生及其他学者的关注。该文就急性踝关节扭伤的非手术疗法治疗进展进行简要介绍。%As a common orthopedic diseases, acute ankle sprain is more common in clinical practice although it is caused by sin-gle etiologic factor. There are large age span and severe symptoms in the patients suffering from it, therefore it is paid attention to by more and more clinicians and scholars. The article briefly describes the progress of non-surgical therapy for this kind of dis-ease.

  6. Feed up, Feedback, and Feed Forward

    Fisher, Douglas; Frey, Nancy

    2011-01-01

    "Feeding up" establishes a substantive line of inquiry that compels learners to engage in investigation and inquire. It also forms the basis for the assessments that follow. Once students understand the purpose and begin to work, they receive "feedback" that is timely and scaffolds their understanding. Based on their responses, the teacher gains a…

  7. Selection of Feed Intake or Feed Efficiency

    Veerkamp, Roel F; Pryce, Jennie E; Spurlock, Diane;

    2013-01-01

    The widespread use of genomic information in dairy cattle breeding programs has opend up the possibility to select for novel traits, especially for traits that are traditionally difficult to record in a progeny testing scheme. Feed intake and efficiency is such a difficult to measure trait. In Fe...

  8. Development of Wideband Feed

    Ujihara, Hideki; Takefuji, Kazuhiro; Sekido, Mamoru; Kondo, Tetsuro

    2015-08-01

    Wideband feeds have developed for Kashima 34m antenna and new 2.4m portable VLBI antennas. Prototypes of the wideband feeds are multimode horns, first one was set on 34m in the end of 2013, and then replaced next one with 6.5-15.0GHz receiving frequency. Now, a new feed for 3.2GHz-14.4GHz will be installed in 2.4m and 34m antennas in this spring, which are named NINJA feed, because of its design flexibility in beam shpae. Next, IGUANA feed is now under design and fabrication, which is aimed for 2.2-22GHz and covers VGOS(VLBI2010) specification. This has coaxial structure, the smaller "daughter feed" for 6.4-22GHz is placed in the center of the larger "Mother feed" for 2.2-6.4GHz.They are used for our project of time and frequency transfer between remote atomic clocks by wideband VLBI, named Gala-V(Garapagos VLBI), and will also be used wideband VLBI observation for astronmy and geodesy.Prototype feeds were tested in measurement of aperture efficiency, SEFD and Tsys of 34m "Super Kashima Antenna" and both 6.7/12.2GHz methanol maser detection in one reciever system, and then better one is used for wideband VLBI observations.

  9. Acute pancreatitis and acute respiratory distress syndrome complicating dengue haemorrhagic fever

    Agrawal, Avinash; Jain, Nirdesh; Gutch, Manish; Shankar, Amit

    2011-01-01

    Dengue infection is now known to present with wide spectrum of complications. Isolated cases of acute pancreatitis complicating dengue haemorrhagic fever have been reported in literature. Here the authors report a case of dengue haemorrhagic fever that develops acute pancreatitis and presented with acute onset of breathlessness, which then progressed to full-blown acute respiratory distress syndrome. To our knowledge, this is the first reported case of dengue haemorrhagic fever complicated wi...

  10. Urban Bird Feeding: Connecting People with Nature.

    Cox, Daniel T C; Gaston, Kevin J

    2016-01-01

    At a time of unprecedented biodiversity loss, researchers are increasingly recognizing the broad range of benefits provided to humankind by nature. However, as people live more urbanized lifestyles there is a progressive disengagement with the natural world that diminishes these benefits and discourages positive environmental behaviour. The provision of food for garden birds is an increasing global phenomenon, and provides a readily accessible way for people to counter this trend. Yet despite its popularity, quite why people feed birds remains poorly understood. We explore three loosely defined motivations behind bird feeding: that it provides psychological benefits, is due to a concern about bird welfare, and/or is due to a more general orientation towards nature. We quantitatively surveyed households from urban towns in southern England to explore attitudes and actions towards garden bird feeding. Each household scored three Likert statements relating to each of the three motivations. We found that people who fed birds regularly felt more relaxed and connected to nature when they watched garden birds, and perceived that bird feeding is beneficial for bird welfare while investing time in minimising associated risks. Finally, feeding birds may be an expression of a wider orientation towards nature. Overall, we found that the feelings of being relaxed and connected to nature were the strongest drivers. As urban expansion continues both to threaten species conservation and to change peoples' relationship with the natural world, feeding birds may provide an important tool for engaging people with nature to the benefit of both people and conservation. PMID:27427988

  11. Urban Bird Feeding: Connecting People with Nature

    Gaston, Kevin J.

    2016-01-01

    At a time of unprecedented biodiversity loss, researchers are increasingly recognizing the broad range of benefits provided to humankind by nature. However, as people live more urbanized lifestyles there is a progressive disengagement with the natural world that diminishes these benefits and discourages positive environmental behaviour. The provision of food for garden birds is an increasing global phenomenon, and provides a readily accessible way for people to counter this trend. Yet despite its popularity, quite why people feed birds remains poorly understood. We explore three loosely defined motivations behind bird feeding: that it provides psychological benefits, is due to a concern about bird welfare, and/or is due to a more general orientation towards nature. We quantitatively surveyed households from urban towns in southern England to explore attitudes and actions towards garden bird feeding. Each household scored three Likert statements relating to each of the three motivations. We found that people who fed birds regularly felt more relaxed and connected to nature when they watched garden birds, and perceived that bird feeding is beneficial for bird welfare while investing time in minimising associated risks. Finally, feeding birds may be an expression of a wider orientation towards nature. Overall, we found that the feelings of being relaxed and connected to nature were the strongest drivers. As urban expansion continues both to threaten species conservation and to change peoples’ relationship with the natural world, feeding birds may provide an important tool for engaging people with nature to the benefit of both people and conservation. PMID:27427988

  12. Gastrostomy feeding tube - pump - child

    Feeding - gastrostomy tube - pump; G-tube - pump; Gastrostomy button - pump; Bard Button - pump; MIC-KEY - pump ... Gather supplies: Feeding pump (electronic or battery powered) Feeding set that matches the feeding pump (includes a feeding bag, drip chamber, roller clamp, ...

  13. 重症急性胰腺炎经胃镜放置空肠营养管营养支持的价值%Clinical value of endoscopic placement of nasojejunal feeding tube for nutritional support in patients with severe acute pancreatitis

    季峰; 焦春花; 胡裕耀; 徐勤伟; 赵瑾; 陈卫星

    2009-01-01

    目的 探讨经胃镜放置空肠营养管行肠内营养支持(ENFTP)对重症急性胰腺炎患者的临床价值.方法 回顾性分析经ENFTP及同期行完全胃肠外营养(TPN)支持的重症急性胰腺炎患者47例及50例,比较两组患者营养支持前及支持后1、2、4周血常规、血糖、肝肾功能、血脂、血钙水平变化、各种并发症发生率、死亡率、营养支持时间、营养支持平均每日费用、机械通气时间、重症监护病房(ICU)监护时间及平均住院时间.结果 营养支持4周后,ENFTP组血红蛋白、白蛋白及空腹高血糖较TPN组恢复显著(P值均<0.05);ENFTP组胰周、胆道感染率、导管感染败血症、营养支持时间、营养支持平均每日费用及住院时间均显著低于TPN组(P值均<0.05),此外ENFTP组能更有效改善APACHEⅡ评分(P<0.05).结论 ENFTP在重症急性胰腺炎患者中应用安全经济.%Objective To evaluate the clinical value of endoscopically nasojejunal feeding tube placement (ENFTP) for nutritional support in patients with severe acute pancreatitis (SAP). Methods Those SAP patients who treated with ENFTP (n= 47) or with total parenteral nutrition (TPN) (n=50) were retrospectively analyzed for laboratory parameters before and 1,2 and 4 weeks after nutrition support. Outcomes in the two groups were compared with respect to complications,mortality, duration of feeding, feeding costs,mechanical ventilation time and length of ICU or hospital stay. Results Four weeks after nutrition sypport, the hemoglobin and albumin were increased in ENFTP group as compared to TPN groups (P < 0. 05), while the blood sugar was decreased significant in ENFTP group than in TPN group (P<0.05). The incidence of peripancreatic or biliary infection and catheter-related infection were lower in ENFTP group than in TPN group. Duration of feeding and hospital stay were shorter, and nutrition cost was lower in ENFTP group (P<0.05). In addition, the APACHE Ⅱ score was

  14. Nutrition Support in Acute Pancreatitis

    Orestis Ioannidis

    2008-07-01

    Full Text Available The management of acute pancreatitis differs according to its severity. Approximately 75% of patients with acute pancreatitis have mild disease with a mortality rate below 1%. Mortality increases up to 20% if the disease progresses to its severe necrotizing form and, in the most severe cases, mortality can increase to 30-40%. Severe acute pancreatitis is usually accompanied by systemic inflammatory response syndrome (SIRS which results in hypermetabolism with prominent protein catabolism. Acute malnutrition, commonly observed in patients with acute pancreatitis, is associated with immunological disturbances, septic complications and delayed healing of surgical wounds, and may lead to multiorgan dysfunction or failure syndrome (MODS or MOFS and increased morbidity and mortality [1].

  15. A transatlantic survey of nutrition practice in acute pancreatitis.

    Duggan, SN

    2012-08-01

    Many guidelines exist for the nutritional management of acute pancreatitis; however, little is known regarding current practice. We aimed to investigate feeding practices, including the use of parenteral\\/enteral nutrition.

  16. FRACTIONAL CRYSTALLIZATION FEED ENVELOPE

    Laboratory work was completed on a set of evaporation tests designed to establish a feed envelope for the fractional crystallization process. The feed envelope defines chemical concentration limits within which the process can be operated successfully. All 38 runs in the half-factorial design matrix were completed successfully, based on the qualitative definition of success. There is no feed composition likely to be derived from saltcake dissolution that would cause the fractional crystallization process to not meet acceptable performance requirements. However, some compositions clearly would provide more successful operation than other compositions

  17. A good start in life: breast-feeding in hospital.

    de Boer, A S; Darnton-Hill, I

    1994-01-01

    The World Health Organization (WHO) and UNICEF introduced the Baby- Friendly Hospital Initiative in 1992 to foster breast feeding in hospitals. The balanced composition of breast milk fulfills the 4-6 month old infant's nutrient requirements. Colostrum is rich in antibodies and immunoglobulins, which protect the newborn against infection. As economic development progresses, more mothers use infant formulas while fewer mothers breast feed. Between 1960 and 1985 in Japan, the proportion of mothers breast feeding 1-2 month old infants fell from 68% to 50%. Between 1975 and 1968 in Western Samoa, it fell from 69% to 48% in urban areas and 78% to 59% in rural areas. Hospital practices that discourage breast feeding include separation of mother and newborn, prelacteal feedings, and free samples of infant formula. These practices occur even in areas, such as the Western Pacific Region, where most mothers deliver at home. Hospital baby-friendly criteria include a written breast-feeding policy, training of all health care staff in skills needed to implement this policy, informing all pregnant women about the benefits and management of breast feeding, assisting mothers to begin breast feeding within 30 minutes of delivery, demonstrating to mothers how to breast feed and to maintain lactation, no prelacteal feeds, newborn rooming-in with mother, promoting breast feeding on demand, no artificial teats or pacifiers, and breast-feeding support groups. The Western Pacific Region supports the Baby-Friendly Hospital Initiative. Between March 1991 and March 1993, the number of baby-friendly hospitals in the Philippines rose from 4 to 103. Dr. Jose Fabella Memorial Hospital in Manila is a model baby-friendly hospital for other hospitals in the region. It does not release mothers until milk flow has been established. By late 1992, 21 Chinese hospitals were baby-friendly. The WHO Western Pacific Region distributes information about breast feeding and the Initiative and provides breast

  18. Feeding Your Teen Vegetarian

    ... For Preschooler For Gradeschooler For Teen Feeding Your Teen Vegetarian By Mindy Hermann, MBA, RD Published July ... fries, soft drinks, desserts and candy. Have Your Teen Help "A vegetarian meal can be a healthy ...

  19. Transition feeding of sows

    Theil, Peter Kappel

    to shifts in housing, and in Europe, this shift is now associated with a change from loose group housing to individual housing. Around parturition, colostrum is being secreted and milk synthesis is initiated in the mammary glands. After the onset of lactation, milk composition changes, especially...... feeding practices do not acknowledge these changes. Development of new feeding strategies specifically adapted for the transition sow is likely of importance to match the rapid changes in nutrient requirements....

  20. Probiotic in Ruminant Feed

    Dicky Pamungkas; Yenny Nur Anggraeni

    2006-01-01

    The technology development of ruminant feed is related to the effort of fulfilling the nutrient requirement for maintenance and production of rumen microbes and optimizing the protein synthesis of rumen microbes, hence improving the animal production . Probiotic is widely used in feed to avoid the negative effect of antibiotic after therapeutic treatment and to be used as growth promoter . This paper describes the concept of probiotic, selection of microbes for probiotic, the benefit, the eff...

  1. Black Soldier Fly (Hermetia illucens) larvae-meal as an example for a new feed ingredients’ class in aquaculture diets

    Stamer, A.; Wessels, S.; Neidigk, R.; Hoerstgen-Schwark, G.

    2014-01-01

    Regarding the growing demand for fishmeal, soybean meal and other feed ingredients in livestock feeding and especially in aquaculture, alternative protein carriers are an increasing concern of the animal feed industry. Beside the possibility to use animal by-products of non-ruminant origin, such as blood- and meat-meals in aquafeeds - according to the EU-regulation (EC) 56/2013 - the use of insect-based feed ingredients is progressively discussed among fish-feed producers, scientists and poli...

  2. Immunomodulatory therapies for acute pancreatitis

    Li, Jing; Yang, Wen-Juan; Huang, Lu-Ming; Tang, Cheng-Wei

    2014-01-01

    It is currently difficult for conventional treatments of acute pancreatitis (AP), which primarily consist of anti-inflammatory therapies, to prevent the progression of AP or to improve its outcome. This may be because the occurrence and progression of AP, which involves various inflammatory cells and cytokines, includes a series of complex immune events. Considering the complex immune system alterations during the course of AP, it is necessary to monitor the indicators related to immune cells...

  3. Diet and risk of acute pancreatitis

    Oskarsson, Viktor

    2016-01-01

    Acute pancreatitis is a sudden inflammation of the pancreas. It has a broad spectrum of clinical outcomes, ranging from mild and self-limiting to severe and potentially fatal, and is often followed by recurrent attacks and/or progression to a chronic disease state (so-called chronic pancreatitis); especially if it is classified as non-gallstone-related acute pancreatitis. Alcohol abuse is considered to be the most important risk factor for non-gallstone-related acute pancreatitis. Even though...

  4. The outcome of management of acute pancreatitis

    T. R. Nagarjuna; Prasad H. L.

    2016-01-01

    Background: Acute pancreatitis is a potentially life threatening disease. The initial management of patients with pancreatitis focuses on establishing the diagnosis, estimating its severity, addressing the major symptoms (i.e., pain, nausea, vomiting, and hypovolemia), and limiting its progression. Therefore, the present study has been undertaken to record the outcome of management of acute pancreatitis. Methods: The study population consisted of 40 cases of acute pancreatitis that fulfill...

  5. Acute surgical management in idiopathic intracranial hypertension.

    Zakaria, Zaitun

    2012-01-01

    Idiopathic intracranial hypertension is a headache syndrome with progressive symptoms of raised intracranial pressure. Most commonly, it is a slow process where surveillance and medical management are the main treatment modalities. We describe herein an acute presentation with bilateral sixth nerve palsies, papilloedema and visual deterioration, where acute surgical intervention was a vision-saving operation.

  6. Effects of mosapride and domperidone on the pulmonary infection of acute stroke patients lying in bed and with nasal feeding%莫沙必利和多潘立酮对卧床鼻饲的急性脑卒中患者肺部感染的影响

    周海云; 姬卫东; 许春进; 宋玉华; 李丽

    2010-01-01

    Objective To study the effects of mosapride and domperidone on the pulmonary infection of acute stroke patients lying in bed and with nasal feeding. Methods Eighty-nine acute stroke patients lying in bed and with nasal feeding were divided randomly into the treatment group (47 cases) and the control group (42 cases). The control group was treated routinely,and the treatment group was treated with mosapride 5 mg and domporidone 20 mg thrice a day for 4 weeks, besides routine therapy. The incidence rate of pulmonary infection, gastric residual volume (GRV) and the number of cases with gastric contents remaining after 3 hours of nasal feeding were studied. All data were analyzed statistically. Results In the treatment group, 13 cases had pulmonary infection,and the incidence rate was 27.66%(13/47). In the control group,25 cases had pulmonary infection,and the incidence rate was 59.52% (25/42). There was significant difference between the two groups (P < 0.01 ). Three hours after nasal feeding,24 cases with gastric contents remaining were discovered in the treatment group,and GRV was (50.80±15.38) ml. Two hundred and thirty-seven cases with gastric contents remaining were discovered in the control group, and GRV was (112.17±32.54) ml. Significance differences were also detected between the two groups (P<0.01). Conclusion As for the acute stroke patients lying in bed and with nasal feeding,mosapride and domperidone can remarkably cut down the pulmonary infection upon common treatment.%目的 观察莫沙必利和多潘立酮对卧床、鼻饲的急性脑卒中患者医院内肺部感染发生率的影响.方法 89例卧床、鼻饲的急性脑卒中患者,采用随机数字表法分为研究组(47例)和对照组(42例),两组均给予脑卒中常规治疗,研究组在此基础上服用莫沙必利5 mg,多潘立酮20 mg,每日3次,连续4周.观察住院4周内两组患者肺部感染发生率及鼻饲后3 h胃内容物残留例次及残留量,

  7. 31 CFR 540.317 - Uranium feed; natural uranium feed.

    2010-07-01

    ... 31 Money and Finance: Treasury 3 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Uranium feed; natural uranium feed... (Continued) OFFICE OF FOREIGN ASSETS CONTROL, DEPARTMENT OF THE TREASURY HIGHLY ENRICHED URANIUM (HEU) AGREEMENT ASSETS CONTROL REGULATIONS General Definitions § 540.317 Uranium feed; natural uranium feed....

  8. Alimentación sostenida durante diarrea aguda en niños menores de cinco años Sustained feeding during acute diarrhea in children younger than five years of age

    HOMERO MARTÍNEZ-SALGADO

    1998-03-01

    Full Text Available Objetivo. Identificar alimentos locales con aceptabilidad cultural para nutrir a niños con diarrea aguda y probar su aceptación e impacto sobre el peso corporal en niños enfermos. Material y métodos. Se entrevistó a 142 madres de niños menores de cinco años en comunidades rurales, para conformar dietas culturalmente aceptables mediante sorteo de grupos, desplegado en un diagrama multidimensional. Se hizo un ensayo sobre el curso clíniño de 54 niños de 4-50 meses de edad cursando las primeras 48 horas de un episodio diarreico, quienes recibieron las dietas desarrolladas. Resultados. Se diseñaron dietas de acuerdo con la edad del niño y con el tiempo de evolución de la enfermedad. En las 47.6 ± 22.2 horas que permanecieron hospitalizados, los niños consumieron 44.8 ± 28.6 kcal/kg/día (además de la leche materna y ganaron 70.6 ± 179.7 g. Hubo una relación directa entre mayor edad y mayor consumo calórico, y entre éste y mayor ganancia de peso. Conclusiones. Los niños mostraron buena aceptabilidad a las dietas ofrecidas, de tal manera que se evitó la pérdida de peso.Objective. To identify locally available and culturally acceptable foods for children with acute diarrhea, and test their acceptance and effect on the childís weight. Material and methods. 142 mothers of children younger than five years of age living in rural communities were interviewed to indentify culturally accepted diets by means of group sorting. These were displayed in a multidimensional scale. A descriptive study was performed of the clinical course of 54 children, ages 4 to 50 months who received the designed diets during the first 48 hours of diarrhea. Results. The designed diets considered age of the child, and stage of the disease. Children spent 47.6 ± 22.2 h in the hospital during which they consumed 44.8 ± 28.6 kcal/kg/day (additional to breast milk and they gained 70.6 ± 179.7 g. A direct relationship was observed between increasing age and

  9. The influence of feeding and aging on pork quality

    Tikk, Kaja

    2007-01-01

    The objective of the present thesis was to obtain a more basic understanding on how production factors such as feeding strategies and aging of the meat influence consumer-related pork quality attributes. Especially, post mortem colour characteristics of fresh pork and flavour development including warmed-over flavour in cooked pork as a function of feeding strategies have been further elucidated in the present thesis. It was found that diet-induced progress in early post mortem muscle tempera...

  10. Acute pancreatitis

    ... page: //medlineplus.gov/ency/article/000287.htm Acute pancreatitis To use the sharing features on this page, ... fatty foods after the attack has improved. Outlook (Prognosis) Most cases go away in a week. However, ...

  11. Acute Pericarditis

    ... Sugar Control Helps Fight Diabetic Eye Disease Are 'Workaholics' Prone to OCD, Anxiety? ALL NEWS > Resources First ... cancer, or heart surgery, the fluid is blood. Causes Acute pericarditis usually results from infection or other ...

  12. Cannabis and Breast feeding

    Cannabis is a drug derived from hemp plant, Cannabis sativa, used both as a recreational drug or as medicine. It is a widespread illegal substance, generally smoked for its hallucinogenic properties. Little is known about the adverse effects of postnatal cannabis exposure throw breast feeding because of a lack of studies in lactating women. The active substance of cannabis is the delta 9 Tetrahydrocannabinol (THC). Some studies conclude that it could decrease motor development of the child at one year of age. Therefore, cannabis use and abuse of other drugs like alcohol, tobacco, or cocaine must be contraindicated during breast feeding. Mothers who use cannabis must stop breast feeding, or ask for medical assistance to stop cannabis use in order to provide her baby with all the benefits of human milk.

  13. Acute dyspnea

    Radiodiagnosis is applied to determine the causes of acute dyspnea. Acute dyspnea is shown to aggravate the course of pulmonary diseases (bronchial asthma, obstructive bronchitis, pulmonary edema, throboembolism of pulmonary arteries etc) and cardiovascular diseases (desiseas of myocardium). The main tasks of radiodiagnosis are to determine volume and state of the lungs, localization and type of pulmonary injuries, to verify heart disease and to reveal concomitant complications

  14. Bronchitis (acute)

    Wark, Peter

    2008-01-01

    Acute bronchitis, with transient inflammation of the trachea and major bronchi, affects over 40/1000 adults a year in the UK. The causes are usually considered to be infective, but only around half of people have identifiable pathogens.The role of smoking or environmental tobacco smoke inhalation in predisposing to acute bronchitis is unclear.A third of people may have longer-term symptoms or recurrence.

  15. Xanthophylls in Poultry Feeding

    Breithaupt, Diemar R.

    Since most consumers associate an intense colour of food with healthy animals and high food quality, xanthophylls are widely used as feed additives to generate products that meet consumers' demands. An important large-scale application is in poultry farming, where xanthophylls are added to feed to give the golden colour of egg yolk that is so much appreciated. Now, with numerous new applications in human food, in the pharmaceutical industry, and in cosmetic products, there is an increasing demand for xanthophylls on the international market (Volume 5, Chapter 4).

  16. Research Progress in Early Predictive Factors of Acute Pancreatitis%急性胰腺炎病情早期预测的相关因素研究进展

    张高峰(综述); 汤礼军(审校)

    2015-01-01

    Acute pancreatitis is a common disease of the digestive system which is a serious threat to human health,and can be divided into mild acute pancreatitis,moderately severe acute pancreatitis and severe acute pancreatitis according to the latest Atlanta criteria .Mild acute pancreatitis always tends to be self-limited and the prognosis is generally good .Severe acute pancreatitis with persistent organ failure has a high post-infection probability and mortality .Treatment of acute pancreatitis is different according to the dif-ferent types,therefore assessment and early prediction of the disease is very important.There are many predic-tors of acute pancreatitis,and here is to make a review of the predictors of the severity of acute pancreatitis at early stage.%急性胰腺炎是一种消化系统的常见病,严重威胁着人类的健康。根据最新的亚特兰大标准,急性胰腺炎可以分为轻、中、重三型。轻型胰腺炎病程有自限性,预后一般较好;重度急性胰腺炎常伴有持续性器官衰竭,后期发生感染概率高,病死率较高。临床上根据急性胰腺炎分型的不同采取不同的治疗策略。因此,早期对病情的评估和预测显得非常重要。临床上有许多预测急性胰腺炎的指标,该文就急性胰腺炎早期病情预测的指标予以综述。

  17. Feed sources for livestock

    Zanten, van H.H.E.

    2016-01-01

    Production of food has re-emerged at the top of the global political agenda, driven by two contemporary challenges: the challenge to produce enough nutritious food to feed a growing and more prosperous human population, and the challenge to produce this food in an environmentally sustainable way. Cu

  18. Acute myelogenous leukemia (AML) - children

    Acute myelogenous leukemia - children; AML; Acute myeloid leukemia - children; Acute granulocytic leukemia - children; Acute myeloblastic leukemia - children; Acute non-lymphocytic leukemia (ANLL) - children

  19. The potential for eEngineering enhanced functional-feed soybeans for sustainable aquaculture feed

    Eliot eHerman; Schmidt, Monica A.

    2016-01-01

    Aquaculture is the most rapidly growing segment of global animal production that now surpasses wild-capture fisheries production and is continuing to grow 10% annually. Sustainable aquaculture needs to diminish, and progressively eliminate, its dependence on fishmeal-sourced feed from over-harvestedallocated fisheries. Sustainable aquafeed sources will need to be primarily of plant-origin. Soybean is currently the primary global vegetable-origin protein source for aquaculture. Direct exchange...

  20. Comportamiento de la madre en relación con la lactancia materna y la alimentación complementaria del niño menor de quince meses, durante la enfermedad diarreica Maternal behavior concerning breast and complementary feeding of children younger than 15 months during acute diarrheal disease

    Ethel Marina Mora

    1994-01-01

    procedencia y los cambios realizados en la alimentación de los niños durante la diarrea.

    At the Oral Rehydration Service, Hospital lnfantil, Medellín, Colombia, the mothers of 300 children younger than 15 months. Suffering from acute diarreal disease, were surveyed concerning changes introduced in infant feeding during diarrheal episodes. their duration and the reasons for them ; also explored was the relationship between such changes, the years of schooling of the mother and her place of residence In the clty. Two hundred and eighteen mothers (72.7% belonged to the low socioeconomical class, 17 (5.7% were 1IIiterate and only 19 (6.3% had finished secondary school. Children were more frequently (69% between 5 and 12 months. One hundred and twenty mothers (40% breast-fed their children and all of them continued to do so during the diarrheal episode; however, 16 mothers (13.3% decreased and 50 (41.7% increased the daily number of feedings. Of 295 mothers who gave milk formulae to their children 66 (22.4% continued to do so with no change; 89 (30.2% discontinued them, 83 (28.1% decreased the amount given and 65 (22% started with a diluted preparation. Concerning complementary feeding two patterns of behavior were found during the diarrheal episode: some Items were frequently discontinued, among them: candy (77.2%, egg (66.7%, beans (65.8%, chocolate (60.7%, fats (59.4% and carbonated drinks (55.2%. Others, by contrast, were frequently continued, name- Iy: meat (69%, plantain (85.6%, soups (82%, juices (71.8%, vegetables (73.4% and carbohydrate solutions (63.4%. Changes were maintained longer than 3 days which contributed to nutritional deterioration. The main reason (52.2% for introducing changes was to prevent the increase of diarrhea. No correlation was found between schooling level of the mother or her place of residence In the clty and changes performed In Infant feeding during acute diarrheal disease

  1. Nutritional support for acute pancreatitis.

    Pisters, P W; Ranson, J H

    1992-09-01

    The current review has summarized current data relevant to the nutritional support of patients with acute pancreatitis. Selection of the most appropriate form of nutritional support for patients with acute pancreatitis is intimately linked to a thorough understanding of the effects of various forms of enteral and parenteral nutrition on physiologic exocrine secretory mechanisms. Two basic concepts have emerged from the multiple studies that have addressed these issues to date: 1, enteral feeds should have low fat composition and be delivered distal to the ligament of Treitz to minimize exocrine pancreatic secretion and 2, parenteral substrate infusions, alone or in combinations similar to those administered during TPN, do not stimulate exocrine pancreatic secretion. From a practical standpoint, most patients with acute pancreatitis are diagnosed by nonoperative means and will manifest some degree of paralytic ileus during the early phase of the disease. Therefore, jejunal feeds are usually not a therapeutic option early in the course of this disease. On the basis of the clinical studies reviewed herein we propose general guidelines for the nutritional support of patients with acute pancreatitis: 1, most patients with mild uncomplicated pancreatitis (one to two prognostic signs) do not benefit from nutritional support; 2, nutritional support should begin early in the course of patients with moderate to severe disease (as soon as hemodynamic and cardiorespiratory stability permit); 3, initial nutritional support should be through the parenteral route and include fat emulsion in amounts sufficient to prevent essential fatty acid deficiency (no objective data exist to recommend specific amino acid formulations); 4, patients requiring operation for diagnosis or complications of the disease should have a feeding jejunostomy placed at the time of operation for subsequent enteral nutrition using a low fat formula, such as Precision HN (Sandoz, 1.3 percent calories as fat

  2. Melter feed system 3-way feed valve Auma motorized operator

    This document discusses the Scale Melter currently testing feed systems. One component of that system is a valve operator, which directs the feed slurry or flush water through the 3-way ball valve to the melter. This valve operator may be causing problems on the TNX Scale Melter by failing to accurately align the feed valve ports

  3. 重症急性胰腺炎与中性粒细胞凋亡蛋白质的相关性%Relationship between development and progression of severe acute pancreatitis and neutrophil apoptosis-related proteins in rats

    臧宪华; 吴彦彦; 许兰涛

    2012-01-01

    疗SAP,能明显缩短患者的临床症状缓解时间,减少并发症,降低患者的死亡率;SAP的发生发展可能与凋亡相关蛋白质有关.%AIM: To investigate the relationship between the development and progression of severe acute pancreatitis (SAP) and apoptosis-related proteins in rats. METHODS: Sixty SD rats were randomly divided into two groups: acute necrotizing pancreatitis (ANP) group and sham-operated (SO) group (n = 30 for each). At 3,6, and 12 h after induction of ANP, the rats were sacrificed and blood samples were collected from the inferior vena cava. Density gradient centrifugation was conducted to separate polymorpho nuclear neutrophils (PMNs), and PMN apoptosis was determined by flow cytometry. PMNs collected at 12 h were lysed, and label-free technology was used to identify apoptosis-related proteins. Twenty-eight SAP patients treated at our hospital from June 2008 to June 2012 were randomly divided into a treatment group and a control group (n = 14 for each). The control group underwent conventional treatment, while the treatment group was treated with conventional treatment plus continuous infusion of somatostatin. The mean duration of abdominal pain, amylase recovery time, length of hospital stay, and the incidence of complications, rate of conversion to surgery, and mortality were compared between the two groups. RESULTS: PMN apoptosis was significantly delayed in the ANP group compared to the SO group at all time points (all P < 0.01). Four PMN apoptosis-related proteins were identified: 78 Kda glucose-regulated protein, RhoGTPase, L-lactic acid dehydrogenase A chain, and hemoglobin a2 chain (ANP/SO ratios: 1.953614, 3.526625, 1.766764, 0.609825; all P < 0.05). The mean duration of abdominal pain, amylase recovery time and length of stay were significantly shorter (P = 0.041, 0.001, 0.000), and the incidence of complications, rate of conversion to surgery, and mortality were significantly lower in the treatment group than in the

  4. Danger of zooplankton feeding

    Kiørboe, Thomas; Jiang, H.; Colin, S.P.

    2010-01-01

    therefore perform occasional upward repositioning jumps. We quantified the fluid disturbance generated by repositioning jumps in a millimetre-sized copepod (Re ∼ 40). The kick of the swimming legs generates a viscous vortex ring in the wake; another ring of similar intensity but opposite rotation is formed...... around the decelerating copepod. A simple analytical model, that of an impulsive point force, properly describes the observed flow field as a function of the momentum of the copepod, including the translation of the vortex and its spatial extension and temporal decay. We show that the time-averaged fluid...... signal and the consequent predation risk is much less for an ambush-feeding than a cruising or hovering copepod for small individuals, while the reverse is true for individuals larger than about 1 mm. This makes inefficient ambush feeding feasible in small copepods, and is consistent with the observation...

  5. A History of Infant Feeding

    Stevens, Emily E.; Patrick, Thelma E.; Pickler, Rita

    2009-01-01

    The historical evolution of infant feeding includes wet nursing, the feeding bottle, and formula use. Before the invention of bottles and formula, wet nursing was the safest and most common alternative to the natural mother's breastmilk. Society's negative view of wet nursing, combined with improvements of the feeding bottle, the availability of animal's milk, and advances in formula development, gradually led to the substitution of artificial feeding for wet nursing. In addition, the adverti...

  6. Feeding the City

    Roncaglia, Sara; Giorgio Solinas, Pier

    2015-01-01

    Every day in Mumbai 6,000 dabbawalas (literally translated as "those who carry boxes") distribute a staggering 200,000 home-cooked lunchboxes to the city's workers and students. Giving employment and status to thousands of largely illiterate villagers from Mumbai's hinterland, this co-operative has been in operation since the late nineteenth century. It provides one of the most efficient delivery networks in the world: only one lunch in six million goes astray. Feeding the City is an ethnogr...

  7. Feed sources for livestock

    Zanten, van, J.H.

    2016-01-01

    Production of food has re-emerged at the top of the global political agenda, driven by two contemporary challenges: the challenge to produce enough nutritious food to feed a growing and more prosperous human population, and the challenge to produce this food in an environmentally sustainable way. Current levels of production of especially animal-source food (ASF), pose severe pressure on the environment via their emissions to air, water, and soil; and their use of scarce resources, such as la...

  8. Residual Feed Intake

    Sainz, Roberto D.; Paulino, Pedro V.

    2004-01-01

    Introduction Low rates of return on investment for livestock operations are a fact of life. Producers have little impact on the market price for their cattle; therefore management must be focused on the things producers can actually do something about. For many years, genetic selection programs have focused on production (output) traits, with little attention given to production costs (inputs). Recently, this view has begun to change, and the efficiency of conversion of feed (i.e., t...

  9. Clogging of feeding tubes.

    Marcuard, S P; Perkins, A M

    1988-01-01

    This is a report of an in vitro study evaluating clotting ability of some formulas with intact protein and hydrolyzed protein sources in a series of buffers ranging from a pH of 1 thru 10. The following 10 products were tested: Ensure Plus, Ensure, Enrich, Osmolite, Pulmocare, Citrotein, Resource, Vivonex TEN, Vital, and Hepatic Acid II. Protein (10 and 20 g/liter) was added to Citrotein and Ensure Plus. All formulas were tested at full and some at half strength. Clotting occurred only in premixed intact protein formulas (Pulmocare, Ensure Plus, Osmolite, Enrich, Ensure) and in Resource. No clotting was observed for Citrotein (intact protein formula in powder form), Vital, Vivonex TEN, and Hepatic Aid II. Adding protein did not cause or increase clotting. In summary, clotting of some liquid formula diet appears to be an important factor causing possible gastric feeding tube occlusion. The following measures may help in preventing this problem: flushing before and after aspirating for gastric residuals to eliminate acid precipitation of formula in the feeding tube, advance the nasogastric feeding tube into the duodenum if possible, and avoid mixing these products with liquid medications having a pH value of 5.0 or less. PMID:3138452

  10. Food Safety Information RSS feed

    U.S. Department of Health & Human Services — This is an RSS Feed of Food Safety information that’s produced in real-time by the CDC. This RSS feed is the integration of two other XML feeds, one from the USDA's...

  11. Coupling between crossed dipole feeds

    Andersen, J.; Schjær-Jacobsen, Hans; Lessow, H.

    1974-01-01

    function of orientation and feeding network properties. The antennas are used as feeds for a parabolic reflector, and the effect of coupling on the secondary fields is analyzed. Especially significant is the polarization loss and it may, to some extent, be reduced by a proper choice of feeding network....

  12. Research progress of systemic inflammatory response syndrome in acute pancreatitis-associated lung injury%全身炎症反应综合征在急性胰腺炎肺损伤中的研究进展

    曹均强; 汤礼军

    2015-01-01

    作为急性胰腺炎早期炎症反应放大的结果,全身炎症反应综合征(SIRS)是导致胰腺炎肺损伤发生的主要原因,而早期合并的急性肺损伤或ARDS是导致急性胰腺炎患者高病死率的主要原因.一系列炎症介质及细胞因子在SIRS及胰腺炎肺损伤的发生发展过程中起着重要作用.因此,恢复炎症反应平衡状态成为目前治疗胰腺炎肺损伤的关键环节.%As a result of the early amplification of the inflammatory response in the acute pancreatitis, systemic inflammatory response syndrome (SIRS) is a main cause of acute pancreatitis-associated lung injury (APALI) , while early combined acute lung injury or acute respiratory distress syndrome causes a high mortality of acute pancreatitis.A series of inflammatory mediators and cytokines play important roles in the process of SIRS and APALI, therefore, inflammatory reaction restoring a balance becomes a key point of the treatment of pancreatitis lung injury.

  13. Adaptive feed-forward loop connection based on error signal

    Hidaka, Koichi

    2005-12-01

    In this paper, we investigate effect of changing the connection of feed-forward loop based on error signal. Our motivation of this work is solution to progress of human skill. For the skill model, we study a human simple action such as arm motion. Many models that describe the human arm dynamics have been proposed in recent year. While one type does not need an inverse model of human dynamics, the system based on the model does not include feed-forward loop. On the other hand, another type model has a feed-forward loop and feedback loop systems. This type assumes feed-forward element includes an internal model by repeating action or training and this loop progress our skill. Then we usually have to exercise to get a good performance. This says that we design the internal motion model by training and we move on prediction for motion. Under the assumption, Kawato model is well known. The model proposed that learning of feed-forward element is promoted in brain so that the error of feedback loop decreases. Furthermore, we assume the connections in feedback loop and feed-forward loop are changed. We show numerical simulations and consider that the position error given by our vision changes the skill element and we confirm that the position error is the one of the estimate function for the improvement in our skill.

  14. Contextualising complementary feeding in a broader framework for stunting prevention

    Stewart, Christine P; Iannotti, Lora; Dewey, Kathryn G;

    2013-01-01

    ; society and culture; agriculture and food systems; and water, sanitation and environment. We argue that these community and societal conditions underlie infant and young child feeding practices, which are a central pillar to healthy growth and development, and can serve to either impede or enable progress...

  15. First feeding of larval herring

    Kiørboe, Thomas; Munk, Peter; Støttrup, Josianne

    1985-01-01

    , visual experience with potential prey organisms prior to first feeding and prey density. Herring larvae did not initiate exogenous feeding until around the time of yolk resorption. The timing of first feeding was not influenced by prior exposure to potential prey organisms during the yolk sac stage. In......The transition period from endogenous to exogenous feeding by larval herring was investigated in the laboratory for four herring stocks in order to evaluate the chances of survival at the time of fiest feeding. Observations on larval activity, feeding and growth were related to amount of yolk...... the light of these observations, the ecological significance of the yolk sac stage is discussed. Initiation of exogenous feeding was delayed by 1-4 days at a low (7.5 nauplii .cntdot. l-1) compared to a high (120 nauplii .cntdot. l-1) prey density, but even at prey densities corresponding to the lower...

  16. Radiation pasteurization of poultry feed: Preliminary results of feeding tests

    Feed used to rear farm animals for human consumption has often been implicated as a vehicle for dissemination of microbial pathogens that can adversely affect both animals or birds, and humans. Radiation pasteurization of animal feed to improve its microbiological quality should reduce the incidence of feed-borne infection in the herd or flock. This would result in safer food for the consumer, and improved economic performance of the production unit. This latter benefit is particularly important because it would directly offset the cost of treating the feed. The likelihood of occurrence, as well as the magnitude, of any improved economic performance in the herd or flock consuming the irradiated feed must be determined experimentally. Accordingly, short term feeding tests were carried out to determine the effect of radiation pasteurization of poultry feed on growth performance of young chicks. The results suggest that radiation pasteurization of poultry feed may have a beneficial effect on the feed conversion efficiency of the birds consuming that feed. 10 refs, 8 tabs

  17. Acute phase protein response during acute ruminal acidosis in cattle

    Danscher, A. M.; Thoefner, M. B.; Heegaard, Peter M. H.;

    2011-01-01

    The aim of the study was to describe the acute phase protein and leukocyte responses in dairy heifers during acute, oligofructose-induced ruminal acidosis. The study included 2 trials involving oral oligofructose overload (17g/kg BW) to nonpregnant Danish Holstein heifers. Trial 1 included 12...... performed.Heifers receiving oligofructose developed a profound ruminal and systemic acidosis (in Trial 1 and 2 lowest ruminal pH was 4.3±0.2 and 3.8±0.02, respectively, and minimum SBE was −9.3±4.1 and −8.9±2.8, respectively). In Trial 1, SAA concentrations were higher than baseline concentrations on all...... than control heifers at 18 and 24h after overload (max. 13.7±4.3 billions/L). Feeding had no effect on plasma fibrinogen concentrations or WBC in Trial 1.Acute ruminal and systemic acidosis caused by oligofructose overload resulted in distinct acute phase protein and leukocyte responses in dairy...

  18. Infant feeding and HIV

    Ameena Ebrahim Goga

    2009-12-01

    Full Text Available Recent studies on antiretroviral prophylaxis during breastfeeding show that maternal HAART (alone or with 1,4 or 24 weeks infant prophylaxis or infant prophylaxis alone (with limited maternal prophylaxis for 6, 14 or 24 weeks reduces HIV transmission through breastmilk (postnatal transmission. Maternal postnatal regimens appear to be as efficacious as infant postnatal regimens, although one study shows a trend favouring infant nevirapine over maternal HAART (both used from 1 week to 6 months post-delivery. These new findings necessitate a review of existing PMTCT interventions, and the immediate implementation of regimens that reduce postnatal transmission - where this is feasible – to save children’s lives. In the public sector, whilst stakeholders engage in discussions about which is the best regimen to minimise postnatal transmission SSSUPPORT should be given to all HIV-positive women, as explained below, to improve infant outcomes and reduce postnatal transmission: Screen all women for HIV, Send off CD4 cell counts on all HIV-positive women, Screen all HIV-positive women for AFASS using a standardised tool (e.g. Table 3; Understand the woman’s personal and socio-cultural context; Promote exclusive or predominant breastfeeding if all AFASS criteria are not met; Promote exclusive formula feeding if all AFASS criteria are met; Organise supplies of formula milk and cotrimoxazole; Review mothers and infants in the first 3 days post-delivery, in the first two weeks postnatally and monthly thereafter, and review health and feeding practices, regardless of feeding choice, at every visit; lastly Treat all pregnant women with HAART if they meet national criteria for HAART initiation.

  19. Oxytocin, feeding and satiety

    Nancy eSabatier

    2013-03-01

    Full Text Available Oxytocin neurones have a physiological role in food intake and energy balance. Central administration of oxytocin is powerfully anorexigenic, reducing food intake and meal duration. The central mechanisms underlying this effect of oxytocin have become better understood in the past few years. Parvocellular neurones of the paraventricular nucleus project to the caudal brainstem to regulate feeding via autonomic functions including the gastrointestinal vago-vagal reflex. In contrast, magnocellular neurones of the supraoptic and paraventricular nuclei release oxytocin from their dendrites to diffuse to distant hypothalamic targets involved in satiety.The ventromedial hypothalamus, for example, expresses a high density of oxytocin receptors but does not contain detectable oxytocin nerve fibres. Magnocellular neurones represent targets for the anorexigenic neuropeptide α-melanocyte stimulating hormone. . In addition to homeostatic control, oxytocin may also have a role in reward-related feeding. Evidence suggests that oxytocin can selectively suppress sugar intake and that it may have a role in limiting the intake of palatable food by inhibiting the reward pathway.

  20. Advanced Liquid Feed Experiment

    Distefano, E.; Noll, C.

    1993-06-01

    The Advanced Liquid Feed Experiment (ALFE) is a Hitchhiker experiment flown on board the Shuttle of STS-39 as part of the Space Test Payload-1 (STP-1). The purpose of ALFE is to evaluate new propellant management components and operations under the low gravity flight environment of the Space Shuttle for eventual use in an advanced spacecraft feed system. These components and operations include an electronic pressure regulator, an ultrasonic flowmeter, an ultrasonic point sensor gage, and on-orbit refill of an auxiliary propellant tank. The tests are performed with two transparent tanks with dyed Freon 113, observed by a camera and controlled by ground commands and an on-board computer. Results show that the electronic pressure regulator provides smooth pressure ramp-up, sustained pressure control, and the flexibility to change pressure settings in flight. The ultrasonic flowmeter accurately measures flow and detects gas ingestion. The ultrasonic point sensors function well in space, but not as a gage during sustained low-gravity conditions, as they, like other point gages, are subject to the uncertainties of propellant geometry in a given tank. Propellant transfer operations can be performed with liquid-free ullage equalization at a 20 percent fill level, gas-free liquid transfer from 20-65 percent fill level, minimal slosh, and can be automated.

  1. Acute leukaemoid reaction following cardiac surgery

    Webb Stephen T

    2007-01-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Chronic myelomonocytic leukaemia is an atypical myeloproliferative disorder with a natural history of progression to acute myeloid leukaemia, a complex and poorly understood response by the bone marrow to stress. Cardiac surgery activates many inflammatory cascades and may precipitate a systemic inflammatory response syndrome. We present a case of undiagnosed chronic myelomonocytic leukaemia who developed rapidly fatal multi-organ dysfunction following cardiac surgery due to an acute leukaemoid reaction.

  2. Progress Report

    Duer, Karsten

    1999-01-01

    Progress report describing the work carried out by the Danish participant in the ALTSET project in the period January 1999 to July 1999.......Progress report describing the work carried out by the Danish participant in the ALTSET project in the period January 1999 to July 1999....

  3. Development of Wide Band Feeds

    Ujihara, H.; Ichikawa, R.

    2012-12-01

    Wide Band feeds are being developed at NICT, NAOJ, and some universities in Japan for VLBI2010, SKA, and MARBLE. SKA, the Square Kilometre Array, will comprise thousands of radio telescopes with square kilometer aperture size for radio astronomy. MARBLE consists of small portable VLBI stations developed at NICT and GSI in Japan. They all need wide band feeds with a greater than 1:10 frequency ratio. Thus we have been studying wide band feeds with dual linear polarization for these applications.

  4. Contemporary Management of Acute Biliary Pancreatitis

    Orhan Ozkan

    2014-03-01

    Full Text Available Acute biliary pancreatitis is one of the major causes of acute pancreatitis.Gallstones, biliary sludge and microlithiasis, especially in pancreatitis without detectable reason, can be the cause of acute pancreatitis. Acute biliary pancreatitis has many controversions in the literature, and its classification and guidelines are being updated very frequently. Atlanta classifications which determine the definitions and guidelines about acute pancreatitis were renewed and published in 2013. It has various clinical aspects, ranging from a mild form which is easily treated, to a severe form that causes complications leading to mortality. The pathogenesis of this disease has not been fully elucidated and several theories have been suggested. New scoring systems and laboratory methods such as proteomics have been suggested for both diagnosis and to predict disease severity, and research on these topics is still in progress. Novel therapeutic approaches with technological developments such as ERCP, ES, MRCP, and EUS are also suggested.

  5. Is acute recurrent pancreatitis a chronic disease?

    Alberto Mariani; Pier Alberto Testoni

    2008-01-01

    Whether acute recurrent pancreaUtis is a chronic disease is still debated and a consensus is not still reached as demonstrated by differences in the classification of acute recurrent pancreatitis.There is major evidence for considering alcoholic pancreatitis as a chronic disease ab initio while chronic pancreatitis lesions detectable in biliary acute recurrent pancreatitis (ARP) seem a casual association.Cystic fibrosis transmembrane con ductance regulator (CFTR) gene mutation,hereditary and obstructive pancreatitis seem an acute disease that progress to chronic pancreatitis,likely as a consequence of the activation and proliferation of pancreatic stellate cells that produce and activate collagen and therefore fibrosis.From the diagnostic point of view,in patients with acute recurrent pancreatitis Endoscopic ultrasound (EUS) seems the more reliable technique for an accurate evaluation and follow-up of some ductal and parenchymal abnormalities suspected for early chronic pancreatitis.

  6. Endovascular interventional therapy for acute limb ischemia

    Acute limb ischemia is an urgent and common clinical condition which occurs when the blood flow to a certain extremity is suddenly blocked b either embolic agent or thrombotic vascular lesion. Prompt restoration of perfusion through early intervention can significantly decrease the incidence of amputation and mortality. The main therapeutic methods include surgical operation and endovascular interventional technique. For recent years, considerable progress in treating acute limb ischemia with endovascular interventional technique has been achieved. This article aims to make a comprehensive review in respect of the endovascular intervention therapy for acute limb ischemia. (authors)

  7. Multiple part feeding

    Hvilshøj, Mads; Bøgh, Simon; Nielsen, Oluf Skov;

    2012-01-01

    Purpose - The purpose of this paper is to present experience from a real-world demonstration of autonomous industrial mobile manipulation (AIMM) based on the mobile manipulator "Little Helper" performing multiple part feeding at the pump manufacturer Grundfos A/S. Design/methodology/approach - The...... necessary AIMM technologies exist at a mature level - the reason that no mobile manipulators have yet been implemented in industrial environments, is that research in the right applications have not been carried out. We propose a pragmatic approach consisting of: a commercial-off-the-shelf (COTS) mobile....... Originality/value - The paper presents a full-scale demonstration of a state-of-the-art COTS autonomous mobile manipulator system with particular focus on industrial utilization and application....

  8. Inflammation: a trigger for acute coronary syndrome.

    Sager, Hendrik B; Nahrendorf, Matthias

    2016-09-01

    Atherosclerosis is a chronic inflammatory disease of the vessel wall and a major cause of death worldwide. One of atherosclerosis' most dreadful complications are acute coronary syndromes that comprise ST-segment elevation myocardial infarction, non-ST-segment elevation myocardial infarction, and unstable angina. We now understand that inflammation substantially contributes to the initiation, progression, and destabilization of atherosclerosis. In this review, we will focus on the role of inflammatory leukocytes, which are the cellular protagonists of vascular inflammation, in triggering disease progression and, ultimately, the destabilization that causes acute coronary syndromes. PMID:27273431

  9. Acute abdomen

    Acute abdomen may be connected with the injury of one of the internal organs, injury of large blood vessels, with the spreading of pains from some other area. It may also be a manifestation of systemic disease or poisoning. The main purposes of radiodiagnosis are: determination of the cause of clinical syndrome; determination of the localization and spreading of pathological changes in abdominal organs; finding out the character of complications. If the data of the ordinary roentgenological investiagtion and isn't complete, the computer tomography of abdominal and pelvic cavities is needed

  10. Major acute phase protein and its application progress in animal nutrition and health%MAP及其在动物营养与健康中的应用进展

    许美芳; 齐珂珂; 胡向东

    2013-01-01

    Major acute phase protein (MAP) is one of the acute phase reactive proteins synthetized in liver,is a new plasma glycoprotein of 120 kDa belonging to inter-α-trypsin inhibitor (ITI) family.With close relation to animal nutrition and health,MAP can provide valuable diagnostic information about animal diseases and severity.Since muscular catabolism is associated to acute phase process,the determination of serum MAP concentration could be an effective parameter in meat inspection and animal welfare.The paper summarized the MAP classification,structural feature and synthetic process,also put emphasis on its application value in animal production field.%MAP(major acute phase protein)是一种肝脏合成的急性期反应蛋白,分子量约为120 kDa,属于ITI(inter-α-trypsin inhibitor)家族.MAP与动物的营养和健康状态密切相关,研究表明机体MAP水平可反映动物的疾病状态及其严重程度,还可作为肉质与常规管理中动物福利的有效监测指标.文章综述了MAP的种类与结构特征及其合成过程,并进一步介绍了其在动物的营养与健康中的应用,就MAP在动物生产领域中的应用和研究重点及发展方向作了展望.

  11. Beneficial uses program. Progress report ending December 31, 1979

    None

    1980-06-01

    Progress is reported in research on uses of irradiated sewage sludge, particularly as a cattle feed supplement and commercial fertilizer additive, on potential sites for irradiator demonstration plants, and on the inactivation of enteric bacteria by radiation treatment. (LCL)

  12. Effects-of nuclear factor-kappa B in the progress of acute pancreatitis%NF-κB在急性胰腺炎病程进展中的作用

    纪涛; 汤志刚

    2008-01-01

    细胞因子的级联释放是急性胰腺(acute pancreatitis,AP)病情加重的重要因素,最终导致多器官功能障碍和死亡.核因子-κB(nuclear factor-kappa B,NF-κB)作为一种多项性调节作用的核转录因子,能与多种基因启动子部位kB位点特异性结合,引起炎症反应和凋亡等多种病理生理反应.研究发现选用NF-kB抑制剂对其活性进行抑制,能抑制机体的炎症反应,明显改善急性胰腺炎的预后,可以作为一个潜在的新靶点治疗急性胰腺炎.然而,亦有研究发现抑制NF-κB能明显加重急性胰腺炎病情,因此,研究NF-κB在炎症反应中占有重要的研究地位.%The cascade release of cytokine the critical aggravation factor for acute pancreatitis,induces the multi-ple organ dysfunction syndrome (MODS) and death at last. Nuclear factor-kappa B as a number of regulation of the nuclear factor can specific bind with a variety of gene promoter sites κB site, which cause inflammatory reaction, apoptosis, pathophysiologic reaction. The specific inhibitor of nuclear factor-kappa B can inhibit the activity of nu-clear factor-kappaB, inhibit the body's inflammatory response, and improve the prognosis of acute pancreatitis; it may be a potential target site for acute pancreatitis therapy. However, the other researches also found that inhibition of nuclear facter-κB could significantly increase the aggravation of acute pancreatitis. Accordingly, nuclear factor-kappa B research possess the important rank about the body's inflammatory respanse.

  13. Acute coagulopathy of trauma

    Johansson, P I; Ostrowski, S R

    2010-01-01

    Acute coagulopathy of trauma predicts a poor clinical outcome. Tissue trauma activates the sympathoadrenal system resulting in high circulating levels of catecholamines that influence hemostasis dose-dependently through immediate effects on the two major compartments of hemostasis, i.......e., the circulating blood and the vascular endothelium. There appears to be a dose-dependency with regards to injury severity and the hemostatic response to trauma evaluated in whole blood by viscoelastic assays like thrombelastography (TEG), changing from normal to hypercoagulable, to hypocoagulable and finally......, is an evolutionary developed response that counterbalances the injury and catecholamine induced endothelial activation and damage. Given this, the rise in circulating catecholamines in trauma patients may favor a switch from hyper- to hypocoagulability in the blood to keep the progressively more procoagulant...

  14. [Acute retinal necrosis].

    Lucke, K; Reinking, U; el-Hifnawi, E; Dennin, R H; Laqua, H

    1988-12-01

    The authors report on three patients with acute retinal necrosis who were treated with the virostatic agent Acyclovir and who underwent vitreoretinal surgery with silicone oil filling for total retinal detachment. In two eyes the retina was reattached, but useful vision was only preserved in one patient. Titers from blood and the vitreous, as well as microscopic findings in retinal biopsies, support the view that the necrosis is caused by a herpes simplex virus infection. After therapy with Acyclovir was instituted no further progression on the necrosis was observed. However, the development of retinal detachment could not be prevented. Early diagnosis and antiviral therapy are essential to improve the otherwise poor prognosis in this rare syndrome. PMID:3221657

  15. Breast feeding and oral rehydration at home during diarrhoea to prevent dehydration.

    Faruque, A S; Mahalanabis, D.; Islam, A.; Hoque, S. S.; A. Hasnat

    1992-01-01

    In a case-control study we evaluated the role of maternal behaviour, as reflected in maintenance of breast feeding and the use of oral rehydration therapy (ORT) at home during acute diarrhoea, in preventing dehydration in infants and young children. A systematic 5% sample was taken of all children aged 1-35 months attending the treatment centre of the International Centre for Diarrhoeal Disease Research, Bangladesh, with acute watery diarrhoea of six days or less between August 1988 and Septe...

  16. RECURRENT SEASONAL ACUTE PSYCHOSIS

    Agarwal, Vivek

    1999-01-01

    Acute psychoses have been reported to occur more frequently in summer. This is a report of seasonal recurrence of acute psychosis in a patient. This case report emphasizes towards the biological etiology of acute psychoses.

  17. Acute cerebellar ataxia

    Cerebellar ataxia; Ataxia - acute cerebellar; Cerebellitis; Post-varicella acute cerebellar ataxia; PVACA ... Acute cerebellar ataxia in children, especially younger than age 3, may occur several weeks after an illness caused by a virus. ...

  18. Implementing WHO Feeding Guidelines for Inpatient Management of Malnourished Children

    Objective: To evaluate the efficacy of adopting WHO feeding guidelines on weight gain and case fatality rate in malnourished children. Study Design: Cross-sectional, observational study. Place and Duration of Study: Department of Pediatrics, Dow University of Health Sciences, Karachi, from 2009 to 2010. Methodology: Patients above 6 months and less than 5 years of age with severe malnutrition were included during the study period, acute complications were treated and nutritional rehabilitation by WHO feeding formulae was done. Demographic details, clinical features, reasons for weight gain and risk factors of mortality were analyzed. Results: A total of 131 children were included. Mean age of children was 22 +- 18 months. There were 78% marasmic, 4% kwashiorkor and marasmic kwashiorkor 18% children. Resolution of edema took 8 +- 4 days, dermatosis cleared in 11 +- 3 days. Mean hospital stay was 10 +- 8 days. Case fatality rate was 13%. Mean weight gain was 5.25 +- 4.57 g/kg/day. Weight gain of > 5 gm/kg/day was associated with hospital stay of more than 7 days, acceptability and palatability of feed by the children and mothers and early clearance of infections. Conclusion: Implementation of WHO feeding guidelines resulted in adequate weight gain of inpatient malnourished children, however, adequate healthcare services are available at the therapeutic feeding centers. (author)

  19. Enteral Nutrition and Acute Pancreatitis: A Review

    Spanier, B.W.M.; Bruno, M.J.; Mathus-Vliegen, E.M.H.

    2010-01-01

    textabstractIntroduction. In patients with acute pancreatitis (AP), nutritional support is required if normal food cannot be tolerated within several days. Enteral nutrition is preferred over parenteral nutrition. We reviewed the literature about enteral nutrition in AP. Methods. A MEDLINE search of the English language literature between 1999-2009. Results. Nasogastric tube feeding appears to be safe and well tolerated in the majority of patients with severe AP, rendering the concept of panc...

  20. Aquaculture feed and food safety.

    Tacon, Albert G J; Metian, Marc

    2008-10-01

    The ultimate objective of an aquaculture feed manufacturer and aquaculture food supplier is to ensure that the feed or food produced is both safe and wholesome. Reported food safety risks, which may be associated with the use of commercial animal feeds, including compound aquaculture feeds, usually result from the possible presence of unwanted contaminants, either within the feed ingredients used or from the external contamination of the finished feed on prolonged storage. The major animal feed contaminants that have been reported to date have included Salmonellae, mycotoxins, veterinary drug residues, persistent organic pollutants, agricultural and other chemicals (solvent residues, melamine), heavy metals (mercury, lead, cadmium) and excess mineral salts (hexavalent chromium, arsenic, selenium, flourine), and transmissible spongiform encephalopathies. Apart from the direct negative effect of these possible contaminants on the health of the cultured target species, there is a risk that the feed contaminants may be passed along the food chain, via contaminated aquaculture produce, to consumers. In recent years, public concern regarding food safety has increased as a consequence of the increasing prevalence of antibiotic residues, persistent organic pollutants, and chemicals in farmed seafood. The important role played by the Food and Agriculture Organization of the United Nations (FAO) and the Codex Alimentarius Commission in the development of international standards, guidelines, and recommendations to protect the health of consumers and ensure fair practices in the food trade is discussed. PMID:18991902

  1. Gut regulatory peptides and intestinal permeability in acute infantile gastroenteritis.

    Lawson, G R; Nelson, R.; Laker, M F; Ghatei, M A; Bloom, S R; Aynsley-Green, A.

    1992-01-01

    The plasma concentrations of seven gut regulatory peptides were measured in 11 infants suffering from acute gastroenteritis. Samples were taken at the time of the acute illness, upon reintroduction of feeding, and three months after recovery. These results were compared with controls. In the infants with diarrhoea, a massive increase in the fasting plasma mean (SEM) concentrations of enteroglucagon was found at the time of illness (1292 (312) v 79 (27) pmol/l), with concentrations of pancreat...

  2. Radiation sterilization of livestock feeds

    The radiation sterilization of livestock feeds is not much used presently because the process is not known well, and the cost is relatively high. However, its effect of sterilization is absolute, the radiation-sterilized feeds are safe in both nutrition and toxicity, and do not affect the appetite of livestocks, and the radiation energy required is small. In the future, as in the sterilization of medical supplies, feed radiation sterilization plants should be established, to stabilize livestock industry and to contribute to the health control of experimental animals. The following matters are described: radiation, comparison between radiation sterilization and other sterilization methods, the practice of feed radiation sterilization, the adverse effects of radiation sterilization, economic aspect, and the situation of feed radiation sterilization in various countries. (Mori, K.)

  3. Extracorporal hemodialysis with acute or decompensated chronical hepatic failure

    Wasem, Jürgen; Caspary, Wolfgang; Siebert, Uwe; Schnell-Inderst, Petra; Grabein, Kristin; Hessel, Franz

    2006-01-01

    Background: Conventional diagnostic procedures and therapy of acute liver failure (ALF) and acute-on-chronic liver failure (ACLF) focus on to identify triggering events of the acute deterioration of the liver function and to avoid them. Further objectives are to prevent the development respectively the progression of secondary organ dysfunctions or organ failure. Most of the times the endocrinological function of the liver can to a wide extent be compensated, but the removal of toxins can onl...

  4. Acute bilateral isolated foot drop: Report of two cases

    Kertmen, H.; Gürer, B.; Yimaz, E. R.; Sekerci, Z.

    2015-01-01

    Foot drop is defined as the weakness of the foot and ankle dorsiflexion. Acute unilateral foot drop is a well-documented entity, whereas bilateral foot drop is rarely documented. Slowly progressing bilateral foot drop may occur with various metabolic causes, parasagittal intracranial pathologies, and cauda equina syndrome. Acute onset of bilateral foot drop due to disc herniation is extremely rare. Here we present two cases of acute bilateral foot drop due to disc herniation. The first patien...

  5. The Progress of Prognostic Indicators of Roperfusion Therapies in Acute Myocardial Infarction Patients%急性心肌梗死患者再灌注治疗后影响预后指标的研究进展

    王飞; 赵瑞平

    2015-01-01

    Acute myocardial infarction is a common diseases which can result serious public health problem. Since the 1980s of the 20th century, the launch of the reperfusion therapy (thrombolytic therapy and emergency PCI), protect the heart function in greatest degree, reduce the mortality signiifcantly. However, the post-AMI complications after reperfusion therapy for patients is the focus of attention in medical profession. Therefore, the study affect reperfusion therapy in patients with AMI prognosis and their timely treatment or preventive measures taken, to improve the quality of life of patients and long-term survival rate is particularly important. This article focuses on some biochemical indicators of prognosis of Roperfusion therapies in Acute Myocardial Infarction Patients.%急性心肌梗死(acute myocardial infarction,AMI)是急性、持续性缺血、缺氧所引起的心肌坏死,对人类健康的危害极大。20世纪80年代以来,再灌注治疗(静脉溶栓和急诊PCI)的开展最大程度的保护了心功能,明显降低了病死率[1]。但是,给予再灌注治疗后的AMI患者后期所出现的并发症是目前医学界关注的焦点[2-3]。因此,研究影响AMI患者再灌注治疗预后的指标并采取相应治疗措施对患者的预后显得非常重要。本文着重讨论影响急性心肌梗死患者再灌注治疗预后的一些相关生化指标。

  6. Acute Myopericarditis Mimicking Acute Myocardial Infarction

    Seval İzdeş; Neriman Defne Altıntaş; Gülin Karaaslan; Recep Uygun; Abdulkadir But

    2011-01-01

    Acute coronary syndromes among young adults are relatively low when compared with older population in the intensive care unit. Electrocardiographic abnormalities mimicking acute coronary syndromes may be caused by non-coronary syndromes and the differential diagnosis requires a detailed evaluation. We are reporting a case of myopericarditis presenting with acute ST elevation and elevated cardiac enzymes simulating acute coronary syndrome. In this case report, the literature is reviewed to dis...

  7. Changes of Soluble CD40 Ligand in the Progression of Acute Myocardial Infarction Associate to Endothelial Nitric Oxide Synthase Polymorphisms and Vascular Endothelial Growth Factor But Not to Platelet CD62P Expression

    Napoleão, P.; Monteiro, MC; Cabral, L.; Criado, MB; Ramos, C.; Selas, M; Viegas-Crespo, AM; Saldanha, C.; Mota Carmo, M; Cruz Ferreira, R; Pinheiro, T.

    2015-01-01

    Reported in vitro data implicated soluble CD40 ligand (sCD40L) in endothelial dysfunction and angiogenesis. However, whether sCD40L could exert that influence in endothelial dysfunction and angiogenesis after injury in acute myocardial infarction (AMI) patients remains unclear. In the present study, we evaluated the association of sCD40L with markers of platelet activation, endothelial, and vascular function during a recovery period early after AMI. To achieve this goal, the time changes of s...

  8. Acute maduramicin toxicosis in pregnant gilts.

    Shimshoni, Jakob Avi; Britzi, Malka; Pozzi, Paolo S; Edery, Nir; Berkowitz, Asaf; Bouznach, Arieli; Cuneah, Olga; Soback, Stefan; Bellaiche, Michel; Younis, Ahmad; Blech, Einat; Oren, Pnina; Galon, Nadav; Shlosberg, Alan; Perl, Samuel

    2014-06-01

    Ionophores are used as feed additives for the control of coccidiosis and growth promotion in farm animals. Reports of maduramicin toxicosis in farm animals are scarce. The present work describes an acute maduramicin toxicosis affecting 22 pregnant gilts, 2 pregnant sows and 2 boars, resulting in a total mortality of 65% within 2days. The clinical and histopathological findings observed shared similar characteristics to acute ionophore toxicosis in pigs, being characterized by severe myodegeneration in skeletal muscle and degenerative changes in the myocardium. Important clinical pathology indices found were elevated levels of CPK and ALT. In contrast to the pregnant gilts, the two pregnant sows completely recovered after 1month and farrowed 2months after the intoxication event healthy piglets. The lack of effect of maduramicin on the fetuses might be indicative of poor placental penetration of maduramicin. Moreover, the present work reports for the first time maduramicin levels in livers (0.5mg/kg) of gilts exposed to lethal concentrations of maduramicin (18.5mg/kg) in the feed. As the average feed intake of the gilts was estimated to be 3.5kg feed/day, the mean maduramicin intake leading to the observed high mortality rate was 0.4mg/kg body weight/day. PMID:24705019

  9. Changes in whole-blood PUFA and their predictors during recovery from severe acute malnutrition

    Babirekere Iriso, Esther; Mortensen, Charlotte G.; Mupere, Ezekiel; Rytter, Maren Johanne Heilskov; Namusoke, Hanifa; Michaelsen, Kim F.; Briend, André; Stark, Ken D; Friis, Henrik; Lauritzen, Lotte

    2016-01-01

    Children with severe acute malnutrition (SAM) with complications require in-patient management including therapeutic feeding. Little attention has been given to the effects of these feeds on the essential fatty acid status of children with SAM. The objective of this study was to describe changes in...

  10. Research Progress in Assessment of Severity and Prognosis for Acute Pancreatitis%急性胰腺炎严重程度及预后评估的研究进展

    雷衍军

    2013-01-01

    急性胰腺炎(AP)是一种临床常见的急腹症,发病机制尚未完全阐明,且尚无理想的防治方法,故早期评估AP的严重程度及预后对早期给予合理的支持治疗以及改善预后非常重要,是临床研究的热点.目前有诸多评分系统、影像学检查以及实验室生化指标对AP严重程度及预后进行评估,现对各种评估方法的评估能力进行综合分析.%Acute pancreatitis( AP)is a clinical common acute abdomen disease. The pathogenesis has not been completely elucidated and there is no ideal method of prevention,therefore earlier assessment of the severity and prognosis is important to allowing the effective support treatment and improving the prognosis, which is the hotspot of clinical research. The assessment systems for the severity and prognosis of AP include clinical scoring systems, imaging modalities and biochemical markers. Here is to analyze the evaluation capability of these assessment systems.

  11. Enteral versus parenteral nutrition in acute pancreatitis.

    Guillou, P J

    1999-07-01

    Conventional wisdom has previously dictated that, in order to avoid stimulation of pancreatic secretion during acute pancreatitis, and thus avoid the perpetuation of the enzymatic activation from which the pancreatitis originated, enteral feeding should be avoided. With greater understanding of the potential role of the gastrointestinal tract in the development of a systemic inflammatory response within a number of scenarios, this dogma has recently been challenged. Moreover, there is some evidence to suggest that starving the gastrointestinal tract and providing nutritional support via the parenteral route may be associated with an increased incidence of septic complications. Experimental and clinical evidence suggests that feeding the gut may diminish intestinal permeability to endotoxin and diminish bacterial translocation, thus reducing the cytokine drive to the generalized inflammatory response and preventing organ dysfunction. Preliminary experience suggests that the institution of jejunal (but not gastric or duodenal) nutrition within 48 hours of the onset of severe acute pancreatitis diminishes endotoxic exposure, diminishes the cytokine and systemic inflammatory responses, avoids antioxidant consumption and does not cause the radiological appearances of the pancreas to deteriorate. These observations are paralleled by improvements in clinical outcome measures such as intensive care unit stay, septic complications and mortality. Whist parenteral nutrition continues to have a role in the management of acute pancreatitis particularly when complicated by fistulae or prolonged ileus, the early introduction of jejunal nutrition merits further investigation in acute pancreatitis. PMID:11030611

  12. Feed palatability and the alternative protein sources in shrimp feed

    Chutima Tantikitti

    2014-02-01

    Full Text Available Feed palatability in carnivorous aquaculture species, shrimps in particular, has been crucially related to the presence of compounds acting as attractants that are commonly associated with the prey components under wild conditions. Thus a nutritionally adequate and organoleptically-pleasing diet is essential to achieve satisfactory intake and growth in shrimps. Historically, fishmeal has been an essential dietary component of intensive shrimp cultures because of its nutrient composition and compounds of high attractability. However, in recent years the fishmeal supplies have been dwindling due to over hunting, a diminishing natural fish-stock, elevating prices and market volatility. This has led to search for cheaper sources of suitable protein as fishmeal substitutes. To improve the palatability of diets, various substances have been investigated for their effectiveness in aqua-feed including natural feed ingredients and synthetic flavor substances. For crustacean, attractants characteristically are of low molecular weight, water and ethanol soluble, and amphoteric or basic compounds that are released from potential prey items. Compounds such as free amino acids, especially taurine, hydroxyproline, glycine, arginine, glutamic acid and alanine have been identified to stimulate feeding in shrimps. The same has been identified with organic acids, nucleotides and nucleosides, betaine, and some small peptides. Palatability also has been associated with animal’s past experience with the feed. Understanding the factors that regulate feed palatability is therefore primary for successful shrimp culture.

  13. Supporting the Breast-feeding Dyad

    Ellis, Donelda

    1986-01-01

    Although there has been a resurgence of breast-feeding in the last decade, 50% of women discontinue exclusive breast-feeding by the third month postpartum. Practices known to interfere with breast-feeding are often begun in hospital and continued at home. The physiology of lactation, the need for interaction between mother and infant during breast-feeding, and research findings indicate that scheduled feeds, feeds of limited duration, supplementation, and separation of mothers and infants int...

  14. The Potential for Engineering Enhanced Functional-Feed Soybeans for Sustainable Aquaculture Feed

    Herman, Eliot M.; Schmidt, Monica A.

    2016-01-01

    Aquaculture is the most rapidly growing segment of global animal production that now surpasses wild-capture fisheries production and is continuing to grow 10% annually. Sustainable aquaculture needs to diminish, and progressively eliminate, its dependence on fishmeal-sourced feed from over-harvested fisheries. Sustainable aquafeed sources will need to be primarily of plant-origin. Soybean is currently the primary global vegetable-origin protein source for aquaculture. Direct exchange of soybean meal for fishmeal in aquafeed has resulted in reduced growth rates due in part to soybean’s anti-nutritional proteins. To produce soybeans for use in aquaculture feeds a new conventional line has been bred termed Triple Null by stacking null alleles for the feed-relevant proteins Kunitz Trypsin Inhibitor, lectin, and P34 allergen. Triple Null is now being further enhanced as a platform to build additional transgene traits for vaccines, altered protein composition, and to produce high levels of β-carotene an intrinsic orange-colored aquafeed marker to distinguish the seeds from commodity beans and as the metabolic feedstock precursor of highly valued astaxanthin. PMID:27092158

  15. The Potential for Engineering Enhanced Functional-Feed Soybeans for Sustainable Aquaculture Feed.

    Herman, Eliot M; Schmidt, Monica A

    2016-01-01

    Aquaculture is the most rapidly growing segment of global animal production that now surpasses wild-capture fisheries production and is continuing to grow 10% annually. Sustainable aquaculture needs to diminish, and progressively eliminate, its dependence on fishmeal-sourced feed from over-harvested fisheries. Sustainable aquafeed sources will need to be primarily of plant-origin. Soybean is currently the primary global vegetable-origin protein source for aquaculture. Direct exchange of soybean meal for fishmeal in aquafeed has resulted in reduced growth rates due in part to soybean's anti-nutritional proteins. To produce soybeans for use in aquaculture feeds a new conventional line has been bred termed Triple Null by stacking null alleles for the feed-relevant proteins Kunitz Trypsin Inhibitor, lectin, and P34 allergen. Triple Null is now being further enhanced as a platform to build additional transgene traits for vaccines, altered protein composition, and to produce high levels of β-carotene an intrinsic orange-colored aquafeed marker to distinguish the seeds from commodity beans and as the metabolic feedstock precursor of highly valued astaxanthin. PMID:27092158

  16. Acute abdomen

    The book first presents the anatomy and physiology of the abdomen and continues with chapters discussing clinical and laboratory aspects and a suitable order of diagnostic examinations with reference to the acute processes, explaining the diagnostic tools: ultrasonography, radiography including angiography and CT, tapping techniques and endoscopy together with their basic principles, examination techniques, and diagnosis. One chapter presents a complete survey of the processes involving the entire abdomen - as e.g. peritonitis, ileus, abdominal trauma, intraperitoneal hemorrage. This chapter profoundly discusses the diagnostics and therapies including emergency measures and surgery. Problems requiring consultation among varous specialists, in internal medicine, gynecology, urology, or pediatrics, are discussed in great detail. Information for the anesthetist is given for cases of emergency. More than one third of the book is devoted to organ-specific information, dicussing the pathogenesis, diagnostics, and therapy of the oesophagus, stomach, large and small intestine, bile ducts, pankreas, liver, spleen, and the abdominal vessels and the abdominal wall. (orig.) With 153 figs., 90 tabs

  17. Acute pancreatitis

    A prospective study was performed on the relationship of CT findings to the clinical course of 148 patients with acute pancreatitis. The type of pancreatic inflammation seen on CT was classified into six categories based on an overall assessment of size, contour and density of the gland, and peripancreatic abnormalities. The majority (94%) of patients in whom CT showed mild pancreatic changes (grades A, B and C) had two or less positive clinical indicaters of severe pancreatitis (Ranson's signs). In contrast, 92% of patients in whom CT showed more severe changes of pancreatitis (grades D, E or F) had three or more positive signs. The nine patients who died with pancreatitis-related complications were in grades D, E or F. We wish to draw attention to a CT appearance which we have called 'fat islets' (low density intrapancreatic or peripancreatic areas, the contents of which approach fat in attenuation values); there was a strong correlation between this appearance and subsequent infection. (author). 24 refs.; 7 figs.; 4 tabs

  18. 足踝部急性损伤的治疗要点与最新进展%PROGRESS AND MAIN POINTS IN TREATMENT OF ACUTE FOOT AND ANKLE INJURIES

    俞光荣; 赵宏谋

    2011-01-01

    Objective To give a review and commentary on the treatment of acute foot and ankle injuries. Methods Based on the treatment experience and recent literature, a commentary on acute foot and ankle injuries were given, included the basic and clinical research results, evaluation before operation, and treatment methods of the soft tissue and bone injuries. Results The treatment of acute foot and ankle injuries is still a hot point in orthopaedic surgery. Operative and non-operative treatment of fresh Achilles tendon rupture can achieve satisfactory results, and early weight-bearing do not increase the re-rupture rate. The time delay between first debridement and injury within 24 hours does not increase the infection rate. For the treatment of severe ankle fractures, attentions should be paid to the cartilage injury, and anatomic reduction, good realignment, and the congruity recovery are very important. The treatment determination of calcaneal fractures depends on the fully understanding injury mechanisms, classifications, and treatment method. Talus fractures should try to be treated by experienced surgeons. Operation and fixation methods of Lisfranc injury depends on different injury types. Conclusion Acute foot and ankle injuries are common in clinical, to achieve a satisfactory result in evaluation and treatment, it is important to have a fully evaluation of the injury type, and choose the best operation time and suitable treatment methods, as well as to fully understand the biomechanical characteristics of different regions.%目的 对足踝部急性损伤的评估、治疗要点及相关进展进行评述.方法 根据临床治疗经验和近期文献报道结果,对常见的足踝部损伤,包括软组织损伤和骨性损伤的相关基础研究结果 、术前评估、合理及个体化的治疗方案选择进行分析评述,并对相关临床报道进行总结.结果 足踝部急性损伤的修复仍是临床和基础研究的热点.急性跟腱断裂手术

  19. Feeding profiles of tame moose

    US Fish and Wildlife Service, Department of the Interior — This report is on the feeding profiles of tame moose. 3 moose were observed for 99 hours while in natural range, each bite plant species, browse conditions and size...

  20. 急性心肌梗死并发心源性休克的干预进展%Progress on intervention for acute myocardial infarction complicated with cardiogenic shock

    张文芳; 胡桃红; 丁力平

    2013-01-01

    Cardiogenic shock is one of the most serious complications of acute myocardial infarction with an incidence rate of 7% to 10%. In recent years, with the development of revascularization techniques, such as percutanous coronary intervention (PCI) and coronary artery bypass grafting (CABG), the effective cooperation of dopamine and intraaortic balloon pumping (IABP), and the application of new drug-levosimendan, and mechanical circulatory assist devices, ventricular assist device (VAD) and extracorporeal membrane oxygenation (ECMO), the mortality rate has declined from 70%-80% in 1970s to 50% now. In this paper, we summarized the diagnostic criteria, pathophysiology and interventional measures for cardiogenic shock secondary to acute myocardial infarction.%心源性休克是急性心肌梗死(AMI)最严重的并发症之一,其发病率为7%~10%.近些年,随着经皮冠状动脉介入术(PCI)、冠状动脉旁路移植术(CABG)等血运重建技术的熟练应用和多巴胺、主动脉球囊反搏技术(IABP)的有效配合,以及新型药物左西孟坦和心室辅助装置(VAD)、体外膜氧合(ECMO)的应用,其病死率由70年代的70%~80%下降到50%.本文综述了急性心肌梗死并发的心源性休克的诊断标准、病理生理机制、尤其是干预手段的应用进展.

  1. 同型半胱氨酸水平与急性脑梗死患者梗死面积及病情进展的关系%The correlation between homocysteine and infarct size and disease progress of patients with acute cerebral in-farction

    张永祥; 王霆; 江宏杰

    2014-01-01

    目的:探讨同型半胱氨酸水平与急性脑梗死患者梗死面积及病情进展的关系。方法选择我院神经内科收治的105例急性脑梗死患者,检测患者同型半胱氨酸水平并分析其与临床症状的关系。结果不同脑梗死面积患者之间的同型半胱氨酸水平比较差异有统计学意义( P<0.05);不同程度神经功能障碍患者之间的同型半胱氨酸水平比较差异有统计学意义( P<0.05);高同型半胱氨酸组患者中出现轻度神经功能障碍和重度神经功能障碍的比例与正常同型半胱氨酸组差异有统计学意义(P<0.05);高同型半胱氨酸组出现病情进展的比例与正常同型半胱氨酸组比较差异有统计学意义(P<0.05)。结论同型半胱氨酸水平可反映急性脑梗死患者梗死面积,有助于了解病情进展情况。%Objective To investigate the correlation between homocysteine and infarct size and disease progress of patients with acute cerebral infarction .Methods 105 patients with acute cerebral infarction in the department of neurology of our hospi-tal were selected as the subjects ,homocysteine level was detected and its correlation with clinical symptoms was analyzed .Re-sults Homocysteine levels in different infarct size of patients were significant difference (P<0 .05);Homocysteine levels in patients with different degrees of neurological dysfunction were significant difference (P< 0 .05);The proportion of patients with Mild and severe neurological dysfunction in high homocysteine groups was significant difference from that of normal homo-cysteine groups(P< 0 .05);The proportion of patients with disease progression in high homocysteine group was significant difference from that of normal homocysteine group (P<0 .05) .Conclusion Homocysteine level can reflect the infarct size of pa-tients with acute cerebral infarction .It is instrumental to understand the progress of acute cerebral infarction .

  2. Acute Salpingitis in a Nonsexually Active Adolescent.

    Fein, Daniel M; Sellinger, Catherine; Fagan, Michele J

    2015-12-01

    Acute salpingitis is an uncommon cause of an acute surgical abdomen, especially in an adolescent who is not sexually active. The following is a case of a 12-year-old girl who denied sexual activity, had a remote history of an appendectomy, and a recent diagnosis of a large, right-sided ovarian cyst, who presented with acute abdominal pain, urinary symptoms, and fever. The patient was ill-appearing and progressed to uncompensated septic shock in the emergency department despite aggressive fluid resuscitation and empiric antibiotics. She ultimately underwent an exploratory laparotomy and was diagnosed with acute bilateral salpingitis. This case highlights the diagnostic dilemmas facing those caring for an adolescent girl with abdominal pain and presents an extremely rare etiology for abdominal pain in a nonsexually active adolescent. PMID:26626893

  3. Infant feeding practices in Malaysia.

    Chen, S T

    1978-12-01

    Retrospective nutritional data on 100 children, aged 6 months to 2 1/2 years, who were admitted to the University Hospital in Kuala Lumpur, Malaysia, was obtained by interviewing the mothers of the children. Analysis of the data revealed that 1) only 49% of the children were breast-fed as infants; 2) 50% of the mothers who did breast-feed discontinued breast-feeding before the children were 3 months old; and 3) the weaning diet of at least 1/3 of the children was inadequate. 18% of the children were Malays, 49% were Chinese, and 33% were Indian. The proportion of breast-fed children was highest among the Malays and lowest among the Chinese. Mothers with higher incomes tended to stop breast-feeding earlier than mothers with lower incomes. 67% of the women said they stopped breast-feeding due to inadequate lactation. Most of the children received supplementary foods at relatively early ages. 50% of the infants received starchy foods by the time they were 3 1/2 months old, and 50% received fruit or fruit juice by the time they were 3 1/2 months old. Vegetable products, meat, fish, and eggs were not added to the diet until the children were considerably older. Recommendations, based on the study findings, were 1) hospitals should discontinue the practice of deferring breast-feeding initiation for 24 hours after delivery; 2) mothers should be encouraged to breast-feed fully; and 3) health personnel should discourage the widespread use of costly precooked cereals for supplementary feeding. Tables depicted 1) the frequency distribution of the 100 children by income and by milk feeding patterns according to ethnic affiliation and 2) the cost of serving precooked cereals as compared to the cost of serving home cooked meals. PMID:755160

  4. Feeding Disorders in Williams Syndrome

    S. M Greis

    2009-01-01

    Statement of Purpose: Children with Williams Syndrome are at risk for a myriad of developmental disabilities because of the complicated medical and neurological conditions. Little has been written about the specific types of feeding problems in these children. A better understanding of how this syndrome affects a child’s ability to manipulate increasingly complex food textures and advance oral motor function could provide improved outcomes for feeding and swallowing developme...

  5. Feed quality in swine diet

    Živković Branislav

    2002-01-01

    Full Text Available The paper will demonstrate the quality of some feed used in swine diet. The emphasis will be on feed whose incorporation into mixes could result in unfavorable effects on production, health and economic production of swine. Data will be presented on maize and its possible negative effects, having in mind toxins. Soybean meal, or genetically modified soybean meal, will also be observed. The next feed which will be discussed will be soybean whey obtained by different procedures and the potential dangers of its use in swine diet rations. Sunflower meal, feed of animal origin, with emphasis on fish flour and meat-bone flour will also be covered in the work. A feed which has been attracting particular attention lately is yeast imported from Italy. Its quality characteristics will be discussed, the so-called non-protein nitrogen. Analyses of mineral feed will include sources of phosphorus, phosphates (monocalciumphosphate, dicalcium phosphate phytases and resolving the problem of phosphorus in swine rations. Finally, an inevitable segment are synthetic amino acids, especially lysine and its role in swine diet.

  6. Role of oleoylethanolamide as a feeding regulator in goldfish.

    Tinoco, Ana B; Armirotti, Andrea; Isorna, Esther; Delgado, María J; Piomelli, Daniele; de Pedro, Nuria

    2014-08-01

    Oleoylethanolamide (OEA) is a bioactive lipid mediator, produced in the intestine and other tissues, which is involved in energy balance regulation in mammals, modulating feeding and lipid metabolism. The purpose of the present study was to investigate the presence and possible role of OEA in feeding regulation in goldfish (Carassius auratus). We assessed whether goldfish peripheral tissues and brain contain OEA and their regulation by nutritional status. OEA was detected in all studied tissues (liver, intestinal bulb, proximal intestine, muscle, hypothalamus, telencephalon and brainstem). Food deprivation (48 h) reduced intestinal OEA levels and levels increased upon re-feeding, suggesting that this compound may be involved in the short-term regulation of food intake in goldfish, as a satiety factor. Next, the effects of acute intraperitoneal administration of OEA on feeding, swimming and plasma levels of glucose and triglycerides were analysed. Food intake, swimming activity and circulating triglyceride levels were reduced by OEA 2 h post-injection. Finally, the possible interplay among OEA and other feeding regulators (leptin, cholecystokinin, ghrelin, neuropeptide Y, orexin and monoamines) was investigated. OEA actions on energy homeostasis in goldfish could be mediated, at least in part, through interactions with ghrelin and the serotonergic system, as OEA treatment reduced ghrelin expression in the intestinal bulb, and increased serotonergic activity in the telencephalon. In summary, our results indicate for the first time in fish that OEA could be involved in the regulation of feeding, swimming and lipid metabolism, suggesting a high conservation of OEA actions in energy balance throughout vertebrate evolution. PMID:24855680

  7. Acute alcohol-induced liver injury

    Gavin Edward Arteel

    2012-06-01

    Full Text Available Alcohol consumption is customary in most cultures and alcohol abuse is common worldwide. For example, more than 50% of Americans consume alcohol, with an estimated 23.1% of Americans participating in heavy and/or binge drinking at least once a month. A safe and effective therapy for alcoholic liver disease (ALD in humans is still elusive, despite significant advances in our understanding of how the disease is initiated and progresses. It is now clear that acute alcohol binges not only can be acutely toxic to the liver, but also can contribute to the chronicity of ALD. Potential mechanisms by which acute alcohol causes damage include steatosis, dysregulated immunity and inflammation and altered gut permeability. Recent interest in modeling acute alcohol exposure has yielded new insights into potential mechanisms of acute injury, that also may well be relevant for chronic ALD. Recent work by this group on the role of PAI-1 and fibrin metabolism in mediating acute alcohol-induced liver damage serve as an example of possible new targets that may be useful for alcohol abuse, be it acute or chronic.

  8. High Level Waste Feed Certification in Hanford Double Shell Tanks

    The ability to effectively mix, sample, certify, and deliver consistent batches of High Level Waste (HLW) feed from the Hanford Double Shell Tanks (DST) to the Waste Treatment and Immobilization Plant (WTP) presents a significant mission risk with potential to impact mission length and the quantity of HLW glass produced. DOE's River Protection Project (RPP) mission modeling and WTP facility modeling assume that individual 3785 cubic meter (1 million gallon) HLW feed tanks are homogenously mixed, representatively sampled, and consistently delivered to the WTP. It has been demonstrated that homogenous mixing of HLW sludge in Hanford DSTs is not likely achievable with the baseline design thereby causing representative sampling and consistent feed delivery to be more difficult. Inconsistent feed to the WTP could cause additional batch to batch operational adjustments that reduces operating efficiency and has the potential to increase the overall mission length. The Hanford mixing and sampling demonstration program will identify DST mixing performance capability, will evaluate representative sampling techniques, and will estimate feed batch consistency. An evaluation of demonstration program results will identify potential mission improvement considerations that will help ensure successful mission completion. This paper will discuss the history, progress, and future activities that will define and mitigate the mission risk.

  9. High Level Waste Feed Certification in Hanford Double Shell Tanks

    Thien, Micheal G.; Wells, Beric E.; Adamson, Duane J.

    2010-03-01

    The ability to effectively mix, sample, certify, and deliver consistent batches of High Level Waste (HLW) feed from the Hanford Double Shell Tanks (DST) to the Waste Treatment and Immobilization Plant (WTP) presents a significant mission risk with potential to impact mission length and the quantity of HLW glass produced. DOE’s River Protection Project (RPP) mission modeling and WTP facility modeling assume that individual 3785 cubic meter (1 million gallon) HLW feed tanks are homogenously mixed, representatively sampled, and consistently delivered to the WTP. It has been demonstrated that homogenous mixing of HLW sludge in Hanford DSTs is not likely achievable with the baseline design thereby causing representative sampling and consistent feed delivery to be more difficult. Inconsistent feed to the WTP could cause additional batch to batch operational adjustments that reduces operating efficiency and has the potential to increase the overall mission length. The Hanford mixing and sampling demonstration program will identify DST mixing performance capability, will evaluate representative sampling techniques, and will estimate feed batch consistency. An evaluation of demonstration program results will identify potential mission improvement considerations that will help ensure successful mission completion. This paper will discuss the history, progress, and future activities that will define and mitigate the mission risk.

  10. Acute aortic intramural hematoma

    Bae, Oh Keun; Choi, Yo Won; Kim, Kwon Hyung; Jeon, Seok Chol; Park, Choong Kee; Seo, Heung Suk; Hahm, Chang Kok [Hanyang Univ. College of Medicine, Seoul (Korea, Republic of)

    1997-02-01

    To evaluate the radiologic findings of acute intramural hematoma of the aorta, and the clinical follow up thereof. Among 34 cases confirmed clinically and radiologically as aortic dissection, and analysis was carried out based on 15 cases in which intramural hematoma without false lumen was demonstrated, on initial CT, 12 cases of in which follow up CT was used and five cases involving an aortogram. Elements such as the shape of the thickened aortic wall, ulcer-like intimal defects, and intimal calcification were examined. Changes in these elements were also examined on follow-up CT. DeBackey types 1 and 3 accounted for one and 14 cases, respectively. Initial precontrast CT demonstrated continuous, crescentic high attenuation areas along the wall of the descending aorta. In postcontrast scans, the crescentic areas were of relatively lower-attenuation and appeared along the aorta wall. Displaced intimal calcifications were seen in nine of fifteen patients. There was no intimal flap on all five aortogram, while aortic wall thickening and atherosclerotic change were demonstrated in four cases and in one case, respectively. Focal ulcers were seen in three cases. Ulcer-like intimal defects were demonstrated in a total of eleven cases (eight on CT, two on aortogram, and one on both). In ten of the twelve cases seen on follow up CT, the thickness of the intramural hematoma was seen to be reduced. Among the 15 cases, the operation was performed in two cases, and the remaining 13 received conservative treatment. In ten cases observed for more than twelve months, a recurrence of symptoms did not occur. Eccentric aortic wall thickening in patients who complain of acute chest pain is the result of acute aortic dissection with intramural hematoma, or a penetrating atherosclerotic ulcer of the aorta. The later may be differentiated from the former by the presence of on ulcer-like intimal defect. When both diseases are limited to the descending aorta, conservative treatment may

  11. Acute aortic intramural hematoma

    To evaluate the radiologic findings of acute intramural hematoma of the aorta, and the clinical follow up thereof. Among 34 cases confirmed clinically and radiologically as aortic dissection, and analysis was carried out based on 15 cases in which intramural hematoma without false lumen was demonstrated, on initial CT, 12 cases of in which follow up CT was used and five cases involving an aortogram. Elements such as the shape of the thickened aortic wall, ulcer-like intimal defects, and intimal calcification were examined. Changes in these elements were also examined on follow-up CT. DeBackey types 1 and 3 accounted for one and 14 cases, respectively. Initial precontrast CT demonstrated continuous, crescentic high attenuation areas along the wall of the descending aorta. In postcontrast scans, the crescentic areas were of relatively lower-attenuation and appeared along the aorta wall. Displaced intimal calcifications were seen in nine of fifteen patients. There was no intimal flap on all five aortogram, while aortic wall thickening and atherosclerotic change were demonstrated in four cases and in one case, respectively. Focal ulcers were seen in three cases. Ulcer-like intimal defects were demonstrated in a total of eleven cases (eight on CT, two on aortogram, and one on both). In ten of the twelve cases seen on follow up CT, the thickness of the intramural hematoma was seen to be reduced. Among the 15 cases, the operation was performed in two cases, and the remaining 13 received conservative treatment. In ten cases observed for more than twelve months, a recurrence of symptoms did not occur. Eccentric aortic wall thickening in patients who complain of acute chest pain is the result of acute aortic dissection with intramural hematoma, or a penetrating atherosclerotic ulcer of the aorta. The later may be differentiated from the former by the presence of on ulcer-like intimal defect. When both diseases are limited to the descending aorta, conservative treatment may

  12. Feed your head: neurodevelopmental control of feeding and metabolism.

    Lee, Daniel A; Blackshaw, Seth

    2014-01-01

    During critical periods of development early in life, excessive or scarce nutritional environments can disrupt the development of central feeding and metabolic neural circuitry, leading to obesity and metabolic disorders in adulthood. A better understanding of the genetic networks that control the development of feeding and metabolic neural circuits, along with knowledge of how and where dietary signals disrupt this process, can serve as the basis for future therapies aimed at reversing the public health crisis that is now building as a result of the global obesity epidemic. This review of animal and human studies highlights recent insights into the molecular mechanisms that regulate the development of central feeding circuitries, the mechanisms by which gestational and early postnatal nutritional status affects this process, and approaches aimed at counteracting the deleterious effects of early over- and underfeeding. PMID:24274739

  13. Progress in Research on the Relationship Between Acute Myocardial Infarction and Acid-Base Imbalance%急性心肌梗死与酸碱失衡关系的研究进展

    郭俊玲

    2011-01-01

    急性心肌梗死是内科常见的危重病,病情变化快,可出现酸碱平衡失调,尤其在心肌梗死后心源性休克的患者中更加常见,临床研究表明酸碱失衡可影响急性心肌梗死患者的短期预后,临床上认知各种酸碱失衡指标对于急性心肌梗死患者的应用价值,可以更准确的判断病情,及时指导治疗.%Acute myocardial infarction (AMI) is a common occurrence. AMI may be followed by metabolic acidosis. Clinical studies have shown that acid-base imbalances can affect the short-term prognosis of patients with AMI. This article examines the value of various acid-base imbalances index for patients with AMI, and discusses whether or not they can assist in making an accurate judgment of the illness and provide timely therapy.

  14. 7 CFR 205.237 - Livestock feed.

    2010-01-01

    ...) The producer of an organic livestock operation must provide livestock with a total feed ration... § 205.603 may be used as feed additives and supplements. (b) The producer of an organic operation must... specific stage of life; (3) Feed plastic pellets for roughage; (4) Feed formulas containing urea or...

  15. Feeding the Monster

    2005-10-01

    Near-infrared images of the active galaxy NGC 1097, obtained with the NACO adaptive optics instrument on ESO's Very Large Telescope, disclose with unprecedented detail a complex central network of filamentary structure spiralling down to the centre of the galaxy. These observations provide astronomers with new insights on how super-massive black holes lurking inside galaxies get fed. "This is possibly the first time that a detailed view of the channelling process of matter, from the main part of the galaxy down to the very end in the nucleus is released," says Almudena Prieto (Max-Planck Institute, Heidelberg, Germany), lead author of the paper describing these results. Located at a distance of about 45 million light-years in the southern constellation Fornax (the Furnace), NGC 1097 is a relatively bright, barred spiral galaxy seen face-on. At magnitude 9.5, and thus just 25 times fainter than the faintest object that can be seen with the unaided eye, it appears in small telescopes as a bright, circular disc. NGC 1097 is a very moderate example of an Active Galactic Nucleus (AGN), whose emission is thought to arise from matter (gas and stars) falling into oblivion in a central black hole. However, NGC 1097 possesses a comparatively faint nucleus only, and the black hole in its centre must be on a very strict "diet": only a small amount of gas and stars is apparently being swallowed by the black hole at any given moment. Astronomers have been trying to understand for a long time how the matter is "gulped" down towards the black hole. Watching directly the feeding process requires very high spatial resolution at the centre of galaxies. This can be achieved by means of interferometry as was done with the VLTI MIDI instrument on the central parts of another AGN, NGC 1068 (see ESO PR 17/03), or with adaptive optics [1]. Thus, astronomers [2] obtained images of NGC 1097 with the adaptive optics NACO instrument attached to Yepun, the fourth Unit Telescope of ESO's VLT

  16. 整合性吞咽功能康复法对缺血性卒中急性期鼻饲患者的作用%Efficacy of integrated swallowing function rehabilitation training in patients with nasal feeding during acute ischemic stroke

    王卓; 宋为群; 屈亚萍; 黄小钦; 王玲

    2014-01-01

    Objective To investigate the effect of integrated swallowing function rehabilitation training on nasal feeding patients with pseudobulbar palsy or bulbar palsy after acute ischemic stroke. Methods A total of 54 patients met the diagnosis criteria were enrolled prospectively. They were divided into either an integrated group (n=31)or a control group (n=23)using a random number table method. The patients of the control group received routine treatment of stroke,including brain protection therapy,improvement of cerebral circulation,dehydration,regulating blood pressure,and symptomatic treatment,etc;in addition to conventional treatment,those of the integrated group also received integrated swallowing function rehabilitation training,including neuromuscular electrical stimulation plus swallowing reflex facilitation technique,and oral facial glossopharyngeal function training,etc. The oral intake function in patients of the integration and pseudobulbar palsy or bulbar palsy (according to MRI and signs)was compared between the two groups. The evaluation index was the Functional Oral Intake Scale (FOIS)score. Results (1)The FOIS score (median 4)of the integrated group was higher than that of the control group (median 2). There was significant difference between the two groups (P<0. 01). There was also significant difference before and after comparison between the two groups. (2)The FOIS score of pseudobulbar palsy in the integrated group was higher than that of the control group (median scores 4 and 2 ). There was significant difference (P<0.01);There was no significant difference in the FOIS scores of bulbar palsy between the two groups,but the FOIS score of the integrated group was higher than that of the control group (median scores 4 and 3). (3)The median differences between the integrated group and the control group were 2 and 1 respectively. The increased amplitude of FOIS of the integrated group was higher than that of the control group. There was significant

  17. Feed intake and oxygen consumption in fish

    Subramanian, S.

    2013-01-01

    In fish, the voluntary feed intake is influenced by dietary, environmental and/or physiological factors. It is well known that under hypoxia the concentration of oxygen in the water (DO) determines the feed intake of fish. However at non-limiting water DO levels (normoxia), several other mechanisms might play a role in feed intake regulation. Under hypoxia feed intake and oxygen consumption are interrelated. In this thesis we proposed the ‘oxystatic’ concept of feed intake regulat...

  18. Coplanar waveguide feeds for phased array antennas

    Simons, Rainee N.; Lee, Richard Q.

    1992-08-01

    The design and performance of the following coplanar waveguide (CPW) microwave distribution networks for linear as well as circularly polarized microstrip patches and printed dipole arrays is presented: (1) CPW/microstrip line feed; (2) CPW/balanced stripline feed; (3) CPW/slotline feed; (4) grounded CPW (GCPW)/balanced coplanar stripline feed; and (5) CPW/slot coupled feed. Typical measured radiation patterns are presented, and their relative advantages and disadvantages are compared.

  19. Feeding behaviour and digestive physiology in larval fish: current knowledge, and gaps and bottlenecks in research

    Rønnestad, Ivar; Yúfera, Manuel; Ueberschär, Bernd; Ribeiro, Laura; Saele, Øystein; Boglione, Clara

    2013-01-01

    Food uptake follows rules defined by feeding behaviour that determines the kind and quantity of food ingested by fish larvae as well as how live prey and food particles are detected, captured and ingested. Feeding success depends on the progressive development of anatomical characteristics and physiological functions and on the availability of suitable food items throughout larval development. The fish larval stages present eco-morpho-physiological features very different from adults and diff...

  20. 经导管主动脉瓣置入术后急性肾损伤研究进展%Progress in Acute Kidney Injury after Transcatheter Aortic Valve Implantation

    裴汉军

    2013-01-01

    经导管主动脉瓣置换术已经成为外科手术高危或存在手术禁忌证的重度主动脉瓣狭窄患者的一种新的治疗手段.心脏外科术后急性肾损伤与病死率增加显著相关,而需要肾脏替代治疗者预后更差.既往研究显示经导管主动脉瓣置换术术后急性肾损伤发生率约为1.1%~28%.近来,瓣膜学术研究协会在RIFLE分类的基础上提出了新的急性肾损伤定义标准.根据新标准,一些研究报道了经导管主动脉瓣置换术术后急性肾损伤发病率、预测因素以及临床预后并与之前的研究进行了比较.%Transcatheter aortic valve implantation (TAVI) has emerged as a new therapeutic option for non -operable or very high surgical higtuisk patients with severe aortic stenosis . Acute kidney injury ( AKI) after cardiac surgery is associated with increased mortality and necessity for renal replacement therapy even more so . Similarly AKI after TAVI is not infrequent affecting 1.1% ~ 28% of patients in previous series. Recently, a consensus report from the Valve Academic Research Consortium (VARC) suggested the new criteria for postproce - dural AKI based on modified RIFLE classification. Thus, according to the VARC criteria some studies have showed the probable incidence , predictors, and clinical outcome of AKI after TAVI and compare these outcomes with other previously used definitions .

  1. 静脉溶栓治疗急性缺血性脑卒中的研究进展%Research Progress in Thrombolytic Therapy in Treatment of Acute Ischemic Stroke

    孙玉芳; 张芹; 李继梅; 张拥波

    2015-01-01

    急性缺血性脑卒中(AIS)静脉溶栓约有20年历史,但由于其适应证、禁忌证及并发症等因素,静脉溶栓率并不高。国外 AIS 静脉溶栓率为5%~10%,而我国仅约1.9%。如何提高 AIS 静脉溶栓率是临床医生面临的重要问题。本文对包括静脉溶栓治疗时间窗的延长、年龄选择范围是否可以扩大、短暂性脑缺血发作(TIA)和小卒中静脉溶栓、存在禁忌证的静脉溶栓、最适剂量等进展进行综述。%There has been about 20 years since thrombolytic therapy was used in the treatment of acute ischemic stroke (AIS). However,thrombolysis rate is not satisfactory due to its indications,contraindications and complications. Thrombolysis rate is 5% - 10% in the treatment of AIS in other countries,but the rate is only about 1. 9% in China. It is an important issue for the clinicians to increase thrombolysis rate in the treatment of AIS. The article summarizes the extension of time window of thrombolytic therapy, expansion of age range, transient ischemic attack ( TIA ), thrombolytic therapy for minor stroke, thrombolytic therapy with contraindications and optimal dose.

  2. Changes of soluble CD40 ligand in the progression of acute myocardial infarction associate to endothelial nitric oxide synthase polymorphisms and vascular endothelial growth factor but not to platelet CD62P expression.

    Napoleão, Patrícia; Monteiro, Maria do Céu; Cabral, Luís B P; Criado, Maria Begoña; Ramos, Catarina; Selas, Mafalda; Viegas-Crespo, Ana Maria; Saldanha, Carlota; Carmo, Miguel Mota; Ferreira, Rui Cruz; Pinheiro, Teresa

    2015-12-01

    Reported in vitro data implicated soluble CD40 ligand (sCD40L) in endothelial dysfunction and angiogenesis. However, whether sCD40L could exert that influence in endothelial dysfunction and angiogenesis after injury in acute myocardial infarction (AMI) patients remains unclear. In the present study, we evaluated the association of sCD40L with markers of platelet activation, endothelial, and vascular function during a recovery period early after AMI. To achieve this goal, the time changes of soluble, platelet-bound, and microparticle-bound CD40L levels over 1 month were assessed in AMI patients and correlated with endothelial nitric oxide synthase (eNOS) polymorphisms, vascular endothelial growth factor (VEGF) concentrations, and platelet expression of P-selectin (CD62P). The association of soluble form, platelet-bound, and microparticle-bound CD40L with CD62P expression on platelets, a marker of platelet activation, was also assessed to evaluate the role of CD40L in the thrombosis, whereas the association with eNOS and VEGF was to evaluate the role of CD40L in vascular dysfunction. This work shows for the first time that time changes of sCD40L over 1 month after myocardial infarct onset were associated with G894T eNOS polymorphism and with the VEGF concentrations, but not to the platelet CD62P expression. These results indicate that, in terms of AMI pathophysiology, the sCD40L cannot be consider just as being involved in thrombosis and inflammation but also as having a relevant role in vascular and endothelial dysfunction. PMID:26279254

  3. Prey perception in feeding-current feeding copepods

    Kiørboe, Thomas; Goncalves, Rodrigo J.; Florian Couespel, Damien;

    2016-01-01

    We reply to the comments of Paffenhöfer and Jiang () who argues that remote chemical prey perception is necessary for feeding-current feeding copepods to fulfill their nutritional requirements in a dilute ocean, that remote chemical prey detection may only be observed at very low prey concentrati......We reply to the comments of Paffenhöfer and Jiang () who argues that remote chemical prey perception is necessary for feeding-current feeding copepods to fulfill their nutritional requirements in a dilute ocean, that remote chemical prey detection may only be observed at very low prey...... concentrations, and that chemical prey perception is feasible if prey cells release dissolved organic material in short-lasting but intense bursts. We demonstrate that mechanoreception at a very short range is sufficient to sustain a living, even in a dilute ocean. Further, if chemoreception requires that prey...... and Centropages hamatus, offered a 45-μm sized dinoflagellate at very low concentration. The observed short prey detection distances, up to a few prey cell radii, are consistent with mechanoreception and we argue briefly that near-field mechanoreception is the most likely and common prey perception mechanism...

  4. Acute arterial occlusion - kidney

    ... arterial thrombosis; Renal artery embolism; Acute renal artery occlusion; Embolism - renal artery ... often result in permanent kidney failure. Acute arterial occlusion of the renal artery can occur after injury ...

  5. Diagnosing and Treating Acute Bronchitis

    ... Lung Disease Lookup > Acute Bronchitis Diagnosing and Treating Acute Bronchitis It is important to get your questions about ... Symptoms that last a few weeks How Is Acute Bronchitis Diagnosed? Healthcare providers diagnose acute bronchitis by asking ...

  6. Salmonella Radicidation of Dry Mixed Feeds and Feed Ingredients

    Feed components contaminated with salmonellae act as vehicles in the transmission of these bacteria to slaughter animals and hence to meat and poultry. Terminal decontamination of ingredients or mixed feed seems required because sanitary improvements in processing, bagging and storage do not always appear effective in considerably reducing salmonella contamination rates. Experiments were carried out to assay the decontamination effect of pelletization of mixed feed. Enumeration of enterobacteriaceae was used as the analytical criterion. It appeared that a temperature over 80°C generally led to five decimal reductions in enterobacteriaceae counts; however, also currently used lower temperatures may bring about two decimal reductions only. Following earlier experiments with fish meal, range finding tests on the decontamination of mixed feed with 60Co gamma rays were also performed. To achieve five decimal reductions in the counts of the most resistant enterobacteriaceae which were encountered about 0.5 Mrad was required; survival curves were generally not linear, so that overall effective dose had to be used as a parameter. Feeding experiments with rats, using 35% fish meal irradiated at 0.8 Mrad in the diet for two years, demonstrated that neither losses of nutritive value nor the occurrence of orally toxic factors is effected by such an irradiation treatment. It is recommended that pilot plant tests be carried out. In these tests an attempt should be made to combine improved sanitation and pelletizing with a terminal radiation treatment of the bagged material with the lowest dose required. Such tests should preferably be carried out in suitable areas of countries like Peru or Chile. A brief outline is given of the development work and training of scientific and technical staff that should be carried out during the installation of such a pilot plant. (author)

  7. Metformin induced acute pancreatitis

    Alsubaie, Sadeem; Almalki, Mussa H.

    2013-01-01

    Acute pancreatitis frequently presents with abdomen pain but may presents with various skin manifestations as rash and rarely, pancreatic panniculitis. Metformin, one of the most effective and valuable oral hypoglycemic agents in the biguanide class was linked to acute pancreatitis in few cases. Here, we report a case of metformin induce acute pancreatitis in young healthy man with normal renal function.

  8. Acute mastoiditis in children

    Anthonsen, Kristian; Høstmark, Karianne; Hansen, Søren;

    2013-01-01

    Conservative treatment of acute otitis media may lead to more complications. This study evaluates changes in incidence, the clinical and microbiological findings, the complications and the outcome of acute mastoiditis in children in a country employing conservative guidelines in treating acute ot...

  9. Recurrent acute renal failure

    Satish, S.; Rajesh, R.; Kurian, G.; Seethalekshmi, N. V.; Unni, M.; Unni, V. N.

    2010-01-01

    While acute renal failure secondary to intravascular hemolysis is well described in hemolytic anemias, recurrent acute renal failure as the presenting manifestation of a hemolytic anemia is rare. We report a patient with recurrent acute renal failure who was found to have paroxysmal nocturnal hemoglobinuria (PNH), on evaluation.

  10. Research progress of atopic myelitis

    Wang, Min; WANG Jia-wei

    2014-01-01

    Atopic myelitis (AM), also described as idiopathic eosinophil myelitis, is a kind of myelitis associated with atopic diathesis, and is considered to be one kind of primary acute transverse myelitis (ATM). It mainly develops in Japan. Since the first case was reported by Kira, et al, Japan has reported more than 100 cases. In South Korea and Europe there were cases reported in recent years. In this paper, the research progress on atopic myelitis is reviewed. doi: 10.3969/j.issn.1672-6731....

  11. Research progress of atopic myelitis

    Min WANG

    2014-06-01

    Full Text Available Atopic myelitis (AM, also described as idiopathic eosinophil myelitis, is a kind of myelitis associated with atopic diathesis, and is considered to be one kind of primary acute transverse myelitis (ATM. It mainly develops in Japan. Since the first case was reported by Kira, et al, Japan has reported more than 100 cases. In South Korea and Europe there were cases reported in recent years. In this paper, the research progress on atopic myelitis is reviewed. doi: 10.3969/j.issn.1672-6731.2014.06.016

  12. Local feed resources for poultry

    Leenstra, F.R.

    2013-01-01

    In poultry ‘no input’, ‘low input’ and commercial production can be distinguished. ‘No input’ implies scavenging poultry with some kitchen waste or crop residues as supplemental feed. Input is negligible and economic efficiency is high, provided there is any output. Commercial production is capital

  13. Parental concerns about complementary feeding

    Nielsen, Annemette; Michaelsen, Kim F.; Holm, Lotte

    2013-01-01

    Background/objectives:To investigate and analyze differences in parental concerns during earlier and later phases of complementary feeding.Subject/methods:Eight focus group interviews were conducted with 45 mothers of children aged 7 or 13 months. Deductive and inductive coding procedures were...

  14. Catalytic reforming feed characterisation technique

    Larraz Mora, R.; Arvelo Alvarez, R. [Univ. of La Laguna, Chemical Engineering Dept., La Laguna (Spain)

    2002-09-01

    The catalytic reforming of naphtha is one of the major refinery processes, designed to increase the octane number of naphtha or to produce aromatics. The naphtha used as catalytic reformer feedstock usually contains a mixture of paraffins, naphthenes, and aromatics in the carbon number range C{sub 6} to C{sub 10}. The detailed chemical composition of the feed is necessary to predict the aromatics and hydrogen production as well as the operation severity. The analysis of feed naphtha is usually reported in terms of its ASTM distillation curve and API or specific gravity. Since reforming reactions are described in terms of lumped chemical species (paraffins, naphthenes and aromatics), a feed characterisation technique should be useful in order to predict reforming operating conditions and detect feed quality changes. Unfortunately online analyzer applications as cromatography or recently introduced naphtha NMR [1] are scarce in most of refineries. This work proposes an algorithmic characterisation method focusing on its main steps description. The method could help on the subjects previously described, finally a calculation example is shown. (orig.)

  15. Progress report

    Progress Report, covering the period up to the end of 1979 year, was sent to the IAEA according to the research agreement No. 1971 /CF. This work covered the following fields: preparation and dummy irradiation experiments with a new experimental capsule of ''CHOUCA-M'' type; measurement of temperature fields and design of specimen holders; measurement of neutron energy spectrum in the irradiation place in our experimental reactor of VVR-S type (Nuclear Research Institute) using a set of activation detectors; unification and calibration of the measurement of neutron fluence with the use of Fe, Cu, Mn-Mg and Co-Al monitors; development and improvement of the measuring apparatus and technique for the dynamic testing of pre-cracked specimens with determination of dynamic parameters of fracture mechanics; preparation and manufacture of testing specimens from the Japanese steels - forging, plate and weld metal; preparation of the irradiation capsule for assembling

  16. Child feeding and human rights

    Kent George

    2006-12-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background The human right to adequate food needs to be interpreted for the special case of young children because they are vulnerable, others make the choices for them, and their diets are not diverse. There are many public policy issues relating to child feeding. Discussion The core of the debate lies in differences in views on the merits of infant formula. In contexts in which there is strong evidence and a clear consensus that the use of formula would be seriously dangerous, it might be sensible to adopt rules limiting its use. However, until there is broad consensus on this point, the best universal rule would be to rely on informed choice by mothers, with their having a clearly recognized right to objective and consistent information on the risks of using different feeding methods in their particular local circumstances. Summary The obligation of the state to assure that mothers are well informed should be viewed as part of its broader obligation to establish social conditions that facilitate sound child feeding practices. This means that mothers should not be compelled to feed in particular ways by the state, but rather the state should assure that mothers are supported and enabled to make good feeding choices. Thus, children should be viewed as having the right to be breastfed, not in the sense that the mother is obligated to breastfeed the child, but in the sense that no one may interfere with the mother's right to breastfeed the child. Breastfeeding should be viewed as the right of the mother and child together.

  17. Management Of Acute Migraine

    Mehndiratta M

    2002-01-01

    Full Text Available Pharmacotherapy for migraine involves treatment for the acute attack as well as using long-term prophylaxis in order to reduce the frequency and severity of the attacks. Based on severity, there are a number of drugs available to treat the acute attacks. For mild to moderate attacks, analgesics, NSAIDs and Ergotamine are effective but severe attacks may need Dihydroergotamine (DHE or a triptan. Sumatriptan and the second generation triptans have revolutionized the acute treatment of migraine. Early and appropriate treatment holds the key to successful therapy of the acute attack. This article discusses the various acute treatment options available.

  18. When Breast-feeding is not Contraindicated: Do you know when to stop breast-feeding?

    Newman, Jack

    1991-01-01

    As more mothers elect to breast-feed, more concomitant problems in mothers and babies are reported that are thought to contraindicate breast-feeding. Many frequently cited maternal and infant reasons for stopping breast-feeding are not valid. Breast-feeding can usually be maintained if the physician remembers that breast-feeding is important for the baby and mother and not simply another feeding method.

  19. An intervention model for breast feeding in Maharat Nakhon Ratchasima Hospital.

    Pichaipat, V; Thanomsingh, P; Pudhapongsiriporn, S; Buranasin, P; Phanidanunt, M; Monkalasiri, R

    1992-09-01

    To promote breast feeding and/or prevent further decline of adverse infant feeding practices, we developed an integrated comprehensive breast feeding promotion program, and implemented it in Maharat Nakhon Ratchasima Hospital in 1987. The program provided sound knowledge and attitudes toward breast feeding to all mothers at the Antenatal Care Unit, delivery room, the Postnatal Care Unit, and the Outpatient Department. The program activities included early bonding, assistance with initiation of breast feeding, rooming-in, provision of a breast feeding corner in the special care unit, collecting breast milk for sick babies, a lactation clinic and home visits. The impact of the program was evaluated in 1992. Altogether 1,428 mothers were interviewed using structured questionnaires. The results were highly encouraging. A majority of the mothers were of low socioeconomic status, 60 percent of them worked outside the home, and 40 percent were housewives. Compared with baseline data reported in 1986, breast feeding in infants aged 0 to one month increased from 85 to 90 percent, and the practice in the nine- to 12-month old group increased from 39 to 47 percent. However, the acute drop of the practice from 90 percent at birth to 50 percent at the one- to two-month old stage observed was similar in the two studies. The main reasons given by mothers for prematurely stopping breast feeding were the mothers' working outside the home (46%), and insufficient milk (23%). Provision of breast feeding education, along with improved maternal nutrition, extension of maternity leave, and availability of nurseries at the work place, may sustain a longer period of breast feeding. PMID:1488699

  20. The global feed market: Asian perspectives

    Zhou, Zhang-Yue

    2004-01-01

    Global demand for feed, especially cereal feed, is expected to increase in the decades to come. At the global level, demand for cereal feed will be met by the supply. There are, however, disparities between regions. As a result of strong livestock industry development, the Asian region as a whole will have a shortage of cereal feed and will become a major cereal feed importer. This paper examines existing projections of feed demand and supply in the Asian region. It also sheds light on the im...

  1. Residual feed intake in beef cattle

    J P.F. Arthur; Herd, R M

    2008-01-01

    Providing feed is a major input cost in beef production, hence improvements in the efficiency of feed utilisation will reduce the cost of production. Residual feed intake (RFI) is a measure of feed efficiency, and is defined as the difference between an animal's actual feed intake and its expected feed intake based on its size and growth. It is independent of the level of production, and the lower the value the more efficient the animal is. This paper examines the current state of knowledge o...

  2. Progress of rapid thrombelastography in acute traumatic coagulopathy%快速血栓弹性描记图在创伤性凝血病诊治中的研究进展

    刘宿; 唐小唪; 吴朋; 葛衡江

    2014-01-01

    Background It is difficult to control bleeding of coagulopathy induced by severe trauma.Coagulopathy is the main cause of death in the early phase of trauma.Some patients may died of refractory coagulopathy,even if they had received surgery to control bleeding.Trauma-induced coagulopathy is still one of the problems to improve the prognosis of patients with severe trauma.Objective The advantage of application of thromb-elastography (TEG) especially rapid thromb-elastography (r-TEG) test for trauma was evaluated.Content Traditional coagulation tests can not evaluate status of coagulation,fibrinolysis and platelet comprehensively and quickly during trauma,but viscoelastic haemostasis assays make up for this deficiency.Application of r-TEG in traumatic animal models and traumatic patients was confirmed which can evaluate the status of coagulation,fibrinolysis and platelet rapidly,predict transfusion needs of patients.Trend TEG has been developed by rapid TEG in traumatic medicine.The parameters can identify the acute traumatic coagulopathy as soon as possible,guide the early goal-directed coagulation therapy.%背景 严重创伤所致的凝血功能紊乱可使出血难以控制,是创伤早期死亡的主要原因;即或一些患者已接受了外科止血,仍可能死于难治性凝血功能障碍.目前创伤引起的凝血功能障碍仍是改善严重创伤患者预后的难题之一. 目的 评估血栓弹性描记图(thromb-elastography,TEG)尤其是快速TEG (rapid thromb-elastography,r-TEG)在刨伤医学中应用的优势. 内容 传统的凝血试验不能全面和快速地评估机体凝血纤溶过程及血小板功能,而黏弹性止血试验技术弥补了此不足.通过在创伤动物模型和创伤患者中应用r-TEG,证实其能在较短时间内评价患者的凝血、纤溶及血小板功能状况,预测患者的输血需求. 趋势 TEG引入创伤医学通过r-TEG测定已得到了发展,其参数能尽早判断创伤性凝血病的存在以进

  3. Acute loss of consciousness.

    Tristán, Bekinschtein; Gleichgerrcht, Ezequiel; Manes, Facundo

    2015-01-01

    Acute loss of consciousness poses a fascinating scenario for theoretical and clinical research. This chapter introduces a simple yet powerful framework to investigate altered states of consciousness. We then explore the different disorders of consciousness that result from acute brain injury, and techniques used in the acute phase to predict clinical outcome in different patient populations in light of models of acute loss of consciousness. We further delve into post-traumatic amnesia as a model for predicting cognitive sequels following acute loss of consciousness. We approach the study of acute loss of consciousness from a theoretical and clinical perspective to conclude that clinicians in acute care centers must incorporate new measurements and techniques besides the classic coma scales in order to assess their patients with loss of consciousness. PMID:25702218

  4. Feed mechanism and method for feeding minute items

    Stringer, Timothy Kent; Yerganian, Simon Scott

    2009-10-20

    A feeding mechanism and method for feeding minute items, such as capacitors, resistors, or solder preforms. The mechanism is adapted to receive a plurality of the randomly-positioned and randomly-oriented extremely small or minute items, and to isolate, orient, and position one or more of the items in a specific repeatable pickup location wherefrom they may be removed for use by, for example, a computer-controlled automated assembly machine. The mechanism comprises a sliding shelf adapted to receive and support the items; a wiper arm adapted to achieve a single even layer of the items; and a pushing arm adapted to push the items into the pickup location. The mechanism can be adapted for providing the items with a more exact orientation, and can also be adapted for use in a liquid environment.

  5. Feed palatability and the alternative protein sources in shrimp feed

    Chutima Tantikitti

    2014-01-01

    Feed palatability in carnivorous aquaculture species, shrimps in particular, has been crucially related to the presence of compounds acting as attractants that are commonly associated with the prey components under wild conditions. Thus a nutritionally adequate and organoleptically-pleasing diet is essential to achieve satisfactory intake and growth in shrimps. Historically, fishmeal has been an essential dietary component of intensive shrimp cultures because of its nutrient composit...

  6. Multigeneration feeding studies with an irradiated animal feed

    The emphasis in recent years on livestock farming as a means of increasing the availability of animal protein in India has led to a spurt in the commercial production of a variety of cattle and poultry feeds. Adverse climatic conditions have posed problems of insect infestation and spoilage due to microorganisms, for which radiation treatment of prepacked feeds could provide a solution. The wholesomeness of an irradiated (0.2 and 2.5 Mrad) diet composed of wheat, shrimp, milk powder, vegetable and oil has been investigated in long term feeding studies involving five successive generations of rats. Growth, foodintake, longevity and mortality remained comparable between control and test groups of animals. Reproductive performance as judged by fertility index, litter size and weaning index were also similar. Examination of the animals sacrified at the age of 23-24 months for gross pathological manifestations including tumor incidence did not indicate any significant differences between the control and the test groups. Judged by a variety of parameters, the rearing of rats for upto five generations on an irradiated diet had no adverse influences on their health. (author)

  7. Scan role in diagnosing acute appendicitis

    Massimo Summa

    2006-12-01

    Full Text Available Acute appendicitis is one of the commonest surgical diseases. It can rapidly progress to severe complications, like perforation and peritonitis. Consequently, surgeons often prefer to operate as soon as there is, clinically, a probable diagnosis, even if such a decision results in the ablation of up to 30% of normal appendixes. Many diagnostic methods have been proposed with the aim of decreasing the number of appendectomies in patients without appendicitis: ultrasonography, computed tomography, magnetic resonance imaging, laparoscopy. In particular, ultrasonography has the advantage of being less expensive, widely available, and non-invasive; furthermore, it has demonstrated a diagnostic accuracy of 70-95%. However, its use needs further evaluation with respect to the best way to integrate it with clinical and laboratory data, in order to correctly identify a patient with suspected acute appendicitis. The aim of our study is to show our experience with ultrasonographic diagnosis of acute appendicitis, acquired by surgeons with specific sonographic expertise.

  8. Obstructive acute abdomen: reviewing important points

    The obstructive acute abdomen is a common presentation, for which safe and effective management depends on a fast and accurate diagnosis. Conventional radiograph remains the first choice among the imaging exams because of its availability, low cost and the possibility to be done serially to follow the patient's clinical progression. The ultrasonography does not require ionizing radiation. It is a dynamic and in realtime exam. Computed tomography is used increasingly due to the provision of essential diagnostic information not apparent from radiographs, such as the confirmation of the obstruction, degree and place of the occlusion, presence of ischemia as well as the causes of the obstruction. Magnetic resonance imaging has presented great technological advances and it may play a role in the future of obstructive acute abdomen diagnosis. The objective of this pictorial essay is to review the different imaging techniques used on diagnosing obstructive acute abdomen. (author)

  9. The effect of oral sensorimotor stimulations on feeding performance in children with spastic cerebral palsy.

    Maryam Kaviyani Baghbadorani

    2014-12-01

    Full Text Available Oral feeding difficulties are common in children with cerebral palsy (CP. The effect of oral-motor dysfunction on feeding problems has been proved in several studies. The purpose of the present study was to evaluate the effect of oral sensorimotor stimulations on feeding performance in children with spastic cerebral palsy. A total of 12 children with spastic cerebral palsy underwent 24 sessions of oral-motor stimulations (3 days per week. The effect of the intervention was assessed after the 12 and 24 sessions. Feeding skills were assessed using Oral Motor Assessment Scale (OMAS. Data were analyzed using Friedman test and intra class correlation coefficient (ICC.  The results of the study revealed a significant improvement in feeding skills including mouth closure, lip closure on the utensil, lip closure during deglutition, control of the food during swallowing, mastication, straw suction and control of liquid during deglutition. There were more improvement in mouth closure and less in straw suction. This study showed sensorimotor stimulation is useful for the treatment of the feeding problems, but the progress was not perfect. This could be due to the role of the position and cognitive skills in feeding functions. Thus, other strategies should be considered to achieve more improvement in feeding performance.

  10. Antibiotics, Formula Feeding Might Change Baby's 'Microbiome'

    ... nih.gov/medlineplus/news/fullstory_159392.html Antibiotics, Formula Feeding Might Change Baby's 'Microbiome' C-section birth ... microbiomes" are altered by cesarean births, antibiotics and formula feeding. "The microbiome is really important in how ...

  11. Postoperative jejunal feeding and outcome of pancreaticoduodenectomy.

    Baradi, Hani; Walsh, R Matthew; Henderson, J Michael; Vogt, David; Popovich, Marc

    2004-01-01

    Complications following pancreaticoduodenectomy are common, partly because of nutritional debilitation. The aim of this study was to evaluate the impact of early postoperative tube feeding on outcome of pancreaticoduodenectomy and determine the best method for delivering enteral feeding. A retrospective review of 180 consecutive patients undergoing Whipple operations from 1994 to 2000 was performed. Two nonrandomized patient groups were retrospectively studied: those with early postoperative tube feeding vs. those with no planned feeding. Ninety-eight patients (54%) received postoperative jejunal feeding, whereas 82 patients (46%) did not. Jejunal feeding was delivered via a bridled nasojejunal tube in 55 patients (56%) and a gastrojejunal tube in 43 (44%). Vomiting (10% vs. 29%; P=0.002) and use of total parenteral nutrition (6% vs. 27%; P nutrition and lower rates of readmission and complications. A bridled nasojejunal feeding tube appears to be a safe and reliable method of short-term enteral feeding. PMID:15120367

  12. Acute pancreatitis in acute viral hepatitis

    2007-01-01

    AIM: To elucidate the frequency and characteristics of pancreatic involvement in the course of acute (nonfulminant) viral hepatitis.METHODS: We prospectively assessed the pancreatic involvement in patients with acute viral hepatitis who presented with severe abdomimanl pain.RESULTS: We studied 124 patients with acute viral hepatitis, of whom 24 presented with severe abdominal pain. Seven patients (5.65%) were diagnosed to have acute pancreatitis. All were young males. Five patients had pancreatitis in the first week and two in the fourth week after the onset of jaundice. The pancreatitis was mild and all had uneventful recovery from both pancreatitis and hepatitis on conservative treatment.The etiology of pancreatitis was hepatitis E virus in 4,hepatitis A virus in 2, and hepatitis B virus in 1 patient.One patient had biliary sludge along with HEV infection.The abdominal pain of remaining seventeen patients was attributed to stretching of Glisson's capsule.CONCLUSION: Acute pancreatitis occurs in 5.65% of patients with acute viral hepatitis, it is mild and recovers with conservative management.

  13. The effectiveness and safety of treatments used for acute diarrhea and acute gastroenteritis in children: protocol for a systematic review and network meta-analysis

    Florez, Ivan D.; Al-Khalifah, Reem; Sierra, Javier M.; Granados, Claudia M.; Yepes-Nuñez, Juan J.; Cuello-Garcia, Carlos; Perez-Gaxiola, Giordano; Zea, Adriana M.; Hernandez, Gilma N.; Veroniki, Areti-Angeliki; Guyatt, Gordon H; Thabane, Lehana

    2016-01-01

    Background Acute diarrhea and acute gastroenteritis (AD/AGE) are common among children in low- and middle-income countries (LMIC) and high-income countries (HIC). Supportive therapy including maintaining feeding, prevention of dehydration, and use of oral rehydration solution (ORS), is the mainstay of treatment in all children. Several additional treatments aiming to reduce the episode duration have been compared to placebo, but the differences in effectiveness among them are unknown. Methods...

  14. Does breast feeding influence liver biochemistry?

    Jørgensen, Marianne Hørby; Ott, Peter; Juul, Anders;

    2003-01-01

    It is assumed that early feeding can affect liver biochemistry because breast-fed infants have a higher risk of hyperbilirubinemia than formula-fed infants. The authors sought to determine how feeding mode affected liver biochemistry in healthy term infants.......It is assumed that early feeding can affect liver biochemistry because breast-fed infants have a higher risk of hyperbilirubinemia than formula-fed infants. The authors sought to determine how feeding mode affected liver biochemistry in healthy term infants....

  15. Cellular Mechanisms of L-arginine Induced Experimental Acute Pancreatitis

    Masood, Omar

    2013-01-01

    AbstractThe University Of ManchesterOmar MasoodMD Thesis 2013Cellular Mechanisms of L-arginine Induced Experimental Acute Pancreatitis. IntroductionImpairment of cytosolic calcium ([Ca2+]i) signaling and in particular calcium overload has emerged as a possible unifying mechanism for precipitating acute pancreatitis (AP.)In the L-arginine (L-arg) experimental model of AP, nitric oxide (NO) has been implicated however the disease progression is largely unaffected by nitric oxide synthase (NOS) ...

  16. Presence of acute phase response in coal workers' pneumoconiosis.

    Fernandez Rego, G; Ocio Achaerandio, G; González Cuervo, V; Rodríquez Menéndez, C; Martínez Gonezález, C; Alvarez Alvarez, C

    1991-01-01

    To evaluate the role of personal factors in pneumoconiosis, several acute phase proteins were studied in 62 coal miners without acute illnesses and classified as having no pneumoconiosis (n = 19), simple pneumoconiosis (n = 23), or complicated pneumoconiosis with progressive massive fibrosis (n = 20). Groups were similar for age, years of work at high risk jobs, chronic bronchitis, and forced expiratory volume in one second (FEV1). C-reactive protein concentration was significantly higher in ...

  17. Spontaneous acute subdural hematoma in a patient with multiple myeloma

    Abrar Ahad Wani

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available Acute spontaneous subdural hematoma in a patient of multiple myeloma receiving chemotherapy is an unknown event, needing an urgent neurosurgical management. We report this patient who presented with progressive neurological deterioration and a low platelet count. She was successfully managed by craniotomy and evacuation of subdural hematoma with intraoperative transfusion of platelets. The acute spontaneous subdural hematoma in her was probably related to the bleeding diathesis due to thrombocytopenia associated with chemotherapy.

  18. Feed in conditions of contamination

    After the Chernobyl accident a population of the having suffered regions (more than 2 million person) was subjected to excessive radiation effect. Use of 'clean' foods promotes an accelerated removing of radionuclides from a body, reduces their accumulation and makes active immunity. The content of radionuclide in various food products is shown, the main public health requirements for food products are indicated, the ration and feeding mode recommendations are given for the population living on contaminated territories. 2 tabs

  19. Feeding cassava foliage to sheep

    Hue, Khuc Thi

    2012-01-01

    The potential of cassava foliage (Manihot esculenta Crantz) as a protein-rich feed in sheep production in Vietnam was examined by studying cassava foliage yield, hydrogen cyanide (HCN) content, toxicity and performance of lambs fed the foliage as a supplement. Cassava foliage fed ad libitum as a protein supplement to a basal diet of urea-treated rice straw gave similar lamb live weight gain (LWG) as diets supplemented with commercial concentrate or protein-rich foliage of stylosanthes (S...

  20. Lysine: Making progress in the nutrition of broilers.

    Gous, R M

    1998-01-01

    Genotypes used in the broiler industry have changed significantly in the past 40 yr, and continue to change at the same rate today. Different selection criteria are used by the major breeding companies, leading to widely different genotypes being available to the broiler industry, yet nutritionists have largely ignored these changes when formulating feeds and designing feeding strategies for broilers. The method presently used to formulate feeds for broilers relies on tables of nutrient requirements for different phases in the life of the broiler. These tables do not reflect either the requirements of broilers capable of growing at different rates, or that these strains have different genetically determined degrees of fatness. No further progress can be made with this approach. Progress can be made only by integrating information about the bird, the feed, and the environment into an accurate theory that can then be used in a simulation model to make accurate predictions of feed intake and growth rate for any given bird, in any given state, and in any given environment. With such a model, it is possible to determine the most economical method of feeding broilers under a wide range of economic conditions. The only defensible way in which nutritionists can improve the efficiency of feeding broilers is by the use of simulation modeling. PMID:9469760

  1. Feeding level and frequency for freshwater angelfish

    Felipe de Azevedo Silva Ribeiro

    2012-06-01

    Full Text Available The objective of this study was to determine the optimal feeding level and feeding frequency for the culture of freshwater angelfish (Pterophyllum scalare. A randomized block design in a factorial scheme (3 × 2 with three feeding levels (30, 60 and 90 g/kg of body weight (BW/day and two feeding frequencies (1x and 2x/day was set up in duplicate, representing 24 experimental units. Data were analyzed using two-way ANOVA and the Tukey test for comparison between means. After 84 days, results indicated that both factors influenced fish performance. No interaction between these factors was, however, observed. Increased feeding level and feeding frequency resulted in increased feed intake. The feed conversion ratio was negatively affected by feeding level, but not affected by feeding frequency. Final weights were higher when fish were fed twice daily, at levels of 60 or 90 g/kg BW/day. Specific growth rate was higher when fish received 60 or 90 g/kg BW/day, regardless of the feeding frequency. Survival was not affected by any treatment, with mean survival rates higher than 90%. It is recommended that juveniles be fed at a level of 60 g/kg BW/day with a minimum of two meals per day, to attain optimal survival, growth and feed efficiency.

  2. Acute renal failure associated with nonfulminant acute viral hepatitis A

    Sarawgi, S.; Gupta, A. K.; Arora, D S; Jasuja, S.

    2008-01-01

    Hepatitis A runs a benign course in children, but may have atypical presentations in adults. Very rarely acute renal failure complicates nonfulminant hepatitis A. We report a patient with nonfulminant acute viral hepatitis A with multiorgan involvement. Patient had biopsy proven acute interstitial nephritis, acute pancreatitis, acute myocarditis and required hemodialysis for 6 weeks.

  3. Comparison of Nutrition Compositions of Juvenile Paddlefish (Polyodon spathula) Fed with Live Feed and Formula Feed

    Shi, Pei-Song; Zhu, Yu-Ting; Wang, Qin; GU, Qian-Hong; XIONG, Bang-Xi

    2013-01-01

    Compositions of the amino acid and fatty acid in the muscle of the juvenile paddlefish (Polyodon spathula) were assessed after being fed with live feed and formula feed for 60 days. The crude fat content of formula feed group was significantly higher than that of live feed group (P

  4. Imaging of acute pancreatitis

    Merkle, Elmar M.; Goerich, Johannes [Department of Radiology, University Hospitals of Ulm, Steinhoevel Strasse 9, 89075 Ulm (Germany)

    2002-08-01

    Acute pancreatitis is defined as an acute inflammatory process of the pancreas with variable involvement of peripancreatic tissues or remote organ systems. This article reports the current classification, definition and terminology, epidemiology and etiology, pathogenesis and pathological findings, clinical and laboratory findings, and finally imaging findings of acute pancreatitis with emphasis on cross-sectional imaging modalities such as ultrasound, computed tomography, and magnetic resonance imaging. (orig.)

  5. Streptococcal acute pharyngitis

    2014-01-01

    Acute pharyngitis/tonsillitis, which is characterized by inflammation of the posterior pharynx and tonsils, is a common disease. Several viruses and bacteria can cause acute pharyngitis; however, Streptococcus pyogenes (also known as Lancefield group A β-hemolytic streptococci) is the only agent that requires an etiologic diagnosis and specific treatment. S. pyogenes is of major clinical importance because it can trigger post-infection systemic complications, acute rheumatic fever, and post-s...

  6. Acute generalized exanthematous pustulosis

    K.S. Dhillon

    2012-10-01

    Full Text Available Acute generalized exanthematous pustulosis (AGEP is a rare reaction pattern with a typical morphology and a short clinical course that in majority of cases is related to medication administration. It is an acute pustular eruption with unique clinical features, a rapid clinical course and a typical histopathology. Herein, we report the case of a patient with acute generalized exanthematous pustulosis for its classical presentation.

  7. Acute recurrent polyhydramnios

    Rode, Line; Bundgaard, Anne; Skibsted, Lillian;

    2007-01-01

    Acute recurrent polyhydramnios is a rare occurrence characterized by a poor fetal outcome. This is a case report describing a 34-year-old woman presenting with acute recurrent polyhydramnios. Treatment with non-steroidal anti-inflammatory drugs (NSAID) and therapeutic amniocenteses was initiated...... an enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay. As in normal pregnancies, amniotic prolactin levels decreased by 80% from highest to lowest value in this case of resolving acute recurrent polyhydramnios....

  8. Management Of Acute Migraine

    Mehndiratta M

    2002-01-01

    Pharmacotherapy for migraine involves treatment for the acute attack as well as using long-term prophylaxis in order to reduce the frequency and severity of the attacks. Based on severity, there are a number of drugs available to treat the acute attacks. For mild to moderate attacks, analgesics, NSAIDs and Ergotamine are effective but severe attacks may need Dihydroergotamine (DHE) or a triptan. Sumatriptan and the second generation triptans have revolutionized the acute treatment of migra...

  9. Atrial fibrillation (acute onset)

    Lip, Gregory Y. H.; Watson, Timothy

    2008-01-01

    Acute atrial fibrillation is rapid, irregular, and chaotic atrial activity of less than 48 hours' duration. It resolves spontaneously within 24 to 48 hours in over 50% of people. In this review we have included studies on patients with onset up to 7 days previously. Risk factors for acute atrial fibrillation include increasing age, CVD, alcohol abuse, diabetes, and lung disease.Acute atrial fibrillation increases the risk of stroke and heart failure.

  10. Antiproteases in the Treatment of Acute Pancreatitis

    Motoji Kitagawa

    2007-07-01

    Full Text Available The pathogenesis of acute pancreatitis relates to the inappropriate activation of trypsinogen to trypsin and a lack of the prompt elimination of the active trypsin inside the pancreas. Therefore, trypsin is believed to be the key enzyme in the initiation and exacerbation of acute pancreatitis by activating pancreatic zymogens. The activation of digestive enzymes causes pancreatic injury and results in an inflammatory response. The acute inflammatory response in the pancreas induces the systemic production of cytokines causing substantial tissue damage, and may progress beyond the pancreas to a systemic inflammatory response syndrome (SIRS, multi-organ failure (MOF or death [1]. In several studies, protease inhibitors have not been shown to be of significant value in the treatment of acute pancreatitis and are not available in the United States [2]. Several guidelines [3, 4, 5, 6, 7, 8, 9, 10, 11, 12] on the treatment of acute pancreatitis do not recommend them and the debate about the use of protease inhibitors is mentioned.

  11. Bilateral acute retinal necrosis after herpetic meningitis

    Katsura T

    2012-04-01

    Full Text Available Keisho Hirota1,2, Masayuki Akimoto1,3, Toshiaki Katsura21Department of Ophthalmology, Kyoto Medical Center, National Hospital Organization, 2Internal Medicine, Kyoto Medical Center, 3Clinical Research Center, Kyoto Medical Center, Kyoto, JapanPurpose: The report of a case of bilateral acute retinal necrosis after herpetic meningitis.Case report: A 47-year-old man was admitted with the chief complaint of persistent high fever and transient loss of consciousness. Although his general condition improved after intravenous acyclovir administration, the patient presented with visual loss in both eyes 4 days after admission. Visual acuity in his right eye was 20/200 and his left eye had light perception alone. Both eyes showed panretinal arteritis diagnosed as acute retinal necrosis. Panretinal photocoagulation was performed for both eyes. Progression of retinal detachment was prevented in both eyes; however, visual acuity of the left eye was totally lost because of neovascular glaucoma. Visual acuity of the right eye recovered to 20/20.Conclusion: Although cases of bilateral acute retinal necrosis have been reported after herpetic encephalitis, this condition is rare after herpetic meningitis. Prophylactic acyclovir therapy and early panretinal photocoagulation may prevent retinal detachment and improve the prognosis. Neurologists and ophthalmologists should be aware that not only herpetic encephalitis but also herpetic meningitis can lead to acute retinal necrosis within a very short interval.Keywords: acute retinal necrosis, herpetic meningitis, herpes simplex, varicella zoster virus

  12. The Progressive BSSG Rat Model of Parkinson's: Recapitulating Multiple Key Features of the Human Disease.

    Jackalina M Van Kampen

    Full Text Available The development of effective neuroprotective therapies for Parkinson's disease (PD has been severely hindered by the notable lack of an appropriate animal model for preclinical screening. Indeed, most models currently available are either acute in nature or fail to recapitulate all characteristic features of the disease. Here, we present a novel progressive model of PD, with behavioural and cellular features that closely approximate those observed in patients. Chronic exposure to dietary phytosterol glucosides has been found to be neurotoxic. When fed to rats, β-sitosterol β-d-glucoside (BSSG triggers the progressive development of parkinsonism, with clinical signs and histopathology beginning to appear following cessation of exposure to the neurotoxic insult and continuing to develop over several months. Here, we characterize the progressive nature of this model, its non-motor features, the anatomical spread of synucleinopathy, and response to levodopa administration. In Sprague Dawley rats, chronic BSSG feeding for 4 months triggered the progressive development of a parkinsonian phenotype and pathological events that evolved slowly over time, with neuronal loss beginning only after toxin exposure was terminated. At approximately 3 months following initiation of BSSG exposure, animals displayed the early emergence of an olfactory deficit, in the absence of significant dopaminergic nigral cell loss or locomotor deficits. Locomotor deficits developed gradually over time, initially appearing as locomotor asymmetry and developing into akinesia/bradykinesia, which was reversed by levodopa treatment. Late-stage cognitive impairment was observed in the form of spatial working memory deficits, as assessed by the radial arm maze. In addition to the progressive loss of TH+ cells in the substantia nigra, the appearance of proteinase K-resistant intracellular α-synuclein aggregates was also observed to develop progressively, appearing first in the

  13. Mixed phenotype acute leukemia

    Ye Zixing; Wang Shujie

    2014-01-01

    Objective To highlight the current understanding of mixed phenotype acute leukemia (MPAL).Data sources We collected the relevant articles in PubMed (from 1985 to present),using the terms "mixed phenotype acute leukemia","hybrid acute leukemia","biphenotypic acute leukemia",and "mixed lineage leukemia".We also collected the relevant studies in WanFang Data base (from 2000 to present),using the terms "mixed phenotype acute leukemia" and "hybrid acute leukemia".Study selection We included all relevant studies concerning mixed phenotype acute leukemia in English and Chinese version,with no limitation of research design.The duplicated articles are excluded.Results MPAL is a rare subgroup of acute leukemia which expresses the myeloid and lymphoid markers simultaneously.The clinical manifestations of MPAL are similar to other acute leukemias.The World Health Organization classification and the European Group for Immunological classification of Leukaemias 1998 cdteria are most widely used.MPAL does not have a standard therapy regimen.Its treatment depends mostly on the patient's unique immunophenotypic and cytogenetic features,and also the experience of individual physician.The lack of effective treatment contributes to an undesirable prognosis.Conclusion Our understanding about MPAL is still limited.The diagnostic criteria have not been unified.The treatment of MPAL remains to be investigated.The prognostic factor is largely unclear yet.A better diagnostic cdteria and targeted therapeutics will improve the therapy effect and a subsequently better prognosis.

  14. Utilization of Natural Products as Functional Feed

    Stella Magdalena

    2013-03-01

    Full Text Available The use of antibiotics as feed additive improves performance in livestock. However, scientific data related to the use of antibiotics in feed merge spreading of bacterial resistance in animal and human bodies, therefore the usage of antibiotics in animal production is restricted. This condition raise the utilization of natural antibiotic as functional feed such as phytogenics (essential oil, flavonoid, saponin, and tannin, enzyme, probiotic, and prebiotic to improve the livestock’s performance, quality, and health. Functional feeds increase profitability in animal husbandry production and its use is feeds are expected to be functional foods that may have positive effects in human nutrition.

  15. EDITORIAL: Catalysing progress Catalysing progress

    Demming, Anna

    2010-01-01

    Examples of the merits of blue-sky research in the history of science are legion. The invention of the laser, celebrating its 50th anniversary this year, is an excellent example. When it was invented it was considered to be 'a solution waiting for a problem', and yet the level to which it has now infiltrated our day-to-day technological landscape speaks volumes. At the same time it is also true to say that the direction of research is also at times rightly influenced by the needs and concerns of the general public. Over recent years, growing concerns about the environment have had a noticeable effect on research in nanotechnology, motivating work on a range of topics from green nanomaterial synthesis [1] to high-efficiency solar cells [2] and hydrogen storage [3]. The impact of the world's energy consumption on the welfare of the planet is now an enduring and well founded concern. In the face of an instinctive reluctance to curtail habits of comfort and convenience and the appendages of culture and consumerism, research into renewable and more efficient energy sources seem an encouraging approach to alleviating an impending energy crisis. Fuel cells present one alternative to traditional combustion cells that have huge benefits in terms of the efficiency of energy conversion and the limited harmful emissions. In last week's issue of Nanotechnology, Chuan-Jian Zhong and colleagues at the State University of New York at Binghamton in the USA presented an overview of research on nanostructured catalysts in fuel cells [4]. The topical review includes insights into the interactions between nanoparticles and between nanoparticles and their substrate as well as control over the composition and nanostructure of catalysts. The review also serves to highlight how the flourishing of nanotechnology research has heralded great progress in the exploitation of catalysts with nanostructures ingeniously controlled to maximize surface area and optimize energetics for synthesis

  16. EDITORIAL: Catalysing progress Catalysing progress

    Demming, Anna

    2010-01-01

    Examples of the merits of blue-sky research in the history of science are legion. The invention of the laser, celebrating its 50th anniversary this year, is an excellent example. When it was invented it was considered to be 'a solution waiting for a problem', and yet the level to which it has now infiltrated our day-to-day technological landscape speaks volumes. At the same time it is also true to say that the direction of research is also at times rightly influenced by the needs and concerns of the general public. Over recent years, growing concerns about the environment have had a noticeable effect on research in nanotechnology, motivating work on a range of topics from green nanomaterial synthesis [1] to high-efficiency solar cells [2] and hydrogen storage [3]. The impact of the world's energy consumption on the welfare of the planet is now an enduring and well founded concern. In the face of an instinctive reluctance to curtail habits of comfort and convenience and the appendages of culture and consumerism, research into renewable and more efficient energy sources seem an encouraging approach to alleviating an impending energy crisis. Fuel cells present one alternative to traditional combustion cells that have huge benefits in terms of the efficiency of energy conversion and the limited harmful emissions. In last week's issue of Nanotechnology, Chuan-Jian Zhong and colleagues at the State University of New York at Binghamton in the USA presented an overview of research on nanostructured catalysts in fuel cells [4]. The topical review includes insights into the interactions between nanoparticles and between nanoparticles and their substrate as well as control over the composition and nanostructure of catalysts. The review also serves to highlight how the flourishing of nanotechnology research has heralded great progress in the exploitation of catalysts with nanostructures ingeniously controlled to maximize surface area and optimize energetics for synthesis

  17. Worster-Drought Syndrome: Poorly Recognized despite Severe and Persistent Difficulties with Feeding and Speech

    Clark, Maria; Harris, Rebecca; Jolleff, Nicola; Price, Katie; Neville, Brian G. R.

    2010-01-01

    Aim: Worster-Drought syndrome (WDS), or congenital suprabulbar paresis, is a permanent movement disorder of the bulbar muscles causing persistent difficulties with swallowing, feeding, speech, and saliva control owing to a non-progressive disturbance in early brain development. As such, it falls within the cerebral palsies. The aim of this study…

  18. Do we really need to panic in all acute vision loss in ICU? Acute angle-closure glaucoma.

    Akal, Ali; Kucuk, Ahmet; Yalcin, Funda; Yalcin, Saban

    2014-08-01

    Acute angle closure glaucoma is a sight-threatening situation characterized by a sudden and marked rise in intraocular pressure (IOP) due to obstruction of aqueous humour outflow. Many local (ocular drops, nasal and nebulized agents) and systemic drugs (e.g. atropine, adrenaline, ephedrine, some psychoactive and antiepileptic drugs) that are widely used in intensive care units have the potential to precipitate such an acute attack. In this case report, we describe progressive visual loss due to acute angle-closure glaucoma (AACG) in a 59 year old female patient followed in the ICU due to a massive pulmonary embolism. PMID:25252529

  19. Feed and Feed Preheating Effect on MED-TVC Enhancement

    Rapid and significant growth of world installed capacity of Reverse Osmosis (RO) followed by Multi-Effect Distillation (MED) has taken place year after year. Efforts are made to improve the system performance through increasing productivity and lowering specific power consumption by utilizing waste heat for seawater feed pre heat. The present work studies the importance of seawater pre heating in MED by utilizing power plants condenser cooling water. A steady state mathematical model for Multi - Effect Distillation combined with Thermal Vapor Compression (MED-TVC) system and the governing equations are solved using a computer program to evaluate the MED-TVC system performance. The model validity is examined by data collected from two MED - TVC plants which showed good agreement. Furthermore; the study results show that an increase of seawater feed temperature from 32 to 46 degree C enhances the system productivity. Also, it increases the Gain Output Ratio by 8.7%, and decreases the specific heat consumption and the heat transfer are a by 9.6% and 17.4% respectively

  20. Reasons for failure of breast-feeding counselling: mothers' perspectives in Bangladesh.

    Haider, R; Kabir, I; Hamadani, J D; Habte, D

    1997-01-01

    During the hospitalization in the Dhaka hospital of the international Centre for Diarrhoeal Disease Research, Bangladesh, of a group of partially breast-fed infants aged 1-12 weeks who had been admitted with acute diarrhoea, their mothers were individually counselled by breast-feeding counsellors to start exclusive breast-feeding. The counselling was repeated 1 week later at home, and the women's infant-feeding practices were evaluated 2 weeks after their infants had been discharged from hospital. A total of 25% of the mothers failed to breast-feed exclusively despite having been counselled. The case studies of these mothers illustrate that although they generally complained about having "insufficient breast milk" various factors such as domineering grandmothers, lack of financial support by their husbands, too much housework, or disinterest contributed to their failure to breast-feed exclusively. While family support is essential for all lactating mothers, women with familial or financial problems require special attention and extra counselling sessions so that they can be helped to identify how to achieve and sustain exclusive breast-feeding. PMID:9277005

  1. A novel protocol for assessing aquatic pollution, based on the feeding inhibition of Daphnia magna

    Kovács A.; Abdel-Hameid N.-A.; Ács A.; Á. Ferincz; Kováts N.

    2012-01-01

    In this study, sensitivity of a novel acute bioassay based on the feeding activity of Daphnia magna was assessed, using 2 and 4 h of exposure. For calibration purposes, results were compared with those of the standard immobility test as described by the ISO 6341:1996 standard. Using potassium dichromate as the reference chemical, after 4 h of exposure the proposed protocol showed similar sensitivity in comparison with the stan...

  2. Adequacy of breast-feeding.

    Jelliffe, D B; Jelliffe, E F

    1979-09-29

    There are 3 main errors in the paper by Professor Waterlow and Dr. Thomson on the subject of adequacy of breast feeding. The errors relate to the following: validity of recommended dietary allowances (RDA), balance between intake and requirements, and frequency of weight faltering. Far from being "generally accepted," the RDAs for early infancy (0-6 months) are highly tenuous. As Waterlow and Thomson indicate, they are largely based on S.J. Fomon's studies on intakes observed in North American infants fed various milks. Such studies only indicate the approximate use of energy and protein from these preparations when given by bottle. Their relevance to infants breast fed with fresh human milk on demand is conjectural. RDAs for early infancy among the breast fed will be very difficult, if not impossible, to determine. They are likely to be more variable than previously believed and extrapolation from older children, as Waterlow and Thomson have done, is inappropriate. Theoretical extrapolations lead Waterlow and Thomson to conclude that breast feeding alone after 3 months cannot be adequate mathematically, and, therefore that this must be so. Anyone with practical experience realizes from simple observation that this is an extraordinary conclusion. Pediatric texts have long recognized that breast feeding alone sustains infants well for 5-6 months (or more). Weight faltering is not "common at 3 months in developing countries." The growth of breast fed infants has been recognized as excellent for the first 6 months or so by the early "tropical pediatricians," and field surveys have confirmed this. The real danger in Waterlow and Thomson's paper is that it is tailor-made for the promotional campaigns of the formula companies. PMID:90775

  3. Replacement Gastrostomy Tube Causing Acute Pancreatitis: Case Series with Review of Literature

    Anish M Shah

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available Context Percutaneous endoscopic gastrostomy (PEG feedings are generally considered safe with few serious complications. Acute pancreatitis is a rare complication associated with replacement percutaneous endoscopic gastrostomy tubes. Case report We report two cases of acute pancreatitis induced by migrated replacement percutaneous endoscopic gastrostomy tubes. Conclusions Migration of a balloon into the duodenum can result in external manipulation of the ampulla of Vater thereby disturbing the flow of pancreatic secretions leading to acute pancreatitis. Recognition of this complication is important and should be included as potential etiology of acute pancreatitis in patients receiving percutaneous endoscopic gastrostomy feedings. Periodic examination and documentation of the distance of the balloon from the skin should be performed to document the position of the tubes or any inadvertent migration of the tubes. The use of Foley catheters as permanent replacement tubes should be considered medically inappropriate.

  4. Research progress of acute myeloid leukemia: reports from the 57th American Society of Hematology annual meeting%急性髓系白血病研究进展:第57届美国血液学会年会报道

    曹晶晶; 魏辉

    2016-01-01

    There are several main topics in acute myelogenous leukemia at the 57th American Society of Hematology annual meeting, including the optimization about induction and consolidation chemotherapy for AML, the investigation of targeted drugs in AML first line therapy, the marker for AML MRD monitoring, the differentiation drugs, such as tamibarotene in APL, the definition about refractory AML, the induction therapy for blastic plasmacytoid dendritic cell neoplasm (BPDCN). This article reviewed the research progress of AML in the 57th ASH annual meeting.%第57届美国血液学会(ASH)年会在急性髓系白血病(AML)领域中主要对以下几个问题给予了关注:AML诱导及巩固化疗方案的优化;应用靶向药物一线治疗AML取得了良好的疗效;监测微小残留病灶突变基因的研究;他米巴罗汀等诱导分化药物在急性早幼粒细胞白血病(APL)中的应用;难治性白血病定义标准的研究;母细胞性浆细胞样树突细胞肿瘤(BPDCN)诱导治疗方案的回顾性研究等.文章就第57届ASH年会报道的AML最新研究进展进行介绍.

  5. Acute myopericarditis masquerading as acute myocardial infarction

    Wen Tian; Zixin Zhang; Xiaojuan Bai; Dingyin Zeng; Guoxian Qi

    2008-01-01

    Patients with abrupt onset of chest pain, ischemic ECG abnormalities and elevated levels of cardiac markers could be given a diagnosis of acute myocardial infarction. However, some other diseases should be taken into consideration in this clinical setting when coronary arteries are proven to be normal. Here we report a case of acute myopericarditis with clinical presentation of myocardial infarction and normal coronary anatomy. The Herpes Simplex Virus Ⅱ was considered as the organism causing myopericarditis and the patient was recovered by the treatment with valacicloavir. A precise diagnosis is a prerequisite of successful treatment and favorable prognosis.

  6. Leukocytosis in acute stroke

    Kammersgaard, L P; Jørgensen, H S; Nakayama, H;

    1999-01-01

    Leukocytosis is a common finding in the acute phase of stroke. A detrimental effect of leukocytosis on stroke outcome has been suggested, and trials aiming at reducing the leukocyte response in acute stroke are currently being conducted. However, the influence of leukocytosis on stroke outcome has...

  7. Poznan acute Astronomical Observatory

    Murdin, P.

    2000-11-01

    This Poznan acute Astronomical Observatory is a unit of the Adam Mickiewicz University, located in Poznan acute, Poland. From its foundation in 1919, it has specialized in astrometry and celestial mechanics (reference frames, dynamics of satellites and small solar system bodies). Recently, research activities have also included planetary and stellar astrophysics (asteroid photometry, catalysmic b...

  8. Acute Otitis Media

    A Joshan

    2000-07-01

    Full Text Available Acute Otitis Media is a common problem of childhood. It is characterized by otalgia, fever, irritability, anorexia and vomiting or diarrhea. Diagnosis is most often made by pneumatic otoscopy. Acute Otitis Media is mostly caused by S.pneumonia or H.influenza there are sensitive to penicillins.

  9. Acute kidney injury.

    Lang, Joanna; Zuber, Kim; Davis, Jane

    2016-04-01

    Acute kidney injury (AKI) complicates up to 20% of all hospital admissions. Responding to the increase in admissions, complications, mortality, morbidity, and cost of AKI, Kidney Disease: Improving Global Outcomes convened an expert panel to study the issue, review the literature, and publish guidelines to evaluate and treat patients with AKI in the acute setting. This article reviews those guidelines. PMID:27023656

  10. Acute dysautonomia following mumps.

    Mathuranath P

    1999-04-01

    Full Text Available Pure acute or subacute dysautonomia is a rare entity. Its etiology is as yet unknown. However, majority of these cases have a preceding viral infection such as herpes simplex, infectious mononucleosis, rubella or coxsackie B. A unique patient in whom acute dysautonomia followed mumps is reported.

  11. Acute dysautonomia following mumps.

    Mathuranath P; Duralpandian J; Kishore A

    1999-01-01

    Pure acute or subacute dysautonomia is a rare entity. Its etiology is as yet unknown. However, majority of these cases have a preceding viral infection such as herpes simplex, infectious mononucleosis, rubella or coxsackie B. A unique patient in whom acute dysautonomia followed mumps is reported.

  12. Salmonella occurrence and Enterobacteriaceae counts in pig feed ingredients and compound feed from feed mills in Ireland.

    Burns, Anne Marie; Lawlor, Peadar G; Gardiner, Gillian E; McCabe, Evonne M; Walsh, Des; Mohammed, Manal; Grant, Jim; Duffy, Geraldine

    2015-10-01

    The purpose of this study was to assess the occurrence of non-typhoidal Salmonellae and Enterobacteriaceae counts in raw ingredients and compound feeds sampled from feed mills manufacturing pig diets. Between November 2012 and September 2013, feed ingredients (n=340) and compound pig feed (n=313) samples were collected from five commercial feed mills and one home compounder at various locations throughout Ireland. Feed ingredients included cereals, vegetable protein sources and by-products of oil extraction and ethanol production. The compound feeds included meal and pelleted feed for all stages of pig production. Samples were analysed for Salmonella using standard enrichment procedures. Recovered isolates were serotyped, characterised for antibiotic resistance and subtyped by multi locus variance analysis (MLVA). Total Enterobacteriaceae counts were also performed. Salmonella was recovered from 2/338 (0.6%) ingredients (wheat and soybean meal), at two of the six mills. Salmonella was also detected in 3/317 (0.95%) compound feeds including pelleted feed which undergoes heat treatment. All isolates recovered from feed ingredient and compound feed samples were verified as Salmonella enterica subsp. enterica serotype (4,[5],12:i:-) that lack the expression of flagellar Phase 2 antigens representing monophasic variants of Salmonella Typhimurium (4,[5],12:i:-). Isolates exhibited resistance to between two and seven antimicrobials. Two distinct MLVA profiles were observed, with the same profile recovered from both feed and ingredients, although these did not originate at the same mill. There was no relationship between the occurrence of Salmonella and a high Enterobacteriaceae counts but it was shown that Enterobacteriaceae counts were significantly lower in pelleted feed (heat treated) than in meal (no heat treatment) and that Enterobacteriaceae counts would be very useful indicator in HACPP programme. Overall, although the prevalence of Salmonella in pig feed and feed

  13. Correlation of 4-month infant feeding modes with their growth and iron status in Beijing

    GONG Yu-hua; JI Cheng-ye; ZHENG Xiu-xia; SHAN Jin-ping; HOU Rui

    2008-01-01

    Background Growth and development of infants has been an impoRant topic in pediatrics for a long time.Infants must be provided with food containing all necessary nutrienls.Breast milk js believed to be the most desirable natural and cheapest food for well-balanced nutrition.But with the progress in the development of substitute food in developed countries,it is thought that formula milk can meet the requirement for infant growth.During early infancy,growth,as the most sensitive index of health,is therefore a critical component in evaluating the adequacy of breast-feeding,mixed-feeding and formula feeding.Iron status is another important index of infant health.Iron deficiency anemia remains the most prevalent nutritional deficiency index in infants worldwide.This study is to compare infants in Beijing at 4 months who are on three different feeding modes(breast feeding,mixed feeding and formula feeding)in physical changes and iron status.The results may provide new mothers with support in feeding mode selection,which will also be helpful to the China Nutrition Association in feeding mode education.Methods This is a cohort study.One thousand and one normal Beijing infants were followed regularly for 12 months.Body weight and horizontal length were measured.Hemoglobin,red blood cell counts,mean corpuscular volume,mean corpuscular hemoglobin and serum iron were analyzed at 4 months.Results The breast feeding percentage in the first 4 months was 47.9%.The feeding mode was not significantly related to maternal delivery age,education,labor pathway nor infant sex(P>0.05).Infant boys and girls exclusively breast-fed from 0 to 4 months had the highest weight at 0-6 months.The anemia rate of breast-fed infant boys at 4 months was the highest.Conclusions Breast feeding should be given more emphasis.It is compulsory for new mothers to breast-feed their Infants if possible.Social environment should also guarantee the requirement for breast feeding.Furthermore the normal values

  14. Residual feed intake in beef cattle

    J P.F. Arthur

    2008-07-01

    Full Text Available Providing feed is a major input cost in beef production, hence improvements in the efficiency of feed utilisation will reduce the cost of production. Residual feed intake (RFI is a measure of feed efficiency, and is defined as the difference between an animal's actual feed intake and its expected feed intake based on its size and growth. It is independent of the level of production, and the lower the value the more efficient the animal is. This paper examines the current state of knowledge on RFI. Available information indicates that postweaning RFI is moderately heritable, and that selection for low RFI will result in progeny that consume less feed for the same level of production as progeny of high RFI cattle. Under ad libitum feeding, RFI is phenotypically independent of growth traits. There is a weak genetic relationship between RFI and fatness but additional studies are needed to assess the magnitude of this relationship in different breeds, sexes, ages and feeding regimes. Residual feed intake is believed to represent inherent variation in basic metabolic processes which determine efficiency. Economic analyses of genetic improvement schemes that incorporate testing of individuals for RFI have yielded substantial economic benefits over and above existing schemes that do not include RFI testing. Selection for low RFI has an additional benefit of reducing greenhouse gas emissions by cattle.

  15. LFCM vitrification technology. Quarterly progress report, October-December 1985

    Burkholder, H.C.; Jarrett, J.H.; Minor, J.E. (comps.)

    1986-09-01

    This report is compiled by the Nuclear Waste Treatment Program and the Hanford Waste Vitrification Program at Pacific Northwest Laboratory to document progress on liquid-fed ceramic melter (LFCM) vitrification technology. Progress in the following technical subject areas during the first quarter of FY 1986 is discussed: melting process chemistry and glass development, feed preparation and transfer systems, melter systems, canister filling and handling systems, off-gas systems, process/product modeling and control, and supporting studies.

  16. Comparison of the effects of acute and chronic psychological stress on metabolic features in rats

    Fatemeh ROSTAMKHANI; Homeira ZARDOOZ; Saleh ZAHEDIASL; Babak FARROKHI

    2012-01-01

    This study was aimed to compare the effects of acute and chronic psychological stress on metabolic factors.Forty-two male Wistar rats were divided into control and stressed groups.Stress was applied by a communication box acutely (1 d) and chronically (15 and 30 d).Blood sampling was carried out by retro-orbital-puncture method.The plasma levels of glucose,cholesterol,triglyceride,insulin,and corticosterone were measured.In addition,feed and water intake,latency to eat and drink,adrenal and body weights were determined.Acute and chronic psychological stress did not significantly change basal plasma corticosterone levels.However,immediately (1 min) after acute exposure to stress,plasma corticosterone level increased compared to that before stress exposure.Acute stress increased plasma insulin levels significantly.Fifteen days of stress exposure resulted in plasma glucose increase.Chronic stress significantly increased feed intake,latency to eat,and adrenal weight compared to acute stress.The body weights of both control and stressed groups increased markedly during the experiment.Homeostasis model assessment of insulin resistance (HOMA-IR) index did not change significantly in the stressed group.In conclusion,application of acute and chronic psychological stress leads to different metabolic and/or behavioral changes but the metabolic changes resulting from acute exposure to stress seem to be more pronounced.

  17. Progression of Liver Disease

    ... Browse Related Terms Progression of Liver Disease , Family History of Liver Disease , Liver Wellness , Liver Failure , Liver Biopsy Home > Your Liver > Liver Disease Information > The Progression ...

  18. The microbiota regulates susceptibility to Fas-mediated acute hepatic injury

    Celaj, Stela; Gleeson, Michael W; Jie DENG; O'Toole, George A.; Hampton, Thomas H.; Toft, Martin F.; Morrison, Hilary G; Sogin, Mitchell L.; Putra, Juan; Suriawinata, Arief A.; Gorham, James D.

    2014-01-01

    Whereas a significant role for intestinal microbiota in affecting the pathogenesis and progression of chronic hepatic diseases is well documented, the contribution of the intestinal flora to acute liver injury has not been extensively addressed. Elucidating the influence of the intestinal microbiota on acute liver inflammation would be important for better understanding the transition from acute injury to chronic liver disease. Using the Concanavalin A (ConA)-induced liver injury model in lab...

  19. Pancytopenic Prodrome (pre-ALL) of Acute Lymphoblastic Leukemia in Adults: Possible Pathogenesis

    Sohn, Sang Kyun; Suh, Jang Soo; Lee, Jaetae; Lee, Kyu Bo

    1998-01-01

    We report two cases of adult acute lymphoblastic leukemia presenting with preleukemic phase of pancytopenia with a few abnormal lymphoid cells in bone marrow aspirates. The initial diagnosis of each case was suspicious aplastic anemia and hypoplastic anemia. Both cases progressed to overt acute lymphoblastic leukemia within 1 year. We suggest that initial pancytopenic phase (pre-ALL) may precede the diagnosis of acute lymphoblastic leukemia in adults and differential diagnosis from myelodyspl...

  20. Bilateral anterior choroidal artery infarction presenting with progressive somnolence.

    van Son, Brechtje; Vandevenne, Jan; Viaene, Pieter

    2014-09-01

    A 55-year-old woman was admitted with a 3 days history of increasing lethargy with bradyphrenia and apathy. She progressively developed severe somnolence with marked abulia, right hemiparesis, right hemianopsia, and pseudobulbar palsy. Brain magnetic resonance imaging showed the rare image of bilateral acute anterior choroidal artery infarction. Pseudobulbar mutism and in rare cases abulia have been described in acute anterior choroidal artery infarction contralateral to an older lesion in mirror position. Although neurologic deterioration is not infrequent in anterior choroidal artery territory infarcts, the absence of focal neurologic signs on admission is rare and did not raise suspicion of acute stroke. PMID:25106836

  1. Acute transverse myelitis caused by Coxsackie virus B4 infection: a case report.

    Ku, B; Lee, K.

    1998-01-01

    Acute transverse myelitis is a rare clinical manifestation of Coxsackie virus infection which cause acute and progressive debilitating illness associated with loss of spinal cord function in the affected patients. A 62 year-old female developed symptoms of rapidly progressive paraplegia with sensory loss. On spinal MRI, T2 sagittal image showed increased signal intensity with cord swelling at T11-L2 level and 8 folds or greater rise of Coxsackie virus B4 neutralizing antibody titers was obser...

  2. Risk factors of acute hepatic failure during antituberculosis treatment : two cases and literature review

    Smink, F.; van Hoek, B.; Ringers, J.; van Altena, R.; Arend, S. M.

    2006-01-01

    Hepatotoxicity is a well-known side effect of antituberculosis treatment (ATT). If not recognised in time, drug-induced hepatitis can develop, which may rapidly progress to acute liver failure. We describe two patients with acute hepatic failure caused by ATT, whose pretreatment liver function had b

  3. Feeding by Actinophrys sol (Protista, Heliozoa): 1 light microscopy.

    Patterson, D J; Hausmann, K

    1981-01-01

    The feeding behavior of the heliozoon Actinophrys sol was investigated using the ciliate Colpidium colpoda as food. The ciliate is caught by adhesion to the arms of the heliozoon. Within 20 min the prey is enclosed by a funnel-shaped pseudopodium which progresses over the prey by the action of its differentiated leading edge. Independent Actinophrys cells may fuse together during prey capture and the early stages of prey digestion. After prey ingestion, the ciliate is lysed and the contents of the food vacuole coagulate. Much of the fluid is removed from the food vacuole and, within 4 h of feeding, the food vacuole has condensed around its coagulated contents. As food vacuole condensation occurs, the peripheral region of the heliozoon cell becomes vacuolated. The appearance of the cell and of the food vacuole remain the same for about 12 h, after which time the undigested residues in the food vacuoles are egested, fused masses of cells separate as uninucleate cells and nuclear division may occur. During feeding, the extrusomes are greatly depleted. These bodies are implicated in the processes of food capture and in the production of food vacuole membrane. PMID:7311876

  4. Chronic loss of melanin-concentrating hormone affects motivational aspects of feeding in the rat.

    Joram D Mul

    Full Text Available Current epidemic obesity levels apply great medical and financial pressure to the strenuous economy of obesity-prone cultures, and neuropeptides involved in body weight regulation are regarded as attractive targets for a possible treatment of obesity in humans. The lateral hypothalamus and the nucleus accumbens shell (AcbSh form a hypothalamic-limbic neuropeptide feeding circuit mediated by Melanin-Concentrating Hormone (MCH. MCH promotes feeding behavior via MCH receptor-1 (MCH1R in the AcbSh, although this relationship has not been fully characterized. Given the AcbSh mediates reinforcing properties of food, we hypothesized that MCH modulates motivational aspects of feeding.Here we show that chronic loss of the rat MCH-precursor Pmch decreased food intake predominantly via a reduction in meal size during rat development and reduced high-fat food-reinforced operant responding in adult rats. Moreover, acute AcbSh administration of Neuropeptide-GE and Neuropeptide-EI (NEI, both additional neuropeptides derived from Pmch, or chronic intracerebroventricular infusion of NEI, did not affect feeding behavior in adult pmch(+/+ or pmch(-/- rats. However, acute administration of MCH to the AcbSh of adult pmch(-/- rats elevated feeding behavior towards wild type levels. Finally, adult pmch(-/- rats showed increased ex vivo electrically evoked dopamine release and increased limbic dopamine transporter levels, indicating that chronic loss of Pmch in the rat affects the limbic dopamine system.Our findings support the MCH-MCH1R system as an amplifier of consummatory behavior, confirming this system as a possible target for the treatment of obesity. We propose that MCH-mediated signaling in the AcbSh positively mediates motivational aspects of feeding behavior. Thereby it provides a crucial signal by which hypothalamic neural circuits control energy balance and guide limbic brain areas to enhance motivational or incentive-related aspects of food consumption.

  5. Acute appendicitis caused by acute myeloid leukemia

    Zhang, Shanxiang; Chen, Shaoxiong

    2014-01-01

    Key Clinical Message A case of appendiceal involvement by acute myeloid leukemia (AML) in an adult with recent history of AML transformed from myelodysplastic syndrome (MDS) was presented. Being aware of this rare presentation in particular in a patient with history of MDS and/or AML is important for prompt clinical diagnosis and management.

  6. Self-selection of dietary protein and energy by broilers grown under a tropical climate: adaptation when exposed to choice feeding at different ages.

    Yo, T; Siegel, P B; Faure, J M; Picard, M

    1998-04-01

    Three hundred broiler chicks (Hubbard) of both sexes were assigned to five feeding treatments: T0 received a complete diet (control), T1 was a choice feeding system with simultaneous access to an energy-rich feed (ground corn) and a protein concentrate (43.7% CP), and T2, T3, and T4 were introduced to choice feeding after 1, 3, and 5 wk, respectively, of consuming the complete diet. At 1-d-old, T1 chicks showed a marked preference for corn, with only 21.4% of their intake being the protein concentrate diet. Intake of the concentrate progressively increased to 40 to 45% after 3 d of adaptation, resulting in diets with 22.5 to 24.3% CP. When broilers fed the complete diet for 1 to 5 wk (T2, T3, T4) were changed to choice feeding, on the 1st d, their feed choice intake was similar to that of T1 chicks at the same age. Visual observation and tactile assessment of the feed particles during the initial period allowed the chicks to quickly evaluate the new feeds and to adapt their feeding behavior. Although total feed intake to 6 wk of age was not significantly affected by the feeding treatments, broilers on choice feeding selected diets with a lower percentage of CP and had lower live body weights at 6 wk than those fed the complete diet (T0). PMID:9565230

  7. Latest progress of research on acute abdominal injuries

    Ionut Negoi

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Major abdominal trauma, both blunt and penetrating, is commonly seen nowadays, being particularly difficult to manage due to the frequent altered mental status of the patients and severity of associated injuries. The review article aims to make an uptodate study of the current strategies for therapeutic approach of abdominal injuries in polytrauma setting. Review of the medical literature is up to 2015, by using the PubMed/Medline, Science Direct, Cochrane Library and Web of Science databases. We have used different combinations of the keywords of “abdominal trauma”, “liver”, “spleen”, “renal”, to review the reference list of retrieved articles for further relevant studies. Nowadays, we are facing a major change in abdominal trauma therapeutic approach, due to the continuous extending indications and very high successful rate of selective nonoperative management, completed or not with minimally invasive techniques like angiography and angiographic embolization. New imaging methods offer a high-quality characterization of solid organ injuries, being a secure support for decision algorithm in polytrauma patients. After a continuous decrease in number of laparotomies for trauma, new techniques should be developed for maintaining and developing the trauma surgeons' skills. According to the current standards, for a low morbidity and mortality, the trauma patients may be approached by a multidisciplinary and experienced trauma team. Even if nonoperative management is continuously expanding, this may be applied only by a trained and skillful trauma surgeon, who is able to perform difficult surgical techniques at any moments.

  8. Latest progress of research on acute abdominal injuries

    Ionut Negoi; Sorin Paun; Bogdan Stoica; Ioan Tanase; Mihaela Vartic; Ruxandra Irina Negoi; Sorin Hostiuc; Mircea Beuran

    2016-01-01

    Major abdominal trauma, both blunt and penetrating, is commonly seen nowadays, being particularly difficult to manage due to the frequent altered mental status of the patients and severity of associated injuries. The review article aims to make an uptodate study of the current strategies for therapeutic approach of abdominal injuries in polytrauma setting. Review of the medical literature is up to 2015, by using the PubMed/Medline, Science Direct, Cochrane Library and Web of Science databases. We have used different com-binations of the keywords of“abdominal trauma”,“liver”,“spleen”,“renal”, to review the reference list of retrieved articles for further relevant studies. Nowadays, we are facing a major change in abdominal trauma therapeutic approach, due to the continuous extending indications and very high successful rate of selective nonoperative management, completed or not with minimally invasive techniques like angiography and angiographic embolization. New imaging methods offer a high-quality characterization of solid organ injuries, being a secure support for decision algorithm in polytrauma patients. After a continuous decrease in number of laparotomies for trauma, new techniques should be developed for maintaining and developing the trauma surgeons' skills. According to the current standards, for a low morbidity and mortality, the trauma patients may be approached by a multidisciplinary and experienced trauma team. Even if nonoperative management is continuously expanding, this may be applied only by a trained and skillful trauma surgeon, who is able to perform difficult surgical techniques at any moments.

  9. THE VALUE OF PROTEIN IN FEED BARLEY FOR BEEF, DAIRY, AND SWINE FEEDING

    LaFrance, Jeffrey T.; Watts, Myles J.

    1986-01-01

    The impact of the protein content of feed barley on the costs of feeding beef, dairy cattle, and swine in Montana is evaluated. A model of least-cost feed rations is constructed to analyze the marginal value of additional protein content in feed barley. The results indicate that increasing the protein content of feed barley above 12% will not substantially increase the value of barley to feeders. This implies that the establishment and maintenance of a protein premium in the feed barley marke...

  10. Association between illness severity and timing of initial enteral feeding in critically ill patients: a retrospective observational study

    Huang Hsiu-Hua

    2012-05-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Early enteral nutrition is recommended in cases of critical illness. It is unclear whether this recommendation is of most benefit to extremely ill patients. We aim to determine the association between illness severity and commencement of enteral feeding. Methods One hundred and eight critically ill patients were grouped as “less severe” and “more severe” for this cross-sectional, retrospective observational study. The cut off value was based on Acute Physiology and Chronic Health Evaluation II score 20. Patients who received enteral feeding within 48 h of medical intensive care unit (ICU admission were considered early feeding cases otherwise they were assessed as late feeding cases. Feeding complications (gastric retention/vomiting/diarrhea/gastrointestinal bleeding, length of ICU stay, length of hospital stay, ventilator-associated pneumonia, hospital mortality, nutritional intake, serum albumin, serum prealbumin, nitrogen balance (NB, and 24-h urinary urea nitrogen data were collected over 21 days. Results There were no differences in measured outcomes between early and late feedings for less severely ill patients. Among more severely ill patients, however, the early feeding group showed improved serum albumin (p = 0.036 and prealbumin (p = 0.014 but worsened NB (p = 0.01, more feeding complications (p = 0.005, and prolonged ICU stays (p = 0.005 compared to their late feeding counterparts. Conclusions There is a significant association between severity of illness and timing of enteral feeding initiation. In more severe illness, early feeding was associated with improved nutritional outcomes, while late feeding was associated with reduced feeding complications and length of ICU stay. However, the feeding complications of more severely ill early feeders can be handled without significantly affecting nutritional intake and there is no eventual difference in length of hospital stay or mortality

  11. ERCP in acute pancreatitis

    Jijo V Cherian; Joye Varghese Selvaraj; Rajesh Natrayan; Jayanthi Venkataraman

    2007-01-01

    BACKGROUND:The role of endoscopic retrograde cholangiopancreatography (ERCP) in the management of acute pancreatitis has evolved over years since its introduction in 1968. Its importance in diagnosing the etiology of pancreatitis has steadily declined with the advent of less invasive diagnostic tools. The therapeutic implications of ERCP in acute pancreatitis are many fold and are directed towards management of known etiological factors or its related complications. This article highlights the current status of ERCP in acute pancreatitis. DATA SOURCES:An English literature search using PubMed database was conducted on ERCP in acute pancreatitis, the etiologies and complications of pancreatitis amenable to endotherapy and other related subjects, which were reviewed. RESULTS: ERCP serves as a primary therapeutic modality for management of biliary pancreatitis in speciifc situations, pancreatitis due to microlithiasis, speciifc types of sphincter of Oddi dysfunction, pancreas divisum, ascariasis and malignancy. In recurrent acute pancreatitis and smoldering pancreatitis it has a deifnite therapeutic utility. Complications of acute pancreatitis including pancreatic-duct disruptions or leaks, benign pancreatic-lfuid collections and pancreatic necrosis can be beneifcially dealt with. Intraductal ultrasound and pancreatoscopy during ERCP are useful in detecting pancreatic malignancy. CONCLUSIONS:The role of ERCP in acute pancreatitis is predominantly therapeutic and occasionally diagnostic. Its role in the management continues to evolve and advanced invasive procedures should be undertaken only in centers dedicated to pancreatic care.

  12. Feed grain improvement through biopreservation and bioprocessing

    Olstorpe, Matilda

    2008-01-01

    Fermentation is an environmentally friendly method to improve feed quality. Fermented liquid feed and airtight stored moist crimped cereal grain systems that are of increasing importance in agricultural practice were studied. Both rely on spontaneous microbial developments with poorly understood population dynamics, resulting in unpredictable final quality. Temperature, fermentation time and ingredients affected final properties of the feed. Molecular-based species identification showed that ...

  13. Utilization of Natural Products as Functional Feed

    Stella Magdalena; Natadiputri G H; Nailufar; Purwadaria T

    2013-01-01

    The use of antibiotics as feed additive improves performance in livestock. However, scientific data related to the use of antibiotics in feed merge spreading of bacterial resistance in animal and human bodies, therefore the usage of antibiotics in animal production is restricted. This condition raise the utilization of natural antibiotic as functional feed such as phytogenics (essential oil, flavonoid, saponin, and tannin), enzyme, probiotic, and prebiotic to improve the livestock’s performan...

  14. Feed restriction in broiler chickens production

    Sahraei M.

    2012-01-01

    The feed restriction program is on of the main techniques in growth curve manipulation for increasing production efficiency in broiler chicken. Quantities and qualitative feed restriction are procedures that can be used to manipulate the feeding strategies of poultry in order to decrease growth and metabolic rate to some extent and so alleviate the incidence of some metabolic diseases such as ascites, lameness, mortality, and sudden death syndrome and so im...

  15. 7 CFR 905.142 - Animal feed.

    2010-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 8 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Animal feed. 905.142 Section 905.142 Agriculture... TANGELOS GROWN IN FLORIDA Rules and Regulations Non-Regulated Fruit § 905.142 Animal feed. (a) The handling of citrus for animal feed shall be exempt from the provisions of §§ 905.52 and 905.53 and...

  16. Factors affecting feed efficiency in dairy goats

    Tadeu Silva de Oliveira; Fernando de Paula Leonel; Cássio José da Silva; Danielle Ferreira Baffa; José Carlos Pereira; Joanis Tilemahos Zervoudakis

    2014-01-01

    The objective of this study was to present some factors affecting feed efficiency in dairy goats. To develop our work, individual and average data from performance experiments with lactating goats were used. The following variables were evaluated: gross feed efficiency, adjusted feed efficiency, dry matter intake, milk-yield, 3.5% fat-corrected milk yield, dry matter digestibility, dietary neutral detergent fiber content, different roughage-to-concentrate ratios and body weight. The statistic...

  17. Feeding and Digestion in Larval Decapod Crustaceans

    KUMLU, Metin

    1999-01-01

    This paper reviews the latest findings in larval feeding and digestion of decapod crustacean larvae. The live feeds and manufactured feeds are discussed in relation with the digestive capability of various decapod crustacean larvae. Although some larvae such as penaeid shrimps are successfully cultured on artifical diets, most of lar-val decapod crustaceans are still heavily dependent on live organisms as food (i. e. micro-algae, Arte-mia). Studies with free-living nematodes as an altern...

  18. Breeding for feed intake capacity in pigs

    Eissen, J.J.

    2000-01-01

    This thesis deals with feed intake capacity of pigs. By selection, breeding organizations try to achieve genetic improvement in production and reproduction efficiency. Future genetic improvement may become constrained by a limited feed intake capacity of growing pigs and lactating sows, respectively. The aim of this thesis is to study the actual feed intake capacity of growing pigs and lactating sows in relation to their potential for production and reproduction in order to get a better under...

  19. Trend analysis of mycotoxins in animal feed

    Adamse, P.; Egmond, van, H.J.; Driessen, J.J.M.; Rijk, de, J.; Jong, de, P.F.; Nijs, de, S.

    2012-01-01

    Feed materials were analysed for the mycotoxins deoxynivalenol, ochratoxin A, zearalenone, aflatoxin B1, fumonisin B1 and B2, and HT-2- and T-2-toxins. In this report trends in the average content during the period 2001-2009 are reported for these mycotoxins. Monitoring data from the National Feed monitoring program and from the Commodity Board Animal Feed are used for this study.

  20. Forage feeding in intensive lamb production

    Helander, Carl

    2014-01-01

    Successful feeding strategies of periparturient ewes and growing lambs are essential in intensive indoor lamb production. This thesis evaluated the effects of chopping grass silage and of mixing silage with concentrate on feed intake, dietary selection, chewing behaviour, faecal particle size and performance in pregnant and lactating ewes and in suckling and finishing lambs. In addition, the effects of silage digestibility on feed intake, dietary selection and performance in pregnant and lact...

  1. Improving feed slurry rheology by colloidal techniques

    Heath, W.O.; Ternes, R.L.

    1984-06-01

    Pacific Northwest Laboratory (PSN) has investigated three colloidal techniques in the laboratory to improve the sedimentation and flowability of Hanford simulated (nonradioactive) current acid waste (CAW) melter feed slurry: polymer-induced bridging flocculation; manipulating glass former (raw SiO/sub 2/ or frit) particle size; and alteration of nitric acid content. All three methods proved successful in improving the rheology of the simulated CAW feed. This initially had exhibited nearly worst-case flow and clogging properties, but was transformed into a flowable, resuspendable (nonclogging) feed. While each has advantages and disadvantages, the following three specific alternatives proved successful: addition of a polyelectrolyte in 2000 ppM concentration to feed slurry; substitution of a 49 wt % SiO/sub 2/ colloidal suspension (approx. 10-micron particle size) for the -325 mesh (less than or equal to 44-micron particle size) raw-chemical SiO/sub 2/; and increase of nitric acid content from the reference 1.06 M to optimum 1.35 M. The first method, polymer-induced bridging flocculation, results in a high sediment volume, nonclogging CAW feed. The second method, involving the use of colloidal silica particles results in a nonsedimenting feed that when left unagitated forms a gel. The third method, increase in feed acidity, results in a highly resuspendable (nonclogging) melter feed. Further research is therefore required to determine which of the three alternatives is the preferred method of achieving rheological control of CAW melter feeds.

  2. Caregiver's Feeding Styles Questionnaire. Establishing cutoff points.

    Hughes, Sheryl O; Cross, Matthew B; Hennessy, Erin; Tovar, Alison; Economos, Christina D; Power, Thomas G

    2012-02-01

    Researchers use the Caregiver's Feeding Styles Questionnaire (CFSQ) to categorize parent feeding into authoritative, authoritarian, indulgent, and uninvolved styles. The CFSQ assesses self-reported feeding and classifies parents using median splits which are used in a substantial body of parenting literature and allow for direct comparison across studies on dimensions of demandingness and responsiveness. No national norms currently exist for the CFSQ. This paper establishes and recommends cutoff points most relevant for low-income, minority US samples that researchers and clinicians can use to assign parents to feeding styles. Median scores for five studies are examined and the average across these studies reported. PMID:22119478

  3. Acute appendicitis in unenhanced spiral CT: Diagnostic luxury or benefit?

    Purpose: To evaluate the diagnostic accuracy of thin collimated unenhanced spiral-CT in patients with clinically suspected acute appendicitis and to determine the impact on patient management and overall costs. Method: Unenhanced focussed appendiceal spiral-CT was performed in 56 patients (23 women and 33 men) with clinically suspected acute appendicitis. Scans were obtained from the L4 level to the symphysis pubis using 5 mm collimation, 7.5 mm table feed (pitch 1.5) and 4 mm increment without i.v., oral, or rectal contrast material. Prospective diagnoses based on CT findings were compared with surgical (and histopathological) results and clinical follow-up. The effect of spiral-CT on patient management and clinical pressources was assessed. Results: 29 patients (10 women and 19 men) underwent appendectomy. Unenhanced spiral-CT was an accurate impaging technique for the initial examination of patients with suspected acute appendicitis with a sensitivity of 95.4% and a specificity 100%, an accuracy of 98.2%, a positive predictive value of 100%, and a negative predictive value of 97.1%. In 27 patients with no evidence of acute appendicitis, an alternative diagnosis could be made in 24 patients by unenhanced spiral-CT. Conclusion: Unenhanced spiral-CT is an accurate test to diagnose or to exclude acute appendicitis. Routine appendiceal spiral-CT can improve medical care and reduce the overall costs for patients suspected of having acute appendicitis. (orig.)

  4. Beneficial uses program. Progress report, period ending June 30, 1979

    1979-10-01

    Progress in research on the irradiation of sewage sludge, the potential use of dried sewage sludge as animal feed or soil conditioners, the inactivation of rotavirus in sewage sludge, fruit fly control by the irradiation of citrus fruits, and the production of /sup 137/Cs source pellets is reported. (LCL)

  5. Date stones in broiler's feeding

    Gualtieri, M.

    1990-01-01

    Full Text Available To evaluate date stones as dietary component for broilers, two trials were carried out. In the first trial, Tunisian Deglet date stones were used and in the second one, stones were the waste product of an Italian distillery. One-day-old Arbor Acres chickens were cage reared and fed for 6 weeks on 4 experimental diets, which were formulated to be isonitrogenous and isocaloric and differed in cereal component (maize or low tannin sorghum and in inclusion level (0 or 10 % of ground date stones. Birds ' performances were slightly different in the two trials, but overall results indicate that date stones are suitable for use in broiler's feeding under such conditions.

  6. Breast-feeding and alcoholism

    Goodwin, D W; Gabrielli, W F; Penick, E C;

    1999-01-01

    OBJECTIVE: The authors' goal was to determine whether early termination of breast-feeding contributes to later alcohol dependence, as proposed more than 200 years ago by the British physician Thomas Trotter. METHOD: In 1959-1961, a multiple-specialty group of physicians studied 9, 182 consecutive...... deliveries in a Danish hospital, obtaining data about prepartum and postpartum variables. The present study concentrates on perinatal variables obtained from 200 of the original babies who participated in a 30-year high-risk follow-up study of the antecedents of alcoholism. RESULTS: Of the 27 men who were...... diagnosed as alcohol dependent at age 30, 13 (48%) came from the group weaned from the breast before the age of 3 weeks; only 33 (19%) of the 173 non-alcohol-dependent subjects came from the early weaning group. When challenged by other perinatal variables in a multiple regression analysis, early weaning...

  7. "Spoon-feeding" an AGN

    Mainetti, Deborah; Colpi, Monica; Lodato, Giuseppe; D'Avanzo, Paolo; Evans, Phil; Moretti, Alberto

    2015-01-01

    Tidal disruption events (TDEs) occur when a star, passing too close to a massive black hole, is ripped apart by tidal forces. A less dramatic event occurs if the star orbits just outside the tidal radius, resulting in a mild stripping of mass. Thus, if a star orbits a central black hole on one of these bound eccentric orbits, weaker outbursts will occur recurring every orbital period. Thanks to five Swift observations, we observed a recent flare from the close by (92 Mpc) galaxy IC 3599, where a possible TDE was already observed in December 1990 during the Rosat All-Sky Survey. By light curve modeling and spectral fitting, we account for all these events as the non-disruptive tidal stripping of a single star into a 9.5 yr highly eccentric bound orbit. This is the first example of periodic partial tidal disruptions, possibly spoon-feeding the central black hole.

  8. Acute pancreatitis; Pancreatite aigue

    Mehdi, M.; Deutsch, J.P.; Arrive, L.; Ayadi, K.; Ladeb, M.F.; Tubiana, J.M. [Centre Hospitalier Universitaire Saint-Antoine, 75 - Paris (France)

    1996-12-31

    The diagnosis of acute pancreatitis is based on clinical examination and basic laboratory tests. The main role of sonography in acute pancreatitis is to evaluate gallstones and small fluid collections. However, sonography is frequently difficult due to intestinal ileus related to pancreatitis. CT is indicated early in the clinical course of acute severe pancreatitis when the diagnosis is uncertain or when complications such as abscess, hemorrhage, or necrosis, are suspected. In addition, CT may be used to assess the prognosis and follow-up of patients. (authors). 20 refs., 12 figs., 4 tabs.

  9. Acute oncological emergencies.

    Gabriel, J

    2012-01-01

    The number of people receiving systemic anti-cancer treatment and presenting at emergency departments with treatment-related problems is rising. Nurses will be the first point of contact for most patients and need to be able to recognise oncological emergencies to initiate urgent assessment of patients and referral to the acute oncology team so that the most appropriate care can be delivered promptly. This article discusses the role of acute oncology services, and provides an overview of the most common acute oncological emergencies.

  10. Acute Disseminated Encephalomyelitis

    Kambiz Sotoudeh

    Full Text Available Acute disseminated encephalomyelitis (ADEM is an acute, inflammatory, monophasic, demyelinating and immune-mediated disorder of central nervous system; occurs mostly in children after systemic viral infections or vaccinations. Acute polysymptomatic neurologic signs such as encephalopathy, paralysis of limbs, cranial nerve involvement, ataxia and optic neuritis are common manifestations. Brain magnetic resonance imaging study is essential for diagnosis and enabling prompt diagnosis and treatment. Evidence of multifocal lesions of demyelination in subcortical white matter are seen. They are usually bilateral and asymmetrical. Treatment optins have included steroids, immunoglobulins, and plasmapheresis. ADEM is treatable and prognosis is good.

  11. Acute genital ulcers

    Delgado-García, Silvia; Palacios-Marqués, Ana; Martínez-Escoriza, Juan Carlos; Martín-Bayón, Tina-Aurora

    2014-01-01

    Acute genital ulcers, also known as acute vulvar ulcers, ulcus vulvae acutum or Lipschütz ulcers, refer to an ulceration of the vulva or lower vagina of non-venereal origin that usually presents in young women, predominantly virgins. Although its incidence is unknown, it seems a rare entity, with few cases reported in the literature. Their aetiology and pathogenesis are still unknown. The disease is characterised by an acute onset of flu-like symptoms with single or multiple painful ulcers on...

  12. Acute acalculous cholecystitis complicating chemotherapy for acute myeloblastic leukemia

    Olfa Kassar

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Acute acalculous cholecystitis is a rare complication in the treatment of acute myeloblastic leukemia. Diagnosis of acute acalculous cholecystitis remains difficult during neutropenic period. We present two acute myeloblastic leukemia patients that developed acute acalculous cholecystitis during chemotherapy-induced neutropenia. They suffered from fever, vomiting and acute pain in the epigastrium. Ultrasound demonstrated an acalculous gallbladder. Surgical management was required in one patient and conservative treatment was attempted in the other patient. None treatment measures were effective and two patients died. Acute acalculous cholecystitis is a serious complication in neutropenic patients. Earlier diagnosis could have expedited the management of these patients.

  13. Behavioral Change Strategies for Improving Complementary Feeding and Breastfeeding.

    Osendarp, Saskia J M; Roche, Marion L

    2016-01-01

    Improving infant and young child feeding (IYCF) practices, including breastfeeding and complementary feeding, has been identified as one of the most effective interventions to improve child survival, stunting and wasting. Evidence from randomized controlled trials suggests that effective promotion of breastfeeding and complementary feeding, with or without food provision, has the potential to improve IYCF practices and child nutrition. However, in many countries, breastfeeding practices and complementary feeding practices are still far from optimal. The lack of implementation of available, effective, affordable interventions in scale-up programs is in part attributed to a lack of innovative, creative and effective behavioral change strategies that enable and encourage caregivers. Successful behavioral change strategies should be based on a rigorous situational analysis and formative research, and the findings and insights of formative research should be used to further design interventions that address the identified barriers and enablers, to select delivery channels, and to formulate appropriate and effective messages. In addition, successful behavioral change interventions should a priori define and investigate the program impact pathway to target behavioral change and should assess intermediary behavioral changes and indicators to learn why the expected outcome was achieved or not achieved by testing the program theory. The design of behavioral change communication must be flexible and responsive to shifts in societies and contexts. Performance of adequate IYCF also requires investments to generate community demand through social mobilization, relevant media and existing support systems. Applying these principles has been shown to be effective in improving IYCF practices in Vietnam, Bangladesh and Ethiopia and is recommended to be adopted by other programs and countries in order to accelerate progress in improving child nutrition. PMID:27197978

  14. Consensus for the manaegment of severe acute respiratory syndrome

    Chinese Medical Association,China Association of C

    2003-01-01

    @@ INTRODUCTION Since recognition of the first case of sever acute respiratory syndrome (SARS) in Guangdong Province in November 2002,health care worker engaged in basic medicine,clinical medicine and preventive progress in the understanding of the etiology,epidemiology,diagnosis,treatment and prevention of SARS.

  15. Rehabilitation of the Ankle After Acute Sprain or Chronic Instability

    Mattacola, Carl G.; Dwyer, Maureen K.

    2002-01-01

    Objective: To outline rehabilitation concepts that are applicable to acute and chronic injury of the ankle, to provide evidence for current techniques used in the rehabilitation of the ankle, and to describe a functional rehabilitation program that progresses from basic to advanced, while taking into consideration empirical data from the literature and clinical practice.

  16. Rehabilitation of the Ankle after Acute Sprain or Chronic Instability.

    Mattacola, Carl G.; Dwyer, Maureen K.

    2002-01-01

    Outlines rehabilitation concepts applicable to acute and chronic ankle injury, providing evidence for current techniques used in ankle rehabilitation and describing a functional rehabilitation program that progresses from basic to advanced, while taking into account empirical data from the literature and clinical practice. The article notes that…

  17. Acute Alithiasic Cholecystitis and Human Herpes Virus Type-6 Infection: First Case.

    Gomes, Maria Miguel; Antunes, Henedina; Lobo, Ana Luísa; Branca, Fernando; Correia-Pinto, Jorge; Moreira-Pinto, João

    2016-01-01

    A three-year-old male child presented with erythematous maculopapular nonpruritic generalized rash, poor feeding, vomiting, and cramping generalized abdominal pain. He was previously healthy and there was no family history of immunologic or other diseases. On examination he was afebrile, hemodynamically stable, with painful palpation of the right upper quadrant and positive Murphy's sign. Laboratory tests revealed elevated inflammatory markers, elevated aminotransferase activity, and features of cholestasis. Abdominal ultrasound showed gallbladder wall thickening of 8 mm with a positive sonographic Murphy's sign, without gallstones or pericholecystic fluid. Acute Alithiasic Cholecystitis (AAC) was diagnosed. Tests for underlying infectious causes were negative except positive blood specimen for Human Herpes Virus Type-6 (HHV-6) by polymerase chain reaction. With supportive therapy the child became progressively less symptomatic with gradual improvement. The child was discharged on the sixth day, asymptomatic and with improved analytic values. Two months later he had IgM negative and IgG positive antibodies (1/160) for HHV-6, which confirmed the diagnosis of previous infection. In a six-month follow-up period he remains asymptomatic. To the best of our knowledge, this represents the first case of AAC associated with HHV-6 infection. PMID:27200203

  18. Acute Alithiasic Cholecystitis and Human Herpes Virus Type-6 Infection: First Case

    Maria Miguel Gomes

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available A three-year-old male child presented with erythematous maculopapular nonpruritic generalized rash, poor feeding, vomiting, and cramping generalized abdominal pain. He was previously healthy and there was no family history of immunologic or other diseases. On examination he was afebrile, hemodynamically stable, with painful palpation of the right upper quadrant and positive Murphy’s sign. Laboratory tests revealed elevated inflammatory markers, elevated aminotransferase activity, and features of cholestasis. Abdominal ultrasound showed gallbladder wall thickening of 8 mm with a positive sonographic Murphy’s sign, without gallstones or pericholecystic fluid. Acute Alithiasic Cholecystitis (AAC was diagnosed. Tests for underlying infectious causes were negative except positive blood specimen for Human Herpes Virus Type-6 (HHV-6 by polymerase chain reaction. With supportive therapy the child became progressively less symptomatic with gradual improvement. The child was discharged on the sixth day, asymptomatic and with improved analytic values. Two months later he had IgM negative and IgG positive antibodies (1/160 for HHV-6, which confirmed the diagnosis of previous infection. In a six-month follow-up period he remains asymptomatic. To the best of our knowledge, this represents the first case of AAC associated with HHV-6 infection.

  19. Feeding the People, Feeding the Spirit: Revitalizing Northwest Coastal Indian Food

    E. N. Anderson

    2011-01-01

    Review of Feeding the People, Feeding the Spirit:  Revitalizing Northwest Coastal Indian Food. Elise Krohn and Valerie Segrest. 2010. Northwest Indian College, Bellingham, WA.  Pp. x + 158, copiously illustrated, tables, bibliography. 

  20. Nutrition, Inflammation, and Acute Pancreatitis

    Max Petrov

    2013-01-01

    Acute pancreatitis is acute inflammatory disease of the pancreas. Nutrition has a number of anti-inflammatory effects that could affect outcomes of patients with pancreatitis. Further, it is the most promising nonspecific treatment modality in acute pancreatitis to date. This paper summarizes the best available evidence regarding the use of nutrition with a view of optimising clinical management of patients with acute pancreatitis.

  1. Suitability of feeding and chewing time for estimation of feed intake in dairy cows.

    Pahl, C; Hartung, E; Grothmann, A; Mahlkow-Nerge, K; Haeussermann, A

    2016-09-01

    Monitoring of feeding and rumination behaviour can provide useful information for dairy herd management. The feeding behaviour of dairy cows can be recorded by different techniques, such as video cameras, weighing troughs or chewing sensors. Among feeding characteristics, individual feed intake of cows is of utmost interest, but as weighing troughs have high space and cost requirements they are used primarily in research studies. The objective of the present study was to evaluate whether records on feeding time or chewing activity or a combination of both contain enough information to estimate feed intake with sufficient accuracy. Feed intake and feeding time per cow were recorded by means of weighing troughs. Concurrently, chewing activity of seven cows was recorded by MSR-ART pressure sensors during five to eight measuring days per cow. Feeding and chewing behaviour were evaluated in time slots (1 min) and additionally assigned to feeding bouts for further analysis. The 1 min time slots were classified into feeding/no feeding or chewing/no chewing by the two systems, and agreement was found in 92.2% of the records. On average, cows spent 270±39 min/day at the feeding troughs and chewed 262±48 min/day. The average fresh matter intake (FMI) was 49.6±5.1 kg/day. Feed intake was divided into 9.7 bouts/day during which cows fed in average 27.8±21.7 min/bout and chewed 27.0±23.1 min/bout. The correlation between FMI and feeding time was r=0.891 and between FMI and chewing time r=0.780 overall cows. Hence, both systems delivered suitable information for estimating feed intake. PMID:26201971

  2. A comparative study of cultural methods for the detection of Salmonella in feed and feed ingredients

    Haggblom Per; Koyuncu Sevinc

    2009-01-01

    Abstract Background Animal feed as a source of infection to food producing animals is much debated. In order to increase our present knowledge about possible feed transmission it is important to know that the present isolation methods for Salmonella are reliable also for feed materials. In a comparative study the ability of the standard method used for isolation of Salmonella in feed in the Nordic countries, the NMKL71 method (Nordic Committee on Food Analysis) was compared to the Modified Se...

  3. Organophosphorus poisoning (acute)

    Eddleston, Michael; Singh, Surjit; Buckley, Nick

    2007-01-01

    Acetylcholinesterase inhibition by organophosphorus pesticides or nerve gases can cause acute parasympathetic system dysfunction, muscle weakness, seizures, coma, and respiratory failure. Prognosis depends on the dose and relative toxicity of the specific compound, as well as pharmacokinetic factors.

  4. Organophosphorus poisoning (acute)

    Blain, Peter G

    2011-01-01

    Acetylcholinesterase inhibition by organophosphorus pesticides or organophosphate nerve agents can cause acute parasympathetic system dysfunction, muscle weakness, seizures, coma, and respiratory failure. Prognosis depends on the dose and relative toxicity of the specific compound, as well as pharmacokinetic factors.

  5. Acute respiratory distress syndrome

    ... chap 33. Lee WL, Slutsky AS. Acute hypoxemic respiratory failure and ARDS. In: Broaddus VC, Mason RJ, Ernst JD, et al, eds. Murray and Nadel's Textbook of Respiratory Medicine . 6th ed. Philadelphia, PA: Elsevier Saunders; 2016: ...

  6. Acute lymphoblastic leukemia (ALL)

    Jeha S, Pui CH. Clinical manifestations and treatment of acute lymphoblastic leukemia in children. In: Hoffman R, Benz EJ Jr, Silberstein LE, Weitz JI, Anastasi J, eds. Hematology: Basic Principles and Practice. 6th ed. ...

  7. Acute Mesenteric Ischemia

    ... 2 Diabetes, Heart Disease a Dangerous Combo Are 'Workaholics' Prone to OCD, Anxiety? ALL NEWS > Resources First ... surgery is needed. Acute mesenteric ischemia has multiple causes. The most common are Arterial embolism Arterial thrombus ...

  8. Acute respiratory distress syndrome

    ... chap 33. Lee WL, Slutsky AS. Acute hypoxemic respiratory failure and ARDS. In: Broaddus VC, Mason RJ, Ernst ... A.M. Editorial team. Related MedlinePlus Health Topics Respiratory Failure Browse the Encyclopedia A.D.A.M., Inc. ...

  9. Acute mountain sickness

    High altitude cerebral edema; Altitude anoxia; Altitude sickness; Mountain sickness; High altitude pulmonary edema ... Acute mountain sickness is caused by reduced air pressure and lower oxygen levels at high altitudes. The faster you ...

  10. Acute genital ulcers.

    Delgado-García, Silvia; Palacios-Marqués, Ana; Martínez-Escoriza, Juan Carlos; Martín-Bayón, Tina-Aurora

    2014-01-01

    Acute genital ulcers, also known as acute vulvar ulcers, ulcus vulvae acutum or Lipschütz ulcers, refer to an ulceration of the vulva or lower vagina of non-venereal origin that usually presents in young women, predominantly virgins. Although its incidence is unknown, it seems a rare entity, with few cases reported in the literature. Their aetiology and pathogenesis are still unknown. The disease is characterised by an acute onset of flu-like symptoms with single or multiple painful ulcers on the vulva. Diagnosis is mainly clinical, after exclusion of other causes of vulvar ulcers. The treatment is mainly symptomatic, with spontaneous resolution in 2 weeks and without recurrences in most cases. We present a case report of a 13-year-old girl with two episodes of acute ulcers that fit the clinical criteria for Lipschütz ulcers. PMID:24473429

  11. Acute liver failure

    Larsen, Fin Stolze; Bjerring, Peter Nissen

    2011-01-01

    Acute liver failure (ALF) results in a multitude of serious complications that often lead to multi-organ failure. This brief review focuses on the pathophysiological processes in ALF and how to manage these.......Acute liver failure (ALF) results in a multitude of serious complications that often lead to multi-organ failure. This brief review focuses on the pathophysiological processes in ALF and how to manage these....

  12. Feigning Acute Intermittent Porphyria

    Rania Elkhatib; Modupe Idowu; Gregory S. Brown; Jaber, Yasmeen M.; Reid, Matthew B.; Cheryl Person

    2014-01-01

    Acute intermittent porphyria (AIP) is an autosomal dominant genetic defect in heme synthesis. Patients with this illness can have episodic life-threatening attacks characterized by abdominal pain, neurological deficits, and psychiatric symptoms. Feigning this illness has not been reported in the English language literature to date. Here, we report on a patient who presented to the hospital with an acute attack of porphyria requesting opiates. Diligent assessment of extensive prior treatment r...

  13. Acute management of stones

    Jung, Helene; Osther, Palle J S

    2015-01-01

    INTRODUCTION: Stone management is often conservative due to a high spontaneous stone passage rate or non-symptomatic calyceal stones that do not necessarily require active treatment. However, stone disease may cause symptoms and complications requiring urgent intervention. MATERIAL AND METHODS......: In this review, we update latest research and current recommendations regarding acute management of stones, with particular focus on imaging, pain management, active stone interventions, medical expulsive therapy, and urolithiasis in pregnancy and childhood. RESULTS: Acute stone management should be planned...

  14. The environmental impacts of the production of concentrated feed: the case of pig feed in Bretagne

    Werf, H.M.G.; Petit, J.; Sanders, J.

    2005-01-01

    Pig production systems often depend to a large extent on concentrated feed imported from outside the farm. This study used the Life Cycle Assessment (LCA) method to assess major environmental impacts associated with the production and on-farm delivery of concentrated feed for pigs. Feed composition

  15. Acute lymphocytic Leukemia masquerading as acute osteomyelitis

    Two children each developed a focal destructive bone lesion accompanied by intermittent fever, swelling, tenderness and elevated ESR. Blood counts were normal; bone marrow aspiration showed acute leukemia. The bone lesions healed in both patients after anti-leukemic therapy. We suggest that the similar roentgenographic appearance of osteomyelitis, bone infarction and focal destructive lesions in leukemia probably reflects a common, basically ischemic process of bone. (orig.)

  16. Abnormal brain MRI in a case of acute ataxia as the only sign of abdominal neuroblastoma

    Ataxia is a movement disorder that may manifest an acute, intermittent, non progressive or chronic progressive course. Ataxia alone is rare as a para neoplastic sign, especially if it is due to neuroblastoma (abdominal or chest). We report an abdominal neuroblastoma in a two-year-old girl presenting with only acute ataxia and abnormal neuroimaging. Brain MRI showed abnormal signal finding in the medulla, pons, cortico spinal tract and the periventricular space. In the abdominal CT, a mass was detected in the right adrenal gland with calcification and the histopathologic examination re-vealed neuroblastoma. We suggest in children with acute ataxia, with or without opalescence-myoclonus, neuroblastoma should be considered.

  17. The road to MYRRHA. The pre-licensing phase and FEED

    The article discusses the study phase of the future research reactor MYRRHA. This study phase covers three major areas: Research and Development, licensing and engineering. In 2013, substantial progress was made in the licensing and engineering processes: licensing is currently in the pre-licensing phase, while, for engineering, the Front-end Engineering and Design (FEED) contract was signed for the construction of the non-nuclear parts of MYRRHA. The article highlights work associated with the the pre-licensing phase and the FEED.

  18. Acute Myeloid Leukemia Presenting as Acute Appendicitis

    Sherri Rauenzahn

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Appendicitis in leukemic patients is uncommon but associated with increased mortality. Additionally, leukemic cell infiltration of the appendix is extremely rare. While appendectomy is the treatment of choice for these patients, diagnosis and management of leukemia have a greater impact on remission and survival. A 59-year-old Caucasian female was admitted to the surgical service with acute right lower quadrant pain, nausea, and anorexia. She was noted to have leukocytosis, anemia, and thrombocytopenia. Abdominal imaging demonstrated appendicitis with retroperitoneal and mesenteric lymphadenopathy for which she underwent laparoscopic appendectomy. Peripheral smear, bone marrow biopsy, and surgical pathology of the appendix demonstrated acute myeloid leukemia (AML with nonsuppurative appendicitis. In the setting of AML, prior cases described the development of appendicitis with active chemotherapy. Of these cases, less than ten patients had leukemic infiltration of the appendix, leading to leukostasis and nonsuppurative appendicitis. Acute appendicitis with leukemic infiltration as the initial manifestation of AML has only been described in two other cases in the literature with an average associated morbidity of 32.6 days. The prompt management in this case of appendicitis and AML resulted in an overall survival of 185 days.

  19. Epiglottic abscess causing acute airway obstruction in an adult

    Acute epiglottitis is an acute inflammation in the supraglottic region of the oropharynx which is a potentially life-threatening condition leading to rapid upper airway obstruction. An infrequent sequel of acute epiglottitis is the epiglottic abscess. Less than 50 cases have been reported in the international literature and even less are the cases that acute surgical intervention was necessary to secure the airway. We report a young man with sudden onset of odynophagia, dysphonia and dyspnea and rapidly progression of upper airway obstruction. Clinical examination with fiberoptic nasopharyngolaryngoscope in emergency department demonstrated an epiglottic abscess. An urgent tracheostomy was performed in order to secure patient's airway and afterward, the patient underwent direct laryngoscopy and drainage of abscess and intravenous antibiotics were administrated. The diagnosis of epiglottic abscess should be considered in adult patients with odynophagia and dysphonia. Principles of treatment include aggressive airway management, surgical drainage of abscess and intravenous antibiotics. (author)

  20. Research Progress of Extracellular Polysaccharides of Leuconostoc mesenteroides and Its Application Prospects in Feed Industry%肠膜明串珠菌胞外多糖的研究进展及其在饲料业中的应用前景

    张雄杰; 孙庆林; 达赖; 乌兰其其格

    2012-01-01

    综述了肠膜明串珠菌胞外多糖的存在形式、组成成分、酶促合成过程、生成影响因素及提高产量的技术,介绍了肠膜明串珠菌胞外多糖的功能及用途,探讨了专供发酵饲料使用的肠膜明串珠菌的菌株选育问题、饲用肠膜明串珠菌微生态制剂的生产问题及低聚糖益生元饲料添加剂开发问题。%The existing form,composition,enzymatic synthesis process,influence factors of synthesis and increasing-yield technique of extracellular polysaccharides of Leuconostoc mesenteroides were reviewed;then,the function and use of extracellular polysaccharide of Leuconostoc mesenteroides were introduced;finally,the breeding problem of Leuconostoc mesenteroides for fermentation uses,the production problems of micro-ecological preparation of Leuconostoc mesenteroides for feeding and the development problem of Leuconostoc mesenteroides for oligo prebiotics additive were discussed.

  1. Scientific Opinion on Ergot alkaloids in food and feed

    EFSA Panel on Contaminants in the Food Chain

    2012-07-01

    Full Text Available

    The European Food Safety Authority (EFSA was asked by the European Commission to deliver a scientific opinion on ergot alkaloids (EAs in food and feed. EAs are produced by several members within the fungal orders of Hypocreales and Eurotiales. In Europe, Claviceps purpurea is the most widespread Claviceps species within the Hypocreales. A total of 20 558 analytical results for EAs in 1 716 food, 496 feed and 67 unprocessed grain samples were considered in this opinion. Based on the EAs identified in sclerotia of C. purpurea, and recent literature data, the EFSA Panel on Contaminants in the Food Chain (CONTAM Panel based its risk assessment on the main C. purpurea EAs, namely ergometrine, ergotamine, ergosine, ergocristine, ergocryptine (which is a mixture of α- and β- isomers, ergocornine, and the corresponding –inine epimers. The CONTAM Panel performed estimates of both chronic and acute exposure for various age groups across European countries. A BMDL10 of 0.33 mg/kg b.w. per day was calculated for the incidence of tail muscular atrophy in a 13-week rat feeding study of ergotamine. This effect was considered representative of the vasoconstrictive effects of EAs and provided a suitable reference point for establishment of a group acute reference dose of 1 μg/kg body weight (b.w. and a group tolerable daily intake of 0.6 μg/kg b.w. per day. The Panel concluded that whilst the available data do not indicate a concern for any population subgroup, the dietary exposure estimates relate to a limited number of food groups and a possible unknown contribution from other foods cannot be discounted. Estimates of exposure for livestock based on example diets and levels of EAs in cereal grains reported suggest that under normal conditions the risk of toxicosis is low.

  2. Do School Feeding Programs Help Children?

    World Bank

    2012-01-01

    Policymakers and development organizations have embraced school feeding programs as a way to help poor children get enough to eat while giving them an incentive to be in school. The programs are not just used in developing countries the United States began implementing school feeding programs in the 19th century and still uses them today for poor children. The popularity of these programs,...

  3. 75 FR 15387 - Veterinary Feed Directive

    2010-03-29

    .... In the Federal Register of December 8, 2000 (65 FR 76924), FDA issued a final rule amending the new... HUMAN SERVICES Food and Drug Administration 21 CFR Parts 510, 514, and 558 Veterinary Feed Directive... relating to veterinary feed directive (VFD) drugs. FDA's VFD regulation, which became effective on...

  4. Risk analysis of poultry feed costs

    Introduction and Aims. Poultry feed continues to be a significant expense in poultry production as the cost of corn and soybean meals remain elevated. Alternative meals are under investigation to reduce production costs while maintaining high feed conversion rates and body weight gain. Two promising...

  5. Feed Additives for Aquaculture and Aquarium Culture

    Barata, Eduardo N; Velez, Zélia

    2011-01-01

    The presente invention refers of feed additives for aquaculture and aquarium culture. These additives comprise the amino acid, 1-methyl-L-tryptophane, or its isomers with the objective of improving the attractiveness of feeds used in aquaculture and aquaria for fish, as well as other aquatic organisms, under culture conditions. Therefore, this invention has applications in the agriculture-food industry.

  6. Irradiation effect on animal feeds and feedstuffs

    Aiming to secure the safety of animal feeds and develop the new resources, the effect of γ-irradiation on disinfection and the changes in components were investigated. Salmonellae and coliforms contaminating in animal feeds and feedstuffs were eliminated by 0.5 -- 0.6 Mrad and 0.5 -- 0.8 Mrad, and osmophilic moulds were sterilized by 0.7 -- 0.75 Mrad. From these results, it is concluded that the dose for disinfection of animal feeds is 0.8 Mrad. The main components were hardly changed by irradiation up to 5 Mrad, and the component changes in irradiated samples could be suppressed during storage while the components in unirradiated samples were markedly changed with the growth of osmophilic moulds. Histamine and lysinoalanine, which may cause the feed poisoning, were never accumulated in feedstuffs by irradiation. The nutritional value of chick feeds was not changed by 1.0 Mrad irradiation. From these results, it is considered that no problem for wholesomeness of animal feeds occurs by irradiation. Therefore, the irradiation is effective for disinfection and keeping the nutritional value of animal feeds during storage. Irradiation promotes the recovery of proteins in the wastewater by coagulation of proteins and improves the property of coagulants due to the degradation of polysaccharides. These results indicate that irradiation is effective to develop the new resources for animal feeds. (author)

  7. Biomass granular screw feeding: An experimental investigation

    Dai, Jianjun; Grace, John R. [Department of Chemical and Biological Engineering, University of British Columbia, 2360 East Mall, Vancouver, BC, V6 T 1Z3 (Canada)

    2011-02-15

    Successful feeding is critical to biomass utilization processes, but difficult due to the heterogeneity, physical properties and moisture content of the particles. The objectives of the present study were to find the mechanisms of blockage in screw feeding and to determine the effects of particle mean size (0.5-15 mm), size distribution, shape, moisture content (10-60%), density and compressibility on biomass particle feeding at room temperature. Wood pellets, sawdust, hog fuel and wood shavings were tested in a screw feeder/lock hopper system previously employed to feed sawdust into a pilot-scale circulating fluidized-bed gasifier. Experimental results showed that large particles, wide size distributions, large bulk densities and high moisture contents generally led to larger torque requirements for screw feeding. The ''choke section'' and seal plug play important roles in determining the torque requirements. (author)

  8. Nutrition, feeding, and behavior of fish.

    Lall, Santosh P; Tibbetts, Sean M

    2009-05-01

    Nutrition and feeding influence growth, reproduction, and health of fish and their response to physiologic and environmental stressors and pathogens. The basics of fish metabolism are similar to those of warm-blooded animals in that they involve food intake, digestion, absorption, and transport of nutrients to the various tissues. Fish, however, being the most primitive form of vertebrates, possess some distinguishing features which will be discussed. Unlike warm-blooded animals, which are homoeothermic, fish are poikilothermic, so their body temperature and metabolic rate depends on the water temperature and this has practical implications for the nutrition, feeding and health of fish. Several behavioral responses have been linked to methods of feeding, feeding habits, frequency of feeding, mechanisms of food detection, and food preferences. Fish are also unique among vertebrates in their ability to absorb minerals not only from their diets but also from water through their gills and skin. PMID:19341962

  9. Estimation of costs for control of Salmonella in high-risk feed materials and compound feed

    Martin Wierup

    2014-06-01

    Full Text Available Introduction: Feed is a potential and major source for introducing Salmonella into the animal-derived food chain. This is given special attention in the European Union (EU efforts to minimize human food-borne Salmonella infections from animal-derived food. The objective of this study was to estimate the total extra cost for preventing Salmonella contamination of feed above those measures required to produce commercial feed according to EU regulation (EC No 183/2005. The study was carried out in Sweden, a country where Salmonella infections in food-producing animals from feed have largely been eliminated. Methods: On the initiative and leadership of the competent authority, the different steps of feed production associated with control of Salmonella contamination were identified. Representatives for the major feed producers operating in the Swedish market then independently estimated the annual mean costs during the years 2009 and 2010. The feed producers had no known incentives to underestimate the costs. Results and discussion: The total cost for achieving a Salmonella-safe compound feed, when such a control is established, was estimated at 1.8–2.3 € per tonne of feed. Of that cost, 25% relates to the prevention of Salmonella contaminated high-risk vegetable feed materials (mainly soybean meal and rapeseed meal from entering feed mills, and 75% for measures within the feed mills. Based on the feed formulations applied, those costs in relation to the farmers’ 2012 price for compound feed were almost equal for broilers and dairy cows (0.7%. Due to less use of protein concentrate to fatten pigs, the costs were lower (0.6%. These limited costs suggest that previous recommendations to enforce a Salmonella-negative policy for animal feed are realistic and economically feasible to prevent a dissemination of the pathogen to animal herds, their environment, and potentially to human food products.

  10. The effect of frozen grass silage on the feed intake and feeding behavior of pregnant ewes.

    Bøe, K E; Dønnem, I

    2015-10-01

    The aim of the current study was to investigate the effect of frozen grass silage on the feed intake, feed preferences, and feeding behavior of ewes. Two experiments were conducted, each involving 8 pregnant ewes in a Latin square design with 4 treatments: 1) frozen silage; 2) partly frozen silage; 3) frozen, chopped silage; 4) and unfrozen silage (control). In Exp. 2, the ewes in square 1 were fed grass silage with low DM content (LDM) and in square 2 the ewes were fed grass silage with high DM content (HDM). In both experiments, each treatment period lasted for 14 d. A feed preference test was conducted, where the ewes could choose between 2 of the experimental feed treatments for 1 d in a changeover design so that they were exposed to all pairwise combinations of the 4 treatments. On the last day of each experimental period in Exp. 1, the feeding behavior was scored by direct observation for 4 h. In Exp. 1 ( silage treatment and highest on the control treatment. The DMI in the first 4 h after feeding was higher ( = 0.005) in the HDM treatment than in the LDM treatment. The total daily feed intake in Exp. 1 was lowest on the frozen, chopped silage treatment and highest on the unfrozen silage treatment ( = 0.02). In Exp. 2, daily feed intake did not differ ( = 0.32) among treatments. Total daily feed intake was higher ( silage treatments ( silage was lower for the first 4 h but that frozen silage had a very moderate effect on daily feed intake. Partly thawing or chopping improved the feed intake. Treatment had no significant effect on feed preferences. Feeding frozen silage increased time spent tearing off feed from frozen block, but total time eating was moderately increased. PMID:26523575

  11. Evolução clínica muito tardia de pacientes com infarto agudo do miocárdio submetidos a angioplastia primária Very late clinical progression of patients with acute myocardial infarction submitted to primary angioplasty

    Dinaldo Cavalcanti de Oliveira

    2008-04-01

    Full Text Available FUNDAMENTO: Informações sobre a evolução clínica, em longo período, de pacientes submetidos a reperfusão mecânica são escassas. OBJETIVO: O objetivo deste estudo é descrever a evolução clínica a longo prazo de pacientes submetidos a implante de stent primário. MÉTODOS: Entre janeiro de 1998 e dezembro de 2003, foi estudada uma coorte não concorrente fixa de 202 pacientes (média de idade = 61,2 ± 7,7 anos; 74,7% homens e 25,3% mulheres submetidos a implante de stent primário. Foi realizado seguimento clínico de todos os pacientes e avaliada a ocorrência de óbitos, infarto agudo do miocárdio (IAM, acidente vascular encefálico (AVE e revascularização do miocárdio (RM cirúrgica ou percutânea. Foram construídas curvas de sobrevida de Kaplan-Meier para os eventos óbito, óbitos/IAM, óbitos/IAM/AVE e cardiovasculares maiores (ECVM. RESULTADOS: Em 91,5% dos pacientes o procedimento foi bem-sucedido. Na fase hospitalar, a mortalidade foi de 3,4%; o reinfarto, de 0,9%; o AVE, de 1,8%; e a RM de urgência, de 1,4%. O seguimento clínico variou de 29 a 100 meses (média = 58,7 ± 19,7 meses. A estimativa da sobrevida livre de óbito foi de 93,6%; a da sobrevida livre de óbito/IAM, de 89,6%; a da sobrevida livre de óbito/IAM/AVE, de 87,1%; e a da sobrevida livre de ECVM, de 71,3%. CONCLUSÃO: O implante de stent primário apresentou excelentes resultados na fase hospitalar. O seguimento clínico muito tardio demonstrou que esses bons resultados iniciais foram mantidos.BACKGROUND: Information on the clinical progression, in the long term, of patients submitted to mechanical reperfusion is scarce. OBJECTIVE: The objective of this study is to describe the long-term clinical progression of patients submitted to primary stenting. METHODS: Between January 1998 and December 2003 we studied a non-concurring cohort with a fixed population of 202 patients (mean age = 61.2 ± 7.7 years; 74.7% males and 25.3% females submitted to

  12. Acute Pancreatitis: The Role of Imaging and Interventional Radiology

    Acute pancreatitis can manifest as a benign condition with minimal abdominal pain and hyperamylasemia or can have a fulminant course, which can be life-threatening usually due to the development of infected pancreatic necrosis, and multisystem organ failure. Fortunately, 70-80% of patients with acute pancreatitis have a benign self-limiting course. The initial 24-48 hours after the initial diagnosis is usually the period that determines the subsequent course, and for many of the 20-30% of patients who subsequently have a fulminant course, this becomes apparent within this time frame. With reference to long-term outcome following acute pancreatitis, most cases recover without long-term sequelae with only a minority of cases progressing to chronic pancreatitis. In the initial management of acute pancreatitis, assessment of metabolic disturbances and systemic organ dysfunction is critical. However, the advent and continued refinement of cross-sectional imaging modalities over the past two decades has led to a prominent role for diagnostic imaging in assessing acute pancreatitis. Furthermore, these cross-sectional imaging modalities have enabled the development of diagnostic and therapeutic interventional techniques in the hands of radiologists. In this article we review the diagnostic features of acute pancreatitis, the clinical staging systems, complications and the role of imaging. The role of interventional radiology techniques in the management of acute pancreatitis will be discussed as well as potential complications associated with these treatments

  13. ESTIMATION OF AFLATOXIN B1 IN FEED INGREDIENTS AND COMPOUND POULTRY FEEDS

    Bashir Mahmood Bhatti, Tanzeela Talat and Rozina Sardar

    2001-01-01

    A total of 3230 samples of feed ingredients of vegetable and animal origin and commercially available compound poultry feed received over a period of 5 years at Feed Testing Laboratory of the Institute were tested for Aflatoxin B1 contents (ppb ). In all feed ingredients and compound feed stuffs, minimum level of aflatoxin B1 was 13 ppb and maximum level was found to be 78 ppb. No correlation of aflatoxin levels with month of collection of the year which are subject to variation in temperatur...

  14. Feeding repellence in Antarctic bryozoans

    Figuerola, Blanca; Núñez-Pons, Laura; Moles, Juan; Avila, Conxita

    2013-11-01

    The Antarctic sea star Odontaster validus and the amphipod Cheirimedon femoratus are important predators in benthic communities. Some bryozoans are part of the diet of the asteroid and represent both potential host biosubstrata and prey for this omnivorous lysianassid amphipod. In response to such ecological pressure, bryozoans are expected to develop strategies to deter potential predators, ranging from physical to chemical mechanisms. However, the chemical ecology of Antarctic bryozoans has been scarcely studied. In this study we evaluated the presence of defenses against predation in selected species of Antarctic bryozoans. The sympatric omnivorous consumers O. validus and C. femoratus were selected to perform feeding assays with 16 ether extracts (EE) and 16 butanol extracts (BE) obtained from 16 samples that belonged to 13 different bryozoan species. Most species (9) were active (12 EE and 1 BE) in sea star bioassays. Only 1 BE displayed repellence, indicating that repellents against the sea star are mainly lipophilic. Repellence toward C. femoratus was found in all species in different extracts (10 EE and 12 BE), suggesting that defenses against the amphipod might be both lipophilic and hydrophilic. Interspecific and intraspecific variability of bioactivity was occasionally detected, suggesting possible environmental inductive responses, symbiotic associations, and/or genetic variability. Multivariate analysis revealed similarities among species in relation to bioactivities of EE and/or BE. These findings support the hypothesis that, while in some cases alternative chemical or physical mechanisms may also provide protection, repellent compounds play an important role in Antarctic bryozoans as defenses against predators.

  15. Material awareness on natural feeding

    Katarzyna Plagens-Rotman

    2014-06-01

    Full Text Available introduction. Natural breastfeeding is the only proper way to feed newborns and infants because it ensures their proper development. Breastfeeding enhances health and protects against the development of many diseases in childhood and adulthood. The primary benefits of breastfeeding include reduced incidences of infection in the respiratory system as well as a reduction in gastrointestinal and systemic infections. The benefits of breastfeeding also include decreased inflammation and improved immunity to disease in the infant. Further benefits of breastfeeding are reduced incidences of type 1 diabetes, Crohn’s disease, and rheumatoid arthritis. objective. The aim of the study was to assess the degree of knowledge on maternal breastfeeding among current expecting mothers. materials and method. The study comprtisded 147 mothers hospitalized in the Gynecology-Obstetrics Hospital University of Medical Sciences in Poznań, Poland, during late July – August 2012. results. For 139 (93.88% of the surveyed women, breastfeeding was a priority regarding the health of the child. Respondents most often used professional literature in order to gain knowledge about breastfeeding (63.27%. The least popular way of acquiring knowledge was through the media (27.21%. conclusions. Analysis of the collected material on the surveyed women showed that women have a diverse range of knowledge about breastfeeding. Currently, breastfeeding is required to be promoted and supported by midwives, paediatricians and other health professionals.

  16. 9 CFR 89.1 - Amount of feed.

    2010-01-01

    ... 9 Animals and Animal Products 1 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Amount of feed. 89.1 Section 89.1... TWENTY-EIGHT HOUR LAW § 89.1 Amount of feed. (a) Under normal conditions, the amount of feed designated... feeding station At second and subsequent feeding stations Cattle and beef type or range calves (for...

  17. 21 CFR 573.220 - Feed-grade biuret.

    2010-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 6 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Feed-grade biuret. 573.220 Section 573.220 Food... DRUGS, FEEDS, AND RELATED PRODUCTS FOOD ADDITIVES PERMITTED IN FEED AND DRINKING WATER OF ANIMALS Food Additive Listing § 573.220 Feed-grade biuret. The food additive feed grade biuret may be safely used...

  18. Critical Components of Effective School-Based Feeding Improvement Programs

    Bailey, Rita L.; Angell, Maureen E.

    2004-01-01

    This article identifies critical components of effective school-based feeding improvement programs for students with feeding problems. A distinction is made between typical school-based feeding management and feeding improvement programs, where feeding, independent functioning, and mealtime behaviors are the focus of therapeutic strategies.…

  19. Aflatoxin B1, zearalenone and deoxynivalenol in feed ingredients and complete feed from central China.

    Liu, Jie; Sun, Lvhui; Zhang, Jiacai; Guo, Jiao; Chen, Lei; Qi, Desheng; Zhang, Niya

    2016-06-01

    Between 2012 and 2014, 2528 feed ingredient and complete feed samples were collected from central China. Numbers of 2083, 255 and 190 samples were analysed for aflatoxin B1 (AFB1), zearalenone (ZEN) and deoxynivalenol (DON), respectively, by high-performance liquid chromatography in combination with UV or fluorescence detection. The incidence rates of AFB1, ZEN and DON contamination of feed ingredients and complete feeds were 33.9%, 90.2% and 77.4%, respectively. The percentage of positive samples for AFB1 ranged from 13.1% to 97.1%. Cottonseed meal presented the most serious contamination by AFB1. ZEN and DON contamination levels of feeds ranged from 50% to 100%, indicating serious contamination over the studied 3-year period. This study demonstrates that AFB1, ZEN and DON contamination of feeds in central China is serious and differs over the years. Feeds are mostly contaminated with ZEN, followed by DON and AFB1. PMID:26771914

  20. Responsive complementary feeding in rural Bangladesh.

    Moore, Anna C; Akhter, Sadika; Aboud, Frances E

    2006-04-01

    It is now widely recognized that malnutrition can partly be attributed to caregiver-child interaction during feeding episodes. Current conceptual frameworks emphasize the importance of responsiveness (including active and social behaviour), psychomotor abilities of the child to self-feed, and a non-distracting feeding environment. The present observational study had three main objectives: (1) to define operationally key terms such as responsive and active feeding and observe their frequency in a rural Bangladesh sample; (2) to examine whether self-feeding, responsive and active behaviours of the mother and child varied with child's age and amounts eaten; and (3) to determine associations between mother and child behaviours. Fifty-four mother-child pairs were observed during one feeding episode and behaviours were coded for 5 categories, namely self-feeding, responsive, active, social and distracting behaviours. Children were between 8 and 24 months of age. Results indicated that the five behaviours could be observed and reliably coded. Two-thirds of mothers had an active feeding style but only a third were responsive; the two styles did not overlap. With older children, mothers encouraged more eating and more self-feeding, but children did not feed themselves more; instead older children were more negatively responsive (refusing offered food). Positively responsive mothers tended to have active children who explicitly signaled their desire for food or water, and who ate more mouthfuls of food. Positively active mothers adopted different strategies to encourage eating, such as verbally directing the child to eat, focusing, and temporarily diverting. These mothers tended to have children who were negatively responsive and refused food. Children accepted on average 5.31 mouthfuls of food and rejected 2.13. Mothers who used intrusively active strategies (e.g. force feeding) tended to have children who were both positively and negatively responsive, thus partially

  1. Diagnosis and management of acute heart failure.

    Ural, Dilek; Çavuşoğlu, Yüksel; Eren, Mehmet; Karaüzüm, Kurtuluş; Temizhan, Ahmet; Yılmaz, Mehmet Birhan; Zoghi, Mehdi; Ramassubu, Kumudha; Bozkurt, Biykem

    2015-11-01

    Acute heart failure (AHF) is a life threatening clinical syndrome with a progressively increasing incidence in general population. Turkey is a country with a high cardiovascular mortality and recent national statistics show that the population structure has turned to an 'aged' population.As a consequence, AHF has become one of the main reasons of admission to cardiology clinics. This consensus report summarizes clinical and prognostic classification of AHF, its worldwide and national epidemiology, diagnostic work-up, principles of approach in emergency department,intensive care unit and ward, treatment in different clinical scenarios and approach in special conditions and how to plan hospital discharge. PMID:26574757

  2. Skin changes in acute myelogenous leukemia

    Mittal R

    2000-01-01

    Full Text Available A 65-year old woman developed progressive, firm, mild to moderately itchy, erythematous, papular and nodular lesions, over cheeks, extensors of limbs, scalp and lower back without any accompanying systemic complaints except for severe backache. Initially clinical diagnosis was cutaneous sarcoidosis. However presence of myeloblasts, monoblasts, myelocytes and metamyelocytes in peripheral blood smear and typical histopathology of nodule with mixed cellular infiltrate more around blood vessels, sweat glands and hair follicles with admixture of larger polymorphonuclears (myeloblasts/myelocytes, eosinophils with double nuclei, and larger phagocytic cells confirmed the diagnosis of acute myelogenous leukemia (AML.

  3. [BACTERIOLOGICAL ASPECTS OF AN ACUTE APPENDICITIS].

    Zhuchenko, O P

    2016-03-01

    Peculiarities of microflora in the appendix mucosa and abdominal exudate in different morphological forms of an acute appendicitis (AA) were studied up. In accordance to the bacteriological investigations data, anaerobic, and aerobic microorganisms in AA were revealed in a monoculture and in association, more frequently--obligate anaer- obes (bacteroids) with E. coli--in 82 (80.39%) observations, staphylococcus--in 52 (50.98%), fecal streptococcus--in 19 (18.63%). With progression of inflammatory process and destructive changes in the appendix wall the quantity of bacteroids and enterobacteria have had enhanced, while the quantity of lacto- and bifidumflora-- reduced. PMID:27514082

  4. Acute Alcoholic Hepatitis, the Clinical Aspects.

    Dugum, Mohannad F; McCullough, Arthur J

    2016-08-01

    Alcoholic hepatitis is an acute form of alcoholic liver disease with variable severity that develops in patients who usually have a history of prolonged and recent alcohol abuse. The diagnosis is clinical and depends on history, physical examination, and laboratory derangements. Liver biopsy is diagnostic but not universally performed, and noninvasive diagnostic modalities are under development. Scoring systems are used to assess severity of disease, predict mortality, and guide decisions for initiation of specific therapies. The natural history and long-term outcomes of alcoholic hepatitis, including recurrence, progression to cirrhosis, and mortality, vary and depend partly on abstinence from alcohol use. PMID:27373612

  5. USE OF FEED YEAST IN FEEDING OF STURGEON (ACIPENSERINAE SPECIES (REVIEW

    M. Simon

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available Purpose. To review scientific sources on the use of feed yeast preparations in feeding of sturgeon species (Acipenserinae. Findings. The review of scientific works demonstrated that feed yeast in the feeding of sturgeons have been used as a source of vitamins and complete protein, the nutritional value of which is significantly higher than in the proteins of plant origin and are similar to the proteins of animal origin. In addition, a unit of yeast protein mass is significantly lower than in the feeds of animal origin. Moreover, based on the content of B group vitamins, feed yeast produced from the grain-potato spent wash exceed fish meal and meat-and-bone meal. The article highlights the peculiarities of the technological process of the production of different feed yeast species, amino acid and fatty acid composition of their preparations, basic physical and chemical parameters of their composition. The examples of feed yeast formulas for sturgeon species based on feed yeast preparations are presented. It was shown that sturgeon species, especially on early stages of their ontogenesis, could effectively use the feed yeast nucleotides. Thus, the latters can be an effective substitute of live zooplanktonic organisms. While the production of some feed yeast preparations (paprin, eprin was stopped in 1990s due to a number of social-economic reasons, the works on the creation of their full analogues was continued later. Currently, the trends of the development of world aquaculture anticipates the return to the use of yeast in fish feeding. Therefore, the interest of the agrarians of Ukraine in yeast lately increased and their use in agricultural sector increased by 2-2.5 times. Practical value. The array of the summarized information will be important for scientists who study the peculiarities of feeding of sturgeon species, because the data about the use of yeast as sources of complete protein in fish feeds is important in a constant search for the

  6. Progress against Prostate Cancer

    ... this page please turn Javascript on. Feature: Prostate Cancer Progress Against Prostate Cancer Past Issues / Winter 2010 Table of Contents ... Read More "Prostate Cancer" Articles Progress Against Prostate Cancer / Prostate Cancer Research Trial Helps John Spencer Treat His ...

  7. Progressive Multifocal Leukoencephalopathy

    ... most prominent symptoms are clumsiness; progressive weakness; and visual, speech, and sometimes personality changes. The progression of deficits leads to life-threatening disability and (frequently) death. A diagnosis of PML can ...

  8. Acute bronchial asthma.

    Grover, Sudhanshu; Jindal, Atul; Bansal, Arun; Singhi, Sunit C

    2011-11-01

    Acute asthma is the third commonest cause of pediatric emergency visits at PGIMER. Typically, it presents with acute onset respiratory distress and wheeze in a patient with past or family history of similar episodes. The severity of the acute episode of asthma is judged clinically and categorized as mild, moderate and severe. The initial therapy consists of oxygen, inhaled beta-2 agonists (salbutamol or terbutaline), inhaled budesonide (three doses over 1 h, at 20 min interval) in all and ipratropium bromide and systemic steroids (hydrocortisone or methylprednisolone) in acute severe asthma. Other causes of acute onset wheeze and breathing difficulty such as pneumonia, foreign body, cardiac failure etc. should be ruled out with help of chest radiography and appropriate laboratory investigations in first time wheezers and those not responding to 1 h of inhaled therapy. In case of inadequate response or worsening, intravenous infusion of magnesium sulphate, terbutaline or aminophylline may be used. Magnesium sulphate is the safest and most effective alternative among these. Severe cases may need ICU care and rarely, ventilatory support. PMID:21769523

  9. DEVELOPMENT OF A FUNCTIONAL FEED ADDITIVE

    Lysenko Y. A.

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available The new feed additives for animals based on milk whey, enriched with sprouting wheat, barley, maize grains and lactic-acid bacterium have been presented in this article. This study explores the possibility of combining the prebiotics ability of milk whey and sprouting grains with feed probiotic attributes of microbe to enhance gut health of animals and digestibility of the feed. Twelve variants of products were tested in the study using the microbial and physical-chemical approaches. All the assays showed high count of microorganism and high content of reducing sugar. The results of investigation indicate that selected feed additive show high quality. An additional point is that it contains useful organic acids (lactic, acetic and propionic acids and 2,1×109 colony-forming unit of probiotics microorganism that hold the concentration for 4 months. There are not yeast, must, coliform bacteria and Staphylococcus aureus in the developed functional feed product. It contributes to the normalization of the microflora of the gastrointestinal tract of animal, suppression of conditionally pathogenic and putrefactive microflora. The elaborated feed component will help to provide combined feed companies with accessible high-quality raw material

  10. Factors affecting feed efficiency in dairy goats

    Tadeu Silva de Oliveira

    2014-10-01

    Full Text Available The objective of this study was to present some factors affecting feed efficiency in dairy goats. To develop our work, individual and average data from performance experiments with lactating goats were used. The following variables were evaluated: gross feed efficiency, adjusted feed efficiency, dry matter intake, milk-yield, 3.5% fat-corrected milk yield, dry matter digestibility, dietary neutral detergent fiber content, different roughage-to-concentrate ratios and body weight. The statistical analyses involved the application of descriptive and dispersion measures besides Pearson's correlation coefficient and linear regression analysis. The analyzed variables were highly correlated with feed efficiency. The feed efficiency of lactating goats was affected by the milk fat correction, dry matter digestibility, dietary fiber content, proportion of roughage in the diet and body weight. Among these factors, standardization of the milk fat appeared to be the most efficient in correcting the feed efficiency in lactating goats. Correction of some of these factors implies greater precision in the measurement of feed efficiency.

  11. Waste feed delivery planning at Hanford

    Certa, Paul J.; West, Elizha B.; Rodriguez, Juissepp S.; Hohl, Ted M.; Larsen, Douglas C.; Ritari, Jaakob S.; Kelly, James W.

    2013-01-10

    The Integrated Waste Feed Delivery Plan (IWFDP) describes how waste feed will be delivered to the Waste Treatment and Immobilization Plant (WTP) to safely and efficiently accomplish the River Protection Project (RPP) mission. The IWFDP, which is integrated with the Baseline Case operating scenario, is comprised of three volumes. Volume 1 - Process Strategy provides an overview of waste feed delivery (WFD) and describes how the WFD system will be used to prepare and deliver feed to the WTP based on the equipment configuration and functional capabilities of the WFD system. Volume 2 - Campaign Plan describes the plans for the first eight campaigns for delivery to the WTP, evaluates projected feed for systematic issues, projects 242-A Evaporator campaigns, and evaluates double-shell tank (DST) space and availability of contingency feed. Volume 3 - Project Plan identifies the scope and timing of the DST and infrastructure upgrade projects necessary to feed the WTP, and coordinates over 30 projectized projects and operational activities that comprise the needed WFD upgrades.

  12. Plutonium immobilization feed batching system concept report

    The Plutonium Immobilization Facility will encapsulate plutonium in ceramic pucks and seal the pucks inside welded cans. Remote equipment will place these cans in magazines and the magazines in a Defense Waste Processing Facility (DWPF) canister. The DWPF will fill the canister with high level waste glass for permanent storage. Feed batching is one of the first process steps involved with first stage plutonium immobilization. It will blend plutonium oxide powder before it is combined with other materials to make pucks. This report discusses the Plutonium Immobilization feed batching process preliminary concept, batch splitting concepts, and includes a process block diagram, concept descriptions, a preliminary equipment list, and feed batching development areas

  13. Feeding, evaluating, and controlling rumen function.

    Lean, Ian J; Golder, Helen M; Hall, Mary Beth

    2014-11-01

    Achieving optimal rumen function requires an understanding of feeds and systems of nutritional evaluation. Key influences on optimal function include achieving good dry matter intake. The function of feeds in the rumen depends on other factors including chemical composition, rate of passage, degradation rate of the feed, availability of other substrates and cofactors, and individual animal variation. This article discusses carbohydrate, protein, and fat metabolism in the rumen, and provides practical means of evaluation of rations in the field. Conditions under which rumen function is suboptimal (ie, acidosis and bloat) are discussed, and methods for control examined. PMID:25249402

  14. About Animal Husbandry and Feed Science

    2014-01-01

    <正>Animal Husbandry and Feed Science is published to introduce the research achievements of animal husbandry and veterinary workers to the world,enhance their chances to participate in international academic exchange,and promote development of animal husbandry and veterinary.In 2009,Wu Chu(USA-China)Science&Culture Media Co.(Cranston,USA)and Anhui Wuchu Science,Technology and Culture Communication Co.,Ltd(Hefei,China)issued the journal Animal Husbandry and Feed Science(ISSN 1943-9911).The main content is basic theory and applied research about animal husbandry,veterinary,feed science and other related fields.The journal covers many research areas

  15. Archiving Data Objects using Web Feeds

    Marilena Oita; Pierre Senellart

    2010-01-01

    Web feeds, either in RSS or Atom XML-based formats, are evolving descriptive documents that characterize a dynamic hub of a Web site and help subscribers keep up with what is the most recent Web content of interest. In this paper, we show how Web feeds can be useful instruments for information extraction and Web page change detection. Web pages referenced by feed items are usually blog posts or news articles, data with a dynamic (then ephemeral) nature and which is clustered topically in a fe...

  16. Suggestions for a more market-driven feed-in management

    When renewable energy production plants are shut down during times of network congestion this leads to the loss of energy that could be made available at almost no marginal cost. These shutdowns, also referred to as feed-in management, occur without involvement of any kind of market mechanism that could render their coordination more effective. The draft of the coming amendment to what will then be the 2014 Renewable Energy Law foresees ''major changes'' to the rules on feed-in management as a next reform step; the previous reform had brought no progress on this issue. In the context of this coming task the present article discusses the role of feed-in management for the energy economy and describes a decentralised coordination mechanism that would allow a more efficient use of renewable energy.

  17. Suggestions for a more market-driven feed-in management; Loesungsvorschlaege fuer ein marktnahes Einspeisemanagement

    Schermeyer, Hans; Bertsch, Valentin [Karlsruher Institut fuer Technologie, Karlsruhe (Germany). Arbeitsgruppe Dezentrale Energiesysteme und Netze; Klapdor, Kai; Bergmann, Peter [Becker Buettner Held Consulting AG, Muenchen (Germany); Steinhausen, Burkhard [Trianel GmbH, Aachen (Germany)

    2014-08-15

    When renewable energy production plants are shut down during times of network congestion this leads to the loss of energy that could be made available at almost no marginal cost. These shutdowns, also referred to as feed-in management, occur without involvement of any kind of market mechanism that could render their coordination more effective. The draft of the coming amendment to what will then be the 2014 Renewable Energy Law foresees ''major changes'' to the rules on feed-in management as a next reform step; the previous reform had brought no progress on this issue. In the context of this coming task the present article discusses the role of feed-in management for the energy economy and describes a decentralised coordination mechanism that would allow a more efficient use of renewable energy.

  18. Treatment of acute pancreatitis

    Al-Mofleh Ibrahim

    1998-01-01

    Full Text Available There is no specific treatment for acute pancreatitis. Majority of patients with acute pancreatitis respond to medical therapy. Supportive measures and close observations represent the cornerstone of the medical therapy. Failure to respond to medical treatment may indicate choledocholithiasis or infected necrosis. Endoscopic papillotomy with stone retrieval is beneficial in patients with severe biliary pancreatitis. Image-guided fine needle aspiration and bacteriological examination of aspirate is reliable in detecting infection and deliniating causative pathogen. Surgical debridement is the method of choice for treatment of infected necrosis. In contrast, in pancreatic abscess, surgery is preserved for those, who do not respond to percutaneous drainage combined with antibiotics. The benefit of antisecretory and antiproteolytic agents is debatable. A combination of antioxidants, calcium channel antagonists and antibiotics may play a major role in the treatment of acute pancreatitis in the future.

  19. Acute acalculous cholecystitis.

    Barie, Philip S; Eachempati, Soumitra R

    2003-08-01

    Acute cholecystitis can develop without gallstones in critically ill or injured patients. However, the development of acute acalculous cholecystitis is not limited to surgical or injured patients, or even to the intensive care unit. Diabetes, malignant disease, abdominal vasculitis, congestive heart failure, cholesterol embolization, and shock or cardiac arrest have been associated with acute acalculous cholecystitis. Children may also be affected, especially after a viral illness. The pathogenesis of acute acalculous cholecystitis is a paradigm of complexity. Ischemia and reperfusion injury, or the effects of eicosanoid proinflammatory mediators, appear to be the central mechanisms, but bile stasis, opioid therapy, positive-pressure ventilation, and total parenteral nutrition have all been implicated. Ultrasound of the gallbladder is the most accurate diagnostic modality in the critically ill patient, with gallbladder wall thickness of 3.5 mm or greater and pericholecystic fluid being the two most reliable criteria. The historical treatment of choice for acute acalculous cholecystitis has been cholecystectomy, but percutaneous cholecystostomy is now the mainstay of therapy, controlling the disease in about 85% of patients. Rapid improvement can be expected when the procedure is performed properly. The mortality rates (historically about 30%) for percutaneous and open cholecystostomy appear to be similar, reflecting the severity of illness, but improved resuscitation and critical care may portend a decreased risk of death. Interval cholecystectomy is usually not indicated after acute acalculous cholecystitis in survivors; if the absence of gallstones is confirmed and the precipitating disorder has been controlled, the cholecystostomy tube can be pulled out after the patient has recovered. PMID:12864960

  20. Acute pancreatitis: Manifestation of acute HIV infection in an adolescent

    Bitar, Anas; Altaf, Muhammad; Sferra, Thomas J.

    2012-01-01

    Summary Background: Pancreatitis in the pediatric age group is not as common as in adults. Etiologies are various and differ from those in adults. Although infectious etiology accounts for a significant number of cases of pancreatitis, acute infection with Human Immunodeficiency Virus (HIV) was rarely reported as a possible etiology for acute pancreatitis in adults. Acute pancreatitis has never been reported as a presenting manifestation of acute HIV infection in children. Case Report: We des...

  1. Acute acalculous cholecystitis

    Fox, M.S.; Wilk, P.J.; Weissmann, H.S.; Freeman, L.M.; Gliedman, M.L.

    1984-07-01

    Sixty-eight patients with acute acalculous cholecystitis were reviewed. The results of history and physical examinations were usually nondiagnostic. IDA cholescintigraphy (93 per cent accuracy rate) was the only reliable diagnostic modality. The results of oral cholecystography, intravenous cholangiography and ultrasonography were considerably less reliable. One-half of the patients had gangrenous cholecystitis. Cholecystectomy was the preferred operation with an over-all mortality of 9 per cent. IDA cholescintigraphy is an important new modality for the diagnosis of acute acalculous cholecystitis which, in the past, has often been difficult to diagnose.

  2. Congenital acute megakaryocytic leukemia

    N B Mathur

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available Congenital leukemia (CL is an extremely rare disorder in the newborn, significant proportion of which is of myeloid origin, primarily of M4 or M5 morphology. As compared to pediatric leukemia, CL is a more aggressive disease. Acute myeloid leukemia (AML-M7 or acute megakaryocytic leukemia is a rare type of AML with an incidence of 0.5 per million per year. Median age of presentation is 6 years, and children may present with a broad variety of symptoms including low-grade fever, diarrhea, easy bruising, failure to gain weight and life-threatening conditions.

  3. Acute Gynecologic Disorders.

    Donaldson, Carolyn K

    2015-11-01

    Premenopausal women with acute pelvic pain comprise a significant percentage of patients who present to the emergency room. Etiologies can be gynecologic, urologic, gastrointestinal, or vascular. Signs and symptoms are often nonspecific and overlapping. The choice of imaging modality is determined by the clinically suspected differential diagnosis. Ultrasound (US) is the preferred imaging modality for suspected obstetric or gynecologic disorders. CT is more useful when gastrointestinal or urinary tract pathology is likely. MR imaging is rarely used in the emergent setting, except to exclude appendicitis in pregnant women. This article presents a comprehensive review of imaging of acute gynecologic disorders. PMID:26526439

  4. Acute calcific retropharyngeal tendinitis

    Acute calcific tendinitis results from the deposition of calcium hydroxyapatite crystals in peri articular muscular attachments. It usually develops in extremities, most often in shoulders and hips. Although the incidence is much lower, it has been reported to occur in the neck region, where it involves the tendons insertion of the longs colli muscle. We present a case of acute neck pain caused by a calcareous deposition in the tendon of the longs colli muscle, producing inflammation. We describe the clinical and radiologic features (plain radiography, CT,MRI) associated with this entire. (Author) 7 refs

  5. Acute myocardial infarct imaging

    A brief review is presented of radiopharmaceuticals used for imaging acute myocardial infarction and instrumentation using the rectilinear scanner and the scintillation camera. Clinical experience indicates that myocardial imaging with /sup 99 m/Tc pyrophosphate is a useful adjunct to the electrocardiogram and serum enzyme activity in managing patients with myocardial infarction. The technique allows rapid diagnosis, accurate localization, and an estimate of the size of acute infarcts. It can also be used to document infarct extension and in association with myocardial perfusion imaging can help differentiate fresh from old myocardial infarction

  6. Evaluation of acute toxicity potential of water hyacinth leaves.

    Wu, Wenbiao; Guo, Xiaoguang; Huang, Mingliang

    2014-06-01

    Although higher protein yield per hectare of water hyacinth than that of soy, high protein content of its leaves and good essential amino acid pattern have been proven, its dietary toxicity for human or animal consumption has not yet been evaluated. Therefore, the acute toxicity of water hyacinth leaves has been evaluated by an animal feeding test. The concentrations of common toxic metals including cadmium, lead, platinum, palladium, tin, mercury, barium, silver, stibium and aluminum in the water hyacinth leaf powder (WHLP) used for the animal feeding test were within their maximum limits in food additives as reported by the World Health Organization. The median lethal dose (LD50) of WHLP was more than 16 g kg(-1) body weight. In the study, after feeding for 7 and 28 days, the body weight of all the mice increased. The results of hematological analysis, clinical biochemical analysis, histopathological evaluation, general dissection or investigations of internal organs, appearance and behavior observations did not indicate any adverse effects from the diet containing WHLP. It is therefore concluded that water hyacinth leaves are not acutely toxic. PMID:22933551

  7. Impact of sensory feed additives on feed intake, feed preferences, and growth of female piglets during the early postweaning period.

    Clouard, C; Val-Laillet, D

    2014-05-01

    Our study aimed at investigating the effect of feed supplementation, from weaning, with 3 sensory feed additives (FA1, FA2, and FA3) on feed preferences, feed intake, and growth of piglets. The FA1 contained extract of Stevia rebaudiana (10 to 20%), extract of high-saponin plants (5 to 10%), and excipients (70 to 85%), the FA2 was mainly composed of a natural extract of Citrus sinensis (60 to 80%), and the FA3 was made of a blend of extracts of hot-flavored spices (5 to 15%) and excipients (85 to 95%). At weaning (d 1), a total of 32 female piglets housed in individual pens were allocated to 4 treatments (FA1, FA2, FA3, and control [CON]) of equivalent mean weight. The pigs were fed a standard pelleted prestarter diet from weaning (d 1) to d 15 and a starter diet from d 16 to 28. The diets were supplemented with the feed additives (FA) corresponding to their treatment, while the CON treatment was the standard diets with no additive. Feed refusals were weighed daily and piglets were weighed weekly on d 1, 7, 14, 21, and 28. On the day of feed transition (d 16) as well as 7 (d 23) and 10 d (d 26) later, the animals were consecutively subjected to 1- and 22-h double-choice feeding tests to investigate their preferences during a short period and a longer period of time for the CON starter diet and the starter diet added with the FA corresponding to their treatment. No overall effect of the feed additives was observed on ADFI, ADG, G:F, and final BW. No overall preference was highlighted for the FA1 treatment, except for a preference for the FA1 starter diet during the 1-h test on d 23 (78% of total feed intake; P < 0.01). For the FA2 treatment, the pigs consumed the FA2 starter diet more than the CON starter diet during the 22-h tests on d 16 (67% of total feed intake; P < 0.05) and 26 (62% of total feed intake; P < 0.01). For the FA3 treatment, on d 26, the FA3 starter diet was and tended to be consumed more than the CON starter diet during 1- (69% of total intake; P

  8. Assessment of feed resources, feeding practices and coping strategies to feed scarcity by smallholder urban dairy producers in Jimma town, Ethiopia

    Duguma, Belay; Janssens, Geert Paul Jules

    2016-01-01

    Smallholder dairy production is increasingly becoming popular in Jimma town. However, feed shortage is a major constraint to dairy production. The objectives of this study was to assess feed resources, feeding practices and farmers’ perceived causes of feed shortage and coping strategies to feed scarcity in smallholder dairy producers in Jimma town, Oromia Regional State, Ethiopia. A total of 54 randomly selected dairy farmers were interviewed using a pre-tested structured questionnaire and t...

  9. Quantum teleportation over 143 kilometres using active feed-forward.

    Ma, Xiao-Song; Herbst, Thomas; Scheidl, Thomas; Wang, Daqing; Kropatschek, Sebastian; Naylor, William; Wittmann, Bernhard; Mech, Alexandra; Kofler, Johannes; Anisimova, Elena; Makarov, Vadim; Jennewein, Thomas; Ursin, Rupert; Zeilinger, Anton

    2012-09-13

    The quantum internet is predicted to be the next-generation information processing platform, promising secure communication and an exponential speed-up in distributed computation. The distribution of single qubits over large distances via quantum teleportation is a key ingredient for realizing such a global platform. By using quantum teleportation, unknown quantum states can be transferred over arbitrary distances to a party whose location is unknown. Since the first experimental demonstrations of quantum teleportation of independent external qubits, an internal qubit and squeezed states, researchers have progressively extended the communication distance. Usually this occurs without active feed-forward of the classical Bell-state measurement result, which is an essential ingredient in future applications such as communication between quantum computers. The benchmark for a global quantum internet is quantum teleportation of independent qubits over a free-space link whose attenuation corresponds to the path between a satellite and a ground station. Here we report such an experiment, using active feed-forward in real time. The experiment uses two free-space optical links, quantum and classical, over 143 kilometres between the two Canary Islands of La Palma and Tenerife. To achieve this, we combine advanced techniques involving a frequency-uncorrelated polarization-entangled photon pair source, ultra-low-noise single-photon detectors and entanglement-assisted clock synchronization. The average teleported state fidelity is well beyond the classical limit of two-thirds. Furthermore, we confirm the quality of the quantum teleportation procedure without feed-forward by complete quantum process tomography. Our experiment verifies the maturity and applicability of such technologies in real-world scenarios, in particular for future satellite-based quantum teleportation. PMID:22951967

  10. Correction of enhanced endothelial permeability by cessation of cholesterol feeding

    Changes in endothelial permeability and the transport of macromolecules may be important in the initiation and/or progression of atherosclerosis. We have previously shown, with a carotid artery preparation isolated in situ with intact adventitia, that long-term cholesterol feeding in rabbits will result in a seven- to tenfold increase in 125I albumin transport across the artery into the systemic circulation. The current studies were undertaken to determine whether this abnormality of enhanced permeability could be reversed by cessation of cholesterol feeding and correction of the hyperlipidemia. Two groups of rabbits were fed either a standard Rabbit Chow or a diet containing 1.5% cholesterol and 5.2% corn oil for 12 to 15 weeks. Another group of rabbits was given cholesterol for 12 to 15 weeks with change to standard rabbit chow for an additional 22 to 24 weeks after which albumin transport studies were then performed. Mean plasma cholesterol level after 12 to 15 weeks of cholesterol feeding was 2052 +/- 395 mg/dl. After the animals were withdrawn from the cholesterol diet for 22 to 24 weeks, the mean plasma cholesterol level decreased to 80 +/- 21 mg/dl. The mean plasma cholesterol value in chow-fed animals was 39 +/- 6 mg/dl. Perfusion studies were done with 125I-labeled albumin and plasma radioactivity served as a measure of transport across the carotid artery. The average level of albumin transport across the artery into venous blood in the cholesterol-fed animals (13,911 dpm/ml of plasma) was significantly greater than that of control animals (2049 dpm/ml of plasma)

  11. Improving the Outcome of Acute Pancreatitis.

    Bruno, Marco J

    2016-01-01

    Acute pancreatitis (AP) is the most common indication for hospital admission and its incidence is rising. It has a variable prognosis, which is mainly dependent upon the development of persistent organ failure and infected necrotizing pancreatitis. In the past few years, based on large-scale multicenter randomized trials, some novel insights regarding clinical management have emerged. In patients with infected pancreatic necrosis, a step-up approach of percutaneous catheter drainage followed by necrosectomy only when the patient does not improve, reduces new-onset organ failure and prevents the need for necrosectomy in about a third of patients. A randomized pilot study comparing surgical to endoscopic necrosectomy in patients with infected necrotizing pancreatitis showed a striking reduction of the pro-inflammatory response following endoscopic necrosectomy. These promising results have recently been tested in a large multicenter randomized trial whose results are eagerly awaited. Contrary to earlier data from uncontrolled studies, a large multicenter randomized trial comparing early (within 24 h) nasoenteric tube feeding compared with an oral diet after 72 h, did not show that early nasoenteric tube feeding was superior in reducing the rate of infection or death in patients with AP at high risk for complications. Although early ERCP does not have a role in the treatment of predicted mild pancreatitis, except in the case of concomitant cholangitis, it may ameliorate the disease course in patients with predicted severe pancreatitis. Currently, a large-scale randomized study is underway and results are expected in 2017. PMID:27336312

  12. EFFECT OF WET FEEDING ON FATTENING I PIGS PERFORMANCE

    MONICA PÂRVU; IOANA CRISTINA ANDRONIE; ELENA POTECEA; CARMEN BERGHES; CRISTINA DINU; LUIZA BĂDIC

    2013-01-01

    The experiment used 240 Landrace pigs assigned to 3 groups. The control group received ground dry feed; group 1 received wet feed 1/1, while group 2 received pelleted feed. The compound feeds were assayed with the Weende method. Compared to the control group, the 60 kg weight was reached three days later by the animals with wet feeding and four days earlier by the animals receiving pelleted feed. At the wet feeding, the average daily gain was 484 g, near control group (p ≤ 0.05) and the feed ...

  13. Advanced Illness: Feeding Tubes and Ventilators

    ... Address, Jewish Lights Publishing, 2000. www.jewishlights.com Bioethics , Thomas Shannon, ed. Paulist Press, 2009 Swallowing Problems , ... 2004 The Feeding Tube Dilemma, The Center for Bioethics and Human Dignity, 1/27/06, cbhd.org ...

  14. Feeding Tips For Your Baby with CHD

    ... five months of age. Infants and children with congenital heart disease and congestive heart failure or cyanosis (blueness) tend ... feeding tube placed into the nose. Babies with congenital heart disease typically do best when fed more often and ...

  15. Infant Formula - Buying, Preparing, Storing, and Feeding

    ... page: //medlineplus.gov/ency/patientinstructions/000806.htm Infant Formula – Buying, Preparing, Storing, and Feeding To use the ... using infant formula . Buying, Preparing, and Storing Infant Formula The following tips can help you buy, prepare, ...

  16. Static Water Vapor Feed Electrolyzer Project

    National Aeronautics and Space Administration — Development of a static vapor feed electrolyzer utilizing an advanced bipolar plate that produces sub-saturated H2 and O2 is proposed. This novel bipolar design can...

  17. USING SAFFRON CAKE IN FEEDING CALVES

    Nikolaev S. I.; Kucherova I. A.; Chehranova S. V.

    2014-01-01

    The article proves a positive effect of feeding with saffron cake and premix based this substance on growth and development, nutrient utilization ration, morphological and biochemical parameters of blood of calves of black-motley breed

  18. Feeding Vegetarian and Vegan Infants and Toddlers

    ... Men For Women For Seniors Feeding Vegetarian and Vegan Infants and Toddlers By Dayle Hayes, MS, RD ... of Pediatrics (AAP) agree: Well-planned vegetarian and vegan eating patterns are healthy for infants and toddlers. ...

  19. How to Build an RSS 20 Feed

    Woodman, Mark

    2006-01-01

    The little orange feed icons are everywhere on the web. From search engines to shopping sites to blogs, Really Simple Syndication (RSS 2.0) has become one of the hottest web technologies going. RSS 2.0 is a powerful - yet surprisingly easy - way to distributing timely content to a web-based audience. This Short Cut will give you the hands-on knowledge you need to build an RSS 2.0 feed. Along the way you'll learn not only the mechanics of building a feed, but industry-accepted best practices for creating feeds that perform well in various situations. Are you ready? Roll up your sleeves, c

  20. Feeding and Swallowing Disorders (Dysphagia) in Children

    ... therapist a physician or nurse a dietitian or nutritionist a developmental specialist Your child's posture, self-feeding ... the professions. Check Out Resources for Health Equity Law Compliance Parent-Child Language Barrier Linked to Bad ...