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Sample records for acute l-alanyl-l-glutamine ingestion

  1. Examination of the efficacy of acute L-alanyl-L-glutamine ingestion during hydration stress in endurance exercise

    Yamamoto Linda M

    2010-02-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background The effect of acute L-alanyl-L-glutamine (AG; Sustamine™ ingestion on performance changes and markers of fluid regulation, immune, inflammatory, oxidative stress, and recovery was examined in response to exhaustive endurance exercise, during and in the absence of dehydration. Methods Ten physically active males (20.8 ± 0.6 y; 176.8 ± 7.2 cm; 77.4 ± 10.5 kg; 12.3 ± 4.6% body fat volunteered to participate in this study. During the first visit (T1 subjects reported to the laboratory in a euhydrated state to provide a baseline (BL blood draw and perform a maximal exercise test. In the four subsequent randomly ordered trials, subjects dehydrated to -2.5% of their baseline body mass. For T2, subjects achieved their goal weight and were not rehydrated. During T3 - T5, subjects reached their goal weight and then rehydrated to 1.5% of their baseline body mass by drinking either water (T3 or two different doses (T4 and T5 of the AG supplement (0.05 g·kg-1 and 0.2 g·kg-1, respectively. Subjects then exercised at a workload that elicited 75% of their VO2 max on a cycle ergometer. During T2 - T5 blood draws occurred once goal body mass was achieved (DHY, immediately prior to the exercise stress (RHY, and immediately following the exercise protocol (IP. Resting 24 hour (24P blood samples were also obtained. Blood samples were analyzed for glutamine, potassium, sodium, aldosterone, arginine vasopressin (AVP, C-reactive protein (CRP, interleukin-6 (IL-6, malondialdehyde (MDA, testosterone, cortisol, ACTH, growth hormone and creatine kinase. Statistical evaluation of performance, hormonal and biochemical changes was accomplished using a repeated measures analysis of variance. Results Glutamine concentrations for T5 were significantly higher at RHY and IP than T2 - T4. When examining performance changes (difference between T2 - T5 and T1, significantly greater times to exhaustion occurred during T4 (130.2 ± 340.2 sec and T5 (157.4

  2. Effect of acute L-Alanyl-L-Glutamine and electrolyte ingestion on cognitive function and reaction time following endurance exercise.

    Pruna, Gabriel J; Hoffman, Jay R; McCormack, William P; Jajtner, Adam R; Townsend, Jeremy R; Bohner, Jonathan D; La Monica, Michael B; Wells, Adam J; Stout, Jeffrey R; Fragala, Maren S; Fukuda, David H

    2016-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to examine the effect of the L-Alanyl-L-Glutamine dipeptide (AG) on cognitive function and reaction time (RT) following endurance exercise. Twelve male endurance athletes (23.5 ± 3.7 y; 175.5 ± 5.4 cm; 70.7 ± 7.6 kg) performed four trials, each consisting of running on a treadmill at 70% of VO2max for 1h, then at 90% of VO2max until exhaustion. One trial consisted of no hydration (DHY), another required ingestion of only a sports electrolyte drink (ED) and two trials required ingestion of a low dose (LD; 300 mg·500 ml(-1)) and high dose (HD) of AG (1 g·500ml(-1)) added to the ED. Cognitive function and reaction tests were administered pre- and post-exercise. Magnitude based inferences were used to analyze ∆ cognitive function and ∆ reaction test data. Results indicated that DHY had a possible negative effect on number of hits in a 60-sec reaction test compared to LD and HD, while ED appeared to have a negative effect compared to HD. Analysis of lower body quickness indicated that LD and HD were likely improved in comparison to DHY. Performance on the serial subtraction test appeared to be possibly better in ED than DHY, while other comparisons between groups regarding cognitive function were unclear. In conclusion, rehydrating with AG during submaximal exercise may maintain or enhance subsequent RT in upper and lower body activities compared to DHY. These same effects were not apparent when participants consumed ED. PMID:25321847

  3. L-alanyl-L-glutamine ingestion maintains performance during a competitive basketball game

    Hoffman Jay R

    2012-03-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background The purpose of this study was to examine the efficacy of L-alanyl-L-glutamine (AG ingestion on basketball performance, including jump power, reaction time, shooting accuracy and fatigue. Methods Ten women (21.2 ± 1.6 years; height: 177.8 ± 8.7 cm; body mass: 73.5 ± 8.0 kg, all scholarship NCAA Division I basketball players, volunteered for this study. Subjects participated in four trials, each consisting of a 40-min basketball game with controlled time-outs for rehydration. During the first trial (DHY subjects were not allowed to rehydrate, and the total weight lost during the contest was used to determine fluid replenishment during the subsequent three trials. During one trial subjects consumed only water (W, while during the other two trials subjects consumed the AG supplement mixed in water using either a low dose (1 g per 500 ml (AG1 or high dose (2 g per 500 ml (AG2 concentration. All data assessed prior to and following each game were converted into a Δ score (Post results - Pre results. All performance data were then analyzed using a one-way repeated measures analysis of variance. Results During DHY subjects lost 1.72 ± 0.42 kg (2.3% of their body mass. No differences in fluid intake (1.55 ± 0.43 L were seen between rehydration trials. A 12.5% (p = 0.016 difference in basketball shooting performance was noted between DHY and AG1 and an 11.1% (p = 0.029 difference was seen between AG1 and W. Visual reaction time was significantly greater following AG1 (p = 0.014 compared to DHY. Differences (p = 0.045 in fatigue, as determined by player loads, were seen only between AG2 and DHY. No differences were seen in peak or mean vertical jump power during any trial. Conclusion Rehydration with AG appears to maintain basketball skill performance and visual reaction time to a greater extent than water only.

  4. Double-blinded, placebo-controlled trial on intravenous L-alanyl-L-glutamine in the incidence of oral mucositis following chemoradiotherapy in patients with head-and-neck cancer

    Purpose: We performed this double-blinded, placebo-controlled study to determine the safety and efficacy of L-alanyl-L-glutamine in the prevention of mucositis in patients with head-and-neck cancer. Methods and Materials: Thirty-two patients with head-and-neck cancer were treated with chemoradiotherapy (CRT) (radiotherapy daily up to 70 Gy plus cisplatin/5-fluoruracil once a week) and were asked to participate. Twenty-nine patients received the CRT schedule and were double-blindly assigned to receive either intravenous L-alanyl-L-glutamine 0.4 g/kg weight/day or an equal volume of saline (placebo) during chemotherapy days. Results: Fourteen patients received L-alanyl-L-glutamine and 15 received placebo. Mucositis was assessed by the Objective Mucositis Score (OMS) and the World Health Organization (WHO) grading system. There was a significant difference in incidence of mucositis developed in patients receiving placebo compared with those who received L-alanyl-L-glutamine (p = 0.035). The number of patients with severe objective mucositis (OMS >1.49) was higher in the placebo group compared with the L-alanyl-L-glutamine group (67% vs. 14%, p 0.007). L-alanyl-L-glutamine patients experienced less pain (three highest Numeric Rating Scale scores of 1.3/10 vs. 6.3/10 respectively, p = 0.008) and need for feeding tubes (14% vs. 60% respectively, p = 0.020) compared with placebo patients. No adverse effects related to the drug or the infusions were noted in either group. Conclusion: For patients with head-and-neck cancer receiving CRT, intravenous L-alanyl-L-glutamine may be an effective preventive measure to decrease the severity of mucositis

  5. Efeito da suplementação com L-alanil-L-glutamina sobre a resposta de hipersensibilidade do tipo tardio em ratos submetidos ao treinamento intenso Effect of L-glutamine and L-alanyl-L-glutamine supplementation on the response to delayed-type hypersensitivity test (DTH in rats submitted to intense training

    Marcelo Macedo Rogero

    2002-12-01

    Full Text Available O treinamento intenso e o exercício exaustivo podem ocasionar imunossupressão em atletas por meio da diminuição da concentração plasmática de glutamina. O presente estudo verificou inicialmente o efeito da suplementação com L-glutamina e L-alanilL-glutamina sobre a resposta ao teste de hipersensibilidade do tipo tardio (HTT em ratos submetidos ao treinamento intenso em natação durante seis semanas. Posteriormente, foi avaliado o efeito dessas intervenções nutricionais sobre a contagem total e porcentual de leucócitos e concentração sérica de anticorpos IgG anti-albumina de soro bovino, em animais submetidos ao teste de exaustão e recuperados durante o período de 3 horas. Não houve efeito do treinamento e da suplementação sobre a resposta ao teste de HTT. Animais suplementados apresentaram maior concentração de glutamina no plasma (PIntense training and exhaustive exercise may cause immunesupression in athletes by reducing plasma glutamine concentration. Initially, this study verified the effect of L-glutamine and L-alanyl-L-glutamine supplementation on the response to delayed-type hypersensitivity test (DTH in rats submitted to intense swimming training for six weeks. Later on, we assessed the effect of these nutritional interventions on total and differential white blood cell counts and on concentration of anti-bovine serum albumin IgG antibodies, in animals submitted to exhaustion test and a three-hour recovery period. There was no effect of training and supplementation on the response to DTH. Supplemented animals presented greatest plasma glutamine concentration (p<0.05, though this increase in glutaminemia did not interfere on the serum IgG antibody concentration. The recovery period after intense exercise resulted in decreased glutaminemia as compared with the values obtained immediately after exhaustion test (p<0.05. Increase in corticosterone levels induced by strenuous exercises led to leukocytosis, neutrophilia

  6. Supplementation with L-Glutamine and L-Alanyl-L-Glutamine Changes Biochemical Parameters and Jejunum Morphophysiology in Type 1 Diabetic Wistar Rats

    da Rosa, Carlos Vinicius D.; Azevedo, Silvia C. S. F.; Bazotte, Roberto B.; Peralta, Rosane M.; Buttow, Nilza C.; Maria Montserrat D Pedrosa; Vilma A F de Godoi; Maria Raquel M Natali

    2015-01-01

    We evaluated the effects of the supplementation with L-glutamine and glutamine dipeptide (GDP) on biochemical and morphophysiological parameters in streptozotocin-diabetic rats. For this purpose, thirty animals were distributed into six groups treated orally (gavage) during thirty days: non diabetic rats (Control) + saline, diabetic + saline; Control + L-glutamine (248 mg/kg), Diabetic + L-glutamine (248 mg/kg), Control + GDP (400 mg/kg), Diabetic + GDP (400 mg/kg). Diabetes was induced by an...

  7. Hemorrhagic Encephalopathy from Acute Baking Soda Ingestion

    Hughes, Adrienne; Brown, Alisha Emily Cutler; Valento, Matthew

    2016-01-01

    Baking soda is a readily available household product composed of sodium bicarbonate. It can be used as a home remedy to treat dyspepsia. If used in excessive amounts, baking soda has the potential to cause a variety of serious metabolic abnormalities.  We believe this is the first reported case of hemorrhagic encephalopathy induced by baking soda ingestion.  Healthcare providers should be aware of the dangers baking soda misuse and the associated adverse effects.

  8. Hemorrhagic Encephalopathy From Acute Baking Soda Ingestion

    Adrienne Hughes

    2016-09-01

    Full Text Available Baking soda is a readily available household product composed of sodium bicarbonate. It can be used as a home remedy to treat dyspepsia. If used in excessive amounts, baking soda has the potential to cause a variety of serious metabolic abnormalities. We believe this is the first reported case of hemorrhagic encephalopathy induced by baking soda ingestion. Healthcare providers should be aware of the dangers of baking soda misuse and the associated adverse effects.

  9. Acute gastroduodenal injury after ingestion of diluted herbicide pendimethalin.

    Tsukada, K; Azuhata, H; Katoh, H; Kuwano, H

    2009-03-01

    The herbicide, pendimethalin, is used worldwide, but its acute toxicity is not yet widely known. There have been some reported acute pendimethalin poisoning cases in humans and most of them intentionally ingested the concentrated formulation. We describe a 73-year-old man who developed corrosive gastroduodenal injury after accidental ingestion of the diluted (300 times with water) pendimethalin formulation. He had a history of reflux oesophagitis and had been taking omeprazol (10 mg/day) for a year. He consumed alcohol two hours after the accidental ingestion and then had nausea and epigastric pain. Endoscopy performed three days post-exposure revealed gastroduodenal injury. As he had consumed alcohol every day for years and had no history of gastroduodenal ulcer, the accidental ingestion may be associated with this injury. He was successfully treated by increasing his dosage of omeprazol (20 mg/day) for two weeks. This case indicates that ingestion of a small quantity of pendimethalin can provoke gastroduodenal injury. PMID:19352552

  10. Acute Hepatic Failure in a Dog after Xylitol Ingestion.

    Schmid, Renee D; Hovda, Lynn R

    2016-06-01

    Xylitol is a five-carbon sugar alcohol produced from natural resources frequently used as a sugar substitute for humans. We report the development and successful treatment of acute hepatic failure and coagulopathy in a dog after xylitol ingestion. A 9-year-old 4.95 kg (10.9 lb) neutered male Chihuahua was evaluated at a veterinary clinic for vomiting after ingesting 224 g (45 g/kg, 20.5 g/lb) of granulated xylitol. Hypoglycemia developed within 1-2 h, elevated liver values, suggesting the development of acute hepatic failure, within 12 h and coagulopathy less than 24 h after ingestion. Treatment included maropitant, intravenous dextrose, phytonadione, metronidazole, and fresh frozen plasma. N-acetylcysteine (NAC) and S-adensoyl-L-methionine (SAMe) provided hepatic detoxification and support. The dog survived and liver values returned to normal within 1 month post ingestion. No adverse effects to hepatic function have been identified 2 years after acute xylitol toxicity. This paper is one of the few reports of successful management of a dog with hypoglycemia, hepatic failure, and coagulopathy caused by xylitol toxicity. To date, this is the highest published xylitol dose survived by a dog, as well as the only reported case that documents laboratory changes throughout the course of toxicity and includes normal hepatic indices for 7 months following xylitol toxicity. The rapidly expanding use of xylitol in a variety of products intended for human consumption has led to a rise in xylitol toxicity cases reported in dogs, and clinicians should be aware that more dogs may potentially be exposed and develop similar manifestations. PMID:26691320

  11. [Acute liver failure after ingestion of death cap mushrooms].

    Zuliani, Anna-Maria; Kabar, Iyad; Mitchell, Todd; Heinzow, Hauke Sebastian

    2016-07-01

    Amatoxins, which are mainly found in Amanita phalloides, Amanita virosa, and Galerina autumnalis, are responsible for the majority of fatal intoxication with green death cap. The intoxication is associated with acute liver failure, which explains the poor prognosis. Acute liver injury is generally preceeded by a gastrointestinal phase with nausea, vomiting and diarrhea. In the course, pre-renal kidney failure due to the associated fluid deficit and fulminant liver failure may occur. General guidelines for the treatment of amatoxin poisoning are yet not available. We report on three patients who suffered from amatoxin mushroom poisoning after ingestion of green death cap mushrooms. Based on the pathophysiology of amatoxin poisoning, we discuss a potential therapeutic approach. PMID:27359312

  12. Quantitative high-performance liquid chromatography-tandem mass spectrometry impurity profiling methods for the analysis of parenteral infusion solutions for amino acid supplementation containing L-alanyl-L-glutamine.

    Schiesel, Simone; Lämmerhofer, Michael; Leitner, Alexander; Lindner, Wolfgang

    2012-10-12

    Potential impurities in a parenteral infusion solution for amino acid supplementation containing alanylglutamine (AlaGln) and glycyltyrosine (GlyTyr) as peptide constituents have been determined. Such complex multicomponent pharmaceutical formulations with reactive ingredients may yield a multitude of impurities in stress testing samples. Thus, three stability indicating LC-ESI-MS/MS methods were developed for the establishment of quantitative impurity profiles employing a Chiralpak QN-AX and a Polysulfoethyl A stationary phase in HILIC mode as well as a Gemini C18 stationary phase in gradient RPLC mode. The primary goal was to separate isobaric compounds (stereoisomers, constitutional isomers, retro-peptides) and to provide quantitative data of impurities identified in stressed nutritional infusion solutions. The optimized methods were calibrated by standard addition in the samples and validated according to ICH guidelines. The methods were then applied for the analysis of stressed sample solutions stored under different conditions. Major peptide impurities found in concentrations above the qualification threshold in stressed solutions stored at 40 °C for 6 months comprised cyclo(AlaGln) 808 μg/mL, pyroGluAla 122 μg/mL, AlaGlu 117 μg/mL, cycloGlyTyr 60 μg/mL, AlaGln epimers (DL+LD) 38 μg/mL, and TyrGly 27 μg/mL. A number of impurities above the reporting threshold were also detected including AlaAlaGln 18 μg/mL, cyclo(AlaGlu) 16 μg/mL, AlaGlu(AlaGln) 17 μg/mL, and AlaGlu(His) 12 μg/mL. The study showed that bioactive peptides may be formed in amino acid infusion solutions by condensation of amino acids and a careful control of these impurities is mandatory. PMID:22305362

  13. Acute renal failure by ingestion of Euphorbia paralias

    Karima Boubaker

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Euphorbia paralias is known in traditional medicine as an anti-inflammatory agent, a purgative and for its local anesthetic property. To the best our knowledge, renal toxicity of this substance has not been previously reported. In this paper, we report the case of a 29-year-old male who developed renal damage following ingestion of Euphorbia paralias. He had been on follow-up for nephrotic syndrome since 1986, although irregularly, with several relapses but each responding well to steroid therapy. A kidney biopsy had not been performed earlier due to refusal by the patient. He was off steroids since April 2008 because the patient developed osteoporosis. He was admitted with general malaise and oliguria to our department in May 2009, following repeated vomiting and watery diarrhea for three days. On examination, he was edematous but had normal vital signs except for a pulse rate of 120/min. Hemoglobin was only 5.5 g/dL but with normal white cell and platelet counts. Blood biochemistry showed evidence of advanced renal failure with a serum creatinine level of 1835 μmol/L and urea at 44.6 mmol/L, sodium of 132 μmol/L and potassium at 4.3 mmol/L. He had features of nephrotic syndrome with severe hypoproteinamia and 24-h urinary protein of 10.45 g. Ultrasonography revealed enlarged kidneys with a reduced echogenecity of the medulla and the papillae. Subsequently, after hemodialysis with blood transfusion, a kidney biopsy was performed that showed focal segmental glomerulosclerosis associated with an acute tubular injury. On intensive interrogation, the patient gave a history of ingesting boiled Euphorbia paralias as a native treatment for edema, ten days prior to the onset of the current illness. A diagnosis of acute renal failure (ARF resulting from the possible nephrotoxic effect of Euphorbia paralias poisoning was made. He was treated with intermittent hemodialysis and corticosteroids. Serum creatinine values improved after 48 days. At six

  14. Ingestive Skill Difficulties are Frequent Among Acutely-Hospitalized Frail Elderly Patients, and Predict Hospital Outcomes

    Hansen, Tina; Faber, Jens Oscar

    2012-01-01

    Purpose : To examine the relationship between ingestive skill performance while eating and drinking and frailty status in acutely-hospitalized elderly patients and to examine whether there is a relationship between the proportion of ingestive skill difficulties and Length of Hospital Stay (LOS) a...

  15. Magnetic resonance spectroscopic diagnosis of acute alcohol ingestion with hidden history

    Parenchymal changes within the brain in chronic alcoholics are well known, and specific MRI and MR spectroscopy findings have been described. However, recent alcohol ingestion goes undetected on routine MRI because of lack of specific parenchymal changes in the acute setting. Magnetic resonance spectroscopy can detect the presence of ethanol as a metabolite in the brain accurately and can provide valuable information regarding acute ingestion of alcohol. This may be useful especially in cases where history of alcohol ingestion is withheld. Copyright (2006) Blackwell Science Pty Ltd

  16. Metabolic responses to the acute ingestion of two commercially available carbonated beverages: A pilot study

    Mendel Ron W

    2007-09-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background The purpose of this placebo-controlled, double-blind cross-over study was to compare the effects of two commercially available soft drinks on metabolic rate. Methods After giving informed consent, twenty healthy men and women were randomly assigned to ingest 12 ounces of Celsius™ and, on a separate day, 12 ounces of Diet Coke®. All subjects completed both trials using a randomized, counterbalanced design. Metabolic rate (via indirect calorimetry and substrate oxidation (via respiratory exchange ratio were measured at baseline (pre-ingestion and at the end of each hour for 3 hours post-ingestion. Results Two-way ANOVA revealed a significant interaction (p ® ingestion. No differences in respiratory exchange ratio were noted between trials. Conclusion These preliminary findings indicate Celsius™ has thermogenic properties when ingested acutely. The effects of repeated, chronic ingestion of Celsius™ on body composition are unknown at this time.

  17. Acute dystonia in a young schizophrenic patient associated with ingestion of a cloperastine containing cough syrup.

    Linazasoro, G; Garmendia, M T; Lizaso, X

    2000-01-01

    Acute dystonic reactions are usually observed after exposure to drugs with antidopaminergic actions. We report on one patient with acute dystonia associated with ingestion of a cloperastine containing syrup, who suffered from schizophrenia but had been neuroleptic-free for 6months. Cloperastine has antihistaminic properties. We suggest that antihistaminic agents may induce acute dystonia by altering the balance between dopamine and acetylcholine in the striatum. PMID:18591150

  18. Acute responses of regional vascular conductance to oral ingestion of fructose in healthy young humans

    Endo, Masako Y; Fujihara, Chizuko; Yamazaki, Chinami; Kashima, Hideaki; Eguchi, Kouhei; Miura, Akira; Fukuoka, Yoshiyuki; Fukuba, Yoshiyuki

    2014-01-01

    Background Recently, it was reported in healthy young subjects that fructose containing drinks increased blood pressure acutely, without any apparent change in total vascular conductance (TVC). However, because it is well known that the splanchnic vasculature is dilated by oral fructose ingestion, it is assumed to be the concomitant vasoconstriction in other peripheral region(s) that is responsible for this finding. Thus, the purpose of this study was to determine the acute response of region...

  19. Does acute caffeine ingestion alter brain metabolism in young adults?

    Xu, Feng; Liu, Peiying; Pekar, James J; Lu, Hanzhang

    2015-04-15

    Caffeine, as the most commonly used stimulant drug, improves vigilance and, in some cases, cognition. However, the exact effect of caffeine on brain activity has not been fully elucidated. Because caffeine has a pronounced vascular effect which is independent of any neural effects, many hemodynamics-based methods such as fMRI cannot be readily applied without a proper calibration. The scope of the present work is two-fold. In Study 1, we used a recently developed MRI technique to examine the time-dependent changes in whole-brain cerebral metabolic rate of oxygen (CMRO2) following the ingestion of 200mg caffeine. It was found that, despite a pronounced decrease in CBF (pextraction fraction (OEF) was significantly elevated (p=0.002) to fully compensate for the reduced blood supply. Using the whole-brain finding as a reference, we aim to investigate whether there are any regional differences in the brain's response to caffeine. Therefore, in Study 2, we examined regional heterogeneities in CBF changes following the same amount of caffeine ingestion. We found that posterior brain regions such as posterior cingulate cortex and superior temporal regions manifested a slower CBF reduction, whereas anterior brain regions including dorsolateral prefrontal cortex and medial frontal cortex showed a faster rate of decline. These findings have a few possible explanations. One is that caffeine may result in a region-dependent increase or decrease in brain activity, resulting in an unaltered average brain metabolic rate. The other is that caffeine's effect on vasculature may be region-specific. Plausibility of these explanations is discussed in the context of spatial distribution of the adenosine receptors. PMID:25644657

  20. Paraphenylene diamine ingestion: An uncommon cause of acute renal failure

    Ram R

    2007-01-01

    Full Text Available Paraphenylene diamine (PPD is a major component of hair dyes. The aim is to study the renal manifestations and outcome of PPD consumption. During a four-year period from 2002 to February 2006, 10 persons were admitted to our Institute after consuming a hair dye in a suicidal bid. The percentage of ARF due to PPD at our Institute was 0.95%. Seven patients out of 10 (70% who consumed PPD developed ARF. All 10 patients, including the patients who had normal renal function had features of rhabdomyolysis. Two patients required ventilator support for respiratory distress and two more required tracheostomy due to upper airway tract edema. One patient has expired after two sessions of dialysis. Renal biopsy in two patients (one, postmortem showed acute tubular necrosis along with presence of casts in tubules due to myoglobin.

  1. Ocular effects of acute ingestion of Cola nitida(Linn) on healthy adult volunteers

    S. A. Igwe; D. N. Akunyili; E. U. Ikonne

    2007-01-01

    Cola nitida Linn (Sterculiaceae) is an economic plant widely distributed throughout West Africa and possibly other parts of Africa.Members are malvalves because of their lobular nature. Because of its ubiquity, the plant plays an important role in commerce, and in social activities where it is casually eaten without prescription or restriction. The ethnopharmacological effects of bolus ingestion of 30g of Cola nitida was investigated on visually acute and healthy volunteers in order to determ...

  2. Impact of acute caffeine ingestion on endothelial function in subjects with and without coronary artery disease.

    Shechter, Michael; Shalmon, Guy; Scheinowitz, Mickey; Koren-Morag, Nira; Feinberg, Micha S; Harats, Dror; Sela, Ben Ami; Sharabi, Yehonatan; Chouraqui, Pierre

    2011-05-01

    Although coffee is a widely used, pharmacologically active beverage, its impact on the cardiovascular system is controversial. To explore the effect of acute caffeine ingestion on brachial artery flow-mediated dilation (FMD) in subjects without coronary artery disease (CAD; controls) and patients with CAD, we prospectively assessed brachial artery FMD in 40 controls and 40 age- and gender-matched patients with documented stable CAD on 2 separate mornings 1 week to 2 weeks apart. After overnight fasting, discontinuation of all medications for ≥12 hours, and absence of caffeine for >48 hours, participants received capsules with caffeine 200 mg or placebo. One hour after drug ingestion, participants underwent brachial artery FMD and nitroglycerin-mediated dilation (NTG) using high-resolution ultrasound. As expected, patients with CAD were more often diabetic, hypertensive, obese, dyslipidemic, and smoked more than controls (p <0.01 for all comparisons). Aspirin, Clopidogrel, angiotensin-converting enzyme inhibitors, β blockers, and statins were significantly more common in patients with CAD than in controls (p <0.01 for all comparisons). At baseline, FMD, but not NTG, was significantly lower in patients with CAD compared to controls. Acute caffeine ingestion significantly increased FMD (patients with CAD 5.6 ± 5.0% vs 14.6 ± 5.0%, controls 8.4 ± 2.9% vs 18.6 ± 6.8%, p <0.001 for all comparisons) but not NTG (patients with CAD 13.0 ± 5.2% vs 13.8 ± 6.1%, controls 12.9 ± 3.9% vs 13.9 ± 5.8%, p = NS for all comparisons) and significantly decreased high-sensitivity C-reactive protein (patients with CAD 2.6 ± 1.4 vs 1.4 ± 1.2 mg/L, controls 3.4 ± 3.0 vs 1.2 ± 1.0 mg/L, p <0.001 for all comparisons) in the 2 groups compared to placebo. In conclusion, acute caffeine ingestion significantly improved endothelial function assessed by brachial artery FMD in subjects with and without CAD and was associated with lower plasma markers of inflammation. PMID:21349479

  3. Acute dairy milk ingestion does not improve nitric oxide-dependent vasodilation in the cutaneous microcirculation.

    Alba, Billie K; Stanhewicz, Anna E; Kenney, W Larry; Alexander, Lacy M

    2016-07-01

    In epidemiological studies, chronic dairy milk consumption is associated with improved vascular health and reduced age-related increases in blood pressure. Although milk protein supplementation augments conduit artery flow-mediated dilation, whether or not acute dairy milk intake may improve microvascular function remains unclear. We hypothesised that dairy milk would increase direct measurement of endothelial nitric oxide (NO)-dependent cutaneous vasodilation in response to local skin heating. Eleven men and women (61 (sem 2) years) ingested two or four servings (473 and 946 ml) of 1 % dairy milk or a rice beverage on each of 4 separate study days. In a subset of five subjects, an additional protocol was completed after 473 ml of water ingestion. Once a stable blood flow occurred, 15 mm-N G -nitro-l-arginine methyl ester was perfused (intradermal microdialysis) to quantify NO-dependent vasodilation. Red-blood-cell flux (RBF) was measured by laser-Doppler flowmetry, and cutaneous vascular conductance (CVC=RBF/mean arterial pressure) was calculated and normalised to maximum (%CVCmax; 28 mm-sodium nitroprusside). Full expression of cutaneous vasodilation was not different among dairy milk, rice beverage and water, and there was no effect of serving size on the total vasodilatory response. Contrary to our hypothesis, NO-dependent vasodilation was lower for dairy milk than rice beverage (D: 49 (sem 5), R: 55 (sem 5) %CVCmax; P<0·01). Acute dairy milk ingestion does not augment NO-dependent vasodilation in the cutaneous microcirculation compared with a rice beverage control. PMID:27180680

  4. ACRO: a computer program for calculating organ doses from acute or chronic inhalation and ingestion of radionuclides

    ACRO was developed as a computer program to calculate internal exposure doses resulting from acute or chronic inhalation and oral ingestion of radionuclides. The ICRP Task Force Lung Model (TGLM) was used as the inhalation model in ACRO, and a simple one-compartment model was used as the ingestion model. The program is written in FORTRAN IV, and it requires about 260 KB memory capacity

  5. The acute effects of multi-ingredient pre-workout ingestion on strength performance, lower body power, and anaerobic capacity

    Jagim, Andrew R; Jones, Margaret T; Wright, Glenn A.; St. Antoine, Carly; Kovacs, Attila; Oliver, Jonathan M

    2016-01-01

    Background Multi-ingredient pre-workout supplements (MIPS) are popular among resistance trained individuals. Previous research has indicated that acute MIPS ingestion may increase muscular endurance when using a hypertrophy-based protocol but less is known in regard to their effects on strength performance and high intensity running capacity. Therefore, the purpose was to determine if short-term, MIPS ingestion influences strength performance and anaerobic running capacity. Methods In a doubl...

  6. Effects of acute organophosphate ingestion on cognitive function, assessed with the mini mental state examination

    S S Jayasinghe

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available Background : Chronic damage to the central nervous system resulting in cognitive impairment has been shown with repeated, low doses of organophosphorus (OP exposure over month or years. Aim: The study aimed to find out whether there is any cognitive impairment following acute OP exposure that could be detected by a simple screening instrument, the Mini Mental State Examination (MMSE, in clinical settings. Settings and Design: A cohort study. Materials and Methods: The study was conducted with matched controls. Consecutive patients admitted to the hospital with acute ingestion of OP were recruited. Cognitive function was assessed with the MMSE, digit span test, test of long-term memory function and concentration. Patients were assessed twice: at 1 and 6 weeks of exposure. Statistical Analysis: Continuous variables were analyzed with the paired and unpaired T-tests. Non-normally distributed data were analyzed with the Mann-Whitney U test and Wilcoxon Signed Rank test. Discrete variables were analyzed with the Chi-square test. Results: There were 60 patients and 61 controls. The mean age (SD of the patients and controls was 31.5 (11.6 and 31.3 (11.8 years, respectively. Forty-two patients turned up for the second assessment. Significant impairment of cognitive function was seen in the total score of MMSE (95% CI -2.5 to -0.3, orientation (95% CI -1 to -0.2 and language (95% CI -0.9 to -0.1 domains of MMSE, digit span test (95% CI 0.1-1.7 and test of long-term memory function (95% CI 0.3-2.3 in the first assessment compared with the controls. When the results of the second assessment were compared with the controls, no significant differences were seen. Conclusion: Although there was a slight transient cognitive impairment detected with the screening tests following acute OP ingestion, no long-term cognitive defects was detected.

  7. Ocular effects of acute ingestion of Cola nitida(Linn on healthy adult volunteers

    S. A. Igwe

    2007-01-01

    Full Text Available Cola nitida Linn (Sterculiaceae is an economic plant widely distributed throughout West Africa and possibly other parts of Africa.Members are malvalves because of their lobular nature. Because of its ubiquity, the plant plays an important role in commerce, and in social activities where it is casually eaten without prescription or restriction. The ethnopharmacological effects of bolus ingestion of 30g of Cola nitida was investigated on visually acute and healthy volunteers in order to determine its ocular implications or effects. Results showed that Cola nitida had no effecton the pupil diameter, visual acuity and intraocular pressure but improved the near point of convergence by 43% and increased the amplitude of accommodation by 11% while existing heterophorias are ameliorated. The stimulating effect of Cola nitida might overcome asthenopic symptoms with convergence insufficiency and allows near work to be donewithout stress. Somnolence and ocular muscle imbalance common features of the elderly canbe ameliorated or relieved.

  8. Acute exogenous lipoid pneumonia caused by accidental kerosene ingestion in an elderly patient with dementia: a case report.

    Gotanda, Hiroshi; Kameyama, Yumi; Yamaguchi, Yasuhiro; Ishii, Masaki; Hanaoka, Yoko; Yamamoto, Hiroshi; Ogawa, Sumito; Iijima, Katsuya; Akishita, Masahiro; Ouchi, Yasuyoshi

    2013-01-01

    Acute exogenous lipoid pneumonia is an uncommon condition caused by aspiration of oil-based substances, occurring mainly in children. Here, we report the case of an 83-year-old patient with Alzheimer's disease who presented with coughing and hypoxia. The diagnosis of acute exogenous lipoid pneumonia caused by accidental kerosene ingestion was made on the basis of the patient's clinical history, and typical radiological and cytological findings. The patient's cognitive impairment and an unsafe environment, in which the patient's 91-year-old husband stored kerosene in an old shochu bottle, were responsible for the accidental ingestion. Acute exogenous lipoid pneumonia should be considered in the differential diagnosis for acute respiratory disorders in the rapidly aging population. PMID:23286561

  9. Thermogenic effect of an acute ingestion of a weight loss supplement

    Tranchina Christopher P

    2009-01-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background The purpose of this study was to examine the acute effects of a weight loss supplement on resting oxygen uptake (VO2, respiratory quotient (RQ, caloric expenditure (kcal, heart rate (HR, and blood pressure (BP in healthy and physically active individuals. Methods Ten subjects (5 male, 5 female; 20.2 ± 1.2 y; 172.2 ± 8.9 cm; 71.5 ± 17.2 kg; 17.3 ± 2.6% body fat underwent two testing sessions administered in a randomized and double-blind fashion. During each session, subjects reported to the Human Performance Laboratory after at least 3-h post-absorptive state and were provided either 3 capsules of the weight loss supplement (SUP, commercially marketed as Meltdown® or 3 capsules of a placebo (P. Subjects then rested in a semi-recumbent position for three hours. VO2 and HR were determined every 5 min during the first 30 min and every 10 min during the next 150 min. BP was determined every 15 min during the first 30 min and every 30 min thereafter. The profile of mood states was assessed every 30 min. Results Area under the curve analysis revealed a significant 28.9% difference in VO2 between SUP and P for the three hour study period. In addition, a significant difference in energy expenditure was also seen between SUP (1.28 ± 0.33 kcal·min-1 and P (1.00 ± 0.32 kcal·min-1. A trend (p = 0.06 towards a greater utilization of stored fat as an energy source was also demonstrated (0.78 ± 0.23 kcal·min-1 and 0.50 ± 0.38 kcal·min-1 in P and SUP, respectively. Significant elevations in HR were seen during hours two and three of the study, and significantly higher average systolic BP was observed between SUP (118.0 ± 7.3 mmHg and P (111.4 ± 8.2 mmHg. No significant differences were seen in diastolic blood pressure at any time point. Significant increases in tension and confusion were seen in SUP. Conclusion Results indicate a significant increase in energy expenditure in young, healthy individuals following an acute

  10. Acute toxicity and risk assessment of permethrin, naled, and dichlorvos to larval butterflies via ingestion of contaminated foliage.

    Hoang, Tham C; Rand, Gary M

    2015-02-01

    Three Florida native larval butterflies (Junonia coenia, Anartia jatrophae, Eumaeus atala) were used in the present study to determine the acute toxicity, hazard, and risk of a 24h ingestion of leaves contaminated with the adult mosquito control insecticides permethrin, naled, and dichlorvos to late 4th and early 5th in-star caterpillars. Based on 24-h LD50s for ingestion, naled was more acutely toxic than permethrin and dichlorvos to caterpillars. Hazard quotients using the ratio of the highest doses and the 90th percentile doses from field measurements in host plant foliage following actual mosquito control applications to the toxicological benchmarks from laboratory toxicity tests indicate potential high acute hazard for naled compared to permethrin and dichlorvos. Based on probabilistic ecological risk methods, naled exposure doses in the environment also presented a higher acute risk to caterpillars than permethrin and dichlorvos. The acute toxicity laboratory results and ecological risk assessment are based only on dietary ingestion and single chemical doses. It does not include other typical exposure scenarios that may occur in the environment. It is thus plausible to state that the ecological risk assessment presented here underestimates the potential risks in the field to caterpillars. However, one assumption that is scientifically feasible and certainly real from the results - if the environmental exposure doses of mosquito control operations are similar or higher to those presented here in leaves from the field, after applications, there will likely be significant mortalities and other adverse effects on caterpillar populations. PMID:25462317

  11. Acute hepatitis in a woman following excessive ingestion of an energy drink: a case report

    Waked Alain

    2011-06-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Introduction The consumption of energy drinks has increased significantly. We report the case of a patient who presented to our hospital with jaundice, abdominal pain, and markedly increased liver transaminases likely due to the increased consumption of an energy drink. To the best of our knowledge, this is the first case report in the literature linking the development of acute hepatitis to the consumption of an energy drink. Case presentation A 22-year-old Caucasian woman presented to our hospital with epigastric pain, nausea, vomiting, and low-grade fever. She had been drinking 10 cans of an energy drink daily for two weeks prior to presentation. Her physical examination revealed mild epigastric tenderness. Her initial blood tests revealed elevated alanine aminotransferase, aspartate aminotransferase, and total bilirubin. A computed tomographic scan of the abdomen and pelvis was normal, and the patient was discharged to home. She returned to the Emergency Department of our hospital with worsening pain and new-onset jaundice. This time her physical examination revealed epigastric tenderness and icteric sclera. Her aspartate aminotransferase, alanine aminotransferase, and international normalized ratio were markedly elevated. Further radiological studies were non-specific, and she was admitted to our hospital with a diagnosis of acute hepatitis. Her viral serology and toxicology screens were negative. The patient was treated supportively and was discharged after resolution of her symptoms and a marked decrease in her liver enzymes. Conclusion The development of acute hepatitis in this patient was most likely due to the excessive ingestion of an energy drink, and we speculate that niacin was the culprit ingredient.

  12. Efeito da suplementação com L-alanil-L-glutamina sobre a resposta de hipersensibilidade do tipo tardio em ratos submetidos ao treinamento intenso Effect of L-glutamine and L-alanyl-L-glutamine supplementation on the response to delayed-type hypersensitivity test (DTH) in rats submitted to intense training

    Marcelo Macedo Rogero; Julio Tirapegui; Rogério Graça Pedrosa; Inar Alves Castro; Ivanir Santana de Oliveira Pires; Antônio Altair Magalhães de Oliveira; Maristela Marques Salgado; Aguinaldo Roberto Pinto; Mirthes Ueda

    2002-01-01

    O treinamento intenso e o exercício exaustivo podem ocasionar imunossupressão em atletas por meio da diminuição da concentração plasmática de glutamina. O presente estudo verificou inicialmente o efeito da suplementação com L-glutamina e L-alanilL-glutamina sobre a resposta ao teste de hipersensibilidade do tipo tardio (HTT) em ratos submetidos ao treinamento intenso em natação durante seis semanas. Posteriormente, foi avaliado o efeito dessas intervenções nutricionais sobre a contagem total ...

  13. Acute whole body UVA irradiation combined with nitrate ingestion enhances time trial performance in trained cyclists.

    Muggeridge, David J; Sculthorpe, Nicholas; Grace, Fergal M; Willis, Gareth; Thornhill, Laurence; Weller, Richard B; James, Philip E; Easton, Chris

    2015-08-01

    Dietary nitrate supplementation has been shown to increase nitric oxide (NO) metabolites, reduce blood pressure (BP) and enhance exercise performance. Acute exposure to ultraviolet (UV)-A light also increases NO bioavailability and reduces BP. We conducted a randomized, counterbalanced placebo-controlled trial to determine the effects of UV-A light alone and in combination with nitrate on the responses to sub-maximal steady-state exercise and time trial (TT) performance. Nine cyclists (VO2max 53.1 ± 4.4 ml/kg/min) completed five performance trials comprising 10 min submaximal steady-state cycling followed by a 16.1 km TT. Following a familiarization the final four trials were preceded, in random order, by either (1) Nitrate gels (NIT) + UV-A, (2) Placebo (PLA) + UV-A, (3) NIT + Sham light (SHAM) and (4) PLA + SHAM (control). The NIT gels (2 × 60 ml gels, ~8.1 mmol nitrate) or a low-nitrate PLA were ingested 2.5 h prior to the trial. The light exposure consisted of 20 J/cm(2) whole body irradiation with either UV-A or SHAM light. Plasma nitrite was measured pre- and post-irradiation and VO2 was measured continuously during steady-state exercise. Plasma nitrite was higher for NIT + SHAM (geometric mean (95% CI), 332 (292-377) nM; P = 0.029) and NIT + UV-A (456 (312-666) nM; P = 0.014) compared to PLA + SHAM (215 (167-277) nM). Differences between PLA + SHAM and PLA + UV-A (282 (248-356) nM) were small and non-significant. During steady-state exercise VO2 was reduced following NIT + UVA (P = 0.034) and tended to be lower in NIT + SHAM (P = 0.086) but not PLA + UV-A (P = 0.381) compared to PLA + SHAM. Performance in the TT was significantly faster following NIT + UV-A (mean ± SD 1447 ± 41 s P = 0.005; d = 0.47), but not PLA + UV-A (1450 ± 40 s; d = 0.41) or NIT + SHAM (1455 ± 47 s; d = 0.28) compared to PLA + SHAM (1469 ± 52 s). These findings demonstrate that exposure to UV-A light alone does not alter the physiological responses to exercise or improve

  14. Acute effects of ingesting a commercial thermogenic drink on changes in energy expenditure and markers of lipolysis

    Stout Jeffrey R

    2008-02-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background To determine the acute effects of ingesting a thermogenic drink (Celsius, Delray Beach, FL (TD on changes in metabolism and lipolysis. Methods Healthy college-aged male (23.2 ± 4.0 y, 177.2 ± 6.1 cm, 81.7 ± 11.3 kg, 22.8 ± 7.3 % fat; n = 30 and female (23.4 ± 3.1 y, 165.6 ± 8.7 cm, 62.1 ± 9.9 kg, 28.3 ± 7.4 % fat; n = 30 participants were matched according to height and weight to consume 336 ml of the TD or a non-caloric, non-caffeinated placebo (PLA. After a 12 h fast, participants reported for pre-consumption measures of height, weight, heart rate, blood pressure, resting energy expenditure (REE, respiratory exchange ratio (RER, glycerol and free-fatty acid (FFA concentrations. REE and RER were determined at 60, 120, and 180 min post-consumption. Serum glycerol and FFA concentrations were determined at 30, 60, 120 and 180 min post-consumption. Results When compared to PLA, TD significantly increased REE at 60, 120 and 180 min (p Conclusion Acute TD ingestion significantly increased REE, FFA and glycerol appearance. If sustained, these changes may help to promote weight loss and improve body composition; however, these findings are currently unknown as are the general safety and efficacy of prolonged consumption.

  15. The acute effect of ingesting a quercetin-based supplement on exercise-induced inflammation and immune changes in runners.

    Konrad, Manuela; Nieman, David C; Henson, Dru A; Kennerly, Krista M; Jin, Fuxia; Wallner-Liebmann, Sandra J

    2011-08-01

    This study tested the acute anti-inflammatory and immune-modulating influence of a quercetin-based supplement consumed by endurance athletes 15 min before an intense 2-hr run. In this randomized, crossover study, 20 runners (11 men, 9 women, age 38.4 ± 2.1 yr) completed two 2-hr treadmill runs at 70% VO(2max) (3 wk apart). Subjects ingested either 4 quercetin-based chews (Q-chew) or placebo chews (PL) 15 min before the runs. The 4 Q-chews provided 1,000 mg quercetin, 120 mg epigallocatechin 3-gallate, 400 mg isoquercetin, 400 mg each eicosapentaenoic acid and docosahexaenoic acid, 1,000 mg vitamin C, and 40 mg niacinamide. Subjects provided blood samples 30 min before, immediately after, and 1 hr postexercise and were analyzed for plasma quercetin, total blood leukocytes (WBC), C-reactive protein (CRP), 9 cytokines (IL-6, TNFα, GM-CSF, IFNγ, IL-1β, IL-2, IL-8, IL-10, and IL-12p70), granulocyte (GR) and monocyte (MO) phagocytosis (PHAG), and oxidative-burst activity (OBA). Plasma quercetin increased from 80.0 ± 26.0 μg/L to 6,337 ± 414 μg/L immediately postexercise and 4,324 ± 310 μg/L 1 hr postexercise after ingestion of Q-chews, compared with no change in PL (p < .001). Exercise caused significant increases in, CRP, GM-CSF, IL-10, IL-1β, IL-2, IL-6, IL-8, TNFα, GR-PHAG, and MO-PHAG and decreases in GR-OBA and MO-OBA, but no differences in the pattern of change were measured between Q-chew and PL trials. Acute ingestion of Q-chews 15 min before heavy exertion caused a strong increase in plasma quercetin levels but did not counter postexercise inflammation or immune changes relative to placebo. PMID:21813917

  16. Metabolic responses to the acute ingestion of two commercially available carbonated beverages: A pilot study

    Mendel Ron W; Hofheins Jennifer E

    2007-01-01

    Abstract Background The purpose of this placebo-controlled, double-blind cross-over study was to compare the effects of two commercially available soft drinks on metabolic rate. Methods After giving informed consent, twenty healthy men and women were randomly assigned to ingest 12 ounces of Celsius™ and, on a separate day, 12 ounces of Diet Coke®. All subjects completed both trials using a randomized, counterbalanced design. Metabolic rate (via indirect calorimetry) and substrate oxidation (v...

  17. Acute urticaria and angioedema caused by horse-chestnut (aesculus hippocastanum) ingestion: a case report

    Akinci, Emine; OĞUZTÜRK, Oğuzhan; Coşkun, Figen

    2012-01-01

    Acute urticaria and angioedema, which can develop due to various causes, are common life threatening condition seen in emergency departments (EDs). The literature includes reports of angioedema cases developing after contacting various plants and seeds. We present the case of a 47-year-old male patient who developed acute urticaria and angioedema after eating horse-chestnut (aesculus hippocastanum). The patient presented to the ED with redness and irritation spread around the body and swellin...

  18. Acute oxalate nephropathy due to ‘Averrhoa bilimbi’ fruit juice ingestion

    Bakul, G.; Unni, V. N.; Seethaleksmy, N. V.; A Mathew; Rajesh, R; Kurien, G.; J. RAJESH; Jayaraj, P. M.; Kishore, D. S.; Jose, P. P.

    2013-01-01

    Irumban puli (Averrhoa bilimbi) is commonly used as a traditional remedy in the state of Kerala. Freshly made concentrated juice has a very high oxalic acid content and consumption carries a high risk of developing acute renal failure (ARF) by deposition of calcium oxalate crystals in renal tubules. Acute oxalate nephropathy (AON) due to secondary oxalosis after consumption of Irumban puli juice is uncommon. AON due to A. bilimbi has not been reported before. We present a series of ten patien...

  19. The effect of an acute ingestion of Turkish coffee on reaction time and time trial performance

    Church, David D.; Hoffman, Jay R; LaMonica, Michael B.; Riffe, Joshua J.; Hoffman, Mattan W.; Baker, Kayla M; Varanoske, Alyssa N.; Wells, Adam J.; Fukuda, David H.; Stout, Jeffrey R

    2015-01-01

    Background The purpose of this study was to examine the ergogenic benefits of Turkish coffee consumed an hour before exercise. In addition, metabolic, cardiovascular, and subjective measures of energy, focus and alertness were examined in healthy, recreationally active adults who were regular caffeine consumers (>200 mg per day). Methods Twenty males (n = 10) and females (n = 10), age 24.1 ± 2.9 y; height 1.70 ± 0.09 m; body mass 73.0 ± 13.0 kg (mean ± SD), ingested both Turkish coffee [3 mg ...

  20. Acute oxalate nephropathy due to ‘Averrhoa bilimbi’ fruit juice ingestion

    Bakul, G.; Unni, V. N.; Seethaleksmy, N. V.; Mathew, A.; Rajesh, R.; Kurien, G.; Rajesh, J.; Jayaraj, P. M.; Kishore, D. S.; Jose, P. P.

    2013-01-01

    Irumban puli (Averrhoa bilimbi) is commonly used as a traditional remedy in the state of Kerala. Freshly made concentrated juice has a very high oxalic acid content and consumption carries a high risk of developing acute renal failure (ARF) by deposition of calcium oxalate crystals in renal tubules. Acute oxalate nephropathy (AON) due to secondary oxalosis after consumption of Irumban puli juice is uncommon. AON due to A. bilimbi has not been reported before. We present a series of ten patients from five hospitals in the State of Kerala who developed ARF after intake of I. puli fruit juice. Seven patients needed hemodialysis whereas the other three improved with conservative management. PMID:23960349

  1. Acute lead toxicosis via ingestion of spent ammunition in a free-ranging cougar (Puma concolor)

    Burco, Julia; Myers, Anne Mary; Schuler, Krysten; Gillin, Colin

    2012-01-01

    Lead toxicity has long been documented and acknowledged as a significant health issue of water birds and avian scavengers. However, few instances of toxic effects to higher mammalian carnivores have been documented. Here we present an acute case of lead toxicity in a free-ranging cougar (Puma concolor) in Oregon.

  2. No effect of acute ingestion of Thai ginseng (Kaempferia parviflora) on sprint and endurance exercise performance in humans.

    Wasuntarawat, Chanchira; Pengnet, Sirinat; Walaikavinan, Nutchanon; Kamkaew, Natakorn; Bualoang, Tippaporn; Toskulkao, Chaivat; McConell, Glenn

    2010-09-01

    Thai ginseng, Kaempferia parviflora, is widely believed among the Mong hill tribe to reduce perceived effort and improve physical work capacity. Kaempferia parviflora is consumed before their daily work. Therefore, we conducted an acute study on the effects of K. parviflora on repeated bouts of sprint exercise and on endurance exercise time to exhaustion. Two studies were conducted in college males using a randomized, double-blind, crossover design. Ninety minutes after consumption of K. parviflora or a starch placebo, participants in study 1 (n = 19) completed three consecutive maximum 30-s sprint cycling Wingate tests, separated by 3 min recovery, while participants in study 2 (n = 16) performed submaximal cycling exercise to exhaustion. Peak and mean power output decreased with successive Wingate tests, while percent fatigue and blood lactate concentration increased after the third Wingate test (P parviflora. There was also no effect of K. parviflora on time to exhaustion, rating of perceived exertion or heart rate during submaximal exercise. Our results indicate that acute ingestion of K. parviflora failed to improve exercise performance during repeated sprint exercise or submaximal exercise to exhaustion. However, chronic effects or actions in other populations cannot be excluded. PMID:20845210

  3. Acute kidney injury and hyperbilirubinemia in a young male after ingestion of Tribulus terrestris.

    Ryan, Margaret; Lazar, Ira; Nadasdy, Gyongyi M; Nadasdy, Tibor; Satoskar, Anjali A

    2015-03-01

    Acute tubular necrosis (ATN), especially from toxic injury is frequently accompanied by tubular casts and crystals. Myeloma casts, myoglobin, red blood cell and granular casts are well described. However, bile casts in tubules are rarely seen. We describe a case of Tribulus terrestris toxicity in a young healthy male, presenting with severe hyperbilirubinemia followed by acute renal failure and bile containing casts in the tubules. Tribulus terrestris is an herb often used by athletes as a nutritional supplement for performance enhancement. Although it is thought to be relatively safe, serious side effects have been reported before. Our aim is to increase awareness of the potential toxicities of performance enhancing herbal medications. These are often sold over-the-counter and therefore casually used, especially by young healthy individuals. Beneficial effects are controversial. Under-reporting by patients and infrequent documentation by health-care providers can delay diagnosis. We elaborately describe the kidney biopsy findings in Tribulus terrestris toxicity, and also provide a concise overview of the spectrum of tubular casts and their staining patterns, found in various kidney diseases. PMID:25295577

  4. Retrobulbar blood flow and visual field alterations after acute ethanol ingestion

    Weber A

    2013-08-01

    Full Text Available Anke Weber, Andreas Remky, Marion Bienert, Klaudia Huber-van der Velden, Thomas Kirschkamp, Corinna Rennings, Gernot Roessler, Niklas Plange Department of Ophthalmology, RWTH Aachen University, Aachen, Germany Background: The purpose of this study was to test the effect of ethyl alcohol on the koniocellular and magnocellular pathway of visual function and to investigate the relationship between such visual field changes and retrobulbar blood flow in healthy subjects. Methods: In 12 healthy subjects (mean age 32 ± 4 years, color Doppler imaging, short-wavelength automated perimetry, and frequency doubling perimetry was performed before and 60 minutes after oral intake of 80 mL of 40 vol% ethanol. Mean and pattern standard deviations for short-wavelength automated and frequency doubling perimetry were assessed. End diastolic velocity (EDV and peak systolic velocity (PSV were measured in the central retinal and ophthalmic arteries using color Doppler imaging. Systemic blood pressure, heart rate, intraocular pressure, and blood alcohol concentration were determined. Results: Mean PSV and EDV in the central retinal artery showed a significant increase after alcohol intake (P = 0.03 and P = 0.02, respectively. Similarly, we found a significant acceleration of blood flow velocity in the ophthalmic artery (P = 0.02 for PSV; P = 0.04 for EDV. Mean intraocular pressure decreased by 1.0 mmHg after alcohol ingestion (P = 0.01. Retinal sensitivity in short-wavelength automated perimetry did not alter, whereas in frequency doubling perimetry, the mean deviation decreased significantly. Systolic and diastolic blood pressure did not change significantly. Mean blood alcohol concentration was 0.38 ± 0.16 g/L. Conclusion: Although ethanol is known to cause peripheral vasodilation, our subjects had no significant drop in systemic blood pressure. However, a significant increase of blood flow velocity was seen in the retrobulbar vessels. Regarding visual function

  5. Eficacia del dipéptido N(2)-L-Alanil-L-glutamina en los pacientes traumáticos ingresados en la UCI: estudio prospectivo, multicéntrico, aleatorizado y doble ciego; hipótesis y protocolo Efficacy of the dipeptide N(2)-L-Alanyl-L-glutamine in traumatic patients admitted to the ICU: a prospective, randomized, double-blind, multicentre study

    J. Pérez-Bárcena; Marsé, P.; Cervera, M.; Frontera, G; J. A. Llompart-Pou; J. M.ª Raurich; A. García de Lorenzo

    2012-01-01

    Hipótesis: La suplementación endovenosa con el dipéptido N(2)-L-alanil-L-glutamina, en pacientes traumáticos ingresado en la UCI puede ejercer un efecto beneficioso en cuanto a reducción de la incidencia de infecciones, de la estancia en UCI y de la mortalidad, independientemente del tipo de nutrición (enteral o parenteral) administrada. Objetivos: El objetivo principal es medir la eficacia de la suplementación con el dipéptido, administrado de forma endovenosa, en reducir la incidencia de la...

  6. Eficacia del dipéptido N(2-L-Alanil-L-glutamina en los pacientes traumáticos ingresados en la UCI: estudio prospectivo, multicéntrico, aleatorizado y doble ciego; hipótesis y protocolo Efficacy of the dipeptide N(2-L-Alanyl-L-glutamine in traumatic patients admitted to the ICU: a prospective, randomized, double-blind, multicentre study

    J. Pérez-Bárcena

    2012-02-01

    Full Text Available Hipótesis: La suplementación endovenosa con el dipéptido N(2-L-alanil-L-glutamina, en pacientes traumáticos ingresado en la UCI puede ejercer un efecto beneficioso en cuanto a reducción de la incidencia de infecciones, de la estancia en UCI y de la mortalidad, independientemente del tipo de nutrición (enteral o parenteral administrada. Objetivos: El objetivo principal es medir la eficacia de la suplementación con el dipéptido, administrado de forma endovenosa, en reducir la incidencia de las complicaciones infecciosas, la mortalidad y la estancia en UCI de los pacientes traumáticos ingresados en la UCI. Otros objetivos secundarios son: 1 Evaluar la eficacia de L-alanil-L-glutamina en diferentes grupos de gravedad y en relación con los niveles plasmáticos de glutamina. 2 Recoger los posibles efectos adversos del dipéptido administrado de forma endovenosa. Metodología: Ensayo clínico prospectivo, multicéntrico, aleatorizado y doble ciego, con dos grupos paralelos de tratamiento, para evaluar eficacia frente a placebo. Los pacientes traumáticos ingresados en la UCI que cumplan los criterios de inclusión/no exclusión, serán aleatorizados para recibir L-alanil-L-glutamina o placebo, independientemente del tipo de nutrición que reciba el paciente (enteral o parenteral El dipéptido será administrado como un farmaconutriente en forma de perfusión continua durante 24 horas y durante 5 días a 0,5 g/kg/día.Hypothesis: the endovenous administration of glutamine, independently of the type of nurtrition received, can reduce the ICU length of stay, the incidence of infections and the mortality in the traumatic patients admitted to the ICU. Objectives: The main objective is to assess the efficacy of glutamine suplementation, given intravenously, to reduce the incidence of infectious complications, mortality and ICU length of stay in the traumatic patients admitted to the ICU. Other objectives are: 1 to assess the efficacy of glutamine in different groups of patients according to the severity and the plasma levels of glutamine. 2 Record all the adverse events due to the intravenous administration of glutamine. Methods: prospective, randomized, doble-blind and multicenter study with two parallel groups: placebo and treatment group. The patients who fulfill the inclusion criteria will receive either glutamine or placebo, independently of the type on nutrition. Glutamine will be administered as a pharmaconutrient at 0.5 g/kg/day during 5 days as a continous perfusion.

  7. Efficacy of acute caffeine ingestion for short-term high-intensity exercise performance: a systematic review.

    Astorino, Todd A; Roberson, Daniel W

    2010-01-01

    Caffeine is the most widely used drug in the world, commonly ingested in coffee, tea, soda, and energy drinks. Its ability to enhance muscular work has been apparent since the early 1900s. Caffeine typically increases endurance performance; however, efficacy of caffeine ingestion for short-term high-intensity exercise is equivocal, which may be explained by discrepancies in exercise protocols, dosing, and subjects' training status and habitual caffeine intake found across studies. The primary aim of this review is to critically examine studies that have tested caffeine's ability to augment performance during exercise dependent on nonoxidative metabolism such as sprinting, team sports, and resistance training. A review of the literature revealed 29 studies that measured alterations in short-term performance after caffeine ingestion. Each study was critically analyzed using the Physiotherapy Evidence Database (PEDro) scale. The mean PEDro score was 7.76 +/- 0.87. Eleven of 17 studies revealed significant improvements in team sports exercise and power-based sports with caffeine ingestion, yet these effects were more common in elite athletes who do not regularly ingest caffeine. Six of 11 studies revealed significant benefits of caffeine for resistance training. Some studies show decreased performance with caffeine ingestion when repeated bouts are completed. The exact mechanism explaining the ergogenic effect of caffeine for short-term exercise is unknown. PMID:19924012

  8. Acute Sodium Ingestion Before Exercise Increases Voluntary Water Consumption Resulting In Preexercise Hyperhydration and Improvement in Exercise Performance in the Heat.

    Morris, David M; Huot, Joshua R; Jetton, Adam M; Collier, Scott R; Utter, Alan C

    2015-10-01

    Dehydration has been shown to hinder performance of sustained exercise in the heat. Consuming fluids before exercise can result in hyperhydration, delay the onset of dehydration during exercise and improve exercise performance. However, humans normally drink only in response to thirst, which does not result in hyperhydration. Thirst and voluntary fluid consumption have been shown to increase following oral ingestion or infusion of sodium into the bloodstream. We measured the effects of acute sodium ingestion on voluntary water consumption and retention during a 2-hr hydration period before exercise. Subjects then performed a 60-min submaximal dehydration ride (DR) followed immediately by a 200 kJ performance time trial (PTT) in a warm (30 °C) environment. Water consumption and retention during the hydration period was greater following sodium ingestion (1380 ± 580 mL consumed, 821 ± 367 ml retained) compared with placebo (815 ± 483 ml consumed, 244 ± 402 mL retained) and no treatment (782 ± 454 ml consumed, 148 ± 289 mL retained). Dehydration levels following the DR were significantly less after sodium ingestion (0.7 ± 0.6%) compared with placebo (1.3 ± 0.7%) and no treatment (1.6 ± 0.4%). Time to complete the PTT was significantly less following sodium consumption (773 ± 158 s) compared with placebo (851 ± 156 s) and no treatment (872 ± 190 s). These results suggest that voluntary hyperhydration can be induced by acute consumption of sodium and has a favorable effect on hydration status and performance during subsequent exercise in the heat. PMID:25811813

  9. Emergency management of acute alcohol problems. Part 2: Alcohol-related seizures, delirium tremens, and toxic alcohol ingestion.

    Etherington, J. M.

    1996-01-01

    Alcohol-related problems are common in patients frequenting emergency departments. Primary care physicians have to recognize and treat a variety of alcohol-related conditions. This paper outlines one approach to recognizing and managing alcohol-related seizures, delirium tremens, and toxic alcohol ingestion.

  10. Acute ascorbic acid ingestion increases skeletal muscle blood flow and oxygen consumption via local vasodilation during graded handgrip exercise in older adults.

    Richards, Jennifer C; Crecelius, Anne R; Larson, Dennis G; Dinenno, Frank A

    2015-07-15

    Human aging is associated with reduced skeletal muscle perfusion during exercise, which may be a result of impaired endothelium-dependent dilation and/or attenuated ability to blunt sympathetically mediated vasoconstriction. Intra-arterial infusion of ascorbic acid (AA) increases nitric oxide-mediated vasodilation and forearm blood flow (FBF) during handgrip exercise in older adults, yet it remains unknown whether an acute oral dose can similarly improve FBF or enhance the ability to blunt sympathetic vasoconstriction during exercise. We hypothesized that 1) acute oral AA would improve FBF (Doppler ultrasound) and oxygen consumption (V̇o2) via local vasodilation during graded rhythmic handgrip exercise in older adults (protocol 1), and 2) AA ingestion would not enhance sympatholysis in older adults during handgrip exercise (protocol 2). In protocol 1 (n = 8; 65 ± 3 yr), AA did not influence FBF or V̇o2 during rest or 5% maximal voluntary contraction (MVC) exercise, but increased FBF (199 ± 13 vs. 248 ± 16 ml/min and 343 ± 24 vs. 403 ± 33 ml/min; P forearm vascular conductance (FVC). In protocol 2 (n = 10; 63 ± 2 yr), following AA, FBF was similarly elevated during 15% MVC (∼ 20%); however, vasoconstriction to reflex increases in sympathetic activity during -40 mmHg lower-body negative pressure at rest (ΔFVC: -16 ± 3 vs. -16 ± 2%) or during 15% MVC (ΔFVC: -12 ± 2 vs. -11 ± 4%) was unchanged. Our collective results indicate that acute oral ingestion of AA improves muscle blood flow and V̇o2 during exercise in older adults via local vasodilation. PMID:25980023

  11. Acute toxicity of beta-emitting radionuclides that may be released in a reactor accident and ingested

    Suckling, weanling, and adult rats received 106Ru--106Rh by gavage and adult beagle dogs ingested 106Ru--106Rh to determine the toxicity of this high-energy (1.4 MeV av) β-emitting nuclide pair. The LD50's for suckling, weanling, and adult rats were 1.5, 18, and 9.0 mCi/kg, respectively. Adult rats were given 147Pm by gavage to determine if a low-energy (0.06 MeV av) β emitter could also cause death by damaging the bowel. The LD50 of 147Pm in rats was about 5 Ci/kg. The calculated radiation doses absorbed in the target cells at the LD50 level were approximately the same for the two radionuclides (3500 rad), although the doses at the mucosal surface differed widely. The LD50 for 106Ru--106Rh in dogs was about 3.5 mCi/kg. Dosimeters placed beneath the mucosa in dogs indicated that the radiation dose to the target cells that caused death from 106Ru--106Rh was about the same as it was for rats. The signs of intestinal injury, their duration, and the probabilities of tissue repair were much different in the dog than in the rat. The midcolon and lower colon of dogs were usually denuded at focal sites after ingestion of 2.5 to 4.0 mCi/kg, and frequently that damage was irreversible. The fatal consequence of severe mucosal damage was averted in two dogs by colectomy and an ileorectal anastomosis

  12. No effect of acute beetroot juice ingestion on oxygen consumption, glucose kinetics, or skeletal muscle metabolism during submaximal exercise in males.

    Betteridge, Scott; Bescós, Raúl; Martorell, Miquel; Pons, Antoni; Garnham, Andrew P; Stathis, Christos C; McConell, Glenn K

    2016-02-15

    Beetroot juice, which is rich in nitrate (NO3 (-)), has been shown in some studies to decrease oxygen consumption (V̇o2) for a given exercise workload, i.e., increasing efficiency and exercise tolerance. Few studies have examined the effect of beetroot juice or nitrate supplementation on exercise metabolism. Eight healthy recreationally active males participated in three trials involving ingestion of either beetroot juice (Beet; ∼8 mmol NO3 (-)), Placebo (nitrate-depleted Beet), or Beet + mouthwash (Beet+MW), all of which were performed in a randomized single-blind crossover design. Two-and-a-half hours later, participants cycled for 60 min on an ergometer at 65% of V̇o2 peak. [6,6-(2)H]glucose was infused to determine glucose kinetics, blood samples obtained throughout exercise, and skeletal muscle biopsies that were obtained pre- and postexercise. Plasma nitrite [NO2 (-)] increased significantly (∼130%) with Beet, and this was attenuated in MW+Beet. Beet and Beet+MW had no significant effect on oxygen consumption, blood glucose, blood lactate, plasma nonesterified fatty acids, or plasma insulin during exercise. Beet and Beet+MW also had no significant effect on the increase in glucose disposal during exercise. In addition, Beet and Beet+MW had no significant effect on the decrease in muscle glycogen and phosphocreatine and the increase in muscle creatine, lactate, and phosphorylated acetyl CoA carboxylase during exercise. In conclusion, at the dose used, acute ingestion of beetroot juice had little effect on skeletal muscle metabolism during exercise. PMID:26635348

  13. Effects of acute ingestion of different fats on oxidative stress and inflammation in overweight and obese adults

    Peairs Abigail D

    2011-11-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Studies show that obese individuals have prolonged elevations in postprandial lipemia and an exacerbated inflammatory response to high fat meals, which can increase risk for cardiovascular diseases. As epidemiological studies indicate an association between type of fat and circulating inflammatory markers, the purpose of this study was to investigate the acute effect of different fat sources on inflammation and oxidative stress in overweight and obese individuals. Methods Eleven overweight and obese subjects consumed three high fat milkshakes rich in monounsaturated fat (MFA, saturated fat (SFA, or long-chain omega 3 polyunsaturated fat (O3FA in random order. Blood samples collected at baseline, 1, 2, 4, and 6 hours postprandial were analyzed for markers of inflammation (soluble intercellular adhesion molecule-1 (ICAM-1, vascular cell adhesion molecule-1 (VCAM-1, tumor necrosis factor- α (TNF-α, and C-reactive protein (CRP, oxidative stress (8-epi-prostaglandin-F2α (8-epi and nuclear factor-κB (NF-κB, and metabolic factors (glucose, insulin, non-esterified free fatty acids, and triglycerides (TG. Results O3FA enhanced NF-kB activation compared to SFA, but did not increase any inflammatory factors measured. Conversely, SFA led to higher ICAM-1 levels than MFA (p = 0.051, while MFA increased TG more than SFA (p Conclusions While most of the inflammatory factors measured had modest or no change following the meal, ICAM-1 and NF-κB responded differently by meal type. These results are provocative and suggest that type of fat in meals may differentially influence postprandial inflammation and endothelial activation.

  14. Acute effects of ingesting Java Fit™ energy extreme functional coffee on resting energy expenditure and hemodynamic responses in male and female coffee drinkers

    Willoughby Darryn S

    2007-10-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background The purpose of this study was to examine the effects of a functional coffee beverage containing additional caffeine, green tea extracts, niacin and garcinia cambogia to regular coffee to determine the effects on resting energy expenditure (REE and hemodynamic variables. Methods Subjects included five male (26 ± 2.1 y, 97.16 ± 10.05 kg, 183.89 ± 6.60 cm and five female (28.8 ± 5.3 y, 142.2 ± 12.6 lbs regular coffee drinkers. Subjects fasted for 10 hours and were assessed for 1 hour prior (PRE and 3 hours following 1.5 cups of coffee ingestion [JavaFit™ Energy Extreme (JF ~400 mg total caffeine; Folgers (F ~200 mg total caffeine] in a double-blind, crossover design. REE, resting heart rate (RHR, and systolic (SBP and diastolic (DBP blood pressure was assessed at PRE and 1, 2, and 3-hours post coffee ingestion. Data were analyzed by three-factor repeated measures ANOVA (p Results JF trial resulted in a significant main effect for REE (p 2 (p Conclusion Results from this study suggest that JavaFit™ Energy Extreme coffee is more effective than Folgers regular caffeinated coffee at increasing REE in regular coffee drinkers for up to 3 hours following ingestion without any adverse hemodynamic effects.

  15. Acute ingestion of a novel whey-derived peptide improves vascular endothelial responses in healthy individuals: a randomized, placebo controlled trial

    Kupchak Brian R

    2009-07-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Whey protein is a potential source of bioactive peptides. Based on findings from in vitro experiments indicating a novel whey derived peptide (NOP-47 increased endothelial nitric oxide synthesis, we tested its effects on vascular function in humans. Methods A randomized, placebo-controlled, crossover study design was used. Healthy men (n = 10 and women (n = 10 (25 ± 5 y, BMI = 24.3 ± 2.3 kg/m2 participated in two vascular testing days each preceded by 2 wk of supplementation with a single dose of 5 g/day of a novel whey-derived peptide (NOP-47 or placebo. There was a 2 wk washout period between trials. After 2 wk of supplementation, vascular function in the forearm and circulating oxidative stress and inflammatory related biomarkers were measured serially for 2 h after ingestion of 5 g of NOP-47 or placebo. Macrovascular and microvascular function were assessed using brachial artery flow mediated dilation (FMD and venous occlusion strain gauge plethysmography. Results Baseline peak FMD was not different for Placebo (7.7% and NOP-47 (7.8%. Placebo had no effect on FMD at 30, 60, and 90 min post-ingestion (7.5%, 7.2%, and 7.6%, respectively whereas NOP-47 significantly improved FMD responses at these respective postprandial time points compared to baseline (8.9%, 9.9%, and 9.0%; P P = 0.008 for time × trial interaction. Plasma myeloperoxidase was increased transiently by both NOP-47 and placebo, but there were no changes in markers inflammation. Plasma total nitrites/nitrates significantly decreased over the 2 hr post-ingestion period and were lower at 120 min after placebo (-25% compared to NOP-47 (-18%. Conclusion These findings indicate that supplementation with a novel whey-derived peptide in healthy individuals improves vascular function.

  16. The Acute Impact of Ingestion of Sourdough and Whole-Grain Breads on Blood Glucose, Insulin, and Incretins in Overweight and Obese Men

    Anita Mofidi; Ferraro, Zachary M.; Stewart, Katherine A.; Tulk, Hilary M. F.; Robinson, Lindsay E.; Duncan, Alison M.; Graham, Terry E

    2012-01-01

    Consumption of whole-grain and sourdough breads is associated with improved glucose homeostasis. We examined the impact of commercial breads on biomarkers of glucose homeostasis in subjects at risk for glucose intolerance. In a randomized, crossover study, overweight or obese males ingested 11-grain, sprouted-grain, 12-grain, sourdough, or white bread on different occasions, matched for available carbohydrate (50 g) in part 1 (n = 12) and bread mass (107 g) in part 2 (n = 11), and blood gluco...

  17. Severe systemic intoxication following triclopyr-TEA ingestion.

    Kyong, Yeon Y; Lee, Kyoung U; Choi, Kyoung H

    2010-11-01

    We report a case of triclopyr ingestion, a herbicide that acts via the auxin system in plants. It is classified as low-toxicity herbicide. The patient ingested this product and developed metabolic acidosis and coma with cardiovascular impairment. Echocardiography and elevated Troponin T and CK MB with prolongation of QTc suggested direct myocardial toxicity. The patient was extubated 57 h after ingestion, and he recovered completely. This case illustrates the potential acute toxicity of this agent in humans. PMID:21171852

  18. Near fatal ingestion of oil of cloves.

    Hartnoll, G.; Moore, D; Douek, D.

    1993-01-01

    A case of ingestion of oil of cloves is presented, which resulted in coma, fits, a coagulopathy, and acute liver damage. This is not unlike the syndrome produced in the late stages of a substantial paracetamol overdose, and a similar treatment regimen is proposed.

  19. Acute pancreatitis

    Bo-Guang Fan; Åke Andrén-Sandberg

    2010-01-01

    Background : Acute pancreatitis continues to be a serious illness, and the patients with acute pancreatitis are at risk to develop different complications from ongoing pancreatic inflammation. Aims : The present review is to highlight the classification, treatment and prognosis of acute pancreatitis. Material & Methods : We reviewed the English-language literature (Medline) addressing pancreatitis. Results : Acute pancreatitis is frequently caused by gallstone disease or excess alcohol ingest...

  20. Acute pancreatitis

    Bo-Guang Fan; Åke Andrén-Sandberg

    2010-01-01

    Background: Acute pancreatitis continues to be a serious illness, and the patients with acute pancreatitis are at risk to develop different complications from ongoing pancreatic inflammation. Aims: The present review is to highlight the classification, treatment and prognosis of acute pancreatitis. Material & Methods: We reviewed the English-language literature (Medline) addressing pancreatitis. Results: Acute pancreatitis is frequently caused by gallstone disease or excess alcohol ingestion....

  1. Efeitos agudos de diferentes intensidades de exercício sobre a ingestão alimentar pós-exercício Acute effects of exercise intensity on pos-exercise food intake in young men

    Tatiana Acioli Lins

    2011-06-01

    Full Text Available O objetivo do presente estudo foi verificar os efeitos agudos de diferentes intensidades de exercício aerróbio (40 e 80% do VO2pico sobre a ingestão alimentar pós-exercício. Participaram do estudo 18 adultos jovens, eutróficos (22,20 ± 1,72 kg/m² e fisicamente ativos. Todos os sujeitos foram submetidos aleatoriamente a três condições experimentais: controle (sem exercício; EBI, exercício de baixa intensidade (40% doVO2pico e EAI, exercício de alta intensidade (80% do VO2pico. As sessões de exercício foram isocalróricas (350 kcal. Após 120 minutos de recuperação passiva, os voluntários tinham livre acesso a um "buffet" variado de alimentos, a ingestão alimentar foi determinada atravéz da pesagem dos alimentos ingeridos. Os dados alimentares obtidos foram então tabulados e analisados por meio do "software" Nutwin 6.0 (UNIFESP, 2002, para estimativa do consumo energético total (kcal e ingestão dos macronutrientes (carboidratos, proteínas e lipídeos em gramas. Os resultados não demonstram nenhuma diferença na ingesto alimentar entre as condições experimentais analisadas. Dessa forma, podemos concluir que a ingestão alimentar pós-exercício não se mostrou dependente da intensidade do esforóo em curto prazo em indivíduos adultos jovens fisicamente ativos.The aim of this study was to investigate the acute effects of different aerobic exercise intensities (40 and 80% do VO2peak on post-exercise food intake. The sample was composed of eighteen healthy, physically active young men, of normal weight (22.20 ± 1.72 kg/m². Subjects were randomly submitted to three experimental conditions: control (no exercise; low-intensity exercise (LIE -40% of VO2peak and high-intensity exercise (HIE- 80% of VO2peak. Exercise trials were iso-caloric (350 Kcal. After 120 minutes of passive recovery, the volunteers had free access to a variety food buffet, and food intake was determined thru food weight. Data was analyzed by the software

  2. Effect of the co-occurring components from olive oil and thyme extracts on the antioxidant status and its bioavailability in an acute ingestion in rats.

    Rubió, Laura; Serra, Aida; Chen, C-Y Oliver; Macià, Alba; Romero, Maria-Paz; Covas, Maria-Isabel; Solà, Rosa; Motilva, Maria-José

    2014-04-01

    The aim of this work was to examine whether bioactives in thyme could enhance the antioxidant capacity of phenolics in virgin olive oil and their bioavailability in Wistar rats. After acute oral administration of extracts from olive cake (OE), thyme (TE) or their combination (OTE), blood samples were collected from 0 to 360 min. Plasma antioxidant status was analyzed by DPPH and FRAP in plasma and by SOD, CAT and GPx activities in erythrocytes. Plasma pharmacokinetics of the main metabolites of bioactives in olive oil and thyme were characterized. Plasma non-enzymatic antioxidant capacity was significantly modulated by OE, TE, and OTE in a time-, assay, and extract-dependent manner. OE, TE, and OTE all significantly decreased superoxide dismutase (SOD) and glutathione peroxidase (GPx) activity and catalase (CAT) activity was increased. Pharmacokinetic results showed that plasma concentration (Cmax) of the main olive phenolic metabolites in rats fed with OTE were similar to those of OE. These results indicate that an enhanced bioavailability of olive phenolic compounds could occur in the presence of thyme, although any synergistic effect was observed in the antioxidant status when both phenolic extracts were administered. Antioxidant protection by phenolics from olive and thyme against oxidative stress occurs primarily through a direct antioxidant effect and may be related to the phenolic plasmatic metabolites. PMID:24554091

  3. Polyurethane adhesive ingestion.

    Fitzgerald, Kevin T; Bronstein, Alvin C

    2013-02-01

    Polyurethane adhesives are found in a large number of household products in the United States and are used for a variety of purposes. Several brands of these expanding wood glues (those containing diphenylmethane diisocyanate [MDI]) have the potential to form gastrointestinal (GI) foreign bodies if ingested. The ingested adhesive forms an expanding ball of glue in the esophagus and gastric lumen. This expansion is caused by a polymerization reaction using the heat, water, and gastric acids of the stomach. A firm mass is created that can be 4-8 times its original volume. As little as 2 oz of glue have been reported to develop gastric foreign bodies. The obstructive mass is reported to form within minutes of ingestion of the adhesive. The foreign body can lead to esophageal impaction and obstruction, airway obstruction, gastric outflow obstruction, mucosal hemorrhage, ulceration, laceration, perforation of the esophageal and gastric linings, and death. Clinical signs following ingestion include anorexia, lethargy, vomiting, tachypnea, and abdominal distention and pain, and typically develop within 12 hours. Clinical signs may depend upon the size of the mass. If left untreated, perforation and rupture of the esophagus or stomach can occur. The glue mass does not stick to the GI mucosa and is not always detectable on abdominal palpation. Radiographs are recommended to confirm the presence of the "glue-ball" foreign body, and radiographic evidence of the obstruction may be seen as early as 4-6 hours following ingestion. Emesis is contraindicated owing to the risk of aspiration of the glue into the respiratory tree or the subsequent lodging of the expanding glue mass in the esophagus. Likewise, efforts to dilute the glue and prevent the formation of the foreign body through administration of liquids, activated charcoal, or bulk-forming products to push the foreign body through the GI tract have proven ineffective. Even endoscopy performed to remove the foreign body has

  4. Chronic alcohol ingestion delays skeletal muscle regeneration following injury

    Dekeyser, Graham J; Clary, Caroline R; OTIS, JEFFREY S.

    2013-01-01

    Background Chronic alcohol ingestion may cause severe biochemical and pathophysiological derangements to skeletal muscle. Unfortunately, these alcohol-induced events may also prime skeletal muscle for worsened, delayed, or possibly incomplete repair following acute injury. As alcoholics may be at increased risk for skeletal muscle injury, our goals were to identify the effects of chronic alcohol ingestion on components of skeletal muscle regeneration. To accomplish this, age- and gender-match...

  5. Gastric Perforation and Phlegmon Formation by Foreign Body Ingestion

    Albert Alejandro Avila Alvarez

    2014-08-01

    Full Text Available This is a case report of foreign body ingestion in a suicide attempt resulting in gastric perforation and phlegmon formation during a subsequent 6 month period that eventually required surgical intervention. The patient had a prolonged course because she did not report a history of foreign body ingestion and the initial evaluating physicians had no suspicion about possible foreign body ingestion and may have missed important findings on physical examination. Gastric perforation by a foreign object  may have a slow course rather than presenting acute abdomen. The realization of a proper physical examination in the emergency department is key to an accurate diagnosis.

  6. Ingestion model of COSYMA

    One of the aims of the COSYMA ingestion model design was to cope in a flexible manner with the various food chain related data and results at different stages of an accident consequence assessment. Since dynamic food chain transport models themselves are normally rather complex and require significant computing times they are usually not included in ACA codes, but are used to calculate and tabulate the needed information in the data library form. Such data files contain specific activity concentrations in the foodstuffs and their time integrals normalized to unit deposit or unit air concentration for a series of times after the accident to allow for calculations taking account the food restrictions. In an ACA run, the actual specific concentrations in the foodstuffs are obtained by multiplying the normalized concentrations taken from the data library by the ground or air concentrations in each grid point predicted with an atmospheric transport and deposition model. The paper presents the ingestion model: structure, methods and libraries used for a nuclear accident consequence assessment. For the dose and risk calculations, both the 'Local production and consumption approach', where the doses are calculated for an average adult member of the population, and 'Agricultural production approach, where the collective ingestion dose is estimated from the amount of activity deposited, the concentrations of radioactivity in the foodstuffs per unit deposit, the annual amount of produce taken from the agricultural production data grid and the committed dose equivalent per unit intake of activity are presented. (author)

  7. Ingestion modelling in COSYMA

    One of the aims in the design of the COSYMA ingestion model was the ability to cope in a flexible manner with the various food chain related data and results at different stages of an accident consequence assessment. Since dynamic foodchain transport models themselves are normally rather complex and require significant computation times, they are usually not included in ACA codes, but are used to calculate and tabulate the needed information in the form of data libraries. Such data files contain specific activity concentrations in the foodstuff and their time integral normalised to unit deposit or unit air concentration for a series of times after the accident.They allow for calculations taking into account food restrictions. In an ACA run, the actual specific concentrations in the foodstuffs are obtained by multiplying the normalized concentrations taken from the data library by the ground or air concentrations in each grid point predicted with an atmospheric transport and deposition model. The paper presents the structure of the ingestion model: structure, methods and the libraries used for a nuclear accident consequences assessment. (authors)

  8. Acute pancreatitis

    Bo-Guang Fan

    2010-05-01

    Full Text Available Background: Acute pancreatitis continues to be a serious illness, and the patients with acute pancreatitis are at risk to develop different complications from ongoing pancreatic inflammation. Aims: The present review is to highlight the classification, treatment and prognosis of acute pancreatitis. Material & Methods: We reviewed the English-language literature (Medline addressing pancreatitis. Results: Acute pancreatitis is frequently caused by gallstone disease or excess alcohol ingestion. There are a number of important issues regarding clinical highlights in the classification, treatment and prognosis of acute pancreatitis, and treatment options for complications of acute pancreatitis including pancreatic pseudocysts. Conclusions: Multidisciplinary approach should be used for the management of the patient with acute pancreatitis.

  9. Acute pancreatitis

    Bo-Guang Fan

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available Background : Acute pancreatitis continues to be a serious illness, and the patients with acute pancreatitis are at risk to develop different complications from ongoing pancreatic inflammation. Aims : The present review is to highlight the classification, treatment and prognosis of acute pancreatitis. Material & Methods : We reviewed the English-language literature (Medline addressing pancreatitis. Results : Acute pancreatitis is frequently caused by gallstone disease or excess alcohol ingestion. There are a number of important issues regarding clinical highlights in the classification, treatment and prognosis of acute pancreatitis, and treatment options for complications of acute pancreatitis including pancreatic pseudocysts. Conclusions : Multidisciplinary approach should be used for the management of the patient with acute pancreatitis.

  10. Renal failure and corrosive airway and gastrointestinal injury after ingestion of diluted diquat solution.

    Tanen, D A; Curry, S C; Laney, R F

    1999-10-01

    A 66-year-old man ingested 200 mL of Dexol Industries Weed and Grass Killer Concentrate (Torrance, CA), which contains 1.84% diquat dibromide, a herbicide structurally similar to paraquat. He remained asymptomatic for 8 hours, and then a sore throat and vomiting developed. Twenty hours after ingestion, esophagitis, mucositis, epiglottitis, and acute renal failure developed, from which he slowly recovered. This is the first report of systemic diquat toxicity from ingestion of a diluted diquat solution. PMID:10499956

  11. Colchicine cardiotoxicity following ingestion of Gloriosa superba tubers.

    Mendis, S.

    1989-01-01

    The clinical features of colchicine toxicity in a patient following ingestion of Gloriosa superba tubers are described. Gastroenteritis, acute renal failure, cardiotoxicity and haematological abnormalities were the main toxic manifestations. There was no hypotension and no neurological manifestations. Electrocardiographic changes were noteworthy and have not been reported previously.

  12. Indonesia: Ingestion study

    The study in Indonesia was carried out on a very small scale both for ingestion and organ contents of elements. The intakes of Cs, Sr, Ca and K in the group of elements of radiological importance and only Zn among essential elements were estimated. As part of the organ contents study, only 3 bone samples were analysed for K, Ca and Sr. In view of the very small number of samples for one individual organ, the results were not considered for inclusion in the main document. The food samples were prepared on the basis of the daily per capita consumption of calorie data. These data for food commodities were published in Indonesia by Central Bureau of Statistics and the energy values per gram of individual vegetables, fruits, meat etc, were published by Nutrition Research and Development Centre in Indonesia. Some duplicate diet samples were also collected for the study. These duplicate samples were generally collected from canteens and eating houses at the inter-city bus stops. Although duplicate diets were processed and analysed as complete one day samples, for the market basket study on the other hand, only one tenth of the food material was used to prepare the food for analysis. The samples from Indonesia were not collected as per the IAEA protocols, which stated the preparation of total diet representative of one day's meal of an adult. Further, the duplicate diet samples were obtained from canteens and therefore did not represent the exact duplicate portion of diet of the individual subjects representing the adult population of Indonesia. These food samples were blended, freeze dried and subsequently powdered with glass mortar prior to analysis. AAS and INAA were employed to carry out the analysis of diet samples for various trace elements

  13. Coronary artery spasm after ingestion of Imodium (loperamide) in a 14-year-old boy

    Sehar, Tayyaba; Sadiq, Masood

    2016-01-01

    We report a 14-year-old boy who presented with acute chest pain, following the ingestion of loperamide for acute diarrhea. Twelve lead electrocardiogram (ECG) showed evidence of acute ischemia indicating acute coronary artery spasm. The changes reverted with treatment within a few hours with no permanent effect on myocardial function. This report highlights a rare side effect of loperamide, often debated in adults and never reported in adolescents. PMID:27212851

  14. An ingested foreign body: two sides of the same coin?

    Varadharajan, Kiran; Magill, Jennifer; Patel, Kalpesh

    2014-01-01

    A 2-year-old child presented to the emergency department with an acute onset of dysphagia and stertor. A plain anteroposterior chest X-ray revealed a single circular opacity in the middle third of the oesophagus consistent with an ingested coin. The child was taken to the theatre for rigid pharyngo-oesophagoscopy and removal of the coin. After the first coin was removed subsequent endoscopic examination revealed a second coin at the same location. This extremely rare case of two ingested coins becoming impacted with perfect radiological alignment emphasises the importance of thorough examination on endoscopy and the potential limitations of an X-ray in initial assessment of an ingested foreign body. PMID:24717590

  15. Hadoop Tutorial - Efficient data ingestion

    CERN. Geneva; Lanza Garcia, Daniel

    2016-01-01

    The Hadoop ecosystem is the leading opensource platform for distributed storage and processing of "big data". The Hadoop platform is available at CERN as a central service provided by the IT department. Real-time data ingestion to Hadoop ecosystem due to the system specificity is non-trivial process and requires some efforts (which is often underestimated) in order to make it efficient (low latency, optimize data placement, footprint on the cluster). In this tutorial attendees will learn about: The important aspects of storing the data in Hadoop Distributed File System (HDFS).  Data ingestion techniques and engines that are capable of shipping data to Hadoop in an efficient way. Setting up a full data ingestion flow into a Hadoop Distributed Files System from various sources (streaming, log files, databases) using the best practices and components available around the ecosystem (including Sqoop, Kite, Flume, Kafka...

  16. Pipazethate--acute childhood poisoning.

    da Silva, O A; Lopez, M

    1977-01-01

    A previously healthy child who who had accidentally ingested an unknown quantity of 20-mg tablets of pipazethate developed severe acute poisoning with neurologic, metabolic, and cardiovascular disturbances. She recovered with symptomatic and supportive therapy. PMID:589958

  17. Acute pancreatitis following paracetamol overdose

    Fernandes, Roland

    2009-01-01

    A 17-year-old woman presented with acute abdominal pain and vomiting 3 h after she attempted to commit suicide by ingesting 30×500 mg paracetamol tablets. The woman was found to have a raised amylase level, and a CT scan confirmed the diagnosis of acute pancreatitis. According to the Naranjo adverse drug reaction probability scale, it is likely that the pancreatitis was induced by the paracetamol ingestion. A literature search reported 36 cases of pancreatitis following excessive doses of par...

  18. Intestinal perforation caused by multiple magnet ingestion

    Nergul Corduk

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Multiple magnet ingestion is rare, but can cause serious gastrointestinal complications. We report a case of 7-year-old girl with multiple intestinal perforations caused by multiple magnet ingestion. The aim of this report is to draw attention to magnetic toys, results of magnet ingestion and the importance of timing of operation.

  19. Physiologic Conditions Affect Toxicity of Ingested Industrial Fluoride

    Richard Sauerheber

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available The effects of calcium ion and broad pH ranges on free fluoride ion aqueous concentrations were measured directly and computed theoretically. Solubility calculations indicate that blood fluoride concentrations that occur in lethal poisonings would decrease calcium below prevailing levels. Acute lethal poisoning and also many of the chronic effects of fluoride involve alterations in the chemical activity of calcium by the fluoride ion. Natural calcium fluoride with low solubility and toxicity from ingestion is distinct from fully soluble toxic industrial fluorides. The toxicity of fluoride is determined by environmental conditions and the positive cations present. At a pH typical of gastric juice, fluoride is largely protonated as hydrofluoric acid HF. Industrial fluoride ingested from treated water enters saliva at levels too low to affect dental caries. Blood levels during lifelong consumption can harm heart, bone, brain, and even developing teeth enamel. The widespread policy known as water fluoridation is discussed in light of these findings.

  20. Case of multiple organ failure due to benzine ingestion.

    Shimamoto, Syuji; Namiki, Mizuho; Harada, Tomoyuki; Takeda, Munekazu; Moroi, Ryuichi; Yaguchi, Arino

    2013-09-01

    A 42-year-old woman was admitted to our ICU for acute respiratory failure due to benzine ingestion. On arrival at the hospital, the patient's consciousness level was GCS 3 and her SpO2 was 89% when receiving oxygen at 10 L/min. She was immediately intubated and placed on a ventilator. Chest X-ray and CT scanning showed a wide infiltrative pulmonary shadow bilaterally, and a diagnosis of acute respiratory distress syndrome (ARDS) was made. Subsequently, she became anuric and required haemodiafiltration on the 2nd day. Complications such as prolonged circulatory failure, liver dysfunction and disseminated intravascular coagulation (DIC) were then observed, and plasma exchange therapy was initiated. The patient's condition improved and a complete recovery ensued. The patient remained suicidal and was moved to the psychiatric ward for psychiatric support. Benzine is purified oil containing aliphatic hydrocarbons and is liquid at room temperature. In this case, the patient had already ARDS that required immediate intubation on arrival at the hospital. On this basis, aspiration of benzine into the lungs was considered to have occurred concomitantly with its ingestion, which therefore led to the complication of chemical pneumonitis in addition to that of circulatory shock, acute kidney injury, liver dysfunction and DIC. PMID:24224388

  1. Neuroendocrine regulation of appetitive ingestive behavior

    ErinKeen-Rhinehart

    2013-11-01

    Full Text Available Food availability in nature is often irregular, and famine is commonplace. Increased motivation to engage in ingestive behaviors increases the chance of survival, providing additional potential opportunities for reproduction. Because of the advantages conferred by entraining ingestive behavior to environmental conditions, neuroendocrine mechanisms regulating the motivation to acquire and ingest food have evolved to be responsive to exogenous (i.e. food stored for future consumption and endogenous (i.e. body fat stores fuel availability. Motivated behaviors like eating occur in two phases. The appetitive phase brings animals into contact with food (e.g. foraging, food hoarding, and the more reflexive consummatory phase results in ingestion (e.g., chewing, swallowing. Quantifiable appetitive behaviors are part of many the natural ingestive behavioral repertoire of species such as hamsters and humans. This review summarizes current knowledge about neuroendocrine regulators of ingestive behavior, with an emphasis appetitive behavior. We will discuss hormonal regulators of appetitive ingestive behaviors, including the orexigenic hormone ghrelin, which potently stimulates foraging and food hoarding in Siberian hamsters. This section includes a discussion of the hormone leptin, its relation to endogenous fat stores, and its role in food deprivation-induced increases in appetitive ingestive behaviors. Next, we discuss how hormonal regulators interact with neurotransmitters involved in the regulation of ingestive behaviors, such as NPY, AgRP and alpha-MSH, to regulate ingestive behavior. Finally, we discuss the potential impact that perinatal nutrient availability can have on the neuroendocrine regulation of ingestive behavior. Understanding the hormonal mechanisms that connect metabolic fuel availability to central appetite regulatory circuits should provide a better understanding of the neuroendocrine regulation of the motivation to engage in ingestive

  2. Liquid nitrogen ingestion followed by gastric perforation.

    Berrizbeitia, Luis D; Calello, Diane P; Dhir, Nisha; O'Reilly, Colin; Marcus, Steven

    2010-01-01

    Ingestion of liquid nitrogen is rare but carries catastrophic complications related to barotrauma to the gastrointestinal tract. We describe a case of ingestion of liquid nitrogen followed by gastric perforation and respiratory insufficiency and discuss the mechanism of injury and management of this condition. Liquid nitrogen is widely available and is frequently used in classroom settings, in gastronomy, and for recreational purposes. Given the potentially lethal complications of ingestion, regulation of its use, acquisition, and storage may be appropriate. PMID:20065833

  3. Bolus ingestion of individual branched-chain amino acids alters plasma amino acid profiles in young healthy men

    Matsumoto, Takuya; Nakamura, Koichi; Matsumoto, Hideki; Sakai, Ryosei; Kuwahara, Tomomi; Kadota, Yoshihiro; Kitaura, Yasuyuki; SATO, JUICHI; Shimomura, Yoshiharu

    2014-01-01

    Physiological conditions in humans affect plasma amino acid profiles that might have potential for medical use. Because the branched-chain amino acids (BCAAs) leucine, isoleucine and valine are used as medicines and supplements, we investigated the acute effects of individual BCAAs (10–90 mg/kg body weight) or mixed BCAAs ingested as a bolus on plasma amino acid profiles in young healthy men. Plasma leucine levels rapidly increased and peaked around 30 min after leucine ingestion. Concentrati...

  4. Recurrent seizures after lidocaine ingestion.

    Aminiahidashti, Hamed; Laali, Abolghasem; Nosrati, Nazanin; Jahani, Fatemeh

    2015-01-01

    Lidocaine has a concentration-dependent effect on seizures. Concentrations above 15 μg/mL frequently result in seizures in laboratory animals and human. We report a case of central nervous system (CNS) lidocaine toxicity and recurrent seizure after erroneous ingestion of lidocaine solution. A 4-year-old boy presented to the Emergency Department of Imam Hospital of Sari in December 2013 due to tonic-clonic generalized seizures approximately 30 min ago. 3 h before seizure, his mother gave him 2 spoons (amount 20-25 cc) lidocaine hydrochloride 2% solution instead of pediatric gripe by mistake. Seizure with generalized tonic-clonic occurred 3 times in home. Neurological examination was essentially unremarkable except for the depressed level of consciousness. Personal and medical history was unremarkable. There was no evidence of intracranial ischemic or hemorrhagic lesions in computed tomography scan. There were no further seizures, the condition of the patient remained stable, and he was discharged 2 days after admission. The use of viscous lidocaine may result in cardiovascular and CNS toxicity, particularly in children. Conservative management is the best option for treatment of lidocaine induced seizure. PMID:25709968

  5. Death following ingestion of methylone.

    Barrios, L; Grison-Hernando, H; Boels, D; Bouquie, R; Monteil-Ganiere, C; Clement, R

    2016-03-01

    Methylone is a synthetic derivative of cathinone. It is sold principally on the Internet in powder form under the name «bath salts». Deaths following consumption are very rare. This report details the first case of a death in France (a 21-year-old man), following ingestion of methylone during an evening with friends. Anoxia was observed at the time of autopsy. Toxicological analyses highlighted a consumption of methylone and cannabis. However, biological analyses showed an absence of ethanol, cocaine, amphetamines, and opiate derivatives. Likewise, no medications were found. High concentrations of methylone were found in the peripheral blood (3.13 mg/L) and in the central blood (6.64 mg/L). Its presence in the gastric contents provides evidence that the substance was taken orally. The dosage of δ9-tetrahydrocannabinol (THC) suggests a recent cannabis consumption (THC 12.9 μg/L, THC-COOH 29.3 μg/L, 11-OH-THC 4.9 μg/L). This case illustrates that the consumption of methylone, which has a reputation of being less «powerful» than ecstasy, is not without its dangers. PMID:26071183

  6. Ingestion of Laundry Detergent Packets in Children.

    Shah, Lindsey Wilson

    2016-08-01

    Ingestion of laundry detergent packets is an important threat to young children. Because of their developmental stage, toddlers are prone to place these small, colorful packets in their mouths. The packets can easily burst, sending a large volume of viscous, alkaline liquid throughout the oropharynx. Ingestion causes major toxic effects, including depression of the central nervous system, metabolic acidosis, respiratory distress, and dysphagia. Critical care nurses should anticipate these clinical effects and facilitate prompt intervention. Increased understanding of the risks and clinical effects of ingestion of laundry detergent packets will better prepare critical care nurses to provide care for these children. (Critical Care Nurse 2016; 36[4]:70-75). PMID:27481804

  7. Paraphenylene diamine ingestion: An uncommon cause of acute renal failure

    Ram R; Swarnalatha G; Prasad N; Dakshinamurty K

    2007-01-01

    Paraphenylene diamine (PPD) is a major component of hair dyes. The aim is to study the renal manifestations and outcome of PPD consumption. During a four-year period from 2002 to February 2006, 10 persons were admitted to our Institute after consuming a hair dye in a suicidal bid. The percentage of ARF due to PPD at our Institute was 0.95%. Seven patients out of 10 (70%) who consumed PPD developed ARF. All 10 patients, including the patients who had normal renal function had fea...

  8. Ice crystal ingestion by turbofans

    Rios Pabon, Manuel A.

    This Thesis will present the problem of inflight icing in general and inflight icing caused by the ingestion of high altitude ice crystals produced by high energy mesoscale convective complexes in particular, and propose a new device to prevent it based on dielectric barrier discharge plasma. Inflight icing is known to be the cause of 583 air accidents and more than 800 deaths in more than a decade. The new ice crystal ingestion problem has caused more than 100 flights to lose engine power since the 1990's, and the NTSB identified it as one of the causes of the Air France flight 447 accident in 1-Jun2008. The mechanics of inflight icing not caused by ice crystals are well established. Aircraft surfaces exposed to supercooled liquid water droplets will accrete ice in direct proportion of the droplet catch and the freezing heat transfer process. The multiphase flow droplet catch is predicted by the simple sum of forces on each spherical droplet and a droplet trajectory calculation based on Lagrangian or Eulerian analysis. The most widely used freezing heat transfer model for inflight icing caused by supercooled droplets was established by Messinger. Several computer programs implement these analytical models to predict inflight icing, with LEWICE being based on Lagrangian analysis and FENSAP being based on Eulerian analysis as the best representatives among them. This Thesis presents the multiphase fluid mechanics particular to ice crystals, and explains how it differs from the established droplet multiphase flow, and the obstacles in implementing the former in computational analysis. A new modification of the Messinger thermal model is proposed to account for ice accretion produced by ice crystal impingement. Because there exist no computational and experimental ways to fully replicate ice crystal inflight icing, and because existing ice protections systems consume vast amounts of energy, a new ice protection device based on dielectric barrier discharge plasma is

  9. Potassium permanganate ingestion as a suicide attempt

    Tuba Cimilli Ozturk

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available Potassium permanganate is a highly corrosive, water-soluble oxidizing antiseptic. A 68- year-old female patient was admitted to our Emergency Department after ingestion of 3 tablets of 250 mg potassium permanganate as a suicide attempt. The physical exam revealed brown stained lesions in the oropharynx. Emergency endoscopy was performed by the gastroenterologist after the third hour of ingestion. Emergency endoscopy revealed multiple superficial (Grade I-II lesions on the esophagus and cardia, which were considered secondary to the caustic substance. The mainstay in the treatment of potassium permanganate is supportive and the immediate priority is to secure the airway. Emergency endoscopy is an important tool used to evaluate the location and severity of injury to the esophagus, stomach and duodenum after caustic ingestion. Patients with signs and symptoms of intentional ingestion should undergo endoscopy within 12 to 24 h to define the extent of the disease.

  10. Melanosis ilei induced by prolonged charcoal ingestion

    Kim, Gun Min; Jun, Eun Jung; Kim, Yong Cheol; Park, Jin Min; Hong, Seok In; Cheung, Dae Young; Kim, Jin Il; Lee, Youn Soo

    2011-01-01

    Gastrointestinal melanosis is observed most frequently in the colon it also can develop in the ileum, duodenum and esophagus very rarely. Melanosis ilei was thought that causative materials such as aluminum, magnesium, silicate, titanium and other compounds entered the body through the ingestion of agents. We experienced a case of melanosis in the terminal ileum that a 65-year-old female patient ingested 10 g edible charcoal everyday for 3 years to address symptoms of chronic abdominal pain. ...

  11. Anaphylaxis after accidental ingestion of kiwi fruit

    Gawrońska-Ukleja, Ewa; Różalska, Anna; Ukleja-Sokołowska, Natalia; Żbikowska-Gotz, Magdalena; Bartuzi, Zbigniew

    2013-01-01

    Numerous cases of anaphylaxis after ingestion of kiwi fruit, after the skin tests and during oral immunotherapy were described. The article describes the case of severe anaphylactic reaction that occurred in a 55-year-old patient after accidental ingestion of kiwi. Allergy to kiwi fruit was confirmed by a native test with fresh kiwi fruit. After the test, the patient experienced generalized organ response in the form of headache, general weakness and rashes on the neck and breast, and dyspnea...

  12. Potassium permanganate ingestion as a suicide attempt

    Tuba Cimilli Ozturk; Ozlem Guneysel; Onur Yesil; Sebnem Eren Cevik

    2012-01-01

    Potassium permanganate is a highly corrosive, water-soluble oxidizing antiseptic. A 68- year-old female patient was admitted to our Emergency Department after ingestion of 3 tablets of 250 mg potassium permanganate as a suicide attempt. The physical exam revealed brown stained lesions in the oropharynx. Emergency endoscopy was performed by the gastroenterologist after the third hour of ingestion. Emergency endoscopy revealed multiple superficial (Grade I-II) lesions on the esophagus and cardi...

  13. Ingested foreign bodies in the paediatric patient.

    O'Brien, G C

    2012-02-03

    BACKGROUND: Paediatric foreign body (FB) ingestion is a common problem and while most can be managed conservatively, a sub-population require intervention. AIMS: To establish clear guidelines for management of paediatric FB ingestion. METHODS: A retrospective chart review analysing all paediatric admissions with FB ingestion over a 10-year period from 1990 to 1999. RESULTS: Of 339 patients presenting to the accident and emergency department with FB ingestion, 59 required admission. Ingestion was accidental in 93.0% of patients. The reasons for admission were as follows: large FBs; dangerous FBs; and living far from the hospital. Nineteen patients (32.2%) were discharged without intervention. Thirty-seven (62.7%) required endoscopic retrieval. In two, the FB was not identified at endoscopy. Only three (5%) required surgery. CONCLUSION: Conservative management of FB ingestion in the paediatric population is possible in the majority of cases. However, a minority require intervention. While guidelines for intervention are ill-defined, definitive indications include symptomatic patients, or dangerous objects.

  14. Ingestion intake of fallout Pu in Japan

    Ingestion intakes of fallout Pu throughout Japan in the 1959-1962 and 1978-1980 periods were measured by analyzing composite samples of each foodstuff or duplicate composite food samples consumed by five persons for a period of 1 d. Cumulative ingestion intake in Tokyo for the period from 1954-1980 was estimated by regression analysis. The cumulative ingestion intake, calculated by simple regression analysis between the natural log of the intake and that of annual fallout deposition of Pu, was estimated to be 450 pCi. Calculated by a multiple regression analysis, including the natural log of annual fallout deposition rates for a previous year as an additional independent variable, it was estimated to be 600 pCi. Considering in combination an ingestion intake, the value of which is calculated by the multiple regression analysis; an absorption ratio from the gastrointestinal tract of 0.001 (a recently reported value for low-level soluble Pu independent of chemical form); and the metabolic model in ICRP Publication 30, it is possible to estimate that the contribution of ingestion intake to liver and bone burden would be approximately 30%

  15. Localisation using mini c-arm fluoroscopy of needles ingested by a woman with schizophrenia: a case report

    Parlakgumus Alper

    2009-03-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Introduction Our aim was to specify the use of mini C-arm fluoroscopy in a woman with schizophrenia who was suffering from abdominal pain because of ingested needles. Case presentation Here we report the case of an 18-year-old Turkish woman with schizophrenia who was admitted to the emergency department with signs of an acute abdomen as a result of ingestion of multiple needles. This is the third case in the literature for which mini C-arm fluoroscopy has been used to localize metallic sewing needles. Conclusion When intentional ingestion occurs, surgery is rarely required. It is hard to localize ingested sewing needles and mini C-arm fluoroscopy is a good alternative when metal detectors are not available for localization of metal sewing needles. We recommend this approach because it helps to avoid unnecessary exploration, shortens the duration of surgery and provides outstanding results.

  16. Severe hypotension and hypothermia caused by acute ethanol toxicity

    Wilson, E; W. S. Waring

    2007-01-01

    This article reports the time course and clinical features of acute ethanol poisoning in an elderly man who had previously abstained from alcohol. Several hours after ingestion, severe hypotension and hypothermia developed, and the consciousness level was reduced. Supportive measures were sufficient to allow the patient's blood pressure and temperature to recover by 24 h post ingestion. The clinical manifestations of ethanol toxicity are often confounded by coexistent drug ingestion and varia...

  17. Plutonium incorporation through ingestion by young animals

    Studies to determine whether animals nursed by dams with a 239Pu burden would themselves acquire plutonium showed that rats incorporated about 0.019 percent of the amount injected into the dam, mice incorporated about 0.11 percent, and cats about 0.28 percent. Plutonium obtained in this fashion was avidly retained by bone and resulted in the appearance of two osteogenic sarcomas in a seven and one-half-year-old cat with an estimated terminal body burden of 0.23 to 0.27 μCi. In comparing the incorporation of ingested Pu-milk and Pu-citrate by rats of different ages, it was found that nurslings incorporated more than weanlings and weanlings more than adults. Also, 1.6 to 3 times as much plutonium was incorporated from ingested Pu-milk as from ingested Pu-citrate

  18. Cyanide poisoning after bitter almond ingestion

    Y Mouaffak

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Plants are responsible for 5% poisoning recorded by Poison Control Centers. Among all known toxic plants, some present a real danger if ingested. We report the case of a five years old child, who presented, after ten bitter almonds ingestion, consciousness disorders progressing to coma with generalized tonic-clonic seizures, miosis and metabolic acidosis. Bitter almonds and nuclei of stone fruits or other rosaceae (apricot, peach, plum contain cyanogenic glycosides, amygdalin, that yields hydrogen cyanide when metabolized in the body. Swallowing six to ten bitter almonds may cause serious poisoning, while the ingestion of fifty could kill a man. The binding of cyanide ions on cytochrome oxidase lead to a non hypoxemic hypoxia by blocking the cellular respiratory chain. Therapeutic measures include, oxygen support, correction of acidosis and cyanide antidote by hydroxocobalamin in case of serious poisoning.

  19. [Plasma levels of psoralens after celery ingestion].

    Gral, N; Beani, J C; Bonnot, D; Mariotte, A M; Reymond, J L; Amblard, P

    1993-01-01

    Psoralens are photosensitizing substances present in many vegetables, some of which are routinely consumed. These vegetables are responsible for contact phytophotodermatitis, but it was agreed that they did not produce photodermatitis when taken orally. Ljunggren has recently questioned this concept by reporting a case of phototoxic accident which occurred after ingestion of 450 grams of celery roots (Apium graveolens). In a study in healthy volunteers we looked for psoralens in blood and analyzed the cutaneous photosensitivity by the minimal phototoxic doses (MPD) method, after ingestion of celery in large amounts (500 grams and more). Plasma concentrations of psoralens were inexistant in all subjects and at all sampling times, and no phototoxic reaction was detected by MPD. Celery roots, therefore, do not seem to be photosensitizing, even after ingestion in large amounts, but they might increase the risk of phototoxicity in PUVA-therapy. The same applies to fennel and parsnip. PMID:8161113

  20. Metabolism of ingested uranium and radium

    Metabolic models for U and Ra are described to estimate the risks to human health from ingesting these elements in drinking water. Chemical toxicity, which is relevant to U in its natural, depleted or slightly enriched state, is addressed, as are the radiotoxicity and the radiobiological effects of the important alpha-emitting isotopes of Ra, including 224Ra, 226Ra, and 228Ra. This paper estimates the kinetics of skeletal U deposition, so that risk coefficients for bone cancer induction can be applied. Skeletal cancer is regarded as the major potential radiobiological effect of ingested alpha-emitting radioisotopes of Ra and the presumed radiobiological effect of U, if any. Best estimates of normal U metabolism are used, because even in extreme cases the amounts of U or Ra ingested in potable water are not great enough to chemically or radiobiologically modify their metabolic behavior

  1. Metabolism of ingested uranium and radium

    Wrenn, M.D.; Durbin, P.W.; Howard, B.; Lipsztein, J.; Rundo, J.; Still, E.T.; Willis, D.L.

    1983-01-01

    Metabolic models for U and Ra are described to estimate the risks to human health from ingesting these elements in drinking water. Chemical toxicity, which is relevant to U in its natural, depleted or slightly enriched state, is addressed, as are the radiotoxicity and the radiobiological effects of the important alpha-emitting isotopes of Ra, including /sup 224/Ra, /sup 226/Ra, and /sup 228/Ra. This paper estimates the kinetics of skeletal U deposition, so that risk coefficients for bone cancer induction can be applied. Skeletal cancer is regarded as the major potential radiobiological effect of ingested alpha-emitting radioisotopes of Ra and the presumed radiobiological effect of U, if any. Best estimates of normal U metabolism are used, because even in extreme cases the amounts of U or Ra ingested in potable water are not great enough to chemically or radiobiologically modify their metabolic behavior.

  2. A development of computer code for evaluating internal radiation dose through ingestion and inhalation pathways

    The computer codes were developed to evaluate internal radiation dose when radioactive isotopes released from nuclear facilities are taken through ingestion and inhalation pathways. Food chain models and relevant data base representing the agricultural and social environment of Korea are set up. An equilibrium model-KFOOD, which can deal with routine releases from a nuclear facility and a dynamic model-ECOREA, which is suitable for the description of acute radioactivity release following nuclear accident. (Author)

  3. Caustic ingestion management: world society of emergency surgery preliminary survey of expert opinion

    Kluger, Yoram; Ishay, Ofir Ben; Sartelli, Massimo; Katz, Amit; Ansaloni, Luca; Gomez, Carlos Augusto; Biffl, Walter; Catena, Fausto; Fraga, Gustavo P; Di Saverio, Salomone; Goran, Augustin; Ghnnam, Wagih; Kashuk, Jeffry; Leppäniemi, Ari; Marwah, Sanjay

    2015-01-01

    Caustic material ingestion injuries (CMI) are uncommon. Only 5,000 cases are reported in the United States each year and most acute care healthcare facilities admit only a few cases annually. Accordingly, no single institution can claim extensive experience, and management protocols are most probably based on either expert opinion or literature reports. In this study, we will attempt to review opinions and practices of representatives of the board members of the World Society of Emergency Sur...

  4. Simulation of plutonium ingestion by grazing cattle

    A simple model of plutonium ingestion by cattle grazing a uniformly contaminated pasture is I/sub Pu/ = I/sub v/C/sub v/ + I/sub s/C/sub s/ where I/sub Pu/ is the plutonium ingestion rate (pCi/day), I/sub v/ and I/sub s/ are vegetation and soil ingestion rates (g/day), C/sub v/ and C/sub s/ are plutonium concentrations (pCi/g) in vegetation and soil. In a ground zero area such as the inner compound of Area 13 (NTS), where the spatial distribution of plutonium is nonuniform and highly variable, the simple ingestion model seems to require a stochastic interpretation. This paper provides evidence for assuming that the five factors of the ingestion model are lognormally distributed. Estimates of the geometric means and standard deviations of the four factors on the right side of the model equation were used to generate synthetic random samples of I/sub v/, I/sub s/, C/sub v/, and C/sub s/. The means of these synthetic samples were then used to obtain iterative solutions of the model equation in which the factors on the right were varied randomly and independently within the limits specified by the synthetic geometric means and standard deviation. The resulting synthetic composite random sample of I/sub Pu/ (n = 500 days) indicated an average plutonium ingestion rate, for a hypothetical 410-kg cow grazing the inner compound of Area 13, of 557 +- 526 nCi/day. Subsamples (n = 100 days) ranged from 486 +- 330 to 629 +- 526 nCi/day. This result compares favorably with previous estimates: 565 nCi/day based on fistulated steer rumen contents (Smith et al., 1976), 620 nCi/g based on an assumed diet of winterfat and shadscale (Gilbert et al., 1977), and 585 nCi/day based on general theoretical considerations

  5. Seizures due to high dose camphor ingestion.

    Tekin, Hande Gazeteci; Gökben, Sarenur; Serdaroğlu, Gül

    2015-12-01

    Camphor is a cyclic ketone of the hydro aromatic terpene group. Today it is frequently used as a prescription or non-prescription topical antitussive, analgesic, anesthetic and antipruritic agent. Camphor which is considered an innocent drug by parents and physicians is a common household item which can lead to severe poisoning in children even when taken in small amounts. Neurotoxicity in the form of seizures can ocur soon after ingestion. A two-year old female patient who presented with a complaint of generalized tonic-clonic seizures after oral ingestion of camphor is presented. PMID:26884696

  6. Effect of ingested sodium bicarbonate on muscle force, fatigue, and recovery.

    Verbitsky, O; Mizrahi, J; Levin, M; Isakov, E

    1997-08-01

    The influence of acute ingestion of NaHCO3 on fatigue and recovery of teh quadriceps femoris muscle after exercise was studied in six healthy male subjects. A bicycle ergometer was used for exercising under three loading conditions: test A, load corresponding to maximal oxygen consumption; test B, load in test A + 17%; test C, load in test B but performed 1 h after acute ingestion of NaHCO3. Functional electrical stimulation (FES) was applied to provoke isometric contraction of the quadriceps femoris. The resulting knee torque was monitored during fatigue (2-min chronic FES) and recovery (10-s FES every 10 min, for 40 min). Quadriceps torques were higher in the presence of NaHCO3 (P < 0.05): with NaHCO3 the peak, residual, and recovery (after 40 min) normalized torques were, respectively, 0.68 +/- 0.05 (SD), 0.58 +/- 0.05, and 0.73 +/- 0.05; without NaHCO3 the values were 0.45 +/- 0.04, 0.30 +/- 0.06, and 0.63 +/- 0.06. The increased torques obtained after acute ingestion of NaHCO3 indicate the possible existence of improved nonoxidative glycolysis in isometric contraction, resulting in reduced fatigue and enhanced recovery. PMID:9296948

  7. Acute water intoxication as another unusual manifestation of child abuse.

    Mortimer, J. G.

    1980-01-01

    A 4 1/2-year-old boy developed hyponatraemia with coma and convulsions as the result of acute water intoxication. Information subsequently obtained strongly suggested that the excessive water ingestion was enforced by a punitive foster father.

  8. Button Battery Ingestion in Children: A Paradigm for Management of Severe Pediatric Foreign Body Ingestions.

    Leinwand, Kristina; Brumbaugh, David E; Kramer, Robert E

    2016-01-01

    Gastrointestinal injuries secondary to button battery ingestions in children have emerged as a dangerous and difficult management problem for pediatricians. Implementation of a multidisciplinary team approach, with rapid and coordinated care, is paramount to minimize the risk of negative outcomes. In addition to providing a comprehensive review of the topic, this article outlines the authors' referral center's experience with patients with severe battery ingestion, highlighting the complications, outcomes, and important lessons learned from their care. The authors also propose an algorithm for clinical care that may be useful for guiding best management of pediatric button battery ingestion. PMID:26616899

  9. Methaemoglobinaemia after ingestion of amyl nitrite.

    Forsyth, R. J.; Moulden, A

    1991-01-01

    We report a case of methaemoglobinaemia in a 2 year old girl after ingestion of an 'aphrodisiac' containing nitrite. The availability of these products, their poor labelling, and their intended presence in domestic bedrooms all serve to increase the hazard they pose to young children.

  10. Measuring water ingestion from spray exposures.

    Sinclair, Martha; Roddick, Felicity; Nguyen, Thang; O'Toole, Joanne; Leder, Karin

    2016-08-01

    Characterisation of exposure levels is an essential requirement of health risk assessment; however for water exposures other than drinking, few quantitative exposure data exist. Thus, regulatory agencies must use estimates to formulate policy on treatment requirements for non-potable recycled water. We adapted the use of the swimming pool chemical cyanuric acid as a tracer of recreational water ingestion to permit detection of small water volumes inadvertently ingested from spray exposures. By using solutions of 700-1000 mg/L cyanuric acid in an experimental spray exposure scenario, we were able to quantify inadvertent water ingestion in almost 70% of participants undertaking a 10 min car wash activity using a high pressure spray device. Skin absorption was demonstrated to be negligible under the experimental conditions, and the measured ingestion volumes ranged from 0.06 to 3.79 mL. This method could be applied to a range of non-potable water use activities to generate exposure data for risk assessment processes. The availability of such empirical measurements will provide greater assurance to regulatory agencies and industry that potential health risks from exposure to non-potable water supplies are well understood and adequately managed to protect public health. PMID:27130966

  11. Data ingestion and assimilation in ionospheric models

    Burešová, Dalia; Nava, B.; Galkin, I.; Angling, M.; Stankov, S. M.; Coisson, P.

    2009-01-01

    Roč. 52, 3/4 (2009), s. 235-253. ISSN 1593-5213 R&D Projects: GA ČR GA205/08/1356; GA MŠk OC 091 Institutional research plan: CEZ:AV0Z30420517 Keywords : ionosphere * models * data assimilation * data ingestion Subject RIV: DG - Athmosphere Sciences, Meteorology Impact factor: 0.548, year: 2009

  12. Hedonic and homeostatic overlap following fat ingestion

    Begg, Denovan P.; Woods, Stephen C.

    2013-01-01

    Ingestion of fatty foods increases dopamine release in the substantianigra producing a positive hedonic state. Tellez et al. (2013) demonstrate that an intestinal signal generated by fat consumption, oleoylethanolamide, stimulates central dopamine activity, thus regulating the reward value of fat and establishing a link between caloric-homeostatic and hedonic-homeostatic controllers.

  13. Hedonic and homeostatic overlap following fat ingestion.

    Begg, Denovan P; Woods, Stephen C

    2013-10-01

    Ingestion of fatty foods increases dopamine release in the substantia nigra, producing a positive hedonic state. Tellez et al. (2013) demonstrate that an intestinal signal generated by fat consumption, oleoylethanolamide, stimulates central dopamine activity, thus regulating the reward value of fat and establishing a link between caloric-homeostatic and hedonic-homeostatic controllers. PMID:24093671

  14. Is There a Need for Protein Ingestion During Exercise?

    Luc J. C. Van Loon

    2014-01-01

    Dietary protein ingestion following exercise increases muscle protein synthesis rates, stimulates net muscle protein accretion, and facilitates the skeletal muscle adaptive response to prolonged exercise training. Furthermore, recent studies show that protein ingestion before and during exercise also increases muscle protein synthesis rates during resistance- and endurance-type exercise. Therefore, protein ingestion before and during prolonged exercise may represent an effective dietary strat...

  15. Cost Aspects of Ingest and Normalization

    Kejser, Ulla Bøgvad; Nielsen, Anders Bo; Thirifays, Alex

    2011-01-01

    The Danish National Archives, and The Royal Library and the State and University Library are in the process of developing a cost model for digital preservation: Each of the functional entities of the OAIS Reference Model are broken down into measurable, cost-critical activities, and formula are...... being tailored for each of these in order to create a generic tool for estimating the short and long-term costs of digital preservation. This paper presents an introduction to the subject of the costs of digital preservation and describes the method used to develop the Danish Cost Model for Digital...... Preservation (CMDP). It then describes how the OAIS functional entity, Ingest, has been included in the model. For institutions basing their digital preservation strategy on migration, a major cost pertaining to Ingest is normalization, a digital migration from production to preservation format and structure...

  16. Evaluation of skin and ingestion exposure pathways

    After a nuclear accident when there has been a release of radionuclides into the atmosphere with consequential deposition on the ground, decisions are necessary on whether protective action guides should be implemented. In order to do this, several pathways for radiation exposure must be evaluated to determine the projected dose to individuals. The objective of this study, conducted by Pacific Northwest Laboratories for the U.S. Environmental Protection Agency, is to provide background information on exposure pathways for use in the development of Protective Action Guides. The relative importance of three exposure pathways that are usually considered to be unimportant compared to other pathways expected to control relocation decisions following a nuclear power plant accident is evaluated. The three pathways are the skin dose from contact with radionuclides transferred from the ground, the skin dose from radionuclides on the ground surface, and ingestion of radionuclides transferred directly to the mouth from the hands or other contaminated surfaces. Ingestion of contaminated food is not included in this evaluation, except for situations where the food is contaminated as a result of actions by the person who consumes the food (e.g., transfer of contamination from hands to food). Estimates of skin and ingestion doses are based on a source term with a radionuclide mix predicted for an SST2-type nuclear accident in an area where the first year reference whole-body dose equivalent from whole body external exposure to gamma radiation plus the committed effective dose equivalent from inhalation of resuspended radionuclides is 1 rem. Appendixes have been included to allow the reader to examine dose factor calculations, source-term data, and quantification of contact and ingestion parameters in more detail

  17. Quantification of Soil Ingested by Children

    Direct ingestion of soil is a possible essential exposition path for radionuclides and toxic substances, in particular for playing children. To quantify the soil ingested by children 22 test persons in 4 age groups (< 1 year, 1 to 2 years, 2 to 7 years, 7 to 12 years) were investigated for 12 days. We used some chemical elements as tracers. For the investigation purpose tracer elements should comply following conditions as best as possible: high concentration in soil, low intake by food, low gastrointestinal resorption. So we selected the elements Al, Si, Sc, Ti, Ga, Y, Zr, Nb, La, Ce and Nd. To determine the amount of ingested soil we sampled diet and stool of all 22 children for 12 days in summer 2002. We also sampled soil of the main playgrounds and house dust of the children homes. The behaviour of the children was recorded by the parents or childminders, particularly diet, defecation and outdoor playing. The mean values for all test persons are for the grain size fraction < 500 μm 53 mg/d or 19 mg/h playing time and for the grain size fraction < 63 μm 31 mg/d or 12 mg/ h playing time.The combined standard uncertainty is about 50 % for the data in mg/d and about 60 % for the data in mg/h playing time.The results are presented in tables and curves. (N.C.)

  18. Oesophagus obstruction due to ingestion of multiple foreign bodies.

    Karadas, Sevdegul; Cegin, Muhammet Bilal; Sayir, Fuat; Gonullu, Hayriye; Olmez, Sehmuz

    2016-04-01

    The ingestion of a foreign body (FB) is a potentially serious condition. In children, the most common years for FB ingestion are from the age of 6 months to 6 years. FB ingestion also occurs in those with psychiatric disorders or mental retardation and among adult prisoners and alcoholics. Most ingested FBs spontaneously pass out of the body via the gastrointestinal system. An endoscopic or surgical approach is only needed if the object fails to progress through the gastrointestinal tract. All objects impacted in the oesophagus require urgent treatment. This study reports a case of multiple FB ingestion and provides a literature review. PMID:27122280

  19. Impact of Decontamination Therapy on Ultrasound Visualization of Ingested Pills

    Jason Bothwell

    2014-03-01

    Full Text Available Introduction: Acute toxic ingestion is a common cause of morbidity and mortality. Emergency physicians (EP caring for overdose (OD patients are often required to make critical decisions with incomplete information. Point of care ultrasound (POCUS may have a role in assisting EPs manage OD patients. We evaluated the impact of different liquid adjuncts used for gastric decontamination on examiners’ ability to identify the presence of tablets using POCUS, and assessed examiners’ ability to quantify the numbers of tablets in a simulated massive OD. Methods: This prospective, blinded, pilot study was performed at an academic emergency department. Study participants were volunteer resident and staff EPs trained in POCUS. Five non-transparent, sealed bags were prepared with the following contents: 1 liter (L of water, 1 L of water with 50 regular aspirin (ASA tablets, 1 L of water with 50 enteric-coated aspirin tablets (ECA, 1 L of polyethylene glycol (PEG with 50 ECA, and 1 L of activated charcoal (AC with 50 ECA. After performing POCUS on each of the bags using a 10-5 MHz linear array transducer, participants completed a standardized questionnaire composed of the following questions: (1 Were pills present? YES/NO; (2 If tablets were identified, estimate the number (1-10, 11-25, >25. We used a single test on proportions using the binomial distribution to determine if the number of EPs who identified tablets differed from 50% chance. For those tablets identified in the different solutions, another test on proportions was used to determine whether the type of solution made a difference. Since 3 options were available, we used a probability of 33.3%. Results: Thirty-seven EPs completed the study. All (37/37 EP’s correctly identified the absence of tablets in the bag containing only water, and the presence of ECA in the bags containing water and PEG. For Part 2 of the study, most participants - 25/37 (67.5% using water, 23/37 (62.1% using PEG, and

  20. [Gastric rupture after ingestion of liquid nitrogen].

    Knudsen, Anders Riegels; Nielsen, Casper; Christensen, Peter

    2009-02-01

    A 28-year-old male was admitted to hospital with severe abdominal distension and subcutaneous emphysema after ingesting 15 ml liquid nitrogen to produce an impressive burp. A rupture of the stomach at the lesser curvature was sutured by laparotomy. Peroperative gastroscopy showed no signs of cold-induced lesions. Liquid nitrogen boils at -196 degrees C. When heated to body temperature, it instantly expands 700 times, in this case predictably leading to gastric rupture. Therefore, any oral intake of even small amounts of liquid nitrogen should be avoided. PMID:19210943

  1. Ingested bony foreign body abutting thoracic aorta

    Leahy, Travis William; Kuthubutheen, Jafri

    2011-01-01

    The authors present the case of a 38-year-old female who presented with an ingested oesophageal foreign body (lamb bone) following consumption of a casserole. The bone was initially not seen on plain x-ray but CT imaging revealed a 21×20 mm pyramid shaped bone distending the proximal oesophageal mucosa and lodged only 2 mm from the aortic arch. Cardiothoracic surgery services were available on standby to perform an emergency thoracotomy in the event of any haemorrhage. However, the bone was r...

  2. Carbofuran-Induced Acute Pancreatitis

    Rizos E

    2004-01-01

    Full Text Available CONTEXT: Carbamate insecticides are widely used in commercial agriculture and home gardening. A serious side effect of organophosphate and carbamate intoxication is the development of acute pancreatitis. CASE REPORT: A 36-year-old Caucasian woman was admitted to our hospital with cholinergic crisis and pancreatitis soon after the ingestion of a carbamate insecticide (carbofuran. An abdominal CT scan disclosed pancreatic necrosis with intrapancreatic fluid collection, consistent with the development of a pancreatic pseudocyst in a subsequent CT scan. No predisposing factor for pancreatitis was evident. Pseudocholinesterase levels returned to normal 7 days later and the patient was discharged in good physical condition one month after admission. DISCUSSION: Although acute pancreatitis is not infrequent after organophosphate intoxication, it is quite rare after carbamate ingestion and has not been previously reported after carbofuran intoxication.

  3. Ecstasy-induced acute coronary syndrome: something to rave about.

    Hoggett, Kerry; McCoubrie, David; Fatovich, Daniel M

    2012-06-01

    Ecstasy or 3,4-methylenedioxymethamphetamine is a commonly used illicit recreational drug, enjoying popularity for its stimulant effects. Although acute coronary syndrome is recognized after cocaine and methamphetamine use, association with Ecstasy use has rarely been reported. We report three cases of significantly delayed acute coronary syndrome and ST elevation myocardial infarction related to ingestion of Ecstasy. PMID:22672176

  4. Acute isoniazid intoxication: case report

    Dilek Altun; Halil Cetingok; Gulay AsIk Eren; Zafer Cukurova; Oya Hergunsel

    2015-01-01

    Isoniazid is a bactericidal antituberculosis drug, used commonly for treatment and prophylaxis of tuberculosis. Acute isoniazid intoxication is characterized by a clinical triad consisting of metabolic acidosis with a high anion gap resistant to treatment with sodium bicarbonate, seizures which may be fatal and refractory to standard anticonvulsant therapy, and coma. Pyridoxine, in a dose equivalent to the amount of isoniasid ingested, is the only effective antidote. Here, we reported a 14 ye...

  5. Acute and chronic arsenic toxicity

    Ratnaike, R.

    2003-01-01

    Arsenic toxicity is a global health problem affecting many millions of people. Contamination is caused by arsenic from natural geological sources leaching into aquifers, contaminating drinking water and may also occur from mining and other industrial processes. Arsenic is present as a contaminant in many traditional remedies. Arsenic trioxide is now used to treat acute promyelocytic leukaemia. Absorption occurs predominantly from ingestion from the small intestine, though minimal absorption o...

  6. Acute toxicity of gasoline and some additives.

    Reese, E.; Kimbrough, R D

    1993-01-01

    The acute toxicity of gasoline; its components benzene, toluene, and xylene; and the additives ethanol, methanol, and methyl tertiary butyl ether are reviewed. All of these chemicals are only moderately to mildly toxic at acute doses. Because of their volatility, these compounds are not extensively absorbed dermally unless the exposed skin is occluded. Absorption through the lungs and the gastrointestinal tract is quite efficient. After ingestion, the principal danger for a number of these ch...

  7. Anthropogenic Debris Ingestion by Avifauna in Eastern Australia.

    Roman, Lauren; Schuyler, Qamar A; Hardesty, Britta Denise; Townsend, Kathy A

    2016-01-01

    Anthropogenic debris in the world's oceans and coastal environments is a pervasive global issue that has both direct and indirect impacts on avifauna. The number of bird species affected, the feeding ecologies associated with an increased risk of debris ingestion, and selectivity of ingested debris have yet to be investigated in most of Australia's coastal and marine birds. With this study we aim to address the paucity of data regarding marine debris ingestion in Australian coastal and marine bird species. We investigated which Australian bird groups ingest marine debris, and whether debris-ingesting groups exhibit selectivity associated with their taxonomy, habitat or foraging methods. Here we present the largest multispecies study of anthropogenic debris ingestion in Australasian avifauna to date. We necropsied and investigated the gastrointestinal contents of 378 birds across 61 species, collected dead across eastern Australia. These species represented nine taxonomic orders, five habitat groups and six feeding strategies. Among investigated species, thirty percent had ingested debris, though ingestion did not occur uniformly within the orders of birds surveyed. Debris ingestion was found to occur in orders Procellariiformes, Suliformes, Charadriiformes and Pelecaniformes, across all surveyed habitats, and among birds that foraged by surface feeding, pursuit diving and search-by-sight. Procellariiformes, birds in pelagic habitats, and surface feeding marine birds ingested debris with the greatest frequency. Among birds which were found to ingest marine debris, we investigated debris selectivity and found that marine birds were selective with respect to both type and colour of debris. Selectivity for type and colour of debris significantly correlated with taxonomic order, habitat and foraging strategy. This study highlights the significant impact of feeding ecology on debris ingestion among Australia's avifauna. PMID:27574986

  8. Development of an Ingestion Pathway Model for AXAIRQ

    Simpkins, A.A.

    1999-01-13

    AXAIRQ is a dose mode code used for prospective accident assessment at the Savannah River Site and is primarily used to show regulatory compliance. For completeness of pathway analysis, an ingestion model, AXINGST, has been developed for use with, and incorporation in, AXAIRQ. Currently available ingestion models were referenced as a basis for AXINGST. AXINGST calculates a conservative ingestion dose following an atmospheric release of radionuclides and includes site specific variables where applicable.

  9. Poisoning caused by the combined ingestion of nifedipine and metoprolol.

    Takahashi, H; Ohashi, N; Motokawa, K; Sato, S; Naito, H

    1993-01-01

    Poisonings due to ingestion of a calcium channel or beta-adrenergic blocker have been the subject of several previous reports, but reports of poisoning due to combined ingestion of these drugs are infrequent. This is a report of suicidal ingestion of nifedipine 600 mg, metoprolol 200 mg, and etizolam 20 mg. Intravenous dopamine, norepinephrine, and calcium chloride had little effect but the administration of methylprednisolone and glucagon were associated with an increase in systolic blood pressure above 100 mm Hg. PMID:8254703

  10. Existing ingestion guidance: Problems and recommendations

    Washington State has been developing plans and procedures for responding to nuclear accidents since the early 1970s. A key part of this process has been formulating a method for calculating ingestion pathway concentration guides (CGs). Such a method must be both technically sound and easy to use. This process has been slow and frustrating. However, much technical headway has been made in recent years, and hopefully the experience of the State of Washington will provide useful insight to problems with the existing guidance. Several recommendations are offered on ways to deal with these problems. In January 1986, the state held an ingestion pathway exercise which required the determination of allowed concentrations of isotopes for various foods, based upon reactor source term and field data. Objectives of the exercise were not met because of the complexity of the necessary calculations. A major problem was that the allowed concentrations had to be computed for each isotope and each food group, given assumptions on the average diet. To solve problems identified during that exercise, Washington developed, by March 1986, partitioned CGs. These CGs apportioned doses from each food group for an assumed mix of radionuclides expected to result from a reactor accident. This effort was therefore in place just in time for actual use during the Chernobyl fallout episode in May 1986. This technique was refined and described in a later report and presented at the 1987 annual meeting of the Health Physics Society. Realizing the technical weaknesses which still existed and a need to simplify the numbers for decision makers, Washington State has been developing computer methods to quickly calculate, from an accident specific relative mix of isotopes, CGs which allow a single radionuclide concentration for all food groups. This latest approach allows constant CGs for different periods of time following the accident, instead of peak CGs, which are good only for a short time after the

  11. [Acute and subacute chemical pneumonitis].

    Andujar, P; Nemery, B

    2009-10-01

    Acute or subacute chemical-induced lung injury is rarely compound specific and is most often caused by an accidental occupational, domestic or environmental exposure to an inhaled chemical agent. The industrial disaster that happened in Bhopal in 1984, accidental poisoning with chlorine and petroleum hydrocarbons and also vesicant gases used during conflicts, are specific examples. Rarely, a chemical agent can cause lung damage by being ingested and reaching the lung through the systemic circulation (for example accidental or deliberate paraquat ingestion). Household accidents should not be underestimated. An important cause of household accidents is chlorine inhalation resulting from mixing bleach with acids such as the scale removers used to clean toilets. Chemical agents can provoke direct and/or indirect damage to the respiratory tract. The acute or subacute clinical manifestations resulting from inhalation of chemical agents are very varied and include inhalation fevers, acute non-cardiogenic pulmonary oedema, adult respiratory distress syndrome, reactive airways dysfunction syndrome and acute or subacute pneumonitis. The site and the severity of chemical-induced respiratory damage caused by inhaled chemical agents depend mainly on the nature and the amount of the agent inhaled. The immediate and long-term prognosis and possible sequelae are also variable. This review excludes infectious or immunologically induced acute respiratory diseases. PMID:19953031

  12. Carotenemia associated with green bean ingestion.

    Sale, Tanya A; Stratman, Erik

    2004-01-01

    Carotenemia is a condition characterized by yellow discoloration of the skin and elevated blood carotene levels. Excessive and prolonged ingestion of carotene-rich, yellow- or orange-colored foods such as carrots and winter squash is the most common cause, but more rarely it may be associated with consumption of other foods as well as with hypothyroidism, diabetes mellitus, anorexia nervosa, liver disease, or kidney disease. Though not uncommon in children, there are few reports in the pediatric literature since its early descriptions in the late 1800s and early 1900s. Awareness of carotenemia can help the provider resolve confusion with jaundice and avoid unnecessary worry and costly tests. Herein we describe carotenemia in an 8-month-old Caucasian girl secondary to increased consumption of commercial infant food green beans. PMID:15575851

  13. Diagnostic evaluation of acute pancreatitis in two patients with hypertriglyceridemia

    Yoshifumi Okura; Kozo Hayashi; Tetsuji Shingu; Goro Kajiyama; Yoshiyuki Nakashima; Keijiro Saku

    2004-01-01

    We present two diagnostically challenging cases of acute pancreatitis with hypertriglyceridemia accompanied with chylomicronemia caused with a deficiency of lipoprotein lipase and with the presence of type V hyperlipidemia.Both cases suffered from acute abdomen following the ingestion of fatty food and revealed the increase in parameters of inflammation without significant elevation of serum amylase levels. The imaging examination of ultrasonography could not detect significant findings of acute pancreatitis and a computer tomography scan eventually confirmed the findings of acute pancreatitis. Both cases responded to a low fat diet and administration of a cholecystokinin receptor antagonist, exhibiting a relief of abdominal symptoms. As in the present cases with acute abdomen following the ingestion of fatty food, the identification of serum hypertriglyceridemia and an abdominal computer tomography scan might be useful in establishing the diagnosis of acute pancreatitis and in developing the therapeutic regimen, when hypertriglyceridemia interferes with the evaluation of pancreatic enzyme activities and ultrasound examination provides poor pancreatic visualization.

  14. An outbreak of perirenal oedema syndrome in cattle associated with ingestion of pigweed (Amaranthus hybridus L.).

    Last, R D; Hill, J H; Theron, G

    2007-09-01

    Forty seven of 150, 15-month-old long weaners died of an acute renal disease syndrome following introduction into an old maize field with a heavy stand of Amaranthus spp. The clinical syndrome was characterised by sudden onset neurological disease with ataxia and recumbency. Subcutaneous oedema, ascites and perirenal oedema with urine odour were the major gross necropsy findings. Renal histopathology revealed marked coagulative renal tubular necrosis of the proximal and distal straight tubules with intertubular haemorrhage. Acute renal failure and perirenal oedema has been described in cattle, pigs, horses and sheep associated with the ingestion of A. hybridus L. and A. retroflexus L. This perirenal oedema syndrome has been widely reported in the Americas, while in South Africa intoxication with the amaranths has only previously been associated with nitrate and possibly oxalate poisoning in cattle. PMID:18237043

  15. Ingestion of six cylindrical and four button batteries

    Nielsen, Simon U; Rasmussen, Morten; Hoegberg, Lotte C G

    2010-01-01

    We report a suicidal ingestion of six cylindrical and four button batteries, in combination with overdosed prescription medicine and smoking of cannabis.......We report a suicidal ingestion of six cylindrical and four button batteries, in combination with overdosed prescription medicine and smoking of cannabis....

  16. Glucose ingestion during endurance training does not alter adaptation

    Åkerström, Thorbjörn; Fischer, Christian P; Plomgaard, Peter;

    2009-01-01

    extensor training. They trained one leg while ingesting a 6% glucose solution (Glc) and ingested a sweetened placebo while training the other leg (Plc). The subjects trained their respective legs 2 h at a time on alternate days 5 days a week. Endurance training increased peak power (P(max)) and time to...

  17. AN INTERESTING CASE OF MULTIPLE INGESTED FOREIGN BODIES

    Balaji

    2014-08-01

    Full Text Available : Ingested Foreign bodies are a frequent occurrence in ENT practice. The diagnosis and management are based on clinical and radiological findings. We report a case of 22 year old female who attempted suicide by ingestion of multiple foreign bodies.

  18. Ingestible capsule for remote controlled release of a substance

    2014-01-01

    The application relates to an ingestible capsule (102) for delivery of a substance e.g. a pharmaceutical drug, to a human or animal. The ingestible capsule comprises a capsule wall structure (202) forming a substantially sealed reservoir or lumen holding the substance (204). An electrical resonance...

  19. Suicidal Ingestion of Potassium Permanganate Crystals: A Rare Encounter

    Karthik, Ravikanti; Veerendranath, Hari Prasad Kanakapura; Wali, Siddraj; Mohan, Murali N T; Kumar, Praveen A. C.; Trimurty, Gaganam

    2014-01-01

    Potassium permanganate poisoning is not common. Although Symptoms of potassium permanganate ingestion are gastrointestinal and Complications due to ingestion of potassium permanganate include cardiovascular depression, hepatic and renal damage, upper airway obstruction, bleeding tendency and methemoglobinemia. Gastric damage due to potassium permanganate has rarely been reported previously. We are reporting a 34-year old female patient who presented to our Emergency Department after suicidal ...

  20. Pathway: a dynamic food-chain model to predict radionuclide ingestion after fallout deposition

    This manuscript describes the structure and basis for parameter values of a computerized food-chain transport model for radionuclides. The model, called PATHWAY, estimates the time-integrated ingestion intake by humans of 20 radionuclides after a single deposition from the atmosphere to the landscape. The model solves a set of linear, coupled differential equations to estimate the inventories and concentrations of radionuclides in soil, vegetation, animal tissues and animal products as a function of time following deposition. Dynamic processes in the model include foliar interception, weathering and absorption; plant growth, uptake, harvest and senescence; soil resuspension, percolation, leaching and tillage; radioactive decay; and livestock ingestion, absorption and excretion. Human dietary data are included to permit calculation of time-dependent radionuclide ingestion rates, which are then numerically integrated. The model considers seasonal changes in the biomass of vegetation and animal diets, as well as specific plowing and crop-harvest dates; thus the integrated radionuclide intakes by humans are dependent on the seasonal timing of deposition. The agricultural data base represents the arid and semi-arid regions of the western United States. The foliar deposition parameters apply to regional fallout out to a few hundred miles from nuclear detonations at the Nevada Test Site. With modification, the model could be applied to chronic or other acute releases, providing the ground deposition in Bq m-2 could be estimated. The output of PATHWAY (Bq ingested per Bq m-2 deposited) may be multiplied by the deposition and a dose conversion factor (Gy Bq-1) to yield an organ-specific dose estimate. The model may be run deterministically to yield single estimates or stochastically (''Monte-Carlo'' mode) to provide distributional output that reflects uncertainty in the output due to uncertainty in parameters

  1. Effects of lectin ingestion on animal growth and internal organs.

    Pusztai, A

    1998-01-01

    Lectins are essential and omnipresent plant constituents. As many foods are of plant origin, the daily ingestion of lectins by both humans and animals is appreciable. For example, in an ad hoc survey, 53 edible plants were shown to contain lectins and approx 30% of fresh and processed food regularly consumed by humans had significant hemagglutinating activity (1). The situation is potentially even more acute in animal nutrition because animal diet is less diverse than that of humans, and in most instances foodstuffs are not thoroughly heat-treated. This is particularly significant in the light of our finding a correlation between lectin activity and antinutritional effects (2). As in evolution, the mammalian gut has been regularly exposed to lectins, they must have played an important part in the development of the digestive system. Although based on experience, most overtly toxic plants have been eliminated from the diet, many plants with appreciable lectin content are still consumed because it has not been easy to relate growth retardation and antinutritional, mild allergic or other subclinical symptoms to the food consumed or a particular component of it. As some lectins are at least partially heat stable and most survive the passage through the gut in functionally and immunologically intact form, their interaction with the gut surface epithelium (3) can damage the gut at high dietary intakes and this may lead to digestive disorders/diseases in some instances. However, it is not generally appreciated that not all lectins are antinutrients and indeed some may have beneficial effects and be of potential value in nutritional practice. Accordingly, it is of considerable importance to establish whether a lectin has deleterious or potentially beneficial effects for mammals. Unfortunately at present there are no adequate in vitro methods to do this reliably and it is usually necessary to carry out in vivo animal feeding studies, despite their relatively cumbersome

  2. Doses to children from intakes by ingestion

    In this article, sensitivities and doses to children from intakes of radionuclides by ingestion were studied relative to adults. Generally speaking, doses to children were higher due to their higher radio-sensitiveness to many radionuclides, even though they consume less food and water than adults. Therefore, the action levels in the Canadian guidelines for the restriction of radioactively contaminated food and water following a nuclear emergency were selected as the most restrictive among the six age groups that could lead to an individual receiving a dose equal to a specified intervention level of 1 mSv. For non-emergency situations, the specified intervention level is 0.1 mSv. At such a low intervention level, the maximum acceptable concentrations (MAC) in drinking water are normally derived for adults. Although this is a common practice for guidelines in non-emergency operations, for those radionuclides when the doses to children are more than 10 times higher than the doses to adults, the MAC in non-emergency situations should be limited to, at least, as restrictive as the action levels for interventional action following a nuclear emergency. Published by Oxford Univ. Press on behalf of the Canadian Government 2010. (authors)

  3. Radiographic identification of ingested disc batteries

    Recently, the hazards by posed the accidental ingestion and impaction of small disc batteries have been widely publicized in the medical and lay press. These foreign bodies, when lodged in the esophagus, leak a caustic solution of 26 to 45% sodium or potassium hydroxide which can cause a burn injury to the esophagus in a very short period of time. Because of the considerable clinical morbidity and mortality from this foreign body, it becomes imperative for the radiologist to quickly and accurately identify disc batteries on plain radiographs. This communication offers a series of radiologic signs important in the identification of disc batteries demonstrate a double density shadow due to the bilaminar structure of the battery. On lateral view, the edges of most disc batteries are round and again present a step-off at the junction of the cathode and anode. These findings are differentiated from the more common esophageal foreign body of a coin which does not have a double density on frontal projection, has a much sharper edge and no visible stepoff. (orig.)

  4. Safety evaluation on irradiated food ingestion

    This paper reports double-blind observations of volunteers who took 35 kinds of irradiated foods as their main diet for 90 days. The subjects consisted of 70 medical students and 8 staff members in the Shanghai Medical University. They were randomly divided into two groups. One group was supplied with irradiated foods, the other acted as controls eating the same food but non-irradiated. The 35 kinds of irradiated foods were grain, meat products, vegetables, fruits, dried fruits etc. The absorbed dose of irradiation from the processed foods varied from 0.1 to 8.0 kGy. The irradiated foods made up 60.3% of the total food intake by weight. Observations during 90 days indicated that the subjects were all pleased with their diets and no adverse effects on their health were seen. Clinical and laboratory examinations included routine blood and urine tests, blood biochemical examinations, hepatic and renal function tests, endocrinological assays, cellular immunity tests, and mutagenetic studies (such as the incidence of polyploid cells, chromosomal structural aberration, rates of sister chromatid-exchanges, micronuclei test, urine Ames' test). These studies showed that the ingestion of these foods are safe for humans

  5. Cardiovascular responses to the ingestion of sugary drinks using a randomised cross-over study design: Does glucose attenuate the blood pressure-elevating effect of fructose?

    Grasser, Erik K; Dulloo, Abdul; Montani, Jean-Pierre

    2014-07-28

    Overconsumption of sugar-sweetened beverages has been implicated in the pathogenesis of CVD. The objective of the present study was to elucidate acute haemodynamic and microcirculatory responses to the ingestion of sugary drinks made from sucrose, glucose or fructose at concentrations similar to those often found in commercial soft drinks. In a randomised cross-over study design, twelve young healthy human subjects (seven men) ingested 500 ml tap water in which was dissolved 60 g of either sucrose, glucose or fructose, or an amount of fructose equivalent to that present in sucrose (i.e. 30 g fructose). Continuous cardiovascular monitoring was performed for 30 min before and at 60 min after ingestion of sugary drinks, and measurements included beat-to-beat blood pressure (BP) and impedance cardiography. Additionally, microvascular endothelial function testing was performed after iontophoresis of acetylcholine and sodium nitroprusside using laser Doppler flowmetry. Ingestion of fructose (60 or 30 g) increased diastolic and mean BP to a greater extent than the ingestion of 60 g of either glucose or sucrose (Psugary drinks. In conclusion, ingestion of fructose, but not sucrose, increases BP in healthy human subjects. Although sucrose comprises glucose and fructose, its changes in TPR and CO are more related to glucose than to fructose. PMID:24780643

  6. Acute arsenic poisoning in two siblings.

    Lai, Melisa W; Boyer, Edward W; Kleinman, Monica E; Rodig, Nancy M; Ewald, Michele Burns

    2005-07-01

    We report a case series of acute arsenic poisoning of 2 siblings, a 4-month-old male infant and his 2-year-old sister. Each child ingested solubilized inorganic arsenic from an outdated pesticide that was misidentified as spring water. The 4-month-old child ingested a dose of arsenic that was lethal despite extraordinary attempts at arsenic removal, including chelation therapy, extracorporeal membrane oxygenation, exchange transfusion, and hemodialysis. The 2-year-old fared well with conventional therapy. PMID:15995066

  7. Cardiovascular responses to the ingestion of sugary drinks using a randomised cross-over study design: does glucose attenuate the blood pressure-elevating effect of fructose?

    Grasser, Erik K; Dulloo, Abdul; Montani, Jean-Pierre

    2014-01-01

    Overconsumption of sugar-sweetened beverages has been implicated in the pathogenesis of CVD. The objective of the present study was to elucidate acute haemodynamic and microcirculatory responses to the ingestion of sugary drinks made from sucrose, glucose or fructose at concentrations similar to those often found in commercial soft drinks. In a randomised cross-over study design, twelve young healthy human subjects (seven men) ingested 500 ml tap water in which was dissolved 60 g of either su...

  8. Effect of sodium bicarbonate ingestion upon repeated sprints.

    Lavender, G; Bird, S.R.

    1989-01-01

    The purpose of the study was to assess the effect of sodium bicarbonate ingestion upon repeated bouts of intensive short duration exercise. Twenty-three subjects participated in the investigation (8 females and 15 males, age 21.4 +/- 2.3, mean +/- sd). Subjects completed six trials; three following the ingestion of sodium bicarbonate (300 mg/kg body weight) and three following the ingestion of a placebo (8 g sodium chloride). Each trial consisted of ten ten-second sprints on a cycle ergometer...

  9. Acute Bronchitis

    ... of bronchitis: acute and chronic. Most cases of acute bronchitis get better within several days. But your cough ... that cause colds and the flu often cause acute bronchitis. These viruses spread through the air when people ...

  10. Severe but reversible acute kidney injury resulting from Amanita punctata poisoning

    Kang, Eunjung; Cheong, Ka-Young; Lee, Min-Jeong; Kim, Seirhan; Shin, Gyu-Tae; Kim, Heungsoo; Park, In-Whee

    2015-01-01

    Mushroom-related poisoning can cause acute kidney injury. Here we report a case of acute kidney injury after ingestion of Amanita punctata, which is considered an edible mushroom. Gastrointestinal symptoms occurred within 24 hours from the mushroom intake and were followed by an asymptomatic period, acute kidney injury, and elevation of liver and pancreatic enzymes. Kidney function recovered with supportive care. Nephrotoxic mushroom poisoning should be considered as a cause of acute kidney i...

  11. Prevalence and characteristics of plastic ingested by Hawaiian seabirds

    US Fish and Wildlife Service, Department of the Interior — Production of plastic products and dumping of plastic garbage in the ocean have increased dramatically in the past 25 years. Plastic ingestion has not been reported...

  12. Cerebral sinovenous thrombosis associated with isopropanol ingestion in an infant.

    Nwosu, Michelle E; Golomb, Meredith R

    2009-03-01

    This report describes a 5-week-old female infant who presented with accidental ingestion of rubbing alcohol (which contains about 70% isopropanol), and was subsequently diagnosed with cerebral sinovenous thrombosis. Isopropanol is a clear, volatile 3-carbon alcohol found in varying concentrations in many solvents. Mislabeled rubbing alcohol was mixed with this patient's formula. After ingesting it, she presented with a 1-day history of uncontrolled fussiness and an episode of deviation of the eyes to the right for 30 minutes, followed by rhythmic movements of the arms and legs for 20 minutes. Cerebral imaging demonstrated sinovenous thrombosis. To our knowledge, there have been no reports describing cerebral sinovenous thrombosis as a complication of isopropanol ingestion. The possible association of isopropanol ingestion and sinovenous thrombosis is discussed. PMID:19258296

  13. Contribution of inhalation by food animals to man's ingestion dose

    Animals' inhalation (AI) pathway was evaluated for 57 radionuclides using infant dose predictions from the food-chain model LIMCAL. With ingestion transfer coefficients fMi to define transfer from the respiratory tract to milk, the AI pathway appeared to be insignificant compared to animals' plant ingestion, as implicitly assumed in most environmental assessment models for nuclear installations. Using ICRP Publication 30 respiratory clearance models for man to adjust ingestion transfer coefficients, animals' inhalation appeared to be important, particularly for some actinide radionuclides. The AI pathway also appeared to be significant relative to man's inhalation, especially for infants. The importance of the AI pathway varied greatly between radionuclides, and results strongly suggest that it cannot be ignored in environmental assessments. Until better data become available to implement this pathway fully, adjusted ingestion transfer coefficient values can be used for transfer from animals' respiratory tract to milk and other food products

  14. Food Ingestion Factors of the Korean Exposure Factors Handbook

    Jang, Jae-Yeon; Jo, Soo-Nam; Kim, Sun-Ja; Myung, Hyung-Nam; Kim, Cho-il

    2014-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to establish food ingestion factors needed to assess exposure to contaminants through food ingestion. The study reclassified the raw data of the Korean National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey in 2001 into 12 subcategories including grain products, meat products, fish and shellfish, and vegetables for international comparability of exposure evaluation. The criteria for food intake calculation were unified according to the characteristics of food groups, a...

  15. Ingested bovine amniotic fluid enhances morphine antinociception in rats

    Corpening, James W.; Doerr, Jean C.; Kristal, Dr. Mark B.

    2000-01-01

    Ingestion by rats of rat placenta or amniotic fluid enhances opioid-mediated, or partly opioid-mediated, antinociception produced by morphine injection, vaginal or cervical stimulation, late pregnancy, and foot shock. This phenomenon is believed to be produced by a placental opioid-enhancing factor (POEF). Ingestion by rats of human or dolphin placenta has also been shown to enhance opioid antinociception, suggesting that POEF may be common to many mammalian species. We tested bovine amnio...

  16. Accidental Implant Screwdriver Ingestion: A Rare Complication during Implant Placement.

    Anshul Jain; Baliga, Shridhar D

    2014-01-01

    One of the complications during a routine dental implant placement is accidental ingestion of the implant instruments, which can happen when proper precautions are not taken. Appropriate radiographs should be taken to locate the correct position of foreign body; usually the foreign body passes asymptomatically from gastrointestinal tract but sometimes it may lead to intestinal obstruction, perforations and impactions. The aim of this article is to report accidental ingestion of 19 mm long scr...

  17. Hyperoxaluria and Genitourinary Disorders in Children Ingesting Almond Milk Products.

    Ellis, Demetrius; Lieb, Jessica

    2015-11-01

    We describe 3 children presenting with hematuria, dysuria or kidney stones, and hyperoxaluria believed to be related to ingestion of excessive amounts of almond milk products. Our investigation of the oxalate content of several popular plant-based milk substitutes indicates that almond milk products are a particularly rich source of dietary oxalate. All genitourinary and urinary metabolic disturbances resolved after discontinuation of almond milk ingestion. Therefore, pediatricians should be aware of this potential link. PMID:26382627

  18. Button Battery Ingestion: An Analysis of 25 Cases

    Yi-Ling Chan

    2002-03-01

    Full Text Available Background: Button batteries represent a distinct type of foreign body. Serious complicationscan be resulted, particularly when the battery is impacted in the esophagus.The potentially detrimental effects of button battery ingestion haveoften been overlooked in Taiwan. We surveyed patients following buttonbattery ingestion to define the characteristics and outcomes of this population.Methods: The records of 25 patients with button battery ingestion that had been reportedto the Taipei Veterans General Hospital Poison Control Center from July1988 through January 1998 were retrospectively reviewed.Results: Button battery ingestion occurred most commonly in male children (N=20;80% and children under 3 years of age (N=19; 76%. Most children wereasymptomatic (N=22; 88%. Two children suffered abdominal pain, and onesuffered dyspnea and stridor. Reported complications included black stools(N=3 and tracheoesophageal fistula formation (N=1. Two children underwentendoscopic battery removal, and batteries passed the entire gastrointestinaltract in all other subjects. The interval between battery ingestion andpassage when documented (N=16 was never more than 5 days.Conclusion: Most ingested batteries passed through the gastrointestinal tract without anyadverse effects. An initial roentgenogram should be obtained promptly todetermine battery location and diameter, and the battery's chemical compositionshould be determined when possible. Esophageal impaction of the batteriesrequires emergency endoscopic or surgical removal. For patients withoutesophageal impaction, conservative intervention is recommended in theabsence of symptoms and signs of injury.

  19. Acute bile nephropathy secondary to anabolic steroids.

    Alkhunaizi, Ahmed M; ElTigani, Mohamed A; Rabah, Rola S; Nasr, Samih H

    2016-02-01

    Renal dysfunction in cholestatic liver disease is multifactorial. Acute kidney injury may develop secondary to renal vasoconstriction in the setting of peripheral vasodilation and relative hypovolemia, tubular obstruction by bile casts, and direct tubular toxicity from bile. Anabolic steroids are frequently used by athletes to boost endurance and increase muscle mass. These agents are a recently recognized cause of hepatotoxicity and jaundice and may lead to acute kidney injury. To increase awareness about this growing problem and to characterize the pathology of acute kidney injury in this setting, we report on a young male who developed acute kidney injury in the setting of severe cholestatic jaundice related to ingestion of anabolic steroids used for bodybuilding. Kidney biopsy showed bile casts within distal tubular lumina, filamentous bile inclusions within tubular cells, and signs of acute tubular injury. This report supports the recently re-emerged concept of bile nephropathy cholemic nephrosis. PMID:26587777

  20. Non-nutritive sweeteners: no class effect on the glycaemic or appetite responses to ingested glucose.

    Bryant, C E; Wasse, L K; Astbury, N; Nandra, G; McLaughlin, J T

    2014-05-01

    There is considerable interest in whether non-nutritive sweeteners are sensed in the gastrointestinal tract to modulate appetitive or absorptive responses to ingested carbohydrate. We determined the effect of a panel of non-nutritive sweeteners, aspartame, saccharin and acesulfame-K, delivered in doses that would be consumed in normal usage. Each was given in combination with glucose, assessing their effect on glycemic responses and appetite in 10 healthy human subjects. There was no additional effect of aspartame or saccharin on the blood glucose response to oral glucose at any time point, although acesulfame-K exerted a small effect. However, none had an effect on perceptions of hunger or fullness. We conclude that there is no consistent evidence that non-nutrient sweeteners, when acutely consumed with glucose in dietetically relevant doses, have a class effect in modulating blood glucose in healthy human subjects. However, acesulfame-K may require further exploration. PMID:24595225

  1. Non-nutritive sweeteners: no class effect on the glycemic or appetite responses to ingested glucose

    Bryant, Charlotte E.; Wasse, Lucy K.; Astbury, Nerys; Nandra, Gurinder; McLaughlin, John T.

    2014-01-01

    There is considerable interest in whether non-nutritive sweeteners are sensed in the gastrointestinal tract to modulate appetitive or absorptive responses to ingested carbohydrate. We determined the effect of a panel of non-nutritive sweeteners, aspartame, saccharin and acesulfame-K, delivered in doses that would be consumed in normal usage. Each was given in combination with glucose, assessing their effect on glycemic responses and appetite in ten healthy human subjects. There was no additional effect of aspartame or saccharin on the blood glucose response to oral glucose at any time point, although acesulfame-K exerted a small effect. However, none had an effect on perceptions of hunger or fullness. We conclude that there is no consistent evidence that non-nutrient sweeteners, when acutely consumed with glucose in dietetically relevant doses, have a class effect in modulating blood glucose in healthy human subjects. However, acesulfame-K may require further exploration. PMID:24595225

  2. Fulminant Hepatic Failure Attributed to Ackee Fruit Ingestion in a Patient with Sickle Cell Trait

    Dianne E. Grunes

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available We report a case of fulminant liver failure resulting in emergent liver transplantation following 3 weeks of nausea, vomiting, and malaise from Jamaican Vomiting Sickness. Jamaican Vomiting Sickness is caused by ingestion of the unripe arils of the Ackee fruit, its seeds and husks. It is characterized by acute gastrointestinal illness and hypoglycemia. In severe cases, central nervous system depression can occur. In previous studies, histologic sections taken from patients with Jamaican Vomiting Sickness have shown hepatotoxicity similar to that seen in Reye syndrome and/or acetaminophen toxicity. We highlight macroscopic and microscopic changes in the liver secondary to hepatoxicity of Ackee fruit versus those caused by a previously unknown sickle cell trait. We discuss the clinical variables and the synergistic hepatotoxic effect of Ackee fruit and ischemic injury from sickled red blood cells, causing massive hepatic necrosis in this patient.

  3. [Risk of acute hepatic insufficiency in children due to chronic accidental overdose of paracetamol (acetaminophen)

    Hameleers-Snijders, P.; Hogeveen, M.; Smeitink, J.A.M.; Kramers, C.; Draaisma, J.M.T.

    2007-01-01

    Two girls aged 4 and 3 years, respectively, experienced acute liver failure due to accidental ingestion of supratherapeutic doses of paracetamol (90 mg/kg/day or more). Recognition of chronic paracetamol intoxication as a cause of acute hepatic failure is often delayed. It is important to consider t

  4. Unintentional topical lindane ingestions--United States, 1998-2003.

    2005-06-01

    Lindane is an organochlorine pesticide found in certain prescription-only shampoos and topical lotions used to treat pediculosis (i.e., lice infestation) and scabies; lindane has been associated with human neurologic toxicity. In 2004, CDC was alerted to cases of illness caused by unintentional ingestion of lindane by persons mistaking the product for a liquid oral medication (e.g., cough syrup). To assess the extent of illness from ingestion of lindane, CDC, with assistance from the U.S. Environmental Protection Agency, Food and Drug Administration (FDA), and state health departments, collected case reports and analyzed data from the Sentinel Event Notification System for Occupational Risks-Pesticides (SENSOR-Pesticides) program and the Toxic Exposure Surveillance System (TESS). This report summarizes the results of that analysis, which identified 870 cases of unintentional lindane ingestion during 1998-2003, and describes two examples of lindane ingestions. To reduce the risk of lindane ingestion, public health authorities should alert clinicians to the hazards of lindane and the importance of following FDA usage guidelines, which include dispensing lindane in manufacturer-produced, 1- or 2-ounce single-use containers. PMID:15931156

  5. Insuficiência respiratória aguda como manifestação da síndrome de eosinofilia-mialgia associada à ingestão de L-triptofano Acute respiratory failure as a manifestation of eosinophilia-myalgia syndrome associated with L-tryptophan intake

    Tiago de Araujo Guerra Grangeia

    2007-12-01

    Full Text Available A síndrome da eosinofilia-mialgia foi descrita em 1989 em pacientes que apresentavam mialgia progressiva e incapacitante e eosinofilia sérica, nos líquidos e secreções. A maioria dos pacientes relatava uso prévio de L-triptofano. Sintomas respiratórios são relatados em até 80% dos casos, eventualmente como manifestação única. O tratamento inclui suspensão da droga e corticoterapia. Relatamos o caso de uma mulher de 61 anos com insuficiência respiratória aguda após uso de L-triptofano, hidroxitriptofano e outras drogas. A paciente apresentava eosinofilia no sangue, lavado broncoalveolar e derrame pleural. Após a suspensão da medicação e corticoterapia, houve melhora clínica e radiológica em poucos dias.Eosinophilia-myalgia syndrome was described in 1989 in patients who presented progressive and incapacitating myalgia and eosinophilia in blood, fluids and secretions. Most patients report previous L-tryptophan intake. Respiratory manifestations are found in up to 80% of the cases, occasionally as the only manifestation. Treatment includes drug discontinuation and administration of corticosteroids. Here, we describe the case of a 61-year-old female admitted with acute respiratory failure after using L-tryptophan, hydroxytryptophan and other drugs. The patient presented eosinophilia, together with elevated eosinophil counts in the bronchoalveolar lavage and pleural effusion. After discontinuation of the drugs previously used, corticosteroids were administered, resulting in clinical and radiological improvement within just a few days.

  6. Acute hyperhydration reduces athlete biological passport OFF-hr score.

    Bejder, J; Hoffmann, M F; Ashenden, M; Nordsborg, N B; Karstoft, K; Mørkeberg, J

    2016-03-01

    Anecdotal evidence suggests that athletes hyperhydrate to mask prohibited substances in urine and potentially counteract suspicious fluctuations in blood parameters in the athlete biological passport (ABP). It is examined if acute hyperhydration changes parameters included in the ABP. Twenty subjects received recombinant human erythropoietin (rhEPO) for 3 weeks. After 10 days of rhEPO washout, 10 subjects ingested normal amount of water (∼ 270 mL), whereas the remaining 10 ingested a 1000 mL bolus of water. Blood variables were measured 20, 40, 60, and 80 min after ingestion. Three days later, the subjects were crossed-over with regard to water ingestion and the procedure was repeated. OFF-hr was reduced by ∼ 4%, ∼ 3%, and ∼ 2% at 40, 60, and 80 min, respectively, after drinking 1000 mL of water, compared with normal water ingestion (P < 0.05). Forty percent of the subjects were identified with atypical blood profiles (99% specificity level) before drinking 1000 mL of water, whereas 11% (n = 18), 10% and 11% (n = 18) were identified 40, 60, and 80 min, respectively, after ingestion. This was different (P < 0.05) compared with normal water intake, where 45% of the subjects were identified before ingestion, and 54% (n = 19), 45%, and 47% (n = 19) were identified 40, 60, and 80 min, respectively, after ingestion. In conclusion, acute hyperhydration reduces ABP OFF-hr and reduces ABP sensitivity. PMID:25773052

  7. Retention of testicular integrity and testosterone levels upon ingestion of garlic cloves(Allium sativum)in the Sprague-Dawley rat

    Adejoke; Elizabeth; Memudu; Ibukun; Dorcas; Akinrinade; Olalekan; Michael; Ogundele

    2015-01-01

    Objective: To investigate the effects of acute and chronic aqueous garlic extract ingestion on testicular cellular integrity and serum testosterone levels.Methods: Twenty(20) male Sprague-Dawley rats weighing an average of 120 g were used.Animals were divided into three groups. Group A served as control(10 rats for 28 and 56 d respectively), while treatment Groups B and C were given 200 mg/kg for Allium sativum(garlic cloves) extract for 28 and 56 d respectively.Results: Histological analysis revealed the presence of all spermatogenic lineages, appearance of proliferative activities in the interstitial cells, as well as increased serum testosterone levels.Conclusions: This study confirmed proliferative and restorative potentials in both acute and chronic garlic ingestion.

  8. Acute copper toxicosis in the Canada goose.

    Henderson, B M; Winterfield, R W

    1975-01-01

    Acute copper toxicosis resulted in Canada geese, Branta canadensis, following ingestion of copper sulfate at about 600mg/kg from a small man-made pond on a game farm. The lesions were those associated with copper toxicosis in other avian species. The primary pathologic change was necrosis and sloughing of the proventriculus and gizzard. A greenish discoloration of the lungs also occurred. PMID:1156262

  9. Acute Pancreatitis and Pregnancy

    ... Acute Pancreatitis > Acute Pancreatitis and Pregnancy test Acute Pancreatitis and Pregnancy Timothy Gardner, MD Acute pancreatitis is ... of acute pancreatitis in pregnancy. Reasons for Acute Pancreatitis and Pregnancy While acute pancreatitis is responsible for ...

  10. Acute Isoniazid Intoxication: Convulsion, Rhabdomyolysis and Metabolic Acidosis

    OKUTUR, Sadi Kerem

    2006-01-01

    Isoniazid is one of the most commonly used antituberculous drugs. Acute intoxication is characterized by repetitious convulsions, high anion gap metabolic acidosis and coma. The basis of therapy consists of parenteral pyridoxine administration in a dose equivalent to that of isoniazid ingested. Here we present a case of acute isoniazid intoxication presenting with convulsions and metabolic acidosis with consequent rhabdomyolysis and discuss the clinical signs and pathophysiology of isoniazid ...

  11. Diagnostic evaluation of acute pancreatitis in two patients with hypertriglyceridemia

    Okura, Yoshifumi; Hayashi, Kozo; Shingu, Tetsuji; Kajiyama, Goro; Nakashima, Yoshiyuki; Saku, Keijiro

    2004-01-01

    We present two diagnostically challenging cases of acute pancreatitis with hypertriglyceridemia accompanied with chylomicronemia caused with a deficiency of lipoprotein lipase and with the presence of type V hyperlipidemia. Both cases suffered from acute abdomen following the ingestion of fatty food and revealed the increase in parameters of inflammation without significant elevation of serum amylase levels. The imaging examination of ultrasonography could not detect significant findings of a...

  12. The effects of caffeine ingestion on exercise-induced hypoalgesia: A pilot study.

    Black, Christopher D; Gonglach, Alexander R; Renfroe, Jessica B; Hight, Robert E

    2016-07-01

    Exercise acutely reduces pain sensitivity, termed exercise-induced hypoalgesia (EIH). The mechanisms underlying EIH remain unclear. Caffeine, a non-specific adenosine receptor antagonist has been shown to attenuate EIH in animals-suggesting the involvement of the adenosinergic system. This pilot study investigated the effects of caffeine on pain sensitivity following cycling exercise in college-aged men. Pressure pain threshold (PPT) and thermal pain threshold (TPT) were assessed in thirteen low caffeine consuming men prior to ingestion of a counter-balanced 5mg·kg(-1) dose of caffeine or a placebo (Pre), 60min following ingestion (Post-In), and then following a 15min bout of cycling exercise (Post-Ex) at an intensity eliciting a quadriceps muscle pain rating of 3 out of 10. Nine of the men completed follow-up testing which was identical except that the exercise consisted of 10min of cycling eliciting a pain rating of 5 out of 10. Caffeine had no effect compared to placebo on PPT (p≥0.15) or TPT (p≥0.41) 60min following ingestion and following exercise. PPT increased from 599±176kPa to 648±202kPa (p=0.009) and from 578±217kPa to 666±278kPa (p=0.01) following 15 and 10min of cycling, respectively. TPT increased from 46.2±2.9°C to 46.8±2.6°C (p=0.008) following the 15min exercise bout, but did not change (46.4±3.6°C vs. 46.8±3.3°C; p=0.24) following the shorter, higher intensity exercise bout. The results from this study indicate cycling exercise reduces pain sensitivity, especially to pressure stimuli. Caffeine ingestion did not alter the EIH response-suggesting adenosine may not play a prominent role in the EIH response in humans. PMID:27063247

  13. Small Beneficial Effect of Caffeinated Energy Drink Ingestion on Strength.

    Collier, Nora B; Hardy, Michelle A; Millard-Stafford, Mindy L; Warren, Gordon L

    2016-07-01

    Collier, NB, Hardy, MA, Millard-Stafford, ML, and Warren, GL. Small beneficial effect of caffeinated energy drink ingestion on strength. J Strength Cond Res 30(7): 1862-1870, 2016-Because caffeine ingestion has been found to increase muscle strength, our aim was to determine whether caffeine when combined with other potential ergogenic ingredients, such as those in commercial energy drinks, would have a similar effect. Fifteen young healthy subjects were used in a double-blind, repeated-measures experimental design. Each subject performed 3 trials, ingesting either a caffeinated energy drink, an uncaffeinated version of the drink, or a placebo drink. The interpolated twitch procedure was used to assess maximum voluntary isometric contraction (MVIC) strength, electrically evoked strength, and percent muscle activation during MVIC of the knee extensors both before and after drink ingestion, and after a fatiguing bout of contractions; electromyographic (EMG) amplitude of the knee extensors during MVIC was also assessed. The mean (±SE) change in MVIC strength from before to after drink ingestion was significantly greater for the caffeinated energy drink compared with placebo [+5.0 (±1.7) vs. -0.5 (±1.5)%] and the difference between the drinks remained after fatigue (p = 0.015); the strength changes for the uncaffeinated energy drink were not significantly different from those of the other 2 drinks at any time. There was no significant effect of drink type on the changes in electrically evoked strength, percent muscle activation, and EMG from before to after drink ingestion. This study indicates that a caffeinated energy drink can increase MVIC strength but the effect is modest and the strength increase cannot be attributed to increased muscle activation. Whether the efficacy of energy drinks can be attributed solely to caffeine remains unclear. PMID:26670991

  14. Bronchitis - acute

    ... sharing features on this page, please enable JavaScript. Acute bronchitis is swelling and inflammation in the main passages ... present only for a short time. Causes When acute bronchitis occurs, it almost always comes after having a ...

  15. Bronchitis - acute

    Acute bronchitis is swelling and inflammation in the main passages that carry air to the lungs. The swelling narrows ... makes it harder to breathe. Another symptom of bronchitis is a cough. Acute means the symptoms have ...

  16. Acute Bronchitis

    Bronchitis is an inflammation of the bronchial tubes, the airways that carry air to your lungs. It ... chest tightness. There are two main types of bronchitis: acute and chronic. Most cases of acute bronchitis ...

  17. Occult liver abscess following clinically unsuspected ingestion of foreign bodies.

    Tsui, B C; Mossey, J

    1997-01-01

    Two uncommon cases of foreign body (a wooden clothespin and a toothpick) perforation of the gur with associated pyogenic liver abscesses are presented. These cases illustrate the difficulties of preoperative diagnosis. The lack of history of ingestion of foreign bodies, variable clinical presentation of the conditions and radiolucent natures of the foreign bodies all play a role in impeding the diagnosis preoperatively. This report emphasizes the role of ultrasound and computed tomographic scan in evaluating similar cases. Any patient with known risk factors for ingestion of foreign body should arouse suspicion and be investigated further. PMID:9286481

  18. Effects of Crust Ingestion on Mixer Pump Performance in Tank

    Meyer, P. A.; Stewart, C. W.; Brennen, C. E.

    1999-01-01

    In August 1999, a workshop was held at Pacific Northwest National Laboratory to discuss the effects of crust ingestion on mixer pump performance in Hanford Waste Tank 241-SY-101. The main purpose of the workshop was to evaluate the potential for crust ingestion to degrade mixing and/or damage the mixer pump. The need for a previously determined 12-inch separation between the top of the mixer pump inlet and the crust base was evaluated. Participants included a representative from the pump m...

  19. Methodology for Estimating Ingestion Dose for Emergency Response at SRS

    At the Savannah River Site (SRS), emergency response computer models are used to estimate dose following releases of radioactive materials to the environment. Downwind air and ground concentrations and their associated doses from inhalation and ground shine pathways are estimated. The emergency response model (PUFF-PLUME) uses real-time data to track either instantaneous (puff) or continuous (plume) releases. A site-specific ingestion dose model was developed for use with PUFF-PLUME that includes the following ingestion dose pathways pertinent to the surrounding SRS area: milk, beef, water, and fish. The model is simplistic and can be used with existing code output

  20. Dose construction for vegetable ingestion exposure in Hong Kong

    The author presents the mathematical model TERRA used for the construction of ingestion doses resulting from the consumption of contaminated vegetables during a nuclear accident in Hong Kong. Using the ground surface deposited radionuclide densities as input, TERRA calculates the concentrations of 54 radionuclides on the surfaces and within the tissue of vegetables as a function of time and the radiation doses delivered to the various vital organs following their consumption by humans. The present model provides a convenient tool to determine the time histories of 54 radionuclides in vegetables and to back track or project the ingestion dose after a major accident such that more appropriate and timely countermeasures can be implemented

  1. Accidental ingestion of a fractured Twin-block appliance.

    Rohida, Neeraj S; Bhad, Wasundhara A

    2011-01-01

    Orthodontic appliances that become dislodged can cause problems in the airway or the gastrointestinal tract. Accidental ingestion of an appliance during a chair-side procedure or because of inadequate retention of the appliance can create a medical emergency with potentially serious complications, including death from aspiration of the foreign body. This article reports the accidental ingestion of a fractured Twin-block appliance. The ease with which removable appliances can become dislodged if retention is inadequate is discussed, and some serious complications that can arise are described. Precautions the orthodontist can take to prevent such accidents are presented. PMID:21195285

  2. Clinical Analysis of Disc Battery Ingestion in Children.

    Yi-Jung Chang

    2004-09-01

    Full Text Available Background: The purpose of this study was to evaluate the characteristics, management,and outcomes of disc battery ingestion in children.Methods: We reviewed the medical records of children aged between 1 and 15 yearsold admitted to Chang Gung Children's Hospital due to disc battery ingestionfrom September 1997 through July 2003. The diagnosis of disc batteryingestion was based upon history, clinical symptoms, and results of imagingstudies. The clinical data reviewed included sex, age, clinical manifestation,hospital course, imaging findings, and endoscopic results.Results: We found 12 cases (8 males and 4 females of disc battery ingestion with amean age of 1.8

  3. Emergency treatment of petroleum distillate and turpentine ingestion.

    Ng, R C; Darwish, H; Stewart, D A

    1974-09-21

    A comparative study was made of pulmonary complications following the use of ipecac syrup and gastric lavage for hydrocarbon ingestion. The selected 255 patients had chest radiography when first seen and again two to five days later. Of these patients 74 or 29% had been treated with ipecac syrup, 41 or 16% by gastric lavage. On follow-up radiographs 19% of the ipecac-treated group were unchanged or worsened, compared with 39% of the lavage group, suggesting that pneumonitis was significantly less severe in the ipecac-treated patients. Use of ipecac is preferred over gastric lavage for alert patients who have ingested an excessive amount of hydrocarbon. PMID:4153346

  4. An outbreak of perirenal oedema syndrome in cattle associated with ingestion of pigweed (Amaranthus hybridus L. : clinical communication

    R.D. Last

    2007-06-01

    Full Text Available Forty seven of 150, 15-month-old long weaners died of an acute renal disease syndrome following introduction into an old maize field with a heavy stand of Amaranthus spp. The clinical syndrome was characterised by sudden onset neurological disease with ataxia and recumbency. Subcutaneous oedema, ascites and perirenal oedema with urine odour were the major gross necropsy findings. Renal histopathology revealed marked coagulative renal tubular necrosis of the proximal and distal straight tubules with intertubular haemorrhage. Acute renal failure and perirenal oedema has been described in cattle, pigs, horses and sheep associated with the ingestion of A. hybridus L. and A. retroflexus L. This perirenal oedema syndrome has been widely reported in the Americas, while in South Africa intoxication with the amaranths has only previously been associated with nitrate and possibly oxalate poisoning in cattle.

  5. Caustic ingestion injuries-at military hospital rawalpindi

    To study the pattern and endoscopic severity of caustic ingestion injuries presenting at Military Hospital Rawalpindi. Study Design: Descriptive study. Place and Duration of Study: The study was conducted at Medical and Gastroenterology Department Military Hospital Rawalpindi from August 2012 to April 2013. Material and Methods: Patients were selected from those who presented with caustic ingestion history in Medical OPD, ER and in medical wards. After informed consent the patient underwent upper gastrointestinal (GI) Endoscopy. Endoscopic findings were recorded. Results: Out of 50 patients, 21(42%) were males and 29 (58%) were females. Ingestion was accidental in 19 (38%) and was with intent of suicide or self-harm in 31(62%) patients. Mean age was 33.2 years (SD ± 13.2). All the patients were subjected to upper GI endoscopy and findings were recorded. Endoscopic findings were grade 0 in 4 (8%), Grade 1 in 6 (12%), grade 2a in 7 (14%), grade 2b in 10 (20%), grade 3a in 6 (12%) and grade 3b in 17 (34%) patients. Conclusion: Caustic ingestion injuries were seen more in younger females with predominant cause as suicidal intent. On endoscopic examination severe corrosive injuries were more frequent. (author)

  6. Ingestion Pathway Consequences of a Major Release from SRTC

    Blanchard, A.

    1999-06-08

    The food ingestion consequences due to radioactive particulates of an accidental release, scenario 1-RD-3, are evaluated for Savannah River Technology Center. The sizes of land areas requiring the protective action of food interdiction are calculated. The consequences of the particulate portion of the release are evaluated with the HOTSPOT model and an EXCEL spreadsheet for particulates.

  7. Evaluation of 968 children with corrosive substance ingestion

    Ibrahim Karaman

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Background and Aims: The aim of the study was to evaluate the etiology, treatment, and prognosis in children who had presented at our clinic with corrosive substance ingestion and comparison of our results with the literature. Materials and Methods: The patients were put on nil by mouth and broad-spectrum antibiotics were administered. Oral fluids were started for patients whose intraoral lesions resolved and who could swallow their saliva. Steroids were not given, a nasogastric catheter was not placed, and early endoscopy was not used. Results: A total of 968 children presented at our clinic for corrosive substance ingestion during the 22-year period. The stricture development rate was 13.5%. Alkali substance ingestion caused a stricture development rate of 23%. A total of 54 patients required 1-52 sessions (mean 15 ± 12 of dilatation. Conclusion: We do not perform early endoscopy, administer steroids, or place a nasogastric catheter at our clinic for patients who had ingested a corrosive substance. This approach has provided results similar to other series. We feel that determining the burn with early esophagoscopy when factors that prevent or decrease the development of corrosive strictures will be very important.

  8. Plastic ingestion by harbour seal (Phoca vitulina) in the Netherlands

    Bravo Rebolledo, E.; Franeker, van J.A.; Jansen, O.E.; Brasseur, S.M.J.M.

    2013-01-01

    Abundance of ingested debris by seals has been mentioned as a potential indicator of marine litter in the European Marine Strategy Framework Directive (MSFD). A sample of 107 stomachs, 100 intestines and 125 scats of harbour seals from the Netherlands was analysed for the presence of plastics. Incid

  9. The muscle protein synthetic response to food ingestion.

    Gorissen, Stefan H M; Rémond, Didier; van Loon, Luc J C

    2015-11-01

    Preservation of skeletal muscle mass is of great importance for maintaining both metabolic health and functional capacity. Muscle mass maintenance is regulated by the balance between muscle protein breakdown and synthesis rates. Both muscle protein breakdown and synthesis rates have been shown to be highly responsive to physical activity and food intake. Food intake, and protein ingestion in particular, directly stimulates muscle protein synthesis rates. The postprandial muscle protein synthetic response to feeding is regulated on a number of levels, including dietary protein digestion and amino acid absorption, splanchnic amino acid retention, postprandial insulin release, skeletal muscle tissue perfusion, amino acid uptake by muscle, and intramyocellular signaling. The postprandial muscle protein synthetic response to feeding is blunted in many conditions characterized by skeletal muscle loss, such as aging and muscle disuse. Therefore, it is important to define food characteristics that modulate postprandial muscle protein synthesis. Previous work has shown that the muscle protein synthetic response to feeding can be modulated by changing the amount of protein ingested, the source of dietary protein, as well as the timing of protein consumption. Most of this work has studied the postprandial response to the ingestion of isolated protein sources. Only few studies have investigated the postprandial muscle protein synthetic response to the ingestion of protein dense foods, such as dairy and meat. The current review will focus on the capacity of proteins and protein dense food products to stimulate postprandial muscle protein synthesis and identifies food characteristics that may modulate the anabolic properties. PMID:26021783

  10. Ingestion of a Fixed Partial Denture During General Anesthesia

    Neustein, Steve; Beicke, Mark

    2007-01-01

    Dental trauma during anesthesia is a common occurrence. Many patients have had extensive dental work, which is more fragile than the natural dentition. This work may include crowns, fixed partial dentures (bridges), and porcelain veneers. We report for the first time, a case in which a fixed partial denture became dislodged and was ingested, and was recovered postoperatively with endoscopy.

  11. Results from investigations on natural radiation exposure due to ingestion

    Results of a measuring programme in Germany are given where long-lived radionuclides of the uranium and thorium series in samples of daily total diet for adults and sucklings were analysed. The resulting dose due to ingestion of terrestrial radionuclides has been calculated for all age groups and evaluated. (orig.)

  12. Internal dose from ingestion for Japanese adult males

    Internal doses by ingestion for Japanese males were estimated from a literature survey. Intakes were derived form estimated food intakes and from whole-body counting. Total annual effective doses form natural and manmade sources were estimated to be 0.4 mSv and 0.002 mSv, respectively. 32 refs., 3 tabs

  13. ABUSE OF BOOT POLISH BY INGESTION: A CASE REPORT

    Nigam, Anil K.; Srivastava, R. P.; Chavan, B.S.; Saxena, Shekhar

    1993-01-01

    SUMMARY This case report describes the abuse of boot polish by inhalation and ingestion in a 32 year old patient who also had alcohol dependence. Pleasurable psychological effects, craving, active search for the substance and tolerance were present but withdrawal symptoms could not be demonstrated because of simultaneous alcohol dependence.

  14. Accidental Ingestion of Endodontic File: A Case Report

    Chandak, Manoj G.; Pradnya P. Nikhade; Saraf, Hrushikesh P.

    2012-01-01

    Ingestion of the endodontic instrument during root canal treatment is rare but can result in serious complications. The present paper reports a case in which endodontic file was accidentally swallowed by the patient undergoing root canal therapy, which entered digestive tract and passed uneventfully.

  15. Combined glucose ingestion and mouth rinsing improves sprint cycling performance.

    Chong, Edwin; Guelfi, Kym J; Fournier, Paul A

    2014-12-01

    This study investigated whether combined ingestion and mouth rinsing with a carbohydrate solution could improve maximal sprint cycling performance. Twelve competitive male cyclists ingested 100 ml of one of the following solutions 20 min before exercise in a randomized double-blinded counterbalanced order (a) 10% glucose solution, (b) 0.05% aspartame solution, (c) 9.0% maltodextrin solution, or (d) water as a control. Fifteen min after ingestion, repeated mouth rinsing was carried out with 11 × 15 ml bolus doses of the same solution at 30-s intervals. Each participant then performed a 45-s maximal sprint effort on a cycle ergometer. Peak power output was significantly higher in response to the glucose trial (1188 ± 166 W) compared with the water (1036 ± 177 W), aspartame (1088 ± 128 W) and maltodextrin (1024 ± 202 W) trials by 14.7 ± 10.6, 9.2 ± 4.6 and 16.0 ± 6.0% respectively (p glucose trial compared with maltodextrin (p Glucose and maltodextrin resulted in a similar increase in blood glucose, and the responses of blood lactate and pH to sprinting did not differ significantly between treatments (p > .05). These findings suggest that combining the ingestion of glucose with glucose mouth rinsing improves maximal sprint performance. This ergogenic effect is unlikely to be related to changes in blood glucose, sweetness, or energy sensing mechanisms in the gastrointestinal tract. PMID:24668608

  16. Small bowel obstruction due to ingested superabsorbent beads

    Hao D. Pham

    2015-05-01

    Full Text Available Superabsorbent water beads have found many uses as household decorative items, crafts, and other industrial uses. We report a case of ingestion of several LiquiBlock Rainbow brand superabsorbent beads by a ten month old girl leading to small bowel obstruction requiring laparotomy and removal of the beads.

  17. 14 CFR 33.78 - Rain and hail ingestion.

    2010-01-01

    ... 14 Aeronautics and Space 1 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Rain and hail ingestion. 33.78 Section 33... AIRWORTHINESS STANDARDS: AIRCRAFT ENGINES Design and Construction; Turbine Aircraft Engines § 33.78 Rain and... rain and hail, as defined in appendix B to this part. Acceptable engine operation precludes...

  18. Food ingestion factors of the Korean exposure factors handbook.

    Jang, Jae-Yeon; Jo, Soo-Nam; Kim, Sun-Ja; Myung, Hyung-Nam; Kim, Cho-Il

    2014-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to establish food ingestion factors needed to assess exposure to contaminants through food ingestion. The study reclassified the raw data of the Korean National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey in 2001 into 12 subcategories including grain products, meat products, fish and shellfish, and vegetables for international comparability of exposure evaluation. The criteria for food intake calculation were unified according to the characteristics of food groups, and recommended values for food ingestion factors were calculated through moisture correction and recategorization of cooked, processed, and mixed foods for each group. The average intake rate for grain and grain products was 6.25 g/kg-d per capita and the men's intake rate was approximately 8% higher than that of the women. The average intake rate of meat and meat products was 1.62 g/kg-d per capita and the men's intake rate was 30% higher than that of the women, on average. The average intake rate of fish and shellfish was 1.53 g/kg-d per capita, and the age groups of 1 to 2 and 3 to 6 recorded higher capita intake rates than other age groups, 2.62 g/kg-d and 2.25 g/kg-d, respectively. The average intake rate of vegetables was 6.47 g/kg-d per capita, with the age group of 1 to 2 recording the highest per capita intake rate of 9.79 g/kg-d and that of 13 to 19 recording the lowest mean. The study also offers recommended values for food ingestion factors of other food groups by gender, age, and region. The food ingestion exposure factors will need future updates in consideration of ongoing changes in food consumption behavior. PMID:24570803

  19. Immunohistochemical analysis of coeliac mucosa following ingestion of oats.

    Srinivasan, U; Jones, E; Carolan, J; Feighery, C

    2006-05-01

    There is now considerable clinical evidence that oats do not activate coeliac disease. Nonetheless, a reluctance to include oats in the gluten-free diet remains. Because gluten-induced damage is accompanied by activation of the gastrointestinal immune system, the purpose of this study was to investigate if similar changes were induced by oats ingestion. Small intestinal histological sections from 10 patients who ingested 50 g of oats daily for 3 months were investigated for possible evidence of immune activation. Tissue obtained before and after oats challenge was stained with a series of antibodies directed against the following molecules: human leucocyte antigen D-related (HLA-DR), Ki-67, CD25, CD54 [intercellular adhesion molecule 1 (ICAM-1)] and mast cell tryptase. None of the patients developed clinical or laboratory evidence of adverse effects. The distribution of intestinal HLA-DR expression was not affected by oats ingestion and the crypt epithelium remained unstained. In the pre-oats biopsies, the percentage of Ki-67 positive enterocytes, 29.5 +/- 6.9 [95% confidence interval (CI) 13.9-45.0] did not differ significantly from that found in post-oats biopsies, 41.2 +/- 3.7 (95% CI, 32.8-49.6), P = 0.19, not significant. Furthermore, oats ingestion did not alter the number of CD25 positive and tryptase positive cells. Finally, the distribution and intensity of ICAM-1 staining was unchanged by dietary oats. In summary, detailed immunohistological studies of biopsies from patients ingesting oats for 3 months did not reveal evidence of immune activation. Together with other reported findings, this study strengthens the view that oats can be included safely in the diet of gluten sensitive patients. PMID:16634791

  20. Button battery ingestion with different outcome : two case reports from a Tertiary care Hospital

    Sarkar, Suman; Roy, Amrita; Chatterjee, Anirban; Roy, Bidhan Ch; Mondal, Sandip; Pramanik, Koushik

    2015-01-01

    Button battery ingestion is a distinct type of foreign body ingestion in children because of their potential to cause major injury or life threatening consequences. According to National Poison Data System, United States of America, there is a 6.7 fold increase in the percentage of button battery ingestion with major or fatal outcomes from 1985-2009.  We are reporting two cases with history of accidental ingestion of button battery with different outcome. 

  1. STUDIES ON THE INGESTION CHARACTERISTICS OF GIANT FRESHWATER PRAWN, CHINESE PRAWN AND GIANT TIGER PRAWN

    2000-01-01

    The ingestion of giant freshwater prawn, Chinese prawn and giant tiger prawn had continuity and the ingestion high peak occurred at night. Light and temperature had significant effects on the daily ingestion rate (DIR) of giant freshwater prawn Macrobrachium rosenbergii. Red light and blue light favorably induced favorable ingestion. In the adaptive range of temperature, the DIR increased with rising temperature and feeding frequency, but decreased with rising body weight.

  2. Breath Hydrogen Produced by Ingestion of Commercial Hydrogen Water and Milk

    Shimouchi, Akito; Nose, Kazutoshi; Yamaguchi, Makoto; Ishiguro, Hiroshi; Kondo, Takaharu

    2009-01-01

    Objective To compare how and to what extent ingestion of hydrogen water and milk increase breath hydrogen in adults. Methods Five subjects without specific diseases, ingested distilled or hydrogen water and milk as a reference material that could increase breath hydrogen. Their end-alveolar breath hydrogen was measured. Results Ingestion of hydrogen water rapidly increased breath hydrogen to the maximal level of approximately 40 ppm 10–15 min after ingestion and thereafter rapidly decreased t...

  3. Breath Hydrogen Produced by Ingestion of Commercial Hydrogen Water and Milk

    Akito Shimouchi; Kazutoshi Nose; Makoto Yamaguchi; Hiroshi Ishiguro; Takaharu Kondo

    2009-01-01

    Objective: To compare how and to what extent ingestion of hydrogen water and milk increase breath hydrogen in adults.Methods: Five subjects without specific diseases, ingested distilled or hydrogen water and milk as a reference material that could increase breath hydrogen. Their end-alveolar breath hydrogen was measured.Results: Ingestion of hydrogen water rapidly increased breath hydrogen to the maximal level of approximately 40 ppm 10–15 min after ingestion and thereafter rapidly decrease...

  4. Toxicokinetics of paraquat in Korean patients with acute poisoning

    Kim, Hak-Jae; Kim, Hyung-Ki; Lee, HwaYoung; Bae, Jun-Seok; Kown, Jun-Tack; Gil, Hyo-Wook; Hong, Sae-Yong

    2015-01-01

    To conduct a kinetic study of paraquat (PQ), we investigated 9 patients with acute PQ intoxication. All of them ingested more than 20 ml of undiluted PQ herbicide to commit suicide and arrived at our hospital early, not later than 7 h after PQ ingestion. The urine dithionite test for PQ in all of the nine patients was strongly positive at emergency room. Blood samples were obtained every 30 min for the first 2~3 h and then every 1 or 2 h, as long as the clinical progression was stable among t...

  5. Sediment ingestion rates in waterfowl (Anatidae) and their use in environmental risk assessment

    Beyer, W. Nelson; Perry, Matthew C.; Osenton, Peter C.

    2008-01-01

    When waterfowl (Anatidae) ingest sediment as they feed, they are exposed to the environmental contaminants in those sediments. The rate of ingestion may be key to assessing environmental risk. Rates of sediment ingestion were estimated as from risk assessments designed to protect waterfowl.

  6. Curcumin Ingestion Inhibits Mastocytosis and Suppresses Intestinal Anaphylaxis in a Murine Model of Food Allergy.

    Shannon R M Kinney

    Full Text Available IgE antibodies and mast cells play critical roles in the establishment of allergic responses to food antigens. Curcumin, the active ingredient of the curry spice turmeric, has anti-inflammatory properties, and thus may have the capacity to regulate Th2 cells and mucosal mast cell function during allergic responses. We assessed whether curcumin ingestion during oral allergen exposure can modulate the development of food allergy using a murine model of ovalbumin (OVA-induced intestinal anaphylaxis. Herein, we demonstrate that frequent ingestion of curcumin during oral OVA exposure inhibits the development of mastocytosis and intestinal anaphylaxis in OVA-challenged allergic mice. Intragastric (i.g. exposure to OVA in sensitized BALB/c mice induced a robust IgE-mediated response accompanied by enhanced OVA-IgE levels, intestinal mastocytosis, elevated serum mMCP-1, and acute diarrhea. In contrast, mice exposed to oral curcumin throughout the experimental regimen appeared to be normal and did not exhibit intense allergic diarrhea or a significant enhancement of OVA-IgE and intestinal mast cell expansion and activation. Furthermore, allergic diarrhea, mast cell activation and expansion, and Th2 responses were also suppressed in mice exposed to curcumin during the OVA-challenge phase alone, despite the presence of elevated levels of OVA-IgE, suggesting that curcumin may have a direct suppressive effect on intestinal mast cell activation and reverse food allergy symptoms in allergen-sensitized individuals. This was confirmed by observations that curcumin attenuated the expansion of both adoptively transferred bone marrow-derived mast cells (BMMCs, and inhibited their survival and activation during cell culture. Finally, the suppression of intestinal anaphylaxis by curcumin was directly linked with the inhibition of NF-κB activation in curcumin-treated allergic mice, and curcumin inhibited the phosphorylation of the p65 subunit of NF-κB in BMMCs. In

  7. Liver Toxicity Resulted From Ingestion of Chromium Picolinate

    Baltacı D et al.

    2010-03-01

    Full Text Available Herein, liver toxicity resulted from chronic ingestion of chromium picolinate, recommended daily allowance of over-the-counter (OTC have been presented. A woman of 32 years-old presented with pruritis since three days. On physical examination, she had no skin rashes, discoloration and urticarial lesions. With detailed inquiry of the patient, it has been determined that she had been using over-the-counter medicine containing chromium picolinate to enhance weight loss and increase lean body mass. On blood test examination follows: ALT: 484 U/I, AST: 182, Total/direct Bilirubin: 0,43/0,88 mg/dl. Complete Blood Count (CBC was normal. Chromium supplements may cause serious liver function impairment although when ingested within normal doses. Medication histories should include attention to the use of OTC nutritional supplements.

  8. Radiation exposure by ingestion of drinking water contaminated with radioactivity

    It was the aim of this study to examine the relationship between concentrations of such mixtures of radioactive substances as may occur after a nuclear burst or rector accident resulting in the release of radioactive material and the radiation dose taken up with the drinking water, which was calculated with reference to the beginning and duration of ingestion as well as the ingested volumes of contaminated drinking water. Determined were the activities of all the radionuclides contained in 1 l drinking water, which together lead to a time-dependent effective uptake of 1 Sv at days 0, 1 and 7 as well as 1 month and 6 months after contamination of the drinking water. (orig./HP)

  9. Methodology for Estimating Ingestion Dose for Emergency Response at SRS

    Simpkins, A A

    2002-01-01

    At the Savannah River Site (SRS), emergency response models estimate dose for inhalation and ground shine pathways. A methodology has been developed to incorporate ingestion doses into the emergency response models. The methodology follows a two-phase approach. The first phase estimates site-specific derived response levels (DRLs) which can be compared with predicted ground-level concentrations to determine if intervention is needed to protect the public. This phase uses accepted methods with little deviation from recommended guidance. The second phase uses site-specific data to estimate a 'best estimate' dose to offsite individuals from ingestion of foodstuffs. While this method deviates from recommended guidance, it is technically defensibly and more realistic. As guidance is updated, these methods also will need to be updated.

  10. Treatment of pieris ingestion in goats with intravenous lipid emulsion.

    Bischoff, Karyn; Smith, Mary C; Stump, Samuel

    2014-12-01

    Seven goats and one ram presented with clinical signs including regurgitation, obtundation, anorexia, apparent pain, and bloat. The animals had escaped from their barn, and it was discovered that they had ingested leaves of Pieris japonica, Japanese pieris, a grayanotoxin-containing plant. Animals were treated with antibiotics, calcium borogluconate, B vitamins, and activated charcoal within the first 24-h postexposure, which was followed by the recovery of the ram and two goats and the death of two goats. Approximately 36 h after Japanese pieris ingestion, one of the three remaining anorectic goats was dosed with intravenous lipid emulsion (ILE). This goat recovered within a few hours. The remaining two goats were given ILE the next day and appeared to recover, but one died a week later of aspiration pneumonia. PMID:25193885

  11. Debris ingestion by the Antillean Manatee (Trichechus manatus manatus).

    Attademo, Fernanda Loffler Niemeyer; Balensiefer, Deisi Cristiane; Freire, Augusto Carlos da Bôaviagem; de Sousa, Glaucia Pereira; da Cunha, Fábio Adonis Gouveia Carneiro; Luna, Fábia de Oliveira

    2015-12-15

    The Antillean manatee inhabits coastal regions of North and Northeastern Brazil and currently is considered an endangered species in the country. Aiming to gather information for the development of public policies focusing on the conservation of manatees, the National Center for Research and Conservation of Aquatic Mammals of the Chico Mendes Institute for Biodiversity has been rescuing, rehabilitating and releasing these mammals since the 1980s. Over the last 36 years, 40 manatees were released by the CMA/ICMBio and four of them were rescued again due to debris ingestion. Two of these manatees died and the other two were taken back into captivity for a new rehabilitation process. The four mammals had confirmed diagnosis of plastic debris ingestion. These findings demonstrate that the environment where the manatees live after being released had a significant amount of garbage which may hinder the success of the species conservation in Brazil. PMID:26431561

  12. Sexual dimorphism in the osmopressor response following water ingestion.

    Mendonca, Goncalo V; Teodósio, Carolina; Lucena, Rui; Pereira, Fernando D

    2016-07-01

    There is conflicting evidence as to whether water drinking elicits a pressor response in healthy young adults. The inclusion of a variable number of women may have contributed to the discrepancies found in past research. Thus, we aimed at exploring whether the osmopressor response follows a sexually dimorphic pattern. In a randomized fashion, 31 healthy adults (16 men; 15 women, aged 18-40 years) ingested 50 and 500 ml of water before completing a resting protocol on two separate days. Arterial blood pressure, heart rate and spectral heart rate variability were measured in the seated position at pre- and post-25 min of water ingestion. Women responded to 500 ml of water with a greater proportion of change in diastolic and mean arterial pressure (MAP) (Ppower (HF) (Phealthy adults. PMID:27129286

  13. Hypersensitivity reaction to the ingestion of mango flesh.

    Thoo, Caroline H F; Freeman, Susi

    2008-05-01

    A 42-year-old woman presented with a hypersensitivity reaction after the ingestion of a small amount of fresh mango gelato. She developed itchy palpable purpuric lesions over her arms, legs, neck and abdomen 4 days after ingestion. The lesions persisted for 5 weeks despite treatment with betamethasone-17 valerate 0.05% ointment and avoidance of mango. Resolution of these lesions was eventually achieved with continuing treatment. The patient denied any prior contact with mango skin but had experienced previous sensitizing reactions to mango flesh. Patch testing was strongly positive to mango skin and mango flesh. Skin-prick testing was negative. This case describes a systemic contact dermatitis to mango flesh, an entity less common than allergic contact dermatitis. PMID:18412816

  14. Occult Liver Abscess Following Clinically Unsuspected Ingestion of Foreign Bodies

    Tsui, Ban CH; Mossey, J

    1997-01-01

    Two uncommon cases of foreign body (a wooden clothespin and a toothpick) perforation of the gut with associated pyogenic liver abscesses are presented. These cases illustrate the difficulties of preoperative diagnosis. The lack of history of ingestion of foreign bodies, variable clinical presentation of the conditions and radiolucent natures of the foreign bodies all play a role in impeding the diagnosis preoperatively. This report emphasizes the role of ultrasound and computed tomographic sc...

  15. Epidemiology and prevention of caustic ingestion in children

    Christesen, H B

    1994-01-01

    A total of 102 children less than 16 years of age admitted for caustic ingestion in the period 1976-1991 were registered. The annual incidence rate of hospitalization was 10.8:100,000 for the city of Aarhus, Denmark. Esophageal burns occurred with a frequency of 5.0:100,000 per year. Ninety...... toddlers is recommended. Information material should stress that caustics should always be inaccessible to children and stored separately, and should never be decanted....

  16. A case of accidental ingestion of ant bait containing fipronil.

    Fung, Hin Tat; Chan, Kar Ki; Ching, Wei Ming; Kam, Chak Wah

    2003-01-01

    A 77-year-old woman accidentally ingested a commercial ant bait containing fipronil without development of obvious toxicity, supporting the safety of this new insecticide as demonstrated in animal studies. However, concentrated agricultural products may be more toxic, and the potential for seizures should not be overlooked. The pharmacological action, mechanism of selective insect toxicity, and clinical effects of fipronil are discussed. PMID:12807306

  17. Perforation of the duodenum by an ingested toothbrush

    2008-01-01

    We report a rare case of duodenal perforation caused by an ingested 12-cm long toothbrush handle. A 22-year-old female presented with intermittent epigas- tric pain for 6 d after swallowing a broken toothbrush. The swallowed toothbrush could not be removed from the second portion of the duodenum by endoscopy. Laparotomy revealed a perforation in the anterior wall of the duodenal bulb. The toothbrush was removed via the perforation which was debrided and closed. There were no postoperative complications.

  18. Understanding the Control of Ingestive Behavior in Primates

    Wilson, Mark E.; Moore, Carla J.; Ethun, Kelly F.; Johnson, Zachary P.

    2014-01-01

    Ingestive behavior in free-ranging populations of nonhuman primates is influenced by resource availability and social group organization and provides valuable insight on the evolution of ecologically adaptive behaviors and physiological systems. As captive populations were established, questions regarding proximate mechanisms that regulate food intake in these animals could be more easily be addressed. The availability of these captive populations has lead to the use of selected species to un...

  19. Refractory priapism associated with ingestion of yohimbe extract

    Myers, Amy; Barrueto, Fermin

    2009-01-01

    Extracts of the bark of the central African treePausinystalia yohimbe contain yohimbine, an indole alkaloid, which is used to treat erectile dysfunction. The reported side effects of over-the-counter preparations of yohimbine include gastrointestinal upset, anxiety, increased blood pressure, headache, agitation, rash, tachycardia, and frequent urination. In this report, we describe a severe case of intractable priapism associated with the ingestion of yohimbe extract. Management required inse...

  20. CARBOHYDRATE INGESTION AND EXERCISE: EFFECTS ON METABOLISM AND PERFORMANCE

    2000-01-01

    @@KEY POINTS ■ Carbohydrate is the preferred fuel for most competitive sports;an inadequate supply of carbohydrate in the body often leads to poor performance. ■ Carbohydrate ingestion during exercise increases blood glucose availability and maintains the ability of the body to use carbohydrate as fuel during exercise.When carbohydrate is consumed during exercise,glucose uptake by muscles is increased,and the breakdown of glycogen in the liver into blood glucose is reduced,thus saving liver glycogen until late in exercise.The use of muscle glycogen for energy is generally unaffected by carbohydrate feeding.However,during prolonged running,the breakdown of muscle glycogen may be slowed because the supply of blood glucose is improved when carbohydrate is consumed.These metabolic responses underlie the performance benefit that accompanies carbohydrate ingestion during exercise. ■ There are some minor differences among glucose,sucrose,and maltodextrins in their effects on metabolism,but each of them can enhance performance when ingested in the appropriate quantity during exercise.Fructose alone is not an effective carbohydrate supplement because of its slow absorption and slow conversion by the body to glucose,but when small amounts of fructose are combined with other carbohydrates,fructose can be beneficial. ■ Ingesting carbohydrate at a rate of 30-60 grams per hour can improve exercise erformance.A good way to achieve this carbohydrate intake is to consume 600-to-1200 ml(20-to-40 oz)of a sports drink during each hour of exercise.Consuming carbohydrate in a beverage provides an added benefit of preventing potentially harmful effects of dehydration on performance.

  1. HEALTH IMPACT ASSESSMENT BY INGESTION OF POLLUTED SOIL/SEDIMENT

    Ines Tomašek; Marta Mileusnić; Andreja Leboš Pavunc

    2016-01-01

    Potentially toxic elements (PTEs) pose a threat to human health as they can easily enter human body via ingestion of polluted soil/sediment. In order to estimate bioavailability and access health impact on people, measurement of the oral bioaccessibility of a contaminant is crucial. Various laboratory based in vitro tests which mimic human gastrointestinal tract conditions can be used. In order to set up the method for analysing bioaccessibility of contaminants in soil samples in Laboratory f...

  2. Ingestive behavior and thermoregulatory responses of equine in grazing activities

    Wéverton José Lima Fonseca; Augusto Matias de Oliveira; Wéverson Lima Fonseca; SOUSA, Gioto Ghiarone Terto e; Leandro de Oliveira Guerra; Mário Fernando de Assunção Sousa; Severino Cavalcante de Sousa Júnior

    2015-01-01

    The objective of this article was to evaluate the main physiological responses, as well as the main patterns of ingestive behavior and physiological parameters of equines in activities grazing. Animal behavior is influenced by several factors, such as, climate, temperature, power supply, etc., thus becoming indispensable good management practices, for the animal can play to their best possible performance. The loss of heat in equines that give several ways (conduction, convection, radiation, ...

  3. Ingestion Pathway Transfer Factors for Plutonium and Americium

    Blanchard, A.

    1999-07-28

    Overall transfer factors for major ingestion pathways are derived for plutonium and americium. These transfer factors relate the radionuclide concentration in a given foodstuff to deposition on the soil. Equations describing basic relationships consistent with Regulatory Guide 1.109 are followed. Updated values and coefficients from IAEA Technical Reports Series No. 364 are used when a available. Preference is given to using factors specific to the Savannah River Site.

  4. Circulating antitoxin in rabbits after ingestion of diphtheria toxoid.

    Peri, B A; Rothberg, R M

    1981-01-01

    Immune responses following antigen ingestion vary from stimulation to suppression depending on animal species, antigen, and experimental protocol. Young adult rabbits were given either 0.02% diphtheria toxoid or 0.1% bovine serum albumin in drinking water for 10-day periods, a protocol previously found to immunize human infants fed bovine serum albumin. Specific serum antibody was detected by radioimmunoassay in 10 of 13 rabbits fed diphtheria toxoid for 10 days and 11 of 13 rabbits fed bovin...

  5. Fate of ingested Clostridium difficile spores in mice.

    Amber Howerton

    Full Text Available Clostridium difficile infection (CDI is a leading cause of antibiotic-associated diarrhea, a major nosocomial complication. The infective form of C. difficile is the spore, a dormant and resistant structure that forms under stress. Although spore germination is the first committed step in CDI onset, the temporal and spatial distribution of ingested C. difficile spores is not clearly understood. We recently reported that CamSA, a synthetic bile salt analog, inhibits C. difficile spore germination in vitro and in vivo. In this study, we took advantage of the anti-germination activity of bile salts to determine the fate of ingested C. difficile spores. We tested four different bile salts for efficacy in preventing CDI. Since CamSA was the only anti-germinant tested able to prevent signs of CDI, we characterized CamSa's in vitro stability, distribution, and cytotoxicity. We report that CamSA is stable to simulated gastrointestinal (GI environments, but will be degraded by members of the natural microbiota found in a healthy gut. Our data suggest that CamSA will not be systemically available, but instead will be localized to the GI tract. Since in vitro pharmacological parameters were acceptable, CamSA was used to probe the mouse model of CDI. By varying the timing of CamSA dosage, we estimated that C. difficile spores germinated and established infection less than 10 hours after ingestion. We also showed that ingested C. difficile spores rapidly transited through the GI tract and accumulated in the colon and cecum of CamSA-treated mice. From there, C. difficile spores were slowly shed over a 96-hour period. To our knowledge, this is the first report of using molecular probes to obtain disease progression information for C. difficile infection.

  6. Pattern of corrosive ingestion in southwestern Saudi Arabia

    Ingested corrosive material is a major pediatric emergency all over the world. The corrosive material can cause damage to the digestive tract, ranging from minor injury to strictures, and sometimes even death. We aimed to review the pattern of corrosive ingestion in children who had been admitted to Aseer Central Hospital in the Southwestern region of Saudi Arabia. This is a retrospective study of all children who had been admitted with a history of corrosive ingestion to Aseer Central Hospital over a period of five years period from 1990 to 1995. The records of 72 patients (38 males and 34 females) were reviewed. The data included age, sex, time lapse till admission, action taken by parents, presenting symptoms, general management given to the child, barium study, endoscopy, and the postcorrosive ingestion outcome of the child. The mean age of the pediatric patients was 28 + - 20 months. Different types of corrosives were encountered. The most common type was 5.25% hypochlorite in 36 patients (50%), kerosene in 12 patients (16.7%), caustic soda in nine patients (12.5%), hydrogen chloride and N-alkyl dimethyl benzyl ammonium chloride (HC and ADB) in eight patients (11.1%), and other material in seven patients (9.7%). Endoscopy was done in 30 patients (31.7%), 14 of whom were abnormal. Barium swallow was performed in 11 patients; five of them showed strictures that required frequent dilatation whereas one needed interposition surgery. Corrosive injury is still a major pediatric emergency among young children. It carries a major risk of complications (mainly stricture) and requires standardized management based on evidence-based medicine. (author)

  7. Effect on blood pressure of daily lemon ingestion and walking.

    Kato, Yoji; Domoto, Tokio; Hiramitsu, Masanori; Katagiri, Takao; Sato, Kimiko; Miyake, Yukiko; Aoi, Satomi; Ishihara, Katsuhide; Ikeda, Hiromi; Umei, Namiko; Takigawa, Atsusi; Harada, Toshihide

    2014-01-01

    Background. Recent studies suggest that the daily intake of lemon (Citrus limon) has a good effect on health, but this has not been confirmed in humans. In our previous studies, it was observed that people who are conscious of their health performed more lemon intake and exercise. An analysis that took this into account was required. Methodology. For 101 middle-aged women in an island area in Hiroshima, Japan, a record of lemon ingestion efforts and the number of steps walked was carried out for five months. The change rates (Δ%) of the physical measurements, blood test, blood pressure, and pulse wave measured value during the observation period were calculated, and correlations with lemon intake and the number of steps walked were considered. As a result, it was suggested that daily lemon intake and walking are effective for high blood pressure because both showed significant negative correlation to systolic blood pressure Δ%. Conclusions. As a result of multiple linear regression analysis, it was possible that lemon ingestion is involved more greatly with the blood citric acid concentration Δ% and the number of steps with blood pressure Δ%, and it was surmised that the number of steps and lemon ingestion are related to blood pressure improvement by different action mechanisms. PMID:24818015

  8. Effect on Blood Pressure of Daily Lemon Ingestion and Walking

    Yoji Kato

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Background. Recent studies suggest that the daily intake of lemon (Citrus limon has a good effect on health, but this has not been confirmed in humans. In our previous studies, it was observed that people who are conscious of their health performed more lemon intake and exercise. An analysis that took this into account was required. Methodology. For 101 middle-aged women in an island area in Hiroshima, Japan, a record of lemon ingestion efforts and the number of steps walked was carried out for five months. The change rates (Δ% of the physical measurements, blood test, blood pressure, and pulse wave measured value during the observation period were calculated, and correlations with lemon intake and the number of steps walked were considered. As a result, it was suggested that daily lemon intake and walking are effective for high blood pressure because both showed significant negative correlation to systolic blood pressure Δ%. Conclusions. As a result of multiple linear regression analysis, it was possible that lemon ingestion is involved more greatly with the blood citric acid concentration Δ% and the number of steps with blood pressure Δ%, and it was surmised that the number of steps and lemon ingestion are related to blood pressure improvement by different action mechanisms.

  9. Helicopter rotor noise due to ingestion of atmospheric turbulence

    Simonich, J. C.; Amiet, R. K.; Schlinker, R. H.; Greitzer, E. M.

    1986-05-01

    A theoretical study was conducted to develop an analytical prediction method for helicopter main rotor noise due to the ingestion of atmospheric turbulence. This study incorporates an atmospheric turbulence model, a rotor mean flow contraction model and a rapid distortion turbulence model which together determine the statistics of the non-isotropic turbulence at the rotor plane. Inputs to the combined mean inflow and turbulence models are controlled by atmospheric wind characteristics and helicopter operating conditions. A generalized acoustic source model was used to predict the far field noise generated by the non-isotropic flow incident on the rotor. Absolute levels for acoustic spectra and directivity patterns were calculated for full scale helicopters, without the use of empirical or adjustable constants. Comparisons between isotropic and non-isotropic turbulence at the rotor face demonstrated pronounced differences in acoustic spectra. Turning and contraction of the flow for hover and low speed vertical ascent cases result in a 3 dB increase in the acoustic spectrum energy and a 10 dB increase in tone levels. Compared to trailing edge noise, turbulence ingestion noise is the dominant noise mechanism below approximately 30 rotor harmonics, while above 100 harmonics, trailing edge noise levels exceed turbulence ingestion noise by 25 dB.

  10. Ingestion of Nevada Test Site Fallout: Internal dose estimates

    This paper summarizes individual and collective dose estimates for the internal organs of hypothetical yet representative residents of selected communities that received measurable fallout from nuclear detonations at the Nevada Test Site. The doses, which resulted from ingestion of local and regional food products contaminated with over 20 radionuclides, were estimated with use of the PATHWAY food-chain-transport model to provide estimates of central tendency and uncertainty. The thyroid gland received much higher doses than other internal organs and tissues. In a avery few cases, infants might have received thyroid doses in excess of 1 Gy, depending on location, diet, and timing of fallout. 131I was the primary thyroid dose contributor, and fresh milk was the main exposure pathway. With the exception of the thyroid, organ doses from the ingestion pathway were much smaller (<3%) than those from external gamma exposure to deposited fallout. Doses to residents living closest to the Nevada Test Site were contributed mainly by a few fallout events; doses to more distantly located people were generally smaller, but a greater number of events provided measurable contributions. The effectiveness of different fallout events in producing internal organ doses through ingestion varied dramatically with seasonal timing of the test, with maximum dose per unit fallout occurring for early summer depositions when milk cows were on pasture and fresh, local vegetables were used. Within specific communities, internal doses differed by age, sex, and lifestyle. Collective internal dose estimates for specific geographic areas are provided

  11. Metabolic and exercise endurance effects of coffee and caffeine ingestion.

    Graham, T E; Hibbert, E; Sathasivam, P

    1998-09-01

    Caffeine (Caf) ingestion increases plasma epinephrine (Epi) and exercise endurance; these results are frequently transferred to coffee (Cof) consumption. We examined the impact of ingestion of the same dose of Caf in Cof or in water. Nine healthy, fit, young adults performed five trials after ingesting (double blind) either a capsule (Caf or placebo) with water or Cof (decaffeinated Cof, decaffeinated with Caf added, or regular Cof). In all three Caf trials, the Caf dose was 4.45 mg/kg body wt and the volume of liquid was 7.15 ml/kg. After 1 h of rest, the subject ran at 85% of maximal O2 consumption until voluntary exhaustion (approximately 32 min in the placebo and decaffeinated Cof tests). In the three Caf trials, the plasma Caf and paraxanthine concentrations were very similar. After 1 h of rest, the plasma Epi was increased (P capsules than with Cof. During the exercise there were no differences in Epi among the three Caf trials, and the Epi values were all greater (P capsule trial; there were no differences among the other four tests. One cannot extrapolate the effects of Caf to Cof; there must be a component(s) of Cof that moderates the actions of Caf. PMID:9729561

  12. Acute ingestion of different macronutrients differentially enhances aspects of memory and attention in healthy young adults

    Jones, Emma; Sünram-Lea, Sandra; Wesnes, Keith

    2012-01-01

    The role of carbohydrates on mood and cognition is fairly well established, however research examining the behavioural effects of the other macronutrients is limited. The current study compared the effects of a 25 g glucose drink to energetically matched protein and fat drinks and an inert placebo. Following a blind, placebo-controlled, randomised crossover design, 18 healthy young adults consumed drinks containing fat, glucose, protein and placebo. Cognitive performance was examined at basel...

  13. Orthodontic Wire Ingestion during Treatment: Reporting a Case and Review the Management of Foreign Body Ingestion or Aspiration (Emergencies).

    Hoseini, Mohammad; Mostafavi, Seyed Morteza Saadat; Rezaei, Navid; Boluri, Ehsan Javadzadeh

    2013-01-01

    Today orthodontic treatment is in growing demand and is not limited to a specific age or social group. The nature of orthodontic treatment is such that the orthodontic wires and appliances, which are used to apply force and move the teeth, are exposed to the oral cavity. Shaping and replacing these wires in oral cavity are the major assignments of orthodontist on appointments. Therefore, we can say that orthodontic treatment requires working with dangerous tools in a sensitive place like oral cavity which is the entrance of respiratory and digestive systems. In this paper, a case of ingesting a broken orthodontic wire during eating is reported, and also necessary remedial measures at the time of encountering foreign body ingestion or aspiration are provided. PMID:23853727

  14. Modeling Commercial Turbofan Engine Icing Risk With Ice Crystal Ingestion

    Jorgenson, Philip C. E.; Veres, Joseph P.

    2013-01-01

    The occurrence of ice accretion within commercial high bypass aircraft turbine engines has been reported under certain atmospheric conditions. Engine anomalies have taken place at high altitudes that have been attributed to ice crystal ingestion, partially melting, and ice accretion on the compression system components. The result was degraded engine performance, and one or more of the following: loss of thrust control (roll back), compressor surge or stall, and flameout of the combustor. As ice crystals are ingested into the fan and low pressure compression system, the increase in air temperature causes a portion of the ice crystals to melt. It is hypothesized that this allows the ice-water mixture to cover the metal surfaces of the compressor stationary components which leads to ice accretion through evaporative cooling. Ice accretion causes a blockage which subsequently results in the deterioration in performance of the compressor and engine. The focus of this research is to apply an engine icing computational tool to simulate the flow through a turbofan engine and assess the risk of ice accretion. The tool is comprised of an engine system thermodynamic cycle code, a compressor flow analysis code, and an ice particle melt code that has the capability of determining the rate of sublimation, melting, and evaporation through the compressor flow path, without modeling the actual ice accretion. A commercial turbofan engine which has previously experienced icing events during operation in a high altitude ice crystal environment has been tested in the Propulsion Systems Laboratory (PSL) altitude test facility at NASA Glenn Research Center. The PSL has the capability to produce a continuous ice cloud which are ingested by the engine during operation over a range of altitude conditions. The PSL test results confirmed that there was ice accretion in the engine due to ice crystal ingestion, at the same simulated altitude operating conditions as experienced previously in

  15. Prediction of complications following unintentional caustic ingestion in children. Is endoscopy always necessary?

    Christesen, H B

    1995-01-01

    The records of 115 children hospitalized following caustic ingestion over an 18.5-year period from 1976 to 1994 were reviewed. The relationship between types of product ingested, signs and symptoms, degree of esophageal injury and complications was analyzed. All complications were the result of...... respiratory complications, in symptomatic ingestions of lye or ammonia water, in children with respiratory symptoms, and in rare cases of severe symptoms following ADD or strong acid ingestion. It is suggested that children who are non-symptomatic following unintentional ingestions are not at risk of...

  16. ACIDIC AND NEUTRAL LIQUID INGESTION IN PATIENTS WITH GASTROESOPHAGEAL REFLUX DISEASE

    Dafne Calsoni GOMES

    2014-09-01

    Full Text Available Context Sour acidic liquid has a slower distal esophageal transit than a neutral liquid. Our hypothesis was that an acidic sour bolus has a different ingestion dynamic than a neutral bolus. Method In 50 healthy volunteers and 29 patients with gastroesophageal reflux disease (GERD, we evaluated the ingestion dynamics of 100 mL of acidic sour liquid (concentrated lemon juice, pH: 3.0 and 100 mL of water (pH: 6.8. The time to ingest the total volume, the number of swallows to ingest the volume, the interval between swallows, the flux of ingestion and the volume ingested in each swallow was measured. Results In both groups, healthy volunteers and patients in treatment for GERD, the acidic liquid took longer to be ingested, a higher number of swallows, a slower flux of ingestion and a smaller volume in each swallow than the neutral bolus. There was no difference between healthy volunteers and patients with GERD. The ingestion in women was longer than in men for acidic and neutral liquids. Conclusion Acidic liquid has a different dynamic of ingestion than the neutral liquid, which may be consequence of the slower transit through the distal esophageal body or an anticipation to drink a sour bolus. Patients with GERD have the same prolonged ingestion of the acidic liquid bolus as seen in healthy volunteers.

  17. Acute pancreatitis

    ... page: //medlineplus.gov/ency/article/000287.htm Acute pancreatitis To use the sharing features on this page, ... fatty foods after the attack has improved. Outlook (Prognosis) Most cases go away in a week. However, ...

  18. Acute Pericarditis

    ... Sugar Control Helps Fight Diabetic Eye Disease Are 'Workaholics' Prone to OCD, Anxiety? ALL NEWS > Resources First ... cancer, or heart surgery, the fluid is blood. Causes Acute pericarditis usually results from infection or other ...

  19. Acute L-arginine alpha ketoglutarate supplementation fails to improve muscular performance in resistance trained and untrained men

    Wax Benjamin; Kavazis Andreas N; Webb Heather E; Brown Stanley P

    2012-01-01

    Abstract Background Dietary supplements containing L-arginine are marketed to improve exercise performance, but the efficacy of such supplements is not clear. Therefore, this study examined the efficacy of acute ingestion of L-arginine alpha-ketoglutarate (AAKG) muscular strength and endurance in resistance trained and untrained men. Methods Eight resistance trained and eight untrained healthy males ingested either 3000mg of AAKG or a placebo 45 minutes prior to a resistance exercise protocol...

  20. A method to estimate sediment ingestion by fish

    A method is proposed to use naturally occurring radionuclides of the 238U decay series as mass balance tracers to estimate sediment ingestion by benthic fish. The mass balance tracer method can take two forms: one that does not account for tracers that would be ingested in invertebrate food items (simple mass balance tracer method) and one that does (adjusted mass balance tracer method). The contents of the gastrointestinal (GI) tracts from 17 Shorthead Redhorse Suckers (Moxostoma macrolepidotum) were analyzed using the proposed method to determine the proportion of sediment in the fish gut. The proportion of sediment in the GI tract samples was also determined using a method developed by , where the percent soil in wildlife is estimated from the acid insoluble residue (AIR) content of their scat and an assumed level of digestibility of their food (AIR method). The mean mass of sediment in the GI tracts of the 17 fish sampled, calculated using the simple mass balance tracer method, was observed to be 1.14 g (standard deviation 0.99 g) or approximately 46% (standard deviation 16%) of the dry weight of total GI tract contents. A mean of 0.97 g (standard deviation 0.85 g), or approximately 38% (standard deviation 13%) of the dry weight of total GI tract contents, was observed when the mass of sediment in the GI tract was calculated using the adjusted mass balance tracer method. When using the AIR method, the mean percentage of sediment in the GI tracts was observed to be 30% (standard deviation 16%). The findings in this study support the assertion that direct ingestion of sediment by benthic fish may be an important pathway for contaminants in aquatic food webs.

  1. Effects of caffeine ingestion on metabolism and exercise performance.

    Costill, D L; Dalsky, G P; Fink, W J

    1978-01-01

    In an effort to assess the effects of caffeine ingestion on metabolism and performance during prolonged exercise, nine competitive cyclists (two females and seven males) exercised until exhaustion on a bicycle ergometer at 80% of Vo2 max. One trial was performed an hour after ingesting decaffeinated coffee (Trial D), while a second trial (C) required that each subject consume coffee containing 330 mg of caffeine 60 min before the exercise. Following the ingestion of caffeine (Trial C), the subjects were able to perform an average of 90.2 (SE +/- 7.2) min of cycling as compared to an average of 75.5 (SE +/- 5.1) min in the D Trial. Measurements of plasma free fatty acids, glycerol and respiratory exchange ratios evidenced a greater rate of lipid metabolism during the caffeine trial as compared to the decaffeinated exercise treatment. Calculations of carbohydrate (CHO) metabolism from respiratory exchange data revealed that the subjects oxidized roughly 240 g of CHO in both trials. Fat oxidation, however, was significantly higher (P less than 0.05) during the C Trial (118 g or 1.31 g/min) than in the D Trial (57 g or 0.75 g/min). On the average the participants rated (Perceived Exertion Scale) their effort during the C Trial to be significantly (P less than 0.05) easier than the demands of the D treatment. Thus, the enhanced endurance performance observed in the C Trial was likely the combined effects of caffeine on lipolysis and its positive influence on nerve impulse transmission. PMID:723503

  2. Acute dyspnea

    Radiodiagnosis is applied to determine the causes of acute dyspnea. Acute dyspnea is shown to aggravate the course of pulmonary diseases (bronchial asthma, obstructive bronchitis, pulmonary edema, throboembolism of pulmonary arteries etc) and cardiovascular diseases (desiseas of myocardium). The main tasks of radiodiagnosis are to determine volume and state of the lungs, localization and type of pulmonary injuries, to verify heart disease and to reveal concomitant complications

  3. Bronchitis (acute)

    Wark, Peter

    2008-01-01

    Acute bronchitis, with transient inflammation of the trachea and major bronchi, affects over 40/1000 adults a year in the UK. The causes are usually considered to be infective, but only around half of people have identifiable pathogens.The role of smoking or environmental tobacco smoke inhalation in predisposing to acute bronchitis is unclear.A third of people may have longer-term symptoms or recurrence.

  4. Does the evidence about health risks associated with nitrate ingestion warrant an increase of the nitrate standard for drinking water?

    Benjamin Nigel

    2006-09-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Several authors have suggested that it is safe to raise the health standard for nitrate in drinking water, and save money on measures associated with nitrate pollution of drinking water resources. The major argument has been that the epidemiologic evidence for acute and chronic health effects related to drinking water nitrate at concentrations near the health standard is inconclusive. With respect to the chronic effects, the argument was motivated by the absence of evidence for adverse health effects related to ingestion of nitrate from dietary sources. An interdisciplinary discussion of these arguments led to three important observations. First, there have been only a few well-designed epidemiologic studies that evaluated ingestion of nitrate in drinking water and risk of specific cancers or adverse reproductive outcomes among potentially susceptible subgroups likely to have elevated endogenous nitrosation. Positive associations have been observed for some but not all health outcomes evaluated. Second, the epidemiologic studies of cancer do not support an association between ingestion of dietary nitrate (vegetables and an increased risk of cancer, because intake of dietary nitrate is associated with intake of antioxidants and other beneficial phytochemicals. Third, 2–3 % of the population in Western Europe and the US could be exposed to nitrate levels in drinking water exceeding the WHO standard of 50 mg/l nitrate, particularly those living in rural areas. The health losses due to this exposure cannot be estimated. Therefore, we conclude that it is not possible to weigh the costs and benefits from changing the nitrate standard for drinking water and groundwater resources by considering the potential consequences for human health and by considering the potential savings due to reduced costs for nitrate removal and prevention of nitrate pollution.

  5. Ingestão de alimentos /
    Feed intake

    Ivanor Nunes do Prado; Roberto Haruyoshi Ito; Fernando Zawadzki; Polyana Pizzi Rotta; Jair de Araújo Marques; Daniele Maggioni

    2009-01-01

    The vast majority of livestock are fed ad libitum, with free access to feed during most of the time. In order to achieve efficient production, it is necessary to raise levels of voluntary feed intake – in general, the more the animal eats, the more it produces and the more efficient it becomes. Intake amounts are guided by nutritional requirements, and an approximate estimate of how much an animal will ingest can be calculated from levels of protein, energy and other nutrients required for ma...

  6. Congenital goiter due to maternal ingestion of iodide

    A newborn infant with large bilateral cervical masses developed respiratory difficulties three days after birth. A congenital goiter was suspected and a biopsy was performed. Later information pointed to the ingestion of large amounts of inorganic iodine, during the pregnancy, by the asthmatic mother. Further investigation proved the goiter to be due to transient depression of peroxidase activity by the exogenous iodine. Within several days after birth, the infant's thyroid regained its full activity, the goiter disappeared, and the few signs of hypothyroidism subsided. (U.S.)

  7. Effect on Blood Pressure of Daily Lemon Ingestion and Walking

    Yoji Kato; Tokio Domoto; Masanori Hiramitsu; Takao Katagiri; Kimiko Sato; Yukiko Miyake; Satomi Aoi; Katsuhide Ishihara; Hiromi Ikeda; Namiko Umei; Atsusi Takigawa; Toshihide Harada

    2014-01-01

    Background. Recent studies suggest that the daily intake of lemon (Citrus limon) has a good effect on health, but this has not been confirmed in humans. In our previous studies, it was observed that people who are conscious of their health performed more lemon intake and exercise. An analysis that took this into account was required. Methodology. For 101 middle-aged women in an island area in Hiroshima, Japan, a record of lemon ingestion efforts and the number of steps walked was carried out...

  8. Spontaneous haemoperitoneum from surreptitious ingestion of a rodenticide.

    Soubiron, L; Hantson, P; Michaux, I; Lambert, M; Mahieu, P; Pringot, J

    2000-12-01

    Superwarfarins have progressively replaced warfarin as rodenticides as they are more potent and have a longer anticoagulant activity. Human exposure may be complicated by spontaneous haemorrhage in various sites. We report the case of a 51-year-old woman who was admitted with spontaneous haemoperitoneum and intramural haematoma along the small intestine. After the evidence of a deficit of vitamin K1-dependent clotting factors (II, VII, IX, X), the patient admitted that she was chronically ingesting difenacoum. She was successfully treated with fresh frozen plasma and vitamin K1. Follow-up was not accepted. PMID:11764142

  9. Ingestion of phosphorus-32 at Massachusetts Institute of Technology, Cambridge, Massachusetts, identified on August 19, 1995

    On Monday, October 16, 1995, the Massachussetts Institue of Technology (MIT, the licensee) notified the US Nuclear Regulatory Commission (NRC) of an incident involving ingestion of phosphorus-32 by a researcher at the MIT Center for Cancer Research. The licensee informed the NRC that a researcher had reported the incident on August 19. The licensee initially estimated the intake as 500 microcuries (19 MBq) and the dose as 4000 millirem (40 mSv) to the individual. On October 12, the licensee informed the researcher that its final intake estimate was 579 microcuries (21 MBq), just under the 600 microcuries (22 MBq) which would represent an overexposure. On October 17, the NRC established an Incident Investigation Team to investigate the case. NRC also contracted with Lawrence Livermore National Laboratory and Oak Ridge Institute for Science and Education to do independent dose assessments of the urine sample data and the whole-body data. The Team concluded that the licensee's final intake and dose estimates were in accordance with accepted scientific references and NRC guidance. However, recognizing the uncertainties involved in the use of models to simulate human characteristics, the Team determined the intake would be better characterized as likely falling within a range of 500 to 750 microcuries (19--28 NMq). An NRC medical consultant concluded that no symptoms or acute effects should be observed from an intake of this level

  10. Heavy metals in flamingos (Phoenicopterus ruber) from Italian wetlands: The problem of ingestion of lead shot

    Waterbirds are exposed to many contaminants, including lead from ingestion of shot and fishing sinkers. Lead poisoning had never been reported in flamingos wintering in Italian wetlands. Our investigation stems from a case of four flamingos found dead in Tuscany in 2002 with numerous lead shot in their gizzards. We therefore considered other specimens found dead in different Italian wetlands. Many lead shot found in gizzards and lead tissue concentrations confirmed the hypothesis of lead poisoning in two of the seven specimens analysed: concentrations in liver, kidney, and bone were 361.3, 265.09, and 43.31 μg/g d.w., respectively. Lead organotropism was typical of acute poisoning. Cadmium and mercury were also determined, and found to be in line with what little data are available on this species in the literature. Although Italy recently endorsed the African-Eurasian Waterbird Agreement (AEWA) prohibiting use of lead shot for hunting in wetlands, our results reveal a first case of lead shot poisoning in flamingos wintering in Italian wetlands. This evidence sounds a further warning of the problem of spent lead shot in countries where hunting in wetlands is not strictly regulated

  11. A case of anaphylaxis after the ingestion of yacon.

    Yun, Eun Young; Kim, Hyun Sik; Kim, You Eun; Kang, Min Kyu; Ma, Jeong Eun; Lee, Gi Dong; Cho, Yu Ji; Kim, Ho Cheol; Lee, Jong Deok; Hwang, Young Sil; Jeong, Yi Yeong

    2010-04-01

    Anaphylaxis is a potentially life-threatening systemic allergic reaction, often with an explosive onset; the symptoms range from mild flushing to upper respiratory obstruction, with or without vascular collapse. Foods are common offending allergens and remain the leading cause of outpatient anaphylaxis in most surveys. Yacon (Smallanthus sonchifolius) is a plant native to the Andes region, where its root is cultivated and consumed mainly as food. Unlike most edible roots, yacon contains large amounts of ructooligosaccharides. Traditionally, yacon tubers have been used as a source of natural sweetener and syrup for people suffering from various disorders. We report the case of a 55-year-old woman who developed syncope and generalized urticaria after ingesting yacon roots. The patient had positive skin prick and intradermal tests to yacon extract. An open food challenge test was performed to confirm food anaphylaxis and was positive 10 minutes after the consumption of yacon roots. To our knowledge, this is the first reported case of anaphylaxis after the ingestion of yacon roots. PMID:20358031

  12. The modelling of the ingestion pathway in COSYMA

    The models to calculate the foodchain-related accident consequences in COSYMA can consider up to ten foodstuffs. Time dependent activity concentrations in food for releases in summer and winter calculated by the general terrestrial foodchain transport models FARMLAND (NRPB) and ECOSYS (GSF) are implemented in the code. Foodbans can be assumed to be imposed or withdrawn on the basis of intervention levels based on either individual doses or on activity levels in food. Individual ingestion doses and risks are always assessed assuming local production and consumption of the foodstuffs. The collective doses and the number of health effects in the population from ingestion can be estimated either with the assumption of local production and consumption of the food-stuffs, or with the assumption that all produce in the contaminated areas is consumed somewhere, but not necessarily locally. The paper gives an overview of the models and data employed in COSYMA and shows preliminary results of a comparison between the collective doses obtained with both methods

  13. Radiation dose assessment from ingestion pathway in Saudi Arabia

    Abdul-Majid, S.; Abdul-Fattah, A.R.A.F.; Abulfaraj, W.H. (King Abdulaziz Univ., Jeddah (Saudi Arabia))

    1992-01-01

    Levels of radioactivities in foodstuffs in the local market have been measured for the period from November 1987 until end of June 1988. Out of the 674 samples analyzed there were 83 milk powder, 85 infant milk powder, 54 infant cereals, 89 meat, 16 lentils, 14 wheat, and 26 macaroni samples. The average radioactivity concentration of {sup 137}Cs and {sup 134}Cs, in these samples in Bq/kg were 19, 13, 18, 6, 10, 25 and 13 respectively. The rest adults and infant foodstuffs had negligible radioactivity levels. The calculated annual doses from ingestion pathway due to {sup 137}Cs and {sup 134}Cs for adults were 3.13 {times} 10{sup {minus}5} Sv and 2.1 {times} 10{sup {minus}5} Sv while for one year old infant they were 12 {times} 10{sup {minus}5} Sv and 8 {times} 10{sup {minus}5} Sv respectively. The estimated accumulated dose for 50 years from {sup 90}Sr due to one year food ingestion for adults and one year old infants were 3.76 {times} 3.76 {times} 10{sup {minus}5} Sv and 5.2 {times} 10{sup {minus}5} Sv respectively.

  14. Ingestion of Nanoplastics and Microplastics by Pacific Oyster Larvae.

    Cole, Matthew; Galloway, Tamara S

    2015-12-15

    Plastic debris is a prolific contaminant effecting freshwater and marine ecosystems across the globe. Of growing environmental concern are "microplastics"and "nanoplastics" encompassing tiny particles of plastic derived from manufacturing and macroplastic fragmentation. Pelagic zooplankton are susceptible to consuming microplastics, however the threat posed to larvae of commercially important bivalves is currently unknown. We exposed Pacific oyster (Crassostrea gigas) larvae (3-24 d.p.f.) to polystyrene particles spanning 70 nm-20 μm in size, including plastics with differing surface properties, and tested the impact of microplastics on larval feeding and growth. The frequency and magnitude of plastic ingestion over 24 h varied by larval age and size of polystyrene particle (ANOVA, P plastic, with aminated particles ingested and retained more frequently (ANOVA, P plastic consumption and plastic load per organism was identified (Spearmans, r = 0.95, P plastic concentrations exceeding those observed in the marine environment resulted in no measurable effects on the development or feeding capacity of the larvae over the duration of the study. PMID:26580574

  15. The effect of resistance training combined with timed ingestion of protein on muscle fiber size and muscle strength

    Andersen, Lars L; Tufekovic, Goran; Zebis, Mette K;

    2005-01-01

    of resistance training combined with timed ingestion of isoenergetic protein vs carbohydrate supplementation on muscle fiber hypertrophy and mechanical muscle performance. Supplementation was administered before and immediately after each training bout and, in addition, in the morning on nontraining......) concentric and eccentric contractions of the knee extensor muscle was measured in an isokinetic dynamometer. After 14 weeks of resistance training, the protein group showed hypertrophy of type I (18% +/- 5%; P < .01) and type II (26% +/- 5%; P < .01) muscle fibers, whereas no change above baseline occurred......Acute muscle protein metabolism is modulated not only by resistance exercise but also by amino acids. However, less is known about the long-term hypertrophic effect of protein supplementation in combination with resistance training. The present study was designed to compare the effect of 14 weeks...

  16. Acute myelogenous leukemia (AML) - children

    Acute myelogenous leukemia - children; AML; Acute myeloid leukemia - children; Acute granulocytic leukemia - children; Acute myeloblastic leukemia - children; Acute non-lymphocytic leukemia (ANLL) - children

  17. Acute renal failure due to phenazopyridine (Pyridium) overdose: case report and review of the literature.

    Onder, Ali Mirza; Espinoza, Veronica; Berho, Mariana E; Chandar, Jayanthi; Zilleruelo, Gaston; Abitbol, Carolyn

    2006-11-01

    Phenazopyridine (Pyridium) is a commonly used urinary tract analgesic. It has been associated with yellow skin discoloration, hemolytic anemia, methemoglobinemia, and acute renal failure, especially in patients with preexisting kidney disease. We report a 17-year-old female with vertically transmitted human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) infection, presenting with acute renal failure and methemoglobinemia following a suicidal attempt with a single 1,200 mg ingestion of Pyridium. She had no prior evidence of HIV nephropathy. The patient had a progressive nonoliguric renal failure on the 3rd day following the ingestion. She was treated with N-acetylcysteine, intravenous carnitine, and alkalinization of the urine. Her kidney biopsy revealed acute tubular necrosis with no glomerular changes. After 7 days of conservative management, she was discharged home with normal kidney function. To our knowledge, this is the second smallest amount of Pyridium overdose resulting in acute renal failure with no previous history of kidney disease. PMID:16897003

  18. Micropinocytic Ingestion of Glycosylated Albumin by Isolated Microvessels: Possible Role in Pathogenesis of Diabetic Microangiopathy

    Williams, Stuart K.; Devenny, James J.; Bitensky, Mark W.

    1981-04-01

    Microvessels isolated from rat epididymal fat exhibit differential vesicular ingestion rates for unmodified and nonenzymatically glycosylated rat albumin. While unmodified rat albumin is excluded from ingestion by endothelial micropinocytic vesicles, glycosylated albumin is avidly taken up by endocytosis. Interaction of albumin and glycosylated albumin with endothelium was studied with a double-label fluorescence assay of micropinocytosis. When glycosylated albumin was present at a concentration of 6% with respect to total albumin (the level found in ``non diabetic'' serum), only glycosylated albumin was ingested. At higher concentrations of glycosylated albumin (those found in diabetic serum), both albumin and glycosylated albumin are ingested. Glycosylation of endothelial membrane components results in stimulated ingestion of glycosylated albumin, persistent exclusion of unmodified albumin, and unaltered micropinocytic ingestion of native ferritin. These results indicate that nonenzymatic glycosylation of serum albumin may result in rapid vesicle-mediated extravasation of albumin. Chronic microvascular leakage of glycosylated albumin could contribute to the pathogenesis of diabetic microangiopathy.

  19. Plastic ingestion by fish in the Southern Hemisphere: A baseline study and review of methods.

    Cannon, Seon M E; Lavers, Jennifer L; Figueiredo, Bianca

    2016-06-15

    Plastic ingestion is well documented among marine birds and sea turtles but fewer studies have investigated ingestion in fish, particularly in the Southern Hemisphere. We investigated the frequency of plastic ingestion in 21 species of fish and one species of cephalopod. The overall occurrence of plastic ingestion was 0.3%. Two micro-plastic items were recovered from the gastrointestinal tract of a single Antarctic toothfish (Dissostichus mawsoni). Ingestion rates were similar to other studies of fish conducted in both the Northern and Southern Hemispheres, however comparisons across species and locations are challenging due to the lack of consistency in the identification and classification of plastic debris. In response, we propose a standardised sampling protocol based on the available literature to provide a stronger basis for comparisons among existing and future studies of plastic ingestion in fish. PMID:27058965

  20. Acute Anterolateral Myocardial Infarction Due to Aluminum Phosphide Poisoning

    Bita Dadpour; Zohre Oghabian

    2013-01-01

    Aluminum phosphide (AlP) is a highly effective rodenticide which is used as a suicide poison. Herein, a 24 year-old man who’d intentionally ingested about 1liter of alcohol and one tablet of AlP is reported. Acute myocardial infarction due to AlP poisoning has been occurred secondary to AIP poisoning. Cardiovascular complications are poor prognostic factors in AlP poisoning

  1. Acute Anterolateral Myocardial Infarction Due to Aluminum Phosphide Poisoning

    Bita Dadpour

    2013-08-01

    Full Text Available Aluminum phosphide (AlP is a highly effective rodenticide which is used as a suicide poison. Herein, a 24 year-old man who’d intentionally ingested about 1liter of alcohol and one tablet of AlP is reported. Acute myocardial infarction due to AlP poisoning has been occurred secondary to AIP poisoning. Cardiovascular complications are poor prognostic factors in AlP poisoning

  2. Rifaximin for the treatment of acute infectious diarrhea

    Hong, Kyoung Sup; Kim, Joo Sung

    2011-01-01

    Rifaximin is a nonabsorbable rifamycin derivative with an excellent safety profile and a broad spectrum of antimicrobial activity against a variety of enteropathogens causing acute infectious diarrhea. After oral ingestion, its bioavailability is known to be less than 0.4%, and it has a low potential for significant drug interactions. In the treatment of travelers’ diarrhea caused by noninvasive diarrheagenic Escherichia coli, it has been demonstrated that rifaximin significantly shortens the...

  3. Acute ethanol administration induces oxidative changes in rat pancreatic tissue.

    Altomare, E; Grattagliano, I; Vendemiale, G.; V. Palmieri; Palasciano, G

    1996-01-01

    BACKGROUND--There is mounting clinical evidence that ethanol toxicity to the pancreas is linked with glutathione depletion from oxidative stress but there is not experimental proof that this occurs. AIMS AND METHODS--The effect of acute ethanol ingestion (4 g/kg) on the pancreatic content of reduced (GSH) and oxidised (GSSG) glutathione, malondialdehyde (MDA), and carbonyl proteins were therefore studied in the rat. RESULTS--Ethanol caused a significant reduction in GSH (p < 0.02) and an incr...

  4. Acute bilateral ureteral obstruction secondary to guaifenesin toxicity.

    Cockerill, Patrick A; de Cógáin, Mitra R; Krambeck, Amy E

    2013-10-01

    Several medications or their metabolites have been associated with urolithiasis, although overall they remain an infrequent cause of urolithiasis. Guaifenesin stones were originally reported as complexed with ephedrine, and subsequent reports have demonstrated pure guaifenesin stones, occurring after long term abuse. We report a case of a 23-year-old male who ingested a large, one time dose of guaifenesin, resulting in acute bilateral ureteral obstruction, which, to our knowledge, is the first such reported case in the literature. PMID:24128843

  5. Respiratory Complications from Acute Corrosive Poisonings in Adults

    Chibishev, Andon; Simonovska, Natasa; Bozinovska, Cvetanka; Pereska, Zanina; Smokovski, Ivica; Glasnovic, Marija

    2014-01-01

    Introduction: Acute corrosive poisonings are caused by ingestion of corrosive chemicals which are most commonly used as household agents. Intoxications with these kind of agents produce numerous and severe post-corrosive complications of the upper gastrointestinal tract. On the other hand, our experience showed that corrosive agents may also cause injuries of the respiratory system, which makes the treatment very hard and additionally complicates the severe clinical condition of the patient. ...

  6. Grit selection in waterfowl and how it determines exposure to ingested lead shot in Mediterranean wetlands

    Figuerola, Jordi; Mateo, Rafael; Green, Andy J.; Mondain-Monval, J. Y.; Lefranc, H.; Mentaberre, Gregorio

    2005-01-01

    Waterfowl ingest lead shot because they confuse it with grit, but there has been limited study of differences among species and locations. The spatial and interspecific variation in the quantity and size composition of ingested grit and in the ingestion of lead shot by eight waterfowl species in the three main wintering areas in the western Mediterranean (Do˜nana, Ebro Delta and Camargue) was investigated. Variation in the mass of grit in the gizzard was r...

  7. Ingested placenta blocks the effect of morphine on gut transit in Long–Evans rats

    Corpening, Dr. James W.; Doerr, Dr. Jean C.; Kristal, Dr. Mark B.

    2004-01-01

    Opioids produce antinociception, and ingested placenta or amniotic fluid modifies that antinociception. More specifically, ingested placenta enhances the antinociception produced by selective activation of central n-opioid or y-opioid receptors but attenuates that produced by activation of central A-opioid receptors. Opioids also slow gut transit by acting on central or peripheral A-opioid receptors. Therefore, we hypothesized that ingested placenta would reverse the slowing of gut transit th...

  8. Simple battery armor to protect against gastrointestinal injury from accidental ingestion

    Laulicht, Bryan; Traverso, Giovanni; Deshpande, Vikram; Langer, Robert; Karp, Jeffrey M.

    2014-01-01

    Accidental battery ingestion in children is a recognized source of significant morbidity and mortality. To mitigate the risks of accidental battery ingestion, legislation has been introduced to regulate the locking of battery compartments. Regulation of battery housings has translated into modest reductions in the number of battery ingestion cases reported. We report here the fabrication of waterproof, pressure-sensitive battery coatings that are nonconductive in the low-pressure gastrointest...

  9. Device Data Ingestion for Industrial Big Data Platforms with a Case Study †

    Ji, Cun; Shao, Qingshi; Sun, Jiao; Liu, Shijun; Pan, Li; Wu, Lei; Yang, Chenglei

    2016-01-01

    Despite having played a significant role in the Industry 4.0 era, the Internet of Things is currently faced with the challenge of how to ingest large-scale heterogeneous and multi-type device data. In response to this problem we present a heterogeneous device data ingestion model for an industrial big data platform. The model includes device templates and four strategies for data synchronization, data slicing, data splitting and data indexing, respectively. We can ingest device data from mult...

  10. Bowel perforation by crumpled paper in a patient presenting with acute abdominal pain

    Bakhshaeekia Alireza

    2009-01-01

    Full Text Available Many of the abdominal foreign bodies are due to accidental ingestion. Our objective in this case report is to emphasize the importance of the enquiry about the foreign body in the differential diagnosis of acute abdominal pain. According to our knowledge, this is the first report of bowel perforation caused by paper ingestion. A 14-year-old boy with abdominal pain underwent exploratory laparotomy and was found to have abdominal pus and ileal perforation. A crumpled paper was found at the site of perforation. Postoperative enquiry revealed that the patient had ingested 10 crumpled papers. We highlight that recording the history is an important aspect in the management of patients with acute abdominal pain and that foreign bodies should be included in its differential diagnosis.

  11. Acute Renal Failure due to Copper Sulfate Poisoning; a Case Report

    Fakhrossadat Mortazavi

    2009-03-01

    Full Text Available Background:Copper sulfate is a blue and odorless salt with various industrial, chemical, agricultural and medicinal applications. Copper sulfate poisoning is rare in children. Case Presentation:A 23-month old boy accidentally ingested a solution of copper sulfate, used as a disinfectant agent in animal husbandry. He was referred to Children's Hospital of Tabriz because of frequent vomiting and lethargy. The major systemic complications were intravascular hemolysis, anemia and acute renal failure. The patient was successfully treated with multiple packed cell transfusions, dimercaprol, penicillamine and peritoneal dialysis. Plasma copper level 15 days after ingestion was 216 ?g/dl.Conclusion:Copper sulfate is a highly toxic agent that, when ingested, can cause local and systemic damage including coma, shock, severe intravascular hemolysis, hepatotoxicity and acute renal failure with high mortality.

  12. Bowel perforation by crumpled paper in a patient presenting with acute abdominal pain

    Many of the abdominal foreign bodies are due to accidental ingestion. Our objective in this case report is to emphasize the importance of the enquiry about the foreign body in the differential diagnosis of acute abdominal pain. According to our knowledge, this is the first report of bowel perforation caused by paper ingestion. A 14-year-old boy with abdominal pain underwent exploratory laparotomy and was found to have abdominal pus and ileal perforation. A crumpled paper was found at the site of perforation. Postoperative enquiry revealed that the patient had ingested 10 crumpled papers. We highlight that recording the history is an important aspect in the management of patients with acute abdominal pain and that foreign bodies should be included in its differential diagnosis. (author)

  13. Scintigraphic study of lipid kinetics after ingestion of a meal labelled with lipiodol-I123

    This work is included in a programme concerning the relationships between meal ingestion and lipidemia; its specific aim was to assess by scintigraphy the long term kinetics of orally ingested radiolabelled lipids. Nine healthy volunteers ingested a breakfast that included iodized fatty acid extracted from poppy-seed oil of Lipiodol 1123. The images including thorax and abdomen were repeated for 8 hours. Six of the subjects ingested a single meal (group 1), the three other subjects had a lunch 4 h 30 after the i labelled breakfast (group 2). The analysis included the study of pictures with the determination of organs visualization times and the drawing of time activity curves from these organs ROI's. The chronology of organs appearance was stomach, bowel, thoracic duct, then heart and liver. The study allowed to follow the long term kinetics of the ingested lipids and notably to visualize the thoracic duct. The second meal ingestion was followed by an increase of the thoracic duct activity. These preliminary results suggest that scintigraphy using iodized fatty acids allows to visualize the behavior of the ingested lipids and can help to better understand the variation of lipidemia that is related with the ingestion of meals. They suggest that a part of the ingested fats enters the plasma only after a second meal. (authors)

  14. Toxicity from ingestion of Jatropha curcas ('saboo dum') seeds in Thai children.

    Chomchai, Chulathida; Kriengsunthornkij, Worapan; Sirisamut, Thanakorn; Nimsomboon, Thanapon; Rungrueng, Wuttichet; Silpasupagornwong, Uraiwan

    2011-07-01

    Jatropha curcas is widely cultivated in Thailand, the seeds of which yield high quality oil used for biodiesel production. Toxicity due to ingestion of Jatropha curcas has become more common among children due to the close proximity between cultivation and residential areas. We report 10 calls made over a 40-month period to the Siriraj Poison Control Center involving 75 children ages 2-14 years who experienced toxicity after ingesting various amounts of Jatropha beans. The amounts ingested, presenting symptoms, pertinent laboratory findings and their collective dispositions are reported. A brief review of recent published literature on toxicity due to ingestion of Jatropha curcas was also done. PMID:22299477

  15. A crisis management decision support system to reduce ingestion dose

    Environmental accidents such as extensive radioactive or chemical contamination can have more serious consequences for a population than any other kind of accidents known before. Owing to the serious consequences and the high number of people who may be affected, the selection of the best countermeasures to ameliorate the imminent impact is very difficult and the political responsibility is enormous. To help overcome such problems the National Emergency Operations Center in Zurich (Switzerland) has developed a decision support system to evaluate acceptable countermeasures for reducing ingestion dose after an accidental release of radioactive material. The system involves all the necessary modules and techniques for efficient decision making, based on the most recent developments in decision theory as well as the necessary structuring of the decision-making process. The decision-making concept comprehends decision making on two different levels, a technical and a political one. (author)

  16. Ingestion dose for molybdenum: dependence on the administration form

    Molybdenum is an essential element for living organisms. Moreover its radionuclides may represent an incorporation risk for members of the public and/or radiation workers after a nuclear accident or a release of radioactive materials. However, only few reliable data on Mo biokinetics in humans were available. The results of recent tracer kinetic investigations with stable isotopes have shown several differences from the ICRP data with regard to the processes of intestinal absorption and of excretion. As a consequence, the dose coefficients calculated with a revised biokinetic model deviate from the ICRP estimates. By ingestion of 99Mo radionuclides with solid food, for example, the dose to the colon may be higher of a factor up to 1 order of magnitude, due to the fraction of non-absorbed material which traverses the gastro-intestinal tract. (orig.)

  17. Incretin effect after oral amino Acid ingestion in humans

    Lindgren, Ola; Pacini, Giovanni; Tura, Andrea;

    2015-01-01

    also present after amino acid ingestion is not known. OBJECTIVE: The objective of the study was to explore insulin secretion and incretin hormones after oral and iv amino acid administration at matched total amino acid concentrations in healthy subjects. DESIGN: An amino acid mixture (Vaminolac) was...... administered orally or iv at a rate resulting in matching total amino acid concentrations to 12 male volunteers with age 22.5 ± 1.4 years and a body mass index 22.4 ± 1.4 kg/m(2), who had no history of diabetes. MAIN OUTCOME MEASURES: Main outcome measures were area under the 120-minute curve for insulin, C...... after oral than after iv amino acid challenges (P = .006), whereas there was no significant difference in the glucagon response. Intact and total GIP rose after oral but not after iv amino acid administration, whereas intact and total GLP-1 levels did not change significantly in either test. CONCLUSION...

  18. Predictability of outcome of caustic ingestion by esophagogastroduodenoscopy in children

    Abdulkerim Temiz; Pelin Oguzkurt; Semire Serin Ezer; Emine Ince; Akgun Hicsonmez

    2012-01-01

    AIM:To assess the necessity of esophagogastroduodenoscopy (EGD) to predict the outcome of caustic ingestion in children.METHODS:The study included 206 children who underwent EGD because of ingestion of caustic substances between January 2005 and August 2010.Retrospective analysis of data of the patients was performed.RESULTS:The male/female ratio was 1.6 and mean age was 38.1 ± 28.8 mo.The caustic substances were acidic in 72 (34.9%) cases,alkaline in 56 (27.2%),liquid household bleach in 62 (30.1%),and unknown in 16 (7.8%).Fifty-seven (27.7%) patients were symptom-free.Significant clinical findings were observed in 149 (72.3%) patients.Upper gastrointestinal endoscopy findings of esophageal injury were grade 0 in 86 (41.7%) patients,grade 1 in 49 (23.8%),grade 2a in 42 (20.4%),grade 2b in 28 (13.6%),and grade 3a in 1 (0.5%) patient.35 patients with grade 2a,2b,and 3a injuries underwent esophageal dilation at second week of ingestion.Esophageal stricture,which necessitated a regular dilation program developed in 13 of the aforementioned 35 patients.There is no statistically significant difference in the rate of development of esophageal stricture between the patients who ingested acidic (15.3%) and alkaline (8.9%) substances (P =0.32).Severe gastric injury was detected in 38 (18.5%)patients.The rate of development of gastric injury was significantly higher in the acidic group (14%) than in the alkaline group (2.9%) (P =0.001).Out of 149 patients with clinical findings,49 (32.9%) patients had no esophageal injury and 117 (78.5%) patients had no gastric lesion.Esophageal and severe gastric injuries were detected in 20 (35.1%) and 8 (14%) of patients with no clinical findings respectively.Pyloric stenosis developed in 6 patients.Pyloric obstruction improved with balloon dilation in 2 patients.Mean hospitalization time were 1.2±0.5 d for grade 0 and 2.3 ± 5 d for grade 1 and 6.3 ± 6.2 d for grade 2a and 15.8 ± 18.6d for

  19. Selection of Models for Ingestion Pathway and Relocation

    The area in which intermediate phase protective actions (such as food interdiction and relocation) may be needed following postulated accidents at three Savannah River Site nonreactor nuclear facilities will be determined by modeling. The criteria used to select dispersion/deposition models are presented. Several models are considered, including ARAC, MACCS, HOTSPOT, WINDS (coupled with PUFF-PLUME), and UFOTRI. Although ARAC and WINDS are expected to provide more accurate modeling of atmospheric transport following an actual release, analyses consistent with regulatory guidance for planning purposes may be accomplished with comparatively simple dispersion models such as HOTSPOT and UFOTRI. A recommendation is made to use HOTSPOT for non-tritium facilities and UFOTRI for tritium facilities. The most recent Food and Drug Administration Derived Intervention Levels (August 1998) are adopted as evaluation guidelines for ingestion pathways

  20. The assimilation of elements ingested by marine copepods

    The efficiency with which a variety of ingested elements (Ag, Am, C, Cd, P, S, Se, and Zn) were assimilated in marine calanoid copepods fed uniformly radiolabeled diatoms ranged from 0.9% for Am to 97.1% for Se. Assimilation efficiencies were directly related to the cytoplasmic content of the diatoms. This relation indicates that the animals obtained nearly all their nutrition from this source. The results suggest that these zooplankton, which have short gut residence times, have developed a gut lining and digestive strategy that provides for assimilation of only soluble material. Because the fraction of total cellular protein in the cytoplasm of the diatoms increased markedly with culture age, copepods feeding on senescent cells should obtain more protein than those feeding on rapidly dividing cells. Elements that are appreciably incorporated into algal cytoplasm and assimilated in zooplankton should be recycled in surface waters and have longer oceanic residence times than elements bound to cell surfaces

  1. Retention of ingested (60)Co by a freshwater fish

    The experiment was carried out on a group of 10 carp receiving the soft tissue of previously contaminated lymnaea as food. Ingestion by carp of 45 daily rations, distributed over a 63-day period, resulted in a low retention of the radionuclide. The contamination kinetics showed that the steady state should be reached after only 225 days. The 60Co transfer factor was approximately 10−2 and the retention factor about 3.3 x 10−3. During the depuration phase, radiocobalt elimination by the carp developed in accordance with an exponential model based on the existence of two biological half-lives of 1.5 and 35 days which indicate a high Co turnover. During both phases of the experiment, urinary and branchial excretion appeared to be higher than faecal excretion

  2. A case of carotenemia associated with ingestion of nutrient supplements.

    Takita, Yuko; Ichimiya, Makoto; Hamamoto, Yoshiaki; Muto, Masahiko

    2006-02-01

    Carotenemia is characterized by an abnormal yellowish orange pigmentation of the skin, most prominently seen on the palms and soles. Although it is associated with several disease such as diabetes, hypothyroidism and anorexia nervosa, it is caused by excessive intake of carotene-rich food such as oranges and carrots in most cases. Herein, we describe an interesting case of carotenemia in a 66-year-old female secondary to increased ingestion of oral supplements of carotene in order to improve hemorrhage in the eyeground. There could be an increasing trend of intake of commercial nutrient supplements in which case it is necessary to remind ourselves that commercial nutrient supplements could cause various skin disorders as side-effects. PMID:16556283

  3. [Methaemoglobinaemia induced by ingestion of alkyl nitrite, "poppers"].

    Kragsfeldt, Celina Thelberg; Nissen, Christoffer B; Brandt, Frans

    2016-08-22

    We present a case report of an 18-year-old male who was referred to the emergency department with evidence of methaemoglobinaemia. He presented with classic symptoms with peripheral cyanosis and hypoxia. Arterial blood gas showed a methaemoglobin level of 36%. This was caused by ingestion of alkyl nitrate, a widespread party drug called "poppers". When inhaled it causes euphoria, reduced pain and relaxation of the anal sphincter, but oral use may induce life-threatening methaemoglobinaemia. The treatment of choice is the antidote methylene blue. After treatment the patient regained full recovery and was discharged on the following day. We discuss classic symptoms, diagnosis and treatment of intoxication with methylene blue. PMID:27549005

  4. Whey Protein Ingestion Activates mTOR-dependent Signalling after Resistance Exercise in Young Men: A Double-Blinded Randomized Controlled Trial

    David Cameron-Smith

    2009-12-01

    Full Text Available The effect of resistance exercise with the ingestion of supplementary protein on the activation of the mTOR cascade, in human skeletal muscle has not been fully elucidated. In this study, the impact of a single bout of resistance exercise, immediately followed by a single dose of whey protein isolate (WPI or placebo supplement, on the activation of mTOR signalling was analyzed. Young untrained men completed a maximal single-legged knee extension exercise bout and were randomized to ingest either WPI supplement (n = 7 or the placebo (n = 7. Muscle biopsies were taken from the vastus lateralis before, and 2, 4 and 24 hr post-exercise. WPI or placebo ingestion consumed immediately post-exercise had no impact on the phosphorylation of Akt (Ser473. However, WPI significantly enhanced phosphorylation of mTOR (Ser2448, 4E-BP1 (Thr37/46 and p70S6K (Thr389 at 2 hr post-exercise. This study demonstrates that a single dose of WPI, when consumed in modest quantities, taken immediately after resistance exercise elicits an acute and transient activation of translation initiation within the exercised skeletal muscle.

  5. Sodium bicarbonate ingestion augments the increase in PGC-1α mRNA expression during recovery from intense interval exercise in human skeletal muscle.

    Percival, Michael E; Martin, Brian J; Gillen, Jenna B; Skelly, Lauren E; MacInnis, Martin J; Green, Alex E; Tarnopolsky, Mark A; Gibala, Martin J

    2015-12-01

    We tested the hypothesis that ingestion of sodium bicarbonate (NaHCO3) prior to an acute session of high-intensity interval training (HIIT) would augment signaling cascades and gene expression linked to mitochondrial biogenesis in human skeletal muscle. On two occasions separated by ∼1 wk, nine men (mean ± SD: age 22 ± 2 yr, weight 78 ± 13 kg, V̇O(2 peak) 48 ± 8 ml·kg(-1)·min(-1)) performed 10 × 60-s cycling efforts at an intensity eliciting ∼90% of maximal heart rate (263 ± 40 W), interspersed with 60 s of recovery. In a double-blind, crossover manner, subjects ingested a total of 0.4 g/kg body weight NaHCO3 before exercise (BICARB) or an equimolar amount of a placebo, sodium chloride (PLAC). Venous blood bicarbonate and pH were elevated at all time points after ingestion (P 0.05). However, the increase in PGC-1α mRNA expression after 3 h of recovery was higher in BICARB vs. PLAC (approximately sevenfold vs. fivefold compared with rest, P HIIT alters the mRNA expression of this key regulatory protein associated with mitochondrial biogenesis. The elevated PGC-1α mRNA response provides a putative mechanism to explain the enhanced mitochondrial adaptation observed after chronic HIIT supplemented with NaHCO3 in rats. PMID:26384407

  6. Seizure is a rare presentation for acute hemolysis due to G6PD deficiency. We report a previously healthy boy who presented initially with seizure and cyanosis and subsequently acute hemolysis, due to glucose-6-phosphate dehydrogenase deficiency (G6PD) an

    FAYYAZI, Afshin; Ali KHAJEH; Hosein ESFAHANI

    2012-01-01

    Seizure is a rare presentation for acute hemolysis due to G6PD deficiency. We report a previously healthy boy who presented initially with seizure and cyanosis and subsequently acute hemolysis, due to glucose-6-phosphate dehydrogenase deficiency (G6PD) and probably secondary methemoglobinemia, following the ingestion of fava beans.

  7. Seizure is a rare presentation for acute hemolysis due to G6PD deficiency. We report a previously healthy boy who presented initially with seizure and cyanosis and subsequently acute hemolysis, due to glucose-6-phosphate dehydrogenase deficiency (G6PD an

    Afshin FAYYAZI

    2012-06-01

    Full Text Available Seizure is a rare presentation for acute hemolysis due to G6PD deficiency. We report a previously healthy boy who presented initially with seizure and cyanosis and subsequently acute hemolysis, due to glucose-6-phosphate dehydrogenase deficiency (G6PD and probably secondary methemoglobinemia, following the ingestion of fava beans.

  8. Acute Effects of Carbohydrate Supplementation on Intermittent Sports Performance

    Lindsay B. Baker

    2015-07-01

    Full Text Available Intermittent sports (e.g., team sports are diverse in their rules and regulations but similar in the pattern of play; that is, intermittent high-intensity movements and the execution of sport-specific skills over a prolonged period of time (~1–2 h. Performance during intermittent sports is dependent upon a combination of anaerobic and aerobic energy systems, both of which rely on muscle glycogen and/or blood glucose as an important substrate for energy production. The aims of this paper are to review: (1 potential biological mechanisms by which carbohydrate may impact intermittent sport performance; (2 the acute effects of carbohydrate ingestion on intermittent sport performance, including intermittent high-intensity exercise capacity, sprinting, jumping, skill, change of direction speed, and cognition; and (3 what recommendations can be derived for carbohydrate intake before/during exercise in intermittent sports based on the available evidence. The most researched intermittent sport is soccer but some sport-specific studies have also been conducted in other sports (e.g., rugby, field hockey, basketball, American football, and racquet sports. Carbohydrate ingestion before/during exercise has been shown in most studies to enhance intermittent high-intensity exercise capacity. However, studies have shown mixed results with regards to the acute effects of carbohydrate intake on sprinting, jumping, skill, change of direction speed, and cognition. In most of these studies the amount of carbohydrate consumed was ~30–60 g/h in the form of a 6%–7% carbohydrate solution comprised of sucrose, glucose, and/or maltodextrin. The magnitude of the impact that carbohydrate ingestion has on intermittent sport performance is likely dependent on the carbohydrate status of the individual; that is, carbohydrate ingestion has the greatest impact on performance under circumstances eliciting fatigue and/or hypoglycemia. Accordingly, carbohydrate ingestion before

  9. Radionuclides in food and the radiation exposure due to ingestion; Radionuklide in Lebensmitteln und die Strahlenexposition durch Ingestion

    Michel, Rolf

    2015-06-01

    As a consequence of the reactor accidents in Fukushima Daiichi high amounts of radioactive iodine and cesium isotopes were released into the terrestrial and marine Japanese environment. The largest release occurred on March 15, 2011 as a consequence of the containment failure of unit 2. Due to the meteorological conditions large area fallout occurred in the district of Fukushima. Other prefectures in the north of Japan were also contaminated. As a consequence of the high surface contamination the dose limits for drinking water, milk and milky products and food were increased to 200 Bq/kg.It turned out that the contamination of rice was marginal, the contamination of predatory fish higher than that of non-predatory fish. A systematic investigation of food samples could allow a better estimation of ingestion induced exposure.

  10. Poisoning by Ipomoea asarifolia in lambs by the ingestion of milk from ewes that ingest the plant.

    Carvalho de Lucena, Kleber F; Rodrigues, Jussara M N; Campos, Édipo M; Dantas, Antônio F M; Pfister, James A; Cook, Daniel; Medeiros, Rosane M T; Riet-Correa, Franklin

    2014-12-15

    Two experiments, each with 10 pregnant ewes (8 treated and 2 controls) were performed to determine if nursing lambs of lactating ewes become intoxicated when the ewes ingest Ipomoea asarifolia but do not show clinical signs themselves. In the first experiment the sheep grazed I. asarifolia in the field while in the second, sheep were maintained in individual bays consuming dry I. asarifolia at 10% and 20% into their ration. In both experiments the lambs remained confined, consuming only their mother's milk. Four of 8 lambs in the grazing experiment and the 4 nursing lambs from the ewes given 20% I. asarifolia showed signs of I. asarifolia poisoning. These results confirm that the tremorgenic compound of I. asarifolia or its toxic metabolites are eliminated in milk and can intoxicate nursing lambs. PMID:25448387

  11. Muscle glycogen resynthesis during recovery from cycle exercise: no effect of additional protein ingestion

    Van Hall, Gerrit; Shirreffs, S M; Calbet, J A

    2000-01-01

    In the present study, we have investigated the effect of carbohydrate and protein hydrolysate ingestion on muscle glycogen resynthesis during 4 h of recovery from intense cycle exercise. Five volunteers were studied during recovery while they ingested, immediately after exercise, a 600-ml bolus and...

  12. Soil ingestion rates for children under 3 years old in Taiwan

    Soil and dust ingestion rates by children are among the most critical exposure factors in determining risks to children from exposures to environmental contaminants in soil and dust. This is the first published soil ingestion study for children in Taiwan using tracer element meth...

  13. Immune response in mice to ingested soya protein: antibody production, oral tolerance and maternal transfer

    Christensen, Hanne Risager; Pedersen, Susanne Brix; Frøkiær, Hanne

    2004-01-01

    While allergic reactions to soya are increasingly investigated, the normal immune response to ingested soya is scarcely described. In the present study, we wanted to characterise the soya-specific immune response in healthy mice ingesting soya protein. Mice fed a soya-containing diet (F0) and mic...

  14. Incretin and islet hormonal responses to fat and protein ingestion in healthy men

    Carr, Richard D; Larsen, Marianne O; Winzell, Maria Sörhede;

    2008-01-01

    Glucagon-like peptide-1 (GLP-1) and glucose-dependent insulinotropic polypeptide (GIP) regulate islet function after carbohydrate ingestion. Whether incretin hormones are of importance for islet function after ingestion of noncarbohydrate macronutrients is not known. This study therefore examined...

  15. Amount of ingested custard dessert as affected by its color, odor, and texture

    Wijk, R.A. de; Polet, I.A.; Engelen, L.; Doorn, R.M. van; Prinz, J.F.

    2004-01-01

    The effects of nonoral sensations, such as visual texture and odor, on the size of the first bite were investigated in a series of studies using specially constructed food delivery cups with lower, from which custards were ingested ("ingested custard"), and upper, from which a custard was viewed and

  16. Glucose ingestion during endurance training in men attenuates expression of myokine receptor

    Åkerström, Thorbjörn; Krogh-Madsen, Rikke; Petersen, Anne Marie Winther; Pedersen, Bente Klarlund

    2009-01-01

    an increased IL-6 concentration in the bloodstream. We hypothesized that endurance training would increase the density of IL-6Ralpha in skeletal muscle and that glucose ingestion would attenuate the effect. Nine subjects performed 10 weeks of one-legged knee-extensor training. They trained one leg...... (Glc-leg) while ingesting a glucose solution (Glc) and ingested a placebo (Plc) while training the other leg (Plc-leg). Endurance training increased peak power by 14% and reduced the exercise-induced gene expression of IL-6 and IL-6Ralpha in skeletal muscle and IL-6 plasma concentration. The IL-6Ralpha...... density increased to a lesser extent in the Glc-leg, suggesting that glucose ingestion attenuates the effect of training on IL-6Ralpha by blunting the IL-6 response. We conclude that glucose ingestion during endurance training attenuates the increase in IL-6Ralpha density....

  17. Plastic ingestion by pelagic and demersal fish from the North Sea and Baltic Sea.

    Rummel, Christoph D; Löder, Martin G J; Fricke, Nicolai F; Lang, Thomas; Griebeler, Eva-Maria; Janke, Michael; Gerdts, Gunnar

    2016-01-15

    Plastic ingestion by marine biota has been reported for a variety of different taxa. In this study, we investigated 290 gastrointestinal tracts of demersal (cod, dab and flounder) and pelagic fish species (herring and mackerel) from the North and Baltic Sea for the occurrence of plastic ingestion. In 5.5% of all investigated fishes, plastic particles were detected, with 74% of all particles being in the microplastic (<5mm) size range. The polymer types of all found particles were analysed by means of Fourier transform infrared (FT-IR) spectroscopy. Almost 40% of the particles consisted of polyethylene (PE). In 3.4% of the demersal and 10.7% of the pelagic individuals, plastic ingestion was recorded, showing a significantly higher ingestion frequency in the pelagic feeders. The condition factor K was calculated to test differences in the fitness status between individuals with and without ingested plastic, but no direct effect was detected. PMID:26621577

  18. Marine debris ingestion and Thayer's law - The importance of plastic color.

    Santos, Robson G; Andrades, Ryan; Fardim, Lorena M; Martins, Agnaldo Silva

    2016-07-01

    In recent years marine plastic pollution has gained considerable attention as a significant threat to marine animals. Despite the abundant literature related to marine debris ingestion, only a few studies attempted to understand the factors involved in debris ingestion. Plastic ingestion is commonly attributed to visual similarities of plastic fragments to animal's prey items, such as plastic bags and jellyfish. However, this simple explanation is not always coherent with the variety of debris items ingested and with the species' main prey items. We assess differences in the conspicuousness of plastic debris related to their color using Thayer's law to infer the likelihood that visual foragers detect plastic fragments. We hypothesize that marine animals that perceive floating plastic from below should preferentially ingest dark plastic fragments, whereas animals that perceive floating plastic from above should select for paler plastic fragments. PMID:27131818

  19. Acute pancreatitis

    Al Mofleh Ibrahim

    1997-01-01

    Full Text Available The past few years have witnessed a tremendous progress in our knowledge regarding the pathogenesis, diagnosis, prognostic evaluation and classification of acute pancreatitis. The role of ischemia, lysosomal enzymes, oxygen free radicals, polymorphnuclear cells-byproducts and inflammatory mediators in the pathogenesis of pancreatic necrosis and multiple organ failure has been emphasized. Furthermore, the recent knowledge about agents infecting pancreatic necrosis, routes of infection, bacteriological examination of fine needle aspirate and appropriate antibiotics have changed the concept of acute pancreatitis. New diagnostic tests such as rapid urinary trypsinogen-2 test and inflammatory mediators including polymorphnuclear elastase, C-reactive protein and interleukin-6 contribute to early diagnosis, prognostic evaluation and initiation of an appropriate therapy.

  20. Ingestion of 10 grams of whey protein prior to a single bout of resistance exercise does not augment Akt/mTOR pathway signaling compared to carbohydrate

    Cooke Matthew B

    2011-11-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background This study examined the effects of a whey protein supplement in conjunction with an acute bout of lower body resistance exercise, in recreationally-active males, on serum insulin and insulin like growth factor 1 (IGF-1 and Akt/mTOR signaling markers indicative of muscle protein synthesis: insulin receptor substrate 1 (IRS-1, AKT, mammalian target of rapamycin (mTOR, p70S6 kinase (p70S6K and 4E-binding protein 1 (4E-BP1. Methods In a randomized, double-blind, cross-over design, 10 males ingested 1 week apart, either 10 g of whey protein (5.25 g EAAs or carbohydrate (maltodextrose, 30 min prior to a lower-body resistance exercise bout. The resistance exercise bout consisted of 4 sets of 8-10 reps at 80% of the one repetition maximum (RM on the angled leg press and knee extension exercises. Blood and muscle samples were obtained prior to, and 30 min following supplement ingestion and 15 min and 120 min post-exercise. Serum and muscle data were analyzed using two-way ANOVA. Results No significant differences were observed for IGF-1 (p > 0.05. A significant main effect for Test was observed for serum insulin (p 0.05. For the Akt/MTOR signaling intermediates, no significant Supplement × Test interactions were observed (p > 0.05. However, significant main effects for Test were observed for phosphorylated concentrations of IRS, mTOR, and p70S6K, as all were elevated at 15 min post-exercise (p Conclusion Ingestion of 10 g of whey protein prior to an acute bout of lower body resistance exercise had no significant preferential effect compared to carbohydrate on systemic and cellular signaling markers indicative of muscle protein synthesis in untrained individuals.

  1. Do polymorphisms in chemosensory genes matter for human ingestive behavior?

    Hayes, John E; Feeney, Emma L; Allen, Alissa L

    2013-12-01

    In the last decade, basic research in chemoreceptor genetics and neurobiology have revolutionized our understanding of individual differences in chemosensation. From an evolutionary perspective, chemosensory variations appear to have arisen in response to different living environments, generally in the avoidance of toxins and to better detect vital food sources. Today, it is often assumed that these differences may drive variable food preferences and choices, with downstream effects on health and wellness. A growing body of evidence indicates chemosensory variation is far more complex than previously believed. However, just because a genetic polymorphism results in altered receptor function in cultured cells or even behavioral phenotypes in the laboratory, this variation may not be sufficient to influence food choice in free living humans. Still, there is ample evidence to indicate allelic variation in TAS2R38 predicts variation in bitterness of synthetic pharmaceuticals (e.g., propylthiouracil) and natural plant compounds (e.g., goitrin), and this variation associates with differential intake of alcohol and vegetables. Further, this is only one of 25 unique bitter taste genes (TAS2Rs) in humans, and emerging evidence suggests other TAS2Rs may also contain polymorphisms that a functional with respect to ingestive behavior. For example, TAS2R16 polymorphisms are linked to the bitterness of naturally occurring plant compounds and alcoholic beverage intake, a TAS2R19 polymorphism predicts differences in quinine bitterness and grapefruit bitterness and liking, and TAS2R31 polymorphisms associate with differential bitterness of plant compounds like aristolochic acid and the sulfonyl amide sweeteners saccharin and acesulfame-K. More critically with respect to food choices, these polymorphisms may vary independently from each other within and across individuals, meaning a monolithic one-size-fits-all approach to bitterness needs to be abandoned. Nor are genetic

  2. Do polymorphisms in chemosensory genes matter for human ingestive behavior?

    Hayes, John E.; Feeney, Emma L.; Allen, Alissa L.

    2013-01-01

    In the last decade, basic research in chemoreceptor genetics and neurobiology have revolutionized our understanding of individual differences in chemosensation. From an evolutionary perspective, chemosensory variations appear to have arisen in response to different living environments, generally in the avoidance of toxins and to better detect vital food sources. Today, it is often assumed that these differences may drive variable food preferences and choices, with downstream effects on health and wellness. A growing body of evidence indicates chemosensory variation is far more complex than previously believed. However, just because a genetic polymorphism results in altered receptor function in cultured cells or even behavioral phenotypes in the laboratory, this variation may not be sufficient to influence food choice in free living humans. Still, there is ample evidence to indicate allelic variation in TAS2R38 predicts variation in bitterness of synthetic pharmaceuticals (e.g., propylthiouracil) and natural plant compounds (e.g., goitrin), and this variation associates with differential intake of alcohol and vegetables. Further, this is only one of 25 unique bitter taste genes (TAS2Rs) in humans, and emerging evidence suggests other TAS2Rs may also contain polymorphisms that a functional with respect to ingestive behavior. For example, TAS2R16 polymorphisms are linked to the bitterness of naturally occurring plant compounds and alcoholic beverage intake, a TAS2R19 polymorphism predicts differences in quinine bitterness and grapefruit bitterness and liking, and TAS2R31 polymorphisms associate with differential bitterness of plant compounds like aristolochic acid and the sulfonyl amide sweeteners saccharin and acesulfame-K. More critically with respect to food choices, these polymorphisms may vary independently from each other within and across individuals, meaning a monolithic one-size-fits-all approach to bitterness needs to be abandoned. Nor are genetic

  3. Hepatotoxicity of ingested uranium in albino wistar rats

    Uranium exhibits both radiotoxic and chemotoxic properties. Common route of contamination is ingestion through drinking water. Uranium is mainly nephrotoxic and is also hepatotoxic to mammals including humans. The dose range at which it affects organs still remains in predicament. To study the effect of ingested uranium on enzymatic and histopathological changes of liver in albino wistar rats. Uranyl nitrate hexahydrate (UN) solutions were prepared at different concentrations in distilled water for administration. Healthy male and female albino wistar rats weighing 120±20 g were randomly divided into six groups, each group with five animals. Group 1 was the control. All the five treatment groups (group 2, group 3, group 4, group 5 and group 6) were orally administered with 0.156, 0.625, 2.5, 10 and 40 mg/kg/day of UN for 28 days duration. Blood samples collected on 29th day were analyzed for γ-glutamyltransferase (GGT), alkaline phosphatase (ALP), serum glutamic pyruvic transaminase (SGPT) and serum glutamic oxaloacetic transaminase (SGOT). In addition, histopathological examination of liver tissue was performed. Significant reduction by 61 and 46 % in GGT levels in female rats of groups 4 and 5 respectively while in male rats, increase of 55, 52 and 40 % in groups 3, 4 and 5 respectively were observed compared to control. In females, ALP levels were decreased by 38 % in group 2 and 29 % in group 4 while no changes were observed in males of control and test groups. SGPT level was decreased by 22 % in group 6 in females but increased by 29 and 35 % in groups 2 and 6 respectively in males, compared to control. In females, 25 % increase in SGOT levels in group 4 was observed, but decreased in group 5 and 6 by 26 and 22 % respectively. A 27 % increase in SGOT level in males was recorded in group 2 compared to control. No histopathological changes were observed in liver tissues of test groups or the control. Uranium causes dose-independent changes in key marker

  4. Physiologic Conditions Affect Toxicity of Ingested Industrial Fluoride

    Richard Sauerheber

    2013-01-01

    The effects of calcium ion and broad pH ranges on free fluoride ion aqueous concentrations were measured directly and computed theoretically. Solubility calculations indicate that blood fluoride concentrations that occur in lethal poisonings would decrease calcium below prevailing levels. Acute lethal poisoning and also many of the chronic effects of fluoride involve alterations in the chemical activity of calcium by the fluoride ion. Natural calcium fluoride with low solubility and toxicity ...

  5. Ghrelin: A link between memory and ingestive behavior.

    Hsu, Ted M; Suarez, Andrea N; Kanoski, Scott E

    2016-08-01

    Feeding is a highly complex behavior that is influenced by learned associations between external and internal cues. The type of excessive feeding behavior contributing to obesity onset and metabolic deficit may be based, in part, on conditioned appetitive and ingestive behaviors that occur in response to environmental and/or interoceptive cues associated with palatable food. Therefore, there is a critical need to understand the neurobiology underlying learned aspects of feeding behavior. The stomach-derived "hunger" hormone, ghrelin, stimulates appetite and food intake and may function as an important biological substrate linking mnemonic processes with feeding control. The current review highlights data supporting a role for ghrelin in mediating the cognitive and neurobiological mechanisms that underlie conditioned feeding behavior. We discuss the role of learning and memory on food intake control (with a particular focus on hippocampal-dependent memory processes) and provide an overview of conditioned cephalic endocrine responses. A neurobiological framework is provided through which conditioned cephalic ghrelin secretion signals in neurons in the hippocampus, which then engage orexigenic neural circuitry in the lateral hypothalamus to express learned feeding behavior. PMID:27072509

  6. PAH exposure through soil ingestion: Combining digestion models and bioassays

    Wiele, T.R. van de; Verstraete, W. [Ghent University (BE).Laboratory Microbial Ecology and Technology (LabMET); Siciliano, S.D. [University of Saskatchewan (Canada). Department of Soil Science

    2003-07-01

    Exposure to environmental contaminants through soil ingestion is an important issue in current health risk assessment. Polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAH) or their metabolites pose risks to humans due to their toxic, mutagenic, carcinogenic or even (anti)estrogenic properties. PAH mobilization from a soil matrix (49.1{+-}1.5 mg PAH/kg DW) was assessed using a Simulator of the Human Intestinal Microbial Ecosystem (SHIME). PAH GC-MS analysis was performed on the pellet and supernatant of SHIME digests and gave 101, 92, 89 and 97% recovery for water, stomach, duodenal and colon digests, respectively. PAH release was highest for the water extract (0.51%) and the stomach digestion (0.44%). Lower mobilized fractions in the duodenum (0.13%) and colon (0.30%) digests could be attributed to PAH complexation with bile salts, dissolved organic matter or colon microbiota. The digestion model provides us with relevant information to what extent soil bound PAHs are mobilized in the gastrointestinal tract and thus reach the gut wall, prior to absorption. (orig.)

  7. Effects of ethanol ingestion on maternal and fetal glucose homeostasis

    Singh, S.P.; Snyder, A.K.; Singh, S.K.

    1984-08-01

    Carbohydrate metabolism has been studied in the offspring of rats fed liqiud diet containing ethanol during gestation (EF group). Weight-matched control dams were given liquid diet either by the pair-fed technique (PF group) or ad libitum (AF group). EF and PF dams showed reduced food consumption and attenuated gain in body weight during the gestation period compared with the AF group. Blood glucose, liver glycogen, and plasma insulin levels were significantly reduced in EF and PF dams. Ethanol ingestion resulted in a significant decrease in litter survival and fetal body weight. At term, EF pups on average showed a 30% decrease in blood glucose levels and 40% decrease in plasma insulin levels compared with AF pups. One hour after birth, EF pups exhibited a marked increase in blood sugar level compared with either control group. Fetal hyperinsulinemia disappeared shortly after delivery in control pups, as expected; however, in EF pups, the fall in plasma insulin level was gradual. Fetal and neonatal plasma glucagon levels were not altered by ethanol exposure in utero. Blood glucose levels remained significantly low at 2 days of age in EF pups, but reached near control values at 4 days of age. Plasma insulin and glucagon were nearly equal in EF and control pups at 2 and 4 days of age. These results show aberrations in blood glucose, plasma insulin, and liver glycogen levels in offspring exposed to ethanol in utero.

  8. Effects of low level lead ingestion in sheep

    Carson, T.L.; Van Gelder, G.A.; Buck, W.B.; Hoffman, L.J.

    1973-01-01

    Thirty adult sheep of Columbia-Rambouilet cross were fed 0, 2.3, and 4.5 mg lead/kg body weight to control, low and high groups, respectively, for 27 weeks. This ingestion resulted in mean blood lead levels of 0.06, 0.17, and 0.30 ppm. Blood lead concentration, total red blood cells, total white blood cells, packed cell volume, hemoglobin, blood sugar, BUN, serum inorganic phosphorus, alkaline phosphatase, creatine phosphokinase, lactic dehydrogenase, and SGOT were determined at biweekly intervals. Four weeks after the start of lead exposure, the ewes were bred. The experiment continued throughout gestation. Half of the animals in each group were tested on behavioral tasks throughout the study. The apparent added stress of the behavioral testing significantly reduced reproductive performance, while lead alone had no significant effect on reproductive performance. Significant group differences observed for hemoglobin, packed cell volume, and alkaline phosphatase were not linear with lead exposure and were attributed to change. No significant differences between groups were demonstrated for total red blood cells, total white blood cells, blood sugar, BUN, inorganic phosphorus, creatine phosphokinase, lactic dehydrogenase, and SGOT. 28 references, 4 figures, 12 tables.

  9. Bornean orangutan geophagy: analysis of ingested and control soils.

    Mahaney, William C; Hancock, Ronald G V; Aufreiter, Susan; Milner, Michael W; Voros, Joan

    2016-02-01

    Geophagy among orangutans is the most poorly documented in contrast to the knowledge of soil-eating practices of other great ape species. Observations of soil consumption by orangutans in the Sungai Wain Forest Preserve (Wanariset) of Borneo are presented, along with physico-mineral-chemical analyses of the ingested soil in an effort to understand what might stimulate the activity. The consumed soils are: light colored, not excessively weathered by normal standards, higher in the clay size fraction relative to controls, and are comprised of a mix of clay minerals without any specificity of 1:1, 2:1 and/or 2:1:1 (Si:Al) species. The geophagic soils contain chlorides below detection limits, effectively eliminating salt as a stimulus. Soil chemical and geochemical analyses confirm that orangutans prefer soils with pH levels near or above 4.0, while controls are consistently lower (pH = 3.5-4.0), a considerable difference in acidity for at least four out of six soils consumed. Geochemical analysis shows Al, Fe and K are high in the consumed vs control samples; higher Al follows from higher clay percentages in the consumed earth. Iron and K may play physiological roles, but Fe is mostly in the ferrous form (Fe(+2)) and may not be readily taken up by the animals. The preferential choice of consumed samples, with pH above 4.0 and higher clay contents, may promote a more beneficial intestinal environment. PMID:25600229

  10. A Digital Preservation Ingest Parsing Agent for Complex Data Objects

    Flynn, Don F.

    2006-01-05

    Digital preservation systems are being researched and studied in academia and government-funded efforts all over the world. However, the actual release of a proven production system is still yet to happen. Some efforts have broken ground and present great potential, but major roadblocks still exist. One such obstacle is the complex data object, similar to what is produced by the DOE2000 Electronic Laboratory Notebook (ELN). This research effort will focus on determining a methodology for extracting a complex data object from the ELN, and transforming that into a standard digital preservation ingest file. This standard file type will be based on the Library of Congress Metadata Encoding & Transmission Standard (METS) . A METS file serves as a Submission Information Package (SIP) as defined by the Open Archive Information System (OAIS). In addition to the content information, a complete set of Preservation Description Information (PDI) for the content conformation needs to be collected as well in order to create an Archival Information Package (AIP) which will be used for preservation.

  11. Acute Spontaneous Posterior Fossa Subdural Hematoma

    Osama Shukir Muhammed Amin

    2014-02-01

    Full Text Available Acute posterior fossa subdural hematomas are rare and most of them are trauma-related. Non-traumatic ones have been reported in patients who had idiopathic thrombocytopenic purpura or those who had been receiving anticoagulant therapy. We report on the case of 57-year-old Iranian man who developed sudden severe occipital headache, drowsiness, repeated vomiting, and instability of stance and gait. He was neither hypertensive nor diabetic. No history of head trauma was obtained and he denied illicit drug or alcohol ingestion. A preliminary diagnosis of acute intra-cerebellar hemorrhage was made. His CT brain scan revealed an acute right-sided, extra-axial, crescent-shaped hyperdense area at the posterior fossa. His routine blood tests, platelets count, bleeding time, and coagulation profile were unremarkable. The patient had spontaneous acute infratentorial subdural hematoma. He was treated conservatively and discharged home well after 5 days. Since then, we could not follow-up him, clinically and radiologically because he went back to Iran. Our patient’s presentation, clinical course, and imaging study have called for conservative management, as the overall presentation was relatively benign. Unless the diagnosis is entertained and the CT brain scan is well-interpreted, the diagnosis may easily escape detection.

  12. A Pair of Pharyngeal Gustatory Receptor Neurons Regulates Caffeine-Dependent Ingestion in Drosophila Larvae

    Choi, Jaekyun; van Giesen, Lena; Choi, Min Sung; Kang, KyeongJin; Sprecher, Simon G.; Kwon, Jae Young

    2016-01-01

    The sense of taste is an essential chemosensory modality that enables animals to identify appropriate food sources and control feeding behavior. In particular, the recognition of bitter taste prevents animals from feeding on harmful substances. Feeding is a complex behavior comprised of multiple steps, and food quality is continuously assessed. We here examined the role of pharyngeal gustatory organs in ingestion behavior. As a first step, we constructed a gustatory receptor-to-neuron map of the larval pharyngeal sense organs, and examined corresponding gustatory receptor neuron (GRN) projections in the larval brain. Out of 22 candidate bitter compounds, we found 14 bitter compounds that elicit inhibition of ingestion in a dose-dependent manner. We provide evidence that certain pharyngeal GRNs are necessary and sufficient for the ingestion response of larvae to caffeine. Additionally, we show that a specific pair of pharyngeal GRNs, DP1, responds to caffeine by calcium imaging. In this study we show that a specific pair of GRNs in the pharyngeal sense organs coordinates caffeine sensing with regulation of behavioral responses such as ingestion. Our results indicate that in Drosophila larvae, the pharyngeal GRNs have a major role in sensing food palatability to regulate ingestion behavior. The pharyngeal sense organs are prime candidates to influence ingestion due to their position in the pharynx, and they may act as first level sensors of ingested food. PMID:27486388

  13. Paraquat Poisoning of the Lung: HRCT Findings According to the Amount of Ingestion

    Kim, Hyo Lim; Song, Sun Wha; Park, Mi Jung; Lee, Su Lim; Ahn, Myeong Im; Park, Seog Hee [Catholic University, Seoul (Korea, Republic of)

    2009-02-15

    This study was designed to investigate the pattern, distribution and extent of pulmonary abnormalities in relation to the amount of ingested paraquat as determined with the use of high resolution computed tomography (HRCT). The study included 15 patients exposed to paraquat based on a positive urine assay and the presence of pulmonary abnormalities as detected on HRCT scans. The pattern, distribution and extent of pulmonary abnormalities in relation to the amount of ingested paraquat was evaluated. Patients were classified into five groups based on the amount of paraquat that was ingested. The groups were designated as indirect exposure, minimum exposure (the patient spat out the agent after swallowing), low exposure (<= 30 cc), medium exposure (31-60 cc) and high exposure (61-100 cc). Abnormal lung parenchymal patterns as depicted on HRCT images consisted of ground glass opacity (n = 9), consolidation (n = 9), irregular lines (n = 9) and the presence of nodules (n = 2). The most common distribution was in the lower and subpleural lung zone with no relation to the amount of ingestion. The most common patterns were the presence of irregular lines in the indirect exposure group and ground glass opacity in the high exposure group. The mean number of involved lobes increased in relation to the amount of ingestion. For paraquat poisoning, the pattern and extent of pulmonary abnormalities were related to the amount of ingestion, but the distribution of pulmonary abnormalities was not related to the amount of ingestion

  14. Beverage can stay-tabs: still a source for inadvertently ingested foreign bodies in children

    In the 1970s in part to avoid inadvertent ingestion, the beverage-can industry changed can construction from pull-tabs to the stay-tabs (remain attached to can after opening) used today. Our purpose is to identify the number of inadvertent ingestions of beverage-can stay-tabs by children recognized at our institution. The medical information system of a children's hospital was searched with key terms to identify cases in which a witnessed or self-reported inadvertent ingestion of a beverage-can stay-tab resulted in a radiograph to rule out presence of a foreign body. Demographics, identification of stay-tab on radiographs, associated abnormalities, and patient management were reviewed. Nineteen cases of stay-tab ingestion were identified over 16 years. Mean age of ingesters was 8.5 years with the majority being teenagers and 15 (79%) >5 years of age. The stay-tab could be seen radiographically only in 4 (21%) cases - all with the stay-tab identified in the stomach. The identification of 19 children who inadvertently ingested beverage-can stay-tabs at a single children's hospital suggests that such ingestions still occur. Radiologists should be aware that stay-tabs are radiographically visible in the minority (21%) of cases. (orig.)

  15. A Pair of Pharyngeal Gustatory Receptor Neurons Regulates Caffeine-Dependent Ingestion in Drosophila Larvae.

    Choi, Jaekyun; van Giesen, Lena; Choi, Min Sung; Kang, KyeongJin; Sprecher, Simon G; Kwon, Jae Young

    2016-01-01

    The sense of taste is an essential chemosensory modality that enables animals to identify appropriate food sources and control feeding behavior. In particular, the recognition of bitter taste prevents animals from feeding on harmful substances. Feeding is a complex behavior comprised of multiple steps, and food quality is continuously assessed. We here examined the role of pharyngeal gustatory organs in ingestion behavior. As a first step, we constructed a gustatory receptor-to-neuron map of the larval pharyngeal sense organs, and examined corresponding gustatory receptor neuron (GRN) projections in the larval brain. Out of 22 candidate bitter compounds, we found 14 bitter compounds that elicit inhibition of ingestion in a dose-dependent manner. We provide evidence that certain pharyngeal GRNs are necessary and sufficient for the ingestion response of larvae to caffeine. Additionally, we show that a specific pair of pharyngeal GRNs, DP1, responds to caffeine by calcium imaging. In this study we show that a specific pair of GRNs in the pharyngeal sense organs coordinates caffeine sensing with regulation of behavioral responses such as ingestion. Our results indicate that in Drosophila larvae, the pharyngeal GRNs have a major role in sensing food palatability to regulate ingestion behavior. The pharyngeal sense organs are prime candidates to influence ingestion due to their position in the pharynx, and they may act as first level sensors of ingested food. PMID:27486388

  16. Observation of changes in urinary excretion of thorium in humans following ingestion of a therapeutic soil

    The study investigated the changes in urinary thorium excretion by humans following ingestion of a therapeutic soil, which contains about 10 ppm of thorium. This well-known healing earth in Germany has been considered as an alternative medicine for diarrhoea and gastric hyper-acidity. Six adult volunteers ingested this therapeutic soil in varying quantities for 1-15 days at levels approximating those described in the package insert of the medicine (10-60 g of soil per day). The subjects ingested about 0.1-0.6 mg of thorium daily, which is 100-600 times higher than the normal daily intake of about 1 μg thorium in Germany. All 24-h urine samples collected from the subjects during pre-ingestion, ingestion and post-ingestion periods of the soil were analyzed for 232Th using inductively coupled plasma mass spectrometry (ICP-MS). The measured excretion values varied in a wide range. Apparently, the high thorium amounts administered did not increase the 232Th excretion in urine as expected, suggesting that this soil ingestion will not result in a considerably higher and harmful uptake of thorium into the human body

  17. Lethal and Sublethal Toxicity Comparison of BFRs to Three Marine Planktonic Copepods: Effects on Survival, Metabolism and Ingestion.

    Wenjing Gong

    Full Text Available The estuarine planktonic copepods have a wide geographical distribution and commendable tolerance to various kinds of contaminants. The primary aim of the present study was to contrast the impacts of model POPs (TBBPA and HBCD on three common estuarine planktonic copepods (Oithona similis, Acartia pacifica and Pseudodiaptomus inopinus and establish a protocol for the assessment of acute toxicity of marine organic pollutants. We first quantified the 96h-LC50 (0.566, 0.04 and 0.257 mg/L of TBBPA to the three subjects above respectively and 0.314 mg/L of HBCD to P. inopinus; all reported concentrations are nominal values. In the sub-lethal toxicity tests, it was turned out that the effects of copepods exposed to TBBPA could product different influences on the energy ingestion and metabolism. Different type of pollutions, meanwhile, could also bring varying degree effect on the target copepods. In general, the indicators (the rate of oxygen consumption, ammonia excretion, food ingestion and filtration in higher concentration groups showed marked significant difference compared with controls as well a dose-effect relationship. The study also extended the research on the joint toxicity of TBBPA and HBCD based on the survival rate of P.inopinus. Whether 1:1 concentration or 1:1 toxic level, the research showed synergy effect relative to single exposure conditions. The result indicated that current single ecological testing used for environmental protection activities may underestimate the risk for copepods. It was also demonstrated that short-term sub-lethal experiment could be a standard to evaluate the sensitivity of copepods to POPs.

  18. Lethal and Sublethal Toxicity Comparison of BFRs to Three Marine Planktonic Copepods: Effects on Survival, Metabolism and Ingestion.

    Gong, Wenjing; Zhu, Liyan; Hao, Ya

    2016-01-01

    The estuarine planktonic copepods have a wide geographical distribution and commendable tolerance to various kinds of contaminants. The primary aim of the present study was to contrast the impacts of model POPs (TBBPA and HBCD) on three common estuarine planktonic copepods (Oithona similis, Acartia pacifica and Pseudodiaptomus inopinus) and establish a protocol for the assessment of acute toxicity of marine organic pollutants. We first quantified the 96h-LC50 (0.566, 0.04 and 0.257 mg/L of TBBPA to the three subjects above respectively and 0.314 mg/L of HBCD to P. inopinus; all reported concentrations are nominal values). In the sub-lethal toxicity tests, it was turned out that the effects of copepods exposed to TBBPA could product different influences on the energy ingestion and metabolism. Different type of pollutions, meanwhile, could also bring varying degree effect on the target copepods. In general, the indicators (the rate of oxygen consumption, ammonia excretion, food ingestion and filtration) in higher concentration groups showed marked significant difference compared with controls as well a dose-effect relationship. The study also extended the research on the joint toxicity of TBBPA and HBCD based on the survival rate of P.inopinus. Whether 1:1 concentration or 1:1 toxic level, the research showed synergy effect relative to single exposure conditions. The result indicated that current single ecological testing used for environmental protection activities may underestimate the risk for copepods. It was also demonstrated that short-term sub-lethal experiment could be a standard to evaluate the sensitivity of copepods to POPs. PMID:26824601

  19. Acute abdomen

    Acute abdomen may be connected with the injury of one of the internal organs, injury of large blood vessels, with the spreading of pains from some other area. It may also be a manifestation of systemic disease or poisoning. The main purposes of radiodiagnosis are: determination of the cause of clinical syndrome; determination of the localization and spreading of pathological changes in abdominal organs; finding out the character of complications. If the data of the ordinary roentgenological investiagtion and isn't complete, the computer tomography of abdominal and pelvic cavities is needed

  20. New Jersey's experience with implementing Protective Action Guides during the 1988 Salem ingestion pathway exercise

    On November 30 and December 1, 1988, the New Jersey Department of Environmental Protection (DEP) and three other State agencies (Health, Agriculture and State Police) participated in the ingestion pathway portion of the 1988 Salem Nuclear Generating Station Emergency Exercise. The purpose of this phase of the exercise was to demonstrate the ingestion pathway components of the State's Radiological Emergency Response Plan (RERP) to the Federal Emergency Management Agency (FEMA). The intent of this paper is to provide a summary of difficulties and some lessons learned in implementing the DEP's ingestion pathway Protective Action Guides (PAGs) during the exercise as well as during the preparation of a total population dose estimate (TPDE)

  1. [Ingestion and digestion of seven species of microalgae by larvae of Strombus gigas (Mesogastropoda: Strombidae)].

    Patiño Súarez, V; Aldana Aranda, D

    2000-12-01

    The potential nutritional value of seven microalgal diets as measured by their ingestibility and digestibility to queen conch Strombus gigas larvae was tested with 30 day old larvae reared at 28 degrees C and fed at 1000 cells x ml(-1). The algae were Tetraselmis suecica, Tetraselmis chuii Isochrysis aff. galbana, Dunaliella tertiolecta, Chlamydomonas coccoides, Chaetoceros sp. and Thalassiosira fluviatilis. Ingestion and digestion were measured by the four nutritional stages studied with epifluorescence microscopy with live larvae. Temporal and absolute indices showed that larvae fed Chaetoceros sp. and T. fluviatilis had lower ingestion and digestion levels. The other algae are recommend to feed S. gigas larvae. PMID:15266796

  2. [Acute myocarditis].

    Combes, Alain

    2013-05-01

    Myocarditis is defined as inflammation of the myocardium accompanied by myocellular necrosis. Acute myocarditis must be considered in patients who present with recent onset of cardiac failure or arrhythmia. Fulminant myocarditis is a distinct entity characterized by sudden onset of severe congestive heart failure or cardiogenic shock, usually following a flu-like illness, parvovirus B19, human herpesvirus 6, coxsackievirus and adenovirus being the most frequently viruses responsible for the disease. Treatment of myocarditis remains largely supportive, since immunosuppression has not been proven to be beneficial for acute lymphocytic myocarditis. Trials of antiviral therapies, or immunostimulants such as interferons, suggest a potential therapeutic role but require further investigation. Lastly, early recognition of patients rapidly progressing to refractory cardiac failure and their immediate transfer to a medical-surgical center experienced in mechanical circulatory support is warranted. In this setting, ECMO should be the first-line mechanical assistance. For highly unstable patients, a Mobile Cardiac Assistance Unit, that rapidly travels to primary care hospitals with a portable ECMO system and hooks it up before refractory multiorgan failure takes hold, is the preferred option. PMID:23789482

  3. Protective Effect of Melatonin on Acute Pancreatitis

    Jolanta Jaworek

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available Melatonin, a product of the pineal gland, is released from the gut mucosa in response to food ingestion. Specific receptors for melatonin have been detected in many gastrointestinal tissues including the pancreas. Melatonin as well as its precursor, L-tryptophan, attenuates the severity of acute pancreatitis and protects the pancreatic tissue from the damage caused by acute inflammation. The beneficial effect of melatonin on acute pancreatitis, which has been reported in many experimental studies and supported by clinical observations, is related to: (1 enhancement of antioxidant defense of the pancreatic tissue, through direct scavenging of toxic radical oxygen (ROS and nitrogen (RNS species, (2 preservation of the activity of antioxidant enzymes; such as superoxide dismutase (SOD, catalase (CAT, or glutathione peroxidase (GPx, (3 the decline of pro-inflammatory cytokine tumor necrosis α (TNFα production, accompanied by stimulation of an anti-inflammatory IL-10, (4 improvement of pancreatic blood flow and decrease of neutrophil infiltration, (5 reduction of apoptosis and necrosis in the inflamed pancreatic tissue, (6 increased production of chaperon protein (HSP60, and (7 promotion of regenerative process in the pancreas. Conclusion. Endogenous melatonin produced from L-tryptophan could be one of the native mechanisms protecting the pancreas from acute damage and accelerating regeneration of this gland. The beneficial effects of melatonin shown in experimental studies suggest that melatonin ought to be employed in the clinical trials as a supportive therapy in acute pancreatitis and could be used in people at high risk for acute pancreatitis to prevent the development of pancreatic inflammation.

  4. RECURRENT SEASONAL ACUTE PSYCHOSIS

    Agarwal, Vivek

    1999-01-01

    Acute psychoses have been reported to occur more frequently in summer. This is a report of seasonal recurrence of acute psychosis in a patient. This case report emphasizes towards the biological etiology of acute psychoses.

  5. Acute cerebellar ataxia

    Cerebellar ataxia; Ataxia - acute cerebellar; Cerebellitis; Post-varicella acute cerebellar ataxia; PVACA ... Acute cerebellar ataxia in children, especially younger than age 3, may occur several weeks after an illness caused by a virus. ...

  6. Device Data Ingestion for Industrial Big Data Platforms with a Case Study.

    Ji, Cun; Shao, Qingshi; Sun, Jiao; Liu, Shijun; Pan, Li; Wu, Lei; Yang, Chenglei

    2016-01-01

    Despite having played a significant role in the Industry 4.0 era, the Internet of Things is currently faced with the challenge of how to ingest large-scale heterogeneous and multi-type device data. In response to this problem we present a heterogeneous device data ingestion model for an industrial big data platform. The model includes device templates and four strategies for data synchronization, data slicing, data splitting and data indexing, respectively. We can ingest device data from multiple sources with this heterogeneous device data ingestion model, which has been verified on our industrial big data platform. In addition, we present a case study on device data-based scenario analysis of industrial big data. PMID:26927121

  7. Skin Hypersensitivity to Sun Light Due to Doxycycline Ingestion Causing Hand Partial-Thickness Burn

    Simman, Richard; Raynolds, David

    2013-01-01

    Drugs hypersensitivity should be remembered when placing patients on any form of medications. In this case we present skin hypersensitivity to sun light due to doxycycline ingestion causing hand partial-thickness burn.

  8. Plastic debris ingested by deep-water fish of the Ionian Sea (Eastern Mediterranean)

    Anastasopoulou, Aikaterini; Mytilineou, Chryssi; Smith, Christopher J.; Papadopoulou, Konstantia N.

    2013-04-01

    Debris has been recognized as a global environmental problem including within deep habitats. From 26 fish species (1504 specimens) caught in the Eastern Ionian Sea during deep-water long-line surveys, plastic debris was found in 24 individuals of Galeus melastomus (3.2%) and single individuals of Pteroplatytrygon violacea, Squalus blainville, Etmopterus spinax, and Pagellus bogaraveo. The occurrence of debris among their food was infrequent. Ingested debris included primarily plastics (86.5%) and to a lesser extent pieces of metal and wood. Among ingested plastics, fragments of hard plastic material constituted the highest proportion (56.0%), followed by plastic bag fragments (22.0%), fragments of fishing gears (19.0%) and textile fibers (3.0%). Among the species with ingested debris, G. melastomus swallowed all debris categories; P. violacea and S. blainville ingested plastic bag fragments, whereas pieces of hard plastics were found in E. spinax and P. bogaraveo.

  9. Device Data Ingestion for Industrial Big Data Platforms with a Case Study †

    Ji, Cun; Shao, Qingshi; Sun, Jiao; Liu, Shijun; Pan, Li; Wu, Lei; Yang, Chenglei

    2016-01-01

    Despite having played a significant role in the Industry 4.0 era, the Internet of Things is currently faced with the challenge of how to ingest large-scale heterogeneous and multi-type device data. In response to this problem we present a heterogeneous device data ingestion model for an industrial big data platform. The model includes device templates and four strategies for data synchronization, data slicing, data splitting and data indexing, respectively. We can ingest device data from multiple sources with this heterogeneous device data ingestion model, which has been verified on our industrial big data platform. In addition, we present a case study on device data-based scenario analysis of industrial big data. PMID:26927121

  10. Acute Myopericarditis Mimicking Acute Myocardial Infarction

    Seval İzdeş; Neriman Defne Altıntaş; Gülin Karaaslan; Recep Uygun; Abdulkadir But

    2011-01-01

    Acute coronary syndromes among young adults are relatively low when compared with older population in the intensive care unit. Electrocardiographic abnormalities mimicking acute coronary syndromes may be caused by non-coronary syndromes and the differential diagnosis requires a detailed evaluation. We are reporting a case of myopericarditis presenting with acute ST elevation and elevated cardiac enzymes simulating acute coronary syndrome. In this case report, the literature is reviewed to dis...

  11. A retrospective analysis of glycol and toxic alcohol ingestion: utility of anion and osmolal gaps

    Krasowski Matthew D; Wilcoxon Rebecca M; Miron Joel

    2012-01-01

    Abstract Background Patients ingesting ethylene glycol, isopropanol, methanol, and propylene glycol ('toxic alcohols') often present with non-specific signs and symptoms. Definitive diagnosis of toxic alcohols has traditionally been by gas chromatography (GC), a technique not commonly performed on-site in hospital clinical laboratories. The objectives of this retrospective study were: 1) to assess the diagnostic accuracy of the osmolal gap in screening for toxic alcohol ingestion and 2) to de...

  12. Grit ingestion and size-related consumption of tubers by Graylag Geese

    Varo, Nico; Amat, Juan A.

    2008-01-01

    In herbivorous birds the processing rate of food is constrained by gizzard capacity. To enhance digestive processes, many species ingest grit to grind the food. Grit ingestion, however, may further limit the capacity of file gizzard. Graylag Geese (Anser anser) wintering in SW Spain fed mainly on Alkali Bulrush (Scirpus maritimus) tubers, showing a preference for small tubers. This preference may be due to a faster disintegration of small tubers than larger ones inside the gizzard. As larger ...

  13. The Effect of Tannins on Mediterranean Ruminant Ingestive Behavior: The Role of the Oral Cavity

    Elsa Lamy; Ana Varela Coelho; Elvira Sales-Baptista; Célia Antunes; Ana Rodrigues Costa; Schweigert, Florian J; Ana Ferreira; André Martinho Almeida; Harshadrai Rawel; Fernando Capela e Silva

    2011-01-01

    Abstract: Sheep, cattle and goat are domestic ruminants of significant economic interest in the Mediterranean region. Although sharing the same pasture ranges, they ingest different plants and plant parts and, consequently different levels of tannins. This suggests an ability to detect and adapt ingestion according to animal physiological limits of tolerance for plant secondary metabolites. This review will detail the effects of dietary tannins on feeding behavior, and the role...

  14. Effects of capsinoid ingestion on energy expenditure and lipid oxidation at rest and during exercise

    Staples Aaron W; Andrews Richard; Holwerda Andrew M; Sherriffs Scott S; Josse Andrea R; Phillips Stuart M

    2010-01-01

    Abstract Background The thermogenic and metabolic properties of capsinoids appear to mimic those of the more pungent sister compound capsaicin. However, few data exist on how capsinoid ingestion affects energy expenditure in humans and no data exist on its interaction with exercise. We aimed to determine how ingestion of capsinoids affected energy expenditure, lipid oxidation and blood metabolites at rest and during moderate intensity exercise. Methods Twelve healthy young men (age = 24.3 ± 3...

  15. Toxicology case of the month: ingestion of two unidentified tablets by a toddler

    McCoubrie, D; Murray, L; Daly, F F S; Little, M.

    2006-01-01

    An asymptomatic 18 month old child presents to the emergency department of a small district hospital shortly after ingesting two unidentified tablets. A small number of pharmaceuticals and illicit drugs may produce life threatening toxicity in a small child if ingested even in one or two dose units and the onset of toxicity may be delayed for some agents. Following risk assessment, a rational management plan is devised and the child is carefully monitored. The patient is observed overnight an...

  16. Antifungal activity in human urine and serum after ingestion of garlic (Allium sativum).

    Caporaso, N; Smith, S M; Eng, R H

    1983-01-01

    A fresh extract of garlic (Allium sativum) was administered orally to human volunteers. At intervals, serum and urine were collected and assayed for antifungal activity. The maximum tolerable dose was determined to be 25 ml of garlic extract. Larger amounts caused severe burning sensations in the esophagus and the stomach and vomiting. After oral ingestion of 25 ml of the extract, anticandidal and anticryptococcal activities were detected in undiluted serum 0.5 and 1 h after ingestion. No det...

  17. The dosimetric model and the dose conversion factor for members of the public from ingesting radionuclides

    The age-dependent dosimetric models were developed on the basis of the age-dependent physical and biokinetic models, and the ingestion dose conversion factors involved in age group newborns, 1, 5, 10, 15 years and adults for radioisotopes of hydrogen, carbon, strontium and cesium were calculated. The ingestion dose conversion factors estimated here are in accord with the results reported in the ICRP Publication 56 (1989)

  18. Prevention and management of accidental foreign body ingestion and aspiration in orthodontic practice

    Umesan UK; Chua KL; Balakrishnan P

    2012-01-01

    Uday Kumar Umesan,1 Kui Lay Chua,1 Priya Balakrishnan21National Dental Centre, 2Kg Kiarong, Bandar Seri Begawan, Brunei DarussalamAbstract: Among the myriad emergencies that could arise in the dental clinical setting there are a few that occur occasionally despite being entirely preventable. Ingestion or aspiration of dental materials, appliances, or instruments comprises this category. Regardless of incidence, foreign body ingestion or aspiration episodes are recognized as potential complica...

  19. Bilateral Simultaneous Nonarteritic Anterior Ischemic Optic Neuropathy after Ingestion of Sildenafil for Erectile Dysfunction

    Anna Tarantini; Alessandra Faraoni; Francesca Menchini; Paolo Lanzetta

    2012-01-01

    Purpose. To describe a patient who developed bilateral, simultaneous nonarteritic anterior ischemic optic neuropathy (NAION) after ingestion of Sildenafil citrate (Viagra) for erectile dysfunction. Methods. Observational case report. Results. A 60-year-old diabetic man noted sudden decrease of vision in both eyes 16 hours after his third consecutive 50 mg daily Sildenafil ingestion. A diagnosis of bilateral NAION was made and he was treated for three days with methylprednisolone 1 g/d intrave...

  20. The Influence of Fluid Ingestion on Performance of Soccer Players During a Match

    Julio Tirapegui; Turibio Barros; Rodrigo Chaves; Isabela Guerra

    2004-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to verify the effects of a carbohydrate-electrolyte drink on soccer performance. Twenty soccer players volunteered to participate in the study. Players were allocated to two assigned trials according to their positional roles in the team: CHO group (ingesting a 6% carbohydrate-electrolyte solution at regular 15 minutes intervals) and NCHO (ingesting no fluid) during 75 min on-field soccer game. During the trials, body mass loss, heart rate, time spent running, nu...

  1. Enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay for quantitation of attachment and ingestion stages of bacterial phagocytosis.

    Athamna, A; Ofek, I

    1988-01-01

    Research on phagocytosis of bacteria is often hampered by the inability to distinguish quantitatively between bacteria that have been ingested by phagocytic cells and those which are attached to the surface of the cells. A method using the enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay technique to simply and accurately measure the rate of bacterial ingestion by phagocytic cells is described. The method is based on the ability of antibacterial antibodies to bind to bacteria attached to but not internalize...

  2. Distributed Propulsion featuring Boundary Layer Ingestion Engines for the Blended Wing Body Subsonic Transport

    Kok, H.J.M.; Voskuijl, M.; Van Tooren, M.J.L.

    2010-01-01

    The blended wing body aircraft is one of the promising contenders for the next generation large transport aircraft. This aircraft is particularly suitable for the use of boundary layer ingestion engines. Results published in literature suggest that it might be beneficial to have a large number of these engines (distributed propulsion). A conceptual design study is therefore performed to determine the potential benefits of boundary layer ingestion engines for a conventional number of engines i...

  3. Utilization of deuterium for the study of ingested water absorption during muscular exercise

    A long physical exercise-heat exposure is accompanied with massive hydro-saline losses, due to sudation, inducing a lowering of the physical performance. A stable isotope tracer technique, with deuterium in the form of deuterium oxide, is used to study the effect of ingested water quality (pure water, water and sodic and/or energetic additives) on the speed at which ingested water passes in the vascular sector during such an exercise in preliminarily dehydrated human beings. 2 figs., 12 refs

  4. Accidental hijab pin ingestion in Muslim women: an emerging endoscopic emergency?

    Goh, Jason; Patel, Neeral; Boulton, Ralph

    2014-01-01

    Ingested foreign body is an infrequent indication for emergency endoscopy in the adult gastroenterology practice. We describe the clinical features and endoscopic management of the first four cases of accidental ingestion of hijab pins by Muslim women in our unit, all presenting within a 12-month period. The pins were all successfully retrieved without any complications. In this report, we review published guidelines and the current literature, as well as discussing the approach (conservative...

  5. The effect of voluntarily ingested buprenorphine on rats subjected to surgically induced global cerebral ischaemia

    Kalliokoski, Otto Henrik; Abelson, Klas; Koch, Janne; Boschian, Anna; Thormose, Sarah F; Fauerby, Natasha; Rasmussen, Rune Skovgaard; Johansen, Flemming Fryd; Hau, Jann

    2010-01-01

    The effect of perioperatively administered buprenorphine analgesia on rats subjected to surgically induced global ischaemia was assessed. Rats supplied with buprenorphine, mixed in nut paste for voluntary ingestion, displayed significant reductions in postoperative excretions of faecal corticoste......The effect of perioperatively administered buprenorphine analgesia on rats subjected to surgically induced global ischaemia was assessed. Rats supplied with buprenorphine, mixed in nut paste for voluntary ingestion, displayed significant reductions in postoperative excretions of faecal...

  6. The use of a metal detector to locate ingested metallic foreign bodies in children.

    Tidey, B; Price, G. J.; Perez-Avilla, C A; Kenney, I J

    1996-01-01

    OBJECTIVE: A pilot study to assess whether modern metal detectors can reduce unnecessary radiation in searching for ingested metallic foreign bodies. METHODS: Over a one year period, 20 children presenting to an accident and emergency department with suspected metallic foreign body ingestion were studied. Using an Adams Electronics AD15 metal detector, the radiographer recorded the location of metallic foreign bodies on a pictorial representation of neck, chest, and abdomen. The child then ha...

  7. Ingestion, inhalation, and dermal exposures to chloroform and trichloroethene from tap water.

    Weisel, C P; Jo, W K

    1996-01-01

    Individuals are exposed to volatile compounds present in tap water by ingestion, inhalation, and dermal absorption. Traditional risk assessments for water often only consider ingestion exposure to toxic chemicals, even though showering has been shown to increase the body burden of certain chemicals due to inhalation exposure and dermal absorption. We collected and analyzed time-series samples of expired alveolar breath to evaluate changes in concentrations of volatile organic compounds being ...

  8. Risk analysis reveals global hotspots for marine debris ingestion by sea turtles.

    Schuyler, Qamar A; Wilcox, Chris; Townsend, Kathy A; Wedemeyer-Strombel, Kathryn R; Balazs, George; van Sebille, Erik; Hardesty, Britta Denise

    2016-02-01

    Plastic marine debris pollution is rapidly becoming one of the critical environmental concerns facing wildlife in the 21st century. Here we present a risk analysis for plastic ingestion by sea turtles on a global scale. We combined global marine plastic distributions based on ocean drifter data with sea turtle habitat maps to predict exposure levels to plastic pollution. Empirical data from necropsies of deceased animals were then utilised to assess the consequence of exposure to plastics. We modelled the risk (probability of debris ingestion) by incorporating exposure to debris and consequence of exposure, and included life history stage, species of sea turtle and date of stranding observation as possible additional explanatory factors. Life history stage is the best predictor of debris ingestion, but the best-fit model also incorporates encounter rates within a limited distance from stranding location, marine debris predictions specific to the date of the stranding study and turtle species. There is no difference in ingestion rates between stranded turtles vs. those caught as bycatch from fishing activity, suggesting that stranded animals are not a biased representation of debris ingestion rates in the background population. Oceanic life-stage sea turtles are at the highest risk of debris ingestion, and olive ridley turtles are the most at-risk species. The regions of highest risk to global sea turtle populations are off of the east coasts of the USA, Australia and South Africa; the east Indian Ocean, and Southeast Asia. Model results can be used to predict the number of sea turtles globally at risk of debris ingestion. Based on currently available data, initial calculations indicate that up to 52% of sea turtles may have ingested debris. PMID:26365568

  9. Elevated levels of ingested plastic in a high Arctic seabird, the northern fulmar (Fulmarus glacialis)

    Trevail, A.M.; Gabrielsen, G. W.; Kuhn, S.; Franeker, van, J.A.

    2015-01-01

    Plastic pollution is of worldwide concern; however, increases in international commercial activity in the Arctic are occurring without the knowledge of the existing threat posed to the local marine environment by plastic litter. Here, we quantify plastic ingestion by northern fulmars, Fulmarus glacialis, from Svalbard, at the gateway to future shipping routes in the high Arctic. Plastic ingestion by Svalbard fulmars does not follow the established decreasing trend away from human marine impac...

  10. Micropinocytic ingestion of glycosylated albumin by isolated microvessels: possible role in pathogenesis of diabetic microangiopathy.

    Williams, S K; Devenny, J J; Bitensky, M W

    1981-01-01

    Microvessels isolated from rat epididymal fat exhibit differential vesicular ingestion rates for unmodified and non-enzymatically glycosylated rat albumin. While unmodified rat albumin is excluded from ingestion by endothelial micropinocytic vesicles, glycosylated albumin is avidly taken up by endocytosis. Interaction of albumin and glycosylated albumin with endothelium was studied with a double-label fluorescence assay of micropinocytosis. When glycosylated albumin was present at a concentra...

  11. Methomyl-Induced Severe Acute Pancreatitis: Possible Etiological Association

    Ioannides M

    2005-03-01

    Full Text Available CONTEXT: N-methyl carbamate insecticides are widely used in homes, gardens and agriculture. They share the capacity to inhibit cholinesterase enzymes with organophosphates and therefore share similar symptomatology during acute and chronic exposures. One of the serious effects of organophosphate and carbamate intoxication is the development of acute pancreatitis and subsequent intrapancreatic fluid formation. CASE REPORT: An 18-year old Caucasian man was admitted to our Intensive Care Unit with cholinergic crisis symptomatology, after the ingestion of an unknown amount of a carbamate insecticide (methomyl. Pseudocholinesterase levels were 2 kU/L on the day of admission (reference range: 5.4-13.2 kU/L. Two days after admission, an abdominal CT scan revealed blurring of the peripancreatic fat planes, inflammation and swelling of the pancreas, and a substantial amount of ascitic fluid in the left anterior pararenal space and pelvis. Paracentesis and analysis of the ascitic fluid demonstrated findings diagnostic of pancreatic ascites. There had been no other evident predisposing factors for acute pancreatitis, other than methomyl intoxication. Eleven days after admission, pseudocholinesterase levels returned to normal, while a new abdominal CT scan revealed the formation of intrapancreatic fluid collection. The patient was discharged in good physical condition two weeks after admission. A follow up abdominal CT scan performed one month later showed a significant reduction in the size of the intrapancreatic fluid. DISCUSSION: Acute pancreatitis is not uncommon after organophosphate intoxication and carbamates share the same risk as organophosphorus pesticides. The development of acute pancreatitis and subsequent intrapancreatic fluid collection after methomyl intoxication has not previously been reported. This is the first case reported of acute pancreatitis and pancreatic ascite formation after anticholinesterase insecticide ingestion.

  12. Effects of capsinoid ingestion on energy expenditure and lipid oxidation at rest and during exercise

    Staples Aaron W

    2010-08-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background The thermogenic and metabolic properties of capsinoids appear to mimic those of the more pungent sister compound capsaicin. However, few data exist on how capsinoid ingestion affects energy expenditure in humans and no data exist on its interaction with exercise. We aimed to determine how ingestion of capsinoids affected energy expenditure, lipid oxidation and blood metabolites at rest and during moderate intensity exercise. Methods Twelve healthy young men (age = 24.3 ± 3 yr, BMI = 25.5 ± 1.7 kg·m-2 were studied on two occasions in a double-blind design following ingestion of either placebo or 10 mg of purified capsinoids at rest, after 90 min of cycling at 55% VO2 peak, and for 30 min into recovery. Subjects ingested the capsules 30 min prior to exercise. Results At rest, following ingestion of capsinoids, we observed increases in VO2 and plasma norepinephrine levels, and decreases in concentrations of serum free fatty acids, plasma glycerol and the respiratory exchange ratio (all P Conclusion The ingestion of 10 mg of capsinoids increased adrenergic activity, energy expenditure, and resulted in a shift in substrate utilization toward lipid at rest but had little effect during exercise or recovery. The changes we observed confirm previous data on the thermogenic and metabolic effects of capsinoids at rest and further promote its potential role as an adjunct weight loss aid, in addition to diet and exercise.

  13. Toxicokinetics of paraquat in Korean patients with acute poisoning.

    Kim, Hak-Jae; Kim, Hyung-Ki; Lee, Hwayoung; Bae, Jun-Seok; Kown, Jun-Tack; Gil, Hyo-Wook; Hong, Sae-Yong

    2016-01-01

    To conduct a kinetic study of paraquat (PQ), we investigated 9 patients with acute PQ intoxication. All of them ingested more than 20 ml of undiluted PQ herbicide to commit suicide and arrived at our hospital early, not later than 7 h after PQ ingestion. The urine dithionite test for PQ in all of the nine patients was strongly positive at emergency room. Blood samples were obtained every 30 min for the first 2~3 h and then every 1 or 2 h, as long as the clinical progression was stable among the patients for 30 h after PQ ingestion. The area under the plasma concentration-time curve (AUCinf), which was extrapolated to infinity, was calculated using the trapezoidal rule. Toxicokinetic parameters, such as the terminal elimination half-life, apparent oral clearance, and apparent volume of distribution (Vd/F) were calculated. The maximum PQ concentration (Cmax) and the time to reach maximum PQ concentration (Tmax) were also obtained. Plasma PQ concentrations in nine patients were well described by a bi-exponential curve with a mean terminal elimination half-life of 13.1±6.8 h. Cmax and AUCinf were 20.8±25.7 mg/l and 172.5±160.3 h·mg/l, respectively. Apparent volume of distribution and apparent oral clearance were 50.9±61.3 l/kg and 173.4±111.2 l/h, respectively. There were a significant correlation (r =0.84; p<0.05) between the PQ amount ingested and Cmax. AUCinf also showed a significant correlation (r =0.83; p<0.05) with the PQ amount ingested. These correlations provide evidence that PQ has dose-linear toxicokinetic characteristics. PMID:26807021

  14. ACUTE PANCREATITIS - THE SEVERE FORM

    Ioana Grigoras

    2005-01-01

    Full Text Available Acute pancreatitis is an acute inflammatory disease. Frequently it is a challenging condition for the surgeon and for the intensive care physician, taking into account that etiology is sometimes obscure, the pathophysiology is complex and incompletely understood, the timing of surgical treatment is still under debate and the general treatment is mostly supportive. The incidence is about 30 – 50 / 100.000 / year. In 80% of cases the disease is associated with interstitial edema, mild infiltration with inflammatory cells and intra- or peripancreatic fat necrosis. Evolution is benign and self-limited with proper treatment. The severe form occurs less frequent (15 - 20%, results in long lasting hospitalization and is associated with high mortality (30 - 40%, due to infected necrosis and multiple organ failure. Alcoholism and biliary disease account for 80% of cases. Rare etiologies of disease include metabolic factors (hypercalcemia, hyperlipoproteinemia, drug ingestion, obstructive factors (abdominal tumors, trauma, endoscopic retrograde cholecistopancreatography, and s.o., infections (viral, parasitic and hemodynamic factors. Postoperative pancreatitis is a complication after major abdominal surgery (abdominal aorta aneurism repair, extensive upper abdominal surgery, hepatic or cardiac transplant, so.. The common pathophysiological mechanism is pancreatic hypoperfusion. Acute pancreatitis is not a stable disease, being characterized by time-dependent stages with specific morphologic and clinical patterns. The terminology used to designate these stages is stated in the Ulm classification. Since the consensus Conference in Atlanta (1992 the severe form of acute pancreatitis is defined by the presence of organ dysfunction/failure or by the presence of local complications. The initiating event is the premature zymogene activation and the impairment of the exocytosis process with local consequences (ongoing tissue necrosis and general consequences

  15. Memory Impairment following Acute Tricyclic Antidepressants Overdose

    Nastaran Eizadi-Mood

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Background. Psychiatric consultation is necessary for all patients with intentional poisoning and its reliability depends on the proper function of patients’ memory performance. This study aimed to determine the possible memory impairment following acute TCAs’ poisoning. Materials and Methods. In this cross-sectional study, patients with acute TCAs poisoning were allocated to two groups of severe poisoning (with coma, seizures, cardiac arrhythmias, hypotension, and a wide QRS complex and mild-to-moderate poisoning according to their clinical presentation at the time of hospital admission. All patients underwent memory performance test both immediately and 24 hours after their initial consciousness after admission, using Wechsler Memory Scale (WMS-IV. Results. During the study period, 67 TCA-poisoned patients (aged, 20–64 years were evaluated, of which 67.2% were female. The mean memory scores of patients immediately and 24 hours after the initial consciousness were 31.43±9.02 and 50.62±9.12, respectively (P<0.001. Twenty-four hours after the initial consciousness, memory score was statistically correlated with the amount of ingested drug and the intoxication severity. Conclusion. Following the recovery from somatic symptoms of acute TCA poisoning, patients may still suffer from memory impairment and it seems that this time is not suitable for performing a reliable psychiatric consultation.

  16. Acute abdomen

    The book first presents the anatomy and physiology of the abdomen and continues with chapters discussing clinical and laboratory aspects and a suitable order of diagnostic examinations with reference to the acute processes, explaining the diagnostic tools: ultrasonography, radiography including angiography and CT, tapping techniques and endoscopy together with their basic principles, examination techniques, and diagnosis. One chapter presents a complete survey of the processes involving the entire abdomen - as e.g. peritonitis, ileus, abdominal trauma, intraperitoneal hemorrage. This chapter profoundly discusses the diagnostics and therapies including emergency measures and surgery. Problems requiring consultation among varous specialists, in internal medicine, gynecology, urology, or pediatrics, are discussed in great detail. Information for the anesthetist is given for cases of emergency. More than one third of the book is devoted to organ-specific information, dicussing the pathogenesis, diagnostics, and therapy of the oesophagus, stomach, large and small intestine, bile ducts, pankreas, liver, spleen, and the abdominal vessels and the abdominal wall. (orig.) With 153 figs., 90 tabs

  17. Acute pancreatitis

    A prospective study was performed on the relationship of CT findings to the clinical course of 148 patients with acute pancreatitis. The type of pancreatic inflammation seen on CT was classified into six categories based on an overall assessment of size, contour and density of the gland, and peripancreatic abnormalities. The majority (94%) of patients in whom CT showed mild pancreatic changes (grades A, B and C) had two or less positive clinical indicaters of severe pancreatitis (Ranson's signs). In contrast, 92% of patients in whom CT showed more severe changes of pancreatitis (grades D, E or F) had three or more positive signs. The nine patients who died with pancreatitis-related complications were in grades D, E or F. We wish to draw attention to a CT appearance which we have called 'fat islets' (low density intrapancreatic or peripancreatic areas, the contents of which approach fat in attenuation values); there was a strong correlation between this appearance and subsequent infection. (author). 24 refs.; 7 figs.; 4 tabs

  18. Profile of acute mixed organophosphorus poisoning.

    Thunga, Girish; Sam, Kishore Gnana; Khera, Kanav; Xavier, Vidya; Verma, Murlidhar

    2009-06-01

    Organophosphorus (OP) pesticide self-poisoning is a major clinical and public health problem across much of rural Asia and responsible for two thirds of suicidal deaths. However, clinical reports or evidence for the management of mixed poisoning are lacking. Patients are often treated based on the type of symptoms they exhibit, and there are no specific guidelines available to treat mixed poisoning. In this case series, we report 3 acute OP poisoning cases with mixed poisons such as organochlorine, fungicide, copper sulfate, and kerosene. All 3 patients were treated successfully, with a greater focus on OP poisoning with pralidoxime and atropine infusion along with standard decontamination procedures. Because patients developed complications due to the concomitant poisons ingested, they were later treated symptomatically, and in one case, D-penicillamine was administered as antidote for copper poisoning. Mixed poisoning especially with OP compounds makes the diagnosis difficult because the clinical symptoms of OP predominate, whereas damage produced by other pesticides is late to develop and often neglected. Common treatment procedures are focused mainly on the OP poisoning ignoring the complications of other concomitant pesticides ingested. Treating physicians should be prepared and consider the possibility of mixed poisoning prevalent in that region before initiating therapy. PMID:19497478

  19. Controlled ingestion of kaolinite (5%) modulates enteric nitrergic innervation in rats.

    Voinot, Florian; Fischer, Caroline; Schmidt, Camille; Ehret-Sabatier, Laurence; Angel, Fabielle

    2014-08-01

    We have previously shown that kaolinite slowed down gastric emptying and intestinal transit and induced changes in enteric mechanical activities. As gastric emptying and intestinal transit have been shown to be regulated by nitric oxide (NO), the effect of an imposed ingestion of kaolinite on enteric nitrergic innervation was determined. Kaolinite has also been shown to increase plasmatic levels of leptin. Therefore, the responses of enteric neurons in the presence of leptin after kaolinite ingestion were determined, and a possible role of nitrergic neurons was evaluated in rats using organ bath technique. Our results showed that kaolinite modulates activities of enteric nerves at 14 days of ingestion. Exogenous l-NNA produced a decrease in nerve stimulation (NS)-induced relaxation in both jejunum and colon of control groups. At 14 days of kaolinite ingestion, this effect of l-NNA was significantly reduced only in the jejunum. Although l-NNA did not affect NS-induced contraction in jejunum and colon of control animals, it increased the amplitude of the NS-induced contraction in the colon of rats at 14 days of kaolinite ingestion. Leptin inhibitory effects on ENS in the jejunum were also altered at 14 days of ingestion. These differences were masked in the presence of l-NNA. Our data give evidence that changes in mechanical activities induced by kaolinite might be due to alterations in inhibitory (nitrergic and/or other) innervation at 14 days of kaolinite ingestion and to modifications of leptin effects on the responses to intramural nerve stimulation. PMID:23799940

  20. A STUDY OF CLINICAL, PATHOLOGICAL AND BIOCHEMICAL FINDINGS IN PATIENTS WHO ATTEMPTED SUICIDE BY HAIR DYE SUPERVASMOL 33 INGESTION

    Sudheer Babu

    2015-06-01

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND : All the patient in the study consumed the hair dye available in the market with the trade name Supervasmol 33. The prevalence of Super vasmol 33 hair dye poisoning has been on a surge for the past 2 - 3 years as has been observed by the increase in number of cases being admitted into the hospitals. It was observed that the tendency of poisoning by Super vasmol 33 hair dye was more in females than in males and was more in the age group of 15 - 35 years, as with any other poisoning. METERIALS AND METHODS: Study of Clinical, pathological and biochemical findings in patients who attempted suicide by hair dye ingestion (Supervasmol 3 who were admitted in Government General Hospital/Guntur medical college, Guntur during June 2013 to March 2015 brought to emergency department and those who were admitted into the HDU, ICU and medical wards of the hospital, after the following exclusion criteria were ruled out. RESULTS: A significant statistical correlation was found to exist between development of AKI and the levels of CPK in blood, rhabdomyolysis and hyperkalemia. The morbidity rates were 100% for angioedema, 58% for rhabdomyolysis and 32% for acute kidney injury (AKI. Institutional mortality rate was about 8% due to refractory hemodynamic shock. CONCLUSION: As the burden of handling Supervasmol 33 hair dye poisoning cases has been recently increasing, primary care physicians, intensive care physicians and nephrologists need to be aware of its clinical manifestation and management

  1. The use of nuclear related analytical techniques for the determination of ingestion and body content of trace elements

    A number of observations revealed that various human disease states are associated with measurable abnormalities of trace element levels. Until present there is no data on trace element levels in human tissues and dietary intake representing the population in Indonesia. Trace element level in various biological materials, especially human serum related to health syndrome (e.g. acute myocardial infarction and goiter prevalences) was performed by National Atomic Energy Agency in cooperation with relevant institutes. The present study is concerned with determination of ingestion and organ content of trace elements of importance in radiological protection (Cs, Sr, I, Th and U). Quantitation of the elements in the samples will be determined by neutron activation analysis, complemented by nuclear related analytical techniques, e.g. inductively coupled plasma - mass spectrometry and atomic absorption spectrometry. Samples to be analyzed consist of (a) total diets and individual staple foodstuffs, (b) autopsy specimens of liver, lung, kidney, muscle, thyroid and bone, and (c) drinking water. It seems difficult for us to define nationally representative specimens of total diets and individual staple foodstuffs. Based on these facts, in the first year activity samples of dietary intake from various socio economic levels of population in West Java will be collected. Human tissue sample is obtained from autopsy of normal persons who are killed in traffic accident or homicide victim. Traces of Th and U in drinking water are determined by neutron activation analysis following preconcentration of these elements in chelating resin Chlelex 100. (author)

  2. Early maternal death due to acute encephalitis

    M Vidanapathirana

    2014-03-01

    Full Text Available Maternal death in an unmarried woman poses a medico-legal challenge. A 24-year-old unmarried schoolteacher, residing at a boarding place, had been admitted to hospital in a state of cardiac arrest. At the autopsy, mild to moderate congestion of subarachnoid vessels and oedema of the brain was noted. An un-interfered foetus of 15 weeks with an intact sac and placental tissues were seen. Genital tract injuries were not present. Histopathological examination showed diffuse perivascular cuffing by mononuclear cells suggestive of viral encephalitis, considering the circumstances of death and the social stigma of pregnancy in this unmarried teacher, the possibility of attempted suicide by ingestion of a poison was considered. Abrus precatorius (olinda seeds commonly found in the area is known to produce acute encephalitis as well as haemorrhagic gastroenteritis and pulmonary congestion was also considered as a possible cause for this unusual presentation

  3. Potentiation of the bioavailability of blueberry phenolic compounds by co-ingested grape phenolic compounds in mice, revealed by targeted metabolomic profiling in plasma and feces.

    Dudonné, Stéphanie; Dal-Pan, Alexandre; Dubé, Pascal; Varin, Thibault V; Calon, Frédéric; Desjardins, Yves

    2016-08-10

    The low bioavailability of dietary phenolic compounds, resulting from poor absorption and high rates of metabolism and excretion, is a concern as it can limit their potential beneficial effects on health. Targeted metabolomic profiling in plasma and feces of mice supplemented for 15 days with a blueberry extract, a grape extract or their combination revealed significantly increased plasma concentrations (3-5 fold) of blueberry phenolic metabolites in the presence of a co-ingested grape extract, associated with an equivalent decrease in their appearance in feces. Additionally, the repeated daily administration of the blueberry-grape combination significantly increased plasma phenolic concentrations (2-3-fold) compared to animals receiving only a single acute dose, with no such increase being observed with individual extracts. These findings highlight a positive interaction between blueberry and grape constituents, in which the grape extract enhanced the absorption of blueberry phenolic compounds. This study provides for the first time in vivo evidence of such an interaction occurring between co-ingested phenolic compounds from fruit extracts leading to their improved bioavailability. PMID:27443888

  4. An analysis of ingestion doses from a range of postulated Magnox reactor releases

    An analysis has been carried out of ingestion doses from a range of postulated Magnox reactor releases to atmosphere. Calculations were made of the dose to the adult, ten year old child and one year old child, which showed the one year old child to receive the highest dose. Detailed studies were made of the significance of the ingestion dose to the one year old child in relation to other exposure routes. The ingestion dose was also analysed in terms of the contributing critical organs, foods and nuclides. Approximate calculations were also made of the dependence of the ingestion dose on the time of year when the release occurs. The results of the analysis were used to derive a set of release-specific Emergency Action Guidance Levels (EAGLs) of critical nuclide concentrations in the critical foods, which comply with NRPB's ingestion ERL recommendations. The EAGLs were supplemented with a corresponding set of EAGLs for grass, for use in situations where crop samples were not readily available. (author)

  5. Agile based "Semi-"Automated Data ingest process : ORNL DAAC example

    Santhana Vannan, S. K.; Beaty, T.; Cook, R. B.; Devarakonda, R.; Hook, L.; Wei, Y.; Wright, D.

    2015-12-01

    The ORNL DAAC archives and publishes data and information relevant to biogeochemical, ecological, and environmental processes. The data archived at the ORNL DAAC must be well formatted, self-descriptive, and documented, as well as referenced in a peer-reviewed publication. The ORNL DAAC ingest team curates diverse data sets from multiple data providers simultaneously. To streamline the ingest process, the data set submission process at the ORNL DAAC has been recently updated to use an agile process and a semi-automated workflow system has been developed to provide a consistent data provider experience and to create a uniform data product. The goals of semi-automated agile ingest process are to: 1.Provide the ability to track a data set from acceptance to publication 2. Automate steps that can be automated to improve efficiencies and reduce redundancy 3.Update legacy ingest infrastructure 4.Provide a centralized system to manage the various aspects of ingest. This talk will cover the agile methodology, workflow, and tools developed through this system.

  6. Ingestion of Rhus chicken causing systemic contact dermatitis in a Korean patient.

    Yoo, K H; Seo, S J; Li, K; Hong, C K

    2010-10-01

    Rhus chicken is a common traditional remedy used to cure gastrointestinal diseases and as a health food in Korea. Unfortunately, systemic contact dermatitis (SCD) due to the ingestion of Rhus occasionally occurs. In this study, the clinical and laboratory findings were reviewed and analysed for 30 Korean patients with SCD developing after ingestion of Rhus chicken. Summer was found to be the commonest period for hospital visits because of this condition. The mean period of incubation for SCD, was 4 ± 1.5 days. The commonest skin features were generalized maculopapular eruptions. Of the 30 patients, 10 had a known history of allergy to Rhus chicken. Many of the patients developed neutrophilia and leucocytosis. All the patients responded well to standard treatments. The commonest reason for their ingestion of Rhus chicken was indigestion. We conclude that SCD often occurs in Koreans after ingestion of Rhus chicken. Patients should be educated about the harmful effects of Rhus chicken and advised not to ingest it. PMID:20456389

  7. Effect of culinary preparation and food processing on the amount of activity ingested by an individual

    The amount of activity actually ingested by an individual is the sum of the quantities of food consumed multiplied by their activity. As regards the quantities ingested, figures are available only for the gross quantities which enter households. - as regards radioactivity, consideration is generally given exclusively to the levels of activity calculated or measured when the produce is obtained. At the practical level, certain parameters governing a decrease in quantity or activity apply and make it possible to obtain a more accurate estimate of the activity ingested. In this exposition, values taken from the literature or calculated or estimated, are presented and compared in order to illustrate the relative importance of the different activities listed and defined. In addition, detailed figures on the whole food chain will be presented together with the study of the sensitivity of the results with respect to the main parameters. The chain comprises: - contamination of the air, water and ground vectors; - transfer of radionuclides between the above vectors and the plants; - concentration of the radionuclide in the foodstuffs; - actions leading to real ingestion of the radionuclide; - doses resulting from ingestion

  8. The biological impacts of ingested radioactive materials on the pale grass blue butterfly

    Nohara, Chiyo; Hiyama, Atsuki; Taira, Wataru; Tanahara, Akira; Otaki, Joji M.

    2014-05-01

    A massive amount of radioactive materials has been released into the environment by the Fukushima Dai-ichi Nuclear Power Plant accident, but its biological impacts have rarely been examined. Here, we have quantitatively evaluated the relationship between the dose of ingested radioactive cesium and mortality and abnormality rates using the pale grass blue butterfly, Zizeeria maha. When larvae from Okinawa, which is likely the least polluted locality in Japan, were fed leaves collected from polluted localities, mortality and abnormality rates increased sharply at low doses in response to the ingested cesium dose. This dose-response relationship was best fitted by power function models, which indicated that the half lethal and abnormal doses were 1.9 and 0.76 Bq per larva, corresponding to 54,000 and 22,000 Bq per kilogram body weight, respectively. Both the retention of radioactive cesium in a pupa relative to the ingested dose throughout the larval stage and the accumulation of radioactive cesium in a pupa relative to the activity concentration in a diet were highest at the lowest level of cesium ingested. We conclude that the risk of ingesting a polluted diet is realistic, at least for this butterfly, and likely for certain other organisms living in the polluted area.

  9. Effect of Nordic diets on ECOSYS model predictions of ingestion doses

    The ECOSYS model is used to estimate ingestion dose in the ARGOS and RODOS decision support systems for nuclear emergency management. It is recommended that nation-specific values for several parameters are used in the model. However, this is generally overlooked when the systems are used in practice. We have estimated first year ingestion doses in two scenarios with wet and dry deposition of 137Cs, using the ECOSYS model. We calculated doses for each country using national dietary data while keeping all other parameters at their default values. These dose calculations were then used to estimate the variation in ingestion doses resulting from the variation in the diets only. The dietary data demonstrated that the average consumption of milk, meat and vegetables varied by a factor of 2-4 among the Nordic countries. For both scenarios, the ingestion doses varied by a factor of about 2, among the countries. For all countries, the model predictions were most sensitive to changes in milk, beef and wheat consumption. The results demonstrate that recent and reliable dietary data are required to reliably estimate ingestion doses. (authors)

  10. Plastic ingestion by sea turtles in Paraíba State, Northeast Brazil

    Camila Poli

    2015-09-01

    Full Text Available ABSTRACT Currently, plastics are recognized as a major pollutant of the marine environment, representing a serious threat to ocean wildlife. Here, we examined the occurrence and effects of plastic ingestion by sea turtles found stranded along the coast of Paraíba State, Brazil from August 2009 to July 2010. Ninety-eight digestive tracts were examined, with plastic found in 20 (20.4%. Sixty five percent (n = 13 of turtles with plastic in the digestive tract were green turtles (Chelonia mydas, 25% (n = 5 were hawksbills (Eretmochelys imbricata, and 10% (n = 2 were olive ridley (Lepidochelys olivacea. More plastic was found in the intestine (85% than in other parts of the gastrointestinal tract. We observed complete blockage of the gastrointestinal tract due to the presence of plastic in 13 of the 20 turtles that had ingested plastic. No correlation was found between the curved carapace length (CCL and the number or mass of the plastic ingested items. Significant differences were found between the intake of hard and soft plastic and the ingestion of white/transparent and colored plastic, with soft and white/transparent plastics being more commonly ingested. This study reveals the serious problem of plastic pollution to sea turtles at the area.

  11. The effect of carbohydrate ingestion on the motor skill proficiency of soccer players.

    Zeederberg, C; Leach, L; Lambert, E V; Noakes, T D; Dennis, S C; Hawley, J A

    1996-12-01

    This study examined the effects of ingesting a glucose-polymer (GP) solution on the motor skill proficiencies of association football (soccer) players from two teams playing during two matches in a cool environment. Fifteen minutes before each match and at halftime, players from both teams ingested 5 ml/kg of either placebo or a 6.9% GP solution. GP ingestion did not improve tackling, heading, dribbling, or shooting ability. On the contrary, the mean of successful tackles was lower with GP ingestion than with placebo. The success rate for heading, dribbling, and shooting also tended to be lower in the GP than in the placebo condition. In contrast, success in passing and ball control was similar in the two conditions. Improvements in passing and ball control may have been related to a decrease in the intensity of play in the second half of the game. These data indicate that there are no measurable benefits of GP ingestion for the motor skill proficiencies of soccer players during games played in a cool environment. PMID:8953337

  12. Acute chylous peritonitis due to acute pancreatitis

    2012-01-01

    We report a case of acute chylous ascites formation presenting as peritonitis (acute chylous peritonitis) in a patient suffering from acute pancreatitis due to hypertriglyceridemia and alcohol abuse. The development of chylous ascites is usually a chronic process mostly involving malignancy, trauma or surgery, and symptoms arise as a result of progressive abdominal distention. However, when accumulation of “chyle” occurs rapidly, the patient may present with signs of peritonitis. Preoperative...

  13. ACUTE TOXOPLASMOSIS IN A BREASTFED INFANT WITH POSSIBLE TRANSMISSION BY WATER.

    Capobiango, Jaqueline Dario; Mitsuka-Breganó, Regina; Monica, Thais Cabral; Ferreira, Fernanda Pinto; Reiche, Edna Maria Vissoci

    2015-12-01

    Toxoplasma gondii transmission via breastfeeding has been discussed; however, no cases have been confirmed to date. This article describes a case of acute toxoplasmosis diagnosed in a mother and her six-month-old breastfed infant. The study accounts for the possibility of breast milk transmission and directs both clinicians and pediatricians to the hypothesis that both patients acquired toxoplasmosis via water ingestion. PMID:27049709

  14. ACUTE TOXOPLASMOSIS IN A BREASTFED INFANT WITH POSSIBLE TRANSMISSION BY WATER

    Jaqueline Dario CAPOBIANGO

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available Toxoplasma gondii transmission via breastfeeding has been discussed; however, no cases have been confirmed to date. This article describes a case of acute toxoplasmosis diagnosed in a mother and her six-month-old breastfed infant. The study accounts for the possibility of breast milk transmission and directs both clinicians and pediatricians to the hypothesis that both patients acquired toxoplasmosis via water ingestion.

  15. Abnormal pancreatic enzymes and their prognostic role after acute paraquat poisoning

    Yi Li; Meng Wang; Yanxia Gao; Wen Yang; Qun Xu; Michael Eddleston; Li Li; Xuezhong Yu

    2015-01-01

    Ingestion of paraquat causes multi-organ failure. Prognosis is best estimated through measurement of blood paraquat concentrations but this facility is not available in most hospitals. We studied the prognostic significance of abnormal pancreatic enzymes for survival. Patients with acute paraquat poisoning were recruited. An extensive series of blood tests including serum amylase were serially checked. Patients were sorted according to their serum amylase activity (normal [660 U/L]), and surv...

  16. Acute hepatitis induced by an Aloe vera preparation: A case report

    Christian Rabe; Annemarie Musch; Peter Schirmacher; Wolfgang Kruis; Robert Hoffmann

    2005-01-01

    AIM: Aloe vera, plant extracts of Aloe barbadensis miller,is widely used in phytomedicine. The first case of acute hepatitis due to this compound was described.METHODS: Description of a clinical case.RESULTS: Hepatitis in a 57-year old female could be linked to the ingestion of Aloe barbadensis miller compounds. The patient's hepatitis resolved completely after discontinuing this medication.CONCLUSION: The case emphasizes the importance of considering phytopharmaceutical over-the-counter drugs as causative agents of hepatitis.

  17. Fístula esôfago-traqueal após ingestão cáustica Tracheoesophageal fistula after caustic ingestion

    Eduardo Crema; Marcelo Cunha Fatureto; Marcel Noronha Gonzaga; Ricardo Pastore; Alex Augusto da Silva

    2007-01-01

    As fístulas esôfago-traqueais são incomuns e apresentam diversas etiologias, entre elas, a queimadura química esofágica devida à ingestão cáustica. Relatamos o caso de um paciente de 27 anos com história de ingestão cáustica havia catorze dias, com dor retroesternal em queimação, fraqueza, tosse com escarro purulento e dispnéia associada à rouquidão no último dia. A endoscopia digestiva alta e a broncofibroscopia revelaram fístula esôfago-traqueal. O tratamento consistiu no suporte clínico, d...

  18. The availability of soil-associated radionuclides for uptake after inadvertent ingestion by humans

    Assessments of the radiological impact of radionuclides released into the environment generally take into account the inadvertent ingestion of radionuclides associated with soil or sediment. Such assessments often assume that gut uptake factors for radionuclides that are biologically incorporated in food are also applicable when the ingested activity is associated with soil. Studies of the availability of soil-associated radionuclides after ingestion have been mainly conducted on ruminant animals and few data exist for humans. The digestive tract of ruminants is totally different from that of a mono-gastric animal and so the availability estimated from the animal studies may not be valid in the case of man. A simple in-vitro enzymolysis procedure was therefore developed to simulate human digestion closely. The measured availability of 137Cs, 241Am, 239PU and 90Sr associated with loam, sand and peat soils was about 3%, 3%, 10% and 50% respectively. (author)

  19. Deliberate ingestion of foreign bodies by institutionalised psychiatric hospital patients and prison inmates.

    O'Sullivan, S T

    2012-02-03

    Deliberate and recurrent foreign body ingestion is a common problem among institutionalised patients. We review our experience with 36 cases of deliberate foreign body ingestion by prisoners or psychiatric patients, thirty of whom were institutionalised at the time of ingestion. Symptoms were frequently severe in the prison inmate group but, in contrast, psychiatric patients presented with few, if any, symptoms. A majority of objects pass spontaneously or remain in situ without complication. Twenty-four patients were discharged following initial evaluation and without specific treatment. Eight of these were reviewed electively and discharged within one week. Twelve patients were admitted for observation, seven of whom were discharged within 48 hrs. Upper gastrointestinal endoscopy was performed in four patients and an intragastric foreign body identified in two cases. Laparotomy was performed in two cases for unresolving mechanical intestinal obstruction. Management should be conservative when possible, with surgery indicated only for complications.

  20. Monitoring the ingestion of anti-tuberculosis drugs by simple non-invasive methods.

    Sirgel, F A; Maritz, J S; Venter, A; Langdon, G; Smith, P J; Donald, P R

    2006-01-13

    This investigation retrospectively assessed inexpensive non-invasive qualitative methods to monitor the ingestion of anti-tuberculosis drugs isoniazid, rifampicin and rifapentine. Results showed that commercial test strips detected the isoniazid metabolites isonicotinic acid and isonicotinylglycine as efficiently as the isonicotinic acid method in 150 urine samples. The presence of rifamycins in urine samples (n=1085) was detected by microbiological assay techniques and the sensitivity compared to the n-butanol extraction colour test in 91 of these specimens. The proportions detected by the two methods were significantly different and the sensitivity of the n-butanol procedure was only 63.8% (95% CL 51.2-76.4%) as compared to that of the superior microbiological method. Final validation (n=691) showed that qualitative assays measure isoniazid and rifamycin ingestion with an efficiency similar to high-performance liquid chromatography. The qualitative procedures may therefore be valuable in clinical trials and in tuberculosis clinics to confirm drug ingestion. PMID:16303269

  1. Impacts of plastic ingestion on post-hatchling loggerhead turtles off South Africa.

    Ryan, Peter G; Cole, Georgina; Spiby, Kevin; Nel, Ronel; Osborne, Alexis; Perold, Vonica

    2016-06-15

    Twenty-four of 40 (60%) loggerhead turtle Caretta caretta post-hatchlings (carapace<9cm) that died within 2months of stranding on southern Cape beaches in April 2015 contained ingested anthropogenic debris. Plastic comprised of 99% of debris: 77% hard plastic fragments, 10% flexible packaging and 8% fibres; industrial pellets comprised only 3%, compared to ~70% in 1968-1973, when 12% of stranded post-hatchlings contained plastics. Turtles selected for white (38%) and blue (19%) items, but translucent items (23%) were under-represented compared to beach mesodebris. Ingested loads did not decrease up to 52days in captivity, indicating long retention times. Plastic killed 11 turtles by blocking their digestive tracts or bladders, and contributed to the deaths of five other turtles. Our results indicate that the amount and diversity of plastic ingested by post-hatchling loggerhead turtles off South Africa have increased over the last four decades, and now kill some turtles. PMID:27087353

  2. Intraspecific Variation in Maximum Ingested Food Size and Body Mass in Varecia rubra and Propithecus coquereli

    Adam Hartstone-Rose

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available In a recent study, we quantified the scaling of ingested food size (Vb—the maximum size at which an animal consistently ingests food whole—and found that Vb scaled isometrically between species of captive strepsirrhines. The current study examines the relationship between Vb and body size within species with a focus on the frugivorous Varecia rubra and the folivorous Propithecus coquereli. We found no overlap in Vb between the species (all V. rubra ingested larger pieces of food relative to those eaten by P. coquereli, and least-squares regression of Vb and three different measures of body mass showed no scaling relationship within each species. We believe that this lack of relationship results from the relatively narrow intraspecific body size variation and seemingly patternless individual variation in Vb within species and take this study as further evidence that general scaling questions are best examined interspecifically rather than intraspecifically.

  3. Genetic and hematopoietic effects of long-term tritiated water (HTO) ingestion in mice

    The positive effects seen using the somewhat insensitive dominant lethal test system and the effects seen on the blood-forming cells indicates that at least in the mouse there is a hazard in the continuous ingestion of HTO at a concentration of 3 μCCi/ml. A direct comparison of these results to the human drinking an equivalent amount of HTO is impossible due to the obvious differences in water metabolism between the two species. Until further experimentation at lower levels of ingestion are completed, it is difficult to comment concerning the significance of these results as related to current concepts of maximum permissible concentration. Studies are now underway examining the possible effects of lower concentrations of chronic HTO ingestion

  4. Marine debris ingestion by sea turtles (Testudines) on the Brazilian coast: an underestimated threat?

    de Carvalho, Robson Henrique; Lacerda, Pedro Dutra; da Silva Mendes, Sarah; Barbosa, Bruno Corrêa; Paschoalini, Mariana; Prezoto, Fabio; de Sousa, Bernadete Maria

    2015-12-30

    Assessment of marine debris ingestion by sea turtles is important, especially to ensure their survival. From January to December 2011, 23 specimens of five species of sea turtles were found dead or dying after being rehabilitated, along the coast of the municipality of Rio de Janeiro, Brazil. To detect the presence of marine debris in the digestive tract of these turtles, we conducted a postmortem examination from the esophagus until the distal portion of the large intestine for each specimen. Of the total number of turtles, 39% had ingested marine debris such as soft plastic, hard plastic, metal, polyethylene terephthalate (PET) bottle caps, human hair, tampons, and latex condoms. Five of the seven sea turtles species are found along the Brazilian coast, where they feed and breed. A large number of animals are exposed to various kinds of threats, including debris ingestion. PMID:26454630

  5. Úlcera gástrica terebrante e pancreatite aguda provocadas por tricobezoar Gastric ulcer and acute pancreatitis caused by trichobezoar

    Alvaro Queiroz de Godoy

    2004-02-01

    Full Text Available Bezoar is a foreing body whitin the digestive tract originated from ingestion of varied substances, mainly vegetal fiber or hair. We present a case of a 14-year-old girl with trichotillomania, gastric trichobezoar, gastric ulcer and acute pancreatitis. The patient was operated on for anterior gastrotomy and removal of trichobezoar, with good postoperative follow-up. We illustrate this case to emphasize the need for recognition of gastric ulcer with acute pancreatitis and surgical management.

  6. Patient with hepatocellular carcinoma related to prior acute arsenic intoxication and occult HBV: epidemiological, clinical and therapeutic results after 14 years of follow-up

    Casanovas-Taltavull, Teresa; Ribes, Josepa; Berrozpe, Ana; Jordan, Sara; Casanova, Aurora; Sancho, Concha; Valls, Carles; Bosch, F. Xavier

    2006-01-01

    Little is known about the long-term survivors of acute arsenic intoxication. We present here a clinical case report of a man with chronic hepatitis B virus (HBV) infection who developed hepatocellular carcinoma four years after acute arsenic poisoning. HBsAg was detected in serum in 1990 when he voluntarily donated blood. In 1991, the patient suffered from severe psychological depression that led him to attempt suicide by massive ingestion of an arsenic-containing rodenticide. He survived wit...

  7. Fístula esôfago-traqueal após ingestão cáustica Tracheoesophageal fistula after caustic ingestion

    Eduardo Crema

    2007-02-01

    Full Text Available As fístulas esôfago-traqueais são incomuns e apresentam diversas etiologias, entre elas, a queimadura química esofágica devida à ingestão cáustica. Relatamos o caso de um paciente de 27 anos com história de ingestão cáustica havia catorze dias, com dor retroesternal em queimação, fraqueza, tosse com escarro purulento e dispnéia associada à rouquidão no último dia. A endoscopia digestiva alta e a broncofibroscopia revelaram fístula esôfago-traqueal. O tratamento consistiu no suporte clínico, drenagem torácica bilateral, exclusão do transito esofágico com esofagostomia cervical terminal e gastrostomia. Houve cicatrização espontânea da fístula esôfago traqueal em seis semanas. Posteriormente, realizou-se a reconstrução do trânsito alimentar através de faringocoloplastia. A evolução pós-operatória foi satisfatória.Tracheoesophageal fistulas are uncommon and present diverse etiologies, among which is burning of the esophagus due to caustic ingestion. Herein, we report the case of a 27-year-old male patient having ingested a caustic substance 14 days prior and presenting burning retrosternal pain, weakness, productive cough with purulent sputum and dyspnea accompanied by hoarseness for the preceding 24 h. Endoscopy of the upper digestive tract revealed a tracheoesophageal fistula. Treatment consisted of cervical exclusion of the esophageal transit, together with gastrostomy. Subsequently, the nutrient transit was reconstructed through pharyngocoloplasty. The postoperative evolution was favorable.

  8. High endogenous salivary amylase activity is associated with improved glycemic homeostasis following starch ingestion in adults.

    Mandel, Abigail L; Breslin, Paul A S

    2012-05-01

    In the current study, we determined whether increased digestion of starch by high salivary amylase concentrations predicted postprandial blood glucose following starch ingestion. Healthy, nonobese individuals were prescreened for salivary amylase activity and classified as high (HA) or low amylase (LA) if their activity levels per minute fell 1 SD higher or lower than the group mean, respectively. Fasting HA (n = 7) and LA (n = 7) individuals participated in 2 sessions during which they ingested either a starch (experimental) or glucose solution (control) on separate days. Blood samples were collected before, during, and after the participants drank each solution. The samples were analyzed for plasma glucose and insulin concentrations as well as diploid AMY1 gene copy number. HA individuals had significantly more AMY1 gene copies within their genomes than did the LA individuals. We found that following starch ingestion, HA individuals had significantly lower postprandial blood glucose concentrations at 45, 60, and 75 min, as well as significantly lower AUC and peak blood glucose concentrations than the LA individuals. Plasma insulin concentrations in the HA group were significantly higher than baseline early in the testing session, whereas insulin concentrations in the LA group did not increase at this time. Following ingestion of the glucose solution, however, blood glucose and insulin concentrations did not differ between the groups. These observations are interpreted to suggest that HA individuals may be better adapted to ingest starches, whereas LA individuals may be at greater risk for insulin resistance and diabetes if chronically ingesting starch-rich diets. PMID:22492122

  9. Systemic effects of Leucaena leucocephala ingestion on ringtailed lemurs (Lemur catta) at Berenty Reserve, Madagascar.

    Crawford, Graham; Puschner, Birgit; Affolter, Verena; Stalis, Ilse; Davidson, Autumn; Baker, Tomas; Tahara, John; Jolly, Alison; Ostapak, Susan

    2015-06-01

    Leucaena (Leucaena leucocephala) is a leguminous tree that is nutritious forage for domestic livestock when ingested in limited amounts. Unfortunately, leucaena contains mimosine, a plant amino acid, that can be toxic when ingested at higher concentrations. Reported toxic effects include alopecia (fur loss), poor body condition, infertility, low birth weight, thyroid gland dysfunction, and organ toxicity. Originally native to Mexico and Central America, leucaena has been introduced throughout the tropics, including Berenty Reserve, Madagascar where it was planted as supplemental browse for livestock. In Berenty, a seasonal syndrome of alopecia in ringtailed lemurs (Lemur catta) is associated with eating leucaena. Although much is known about the toxic effects of leucaena and mimosine on domestic animals and humans, the systemic effects on wildlife had not been studied. In a comparison of lemurs that include leucaena in their diet and those that do not, we found that animals that ingest leucaena absorb mimosine but that ingestion does not affect body condition, cause kidney or liver toxicity, or affect the intestinal tract. Alopecia is due to mimosine's interference of the hair follicle cycle. Leucaena ingestion is associated with higher serum albumin, α-tocopherol, and thyroxine concentrations, suggesting that leucaena may provide some nutritional benefit and that lemurs can detoxify and convert mimosine to a thyroid stimulating metabolite. The primary conservation consequence of leucaena ingestion at Berenty may be increased infant mortality due to the infants' inability cling to their alopecic mothers. The widespread introduction of leucaena throughout the tropics and its rapid spread in secondary forest conditions mean that many other leaf-eating mammals may be including this tree in their diet. Thus, exposure to leucaena should be considered when wildlife health is being evaluated, and the potential effects on wildlife health should be considered when

  10. Ingested Type I Interferon—State of the Art as Treatment for Autoimmunity Part 2

    Staley A. Brod

    2010-04-01

    Full Text Available We have proposed a unifying hypothesis of the etiopathogenesis of autoimmunity that defines autoimmunity as a type I interferon (IFN immunodeficiency syndrome. We have examined toxicity and potential efficacy in two phase I (type 1 diabetes [T1D], multiple sclerosis [MS] and phase II clinical trials in T1D and MS. In a phase I open label trial in T1D, ingested IFN-alpha preserved residual beta-cell function in recent onset patients. In a second phase I trial in MS, there was a significant decrease in peripheral blood mononuclear cell IL-2 and IFN-gamma production after ingesting IFN-alpha. In a phase II randomized, placebo-controlled, double-blind trial in MS, 10,000 IU ingested IFN-alpha significantly decreased gadolinium enhancements compared to the placebo group at month 5. TNF-alpha and IFN-gamma cytokine secretion in the 10,000 IU group at month 5 showed a significant decrease that corresponded with the effect of ingested IFN-alpha on decreasing gadolinium enhancements. In a phase II randomized, placebo-controlled, double-blind trial in T1D, patients in the 5,000 unit hrIFN-alpha treatment group maintained more beta-cell function one year after study enrollment compared to individuals in the placebo group. Ingested IFN-alpha was not toxic in these clinical trials. These studies suggest that ingested IFN-alpha may have a potential role in the treatment of autoimmunity.

  11. Nutritional demands in acute and chronic illness.

    Richardson, Rosemary A; Davidson, H Isobel M

    2003-11-01

    Common to both acute and chronic disease are disturbances in energy homeostasis, which are evidenced by quantitative and qualitative changes in dietary intake and increased energy expenditure. Negative energy balance results in loss of fat and lean tissue. The management of patients with metabolically-active disease appears to be simple; it would involve the provision of sufficient energy to promote tissue accretion. However, two fundamental issues serve to prevent nutritional demands in disease being met. The determination of appropriate energy requirements relies on predictive formulae. While equations have been developed for critically-ill populations, accurate energy prescribing in the acute setting is uncommon. Only 25-32% of the patients have energy intakes within 10% of their requirements. Clearly, the variation in energy expenditure has led to difficulties in accurately defining the energy needs of the individual. Second, the acute inflammatory response initiated by the host can have profound effects on ingestive behaviour, but this area is poorly understood by practising clinicians. For example, nutritional targets have been set for specific disease states, i.e. pancreatitis 105-147 kJ (25-35 kcal)/kg; chronic liver disease 147-168 kJ (35-40 kcal)/kg, but given the alterations in gut physiology that accompany the acute-phase response, targets are unlikely to be met. In cancer cachexia attenuation of the inflammatory response using eicosapentaenoic acid results in improved nutritional intake and status. This strategy poses an attractive proposition in the quest to define nutritional support as a clinically-effective treatment modality in other disorders. PMID:15018475

  12. Effects of Whey, Caseinate, or Milk Protein Ingestion on Muscle Protein Synthesis after Exercise

    Atsushi Kanda; Kyosuke Nakayama; Chiaki Sanbongi; Masashi Nagata; Shuji Ikegami; Hiroyuki Itoh

    2016-01-01

    Whey protein (WP) is characterized as a “fast” protein and caseinate (CA) as a “slow” protein according to their digestion and absorption rates. We hypothesized that co-ingestion of milk proteins (WP and CA) may be effective for prolonging the muscle protein synthesis response compared to either protein alone. We therefore compared the effect of ingesting milk protein (MP) to either WP or CA alone on muscle protein synthesis after exercise in rats. We also compared the effects of these milk-d...

  13. Estimating baseline risks from biouptake and food ingestion at a contaminated site

    Biouptake of contaminants and subsequent human exposure via food ingestion represents a public concern at many contaminated sites. Site-specific measurements from plant and animal studies are usually quite limited, so this exposure pathway is often modeled to assess the potential for adverse health effects. A modeling tool was applied to evaluate baseline risks at a contaminated site in Missouri, and the results were used to confirm that ingestion of fish and game animals from the site area do not pose a human health threat. Results were also used to support the development of cleanup criteria for site soil

  14. Foreign body ingestion in Iranian children: a 4 years observational study

    S. Amini-Ranjbar

    2012-12-01

    Full Text Available Objective – Foreign body ingestion is common in children due to playing with everything. This study was done to identify type, site, and complication, as well as knowledge about the state of foreign body ingestion in children in Kerman/Iran. Methods – In this prospective study, during 4 years, 85 children less than 14 years old presented to the Emergency Department of Afzalipour Hospital in Kerman were studied. All children, regardless of their clinical symptoms, underwent total radiography (from neck to Pelvic within the first hour of admission. In symptomatic patients, or sharp, long objects, and narcotic substances ingestion, prompt endoscopy was performed and in the case of foreign body lodging in the subglottic area, the patient was being referred to an ear, nose and throat specialist. For asymptomatic patients or far-access foreign body; lactulose, polyethylene glycol solution and high-fiber substances (for ingestion of diskette batteries, heroine and sharp objects respectively were administered as medical treatments. Asymptomatic subjects who had ingested sharp objects or narcotic substances were hospitalized and observed, but other cases were followed out patiently (by phone call or face to face observation. Results – Mean age of subjects was 3.7 years with no significant difference between the two sexes. Mean age was 3.7 year. The most frequent ingested foreign body was diskette battery (28.2% followed by coin (21.2%. The majority of subjects had no symptom (67%. the most frequent endoscopic location (21.8% was subglot. Most complications occurred after battery ingestion. Endoscopic intervention was required in 31.8% that mostly in cases with ingestion of organic substances (77.8% and coin (61.1%. There was a significant relationship between age and the type of foreign body (p=0.033 and its location (p= 0.012. Medical treatment was completely successful in 68.2%. There was no mortality. Conclusion – Manufacturing clockwork toys

  15. Carboxy-THC in Washed Hair: Still the Reliable Indicator of Marijuana Ingestion.

    Hill, Virginia A; Schaffer, Michael I; Stowe, G Neil

    2016-06-01

    The presence of the metabolite 11-nor-9-carboxy-delta-9-tetrahydrocannabinol (C-THC) in hair is generally accepted as the definitive proof of delta-9-tetrahydrocannabinol (THC) ingestion. During hair analysis, the removal of any potential C-THC external contamination that could result from marijuana smoke or close personal contact via a wash procedure is critical. Here, we performed a series of experiments to demonstrate that C-THC is the reliable indicator of marijuana ingestion when paired with the correct washing procedure to remove potential external contamination. PMID:27185816

  16. Laryngeal impaction of an archwire segment after accidental ingestion during orthodontic adjustment.

    Umesan, Uday Kumar; Ahmad, Wizziyiane; Balakrishnan, Priya

    2012-08-01

    Orthodontic archwires or fractured appliances that are accidentally swallowed can become lodged in the airway or gastrointestinal tract. Inadvertent ingestion or aspiration of an appliance or archwire piece during orthodontic appliance adjustment is a medical emergency with potentially serious complications, including possible death from asphyxiation. This article reports the accidental ingestion of a piece of orthodontic archwire that became impacted in the larynx; it was subsequently retrieved. Some potential complications are discussed, along with suggested precautions to prevent such mishaps when using fixed appliances. PMID:22858337

  17. Accidental ingestion of a barbed wire broach and its endoscopic retrieval: Prevention better than cure

    Rajashekar Mohan

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available Ingestion of instruments is a potential complication that can occur during dental procedures. We report a case of accidental ingestion of an endodontic barbed wire broach during root canal treatment and its subsequent retrieval by endoscopic methods. Although prevention is the best approach, proper management of such an event is also crucial. The objective of this report is to draw attention to the potentially serious complications that can occur if preventive techniques are not practised, and to discuss the accepted guidelines for management of such an event.

  18. The Effect of Tannins on Mediterranean Ruminant Ingestive Behavior: The Role of the Oral Cavity

    Elsa Lamy

    2011-03-01

    Full Text Available Sheep, cattle and goat are domestic ruminants of significant economic interest in the Mediterranean region. Although sharing the same pasture ranges, they ingest different plants and plant parts and, consequently different levels of tannins. This suggests an ability to detect and adapt ingestion according to animal physiological limits of tolerance for plant secondary metabolites. This review will detail the effects of dietary tannins on feeding behavior, and the role of the oral cavity in this process, with focus on such ruminant species. The role of salivary protein profile in tannin perception in the oral cavity, and as a defense mechanism, will be discussed.

  19. Effects of lead shot ingestion on selected cells of the mallard immune system

    Rocke, T.E.; Samuel, M.D.

    1991-01-01

    The immunologic effects of lead were measured in game-farm mallards (Anas platyrhynchos) that ingested lead shot while foraging naturally, mallards intubated with lead shot, and unexposed controls. Circulating white blood cells (WBC) declined significantly in male mallards exposed to lead by either natural ingestion or intubation, but not females. Spleen plaque-forming cell (SPFC) counts were significantly lower in mallards intubated with lead pellets compared to controls. Declines in WBC and SPFC means with increasing tissue lead concentrations provide further evidence that lead exposure reduced immunologic cell numbers. Hormonal activity and diet may have influenced the immunologic effects of lead exposure in this study.

  20. Accidental hijab pin ingestion in Muslim women: an emerging endoscopic emergency?

    Goh, Jason; Patel, Neeral; Boulton, Ralph

    2014-01-01

    Ingested foreign body is an infrequent indication for emergency endoscopy in the adult gastroenterology practice. We describe the clinical features and endoscopic management of the first four cases of accidental ingestion of hijab pins by Muslim women in our unit, all presenting within a 12-month period. The pins were all successfully retrieved without any complications. In this report, we review published guidelines and the current literature, as well as discussing the approach (conservative vs proactive endoscopic retrieval) and timing of endoscopic treatment. The Muslim community may need to be alerted to the potential health hazard of hijab pins. PMID:24390968

  1. Dose calculation for 40K ingestion in samples of beans using spectrometry and MCNP

    A method based on gamma spectroscopy and on the use of voxel phantoms to calculate dose due to ingestion of 40K contained in bean samples are presented in this work. To quantify the activity of radionuclide, HPGe detector was used and the data entered in the input file of MCNP code. The highest value of equivalent dose was 7.83 μSv.y-1 in the stomach for white beans, whose activity 452.4 Bq.Kg-1 was the highest of the five analyzed. The tool proved to be appropriate when you want to calculate the dose in organs due to ingestion of food. (author)

  2. Ingestion of broccoli sprouts does not improve endothelial function in humans with hypertension

    Christiansen, Buris; Bellostas Muguerza, Natalia; Petersen, Atheline Major;

    2010-01-01

    be the case in humans suffering from essential hypertension. METHODS: 40 hypertensive individuals without diabetes and with normal levels of cholesterol were examined. The participants were randomized either to ingest 10 g dried broccoli sprouts, a natural donor of glucosinolates with high in vitro...... groups. Diastolic blood pressure stayed essentially unchanged in both groups, while the systolic blood pressure showed a small non significant decrease (9 mm Hg) in the interventional group from a value of 153 mm Hg at start. CONCLUSION: Daily ingestion of 10 g dried broccoli sprouts does not improve...

  3. Minoxidil poisoning presenting as acute coronary syndrome: a rare case scenario

    Shrikant Kalyanrao Panchal

    2014-04-01

    Full Text Available We present a case of severe minoxidil poisoning (3000 mg with resultant severe hypotension, tachycardia and subendocardial ischemia initially treated crystalloid, dopamine, aspirin, clopidogrel on the lines of acute coronary syndrome with partial haemodynamic improvement. After getting the history of minoxidil poisoning, the patient was treated with bolus doses of norepinephrine, and norepinephrine infusion, resulting in resolution of hypertension, tachycardia and reversal of ischemia. Topical minoxidil is commonly used agent for male pattern baldness. It also has got antihypertensive action when ingested, acute coronary syndrome and compensatory tachycardia with successful management with norepinephrine bolus and infusion. [Int J Res Med Sci 2014; 2(2.000: 784-785

  4. Acute arterial occlusion - kidney

    ... arterial thrombosis; Renal artery embolism; Acute renal artery occlusion; Embolism - renal artery ... often result in permanent kidney failure. Acute arterial occlusion of the renal artery can occur after injury ...

  5. Acute Pancreatitis in Children

    ... a feeding tube or an IV to prevent malnutrition and improve healing. Does my child have to ... intestines. Can my child die from acute pancreatitis? Death from acute pancreatitis is quite rare in children– ...

  6. Diagnosing and Treating Acute Bronchitis

    ... Lung Disease Lookup > Acute Bronchitis Diagnosing and Treating Acute Bronchitis It is important to get your questions about ... Symptoms that last a few weeks How Is Acute Bronchitis Diagnosed? Healthcare providers diagnose acute bronchitis by asking ...

  7. Electrocardiographic findings and cardiac manifestations in acute aluminum phosphide poisoning.

    Soltaninejad, Kambiz; Beyranvand, Mohammad-Reza; Momenzadeh, Seyed-Akbar; Shadnia, Shahin

    2012-07-01

    Aluminium phosphide (AlP) poisoning has a high mortality due to cardiovascular involvement. In this study, we evaluated the frequency of cardiac manifestations and electrocardiographic (ECG) findings in 20 patients with acute AlP poisoning, who were admitted to the intensive care unit (ICU) in Tehran, Iran, over a period of 6 months (between October 2008 and April 2009). The sex, age, cause and manner of ingestion, number of ingested AlP tablets, cardiac and ECG manifestations, creatine phosphokinase (CPK), CPK-myocardial band (CPK-mb) and troponin-T (TnT) were extracted from the patients' files. All data were analysed with Statistical Package for the Social Sciences (SPSS) software. The majority (60%) of patients were male. The mean age was 27 ± 8.7 years. The mortality rate was 40%. In all of the patients, the cause of poisoning was intentional suicide and ingestion was the route of exposure. The mean number of ingested AlP tablets per patient was 2.2 ± 1.1. The average time interval between admission and cardiovascular manifestations or ECG findings was 168.8 ± 116.2 min. The range of systolic (SBP) and diastolic blood pressure was 60-130 mmHg and 40-70 mmHg, respectively. Dysrhythmia was observed in nine (45%) cases. Elevation of the ST segment was seen in nine cases (45%). Seven patients (35%) had prolonged QTc intervals. Bundle branch block (BBB) was observed in four (20%) patients. In nine (45%) patients, the serum cardiac TnT qualitative assay was positive. There were no significant differences between normal and abnormal ECG groups according to sex, age, number and manner of ingested AlP tablets and SBP. There was a significant correlation between cardiac manifestations and ECG findings and TnT-positive results with mortality in acute AlP poisoning. PMID:22687771

  8. Citalopram associated with acute angle-closure glaucoma: case report

    Hassan Sabit

    2005-10-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Acute angle-closure glaucoma is a rare complication in patients receiving anti-depressant treatment. In the following case, we report the development of acute angle closure glaucoma in a patient who overdosed on Citalopram, an antidepressant, and discuss the possible etiological mechanisms for the condition. Case presentation We report a 54 year old, Caucasian lady, with depression and alcohol dependence syndrome, who developed acute angle-closure glaucoma after an overdose of Citalopram, along with alcohol. She was treated with medications and had bilateral Yag laser iridotomies to correct the glaucoma and has made complete recovery. In this case, the underlying cause for glaucoma appears to be related to the ingestion of Citalopram. Conclusion The patho-physiological basis for acute angle closure glaucoma in relation to antidepressant medications remains unclear. The authors suggest Citalopram may have a direct action on the Iris or Ciliary body muscle through serotonergic or anti-cholinergic mechanisms or both. This case highlights the importance of the awareness of the underlying risks, which may predispose an individual to develop acute angle-closure glaucoma, and reminds the clinicians the significance of history taking and examination of the eye before and after starting anti-depressants. This area needs to be further researched.

  9. Metformin induced acute pancreatitis

    Alsubaie, Sadeem; Almalki, Mussa H.

    2013-01-01

    Acute pancreatitis frequently presents with abdomen pain but may presents with various skin manifestations as rash and rarely, pancreatic panniculitis. Metformin, one of the most effective and valuable oral hypoglycemic agents in the biguanide class was linked to acute pancreatitis in few cases. Here, we report a case of metformin induce acute pancreatitis in young healthy man with normal renal function.

  10. Acute mastoiditis in children

    Anthonsen, Kristian; Høstmark, Karianne; Hansen, Søren;

    2013-01-01

    Conservative treatment of acute otitis media may lead to more complications. This study evaluates changes in incidence, the clinical and microbiological findings, the complications and the outcome of acute mastoiditis in children in a country employing conservative guidelines in treating acute ot...

  11. Recurrent acute renal failure

    Satish, S.; Rajesh, R.; Kurian, G.; Seethalekshmi, N. V.; Unni, M.; Unni, V. N.

    2010-01-01

    While acute renal failure secondary to intravascular hemolysis is well described in hemolytic anemias, recurrent acute renal failure as the presenting manifestation of a hemolytic anemia is rare. We report a patient with recurrent acute renal failure who was found to have paroxysmal nocturnal hemoglobinuria (PNH), on evaluation.

  12. Management Of Acute Migraine

    Mehndiratta M

    2002-01-01

    Full Text Available Pharmacotherapy for migraine involves treatment for the acute attack as well as using long-term prophylaxis in order to reduce the frequency and severity of the attacks. Based on severity, there are a number of drugs available to treat the acute attacks. For mild to moderate attacks, analgesics, NSAIDs and Ergotamine are effective but severe attacks may need Dihydroergotamine (DHE or a triptan. Sumatriptan and the second generation triptans have revolutionized the acute treatment of migraine. Early and appropriate treatment holds the key to successful therapy of the acute attack. This article discusses the various acute treatment options available.

  13. ASSESSMENT OF METHODS FOR ESTIMATING RISK TO BIRDS FROM INGESTION OF CONTAMINATED GRIT PARTICLES (FINAL REPORT)

    The report evaluates approaches for estimating the probability of ingestion by birds of contaminated particles such as pesticide granules or lead particles (i.e. shot or bullet fragments). In addition, it presents an approach for using this information to estimate the risk of mo...

  14. Ingestion of broccoli sprouts does not improve endothelial function in humans with hypertension

    Christiansen, Buris; Muguerza, Natalia Bellostas; Petersen, Atheline Major; Kveiborg, Britt; Madsen, Christian Rask; Thomas, Hermann; Ihlemann, Nikolaj; Sørensen, Jens Christian H.; Køber, Lars; Sørensen, Hilmer; Torp-Pedersen, Christian; Domínguez, Helena

    2010-01-01

    Ingestion of glucosinolates has previously been reported to improve endothelial function in spontaneously hypertensive rats, possibly because of an increase in NO availability in the endothelium due to an attenuation of oxidative stress; in our study we tried to see if this also would be the case...

  15. Ingestion Pathway Consequences of an H-Separations Coil and Tube Failure

    Blanchard, A.

    1999-08-04

    The food ingestion consequences of an accidental release, scenario 1-RD-2.35, are evaluated for H-Separations. The sizes of land areas requiring the protective action of food interdiction are calculated. The consequences of the release are evaluated with the HOTSPOT model and an EXCEL spreadsheet.

  16. Accidental ingestion of Ecstasy by a toddler: unusual cause for convulsion in a febrile child.

    Cooper, A J; Egleston, C V

    1997-05-01

    The case is reported of a toddler who presented with an apparent febrile convulsion. The final diagnosis was that of accidental ingestion of Ecstasy. The child made an uneventful recovery. Ecstasy toxicity should be added to the list of differential diagnoses in a child presenting with fever and an unexplained seizure. PMID:9193992

  17. Accidental ingestion of Ecstasy by a toddler: unusual cause for convulsion in a febrile child.

    Cooper, A. J.; Egleston, C. V.

    1997-01-01

    The case is reported of a toddler who presented with an apparent febrile convulsion. The final diagnosis was that of accidental ingestion of Ecstasy. The child made an uneventful recovery. Ecstasy toxicity should be added to the list of differential diagnoses in a child presenting with fever and an unexplained seizure.

  18. Accidental ingestion of BiTine ring and a note on inefficient ring separation forceps

    Baghele ON

    2011-05-01

    Full Text Available Om Nemichand Baghele1, Mangala Om Baghele21Department of Periodontology, SMBT Dental College and Hospital, Sangamner, Ahmednagar, Maharashtra, India; 2Private General Dental Practice, Mumbai, IndiaBackground: Accidental ingestion of medium-to-large instruments is relatively uncommon during dental treatment but can be potentially dangerous. A case of BiTine ring ingestion is presented with a note on inefficient ring separation forceps.Case description: A 28-year-old male patient accidentally ingested the BiTine ring (2 cm diameter, 0.5 cm outward projections while it was being applied to a distoproximal cavity in tooth # 19. The ring placement forceps were excessively flexible; bending of the beaks towards the ring combined with a poor no-slippage mechanism led to sudden disengagement of the ring and accelerated movement towards the pharynx. We followed the patient with bulk forming agents and radiographs. Fortunately the ring passed out without any complications.Clinical implications: Checking equipment and methods is as important as taking precautions against any preventable medical emergency. It is the responsibility of the clinician to check, verify and then use any instrument/equipment.Keywords: foreign bodies/radiography, foreign bodies/complications, equipment failure, dental instrument, accidental ingestion

  19. Ingested human insulin inhibits the mosquito NF-¿B-dependent immune response to Plasmodium falciparum

    We showed previously that ingested human insulin activates the insulin/IGF-1 signaling pathway in Anopheles stephensi and increases the susceptibility of these mosquitoes to Plasmodium falciparum. In other organisms insulin can alter immune responsiveness through regulation of NF-kB transcription fa...

  20. Effects of Pancreas Transplantation on Insulin Secretion in the Rat During Ingestion of Varying Glucose Loads

    Strubbe, J.H.

    1982-01-01

    Following alloxan induced diabetes in rats, transplantation of neonatal pancreases under the kidney capsule was successfully carried out. The insulin response to oral ingestion of 150 and 750 mg of glucose was studied. The responses in controls and in rats 40 days after transplantation demonstrated

  1. Can dietary furanocoumarin ingestion enhance the erythemal response during high-dose UVA1 therapy?

    Beattie, Paula E; Wilkie, Murray J V; Smith, Gillian; Ferguson, James; Ibbotson, Sally H

    2007-01-01

    As phototoxic skin reactions caused by psoralen are induced by wavelengths within the UVA1 spectrum, we assessed the potential of the small amount of psoralen in a normal diet to provoke phototoxicity in volunteers with skin types I and II. Threshold erythema was unaffected by ingestion of a 200-g portion of parsnip. PMID:17097373

  2. Glass Microparticulate Ingestion: An Unusual and Difficult-to-Diagnose Cause of Chronic Abdominal Pain

    Vance, R. Brooks; Mühlbauer, Marcus; Dreesen, Elizabeth B.; Bagnell, C. Robert; Dent, Georgette A.; Herfarth, Hans; Jobin, Christian; Dellon, Evan S.

    2014-01-01

    In the absence of overt structural abnormalities, the diagnostic approach to chronic abdominal pain can be challenging. Occupational particulate inhalation causing injury to an organ other than the lung is rare. We report a case of inadvertent glass microparticulate ingestion causing chronic abdominal pain with altered local and systemic inflammatory responses.

  3. Parametric improvement for the ingestion dose module of the European ARGOS and RODOS decision support systems

    Andersson, Kasper Grann; Nielsen, Sven Poul; Thørring, H.;

    2011-01-01

    The European decision support systems ARGOS and RODOS rely on the ECOSYS model for prognoses of ingestion doses. ECOSYS needs an update of various parameter values to provide reliable estimates. This paper reports on some results of a Nordic initiative to derive parameter values that are specific...

  4. Effect of Nordic ciets on ECOSYS model predictions of ingestion doses

    Hansen, Hanne S.; Nielsen, Sven Poul; Andersson, Kasper Grann;

    2010-01-01

    The ECOSYS model is used to estimate ingestion dose in the ARGOS and RODOS decision support systems for nuclear emergency management. It is recommended that nation-specific values for several parameters are used in the model. However, this is generally overlooked when the systems are used in...

  5. Improving ingestion dose modelling for the ARGOS and RODOS decision support systems: A Nordic Initiative

    Andersson, Kasper Grann; Nielsen, Sven Poul; Thørring, Håvard;

    2011-01-01

    A Nordic work group under the NKS-B activity PARDNOR has revised the input parameters in the ECOSYS model that is incorporated for ingestion dose modelling in the ARGOS and RODOS decision support systems. The new parameterisation takes into account recent measurement data, and targets the model f...

  6. Spontaneous rupture of the esophagus associated with intramural rupture caused by ingestion of weeding medicine (Lasso)

    Kim, Jong Keon; Park, Heung Il; Kwun, Chung Sik [Chun Nam University College of Medicine, Kwangju (Korea, Republic of)

    1975-06-15

    This is a report of a case of spontaneous rupture of the esophagus associated with intramural rupture caused by ingestion of weeding medicine for the purpose of suicide in a 27 year old Korean male whose chief complaints were dyspnea, epigastric pain, swallowing disturbance, and hoarseness for 3 days prior to admission. A review of literature is submitted.

  7. Ingestion Pathway Consequences of an H-Separations Coil and Tube Failure

    The food ingestion consequences of an accidental release, scenario 1-RD-2.35, are evaluated for H-Separations. The sizes of land areas requiring the protective action of food interdiction are calculated. The consequences of the release are evaluated with the HOTSPOT model and an EXCEL spreadsheet

  8. Radiation dose to mouse liver cells from ingestion of tritiated food or water

    Tritium incorporated into tissues and DNA of mice was studied after daily ingestion of tritiated food or tritiated water. The tritiated food used was a commercial preparation mixed with brine shrimp that had been reared in tritiated sea water. After ingestion of tritiated food or water for up to 22 d, the specific activity of 3H in tissues was measured as tissue-free-water 3H, tissue-bound 3H, and DNA-bound 3H. Carbon-14 glucose was added to food and drinking water to compare the 3H intake from food with that from water. The specific activity of 3H in tissues was then corrected by the specific activity of 14C in tissues to determine the 3H incorporation from the same amount of ingested food and water. DNA-bound 3H after the ingestion of tritiated food was 4.6 times higher than that of tritiated water, while tissue-bound 3H was 2.2 times higher. The radiation dose to liver from 3H incorporated through food was twofold higher than from tritiated water, which was mainly from the high incorporation of 3H into DNA. Our results demonstrated that the dose calculation based on tissue-free-water 3H alone would under-estimate the radiation exposure of the human population exposed to tritiated food

  9. Spontaneous rupture of the esophagus associated with intramural rupture caused by ingestion of weeding medicine (Lasso)

    This is a report of a case of spontaneous rupture of the esophagus associated with intramural rupture caused by ingestion of weeding medicine for the purpose of suicide in a 27 year old Korean male whose chief complaints were dyspnea, epigastric pain, swallowing disturbance, and hoarseness for 3 days prior to admission. A review of literature is submitted.

  10. Savannah River Site Ingestion Pathway Methodology Manual for Airborne Radioactive Releases

    Vincent, A.W. III

    2001-01-03

    This manual documents a recommended methodology for determining the ingestion pathway consequences of hypothetical accidental airborne radiological releases from facilities at the Savannah River Site. Both particulate and tritiated radioactive contaminants are addressed. Other approaches should be applied for evaluation of routine releases.

  11. Morning melatonin ingestion and diurnal variation of short-term maximal performances in soccer players.

    Ghattassi, K; Hammouda, O; Graja, A; Boudhina, N; Chtourou, H; Hadhri, S; Driss, T; Souissi, N

    2016-03-01

    Aim Very few studies have investigated the temporal specificity of melatonin (MEL) ingestion upon short-term maximal athletic performances. The aim of the present study was to explore the effect of morning MEL ingestion on cognitive and physical performances measured in the afternoon. Methods Twelve soccer players from a Tunisian squad (17.9 ± 1.3 years, 1.74 ± 0.06 m and 62.0 ± 8.8 kg) participated in the present study. They performed two testing sessions at 08:00 h, 12:00 h and 16:00 h after either MEL (5mg) or placebo (PLA) ingestion, in a randomized order. During each period, the participants performed the following cognitive and physical tests: reaction time and vigilance tests, medicine-ball throw (MBT), five jumps, handgrip strength (HG), and agility tests. Results cognitive and physical performances were significantly higher at 16:00 h compared to 08:00 h during the two conditions (p performances of MBT and HG were lower in the morning with MEL in comparison to PLA (p physical and cognitive performances measured at 12:00 h and 16:00 h. Conclusion morning MEL ingestion has no unfavourable effect on afternoon physical and cognitive performances in soccer players. PMID:27030631

  12. SPECIAL REPORT ON INGESTED INORGANIC ARSENIC: SKIN CANCER; NUTRITIONAL ESSENTIALITY (SAB REVIEW DRAFT)

    A technical panel of EPA's Risk Assessment Forum has studied three special issues regarding certain health effects, particularly skin cancer, associated with arsenic ingestion: (1) the validity of the Taiwan study and its use for dose-response assessment in the U.S. population, (...

  13. Distributed Propulsion featuring Boundary Layer Ingestion Engines for the Blended Wing Body Subsonic Transport

    Kok, H.J.M.; Voskuijl, M.; Van Tooren, M.J.L.

    2010-01-01

    The blended wing body aircraft is one of the promising contenders for the next generation large transport aircraft. This aircraft is particularly suitable for the use of boundary layer ingestion engines. Results published in literature suggest that it might be beneficial to have a large number of th

  14. Influence on the mouse immune system of chronic ingestion of 137Cs

    The aim of this work was to determine the possible occurrence of damage to the immune system during the course of chronic ingestion of 137Cs. BALB/C mice were used, with 137Cs intake via drinking water at a concentration of 20 kBq l-1. Adults received 137Cs before mating and offspring were sacrificed at various ages between birth and 20 weeks. Phenotypic analysis of circulating blood cells and thymocytes did not show any significant modification of immune cell populations in animals ingesting 137Cs as compared with control animals, with the exception of a slight increase in Treg percentage at the age of 12 weeks. Functional tests, including proliferative response to mitogens such as phytohaemagglutinin, response to alloantigens in mixed lymphocyte reaction and immunoglobulin response to vaccine antigens such as tetanus toxin and keyhole limpet haemocyanin did not show any significant functional modification of the immune system in 137Cs-ingesting animals as compared with control animals. Overall, our results suggest that chronic ingestion of a low concentration of 137Cs in drinking water in the long term does not have any biologically relevant effect on the immune system.

  15. Plastic ingestion in Franciscana dolphins, Pontoporia blainvillei (Gervais and d'Orbigny, 1844), from Argentina.

    Denuncio, Pablo; Bastida, Ricardo; Dassis, Mariela; Giardino, Gisela; Gerpe, Marcela; Rodríguez, Diego

    2011-08-01

    Plastic debris (PD) ingestion was examined in 106 Franciscana dolphins (Pontoporia blainvillei) incidentally captured in artisanal fisheries of the northern coast of Argentina. Twenty-eight percent of the dolphins presented PD in their stomach, but no ulcerations or obstructions were recorded in the digestive tracts. PD ingestion was more frequent in estuarine (34.6%) than in marine (19.2%) environments, but the type of debris was similar. Packaging debris (cellophane, bags, and bands) was found in 64.3% of the dolphins, with a lesser proportion (35.7%) ingesting fishery gear fragments (monofilament lines, ropes, and nets) or of unknown sources (25.0%). PD ingestion correlated with ontogenetic changes in feeding regimes, reaching maximum values in recently weaned dolphins. Because a simultaneous increase in gillnet entanglement and the bioaccumulation of heavy metals take place at this stage, the first months after trophic independence should be considered as a key phase for the conservation of Franciscana dolphin stocks in northern Argentina. PMID:21616509

  16. Elevated levels of ingested plastic in a high Arctic seabird, the northern fulmar (Fulmarus glacialis)

    Trevail, A.M.; Gabrielsen, G.W.; Kuhn, S.; Franeker, van J.A.

    2015-01-01

    Plastic pollution is of worldwide concern; however, increases in international commercial activity in the Arctic are occurring without the knowledge of the existing threat posed to the local marine environment by plastic litter. Here, we quantify plastic ingestion by northern fulmars, Fulmarus glaci

  17. Gooseneck barnacles (Lepas spp. ingest microplastic debris in the North Pacific Subtropical Gyre

    Miriam C. Goldstein

    2013-10-01

    Full Text Available Substantial quantities of small plastic particles, termed “microplastic,” have been found in many areas of the world ocean, and have accumulated in particularly high densities on the surface of the subtropical gyres. While plastic debris has been documented on the surface of the North Pacific Subtropical Gyre (NPSG since the early 1970s, the ecological implications remain poorly understood. Organisms associated with floating objects, termed the “rafting assemblage,” are an important component of the NPSG ecosystem. These objects are often dominated by abundant and fast-growing gooseneck barnacles (Lepas spp., which predate on plankton and larval fishes at the sea surface. To assess the potential effects of microplastic on the rafting community, we examined the gastrointestinal tracts of 385 barnacles collected from the NPSG for evidence of plastic ingestion. We found that 33.5% of the barnacles had plastic particles present in their gastrointestinal tract, ranging from one plastic particle to a maximum of 30 particles. Particle ingestion was positively correlated to capitulum length, and no blockage of the stomach or intestines was observed. The majority of ingested plastic was polyethylene, with polypropylene and polystyrene also present. Our results suggest that barnacle ingestion of microplastic is relatively common, with unknown trophic impacts on the rafting community and the NPSG ecosystem.

  18. Influence on the mouse immune system of chronic ingestion of {sup 137}Cs

    Bertho, Jean-Marc; Faure, Marie-Cecile; Louiba, Sonia; Tourlonias, Elie; Stefani, Johanna; Siffert, Baptiste; Paquet, Francois; Dublineau, Isabelle, E-mail: Jean-marc.bertho@irsn.fr [IRSN, Laboratoire de Radiotoxicologie Experimentale, Fontenay aux Roses (France)

    2011-03-01

    The aim of this work was to determine the possible occurrence of damage to the immune system during the course of chronic ingestion of {sup 137}Cs. BALB/C mice were used, with {sup 137}Cs intake via drinking water at a concentration of 20 kBq l{sup -1}. Adults received {sup 137}Cs before mating and offspring were sacrificed at various ages between birth and 20 weeks. Phenotypic analysis of circulating blood cells and thymocytes did not show any significant modification of immune cell populations in animals ingesting {sup 137}Cs as compared with control animals, with the exception of a slight increase in Treg percentage at the age of 12 weeks. Functional tests, including proliferative response to mitogens such as phytohaemagglutinin, response to alloantigens in mixed lymphocyte reaction and immunoglobulin response to vaccine antigens such as tetanus toxin and keyhole limpet haemocyanin did not show any significant functional modification of the immune system in {sup 137}Cs-ingesting animals as compared with control animals. Overall, our results suggest that chronic ingestion of a low concentration of {sup 137}Cs in drinking water in the long term does not have any biologically relevant effect on the immune system.

  19. Monte Carlo calculation of received dose from ingestion and inhalation of natural uranium

    For the purpose of this study eighty samples are taken from the area Bela Crkva and Vrsac. The activity of radionuclide in the soil is determined by gamma- ray spectrometry. Monte Carlo method is used to calculate effective dose received by population resulting from the inhalation and ingestion of natural uranium. The estimated doses were compared with the legally prescribed levels. (author)

  20. Low-level maternal methylmercury exposure through rice ingestion and potential implications for offspring health

    Rothenberg, Sarah E., E-mail: rothenberg.sarah@gmail.com [State Key Laboratory of Environmental Geochemistry, Institute of Geochemistry, Chinese Academy of Sciences, 46 Guanshui Lu, Guiyang 550002 (China); Feng Xinbin, E-mail: fengxinbin@vip.skleg.cn [State Key Laboratory of Environmental Geochemistry, Institute of Geochemistry, Chinese Academy of Sciences, 46 Guanshui Lu, Guiyang 550002 (China); Li Ping [State Key Laboratory of Environmental Geochemistry, Institute of Geochemistry, Chinese Academy of Sciences, 46 Guanshui Lu, Guiyang 550002 (China)

    2011-04-15

    Fish consumption is considered the primary pathway for MeHg (MeHg) exposure; however, MeHg exposure also occurs through rice ingestion. Rice is grown in an aquatic environment and although documented MeHg concentrations in rice are lower compared to fish tissue, human exposures exceed international guidelines in some regions where rice is a staple food and rice MeHg levels are elevated. Studies concerning human health exposure to MeHg should also include populations where maternal MeHg exposure occurs through ingestion of rice. Rice does not contain long-chain polyunsaturated fatty acids, which are associated with confounding developmental outcomes in offspring. Rice is also a staple food for more than half the world's population; therefore, it is critical to investigate the potential health risks of maternal ingestion of rice to the developing fetus, the most susceptible population to the deleterious effects of MeHg. Data concerning MeHg in rice are reviewed and micronutrients in rice are discussed. - Research highlights: > Maternal methylmercury exposure through rice may be important. > Rice does not contain the same micronutrients as fish, but may contain methylmercury. > Effects to offspring from methylmercury without beneficial micronutrients are unknown. - Studies concerning maternal methylmercury exposure and cognitive outcomes for offspring should include populations where rice ingestion is the primary methylmercury exposure pathway.

  1. Acute loss of consciousness.

    Tristán, Bekinschtein; Gleichgerrcht, Ezequiel; Manes, Facundo

    2015-01-01

    Acute loss of consciousness poses a fascinating scenario for theoretical and clinical research. This chapter introduces a simple yet powerful framework to investigate altered states of consciousness. We then explore the different disorders of consciousness that result from acute brain injury, and techniques used in the acute phase to predict clinical outcome in different patient populations in light of models of acute loss of consciousness. We further delve into post-traumatic amnesia as a model for predicting cognitive sequels following acute loss of consciousness. We approach the study of acute loss of consciousness from a theoretical and clinical perspective to conclude that clinicians in acute care centers must incorporate new measurements and techniques besides the classic coma scales in order to assess their patients with loss of consciousness. PMID:25702218

  2. Butyrate ingestion improves hepatic glycogen storage in the re-fed rat

    Rigalleau Vincent

    2008-10-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Butyrate naturally produced by intestinal fiber fermentation is the main nutrient for colonocytes, but the metabolic effect of the fraction reaching the liver is not totally known. After glycogen hepatic depletion in the 48-hour fasting rat, we monitored the effect of (butyrate 1.90 mg + glucose 14.0 mg/g body weight versus isocaloric (glucose 18.2 mg/g or isoglucidic (glucose 14.0 mg/g control force-feeding on in vivo changes in hepatic glycogen and ATP contents evaluated ex vivo by NMR in the isolated and perfused liver. Results The change in glycogen was biphasic with (i an initial linear period where presence of butyrate in the diet increased (P = 0.05 the net synthesis rate (0.20 ± 0.01 μmol/min.g-1 liver wet weight, n = 15 versus glucose 14.0 mg/g only (0.16 ± 0.01 μmol/min.g-1 liver ww, n = 14, and (ii a plateau of glycogen store followed by a depletion. Butyrate delayed the establishment of the equilibrium between glycogenosynthetic and glycogenolytic fluxes from the 6th to 8th hour post-feeding. The maximal glycogen content was then 97.27 ± 10.59 μmol/g liver ww (n = 7 at the 8th hour, which was significantly higher than with the isocaloric control diet (64.34 ± 8.49 μmol/g, n = 12, P = 0.03 and the isoglucidic control one (49.11 ± 6.35 μmol/g liver ww, n = 6, P = 0.003. After butyrate ingestion, ATP content increased from 0.95 ± 0.29 to a plateau of 2.14 ± 0.23 μmol/g liver ww at the 8th hour post-feeding (n = 8 [P = 0.04 versus isoglucidic control diet (1.45 ± 0.19 μmol/g, n = 8 but was not different from the isocaloric control diet (1.70 ± 0.18 μmol/g, n = 12]. Conclusion The main hepatic effect of butyrate is a sparing effect on glycogen storage explained (i by competition between butyrate and glucose oxidation, glucose being preferentially directed to glycogenosynthesis during the post-prandial state; and (ii by a likely reduced glycogenolysis from the newly synthesized glycogen. This first

  3. Rates of ingestion and their variability between individual calanoid copepods: Direct observations

    Paffenhoefer, G.A.; Lewis, K.D. [Skidaway Inst. of Oceanography, Savannah, GA (United States); Bundy, M.H. [Skidaway Inst. of Oceanography, Savannah, GA (United States)]|[Alfred-Wegener-Institut fuer Polar- und Meeresforschung, Bremerhaven (Germany). Inst. fuer Fernerkundung (IFE); Metz, C. [Alfred-Wegener-Institut fuer Polar- und Meeresforschung, Bremerhaven (Germany). Inst. fuer Fernerkundung (IFE)

    1995-12-01

    The goals of this study were to determine rates of ingestion and fecal pellet release, and their variability, for individual planktonic copepods over extended periods of time (>20 min). Ingestions and rejections of individual cells of the diatom Thalassiosira eccentrica by a adult females of the calanoid Paracalanus aculeatus were directly quantified by observing individual copepods continuously at cell concentrations ranging from 0.1 to 1.2 mm{sup 3} l{sup {minus}1}. Average ingestion rates increased with increasing food concentration, but were not significantly different between 0.3 and 1.0 mm{sup 3} l{sup {minus}1} (9.8 and 32.7 {mu}g Cl{sup {minus}1}) of T.eccentrica. Rates of cell rejections were low and similar at 0.1 and 0.3. but were significantly higher at 1.0 mm{sup 3} l{sup {minus}1}. The coefficients of variation for average ingestion rates of individual copepods hardly differed between food concentrations, ranging from 17 to 22%, and were close to those for average fecal pellet release intervals which ranged from 15 to 21%. A comparison between individuals at each food concentration found no significant differences at 1.0; at 0.1 and 0.3 mm{sup 3} l{sup {minus}1}, respectively, ingestion rates of four out of five females did not differ significantly from each other. Average intervals between fecal pellet releases were similar at 0.3 and 1.0 mm{sup 3} l{sup {minus}1}. Fecal pellet release intervals between individuals were significantly different at each food concentration; these significant differences were attributed to rather narrow ranges of pellet release intervals of each individual female. Potential sources/causes of variability in the sizes and rates of copepods in the ocean are evaluated.

  4. Estimation of radionuclide ingestion: Lessons from dose reconstruction for fallout from the Nevada Test Site

    The United States conducted atmospheric testing of nuclear devices at the Nevada Test Site from 1951 through 1963. In 1979 the U.S. Department of Energy established the Off-Site Radiation Exposure Review Project to compile a data base related to health effects from nuclear testing and to reconstruct doses to public residing off of the Nevada Test Site. This project is the most comprehensive dose reconstruction project to date, and, since similar assessments are currently underway at several other locations within and outside the U.S., lessons from ORERP can be valuable. A major component of dose reconstruction is estimation of dose from radionuclide ingestion. The PATHWAY food-chain model was developed to estimate the amount of radionuclides ingested. For agricultural components of the human diet, PATHWAY predicts radionuclide concentrations and quantities ingested. To improve accuracy and model credibility, four components of model analysis were conducted: estimation of uncertainty in model predictions, estimation of sensitivity of model predictions to input parameters, and testing of model predictions against independent data (validation), and comparing predictions from PATHWAY with those from other models. These results identified strengths and weaknesses in the model and aided in establishing the confidence associated with model prediction, which is a critical component risk assessment and dose reconstruction. For fallout from the Nevada Test Site, by far, the largest internal doses were received by the thyroid. However, the predicted number of fatal cancers from ingestion dose was generally much smaller than the number predicted from external dose. The number of fatal cancers predicted from ingestion dose was also orders of magnitude below the normal projected cancer rate. Several lessons were learned during the study that are relevant to other dose reconstruction efforts

  5. The Effect of Carbohydrate Ingestion on Performance during a Simulated Soccer Match

    Julia H. Goedecke

    2013-12-01

    Full Text Available Aim: This study investigated how performance was affected after soccer players, in a postprandial state, ingested a 7% carbohydrate (CHO solution compared to a placebo (0% CHO during a simulated soccer match. Methods: Using a double-blind placebo-controlled design, 22 trained male league soccer players (age: 24 ± 7 years, wt: 73.4 ± 12.0 kg, VO2max: 51.8 ± 4.3 mL O2/kg/min completed two trials, separated by 7 days, during which they ingested, in random order, 700 mL of either a 7% CHO or placebo drink during a simulated soccer match. Ratings of perceived exertion (RPE, agility, timed and run to fatigue were measured during the trials. Results: Change in agility times was not altered by CHO vs. placebo ingestion (0.57 ± 1.48 vs. 0.66 ± 1.00, p = 0.81. Timed runs to fatigue were 381 ± 267 s vs. 294 ± 159 s for the CHO and placebo drinks, respectively (p = 0.11. Body mass modified the relationship between time to fatigue and drink ingestion (p = 0.02 for drink × body mass, such that lower body mass was associated with increased time to fatigue when the players ingested CHO, but not placebo. RPE values for the final stage of the simulated soccer match were 8.5 ± 1.7 and 8.6 ± 1.5 for the CHO and placebo drinks respectively (p = 0.87. Conclusions: The group data showed that the 7% CHO solution (49 g CHO did not significantly improve performance during a simulated soccer match in league soccer players who had normal pre-match nutrition. However, when adjusting for body mass, increasing CHO intake was associated with improved time to fatigue during the simulated soccer match.

  6. The effect of free glutamine and peptide ingestion on the rate of muscle glycogen resynthesis in man

    Van Hall, Gerrit; Saris, W H; van de Schoor, P A;

    2000-01-01

    The present study investigated previous claims that ingestion of glutamine and of protein-carbohydrate mixtures may increase the rate of glycogen resynthesis following intense exercise. Eight trained subjects were studied during 3 h of recovery while consuming one of four drinks in random order....... Drinks were ingested in three 500 ml boluses, immediately after exercise and then after 1 and 2 h of recovery. Each bolus of the control drink contained 0.8 g x kg(-1) body weight of glucose. The other drinks contained the same amount of glucose and 0.3 g x kg(-1) body weight of 1) glutamine, 2) a wheat...... hydrolysate (26% glutamine) and 3) a whey hydrolysate (6.6% glutamine). Plasma glutamine, decreased by approximately 20% during recovery with ingestion of the control drink, no changes with ingestion of the protein hydrolysates drinks, and a 2-fold increase with ingestion of the free glutamine drinks. The...

  7. Acute pancreatitis in acute viral hepatitis

    2007-01-01

    AIM: To elucidate the frequency and characteristics of pancreatic involvement in the course of acute (nonfulminant) viral hepatitis.METHODS: We prospectively assessed the pancreatic involvement in patients with acute viral hepatitis who presented with severe abdomimanl pain.RESULTS: We studied 124 patients with acute viral hepatitis, of whom 24 presented with severe abdominal pain. Seven patients (5.65%) were diagnosed to have acute pancreatitis. All were young males. Five patients had pancreatitis in the first week and two in the fourth week after the onset of jaundice. The pancreatitis was mild and all had uneventful recovery from both pancreatitis and hepatitis on conservative treatment.The etiology of pancreatitis was hepatitis E virus in 4,hepatitis A virus in 2, and hepatitis B virus in 1 patient.One patient had biliary sludge along with HEV infection.The abdominal pain of remaining seventeen patients was attributed to stretching of Glisson's capsule.CONCLUSION: Acute pancreatitis occurs in 5.65% of patients with acute viral hepatitis, it is mild and recovers with conservative management.

  8. Acute chylous peritonitis due to acute pancreatitis.

    Georgiou, Georgios K; Harissis, Haralampos; Mitsis, Michalis; Batsis, Haralampos; Fatouros, Michalis

    2012-04-28

    We report a case of acute chylous ascites formation presenting as peritonitis (acute chylous peritonitis) in a patient suffering from acute pancreatitis due to hypertriglyceridemia and alcohol abuse. The development of chylous ascites is usually a chronic process mostly involving malignancy, trauma or surgery, and symptoms arise as a result of progressive abdominal distention. However, when accumulation of "chyle" occurs rapidly, the patient may present with signs of peritonitis. Preoperative diagnosis is difficult since the clinical picture usually suggests hollow organ perforation, appendicitis or visceral ischemia. Less than 100 cases of acute chylous peritonitis have been reported. Pancreatitis is a rare cause of chyloperitoneum and in almost all of the cases chylous ascites is discovered some days (or even weeks) after the onset of symptoms of pancreatitis. This is the second case in the literature where the patient presented with acute chylous peritonitis due to acute pancreatitis, and the presence of chyle within the abdominal cavity was discovered simultaneously with the establishment of the diagnosis of pancreatitis. The patient underwent an exploratory laparotomy for suspected perforated duodenal ulcer, since, due to hypertriglyceridemia, serum amylase values appeared within the normal range. Moreover, abdominal computed tomography imaging was not diagnostic for pancreatitis. Following abdominal lavage and drainage, the patient was successfully treated with total parenteral nutrition and octreotide. PMID:22563182

  9. Acute chylous peritonitis due to acute pancreatitis

    Georgios K Georgiou; Haralampos Harissis; Michalis Mitsis; Haralampos Batsis; Michalis Fatouros

    2012-01-01

    We report a case of acute chylous ascites formation presenting as peritonitis (acute chylous peritonitis) in a patient suffering from acute pancreatitis due to hypertriglyceridemia and alcohol abuse.The development of chylous ascites is usually a chronic process mostly involving malignancy,trauma or surgery,and symptoms arise as a result of progressive abdominal distention.However,when accumulation of "chyle" occurs rapidly,the patient may present with signs of peritonitis.Preoperative diagnosis is difficult since the clinical picture usually suggests hollow organ perforation,appendicitis or visceral ischemia.Less than 100 cases of acute chylous peritonitis have been reported.Pancreatitis is a rare cause of chyloperitoneum and in almost all of the cases chylous ascites is discovered some days (or even weeks) after the onset of symptoms of pancreatitis.This is the second case in the literature where the patient presented with acute chylous peritonitis due to acute pancreatitis,and the presence of chyle within the abdominal cavity was discovered simultaneously with the establishment of the diagnosis of pancreatitis.The patient underwent an exploratory laparotomy for suspected perforated duodenal ulcer,since,due to hypertriglyceridemia,serum amylase values appeared within the normal range.Moreover,abdominal computed tomography imaging was not diagnostic for pancreatitis.Following abdominal lavage and drainage,the patient was successfully treated with total parenteral nutrition and octreotide.

  10. Changes in the Daphnia magna midgut upon ingestion of copper oxide nanoparticles: a transmission electron microscopy study.

    Heinlaan, Margit; Kahru, Anne; Kasemets, Kaja; Arbeille, Brigitte; Prensier, Gérard; Dubourguier, Henri-Charles

    2011-01-01

    This work is a follow-up of our previous paper (Heinlaan et al., 2008. Chemosphere 71, 1308-1316) where we showed about 50-fold higher acute toxicity of CuO nanoparticles (NPs) compared to bulk CuO to water flea Daphnia magna. In the current work transmission electron microscopy (TEM) was used to determine potential time-dependent changes in D. magna midgut epithelium ultrastructure upon exposure to CuO NPs compared to bulk CuO at their 48 h EC(50) levels: 4.0 and 175 mg CuO/L, respectively. Special attention was on potential internalization of CuO NPs by midgut epithelial cells. Ingestion of both CuO formulations by daphnids was evident already after 10 min of exposure. In the midgut lumen CuO NPs were dispersed whereas bulk CuO was clumped. By the 48th hour of exposure to CuO NPs (but not to equitoxic concentrations of bulk CuO) the following ultrastructural changes in midgut epithelium of daphnids were observed: protrusion of epithelial cells into the midgut lumen, presence of CuO NPs in circular structures analogous to membrane vesicles from holocrine secretion in the midgut lumen. Implicit internalization of CuO NPs via D. magna midgut epithelial cells was not evident however CuO NPs were no longer contained within the peritrophic membrane but located between the midgut epithelium microvilli. Interestingly, upon exposure to CuO NPs bacterial colonization of the midgut occurred. Ultrastructural changes in the midgut of D. magna upon exposure to CuO NPs but not to bulk CuO refer to its nanosize-related adverse effects. Time-dependent solubilisation of CuO NPs and bulk CuO in the test medium was quantified by recombinant Cu-sensor bacteria: by the 48th hour of exposure to bulk CuO, the concentration of solubilised copper ions was 0.05 ± 0.01 mg Cu/L that was comparable to the acute EC(50) value of Cu-ions to D. magna (48 h CuSO(4) EC(50) = 0.07 ± 0.01 mg Cu/L). However, in case of CuO NPs, the solubilised Cu-ions 0.01 ± 0.001 mg Cu/L, explained only part of

  11. Consumo de macronutrientes e ingestão inadequada de micronutrientes em adultos

    Marina Campos Araujo

    2013-02-01

    Full Text Available OBJETIVO: Estimar o consumo de energia e nutrientes e a prevalência de ingestão inadequada de micronutrientes entre adultos brasileiros. MÉTODOS: Foram analisados dados do Inquérito Nacional de Alimentação da Pesquisa de Orçamento Familiar 2008-2009. O consumo alimentar foi avaliado por dois dias de registro alimentar não consecutivos. Um total de 21.003 indivíduos (52,5% mulheres entre 20 e 59 anos de idade participou do estudo. A ingestão usual de nutrientes foi estimada pelo método proposto pelo National Cancer Institute. As prevalências de ingestão inadequada de micronutrientes foram obtidas pelo método da necessidade média estimada (EAR como ponto de corte. Para manganês e potássio, a Ingestão Adequada (AI foi usada como ponto de corte. A ingestão de sódio foi comparada com o nível de ingestão máximo tolerável (UL. A prevalência de inadequação da ingestão de ferro foi determinada por abordagem probabilística. Os dados foram analisados de acordo com a localização do domicílio (área urbana ou rural e as macrorregiões do país. RESULTADOS: A média do consumo energético foi de 2.083 kcal entre os homens e 1.698 kcal entre as mulheres. Prevalências de inadequação maiores ou iguais a 70% foram observadas para cálcio entre os homens e magnésio, vitamina A, sódio em ambos os sexos. Prevalências maiores ou iguais a 90% foram encontradas para cálcio entre as mulheres e vitaminas D e E em ambos os sexos. Prevalências menores que 5% foram encontradas para ferro entre os homens e niacina para homens e mulheres. No geral, a prevalência de ingestão inadequada foi mais acentuada na área rural e na região Nordeste. CONCLUSÕES: O consumo de energia é maior entre indivíduos residentes em áreas urbanas e da região Norte. Os grupos com maior risco de ingestão inadequada de micronutrientes são as mulheres e os que residem na área rural e na região Nordeste.

  12. Acute renal failure associated with nonfulminant acute viral hepatitis A

    Sarawgi, S.; Gupta, A. K.; Arora, D S; Jasuja, S.

    2008-01-01

    Hepatitis A runs a benign course in children, but may have atypical presentations in adults. Very rarely acute renal failure complicates nonfulminant hepatitis A. We report a patient with nonfulminant acute viral hepatitis A with multiorgan involvement. Patient had biopsy proven acute interstitial nephritis, acute pancreatitis, acute myocarditis and required hemodialysis for 6 weeks.

  13. Lead gunshot pellet ingestion and tissue lead levels in wild ducks from Argentine hunting hotspots.

    Ferreyra, Hebe; Romano, Marcelo; Beldomenico, Pablo; Caselli, Andrea; Correa, Ana; Uhart, Marcela

    2014-05-01

    Lead poisoning in waterfowl due to ingestion of lead pellets is a long recognized worldwide problem but poorly studied in South America, particularly in Argentinean wetlands where duck hunting with lead gunshot is extensive. In 2008, we found high pellet ingestion rates in a small sample of hunted ducks. To expand our knowledge on the extent of lead exposure and to assess health risks from spent shot intake, during 2011 and 2012 we sampled 415 hunter-killed ducks and 96 live-trapped ducks. We determined the incidence of lead shot ingestion and lead concentrations in bone, liver and blood in five duck species: whistling duck (Dendrocygna bicolor), white-faced tree duck (D. viduata), black-bellied whistling-duck (D. autumnalis), rosy-billed pochard (Netta peposaca) and Brazilian duck (Amazonetta brasiliensis). The ingestion of lead shot was confirmed in 10.4% of the ducks examined (43/415), with a prevalence that varied by site and year, from 7.6% to 50%. All bone samples (n=382) and over 60% of liver samples (249/412) contained lead concentrations above the detection limit. The geometric mean lead concentration in tissues (mg/kg dry weight) was 0.31 (GSD=3.93) and 3.61 (GSD=4.02) for liver and bone, respectively, and 0.20 (GSD=2.55) in blood (mg/kg wet weight). Lead levels surpassed toxicity thresholds at which clinical poisoning is expected in 3.15% of liver samples, 23.8% of bones and 28% of blood samples. Ducks with ingested lead pellets were much more likely to have high levels of lead in their liver. Rosy-billed pochards were consistently more prone to ingesting lead shot than other duck species sampled. However, whistling ducks showed higher levels of lead in liver and bone. Our results suggest that lead from ammunition could become a substantial threat for the conservation of wild duck populations in Argentina. The replacement of lead by non-toxic shot would be a reasonable and effective solution to this problem. PMID:24314629

  14. Acute Pancreatitis in the Course of Meprobamate Poisoning

    Neila Fathallah

    2011-07-01

    Full Text Available Context We report a case of massive poisoning with meprobamate leading to acute pancreatitis. Case report A 43-year-old patient with a history of schizophrenia and multiple suicide attempts was admitted to the intensive care unit for severe poisoning with meprobamate (voluntary ingestion of 60 g. On admission, the patient was deeply comatose with low blood pressure and hypothermia. Laboratory analysis revealed leukocytosis and high lipase and amylase serum levels. There was no eosinophilia. Abdominal computed tomography showed pancreatitis grade A. The patient was intubated and ventilated, and intravenous dopamine was infused. The patient regained consciousness and was extubated five days later. Improvement in pancreatic tests was noted several days later. The outcome was favorable. Discussion According to the Naranjo probability scale, meprobamate-induced acute pancreatitis was probable. Acute pancreatitis in meprobamate poisoning is exceptional. The pathogenesis of pancreatitis-induced meprobamate poisoning may be explained by two mechanisms: stimulation of pancreatic secretion secondary to cholinergic activation and pancreatic ductal hypertension. Conclusions The signs of severe meprobamate toxicity are numerous including cardiovascular and central nervous symptoms. Acute pancreatitis should also be added as a possible manifestation of meprobamate poisoning.

  15. Acute Renal Failure Induced by Chinese Herbal Medication in Nigeria

    Effiong Ekong Akpan

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Traditional herbal medicine is a global phenomenon especially in the resource poor economy where only the very rich can access orthodox care. These herbal products are associated with complications such as acute renal failure and liver damage with a high incidence of mortalities and morbidities. Acute renal failure from the use of herbal remedies is said to account for about 30–35% of all cases of acute renal failure in Africa. Most of the herbal medications are not usually identified, but some common preparation often used in Nigeria includes “holy water” green water leaves, bark of Mangifera indica (mango, shoot of Anacardium occidentale (cashew, Carica papaya (paw-paw leaves, lime water, Solanum erianthum (Potato tree, and Azadirachta indica (Neem trees. We report a rare case of a young man who developed acute renal failure two days after ingestion of Chinese herb for “body cleansing” and general wellbeing. He had 4 sessions of haemodialysis and recovered kidney function fully after 18 days of admission.

  16. Imaging of acute pancreatitis

    Merkle, Elmar M.; Goerich, Johannes [Department of Radiology, University Hospitals of Ulm, Steinhoevel Strasse 9, 89075 Ulm (Germany)

    2002-08-01

    Acute pancreatitis is defined as an acute inflammatory process of the pancreas with variable involvement of peripancreatic tissues or remote organ systems. This article reports the current classification, definition and terminology, epidemiology and etiology, pathogenesis and pathological findings, clinical and laboratory findings, and finally imaging findings of acute pancreatitis with emphasis on cross-sectional imaging modalities such as ultrasound, computed tomography, and magnetic resonance imaging. (orig.)

  17. Streptococcal acute pharyngitis

    2014-01-01

    Acute pharyngitis/tonsillitis, which is characterized by inflammation of the posterior pharynx and tonsils, is a common disease. Several viruses and bacteria can cause acute pharyngitis; however, Streptococcus pyogenes (also known as Lancefield group A β-hemolytic streptococci) is the only agent that requires an etiologic diagnosis and specific treatment. S. pyogenes is of major clinical importance because it can trigger post-infection systemic complications, acute rheumatic fever, and post-s...

  18. Acute generalized exanthematous pustulosis

    K.S. Dhillon

    2012-10-01

    Full Text Available Acute generalized exanthematous pustulosis (AGEP is a rare reaction pattern with a typical morphology and a short clinical course that in majority of cases is related to medication administration. It is an acute pustular eruption with unique clinical features, a rapid clinical course and a typical histopathology. Herein, we report the case of a patient with acute generalized exanthematous pustulosis for its classical presentation.

  19. Acute recurrent polyhydramnios

    Rode, Line; Bundgaard, Anne; Skibsted, Lillian;

    2007-01-01

    Acute recurrent polyhydramnios is a rare occurrence characterized by a poor fetal outcome. This is a case report describing a 34-year-old woman presenting with acute recurrent polyhydramnios. Treatment with non-steroidal anti-inflammatory drugs (NSAID) and therapeutic amniocenteses was initiated...... an enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay. As in normal pregnancies, amniotic prolactin levels decreased by 80% from highest to lowest value in this case of resolving acute recurrent polyhydramnios....

  20. Management Of Acute Migraine

    Mehndiratta M

    2002-01-01

    Pharmacotherapy for migraine involves treatment for the acute attack as well as using long-term prophylaxis in order to reduce the frequency and severity of the attacks. Based on severity, there are a number of drugs available to treat the acute attacks. For mild to moderate attacks, analgesics, NSAIDs and Ergotamine are effective but severe attacks may need Dihydroergotamine (DHE) or a triptan. Sumatriptan and the second generation triptans have revolutionized the acute treatment of migra...

  1. Atrial fibrillation (acute onset)

    Lip, Gregory Y. H.; Watson, Timothy

    2008-01-01

    Acute atrial fibrillation is rapid, irregular, and chaotic atrial activity of less than 48 hours' duration. It resolves spontaneously within 24 to 48 hours in over 50% of people. In this review we have included studies on patients with onset up to 7 days previously. Risk factors for acute atrial fibrillation include increasing age, CVD, alcohol abuse, diabetes, and lung disease.Acute atrial fibrillation increases the risk of stroke and heart failure.

  2. Mixed phenotype acute leukemia

    Ye Zixing; Wang Shujie

    2014-01-01

    Objective To highlight the current understanding of mixed phenotype acute leukemia (MPAL).Data sources We collected the relevant articles in PubMed (from 1985 to present),using the terms "mixed phenotype acute leukemia","hybrid acute leukemia","biphenotypic acute leukemia",and "mixed lineage leukemia".We also collected the relevant studies in WanFang Data base (from 2000 to present),using the terms "mixed phenotype acute leukemia" and "hybrid acute leukemia".Study selection We included all relevant studies concerning mixed phenotype acute leukemia in English and Chinese version,with no limitation of research design.The duplicated articles are excluded.Results MPAL is a rare subgroup of acute leukemia which expresses the myeloid and lymphoid markers simultaneously.The clinical manifestations of MPAL are similar to other acute leukemias.The World Health Organization classification and the European Group for Immunological classification of Leukaemias 1998 cdteria are most widely used.MPAL does not have a standard therapy regimen.Its treatment depends mostly on the patient's unique immunophenotypic and cytogenetic features,and also the experience of individual physician.The lack of effective treatment contributes to an undesirable prognosis.Conclusion Our understanding about MPAL is still limited.The diagnostic criteria have not been unified.The treatment of MPAL remains to be investigated.The prognostic factor is largely unclear yet.A better diagnostic cdteria and targeted therapeutics will improve the therapy effect and a subsequently better prognosis.

  3. Acute oral intake of a higenamine-based dietary supplement increases circulating free fatty acids and energy expenditure in human subjects

    Lee, Sang-Rok; Schriefer, JohnHenry M; Trint A. Gunnels; Harvey, Innocence C; Bloomer, Richard J

    2013-01-01

    Background Higenamine, also known as norcoclaurine, is an herbal constituent thought to act as a beta-2 adrenergic receptor agonist—possibly stimulating lipolysis. It was the purpose of this study to determine the impact of a higenamine-based dietary supplement on plasma free fatty acids and energy expenditure following acute oral ingestion. Methods Sixteen healthy subjects (8 men; 26.1 ± 2.5 yrs; 8 women 22.4 ± 3.1 yrs) ingested a dietary supplement containing a combination of higenamine, ca...

  4. Self inflicted death following inhalation and ingestion of Builders Polyurethane expandable foam.

    Morgan, D R; Musa, M

    2010-11-01

    Builders Polyurethane (PU) expandable foam is a product used to fill voids and provide insulation in the building industry. It is easily available from DIY and hardware stores. Other uses include pest control. It can produce fumes, while curing, which can be toxic to humans, or induce asthma and there are reports of polyurethane foam being combustible unless a fire retardant is incorporated. Death due to can explosion when heated has occurred. A literature review revealed one definite case of attempted suicide, one possible attempt by ingestion of Builders PU expandable foam and one accidental non fatal injection of such foam into the lower urinary tract. There is one report of accidental non fatal inhalation of foam. To our knowledge this is the first case of fatal inhalation and ingestion of Builders Polyurethane expandable foam. PMID:21056881

  5. EWAM: a model for predicting food and water ingestion, and inhalation rates of man

    A computer model, EWAM (Energy, Water and Air Model), has been designed and implemented for predicting food and water ingestion, and inhalation rates of man for use in environmental assessment models. EWAM uses physiological, energetic, nutritional and physical relationships in combination with activity time budgets, and mass and energy balances. The calculated ingestion and inhalation rates are closely related. Various age and sex classes of man are taken into account. EWAM is best described as a deterministic equilibrium or steady-state model, operating on a daily time-scale, with both detailed research and more general assessment model features. The parameters of EWAM are reviewed and suitable values recommended to allow biologically meaningful predictions

  6. In Vivo Pattern Classification of Ingestive Behavior in Ruminants Using FBG Sensors and Machine Learning

    Vinicius Pegorini

    2015-11-01

    Full Text Available Pattern classification of ingestive behavior in grazing animals has extreme importance in studies related to animal nutrition, growth and health. In this paper, a system to classify chewing patterns of ruminants in in vivo experiments is developed. The proposal is based on data collected by optical fiber Bragg grating sensors (FBG that are processed by machine learning techniques. The FBG sensors measure the biomechanical strain during jaw movements, and a decision tree is responsible for the classification of the associated chewing pattern. In this study, patterns associated with food intake of dietary supplement, hay and ryegrass were considered. Additionally, two other important events for ingestive behavior were monitored: rumination and idleness. Experimental results show that the proposed approach for pattern classification is capable of differentiating the five patterns involved in the chewing process with an overall accuracy of 94%.

  7. Spatial distribution of tritium in surface water and assessment of ingestion dose

    The present study focuses on the distribution of tritium in drinking water samples from Mumbai and other suburban areas. Measurement of tritium in the drinking water was carried out using an ultra-low background LKB Quantulus Spectrometer, model 1220. The concentration of tritium in the drinking water ranged between ≤12.3-19.8TU with a geometric mean of 13.3TU. The observed values doesn't indicate any fresh input of tritium and are well within prescribed limit of 740 Bq/L (approx. 6,271.2 TU) given by USEPA for tritium ingestion through drinking water. The estimated dose due to tritium ingestion through drinking was 0.02 μSv/y which is negligible when compared to the limit of 1000 μSv/y assigned to general public. (author)

  8. Exploring the Potential of Creatine Ingestion to Maintain Muscle Function during Immobilization

    Jeremy C. Fransen

    2015-08-01

    Full Text Available Limb immobilization (casting results in a loss of muscle mass along with decrements in muscle strength and endurance. In addition, immobilization has been shown to impair high energy phosphate catabolism in skeletal muscle. Creatine ingestion in conjunction with resistance training can significantly increase muscle force production, augment muscle size increases, and improve energy-rich phosphate catabolism in skeletal muscle. Surprisingly, there are few research studies investigating the potential of oral creatine supplementation to mitigate the muscle changes during immobilization. Early investigations found that creatine supplementation can maintain muscle size, strength, and endurance during short-term (1-2 wk immobilization. Future research should focus on whether creatine supplementation can also prevent muscle metabolic consequences during immobilization. Creatine ingestion during short-term immobilization may help to identify the underlying mechanisms that contribute to the reported ergogenic effects.

  9. Ingestion of marine litter by loggerhead sea turtles, Caretta caretta, in Portuguese continental waters.

    Nicolau, Lídia; Marçalo, Ana; Ferreira, Marisa; Sá, Sara; Vingada, José; Eira, Catarina

    2016-02-15

    The accumulation of litter in marine and coastal environments is a major threat to marine life. Data on marine litter in the gastrointestinal tract of stranded loggerhead turtles, Caretta caretta, found along the Portuguese continental coast was presented. Out of the 95 analysed loggerheads, litter was present in 56 individuals (59.0%) and most had less than 10 litter items (76.8%) and less than 5 g (dm) (96.8%). Plastic was the main litter category (frequency of occurrence=56.8%), while sheet (45.3%) was the most relevant plastic sub-category. There was no influence of loggerhead stranding season, cause of stranding or size on the amount of litter ingested (mean number and dry mass of litter items per turtle). The high ingested litter occurrence frequency in this study supports the use of the loggerhead turtle as a suitable tool to monitor marine litter trends, as required by the European Marine Strategy Framework Directive. PMID:26763321

  10. Age dependent hit probabilities for lung cancer induction following exhalation of ingested radon

    Previous calculations of the risk following ingestion of 222Rn (radon) in drinking water have been concerned primarily with the solubilization of the radon in body tissues, followed by in situ decay. Much less attention has been directed towards the escape of radon from lung tissue and blood into the alveolar air, which should lead to doses to lung tissue as the newly formed progeny deposit in lung passages prior to exhalation. The present report details the calculation of hit probabilities to the basal cells of the bronchial epithelium and alveolar cells in various age groups following ingestion of radon in drinking water. Results are compared with those obtained for the in situ decay of radon within the lung mass. (author)

  11. Autopsy results of a case of ingestion of sodium hydroxide solution.

    Emoto, Yuko; Yoshizawa, Katsuhiko; Shikata, Nobuaki; Tsubura, Airo; Nagasaki, Yasushi

    2016-01-01

    Sodium hydroxide is a strongly corrosive alkali. We describe herein a case of suicide by ingestion of sodium hydroxide. A man in his 80s was found dead with a mug and a bottle of caustic soda. Macroscopically, liquefaction and/or disappearance of esophagus, trachea and lung tissue and a grayish discoloration of the mucosa of the stomach were seen along with blackish brown coloration of the skin, mouth, and oral cavity. The contents of the gastrointestinal tract showed a pH level of 7-8 on pH indicator strips. Histopathologically, liquefactive necrosis of remnant lung tissue and the stomach were seen. As biological reactions such as vasodilatation and inflammation were not detected in these organs, only a short number of hours must have passed between ingestion and death. This human case provides valuable information concerning the direct irritation induced by systemic exposure to corrosive substances. PMID:26989301

  12. Ingested Human Insulin Inhibits the Mosquito NF-κB-Dependent Immune Response to Plasmodium falciparum

    Corby-Harris, Vanessa; Green, Gabriel P.; Smithers, Hannah M.; Cheung, Kong W.; Riehle, Michael A.; Luckhart, Shirley

    2012-01-01

    We showed previously that ingested human insulin activates the insulin/IGF-1 signaling pathway in Anopheles stephensi and increases the susceptibility of these mosquitoes to Plasmodium falciparum. In other organisms, insulin can alter immune responsiveness through regulation of NF-κB transcription factors, critical elements for innate immunity that are also central to mosquito immunity. We show here that insulin signaling decreased expression of NF-κB-regulated immune genes in mosquito cells stimulated with either bacterial or malarial soluble products. Further, human insulin suppressed mosquito immunity through sustained phosphatidylinositol 3-kinase activation, since inhibition of this pathway led to decreased parasite development in the mosquito. Together, these data demonstrate that activation of the insulin/IGF-1 signaling pathway by ingested human insulin can alter NF-κB-dependent immunity, and ultimately the susceptibility, of mosquitoes to P. falciparum. PMID:22473605

  13. Absence of diarrhea in purge nut ingestion: A case series of eight children

    Kamal Kumar Singhal

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available There are very few case reports in literature of J. curcas poisoning. Previously grown as an ornamental plant; it is presently being cultivated on a large scale for its seed oil, which is used as biodiesel. This has brought this plant in close vicinity to the human population, exposing them to the chance ingestion. We are presenting clinical and biochemical profile of eight children with J. curcas poisoning. The plant is commonly known to be a purgative and gastrointestinal irritant but the most conspicuous feature in our patients was absence of diarrhea. Lethargy, severe abdominal pain, inability to ingest anything, and intense thirst were the most prominent complaints in all children. The symptoms in all the patients were significant enough to merit admission and intravenous fluid therapy. Hematological and biochemical workup revealed neutrophilia and raised serum alkaline phosphatase in all patients while leukocytosis was observed in 5 of them. Electrocardiography was normal in all the patients.

  14. Radiochemical separation and effective dose estimation due to ingestion of 90Sr

    Since 2007. Institute for Public Health of Federation of Bosnia and Herzegovina-Radiation Protection Centre, within the framework of monitoring of radioactivity of environment carried out measurement of specific activity of 90Sr content in selected food and water samples. The paper described the methods of measurement and radiochemical separation. Presented results, as average values of specific activity of 90Sr, were used for estimation of effective dose due to ingestion of 90Sr for 2007. and 2008. Estimated effective dose for 2007. due to ingestion of 90Sr for adults was 1,36 μSv and 2,03 μSv for children (10 year old), and for 2008. 0,67 μSv (adults) and 1,01 μSv (children 10 year old). Estimated effective doses for 2007. and 2008. are varied because of different average specific activity radionuclide 90Sr in selected samples of food, their number, species and origin. (author)

  15. Induction and reversion process of molecular and cytological alterations after highly irradiated food ingestion in mice

    The molecular and cytological alterations induced in a mammal (Mus musculus) fed ad libitum with a balanced pellet diet irradiated with 50 KGy gamma radiation from weaning, for different periods, are analyzed. The transient chromosomal changes that recall tumor-like phenomena could be the expression of the damage and repair processes induced by changed molecules present in irradiated food. The reversible alterations of DNA structure and cytoplasmatic soluble proteins observed in mice fed with irradiated pellet diet could be interpreted as a result of the enhancement of the repair processes which could also explain the significant increase of the radioresistance of DNA found at 200 days after irradiated food ingestion. Finally, our results would suggest an induction of a pseudo-neoplasia due to a prolongated and exclusive ingestion of food irradiated with sterilizing gamma dose. Moreover, the maintenance of the irradiated diet induce the reversion of the observed phenomena by an eventual activation of the repair mechanisms. (Author)

  16. DDT vs. wildlife: Relationships between quantities ingested, toxic effects and tissue storage

    DeWitt, J.B.; Derby, J.V., Jr.; Mangan, G.F., Jr.

    1955-01-01

    Symptoms appeared when quail and pheasants were fed diets containing 0.025-0.050% DDT. Symptoms appeared sooner as percentages increased. Young birds seemed more resistant than adults. Median lethal quantity for adult quail was about 1,200 mg./Kg. Young quail showed no ill-effects after ingesting 3,000 mg./Kg. during 10-week period. Adult pheasants died after ingesting 200-300 mg./Kg. Approximately 600 mg./Kg. were required to kill young pheasants. Quantities of DDT stored in tissues were not proportional to amounts administered or to duration of exposure, but were related to severity of symptoms. Concentration of DDT in breast muscles of birds killed by DDT was about 34 micrograms/Gm. in adult quail and 22 micrograms/Gm. in adult pheasants.

  17. Variable-gravity anti-vortex and vapor-ingestion-suppression device

    Grayson, Gary D. (Inventor)

    2003-01-01

    A liquid propellant management device for placement in a liquid storage tank adjacent an outlet of the storage tank to substantially reduce or eliminate the formation of a dip and vortex in the liquid of the tank, as well as prevent vapor ingestion into the outlet, as the liquid drains out through the outlet. The liquid propellant management device has a first member adapted to suppress the formation of a vortex of a liquid exiting the storage tank. A plate is affixed generally perpendicular to the first member, wherein the plate is adapted to suppress vapor ingestion into the outlet by reducing a dip in a surface level of the liquid leaving the tank. A second member is affixed to the second side of the plate. The second member ensures that the plate is wet with liquid and assists in positioning bubbles away from the outlet.

  18. Precision of ingestion time and evacuation predictors for individual prey in stomachs of predatory fishes

    Andersen, Niels Gerner; Beyer, Jan

    2008-01-01

    Without evaluating precision, gastric evacuation models in combination with stomach data are widely used to investigate the feeding biology of wild predatory fishes. Assuming each predator individual to operate with its own evacuation rate parameter, the precision of estimated ingestion times for...... individual prey in the stomachs of predatory fishes was derived in this study. This way, the variability of gastric evacuation not accounted for by a deterministic model of gastric evacuation was described. The variability of initial body mass of ingested prey was included as well. General values 0.03 and 0...... whiting (Merlangius merlangus), Atlantic cod (Gadus morhua), and saithe (pollock) (Pollachius virens). Deriving the variance of gastric evacuation rate, evacuation time, and remaining prey mass, the study also established a basis for statistical analyses of the results obtained from laboratory experiments...

  19. Fractional absorption in gastrointestinal tract of 232Th by ingestion for Chinese man

    Objective: To estimate fractional absorption in gastrointestinal tract (f1) of 232Th by ingestion for the Chinese male adults. Methods: According to f1 calculation method in literature and results of Th concentrations in dietary foods and organ or tissues for the Chinese male adults, obtained in recent years, f1 values were estimated from the median and mean Th concentrations and compared each other. Results: the f1 value from the median and mean Th concentrations was 0.00048 and 0.00028 respectively. Conclusion: The f1 of 232Th by ingestion for the Chinese male adults should be adopted as 0.00048, being lower than estimated result from the world reference concentrations in UNSCEAR 2000 Report, but quite near to the relevant reported value from Asian countries, such as India or Japan, and supporting the latest recommended value 0.0005 by ICRP too

  20. Bilateral Simultaneous Nonarteritic Anterior Ischemic Optic Neuropathy after Ingestion of Sildenafil for Erectile Dysfunction

    Tarantini, Anna; Faraoni, Alessandra; Menchini, Francesca; Lanzetta, Paolo

    2012-01-01

    Purpose. To describe a patient who developed bilateral, simultaneous nonarteritic anterior ischemic optic neuropathy (NAION) after ingestion of Sildenafil citrate (Viagra) for erectile dysfunction. Methods. Observational case report. Results. A 60-year-old diabetic man noted sudden decrease of vision in both eyes 16 hours after his third consecutive 50 mg daily Sildenafil ingestion. A diagnosis of bilateral NAION was made and he was treated for three days with methylprednisolone 1 g/d intravenously, followed by oral prednisone 75 mg/d. Final visual acuity was 20/50 right eye (OD) and 20/20 left eye (OS). He had preexisting diabetes. Conclusion. This is the first reported case of simultaneous bilateral NAION occurred in a diabetic patient early after Sildenafil intake. Patients with predisposing conditions such as diabetes have to be warned against the use of PDE inhibitors. PMID:22481954

  1. Lead shot ingestion in two raptor species from Doñana, Spain.

    Mateo, R; Cadenas, R; Máñez, M; Guitart, R

    2001-01-01

    Diurnal raptors inhabiting wetland areas where waterfowl shooting is conducted have many opportunities to ingest lead (Pb) shot pellets when feeding on their prey. Exposure to Pb shot was studied in the Spanish imperial eagle (Aquila adalberti), an endangered species with a world population of about 150 breeding pairs, and in the red kite (Milvus milvus) from Doñana (southwest Spain). Lead exposure was evaluated by the presence of Pb shot in the pellets of both species. Results obtained by this noninvasive method demonstrated Pb shot in 11.0% of Spanish imperial eagle and 5.5% of red kite pellets. When the data of both species were pooled, there was a significant relationship between Pb shot ingestion and consumption of waterfowl during the hunting season. Pb shot found in pellets exhibited signs of erosion, and their weight distribution had peaks at 70, 170, and 240 mg, which could correspond to ammunition used for duck and goose hunting. PMID:11161671

  2. Fate of pathogenic Bacillus cereus spores after ingestion by protist grazers

    Winding, Anne; Santos, Susana; Hendriksen, Niels Bohse; Jakobsen, Hans

    evolution of Bacillus cereus group bacteria (e.g. B. cereus, B. anthracis, B. thuringiensis) as a pathogen. It has been hypothesized that the spore stage protects against digestion by predating protists. Indeed, B. thuringiensis spores have been shown to be readily ingested by ciliated protists but failed...... to be digested (Manasherob et al 1998 AEM 64:1750-). Here we report how diverse protist grazers grow on both vegetative cells and spores of B. cereus and how the bacteria survive ingestion and digestion, and even proliferate inside the digestive vacuoles of ciliated protists. The survival ability of...... B. cereus was initially investigated in microcosms inoculated with pure cultures of the protists Acanthamoeba castellanii, Tetrahymena pyriformis and Cercomonas sp. as grazers. Individual protist cultures were fed with fluorescently labelled (CellTracker™RedCMTPX) B. cereus spores or vegetative...

  3. Plastic debris ingested by a rough-toothed dolphin, Steno bredanensis, stranded alive in northeastern Brazil

    Helen Maria Duarte do Rego Barros

    2007-03-01

    Full Text Available An adult male rough-toothed dolphin, Steno bredanensis, stranded alive on Poço da Draga Beach, Fortaleza, Ceará State, northeastern Brazil. The animal was unable to swim, was visibly emaciated, and died while being transported to the AQUASIS rehabilitation facilities. During the necropsy, two plastic bags and four pieces of sea sponges were found in the fore-stomach chamber, where the mucosa had several ulcers. The ingestion of plastic debris by dolphins is not well understood. They can eat it by mistake, since it resembles some of their prey species, or ingest it along with a prey. In Ceará State, the inappropriate disposal of solid wastes and urban effluents are major sources of pollution in the coastal zone. Urgent measures are required to minimize this threat to coastal marine mammals, such as legal mechanisms, enforcement and awareness campaigns.

  4. Abdominal pain and hematuria: duodenal perforation from ingested foreign body causing ureteral obstruction and hydronephrosis.

    Kolbe, Nina; Sisson, Kathleen; Albaran, Renato

    2016-01-01

    Foreign body (FB) ingestion is a relatively common reason for visits to the emergency room. If the FB is symptomatic or damaging to the patient, either endoscopic or surgical intervention should ensue. We present a case of abdominal pain and hematuria beginning ∼24 h after an incidental FB ingestion. Initial CT imaging defined a linear opacity perforating through the posterior duodenal wall abutting the ureter causing inflammation and hydronephrosis. After two unsuccessful endoscopic attempts at retrieval, we were able to identify the object with the aid of intraoperative fluoroscopy and surgically remove the FB. The patient recovered uneventfully and was discharged home. Posterior duodenal perforation by an FB may not manifest with obvious localized or systemic symptoms unless the perforation involves surrounding structures such as the aorta, vena cava or ureter. In such cases, surgical intervention is required for FB removal. PMID:26903557

  5. Lichen forage ingestion rates of free-roaming caribou estimated with fallout cesium-137

    Lichen forage ingestion rates of free-roaming caribou herds in northern Alaska during 1963 to 1970 were estimated by applying a two-compartment, eight parameter cesium-137 kinetics model to measured fallout 137Cs concentrations in lichen and caribou. Estimates for winter equilibrium periods (January to April) for each year ranged from 3.7 to 6.9 kg dry weight lichens per day for adult female caribou. Further refinement of these estimations were obtained by calculating probabilistic distributions of intake rates by stochastic processes based upon the mean and standard error intervals of the eight parameters during 1965 and 1968. A computer program generated 1,000 randomly sampled values within each of the eight parameter distributions. Results substantiate the contention that lichen forage ingestion rates by free-roaming caribou are significantly greater than previously held

  6. Acute Alcohol Effects on Attentional Bias are Mediated by Subcortical Areas Associated with Arousal and Salience Attribution

    Nikolaou, Kyriaki; Field, Matt; Critchley, Hugo; Duka, Theodora

    2013-01-01

    Acute alcohol ingestion increases attentional bias to alcohol-related stimuli; however, the underlying cognitive and brain mechanisms remain unknown. We combined functional magnetic resonance imaging (fMRI) with performance of a dual task that probed attentional distraction by alcohol-related stimuli during ‘conflict' processing: the Concurrent Flanker/Alcohol-Attentional bias task (CFAAT). In this task, an Eriksen Flanker task is superimposed on task-unrelated background pictures with alcoho...

  7. An 11-year retrospective review of venlafaxine ingestion in children from the California Poison Control System.

    Doroudgar, S; Perry, P J; Lackey, G D; Veselova, N G; Chuang, H M; Albertson, T E

    2016-07-01

    Venlafaxine is commonly used in the United States for approved and non-Food and Drug Administration-approved indications in adults. It is used off-label to treat children for psychiatric diagnoses. The aim of the study was to describe venlafaxine toxicities in children and to identify the venlafaxine dose per weight that correlates with toxicities. An 11-year retrospective study of venlafaxine ingestion in children was performed using the California Poison Control System (CPCS) database. Data was extracted from phone calls received by CPCS clinicians and follow-up phone calls made to assess the patient's progress in a health-care setting. Inclusion criteria were venlafaxine ingestion cases reported to CPCS between January 2001 and December 2011, children aged 20 years and under, venlafaxine as the only ingested substance, managed in a health-care facility, and followed to a known outcome. Two hundred sixty-two cases met the study criteria. Common presentations included gastrointestinal (14.9%), altered mental status (13.7%), and tachycardia (13.4%). The majority of the cases resulted in no effect (51.5%) or minor effect (19.9%). The average estimated dose per weight was 18.3 mg/kg in all patients and 64.5 mg/kg in those experiencing moderate-to-severe adverse effects. Seizures occurred in only 4 of the 262 cases at doses ranging from 1500 to 7500 mg. Although the estimated dose per weight exceeded 10 mg/kg for the majority of the cases, only 12 cases resulted in moderate or severe outcomes. The majority of venlafaxine ingestion cases in children resulted in either no clinical effects or minor clinical effects. PMID:26351291

  8. In Vivo Pattern Classification of Ingestive Behavior in Ruminants Using FBG Sensors and Machine Learning

    Vinicius Pegorini; Leandro Zen Karam; Christiano Santos Rocha Pitta; Rafael Cardoso; Jean Carlos Cardozo da Silva; Hypolito José Kalinowski; Richardson Ribeiro; Fábio Luiz Bertotti; Tangriani Simioni Assmann

    2015-01-01

    Pattern classification of ingestive behavior in grazing animals has extreme importance in studies related to animal nutrition, growth and health. In this paper, a system to classify chewing patterns of ruminants in in vivo experiments is developed. The proposal is based on data collected by optical fiber Bragg grating sensors (FBG) that are processed by machine learning techniques. The FBG sensors measure the biomechanical strain during jaw movements, and a decision tree is responsible for th...

  9. The Effects of EPA, DHA, and Aspirin Ingestion on Plasma Lysophospholipids and Autotaxin

    Block, RC; Duff, R; Lawrence, P.; Kakinami, L.; Brenna, JT; Shearer, GC; Meednu, N; Mousa, S; Friedman, A.; Harris, WS; Larson, Mark; Georas, S

    2010-01-01

    Lysophophatidylcholine (LPC) and lysophosphatidic acid (LPA) are potent lysolipid mediators increasingly linked with atherosclerosis and inflammation. A current model proposing that plasma LPA is produced when LPC is hydrolyzed by the enzyme autotaxin has not been rigorously investigated in human subjects. We conducted a clinical trial of eicosapentaenoic acid/docosahexaenoic acid (EPA/DHA) and aspirin ingestion in normal volunteers. Fasting blood samples were drawn at baseline and after 4-we...

  10. Health Risk Evaluations for Ingestion Exposure of Humans to Polonium-210

    Scott, Bobby R.

    2007-01-01

    The incident in London during November 2006 involving a lethal intake by Mr. Alexander Litvinenko of the highly-radioactive, alpha-particles-emitting polonium-210 (Po-210) isotope, presumably via ingestion, sparked renewed interest in the area of Po-210 toxicity to humans. This paper is the result of assembling and interpreting existing Po-210 data within the context of what is considered a reliable risk model (hazard-function [HF] model) for characterizing the risk of death from deterministi...

  11. Ingested plastic transfers hazardous chemicals to fish and induces hepatic stress

    Rochman, Chelsea M; Eunha Hoh; Tomofumi Kurobe; Teh, Swee J

    2013-01-01

    Plastic debris litters aquatic habitats globally, the majority of which is microscopic (< 1 mm), and is ingested by a large range of species. Risks associated with such small fragments come from the material itself and from chemical pollutants that sorb to it from surrounding water. Hazards associated with the complex mixture of plastic and accumulated pollutants are largely unknown. Here, we show that fish, exposed to a mixture of polyethylene with chemical pollutants sorbed from the marine ...

  12. Timing and distribution of protein ingestion during prolonged recovery from resistance exercise alters myofibrillar protein synthesis

    Areta, José L; Burke, Louise M; Ross, Megan L; Camera, Donny M; West, Daniel W D; Broad, Elizabeth M; Jeacocke, Nikki A; Moore, Daniel R; Stellingwerff, Trent; Phillips, Stuart M; Hawley, John A; Coffey, Vernon G

    2013-01-01

    Quantity and timing of protein ingestion are major factors regulating myofibrillar protein synthesis (MPS). However, the effect of specific ingestion patterns on MPS throughout a 12 h period is unknown. We determined how different distributions of protein feeding during 12 h recovery after resistance exercise affects anabolic responses in skeletal muscle. Twenty-four healthy trained males were assigned to three groups (n= 8/group) and undertook a bout of resistance exercise followed by ingestion of 80 g of whey protein throughout 12 h recovery in one of the following protocols: 8 × 10 g every 1.5 h (PULSE); 4 × 20 g every 3 h (intermediate: INT); or 2 × 40 g every 6 h (BOLUS). Muscle biopsies were obtained at rest and after 1, 4, 6, 7 and 12 h post exercise. Resting and post-exercise MPS (l-[ring-13C6] phenylalanine), and muscle mRNA abundance and cell signalling were assessed. All ingestion protocols increased MPS above rest throughout 1–12 h recovery (88–148%, P INT>PULSE hierarchy in magnitude of phosphorylation. MuRF-1 and SLC38A2 mRNA were differentially expressed with BOLUS. In conclusion, 20 g of whey protein consumed every 3 h was superior to either PULSE or BOLUS feeding patterns for stimulating MPS throughout the day. This study provides novel information on the effect of modulating the distribution of protein intake on anabolic responses in skeletal muscle and has the potential to maximize outcomes of resistance training for attaining peak muscle mass. PMID:23459753

  13. Evolution of susceptibility to ingested double-stranded RNAs in Caenorhabditis nematodes.

    Isabelle Nuez

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: The nematode Caenorhabditis elegans is able to take up external double-stranded RNAs (dsRNAs and mount an RNA interference response, leading to the inactivation of specific gene expression. The uptake of ingested dsRNAs into intestinal cells has been shown to require the SID-2 transmembrane protein in C. elegans. By contrast, C. briggsae was shown to be naturally insensitive to ingested dsRNAs, yet could be rendered sensitive by transgenesis with the C. elegans sid-2 gene. Here we aimed to elucidate the evolution of the susceptibility to external RNAi in the Caenorhabditis genus. PRINCIPAL FINDINGS: We study the sensitivity of many new species of Caenorhabditis to ingested dsRNAs matching a conserved actin gene sequence from the nematode Oscheius tipulae. We find ample variation in the Caenorhabditis genus in the ability to mount an RNAi response. We map this sensitivity onto a phylogenetic tree, and show that sensitivity or insensitivity have evolved convergently several times. We uncover several evolutionary losses in sensitivity, which may have occurred through distinct mechanisms. We could render C. remanei and C. briggsae sensitive to ingested dsRNAs by transgenesis of the Cel-sid-2 gene. We thus provide tools for RNA interference studies in these species. We also show that transgenesis by injection is possible in many Caenorhabditis species. CONCLUSIONS: The ability of animals to take up dsRNAs or to respond to them by gene inactivation is under rapid evolution in the Caenorhabditis genus. This study provides a framework and tools to use RNA interference and transgenesis in various Caenorhabditis species for further comparative and evolutionary studies.

  14. Ammonium Chloride Ingestion Attenuates Exercise-Induced mRNA Levels in Human Muscle

    Edge, Johann; Muendel, Toby; Pilegaard, Henriette; Hawke, Emma; Leikis, Murray; Lopez-Villalobos, Nicolas; Oliveira, Rodrigo S. F.; Bishop, David J

    2015-01-01

    Minimizing the decrease in intracellular pH during high-intensity exercise training promotes greater improvements in mitochondrial respiration. This raises the intriguing hypothesis that pH may affect the exercise-induced transcription of genes that regulate mitochondrial biogenesis. Eight males performed 10x2-min cycle intervals at 80% V ˙ O 2 peak intensity on two occasions separated by ~2 weeks. Participants ingested either ammonium chloride (ACID) or calcium carbonate (PLA) the day before...

  15. Baclofen intoxication after accidental ingestion in a 3-year-old child

    Dasarwar Nagesh; Shanbag Preeti; Kumbhare Nilesh

    2009-01-01

    Baclofen is a skeletal muscle relaxant, used to control spasticity in both adults and children with neuromuscular disorders. Several cases of baclofen overdose have been reported, but only a small number have involved children. We report a 3-year-old girl with accidental ingestion of baclofen, who presented with coma, bradycardia and hypotension. She recovered within 24 hours with supportive treatment. The case emphasizes the importance of warning parents about the potential toxicity of baclo...

  16. Abscesso perineal por ingestão acidental de palito de dente

    Roberto Iglesias Lopes

    2006-06-01

    Full Text Available Palitos de dente são itens domésticos comuns e a maioria das pessoas subestima a gravidade das lesões que podem ocorrer com a ingestão acidental de palitos. Nós apresentamos um caso de abscesso perineal causado pela ingestão de um palito de dente. Um homem de 55 anos apresentou-se com quadro de dor perianal há um mês. Ao exame físico, notou-se abscesso perineal. Leucocitose com desvio à esquerda foi observada e a tomografia pélvica demonstrou um corpo estranho na região perineal. A remoção cirúrgica do corpo estranho e a drenagem adequada do abscesso foram realizadas, revelando um palito de dente. O paciente evoluiu bem após a abordagem cirúrgica. O abscesso perineal pode progredir para gangrena de Fournier e, portanto, a abordagem de abscessos perineais deve ser agressiva, com drenagem adequada e remoção do corpo estranho (sempre que presente.Toothpicks are a common household item and most people underestimate the seriousness of injuries that can occur with accidental ingestion. We report a case of a perineal abscess caused by an ingested toothpick. A 55-year-old man was admitted to the hospital with a 30-day history of perianal pain. Physical examination was unremarkable, except for a perineal abscess. Leucocytosis with 10% bands was present and pelvic tomography demonstrated a foreign body located in the perineal area. Surgical removal of the foreign body with adequate abscess drainage was performed revealing a toothpick. Perineal abscess may progress to Fournier's gangrene and as a consequence the management of a perineal abscess should be aggressive with adequate drainage and removal of the foreign body (if present.

  17. Food ingestion and assimilation by Hyaie media (Dana, 1853) (Crustacea - Amphipoda)

    Airton Santo Tararam; Hilda de Souza Lima Mesquita; Yoko Wakabara; Clóvis A. Peres

    1990-01-01

    The feeding of Hyale media was analysed under laboratory conditions in winter and summer temperatures. The results showed that assimilation rates increased following food ingestion rates and decreased when egestion rates increased. In winter temperatures no significant differences were found in the assimilation rates among developmental stages and sexes. In summer temperatures assimilation rates for ovigerous and non-ovigerous females were higher than those found for adult and young males. Al...

  18. Assimilation of trace elements ingested by the mussel Mytilus edulis: effects of algal food abundance

    Wang, W.-X.; Fisher, N.S.; Luoma, S. N.

    1995-01-01

    Pulse-chase feeding and multi-labeled radiotracer techniques were employed to measure the assimilation of 6 trace elements (110mAg, 241Am, 109Cd, 57Co, 75Se and 65Zn) from ingested diatoms in the mussel Mytilus edulis feeding at different rates (0.1, 0.49 and 1.5 mg dry wt h-1). Uniformly radiolabeled diatoms Thalassiosira pseudonana were fed to mussels for 0.5 h, and the behavior of the radiotracers in individual mussels was followed for 96 h in a depuration seawater system. Assimilation efficiency (AE) of each element declined with increasing ingestion rate and increased with gut passage time. The importance of extracellular digestion relative to intracellular digestion increased with ingestion activity, which, when coupled with a decline in AE, suggested that extracellular digestion is less efficient in metal absorption. Zn assimilation was most affected by ingestion rate, suggesting that AE may play a role in the physiological regulation of this metal in M. edulis. In an experiment to simulate the effects of an acidic gut, lowered pH (5.5) enhanced the release of elements from intact diatom cells, especially at low particle concentration. These results indicate that both feeding components of the mussel (i.e. gut passage time, digestive partitioning) and metal chemistry (i.e. metal release at lowered pH within the bivalve gut) are responsible for the difference in the assimilation of trace metals at different food quantities observed in mussels.

  19. Ingestive behavior of lactating cows fed sugarcane and crude glycerin levels on the diet

    Lucas Teixeira Costa; Fabiano Ferreira da Silva; Aureliano José Vieira Pires; Paulo Bonomo; Eli Santana de Oliveira Rodrigues; Dicastro Dias de Souza; Rodrigo Mateus; Roberio Rodrigues Silva; Alex Rezende Schio

    2014-01-01

    The crude glycerin used as feed for ruminants has drawn attention of the researchers for dealing with environmental aspects. Considering current legislation did not establish how to treat this product, this is a low cost alternative of great amount of a residue of the biodiesel production. In this study we evaluated different crude glycerin levels on ingestive behavior which were studied as the diet of lactating cows fed with sugarcane. The glycerin levels were 0, 4, 8 and 12% of the dry matt...

  20. Workflows for ingest of research data into digital archives : tests with Archivematica

    Ingo Kirchner; Roland Bertelmann; Petra Gebauer; Tim Hasler; Nora Mettig; Jens Klump; Wolfgang Peters-­Kottig; Beate Rusch; Damian Ulbricht

    2013-01-01

    Publication of research data and future re-use of measured data require the long-term preservation of digital objects. The ISO OAIS reference model defines responsibilities for long-term preservation of digital objects and although there is software available to support preservation of digital data, there are still problems remaining to be solved. A key task in preservation is to make the datasets ready for ingest into the archive, which is called the creation of Submission Information Packag...