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Sample records for acute organophosphorus insecticide

  1. Pralidoxime in acute organophosphorus insecticide poisoning--a randomised controlled trial.

    Michael Eddleston

    2009-06-01

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: Poisoning with organophosphorus (OP insecticides is a major global public health problem, causing an estimated 200,000 deaths each year. Although the World Health Organization recommends use of pralidoxime, this antidote's effectiveness remains unclear. We aimed to determine whether the addition of pralidoxime chloride to atropine and supportive care offers benefit. METHODS AND FINDINGS: We performed a double-blind randomised placebo-controlled trial of pralidoxime chloride (2 g loading dose over 20 min, followed by a constant infusion of 0.5 g/h for up to 7 d versus saline in patients with organophosphorus insecticide self-poisoning. Mortality was the primary outcome; secondary outcomes included intubation, duration of intubation, and time to death. We measured baseline markers of exposure and pharmacodynamic markers of response to aid interpretation of clinical outcomes. Two hundred thirty-five patients were randomised to receive pralidoxime (121 or saline placebo (114. Pralidoxime produced substantial and moderate red cell acetylcholinesterase reactivation in patients poisoned by diethyl and dimethyl compounds, respectively. Mortality was nonsignificantly higher in patients receiving pralidoxime: 30/121 (24.8% receiving pralidoxime died, compared with 18/114 (15.8% receiving placebo (adjusted hazard ratio [HR] 1.69, 95% confidence interval [CI] 0.88-3.26, p = 0.12. Incorporating the baseline amount of acetylcholinesterase already aged and plasma OP concentration into the analysis increased the HR for patients receiving pralidoxime compared to placebo, further decreasing the likelihood that pralidoxime is beneficial. The need for intubation was similar in both groups (pralidoxime 26/121 [21.5%], placebo 24/114 [21.1%], adjusted HR 1.27 [95% CI 0.71-2.29]. To reduce confounding due to ingestion of different insecticides, we further analysed patients with confirmed chlorpyrifos or dimethoate poisoning alone, finding no evidence of

  2. Organophosphorus poisoning (acute)

    Eddleston, Michael; Singh, Surjit; Buckley, Nick

    2007-01-01

    Acetylcholinesterase inhibition by organophosphorus pesticides or nerve gases can cause acute parasympathetic system dysfunction, muscle weakness, seizures, coma, and respiratory failure. Prognosis depends on the dose and relative toxicity of the specific compound, as well as pharmacokinetic factors.

  3. Organophosphorus poisoning (acute)

    Blain, Peter G

    2011-01-01

    Acetylcholinesterase inhibition by organophosphorus pesticides or organophosphate nerve agents can cause acute parasympathetic system dysfunction, muscle weakness, seizures, coma, and respiratory failure. Prognosis depends on the dose and relative toxicity of the specific compound, as well as pharmacokinetic factors.

  4. Organophosphorus and carbamate insecticide poisoning.

    Vale, Allister; Lotti, Marcello

    2015-01-01

    Both organophosphorus (OP) and carbamate insecticides inhibit acetylcholinesterase (AChE), which results in accumulation of acetylcholine (ACh) at autonomic and some central synapses and at autonomic postganglionic and neuromuscular junctions. As a consequence, ACh binds to, and stimulates, muscarinic and nicotinic receptors, thereby producing characteristic features. With OP insecticides (but not carbamates), "aging" may also occur by partial dealkylation of the serine group at the active site of AChE; recovery of AChE activity requires synthesis of new enzyme in the liver. Relapse after apparent resolution of cholinergic symptoms has been reported with OP insecticides and is termed the intermediate syndrome. This involves the onset of muscle paralysis affecting particularly upper-limb muscles, neck flexors, and cranial nerves some 24-96 hours after OP exposure and is often associated with the development of respiratory failure. OP-induced delayed neuropathy results from phosphorylation and subsequent aging of at least 70% of neuropathy target esterase. Cramping muscle pain in the lower limbs, distal numbness, and paresthesiae are followed by progressive weakness, depression of deep tendon reflexes in the lower limbs and, in severe cases, in the upper limbs. The therapeutic combination of oxime, atropine, and diazepam is well established experimentally in the treatment of OP pesticide poisoning. However, there has been controversy as to whether oximes improve morbidity and mortality in human poisoning. The explanation may be that the solvents in many formulations are primarily responsible for the high morbidity and mortality; oximes would not be expected to reduce toxicity in these circumstances. even if given in appropriate dose. PMID:26563788

  5. Pralidoxime in Acute Organophosphorus Insecticide Poisoning-A Randomised Controlled Trial

    Eddleston, M; Eyer, P; Worek, F.; Juszczak, E; Alder, N; F. Mohamed; Senarathna, L.; Hittarage, A; Azher, S; Jeganathan, K; Jayamanne, S; Von Meyer, L.; Dawson, AH; Sheriff, MH; Buckley, NA

    2009-01-01

    Editors' Summary Background Each year, about 200,000 people worldwide die from poisoning with organophosphorous insecticides, toxic chemicals that are widely used in agriculture, particularly in developing countries. Organophosphates disrupt communication between the brain and the body in both insects and people. The brain controls the body by sending electrical impulses along nerve cells (neurons) to the body's muscle cells. At the end of the neurons, these impulses are converted into chemic...

  6. Effects of organophosphorus insecticides on sage grouse in southeastern Idaho

    Blus, L.J.; Staley, C.S.; Henny, C.J.; Pendleton, G.W.; Craig, T.H.; Craig, E.H.; Halford, D.K.

    1989-01-01

    Unverified reports indicated die-offs of sage grouse have occurred since the 1970s in southeastern Idaho. Some verification that organophosphorus insecticides were involved was obtained in 1981 and 1983. A radio telemetry study indicated that dimethoate was responsible for most mortality. Methamidophos also acounted for mortality. Sage grouse populations may be adversely affected by organophosphorus insecticides.

  7. Acute organophosphorus poisoning complicated by acute coronary syndrome.

    Pankaj, Madhu; Krishna, Kavita

    2014-07-01

    We report a case of 30 year old alcoholic male admitted with vomiting, drowsiness, limb weakness and fasciculations after alleged history of consumption of 30 ml of chlorpyriphos insecticide. He had low serum cholinesterase levels. With standard treatment for organophosphorus poisoning (OPP), he improved gradually until day 5, when he developed neck and limb weakness and respiratory distress. This intermediate syndrome was treated with oximes, atropine and artificial ventilation. During treatment, his ECG showed fresh changes of ST elevation. High CPK & CPK-MB levels, septal hypokinesia on 2D echo suggested acute coronary syndrome. Coronary angiography was postponed due to his bedridden and obtunded status. The patient finally recovered fully by day 15 and was discharged. Acute coronary syndrome is a rare occurrence in OP poisoning. The present case thus emphasises the need for careful electrocardiographic and enzymatic monitoring of all patients of organophosphorus poisoning to prevent potential cardiac complication which can prove fatal. PMID:25672037

  8. Mechanism of action of organophosphorus and carbamate insecticides.

    Fukuto, T R

    1990-01-01

    Organophosphorus and carbamate insecticides are toxic to insects and mammals by virtue of their ability to inactivate the enzyme acetylcholinesterase. This review addresses the mechanism of inhibition of acetylcholinesterase by organophosphorus and carbamate esters, focusing on structural requirements necessary for anticholinesterase activity. The inhibition of acetylcholinesterase by these compounds is discussed in terms of reactivity and steric effects. The role of metabolic activation or d...

  9. Prognostic Significance of Various Biochemical Parameters in Acute Organophosphorus Poisoning

    Sumathi, M. E.; Kumar, S. Harish; Shashidhar, K N; Takkalaki, Nandini

    2014-01-01

    Background: Organophosphorus (OP) compounds are a heterogeneous group of insecticides widely used in agricultural industry. These OP compounds are likely to have more adverse effects in developing countries like India due to its easy availability and less awareness which results in high morbidity and mortality. Aims and objectives: 1. To estimate plasma cholinesterase, amylase, lipase and, creatine phosphokinase (CPK) in acute OP poisoning. 2. To correlate these biochemical parameters with pl...

  10. Poisoning by organophosphorus insecticides and sensory neuropathy

    Moretto, A; M. Lotti

    1998-01-01

    OBJECTIVES—Poisoning by organophosphate insecticides causes cholinergic toxicity. Organophosphate induced delayed polyneuropathy (OPIDP) is a sensory-motor distal axonopathy which usually occurs after ingestion of large doses of certain organophosphate insecticides and has so far only been reported in patients with preceding cholinergic toxicity. Surprisingly, it was recently reported by other authors that an exclusively sensory neuropathy developed in eight patients afte...

  11. Have Regulatory Efforts to Reduce Organophosphorus Insecticide Exposures Been Effective?

    Clune, Alison L.; Ryan, P. Barry; Barr, Dana Boyd

    2012-01-01

    Background: The Food Quality Protection Act (FQPA) was signed into law in 1996 to strengthen the regulation of pesticide tolerances in food. Organophosphorus (OP) insecticides were the first group of pesticides reviewed by the U.S. Environmental Protection Agency (EPA) under the new law. Objective: Our goal was to determine whether urinary concentrations of dialkylphosphate (DAP) metabolites of OP pesticides declined between the National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey (NHANES) III an...

  12. Organophosphorus insecticide induced decrease in plasma luteinizing hormone concentration in white-footed mice

    Rattner, B.A.; Michael, S.D.

    1985-01-01

    Oral intubation of 50 and 100 mg/kg acephate inhibited brain acetylcholinesterase (AChE) activity by 45% and 56%, and reduced basal luteinizing hormone (LH) concentration by 29% and 25% after 4 h in white-footed mice (Peromyscus leucopus noveboracensis). Dietary exposure to 25, 100, and 400 ppm acephate for 5 days substantially inhibited brain AChE activity, but did not affect plasma LH concentration. These preliminary findings suggest that acute exposure to organophosphorus insecticides may affect LH secretion and possibly reproductive function.

  13. Development of the Artificial Antigens for the Organophosphorus Insecticide chlorpyrifos

    ZHU Guo-nian; WU Gang; WU Hui-ming

    2004-01-01

    This study reported that the hapten of the organophosphorus insecticide chlorpyrifos,O,Odiethyl-O-[3,5-dichloro-6-(2-carboxyethyl)thio-2-pyridyl]phosphorothioate(named AR) was synthesized by using technical grade chlorpyrifos reacted with 3-marcapropanoic acid in hot alkaline solution.The hapten was conjugated to bovine serum albumin (BSA) with the modified active ester method to form artificial immune antigen.The ratio of AR:BSA was 39:1.The artificial coating antigen for chlorpyrifos was synthesized by conjugating AR to ovalbumin (OVA) with the mixed-anhydride method,and the ratio was 13:1.The anti-chlorpyrifos polyclonal antibodies were obtained by using the artificial immune antigen (AR-BSA) to immune in the rabbits.

  14. Studies on the effect of organophosphorus insecticide (dichlorovos) on nucleic acids and its toxicity on mice

    The effect of organophosphorus insecticide dichlorovos on nucleic acids and its toxicity in mice was investigated. The studies carried out included distribution study of the insecticide in different organs of mice, its effect on acetyl cholinesterase both on blood and in brain and alkylation capability on guanine in urine and in intact DNA of mouse liver

  15. Effect of organophosphorus insecticides on phosphorylation of the M2 muscarinic acetylcholine receptor

    Shuyin Li; Liming Zou; Carry Pope

    2008-01-01

    BACKGROUND: Organophosphorus insecticides may promote the accumulation of acetylcholine at synapses and the neuromuscular junction by inhibiting acetylcholinesterase activity to cause disturbance of neural signal conduction and induce a toxic reaction. Organophosphorus insecticides may act on M2 muscarinic acetylcholine receptors, whose combination with G proteins is regulated by phosphorylation of G protein-coupled receptor kinase 2.OBJECTIVE: To investigate the effects of organophosphorus insecticides on the phosphorylation of G protein-coupled receptor kinase 2-mediated M2 muscarinic acetylcholine receptors and to reveal other possible actions of organophosphorus insecticides.DESIGN, TIME AND SETTING: An observational study, which was performed in the Central Laboratory of Shenyang Medical College, and Department of Physiological Sciences, College of Veterinary Medicine, Oklahoma State University from June 2002 to December 2004.METHODS: The M2 muscarinic acetylcholine receptor was extracted and purified from pig brain using affinity chromatography. Subsequently, the purified M2 muscarinic acetylcholine receptor, G protein-coupled receptor kinase 2, and [OP32] ATP were incubated with different concentrations of paraoxon and chlorpyrifos oxon together. The mixture then underwent polyacrylamide gel electrophoresis, and the gel film was dried and radioactively autographed to detect phosphorylation of the M2 muscarinic acetylcholine receptor. Finally, the radio-labeled phosphorylated M2 receptor protein band was excised for counting with an isotope liquid scintillation counter.MAIN OUTCOME MEASURES: Effects of chlorpyrifos oxon, paraoxon, chlorpyrifos, and parathion in different concentrations on the phosphorylation of the M2 muscarinic acetylcholine receptor; effects of chlorpyrifos oxon on the phosphorylation of the adrenergic receptor.CONCLUSION: Different kinds of organophosphorus insecticides have different effects on the phosphorylation of the G protein

  16. A field evaluation of frogs as a potential source of secondary organophosphorus insecticide poisoning

    Powell, G.V.N.; DeWeese, L.R.; Lamont, T.G.

    1982-01-01

    Because amphibians are relatively resistant to organophosphorus insecticides and can bioaccumulate residues to high levels, they may be a source of secondary poisoning for vertebrates that feed on them. This hypothesis was tested by determining residues in breeding upland chorus frogs Pseudacris triseriata, that were collected from ponds treated with the organophosphorus insecticide fenthion. Frogs were collected up to 3-days posttreatment in four areas that were treated with fenthion formulated in either diesel oil or water. No residues of fenthion were detected above the 0.01 ppm level of analytical sensitivity. These results indicate that the frogs were not a likely source of secondary poisoning for predatory vertebrates.

  17. Organophosphorus insecticides: Toxic effects and bioanalytical tests for evaluating toxicity during degradation processes

    Čolović Mirjana B.

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Organophosphorus insecticides have been the most applied group of insecticides for the last two decades. Their main toxic effects are related to irreversible inactivation of acetylcholinesterase (AChE. Actually, they covalently bind to serine OH group in the enzyme active site forming phosphorylated enzyme that cannot hydrolyze acetylcholine. Organophosphorus insecticides in the environment undergo the natural degradation pathway including mainly homogeneous and heterogeneous hydrolysis (especially at high pH generating non-inhibiting products. Additionally, thio organophosphates are easily oxidized by naturally present oxidants and UV light, forming more toxic and stable oxons. Thus, oxidative degradation procedures, generally referred as advanced oxidation processes (AOP, have been applied for their efficient removal from contaminated waters. The most applied bioassays to monitor the organophosphate toxicity i.e. the detoxification degree during AOP are Vibrio fischeri and AChE bioassays. Vibrio fischeri toxicity test exploits bioluminescence as the measure of luciferase activity of this marine bacterium, whereas AChE bioassay is based on AChE activity inhibition. Both bioanalytical techniques are rapid (several minutes, simple, sensitive and reproducible. Vibrio fischeri test seems to be a versatile indicator of toxic compounds generated in AOP for organophosphorus insecticides degradation. However, detection of neurotoxic AChE inhibitors, which can be formed in AOP of some organophosphates, requires AChE bioassays. Therefore, AChE toxicity test is more appropriate for monitoring the degradation processes of thio organophosphates, because more toxic oxo organophosphates might be formed and overlooked by Vibrio fischeri bioluminescence inhibition. In addition, during organophosphates removal by AOP, compounds with strong genotoxic potential may be formed, which cannot be detected by standard toxicity tests. For this reason, determination of

  18. Profile of acute mixed organophosphorus poisoning.

    Thunga, Girish; Sam, Kishore Gnana; Khera, Kanav; Xavier, Vidya; Verma, Murlidhar

    2009-06-01

    Organophosphorus (OP) pesticide self-poisoning is a major clinical and public health problem across much of rural Asia and responsible for two thirds of suicidal deaths. However, clinical reports or evidence for the management of mixed poisoning are lacking. Patients are often treated based on the type of symptoms they exhibit, and there are no specific guidelines available to treat mixed poisoning. In this case series, we report 3 acute OP poisoning cases with mixed poisons such as organochlorine, fungicide, copper sulfate, and kerosene. All 3 patients were treated successfully, with a greater focus on OP poisoning with pralidoxime and atropine infusion along with standard decontamination procedures. Because patients developed complications due to the concomitant poisons ingested, they were later treated symptomatically, and in one case, D-penicillamine was administered as antidote for copper poisoning. Mixed poisoning especially with OP compounds makes the diagnosis difficult because the clinical symptoms of OP predominate, whereas damage produced by other pesticides is late to develop and often neglected. Common treatment procedures are focused mainly on the OP poisoning ignoring the complications of other concomitant pesticides ingested. Treating physicians should be prepared and consider the possibility of mixed poisoning prevalent in that region before initiating therapy. PMID:19497478

  19. Respiratory Failure in Acute Organophosphorus Pesticide Self-Poisoning

    Eddleston, Michael; Mohamed, Fahim; Davies, James OJ; Eyer, Peter; Worek, Franz; Sheriff, Mh Rezvi; Buckley, Nick A.

    2006-01-01

    Background: Acute organophosphorus (OP) pesticide poisoning is a major clinical problem in the developing world. Textbooks ascribe most deaths to respiratory failure occurring in one of two distinct clinical syndromes - acute cholinergic respiratory failure or the intermediate syndrome. The delayed failure appears to be due to respiratory muscle weakness, but its pathophysiology is not yet clear.

  20. Biochemical alterations in the rat following exposure to the organophosphorus insecticide cyanox

    Cyanox is an organophosphorus insecticide with an oral LD50 of 580 mg/kg for male rats. For the assessment of the subacute toxicity, two groups of male rats were treated with 11.6 and 29 mg/kg/day of the pesticide for 28 days. Animals were sacrificed on day 2,4,10,16,22 and 8. The compound significantly altered plasma protein electrophoretic pattern, brain and erythrocytes acetylcholinesterase (AchE), serum alanine aminotransferase (ALT) and aspartate aminotransferase (AST), serum alkaline phosphatase (ALP), creatinine, inorganic phosphorus, triiodothyronine (T3) and thyroxine (T4)

  1. Acute myocardial infarction: Can it be a complication of acute organophosphorus compound poisoning?

    Joshi, P.; P Manoria; Joseph, D., T.; Z Gandhi

    2013-01-01

    Organophosphorus compounds are used as pesticides and represent a common cause of poisoning in developing countries including India due to their widespread availability and use. Toxicity due to these agents can affect many organs including heart. Here, we report a case of acute organophosphorus poisoning (parathion), followed by acute myocardial infarction; documented by clinical features, electrocardiographic changes, and elevated cardiac enzymes. Myocardial infarction has been rarely report...

  2. Case histories of bald eagles and other raptors killed by organophosphorus insecticides topically applied to livestock

    Henny, C.J.; Kolbe, E.J.; Hill, E.F.; Blus, L.J.

    1987-01-01

    Since 1982 when secondary poisoning of a red-tailed hawk (Buteo jamaicensis) was documented following the recommended use of famphur applied topically to cattle, the Patuxent Wildlife Research Center has tested dead birds of prey for poisoning by famphur and other pour-on organophosphorus (OP) insecticides. Brain cholinesterase (ChE) activity was first determined, then if ChE was depressed greater than or equal to 50%, stomach and/or crop contents were evaluated for anti-ChE compounds. This report presents the circumstances surrounding the OP-caused deaths of eight bald eagles (Haliaeetus leucocephalus), two red-tailed hawks, and one great horned owl (Bubo virginianus) between March 1984 and March 1985. OP poisoning of raptors by pour-on insecticides in the United States is widespread, but its magnitude is unknown.

  3. Osmoregulatory function in ducks following ingestion of the organophosphorus insecticide fenthion

    Rattner, B.A.; Fleming, W.J.; Murray, H.C.

    1983-01-01

    Salt gland function and osmoregulation in aquatic birds drinking hyperosmotic water has been suggested to be impaired by organophosphorus insecticides. To test this hypothesis, adult black ducks (Anas rubripes) were provided various regimens of fresh or salt (1.5% NaCl) water before, during, and after ingestion of mash containing 21 ppm fenthion. Ducks were bled by jugular venipuncture after I, 7. and 12 days of treatment, and were then killed. Brain and salt gland acetylcholinesterase activities were substantially inhibited (44-61% and 14-36%) by fenthion. However, salt gland weight and Na + -K + -ATPase activity, and plasma Na + , CI- , and osmolality, were uniformly elevated in all groups receiving salt water including those ingesting fenthion. In a second study, salt gland Na + -K + -ATPase activity in mallards (A. platyrhynchos) was not affected after in vitro incubation with either fenthion or fenthion oxon at concentrations ranging from 0.04 to 400 ?M, but was reduced in the presence of 40 and 400 ?M DDE (positive control). These findings suggest that environmentally realistic concentrations of organophosphorus insecticides do not markedly affect osmoregulatory function in adult black ducks.

  4. Dialkylphosphates (DAPs) in fruits and vegetables may confound biomonitoring in organophosphorus insecticide exposure and risk assessment.

    Zhang, Xiaofei; Driver, Jeffrey H; Li, Yanhong; Ross, John H; Krieger, Robert I

    2008-11-26

    Trace residues of organophosphorus (OP) pesticides are associated with fruits and vegetables that have been sprayed with those OP pesticides to guard against insect pests. Human dietary exposure to these OP pesticides is commonly estimated by measuring the amount of OP metabolites in urine, assuming a stoichiometric relationship between a metabolite and its parent insecticide. Dialkylphosphates (DAPs) are the OP metabolites that are most often used as markers in such biomonitoring studies. However, abiotic hydrolysis, photolysis, and plant metabolism can convert OP chemicals (OP residues) to DAP residues on or in the fruits and vegetables. To evaluate the extent of these conversions, OPs and DAPs were measured in 153 produce samples. These samples from 2 lots were known to contain OP insecticide residues based on routine monitoring by California producers and shippers. A total of 12 OPs were quantified, including mevinphos, naled, acephate, methamidophos, oxidemeton-methyl, azinphos-methyl, dimethoate, malathion, methidathion, phosmet, chlorpyrifos, and diazinon. All OP insecticide residues were below their respective residue tolerances in 2002-2004. A total of 91 of 153 samples (60%) contained more DAP residues than parent OPs. The mean mole fractions [DAPs/(DAPs + OPs)] for the first and second lots of produce were 0.62 and 0.50, respectively, and the corresponding geometric means were 0.55 and 0.34. The corresponding mean mole ratios (DAPs/OP) were 7.1 and 3.4, with geometric means of 2.1 and 0.9. Any preformed DAPs ingested in the diet that are excreted in urine may inflate the estimated absorbed OP insecticide doses in occupational and environmental studies. In subsequent prospective studies, time-dependent production of dimethylphosphate (DMP) and dimethylthiophosphate (DMTP) in strawberries and leaves following malathion sprays occurred concomitant with the disappearance of the parent insecticide and its oxon. DAPs are more persistent in plants and produce

  5. Combined effect of exposure to gamma radiation and /or an organophosphorus insecticide in male rats

    The effect of a single whole body gamma irradiation at 5 Gy and/or the organophosphorus insecticide (cyanox) at the levels of 29 or 58 mg/kg body weight for three consecutive days has been studied. Activities of ornithine carbamyl transferase (OCT), alanine (ALT) and aspartate (AST) aminotransferases, lactic dehydrogenase (LDH), gamma glutamyl transferase (gamma GT), creatinine phosphokinase (CPK) as well as the ionic contents of Na+ and K+ in serum were measured. Gamma irradiation or cyanox treatment significantly altered serum levels of OCT, ALT, AST, CPK as well as the ionic contents of Na+ and K+. However, the combined treatment of gamma radiation and cyanox did not prove to be synergistic

  6. Effect of organophosphorus insecticides and their metabolites on astroglial cell proliferation

    Though little attention has been given to the possibility that glial cells may represent a target for the developmental neurotoxicity of organophosphorus (OP) insecticides, recent evidence, obtained in particular with chlorpyrifos (CP), suggests that developmental exposure to this compound may indeed target astrocytes. To substantiate and expand these observations, we carried out a series of in vitro studies utilizing fetal rat astrocytes and a human astrocytoma cell line, 1321N1 cells, to investigate the effect of the OPs CP, diazinon (DZ) and parathion (P), their oxygen analogs chlorpyrifos oxon (CPO), diazoxon (DZO) and paraoxon (PO), and their metabolites 3,5,6-trichloro-2-pyridinol (TCP), 2-isopropyl-6-methyl-4-pyrimidol (IMP) and para-nitrophenol (PNP), on cell proliferation. In fetal rat astrocytes and astrocytoma cells maintained in serum, CP, DZ, P, CPO, DZO, and PO induced a concentration-dependent inhibition in [3H]thymidine incorporation with a very similar potency (IC50 between 45 and 57 μM). Among the other metabolites, PNP was the most potent (IC50 = 70-80 μM), while TCP and IMP were much less effective (IC50 > 100 μM). Cytotoxicity appears to account only for a small part of the effect on DNA synthesis. OP insecticides and their oxons were three- to six-fold more potent in inhibiting [3H]thymidine incorporation when cells were synchronized in the G0/G1 phase of the cell cycle and re-stimulated by carbachol or epidermal growth factor. These results suggest that OP insecticides and their oxons affect astroglial cell proliferation and that the transition from the G0/G1 to the S/G2 phase of the cell cycle may be particularly sensitive to the action of these compounds

  7. Acute Toxicity of Four Organophosphorus Pesticide Products

    2012-01-01

    Acute toxicity of phoxim,acephate,isofenphos-methyl and isocarbophos on male SD rats of clean grade was carried out by gastric lavage method at room temperature of 18℃. These rats are 4 to 5 months old with body weight of 180 to 220 kg. The results indicate that the orders of the toxicity of these four pesticides on SD rats are isofenphos-methyl,isocarbophos,acephate,phoxim. We found that the median lethal concentration of phoxim in 24 h,48 h,72 h and 96 h is 3. 892 g /kg,3. 051 g /kg,2. 618 g /kg and 2. 458 g /kg respectively; the median lethal concentration of isofenphos-methyl in 24 h,48 h,72 h and 96 h is 0. 015 g /kg,0. 013g /kg,0. 012g /kg and 0. 011 g /kg respectively; the median lethal concentration of isocarbophos in 24 h,48 h,72 h and 96 h is 0. 049 g /kg,0. 046 g /kg,0. 043 g /kg,0. 041 g /kg respectively; and the median lethal concentration of acephate in 24 h,48 h,72 h and 96 h is 0. 137 g /kg,0. 113 g /kg,0. 100 g /kg,0. 085 g /kg respectively. Finally,we evaluated the characteristics of toxicity effect and safe concentration of these pesticides to SD rats.

  8. Evaluation of organophosphorus and synthetic pyrethroid insecticides against six vector mosquitoe species

    Domingo Montada Dorta

    1993-12-01

    Full Text Available Three organophosphorus compounds- malathion, folithion and temephos- and two synthetic pyrethroids- alphamethrin and deltamethrin- were used for monitoring the susceptibility status of larvae and adults of six vector mosquitoe species: Culex quinquefasciatus (Filariasis and Aedes albopictus (Dengue (both laboratory and field strains; laboratory strains of Aedes aegypti (Dengue, Anopheles slephensi and Anopheles culicifacies (Malaria, and Culex tritaeniorhynchus (Japanese encephalitis in India. From the LC50 values obtained for these insecticides, it was found that all mosquito species including the field strains of Cx. quinquefasciatus and Ae. albopictus were highly susceptible Except for Cx. quinquefasciatus (field strain against malathion, 100% mortality was observed at the discriminating dosages recommended by World Health Organization. The residual effect of alphamethrin, deltamethrin, malathion and folithion at 25 mg (ai/m² on different surfaces against six species of vector mosquitoes showed that alphamethrin was the most effective on all four treated surfaces (mud, plywood, cement and thatch. Nevertheless, residual efficacy lasted longer on thatch than on the other surfaces. Therefore, synthetic pyrethroids such as alphamethrin can be effectively employed in integrated vector control operations.

  9. Evaluation of organophosphorus and synthetic pyrethroid insecticides against six vector mosquitoe species

    Montada Dorta Domingo

    1993-01-01

    Full Text Available Three organophosphorus compounds- malathion, folithion and temephos- and two synthetic pyrethroids- alphamethrin and deltamethrin- were used for monitoring the susceptibility status of larvae and adults of six vector mosquitoe species: Culex quinquefasciatus (Filariasis and Aedes albopictus (Dengue (both laboratory and field strains; laboratory strains of Aedes aegypti (Dengue, Anopheles slephensi and Anopheles culicifacies (Malaria, and Culex tritaeniorhynchus (Japanese encephalitis in India. From the LC50 values obtained for these insecticides, it was found that all mosquito species including the field strains of Cx. quinquefasciatus and Ae. albopictus were highly susceptible Except for Cx. quinquefasciatus (field strain against malathion, 100% mortality was observed at the discriminating dosages recommended by World Health Organization. The residual effect of alphamethrin, deltamethrin, malathion and folithion at 25 mg (ai/m² on different surfaces against six species of vector mosquitoes showed that alphamethrin was the most effective on all four treated surfaces (mud, plywood, cement and thatch. Nevertheless, residual efficacy lasted longer on thatch than on the other surfaces. Therefore, synthetic pyrethroids such as alphamethrin can be effectively employed in integrated vector control operations.

  10. Postfledging survival of European starlings exposed as nestlings to an organophosphorus insecticide

    Stromborg, K.L.; Grue, C.E.; Nichols, J.D.; Hepp, G.R.; Hines, J.E.; Bourne, H.C.

    1988-01-01

    To test the hypothesis that exposure to organophosphorus (OP) insecticides reduces postfledging survival of altricial birds, 16-d-old European Starlings (Sturnus vulgaris) were weighed and orally dosed with corn oil containing 6.0 mg of dicrotophos per kilogram of body mass or an equivalent exposure of pure corn oil (controls). Two days later, each survivor was weighed again and patagially tagged for identification after fledging. Resightings of marked fledglings were made during weekly 2-d intensive observations yielding four estimates of postfledging survival. Before fledging, only OP-dosed birds died (18.5%), and OP-dosed survivors lost more mass (5.2%, P = .001) than controls (1.4%) but their masses on day 18 were only slightly lower (2% of control mean, P = .10). Brain cholinesterase activity, a sensitive indicator of OP exposure in birds, was depressed and average of 93% in OP-dosed nestlings that died compared to controls, and an average of 46% in OP-dosed nestlings alive on day 18. Age at fledging, postfledging survival, flocking behavior, and habitat use, however, did not differ between OP-dosed and control birds. The effects of the OP on the nestlings appeared to be rapid, to be reversible in survivors, and did not extend into the postfledging period. In addition, we found no relationship between body mass at fledging and postfledging survival.

  11. An Age-Dependent Physiologically-Based Pharmacokinetic/Pharmacodynamic Model for the Organophosphorus Insecticide Chlorpyrifos in the Preweanling Rat

    Timchalk, Chuck; Kousba, Ahmed A.; Poet, Torka S.

    2007-08-01

    Juvenile rats are more susceptible than adults to the acute toxicity of organophosphorus insecticides like chlorpyrifos (CPF). Age- and dose-dependent differences in metabolism may be responsible. Of importance is CYP450 activation and detoxification of CPF to chlorpyrifos-oxon (CPF-oxon) and trichloropyridinol (TCP), as well as B-esterase (cholinesterase; ChE) and A-esterase (PON-1) detoxification of CPF-oxon to TCP. In the current study, a modified physiologically based pharmacokinetic/pharmacodynamic (PBPK/PD) model incorporating age-dependent changes in CYP450, PON-1, and tissue ChE levels for rats was developed. In this model, age was used as a dependent function to estimate body weight which was then used to allometrically scale both metabolism and tissue ChE levels. Model simulations suggest that preweanling rats are particularly sensitive to CPF toxicity, with levels of CPF-oxon in blood and brain disproportionately increasing, relative to the response in adult rats. This age-dependent non-linear increase in CPF-oxon concentration may potentially result from the depletion of non-target B-esterases, and a lower PON-1 metabolic capacity in younger animals. These results indicate that the PBPK/PD model behaves consistently with the general understanding of CPF toxicity, pharmacokinetics and tissue ChE inhibition in neonatal and adult rats. Hence, this model represents an important starting point for developing a computational model to assess the neurotoxic potential of environmentally relevant organophosphate exposures in infants and children.

  12. Detections of eleven organophosphorus insecticides and one herbicide threatening Pacific salmonids, Oncorhynchus spp., in California, 1991-2010.

    Lisker, Emily B; Ensminger, Michael P; Gill, Sheryl L; Goh, Kean S

    2011-10-01

    California's surface water monitoring results from 1991 through 2010 were analyzed to determine whether 12 organophosphorus insecticides and herbicides (i.e., azinphos methyl, bensulide, dimethoate, disulfoton, ethoprop, fenamiphos, methamidophos, methidathion, methyl parathion, naled, phorate, and phosmet) and their degradates have been detected above maximum concentration limits (MCLs) in Pacific salmonid habitats. Methidathion, methyl parathion, phorate, phosmet, and the oxygen analogue of naled (DDVP) detections exceeded MCLs. Methyl parathion detections may be accounted for by monthly use trends, while methidathion detections may be explained by yearly use trends. There were inadequate phorate, phosmet, or DDVP data to evaluate for correlations with use. PMID:21710164

  13. Antioxidant Role of Pomegranates on Liver and Brain Tissues of Rats Exposed to an Organophosphorus Insecticide

    Toxicities of organophosphorus insecticides cause oxidative damage on many organs such as the liver and brain due to generation of reactive oxygen species. Pomegranate is among the richest fruit in poly - phenols. The aim of this study was to compare between the antioxidant strength of pomegranate juice (PJ) and pomegranate molasses (PM) and their effects on alanine transferase (ALT), aspartate aminotransferase (AST), Alkaline phosphatase (ALP) and total protein (TP) in liver and levels of malondialdehyde (MAD), reduced glutathione (GSH) and nitric oxide (NO) in rat liver and brain tissues exposed to 1/10 LD 50 diazinon (DI). Six groups each of 6 male albino rats were used comprising control, DI, PJ, PM, PJ + DI and PM + DI for 15 days. The activities of ALT, AST, and TP concentration in liver have been increased due to treatment of rats with DI. These increases restored to normalcy when rats were supplemented with PJ or PM with DI. The results demonstrate that treatment with DI induced significant increase in MDA and NO concentrations and significant decrease in GSH levels of liver and brain tissues. The administration of PJ or PM along with DI significant decrease in MDA and NO levels and significant increase in GSH level compared to DI-group. The present study suggest that PJ or PM has a potential protective effect as it can elevate antioxidant defense system, lessens induced oxidative dam - ages and protect the brain and liver tissue against DI-induced toxicity. In addition, comaring PJ with PM it was noticed that PJ had higher antioxidant activity as evidenced by increased GSH content and decreased NO level in the liver by greater extend than PM.

  14. Organophosphorus pentavalent compounds: history, synthetic methods of preparation and application as insecticides and antitumor agents; Compostos organofosforados pentavalentes: historico, metodos sinteticos de preparacao e aplicacoes como inseticidas e agentes antitumorais

    Santos, Viviane Martins Rebello dos; Donnici, Claudio Luis [Universidade Federal de Minas Gerais, Belo Horizonte, MG (Brazil). Dept. de Quimica; DaCosta, Joao Batista Neves; Caixeiro, Janaina Marques Rodrigues [Universidade Federal Rural do Rio de Janeiro, Seropedica, RJ (Brazil). Dept. de Quimica]. E-mail: dacosta@ufrrj.br

    2007-01-15

    This paper is a review of the history, synthesis and application of organophosphorus compounds, especially of those of pentavalent phosphorus, such as phosphoramidates, phosphorothioates, phosphonates and phosphonic acids with insecticide and anticancer activities. The organophosphorus compounds with agrochemical applications show great structural variety, They include not only insecticides, but also fungicides, herbicides, and others. The large variety of commercially available organophosphorus pesticides is remarkable. Even more interesting is the high efficiency of some organophosphorus compounds as anticancer agents such as cyclophosphamide and its derivatives. (author)

  15. Age-dependent pharmacokinetic and pharmacodynamic response in preweanling rats following oral exposure to the organophosphorus insecticide chlorpyrifos

    Timchalk, Chuck; Poet, Torka S.; Kousba, Ahmed A.

    2006-03-01

    Juvenile rats are more susceptible than adults to the acute toxicity of organophosphorus insecticides like chlorpyrifos (CPF). Age- and dose-dependent differences in metabolism may be responsible. Of importance is CYP450 activation and detoxification of CPF to CPF-oxon and 3,5,6-trichloro-2-pyridinol (TCP), as well as B-esterase (cholinesterase; ChE) and A-esterase (PON-1) detoxification of CPF-oxon to TCP. The pharmacokinetics of CPF, TCP, and the extent of blood (plasma/RBC), and brain ChE inhibition in rats were determined on postnatal days (PND) -5, -12, and -17 following oral gavage administration of 1 and 10 mg CPF/kg of body weight. For all neonatal ages the blood TCP exceeded the CPF concentration, and within each age group there was no evidence of non-linear kinetics over the dose range evaluated. Younger animals demonstrated a greater sensitivity to ChE inhibition as evident by the dose- and age-dependent inhibition of plasma, RBC, and brain ChE. Of particular importance was the observation that even in rats as young as PND-5, the CYP450 metabolic capacity was adequate to metabolize CPF to both TCP and CPF-oxon based on the detection of TCP in blood and extensive ChE inhibition (biomarker of CPF-oxon) at all ages. In addition, the increase in the blood TCP concentration ({approx}3-fold) in PND-17 rats relative to the response in the younger animals, and the higher blood concentrations of CPF in neonatal rats (1.7 to 7.5-fold) relative to adults was consistent with an increase in CYP450 metabolic capacity with age. This is the first reported study that evaluated both the pharmacokinetics of the parent pesticide, the major metabolite and the extent of ChE inhibition dynamics in the same animals as a function of neonatal age. The results suggest that in the neonatal rat, CPF was rapidly absorbed and metabolized, and the extent of metabolism was age-dependent.

  16. Rapid method for the determination of some organophosphorus insecticides in a small amount of serum in emergency and occupational toxicology cases

    Singh Bhoopendra

    2009-01-01

    Full Text Available A simple and rapid method is described for the estimation of some organophosphorus insecticides in the serum of occupationally exposed persons. The compounds are extracted with a mixture of acetone and diethyl ether (1:1 v/v in acidic medium and the extraction residue is analyzed by gas chromatography with nitrogen phosphorus detection method. Linearity was acceptable over concentrations from 0.25 to 4.0 µg/mL. The method percentile recovery for the six different organophosphorus insecticides was 86.3% for phorate, 78.3% for dimethoate, 82.3% for malathion, 79.4% for chlorpyrifos, 80.2% for diazinon, and 68.5% for ethion at the µg/mL level. Serum samples of nine workers who had been occupationally exposed to malathion in an insecticide manufacturing factory, were analyzed and malathion was found at low levels in all the samples.

  17. N-acetylcysteine in Acute Organophosphorus Pesticide Poisoning: A Randomized, Clinical Trial.

    El-Ebiary, Ahmad A; Elsharkawy, Rasha E; Soliman, Nema A; Soliman, Mohammed A; Hashem, Ahmed A

    2016-08-01

    Organophosphorus poisoning is a major global health problem with hundreds of thousands of deaths each year. Research interest in N-acetylcysteine has grown among increasing evidence of the role of oxidative stress in organophosphorus poisoning. We aimed to assess the safety and efficacy of N-acetylcysteine as an adjuvant treatment in patients with acute organophosphorus poisoning. This was a randomized, controlled, parallel-group trial on 30 patients suffering from acute organophosphorus poisoning, who were admitted to the Poison Control Center of Tanta University Emergency Hospital, Tanta, Egypt, between April and September 2014. Interventions included oral N-acetylcysteine (600 mg three times daily for 3 days) as an added treatment to the conventional measures versus only the conventional treatment. Outcome measures included mortality, total dose of atropine administered, duration of hospitalization and the need for ICU admission and/or mechanical ventilation. A total of 46 patients were screened and 30 were randomized. No significant difference was found between both groups regarding demographic characteristics and the nature or severity of baseline clinical manifestations. No major adverse effects to N-acetylcysteine therapy were reported. Malondialdehyde significantly decreased and reduced glutathione significantly increased only in the NAC-treated patients. The patients on NAC therapy required less atropine doses than those who received only the conventional treatment; however, the length of hospital stay showed no significant difference between both groups. The study concluded that the use of N-acetylcysteine as an added treatment was apparently safe, and it reduced atropine requirements in patients with acute organophosphorus pesticide poisoning. PMID:26786042

  18. Monitoring for resistance to organophosphorus and pyrethroid insecticides in varroa mite populations

    The occurrence of resistance in Varroa mite populations is a serious threat to the beekeeping industry and crops that rely on the honey bee for pollination. Integrated pest management strategies for control of this pest include the judicious use of insecticides. To monitor field populations of Varro...

  19. The Effect of Temperature and Humidity on the Susceptibility of Flour Beetles to Organophosphorus Insecticides

    D. B. Chadha

    1965-01-01

    Full Text Available The effect of the temperature and humidity on the susceptibility of Tribolium castaneum Herbst. to malathion and diazinon, has been investigated. It has been found that temperature significantly influences the susceptibility of T. castaneum to malathion though not to diazinon. Humidity, however, influences the susceptibility if the insect to both insecticides.

  20. A study on oxidative stress and antioxidant status of agricultural workers exposed to organophosphorus insecticides during spraying

    Rastogi S

    2009-01-01

    Full Text Available Oxidative stress status and Acetylcholinesterase (AChE activity were studied in blood samples obtained from 61 agricultural workers engaged in spraying organophosphorus (OP insecticides in the mango plantation, with a minimum work history of one year, in the age range of 12-55 years. Controls were age-matched, unexposed workers, who never had any exposure to OP pesticides. They were evaluated for oxidative stress markers MDA (end product of lipid peroxidation, reduced glutathione (GSH, and Acetylcholinesterase (AChE and butyrylcholinesterase (BChE levels in blood. The results showed a marked inhibition of the AChE and BChE activities in the sprayers as compared to the controls. The malondialdehyde(MDA, the last product of lipid peroxidation was found to be increased significantly in sprayers(p< 0.05, while depletion in the concentration of antioxidant glutathione(GSH was also observed in the sprayers but the difference was statistically not significant. It was concluded on the basis of biochemical analysis that pesticides sprayers are exposed to more oxidative stress as evidenced by the changes in antioxidant status. The measurement of the AChE and BChE activities in agricultural workers who spray OPs could be a good biomonitoring factor and is recommended to be performed on a regular basis.

  1. Nicotine And The Risk Of Exposure To The Organophosphorus Insecticide Cyolane

    The present investigation was undertaken to show the effect of repeated oral doses of nicotine (0.5 mg/kg) on rats pretreated or during treatment with cyolane (0.5 mg/kg 1/20 LD50). The results revealed that exposure of smokers to organophosphorus pesticides exerted slight changes in GOT and GPT. Alkaline phosphatase was significantly increased to reach maximal (228.54 and 148.64%) after nicotine + cyolane and/or nicotine were given for a week to rats pretreated with cyolane for 2 weeks. Total protein, albumin and Albumin/Globulin (A/G) ratio were also affected. Administration of nicotine along with cyolane to rats showed a significant increase in cholesterol content compared to that of cyolane treated rats. Values of thyroxine (T4) and triiodothyronine (T3) also fluctuated

  2. Synthesis, Mechanism of Formation and Insecticidal Activity of Novel Fluorinated Organophosphorus Compounds

    WU,Jun(吴军); HUDSON,Harry R.

    2002-01-01

    The major products of the interaction between triethyl phosphite and 3-fluoropropanoyl chloride at room temperamre are diethyl ( E )-1-( 3-fluoropropanoyioxy )-3-fluoroprop-1-enylphosphonate (3) and diethyl 1-( diethoxyphosphoryl)-3-fluoropropyl phosphate (4). The compounds 3 and 4 were separated by chromatography, and structurally characterized by elemental analysis, NMR spectroscopy (1H, 13C, 19F and 31p) and mass spectrometry. Possible reaction mechanisms are proposed. The major products 3 and 4 were tested for insecticidal activity. 3 gave 100% control of Musca domestica L. and Phaedon cochledriae Fab. at a dose of 20 μg/per insect.

  3. Morbidity in newborns exposed to organophosphorus pesticides

    Đorđević Momčilo

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available Introduction. Insecticides are toxines by which we destroy harmful insects. The most frequent insecticides which are used today are organophosphorus pesticides. This group of compounds make substances whose activity mechanism is based on the inhibition of acetylcho­linesterase in nerve synapsis, thus producing holynergic syndrome, resulting from the accumulation of acetylcholine which developed due to the absence of decomposition under the influence of cholinesterase. In the clinical picture of acute toxication by cholinesterase inhibitors there is a clear difference between muscarinic and nicotine effects. The basic aim of the study was to establish the effects of organophosphorus pesticides present in blood and breast milk of mothers on newborns morbidity. Material and methods. The study group consisted of 18 newborns whose mothers had isolated organophosphorus pesticides in their blood and breast­milk on the third day after delivery, and the control group consisted of 84 newborns whose mothers did not have isolated organophosphorus pesticides in their blood and breastmilk. Results. Morbidity is three times greater, often in combination with some disorders of the central nervous system, and the relative risk for its appearance is eight time greater in newborns exposed to organophosphorus pesticides. Disscusion. Disorders that appear in newborns exposed to pesticides are mutagenic, cancerogenic and neurotoxic and some agenses could disturb the immune system which is reflected in morbidity increase, primarly of the central nervous system. Conclusion. The presence of organophosphorus pesticides in blood and breast milk has negative effects on newborns. In addition to acetylcho­linesterase inhibition, organophosphorus pesticides react by means of other mechanisms as well.

  4. Organophosphorus insecticides chlorpyrifos and diazinon and oxidative stress in neuronal cells in a genetic model of glutathione deficiency

    Over the past several years evidence has been accumulating from in vivo animal studies, observations in humans, and in vitro studies, that organophosphorus (OP) insecticides may induce oxidative stress. Such effects may contribute to some of the toxic manifestations of OPs, particularly upon chronic or developmental exposures. The aim of this study was to investigate the role of oxidative stress in the neurotoxicity of two commonly used OPs, chlorpyrifos (CPF) and diazinon (DZ), their oxygen analogs (CPO and DZO), and their 'inactive' metabolites (TCP and IMP), in neuronal cells from a genetic model of glutathione deficiency. Cerebellar granule neurons from wild type mice (Gclm +/+) and mice lacking the modifier subunit of glutamate cysteine ligase (Gclm -/-), the first and limiting step in the synthesis of glutathione (GSH), were utilized. The latter display very low levels of GSH and are more susceptible to the toxicity of agents that increase oxidative stress. CPO and DZO were the most cytotoxic compounds, followed by CPF and DZ, while TCP and IMP displayed lower toxicity. Toxicity was significantly higher (10- to 25-fold) in neurons from Gclm (-/-) mice, and was antagonized by various antioxidants. Depletion of GSH from Gclm (+/+) neurons significantly increased their sensitivity to OP toxicity. OPs increased intracellular levels of reactive oxygen species and lipid peroxidation and in both cases the effects were greater in neurons from Gclm (-/-) mice. OPs did not alter intracellular levels of GSH, but significantly increased those of oxidized glutathione (GSSG). Cytotoxicity was not antagonized by cholinergic antagonists, but was decreased by the calcium chelator BAPTA-AM. These studies indicate that cytotoxicity of OPs involves generation of reactive oxygen species and is modulated by intracellular GSH, and suggest that it may involve disturbances in intracellular homeostasis of calcium

  5. Acute human self-poisoning with imidacloprid compound: a neonicotinoid insecticide.

    Fahim Mohamed

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: Deliberate self-poisoning with older pesticides such as organophosphorus compounds are commonly fatal and a serious public health problem in the developing world. The clinical consequences of self-poisoning with newer pesticides are not well described. Such information may help to improve clinical management and inform pesticide regulators of their relative toxicity. This study reports the clinical outcomes and toxicokinetics of the neonicotinoid insecticide imidacloprid following acute self-poisoning in humans. METHODOLOGY/PRINCIPAL FINDINGS: Demographic and clinical data were prospectively recorded in patients with imidacloprid exposure in three hospitals in Sri Lanka. Blood samples were collected when possible for quantification of imidacloprid concentration. There were 68 patients (61 self-ingestions and 7 dermal exposures with exposure to imidacloprid. Of the self-poisoning patients, the median time to presentation was 4 hours (IQR 2.3-6.0 and median amount ingested was 15 mL (IQR 10-50 mL. Most patients only developed mild symptoms such as nausea, vomiting, headache and diarrhoea. One patient developed respiratory failure needing mechanical ventilation while another was admitted to intensive care due to prolonged sedation. There were no deaths. Median admission imidacloprid concentration was 10.58 ng/L; IQR: 3.84-15.58 ng/L, Range: 0.02-51.25 ng/L. Changes in the concentration of imidacloprid in serial blood samples were consistent with prolonged absorption and/or saturable elimination. CONCLUSIONS: Imidacloprid generally demonstrates low human lethality even in large ingestions. Respiratory failure and reduced level of consciousness were the most serious complications, but these were uncommon. Substitution of imidacloprid for organophosphorus compounds in areas where the incidence of self-poisoning is high may help reduce deaths from self-poisoning.

  6. Compostos organofosforados pentavalentes: histórico, métodos sintéticos de preparação e aplicações como inseticidas e agentes antitumorais Organophosphorus pentavalent compounds: history, synthetic methods of preparation and application as insecticides and antitumor agents

    Viviane Martins Rebello dos Santos

    2007-02-01

    Full Text Available This paper is a review of the history, synthesis and application of organophosphorus compounds, especially of those of pentavalent phosphorus, such as phosphoramidates, phosphorothioates, phosphonates and phosphonic acids with insecticide and anticancer activities. The organophosphorus compounds with agrochemical applications show great structural variety, They include not only insecticides, but also fungicides, herbicides, and others. The large variety of commercially available organophosphorus pesticides is remarkable. Even more interesting is the high efficiency of some organophosphorus compounds as anticancer agents such as cyclophosphamide and its derivatives.

  7. Developmental exposure to terbutaline alters cell signaling in mature rat brain regions and augments the effects of subsequent neonatal exposure to the organophosphorus insecticide chlorpyrifos

    Exposure to apparently unrelated neurotoxicants can nevertheless converge on common neurodevelopmental events. We examined the long-term effects of developmental exposure of rats to terbutaline, a β-adrenoceptor agonist used to arrest preterm labor, and the organophosphorus insecticide chlorpyrifos (CPF) separately and together. Treatments mimicked the appropriate neurodevelopmental stages for human exposures: terbutaline on postnatal days (PN) 2-5 and CPF on PN11-14, with assessments conducted on PN45. Although neither treatment affected growth or viability, each elicited alterations in CNS cell signaling mediated by adenylyl cyclase (AC), a transduction pathway shared by numerous neuronal and hormonal signals. Terbutaline altered signaling in the brainstem and cerebellum, with gender differences particularly notable in the cerebellum (enhanced AC in males, suppressed in females). By itself, CPF exposure elicited deficits in AC signaling in the midbrain, brainstem, and striatum. However, sequential exposure to terbutaline followed by CPF produced larger alterations and involved a wider spectrum of brain regions than were obtained with either agent alone. In the cerebral cortex, adverse effects of the combined treatment intensified between PN45 and PN60, suggesting that exposures alter the long-term program for development of synaptic communication, leading to alterations in AC signaling that emerge even after adolescence. These findings indicate that terbutaline, like CPF, is a developmental neurotoxicant, and reinforce the idea that its use in preterm labor may create a subpopulation that is sensitized to long-term CNS effects of organophosphorus insecticides

  8. Pharmacotherapy to protect the neuromuscular junction after acute organophosphorus pesticide poisoning.

    Bird, Steven B; Krajacic, Predrag; Sawamoto, Keigo; Bunya, Naofumi; Loro, Emanuele; Khurana, Tejvir S

    2016-06-01

    Organophosphorus (OP) pesticide poisoning is a leading cause of morbidity and mortality in the developing world, affecting an estimated three million people annually. Much of the morbidity is directly related to muscle weakness, which develops 1-4 days after poisoning. This muscle weakness, termed the intermediate syndrome (IMS), leads to respiratory, bulbar, and proximal limb weakness and frequently necessitates the use of mechanical ventilation. While not entirely understood, the IMS is most likely due to persistently elevated acetylcholine (ACh), which activates nicotinic ACh receptors at the neuromuscular junction (NMJ). Thus, the NMJ is potentially a target-rich area for the development of new therapies for acute OP poisoning. In this manuscript, we discuss what is known about the IMS and studies investigating the use of nicotinic ACh receptor antagonists to prevent or mitigate NMJ dysfunction after acute OP poisoning. PMID:27258847

  9. Probabilistic assessment of the cumulative dietary acute exposure of the population of Denmark to organophosphorus and carbamate pesticides

    Jensen, Bodil Hamborg; Petersen, Annette; Christensen, Tue

    2009-01-01

    Organophosphorus and carbamate pesticides are acetylcholinesterase-inhibiting pesticides and as such have a common mode of action. We assessed the cumulative acute exposure of the population of Denmark to 25 organophosphorus and carbamate pesticide residues from the consumption of fruit, vegetables...... and cereals. The probabilistic approach was used in the assessments. Residue data obtained from the Danish monitoring programme carried out in the period 2004-2007, which included 6704 samples of fruit, vegetables and cereals, were used in the calculations. Food consumption data were obtained from...... the nationwide dietary survey conducted in 2000-2002. Contributions from 43 commodities were included in the calculations. We used the relative potency factor (RPF) approach to normalize the toxicity of the various organophosphorus and carbamate pesticides to the two index compounds chlorpyriphos...

  10. Acute Human Self-Poisoning with Imidacloprid Compound: A Neonicotinoid Insecticide

    Fahim Mohamed; Indika Gawarammana; Robertson, Thomas A.; Roberts, Michael S; Chathura Palangasinghe; Shukry Zawahir; Shaluka Jayamanne; Jaganathan Kandasamy; Michael Eddleston; Buckley, Nick A.; Dawson, Andrew H.; Roberts, Darren M.

    2009-01-01

    BACKGROUND: Deliberate self-poisoning with older pesticides such as organophosphorus compounds are commonly fatal and a serious public health problem in the developing world. The clinical consequences of self-poisoning with newer pesticides are not well described. Such information may help to improve clinical management and inform pesticide regulators of their relative toxicity. This study reports the clinical outcomes and toxicokinetics of the neonicotinoid insecticide imidacloprid following...

  11. Neurotoxic and teratogenic effects of an organophosphorus insecticide (phenyl phosphonothioic acid-O-ethyl -O-[4-nitrophenyl] ester) on mallard development

    Hoffman, D.J.; Sileo, L.

    1984-01-01

    Phenyl phosphonothioic acid-O-ethyl-O-[4-nitrophenyl] ester (EPN) is one of the 10 most frequently used organophosphorus insecticides and causes delayed neurotoxicity in adult chickens and mallards. Small amounts of organophosphorus insecticides placed on birds' eggs are embryotoxic and teratogenic. For this reason, the effects of topical egg application on EPN were examined on mallard (Anas platyrhynchos) embryo development. Mallard eggs were treated topically at 72 hr of incubation with 25 microliter of a nontoxic oil vehicle or with EPN in the vehicle at concentrations of approximately 12, 36, or 108 micrograms/g egg, equivalent to one, three, and nine times the agricultural level of application used to spray crops. Treatment with EPN resulted in 22 to 44% mortality over this dose range by 18 days of development compared with 4 and 5% for untreated and vehicle-treated controls. EPN impaired embryonic growth and was highly teratogenic: 37-42% of the surviving embryos at 18 days were abnormal with cervical and axial scoliosis as well as severe edema. Brain weights were significantly lower in EPN-treated groups at different stages of development including hatchlings. Brain neurotoxic esterase (NTE) activity was inhibited by as much as 91% at 11 days, 81% at 18 days, and 79% in hatchlings. Examination of brain NTE activity during the course of normal development revealed an increase of nearly sixfold from Day 11 through hatching. The most rapid increase occurred between Day 20 and hatching. Brain acetylcholinesterase (AChE) activity was inhibited by as much as 41% at 11 days, 47% at 18 days, and 20% in hatchlings. Plasma cholinesterase and alkaline phosphatase activities were inhibited and plasma aspartate aminotransferase activity was increased at one or more stages of development. Hatchlings from EPN-treated eggs were weaker and slower to right themselves. Histopathological examination did not reveal demyelination and axonopathy of the spinal cord that was

  12. Possible mechanisms for sensitivity to organophosphorus and carbamate insecticides in eastern screech-owls and American kestrels

    Vyas, N.B.; Thiele, L.A.; Garland, S.C.

    1998-01-01

    Effects of a single dietary exposure to fenthion and carbofuran on the survival, feeding behavior and brain ChE activity of eastern screech-owls, Otus asio and American kestrels, Falco sparverius, were evaluated. Birds were exposed to fenthion (23.6189.0 ppm) or carbofuran (31.7253.6 ppm) via meatballs. Carbofuran-exposed owls ate either = 80% of the meatball whereas all kestrels ate <= 10% of the meatball before exhibiting acute signs of toxicity. Fenthion-exposed owls and kestrels displayed a wide spectrum of meatball consumption (<10100%). Significant brain ChE inhibition was observed in dead and surviving kestrels exposed to fenthion and carbofuran and dead owls exposed to fenthion (P < 0.0001). Brain ChE activity of owls exposed to carbofuran that survived was not different from that of controls (P = 0.25). Data suggest: (1) slow feeding on a carbamate-contaminated item may provide limited protection from the toxicity of the chemical at certain rates of exposure; (2) the degree of ChE inhibition at neuromuscular junctions may be critical in determining the sensitivity of a species to a carbamate insecticide; (3) sensitivity may be a function of the ChE affinity for the carbamate inhibitor; and (4) the importance of neuromuscular junction ChE depression in determining the sensitivity of an animal may be species-specific.

  13. Cross-resistance to pyrethroid and organophosphorus insecticides in the southern house mosquito (Diptera:Culicidae) from Cuba.

    Bisset, J; Rodriguez, M; Soca, A; Pasteur, N; Raymond, M

    1997-03-01

    A sample of the southern house mosquito, Culex pipiens quinquefasciatus Say, from Cuba was subjected to lambda-cyhalothrin selection to evaluate the usefulness of this pyrethroid insecticide for mosquito control. High resistance developed after 6 generations of selection. Little or no cross-resistance was observed to other pyrethroids (deltamethrin and cypermethrin), to a carbamate (propoxur) and to some organophosphates (chlorpyrifos and pirimiphos-methyl), but high cross-resistance was found to malathion (organophosphate). Possible resistance mechanisms responsible for this phenomenon are discussed. PMID:9103771

  14. Relationship between Acute Organophosphorus Pesticide Poisoning and Damages Induced by Free Radicals

    2002-01-01

    Objective To study the relationship between abnormal reactions of free radicals in bodies of patients with acute organophosphorus pesticide poisoning (AOPP) and damages induced by free radicals. Methods 58 AOPP patients and 58 healthy adult volunteers (HAV) were enrolled in an independent samples control design, in which spectrophotometric methods were used to determine the concentrations of nitric oxide (NO) and lipoperoxides (LPO) in plasma, and LPO in erythrocytes, vitamin C (VC), vitamin E (VE) and b-carotene (b-CAR) in plasma as well as activities of superoxide dismutase (SOD), catalase (CAT), glutathione peroxidase (GSH-Px) and acetylcholinesterase (AChE) in erythrocytes. Results Compared with the average values of every biochemical parameter in the HAV group, the average values of LPO in plasma and in erythrocytes, and NO in plasma in the AOPP group were significantly increased (P=0.000001), while the average values of VC, VE, a-CAR in plasma as well as SOD, CAT, GSH-Px and AChE in erythrocytes in the AOPP group were significantly decreased (P=0.000001). The findings of Pearson product-moment correlation analysis between the value of AChE in erythrocytes and the values of above biochemical parameters for 58 AOPP patients showed that there was a significant linear negative correlation between AChE in erythrocytes and LPO, NO in plasma, and LPO in erythrocytes (P=0.000001~0.001319), while there was a significant linear positive correlation between AChE in erythrocytes and VC, VE, a-CAR in plasma as well as SOD, CAT, GSH-Px in erythrocytes (P=0.000013~0.000824). The results of discriminant analysis of above chemical parameters for 58 AOPP patients and 58 HAV suggested that the correct rates of discriminant analysis were increased to 100 % when the values of AChE and LPO in plasma and in erythrocytes, or AChE and others, were jointly used for the discriminant analysis. Conclusion The findings of the present study suggest that a series of free radical

  15. THE SPECTRUM OF INTERMEDIATE SYNDROME FOLLOWING ACUTE ORGANOPHOSPHORUS POISONING: A RETROSPECTIVE COHORT STUDY FROM A TEACHING HOSPITAL OF CHHATTISGARH

    Murthy

    2014-05-01

    Full Text Available Intermediate syndrome is a common complication found in patients with organo-phosphorus poisoning. The aim of this study was to find its incidence in this tribal dominated area of Chhattisgarh state. This is a retrospective study carried out at the ICU of a teaching Medical College hospital. In a period of one year, 720 cases of acute poisoning were admitted in the medical ICU ward, out of which, 682 cases (94.7% were of organo-phosphorus poisoning. 64 cases (9.3% had signs & symptoms of intermediate syndrome, which included inability to flex the neck, respiratory difficulty, convulsions and other features. All the 64 cases of intermediate syndrome required ventilatory support. Male: female ratio was 8:10. The commonest compound implicated in poisoning was Fenthion. Mortality was 18%. Patients with respiratory muscle weakness & proximal muscle paresis were the definitive predictors for the development of intermediate syndrome. Early recognition & prompt treatment has often proved successful, but, in mixed poisoning, recovery is variable and unpredictable.

  16. Alterations in the Gill Filaments and Secondary Lamellae of Cirrhinus mrigala Exposed to “Nuvan,” an Organophosphorus Insecticide

    Nidhi Srivastava

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available The alterations in the epithelium of the gill filaments and the secondary lamellae of the gills of Cirrhinus mrigala, on exposure to “Nuvan,” have been explored in the present investigation using light and scanning electron microscopy. The fishes were exposed to two sublethal concentrations, 5 mg/L and 15 mg/L, of “Nuvan.” The changes are more rapid and intensive at higher concentration than at lower concentration, suggesting that the changes are dose dependent. Increase in thickness of epithelium covering secondary lamellae, merger of epithelium of gill filaments and adjacent secondary lamellae, and aneurysm is considered to reduce efficiency of gills for gaseous exchange. A significant decline in the density and area of the mucous goblet cells in the epithelium of the gill filaments and the secondary lamellae of C. mrigala exposed to “Nuvan” could be correlated with excessive loss of the secretory contents of these cells, uncompensated by their production in sufficient quantities. The histopathological changes, in general, take longer time to recover in the fishes exposed to 15 mg/L than those exposed to 5 mg/L indicating that the changes in fishes exposed to higher concentration are more severe than those at lower concentration of the insecticide.

  17. Development of a non-invasive biomonitoring approach to determine exposure to the organophosphorus insecticide chlorpyrifos in rat saliva

    Non-invasive biomonitoring approaches are being developed using reliable portable analytical systems to quantify dosimetry utilizing readily obtainable body fluids, such as saliva. In the current study, rats were given single oral gavage doses (1, 10, or 50 mg/kg) of the insecticide chlorpyrifos (CPF). Saliva and blood were then collected from groups of animals (4/time-point) at 3, 6, and 12 h post-dosing, and were analyzed for the CPF metabolite trichloropyridinol (TCP). Trichloropyridinol was detected in both blood and saliva at all doses and the TCP concentration in blood exceeded saliva, although the kinetics in blood and saliva were comparable. A physiologically based pharmacokinetic and pharmacodynamic (PBPK/PD) model for CPF incorporated a compartment model to describe the time-course of TCP in blood and saliva. The model adequately simulated the experimental results over the dose ranges evaluated. A rapid and sensitive sequential injection (SI) electrochemical immunoassay was developed to monitor TCP, and the reported detection limit for TCP was 6 ng/L (in water). Computer model simulation in the range of the Allowable Daily Intake (ADI) or Reference Dose (RfD) for CPF (0.01-0.003 mg/kg/day) suggests that the electrochemical immunoassay has adequate sensitivity to detect and quantify TCP in saliva at these low exposure levels. However, to validate this approach, further studies are needed to more fully understand the pharmacokinetics of CPF and TCP excretion in saliva. These initial findings suggest that the utilization of saliva as a biomonitoring matrix, coupled to real-time quantitation and PBPK/PD modeling represents a novel approach with broad application for evaluating both occupational and environmental exposures to CPF

  18. An amperometric biosensor based on acetylcholinesterase immobilized onto iron oxide nanoparticles/multi-walled carbon nanotubes modified gold electrode for measurement of organophosphorus insecticides

    Graphical abstract: The stepwise amperometric biosensor fabrication process and immobilized acetylcholinesterase inhibition in pesticide solution. Highlights: · Constructed a novel composite material using Fe3O4NP and c-MWCNT at Au electrode for electrocatalysis. · The properties of nanoparticles modified electrodes were studied by SEM, FTIR, CVs and EIS. · The biosensor exhibited good sensitivity (0.475 mA μM-1) · The half life of electrode was 2 months. · The sensor was suitable for trace detection of OP pesticide residues in milk and water. - Abstract: An acetylcholinesterase (AChE) purified from maize seedlings was immobilized covalently onto iron oxide nanoparticles (Fe3O4NP) and carboxylated multi walled carbon nanotubes (c-MWCNT) modified Au electrode. An organophosphorus (OP) biosensor was fabricated using this AChE/Fe3O4/c-MWCNT/Au electrode as a working electrode, Ag/AgCl as standard and Pt wire as an auxiliary electrode connected through a potentiostat. The biosensor was based on inhibition of AChE by OP compounds/insecticides. The properties of nanoparticles modified electrodes were studied by scanning electron microscopy (SEM), Fourier transform infrared (FTIR), cyclic voltammograms (CVs) and electrochemical impedance spectroscopy (EIS). The synergistic action of Fe3O4NP and c-MWCNT showed excellent electrocatalytic activity at low potential (+0.4 V). The optimum working conditions for the sensor were pH 7.5, 35 deg. C, 600 μM substrate concentration and 10 min for inhibition by pesticide. Under optimum conditions, the inhibition rates of OP pesticides were proportional to their concentrations in the range of 0.1-40 nM, 0.1-50 nM, 1-50 nM and 10-100 nM for malathion, chlorpyrifos, monocrotophos and endosulfan respectively. The detection limits were 0.1 nM for malathion and chlorpyrifos, 1 nM for monocrotophos and 10 nM for endosulfan. The biosensor exhibited good sensitivity (0.475 mA μM-1), reusability (more than 50 times) and stability (2

  19. An amperometric biosensor based on acetylcholinesterase immobilized onto iron oxide nanoparticles/multi-walled carbon nanotubes modified gold electrode for measurement of organophosphorus insecticides

    Chauhan, Nidhi [Department of Biochemistry, M.D. University, Rohtak 124001, Haryana (India); Pundir, Chandra Shekhar, E-mail: pundircs@rediffmail.com [Department of Biochemistry, M.D. University, Rohtak 124001, Haryana (India)

    2011-09-02

    Graphical abstract: The stepwise amperometric biosensor fabrication process and immobilized acetylcholinesterase inhibition in pesticide solution. Highlights: {center_dot} Constructed a novel composite material using Fe{sub 3}O{sub 4}NP and c-MWCNT at Au electrode for electrocatalysis. {center_dot} The properties of nanoparticles modified electrodes were studied by SEM, FTIR, CVs and EIS. {center_dot} The biosensor exhibited good sensitivity (0.475 mA {mu}M{sup -1}) {center_dot} The half life of electrode was 2 months. {center_dot} The sensor was suitable for trace detection of OP pesticide residues in milk and water. - Abstract: An acetylcholinesterase (AChE) purified from maize seedlings was immobilized covalently onto iron oxide nanoparticles (Fe{sub 3}O{sub 4}NP) and carboxylated multi walled carbon nanotubes (c-MWCNT) modified Au electrode. An organophosphorus (OP) biosensor was fabricated using this AChE/Fe{sub 3}O{sub 4}/c-MWCNT/Au electrode as a working electrode, Ag/AgCl as standard and Pt wire as an auxiliary electrode connected through a potentiostat. The biosensor was based on inhibition of AChE by OP compounds/insecticides. The properties of nanoparticles modified electrodes were studied by scanning electron microscopy (SEM), Fourier transform infrared (FTIR), cyclic voltammograms (CVs) and electrochemical impedance spectroscopy (EIS). The synergistic action of Fe{sub 3}O{sub 4}NP and c-MWCNT showed excellent electrocatalytic activity at low potential (+0.4 V). The optimum working conditions for the sensor were pH 7.5, 35 deg. C, 600 {mu}M substrate concentration and 10 min for inhibition by pesticide. Under optimum conditions, the inhibition rates of OP pesticides were proportional to their concentrations in the range of 0.1-40 nM, 0.1-50 nM, 1-50 nM and 10-100 nM for malathion, chlorpyrifos, monocrotophos and endosulfan respectively. The detection limits were 0.1 nM for malathion and chlorpyrifos, 1 nM for monocrotophos and 10 nM for endosulfan. The

  20. Gastric Lavage in Acute Organophosphorus Pesticide poisoning (GLAOP – a randomised controlled trial of multiple vs. single gastric lavage in unselected acute organophosphorus pesticide poisoning

    Cao YuPing

    2006-10-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Organophosphorus (OP pesticide poisoning is the most common form of pesticide poisoning in many Asian countries. Guidelines in western countries for management of poisoning indicate that gastric lavage should be performed only if two criteria are met: within one hour of poison ingestion and substantial ingested amount. But the evidence on which these guidelines are based is from medicine overdoses in developed countries and may be irrelevant to OP poisoning in Asia. Chinese clinical experience suggests that OP remains in the stomach for several hours or even days after ingestion. Thus, there may be reasons for doing single or multiple gastric lavages for OP poisoning. There have been no randomised controlled trials (RCTs to assess this practice of multiple lavages. Since it is currently standard therapy in China, we cannot perform a RCT of no lavage vs. a single lavage vs. multiple lavages. We will compare a single gastric lavage with three gastric lavages as the first stage to assess the role of gastric lavage in OP poisoning. Methods/Design We have designed an RCT assessing the effectiveness of multiple gastric lavages in adult OP self-poisoning patients admitted to three Chinese hospitals within 12 hrs of ingestion. Patients will be randomised to standard treatment plus either a single gastric lavage on admission or three gastric lavages at four hour intervals. The primary outcome is in-hospital mortality. Analysis will be on an intention-to-treat basis. On the basis of the historical incidence of OP at the study sites, we expect to enroll 908 patients over three years. This projected sample size provides sufficient power to evaluate the death rate; and a variety of other exposure and outcome variables, including particular OPs and ingestion time. Changes of OP level will be analyzed in order to provide some toxic kinetic data. Discussion the GLAOP study is a novel, prospective cohort study that will explore to the toxic

  1. 急性有机磷农药中毒患者的急救护理%Emergency nursing care of patients with acute organophosphorus pesticide poisoning

    马鑫

    2014-01-01

    目的:探讨急性有机磷农药中毒患者的急救和护理措施。方法:我院收治35例有机磷农药中毒患者,采取急救措施和护理措施,实施治疗。结果:35例患者在经过精心的救护后,治愈34例,死亡1例。结论:对急性有机磷农药中毒患者,采取一定的急救措施,并给予相应的护理干预,具有较好治疗效果,值得推广。%Objective:To investigate the first aid and nursing measuresof acute organophosphorus pesticide poisoning patients. Methods Patients in our hospital 35 cases of organophosphorus pesticide poisoning, take emergency measures and nursing measures, the implementation of treatment. Results:35 patients after carefultreatment, 34 cases were cured, 1 cases died. Conclusion:Patients with acute organophosphorus pesticide poisoning, take someemergency measures, and give the corresponding nursing intervention, has better curative effect, is worth promoting.

  2. 急性有机磷农药中毒50例治疗分析%Clinical Analysis of 50 Cases of Acute Organophosphorus Pesticide Poisoning

    高喜生

    2014-01-01

    Objective To analyze the clinical characteristics of patients with acute organophosphorus pesticide poisoning,and to give timely and effective treatment measures.Methods In our hospital in 2006~2008 in two years of 50 patients treated in patients with organophosphorus pesticide for analysis.Results To take timely and ef ective after checking measures,50 cases were completely cured,no excessive toxic reaction of atropine and rebound phenomenon of organophosphorus pesticide poisoning.Conclusion Acute organophosphorus pesticide poisoning is the clinical common emergency medicine,early and timely give just the right amount of drug detoxification treatment,treatment is the key to success.%目的探析急性有机磷农药中毒患者的临床表现特点,并给予及时有效的救治措施。方法对我院2006年~2008年2年来收治的50例服入有机磷农药的患者进行分析。结果采取及时有效求治措施后,50例患者均完全治愈,无1例出现阿托品过量的中毒反应及有机磷农药中毒反跳现象。结论急性有机磷农药中毒是临床内科常见的急诊,进行早期及时、给予适量的解毒药物治疗措施,是治疗成功的关键。

  3. Use of butterflies as nontarget insect test species and the acute toxicity and hazard of mosquito control insecticides.

    Hoang, Tham C; Pryor, Rachel L; Rand, Gary M; Frakes, Robert A

    2011-04-01

    Honeybees are the standard insect test species used for toxicity testing of pesticides on nontarget insects for the U.S. Environmental Protection Agency (U.S. EPA) under the Federal Insecticide Fungicide and Rodenticide Act (FIFRA). Butterflies are another important insect order and a valued ecological resource in pollination. The current study conducted acute toxicity tests with naled, permethrin, and dichlorvos on fifth larval instar (caterpillars) and adults of different native Florida, USA, butterfly species to determine median lethal doses (24-h LD50), because limited acute toxicity data are available with this major insect group. Thorax- and wing-only applications of each insecticide were conducted. Based on LD50s, thorax and wing application exposures were acutely toxic to both caterpillars and adults. Permethrin was the most acutely toxic insecticide after thorax exposure to fifth instars and adult butterflies. However, no generalization on acute toxicity (sensitivity) of the insecticides could be concluded based on exposures to fifth instars versus adult butterflies or on thorax versus wing exposures of adult butterflies. A comparison of LD50s of the butterflies from this study (caterpillars and adults) with honeybee LD50s for the adult mosquito insecticides on a µg/organism or µg/g basis indicates that several butterfly species are more sensitive to these insecticides than are honeybees. A comparison of species sensitivity distributions for all three insecticides shows that permethrin had the lowest 10th percentile. Using a hazard quotient approach indicates that both permethrin and naled applications in the field may present potential acute hazards to butterflies, whereas no acute hazard of dichlorvos is apparent in butterflies. Butterflies should be considered as potential test organisms when nontarget insect testing of pesticides is suggested under FIFRA. PMID:21309017

  4. STUDY ON 52 PATIENTS WITH ACUTE SEVERE ORGANOPHOSPHORUS PESTICIDE POISONING%急性重度有机磷中毒52例临床研究

    孟瑞; 卢敏

    2011-01-01

    Objective To evaluate the clinical application of hemoperfusion combined with hemodialysis and continuous micropump infusion of atropine in the treatment of acute severe organophosphorus pesticide poisoning( ASOPP ). Methods A total of 104 patients with ASOPP were retrospectively analysed, all patients were treated with gastric lavage and so on, the treated group adopted hemoperfusion combined with hemodialysis and continuous micropump infusion of atropine in addition to basic therapy. The clinical data was compared. Results The treated group was superior to the control group in time from coma to consciousness, total amount of atropine and recovery time of cholinesterase etc. The recovery rate was 84.6%. Conclusion It is effective to apply hemoperfusion combined with hemodialysis and continuous micropump iffusion of atropine in rescuing the acute severe organophosphorus pesticide poisoning.%目的 评价血液灌流联合血液透析、阿托品微量泵持续泵入治疗急性重度有机磷中毒(acute severe organophosphorus pesticide poisoning,ASOPP)的临床应用价值.方法 对104例ASOPP患者进行回顾性分析,所有患者均给予洗胃等治疗,治疗组在对照组基础上加用血液灌流联合血液透析、阿托品微量泵治疗,比较2组各项临床资料.结果 治疗组昏迷至清醒时间、阿托品总量、胆碱酯酶恢复时间等明显优于对照组,治愈率为84.6%.结论 应用血液灌流联合血液透析、阿托品微量泵治疗ASOPP效果较好.

  5. Morbidity in newborns exposed to organophosphorus pesticides

    Đorđević Momčilo; Sazdanović Predrag; Đorđević Gordana; Jovanović Božidar

    2010-01-01

    Introduction. Insecticides are toxines by which we destroy harmful insects. The most frequent insecticides which are used today are organophosphorus pesticides. This group of compounds make substances whose activity mechanism is based on the inhibition of acetylcho­linesterase in nerve synapsis, thus producing holynergic syndrome, resulting from the accumulation of acetylcholine which developed due to the absence of decomposition under the influence of cholinesterase. In the clinical pi...

  6. Organophosphorus pesticide poisoning : cases and developments

    Aardema, H.; Ligtenberg, J. J. M.; Peters-Polman, O. M.; Tulleken, J. E.; Zijlstra, J. G.; Meertens, John H. J. M.

    2008-01-01

    Self-poisoning with organophosphate pesticides is a major health problem world-wide. Through the inhibition of acetylcholinesterase, organophosphorus poisoning is characterised by the clinical picture of acute cholinergic crisis. Other manifestations are the intermediate neurotoxic syndrome and dela

  7. Development and validation of a multiresidue method for the simultaneous determination of organophosphorus insecticides and their toxic metabolites in sugarcane juice and refined sugar by gas chromatography with flame photometric detection.

    Ramasubramanian, Thirumalaiandi; Paramasivam, Mariappan

    2016-06-01

    A multiresidue method has been developed and validated for the simultaneous determination of organophosphorus insecticides and their toxic metabolites in sugarcane juice and refined sugar by gas chromatography with flame photometric detection. Limits of quantification of the method varied between 0.007 and 0.01 μg/g. Ethyl acetate based extraction followed by dispersive solid-phase extraction cleanup with primary secondary amine yielded internationally acceptable recoveries of acephate, chlorpyrifos, dichlorvos, monocrotophos, malathion, malaoxon, phorate, phorate-sulfoxide, phorate-oxon, phorate-sulfone, and quinalphos from selected matrices. The recoveries of target analytes from cane juice were 75.55 ± 0.5-102.57 ± 4.2, 77.45 ± 4.7-103.33 ± 3.3, and 80.55 ± 6.6-105.82 ± 9.8% at 0.01, 0.02, and 0.1 μg/g levels of fortification, respectively. The recoveries from cane sugar were 73.24 ± 3.5-104.47 ± 1.9, 75.23 ± 1.5-116.10 ± 3.7, and 70.75 ± 5.7-110.15 ± 2.7%, respectively at 0.01, 0.02, and 0.1 μg/g levels of fortification. Matrix effect and measurement uncertainty were within the permissible limit (less than 20%) as prescribed for pesticide residue analysis. PMID:27061678

  8. Treatment experience of acute organophosphorus pesticide poisoning%急性有机磷农药中毒的救治体会

    胡相东

    2014-01-01

    目的:探讨急性有机磷农药中毒的救治体会。方法:2010年3月-2013年10月收治急性有机磷农药中毒患者78例,作为研究对象,回顾性分析所有患者的临床资料。结果:78例患者中,75例患者在经过洗胃、服用阿托品、输血治疗、其他症状治疗等系列治疗后均痊愈出院,有效率96.1%;有3例患者因口服有机磷农药中毒且治疗不及时,抢救无效死亡,死亡率3.9%。结论:及时给予患者彻底的洗胃、正确使用阿托品是及时抢救急性有机磷农药中毒的关键,同时有针对性治疗患者的其他症状可以显著提高治疗效果。%Objective:To explore the treatment experience of acute organophosphorus pesticide poisoning.Methods:78 cases with acute organophosphorus pesticide poisoning were selected from March 2010 to October 2013.They were as the study objects.The clinical data of all patients were retrospectively analyzed.Results:In 78 cases,75 cases were recovered discharge after a series of treatment method,such as gastric lavage,taking atropine,blood transfusion treatment and other symptoms treatment.The effective rate was 96.1%.3 cases with oral excessive pesticide poisoning and delayed treatment were rescue invalid death.The mortality was 3.9%.Conclusion:The timely and thorough gastric lavage for patients and the correct use of atropine are the key to timely rescue acute organophosphorus pesticide poisoning.And targeted therapy in patients with other symptoms can significantly improve the treatment effect.

  9. Acute effects of a sarin-like organophosphorus agent, bis(isopropyl methyl)phosphonate, on cardiovascular parameters in anaesthetized, artificially ventilated rats

    The organophosphorus compound sarin irreversibly inhibits acetylcholinesterase. We examined the acute cardiovascular effects of a sarin-like organophosphorus agent, bis(isopropyl methyl)phosphonate (BIMP), in anaesthetized, artificially ventilated rats. Intravenous administration of BIMP (0.8 mg/kg; the LD50 value) induced a long-lasting increase in blood pressure and tended to increase heart rate. In rats pretreated with the non-selective muscarinic-receptor antagonist atropine, BIMP significantly increased both heart rate and blood pressure. In atropine-treated rats, hexamethonium (antagonist of ganglionic nicotinic receptors) greatly attenuated the BIMP-induced increase in blood pressure without changing the BIMP-induced increase in heart rate. In rats treated with atropine plus hexamethonium, intravenous phentolamine (non-selective α-adrenergic receptor antagonist) plus propranolol (non-selective β-adrenergic receptor antagonist) completely blocked the BIMP-induced increases in blood pressure and heart rate. In atropine-treated rats, the reversible acetylcholinesterase inhibitor neostigmine (1 mg/kg) induced a transient increase in blood pressure, but had no effect on heart rate. These results suggest that in anaesthetized rats, BIMP induces powerful stimulation of sympathetic as well as parasympathetic nerves and thereby modulates heart rate and blood pressure. They may also indicate that an action independent of acetylcholinesterase inhibition contributes to the acute cardiovascular responses induced by BIMP. - Highlights: • A sarin-like agent BIMP markedly increased blood pressure in anaesthetized rats. • Muscarinic receptor blockade enhanced the BIMP-induced increase in blood pressure. • Ganglionic nicotinic receptor blockade attenuated the BIMP-induced response. • Blockade of α- as well as β-receptors attenuated the BIMP-induced response

  10. Acute effects of a sarin-like organophosphorus agent, bis(isopropyl methyl)phosphonate, on cardiovascular parameters in anaesthetized, artificially ventilated rats

    Watanabe, Yoshimasa [Department of Pharmacology, Graduate School of Medical Sciences, Nagoya City University, Nagoya (Japan); Itoh, Takeo, E-mail: titoh@med.nagoya-cu.ac.jp [Department of Pharmacology, Graduate School of Medical Sciences, Nagoya City University, Nagoya (Japan); Shiraishi, Hiroaki [Department of Forensic Medicine, Institute of Biomedical and Health Sciences, Hiroshima University, Hiroshima (Japan); Maeno, Yoshitaka [Department of Forensic Medical Science, Graduate School of Medical Sciences, Nagoya City University, Nagoya (Japan); Arima, Yosuke; Torikoshi, Aiko; Namera, Akira [Department of Forensic Medicine, Institute of Biomedical and Health Sciences, Hiroshima University, Hiroshima (Japan); Makita, Ryosuke [Department of Nursing, Faculty of Health Sciences, Hiroshima Cosmopolitan University, Hiroshima (Japan); Yoshizumi, Masao [Department of Cardiovascular Physiology and Medicine, Institute of Biomedical and Health Sciences, Hiroshima University, Hiroshima (Japan); Nagao, Masataka [Department of Forensic Medicine, Institute of Biomedical and Health Sciences, Hiroshima University, Hiroshima (Japan)

    2013-10-01

    The organophosphorus compound sarin irreversibly inhibits acetylcholinesterase. We examined the acute cardiovascular effects of a sarin-like organophosphorus agent, bis(isopropyl methyl)phosphonate (BIMP), in anaesthetized, artificially ventilated rats. Intravenous administration of BIMP (0.8 mg/kg; the LD50 value) induced a long-lasting increase in blood pressure and tended to increase heart rate. In rats pretreated with the non-selective muscarinic-receptor antagonist atropine, BIMP significantly increased both heart rate and blood pressure. In atropine-treated rats, hexamethonium (antagonist of ganglionic nicotinic receptors) greatly attenuated the BIMP-induced increase in blood pressure without changing the BIMP-induced increase in heart rate. In rats treated with atropine plus hexamethonium, intravenous phentolamine (non-selective α-adrenergic receptor antagonist) plus propranolol (non-selective β-adrenergic receptor antagonist) completely blocked the BIMP-induced increases in blood pressure and heart rate. In atropine-treated rats, the reversible acetylcholinesterase inhibitor neostigmine (1 mg/kg) induced a transient increase in blood pressure, but had no effect on heart rate. These results suggest that in anaesthetized rats, BIMP induces powerful stimulation of sympathetic as well as parasympathetic nerves and thereby modulates heart rate and blood pressure. They may also indicate that an action independent of acetylcholinesterase inhibition contributes to the acute cardiovascular responses induced by BIMP. - Highlights: • A sarin-like agent BIMP markedly increased blood pressure in anaesthetized rats. • Muscarinic receptor blockade enhanced the BIMP-induced increase in blood pressure. • Ganglionic nicotinic receptor blockade attenuated the BIMP-induced response. • Blockade of α- as well as β-receptors attenuated the BIMP-induced response.

  11. ACUTE BEHAVIORAL CHANGES IN THE GUPPY (Poecilia reticulata) EXPOSED TO TEMEPHOS

    SELVİ, Mahmut; SARIKAYA, Rabia; Erkoç, Figen

    2010-01-01

    ABSTRACT Temephos  is an organophosphorus  insecticide used to control mosquito, midge and black fly larvae. This  study was aimed to determine the acute toxicity of temephos on behavior of the guppy (Poecilia reticulata). Guppy fish (Poecilia reticulata) were selected for the bioassay experiments. Behavioral changes at each temephos concentration were recorded. The experiments were repeated 3 times. The 96 h acute toxicity range of temephos to adult male guppies was within 10 ...

  12. Diagnosis and treatment experience of 58 cases of acute organophosphorus pesticide poisoning%急性有机磷农药中毒58例诊治体会

    林国群

    2016-01-01

    目的:研究探讨急性有机磷农药中毒。方法:收治急性有机磷农药中毒58例,对其进行检查、急性中毒程度分级和诊疗。结果:58例中痊愈52例,迟发性多发性神经病4例,死亡2例,中间综合征5例均痊愈。结论:急性有机磷农药中毒确诊后,应立即予以积极救治,加强护理。%Objective:To study acute organophosphorus pesticide poisoning.Method:58 patients with acute organophosphorus pesticide poisoning were checked,classiifed of acute poisoning,diagnosed and treated.Result:In 58 cases,52 cases were cured;4 cases became delayed polyneuropathy;2 cases died.5 cases of intermediate syndrome were all recovered.Conclusion:After conifrming the diagnosis as acute organophosphorus pesticide poisoning,it should be actively treated and strengthened nursing.

  13. Joint acute toxicity of the herbicide butachlor and three insecticides to the terrestrial earthworm, Eisenia fetida.

    Wang, Yanhua; Cang, Tao; Yu, Ruixian; Wu, Shenggan; Liu, Xinju; Chen, Chen; Wang, Qiang; Cai, Leiming

    2016-06-01

    The herbicide butachlor and three insecticides phoxim, chlorpyrifos, and lambda-cyhalotrhin are widely used pesticides with different modes of action. As most previous laboratory bioassays for these pesticides have been conducted solely based on acute tests with a single compound, only limited information is available on the possible combined toxicity of these common chemicals to soil organisms. In this study, we evaluated their mixture toxicity on the terrestrial earthworm, Eisenia fetida, with binary, ternary, and quaternary mixtures. Two different types of bioassays were employed in our work, including a contact filter paper toxicity test and a soil toxicity test. Mixture toxicity effects were assessed using the additive index method. For all of the tested binary mixtures (butachlor-phoxim, butachlor-chlorpyrifos, and butachlor-lambda-cyhalothrin), significant synergistic interactions were observed after 14 days in the soil toxicity assay. However, greater additive toxicity was found after 48 h in the contact toxicity bioassay. Most of the ternary and quaternary mixtures exhibited significant synergistic effects on the worms in both bioassay systems. Our findings would be helpful in assessing the ecological risk of these pesticide mixtures to soil invertebrates. The observed synergistic interactions underline the necessity to review soil quality guidelines, which are likely underestimating the adverse combined effects of these compounds. PMID:26946506

  14. DOSE-RELATED GENE EXPRESSION CHANGES IN FOREBRAIN FOLLOWING ACUTE, LOW-LEVEL CHLORPYRIFOS EXPOSURE IN NEONATAL RATS

    Ray, Anamika; Liu, Jing; Ayoubi, Patricia; Pope, Carey

    2010-01-01

    Chlorpyrifos (CPF) is a widely used organophosphorus insecticide (OP) and putative developmental neurotoxicant in humans. The acute toxicity of CPF is elicited by acetylcholinesterase (AChE) inhibition. We characterized dose-related (0.1, 0.5, 1 and 2 mg/kg) gene expression profiles and changes in cell signaling pathways 24 hr following acute CPF exposure in seven day-old rats. Microarray experiments indicated that approximately 9% of the 44,000 genes were differentially expressed following e...

  15. Evaluation of organophosphorus and synthetic pyrethroid insecticides against six vector mosquitoe species Avaliação de inseticidas organofosforados e piretroides sintéticos contra seis mosquitos vetores

    Domingo Montada Dorta

    1993-12-01

    Full Text Available Three organophosphorus compounds- malathion, folithion and temephos- and two synthetic pyrethroids- alphamethrin and deltamethrin- were used for monitoring the susceptibility status of larvae and adults of six vector mosquitoe species: Culex quinquefasciatus (Filariasis and Aedes albopictus (Dengue (both laboratory and field strains; laboratory strains of Aedes aegypti (Dengue, Anopheles slephensi and Anopheles culicifacies (Malaria, and Culex tritaeniorhynchus (Japanese encephalitis in India. From the LC50 values obtained for these insecticides, it was found that all mosquito species including the field strains of Cx. quinquefasciatus and Ae. albopictus were highly susceptible Except for Cx. quinquefasciatus (field strain against malathion, 100% mortality was observed at the discriminating dosages recommended by World Health Organization. The residual effect of alphamethrin, deltamethrin, malathion and folithion at 25 mg (ai/m² on different surfaces against six species of vector mosquitoes showed that alphamethrin was the most effective on all four treated surfaces (mud, plywood, cement and thatch. Nevertheless, residual efficacy lasted longer on thatch than on the other surfaces. Therefore, synthetic pyrethroids such as alphamethrin can be effectively employed in integrated vector control operations.Três compostos organo-fosforados - malation, folition e temefos -e dois piretroides sintéticos - alfametrina e deltametrina - foram usados para controlar o estado da susceptibilidade das larvas e adultos de seis mosquitos vetores na Índia. Foram utilizadas cepas de laboratório e área de Culex quinquefasciatus (filariasis e Aedes albopictus (Dengue e cepas de laboratório de Aedes aegypti (Dengue, Anopheles stephensi e Anopheles culicifacies (Malária e Culex tritaenorhynchus (encefalite japonesa. Os valores de C1(50 obtidos para esses inseticidas mostram que todas as espécies incluindo as cepas de área foram muito susceptíveis. Nos

  16. Toxic action of organophosphorus compounds and esterase inhibition in houseflies

    Asperen, K. van

    1960-01-01

    The paper deals with investigations on the inhibition in vivo of the cholin-esterase and the aliesterase in houseflies poisoned by treatment with organophosphorus insecticides. The kinetics of the inhibition of esterases by DDVP, paraoxon and diazoxon in the presence and in the absence of substrate

  17. Clinical Observation of Penehyclidine Hydrochloride in Treatment of Acute Severe Organophosphorus Pesticide Poisoning%长托宁治疗重度急性有机磷农药中毒的临床观察

    田昭涛

    2014-01-01

    目的::观察重度急性有机磷农药中毒(Severe acute organophosphorus pesticide poisoning,SAOPP)患者的急性症状以及分析其治疗措施。方法:采用血液灌流联合长托宁治疗观察组的患者,运用阿托品治疗对照组的患者,当全血CHE值大于65%时,即可停药。结果:两组的治愈时间、治愈率以及呼吸衰竭例数均存在显著性差异,P<0.05,观察组的治疗效果优于对照组。结论:SAOPP患者病情危急,应根据病情进展采用适当的方法进行治疗。%Objective: Observed severe acute organophosphorus pesticide poisoning (Severe acute organophosphorus pesticide poisoning, SAOPP) in patients with acute symptoms and analyze their treatment.Methods:Patients with hemoperfusion therapy combined Changtuoning observation group, the use of atropine treatment of patients in the control group, when whole blood CHE values greater than 65%, can be discontinued.Results:Two sets of cure time, the cure rate and the number of cases of respiratory failure, there were significant differences, P<0.05, treatment observation group than the control group.Conclusion:TSAOPP patients in critical condition, treatment should be based on appropriate methods of disease progression.

  18. 急性有机磷中毒患者66例的急救护理%Emergency nursing care of 66 cases of patients with acute organophosphorus poisoning

    陈昌敏

    2016-01-01

    Objective:To explore the nursing measures and effect of acute organic phosphorus poisoning.Methods:66 patients with acute organophosphorus poisoning were selected.The clinical data were retrospectively analyzed.Results:The average time of the patients with atropinization was (3.31±1.43) hours.62 cases had successful treatment;4 cases died;the success rate was 96.8%. Conclusion:Timely and effective treatment and nursing for patients with acute organophosphorus poisoning can improve the cure rate and promote the rehabilitation of patients.%目的:探讨急性有机磷中毒的护理措施及效果。方法:收治急性有机磷中毒患者66例,回顾性分析其临床资料。结果:患者达阿托品化时间平均(3.31±1.43)h。成功救治62例,死亡4例,抢救成功率96.8%。结论:对急性有机磷中毒实施患者实施及时、有效的治疗和护理可以提高治愈率,促进患者康复。

  19. Organophosphorus agent induced delayed neuropathy: a case report

    Harshit Acharya

    2016-02-01

    Full Text Available A 40-year old male, was presented with complaint of difficulty in walking with inability to flex foot and toes in bilateral feet ( and ldquo;foot drop and rdquo;, which was acute at the onset and gradually progressive since the past 7 days. The patient's wife and their 2 children had similar complaint with the same period of onset. At home, his family used cottonseed oil as cooking oil with wheat grain mixed with castor oil. On neurological examination, he was found to have lower motor neuron weakness with spasticity. After ruling out other common causes of polyneuropathy and lower motor weakness; due to high suspicion of poisoning by food adulterant, RBC acetyl cholinesterase (AChE and plasma cholinesterase (BuChE were tested at National Institute of Occupational Health (NIOH, which came low and confirmed diagnosis of Organophosphorus (OP poisoning. Nerve conduction study was done; which showed decreased amplitude of conduction in bilateral peroneal and right tibial nerve along with decreased mean nerve conduction velocity of bilateral median nerve. Thus patient was diagnosed with organophosphorus agent induced delayed axonal type of polyneuropathy and physiotherapy was started as treatment. OP compounds are a diverse group of chemicals which are principally used as insecticides in agriculture. Following organophosphate poisoning (OPP, 3 well-defined neurological syndromes are recognised: cholinergic crisis, intermediate syndrome and delayed polyneuropathy. Some organophosphates, particularly triorthocresyl phosphate (TOCP and tricresyl phosphate (TCP, produce delayed neuropathy. On ingestion, they do not produce significant cholinergic crisis, but 7 to 20 days later it leads to a pure motor axonal neuropathy with wrist and foot drop. The mechanism may involve inhibition of neuropathy target esterase (NTE, which is found in the brain, peripheral nerves, and lymphocytes. This form of toxicity has been seen occasionally in small epidemics in

  20. High lethality and minimal variation after acute self-poisoning with carbamate insecticides in Sri Lanka – implications for global suicide prevention

    Lamb, Thomas; Selvarajah, Liza R.; Mohamed, Fahim; Jayamanne, Shaluka; Gawarammana, Indika; Mostafa, Ahmed; Buckley, Nicholas A.; Roberts, Michael S.; Eddleston, Michael

    2016-01-01

    Abstract Background: Highly hazardous organophosphorus (OP) insecticides are responsible for most pesticide poisoning deaths. As they are removed from agricultural practice, they are often replaced by carbamate insecticides of perceived lower toxicity. However, relatively little is known about poisoning with these insecticides. Methods: We prospectively studied 1288 patients self-poisoned with carbamate insecticides admitted to six Sri Lankan hospitals. Clinical outcomes were recorded for each patient and plasma carbamate concentration measured in a sample to confirm the carbamate ingested. Findings: Patients had ingested 3% carbofuran powder (719), carbosulfan EC25 liquid (25% w/v, 389), or fenobucarb EC50 liquid (50% w/v, 127) formulations, carbamate insecticides of WHO Toxicity Classes Ib, II, and II, respectively. Intubation and ventilation was required for 183 (14.2%) patients while 71 (5.5%) died. Compared with carbofuran, poisoning with carbosulfan or fenobucarb was associated with significantly higher risk of death [carbofuran 2.2%; carbosulfan 11.1%, OR 5.5 (95% CI 3.0–9.8); fenobucarb 6.3%, OR 3.0 (1.2–7.1)] and intubation [carbofuran 6.1%; carbosulfan 27.0%, OR 5.7 (3.9–8.3); fenobucarb 18.9%, OR 3.6 (2.1–6.1)]. The clinical presentation and cause of death did not differ markedly between carbamates. Median time to death was similar: carbofuran 42.3 h (IQR 5.5–67.3), carbosulfan 21.3 h (11.5–71.3), and fenobucarb 25.3 h (17.3–72.1) (p = 0.99); no patients showed delayed onset of toxicity akin to the intermediate syndrome seen after OP insecticide poisoning. For survivors, median duration of intubation was 67.8 h (IQR 27.5–118.8) with no difference in duration between carbamates. Reduced GCS at presentation was associated with worse outcome although some patients with carbosulfan died after presentation with normal GCS. Conclusions: We did not find carbamate insecticide self-poisoning to vary markedly according to the carbamate

  1. Noninvasive Biomonitoring Approaches to Determine Dosimetry and Risk Following Acute Chemical Exposure: Analysis of Lead or Organophosphate Insecticide in Saliva

    There is a need to develop approaches for assessing risk associated with acute exposures to a broad-range of chemical agents and to rapidly determine the potential implications to human health. Non-invasive biomonitoring approaches are being developed using reliable portable analytical systems to quantitate dosimetry utilizing readily obtainable body fluids, such as saliva. Saliva has been used to evaluate a broad range of biomarkers, drugs, and environmental contaminants including heavy metals and pesticides. To advance the application of non-invasive biomonitoring a microfluidic/ electrochemical device has also been developed for the analysis of lead (Pb), using square wave anodic stripping voltammetry. The system demonstrates a linear response over a broad concentration range (1 2000 ppb) and is capable of quantitating saliva Pb in rats orally administered acute doses of Pb-acetate. Appropriate pharmacokinetic analyses have been used to quantitate systemic dosimetry based on determination of saliva Pb concentrations. In addition, saliva has recently been used to quantitate dosimetry following exposure to the organophosphate insecticide chlorpyrifos in a rodent model system by measuring the major metabolite, trichloropyridinol, and saliva cholinesterase inhibition following acute exposures. These results suggest that technology developed for non-invasive biomonitoring can provide a sensitive, and portable analytical tool capable of assessing exposure and risk in real-time. By coupling these non-invasive technologies with pharmacokinetic modeling it is feasible to rapidly quantitate acute exposure to a broad range of chemical agents. In summary, it is envisioned that once fully developed, these monitoring and modeling approaches will be useful for accessing acute exposure and health risk

  2. Effectiveness of donepezil, rivastigmine, and (+/-)huperzine A in counteracting the acute toxicity of organophosphorus nerve agents: comparison with galantamine.

    Aracava, Yasco; Pereira, Edna F R; Akkerman, Miriam; Adler, Michael; Albuquerque, Edson X

    2009-12-01

    Galantamine, a centrally acting cholinesterase (ChE) inhibitor and a nicotinic allosteric potentiating ligand used to treat Alzheimer's disease, is an effective and safe antidote against poisoning with nerve agents, including soman. Here, the effectiveness of galantamine was compared with that of the centrally active ChE inhibitors donepezil, rivastigmine, and (+/-)huperzine A as a pre- and/or post-treatment to counteract the acute toxicity of soman. In the first set of experiments, male prepubertal guinea pigs were treated intramuscularly with one of the test drugs and 30 min later challenged with 1.5 x LD(50) soman (42 microg/kg s.c.). All animals that were pretreated with galantamine (6-8 mg/kg), 3 mg/kg donepezil, 6 mg/kg rivastigmine, or 0.3 mg/kg (+/-)huperzine A survived the soman challenge, provided that they were also post-treated with atropine (10 mg/kg i.m.). However, only galantamine was well tolerated. In subsequent experiments, the effectiveness of specific treatment regimens using 8 mg/kg galantamine, 3 mg/kg donepezil, 6 mg/kg rivastigmine, or 0.3 mg/kg (+/-)huperzine A was compared in guinea pigs challenged with soman. In the absence of atropine, only galantamine worked as an effective and safe pretreatment in animals challenged with 1.0 x LD(50) soman. Galantamine was also the only drug to afford significant protection when given to guinea pigs after 1.0 x LD(50) soman. Finally, all test drugs except galantamine reduced the survival of the animals when administered 1 or 3 h after the challenge with 0.6 or 0.7 x LD(50) soman. Thus, galantamine emerges as a superior antidotal therapy against the toxicity of soman. PMID:19741148

  3. Nano-Intercalated Organophosphorus-Hydrolyzing Enzymes in Organophosphorus Antagonism

    Petrikovics Ilona; Wales, Melinda E.; Budai Marianna; Yu, Jorn C. C.; Szilasi Mária

    2011-01-01

    A dendritic poly(2-alkyloxazoline)-based polymer was studied as a new carrier system for the organophosphorus-hydrolyzing recombinant enzymes, organophosphorus acid anhydrolase and organophosphorus hydrolase. Paraoxon (PO) and diisopropylfluorophosphate (DFP) were used as model organophosphorus compounds. Changes in plasma cholinesterase activity were monitored. The cholinesterase activity was proportional to the concentrations of DFP or PO. Plasma cholinesterase activity was higher in animal...

  4. The experience of emergency treatment on acute severe organophosphorus pesticide poisoning%急性重度口服有机磷农药中毒的急救与体会

    张海燕

    2014-01-01

    目的:总结急性重度口服有机磷农药中毒的急救经验。方法:2011年2月-2013年12月救治急性重度口服有机磷农药中毒患者30例,对其实施救治措施。结果:本组30例患者经过救治,意识转清醒时间(1.83±1.2)天,胆碱酯酶活性恢复时间(3.2±1.6)天,住院时间(7.3±2.6)天。临床疗效:治愈29例,治愈率96.7%,死亡1例,死亡率3.3%。结论:清洗被污染的皮肤,彻底洗胃,眼污染时用微温水、2%碳酸氢钠溶液清洗,导泻,阿托品的应用以及早期足量使用氯磷定等,是急救急性重度口服有机磷农药中毒的重要措施。%Objective:To summary the experience of emergency treatment on acute severe organophosphorus pesticide poisoning. Methods:30 cases with acute severe organophosphorus pesticide poisoning were selected from February 2011 to December 2013. They were treated with first aid measures.Results:After treatment,the average time of 30 cases from consciousness turned to clear was(1.83 ± 1.2)days.Cholinesterase recovery time was(3.2 ± 1.6)days.Hospitalization time was(7.3 ± 2.6)days.Clinical curative effect:29 cases were cured,and the cure rate was 96.7%.1 cases died,and the mortality was 3.3%.Conclusion: There are important measures for emergency treatment on acute severe organophosphorus pesticide poisoning,including:washing the contaminated skin,complete gastric lavage,If eye pollution cleaning its with lukewarm water and 2% sodium bicarbonate solution,catharsis, atropine application,early and adequate use of pralidoxime chloride poisoning.

  5. Acute contact toxicity test of insecticides (Cipermetrina 25, Lorsban 48E, Thionex 35) on honeybees in the southwestern zone of Uruguay.

    Carrasco-Letelier, Leonidas; Mendoza-Spina, Yamandú; Branchiccela, María Belén

    2012-07-01

    Glyphosate-resistant soybean cultivation is expanding rapidly in Uruguay, with its land area having increased by 95 times during the past 10 years. Because of the region's Neotropical conditions, insecticide use is required to ensure adequate soybean productivity. However, in areas shared by soybean crops and beekeepers - such as the southwestern zone of Uruguay (SWZU) - the use of insecticides can increase the risks of honeybee death and honey contamination. Uruguayan commercial and legal guidelines set out practices and field doses designed to prevent acute intoxication with insecticides. However, honeybees in the SWZU are predominantly a polyhybrid subspecies different from that used to set international reference values, and hence they may have a different acute toxicity response, thus rendering such precautions ineffective. The aim of this work was to assess the acute toxicity response of polyhybrid honeybees in the SWZU to cypermethrin (commercial formulation: Cipermetrina 25 Agrin®), chlorpyrifos (commercial formulation: Lorsban 48E®), and endosulfan (commercial formulation: Thionex 35®). Acute toxicity bioassays were conducted to determine the median lethal dose (LD(50)) of each insecticide for the honeybees. The results indicate that, compared with EU reference values, SWZU honeybees have a higher toxicological sensitivity to chlorpyrifos and endosulfan, and a lower toxicological sensitivity to cypermethrin, based on the commercial formulations tested. However, when these results were adjusted according to their field dose equivalents, only chlorpyrifos emerged as a potential problem for beekeeping, as the maximum recommended field dose of Lorsban 48E® for soybean crops in Uruguay is 23 times the corresponding LD(50) for honeybees in the SWZU. PMID:22440636

  6. 急性重度有机磷农药中毒患者死亡危险因素分析%Analysis on risk factors of mortality in patients with acute severe organophosphorus pesticide poisoning

    孙玮艳

    2015-01-01

    Objective To explore the risk factors of mortality in patients with acute severe organophosphorus pesticide poisoning. Methods Forty-four patients with acute severe organophosphorus pesticide poison were retrospectively analyzed.Various risk factors were statistically evaluated and mortality of patients was compared between groups.Results Hospital mortality in 44 patients with acute severe organophosphorus pesticide poisoning was 22.7%.The mortality was significantly different between APACHE Ⅱ score ≥20 group and APACHE Ⅱ score<20 group (P <0.01),between age ≥ 60 group and age< 60 group (P <0.01),between hypotensive group and non-hypotensive group (P < 0.05 ),between hypoxemia group and non-hypoxemia group (P < 0.05 ),between metabolic acidosis group and non-metabolic acidosis group (P < 0.05 ).Conclusion APACHE Ⅱ score,age, hypotension, hypoxemia, metabolic acidosis may be the risk factors of mortality in patients with acute organophosphorus pesticide poisoning,and the items can be used to assess the severity of disease and mortality risk in clinic.%目的:探讨急性重度有机磷农药中毒死亡的危险因素。方法回顾性分析急性重度有机磷农药中毒44例患者的临床资料,对各项危险因素进行统计分析,比较患者的病死率。结果44例急性重度有机磷农药中毒患者住院期间病死率22.7%(10/44),其中急性生理学及慢性健康状况评分(APACHE)≥20分和<20分、年龄≥60岁和<60岁、合并低血压和未合并低血压、合并低氧血症和未合并低氧血症、合并代谢性酸中毒和未合并代谢性酸中毒的患者病死率比较,差异均有统计学意义(P <0.05或<0.01)。结论 APACHEⅡ分值、高龄、低血压、低氧血症、代谢性酸中毒可能是急性重度有机磷农药中毒患者死亡的危险因素,在临床中可以用于评估患者病情严重程度与死亡风险。

  7. 急性有机磷农药中毒22例死亡原因分析%Causal analysis of Death in 22 cases with acute organophosphorus pesticids poisoning

    王志祥; 马福来

    2002-01-01

    @@ 有机磷农药是目前应用最为广泛的农业杀虫剂,有机磷农药急性中毒(acute organophosphorus pesticides poisoning,AOPP)居基层医院内科急诊中毒病例之首,病死率在10%以上[1].我院1996年1月~2000年12月共收治有机磷农药急性中毒154例,死亡22例,病死率为28.3%.本文为了提高抢救成功率,降低病死率,分析如下.

  8. The organophosphorus extractants

    This work consists in a bibliographic review dealing with phosphorus and organophosphorus compounds chemistry and especially with the main extracting agents used in uranium ore treatment. In this context, a special interest is devoted to TBP, D2EHPA and TOPO. The content of this work is based on a large bibliography including cca. One hundred references related to many aspects concerning as well the nomenclature, the classification and the chemical structures of the organophosphorus compounds as synthesis methods, purification and analysis of the main extracting agents used in uranium extraction

  9. [Today's threat of use of organophosphorus compounds].

    Sokołowski, Rafał; Płusa, Tadeusz

    2015-09-01

    Organophosphates are stable cholinesterases inhibitors (AChE). Inhibition of AChE activity leads to the accumulation of large amounts of acetylcholine and hyperactivity of the cholinergic system by stimulating acetylcholine receptors - muscarinic and nicotinic. This group included tabun, sarin, soman and VX gases. Exposure to gaseous form causes symptoms within a few seconds of exposure. This depends on the gas concentration in the atmosphere. The most sensitive organ is the eyes and the respiratory system. Severe poisoning are characterized by the immediate loss of consciousness with convulsions. Therapeutic management of acute poisoning organophosphorus compounds boils down to treating symptomatic and supportive vital functions. Monitoring of cardiovascular, respiratory and renal failure in intensive care gives only guarantee the effective treatment of poisoning. Properties toxic organophosphorus compounds also are of interest to terrorist groups. PMID:26449583

  10. Highly Strained Organophosphorus Compounds

    Slootweg, J.C.

    2005-01-01

    In our research on small, strained organophosphorus ring systems we became interested in the synthesis and applications of species that are even more strained than the parent phosphirane, by introducing an exocyclic double bond (methylenephosphirane), and by cyclopropyl spirofusion to the edge (e.g

  11. RELATIONSHIP OF NEUROPATHY TARGET ESTERASE INHIBITION TO NEUROPATHOLOGY AND ATAXIA IN HENS GIVEN ORGANOPHOSPHORUS ESTERS

    Adult WhiteLeghorn hens were acutely exposed to 3 dosages of the following organophosphorus esters: mipafox, tri-ortho-tolyl phosphate (TOTP), penyl saligenin phosphate, diisppropylophosphoro-fluoridate (DFP), malathion and dichlorvos. europathy target esterase (NTE) activity was...

  12. IN VITRO SENSITIVITY OF CHOLINESTERASES AND [3H]OXOTREMORINE-M BINDING IN HEART AND BRAIN OF ADULT AND AGING RATS TO ORGANOPHOSPHORUS ANTICHOLINESTERASES

    Mirajkar, Nikita; Pope, Carey N.

    2008-01-01

    Organophosphorus (OP) insecticides elicit toxicity via acetylcholinesterase inhibition, allowing acetylcholine accumulation and excessive stimulation of cholinergic receptors. Some OP insecticides bind to additional macromolecules including butyrylcholinesterase and cholinergic receptors. While neurotoxicity from OP anticholinesterases has been extensively studied, effects on cardiac function have received less attention. We compared the in vitro sensitivity of acetylcholinesterase, butyrylch...

  13. 急性重度有机磷农药中毒合并呼吸、心跳停止8例临床救治%Clinical treatment of 8 cases of acute severe organophosphorus pesticide poisoning with respiratory,cardiac arrest

    韩海涛

    2014-01-01

    目的:探讨急性重度有机磷农药中毒并呼吸、心跳停止的临床救治。方法:收治8例急性重度有机磷农药中毒并呼吸、心跳停止的患者,对其临床资料进行回顾性分析。结果:患者均抢救成功。结论:给予急性重度有机磷农药中毒并呼吸、心跳停止的患者积极有效的治疗,可促进其康复。%Objective:To explore the clinical treatment of acute severe organophosphorus pesticide poisoning with respiratory, cardiac arrest.Methods:8 cases with acute severe organophosphorus pesticide poisoning with respiratory,cardiac arrest were selected.The clinical data were retrospectively analyzed.Results:All the patients were successfully treated.Conclusion:The positive and effective treatment for patients with acute severe organophosphorus pesticide poisoning with respiratory,cardiac arrest,can promote the rehabilitation.

  14. Rapid biodegradation of organophosphorus pesticides by Stenotrophomonas sp. G1

    Highlights: • Stenotrophomonas sp. G1 was isolated from chlorpyrifos contaminated sludge. • Strain G1 is closest to Stenotrophomonas acidaminiphila. • Strain G1 can efficiently degrade 8 organophosphorus pesticides (OPs). • Intracellular methyl parathion hydrolase is responsible for the OP degradation. • Three factors were orthogonally optimized for degradation of methyl parathion. - Abstract: Organophosphorus insecticides have been widely used, which are highly poisonous and cause serious concerns over food safety and environmental pollution. A bacterial strain being capable of degrading O,O-dialkyl phosphorothioate and O,O-dialkyl phosphate insecticides, designated as G1, was isolated from sludge collected at the drain outlet of a chlorpyrifos manufacture plant. Physiological and biochemical characteristics and 16S rDNA gene sequence analysis suggested that strain G1 belongs to the genus Stenotrophomonas. At an initial concentration of 50 mg/L, strain G1 degraded 100% of methyl parathion, methyl paraoxon, diazinon, and phoxim, 95% of parathion, 63% of chlorpyrifos, 38% of profenofos, and 34% of triazophos in 24 h. Orthogonal experiments showed that the optimum conditions were an inoculum volume of 20% (v/v), a substrate concentration of 50 mg/L, and an incubation temperature in 40 °C. p-Nitrophenol was detected as the metabolite of methyl parathion, for which intracellular methyl parathion hydrolase was responsible. Strain G1 can efficiently degrade eight organophosphorus pesticides (OPs) and is a very excellent candidate for applications in OP pollution remediation

  15. Rapid biodegradation of organophosphorus pesticides by Stenotrophomonas sp. G1

    Deng, Shuyan; Chen, Yao [Key Laboratory of Agri-food Safety of Anhui Province, Lab of Quality & Safety and Risk Assessment for Agro-products on Storage and Preservation (Hefei), Ministry of Agriculture, School of Resource and Environment, Anhui Agricultural University, Hefei 230036 (China); Wang, Daosheng [School of Life Science, Anhui Agricultural University, Hefei 230036 (China); Shi, Taozhong; Wu, Xiangwei; Ma, Xin; Li, Xiangqiong [Key Laboratory of Agri-food Safety of Anhui Province, Lab of Quality & Safety and Risk Assessment for Agro-products on Storage and Preservation (Hefei), Ministry of Agriculture, School of Resource and Environment, Anhui Agricultural University, Hefei 230036 (China); Hua, Rimao, E-mail: rimaohua@ahau.edu.cn [Key Laboratory of Agri-food Safety of Anhui Province, Lab of Quality & Safety and Risk Assessment for Agro-products on Storage and Preservation (Hefei), Ministry of Agriculture, School of Resource and Environment, Anhui Agricultural University, Hefei 230036 (China); Tang, Xinyun [School of Life Science, Anhui Agricultural University, Hefei 230036 (China); Li, Qing X. [Department of Molecular Biosciences and Bioengineering, University of Hawaii at Manoa, 1955 East–West Road, Honolulu, HI 957822 (United States)

    2015-10-30

    Highlights: • Stenotrophomonas sp. G1 was isolated from chlorpyrifos contaminated sludge. • Strain G1 is closest to Stenotrophomonas acidaminiphila. • Strain G1 can efficiently degrade 8 organophosphorus pesticides (OPs). • Intracellular methyl parathion hydrolase is responsible for the OP degradation. • Three factors were orthogonally optimized for degradation of methyl parathion. - Abstract: Organophosphorus insecticides have been widely used, which are highly poisonous and cause serious concerns over food safety and environmental pollution. A bacterial strain being capable of degrading O,O-dialkyl phosphorothioate and O,O-dialkyl phosphate insecticides, designated as G1, was isolated from sludge collected at the drain outlet of a chlorpyrifos manufacture plant. Physiological and biochemical characteristics and 16S rDNA gene sequence analysis suggested that strain G1 belongs to the genus Stenotrophomonas. At an initial concentration of 50 mg/L, strain G1 degraded 100% of methyl parathion, methyl paraoxon, diazinon, and phoxim, 95% of parathion, 63% of chlorpyrifos, 38% of profenofos, and 34% of triazophos in 24 h. Orthogonal experiments showed that the optimum conditions were an inoculum volume of 20% (v/v), a substrate concentration of 50 mg/L, and an incubation temperature in 40 °C. p-Nitrophenol was detected as the metabolite of methyl parathion, for which intracellular methyl parathion hydrolase was responsible. Strain G1 can efficiently degrade eight organophosphorus pesticides (OPs) and is a very excellent candidate for applications in OP pollution remediation.

  16. Oxidative stress and cytotoxic potential of anticholinesterase insecticide, malathion in reproductive toxicology of male adolescent mice after acute exposure

    Selmi Slimen

    2014-07-01

    Conclusion: The importance to carry out in vitro reproductive toxicology assays lies on the need of knowing the alterations these insecticides may cause at cellular level, since they are endocrine disruptors that interfere with reproductive functions.

  17. 急性有机磷农药中毒的院前救治护理%Acute organophosphorus pesticide poisoning for treatment of pre-hospital care

    吴丽莹; 黄品超; 罗明春

    2012-01-01

      Objective Discussion of severe organophosphorus pesticide poisoning in patients with pre-hospital emergency treatment and effective care, to improve the success rate. Methods Retrospective analysis the situation of patients with 25 cases of pre-hospital case management and care in our hospital from May 2010 to December 2011 .Results Getting the victims of organophosphorus intoxication out of the toxic environment in time , patients with early gastric lavage nearby, matching doctors with the application of drug detoxification and nursing, attention to the close observation of the course of delivery , strengthening the psychological care pre-hospitaly is an important guarantee for success.Conclusions Effective pre-hospital treatment and care can improve the survival rate.%  目的探讨急性有机磷农药中毒患者的院前有效救治护理,以提高抢救成功率。方法回顾总结我院2010年5月至2011年12月25例患者的院前救治及护理情况。结果对有机磷农药中毒患者及时脱离中毒环境,早期就近洗胃,配合医生做好解毒药物的应用及护理,运送过程注意密切观察病情,加强心理护理是院前救治成功的重要保证。结论有效的院前救治及护理能提高抢救成功率。

  18. Insecticide tolerance of Culex nigripalpus in Florida.

    Boike, A H; Rathburn, C B; Floore, T G; Rodriguez, H M; Coughlin, J S

    1989-12-01

    Larval susceptibility tests of Culex nigripalpus populations from various areas of Florida have shown resistance to several organophosphorus insecticides since 1984. Although the degree of resistance is low (2 to 7 times), it can be termed tolerance and appears to be the greatest for fenthion, followed by temephos, naled and malathion. It is suggested that pesticide runoff from lawns, golf courses and agricultural and urban areas may play a role in developing resistance in Florida mosquito populations. PMID:2614401

  19. Organophosphorus Compounds in Organic Electronics.

    Shameem, Muhammad Anwar; Orthaber, Andreas

    2016-07-25

    This Minireview describes recent advances of organophosphorus compounds as opto-electronic materials in the field of organic electronics. The progress of (hetero-) phospholes, unsaturated phosphanes, and trivalent and pentavalent phosphanes since 2010 is covered. The described applications of organophosphorus materials range from single molecule sensors, field effect transistors, organic light emitting diodes, to polymeric materials for organic photovoltaic applications. PMID:27276233

  20. The insecticide resistance in stripped stem borer, Chilo suppressalis (Walker)

    2001-01-01

    @@ The stripped stem borer (SSB), Chilo suppressalis (Walker) is one of the major insect pests of rice in China. Chemical control has been a common practice in SSB management since 1950s. Insecticides used included BHC before 1983;organophosphorus insecticides (methyl-parathion, trichophon, methamidophos, and monocrotophos), and chlordimeform in mid-1970s-1980s; Shachongshuang (dimehypo) and Shachongdan (monousltap) since early 1980s. In recent years, SSB population and its damage to rice increased rapidly and failures on control has been reported. To find out the cause of failure and to put forward the suitable control methods, we studied the resistance of SSB to major insecticides used in China.

  1. Wildlife mortality attributed to organophosphorus and carbamate pesticides

    Glaser, L.C.

    1995-01-01

    Organophosphorus (OP) and carbamate pesticides are used widely in agricultural and residential applications as insecticides, herbicides, fungicities. and rodenticides. This family of chemicals replaced the organochlorine pesticides banned for use in the United States in the 1970's. Unlike organochlorine pesticides, which are long-lived in the environment and cause biological damage when they accumulate in an organism's system over time. OP and carbamate pesticides are short-lived in the environment and fast-acting on their 'target pest.' Direct mortality of wildlife from organochlorine pesticides was uncommon (Hayes and Wayland 1975): however, mortality is the primary documented effect on wildlife from OP and carbamate pesticides (Grue et al. 1983). Organophosphorus and carbamate pesticide toxicity is not specific to a target 'pest,' and lethal effects are seen in nontarget organisms: birds appear to be the most sensitive class of animals affected by these pesticides. Organophosphorus and carbamate pesticides primainly affect the nervous system by inhibiting acetylcholinesterase (AChE) enzyme activity. This enzyme's main function in the nervous system is to break down the neurotransmitter acetylcholine. When AChE is altered by OP and carbamate pesticides, it cannot perform this breakdown function and acetylcholine accumulates. Acetylcholine accumulation increases nerve impulse transmission and leads to nerve exhaustion and. ultimately, failure of the nervous system. When the nervous system fails, muscles do not receive the electrical input they require to move. The respiratory muscles are the most critical muscle group affected, and respiratory paralysis is often the immediate cause of death.

  2. 阿托品救治有机磷中毒不同给药途径的疗效比较%Study on Atropine Administration Methods in Rescuing Patients with Acute Organophosphorus Pesticide Poisoning

    黄新桥; 谭琪敏; 钟房友; 钟丽娴

    2013-01-01

    Objective To explore the effects of different atropine medications in remedy of severely acute organophosphorus pesticide. Methods A retrospective study were performed.This study was carried out in 75 patients with acute organophosphorus pesticide poisoning. The patients were divided into three groups according atropine medications: Group A(25 cases), were treated with intravenous injection of atropine and artificial; Group B(25 cases)directly with micro pump delivery, Group C(25 cases)achieved using micro-pump after atropine administration patients are atropine artificial intravenous injection, the patient achieved using micro-pump after atropine administration; Compared the efficacy and complications among the three groups. Results There is significant difference between minim continuous pump after atropine administration and interval injecting or minim continuous pump. As a result, the patients in Group C were more effective and fewer complications than that in Group A and C. Conclusion Using micro-pump after atropine administration artificial intravenous injection of atropine was the better effect, it has proved to be a fine medication.%目的:分析基层医院救治有机磷中毒患者时,阿托品不同给药方式的疗效差异,为探索其最佳给药方法提供依据。方法回顾分析75例急性有机磷农药中毒患者的临床资料,25例进行人工间歇静脉推注阿托品法(A 组),25例采用微量泵持续静脉输注阿托品法(B 组,25例先间歇静脉推注阿托品,达阿托品化后再用微量泵泵入阿托品(C 组),分析比较三组阿托品化时间、用量、住院时间、疗效以及不良反应和并发症。结果 C 组阿托品化时间、用量、住院时间、阿托品过量、不足中毒、用量、尿潴留和多器官功能损害等明显降低而治愈率显著提高(P <0.05)。结论采用阿托品人工静脉推注,待患者阿托品化再予以微量泵给药,不仅起效

  3. Study of Serum Amylase and Serum Cholinesterase in Organophosphorus Poisoning

    Sharan Badiger

    2016-04-01

    Full Text Available Background: Poisoning due to organophosphorus compounds is most commonly seen. Earlier plasma cholinesterase level was used to assess the severity of poisoning. Presently serum amylase is being recommended as a better indicator of severity. Aims and Objectives: To study plasma cholinesterase and serum amylase levels in acute organophosphorus and to correlate serum amylase levels with clinical severity and outcome. Material and Methods: A total of 80 patients in the study admitted to a tertiary care centre within 24 hours with a history of organophosphorus poisoning were included in study. Estimation of plasma cholinesterase and serum rd amylase was done at the time of admission, and on 3 th day and on 5 day. Results: Occurrence of organophosphorus poisoning was more common among age group 21-30 years and among males (57.5%. They were 25 (31.2% farmers, 23 (28.8% st u d e n ts, a n d 2 2 ( 2 7 . 5% h o u s ewi v e s. Monocrotophos (45.0% was commonly used compound. Mean value of plasma cholinesterase and serum amylase at admission are 3693 U/L, and 185.4 U/L. There was significant inhibition of plasma cholinesterase and elevation of serum amylase at th admission with return to normal values on 5 day. Conclusion: Plasma cholinesterase inhibition 200 U/L has been associated with poor prognosis and proneness to respiratory failure.

  4. Effectiveness of Donepezil, Rivastigmine, and (±)Huperzine A in Counteracting the Acute Toxicity of Organophosphorus Nerve Agents: Comparison with Galantamine

    Aracava, Yasco; Pereira, Edna F. R.; Akkerman, Miriam; Adler, Michael; Albuquerque, Edson X.

    2009-01-01

    Galantamine, a centrally acting cholinesterase (ChE) inhibitor and a nicotinic allosteric potentiating ligand used to treat Alzheimer's disease, is an effective and safe antidote against poisoning with nerve agents, including soman. Here, the effectiveness of galantamine was compared with that of the centrally active ChE inhibitors donepezil, rivastigmine, and (±)huperzine A as a pre- and/or post-treatment to counteract the acute toxicity of soman. In the first set of experiments, male prepub...

  5. Investigation of acute toxicity of chlorpyrifos-methyl on Nile tilapia (Oreochromis niloticus L.) larvae.

    Gül, Ali

    2005-04-01

    Chlorpyrifos-methyl, a wide-spectrum organophosphorus insecticide and potential toxic pollutant contaminating aquatic ecosystems, was investigated for acute toxicity. Larvae of the freshwater fish Nile tilapia (Oreochromis niloticus L.) were selected for the bioassay experiments. The experiments were repeated three times and the 96 h LC50 was determined for the larvae. The static test method for assessing acute toxicity was used. Water temperature was maintained at 25+/-1 degrees C. In addition, behavioral changes at each chlorpyrifos-methyl concentration were observed for the individual fish. Data obtained from the chlorpyrifos-methyl acute toxicity tests were evaluated using Finney's probit analysis statistical method. The 96 h LC50 value for Nile tilapia larvae was calculated to be 1.57 mg/l. PMID:15722087

  6. Mixed function oxidases and insecticide resistance in medically important insects

    A.A. Enayati; Ladonni, H

    2006-01-01

    MFOs are a large diverse superfamily of enzymes found in all insect tissues. They are involved in the metabolism of xenobiotics (e.g. drugs, pesticides and plant toxins) and endogenous compounds (e.g. ecdysteroids and juvenile hormones). They are also involved in bioactivation of phosphorothioate compounds such as organophosphorus insecticides. They have very diverse activities like hydroxylation, epoxidation, N-, O-or S-dealkylation, deamination, sulfoxidation, desulfuration and oxidative de...

  7. 高压氧对动物有机磷中毒后神经损害恢复的实验研究%Effect of hyperbaric oxygen on nerve impairment recovery of animals after organophosphorus: an experimental study

    林忠豪; 张鸣春; 肖鹏

    2002-01-01

    Objective To investigate the effect of hyperbarci oxygen(HBO) on recovery of nerves injury in rats suffered from acute organophosphorus poisoning. Method We established organophosphorus poisoning models and observed effect of HBO on recovery of injure nerves. Results Compared with control group, cerebrospinal fluid induced peak potential and incubation period in HBO group were significantly recovered(P<0.05).HBO could accelerated repair of injured nerves. Conclusion HBO could relieve injury of nerves during treatment of organophosphorus poisoning. ``

  8. Methomyl-Induced Severe Acute Pancreatitis: Possible Etiological Association

    Ioannides M

    2005-03-01

    Full Text Available CONTEXT: N-methyl carbamate insecticides are widely used in homes, gardens and agriculture. They share the capacity to inhibit cholinesterase enzymes with organophosphates and therefore share similar symptomatology during acute and chronic exposures. One of the serious effects of organophosphate and carbamate intoxication is the development of acute pancreatitis and subsequent intrapancreatic fluid formation. CASE REPORT: An 18-year old Caucasian man was admitted to our Intensive Care Unit with cholinergic crisis symptomatology, after the ingestion of an unknown amount of a carbamate insecticide (methomyl. Pseudocholinesterase levels were 2 kU/L on the day of admission (reference range: 5.4-13.2 kU/L. Two days after admission, an abdominal CT scan revealed blurring of the peripancreatic fat planes, inflammation and swelling of the pancreas, and a substantial amount of ascitic fluid in the left anterior pararenal space and pelvis. Paracentesis and analysis of the ascitic fluid demonstrated findings diagnostic of pancreatic ascites. There had been no other evident predisposing factors for acute pancreatitis, other than methomyl intoxication. Eleven days after admission, pseudocholinesterase levels returned to normal, while a new abdominal CT scan revealed the formation of intrapancreatic fluid collection. The patient was discharged in good physical condition two weeks after admission. A follow up abdominal CT scan performed one month later showed a significant reduction in the size of the intrapancreatic fluid. DISCUSSION: Acute pancreatitis is not uncommon after organophosphate intoxication and carbamates share the same risk as organophosphorus pesticides. The development of acute pancreatitis and subsequent intrapancreatic fluid collection after methomyl intoxication has not previously been reported. This is the first case reported of acute pancreatitis and pancreatic ascite formation after anticholinesterase insecticide ingestion.

  9. 急性有机磷农药中毒致呼吸衰竭的影响因素分析%Study on correlated clinical factors of respiratory failure induced by acute organophosphorus pesticide poisoning

    陶贤洲; 王佐

    2014-01-01

    目的:分析急性有机磷农药中毒( AOPP)致呼吸衰竭的相关临床因素,为制订有效的预防及干预措施提供科学依据。方法回顾分析94例重性AOPP患者临床资料,根据血气分析结果将患者分为呼吸衰竭组(41例)和非呼吸衰竭组(53例),观察患者的APACHEⅡ评分、胆碱酯酶、血糖、血清淀粉酶、肝肾功能及心肌酶谱等指标。结果胆碱酯酶水平呼吸衰竭组患者低于非呼吸衰竭组患者(P<0.05);APACHEⅡ评分、血清淀粉酶、肝肾功能及心肌酶谱等,呼吸衰竭组患者高于非呼吸衰竭组患者(P<0.05);Logistic回归分析显示APACHEⅡ评分、胆碱酯酶及血清淀粉酶与呼吸衰竭相关。结论 APACHEⅡ评分、胆碱酯酶及血清淀粉酶水平可作为AOPP引起呼吸衰竭的预测指标。%Objective To investigate the correlated clinical factors of respiratory failure induced by acute organophosphorus pesticide poisoning ( AOPP) ,and to provide relevant data for prevention and intervention of respiratory failure .Methods This retrospective study in-cluded 94 patients with severe AOPP ,and all patients were divided into respiratory failure group ( n=41 ) and non-respiratory failure group (n=53) according to arterial blood gas analysis .We observed APACHEⅡscores,cholinesterase,blood glucose,serum amylase,hepatic func-tion,renal function and myocardial enzyme between the two groups .Results Cholinesterase level in the respiratory failure group was lower than that in non-respiratory failure group (P<0.05);APACHEⅡ scores,serum amylase,hepatic function,renal function and myocardial enzyme in the respiratory failure group were higher than those of non-respiratory failure group (P<0.05).Spearman correlation analysis and Logistic regression analyses showed APACHEⅡscores,cholinesterase and serum amylase were related to respiratory failure ,and they had sig-nificant predictive effects on respiratory failure

  10. Transcriptional response of rat frontal cortex following acute In Vivo exposure to the pyrethroid insecticides permethrin and deltamethrin

    Tornero-Velez Rogelio

    2008-11-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Pyrethroids are neurotoxic pesticides that interact with membrane bound ion channels in neurons and disrupt nerve function. The purpose of this study was to characterize and explore changes in gene expression that occur in the rat frontal cortex, an area of CNS affected by pyrethroids, following an acute low-dose exposure. Results Rats were acutely exposed to either deltamethrin (0.3 – 3 mg/kg or permethrin (1 – 100 mg/kg followed by collection of cortical tissue at 6 hours. The doses used range from those that cause minimal signs of intoxication at the behavioral level to doses well below apparent no effect levels in the whole animal. A statistical framework based on parallel linear (SAM and isotonic regression (PIR methods identified 95 and 53 probe sets as dose-responsive. The PIR analysis was most sensitive for detecting transcripts with changes in expression at the NOAEL dose. A sub-set of genes (Camk1g, Ddc, Gpd3, c-fos and Egr1 was then confirmed by qRT-PCR and examined in a time course study. Changes in mRNA levels were typically less than 3-fold in magnitude across all components of the study. The responses observed are consistent with pyrethroids producing increased neuronal excitation in the cortex following a low-dose in vivo exposure. In addition, Significance Analysis of Function and Expression (SAFE identified significantly enriched gene categories common for both pyrethroids, including some relating to branching morphogenesis. Exposure of primary cortical cell cultures to both compounds resulted in an increase (~25% in the number of neurite branch points, supporting the results of the SAFE analysis. Conclusion In the present study, pyrethroids induced changes in gene expression in the frontal cortex near the threshold for decreases in ambulatory motor activity in vivo. The penalized regression methods performed similarly in detecting dose-dependent changes in gene transcription. Finally, SAFE analysis of

  11. Recovery of cholinesterase activity in five avian species exposed to dicrotophos, an organophosphorus pesticide

    Fleming, W.J.; Grue, C.E.

    1981-01-01

    The responses of brain and plasma cholinesterase (ChE) activities were examined in mallard ducks, bobwhite quail, barn owls, starlings, and common grackles given oral doses of dicrotophos, an organophosphorus insecticide. Up to an eightfold difference in response of brain ChE activity to dicrotophos was found among these species. Brain ChE activity recovered to within 2 SD of normal within 26 days after being depressed 55 to 64%. Recovery of brain ChE activity was similar among species and followed the model Y = a + b (log10X).

  12. Method for purifying bidentate organophosphorus compounds

    Schulz, Wallace W.

    1977-01-01

    Bidentate organophosphorus compounds useful for extracting actinide elements from acidic nuclear waste solutions are purified of undesirable acidic impurities by contacting the compounds with ethylene glycol which preferentially extracts the impurities found in technical grade bidentate compounds.

  13. 新烟碱类杀虫剂对家蚕的急性毒性评价与中毒症状观察%Acute Toxicity Evaluation of Neonicotinoid Insecticides to Bombyx mori and Observation of Toxic Symptoms

    崔新倩; 张骞; 姜辉; 林荣华; 王开运

    2012-01-01

    为明确新烟碱类杀虫剂对非靶标生物家蚕的毒性以及对生态环境的安全性影响,采用浸叶法测定6种新烟碱类杀虫剂及其它3类对照杀虫剂对家蚕的急性毒性,并观察不同种类杀虫剂引起家蚕的急性中毒症状差异.6种新烟碱类杀虫剂中噻虫胺、吡虫啉、噻虫啉和烯啶虫胺对家蚕2龄幼虫96 h的LC50分别为0.065 1、0.174、0.258、0.445 mg/L,属剧毒级农药,噻虫嗪和啶虫脒对家蚕2龄幼虫96 h的LC50分别为1.31、2.73 mg/L,属高毒级农药,6种药剂均对家蚕存在极大的安全风险性.新烟碱类杀虫剂引起家蚕中毒的症状主要表现为拒食,身体扭曲呈“C”或“S”形,头部肿大等.其它3类杀虫剂中,抗生素类杀虫剂阿维菌素的毒性属剧毒级,并在测定药剂中的毒性最高,家蚕中毒症状主要表现为吐液、头部或尾部翘起、拒食等;有机磷类杀虫剂毒死蜱的毒性属高毒级,家蚕中毒症状与新烟碱类杀虫剂相似;吡咯类杀虫剂虫螨腈的毒性属中毒级.因新烟碱类杀虫剂对家蚕的毒性强,建议远离桑园使用,以避免对养蚕生产造成危害.%In order to identify the toxicity of neonicotinoid insecticides to non-target organism silkworm (Bombyx mori) and their impact on the security of ecological environment,we determined and compared the acute toxicity of 6 neonicotinoid insecticides and 3 other insecticides to silkworm with leaf dipping method.The differences in symptoms of acute toxicity caused by treatment with various kinds of insecticides were observed and recorded.The results indicated that,among the 6 neonicotinoid insecticides,LC50 of clothianidin,imidacloprid,thiacloprid and nitenpyram to the 2nd instar silkworm larvae at 96 h was 0.065 1,0.174,0.258 and 0.445 mg/L respectively,being pesticides of virulent toxicity grade.That of thiamethoxam and acetamiprid was 1.31 and 2.73 mg/L respectively,being pesticides of high toxicity grade.They all had

  14. Acute disturbance of calcium homeostasis in PC12 cells as a novel mechanism of action for (sub)micromolar concentrations of organophosphate insecticides

    Meijer, Marieke; Hamers, Timo; Westerink, Remco H S

    2014-01-01

    Organophosphates (OPs) and carbamates are widely used insecticides that exert their neurotoxicity via inhibition of acetylcholine esterase (AChE) and subsequent overexcitation. OPs can induce additional neurotoxic effects at concentrations below those for inhibition of AChE, indicating other mechani

  15. Effects of organophosphate,carbamate and pyrethroid insecticides and their mixtures on neuromuscular junction transmission

    HeFS; XiaoC

    2002-01-01

    To investigate the effects of organophosphorus (OP),carbamate (Carb),pyrehroid (Pyr) insecticides and their mixtures on neuromuscular junction transmission (NMJT),dimethoate(D) and phoxim(P),methomyl(M),and fenvalerate(F) were selected.Rats were intraperitoneally intoxicated by D,P,M,F,D+M,D+F,P+M,or P+F with the dosage of each LD50 respectively.The function of the NMJT was assessed with the mean consecutive differences (MCD) of the latencies of single fiber action potentials detected by stimulation single fiber electromyography(SSFEMG) at the stimulus frequency of 20 Hz.The SSFEMG was also applied to detect the function of NMJT in 40 patients with OPs and their mixtures poisoning in this study.The results showed that (1)the myasthenia occurred only in rats with OPs and their mixtures poisoning,but not in F,M intoxicated rats.The increase of MCD shown by SSFEMG and induced by OP and their mixtures indicating a post-synaptic block was well correlated with the occurrence of myasthenia both in rats and patients(P<0.001);(2)the increase of MCD in rats of OP poisoning was significant in comparison with the control and F,M intoxicated rats;but was not significantly different from those in rats intoxicated by OP mixtures;(3)the MCDs were significantly increased in IMS patients of both acute OP poisoning and OP mixtures poisoning,but showing no significant difference between the two groups of patients.It is concluded that OP is the only responsible agent for the dysfunction of neuromuscular transmission induced by single OP and OP mixture insecticides which could be sensitively detected by SSFEMG.

  16. EFFECT OF ORGANOPHOSPHORUS FLAME RETARDANTS ON NEURONAL DEVELOPMENT IN VITRO

    The increased use of organophosphorus compounds as alternatives to brominated flame retardants (BFRs) has led to widespread human exposure, There is, however, limited information on their potential health effects. This study compared the effects of nii ne organophosphorus flame...

  17. IMPROVED SILICA GEL CLEANUP METHOD FOR ORGANOPHOSPHORUS PESTICIDES

    Quantitative recovery of some organophosphorus pesticide residues has not been possible with existing silica gel-cleanup procedures. The authors have developed a modification that permits quantitative recovery of all organophosphorus pesticides tested, except those with a carbama...

  18. 应用物种敏感性分布评估有机磷农药对淡水生物的急性生态风险%Assessing acute ecological risks of organophosphorus pesticides to freshwater organisms by species sensitivity distributions

    徐瑞祥; 陈亚华

    2012-01-01

    Species sensitivity distributions ( SSD ) method was used to assess the acute ecological risk of four commonly-used organophosphorus pesticides ( diazinon, parathion , fenitrothion and malathion) to freshwater organisms. The acute toxicity data ( LC50 ) were collected from ECOTOX database and SSD curves were fitted based on BurrⅢ function. The acute ecological risks of the organophosphorus pesticides and the sensitivity of vertebrate and invertebrate (including fish, crustaceans, insects and spiders) to these pesticides were compared by the hazardous concentrations for 5% of the species ( HC5 ) and the potential affected fraction (PAF). The joint ecological risks of the organophosphorus pesticides in the Yellow River, Jiulongjiang River, and Wuxiaochuan River were also analyzed. The following results were obtained: 1 ) by comparing the HC5 and PAF values, the toxicities and ecological risks of the organophosphorus pesticides to invertebrates were significantly higher than those to vertebrates, and the largest toxicities and ecological risks were found to crustaceans, while the minimum to fish. 2) It was found by comparing the SSD curves that, in case of the log-transformed concentration less than 3. 5 μg/L, the ecological risks of four organophosphorus pesticides to invertebrates were significantly higher than those to vertebrates; on the contrary, in case of the log-transformed concentration larger than 4. 5μg/L, those to vertebrates were higher. 3 ) In the vast majority of exposure concentrations, invertebrates were more sensitive to the organophosphate pesticides than vertebrates. Under lower exposure concentrations, crustaceans were more sensitive to the organophosphate pesticides; while, under higher exposure concentrations, insects and spiders were more sensitive. 4) The PAFs and multisubstance PAFs(msPAFs) of parathion and malathion to the freshwater organisms in the Yangtze River, Jiulongjiang River, and Wuxianchuan River were less than 0.5% , which

  19. Occurrence and risk assessment of organophosphorus and brominated flame retardants in the River Aire (UK)

    This study presents the occurrence and risk of PBDEs, new brominated and organophosphorus flame retardants along a river affected by urban and industrial pressures (River Aire, UK). Tris(2-choroethyl) phosphate (TCEP), tris(2-chloro-1-methylethyl) phosphate (TCPP), tris[2-chloro-1-(chloromethyl)ethyl] phosphate (TDCP) and triphenyl phosphate (TPhP) were detected in all samples, with TCPP present at the highest concentrations, ranging from 113 to 26 050 ng L-1. BDE-209 was detected in most of the sampled sites, ranging from 17 to 295 ng L−1, while hexabromobenzene (HBB) and pentabromoethyl benzene (PBEB) were seldom detected. A risk quotients based on predicted no effect concentrations (PNEC) and flame retardants water concentration proved significant risk for adverse effects for algae, Daphnia and fish in sites close to industrial and urban sewage discharges. This study provides a protocol for the risk estimation of priority and new generation flame retardants based on river concentrations and toxicological values. -- Highlights: •Brominated and organophosphorus flame retardants were monitored in River Aire (UK). •BDE-209 and organophosphorus flame retardants were detected at high concentrations. •A risk assessment was performed based on water concentration and acute toxicity data. •Low to significant risk for adverse effects was observed for algae, fish and Daphnia. -- Organophosphorus flame retardants and BDE-209 were detected at high concentrations along River Aire (UK) and a risk assessment indicated significant risk for adverse effects to aquatic organisms

  20. Insecticide resistance and activities of relative enzymes in different populations of the white backed planthopper

    2000-01-01

    @@ White backed planthopper (WBPH), Sogatella furcifera (Horvath), is one of the most devastating insect pests on rice in Asia. Its control mainly depended on the chemical pesticides. Surveys of insecticide susceptibility revealed that organophosphorus and carbamate resistance has emerged since early 1980s in China and Japan. WBPH has the long distance migration property, and Heinrichs(1994) considered that the migration might influence the resistance level of planthoppers. So we conducted the comparative studies on insecticide susceptibility and activities of resistance relative enzymes in four WBPH populations collected from Zhejiang, Yunnan, and Hainan provinces of China in 1997.

  1. Sorption and desorption of insecticides in Brazilian soils

    The sorption from aqueous solution of ten Brazilian soil types of four organochlorine, two organophosphorus and one carbamate insecticide was determined in the laboratory using gas chromatographic and radiometric techniques. Measurements showed that soils richest in organic matter, sorbed all substances except aldrin more strongly than the other soils. DDT was the most and aldrin the least sorbed organochlorine pesticide, being dieldrin sorbed two to four times more strongly than aldrin. Sorption of lindane varied in different soils. The organophosphate insecticides malathion and parathion were strongly sorbed in the soils richest in organic matter and weakly sorbed in the poorest soils heing moderately sorbed by the other soils. Sorption of carbaryl by all soils is small. Lindane was desorbed from the soil richest in organic matter and the extent of desorption was dependent on the sorption time. (Author)

  2. Insecticide solvents: interference with insecticidal action.

    Brattsten, L B; Wilkinson, C F

    1977-06-10

    Several commercial solvent mixtures commonly used as insecticide carriers in spray formulations increase by more than threefold the microsomal N-demethylation of p-chloro N-methylaniline in midgut preparations of southern army-worm (Spodoptera eridania) larvae exposed orally to the test solvents. Under laboratory conditions, the same solvent mixtures exhibit a protective action against the in vivo toxicity of the insecticide carbaryl to the larvae. The data are discussed with respect to possible solvent-insecticide interactions occurring under field conditions and, more broadly, to potential toxicological hazards of these solvents to humans. PMID:860135

  3. Subchronic organophosphorus ester-induced delayed neurotoxicity in mallards

    Hoffman, D.J.; Sileo, L.; Murray, H.C.

    1984-01-01

    Eighteen-week-old mallard hens received 0, 10, 30, 90, or 270 ppm technical grade EPN (phenylphosphonothioic acid O-ethyl-O-4-nitrophenyl ester) in the diet for 90 days. Ataxia was first observed in the 270-ppm group after 16 days, in the 90-ppm group after 20 days, in the 30-ppm group after 38 days; 10 ppm failed to produce ataxia. By the end of 90 days all 6 birds in the 270-ppm group exhibited ataxia or paralysis whereas 5 of 6 birds in the 90-ppm group and 2 of 6 birds in the 30-ppm group were visibly affected. Treatment with 30 ppm or more resulted in a significant reduction in body weight. Brain neurotoxic esterase activity was inhibited by averages of 16, 69, 73, and 74% in the 10-, 30-, 90-, and 270-ppm groups, respectively. Brain acetylcholinesterase, plasma cholinesterase, and plasma alkaline phosphatase were significantly inhibited as well. Distinct histopathological effects were seen in the 30-, 90-, and 270-ppm groups which included demyelination and degeneration of axons of the spinal cord. Additional ducks were exposed in a similar manner to 60-, 270-, or 540-ppm leptophos (phosphonothioic acid O-4-bromo-2,5-dichlorophenyl-O-methylphenyl ester) which resulted in similar behavioral, biochemical, and histopathological alterations. These findings indicate that adult mallards are probably somewhat less sensitive than chickens to subchronic dietary exposure to organophosphorus insecticides that induce delayed neurotoxicity.

  4. Lysophospholipase inhibition by organophosphorus toxicants

    Lysophospholipases (LysoPLAs) are a large family of enzymes for removing lysophospholipids from cell membranes. Potent inhibitors are needed to define the importance of LysoPLAs as targets for toxicants and potential therapeutics. This study considers organophosphorus (OP) inhibitors with emphasis on mouse brain total LysoPLA activity relative to the mipafox-sensitive neuropathy target esterase (NTE)-LysoPLA recently established as 17% of the total activity and important in the action of OP delayed toxicants. The most potent inhibitors of total LysoPLA in mouse brain are isopropyl dodecylphosphonofluoridate (also for LysoPLA of Vibrio bacteria), ethyl octylphosphonofluoridate (EOPF), and two alkyl-benzodioxaphosphorin 2-oxides (BDPOs)[(S)-octyl and dodecyl] (IC50 2-8 nM). OP inhibitors acting in vitro and in vivo differentiate a more sensitive portion but not a distinct NTE-LysoPLA compared with total LysoPLA activity. For 10 active inhibitors, NTE-LysoPLA is 17-fold more sensitive than total LysoPLA, but structure-activity comparisons give a good correlation (r2 = 0.94) of IC50 values, suggesting active site structural similarity or identity. In mice 4 h after intraperitoneal treatment with discriminating doses, EOPF, tribufos (a plant defoliant), and dodecanesulfonyl fluoride inhibit 41-57% of the total brain LysoPLA and 85-99% of the NTE-LysoPLA activity. Total LysoPLA as well as NTE-LysoPLA is decreased in activity in Nte+/--haploinsufficient mice compared to their Nte+/+ littermates. The lysolecithin level of spinal cord but not brain is elevated significantly following EOPF treatment (3 mg/kg), thereby focusing attention on localized rather than general alterations in lysophospholipid metabolism in OP-induced hyperactivity and toxicity

  5. Paraoxonase 1 (PON1) Status and Risk of Insecticide Exposure

    Furlong, Clement E.; Cole, Toby B.; Walter, Betsy J.; Shih, Diana M.; Tward, Aaron; Lusis, Aldons J.; Timchalk, Chuck; Richter, Rebecca J.; Costa, Lucio G.

    2005-06-23

    Paraoxonase 1 (PON1) is an HDL associated enzyme that catalyzes a number of different reactions including the hydrolysis of the toxic oxon metabolites of the insecticides diazinon and chlorpyrifos. PON1 has also been implicated in the detoxication of oxidized lipids and the metabolism of a number of drugs, activating some, while inactivating others. There are two common PON1 coding region polymorphisms (L55M and Q192R). The latter determines the catalytic efficiency of hydrolysis of a number of substrates including chlorpyrifos oxon, but not diazoxon. Evidence for the physiological importance of PON1 in modulating exposures to these two insecticides comes from several different studies. Early studies noted that species with high levels of PON1 were much more resistant to certain organophosphorus (OP) insecticides than were species with low levels. Another early study by Main demonstrated that injected rabbit paraoxonase protected rats from paraoxon toxicity. Our research group began the development of a mouse model system for examining the importance of PON1 in the detoxication of OP insecticides.

  6. CUMULATIVE EFFECTS OF ORGANOPHOSPHORUS OR CARBAMATE PESTICIDES.

    This book chapter strives to summarize the body of literature exploring the toxic interaction of organophosphorus and carbamate pesticides in mixtures. This review represents one of the only reviews of the subject that has been published within the last 20 years. Specifically, th...

  7. Phthalates and organophosphorus compounds in indoor dust

    Hwang, H.; Lee, S.; Lim, J.; Joen, S.; Mikuška, Pavel; Kumar, A.

    Pensacola: Society of Environmental Toxicology and Chemistry (SETAC), 2010. s. 360. ISBN 1087-8939. [SETAC North America Annual Meeting /31./. 07.11.2010-11.11.2010, Portland] Institutional research plan: CEZ:AV0Z40310501 Keywords : indoor floor dust * phthalates * organophosphorus compounds Subject RIV: CB - Analytical Chemistry, Separation

  8. Interactions of cyclodextrins and their derivatives with toxic organophosphorus compounds

    Letort, Sophie; Balieu, Sébastien; Erb, William; Gouhier, Géraldine

    2016-01-01

    Summary The aim of this review is to provide an update on the current use of cyclodextrins against organophosphorus compound intoxications. Organophosphorus pesticides and nerve agents play a determinant role in the inhibition of cholinesterases. The cyclic structure of cyclodextrins and their toroidal shape are perfectly suitable to design new chemical scavengers able to trap and hydrolyze the organophosphorus compounds before they reach their biological target. PMID:26977180

  9. Identification and isolation of bacteria containing OPH enzyme for biodegradation of organophosphorus pesticide diazinon from contaminated agricultural soil

    Sara Mobarakpoor

    2015-04-01

    Full Text Available Background: Organophosphorus insecticide diazinon has been widely used in agriculture and has the ability to transfer and accumulate in soil, water and animal tissues, and to induce toxicity in plants, animals and humans. In humans, diazinon inhibits nerve transmission by inactivating acetylcholinesterase enzyme. The present study was carried out to identify bacteria containing OPH enzyme for biodegradation of diazinon from contaminated agricultural soil. Methods: In this study, 8 contaminated agricultural soil samples that were exposed to pesticides, especially diazinon in the last two decades, were collected from the farms of Hamedan province. After preparing the media, for isolation of several bacterial strains containing OPH enzyme that are capable of biodegrading organophosphorus pesticides by diazinon enzymatic hydrolysis, bacterial genomic DNA extraction, plasmid product sequencing, phylogenetic sequence processing and phylogenetic tree drawing were carried out. Results: Eight bacterial strains, capable of secreting OPH enzyme, were isolated from soil samples, one of which named BS-1 with 86% similarity to Bacillus safensis displayed the highest organophosphate-hydrolyzing capability and can be used as a source of carbon and phosphorus. Conclusion: It can be concluded that the isolated bacterial strain identified in this study with OPH enzyme secretion has the potential for biodegradation of organophosphorus pesticides, especially diazinon in invitro conditions. Also, further studies such as the environmental stability and interaction, production strategies, safety, cost-benefit, environmental destructive parameters, and, toxicological, genetic and biochemical aspects are recommended prior to the application of bacterial strains in the field-scale bioremediation.

  10. A retrospective study of paradigm and outcome of acute poisoning cases in a tertiary care teaching hospital in Southern India

    Arulmurugan C.

    2015-10-01

    Results: Incidence was high among males (60.36% compared to females (39.64%. Most of the cases of acute poisoning were in the age group 10 to 30 years (60.95% followed by 30 to 50 years age group (30.77%. A majority of poisoning cases (27.2% were due to organophosphorus (OPC insecticide. Total mortality was found to be 5.32%. Mortality rate due to Paraquat, Abrus Pretorius seeds was significantly high compared with OPC because there is no specific antidote. Time lapse had a very significant role in the mortality in cases of poisoning. Conclusions: Poisoning is common with young males. The mortality is high, in cases of self-poisoning with parquet and abrus seeds. Despite the highest consumption rate, no mortality was observed with organophosphorus because of early medical intervention and specific antidote. Early medical care in a tertiary care hospital will help to reduce significant mortality in India. [Int J Res Med Sci 2015; 3(10.000: 2654-2657

  11. Acute Toxicity of Five Insecticides to Daphnia magna in Water-sediment System%5种杀虫剂在水-人工底泥系统中对大型溞的急性毒性及其比较

    徐燕; 边文杰; 李少南; 朱国念

    2011-01-01

    建立了包含"水"和"底泥"两相的水蚤毒性测试系统(水相为全人工培养液,"底泥"为OECD配方标准化人工土),并通过该系统测得毒死蜱(chlorpyrifos)、氟虫腈(fipronil)、氰戊菊酯(fenvalerate)、氟氯氰菊酯(cvfluthrin)、联苯菊酯(bifenthrin)对大型溞(Daphnia magna)的急性毒性(48 h-LC50)分别为9.01、88.1、0.142、0.097 6、0.0504μg·L-1.对比水相的急性毒性测定结果发现,在有底泥的条件下,所测得的联苯菊酯、氟氯氰菊酯、毒死蜱的大型溞毒性低于水相的测定结果,而氰戊菊酯、氟虫腈的毒性则比水相中的测定结果要高.研究结果反映出药剂和受试生物在"水-底泥"系统内相互作用的复杂性和难以预见性,从而在为相关农药生态安全评价提供科学依据的同时,为在更接近实际暴露状态下开展评价试验提供了-种简便有效的方法.%A water-sediment system consisting of culture medium of M4 and artificial soil was established in this study.Acute toxicity of five insecticides, i.e.chlorpyrifos, fipronil, fenvalerate, cyfluthrin, and bifenthrin, towards water flea, Daphnia magna, was tested with this system.The insecticides were added by spiking stock solution of the standard or the technical materials into the water columns and the daphnia were introduced thereafter.Result of the study showed that 48 h-LC50 values for the five insecticides were determined to be 9.01, 88.1, 0.142,0.097 6 a.i.μg· L-1, and 0.050 4 a.i.μg· L-1 The corresponding values of 48 h-LC50 derived from sediment-free systems were determined to be 3.31,238, 0.459, 0.050 7 a.i.μg·L-1 and 0.030 4 a.i.μg·L-1.To compare the LC50 values from the two systems, we could see that toxicity of chlorpyriflos, cyfluthrin, and bifenthrin enhanced in water-sediment system, whereas the toxicity of fipronil and fenvalerate declined.It seems that pattern of change of LC50 did not accord well with fluctuation of lg Kow values among the

  12. Extraction chemistry of some bidentate organophosphorus compounds

    Martella, L.L.; Navratil, J.D.; Santiago, W.F.

    1978-01-01

    The extraction chemistry of methylenediphosphonates, carbamoylphosphonates, and carbamoylmethylenephosphonates has been investigated. The bidentate organophosphorus compounds extract actinides strongly, extract lanthanides, iron, gallium, molybdenum, titanium, vanadium, and zirconium partially, and do not extract most other elements from 5 to 7 M nitric acid. The properties of the extractants and extraction mechanisms are discussed. The effect of complexing agents on the extraction of actinides and lanthanides is also presented.

  13. Delayed Reduction of Hippocampal Synaptic Transmission and Spines Following Exposure to Repeated Subclinical Doses of Organophosphorus Pesticide in Adult Mice

    Speed, Haley E.; Blaiss, Cory A.; Kim, Ahleum; Haws, Michael E.; Melvin, Neal R.; Jennings, Michael; Eisch, Amelia J.; Powell, Craig M.

    2011-01-01

    Agricultural and household organophosphorus (OP) pesticides inhibit acetylcholinesterase (AchE), resulting in increased acetylcholine (Ach) in the central nervous system. In adults, acute and prolonged exposure to high doses of AchE inhibitors causes severe, clinically apparent symptoms, followed by lasting memory impairments and cognitive dysfunction. The neurotoxicity of repeated environmental exposure to lower, subclinical doses of OP pesticides in adults is not as well studied. However, r...

  14. Insecticides and Biological Control

    Furness, G. O.

    1972-01-01

    Use of insecticides has been questioned due to their harmful effects on edible items. Biological control of insects along with other effective practices for checking spread of parasites on crops are discussed. (PS)

  15. More about Insecticides

    E.K. Hartwig

    1980-01-01

    An insecticide is a chemical used to kill insects. Insect control can also include other materials such as repellents, oils, antifeedants and attractants. Ideally, an insecticide would effectively control any target insect exposed to it and would be harmless to man and his domestic animals. It would also be readily available in necessary quantitie s , s table chemically, noninflammable, easily prepared and applied, noncorrosive, non-staining, and would have no undesirable odour.

  16. More about Insecticides

    E.K. Hartwig

    1980-09-01

    Full Text Available An insecticide is a chemical used to kill insects. Insect control can also include other materials such as repellents, oils, antifeedants and attractants. Ideally, an insecticide would effectively control any target insect exposed to it and would be harmless to man and his domestic animals. It would also be readily available in necessary quantitie s , s table chemically, noninflammable, easily prepared and applied, noncorrosive, non-staining, and would have no undesirable odour.

  17. Proteases as Insecticidal Agents

    Harrison, Robert L.; Bonning, Bryony C.

    2010-01-01

    Proteases from a variety of sources (viruses, bacteria, fungi, plants, and insects) have toxicity towards insects. Some of these insecticidal proteases evolved as venom components, herbivore resistance factors, or microbial pathogenicity factors, while other proteases play roles in insect development or digestion, but exert an insecticidal effect when over-expressed from genetically engineered plants or microbial pathogens. Many of these proteases are cysteine proteases, although insect-toxic...

  18. Cholinesterase inhibition and alterations of hepatic metabolism by oral acute and repeated chlorpyrifos administration to mice.

    Cometa, Maria Francesca; Buratti, Franca Maria; Fortuna, Stefano; Lorenzini, Paola; Volpe, Maria Teresa; Parisi, Laura; Testai, Emanuela; Meneguz, Annarita

    2007-05-01

    Chlorpyrifos (CPF) is a broad spectrum organophosphorus insecticide bioactivated in vivo to chlorpyrifos-oxon (CPFO), a very potent anticholinesterase. A great majority of available animal studies on CPF and CPFO toxicity are performed in rats. The use of mice in developmental neurobehavioural studies and the availability of transgenic mice warrant a better characterization of CPF-induced toxicity in this species. CD1 mice were exposed to a broad range of acute (12.5-100.0mg/kg) and subacute (1.56-25mg/kg/day from 5 to 30 days) CPF oral doses. Functional and biochemical parameters such as brain and serum cholinesterase (ChE) and liver xenobiotic metabolizing system, including the biotransformation of CPF itself, have been studied and the no observed effect levels (NOELs) identified. Mice seem to be more susceptible than rats at least to acute CPF treatment (oral LD(50) 4.5-fold lower). The species-related differences were not so evident after repeated exposures. In mice a good correlation was observed between brain ChE inhibition and classical cholinergic signs of toxicity. After CPF-repeated treatment, mice seemed to develop some tolerance to CPF-induced effects, which could not be attributed to an alteration of P450-mediated CPF hepatic metabolism. CPF-induced effects on hepatic microsomal carboxylesterase (CE) activity and reduced glutathione (GSH) levels observed at an early stage of treatment and then recovered after 30 days, suggest that the detoxifying mechanisms are actively involved in the protection of CPF-induced effects and possibly in the induction of tolerance in long term exposure. The mouse could be considered a suitable experimental model for future studies on the toxic action of organophosphorus pesticides focused on mechanisms, long term and age-related effects. PMID:17382447

  19. Stimuli-responsive chromism in organophosphorus chemistry.

    Reus, Christian; Baumgartner, Thomas

    2016-02-01

    Changes in color are one of the most obvious and easily followed responses that can be induced by an external stimulus. π-Conjugated organophosphorus compounds are on the rise to challenge established systems by opening up new and simple pathways to diversely modified optoelectronic properties--the main challenge for the development of new chromic materials. Relevant stimuli highlighted in this Frontier article include electronic current (electrochromism), light (photochromism), solvent polarity (solvatochromism), aggregation formation (aggregation induced emission, AIE), mechanical force (mechanochromism), temperature (thermochromism), organic solvent vapor (vapochromism), and pH (halochromism). PMID:26286166

  20. Irrigation runoff insecticide pollution of rivers in the Imperial Valley, California (USA)

    Vlaming, V. de [Aquatic Toxicology Laboratory, VM: APC, 1321 Haring Hall, University of California, Davis, CA 95616 (United States)]. E-mail: vldevlaming@ucdavis.edu; DiGiorgio, C. [Department of Water Resources, P.O. Box 942836, Sacramento, CA 94236 (United States); Fong, S. [Aquatic Toxicology Laboratory, VM: APC, 1321 Haring Hall, University of California, Davis, CA 95616 (United States); Deanovic, L.A. [Aquatic Toxicology Laboratory, VM: APC, 1321 Haring Hall, University of California, Davis, CA 95616 (United States); Paz Carpio-Obeso, M. de la [Colorado River Basin Region Water Quality Control Board, 73-720 Fred Waring Drive, Suite 100, Palm Desert, CA 92260 (United States); Miller, J.L. [AQUA-Science, 17 Arboretum Drive, Davis, CA 95616 (United States); Miller, M.J. [AQUA-Science, 17 Arboretum Drive, Davis, CA 95616 (United States); Richard, N.J. [Division of Water Quality, State Water Resources Control Board, 1001 I Street, Sacramento, CA 95814 (United States)

    2004-11-01

    The Alamo and New Rivers located in the Imperial Valley, California receive large volumes of irrigation runoff and discharge into the ecologically sensitive Salton Sea. Between 1993 and 2002 we conducted a series of studies to assess water quality using three aquatic species: a cladoceran (Ceriodaphnia dubia), a mysid (Neomysis mercedis), and a larval fish (Pimephales promelas). Although no mortality was observed with the P. promelas, high-level toxicity to the invertebrate species was documented in samples from both rivers during many months of each year. Toxicity identifications and chemical analyses identified the organophosphorus insecticides (OP), chlorpyrifos and diazinon, as the cause of C. dubia toxicity. The extent of the C. dubia mortality was highly correlated with quantities of these OPs applied in the river watersheds. C. dubia mortality occurred during more months of our 2001/2002 study than in the 1990s investigations. During 2001/2002, the extensive C. dubia mortality observed in New River samples was caused by OP insecticide pollution that originated from Mexico. Mortality to N. mercedis in New River samples was likely caused by contaminants other than OP insecticides. Our studies document OP insecticide-caused pollution of the Alamo River over a 10-year period and provide the necessary information for remediation efforts. - Capsule: Organophosphorous insecticides in runoff water from the USA and Mexico have impacted rivers in the Imperial Valley, California.

  1. Irrigation runoff insecticide pollution of rivers in the Imperial Valley, California (USA)

    The Alamo and New Rivers located in the Imperial Valley, California receive large volumes of irrigation runoff and discharge into the ecologically sensitive Salton Sea. Between 1993 and 2002 we conducted a series of studies to assess water quality using three aquatic species: a cladoceran (Ceriodaphnia dubia), a mysid (Neomysis mercedis), and a larval fish (Pimephales promelas). Although no mortality was observed with the P. promelas, high-level toxicity to the invertebrate species was documented in samples from both rivers during many months of each year. Toxicity identifications and chemical analyses identified the organophosphorus insecticides (OP), chlorpyrifos and diazinon, as the cause of C. dubia toxicity. The extent of the C. dubia mortality was highly correlated with quantities of these OPs applied in the river watersheds. C. dubia mortality occurred during more months of our 2001/2002 study than in the 1990s investigations. During 2001/2002, the extensive C. dubia mortality observed in New River samples was caused by OP insecticide pollution that originated from Mexico. Mortality to N. mercedis in New River samples was likely caused by contaminants other than OP insecticides. Our studies document OP insecticide-caused pollution of the Alamo River over a 10-year period and provide the necessary information for remediation efforts. - Capsule: Organophosphorous insecticides in runoff water from the USA and Mexico have impacted rivers in the Imperial Valley, California

  2. Mitochondrial dysfunction and organophosphorus compounds

    Organophosphorous (OPs) pesticides are the most widely used pesticides in the agriculture and home. However, many acute or chronic poisoning reports about OPs have been published in the recent years. Mitochondria as a site of cellular oxygen consumption and energy production can be a target for OPs poisoning as a non-cholinergic mechanism of toxicity of OPs. In the present review, we have reviewed and criticized all the evidences about the mitochondrial dysfunctions as a mechanism of toxicity of OPs. For this purpose, all biochemical, molecular, and morphological data were retrieved from various studies. Some toxicities of OPs are arisen from dysfunction of mitochondrial oxidative phosphorylation through alteration of complexes I, II, III, IV and V activities and disruption of mitochondrial membrane. Reductions of adenosine triphosphate (ATP) synthesis or induction of its hydrolysis can impair the cellular energy. The OPs disrupt cellular and mitochondrial antioxidant defense, reactive oxygen species generation, and calcium uptake and promote oxidative and genotoxic damage triggering cell death via cytochrome C released from mitochondria and consequent activation of caspases. The mitochondrial dysfunction induced by OPs can be restored by use of antioxidants such as vitamin E and C, alpha-tocopherol, electron donors, and through increasing the cytosolic ATP level. However, to elucidate many aspect of mitochondrial toxicity of Ops, further studies should be performed. - Highlights: • As a non-cholinergic mechanism of toxicity, mitochondria is a target for OPs. • OPs affect action of complexes I, II, III, IV and V in the mitochondria. • OPs reduce mitochondrial ATP. • OPs promote oxidative and genotoxic damage via release of cytochrome C from mitochondria. • OP-induced mitochondrial dysfunction can be restored by increasing the cytosolic ATP

  3. Mitochondrial dysfunction and organophosphorus compounds

    Karami-Mohajeri, Somayyeh [Department of Toxicology and Pharmacology, Faculty of Pharmacy, and Pharmaceutical Sciences Research Center, Tehran University of Medical Sciences, Tehran (Iran, Islamic Republic of); Department of Toxicology and Pharmacology, Faculty of Pharmacy, and Pharmaceutical Sciences Research Center, Kerman University of Medical Sciences, Kerman (Iran, Islamic Republic of); Abdollahi, Mohammad, E-mail: Mohammad.Abdollahi@UToronto.Ca [Department of Toxicology and Pharmacology, Faculty of Pharmacy, and Pharmaceutical Sciences Research Center, Tehran University of Medical Sciences, Tehran (Iran, Islamic Republic of)

    2013-07-01

    Organophosphorous (OPs) pesticides are the most widely used pesticides in the agriculture and home. However, many acute or chronic poisoning reports about OPs have been published in the recent years. Mitochondria as a site of cellular oxygen consumption and energy production can be a target for OPs poisoning as a non-cholinergic mechanism of toxicity of OPs. In the present review, we have reviewed and criticized all the evidences about the mitochondrial dysfunctions as a mechanism of toxicity of OPs. For this purpose, all biochemical, molecular, and morphological data were retrieved from various studies. Some toxicities of OPs are arisen from dysfunction of mitochondrial oxidative phosphorylation through alteration of complexes I, II, III, IV and V activities and disruption of mitochondrial membrane. Reductions of adenosine triphosphate (ATP) synthesis or induction of its hydrolysis can impair the cellular energy. The OPs disrupt cellular and mitochondrial antioxidant defense, reactive oxygen species generation, and calcium uptake and promote oxidative and genotoxic damage triggering cell death via cytochrome C released from mitochondria and consequent activation of caspases. The mitochondrial dysfunction induced by OPs can be restored by use of antioxidants such as vitamin E and C, alpha-tocopherol, electron donors, and through increasing the cytosolic ATP level. However, to elucidate many aspect of mitochondrial toxicity of Ops, further studies should be performed. - Highlights: • As a non-cholinergic mechanism of toxicity, mitochondria is a target for OPs. • OPs affect action of complexes I, II, III, IV and V in the mitochondria. • OPs reduce mitochondrial ATP. • OPs promote oxidative and genotoxic damage via release of cytochrome C from mitochondria. • OP-induced mitochondrial dysfunction can be restored by increasing the cytosolic ATP.

  4. Insecticide Resistance in Fleas.

    Rust, Michael K

    2016-01-01

    Fleas are the major ectoparasite of cats, dogs, and rodents worldwide and potential vectors of animal diseases. In the past two decades the majority of new control treatments have been either topically applied or orally administered to the host. Most reports concerning the development of insecticide resistance deal with the cat flea, Ctenocephalides felis felis. Historically, insecticide resistance has developed to many of the insecticides used to control fleas in the environment including carbamates, organophosphates, and pyrethroids. Product failures have been reported with some of the new topical treatments, but actual resistance has not yet been demonstrated. Failures have often been attributed to operational factors such as failure to adequately treat the pet and follow label directions. With the addition of so many new chemistries additional monitoring of flea populations is needed. PMID:26999217

  5. A short history of insecticides

    Oberemok Volodymyr Volodymyrovych; Laikova Kateryna Volodymyrivna; Gninenko Yuri Ivanovich; Zaitsev Aleksei Sergeevich; Nyadar Palmah Mutah; Adeyemi Tajudeen Adesoji

    2015-01-01

    This review contains a brief history of the use of insecticides. The peculiarities, main advantages, and disadvantages of some modern insecticides are described. The names of the discoverers of some of the most popular insecticide preparations on the world market, are listed. The tendencies to find new insecticides to control the quantity of phytophagous insects are discussed. Special attention is paid to the perspective of creating preparations based on nucleic acids, in particular DNA insec...

  6. Botanical Insecticides in Plant Protection

    Martina Grdiša; Kristina Gršić

    2013-01-01

    Botanical insecticides are natural compounds with insecticidal properties and their use in crop protection is as old as agricultural practice. Although they have been in use for over one hundred years, the advent of synthetic insecticides has unfortunately displaced their use today. Due to fast action, low cost, easy application and efficiency against a wide range of harmful species, synthetic insecticides have become an important part of pest management in modern agricultural systems...

  7. Resistance to Insecticides in Insects

    ÇAKIR, Şükran; Şengül YAMANEL

    2005-01-01

    In recent years, the frequent usage of insecticides in struggle aganist insects, has caused development of resistance to those chemicals in insects. The increase in dosage of insecticide used due to development of resistance in insects, causes important problems in terms of environment and human health. This study includes topics such as insecticides which are used frequently in insect struggle, insecticide resistant types, genetic changes posing resistance, enzymes of resistance and resistan...

  8. Flame retardant cotton fabrics treated with organophosphorus polymer.

    Abou-Okeil, A; El-Sawy, S M; Abdel-Mohdy, F A

    2013-02-15

    Organo-phosphorus compounds was prepared and applied onto cotton fabrics as flame retarding agent. methacryloloxyethylorthophoshor tetraethyl diamidate (MPD) was prepared and its structure was confirmed by IR, NMR and mass spectroscopy. Pyrovatex as commercial flame retardant was used for comparative study. Impregnation method was used as coating for the application of the organophosphorus compounds to cotton fabrics. The major factors affecting the reaction were studied. The results show that the prepared organophosphorus compound can be successfully used as flame retardant for cotton fabrics. PMID:23399290

  9. [Resistance to the organophosphate insecticides temephos and malathion in Culex pipiens L. (Diptera, Culicidae) from the Adriatic coast near Friuli].

    Zamburlini, R; Bellantone, P

    1993-12-01

    Susceptibility to organophosphorus insecticides Temephos and Malathion was tested in Culex pipiens L. larvae from Friuli Adriatic coast (North-East of Italy). The samples were collected in various sites of three zones with different intensity of insecticidal treatments. Tests were made following the W.H.O. recommendations. The tests were made on larval samples which were exposed for 24 hours to ascending concentrations of each insecticide. From the observed percentage mortalities the LC50 and LC90 values were calculated. The resistance ratio was obtained comparing the CL50 values with reference CL50 values provided by the W.H.O. The obtained data suggest the existence of Cx. pipiens populations resistant to the tested chemicals in the most intensively treated touristic zone (Lignano Sabbiadoro). The samples collected in an agricultural zone with no mosquito control treatments showed a slight reduced susceptibility to the tested compounds. PMID:7520564

  10. Monitoring of the insecticide trichlorfon by phosphorus-31 nuclear magnetic resonance (31P NMR) spectroscopy

    Trichlorfon is an organophosphorus insecticide, which is extensively being used for protection of fruit crops. Trichlorfon is a thermal labile compound, which cannot be easily determined by gas chromatography (GC) and has no suitable group for sensitive detection by high performance liquid chromatography (HPLC). In this study, a 31P nuclear magnetic resonance (31P NMR) has been described for monitoring of trichlorfon without any separation step. The quantitative works of 31P NMR spectroscopy has been performed in the presence of an internal standard (hexamethylphosphoramide). Limit of detection (LOD) for this method has been found to be 55 mg L-1, without any sample preparation, and the linear working range was 150-5500 mg L-1. Relative standard deviation (R.S.D.%) of the method for three replicates within and between days was obtained ≤9%. The average recovery efficiency was approximately 99-112%. This method was applied for monitoring trichlorfon in a commercial insecticide sample and tomato sample

  11. Chloramination of Organophosphorus Pesticides Found in Drinking Water Sources

    The degradation of commonly detected organophosphorus (OP) pesticides, in drinking water sources, was investigated under simulated chloramination conditions. Due to monochloramine autodecomposition, it is difficult to observe the direct reaction of monochloramine with each OP pe...

  12. ORGANOPHOSPHORUS PESTICIDE DEGRADATION PATHWAYS DURING DRINKING WATER TREATMENT

    The objective of this work was to investigate organophosphorus (OP) pesticide transformation pathways as a class in the presence of aqueous chlorine. Seven priority OP pesticides were examined for their reactivity with aqueous chlorine: chlorpyrifos (CP), parathion (PA), diazino...

  13. Competitive reactions of organophosphorus radicals on coke surfaces.

    Catak, Saron; Hemelsoet, Karen; Hermosilla, Laura; Waroquier, Michel; Van Speybroeck, Veronique

    2011-10-17

    The efficacy of organophosphorus radicals as anticoking agents was subjected to a computational study in which a representative set of radicals derived from industrially relevant organophosphorus additives was used to explore competitive reaction pathways on the graphene-like coke surface formed during thermal cracking. The aim was to investigate the nature of the competing reactions of different organophosphorus radicals on coke surfaces, and elucidate their mode of attack and inhibiting effect on the forming coke layer by use of contemporary computational methods. Density functional calculations on benzene and a larger polyaromatic hydrocarbon, namely, ovalene, showed that organophosphorus radicals have a high propensity to add to the periphery of the coke surface, inhibiting methyl radical induced hydrogen abstraction, which is known to be a key step in coke growth. Low addition barriers reported for a phosphatidyl radical suggest competitive aptitude against coke formation. Moreover, organophosphorus additives bearing aromatic substituents, which were shown to interact with the coke surface through dispersive π-π stacking interactions, are suggested to play a nontrivial role in hindering further stacking among coke surfaces. This may be the underlying rationale behind experimental observation of softer coke in the presence of organophosphorus radicals. The ultimate goal is to provide information that will be useful in building single-event microkinetic models. This study presents pertinent information on potential reactions that could be taken up in these models. PMID:21956815

  14. Assessment of Potential Sublethal Effects of Various Insecticides on Key Biological Traits of The Tobacco Whitefly, Bemisia tabaci

    He, Yuxian; Zhao, Jianwei; Zheng, Yu; Weng, Qiyong; Biondi, Antonio; DESNEUX, Nicolas

    2013-01-01

    The tobacco whitefly Bemisia tabaci is one of the most devastating pests worldwide. Current management of B. tabaci relies upon the frequent applications of insecticides. In addition to direct mortality by typical acute toxicity (lethal effect), insecticides may also impair various key biological traits of the exposed insects through physiological and behavioral sublethal effects. Identifying and characterizing such effects could be crucial for understanding the global effects of insecticides...

  15. Diatomaceous Earths - Natural Insecticides

    Zlatko Korunić

    2013-01-01

    The regulatory issues for diatomaceous earth (DE) cover three fields: consumer safety, worker safety, and proof of efficacy against pests. For consumer safety, regulatory issues are similar to those for other additives, and a principal benefit of DEs is their removal by normal processing methods. For worker safety, regulatory issues are similar to those for other dusts, such as lime. The proof of potential insecticide values of DE may be assessed by using t...

  16. Recent approaches to improving selectivity and sensitivity of enzyme-based biosensors for organophosphorus pesticides: A review.

    Songa, Everlyne A; Okonkwo, Jonathan O

    2016-08-01

    Pesticide determination has attracted great attention due to the fact that they exhibit high acute toxicity and can cause long-term damage to the environment and human lives even at trace levels. Although classical analytical methods (including gas chromatography, high performance liquid chromatography, capillary electrophoresis and mass spectrometry) have been effectively used for analysis of pesticides in contaminated samples, they present certain limitations such as time-consuming sample preparation, complexity, and the requirement of expensive instrumentation and highly skilled personnel. For these reasons, there is an expanding need for analytical methods able to provide simple, rapid, sensitive, selective, low cost and reliable detection of pesticides at trace levels. Over the past decades, acetylcholinesterase (AChE) biosensors have emerged as simple, rapid and ultra-sensitive tools for toxicity detection of pesticides in the environment and food. These biosensors have the potential to complement or replace the classical analytical methods by simplifying or eliminating sample preparation and making field-testing easier and faster with significant decrease in cost per analysis. With the recent engineering of more sensitive AChE enzymes, the development of more reliable immobilization matrices and the progress in the area of microelectronics, AChE biosensors could become competitive for multi-analyte screening and soon be used for the development of portable instrumentation for rapid toxicity testing of samples. The enzymes organophosphorus hydrolase (OPH) and organophosphorus acid anhydrolase (OPAA) have also shown considerable potential in OP biosensor applications and they have been used for direct detection of OPs. This review presents the recent advances in the fabrication of enzyme biosensors for organophosphorus pesticides (OPs) and their possible applications for toxicity monitoring of organophosphorus pesticide residues in real samples. The focus will

  17. Relative toxicity and residual activity of insecticides used in blueberry pest management: mortality of natural enemies.

    Roubos, Craig R; Rodriguez-Saona, Cesar; Holdcraft, Robert; Mason, Keith S; Isaacs, Rufus

    2014-02-01

    A series of bioassays were conducted to determine the relative toxicities and residual activities of insecticides labeled for use in blueberry (Vaccinium corymbosum L.) on natural enemies, to identify products with low toxicity or short duration effects on biological control agents. In total, 14 insecticides were evaluated using treated petri dishes and four commercially available natural enemies (Aphidius colemani Viereck, Orius insidiosus [Say], Chrysoperla rufilabris [Burmeister], and Hippodamia convergens [Guérin-Menéville]). Dishes were aged under greenhouse conditions for 0, 3, 7, or 14 d before introducing insects to test residual activity. Acute effects (combined mortality and knockdown) varied by insecticide, residue age, and natural enemy species. Broad-spectrum insecticides caused high mortality to all biocontrol agents, whereas products approved for use in organic agriculture had little effect. The reduced-risk insecticide acetamiprid consistently caused significant acute effects, even after aging for 14 d. Methoxyfenozide, novaluron, and chlorantraniliprole, which also are classified as reduced-risk insecticides, had low toxicity, and along with the organic products could be compatible with biological control. This study provides information to guide blueberry growers in their selection of insecticides. Further research will be needed to determine whether adoption of a pest management program based on the use of more selective insecticides will result in higher levels of biological control in blueberry. PMID:24665711

  18. Botanical Insecticides in Plant Protection

    Martina Grdiša

    2013-06-01

    Full Text Available Botanical insecticides are natural compounds with insecticidal properties and their use in crop protection is as old as agricultural practice. Although they have been in use for over one hundred years, the advent of synthetic insecticides has unfortunately displaced their use today. Due to fast action, low cost, easy application and efficiency against a wide range of harmful species, synthetic insecticides have become an important part of pest management in modern agricultural systems. However, after decades of use, their negative side effects, such as toxicity to humans and animals, environmental contamination, and toxicity to non-target insects have become apparent and interest in less hazardous alternatives of pest control is therefore being renewed. Plant species with known insecticidal actions are being promoted and research is being conducted to find new sources of botanical insecticides. The most important botanical insecticide is pyrethrin, a secondary metabolite of Dalmatian pyrethrum, neem, followed by insecticides based on the essential oils, rotenone, quassia, ryania and sabadilla. They have various chemical properties and modes of action. However, some general characteristics include fast degradation in sunlight, air and moisture, and selectivity to non-target insects. Unfortunately, neither of these insecticides is widely used as a pest control agent but is recognized by organic crop producers in industrialized countries.

  19. Pyrethroid insecticides in municipal wastewater.

    Weston, Donald P; Ramil, Heather L; Lydy, Michael J

    2013-11-01

    Pyrethroids are widely used insecticides, but minimal information has been published on their presence in municipal wastewater in the United States. Pyrethroids in wastewater from the Sacramento, California, USA, area consisted of permethrin, bifenthrin, cypermethrin, and cyhalothrin, with a combined concentration of 200 ng/L to 500 ng/L. Sampling within the wastewater collection system leading to the treatment plant suggested pyrethroids did not originate primarily from urban runoff, but could be from any of several drain disposal practices. Wastewater from residential areas was similar in pyrethroid composition and concentration to that from the larger metropolitan area as a whole. Secondary treatment removed approximately 90% of pyrethroids, but those remaining exceeded concentrations acutely toxic to sensitive species. Toxicity to the amphipod, Hyalella azteca, was consistently evident in the final effluent. The large river into which this particular plant discharged provided sufficient dilution such that pyrethroids were undetected in the river, and there was only slight toxicity of unknown cause in 1 river sample, but effects in receiving waters elsewhere will be site-specific. PMID:23893650

  20. Critical evaluation of some equilibrium constants involving organophosphorus extractants

    Marcus, Y

    2013-01-01

    Critical Evaluation of Some Equilibrium Constants Involving Organophosphorus Extractants is a supplementary text to the compilation ""Equilibrium Constants of Liquid-Liquid Distribution Reactions (Introduction, and Part I: Organophosphorus Extractants).The book contains a number of well documented chemical reactions that are critically evaluated. The reactions evaluated comprise those from List 1 for which data are available. There are, however, a great variety of reactions that cannot be critically evaluated due to lack of experimental data and unverifiable results.Chemists will find this com

  1. Pyrethroid insecticides in urban salmon streams of the Pacific Northwest

    Urban streams of the Pacific Northwest provide spawning and rearing habitat for a variety of salmon species, and food availability for developing salmon could be adversely affected by pesticide residues in these waterbodies. Sediments from Oregon and Washington streams were sampled to determine if current-use pyrethroid insecticides from residential neighborhoods were reaching aquatic habitats, and if they were at concentrations acutely toxic to sensitive invertebrates. Approximately one-third of the 35 sediment samples contained measurable pyrethroids. Bifenthrin was the pyrethroid of greatest concern with regards to aquatic life toxicity, consistent with prior studies elsewhere. Toxicity to Hyalella azteca and/or Chironomus dilutus was found in two sediment samples at standard testing temperature (23 deg. C), and in one additional sample at a more environmentally realistic temperature (13 deg. C). Given the temperature dependency of pyrethroid toxicity, low temperatures typical of northwest streams can increase the potential for toxicity above that indicated by standard testing protocols. - Highlights: → Salmon-bearing creeks can be adversely impacted by insecticides from urban runoff. → Pyrethroid insecticides were found in one-third of the creeks in Washington and Oregon. → Two creeks contained concentrations acutely lethal to sensitive invertebrates. → Bifenthrin was of greatest concern, though less than in prior studies. → Standard toxicity testing underestimates the ecological risk of pyrethroids. - Pyrethroid insecticides are present in sediments of urban creeks of Oregon and Washington, though less commonly than in studies elsewhere in the U.S.

  2. Pyrethroid insecticides in urban salmon streams of the Pacific Northwest

    Weston, D.P., E-mail: dweston@berkeley.edu [Department of Integrative Biology, University of California, 3060 Valley Life Sciences Bldg., Berkeley, CA 94720-3140 (United States); Asbell, A.M., E-mail: aasbell@berkeley.edu [Department of Integrative Biology, University of California, 3060 Valley Life Sciences Bldg., Berkeley, CA 94720-3140 (United States); Hecht, S.A., E-mail: scott.hecht@noaa.gov [NOAA Fisheries, Office of Protected Resources, 510 Desmond Drive S.E., Lacey, WA 98503 (United States); Scholz, N.L., E-mail: nathaniel.scholz@noaa.gov [NOAA Fisheries, Northwest Fisheries Science Center, 2725 Montlake Blvd. E., Seattle, WA 98112 (United States); Lydy, M.J., E-mail: mlydy@siu.edu [Fisheries and Illinois Aquaculture Center and Department of Zoology, Southern Illinois University, 171 Life Sciences II, Carbondale, IL 62901 (United States)

    2011-10-15

    Urban streams of the Pacific Northwest provide spawning and rearing habitat for a variety of salmon species, and food availability for developing salmon could be adversely affected by pesticide residues in these waterbodies. Sediments from Oregon and Washington streams were sampled to determine if current-use pyrethroid insecticides from residential neighborhoods were reaching aquatic habitats, and if they were at concentrations acutely toxic to sensitive invertebrates. Approximately one-third of the 35 sediment samples contained measurable pyrethroids. Bifenthrin was the pyrethroid of greatest concern with regards to aquatic life toxicity, consistent with prior studies elsewhere. Toxicity to Hyalella azteca and/or Chironomus dilutus was found in two sediment samples at standard testing temperature (23 deg. C), and in one additional sample at a more environmentally realistic temperature (13 deg. C). Given the temperature dependency of pyrethroid toxicity, low temperatures typical of northwest streams can increase the potential for toxicity above that indicated by standard testing protocols. - Highlights: > Salmon-bearing creeks can be adversely impacted by insecticides from urban runoff. > Pyrethroid insecticides were found in one-third of the creeks in Washington and Oregon. > Two creeks contained concentrations acutely lethal to sensitive invertebrates. > Bifenthrin was of greatest concern, though less than in prior studies. > Standard toxicity testing underestimates the ecological risk of pyrethroids. - Pyrethroid insecticides are present in sediments of urban creeks of Oregon and Washington, though less commonly than in studies elsewhere in the U.S.

  3. Insecticidal compounds against Drosophila melanogaster from Cornus officinalis Sieb. et Zucc.

    Miyazawa, Mitsuo; Anzai, Jun; Fujioka, Jun; Isikawa, Yukio

    2003-10-01

    Dimethyl malate (1) and 5-hydroxymethyl furfural (2) were isolated as insecticidal compounds by bioassay-guided fractionation from MeOH extract of the fruits of Cornus officinalis Sieb. et Zucc. Insecticidal activity against larvae of D. melanogaster was demonstrated: 1 and 2 gave the LC50 value of 6.15 and 11.8 micromol/mL of diet concentration, respectively. Acute toxicity against adults of D. melanogaster, 1 and 2 had the insecticidal activity, with the LD50 value of 21.5 and 34.0 microg/adult. PMID:14526912

  4. Botanical Insecticides in Plant Protection

    Martina Grdiša

    2013-07-01

    Full Text Available Normal 0 21 false false false MicrosoftInternetExplorer4 Botanical insecticides are natural compounds with insecticidal properties and their use in crop protection is as old as agricultural practice. Although they have been in use for over one hundred years, the advent of synthetic insecticides has unfortunately displaced their use today. Due to fast action, low cost, easy application and efficiency against a wide range of harmful species, synthetic insecticides have become an important part of pest management in modern agricultural systems. However, after decades of use, their negative side effects, such as toxicity to humans and animals, environmental contamination, and toxicity to non-target insects have become apparent and interest in less hazardous alternatives of pest control is therefore being renewed. Plant species with known insecticidal actions are being promoted and research is being conducted to find new sources of botanical insecticides. The most important botanical insecticide is pyrethrin, a secondary metabolite of Dalmatian pyrethrum, neem, followed by insecticides based on the essential oils, rotenone, quassia, ryania and sabadilla. Th ey have various chemical properties and modes of action. However, some general characteristics include fast degradation in sunlight, air and moisture, and selectivity to non-target insects. Unfortunately, neither of these insecticides is widely used as a pest control agent but is recognized by organic crop producers in industrialized countries. /* Style Definitions */ table.MsoNormalTable {mso-style-name:"Obična tablica"; mso-tstyle-rowband-size:0; mso-tstyle-colband-size:0; mso-style-noshow:yes; mso-style-parent:""; mso-padding-alt:0cm 5.4pt 0cm 5.4pt; mso-para-margin:0cm; mso-para-margin-bottom:.0001pt; mso-pagination:widow-orphan; font-size:10.0pt; font-family:"Times New Roman"; mso-ansi-language:#0400; mso-fareast-language:#0400; mso-bidi-language:#0400;}

  5. [Acute poisoning by pesticides in children].

    Leveau, P

    2016-07-01

    Acute pesticide poisoning in children is rare but potentially serious. Some clinical patterns (toxidromes) are suggestive of the drug class: cholinergic crisis for organophosphate or carbamate insecticides; neurological syndrome for rodenticides; digestive and respiratory syndrome for herbicides. Treatment is symptomatic and only a few patients are treated with an antidote: atropine and pralidoxime for organophosphate insecticides, vitamin K for anticoagulant rodenticides. PMID:27266642

  6. Sorption of triazine and organophosphorus pesticides on soil and biochar

    Although a large number of reports are available on sorption and degradation of triazine and organophosphorus pesticides in soils, systematic studies are lacking to directly compare and predict the fate of agrochemicals having different susceptibilities for hydrolysis and other degradation pathways....

  7. Synthesis of novel organo-phosphorus C60 dimers

    2006-01-01

    Carbon bridged organophosphorus C60 dimers were obtained by the reaction of aminome- thylenebisphosphonate anion with C60 and fully characterized by 1HNMR, 31PNMR, 13CNMR, FT- MALDI-MS, FT-IR, UV-Vis, DEPT and HMBC, and the dimeric compounds undergo hydrolysis by using TMSI.

  8. Lysophosphatidylcholine hydrolases of human erythrocytes, lymphocytes, and brain: Sensitive targets of conserved specificity for organophosphorus delayed neurotoxicants

    Brain neuropathy target esterase (NTE), associated with organophosphorus (OP)-induced delayed neuropathy, has the same OP inhibitor sensitivity and specificity profiles assayed in the classical way (paraoxon-resistant, mipafox-sensitive hydrolysis of phenyl valerate) or with lysophosphatidylcholine (LysoPC) as the substrate. Extending our earlier observation with mice, we now examine human erythrocyte, lymphocyte, and brain LysoPC hydrolases as possible sensitive targets for OP delayed neurotoxicants and insecticides. Inhibitor profiling of human erythrocytes and lymphocytes gave the surprising result of essentially the same pattern as with brain. Human erythrocyte LysoPC hydrolases are highly sensitive to OP delayed neurotoxicants, with in vitro IC50 values of 0.13-85 nM for longer alkyl analogs, and poorly sensitive to the current OP insecticides. In agricultural workers, erythrocyte LysoPC hydrolyzing activities are similar for newborn children and their mothers and do not vary with paraoxonase status but have high intersample variation that limits their use as a biomarker. Mouse erythrocyte LysoPC hydrolase activity is also of low sensitivity in vitro and in vivo to the OP insecticides whereas the delayed neurotoxicant ethyl n-octylphosphonyl fluoride inhibits activity in vivo at 1-3 mg/kg. Overall, inhibition of blood LysoPC hydrolases is as good as inhibition of brain NTE as a predictor of OP inducers of delayed neuropathy. NTE and lysophospholipases (LysoPLAs) both hydrolyze LysoPC, yet they are in distinct enzyme families with no sequence homology and very different catalytic sites. The relative contributions of NTE and LysoPLAs to LysoPC hydrolysis and clearance from erythrocytes, lymphocytes, and brain remain to be defined

  9. A renaissance for botanical insecticides?

    Isman, Murray B

    2015-12-01

    Botanical insecticides continue to be a subject of keen interest among the international research community, reflected in the steady growth in scientific publications devoted to the subject. Until very recently though, the translation of that theory to practice, i.e. the commercialisation and adoption of new botanical insecticides in the marketplace, has seriously lagged behind. Strict regulatory regimes, long the bane of small pesticide producers, are beginning to relax some of the data requirements for 'low-risk' pesticide products, facilitating movement of more botanicals into the commercial arena. In this paper I discuss some of the jurisdictions where botanicals are increasingly finding favour, some of the newer botanical insecticides in the plant and animal health arsenal and some of the specific sectors where botanicals are most likely to compete effectively with other types of insecticidal product. PMID:26251334

  10. Insecticide resistence of bumblebee species

    Zarevúcka, Marie

    Rijeka: InTech, 2013 - (Chamy, R.; Rosenkranz, F.), s. 207-228 ISBN 978-953-51-1154-2 R&D Projects: GA ČR GA203/09/1446; GA TA ČR TA01020969 Institutional support: RVO:61388963 Keywords : bumblebee * insecticide Subject RIV: CC - Organic Chemistry http://www.intechopen.com/books/biodegradation-life-of-science/insecticide-resistence-of-bumblebee-species

  11. OH initiated heterogeneous degradation of organophosphorus compounds

    Liggio, J.; Liu, Y.; Harner, T.; Jantunen, L.; Shoeib, M.; Li, S.

    2013-12-01

    Organophosphorus compounds (OPs) have been extensively used worldwide as flame retardants, plasticizers, antifoaming agents, and additives because of their favorable physicochemical characteristics. The global consumption of OPs is likely to greatly increase due to the phasing out of bromine-containing flame retardants (BFRs) with OPs identified as possible substitutes. In most applications, OPs easily leach out of the material into the environment via volatilization, abrasion, and dissolution and have been observed widely in atmospheric particles even in polar regions. However, little is known about their atmospheric fate. The Canadian Chemicals Management Plan (CMP) has targeted OP FRs for risk assessment, including assessing stability and atmospheric transport potential of OP FRs and other priority chemicals that are associated primarily with particles. In the current study, OH initiated heterogeneous reaction kinetics of tris(1,3-dichloro-2-propyl) phosphate (TDCPP), tris-2-ethylhexyl-phosphate (TEHP), tris-2-butoxyethyl-phosphate (TBEP), and tri-phenyl phosphate (TPhP) coated on (NH4)2SO4 were investigated using a photo-chemical flow tube which was coupled to an Aerosol Mass Spectrometer (AMS) and Proton Transfer Reaction Mass Spectrometer (PTR-MS). second-order rate constants (k2) for the heterogeneous loss of TPhP, TEHP and TDCPP were (2.07×0.19)×10-12, (2.69×0.63)×10-12 and (9.22×0.92)×10-13 cm3 molecule-1 s-1, respectively, from which approximate atmospheric lifetimes were estimated to be 5.6 (5.2-6.0), 4.3 (3.5-5.6), and 12.6 (11.4-14.0) days. These results represent the first reported estimates of heterogeneous rate constants for these species, and suggest that particle bound OPEs will be highly persistent in the atmosphere, supporting the assumption that OPEs can undergo medium or long-range transport, as proposed on the basis of field measurements.

  12. Diatomaceous Earths - Natural Insecticides

    Zlatko Korunić

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available The regulatory issues for diatomaceous earth (DE cover three fields: consumer safety,worker safety, and proof of efficacy against pests. For consumer safety, regulatory issuesare similar to those for other additives, and a principal benefit of DEs is their removal bynormal processing methods. For worker safety, regulatory issues are similar to those forother dusts, such as lime. The proof of potential insecticide values of DE may be assessedby using the analysis of physical and chemical properties of DE and its effect on grainproperties and the proof of efficacy may be regulated by bioassay of standard design.Integrated pest management (IPM, a knowledge-based system, is rapidly providing aframework to reduce dependence on synthetic chemical pesticides. The main principleof post-harvest IPM is to prevent problems rather than to react to them. The specificcurative measures using synthetic pesticides should be applied only when infestationoccurs. DE and enhanced diatomaceous earth (EDE formulations hold significant promiseto increase the effectiveness and broaden the adoption of IPM strategies, thereby reducingthe need for synthetic pesticides. By incorporating DE in an effective IPM program,grain is protected against infestation, loss caused by insects is prevented and grain qualityis maintained until the grain is processed. Cases study data on the use of DE for commodityand structural treatment show that DE is already a practical alternative to syntheticpesticides in some applications.

  13. Depression of plasma luteinizing hormone concentration in quail by the anticholinesterase insecticide parathion

    Rattner, B.A.; Clarke, R.N.; Ottinger, M.A.

    1986-01-01

    To examine the effects of parathion on basal plasma luteinizing hormone (LH) concentration, male Japanese quail (Coturnix japonica) were orally intubated with 0, 5 or 10 mg/kg parathion and sacrificed after 4, 8 and 24 hr. At the 5 mg/kg dose, plasma LH levels were reduced at 4 and 8 hr, but returned to control values by 24 hr. Brain acetylcholinesterase activity was substantially reduced by 10 mg/kg parathion (52, 75 and 37% inhibition at 4, 8 and 24 hr, respectively) and plasma LH concentration remained depressed through the 24-hr period. These findings suggest that the organophosphorus insecticide parathion may alter plasma LH concentration in a manner which might impair reproductive activity, and provide indirect evidence for a cholinergic component in the regulation of LH secretion in quail.

  14. Survival and behavior of the insecticide-exposed predators Podisus nigrispinus and Supputius cincticeps (Heteroptera: Pentatomidae).

    de Castro, A A; Corrêa, A S; Legaspi, J C; Guedes, R N C; Serrão, J E; Zanuncio, J C

    2013-10-01

    Pentatomid stinkbugs are important predators of defoliating caterpillars in agricultural and forestry systems, and knowledge of the impact of insecticides on natural enemies is important information for integrated pest management (IPM) programs. Thus, we assessed the toxicity and behavioral sublethal response of the predators Podisus nigrispinus and Supputius cincticeps exposed to deltamethrin, methamidophos, spinosad and chlorantraniliprole, insecticides commonly used to control the velvetbean caterpillar (Anticarsia gemmatalis) in soybean crops. With the exception of deltamethrin for S. cincticeps, all insecticides showed higher acute toxicity to the prey than to these natural enemies providing effective control of A. gemmatalis. The recommended field concentration of deltamethrin, methamidophos and spinosad for controlling A. gemmatalis caused 100% mortality of P. nigrispinus and S. cincticeps nymphs. Chlorantraniliprole was the less toxic and the most selective insecticide to these predators resulting in mortalities of less than 10% when exposed to 10× the recommended field concentration for a period of 72 h. Behavioral pattern changes in predators were found for all insecticides, especially methamidophos and spinosad, which exhibited irritability (i.e., avoidance after contact) to both predator species. However, insecticide repellence (i.e., avoidance without contact) was not observed in any of the insects tested. The lethal and sublethal effects of pesticides on natural enemies is of great importance for IPM, and our results indicate that substitution of pyrethroid and organophosphate insecticides at their field rates by chlorantraniliprole may be a key factor for the success of IPM programs of A. gemmatalis in soybeans. PMID:23880241

  15. Synthesis of insecticidal sucrose esters

    Song Zi-juan; Li Shu-jun; Chen Xi; Liu Li-mei; Song Zhan-qian

    2006-01-01

    Some synthetic sucrose esters (SE) are a relatively new class of insecticidal compounds produced by reacting sugars with fatty acids, which are safe for the environment. Especially, sucrose esters composed of C6-C12 fatty acids have desirable insecticidal properties against many soft-bodied arthropod pests. In our study, sucrose octanoate which has the highest activity against a range of arthropod species was synthesized by a trans-esterification method and proved its insecticidal property. Under the condition of a homogeneous liquid, sucrose octanoate was prepared by reacting ethyl octanoate with sucrose at reduced pressure; the yield was 79.11%. Sucrose octanoate synthesized was identified and its property analyzed by IR, TLC and spectrophotometric analysis. It was shown that the ratio of monoester to polyester in sucrose octanoate was 1.48:1. The insecticidal activity of the synthetic sucrose octanoate was evaluated at a concentration of 4 and 8 mg·mL-1. The mortality of first-instar larvae ofLymantria dispar from its contact toxicity was 72.5% after 36 hours, the revision insect reduced rate of Aphis glycines reached above 80% at 4 and 8 mg·mL-1 after being treated for 5 days. Since the SE products are nontoxic to humans and higher animals, fully biodegradable and hydrolyzed to readily metabolizable sucrose and fatty acid, they are not harmful to crops and appear to be good insecticide candidates.

  16. Particulate matter formation from photochemical degradation of organophosphorus pesticides

    Borrás, E.; Ródenas, M.; Vera, T.; Muñoz, A.

    2015-12-01

    Several experiments were performed in the European Photo-reactor - EUPHORE - for studying aerosol formation from organophosphorus pesticides such as diazinon, chlorpyrifos, chlorpyrifos-methyl and pirimiphos-methyl. The mass concentration yields obtained (Y) were in the range 5 - 44% for the photo-oxidation reactions in the presence and the absence of NOx. These results confirm the importance of studying pesticides as significant precursors of atmospheric particulate matter due to the serious risks associated to them. The studies based on the use of EUPHORE photoreactor provide useful data about atmospheric degradation processes of organophosphorus pesticides to the atmosphere. Knowledge of the specific degradation products, including the formation of secondary particulate matter, could complete the assessment of their potential impact, since the formation of those degradation products plays a significant role in the atmospheric chemistry, global climate change, radiative force, and are related to health effects.

  17. Large Enhancement of Optical Nonlinearities of New Organophosphorus Fullerene Derivative

    刘智波; 田建国; 臧维平; 周文远; 张春平; 郑建禺; 周迎春; 徐华

    2003-01-01

    Optical nonlinearities of new organophosphorus fullerene derivative were determined by the Z-scan method with a pulsed Q-switch Nd:YAG laser at 532nm. The experimental results demonstrated that the derivative has much larger excited-states nonlinear absorption and nonlinear refraction than C60. A five-level model was utilized to fit the experimental data, and a good agreement is reached. Some parameters such as excited-state absorption cross and refraction cross were obtained. To our knowledge, the excited-state cross section of new organophosphorus fullerene derivative and its effective ratio to the ground-state cross section are the largest values among the fullerene derivatives reported to date.

  18. The application of green chemistry methods in organophosphorus synthesis

    Odinets, Irina L.; Matveeva, E. V.

    2012-03-01

    Data concerning the synthesis of organophosphorus compounds in ionic liquids, in water and under solvent-free conditions are considered and summarized. It is shown that this strategy, which complies with the definition of green chemistry, has advantages in terms of the rate of the process and the yields of target products as compared with syntheses in common organic solvents. The Wittig, Horner-Wadsworth-Emmons, Kabachnik-Fields, Arbuzov and Michaelis reactions are considered as examples. The bibliography includes 178 references.

  19. Acetylcholinesterase Biosensors for Electrochemical Detection of Organophosphorus Compounds: A Review

    Vikas Dhull; Anjum Gahlaut; Neeraj Dilbaghi; Vikas Hooda

    2013-01-01

    The exponentially growing population, with limited resources, has exerted an intense pressure on the agriculture sector. In order to achieve high productivity the use of pesticide has increased up to many folds. These pesticides contain organophosphorus (OP) toxic compounds which interfere with the proper functioning of enzyme acetylcholinesterase (AChE) and finally affect the central nervous system (CNS). So, there is a need for routine, continuous, on spot detection of OP compounds which ar...

  20. Presence of organophosphorus pesticide oxygen analogs in air samples

    Armstrong, Jenna L.; Fenske, Richard A; Yost, Michael G.; Galvin, Kit; Tchong-French, Maria; Yu, Jianbo

    2013-01-01

    A number of recent toxicity studies have highlighted the increased potency of oxygen analogs (oxons) of several organophosphorus (OP) pesticides. These findings were a major concern after environmental oxons were identified in environmental samples from air and surfaces following agricultural spray applications in California and Washington State. This paper reports on the validity of oxygen analog measurements in air samples for the OP pesticide, chlorpyrifos. Controlled environmental and lab...

  1. The application of green chemistry methods in organophosphorus synthesis

    Data concerning the synthesis of organophosphorus compounds in ionic liquids, in water and under solvent-free conditions are considered and summarized. It is shown that this strategy, which complies with the definition of green chemistry, has advantages in terms of the rate of the process and the yields of target products as compared with syntheses in common organic solvents. The Wittig, Horner–Wadsworth–Emmons, Kabachnik–Fields, Arbuzov and Michaelis reactions are considered as examples. The bibliography includes 178 references.

  2. Clinical study of effects changxiao tuoning on cases of organophosphorus poisoning%长效托宁救治有机磷农药中毒临床研究

    张泽华; 吴继雄; 周玲

    2007-01-01

    长效托宁注射液(以下简称长效托宁)是抗胆碱新药。近年来,安徽医科大学第一附属医院应用该药治疗有机磷农药中毒(acute organophosphorus pesticide poisoning,AOPP)52例,取得了满意效果,现报告如下。

  3. Detection of organophosphorus compound based on a sol-gel silica planar waveguide doped with a green fluorescent protein and an organophosphorus hydrolase

    Enami, Y.; Tsuchiya, K.; Suye, S.

    2011-06-01

    In this letter, the authors report the real-time detection of an organophosphorus compound using a sol-gel silica planar waveguide doped with a green fluorescent protein and an organophosphorus hydrolase on a yeast-cell surface display. The waveguide was pumped at 488 nm, and it emitted green fluorescence at the far field. The green fluorescent light at 550 nm changed by 50% from the original power 1 min after application of the organophosphorus compound. The results enable the real-time detection of sarin and other biochemicals by using an in-line fiber sensor network.

  4. Potential exposure of pollinators to neonicotinoid insecticides from the use of insecticide seed treatments in the mid-southern United States.

    Stewart, Scott D; Lorenz, Gus M; Catchot, Angus L; Gore, Jeff; Cook, Don; Skinner, John; Mueller, Thomas C; Johnson, Donald R; Zawislak, Jon; Barber, Jonathan

    2014-08-19

    Research was done during 2012 to evaluate the potential exposure of pollinators to neonicotinoid insecticides used as seed treatments on corn, cotton, and soybean. Samples were collected from small plot evaluations of seed treatments and from commercial fields in agricultural production areas in Arkansas, Mississippi, and Tennessee. In total, 560 samples were analyzed for concentrations of clothianidin, imidacloprid, thiamethoxam, and their metabolites. These included pollen from corn and cotton, nectar from cotton, flowers from soybean, honey bees, Apis mellifera L., and pollen carried by foragers returning to hives, preplanting and in-season soil samples, and wild flowers adjacent to recently planted fields. Neonicotinoid insecticides were detected at a level of 1 ng/g or above in 23% of wild flower samples around recently planted fields, with an average detection level of about 10 ng/g. We detected neonicotinoid insecticides in the soil of production fields prior to planting at an average concentration of about 10 ng/g, and over 80% of the samples having some insecticide present. Only 5% of foraging honey bees tested positive for the presence of neonicotinoid insecticides, and there was only one trace detection (bees. Soybean flowers, cotton pollen, and cotton nectar contained little or no neonicotinoids resulting from insecticide seed treatments. Average levels of neonicotinoid insecticides in corn pollen ranged from less than 1 to 6 ng/g. The highest neonicotinoid concentrations were found in soil collected during early flowering from insecticide seed treatment trials. However, these levels were generally not well correlated with neonicotinoid concentrations in flowers, pollen, or nectar. Concentrations in flowering structures were well below defined levels of concern thought to cause acute mortality in honey bees. The potential implications of our findings are discussed. PMID:25010122

  5. The selectivity of DNA insecticides

    Oberemok V.; Nyadar P.

    2014-01-01

    Single-stranded LdMNPV iap3 gene fragments on tobacco hornworm and black cutworm, and a significant effect of single-stranded TnSNPV iap3 gene fragments on the viability of cabbage looper and their harmlessness on black cutworm was found. DNA insecticides based on LdMNPV iap3 and TnSNPV iap3 gene fragments are selective in action. Our findings emphasize the importance of appropriate concentrations of DNA insecticides used to control phyllophagous insects. This article has b...

  6. Influence of N-P base fiber reactive organophosphorus flame retardant on cotton thermal behavior

    An efficient synergistic effect between a nitrogen-containing organophosphorus compound in the presence of a catalytic amount of chlorine is proposed based on the cyanuric chloride-linked organophosphorus flame retardant, tetraethyl-2,2'-(6-chloro-1,3,5-triazine-2,4-diyl)bis(azanediyl)bis(ethane-2,1...

  7. Approach to synthesis and structure of chiral multi-functionalized organophosphorus derivatives

    2003-01-01

    The diastereomerically pure organophosphorus derivatives containing multiple chiral centers 5 and 5( were obtained, respectively, in 62%-84% yields with ≥98% de (diastereomeric excess) via asymmetric reaction of the chiron, 3-bromo-2(5H)-furanone 4 with racemic diethyl (-hydroxyl- substituted-phosphonates 3+ 3( and further through the separation of the diastereomeric mixture by chromatography. The structures of the chiral organophosphorus derivatives were identified on the basis of their elementary and spectroscopic data, such as IR, 1H NMR,13C NMR, MS and X-ray crystallography. In this report, the synthetic methods ofthe active organophosphorus substrates, the structure characterization and resolution, the optical purity and the stereochemistry of the chiral products were discussed. These results provide a new idea and a good method for synthesizing some natural organophosphorus compounds and approaching their biological activities, also a facile route to the application of organophosphorus substrates.

  8. Does Early-Life Exposure to Organophosphate Insecticides Lead to Prediabetes and Obesity?

    Slotkin, Theodore A.

    2010-01-01

    Human exposures to organophosphate insecticides are ubiquitous. Although regarded as neurotoxicants, increasing evidence points toward lasting metabolic disruption from early-life organophosphate exposures. We gave neonatal rats chlorpyrifos, diazinon or parathion in doses devoid of any acute signs of toxicity, straddling the threshold for barely-detectable cholinesterase inhibition. Organophosphate exposure during a critical developmental window altered the trajectory of hepatic adenylyl cyc...

  9. 毛细管气相色谱分析有机磷农药在中药材天花粉中的多残留%Capillary Gas Chromatography for Determining the Residues of Multiple Organophosphorus Pesticides in Radix Trichosanthis

    楼健; 加拉拉

    2003-01-01

    Objective: A capillary gas chromatographic(CGC)method for the determination of organophosphorus insecticide residue in the Chinese herbal medicine(Tianhuafen)is described.Method:Tianhuafen was extracted with acetone,the extract was not subjected to any clean-up procedure.GC determined organophosphorus insecticide residues with flame photometric detection and AT-1701 capillary column was used for the temperature-progra mmed chromatographic determination of pesticide residues.Results:High recoveries of 8 organophosphorus insecticides fortified at 0.01,0.1,and 1 mg·kg -1 levels were obtained.The limit of detection ranged from 0.002 0 to 0.016 5 ng.Conclusion:This method is simple,rapid with good reproducibility.%目的:采用毛细管气相色谱法测定有机磷农药在中药材天花粉中的多残留.方法:样品前处理十分简单,样品天花粉可用丙酮直接提取,并且无须净化.配用AT-1701毛细管柱,FPD检测器,程序升温,进行气相色谱测定.结果:8种有机磷农药(氧乐果、甲胺磷、敌百虫、乐果、甲基对硫磷、马拉硫磷、对硫磷、亚胺硫磷)在天花粉中的回收率添加浓度分别为0.01,0.1,1.0 mg*kg-1,最低检测量为0.002 0 ~ 0.016 5 ng.结论:本法简便、快速、重现性好.

  10. Characterization of acetylcholinesterase from the brain of the Amazonian tambaqui (Colossoma macropomum) and in vitro effect of organophosphorus and carbamate pesticides.

    Assis, Caio Rodrigo Dias; Castro, Patrícia Fernandes; Amaral, Ian Porto Gurgel; Carvalho, Elba Verônica Matoso Maciel; Carvalho, Luiz Bezerra; Bezerra, Ranilson Souza

    2010-10-01

    In the present study, acetylcholinesterase (AChE) from the brain of the Amazonian fish tambaqui (Colossoma macropomum) was partially characterized and its activity was assayed in the presence of five organophosphates (dichlorvos, diazinon, chlorpyrifos, and tetraethyl pyrophosphate [TEPP]) and two carbamates (carbaryl and carbofuran) insecticides. Optimal pH and temperature were 7.0 to 8.0 and 45°C, respectively. The enzyme retained approximately 70% of activity after incubation at 50°C for 30 min. The insecticide concentration capable of inhibiting half of the enzyme activity (IC50) for dichlorvos, chlorpyrifos, and TEPP were calculated as 0.04 µmol/L, 7.6 µmol/L, and 3.7 µmol/L, respectively. Diazinon and temephos did not inhibit the enzyme. The IC50 values for carbaryl and carbofuran were estimated as 33.8 µmol/L and 0.92 µmol/L, respectively. These results suggest that AChE from the juvenile C. macropomum brain could be used as an alternative biocomponent of organophosphorus and carbamate biosensors in routine pesticide screening in the environment. PMID:20872688

  11. Combined Non-Target Effects of Insecticide and High Temperature on the Parasitoid Bracon nigricans.

    Abbes, Khaled; Biondi, Antonio; Kurtulus, Alican; Ricupero, Michele; Russo, Agatino; Siscaro, Gaetano; Chermiti, Brahim; Zappalà, Lucia

    2015-01-01

    We studied the acute toxicity and the sublethal effects, on reproduction and host-killing activity, of four widely used insecticides on the generalist parasitoid Bracon nigricans (Hymenoptera: Braconidae), a natural enemy of the invasive tomato pest, Tuta absoluta (Lepidoptera: Gelechiidae). Laboratory bioassays were conducted applying maximum insecticide label rates at three constant temperatures, 25, 35 and 40°C, considered as regular, high and very high, respectively. Data on female survival and offspring production were used to calculate population growth indexes as a measure of population recovery after pesticide exposure. Spinetoram caused 80% mortality at 25°C and 100% at higher temperatures, while spinosad caused 100% mortality under all temperature regimes. Cyantraniliprole was slightly toxic to B. nigricans adults in terms of acute toxicity at the three temperatures, while it did not cause any sublethal effects in egg-laying and host-killing activities. The interaction between the two tested factors (insecticide and temperature) significantly influenced the number of eggs laid by the parasitoid, which was the lowest in the case of females exposed to chlorantraniliprole at 35°C. Furthermore, significantly lower B. nigricans demographic growth indexes were estimated for all the insecticides under all temperature conditions, with the exception of chlorantraniliprole at 25°C. Our findings highlight an interaction between high temperatures and insecticide exposure, which suggests a need for including natural stressors, such as temperature, in pesticide risk assessments procedures. PMID:26382245

  12. 有机磷农药中毒致神经损伤机制的研究进展%Research progress of the mechanism of never demage induced by organophosphorus pesticides poisonning

    王芳; 姚林; 王广增

    2005-01-01

    有机磷农药(organophosphorus pesticides,OPs)是我国生产和使用最多的农药,也是引起急性中毒和致死的主要农药。急性有机磷中毒(acute organophosphorus pesticides poisoning,AOPP)是临床常见急症,是我国农村常见的中毒性疾病。OPs对神经损伤是有机磷农药中毒患者致残和致死的主要原因。对中毒患者神经系统损伤的抢救和治疗也是决定有机磷中毒患者抢救成功及预后的关键。

  13. Oral toxicity of fipronil insecticide against the stingless bee Melipona scutellaris (Latreille, 1811).

    Lourenço, Clara Tavares; Carvalho, Stephan Malfitano; Malaspina, Osmar; Nocelli, Roberta Cornélio Ferreira

    2012-10-01

    For a better evaluation of the model using Apis mellifera in toxicology studies with insecticides, the oral acute toxicity of the insecticide fipronil against the stingless bee Melipona scutellaris was determined. The results showed that fipronil was highly toxic to M. scutellaris, with a calculated LC(50) (48 h) value of 0.011 ng a.i./μL of sucrose solution and an estimated oral LD(50) (48 h) of 0.6 ng a.i./bee. Our results showed that M. scutellaris bee is more sensitive to fipronil than the model specie A. mellifera. PMID:22886451

  14. Insecticide control of vector-borne diseases : when is insecticide resistance a problem ?

    Rivero, Ana; Vézilier, Julien; Weill, Mylène; Read, Andrew F.; Gandon, Sylvain

    2010-01-01

    Many of the most dangerous human diseases are transmitted by insect vectors. After decades of repeated insecticide use, all of these vector species have demonstrated the capacity to evolve resistance to insecticides. Insecticide resistance is generally considered to undermine control of vector-transmitted diseases because it increases the number of vectors that survive the insecticide treatment. Disease control failure, however, need not follow from vector control failure. Here, we review evi...

  15. The risk of insecticides to pollinating insects

    Connolly, Christopher N.

    2013-01-01

    A key new risk to our pollinators has been identified as exposure to neonicotinoid insecticides. These discoveries have refuelled the debate over whether or not the neonicotinoid insecticides should be banned and conflicting evidence is used in this battle. However, the issue is not black or white, but gray. It is not an issue of whether the neonicotinoids are toxic to insects or not. Clearly, all insecticides were designed and optimized for this attribute. The real question is, or at least s...

  16. Prenatal Insecticide Exposure and Children's Cognitive Development

    Gaspar, Fraser William

    2014-01-01

    Although approximately 123 million people may be exposed to high levels of insecticides through the use of indoor residual spraying (IRS) for malaria control, very little data exists on exposure levels and risk to residents. In addition, certain populations may be more susceptible to the unintended health effects of insecticide exposure from IRS including the developing fetus. The aims of this dissertation were as follows: 1) build indoor transport and fate models to estimate insecticide expo...

  17. Bacterial population succession and adaptation affected by insecticide application and soil spraying history

    Hideomi eItoh

    2014-08-01

    Full Text Available Although microbial communities have varying degrees of exposure to environmental stresses such as chemical pollution, little is known on how these communities respond to environmental disturbances and how past disturbance history affects these community-level responses. To comprehensively understand the effect of organophosphorus insecticide application on microbiota in soils with or without insecticide-spraying history, we investigated the microbial succession in response to the addition of fenitrothion (O,O-dimethyl O-(3-methyl-p-nitrophenyl phosphorothioate, abbreviated as MEP by culture-dependent experiments and deep sequencing of 16S rRNA genes. Despite similar microbial composition at the initial stage, microbial response to MEP application was remarkably different between soils with and without MEP-spraying history. MEP-degrading microbes more rapidly increased in the soils with MEP-spraying history, suggesting that MEP-degrading bacteria might already exist at a certain level and could quickly respond to MEP re-treatment in the soil. Culture-dependent and -independent evaluations revealed that MEP-degrading Burkholderia bacteria are predominant in soils after MEP application, limited members of which might play a pivotal role in MEP-degradation in soils. Notably, deep sequencing also revealed that some methylotrophs dramatically increased after MEP application, strongly suggesting that these bacteria play a role in the consumption and removal of methanol, a harmful derivative from MEP-degradation, for better growth of MEP-degrading bacteria. This comprehensive study demonstrated the succession and adaptation processes of microbial communities under MEP application, which were critically affected by past experience of insecticide-spraying.

  18. Catalytic hydrolysis for the degradation of organophosphorus pesticides in water

    The kinetic studies of catalytic hydrolysis revealed that the concentration of two kinds of organophosphorus pesticides (omethoate and methidathion) in solution apparently decays according to the second order reaction. It was found that the rate constant value was highest at strong acidic conditions and it continued to decrease as the pH of the solution was increased. At basic conditions the rate constant value decreased to minimum. Manganese dioxide under acidic conditions converted into Mn/sup 2+/ ions and then these ions in water form hexaaquomanganese (II) ion. This hexaaquomanganese (II ion then adsorbed itself on the S or O atom of the organophosphorus compound and thus weakens the bond between P-S. This reaction facilitated the attack of H/sub 2/O or OH/sup -/ ion and thus enhanced the efficiency of hydrolysis. It was studied that methidathion hydrolyzed more efficiently than omethoate The rate constants of catalytic hydrolysis were increased with increasing the amount of MnO/sub 2/. It was found that the pesticides had undergone adsorption on catalyst in the first few minutes and there was the rapid drop of total phosphorus concentration. The decrease of total phosphorus adsorption with increasing pH was also observed. After the addition of alkaline earth metal cations (Ca/sup 2+/ and Mg/sup 2+/) along with magnesium, the enhancement in the efficiency of hydrolysis at near neutral conditions occurred. (author)

  19. Poisoning of raptors with organophosphorus and carbamate pesticides with emphasis on Canada, U.S. and U.K.

    Mineau, P.; Fletcher, M.R.; Glaser, L.C.; Thomas, N.J.; Brassard, C.; Wilson, L.K.; Elliott, J.E.; Lyon, L.A.; Henny, C.J.; Bollinger, T.; Porter, S.L.

    1999-01-01

    We reviewed cases of raptor mortality resulting from cholinesterase-inhibiting pesticides. We compiled records from the U.S., U.K. and Canada for the period 1985-95 (520 incidents) and surveyed the relevant literature to identify the main routes of exposure and those products that led to the greatest number of poisoning cases. A high proportion of cases in the U.K. resulted from abusive uses of pesticides (willful poisoning). The proportion was smaller in North America where problems with labeled uses of pesticides were as frequent as abuse cases. Poisoning resulting from labeled use was possible with a large number of granular pesticides and some seed treatments through secondary poisoning or through the ingestion of contaminated invertebrates, notably earthworms. With the more toxic products, residue levels in freshly-sprayed insects were high enough to cause mortality. The use of organophosphorus products as avicides and for the topical treatment of livestock appeared to be common routes of intoxication. The use of insecticides in dormant oils also gave rise to exposure that can be lethal or which can debilitate birds and increase their vulnerability. A few pesticides of high toxicity were responsible for the bulk of poisoning cases. Based on limited information, raptors appeared to be more sensitive than other bird species to organophosphorus and carbamate pesticides. Some of the more significant risk factors that resulted in raptor poisonings were: insectivory and vermivory; opportunistic taking of debilitated prey; scavenging, especially if the gastrointestinal tracts are consumed; presence in agricultural areas; perceived status as pest species; and flocking or other gregarious behavior at some part of their life cycle. Lethal or sublethal poisoning should always be considered in the diagnosis of dead or debilitated raptors even when another diagnosis (e.g., electrocution, car or building strike) is apparent. Many cases of poisoning are not currently

  20. Levels of Organophosphorus Pesticides in Medicinal Plants Commonly Consumed in Iran

    Parisa Sarkhail

    2012-08-01

    Full Text Available The frequent occurrence of pesticide residues in herbal materials was indicated by previous studies. In this study, the concentration of some of the organophosphorus pesticides including parathion, malathion, diazinon and pirimiphos methyl in different kinds of medicinal plants were determined. The samples were collected randomly from ten local markets of different areas of Iran. At the detection limit of 0.5 ng g-1, parathion and pirimiphos methyl were not detected in any of the samples. Some amounts of malathion and diazinon were found in Zataria, Matricaria chamomile, Spearmint and Cumin Seed samples while, the concentrations of target organophosphorus pesticides in Borage samples were below the detection limits of the methods which could be a result of intensive transformation of organophosphorus pesticides by Borage. In addition the organophosphorus pesticides were detected in all of the samples below the maximum residue levels (MRLs proposed by the international organizations.

  1. Cumulative risk assessment of the intake of organophosphorus and carbamate pesticides in the Danish diet

    Jensen, A. F.; Petersen, Annette; Granby, Kit

    2003-01-01

    in the Danish nation-wide food consumption survey in 1995. The pesticide data are based on the Danish pesticide residue-monitoring programme from 1996-2001. The amount of 35 organophosphorus pesticides and carbamates were included in the cumulative risk assessment. Processing factors, such as reduction......The aim of the study is to evaluate the potential cumulative effects of organophosphorus and carbamate pesticides that act through a common mechanism of toxicity, and to assess the long- and short-term risks for the Danish population. The intake estimates are based on dietary intake data collected...... of pesticide levels by rinsing and peeling, were applied in the exposure assessment. The "Toxicity Equivalence Factor" (TEF) approach was used to normalise the toxicity of the different organophosphorus and carbamate pesticides. Cumulative chronic exposure of organophosphorus and carbamates pesticides via...

  2. HIGH PERFORMANCE LIQUID CHROMATOGRAPHIC SEPARATION OF THE ENANTIOMERS OF ORGANOPHOSPHORUS PESTICIDES ON POLYSACCHARIDE CHIRAL STATIONARY PHASES

    High-performance liquid chromatographic separation of the individual enantiomers of 12 organophosphorus pesticides (OPs) was obtained on polysaccharide enantioselective HPLC columns using alkane-alcohol mobile phase. The OP pesticides were crotoxyphos, dialifor, fonofos, fenamiph...

  3. HPLC SEPARATION OF CHIRAL ORGANOPHOSPHORUS PESTICIDES ON POLYSACCHARIDE CHIRAL STATIONARY PHASES

    High-performance liquid chromatographic separation of the individual enantiomers of 12 organophosphorus pesticides (OPs) were obtained on polysaccharide chiral HPLC columns using an alkane-alcohol mobile phase. The OP pesticides were crotoxyphos, dialifor, dyfonate, fenamiphos, ...

  4. Organophosphorus Compound DEPBT as a Coupling Reagent for Oligopeptides and Peptoids Synthesis: Studies on Its Mechanism

    2002-01-01

    Some oligopeptidcs and peptoids were synthesized by applying the organophosphorus compound DEPBT as a coupling rcagent. D-Biotin-OOBt was obtained unexpcctcdly. A proposed reaction mechanism for DEPBT-mediated coupling was proved.

  5. Levels of organophosphorus pesticides in medicinal plants commonly consumed in Iran

    Sarkhail Parisa

    2012-08-01

    Full Text Available Abstract The frequent occurrence of pesticide residues in herbal materials was indicated by previous studies. In this study, the concentration of some of the organophosphorus pesticides including parathion, malathion, diazinon and pirimiphos methyl in different kinds of medicinal plants were determined. The samples were collected randomly from ten local markets of different areas of Iran. At the detection limit of 0.5 ng g-1, parathion and pirimiphos methyl were not detected in any of the samples. Some amounts of malathion and diazinon were found in Zataria, Matricaria chamomile, Spearmint and Cumin Seed samples while, the concentrations of target organophosphorus pesticides in Borage samples were below the detection limits of the methods which could be a result of intensive transformation of organophosphorus pesticides by Borage. In addition the organophosphorus pesticides were detected in all of the samples below the maximum residue levels (MRLs proposed by the international organizations.

  6. Characterization of organophosphorus flame retardants' sorption on building materials and consumer products

    Better understanding the transport mechanisms of organophosphorus flame-retardants (OPFRs) in the residential environment is important to more accurately estimate their indoor exposure and develop risk management strategies that protect human health. This study describes an impro...

  7. Application of a radiometric enzymic method for monitoring organophosphorus and carbamate insecticide residues in water of the Danube River

    Pesticide residue analyses are conventionally based on gas chromatography. These analytic procedures include tedious extraction and clear-up manipulations prior to the actual gas chromatographic determinations. Radioenzymatic method was recently applied in a residue monitoring programme on the Danube River. The programme has demonstrated that the radioenzymatic method has many advantages as a monitoring procedure in aquatic environment. Quick information can be gained without tedious sample clear-up procedure. The anticholinesteratic pesticides and the anticholinesteratic activities can be detected

  8. Organophosphorus and Pyrethroid Insecticide Urinary Metabolite Concentrations in Young Children Living in a Southeastern United States City

    Biomonitoring studies provide valuable information on exposures to chemical contaminants, including pesticides. They can help to identify highly exposed populations and may be used to develop hypotheses about sources and pathways for exposure. A biomonitoring study was conducte...

  9. PHYSIOLOGICALLY-BASED PHARMACOKINETIC AND PHARMACODYNAMIC (PBPK/PD) MODEL FOR PREDICTING THE DERMAL DOSE AND DISPOSITION OF ORGANOPHOSPHORUS INSECTICIDES

    Physiologically-based pharmacokinetic/ pharmacodynamic (PBPK/PD) models are particularly suited for interpretation of cumulative risk via the dermal route for which aggregate exposure must be assessed for chemicals having a common mechanism of toxicity. To this end, a quantita...

  10. Comparative Toxicological Study between Exposed and Non-Exposed Farmers to Organophosphorus Pesticides

    Fariba Taghavian; Gholamhassan Vaezi; Mohammad Abdollahi; Ali Akbar Malekirad

    2016-01-01

    Objective: The purpose of this work was to compare DNA damage, acetylcholinesterase (AChE) activity, inflammatory markers and clinical symptoms in farmers exposed to organophosphorus pesticides to individuals that had no pesticide exposure. Materials and Methods: We conducted a cross-sectional survey with a total of 134 people. The subject group consisted of 67 farmers who were exposed to organophosphorus pesticides. The control group consisted of 67 people without any contact ...

  11. A nano-silver enzyme electrode for organophosphorus pesticide detection.

    Zheng, Qiqi; Yu, Yonghua; Fan, Kai; Ji, Feng; Wu, Jian; Ying, Yibin

    2016-08-01

    A nano-silver electrode immobilizing acetylcholinesterase (AChE) for the detection of organophosphorus (OPPs) pesticides is reported. Scanning electron microscopy (SEM) was used to characterize the surface structure of two kinds of electrodes fabricated with different sizes of silver powders and the interface between chitosan layer and nano-silver powder layer. Cyclic voltammetry was carried out to characterize the response of silver/chitosan electrode in the absence and in the presence of thiocholine (TCh). It was also used to evaluate the insulativity of the chitosan layer. An amperometric method was performed to measure the response of the electrode to TCh, which is the product of the enzymatic reaction for detecting organophosphorus pesticides indirectly. Although there are many kinds of nanoparticles, silver was chosen for its internal advantage in detecting TCh at low potential without further modification. The result shows nano-silver powder has better performance than usual silver powder, and the limit of detection of paraoxon is 4 ppb under optimized conditions. One percent (w/v) chitosan solution was used as binder for the immobilization of nano-silver powder and AChE, which made it possible for independent electrode fabrication at room temperature, whereas 3% (w/v) chitosan solution was used as insulating compound for controlling the electrode area. Unlike traditional organic insulating ink, chitosan is safe and environmentally friendly, and it is used as insulating material for the first time. The flexible nano-silver/AChE/chitosan electrode was evaluated in Chinese chives and cabbage, and the recoveries of standard addition were 105.11 and 96.41%, respectively. Owing to the antibacterial property of nano-silver and the biocompatibility, safety, and biodegradability of chitosan, the proposed method is safe, facile, environmentally friendly, and has great potential in organophosphorus pesticide detection for food safety. Graphical Abstract Current

  12. Insecticide Recommendations for Arkansas. MP 144.

    Jones, Bill F.; Barnes, Gordon

    This publication gives, in chart form, insecticides for use on animals, field crops, fruits, flowers, trees and shrubs, household pests, recreation areas, lawn and turf grass, pecans, stored grain, and vegetables. Included in the charts are the insecticides recommended for each insect, formulation to be used, amount, time to apply, and other…

  13. Insecticidal compounds from Kalanchoe daigremontiana x tubiflora.

    Supratman, U; Fujita, T; Akiyama, K; Hayashi, H

    2001-09-01

    Methyl daigremonate, an insecticidal bufadienolide, was isolated from the leaves of Kalanchoe daigremontianaxtubiflora (Crassulaceae) along with four known bufadienolides. Its structure was established by spectroscopic analysis, and insecticidal activities were assessed against the third instar larvae of silkworm (Bombyx mori). The results suggest that the orthoester and alpha-pyrone moieties played an important role in the activity. PMID:11551556

  14. Insecticide Resistance Reducing Effectiveness of Malaria Control

    2007-01-24

    Malaria prevention is increasingly insecticide based. Dr. John Gimnig, an entomologist with the Division of Parasitic Diseases, CDC, discusses evidence that mosquito resistance to insecticides, which is measured in the laboratory, could compromise malaria prevention in the field.  Created: 1/24/2007 by Emerging Infectious Diseases.   Date Released: 3/13/2007.

  15. Organophosphorus flame retardants and plasticizers in the atmosphere of the North Sea

    Air samples collected in the German part of the North Sea from March to July 2010 were investigated for organophosphorus compounds (OPs) being applied as flame retardants and plasticizers. The Σ8OPs concentration ranged from 110 to 1400 pg m-3 while tris(2-chloroisopropyl) phosphate (TCPP) dominated all samples with individual concentrations up to 1200 pg m-3. The highest concentrations were observed in continental air masses showing the high influence of industrialized regions including production sites on atmospheric emissions and concentrations. The occurrence of OPs even in oceanic/Arctic air masses shows that OPs can undergo long-range atmospheric transport. Dry particle-bound deposition fluxes from 9 to 240 ng m-2 d-1 for Σ8OPs were estimated leading to a minimum annual flux of 710 ± 580 kg y-1 OPs into the German North Sea. This study presents the first occurrence of OPs in the marine atmosphere together with important information on their long-range transport potential. - Highlights: → Organophosphorus flame retardants are detected for the first time in the marine atmosphere. → Organophosphorus compounds can undergo medium to long-range atmospheric transport. → Western Europe emits organophosphorus compounds to the marine atmosphere. → Marine air levels of organophosphorus flame retardants range up to 1 ng/m3. - Organophosphorus flame retardants, in particular tris(2-chloroisopropyl) phosphate, are emitted into the North Sea atmosphere by Western European countries.

  16. Organophosphorus flame retardants and plasticizers in the atmosphere of the North Sea

    Moeller, Axel, E-mail: axel.moeller@hzg.de [Helmholtz-Zentrum Geesthacht, Centre for Materials and Coastal Research, Institute of Coastal Research, Department for Environmental Chemistry, Max-Planck-Strasse 1, 21502 Geesthacht (Germany); Xie Zhiyong; Caba, Armando; Sturm, Renate; Ebinghaus, Ralf [Helmholtz-Zentrum Geesthacht, Centre for Materials and Coastal Research, Institute of Coastal Research, Department for Environmental Chemistry, Max-Planck-Strasse 1, 21502 Geesthacht (Germany)

    2011-12-15

    Air samples collected in the German part of the North Sea from March to July 2010 were investigated for organophosphorus compounds (OPs) being applied as flame retardants and plasticizers. The {Sigma}{sub 8}OPs concentration ranged from 110 to 1400 pg m{sup -3} while tris(2-chloroisopropyl) phosphate (TCPP) dominated all samples with individual concentrations up to 1200 pg m{sup -3}. The highest concentrations were observed in continental air masses showing the high influence of industrialized regions including production sites on atmospheric emissions and concentrations. The occurrence of OPs even in oceanic/Arctic air masses shows that OPs can undergo long-range atmospheric transport. Dry particle-bound deposition fluxes from 9 to 240 ng m{sup -2} d{sup -1} for {Sigma}{sub 8}OPs were estimated leading to a minimum annual flux of 710 {+-} 580 kg y{sup -1} OPs into the German North Sea. This study presents the first occurrence of OPs in the marine atmosphere together with important information on their long-range transport potential. - Highlights: > Organophosphorus flame retardants are detected for the first time in the marine atmosphere. > Organophosphorus compounds can undergo medium to long-range atmospheric transport. > Western Europe emits organophosphorus compounds to the marine atmosphere. > Marine air levels of organophosphorus flame retardants range up to 1 ng/m{sup 3}. - Organophosphorus flame retardants, in particular tris(2-chloroisopropyl) phosphate, are emitted into the North Sea atmosphere by Western European countries.

  17. Effects of the insecticide Dursban 4E (active ingredient chlorpyrifos) in outdoor experimental ditches: I. comparison of short-term toxicity between the laboratory and the field

    Wijngaarden, van R.P.A.; Brink, van den P.J.; Crum, S.J.H.; Oude Voshaar, J.H.; Brock, T.C.M.; Leeuwangh, P.

    1996-01-01

    By means of the insecticide chlorpyrifos, results of acute single-species toxicity tests were compared with direct effects in outdoor mesocosms. In the mesocosms, chlorpyrifos concentrations between 0.1 and 44 Šg/l were sprayed once. Acute effects were observed on arthropods. Effects could be quanti

  18. Determination of organophosphorus pesticide residues in tomatoes by gas chromatography

    Chloropyriphos and malathion are two organophosphorus pesticides from many others pesticides widely used by famers in agriculture .Because of their bad effect on human health, officials standards are set by the international organisations and communities to ensure safer food for consumer .In the same way, scientists over the world are working hard to develop new detection techniques responding to the international requirements. In this study, an ' IAEA-ethylacetate method ', an adaptation of the popular QuEChERS multi residue method, was optimized to analyse chloropyriphos and Malathion residues in tomatoes .Ethyl-Acetate was used as an extraction solvent the PSA was kept for the clean up procedure. GC-NPD is used for samples analysis .The method optimized is specifique, selective with a recovery averaged more than 70 pour cent. A complete validation of the method is necessary to be used for routine analysis.

  19. Fluorescent chemosensors for toxic organophosphorus pesticides: a review.

    Obare, Sherine O; De, Chandrima; Guo, Wen; Haywood, Tajay L; Samuels, Tova A; Adams, Clara P; Masika, Noah O; Murray, Desmond H; Anderson, Ginger A; Campbell, Keith; Fletcher, Kenneth

    2010-01-01

    Many organophosphorus (OP) based compounds are highly toxic and powerful inhibitors of cholinesterases that generate serious environmental and human health concerns. Organothiophosphates with a thiophosphoryl (P=S) functional group constitute a broad class of these widely used pesticides. They are related to the more reactive phosphoryl (P=O) organophosphates, which include very lethal nerve agents and chemical warfare agents, such as, VX, Soman and Sarin. Unfortunately, widespread and frequent commercial use of OP-based compounds in agricultural lands has resulted in their presence as residues in crops, livestock, and poultry products and also led to their migration into aquifers. Thus, the design of new sensors with improved analyte selectivity and sensitivity is of paramount importance in this area. Herein, we review recent advances in the development of fluorescent chemosensors for toxic OP pesticides and related compounds. We also discuss challenges and progress towards the design of future chemosensors with dual modes for signal transduction. PMID:22163587

  20. Fluorescent Chemosensors for Toxic Organophosphorus Pesticides: A Review

    Kenneth Fletcher

    2010-07-01

    Full Text Available Many organophosphorus (OP based compounds are highly toxic and powerful inhibitors of cholinesterases that generate serious environmental and human health concerns. Organothiophosphates with a thiophosphoryl (P=S functional group constitute a broad class of these widely used pesticides. They are related to the more reactive phosphoryl (P=O organophosphates, which include very lethal nerve agents and chemical warfare agents, such as, VX, Soman and Sarin. Unfortunately, widespread and frequent commercial use of OP-based compounds in agricultural lands has resulted in their presence as residues in crops, livestock, and poultry products and also led to their migration into aquifers. Thus, the design of new sensors with improved analyte selectivity and sensitivity is of paramount importance in this area. Herein, we review recent advances in the development of fluorescent chemosensors for toxic OP pesticides and related compounds. We also discuss challenges and progress towards the design of future chemosensors with dual modes for signal transduction.

  1. Environmental Fate of Organophosphorus Compounds Related to Chemical Weapons

    Davisson, M L; Love, A H; Vance, A; Reynolds, J G

    2005-02-08

    Man-made organophosphorus compounds have been widely distributed throughout our environment as pesticides since their development during and after WWII. Many important studies have documented their relative persistence and toxicity. Development and use of some organophosphorus compounds as nerve agents gave rise to a separate but parallel effort to understand environmental persistence. In this latter case, the experiments have focused mainly on evaporation rates and first-order reaction kinetics. However, because organophosphorus compounds are easily polarized, the ionic content of a surrounding media directly factors into these reaction rates, but limited work in this regard has been done under environmentally relevant conditions. Furthermore, limited experiments investigating persistence of these agents on soil has resulted in widely varying degradation rates. Not surprisingly, no studies have investigated affinities of organophosphorus nerve agents to mineral or organic matter typically found in soil. As a result, we initiated laboratory experiments on dilute concentrations of nerve agent O-ethyl S-(2-diisopropylaminoethyl) methylphosphonothiolate (VX) to quantify persistence in simulated environmental aqueous conditions. A quantitative analytical method was developed for VX and its degradation products using High Performance Liquid Chromatography-Electrospray Ionization-Mass Spectrometry (HPLC-ESI-MS). VX hydrolysis rate is known to have a pH-dependency, however, the type of buffer and the relative proportion of different nucleophiles in solution significantly affect the overall rate and mechanism of degradation. For example, dissolved carbonate, a weak nucleophile dominating natural water, yielded pseudo-first order rate constants of {approx} 8 x 10{sup -3}/hr at pH 5 and 2 x 10{sup -2}/hr at pH 11. This small pH-dependent variation departs significantly from widely accepted rates at this pH range (4 x 10{sup -4}/hr to 8 x 10{sup -2}/hr) that were based on

  2. Natural factors as potential insecticides

    In order to reduce environmental pollution, it is of great interest to find alternative methods for controlling insect pests. With the progress made in the isolation and identification of peptides and endogenous toxins from insects, the question can be raised whether or not these natural factors are potentially useful as insecticides. The aim of the present study was to test certain toxins and myotropic peptides isolated from insects for their usefulness as insecticides. Over twenty neuropeptides isolated from different insect species have been isolated and identified in the laboratory. To date, tests have been carried out on the influence of four neuropeptides on the food intake of L1 larvae of Mamestra brassicae. Also, the crude haemolymph, as well as some of the purified fractions of the Colorado potato beetle, have been tested. At least one of the neuropeptides and some of the compounds present in the haemolymph and the purified fraction D have a negative influence on the development of L1 larvae of M. brassicae after oral intake. (author). 6 refs, 1 fig

  3. SPLICE VARIANT SPECIFIC UPREGULATIONOF CA+2/CALMODULIN DEPENDENT PROTEIN KINASE 1G BY PYRETHROID INSECTICIDES IN VIVO.

    Pyrethroid insecticides induce neurotoxicity in mammals by interfering with ion channel function in excitable neuronal membranes. Previous work demonstrated dose-dependent increases in expression of Ca+2/calmodulin dependent protein kinase (Camk1g) mRNA following acute deltameth...

  4. Monoacylglycerol lipase inhibition by organophosphorus compounds leads to elevation of brain 2-arachidonoylglycerol and the associated hypomotility in mice

    Three components of the cannabinoid system are sensitive to selected organophosphorus (OP) compounds: monoacylglycerol (MAG) lipase that hydrolyzes the major endogenous agonist 2-arachidonoylglycerol (2-AG); fatty acid amide hydrolase (FAAH) that cleaves the agonist anandamide present in smaller amounts; the CB1 receptor itself. This investigation considers which component of the cannabinoid system is the most likely contributor to OP-induced hypomotility in mice. Structure-activity studies by our laboratory and others rule against major involvement of a direct toxicant-CB1 receptor interaction for selected OPs. Attention was therefore focused on the OP sensitivities of MAG lipase and FAAH, assaying 19 structurally diverse OP chemicals (pesticides, their metabolites and designer compounds) for in vitro inhibition of both enzymes. Remarkably high potency and low selectivity is observed with three O-alkyl (C1, C2, C3) alkylphosphonofluoridates (C8, C12) (IC50 0.60-3.0 nM), five S-alkyl (C5, C7, C9) and alkyl (C1, C12) benzodioxaphosphorin oxides (IC50 0.15-5.7 nM) and one OP insecticide metabolite (chlorpyrifos oxon, IC50 34-40 nM). In ip-treated mice, the OPs at 1-30 mg/kg more potently inhibit brain FAAH than MAG lipase, but FAAH inhibition is not correlated with hypomotility. However, the alkylphosphonofluoridate-treated mice show dose-dependent increases in severity of hypomotility, inhibition of MAG lipase activity and elevation of 2-AG. Moderate to severe hypomotility is accompanied by 64 to 86% MAG lipase inhibition and about 6-fold elevation of brain 2-AG level. It therefore appears that OP-induced MAG lipase inhibition leads to elevated 2-AG and the associated hypomotility

  5. An Indigenously Developed Insecticidal Aerosol

    R. N. Varma

    1969-10-01

    Full Text Available A total of 6 "Test" insecticidal aerosols (TA-I to VI indigenously produced were tested during the years 1966-67 as suitable replacements for imported aerosols.TA-I produced deep yellow staining and a yellowish spray mist. Its capacity was only 120 ml fluid. TA-III types II and III containing modified aerosol formulation with "Esso solvent 3245" and mineral turpentine oil (Burmah Shelland Freon 12 11 (all indigenouswere comparable to he "SRA" in insecticidial efficacy. The container was also manufactured in the country and it compared well with the "SRA" in construction, resistance against rough usage and mechanical function. They were both finally approved for introduction in the services as replacement for imported aerosols. TA-IV performed well in inscticidial assessment, but the aerosols formulation. TA-V and VI were similar to TA-III types II and III respectively.

  6. 急性有机磷农药中毒患者心肌酶及心电图检测临床分析%CLINICAL ANALYSIS OF MYOCARDIAL ENZYME AND ECG OF ORGANOPHOSPHORUS PESTICIDE POISONING PATIENTS

    王卫民; 何玉娟

    2011-01-01

    [Objective]To discuss the clinical significance of changes on myocardial enzymes and ECG in patients with acute organophosphorus pesticide poisoning and its relationship with prognosis.[Methods]From January 2006 -December 2009, 85 patients with acute organophosphorus pesticide poisoning were admitted to hospital and the dynamic observation of their enzymes was made, then compared clinical data to analyze.[Results]The serum enzyme of 85 cases of acute organophosphorus pesticide poisoning were increased with different levels, EKG changed obviously, 16 cases died.[Conclusion]The illness is severer, the more obvious increase of enzymes is found, and the prognosis is worse.It should protect the heart at early stage to reduce mortality and improve the cure rate.%[目的]探讨急性有机磷农药中毒患者心肌酶学及心电图改变的临床意义及预后的关系.[方法]对2006年1月~2009年12月85例急性有机磷农药中毒患者入院后作心肌酶动态观察并结合临床资料进行分析.[结果]85例急性有机磷农药中毒病人的血清心肌酶均有不同程度的升高,心电图发生明显改变,死亡16例.[结论]病情越重,心肌酶升高幅度越明显,预后越差,应早期应用保护心脏药物,降低死亡率,提高治愈率.

  7. Identification tree based on fragmentation rules for structure elucidation of organophosphorus esters by electrospray mass spectrometry.

    Schwarzenberg, Adrián; Ichou, Farid; Cole, Richard B; Machuron-Mandard, Xavier; Junot, Christophe; Lesage, Denis; Tabet, Jean-Claude

    2013-05-01

    Organophosphorus compounds have played important roles as pesticides, chemical warfare agents and extractors of radioactive material. Structural elucidation of phosphonates poses a particular challenge because their initial forms can be hydrolyzed, thus, degradation products may predominate in samples acquired in the field. The analysis of non-volatile organophosphorus compounds and their degradation products is possible using electrospray tandem mass spectrometry ESI-MS/MS. Here, we present a generic strategy that allows the unambiguous identification of substituents for two families of organophosphorus compounds: the phosphonates and phosphates. General fragmentation rules were deduced based on the study of decomposition pathways of 55 organophosphorus esters, including examples found in the literature. Multistage MS (MS(n)) experiments at high resolution in a hybrid mass spectrometer provide accurate mass measurements, whereas collision-induced dissociation experiments in a triple quadrupole give access to small fragment ions. The creation of a specific nomenclature for each possible structure of organophosphorus compound, depending on the alkyl side chain linked to the oxygen, was achieved by applying these fragmentation rules. This led to the creation of an 'identification tree' based upon the unique consecutive decomposition pathways uncovered for each individual compound. Hence, seven structural motifs were created that orient an unequivocal identification using the 'identification tree'. Despite the similar structures of the ensemble of phosphate and phosphonate esters, distinct identifications based upon characteristic neutral losses and diagnostic fragment ions were possible in all cases. PMID:23674282

  8. Management of Insecticide Resistance: Adana Model

    Alptekin, Davut

    2015-01-01

    Many diseases in the world have been transmitted to humans by insects. Chemical substances that are used against pests or insect vectors in agricultural production and public health are called pesticide. Insecticides are chemical substances or a group of substances used to kill Insects which are classified within pesticides forming the class of Insecta including any biological stage of insects (larva, pupa, adult). Insecticides are classified according to their effective biological stage (adu...

  9. Insecticide Resistanca in Maleria Vector An. sacharovi

    Üniversitesi, Çukurova; ABD, Tıp Fakültesi Tıbbi Biyoloji; Balcalı,; Adana-TÜRKİYE,

    2000-01-01

    Susceptibility tests have been successfully used for many years to determine insecticide resistance raised in pest and vector insects, including An. sacharovi,the primary human malaria vector in Turkey. As this method does not provide sufficient information about physiological resistance, an alternative method of enzyme tests based on biochemical and genetic evaluations has been developed. In this study, both methods were used for comparison. First of all, susceptibility to insecticides w...

  10. Inhibition of aflatoxin production by selected insecticides.

    Draughon, F A; Ayres, J. C.

    1981-01-01

    The insecticide naled completed inhibition production of aflatoxins B1, B2, G1, and G2 by and growth of Aspergillus parasiticus at a 100-ppm (100 microgram/ml) concentration. The insecticides dichlorvos, Landrin, pyrethrum, Sevin, malathion, and Diazinon significantly (P = 0.05) inhibited production of aflatoxins at a 100-ppm concentration. However, at a concentration of 10 ppm, significant inhibition in production of aflatoxins was found only with naled, dichlorvos, Sevin, Landrin, and pyret...

  11. Integrating circadian activity and gene expression profiles to predict chronotoxicity of Drosophila suzukii response to insecticides.

    Hamby, Kelly A; Kwok, Rosanna S; Zalom, Frank G; Chiu, Joanna C

    2013-01-01

    Native to Southeast Asia, Drosophila suzukii (Matsumura) is a recent invader that infests intact ripe and ripening fruit, leading to significant crop losses in the U.S., Canada, and Europe. Since current D. suzukii management strategies rely heavily on insecticide usage and insecticide detoxification gene expression is under circadian regulation in the closely related Drosophila melanogaster, we set out to determine if integrative analysis of daily activity patterns and detoxification gene expression can predict chronotoxicity of D. suzukii to insecticides. Locomotor assays were performed under conditions that approximate a typical summer or winter day in Watsonville, California, where D. suzukii was first detected in North America. As expected, daily activity patterns of D. suzukii appeared quite different between 'summer' and 'winter' conditions due to differences in photoperiod and temperature. In the 'summer', D. suzukii assumed a more bimodal activity pattern, with maximum activity occurring at dawn and dusk. In the 'winter', activity was unimodal and restricted to the warmest part of the circadian cycle. Expression analysis of six detoxification genes and acute contact bioassays were performed at multiple circadian times, but only in conditions approximating Watsonville summer, the cropping season, when most insecticide applications occur. Five of the genes tested exhibited rhythmic expression, with the majority showing peak expression at dawn (ZT0, 6am). We observed significant differences in the chronotoxicity of D. suzukii towards malathion, with highest susceptibility at ZT0 (6am), corresponding to peak expression of cytochrome P450s that may be involved in bioactivation of malathion. High activity levels were not found to correlate with high insecticide susceptibility as initially hypothesized. Chronobiology and chronotoxicity of D. suzukii provide valuable insights for monitoring and control efforts, because insect activity as well as insecticide timing

  12. RFID Tracking of Sublethal Effects of Two Neonicotinoid Insecticides on the Foraging Behavior of Apis mellifera

    Schneider, Christof W.; Tautz, Jürgen; Grünewald, Bernd; Fuchs, Stefan

    2012-01-01

    The development of insecticides requires valid risk assessment procedures to avoid causing harm to beneficial insects and especially to pollinators such as the honeybee Apis mellifera. In addition to testing according to current guidelines designed to detect bee mortality, tests are needed to determine possible sublethal effects interfering with the animal's vitality and behavioral performance. Several methods have been used to detect sublethal effects of different insecticides under laboratory conditions using olfactory conditioning. Furthermore, studies have been conducted on the influence insecticides have on foraging activity and homing ability which require time-consuming visual observation. We tested an experimental design using the radiofrequency identification (RFID) method to monitor the influence of sublethal doses of insecticides on individual honeybee foragers on an automated basis. With electronic readers positioned at the hive entrance and at an artificial food source, we obtained quantifiable data on honeybee foraging behavior. This enabled us to efficiently retrieve detailed information on flight parameters. We compared several groups of bees, fed simultaneously with different dosages of a tested substance. With this experimental approach we monitored the acute effects of sublethal doses of the neonicotinoids imidacloprid (0.15–6 ng/bee) and clothianidin (0.05–2 ng/bee) under field-like circumstances. At field-relevant doses for nectar and pollen no adverse effects were observed for either substance. Both substances led to a significant reduction of foraging activity and to longer foraging flights at doses of ≥0.5 ng/bee (clothianidin) and ≥1.5 ng/bee (imidacloprid) during the first three hours after treatment. This study demonstrates that the RFID-method is an effective way to record short-term alterations in foraging activity after insecticides have been administered once, orally, to individual bees. We contribute further information on

  13. Insecticidal sugar baits for adult biting midges.

    Snyder, D; Cernicchiaro, N; Allan, S A; Cohnstaedt, L W

    2016-06-01

    The mixing of an insecticide with sugar solution creates an oral toxin or insecticidal sugar bait (ISB) useful for reducing adult insect populations. The ability of ISBs to kill the biting midge Culicoides sonorensis Wirth and Jones (Diptera: Ceratopogonidae), a vector of bluetongue virus, epizootic hemorrhagic disease and vesicular stomatitis viruses, was tested. The commercial insecticide formulations (percentage active ingredient) tested included bifenthrin, cyfluthrin, deltamethrin, permethrin, dinotefuran, imidacloprid, thiamethoxam and spinosad. Mortality rates were determined for various concentrations of commercial formulations (0.01, 0.05, 0.1, 1, 2 and 3%) and observed at 1, 4, 10 and 24 h post-exposure to the ISB. In the first set of assays, laboratory-reared midges were fed sugar ad libitum and then exposed to insecticide-treated sugar solutions to measure mortality. The second assay assessed competitive feeding: midges were provided with a control sugar solution (10% sucrose) in one vial, and a sugar and insecticide solution in another. Pyrethroid treatments resulted in the greatest mortality in the first hour at the lowest concentrations and spinosad consumption resulted in the least mortality. Biting midges were not deterred from feeding on the 1% ISB solutions despite the presence of an insecticide-free alternative source of sugar. PMID:26789534

  14. Organophosphorus reagents in actinide separations: Unique tools for production, cleanup and disposal

    Interactions of actinide ions with phosphate and organophosphorus reagents have figured prominently in nuclear science and technology, particularly in the hydrometallurgical processing of irradiated nuclear fuel. Actinide interactions with phosphorus-containing species impact all aspects from the stability of naturally occurring actinides in phosphate mineral phases through the application of the bismuth phosphate and PUREX processes for large-scale production of transuranic elements to the development of analytical separation and environment restoration processes based on new organophosphorus reagents. In this report, an overview of the unique role of organophosphorus compounds in actinide production, disposal, and environment restoration is presented. The broad utility of these reagents and their unique chemical properties is emphasized

  15. Multiresidue determination of organophosphorus pesticides in solid waste environmental samples by gas chromatography.

    Wu, Shijian; Zhang, Huanyan; Chen, Beibei; Liu, Ming; Shen, Yanjun; Sha, Qichao; Zhi, Yuee; Zhou, Pei

    2014-01-01

    The method for the determination of 12 organophosphorus pesticides in solid waste was established. The organophosphorus pesticides were analyzed by Soxhlet extraction or accelerated solvent extraction (ASE)-SPE cartridge-flame photometric detector (FPD), and leaching solution by rotary oscillation-positive pressure filtration-liquid-liquid extraction-SPE cartridge-FPD. The differences of extraction efficiencies between Soxhlet and ASE were compared. Solvent of Soxhlet extraction, purification and recovery of organophosphorus pesticides in leaching conditions were also studied. The recoveries were 54.2-119.8%, and the average recovery was 87.7%. The RSD was 1.89-9.10% (n = 6), the average RSD was 6.88%, and the detection limit was 0.27-0.69 μg/kg. PMID:25903001

  16. Transient expression of organophosphorus hydrolase to enhance the degrading activity of tomato fruit on coumaphos

    Jie-hong ZHAO; De-gang ZHAO

    2009-01-01

    We constructed an expression cassette of the organophosphorus pesticide degrading (opd)gene under the control of the E8 promoter.Then opd was transformed into tomato fruit using an agroinfiltration transient expression system.β-Glueuronidase (GUS) staining,reverse transcription-polymerase chain reaction (RT-PCR),wavelength scanning,and fluorescent reaction were performed to examine the expression of the opd gene and the hydrolysis activity on eoumaphos of organophosphorus hydrolase (OPH) in tomato fruit.The results show that the agroinfiltrated tomato fruit-expressed OPH had the maximum hydrolysis activity of about 11.59 U/mg total soluble protein.These results will allow us to focus on breeding transgenie plants that could not only enhance the degrading capability of fruit and but also hold no negative effects on pest control when spraying organophosphorus pesticides onto the seedlings in fields.

  17. ANALYSIS OF ORGANOPHOSPHORUS POISONING, AT TERTIARY CARE HOSPITAL: A REPORT

    Shakuntala

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: Organophosphorus (OP compounds are the most common suicidal poison in developing countries and mortality continues to be high. The present study was aimed to know the pattern and outcome of the OP poisoning. METHODOLOGY: A record based retrospective study from January 2013 - December 2013 was Conducted in a tertiary care hospital and data regarding age, gender, domicile, type of poison, manner of poisoning, seasonal trends, marital status, motive behind poisoning , socio - economic status and outcome was collected in a pre - structured Performa. All data were documented, analyzed and interpreted as per the laid down protocol. RESULTS : out of total 1575 cases of OP compound poisoning, 71.73% (1130 were male, 28.27% (445 were female, 34.6% were in the age group 21 - 30 years, 70.95% were of low socio - economic status, Occupation wise agricultural workers were on top of the list (70.07%, The commonest (93.78% motive behind poisoning was suicidal in both males and females, Financial problem was one of the commonest (51.22% reasons of poisoning. The mortality rate in our study was 13.47%. CONCLUSION : Y oung and adult males of Low socio - economic class, rural, both literate and illiterate agriculturists commonly abuse this substance to commit suicide

  18. Preparation of Electrochemical Biosensor for Detection of Organophosphorus Pesticides

    Ashish Gothwal

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Polyvinyl chloride (PVC can be used to develop reaction beaker which acts as electrochemical cell for the measurement of OP pesticides. Being chemically inert, corrosion resistant, and easy in molding to various shapes and size, PVC can be used for the immobilization of enzyme. Organophosphorus hydrolase was immobilized covalently onto the chemically activated inner surface of PVC beaker by using glutaraldehyde as a coupling agent. The carbon nanotubes paste working electrode was constructed for amperometric measurement at a potential of +0.8 V. The biosensor showed optimum response at pH 8.0 with incubation temperature of 40°C. Km and Imax for substrate (methyl parathion were 322.58 µM and 1.1 µA, respectively. Evaluation study showed a correlation of 0.985, which was in agreement with the standard method. The OPH biosensor lost 50% of its initial activity after its regular use for 25 times over a period of 50 days when stored in 0.1 M sodium phosphate buffer, pH 8.0 at 4°C. No interference was observed by interfering species.

  19. Detection of Organophosphorus Pesticides with Colorimetry and Computer Image Analysis.

    Li, Yanjie; Hou, Changjun; Lei, Jincan; Deng, Bo; Huang, Jing; Yang, Mei

    2016-01-01

    Organophosphorus pesticides (OPs) represent a very important class of pesticides that are widely used in agriculture because of their relatively high-performance and moderate environmental persistence, hence the sensitive and specific detection of OPs is highly significant. Based on the inhibitory effect of acetylcholinesterase (AChE) induced by inhibitors, including OPs and carbamates, a colorimetric analysis was used for detection of OPs with computer image analysis of color density in CMYK (cyan, magenta, yellow and black) color space and non-linear modeling. The results showed that there was a gradually weakened trend of yellow intensity with the increase of the concentration of dichlorvos. The quantitative analysis of dichlorvos was achieved by Artificial Neural Network (ANN) modeling, and the results showed that the established model had a good predictive ability between training sets and predictive sets. Real cabbage samples containing dichlorvos were detected by colorimetry and gas chromatography (GC), respectively. The results showed that there was no significant difference between colorimetry and GC (P > 0.05). The experiments of accuracy, precision and repeatability revealed good performance for detection of OPs. AChE can also be inhibited by carbamates, and therefore this method has potential applications in real samples for OPs and carbamates because of high selectivity and sensitivity. PMID:27396650

  20. Efforts toward treatments against aging of organophosphorus-inhibited acetylcholinesterase.

    Zhuang, Qinggeng; Young, Amneh; Callam, Christopher S; McElroy, Craig A; Ekici, Özlem Dogan; Yoder, Ryan J; Hadad, Christopher M

    2016-06-01

    Aging is a dealkylation reaction of organophosphorus (OP)-inhibited acetylcholinesterase (AChE). Despite many studies to date, aged AChE cannot be reactivated directly by traditional pyridinium oximes. This review summarizes strategies that are potentially valuable in the treatment against aging in OP poisoning. Among them, retardation of aging seeks to lower the rate of aging through the use of AChE effectors. These drugs should be administered before AChE is completely aged. For postaging treatment, realkylation of aged AChE by appropriate alkylators may pave the way for oxime treatment by neutralizing the oxyanion at the active site of aged AChE. The other two strategies, upregulation of AChE expression and introduction of exogenous AChE, cannot resurrect aged AChE but may compensate for lowered active AChE levels by in situ production or external introduction of active AChE. Upregulation of AChE expression can be triggered by some peptides. Sources of exogenous AChE can be whole blood or purified AChE, either from human or nonhuman species. PMID:27327269

  1. Recovery of cholinesterase activity in mallard ducklings administered organophosphorus pesticides

    Fleming, W.J.; Bradbury, S.P.

    1981-01-01

    Oral doses of the organophosphorus pesticides acephate, dicrotophos, fensulfothion, fonofos, malathion, and parathion were administered to mallard ducklings (Anas platyrhynchos), and brain and plasma cholinesterase (ChE) activities were determined for up to 77 d after dosing. In vivo recovery of brain ChE activity to within 2 standard deviations of the mean activity of undosed birds occurred within 8 d, after being depressed an average of 25-58% at 24 h after dosing. In vivo recovery of plasma ChE appeared as fast as or faster than that of brain, but the pattern of recovery was more erratic and therefore statistical comparison with brain ChE recovery was not attempted. In vitro tests indicated that the potential for dephosphorylation to contribute to in vivo recovery of inhibited brain ChE differed among chemical treatments. Some ducklings died as a result of organophosphate dosing. In an experiment in which ducklings within each treatment group received the same dose (mg/kg), the brain ChE activity in birds that died was less than that in birds that survived. Brain ChE activities in ducklings that died were significantly different among pesticide treatments: fensulfothion > parathion> acephate > malathion (p < 0.05).

  2. Clinico-epidemiological characteristics of patients presenting with organophosphorus poisoning

    Indranil Banerjee

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available Background: Organophosphorus (OP poisoning is a major health problem all over the world, particularly in the developing countries. Aim: The present study aims to explore the clinical and epidemiological features found in patients presenting with OP poisoning. Materials and Methods: A 1-year cross-sectional study was conducted on patients presenting with clinical features of OP poisoning in a tertiary care medical college. Results: A total of 968 patients presented during the study period. Poisoning with suicidal intent (82.02% was more common than the accidental one (17.98%. Majority of the patients were housewives (42% followed by farmers, shopkeepers, laborers, students. Methyl parathion was the most common poison consumed by the patients (35.74% followed by diazinon, chlorpyriphos, dimicron. Nausea and vomiting (85.02% was the most common symptom while miosis was the most common sign observed in 91.94% patients. A total of 56 patients of OP poisoning died (5.78% with respiratory failure being the primary cause of death followed by CNS depression, cardiac arrest, and septicaemia. Conclusion: The present study showed that majority of the patients were of young age with females outnumbering males. Poisoning with suicidal intent was more common than accidental. Nausea and vomiting was the most common symptom reported by the patients while miosis was the most common sign observed by the treating physicians of the research team.

  3. Predictors of morbidity and mortality in organophosphorus poisoning: A case study in rural hospital in Karnataka, India

    Tanveer Hassan Banday

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Background: Organophosphorus (OP pesticides poisoning can result from occupational, accidental or intentional exposure. Clinical manifestations include cholinergic syndromes, central nervous (CNS system and cardiovascular disorders. Death is usually due to cardiovascular and respiratory failure. Aim: To evaluate various parameters that can predict outcome of patients in OP poisoning. Materials and Methods: A prospective study conducted in Department of Medicine, Adichunchingiri Institute Of medical Sciences and Research Centre, Karnataka, over period of 1 year. Diagnosis of OP poisoning was based on clinical history of exposure to OP compound and low serum pseudocholinesterase levels. Results: In the present study 133 patients were enrolled, out of which 98.5% were suicidal cases and only 1.5% had accidental exposure. Majority of cases were young male, with F/M ratio 1:3.2. Mortality rates were higher in younger people and in patients who required prolonged ventilator support. The mortality rate was directly proportional to amount of poison consumed, lag time, organ failure (Acute Renal Failure and plasma pseudocholinesterase levels. Acute complications were frequently noted and were related to morbidity and mortality. No strict relationship was found between liver dysfunction, electrolyte disturbance and clinical outcome. Conclusion: This case study concluded that mortality is directly proportionate to the lag time, amount of OP substances consumed, clinical severity, pseudocholinesterase levels, Acute renal failure and duration of ventilatory support. This study highlights the importance of rapid diagnosis, and initiation of early and effective treatment, which may result in less number complications and also decreases the mortality rates.

  4. Carbofuran-Induced Acute Pancreatitis

    Rizos E

    2004-01-01

    Full Text Available CONTEXT: Carbamate insecticides are widely used in commercial agriculture and home gardening. A serious side effect of organophosphate and carbamate intoxication is the development of acute pancreatitis. CASE REPORT: A 36-year-old Caucasian woman was admitted to our hospital with cholinergic crisis and pancreatitis soon after the ingestion of a carbamate insecticide (carbofuran. An abdominal CT scan disclosed pancreatic necrosis with intrapancreatic fluid collection, consistent with the development of a pancreatic pseudocyst in a subsequent CT scan. No predisposing factor for pancreatitis was evident. Pseudocholinesterase levels returned to normal 7 days later and the patient was discharged in good physical condition one month after admission. DISCUSSION: Although acute pancreatitis is not infrequent after organophosphate intoxication, it is quite rare after carbamate ingestion and has not been previously reported after carbofuran intoxication.

  5. Modeling global distribution of agricultural insecticides in surface waters

    Agricultural insecticides constitute a major driver of animal biodiversity loss in freshwater ecosystems. However, the global extent of their effects and the spatial extent of exposure remain largely unknown. We applied a spatially explicit model to estimate the potential for agricultural insecticide runoff into streams. Water bodies within 40% of the global land surface were at risk of insecticide runoff. We separated the influence of natural factors and variables under human control determining insecticide runoff. In the northern hemisphere, insecticide runoff presented a latitudinal gradient mainly driven by insecticide application rate; in the southern hemisphere, a combination of daily rainfall intensity, terrain slope, agricultural intensity and insecticide application rate determined the process. The model predicted the upper limit of observed insecticide exposure measured in water bodies (n = 82) in five different countries reasonably well. The study provides a global map of hotspots for insecticide contamination guiding future freshwater management and conservation efforts. - Highlights: • First global map on insecticide runoff through modelling. • Model predicts upper limit of insecticide exposure when compared to field data. • Water bodies in 40% of global land surface may be at risk of adverse effects. • Insecticide application rate, terrain slope and rainfall main drivers of exposure. - We provide the first global map on insecticide runoff to surface water predicting that water bodies in 40% of global land surface may be at risk of adverse effects

  6. To identify morbidity and mortality predictors in acute organophosphate poisoning

    Arti Muley

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Background: Organophosphorus poisoning remains an important cause of morbidity and mortality, but no definite parameters have been identified as predictors of outcome. Prediction of morbidity at presentation might help in decision making in places of limited resources like rural settings in developing countries. Materials and Methods: A total of 76 cases were included in this retrospective cohort study. Logged relative risk of requirement of mechanical ventilation and hospital stay >7 days was measured in patients with serum acetylcholinesterase (s. acetylcholinesterase 1000, presenting in 12 and in patients with SpO 2 7 days. Conclusion: S. acetylcholinesterase, SpO 2 at room air, GCS, and duration of exposure at presentation can be used to identify the requirement of special care in acute organophosphorus poisoning. This can aid in decision making regarding admission to intensive care unit and referral in the places with limited resources.

  7. QSAR for cholinesterase inhibition by organophosphorus esters and CNDO/2 calculations for organophosphorus ester hydrolysis. [quantitative structure-activity relationship, complete neglect of differential overlap

    Johnson, H.; Kenley, R. A.; Rynard, C.; Golub, M. A.

    1985-01-01

    Quantitative structure-activity relationships were derived for acetyl- and butyrylcholinesterase inhibition by various organophosphorus esters. Bimolecular inhibition rate constants correlate well with hydrophobic substituent constants, and with the presence or absence of cationic groups on the inhibitor, but not with steric substituent constants. CNDO/2 calculations were performed on a separate set of organophosphorus esters, RR-primeP(O)X, where R and R-prime are alkyl and/or alkoxy groups and X is fluorine, chlorine or a phenoxy group. For each subset with the same X, the CNDO-derived net atomic charge at the central phosphorus atom in the ester correlates well with the alkaline hydrolysis rate constant. For the whole set of esters with different X, two equations were derived that relate either charge and leaving group steric bulk, or orbital energy and bond order to the hydrolysis rate constant.

  8. Neurobehavioral toxicology of pyrethroid insecticides

    Pyrethroid insecticides are classified as either Type I or Type II based upon in vivo toxic signs, and neurophysiological and biochemical data. Both axonal sodium channels and the γ-aminobutyric acid (GABA) receptor complex have been proposed as the major site of action of the Type II pyrethroids. This investigation characterized the behavior and biochemical effects of low dosages of pyrethroids in rats. Type I and II pyrethroids were tested for effects on figure-eight maze activity and the acoustic startle response (ASR). All compounds decreased figure-eight maze activity. Interactions of Type I and II pyrethroids with the three major binding sites on the GABA complex were determined in vivo. Radioligand binding experiments assessed in vitro interactions of pyrethroids with the three major GABA-complex binding sites. None of the pyrethroids competed for [3H]-muscimol or [3H]-flunitrazepam binding. Only Type II pyrethroids inhibited binding of [35S]-t-butylbicyclophosphorothionate (TBPS) in cortical synaptosome preparations with K/sub i/ values of 5 to 10 μM. The [35S]-TBPS data implicate the TBPS/picrotoxinin binding site in the mechanism of Type II pyrethroid toxicity. The results of these experiments support the classification of pyrethroids into two classes, and demonstrate the utility of the figure-eight maze and the ASR in studies to elucidate neurotoxic mechanisms. The interaction of the Type II pyrethroids is probably restricted to the TBPS/picrotoxinin binding domain on the GABA complex as shown by both the in vivo and in vitro studies

  9. Design, synthesis and bioassay of new mosquito insecticides and repellents

    New compounds and classes of compounds are needed to protect deployed military personnel from diseases transmitted by medically important arthropods. Historically, the synthetic insecticides and repellents have been effective tools for mosquito control. To develop new synthetic insecticides and repe...

  10. [ORGANOPHOSPHORUS FLAME RETARDANTS - TOXICITY AND INFLUENCE ON HUMAN HEALTH].

    Bruchajzer, Elżbieta; Frydrych, Barbara; Szymańska, Jadwiga Anna

    2015-01-01

    Organophosphorus flame retardants (flame retardants, FRs) have been used for several decades in many industries, including the production of dyes, varnishes, adhesives, synthetic resins, polyvinyl chloride, hydraulic fluids, plastics and textiles. Their importance in recent times has increased due to i.a., significantly reduced use of polybrominated diphenyl ethers (PBDEs) - persistent organic pollutants, dangerous for the environment. The aim of this study was to review the available literature data concerning phosphorous FRs primarily for neurotoxic, fertility, reproductive and carcinogenic effects. The analysis concerned the following most commonly used substances: tris(2-ethylhexyl)phosphate (TEHP), tris(2-butoxyethyl)phosphate (TBEP), triphenyl phosphate (TPP), tris(2-chloroethyl)phosphate (TCEP), tetrakis(hydroxymethyl)-phosphonium chloride (THPC), tributyl phosphate (TBP), tricresyl phosphate (TCP), tris(2-chloroisopropyl)phosphate (TCPP), tris(1,3-dichloroisopropyl)phosphate (TDCP) and tetrakis(hydroxymethyl)phosphonium sulphate (THPS). In animal studies neurotoxic effects were found after exposure to TBEP, THPC, TBP and TCP, while in humans they were observed only after exposure to TCP. TCEP, THPS, TBP, TCP and TDCP caused disorders in fertility and/or fetal development of animals. Adverse effects on reproduction in humans may be caused by TPP, TCP, and TDCP. In laboratory animals the development of tumors was observed after high doses of TEHP, TCEP, TBP and TDCP. None of these compounds is classified as a human carcinogen. The environmental toxicity of phosphate FRs is low (except for TPP, TCEP and TBEP). They are not stable compounds, in living organisms they are metabolised and quickly excreted. Therefore, they can be used as an alternative to PBDEs. PMID:26294315