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Sample records for acute infectious diarrhea

  1. Rifaximin for the treatment of acute infectious diarrhea

    Hong, Kyoung Sup; Kim, Joo Sung

    2011-01-01

    Rifaximin is a nonabsorbable rifamycin derivative with an excellent safety profile and a broad spectrum of antimicrobial activity against a variety of enteropathogens causing acute infectious diarrhea. After oral ingestion, its bioavailability is known to be less than 0.4%, and it has a low potential for significant drug interactions. In the treatment of travelers’ diarrhea caused by noninvasive diarrheagenic Escherichia coli, it has been demonstrated that rifaximin significantly shortens the...

  2. [Acute infectious diarrhea in adults: epidemiology and management].

    Beaugerie, Laurent; Sokol, Harry

    2013-01-01

    Acute diarrhea is defined as an abnormally frequent discharge of semisolid or fluid fecal matter from the bowel, lasting less than 14 days. More than three millions cases of acute diarrhea, presumably due to intestinal infections, are seen in general practice every year in France. Most of the cases are benign and resolve under symptomatic treatment within 3 days, without need for biological tests or antibiotics. In special contexts (septicemic syndrome, visible blood in stools, severe dehydration, patients at risk of severe sepsis [valvulopathy]), biologic tests and probabilist antibiotic treatment are required. Hygiene, rehydration and diet recommendations are always part of the treatment of acute diarrhea, in addition to the symptomatic treatment of diarrhea and other digestive symptoms. Antibiotic-associated diarrhea is clinically benign in most cases, and attributed to transient dysbiosis of gut microbiota. In the remaining cases, diarrhea is the clinical expression of intestinal infection by Clostridium difficile, that should be treated with metronidazole, or the clinical expression of a Klebsiella oxytoca-associated colitis that usually spontaneously resolves after stopping antibiotics. PMID:23253255

  3. Infekcijska driska: Infectious diarrhea:

    Lejko-Zupanc, Tatjana

    2010-01-01

    Diarrhea is one of the most common diseases for which patients seek medical help. Most (more than 90%) cases of acute diarrhea are caused by enteropathogenic bacteria, viruses or parasites. Dehydration is the most frequent and most dangerous complication of diarrhea, but it can be managed with relatively simple procedures. Diarrhea in children is stiH a common reason for consulting a doctor and for hospital admission. Intravenous fluids are recommended for children with shock and/or severe de...

  4. Efficacy of Rifaximin Compared with Ciprofloxacin for the Treatment of Acute Infectious Diarrhea: A Randomized Controlled Multicenter Study

    Hong, Kyoung Sup; Kim, You Sun; Han, Dong Soo; Choi, Chang Hwan; Jang, Byung-Ik; Park, Young-Sook; Lee, Kang-Moon; Lee, Soo Teik; Kim, Hyun-Soo

    2010-01-01

    Background/Aims Ciprofloxacin has been widely prescribed for acute infectious diarrhea. However, the resistance to this drug is increasing. Rifaximin is a novel but poorly absorbed rifamycin derivative. This study evaluated and compared the efficacies of rifaximin and ciprofloxacin for the treatment of acute infectious diarrhea. Methods We performed a randomized controlled multicenter study in Korea. Patients with acute diarrhea were enrolled and randomized to receive rifaximin or ciprofloxacin for 3 days. The primary efficacy endpoint was the time to last unformed stool (TLUS). Secondary endpoints were enteric wellness (reduction of at least 50% in the number of unformed stools during 24-hour postenrollment intervals), general wellness (subjective feeling of improvement), and proportion of patients with treatment failure. Results Intent-to-treat analysis (n=143) showed no significant difference between the rifaximin and ciprofloxacin groups in the mean TLUS (36.1 hours vs 43.6 hours, p=0.163), enteric wellness (49% vs 57%, p=0.428), general wellness (67% vs 78%, p=0.189), or treatment failure rate (9% vs 12%, p=0.841). The adverse events did not differ significantly between the two groups. Conclusions These results suggest that rifaximin is as safe and effective as ciprofloxacin in the treatment of acute infectious diarrhea. PMID:20981213

  5. Probiotics for Infectious Diarrhea and Traveler's Diarrhea - What Do We Really Know?

    Hibberd, Patricia L.

    Worldwide, diarrhea is the sixth leading cause of premature death (Lopez et al., 2006), accounting for more than two million deaths each year. The majority of the burden is borne in lower and middle income countries, and in children under age 5 (Kosek et al., 2003). Even in the United States where there is easy access to “safe” food and water, there are an estimated 211-375 million episodes of acute diarrhea each year, resulting in 900,000 hospitalizations and 6,000 deaths (Herikstad et al., 2002; Mead et al., 1999). While mortality from diarrhea has decreased over the last 30 years, the incidence and morbidity associated with diarrhea has not improved (Kosek et al., 2003). During the same time period an ever increasing number of enteric pathogens as well as non-infectious conditions have been recognized as causes of acute diarrhea (Guerrant et al., 2001).

  6. Acute diarrhea in children

    Radlović Nedeljko

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Acute diarrhea (AD is the most frequent gastroenterological disorder, and the main cause of dehydration in childhood. It is manifested by a sudden occurrence of three or more watery or loose stools per day lasting for seven to 10 days, 14 days at most. It mainly occurs in children until five years of age and particularly in neonates in the second half-year and children until the age of three years. Its primary causes are gastrointestinal infections, viral and bacterial, and more rarely alimentary intoxications and other factors. As dehydration and negative nutritive balance are the main complications of AD, it is clear that the compensation of lost body fluids and adequate diet form the basis of the child’s treatment. Other therapeutic measures, except antipyretics in high febrility, antiparasitic drugs for intestinal lambliasis, anti-amebiasis and probiotics are rarely necessary. This primarily regards uncritical use of antibiotics and intestinal antiseptics in the therapy of bacterial diarrhea. The use of antiemetics, antidiarrhetics and spasmolytics is unnecessary and potentially risky, so that it is not recommended for children with AD.

  7. Diarrhea

    What is diarrhea? Diarrhea is loose, watery stools (bowel movements). You have diarrhea if you have loose stools three or more times in one day. Acute diarrhea is diarrhea that lasts a short time. It ...

  8. The nutritional management of acute diarrhea

    MacLean William

    1996-01-01

    Full Text Available Acute diarrhea may have a profound effect on nutritional status worldwide. After rehvdra-tion, proper nutritional management can mitigate these effects. This paper discusses the advantages and disadvantages of continued feeding, emphasizing that breastfeeding should not be stopped during episodes of acute diarrhea.

  9. [Diagnostic workup and therapy of infectious diarrhea. Current standards].

    Stallmach, A; Hagel, S; Lohse, A W

    2015-12-01

    Infectious diarrhea is very common; its severity ranges from uncomplicated, self-limiting courses to potentially life-threatening disease. A rapid diagnostic workup providing detailed information on the suspected pathogen should be performed only in patients at risk, analyzing one single stool sample for Salmonella, Shigella, Campylobacter, and Norovirus. In the presence of risk factors, such as a history of antibiotic exposure within the last 3 months, testing for Clostridium difficile should be performed. Immunocompetent patients do not require specific antibiotic therapy. Exceptions exist in patients with severe comorbidities, immunodeficiency, fever/SIRS, and in patients with Shigella or C. difficile infection. Empirical antibiotic treatment should be considered in patients with fever and/or bloody diarrhea and in patients at risk. In patients with traveler's diarrhea, microbiological diagnosis is required only in patients with fever, bloody diarrhea, prolonged course of disease (more than 5 days), severe clinical course with hypotension or dehydration, and during outbreaks. In these patients one single fecal sample should be collected for stool cultures of Campylobacter, Shigella, and Salmonella, as well as microscopic examination for amoebiasis and Giardiasis. The main therapeutic measure for infectious diarrhea is sufficient oral rehydration. As in community-acquired diarrhea, azithromycin or ciprofloxacin are recommended-taking into account local antimicrobial resistance in the country of travel and possible side effects. PMID:26573083

  10. Infectious Diarrhea: Norovirus and Clostridium difficile in Older Adults.

    White, Mary B; Rajagopalan, Shobita; Yoshikawa, Thomas T

    2016-08-01

    Norovirus infection usually results in acute gastroenteritis, often with incapacitating nausea, vomiting, and diarrhea. It is highly contagious and resistant to eradication with alcohol-based hand sanitizer. Appropriate preventative and infection control measures can mitigate the morbidity and mortality associated with norovirus infection. Clostridium difficile infection is the leading cause of health care-associated diarrhea in the United States. Antibiotic use is by far the most common risk factor for C difficile colonization and infection. Appropriate preventive measures and judicious use of antibiotics can help mitigate the morbidity and mortality associated with C difficile infection. PMID:27394020

  11. Probiotics, calcium and acute diarrhea : a randomized trial in Indonesian children

    Agustina, R.

    2012-01-01

    Background
    Acute diarrhea and acute respiratory tract infections (ARTIs) continue to lead the infectious cause of morbidity and mortality among children <5 years of age in developing countries, including Indonesia. Efforts to prevent diarrheal disease by probiotics and milk calcium suppleme

  12. RACECADOTRIL IN ACUTE WATERY DIARRHEA IN CHILDREN

    Maha

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND Hypersecretory state of gut epithelium induced by toxins secreted by microorganisms is the main mechanism of fluid loss in diarrheal illness. Enkephalins (Endogenous Opioids secreted by gut epithelium have marked pro-absorptive activity and are inactivated by enzyme enkephalinase. Racecadotril, the study drug act by augmenting the levels of enkephalins by inactivating enzyme enkephalinase thus leading to increased intestinal absorption. AIMS AND OBJECTIVES To study the efficacy of racecadotril in acute watery diarrhea in children. PARTICIPANTS Total of 100 patients who met inclusion criteria in the age group of 6 months to 5 years admitted with acute watery diarrhea and some dehydration were enrolment in the study. Cases were randomly divided into racecadotril and placebo group study outcomes in form of number of stools during first 48 hours of admission, mean daily stool number, total duration of diarrheal illness and recovery time, weight on discharge, volume of oral rehydration solution intake during hospital stay and requirement for unscheduled intravenous infusion were observed. RESULTS There was a significant decrease (43.9% in mean number of stools passed per day in racecadotril group when compared to placebo group. Secondary outcome variables, i.e. mean daily stool number, duration of diarrhea and recovery time, total volume of oral rehydration solution during study period, requirement for unscheduled intravenous infusion also showed a statically significant difference in two groups. Complications rates were not different in the two groups. CONCLUSION Racecadotril can be used as an adjunctive therapy in acute watery diarrhea

  13. Efficacy of synbiotic treatment in children with acute rotavirus diarrhea

    Made Ratna Dewi

    2015-03-01

    Full Text Available Background Diarrhea is one of the major causes of morbidity and mortality in children throughout the world, mostly due to rotavirus infection. In daily practice, we routinely use the World Health Organization Five steps for managing acute diarrhea.This practice has shown great success in diarrhea management, but concerns remain on reducing the duration of diarrhea to prevent complications. Synbiotics can reduce the severity of diarrhea. However, there has been limited data on synbiotic therapy for treating acute rotavirus diarrhea in children. Objective To compare the durations of acute rotavirus diarrhea treated with synbiotics vs. placebo. Methods This study was a randomized, double-blind, clinical trial, performed at the Pediatric Gastrohepatology Division, Sanglah and Wangaya Hospitals in Denpasar. Subjects were children aged 6 to 59 months with acute rotavirus diarrhea. Rotavirus was diagnosed by immune chromatography assay. The synbiotic group received probiotic comprised of Lactobacillus sp., Streptococcus sp., Bifidobacterium sp. (total viable count 1.00x109 CFU per dose, and prebiotic consisted of 990.00 mg fructooligosacharide (FOS. The placebo consisted of lactose monohydrate packaged similarly as the synbiotics. Subjects orally ingested 1 pack per day for 5 days. Results Seventy children with acute rotavirus diarrhea was involved in this study. The median duration of diarrhea in the synbiotic group was 50.0 (SE 1.1; 95%CI 47.9 to 52.1 hours, while that of the placebo group was 63.0 (SE 5.9; 95%CI 51.4 to 74.6 hours. Based on Kaplan-Meier survival analysis, the duration of diarrhea in the synbiotic group was significantly shorter than that of the placebo group (log-rank test P <0.0001. Conclusion In children with acute rotaviral diarrhea, synbiotic reduces the duration of diarrhea compared to placebo. [Paediatr Indones. 2015;55:74-8.].

  14. Acute tonsillitis at infectious patients

    Y. P. Finogeev

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available We examined 1824 patients with diphtheria treated in Clinical Infectious Diseases Hospital Botkin (St. Petersburg in 1993 – 1994, and more than 500 patients referred to the clinic with a diagnosis of «angina». Based on published data and our own research observations investigated the etiology of acute tonsillitis. Bacterial tonsillitis should be treated with antibiotics, and this is important aetiological interpretation of these diseases. Streptococcal tonsillitis should always be a sore throat syndrome as a diagnostic sign of support. For other forms of lymphoma lesion of the tonsils should not be defined as «angina», and called «tonsillitis». Аngina as β-hemolytic streptococcus group A infection is recognized as the leader in the development of rheumatic fever. On the basis of a large clinical material briefly analyzed the clinical manifestations of various forms of diphtheria with membranous tonsillitis. Also presented with a syndrome of infectious diseases as tonsillitis, therapeutic and surgical «mask» of infectious diseases.

  15. Infectious mononucleosis presenting as bilateral acute dacryocystitis.

    Atkinson, P L; Ansons, A M; Patterson, A.

    1990-01-01

    A case of infectious mononucleosis presenting as bilateral acute dacryocystitis in a 7-year-old girl is reported. Acute dacryocystitis is uncommon in this age group, and an underlying systemic illness should be suspected particularly when it is bilateral.

  16. Enteropathogens Associated with Acute Diarrhea in Children from Households with High Socioeconomic Level in Uruguay

    Gustavo Varela

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Infectious diarrhea, a common disease of children, deserves permanent monitoring in all social groups. To know the etiology and clinical manifestations of acute diarrhea in children up to 5 years of age from high socioeconomic level households, we conducted a descriptive, microbiological, and clinical study. Stools from 59 children with acute community-acquired diarrhea were examined, and their parents were interviewed concerning symptoms and signs. Rotavirus, adenovirus, and norovirus were detected by commercially available qualitative immunochromatographic lateral flow rapid tests. Salmonella, Campylobacter, Yersinia, and Shigella were investigated by standard bacteriological methods and diarrheagenic E. coli by PCR assays. We identified a potential enteric pathogen in 30 children. The most frequent causes of diarrhea were enteropathogenic E. coli (EPEC, viruses, Campylobacter, Salmonella, and Shiga-toxin-producing E. coli (STEC. Only 2 patients showed mixed infections. Our data suggest that children with viral or Campylobacter diarrhea were taken to the hospital earlier than those infected with EPEC. One child infected with STEC O26 developed “complete” HUS. The microbiological results highlight the importance of zoonotic bacteria such as atypical EPEC, Campylobacter, STEC, and Salmonella as pathogens associated with acute diarrhea in these children. The findings also reinforce our previous communications about the regional importance of non-O157 STEC strains in severe infant food-borne diseases.

  17. Acute Diarrhea; Admitted Children; Clinical Trial; Zinc Supplementation

    KH Anbari

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Introduction: Acute diarrhea remains a major cause of morbidity and mortality among infants and young children as well as an important determinant of growth faltering in the world. Significant proportions of children who suffer from diarrhea are malnourished with depleted micronutrient stores. Diarrhea also leads to excess loss of micronutrients such as zinc and copper. Methods: This study was a clinical trial. The samples were collected from the children admitted. The children were randomly assigned to zinc and control groups among which zinc group received 2 mg/kg of zinc supplementation daily. A questionnaire was utilized as the research instrument containing the demographic information as well as number of stools and duration of admission. Results: After starting supplementation, the mean duration of diarrhea was 3.7±0.95 days in the zinc group and 4.6±1.8 days in the control group, showing a significant difference (P0.05 except on the sixth day. Conclusion: Zinc supplementation reduces the duration of acute diarrhea in admitted 1-60 month old children but has no effects on severity of acute diarrhea except on the sixth day of diarrhea duration.

  18. Treatment options for infectious diarrhea%感染性腹泻的治疗选择

    缪晓辉

    2011-01-01

    Infectious diarrhea remains a serious public health problem globally. There are controversies and misunderstandings in its therapeutic principles. The author summarizes recent domestic and overseas research progress of infectious diarrhea, and based on clinical experience, discusses the treatment timing and strategies for infectious diarrhea.%感染性腹泻在全球范围内都是严重的公共卫生问题,其治疗原则依然存在争议和误区.本文总结近期国内外研究进展,结合作者自身诊治经验,讨论感染性腹泻的治疗时机和治疗策略问题.

  19. Acute diarrhea during army field exercise in southern China

    Yang Bai; Ying-Chun Dai; Jian-Dong Li; Jun Nie; Qing Chen; Hong Wang; Yong-Yu Rui; Ya-Li Zhang; Shou-Yi Yu

    2004-01-01

    AIM: During emergency period, infectious diseases can bea major threat to military forces. During field training insouthern China, diarrhea is the main cause of nonbattleinjury. To evaluate the causes of and risk factors for diarrheain emergency period, we collected clinical and epidemiologicaldata from the People′s Liberation Army (PLA) during fieldtraining in southern China.METHODS: From September 25 to October 2 1997, 2636military personnel were investigated. Fecal sample cultures for lapactic pathogens were obtained from 103 military personnel with diarrhea. In addition, a questionnaire was administered to 103 cases and 206 controls to evaluate the association between illness and potential risk factors. At the same time,another questionnaire of 1:4 case-case control was administered to 22 severe cases (each severe case paired 4 mild cases).RESULTS: The training troop′s diarrhea incidence rate was significantly higher than that of garrison. The diarrhea incidence rate of officers was significantly lower than that of soldiers. A lapactic pathogen was identified in 63.1% (65/103) of the troops with diarrhea. Enterotoxigenic Escherichia coli(35.0%) and plesiomona shigelloides (16.5%) were the most common bacterial pathogens. All bacterial isolates were sensitive to norfloxacin and ceftazidine. However, almost all of them were resistant to sulfamethoxazole, trimethoprim-sulfamethoxazole,oxytetracycline, doxycycline, furazolidone, ampicillin and cloromycetin to a different degree. Risk factors associated with diarrhea includediidrinking raw water, eating outside,contacting diarrhea patients, lacking sanitation, depression,lacking sleep, which were established by multiple-factor logistic regression analysis. In addition, the unit incidence rate was associated with the density of flies and the average daily boiled water available by regression and discriminate analysis.CONCLUSION: A series of risk factors are associated with the incidence rate of diarrhea. Our

  20. [Diarrheagenic Escherichia coli associated with acute diarrhea in children of Cumaná, Venezuela].

    Hannaoui, Erika; Villalobos, Luz; Martínez, Rosa; Maldonado, Antonio; Hagel, Isabel; Bastardo, Jesús

    2010-12-01

    To establish the prevalence of strains of diarrheagenic Escherichia coli (DEC) associated to acute diarrhea in children of Cumaná, Venezuela, stool samples were taken from 200 children aged ADEC). From 169 E. coli, isolates we determined by PCR 10.65% positive for EPEC (1.18% "typical", 9.47% "atypical"); ETEC (5.91%); EAEC (1.78 %), EIEC (0.59%). There were no statistically significant differences regarding the frequency of each "pathotype" in relation to age, but it did occur when related to the sex (p<0.05). The most relevant clinical features were: fever, vomiting and abdominal pain and the greatest percentage of children affected were of the working and marginal classes. These results shown that the strains of DEC are important etiological agents in acute infectious diarrhea in children of Cumaná. PMID:21365876

  1. Quantitative analysis of burden of infectious diarrhea associated with floods in northwest of anhui province, china: a mixed method evaluation.

    Guoyong Ding

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: Persistent and heavy rainfall in the upper and middle Huaihe River of China brought about severe floods during the end of June and July 2007. However, there has been no assessment on the association between the floods and infectious diarrhea. This study aimed to quantify the impact of the floods in 2007 on the burden of disease due to infectious diarrhea in northwest of Anhui Province. METHODS: A time-stratified case-crossover analysis was firstly conducted to examine the relationship between daily cases of infectious diarrhea and the 2007 floods in Fuyang and Bozhou of Anhui Province. Odds ratios (ORs of the flood risk were quantified by conditional logistic regression. The years lived with disability (YLDs of infectious diarrhea attributable to floods were then estimated based on the WHO framework of the calculating potential impact fraction in the Burden of Disease study. RESULTS: A total of 197 infectious diarrheas were notified during the exposure and control periods in the two study areas. The strongest effect was shown with a 2-day lag in Fuyang and a 5-day lag in Bozhou. Multivariable analysis showed that floods were significantly associated with an increased risk of the number cases of infectious diarrhea (OR = 3.175, 95%CI: 1.126-8.954 in Fuyang; OR = 6.754, 95%CI: 1.954-23.344 in Bozhou. Attributable YLD per 1000 of infectious diarrhea resulting from the floods was 0.0081 in Fuyang and 0.0209 in Bozhou. CONCLUSIONS: Our findings confirm that floods have significantly increased the risks of infectious diarrhea in the study areas. In addition, prolonged moderate flood may cause more burdens of infectious diarrheas than severe flood with a shorter duration. More attention should be paid to particular vulnerable groups, including younger children and elderly, in developing public health preparation and intervention programs. Findings have significant implications for developing strategies to prevent and reduce health

  2. Oral Zinc Supplementation for the Treatment of Acute Diarrhea

    Sh Gheibi

    2014-04-01

    Full Text Available Introduction: Diarrheal diseases are a serious health problem and important causes of growth retardation and death in the developing world, especially those of prolonged duration. Since diarrhea is constantly found in children with zinc deficiency, very studies supported zinc supplements beneficial on the duration and severity of diarrhea among children. We review the impact of zinc effects on diarrhea in South-West Asia to update the evidences and to assess its effect on the global burden of diarrhea.   Materials and Methods: We conduct a systematic review through January 2014, for randomized controlled trials relevant to effect of zinc on diarrhea in children. We searched the MeSH terms zinc, acute gastroenteritis and children from various databases of Cochrane Library and PubMed, then clinical trials done in South-West Asia, selected for making written. Results: In recent years, several studies have reported the therapeutic effect of zinc supplementation on diarrheal diseases that was beneficial on decreased episode duration, stool output, stool frequency, hospitalization duration. In some countries in West Asia such as Lebanon, Israel, Saudi Arabia and Iran in clinical trials showed a faster improvement in acute gastroenteritis in children less than five years. But in some countries, such as Turkey, this effect was not significant.   Conclusions: Oral zinc supplementation significantly decreases diarrhea duration and has a greater effect on malnourished children. Zinc supplementation seems to be an appropriate public health strategy, mainly in areas of endemic deficiencies. Global attempts should is increased to support recommended regimen of therapeutic zinc by WHO in all areas. Keywords: Acute Gastroenteritis, Children, Zinc, South-West Asia.  

  3. Acute cerebellar ataxia and infectious mononucleosis.

    Wadhwa, N. K.; Ghose, R R

    1983-01-01

    A 28-year-old man, who presented with acute cerebellar ataxia, was found to have haematological features of infectious mononucleosis. There was serological evidence of recent infection with Epstein-Barr virus. It is speculated that cerebellar dysfunction results from virus-induced inflammatory changes within the central nervous system.

  4. Impacts of different grades of tropical cyclones on infectious diarrhea in Guangdong, 2005-2011.

    Ruihua Kang

    Full Text Available Guangdong province is one of the most vulnerable provinces to tropical cyclones in China. Most prior studies concentrated on the relationship between tropical cyclones and injuries and mortality. This study aimed to explore the impacts of different grades of tropical cyclones on infectious diarrhea incidence in Guangdong province, from 2005 to 2011.Mann-Whitney U test was firstly used to examine if infectious diarrhea were sensitive to tropical cyclone. Then unidirectional 1:1 case-crossover design was performed to quantitatively evaluate the relationship between daily number of infectious diarrhea and tropical cyclone from 2005 to 2011 in Guangdong, China. Principal component analysis (PCA was applied to eliminate multicollinearity. Multivariate logistic regression model was used to estimate the hazard ratios (HRs and the 95% confidence intervals (CI.There were no significant relationships between tropical cyclone and bacillary dysentery, amebic dysentery, typhoid, and paratyphoid cases. Infectious diarrhea other than cholera, dysentery, typhoid and paratyphoid significantly increased after tropical cyclones. The strongest effect were shown on lag 1 day (HRs = 1.95, 95%CI = 1.22, 3.12 and no lagged effect was detected for tropical depression, tropical storm, severe tropical storm and typhoon, with the largest HRs (95%CI of 2.16 (95%CI = 1.69, 2.76, 2.43 (95%CI = 1.65, 3.58 and 2.21 (95%CI = 1.65, 2.69, respectively. Among children below 5 years old, the impacts of all grades of tropical cyclones were strongest at lag 0 day. And HRs were 2.67 (95%CI = 1.10, 6.48, 2.49 (95%CI = 1.80, 3.44, 4.89 (95%CI = 2.37, 7.37 and 3.18 (95%CI = 2.10, 4.81, respectively.All grades of tropical cyclones could increase risk of other infectious diarrhea. Severe tropical storm has the strongest influence on other infectious diarrhea. The impacts of tropical cyclones on children under 5 years old were higher than total population.

  5. Acute diarrhea associated with Salmonella enterica in Belo Horizonte-MG: prevalence and characterization of isolates Diarreia aguda associada a Salmonella enterica em Belo Horizonte-MG: prevalência e caracterização das amostras isoladas

    Mireille Ângela Bernardes Sousa; Edilberto Nogueira Mendes; Francisco José Penna; Luciano Amedée Péret-Filho; Paula Prazeres Magalhães

    2013-01-01

    Introduction: Acute infectious diarrhea is still regarded as a public health problem associated with a wide range of etiologic agents, from which Salmonella enterica is particularly worth mentioning inasmuch as it is a major cause of inflammatory diarrhea in both developed and developing countries. Objective: To assess the distribution of S. enterica among children with acute diarrhea in Belo Horizonte and to characterize bacterium isolates. Material and methods: The study group comprised a t...

  6. Management of acute diarrhea in children by community pharmacists in Lagos, Nigeria

    Ogbo PU; Aina BA; Aderemi-Williams RI

    2014-01-01

    Background: Acute diarrhea in children leads to dehydration and death if not appropriately managed. World Health Organization (WHO) recommends treating diarrhea with oral rehydration therapy (ORT), fluids and foods. Proper management is hinged on accurate assessment of patients to identify the acute watery diarrhea. Objective: To compare the knowledge and attitude of community pharmacists in the management of acute diarrhea in children with their observed practice. Methods: This study w...

  7. Case-Control Study of acute diarrhea in Children

    A Vafaee

    2011-06-01

    Full Text Available

    Background: To determine the risk factor for acute diarrhea disease in children. Methods: In the survey, 220 cases and 220 controls were involved. Cases were children with loose watery feces, pathologically diagnosed as acute diarrhea by the physician, and enrolled from the Emergency Ward as the Incident Cases in Dr. Sheykh Hospital, Mashhad, northeast of Iran. Control group too, was enrolled from the same cases and the members were children whose risk factors disease were not the risk factor for acute diarrhea, and were enrolled from emergency ward of burn patients, accidents, acute respiratory diseases and eligible patients.

    Results: By using univariate logistic regression models, variables consisting used milk up to 6 months age, antibiotic usage during the last 15 days, mother's employment, mother's acquaintance with ORS, occupancy, and water slack during the week before illness, were significantly related with acute diarrhea. In a multiple logistic regression, the relationship between the said factors as the independent variables and acute diarrhea was studied. Use of formulas before 6 month age with (95% CI 1.77- 5.79 OR=3.21, and tenantry with (95% CI 1.24-2.71 OR=1.83, and mother

  8. PROBIOTICS AS TREATMENT OF ACUTE DIARRHEA IN INFANT AND CHILDREN

    I Wayan Wawan

    2013-10-01

    Full Text Available Normal 0 false false false EN-US X-NONE X-NONE MicrosoftInternetExplorer4 Diarrhea is a common disease in children after acute respiratory tract infection. Expected, diarrhea was found approximately one billion cases per year and the first etiology of morbidity and mortality in children in Asia, Africa, and America Latin. The management of acute diarrhea according to WHO recommendation consisted of oral rehydration (low osmolarity ORS, diet, zinc supplementation, selective antibiotic, and education to parents. In several randomized controlled trials (RCT and meta-analysis was showing that probiotics effective for primary and secondary prevention of acute diarrhea.     st1\\:*{behavior:url(#ieooui } /* Style Definitions */ table.MsoNormalTable {mso-style-name:"Table Normal"; mso-tstyle-rowband-size:0; mso-tstyle-colband-size:0; mso-style-noshow:yes; mso-style-priority:99; mso-style-qformat:yes; mso-style-parent:""; mso-padding-alt:0in 5.4pt 0in 5.4pt; mso-para-margin:0in; mso-para-margin-bottom:.0001pt; mso-pagination:widow-orphan; font-size:11.0pt; font-family:"Calibri","sans-serif"; mso-ascii-font-family:Calibri; mso-ascii-theme-font:minor-latin; mso-fareast-font-family:"Times New Roman"; mso-fareast-theme-font:minor-fareast; mso-hansi-font-family:Calibri; mso-hansi-theme-font:minor-latin; mso-bidi-font-family:"Times New Roman"; mso-bidi-theme-font:minor-bidi;}

  9. Diarrhea and Swimming

    ... Pool What to Do if You Have Diarrhea Diarrhea and Swimming Diarrhea and swimming don’t mix! ... small amount of pool water to become infected. Diarrhea and Spreading Illness at the Pool Infectious diarrhea ...

  10. Correlation between gut pathogens and fecal calprotectin levels in young children with acute diarrhea

    Yanever Angela Lam; Sarah M Warouw; Audrey M. I. Wahani; Jeanette I.C. Manoppo; Praevilia Margareth Salendu

    2014-01-01

    Background In cases of acute diarrhea, it is difficult to distinguish between bacterial and non-bacterial causes. Increased fecal calprotectin (f-CP) level is a marker of neutrophil migration in the intestinal lumen and is associated with intestinal inflammation. Previous studies reported an increase in f-CP levels in children with acute diarrhea, which is caused by bacteria, but only few have studied the relationship between intestinal pathogens with f-CP levels in acute diarrhea. Object...

  11. Diarrhea, pneumonia, and infectious disease mortality in children aged 5 to 14 years in India.

    Shaun K Morris

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: Little is known about the causes of death in children in India after age five years. The objective of this study is to provide the first ever direct national and sub-national estimates of infectious disease mortality in Indian children aged 5 to 14 years. METHODS: A verbal autopsy based assessment of 3 855 deaths is children aged 5 to 14 years from a nationally representative survey of deaths occurring in 2001-03 in 1.1 million homes in India. RESULTS: Infectious diseases accounted for 58% of all deaths among children aged 5 to 14 years. About 18% of deaths were due to diarrheal diseases, 10% due to pneumonia, 8% due to central nervous system infections, 4% due to measles, and 12% due to other infectious diseases. Nationally, in 2005 about 59 000 and 34 000 children aged 5 to 14 years died from diarrheal diseases and pneumonia, corresponding to mortality of 24.1 and 13.9 per 100 000 respectively. Mortality was nearly 50% higher in girls than in boys for both diarrheal diseases and pneumonia. CONCLUSIONS: Approximately 60% of all deaths in this age group are due to infectious diseases and nearly half of these deaths are due to diarrheal diseases and pneumonia. Mortality in this age group from infectious diseases, and diarrhea in particular, is much higher than previously estimated.

  12. Diarrhea

    ... such as fruit juices, sports drinks, caffeine-free soft drinks, and broths. Children with diarrhea should be given ... from street vendors Travelers can drink bottled water, soft drinks, and hot drinks such as coffee or tea. ...

  13. Diarrhea

    ... as lactose, the sugar found in milk and milk products. Some people may have diarrhea if they eat certain types of sugar substitutes in excessive quantities. Reaction to medicines. Antibiotics, cancer drugs, and antacids containing magnesium can all cause ...

  14. Management of acute diarrhea in children by community pharmacists in Lagos, Nigeria

    Ogbo PU

    2014-03-01

    Full Text Available Background: Acute diarrhea in children leads to dehydration and death if not appropriately managed. World Health Organization (WHO recommends treating diarrhea with oral rehydration therapy (ORT, fluids and foods. Proper management is hinged on accurate assessment of patients to identify the acute watery diarrhea. Objective: To compare the knowledge and attitude of community pharmacists in the management of acute diarrhea in children with their observed practice. Methods: This study was carried out using two instruments: structured self-administered questionnaire to assess knowledge and attitude of community pharmacists in the management of acute diarrhea in children and simulated patient visits to evaluate assessment of patients, recommendation of products and instructions on feeding and fluid intake. The simulated patient visits were done in 186 pharmacies in the city of Lagos, Nigeria. Results: The study reveals that the knowledge and attitude of community pharmacists in the management of acute diarrhea in children was different from their observed practice. The difference was statistically significant (p<0.05. During the simulations, 23% carried out appropriate assessment before recommending any products, and 15% recommended ORT alone. Although information to the pharmacists indicated non-dysentery, non-cholera, acute watery diarrhea, antibiotics and antidiarrheals were irrationally recommended and these were the mainstay of symptoms’ management in practice. Questionnaire data revealed that 24% of pharmacists knew the correct instructions to give on food and fluid intake during diarrhea, whereas 8% followed WHO guideline on food and fluid intake during the visits. Conclusions: Assessment of patients to determine acute diarrhea was inadequate. Observed practice in managing acute diarrhea in children was inappropriate and significantly different from their claims in the questionnaire. The recommendation of ORT was scanty and advice on food

  15. Zinc and copper supplementation in acute diarrhea in children: a double-blind randomized controlled trial

    Mamtani Manju

    2009-05-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Diarrhea causes an estimated 2.5 million child deaths in developing countries each year, 35% of which are due to acute diarrhea. Zinc and copper stores in the body are known to be depleted during acute diarrhea. Our objectives were to evaluate the efficacy of zinc and copper supplementation when given with standard treatment to children with acute watery or bloody diarrhea. Methods We conducted a double-blind randomized controlled clinical trial in the Department of Pediatrics at Indira Gandhi Government Medical College Nagpur, India. Eight hundred and eight children aged 6 months to 59 months with acute diarrhea were individually randomized to placebo (Pl, zinc (Zn only, and zinc and copper (Zn+Cu together with standard treatment for acute diarrhea. Results The mean duration of diarrhea from enrolment and the mean stool weight during hospital stay were 63.7 hours and 940 grams, respectively, and there were no significant differences in the adjusted means across treatment groups. Similarly, the adjusted means of the amount of oral rehydration solution or intravenous fluids used, the proportion of participants with diarrhea more than 7 days from onset, and the severity of diarrhea indicated by more than three episodes of some dehydration or any episode of severe dehydration after enrolment, did not differ across the three groups. Conclusion The expected beneficial effects of zinc supplementation for acute diarrhea were not observed. Therapeutic Zn or Zn and Cu supplementation may not have a universal beneficial impact on the duration of acute diarrhea in children. Trial registration The study was registered as an International Standard Randomized Controlled Trial (ISRCTN85071383.

  16. Nutritional Management of Acute Diarrhea in Infants and Children.

    National Academy of Sciences-National Research Council, Washington, DC. Food and Nutrition Board.

    Written primarily for health professionals advising on programs and policy related to nutrition and diarrhea therapy, this report is aimed at management of diarrhea in less-developed countries, but its information and technical insights are relevant to an understanding of diarrhea and its management throughout the world. Technical in orientation…

  17. Characterization of microbial dysbiosis and metabolomic changes in dogs with acute diarrhea.

    Blake C Guard

    Full Text Available Limited information is available regarding the metabolic consequences of intestinal dysbiosis in dogs with acute onset of diarrhea. The aim of this study was to evaluate the fecal microbiome, fecal concentrations of short-chain fatty acids (SCFAs, as well as serum and urine metabolites in healthy dogs (n=13 and dogs with acute diarrhea (n=13. The fecal microbiome, SCFAs, and serum/urine metabolite profiles were characterized by 454-pyrosequencing of the 16S rRNA genes, GC/MS, and untargeted and targeted metabolomics approach using UPLC/MS and HPLC/MS, respectively. Significantly lower bacterial diversity was observed in dogs with acute diarrhea in regards to species richness, chao1, and Shannon index (p=0.0218, 0.0176, and 0.0033; respectively. Dogs with acute diarrhea had significantly different microbial communities compared to healthy dogs (unweighted Unifrac distances, ANOSIM p=0.0040. While Bacteroidetes, Faecalibacterium, and an unclassified genus within Ruminococcaceae were underrepresented, the genus Clostridium was overrepresented in dogs with acute diarrhea. Concentrations of fecal propionic acid were significantly decreased in acute diarrhea (p=0.0033, and were correlated to a decrease in Faecalibacterium (ρ=0.6725, p=0.0332. The predicted functional gene content of the microbiome (PICRUSt revealed overrepresentations of genes for transposase enzymes as well as methyl accepting chemotaxis proteins in acute diarrhea. Serum concentrations of kynurenic acid and urine concentrations of 2-methyl-1H-indole and 5-Methoxy-1H-indole-3-carbaldehyde were significantly decreased in acute diarrhea (p=0.0048, 0.0185, and 0.0330, respectively. These results demonstrate that the fecal dysbiosis present in acute diarrhea is associated with altered systemic metabolic states.

  18. Characterization of microbial dysbiosis and metabolomic changes in dogs with acute diarrhea.

    Guard, Blake C; Barr, James W; Reddivari, Lavanya; Klemashevich, Cory; Jayaraman, Arul; Steiner, Jörg M; Vanamala, Jairam; Suchodolski, Jan S

    2015-01-01

    Limited information is available regarding the metabolic consequences of intestinal dysbiosis in dogs with acute onset of diarrhea. The aim of this study was to evaluate the fecal microbiome, fecal concentrations of short-chain fatty acids (SCFAs), as well as serum and urine metabolites in healthy dogs (n=13) and dogs with acute diarrhea (n=13). The fecal microbiome, SCFAs, and serum/urine metabolite profiles were characterized by 454-pyrosequencing of the 16S rRNA genes, GC/MS, and untargeted and targeted metabolomics approach using UPLC/MS and HPLC/MS, respectively. Significantly lower bacterial diversity was observed in dogs with acute diarrhea in regards to species richness, chao1, and Shannon index (p=0.0218, 0.0176, and 0.0033; respectively). Dogs with acute diarrhea had significantly different microbial communities compared to healthy dogs (unweighted Unifrac distances, ANOSIM p=0.0040). While Bacteroidetes, Faecalibacterium, and an unclassified genus within Ruminococcaceae were underrepresented, the genus Clostridium was overrepresented in dogs with acute diarrhea. Concentrations of fecal propionic acid were significantly decreased in acute diarrhea (p=0.0033), and were correlated to a decrease in Faecalibacterium (ρ=0.6725, p=0.0332). The predicted functional gene content of the microbiome (PICRUSt) revealed overrepresentations of genes for transposase enzymes as well as methyl accepting chemotaxis proteins in acute diarrhea. Serum concentrations of kynurenic acid and urine concentrations of 2-methyl-1H-indole and 5-Methoxy-1H-indole-3-carbaldehyde were significantly decreased in acute diarrhea (p=0.0048, 0.0185, and 0.0330, respectively). These results demonstrate that the fecal dysbiosis present in acute diarrhea is associated with altered systemic metabolic states. PMID:26000959

  19. Systematic review of probiotics for the treatment of community-acquired acute diarrhea in children

    Applegate, Jennifer A; Fischer Walker, Christa L.; Ambikapathi, Ramya; Robert E. Black

    2013-01-01

    Background Oral rehydration salts (ORS), zinc, and continued feeding are the recommended treatments for community-acquired acute diarrhea among young children. However, probiotics are becoming increasingly popular treatments for diarrhea in some countries. We sought to estimate the effect of probiotics on diarrhea morbidity and mortality in children < 5 years of age. Methods We conducted a systematic review of randomized controlled trials to estimate the effect of probiotic microorganisms for...

  20. Oral Zinc Supplementation for the Treatment of Acute Diarrhea

    Sh Gheibi; Z Kousehlou; Z Sahebazzamani

    2014-01-01

    Introduction: Diarrheal diseases are a serious health problem and important causes of growth retardation and death in the developing world, especially those of prolonged duration. Since diarrhea is constantly found in children with zinc deficiency, very studies supported zinc supplements beneficial on the duration and severity of diarrhea among children. We review the impact of zinc effects on diarrhea in South-West Asia to update the evidences and to assess its effect on the global burden of...

  1. Oral rehydration salts, zinc supplement and rota virus vaccine in the management of childhood acute diarrhea

    Abdulwahab MA Telmesani

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available Acute diarrhea remains a major cause of morbidity and mortality in children. Since the introduction of oral rehydration salts (ORS mortality has dropped to less than 50% worldwide. Low osmolarity ORS improved the outcome and reduced the hospitalization further. Zinc difficiency has been found to be associated with severe episodes of acute diarrhea. Zinc supplement in developing countries did reduce the incidence and prevalence of diarrhea. In addition, Zinc supplement significantly reduced the severity of diarrhea and duration of the episode. In the Americas and Europe, Rota virus vaccine was 90% effective in preventing severe episodes of severe rotavirus gastroenteritis. This review concludes that low osmolarilty ORS, zinc supplementation and rotavirus vaccine are major factors in reducing the morbidity, mortality and hospitalization resulting from to acute gastroenteritis in childhood.

  2. Detection of Infectious Bovine Rhinotracheitis and Bovine Viral Diarrhea Viruses in the Nasal Epithelial Cells by the Direct Immunofluorescence Technique

    Silim, A.; Elazhary, M. A. S. Y.

    1983-01-01

    Nasal epithelial cells were collected by cotton swabs for the diagnosis in experimental and field cases of infectious bovine rhinotracheitis and field cases of bovine viral diarrhea in calves. A portion of the cells was washed twice in phosphate buffered saline and a 25 µL drop was placed on microscope slides. The cells were dried, fixed and stained according to the direct fluorescent antibody technique. Another portion of the same specimen was inoculated onto primary bovine skin cell culture...

  3. Correlation between gut pathogens and fecal calprotectin levels in young children with acute diarrhea

    Yanever Angela Lam

    2014-07-01

    Full Text Available Background In cases of acute diarrhea, it is difficult to distinguish between bacterial and non-bacterial causes. Increased fecal calprotectin (f-CP level is a marker of neutrophil migration in the intestinal lumen and is associated with intestinal inflammation. Previous studies reported an increase in f-CP levels in children with acute diarrhea, which is caused by bacteria, but only few have studied the relationship between intestinal pathogens with f-CP levels in acute diarrhea. Objective To assess for a correlation between gut pathogens and fecal calprotectin levels in children with acute diarrhea. Methods We conducted a cross-sectional study between July to November 2012 on children aged 1-5 years with acute diarrhea, and underwent routine blood tests, stool microscopy, f-CP tests, and stool cultures. We used a simple linear regression and correlation analysis with a significance level of P<0.05. Results Forty-two children enrolled in this study. The mean age of subjects was 2.27 (SD 1.34 years. Their mean f-CP level was 93.88 (SD 14.68 μg/g. On microscopic stool examination, 26 patients (61.9% had positive leukocytes, 1 had Ancylostoma duodenale, 1 had Ascaris lumbricoides, and 2 had Blastocystis hominis. Positive stool cultures were found in 14 children (33.3% with acute diarrhea. There was a significant positive correlation between gut pathogens and f-CP levels (r=0.605; P<0.0001. Conclusion In young children with acute diarrhea, the average f-CP levels are higher in those with positive intestinal pathogens. [Paediatr Indones. 2014;54:193-7.].

  4. Influence of Zinc Supplementation in Acute Diarrhea Differs by the Isolated Organism

    Archana B. Patel

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available Zinc supplementation is recommended in all acute diarrheas in children from developing countries. We aimed to assess whether zinc supplementation would be equally effective against all the common organisms associated with acute diarrheas. We used data on 801 children with acute diarrhea recruited in a randomized, double blind controlled trial (ISRCTN85071383 of zinc and copper supplementation. Using prespecified subgroup analyses, multidimensionality reduction analyses, tests of heterogeneity, and stepwise logistic regression for tests of interactions, we found that the influence of zinc on the risk of diarrhea for more than 3 days depended on the isolated organism—beneficial in Klebsiella, neutral in Esherichia coli and parasitic infections, and detrimental in rotavirus coinfections. Although we found similar results for the outcome of high stool volume, the results did not reach statistical significance. Our findings suggest that the current strategy of zinc supplementation in all cases of acute diarrheas in children may need appropriate fine tuning to optimize the therapeutic benefit based on the causative organism, but further studies need to confirm and extend our findings.

  5. A Case Of Infectious Mononucleosis With Acute Inflammatory Demyelinating Polyradiculoneuropathy

    Somani S K

    2003-01-01

    Full Text Available We report a case of Acute inflammatory demyelinating polyradiculo neuropathy (AIDP, following infectious mononucleosis. A 12 year old girl presented with acute flaccid quadriplegia with bilateral cervical lymphadenopathy and enlarged tonsils six weeks after a febrile illness. Cerebrospinal fluid revealed albuminocytological dissociation and electrophysiology showed evidence of axonal-demyelinating polyradiculoneuropathy. Heterophile antibody test was positive and lymph node biopsy showed non -specific reactive hyperplasia. She was managed conservatively with good outcome.

  6. Characterization of Microbial Dysbiosis and Metabolomic Changes in Dogs with Acute Diarrhea

    Guard, Blake C.; James W Barr; Reddivari, Lavanya; Klemashevich, Cory; Jayaraman, Arul; Steiner, Jörg M.; Vanamala, Jairam; Jan S. Suchodolski

    2015-01-01

    Limited information is available regarding the metabolic consequences of intestinal dysbiosis in dogs with acute onset of diarrhea. The aim of this study was to evaluate the fecal microbiome, fecal concentrations of short-chain fatty acids (SCFAs), as well as serum and urine metabolites in healthy dogs (n=13) and dogs with acute diarrhea (n=13). The fecal microbiome, SCFAs, and serum/urine metabolite profiles were characterized by 454-pyrosequencing of the 16S rRNA genes, GC/MS, and untargete...

  7. An Acute Hemorrhagic Infectious Disease: Ebola Virus Disease

    Lei JIAO

    2014-09-01

    Full Text Available Ebola virus disease (EVD is an acute hemorrhagic infectious disease caused by ebola virus, with high infectivity and fatality rate. At present, it mainly occurs in areas of Central Africa and West Africa and no effective vaccine and antiviral drugs are available for the clinical treatment.

  8. Recovery of Virulent and RNase-Negative Attenuated Type 2 Bovine Viral Diarrhea Viruses from Infectious cDNA Clones

    Meyer, Christiane; von Freyburg, Martina; Elbers, Knut; Meyers, Gregor

    2002-01-01

    Cloned cDNA derived from the genome of the virulent type 2 bovine viral diarrhea virus (BVDV) strain NY'93/C was sequenced and served for establishment of the infectious cDNA clone pKANE40A. Virus recovered from pKANE40A exhibited growth characteristics similar to those of wild-type BVDV NY'93/C and proved to be clinically indistinguishable from the wild-type virus in animal experiments. A virus mutant in which the RNase residing in the viral glycoprotein Erns was inactivated, revealed an att...

  9. Campylobacter enteritis in adult patients with acute diarrhea from 2005 to 2009 in Beijing, China

    CHEN Jie; SUN Xin-ting; ZENG Zheng; YU Yan-yan

    2011-01-01

    Background There has been a marked global increase in the incidence of human Campylobacter enteritis in recent years. This study investigated the epidemiological and clinical features of Campylobacter enteritis in adult patients suffering from acute diarrhea.Methods This was a retrospective review of Campylobacter enteritis in adult patients with acute diarrhea presenting at Beijing University First Hospital, Beijing, China, in the summer and autumn (April to October) of 2005 to 2009. The data collected included the species of campylobacter identified, and the age, gender, clinical manifestations and results of laboratory test on stool samples collected from the patients. Campylobacter sensitivity tests to various antimicrobial agents were conducted on 80 specimens. Chi-square tests were applied using SPSS13.0 software and a two-sided P value of <0.05 was considered statistically significant.Results Campylobacter spp. isolated from the stool specimens of 142 patients with diarrhea represented 14.9% of all the cases examined. C. jejuni was identified in 127 patients (89.4%) and C. coli in 15 others (10.6%). The infection incidence was highest in the age range of 21-30 years which comprised 21.7% of the total cases examined. Most cases of diarrhea (46 patients) occurred in June. Watery diarrhea (97.2%), abdominal pain (72.5%) and fever (64.8%) were the most common manifestations of enteric campylobacteriosis. Only four patients (2.8%) had bloody diarrhea. The antimicrobial resistance rates were: cefoperazone (100%), levofloxacin (61.3%), gentamicin (12.5%), erythromycin (6.3%), and azithromycin (2.5%).Conclusions Campylobacter was prevalent among adults with acute diarrhea from 2005 to 2009 in Beijing, China. The large number of those afflicted by the disease warrants the commission of a large multicenter study to determine the extent of enteric campylobacteriosis in this region.

  10. Incidence of Acute Diarrhea Among Children Aged 0 - 1 Year in Southern Brazil, 2012

    Nascimento

    2015-09-01

    Full Text Available Background The incidence rate of acute diarrheal disease in children is a health indicator, and the estimation of these data can help guide public health policies. Objectives The aim of this study was to estimate the incidence and risk factors for acute diarrheal disease in children aged 0 - 1 year. Patients and Methods An observational prospective cohort study was conducted on 210 children recruited at Hospital Nossa Senhora da Conceicao, in Tubarao, state of Santa Catarina, Brazil. Children born between July and September 2012 were followed up for 12 months. The presence of three or more liquid or loose stools during a 24-hour period was considered acute diarrhea. The categories of variables evaluated were comprised of sociodemographic characteristics (per capita income, maternal education, maternal age, access to medical care [public or private], and housing and living conditions [sanitation and hygiene, water supply, daycare attendance, and domestic animal] and characteristics of the child (gender, birth weight, and breastfeeding. Results The incidence of acute diarrhea among the 0 - 1-year-old children was 26.7 cases per 1,000 children per month. Independent risk factors for the occurrence of diarrhea were maternal age under 20 years and health care services provided by the Brazilian National Health System (SUS. Conclusions The high incidence density of diarrhea among the children recruited in this study indicates the need for educational programs directed at people who are involved in this issue.

  11. Campylobacter jejuni and Campylobacter coli in Children With Acute Diarrhea in Health Centers of Hamadan, Iran

    Rastyani; Alikhani; Sedighi; Kazemi; Farhadi Kohan; Arabestani

    2015-01-01

    Background Enteritis caused by Campylobacter is considered as the most common acute bacterial diarrhea around the world. In most cases, infection occurs as a result of consuming contaminated water or food, especially raw meat of fowls. Objectives The purpose of the present study was to determine the prevalence and antibiotic resistance of campylobacter species among pediatrics of Hamadan city, Iran. ...

  12. Association between child-care and acute diarrhea: a study in Portuguese children

    Barros Henrique

    2003-01-01

    Full Text Available OBJECTIVE: To quantify the influence of the type of child-care on the occurrence of acute diarrhea with special emphasis on the effect of children grouping during care. METHODS: From October 1998 to January 1999 292 children, aged 24 to 36 months, recruited using a previously assembled cohort of newborns, were evaluated. Information on the type of care and occurrence of diarrhea in the previous year was obtained from parents by telephone interview. The X² and Kruskal-Wallis tests were used to compare proportions and quantitative variables, respectively. The risk of diarrhea was estimated through the calculation of incident odds ratios (OR and their respective 95% confidence intervals (95% CI, crude and adjusted by unconditional logistic regression. RESULTS: Using as reference category children cared individually at home, the adjusted ORs for diarrhea occurrence were 3.18, 95% CI [1.49, 6.77] for children cared in group at home, 2.28, 95% CI [0.92, 5.67] for children cared in group in day-care homes and 2.54, 95% CI [1.21, 5.33] for children cared in day-care centers. Children that changed from any other type of child-care setting to child-care centers in the year preceding the study showed a risk even higher (OR 7.65, 95% CI [3.25, 18.02]. CONCLUSIONS: Group care increases the risk of acute diarrhea whatsoever the specific setting.

  13. Therapeutic value of zinc supplementation in acute and persistent diarrhea: a systematic review.

    Archana Patel

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: For over a decade, the importance of zinc in the treatment of acute and persistent diarrhea has been recognized. In spite of recently published reviews, there remain several unanswered questions about the role of zinc supplementation in childhood diarrhea in the developing countries. Our study aimed to assess the therapeutic benefits of zinc supplementation in the treatment of acute or persistent diarrhea in children, and to examine the causes of any heterogeneity of response to zinc supplementation. METHODS AND FINDINGS: EMBASE, MEDLINE and CINAHL databases were searched for published reviews and meta-analyses on the use of zinc supplementation for the prevention and treatment of childhood diarrhea. Additional RCTs published following the meta-analyses were also sought. The reviews and published RCTs were qualitatively mapped followed by updated random-effects meta-analyses, subgroup meta-analyses and meta-regression to quantify and characterize the role of zinc supplementation with diarrhea-related outcomes. We found that although there was evidence to support the use of zinc to treat diarrhea in children, there was significant unexplained heterogeneity across the studies for the effect of zinc supplementation in reducing important diarrhea outcomes. Zinc supplementation reduced the mean duration of diarrhea by 19.7% but had no effect on stool frequency or stool output, and increased the risk of vomiting. Our subgroup meta-analyses and meta-regression showed that age, stunting, breast-feeding and baseline zinc levels could not explain the heterogeneity associated with differential reduction in the mean diarrheal duration. However, the baseline zinc levels may not be representative of the existing zinc deficiency state. CONCLUSIONS: Understanding the predictors of zinc efficacy including the role of diarrheal disease etiology on the response to zinc would help to identify the populations most likely to benefit from supplementation

  14. [Acute oliguric renal failure and haemolytic anaemia following infectious mononucleosis].

    Brkovic, Natasa; Jørgensen, Kit Riegels; Rosenbæk, Jeppe Bakkestrøm; Pedersen, Erling Bjerregaard

    2015-11-01

    A 19-year-old man was admitted to hospital due to fatigue, nausea, abdominal pain and faint. He was pale and icteric, awake with sufficient respiration and circulation. He had infectious mononucleosis complicated with acute oliguric renal failure and severe haemolytic anaemia with a positive Coombs test. He had a cold agglutinin syndrome. The treatment comprised intermittent haemodialysis, plasmapheresis and heating. He recovered completely after two months. PMID:26573947

  15. The fecal microbiome in dogs with acute diarrhea and idiopathic inflammatory bowel disease.

    Jan S Suchodolski

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: Recent molecular studies have revealed a highly complex bacterial assembly in the canine intestinal tract. There is mounting evidence that microbes play an important role in the pathogenesis of acute and chronic enteropathies of dogs, including idiopathic inflammatory bowel disease (IBD. The aim of this study was to characterize the bacterial microbiota in dogs with various gastrointestinal disorders. METHODOLOGY/PRINCIPAL FINDINGS: Fecal samples from healthy dogs (n = 32, dogs with acute non-hemorrhagic diarrhea (NHD; n = 12, dogs with acute hemorrhagic diarrhea (AHD; n = 13, and dogs with active (n = 9 and therapeutically controlled idiopathic IBD (n = 10 were analyzed by 454-pyrosequencing of the 16S rRNA gene and qPCR assays. Dogs with acute diarrhea, especially those with AHD, had the most profound alterations in their microbiome, as significant separations were observed on PCoA plots of unweighted Unifrac distances. Dogs with AHD had significant decreases in Blautia, Ruminococcaceae including Faecalibacterium, and Turicibacter spp., and significant increases in genus Sutterella and Clostridium perfringens when compared to healthy dogs. No significant separation on PCoA plots was observed for the dogs with IBD. Faecalibacterium spp. and Fusobacteria were, however, decreased in the dogs with clinically active IBD, but increased during time periods of clinically insignificant IBD, as defined by a clinical IBD activity index (CIBDAI. CONCLUSIONS: Results of this study revealed a bacterial dysbiosis in fecal samples of dogs with various GI disorders. The observed changes in the microbiome differed between acute and chronic disease states. The bacterial groups that were commonly decreased during diarrhea are considered to be important short-chain fatty acid producers and may be important for canine intestinal health. Future studies should correlate these observed phylogenetic differences with functional changes in the intestinal

  16. A blind, randomized comparison of racecadotril and loperamide for stopping acute diarrhea in adults

    Hwang-Huei Wang; Ming-Jium Shieh; Kuan-Fu Liao

    2005-01-01

    AIM: Racecadotril is a specific enkephalinase inhibitor that exhibits intestinal antisecretory activity without affecting intestinal transit. Loperamide is an effective anti-diarrheal agent, but it usually induces constipation. This study is to compare the efficacy, safety, and tolerability of racecadotril versus Ioperamide in the outpatient treatment of acute diarrhea in adults.METHODS: A two-center, randomized, parallel-group,single-blind study was carried out to compare the efficacy,tolerability, and safety of racecadotril (100 mg thrics daily)and Ioperamide (2.0 mg 2 twics daily) in 62 adult patients suffering from acute diarrhea. The main efficacy criterion used was the duration of diarrhea after beginning the treatment (in hours). Other signs and symptoms were also evaluated.RESULTS: The clinical success rates for these antidiarrheal treatments were 95.7% and 92.0% for racecadotril and Ioperamide respectively. Patients on racecadotril had a median duration of diarrhea of 19.5 h compared with a median of 13 h for patients on Ioperamide.Rapid improvement in anal burn and nausea was found for each drug. However, more patients on Ioperamide suffered from reactive constipation (29.0% vs 12.9%).Itching, another adverse event was notably higher in the racecadotril group (28.6% vs 0%). With regard to other adverse events, the two medications showed similar occurrence rates and similar concomitant medication usage rates.CONCLUSION: Racecadotril and Ioperamide are rapid,equally effective treatments for acute diarrhea in adults,but Ioperamide treatment is associated with a higher incidence of treatment-related constipation.

  17. Management of acute diarrhea in adults in China: a cross-sectional survey

    Hou Feng-Qin

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background The aim of this study was to evaluate the management of acute adult diarrhea in China and assess adherence of clinical practice to national guidelines and 2012 World Gastroenterology Organization guidelines. Methods A cross-sectional survey was carried out among physicians in 20 hospitals in two different areas of China (Beijing, 10; Shaanxi province, 10. Summary statistics were calculated for the overall study group and for each region. Between-region differences were assessed with χ2 or t-tests. Results Data were collected for 800 patients (≥18 years; mean ± SD age 37.0 ± 16.3 years; 56.4% female. The mean ± SD time between diarrhea onset and visiting a diarrhea clinic was 2.4 ± 1.6 days; this interval was significantly shorter in Beijing than Shaanxi (2.0 ± 1.4 vs 2.8 ± 1.8 days, respectively; p p p p  Conclusions Adherence to both national guidelines and 2012 World Gastroenterology Organization guidelines for the management of acute diarrhea in adult was limited among tertiary hospital physicians. The findings suggest nationwide education and effective health policies are needed to improve medical practice and reduce the unnecessary burden on the healthcare system.

  18. Prevalence of Iron Deficiency and Anemia among Young Children with Acute Diarrhea in Bhaktapur, Nepal

    Ram K. Chandyo

    2015-07-01

    Full Text Available Iron deficiency anemia is still common in children under five years of age and may impair their growth and cognitive development. Diarrhea is the second most common reason for seeking medical care for young children in Nepal. However, neither screening programs nor effective preventive measures for anemia and iron deficiencies are in place among children with diarrhea in many developing countries. The aims of this study were to determine the prevalence of anemia and iron deficiency and explore their associations with clinical, socioeconomic, and anthropometric parameters in Nepalese children. This was a cross-sectional study based on 1232 children, six to 35 months old, with acute diarrhea participating in a zinc supplementation trial. The mean (SD hemoglobin was 11.2 g/dL (1.2. Anemia was found in 493 children (40%; this estimate increased to 641 (52% when we adjusted for the altitude of the study area (hemoglobin <11.3 g/dL. One in every three children had depleted iron stores and 198 (16% of the children had both depleted iron stores and anemia, indicating iron deficiency anemia. The prevalence of anemia among children presenting with acute diarrhea was high but the degree of severity was mainly mild or moderate. Iron deficiency explained less than half of the total anemia, indicating other nutritional deficiencies inducing anemia might be common in this population.

  19. OPPORTUNICTIC ENTEROBACTERIACAE AS THE CAUSE OF THE ACUTE DIARRHEA AND GUT DISBIOSIS

    S. A. Egorova

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available Abstract. Strains of Klebsiella pneumonia isolated from faces were studied to detect virulence factors of “classical” enteric pathogens causing acute diarrhea (Shigella, Salmonella, diarreagenic Escherichia coli. We haven’t detect in Klebsiella the genes encode different virulence factors: the abilities to adherence (sfa, afa, aaf/1, eae, invasion (ipaH, ial, production of heat-lable toxins (elt, LT II, heat-stable toxins (st1, st2 and Shiga toxins (stx1, stx2. Klebsiella spp. is well-known pathogen of the opportunistic infections of urinary tract, blood, wound, respiratory tract. But this bacteria hasn’t virulence factors of diarreagenic Enterobacteriaceae and can’t cause acute diarrhea and other gut pathology.

  20. Management of acute diarrhea in adults in China: a cross-sectional survey

    Hou Feng-Qin; Wang Yan; Li, Jun; Wang Gui-Qiang; Liu Ying

    2013-01-01

    Abstract Background The aim of this study was to evaluate the management of acute adult diarrhea in China and assess adherence of clinical practice to national guidelines and 2012 World Gastroenterology Organization guidelines. Methods A cross-sectional survey was carried out among physicians in 20 hospitals in two different areas of China (Beijing, 10; Shaanxi province, 10). Summary statistics were calculated for the overall study group and for each region. Between-region differences were as...

  1. Therapeutic Effects of Oral Zinc Supplementation on Acute Watery Diarrhea with Moderate Dehydration: A Double-Blind Randomized Clinical Trial

    Mohammad Karamyyar; Shahsanam Gheibi; Mehran Noroozi; Ali Kord Valeshabad

    2013-01-01

    Background: To assess the therapeutic effects of oral zinc supplementation on acute watery diarrhea of children with moderate dehydration. Methods: All 9-month to 5-year-old children who were admitted with acute watery diarrhea and moderate dehydration to the Children Ward of Motahari Hospital, Urmia, Iran in 2008 were recruited. After the application of the inclusion and exclusion criteria, the patients were randomly allocated to two groups: one group to receive zinc plus oral rehydration so...

  2. Analysis of etiology and drug-resistance of infectious diarrhea%儿童感染性腹泻病原菌耐药性分析

    高春燕; 刘树平; 高庆双

    2012-01-01

    OBJECTIVE To investigate the etiology, epidemiologicfeatures, and drug—resistance tendency of acute infectious diarrhea among children in Tangshan area. METHODS 890 cases of stool samples were collected from outpatients and inpatients with diarrhea.Carried out bacterium isolation, cultivation and biochemical identification. Antibiotic susceptibility of bacteria was tested by disk diffusion method. RESULTS Of the 890 stool specimens, 86 strains of pathogenic bacteria were detected with the detectable rate of 9.66%, 28 of the 86 strains (32.6%) were Salmonella, 17 (19.8%) were pathogenic Escherichia coli, 14 (14.3%) were Shigella, 11 ( 12.8%) were Proteus mirabilis, 8 (8.1%) were Staphylococcus aureus, 5 (5.8%) were Yersinia enterocolitica, and 4 were Pseudomonas aeruginosa (4.7%). Pathogenic Escherichia coli and Shigella were resistant to ampicillin and cephalosporin antibiotic, showed multiple drug resistance.Salmonella was significantly lower than Shigella species, but there was an upward trend; Proteus mirabilis was lower than others. Staphylococcus aureus was high resistant to fluoroquinolones. CONCLUSION The main pathogenic bacteria which cause children's bacterial diarrhea in Tangshan are Salmonella, pathogenic Escherichia coli, Shigella, Proteus mirabilis, Staphylococcus aureus, Yersinia enterocolitica and Pseudomonas. The treatment of infectious diarrhea of children should be based on drug susceptibility testing.%目的 研究唐山地区儿童感染性腹泻的病原菌变化、流行病学特征及耐药性变迁情况.方法 对2008~2009年来某院就诊及住院患儿大便进行培养鉴定,采用纸片扩散法进行药敏试验.结果 890份粪便培养标本共检出病原菌86株,检出率为9.66%.其中沙门菌属28株(32.6%),致病性大肠杆菌17株(19.8%),志贺菌属14株(14.3%),奇异变形杆菌11株(12.8%),金黄色葡萄球菌8株(8.1%),小肠结肠炎耶尔森菌5株(5.8%),铜绿假单胞菌4株(4.7%);致病性大

  3. Maternal agency influences the prevalence of diarrhea and acute respiratory tract infections among young Indonesian children.

    Agustina, Rina; Shankar, Anita V; Ayuningtyas, Azalea; Achadi, Endang L; Shankar, Anuraj H

    2015-05-01

    To examine the relationship between measures of mother's caretaking, practice and individual agency on acute diarrhea and respiratory tract infections (ARTIs) of Indonesian children. Using population-based household data from the Indonesian Demographic Health Surveys for 2002-2003 (n = 9,151 children) and 2007 (n = 9,714 children), we selected 28 indicators related to mother' caretaking, and applied principal component analysis to derive indices for access to care, practice and experience, and agency. The association between index quartiles (level 1-4) and the prevalence of diarrhea and ARTIs in the youngest child family size, child's age and sex, immunization status and received vitamin A supplementation. Moderate levels (level 3) of practice and experience were associated with decreased diarrheal risk (adjusted OR 0.86, 95 % CI 0.75-0.98), but not for ARTIs. Children of mothers with higher levels (level 4) of agency were protected against both diarrhea (adjusted OR 0.68, 95 % CI 0.60-0.77) and ARTIs (adjusted OR 0.77, 95 % CI 0.66-0.91). Stratified analyses with child's age and mother's education, and tests of interaction, showed that agency had a stronger effect on diarrhea and ARTIs prevalence in children child health. PMID:25108503

  4. Effect of Porcine Epidemic Diarrhea Virus Infectious Doses on Infection Outcomes in Naive Conventional Neonatal and Weaned Pigs.

    Joseph T Thomas

    Full Text Available Porcine epidemic diarrhea virus (PEDV was identified in the United States (U.S. swine population for the first time in April 2013 and rapidly spread nationwide. However, no information has been published regarding the minimum infectious dose (MID of PEDV in different pig models. The main objective of this study was to determine the oral minimum infectious dose of PEDV in naïve conventional neonatal piglets and weaned pigs. A U.S. virulent PEDV prototype isolate (USA/IN19338/2013 with known infectious titer was serially ten-fold diluted in virus-negative cell culture medium. Dilutions with theoretical infectious titers from 560 to 0.0056 TCID50/ml together with a medium control were orogastrically inoculated (10ml/pig into 7 groups of 5-day-old neonatal pigs (n = 4 per group and 7 groups of 21-day-old weaned pigs (n = 6 per group. In 5-day-old pigs, 10ml of inoculum having titers 560-0.056 TCID50/ml, corresponding to polymerase chain reaction (PCR cycle threshold (Ct values 24.2-37.6, resulted in 100% infection in each group; 10ml of inoculum with titer 0.0056 TCID50/ml (Ct>45 caused infection in 25% of the inoculated pigs. In 21-day-old pigs, 10ml of inoculum with titers 560-5.6 TCID50/ml (Ct 24.2-31.4 resulted in 100% infection in each group while 10ml of inoculum with titers 0.56-0.0056 TCID50/ml (Ct values 35.3 ->45 did not establish infection in any pigs under study conditions as determined by clinical signs, PCR, histopathology, immunohistochemistry, and antibody response. These data reveal that PEDV infectious dose is age-dependent with a significantly lower MID for neonatal pigs compared to weaned pigs. This information should be taken into consideration when interpreting clinical relevance of PEDV PCR results and when designing a PEDV bioassay model. The observation of such a low MID in neonates also emphasizes the importance of strict biosecurity and thorough cleaning/disinfection on sow farms.

  5. Fatal lymphoproliferation and acute monocytic leukemia-like disease following infectious mononucleosis in the elderly

    Hehlmann, R.; Walther, B; ZÖLLNER, N.; Wolf, Hans J.; Deinhardt, F; Schmid, M.

    1981-01-01

    Three elderly patients are reported, in whom serologically confirmed recent infectious mononucleosis is followed by fatal lymphoproliferation (case 1), by acute monocytic leukemia (case 2), and by acute probably monocytic leukemia (case 3).

  6. Acute diarrhea in hospitalized children of the municipality of juiz de fora, MG, Brazil: prevalence and risk factors associated with disease severity

    Monica Couto Guedes Sejanes da Rocha; Delaine La Gatta Carminate; Sandra Helena Cerrato Tibiriçá; Iná Pires de Carvalho; Maria Luzia da Rosa e Silva; Júlio Maria Fonseca Chebli

    2012-01-01

    CONTEXT: Acute diarrhea is a common cause of hospitalization among children under 5 years of age. Knowing the prevalence and risk factors associated with the severity of acute diarrhea is essential to control morbidity and mortality. OBJECTIVE: Describe the prevalence of demographic, epidemiologic and clinical features of children under 6 years of age hospitalized for acute diarrhea, and investigate the association between these determinants and the severity of the diarrheic episode. METHOD: ...

  7. Comparison of zinc-probiotic combination theraphy to zinc theraphy alone in reducing the severity of acute diarrhea

    Muhammad Hatta

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available Background Although the incidence of diarrhea in Indonesia has declined in the last five years, the mortality rate in children under five years old is still high. Therefore, appropriate and comprehensive management of diarrhea is essential. There have been many studies on the role of zinc therapy and probiotic therapy in reducing the severity of acute diarrhea, but not many studies have compared the use of a combination of the two therapies to zinc therapy alone. Objective To compare the efficacy of zinc-probiotic combination therapy to zinc alone in reducing the severity of acute diarrhea. Methods We conducted a randomized, open-label, controlled trial from July 2009 to January 2010 in Adam Malik Hospital and Pirngadi Hospital , Medan. Children aged between 1 month and 5 years who met the criteria were divided into two groups. Group I recieved zinc sulphate (aged 6 months: 20mg/day combined with heat-killed Lactobacillus acidophilus (3x1010 CFU/day for 10 days. zinc sulphate at the same dosage as group I. Measurement of disease severity was based on the frequency of diarrhea (times/day and the duration of diarrhea (hours after initial drug consumption. Results Eighty subjects were enrolled, randomised, and divided equally into two groups. 40 children received zinc-probiotic in combination (group I and the remainder (group II received zinc alone. We observed significant differences in frequency of diarrhea (2.1 vs 3.1 times/day, P= 0.001, 95%CI-1.62 to -0.49, and duration of diarrhea (52.1 vs 72.6 hours, P=0.001, 95%CI-30.91 to -10.18 in the two groups. Conclusion Combination of zinc-probiotic therapy was more effective in reducing the severity of acute diarrhea than zinc therapy alone in children under five years of age. [Paediatr Indones. 2011;51:1-6].

  8. [Double-blind controlled study of the efficacy of nifuroxazide versus placebo in the treatment of acute diarrhea in adults].

    Bourée, P; Chaput, J C; Krainik, F; Michel, H; Trépo, C

    1989-05-01

    In a double-blind, controlled randomized trial, 88 adult patients with acute diarrhea (more than three watery stools per day) received either 400 mg of nifuroxazide twice daily or placebo for 5 days. The mean duration of diarrhea in the nifuroxazide group was 2.09 days versus 3.26 days in the placebo group (p less than 0.004). The number of bowel movements per day diminished and mucus disappeared more quickly in patients treated by nifuroxazide than in patients of the placebo group. Nifuroxazide was well tolerated and no side effects were observed. Nifuroxazide is an effective therapy for acute diarrhea and can be prescribed from the onset of diarrhea without waiting for stool culture results which can be late or negative. PMID:2666238

  9. Prevalence and factors associated with rotavirus infection among children admitted with acute diarrhea in Uganda

    Mworozi Edison A

    2010-09-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Rotavirus remains the commonest cause of severe dehydrating diarrhea among children worldwide. Children in developing countries die more because of several factors including poorer access to hydration therapy and greater prevalence of malnutrition. Hitherto, the magnitude of rotavirus disease in Uganda has remained unknown. This study was therefore done to determine the prevalence and factors associated with rotavirus infection among children aged 3-59 months admitted with acute diarrhea to paediatric emergency ward of Mulago Hospital, Uganda Methods Three hundred and ninety children, aged between 3-59 months with acute diarrhoea were recruited. The clinical history, socio-demographic characteristics, physical examination findings and laboratory investigations were recorded. Stool samples were tested for rotavirus antigens using the DAKO IDEIA rotavirus EIA detection kit. Results The prevalence of rotavirus infection was 45.4%. On multivariate analysis rotavirus was significantly associated with a higher education (above secondary level of the mother [OR 1.8; 95% CI 1.1-2.7]; dehydration [OR 1.8; 95% CI 1.1-3.0] and breastfeeding [OR 2.6; 95% CI 1.4-4.0]. Although age was significantly associated with rotavirus on bivariate analysis; this association disappeared on multivariate analysis. No significant association was found between rotavirus infection and nutritional status, HIV status and attendance of day care or school. Conclusions Rotavirus infection is highly prevalent among children with acute diarrhoea admitted to Mulago Hospital in Uganda.

  10. Effect of Porcine Epidemic Diarrhea Virus Infectious Doses on Infection Outcomes in Naïve Conventional Neonatal and Weaned Pigs

    Thomas, Joseph T.; Chen, Qi; Gauger, Phillip C.; Giménez-Lirola, Luis G; Sinha, Avanti; Harmon, Karen M.; Madson, Darin M.; Burrough, Eric R.; Magstadt, Drew R.; Salzbrenner, Holly M.; Welch, Michael W.; Yoon, Kyoung-Jin; Zimmerman, Jeffrey J.; Zhang, Jianqiang

    2015-01-01

    Porcine epidemic diarrhea virus (PEDV) was identified in the United States (U.S.) swine population for the first time in April 2013 and rapidly spread nationwide. However, no information has been published regarding the minimum infectious dose (MID) of PEDV in different pig models. The main objective of this study was to determine the oral minimum infectious dose of PEDV in naïve conventional neonatal piglets and weaned pigs. A U.S. virulent PEDV prototype isolate (USA/IN19338/2013) with know...

  11. Anti-infectious treatment in acute respiratory distress syndrome

    Min GAO

    2013-02-01

    Full Text Available Acute respiratory distress syndrome (ARDS is closely correlated with infection. Severe infection, e.g., sepsis and septic shock, can result in ARDS. Ventilator associated pneumonia (VAP is one of the common complications in ARDS related infection. As regards ARDS related infection, community acquired infection (CAI is different from hospital acquired infection (HAI in bacterial spectrum. The former is mainly caused by Streptococcus pneumonia, Hemophilus influenzae, Moraxelle catarrhalis, atypical pathogens and Klebsiella pneumoniae. However, HAI is mainly caused by Pseudomonas aeruginosa, Acinetobacter baumanii, methicillin-resistant Staphylococcus aureus(MRSA, and other drug-resistant bacteria. The drug-resistant bacterial infection not only makes treatment difficult, but also leads to an increase in mechanical ventilation time, length of ICU stay, mortality rate, and medical costs. The present paper has reviewed the relationship between ARDS and infection, therapeutic principles and measures of ARDS related infection, and introduced the optimal strategy of anti-infectious treatment of ARDS.

  12. Efficacy of Fructooligosaccharide Versus Placebo for Treatment of Acute Diarrhea in Children : a Double - Blind Randomized Clinical Trial

    Suryanty, Reni; Supriatmo; Hasibuan, Berlian; Sinuhaji, Atan Baas

    2005-01-01

    Objective To compare the efficacy of fructooligosaccharide (FOS)versus placebo in pediatric patients with acute diarrhea with regard to duration and frequency of diarrhea and the volume and consistency of the stools. Methods This double-blind randomized clinical trial was carried out from July to November 2003 in the pediatric intensive care unit, outpatient clinic, and pediatric ward of Adam Malik Hospital and Pirngadi Hospital, Medan. Subjects were children and infants aged 4 to 24 month...

  13. Comparative serological response in calves to eight commercial vaccines against infectious bovine rhinotracheitis, parainfluenza-3, bovine respiratory syncytial, and bovine viral diarrhea viruses

    Van Donkersgoed, Joyce; van den Hurk, Jan V.; McCartney, Duane; Harland, Richard J.

    1991-01-01

    A field trial was conducted to compare the serological responses in calves to eight commercial vaccines against infectious bovine rhinotracheitis virus (IBRV), parainfluenza-3 virus (PI3V), bovine respiratory syncytial virus (BRSV), and/or bovine viral diarrhea virus (BVDV). Calves given IBRV, P13V, BRSV, and BVDV vaccines had significantly higher antibodies to these viruses than unvaccinated controls; however, serological responses to killed BVDV vaccines were low. Calves with preexisting an...

  14. OPPORTUNICTIC ENTEROBACTERIACAE AS THE CAUSE OF THE ACUTE DIARRHEA AND GUT DISBIOSIS

    S. A. Egorova; M. A. Makarova; L. A. Kaftyreva

    2011-01-01

    Abstract. Strains of Klebsiella pneumonia isolated from faces were studied to detect virulence factors of “classical” enteric pathogens causing acute diarrhea (Shigella, Salmonella, diarreagenic Escherichia coli). We haven’t detect in Klebsiella the genes encode different virulence factors: the abilities to adherence (sfa, afa, aaf/1, eae), invasion (ipaH, ial), production of heat-lable toxins (elt, LT II), heat-stable toxins (st1, st2) and Shiga toxins (stx1, stx2). Klebsiella spp. is well-k...

  15. Comparison of fecal pyruvate kinase isoform M2 and calprotectin in acute diarrhea in hospitalized children

    Czub, Elzbieta; Jan K. Nowak; Moczko, Jerzy; Lisowska, Aleksandra; Banaszkiewicz, Aleksandra; Banasiewicz, Tomasz; Walkowiak, Jaroslaw

    2014-01-01

    Fecal concentrations of pyruvate kinase isoform M2 (M2-PK) and calprotectin (FC) serve as biomarkers of inflammation of gastrointestinal mucosa. The value of M2-PK in discriminating between patients with viral and bacterial acute diarrhea (AD) is currently unknown. We analyzed M2-PK and FC concentrations in fifty hospitalized children with AD (29 of which were caused by rotavirus and 21 by Salmonella enteritidis) as well as 32 healthy subjects. There was no difference in the areas under the r...

  16. Pharmacologic Comparison of Clinical Neutral Endopeptidase Inhibitors in a Rat Model of Acute Secretory Diarrhea.

    Griggs, David W; Prinsen, Michael J; Oliva, Jonathan; Campbell, Mary A; Arnett, Stacy D; Tajfirouz, Deena; Ruminski, Peter G; Yu, Ying; Bond, Brian R; Ji, Yuhua; Neckermann, Georg; Choy, Robert K M; de Hostos, Eugenio; Meyers, Marvin J

    2016-05-01

    Racecadotril (acetorphan) is a neutral endopeptidase (NEP) inhibitor with known antidiarrheal activity in animals and humans; however, in humans, it suffers from shortcomings that might be improved with newer drugs in this class that have progressed to the clinic for nonenteric disease indications. To identify potentially superior NEP inhibitors with immediate clinical utility for diarrhea treatment, we compared their efficacy and pharmacologic properties in a rat intestinal hypersecretion model. Racecadotril and seven other clinical-stage inhibitors of NEP were obtained or synthesized. Enzyme potency and specificity were compared using purified peptidases. Compounds were orally administered to rats before administration of castor oil to induce diarrhea. Stool weight was recorded over 4 hours. To assess other pharmacologic properties, select compounds were orally administered to normal or castor oil-treated rats, blood and tissue samples collected at multiple time points, and active compound concentrations determined by mass spectroscopy. NEP enzyme activity was measured in tissue homogenates. Three previously untested clinical NEP inhibitors delayed diarrhea onset and reduced total stool output, with little or no effect on intestinal motility assessed by the charcoal meal test. Each was shown to be a potent, highly specific inhibitor of NEP. Each exhibited greater suppression of NEP activity in intestinal and nonintestinal tissues than did racecadotril and sustained this inhibition longer. These results suggest that newer clinical-stage NEP inhibitors originally developed for other indications may be directly repositioned for treatment of acute secretory diarrhea and offer advantages over racecadotril, such as less frequent dosing and potentially improved efficacy. PMID:26907621

  17. Acute diarrhea in HIV infected patient receiving antiretroviral therapy:is there any role of microscopic stool examination at present?

    Beuy Joob; Viroj Wiwanitkit

    2014-01-01

    Objective:To reassess the usefulness of microscopic stool examination for theHIV infected patients with acute diarrhea.Methods:Overall100HIV-infected patients receiving standard antiretroviral therapy who visited to a primary care center(for privacy reason, the name is hereby blinded) with compliant of acute diarrhea were reviewed.In all patients, the standard microscopic stool examination was performed.Results:Of interest, from overall100 indexed cases, there is no case with determined parasite in stool samples.Conclusions:Based on our setting, it seems that there is diagnostic role of using microscopic stool examination for determining possible parasitic infestation inHIV infected patients receiving standard antiretroviral therapy who present with acute diarrhea.

  18. 浅谈小儿急性腹泻的治疗方法%Treatment of Children With Acute Diarrhea

    王焱新

    2016-01-01

    Objective To investigate the treatment of children with acute diarrhea. Methods 35 cases of acute diarrhea in children treatedand analyzed clinical observation of treatment from June 2014 to November 2015 in our hospital. Results The group of children with acute diarrhea in 35 cases, 34 cases recovered after treatment, to chronic diarrhea in one case, the effective rate was 97.14%. Conclusion The onset timely ifnd out the reasons, effective control of infection, symptomatic treatment of acute diarrhea in children can help a speedy recovery.%目的:探讨小儿急性腹泻的治疗方法。方法选取我院2014年6月~2015年11月收治的35例急性腹泻患儿,对其治疗方法进行临床观察分析。结果本组急性腹泻患儿共35例,治疗后痊愈34例,转为慢性腹泻1例,治疗有效率为97.14%。结论及时找出患儿发病原因,对感染进行有效控制,对症治疗,有助于急性腹泻患儿尽快康复。

  19. Effect of adding tyndallized probiotics to the World Health Organization standard therapy for acute diarrhea in children

    Kesatrianita Mawarni Fanny

    2012-02-01

    Full Text Available Background Diarrhea is the major cause of morbidity and mortality in children. Probiotics can decrease the frequency and duration of diarrhea. There are two types of probiotics, live and tyndallized. Tyndallized probiotics have been sterilized, so they are unable to produce active metabolites, but may have an effect on human immunity. Objective To evaluate the effectiveness of supplementing WHO standard therapy with tyndallized probiotics in children with acute, watery diarrhea. Methods We performed a randomized, single-blind, controlled trial in children aged 3-60 months who were diagnosed with acute, watery diarrhea at Gunungsitoli General Hospital, Nias, North Sumatera. Subjects were collected by consecutive sampling by way of parent interviews. Results One hundred subjects with acute, watery diarrhea were divided into 2 groups of 50. One group was treated with only WHO standard therapy for acute, watery diarrhea. The other group was treated by WHO standard therapy with the addition of tyndallized probiotics. There were no significant differences in basic characteristics between the two groups. Diarrheal duration for the group receiving WHO standard therapy only was 3.95 ± 1.3 days, while that of the group receiving both WHO standard therapy and tyndallized probiotics was 4.6 ± 2.3 days (P > 0.05. Diarrheal frequency on the fifth day in the WHO standard therapy group was 1.90 ± 0.99 times per day, while that of the tyndallized probiotic group was 1.56 ± 0.67 times per day (P > 0.05. Conclusion There were no significant differences between WHO standard therapy alone and WHO standard therapy with the addition of tyndallized probiotics for decreasing the duration and frequency of diarrhea in children.[Paediatr Indones. 2012;52:91-4].

  20. Changes in ovarian follicles following acute infection with bovine viral diarrhea virus.

    Grooms, D L; Brock, K V; Pate, J L; Day, M L

    1998-02-01

    Bovine viral diarrhea virus (BVDV) has been associated with several reproductive problems in cattle, including poor fertility, early embryonic deaths, abortion and congenital anomalies. Little is known about the cause of poor fertility in cows acutely infected with BVDV. The purpose of this study was to identify changes in ovarian function following acute infection with noncytopathic BVDV. The ovaries of 5 BVDV sero-negative and virus-negative pubertal heifers were monitored daily for 4 consecutive estrous cycles. The position and diameter of all follicles (> 5 mm) and luteal structures were recorded. Daily plasma samples were collected to measure peripheral progesterone and estradiol levels. Each heifer was infected intranasally with noncytopathic BVDV following ovulation of the second estrous cycle. The maximum diameter and growth rate of dominant anovulatory and ovulatory follicles were significantly reduced following acute BVDV infection. Similarly, the number of subordinate follicles associated with both the anovulatory and ovulatory follicle was reduced following infection. There were no significant differences in other follicle or luteal dynamic parameters or in peripheral progesterone or estradiol levels. Ovarian follicular growth was different during the first 2 estrous cycles following acute infection with BVDV when compared with the 2 estrous cycles preceding infection. These differences may be important in explaining reduced fertility in herds with acute BVDV infection. PMID:10732038

  1. Lactobacillus casei strain GG in the treatment of infants with acute watery diarrhea: A randomized, double-blind, placebo controlled clinical trial [ISRCTN67363048

    Chea-Woo Elsa; Campos-Sanchez Miguel; Miranda-Langschwager Percy; Salazar-Lindo Eduardo; Sack R Bradley

    2004-01-01

    Abstract Background Adjuvant therapy to ORT with probiotic bacteria for infants with acute watery diarrhea has been under active investigation. Most studies have been done in the developed world showing benefit only for viral mild gastroenteritis. We evaluated the effect of a milk formula containing one billion (109) cfu/ml of Lactobacillus casei strain GG (LGG) upon duration and severity of diarrhea in infants in an environment with more severe acute diarrhea, where etiologic agents other th...

  2. Effect of Warming Moxibustion on Shenque Acupoint for the Treatment of Acute Diarrhea in Children with Infantile Cerebral Palsy

    张红运; 卢圣锋; 肖农

    2009-01-01

    Objective:To observe the effect of warming moxibustion on Shenque acupoint(RN8) for the treatment of acute diarrhea in children with infantile cerebral palsy(ICP).Methods:Clinical observation was performed on 60 ICP children suffering from acute diarrhea,who were randomly assigned to two groups equally.The Mox group was treated with warming moxibustion on Shenque acupoint(RN8) and the control group treated with Smecta.The efficacy was evaluated by markedly effective rate and total effective rate after a ...

  3. The effect of aqueous Elaeagnus angustifolia extract on acute non-inflammatory diarrhea in 1-5 year old children

    Khoshdel Abofazl

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Introduction: Acute diarrhea is one of the most important causes of global childhood mortality and morbidity. The most common complication of acute diarrhea is dehydration. The aim of this study was to evaluate the use of aqueous Elaeagnus angustifolia extract in controlling non-inflammatory diarrhea in a hospital setting. Methods: In this case–controlled randomized double blind clinical trial 80 children in age range of 1-5 years were admitted in pediatric ward with diagnosis of non-inflammatory diarrhea. The patients were randomly divided into two equal groups of 40 cases. The subject in the first group received aqueous Elaeagnus angustifolia extract, 1.2 ml/Kg single dose for 4 days duration and the second group (control group 1.2 cm/Kg distilled water single dose for 4 days duration. Data analysis were performed by Chi-square and t-tests, using SPSS software. Results: The groups were similar regarding gender, mean age, and frequency, and consistency of defecation (p> 0.05. Although the children seemed better in regard to frequency and consistency of defecation, however the results showed that aqueous extract of Elaeagnus angustifolia was not significantly effective in the treatment of non-inflammatory diarrhea. Conclusion: The results of this study demonstrated that the use of aqueous extract of Elaeagnus angustifolia was not effective in the treatment of non-inflammatory diarrhea in children.

  4. Management of children’s acute diarrhea by community pharmacies in five towns of Ethiopia: simulated client case study

    Abegaz, Tadesse Melaku; Belachew, Sewunet Admasu; Abebe, Tamrat Befekadu; Gebresilassie, Begashaw Melaku; Teni, Fitsum Sebsibe; Woldie, Habtamu Gebremeskel

    2016-01-01

    Background Acute diarrhea is the major cause of child morbidity and mortality in low-income nations. It is the second most common cause of death among children <5 years of age globally. The indispensable role of community pharmacists is clearly observed in the prevention and treatment of diarrhea. However, there is a paucity of data on how community pharmacies manage acute childhood diarrhea cases in Ethiopia. This study aimed to evaluate the experience of community pharmacies in the management of acute diarrhea in northern Ethiopia. Methods A simulated case-based cross-sectional study was conducted in community pharmacies from five towns of northern Ethiopia between April 2015 and September 2015. Convenience sampling technique was used to select sample towns. A structured questionnaire was organized to collect the information. Descriptive statistics, chi-squared test, one-way analysis of variance, and binary logistic regression were performed to describe, infer, and test for association between the variables. SPSS for Windows Version 21 was used to enter and analyze the data. A 95% confidence interval and P-value of 0.05 were set to test the level of significance. Results Approximately 113 community pharmacies were visited to collect the required data from five towns. Majority (78, 69%) of them were located away from hospitals and health care areas. Nine components of history taking were presented for dispensers. Regarding the patient history, “age” was frequently taken, (90.3%), whereas “chief complaint” was the least to be taken (23%), for patients presenting with diarrhea. Approximately 96 (85.0%) cases were provided with one or more medications. The remaining 17 (15%) cases did not receive any medication. A total of six pharmacologic groups of medications were given to alleviate acute diarrheal symptoms. Majority (66, 29.6%) of the medications were oral rehydration salts with zinc. The mean number of medications was 1.99 per visit. Components of advice

  5. Economic evaluation of zinc and copper use in treating acute diarrhea in children: A randomized controlled trial

    Dhande Leena A

    2003-08-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background The therapeutic effects of zinc and copper in reducing diarrheal morbidity have important cost implications. This health services research study evaluated the cost of treating a child with acute diarrhea in the hospital, the impact of micronutrient supplementation on the mean predicted costs and its cost-effectiveness as compared to using only standard oral rehydration solution (ORS, from the patient's and government's (providers perspective. Methods Children aged 6 months to 59 months with acute diarrhea were randomly assigned to receive either the intervention or control. The intervention was a daily dose of 40 mg of zinc sulfate and 5 mg of copper sulfate powder dissolved in a liter of standard ORS (n = 102. The control was 50 mg of standard ORS powder dissolved in a liter of standard ORS (n = 98. The cost measures were the total mean cost of treating acute diarrhea, which included the direct medical, the direct non-medical and the indirect costs. The effectiveness measures were the probability of diarrhea lasting ≤ 4 days, the disability adjusted life years (DALYs and mortality. Results The mean total cost of treating a child with acute diarrhea was US $14 of which the government incurred an expenditure of 66%. The factors that increased the total were the number of stools before admission (p = 0.01, fever (p = 0.01, increasing grade of dehydration (p = 0.00, use of antibiotics (p = 0.00, use of intra-venous fluids (p = 0.00, hours taken to rehydrate a child (p = 0.00, the amount of oral rehydration fluid used (p = 0.00, presence of any complications (p = 0.00 and the hospital stay (p = 0.00. The supplemented group had a 8% lower cost of treating acute diarrhea, their cost per unit health (diarrhea lasting ≤ 4 days was 24% less and the incremental cost-effectiveness ratio indicated cost savings (in Rupees with the intervention [-452; 95%CI (-11306, 3410]. However these differences failed to reach conventional levels

  6. A case of acute infectious mononucleosis presenting with very high ferritin

    Thoufeeq, Muhammed Hameed; Ali Khan, Shahul Leyakath; Jain, Sanjiv Kumar; Al-Shakerchi, Hasanain; Hussain, Munem

    2007-01-01

    Hepatitis is an important but uncommon manifestation of acute Epstein Barr infection. Infectious mononucleosis is usually a disease of young adults. We report a case of infectious mononucleosis in a 72-year old jaundiced gentleman with ferritin level of 2438 that normalised on clinical improvement.

  7. Intervention analysis of introduction of rotavirus vaccine on hospital admissions rates due to acute diarrhea

    Maria de Lourdes Teixeira Masukawa

    2014-10-01

    Full Text Available The aim of this study is to investigate the impact of rotavirus vaccine on hospitalization rates for acute diarrhea in children younger than 5 years old after the introduction of the vaccine in 2006. A descriptive analytical observational study was carried out of the hospitalization rates occurred between 2000 and 2011 in 22 Regional Health Centers of Paraná State, Brazil. The effect of the vaccine was assessed by applying the SARIMA/Box-Jenkins time series methodology of intervention analysis, which allows verifying the slopes of the series are different after the introduction of the vaccine and estimating the magnitude of these effects for children younger than five years of age, by age group, for each region center. It was verified a statistically significant reduction by center/month on hospitalization rates for children 1 year old and younger, with averages of 47% and 58%, respectively, in December 2011.

  8. Prevalence of antibodies to infectious bovine rhinotracheitis, parainfluenza 3, bovine respiratory syncytial, and bovine viral diarrhea viruses in cattle in Saskatchewan and Alberta

    Durham, Peter J.K.; Hassard, Lori E.

    1990-01-01

    A total of 1745 healthy cattle from 295 farms in Saskatchewan and Alberta was tested by ELISA for antibodies to four viruses. Antibodies to infectious bovine rhinotracheitis (IBR) virus were found in 37.8% of sera (59.5% of properties), to parainfluenza 3 (PI3) virus in 93.9% of sera (99.7% of properties), to bovine respiratory syncytial (BRS) virus in 78.5% of sera (86.6% of properties), and to bovine viral diarrhea (BVD) virus in 40.6% of sera (66.7% of properties)

  9. Diagnosis and Control of Viral Diseases of Reproductive Importance: Infectious Bovine Rhinotracheitis and Bovine Viral Diarrhea.

    Newcomer, Benjamin W; Givens, Daniel

    2016-07-01

    Both bovine viral diarrhea virus and bovine herpesvirus 1 can have significant negative reproductive impacts on cattle health. Vaccination is the primary control method for the viral pathogens in US cattle herds. Polyvalent, modified-live vaccines are recommended to provide optimal protection against various viral field strains. Of particular importance to bovine viral diarrhea control is the limitation of contact of pregnant cattle with potential viral reservoirs during the critical first 125 days of gestation. PMID:27140298

  10. [Persistent diarrhea

    Andrade, J A; Moreira, C; Fagundes Neto, U

    2000-07-01

    INTRODUCTION: Persistent diarrhea has high impact on infantile morbidity and mortality rates in developing countries. Several studies have shown that 3 to 20% of acute diarrheal episodes in children under 5 years of age become persistent. DEFINITION: Persistent diarrhea is defined as an episode that lasts more than 14 days. ETIOLOGY: The most important agents isolated in persistent diarrhea are: Enteropathogenic E. coli (EPEC), Salmonella, Enteroaggregative E. coli (EAEC), Klebisiella and Cryptosporidium. CLINICAL ASPECTS: In general, the clinical characteristics of patients with persistent diarrhea do not change with the pathogenic agent. Persistent diarrhea seems to represent the final result of a several insults a infant suffers that predisposes to a more severe episode of diarrhea due to a combination of host factors and high rates of enviromental contamination. Therefore, efforts should be made to promptly treat all episodes of diarrhea with apropriate follow-up. THERAPY: The aim of the treatment is to restore hydroelectrolytic deficits and to replace losses until the diarrheal ceases. It is possible in the majority of the cases, using oral rehydration therapy and erly an appropriate type of diet. PREVENTION: It is imperative that management strategies also focus on preventive aspects. The most effective diarrheal prevention strategy in young infants worldwide is promotion of exclusive breast feeding. PMID:14676915

  11. Chronic Diarrhea

    ... infections that cause chronic diarrhea be prevented? Chronic Diarrhea What is chronic diarrhea? Diarrhea that lasts for more than 2-4 ... represent a life-threatening illness. What causes chronic diarrhea? Chronic diarrhea has many different causes; these causes ...

  12. The effectiveness and safety of treatments used for acute diarrhea and acute gastroenteritis in children: protocol for a systematic review and network meta-analysis

    Florez, Ivan D.; Al-Khalifah, Reem; Sierra, Javier M.; Granados, Claudia M.; Yepes-Nuñez, Juan J.; Cuello-Garcia, Carlos; Perez-Gaxiola, Giordano; Zea, Adriana M.; Hernandez, Gilma N.; Veroniki, Areti-Angeliki; Guyatt, Gordon H; Thabane, Lehana

    2016-01-01

    Background Acute diarrhea and acute gastroenteritis (AD/AGE) are common among children in low- and middle-income countries (LMIC) and high-income countries (HIC). Supportive therapy including maintaining feeding, prevention of dehydration, and use of oral rehydration solution (ORS), is the mainstay of treatment in all children. Several additional treatments aiming to reduce the episode duration have been compared to placebo, but the differences in effectiveness among them are unknown. Methods...

  13. Management of children’s acute diarrhea by community pharmacies in five towns of Ethiopia: simulated client case study

    Abegaz TM

    2016-04-01

    Full Text Available Tadesse Melaku Abegaz,1 Sewunet Admasu Belachew,1 Tamrat Befekadu Abebe,1 Begashaw Melaku Gebresilassie,1 Fitsum Sebsibe Teni,2 Habtamu Gebremeskel Woldie3 1Department of Clinical Pharmacy, School of Pharmacy, Gondar University, Gondar, 2Department of Pharmaceutics and Social Pharmacy, School of Pharmacy, College of Health Sciences, Addis Ababa University, Addis Ababa, 3Department of Hospital Pharmacy, Debremarkos Teaching and Referral Hospital, Debremarkos, Ethiopia Background: Acute diarrhea is the major cause of child morbidity and mortality in low-income nations. It is the second most common cause of death among children <5 years of age globally. The indispensable role of community pharmacists is clearly observed in the prevention and treatment of diarrhea. However, there is a paucity of data on how community pharmacies manage acute childhood diarrhea cases in Ethiopia. This study aimed to evaluate the experience of community pharmacies in the management of acute diarrhea in northern Ethiopia.Methods: A simulated case-based cross-sectional study was conducted in community pharmacies from five towns of northern Ethiopia between April 2015 and September 2015. Convenience sampling technique was used to select sample towns. A structured questionnaire was organized to collect the information. Descriptive statistics, chi-squared test, one-way analysis of variance, and binary logistic regression were performed to describe, infer, and test for association between the variables. SPSS for Windows Version 21 was used to enter and analyze the data. A 95% confidence interval and P-value of 0.05 were set to test the level of significance.Results: Approximately 113 community pharmacies were visited to collect the required data from five towns. Majority (78, 69% of them were located away from hospitals and health care areas. Nine components of history taking were presented for dispensers. Regarding the patient history, “age” was frequently taken, (90

  14. Frequency of E.coli pathotypes in acute diarrhea of children and its related factorsat Beassat hospital,Sanandaj

    Kalantar E; Solatni J; Khosravi B; Salehi A

    2009-01-01

    Objective:Diarrhea is a leading cause of morbidity and mortality among children in developing countries.The bacterial pathogen most commonly associated with childhood diarrhea is Escherichia coli.A one-year prospec-tive study was carried out in Sanandaj to determine the prevalence and roles of the different E.coli pathotypes in children less than five years of age with acute diarrhea.Methods:Rectal swab were collected prospectively from children with acute diarrhea and transported to the Department of Microbiology,School of Medicine, KUMS,Sanandaj during 2008.The study was approved by the institutional ethics committee.Results:During this study period,rectal swabs were investigated from a total of 466 children 1 to 144 months of age (mean, 29.97 months ±S.D)with diarrhea.Among the children,191 (41%,191 /466)were girls,and 275 (59%,275 /466)were boys.The age-specific incidence rates of acute diarrhea among children 13 -24 and 1-12 months of age were 37.37% (37 /99)and 26.26 % (26 /99),respectively,during the study period.A total of 99 strains of E.coli were detected.EPEC 59 (59.59%)and EIEC 22 (22.22%),were the most commonly found Escherichia coli strains detected in stools from children.Disk diffusion testing showed E.coli strains resistance to tetracycline (89.89 %),chloramphenicol (88.88%),Ampicillin (79.79%),Amoxi-cillin (75.75%)and Ceficime (75.75%).Among risk factors like age,sex,haemoglubin,father's and moth-er's education,food and weight of children only mother's education was significant (P =0.018).Conclusion:In most of the clinical laboratories in Iran,E.coli does not considered as an etiologic agent responsible for di-arrhea.Results in this study revealed that E.coli should be considered as an etiologic agent causing acute di-arrhea among children.We therefore,recommend the routine isolation and identification of E.coli strains in all the clinical laboratories in Sanandaj.Guidelines for appropriate use of antibiotics in Sanandaj need upda-ting.

  15. Viral and Bacterial Etiology of Acute Diarrhea among Children under 5 Years of Age in Wuhan, China

    Zhu, Xu-Hui; Tian, Lei; Cheng, Zhong-Ju; Liu, Wei-Yong; Li, Song; Yu, Wei-Ting; Zhang, Wen-Qian; Xiang, Xu; Sun, Zi-Yong

    2016-01-01

    Background: Acute diarrhea remains the serious problem in developing countries, especially among children under 5 years of age. Currently, only two or three common diarrhea pathogens were screened at most hospitals in China. The aim of this study was to provide a wide variety of diarrhea pathogens and their antimicrobial resistance patterns in children under 5 years of age. Methods: Totally 381 stool samples collected from Tongji Hospital between July 1, 2014 and June 30, 2015 were tested by culture and/or polymerase chain reaction for eight kinds of bacteria and five kinds of viruses. An antimicrobial sensitivity test was performed using dilution method recommended by the Clinical and Laboratory Standards Institute. Results: Viral infections were mainly identified in infants (0–11 months), whereas bacterial infections were more prevalent in the age of 24–59 months. About 69.8% of samples were positive for at least one pathogen, 51.7% of samples were virus positive, followed by bacteria positive cases (19.4%), and 12.6% of cases displayed co-infections with two viruses or a virus and a bacterium. Rotavirus was the most prevalent pathogen, followed closely by norovirus, while Salmonella was the most commonly isolated bacteria, followed by diarrheagenic Escherichia coli (DEC) and Campylobacter. More than 40% of Salmonella spp. and DEC isolates were resistant to first-line antibiotics (ampicillin, trimethoprim-sulfamethoxazole, and tetracycline). Around 10% of Salmonella spp. isolates were resistant to ceftriaxone and ciprofloxacin simultaneously. Campylobacter spp. displayed high resistance to ciprofloxacin but kept low resistance to azithromycin and doxycycline. Conclusions: The etiology of acute diarrhea varies in children of different age groups. The high frequency of infection with viruses suggests the urgent demand for new viral vaccine development. Proper use of antibiotics in the treatment of acute diarrhea is crucial due to the high level of antibiotic

  16. Lactobacillus acidophilus, Lactobacillus reuteri and metabolites of intestinal bacteria as therapeutic agents in acute diarrhea in children

    Tláskal, P.; Kokešová, A.; Schramlová, J.; Tlaskalová, Helena; Adamus, J.; Bubáková, D.; Kočnarová, N.; Kopecký, J.; Mucková, M.; Pacovská, J.; Sládková, J.

    2007-01-01

    Roč. 2, č. 1 (2007), s. 67-74. ISSN 1555-1431 Grant ostatní: CZ(CZ) 00000064203/6041; CZ(CZ) 00064203/6309 Institutional research plan: CEZ:AV0Z50200510 Source of funding: V - iné verejné zdroje ; V - iné verejné zdroje Keywords : acute diarrhea * metabolites of intestinal bacteria * probiotics Subject RIV: EE - Microbiology, Virology

  17. Evaluating the cost utility of racecadotril for the treatment of acute watery diarrhea in children: the RAWD model

    Rautenberg TA; Zerwes U; Foerster D; Aultman R

    2012-01-01

    Tamlyn Anne Rautenberg1,2, Ute Zerwes1, Douglas Foerster3,4, Rick Aultman51Assessment in Medicine GmbH, Lörrach, Germany; 2Leeds Institute of Health Sciences, University of Leeds, Leeds, United Kingdom; 3Abbott Products Operations AG, Allschwil, Switzerland; 4University of Bielefeld, School of Public Health, Bielefeld, Germany; 5Semalytics, Arizona, United States of AmericaBackground: The safety and efficacy of racecadotril to treat acute watery diarrhea (AWD) in children is well est...

  18. Economic evaluation of zinc and copper use in treating acute diarrhea in children: A randomized controlled trial

    Dhande Leena A; Patel Archana B; Rawat Manwar S

    2003-01-01

    Abstract Background The therapeutic effects of zinc and copper in reducing diarrheal morbidity have important cost implications. This health services research study evaluated the cost of treating a child with acute diarrhea in the hospital, the impact of micronutrient supplementation on the mean predicted costs and its cost-effectiveness as compared to using only standard oral rehydration solution (ORS), from the patient's and government's (providers) perspective. Methods Children aged 6 mont...

  19. Cobalamin and folate status in 6 to 35 months old children presenting with acute diarrhea in Bhaktapur, Nepal

    Ulak, Manjeswori; Chandyo, Ram Krishna; Adhikari, Ramesh K.; Sharma, Pushpa R.; Sommerfelt, Halvor; Refsum, Helga; Strand, Tor A.

    2014-01-01

    Background: Cobalamin and folate are essential micronutrients and are important in DNA and RNA synthesis, cell proliferation, growth, hematopoiesis, and cognitive function. However, data on cobalamin and folate status are lacking particularly from young children residing in low and middle income countries.Objective: To measure cobalamin and folate status and identifies their predictors among 6 to 35 months old children presenting with acute diarrhea.Design: This was a cross-sectional...

  20. Diarrhea is a Major killer of Children with Severe Acute Malnutrition Admitted to Inpatient Set-up in Lusaka, Zambia

    Mwambazi Mwate; Irena Abel H; Mulenga Veronica

    2011-01-01

    Abstract Introduction Mortality of children with Severe Acute Malnutrition (SAM) in inpatient set-ups in sub-Saharan Africa still remains unacceptably high. We investigated the prevalence and effect of diarrhea and HIV infection on inpatient treatment outcome of children with complicated SAM receiving treatment in inpatient units. Method A cohort of 430 children aged 6-59 months old with complicated SAM admitted to Zambia University Teaching Hospital's stabilization centre from August to Dece...

  1. Oral Zinc Supplementation for the Treatment of Acute Diarrhea in Children: A Systematic Review and Meta-Analysis

    Laura M. Lamberti

    2013-11-01

    Full Text Available Evidence supporting the impact of therapeutic zinc supplementation on the duration and severity of diarrhea among children under five is largely derived from studies conducted in South Asia. China experiences a substantial portion of the global burden of diarrhea, but the impact of zinc treatment among children under five has not been well documented by previously published systematic reviews on the topic. We therefore conducted a systematic literature review, which included an exhaustive search of the Chinese literature, in an effort to update previously published estimates of the effect of therapeutic zinc. We conducted systematic literature searches in various databases, including the China National Knowledge Infrastructure (CNKI, and abstracted relevant data from studies meeting our inclusion and exclusion criteria. We used STATA 12.0 to pool select outcomes and to generate estimates of percentage difference and relative risk comparing outcomes between zinc and control groups. We identified 89 Chinese and 15 non-Chinese studies for the review, including studies in 10 countries from all WHO geographic regions, and analyzed a total of 18,822 diarrhea cases (9469 zinc and 9353 control. None of the included Chinese studies had previously been included in published pooled effect estimates. Chinese and non-Chinese studies reported the effect of therapeutic zinc supplementation on decreased episode duration, stool output, stool frequency, hospitalization duration and proportion of episodes lasting beyond three and seven days. Pooling Chinese and non-Chinese studies yielded an overall 26% (95% CI: 20%−32% reduction in the estimated relative risk of diarrhea lasting beyond three days among zinc-treated children. Studies conducted in and outside China report reductions in morbidity as a result of oral therapeutic zinc supplementation for acute diarrhea among children under five years of age. The WHO recommendation for zinc treatment of diarrhea

  2. Sympathoadrenal activation and endothelial damage in patients with varying degrees of acute infectious disease

    Ostrowski, Sisse R; Gaïni, Shahin; Pedersen, Court;

    2015-01-01

    infectious disease severity, correlated with SOFA score, and predicted mortality together with plasma noradrenaline. Sympathoadrenal activation......PURPOSE: To investigate levels, associations between, and predictive value of plasma catecholamines and biomarkers of endothelial damage in patients with acute infectious illness stratified according to infection type and sepsis severity. MATERIAL AND METHODS: This is a post hoc study of plasma...... with increasing disease severity (both P

  3. Comparison of fecal pyruvate kinase isoform M2 and calprotectin in acute diarrhea in hospitalized children

    Czub, Elzbieta; Nowak, Jan K.; Moczko, Jerzy; Lisowska, Aleksandra; Banaszkiewicz, Aleksandra; Banasiewicz, Tomasz; Walkowiak, Jaroslaw

    2014-01-01

    Fecal concentrations of pyruvate kinase isoform M2 (M2-PK) and calprotectin (FC) serve as biomarkers of inflammation of gastrointestinal mucosa. The value of M2-PK in discriminating between patients with viral and bacterial acute diarrhea (AD) is currently unknown. We analyzed M2-PK and FC concentrations in fifty hospitalized children with AD (29 of which were caused by rotavirus and 21 by Salmonella enteritidis) as well as 32 healthy subjects. There was no difference in the areas under the receiver operating characteristic curves plotted for the two tests in differentiating rotaviral from bacterial AD. The sensitivity and specificity of M2-PK at optimal cut-off (20 U/g) were 75.9% and 71.4%, respectively. M2-PK and FC had similar values in distinguishing between children with AD caused by rotavirus and Salmonella enteritidis. The performance of both tests in hospitalized patients did not meet the needs of everyday clinical practice. Moreover, no advantage of fecal tests over the measurement of CRP was documented. PMID:24759699

  4. Prevalence of Aeromonas Hydrophila and Yersinia Enterocolitica in Children with Acute Diarrhea Attending Health Centers in Hamadan

    S. Kazemi

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Introduction & Objective: Diarrhea is the most common cause of morbidity and mortality in all age groups, especially children, the elderly and immunocompromised patients. Various studies have been reported regarding the relationship between the children acute diarrhea and Aeromonashydrophila and Yersinia enterocolitica. This study aimed to investigate the prevalence of the bacteria and their sensitivity to common antibiotics and the prevalence of virulence genes in the bacteria in Hamadan, Iran. Materials & Methods: In this study, 120 stool samples collected from children less than 10 years of age with acute diarrhea were examined for Aeromonashydrophila and Yersinia enterocolitica. Identification of the bacteria was performed by biochemical reactions and PCR using 16S rRNA genes. Moreover, the prevalence of virulence genes earA and hyl of Aeromonashydrophila and ail and ystB genes of Yersinia enterocolitica were investigated using PCR. Antibiotic susceptibility of isolated bacteria was performed by disk diffusion method. Results: Out of 120 stool samples, 2 (1.7 % Aeromonashydrophila and 3 (2.5% Yersinia enterocolitica were isolated. All isolates of Aeromonashydrophila were sensitive to the chloramphenicol, co-trimoxazole, gentamicin, meropenem, amikacin and 50% of isolates were sensitive to the ceftriaxone and azithromycin. All Aeromonashydrophila isolates were resistant to erythromycin. All isolates of Yersinia enterocolitica were sensitive to the chloramphenicol, co-trimoxazole and meropenem. The 33.3% of the isolates were sensitive to gentamicin and amikacin and 66.6% of them were susceptible to ceftriaxone. However, all of Yersinia enterocolitica isolates were resistant to erythromycin and azithromycin. The prevalence aerA and hyl genes in Aeromonashydrophila were reported 100% and 50%, respectively. The prevalence of ail and ystB genes in Yersinia enterocolitica was reported as 66.6%. Conclusions: Identification and analysis of

  5. Acute myocardial infarction in infectious endocarditis. Report of one case

    The acute myocardial infarction is a rare complication in the course of an acute endocarditis. It takes place in the first weeks infection. Although is not associated with any particular microorganism it has been associated with virulent microorganism and is common in aortic valve endocarditis insufficiency. This report is a case of a patient who suffered a myocardial infarction during a acute endocarditis of native valve

  6. Accuracy of Inferior Vena Cava Ultrasound for Predicting Dehydration in Children with Acute Diarrhea in Resource-Limited Settings.

    Payal Modi

    Full Text Available Although dehydration from diarrhea is a leading cause of morbidity and mortality in children under five, existing methods of assessing dehydration status in children have limited accuracy.To assess the accuracy of point-of-care ultrasound measurement of the aorta-to-IVC ratio as a predictor of dehydration in children.A prospective cohort study of children under five years with acute diarrhea was conducted in the rehydration unit of the International Centre for Diarrhoeal Disease Research, Bangladesh (icddr,b. Ultrasound measurements of aorta-to-IVC ratio and dehydrated weight were obtained on patient arrival. Percent weight change was monitored during rehydration to classify children as having "some dehydration" with weight change 3-9% or "severe dehydration" with weight change > 9%. Logistic regression analysis and Receiver-Operator Characteristic (ROC curves were used to evaluate the accuracy of aorta-to-IVC ratio as a predictor of dehydration severity.850 children were enrolled, of which 771 were included in the final analysis. Aorta to IVC ratio was a significant predictor of the percent dehydration in children with acute diarrhea, with each 1-point increase in the aorta to IVC ratio predicting a 1.1% increase in the percent dehydration of the child. However, the area under the ROC curve (0.60, sensitivity (67%, and specificity (49%, for predicting severe dehydration were all poor.Point-of-care ultrasound of the aorta-to-IVC ratio was statistically associated with volume status, but was not accurate enough to be used as an independent screening tool for dehydration in children under five years presenting with acute diarrhea in a resource-limited setting.

  7. How to Do in Persistent Diarrhea of Children?: Concepts and Treatments of Chronic Diarrhea

    Lee, Kun Song; Kang, Dong Soo; Yu, Jeesuk; Chang, Young Pyo; Park, Woo Sung

    2012-01-01

    Chronic diarrhea is defined as passing watery stools that lasts for more than 2 weeks. Persistent diarrhea belongs to chronic diarrhea and is a chronic episode of diarrhea of infectious etiology. The etiology of chronic diarrhea is varied. It is important to consider the child's age and clinical manifestations with alarm signals for an application of proper treatments to children with chronic diarrhea. Vicious cycle is present in chronic diarrhea and nutritional rehabilitation can break the v...

  8. Acute diarrhea in hospitalized children of the municipality of juiz de fora, MG, Brazil: prevalence and risk factors associated with disease severity

    Monica Couto Guedes Sejanes da Rocha

    2012-12-01

    Full Text Available CONTEXT: Acute diarrhea is a common cause of hospitalization among children under 5 years of age. Knowing the prevalence and risk factors associated with the severity of acute diarrhea is essential to control morbidity and mortality. OBJECTIVE: Describe the prevalence of demographic, epidemiologic and clinical features of children under 6 years of age hospitalized for acute diarrhea, and investigate the association between these determinants and the severity of the diarrheic episode. METHOD: Retrospective, cross-sectional study, during the period from January, 2005 through December, 2008, in the municipality of Juiz de Fora, MG, Brazil. Files from 6,201 children from 0 to 6 years of age, hospitalized in two public teaching institutions (which account for 84% of all the hospitalizations in the municipality, were assessed. Acute diarrhea was defined as the presence of at least three evacuations of liquid or loose stools, within 24 hours, for a maximum period of 14 days. The patients with acute diarrhea were divided in two groups, according to disease severity, severe diarrhea being considered whenever hospitalization lasted for at least 4 days. Epidemiologic and clinical data were assessed and compared through the application of the chi-squared test and the binomial logistic regression model. RESULTS: The prevalence rate for admission due to acute diarrhea was 8.4%. The factors significantly associated with the severity of the diarrheic episode were: age under 6 months (P = 0.01, OR = 2.762; disease onset during fall (P = 0.033, OR = 1.742, presence of fever (P = 0.017, OR = 1.715 and antibiotic use during hospitalization (P = 0.000, OR = 3.872. CONCLUSIONS: Diarrhea is the third most common cause of hospitalization among children under 6 years of age in Juiz de Fora. Young age (under or equal to 6 months, fever, antibiotic use during hospitalization and disease onset during fall are risk factors associated with longer hospital stay.

  9. A randomized double-blind clinical trial of the effect of non-absorbable oral polymyxin on infants with severe infectious diarrhea

    S. Tahan

    2007-02-01

    Full Text Available The present study evaluated the effect of non-absorbable oral polymyxin on the duodenal microflora and clinical outcome of infants with severe infectious diarrhea. Polymyxin was chosen because classic enteropathogenic Escherichia coli was more sensitive to this antibiotic. Twenty-five infants were randomly assigned to a 7-day treatment with oral polymyxin (2.5 mg/kg in 4 daily doses or placebo. Duodenal and stool cultures were performed before and after the treatment. Five patients were excluded during the study because of introduction of parental antibiotic therapy due to clinical sepsis (N = 3 or rapid clinical improvement (N = 2. In the polymyxin group, small bowel bacterial overgrowth occurred in 61.5% of the cases (8/13 before treatment and in 76.9% (10/13 after treatment. In the placebo group these values were 71.4% (5/7 and 57.1% (4/7, respectively. By the 7th day, clinical cure was observed in 84.6% of the cases (11/13 in the polymyxin group and in 71.4% (5/7 in the placebo group (P = 0.587. Considering all 25 patients included in the study, clinical cure occurred on the 7th day in 12/14 cases (85.7% in the polymyxin group and 6/11 cases (54.5% in the placebo group (P = 0.102. Clinical sepsis occurred in 3/11 (27.3% of the patients in the placebo group and in none (0/14 in the polymyxin group (P = 0.071. Oral polymyxin was not effective in reducing bacterial overgrowth or in improving the clinical outcome of infants hospitalized with severe infectious diarrhea. Taking into account the small sample size, the rate of cure on the 7th day and the rate of clinical sepsis, further studies with greater number of patients are necessary to evaluate these questions.

  10. 新生儿非感染性腹泻乳糖不耐受发生情况调查%Lactose intolerance in neonates with non-infectious diarrhea

    苏慧敏; 姜毅; 胡玉莲; 杨慧; 董天津

    2016-01-01

    ObjectiveTo investigate the development of lactose intolerance in neonates with non-infectious diarrhea and its association with diarrhea, and to evaluate the diagnostic values of fecal pH value and urine galactose determination for neonatal lactase deifciency.MethodsSeventy hospitalized neonates who developed non-infectious diarrhea between October 2012 and June 2015 were enrolled as the diarrhea group, and 162 hospitalized neonates without non-infectious diarrhea were enrolled as the non-diarrhea group. Test paper was used to determine fecal pH value. The galactose oxidase method was used to detect urine galactose. The neonates with positive galactose oxidase were diagnosed with lactase deficiency, and those with lactase deficiency and diarrhea were diagnosed with lactose intolerance. According to the results of urine galactose detection, 69 neonates in the diarrhea group who underwent urine galactose detection were classiifed into lactose intolerance group (45 neonates) and lactose tolerance group (24 neonates), and their conditions after treatment were compared between the two groups. The follow-up visits were performed for neonates with diarrhea at 3 months after discharge.ResultsFecal pH value and positive rate of urine galactose (65% vs 54%) showed no signiifcant differences between the diarrhea and non-diarrhea groups (P>0.05). Fecal pH value showed no signiifcant difference between the lactose intolerance and lactose tolerance groups (P>0.05), while the neonates in the lactose intolerance group had a signiifcantly longer time to recovery of defecation than those in the lactose tolerance group (P0.05)。乳糖不耐受和耐受组腹泻患儿大便pH值比较差异无统计学意义(P>0.05),乳糖不耐受患儿大便恢复时间比耐受组患儿长(P<0.05)。结论新生儿乳糖酶缺乏发生率高,易发生乳糖不耐受性腹泻。大便pH值测定对判断腹泻患儿乳糖不耐受意义不大。

  11. Immunophenotypic Profile in Acute Infectious Mononucleosis Mimicking Malignant Lymphoproliferative Disorder: A Case Report and Review of Literature

    Tembhare, Prashant; Ramani, Manisha; Syed, Keerti; Gupta, Amar Das

    2010-01-01

    Infectious mononucleosis is characterized by an intensive lymphoproliferation with atypical forms which sometimes resemble with acute leukemia or malignant lymphoproliferative diseases. Flow cytometric analysis of lymphocytes shows a typical phenotype but unawareness of it may lead to misdiagnosis of malignant lymphoproliferative diseases. Herewith we present an immunophenotypic profile in a case of acute infectious mononucleosis and review of literature.

  12. Rapid cessation of acute diarrhea using a novel solution of bioactive polyphenols: a randomized trial in Nicaraguan children

    Arthur Dover

    2015-05-01

    Full Text Available Goal. We assessed the effectiveness of bioactive polyphenols contained in solution (LX to restore normal bowel function in pediatric patients with acute diarrhea. Background. While providing oral rehydration solution (ORS is standard treatment for diarrhea in developing countries, plant-derived products have been shown to positively affect intestinal function. If a supplement to ORS resolves diarrhea more rapidly than ORS alone, it is an improvement to current care. Study. In a randomized, double-blind, placebo-controlled cross-over study, 61 pediatric patients with uncontrolled diarrhea were randomized to receive either ORS + LX on day 1 and then ORS + water on day 2 (study arm or ORS + water on day 1 and then ORS + LX on day 2 (control arm. Time to resolution and number of bowel movements were recorded. Results. On day 1, the mean time to diarrhea resolution was 3.1 h (study arm versus 9.2 h (control arm (p = 0.002. In the study arm, 60% of patients had normal stool at their first bowel movement after consumption of the phenolic redoxigen solution (LX. On day 2, patients in the study arm continued to have normal stool while patients in the control arm achieved normal stool within 24 h after consuming the test solution. Patients in the control arm experienced a reduction in the mean number of bowel movements from day 1 to day 2 after consuming the test solution (p = 0.0001. No adverse events were observed. Conclusions. Significant decreases in bowel movement frequency and rapid normalization of stool consistency were observed with consumption of this novel solution.

  13. Loperamide Therapy for Acute Diarrhea in Children: Systematic Review and Meta-Analysis

    Li, Su-Ting T; Grossman, David C.; Cummings, Peter

    2007-01-01

    Editors' Summary Background. While diarrhea is often thought of as a mild, inconvenient condition, it is estimated that, worldwide, 1.6–2.5 million children under 5 y old die each year from diarrhea, most of them in developing countries. Dehydration is the key factor in the deaths of these children. In richer countries, diarrhea is rarely deadly, but it has been calculated that, in the United States, the annual national health-care cost associated with the condition amounts to around US$1.5 b...

  14. Campylobacter jejuni and Campylobacter coli in Children With Acute Diarrhea in Health Centers of Hamadan, Iran

    Rastyani

    2015-11-01

    Full Text Available Background Enteritis caused by Campylobacter is considered as the most common acute bacterial diarrhea around the world. In most cases, infection occurs as a result of consuming contaminated water or food, especially raw meat of fowls. Objectives The purpose of the present study was to determine the prevalence and antibiotic resistance of campylobacter species among pediatrics of Hamadan city, Iran. Patients and Methods A total of 120 stool samples from children less than 10 years old were examined from January 2013 to December 2014 in Hamadan, Iran. The samples were incubated in Campy-Thio enrichment medium for 1 - 2 hours and then cultured on a specific medium; after that, the suspected colonies were analyzed for Campylobacter spp. identification by conventional tests. The identified species by biochemical methods were confirmed by polymerase chain reaction (PCR. Antimicrobial susceptibility testing was performed by disk agar diffusion (DAD method. Results Twelve (10% Campylobacter spp. from 120 stool samples were isolated including C. coli and C. jejuni. In the antibiotic susceptibility test, the most frequent resistance was observed to ciprofloxacin 8 (88.8%, followed by 7 (77.7% resistant strains to tetracycline, 7 (77.7% to erythromycin, 6 (66.6% to clindamycin, 5 (55.5% to meropenem, 4 (44.4% to gentamicin, 3 (33.3% to nalidixicacid and only 1 (11.1% to chloramphenicol. Conclusions Campylobacter is responsible for some important clinical problems such as enteritis and is also associated with meningitis and hemolytic-uremic syndrome. It is imperative to monitor the prevalence and antibiotic resistance of Campylobacter spp. as well as other the zoonotic bacteria.

  15. Identification of enteroaggregative Escherichia coli in infants with acute diarrhea based on biofilm production in Manipal, south India

    Bangar Raju

    2008-01-01

    Full Text Available Background: Enteroaggregative Escherichia coli (EAEC is an emerging enteric pathogen that causes persistent diarrhea among infants, both in developing and industrialized countries. The EAEC strains adhere to epithelial cell surface, to the glass substratum and to each other in a distinctive stacked brick-formation. Thus, gold standard for identification of EAEC remains the HEp-2 cell adherence test, which is time consuming and requires specialized facilities. Aim: To evaluate the usefulness of quantitative biofilm assay to screen for EAEC from children with acute diarrhea. Materials and Methods: A total of 100 E. coli strains were collected from acute diarrheal cases from December 2005 to November 2006. The strains were screened for biofilm production using microtiter plate method. The biofilm in the microtiter plate was visualized after staining with crystal violet and was quantified using enzyme immunosorbent assay plate reader. The Aggregative plasmid and Heat stable toxin genes were evaluated by a multiplex polymerase chain reaction. The strains were identified as EAEC with an optical density at 570 nm (OD 570 > 0.2. Results: Of the total 100 Escherichia coli strains, 28 were positive by Polymerase Chain Reaction for two genes, AggR and EAST. Of the 28 PCR-positive strains screened for biofilm, 25 (89.2% showed positive results by microtiter plate method. Conclusion: The quantitative biofilm assay using microtiter plate is convenient and economical and can be used as a screening method to screen E. coli isolates from acute diarrheal cases. The best use of this test is to screen large number of isolates quickly, and if positive this can be confirmed by multiplex PCR for AggR and EAST genes. This assay may contribute to demonstrating the true incidence of EAEC with and without AggR among clinically isolated E. coli strains, which can cause acute diarrhea.

  16. The Genetic Diversity and Phylogenetic Characteritics of Rotavirus VP4(P Genotypes in Children With Acute Diarrhea

    Haghshenas Z

    2011-11-01

    Full Text Available Background: Acute gastroenteritis is a major cause of morbidity and mortality among children in developing countries. Rotaviruses are recognized as the most common etiologic factors of gastroenteritis. In this study, we determined the epidemiologic features, clinical symptoms and molecular structure of rotavirus VP4(P genotypes in children with acute diarrhea in Bahrami Hospital in Tehran Iran, during 2009 for justifying the routine use of rotavirus vaccines in children. Methods: One hundred fifty fecal samples from 150 children with acute diarrhea in Bahrami Pediatric Hospital in Tehran, Iran were collected from January to December 2009. The patients’ mean age was 20.90+18.19 years (ranging from 1 month to 14 years. Fecal samples were transported on ice to the laboratory of virology department of Pasture Institute of Iran. The demographic and clinical data for each case were entered in an author-devised questionnaire. Group A rotavirus was detected by dsRNA-PAGE. Subsequently, rotavirus genotyping (VP4 was performed by semi-nested multiple RT-PCR and the phylogenetic tree of the Rotavirus nucleotides was constructed. The data were analyzed by statistical tests including Wilcoxon signed and Mann-Whitney U. Results: Rotavirus was isolated in 19.3% of the samples, more than 90% of which had long RNA patterns. The predominant genotype (VP4 was P[8] (86% and other genotypes respectively were P[6] (6.9% and P[4] (6.9%. Conclusion: A high prevalence of the P[8] genotype was found to be the cause of acute diarrhea. The analysis of P[8] genotype sequence showed a high level of similarity of the virus in this study with those of other Asian countries.

  17. Straight Poop on Kids and Diarrhea

    ... Consumer Updates The Straight Poop on Kids and Diarrhea Share Tweet Linkedin Pin it More sharing options ... that is occurring. back to top Causes of Diarrhea Acute diarrhea (comes on rapidly, is severe, but ...

  18. PRESCRIPTION AUDIT FOR ACUTE DIARRHEA IN CHILDREN UNDER FIVE IN TERTIARY, SECONDARY AND PRIVATE CARE HOSPITAL S IN AMRI T SAR, PUNJAB

    Gayatri

    2015-06-01

    Full Text Available OBJECTIVES : To analyze adherence of prescribers to treatment guidelines by W.H.O for childhood diarrhea and to assess the cost of various treatment modalities in diarrhea. MATERIAL AND METHODS : A cross sectional study was carried out between April 2012 to December 2012 and 547 prescriptions of acute diarrhea of children up to five years of age were collected randomly from main pharmacy outle ts and OPDs of pediatric departments of government tertiary care , private tertiary care , government secondary care and private pediatric hospitals in Amritsar , Punjab. Data collected were tabulated and analyzed; also a structured proforma was prepared to a ssess the knowledge of 22 pediatricians working in various sectors. RESULT : It was seen that adherence of government tertiary care hospital to WHO guidelines was 83% while private tertiary care , government secondary care and private care hospitals were not adherent to the guidelines as all these are prescribing probiotics in 100 % of prescriptions and antibiotics in 25% , 78% and 97% of prescriptions. Knowledge of pediatricians regarding acute diarrhea and WHO recommendations for it ’ s management was excellen t , but there is a dichotomy between knowledge and attitude/practice in treating acute diarrhea in children. CONCLUSION : This study showed that there is a clear - cut mismat ch between recommendations and practical care in treating children with acute diarrhea that warrants interventional strategies.

  19. Teaching treatment of mild, acute diarrhea and secondary dehydration to homeless parents.

    Smith, L. G.

    1987-01-01

    Homeless people in America are at risk for numerous health hazards. Diarrhea and consequent dehydration commonly affect homeless infants and children. Dehydration, if not treated, can quickly become a medical emergency. If, however, signs of diarrhea and dehydration are recognized and treated early, medical complications may be avoided. Fortunately, some homeless people now have access to shelter facilities that provide health education and services. Education is a fundamental tool in the pre...

  20. A Two-Tube Multiplex Reverse Transcription PCR Assay for Simultaneous Detection of Viral and Bacterial Pathogens of Infectious Diarrhea

    Ji Wang

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Diarrhea caused by viral and bacterial infections is a major health problem in developing countries. The purpose of this study is to develop a two-tube multiplex PCR assay using automatic electrophoresis for simultaneous detection of 13 diarrhea-causative viruses or bacteria, with an intended application in provincial Centers for Diseases Control and Prevention, China. The assay was designed to detect rotavirus A, norovirus genogroups GI and GII, human astrovirus, enteric adenoviruses, and human bocavirus (tube 1, and Salmonella, Vibrio parahaemolyticus, diarrheagenic Escherichia coli, Campylobacter jejuni, Shigella, Yersinia, and Vibrio cholera (tube 2. The analytical specificity was examined with positive controls for each pathogen. The analytical sensitivity was evaluated by performing the assay on serial tenfold dilutions of in vitro transcribed RNA, recombinant plasmids, or bacterial culture. A total of 122 stool samples were tested by this two-tube assay and the results were compared with those obtained from reference methods. The two-tube assay achieved a sensitivity of 20–200 copies for a single virus and 102-103 CFU/mL for bacteria. The clinical performance demonstrated that the two-tube assay had comparable sensitivity and specificity to those of reference methods. In conclusion, the two-tube assay is a rapid, cost-effective, sensitive, specific, and high throughput method for the simultaneous detection of enteric bacteria and virus.

  1. Therapeutic Effects of Oral Zinc Supplementation on Acute Watery Diarrhea with Moderate Dehydration: A Double-Blind Randomized Clinical Trial

    Mohammad Karamyyar

    2013-06-01

    Full Text Available Background: To assess the therapeutic effects of oral zinc supplementation on acute watery diarrhea of children with moderate dehydration.Methods: All 9-month to 5-year-old children who were admitted with acute watery diarrhea and moderate dehydration to the Children Ward of Motahari Hospital, Urmia, Iran in 2008 were recruited. After the application of the inclusion and exclusion criteria, the patients were randomly allocated to two groups: one group to receive zinc plus oral rehydration solution (ORS and the other one to receive ORS plus placebo. All the patients were rehydrated using ORS and then receiving ORS for ongoing loss (10 ml/kg after every defecation. Additionally, the patients in the intervention group received zinc syrup (1 mg/kg/day divided into two doses. A detailed questionnaire was filled daily for each patient by trained pediatrics residents; it contained required demographic characteristics, nutrition and hydration status, and disease progression. The primary outcome (frequency and consistency of diarrhea and the secondary outcomes (duration of hospitalization and change in patients’ weight were compared between the two groups.Results: The mean diarrhea frequency (4.5±2.3 vs. 5.3±2.1; P=0.004 was lower in the group receiving zinc +ORS; however, the average weight was relatively similar between the two groups (10.5±3.1 vs. 10.1±2.3; P=0.14. The qualitative assessment of stool consistency also confirmed earlier improvement in the treatment group in the first three days of hospitalization (P <0.05. The mean duration of hospitalization was significantly lower in the patients receiving zinc supplements (2.5±0.7 vs. 3.3±0.8 days; P=0.001. Conclusion: Our results imply the beneficial effects of therapeutic zinc supplementation on disease duration and severity in patients with acute diarrhea and moderate dehydration in Iran. Trial Registration Number: IRCT201201241580N2

  2. Diarrhea - overview

    ... lead to diarrhea. This problem may be called food poisoning . Certain medicines may also cause diarrhea , including: Some antibiotics Chemotherapy drugs for cancer Laxatives containing magnesium Diarrhea ...

  3. Effect of Porcine Epidemic Diarrhea Virus Infectious Doses on Infection Outcomes in Naïve Conventional Neonatal and Weaned Pigs.

    Thomas, Joseph T; Chen, Qi; Gauger, Phillip C; Giménez-Lirola, Luis G; Sinha, Avanti; Harmon, Karen M; Madson, Darin M; Burrough, Eric R; Magstadt, Drew R; Salzbrenner, Holly M; Welch, Michael W; Yoon, Kyoung-Jin; Zimmerman, Jeffrey J; Zhang, Jianqiang

    2015-01-01

    Porcine epidemic diarrhea virus (PEDV) was identified in the United States (U.S.) swine population for the first time in April 2013 and rapidly spread nationwide. However, no information has been published regarding the minimum infectious dose (MID) of PEDV in different pig models. The main objective of this study was to determine the oral minimum infectious dose of PEDV in naïve conventional neonatal piglets and weaned pigs. A U.S. virulent PEDV prototype isolate (USA/IN19338/2013) with known infectious titer was serially ten-fold diluted in virus-negative cell culture medium. Dilutions with theoretical infectious titers from 560 to 0.0056 TCID50/ml together with a medium control were orogastrically inoculated (10ml/pig) into 7 groups of 5-day-old neonatal pigs (n = 4 per group) and 7 groups of 21-day-old weaned pigs (n = 6 per group). In 5-day-old pigs, 10ml of inoculum having titers 560-0.056 TCID50/ml, corresponding to polymerase chain reaction (PCR) cycle threshold (Ct) values 24.2-37.6, resulted in 100% infection in each group; 10ml of inoculum with titer 0.0056 TCID50/ml (Ct>45) caused infection in 25% of the inoculated pigs. In 21-day-old pigs, 10ml of inoculum with titers 560-5.6 TCID50/ml (Ct 24.2-31.4) resulted in 100% infection in each group while 10ml of inoculum with titers 0.56-0.0056 TCID50/ml (Ct values 35.3 ->45) did not establish infection in any pigs under study conditions as determined by clinical signs, PCR, histopathology, immunohistochemistry, and antibody response. These data reveal that PEDV infectious dose is age-dependent with a significantly lower MID for neonatal pigs compared to weaned pigs. This information should be taken into consideration when interpreting clinical relevance of PEDV PCR results and when designing a PEDV bioassay model. The observation of such a low MID in neonates also emphasizes the importance of strict biosecurity and thorough cleaning/disinfection on sow farms. PMID:26441071

  4. Complement levels in acute infectious hepatitis and serum hepatitis

    Kosmidis, J. C.; Leader-Williams, Lesley K.

    1972-01-01

    The level of the third component of complement was measured in serial specimens of serum taken from thirty-one patients with acute viral hepatitis. Fourteen of the thirty-one patients were positive for the hepatitis-associated antigen. A characteristic fluctuation was observed in twenty-nine of the thirty-one patients. This consisted of an initial fall of the level of C3, followed by an increase to a higher than normal level and then a gradual return to normal. No difference was observed between the patients who were positive and those who were negative for the hepatitis-associated antigen. These results support the view that immune complexes play a significant role in the pathogenesis of acute viral hepatitis. PMID:4624985

  5. Anti-infectious treatment in acute respiratory distress syndrome

    Gao, Min; Xiao, Zhen-Liang; Fu-xiang LI

    2013-01-01

    Acute respiratory distress syndrome (ARDS) is closely correlated with infection. Severe infection, e.g., sepsis and septic shock, can result in ARDS. Ventilator associated pneumonia (VAP) is one of the common complications in ARDS related infection. As regards ARDS related infection, community acquired infection (CAI) is different from hospital acquired infection (HAI) in bacterial spectrum. The former is mainly caused by Streptococcus pneumonia, Hemophilus influenzae, Moraxelle catarrhalis, ...

  6. Detection of a Bocavirus Circular Genome in Fecal Specimens from Children with Acute Diarrhea in Beijing, China

    Zhao, Hui; Zhao, Linqing; Sun, Yu; Qian, Yuan; Liu, Liying; Jia, Liping; Zhang, You; Dong, Huijin

    2012-01-01

    To determine if human bocavirus 2 (HBoV2) has a circular genome similar to the head-to-tail sequence of HBoV1 and the episomal form of HBoV3, 15 HBoV2 positive samples identified from 553 stool specimens from children with acute diarrhea were tested for a head-to-tail sequence using TaqMan-based real-time PCR. A circular genome with a head-to-tail sequence was identified in one (BJQ435) out of 15 samples tested by nested PCR. The complete circular genome of HBoV2-C1 (BJQ435) was 5307 nt in le...

  7. CHARACTERISTICS OF PHAGOCYTIC CELLS IN PATIENTS WITH ACUTE LEUKEMIA WITH AN INFECTIOUS SYNDROME

    S. V. Plotnikova

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Abstract. The aim of this study was to investigate some characteristics of neutrophils and monocytes in patients with acute leukemia, depending on presence of an infectious syndrome, as based on studying of CD16, CD64, HLA-DR receptors, along with assaying myeloperoxidase (MPO and functional activity of the cells. Infectious syndrome in acute leukemia patients was accompanied by changes in antibody-dependent cytotoxicity against neutrophils (decreased CD16 and increase in CD64 expression, lower phagocytic capacity of the cells, and myeloperoxidase deficiency of neutrophils and monocytes. In patients with inflammatory manifestations of infectious syndrome (i.e., acute tonsillitis, bronchitis, pneumonia, etc., the signs of neutrophilic insussiciency were more pronounced, i.e., CD16+ neutrophils comprised 24.36±7.43%, as compared with 74.21±5.43% in controls, p < 0.001; MPO positivity was detected in 29.15±12.6% of the cells against 96.1±1.94% in controls, p < 0.01; MPO expression: 5.34±3.07 MFI, with 32.9±10.76 in controls, p < 0,05. These data suggest significant disturbances of anti-infectious elimination mechanisms.

  8. Agents against pediatric diarrhea. Assessing the information companies supply to Canadian physicians.

    Lexchin, J

    1994-01-01

    OBJECTIVE: To assess information on the safety and efficacy of medications that could be used to treat children who have acute infectious diarrhea. DESIGN: Survey of product monographs. Companies were asked to supply their best evidence that products were both safe and effective for treating children who have diarrhea and to supply any information on adverse effects among Canadian children related to use of the products. PARTICIPANTS: Companies making drugs identified in the Compendium of Pha...

  9. Zinc for Acute Diarrhea and Amoxicillin for Pneumonia, Do They Work? : Delivered at the AIIMS, IJP Excellence Award for the year 2013 on 7th September 2014.

    Patel, Archana

    2015-08-01

    Acute diarrhea and pneumonia are the two largest killers of under-five children in the world. Zinc, used in management of acute diarrhea and Amoxicillin, used in community acquired pneumonia, feature in the list of 13 Life Saving Commodities for Women's and Children Health by the UN Commission. Zinc has caught wide scientific attention for the conceptual promise it has to offer for prevention, control and treatment of acute diarrhea. This presentation focuses on author's research on the mechanisms by which zinc might contribute to the pathogenesis of acute diarrhea and the degree of success achieved in diarrhea control and treatment by zinc supplementation including its impact on mortality. However, emerging evidence in terms of controlled studies in humans beckons a more complete understanding of the mechanistic basis for zinc supplementation. Current evidence indicates that studies specifically addressing the variability in response to zinc supplementation need to be undertaken to better comprehend these mechanisms. Similarly, the author presented her research that examined the role of oral amoxicillin in community management of severe pneumonia in children and the need to assess its universal efficacy in all children with severe pneumonia. PMID:25731896

  10. Respiratory protection and emerging infectious diseases: lessons from severe acute respiratory syndrome

    John H. Lange

    2005-01-01

    @@ The severe acute respiratory syndrome (SARS) that emerged 2002-2003 and apparently again 2004 (reported by the news media on December 27, 2003) as the first confirmed case by the World Health Organization (WHO)1,2 raised awareness of emerging infectious diseases.3 Every year there are both new and old infectious diseases emerging as potential pandemic agents.4-6 However, few of these diseases receive the public attention and concern expressed as occurred during the emergence of SARS. Much of this concern was a result of the rapid spread of the novel coronavirus (CoV) to different regions of the world and its high infectivity, especially for health care workers (HCW).3 In many ways, the high percent of HCW infected is a warning of the potential hazards of old and emerging infectious diseases.6 However, SARS was not the only disease (e.g. Monkeypox) that emerged in 2003,3 rather it received the greatest attention.

  11. Calcium ameliorates diarrhea in immune compromised children

    Cheng, Sam X.; Bai, Harrison X; Gonzalez-Peralta, Regino; Mistry, Pramod K.; Gorelick, Fred S.

    2013-01-01

    Treatment of infectious diarrheas remains a challenge, particularly in immunocompromised patients in whom infections usually persist and resultant diarrhea is often severe and protracted. Children with infectious diarrhea who become dehydrated are normally treated with oral or intravenous rehydration therapy. Although rehydration therapy can replace the loss of fluid, it does not ameliorate diarrhea. Thus, over the past decades, there has been continuous effort to search for ways to safely st...

  12. A case-control study examining association between infectious agents and acute myocardial infarction

    Sunanda N Shrikhande; Zodpey, Sanjay P.; Himanshu Negandhi

    2014-01-01

    Background: Coronary heart disease is multi-factorial in origin and its burden is expected to rise in developing countries, including India. Evidence suggests that the inflammation caused by infection is associated with the development of atherosclerosis and heart disease. An increasing number of clinical and experimental studies point to a contribution of various infectious organisms to the development of atherosclerosis in humans. Acute myocardial infarction (AMI) is associated with atheros...

  13. Post-infectious glomerulonephritis presenting as acute renal failure in a patient with Lyme disease

    Rolla, Davide; Conti, Novella; Ansaldo, Francesca; Panaro, Laura; Lusenti, Tiziano

    2013-01-01

    Introduction: We report a case of a patient with acute renal failure in Lyme disease-associated focal proliferative mesangial nephropathy. Lyme disease is a vector-borne disease caused by Borrelia burgdorferi, transmitted by the bite of an infected ixodes tick. Post-infectious glomerulonephritis (GN)secondary to Borrelia burgdorferi infection in man could be fatal, as it is in canine Lyme borreliosis. Case: A 61-year old man with chronic ethanolic hepatitis was admitted to a provincial hospit...

  14. Anti-NMDAR encephalitis, a mimicker of acute infectious encephalitis and a review of the literature

    Darren Wong

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Anti-N-methyl-d-aspartate receptor encephalitis has become an increasingly recognized etiology of acute psychosis in young patients. The diverse constellation of symptoms allows for misdiagnosis as an infectious, psychological, or toxicological entity resulting in delays in treatment with increasing morbidity. We describe a case of anti-NMDAR encephalitis that was a particular challenge to diagnose. Practitioners should maintain a high index of suspicion for anti-NMDAR and related neuroautoimmune syndromes, especially in young patients that present with acute mental status decline or dyskinesia.

  15. Porcine epidemic diarrhea virus RNA present in commercial spray-dried porcine plasma is not infectious to naive pigs.

    Tanja Opriessnig

    Full Text Available Porcine epidemic diarrhea virus emerged in North America in April 2013 and has since been identified in 30 U.S. States, Canada and Mexico. The rapid spread of PEDV has raised concerns about the role of feed and particularly pork-by-product components such as spray-dried porcine plasma (SDPP in PEDV transmission. The aim of this study was to determine the infectivity of PEDV RNA present in commercial SDPP. Specifically, 40 3-week-old PEDV naïve pigs were randomly assigned to one of five treatment groups. At day post inoculation (dpi 0, NEG-CONTROL pigs were sham-inoculated, PEDV-CONTROL pigs received cell culture propagated PEDV, and SDPP-CONTROL pigs were switched to a diet with 5% SDPP containing 5.1±0.1 log10 PEDV RNA copies/g. To evaluate a potential positive effect of anti-PEDV antibodies in SDPP on PEDV challenge, four days prior to PEDV challenge the pigs in the SDPP-PEDV group were switched to and remained on a 5% SDPP diet through dpi 28. Another group, EGG-PEDV, was orally administered a commercial egg-derived liquid PEDV globulin product from dpi -4 through 6. All PEDV-CONTROL pigs began shedding PEDV in feces by dpi 3 and seroconverted between dpi 7 and 14, whereas pigs in NEG-CONTROL and SDPP-CONTROL groups remained PEDV RNA negative and did not seroconvert to PEDV for the study duration. This indicates no evidence of infectivity of the PEDV RNA in the SDPP lot utilized. Furthermore, under the study conditions SDPP or egg-derived liquid PEDV globulin addition did not significantly alter PEDV-shedding or overall disease course after experimental challenge.

  16. Pseudomembranous colitis presenting as acute colonic obstruction without diarrhea in a patient with gastric Burkitt lymphoma

    Kenichi Nomura; Shigeo Horiike; Takeshi Okanoue; Masafumi Taniwaki; Kohei Fukumoto; Daisuke Shimizu; Takashi Okuda; Naohisa Yoshida; Yuri Kamitsuji; Yosuke Matsumoto; Hideyuki Konishi; Yuji Ueda

    2005-01-01

    Pseudomembranous colitis (PMC) usually manifests asfever and diarrhea in hospitalized patients treated withsystemic antibiotics. We described a case of PMC withintestinal obstruction but without diarrhea. A 60-yearold man was hospitalized for chemotherapy for the treatment of Burkitt lymphoma of the stomach. The patient became febrile and complained of crampy abdominal pain during the post-chemotherapy nadir. Plain abdominal radiography showed some intestinal gas and niveau. Because stool cytotoxin assay for clostridium difficile was positive and colon fiberscopic examination showed a pseudomembrane at the left side of the colon,and a diagnosis of PMC was made. Treatment with intracolonic vancomycin administration by colonoscopy and nasoileus tube was successful. Physicians should take into account the possibility of bowel obstruction due to PMC occurring in patients undergoing chemotherapy and perform emergency colonoscopy examination of suspected cases.

  17. Acute Renal Replacement Therapy in Children with Diarrhea-Associated Hemolytic Uremic Syndrome: A Single Center 16 Years of Experience

    Silviu Grisaru

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available Acute kidney injury (AKI is becoming more prevalent among hospitalized children, its etiologies are shifting, and new treatment modalities are evolving; however, diarrhea-associated hemolytic uremic syndrome (D+HUS remains the most common primary disease causing AKI in young children. Little has been published about acute renal replacement therapy (ARRT and its challenges in this population. We describe our single center's experience managing 134 pediatric patients with D+HUS out of whom 58 (43% required ARRT over the past 16 years. In our cohort, all but one patient were started on peritoneal dialysis (PD. Most patients, 47 (81%, received acute PD on a pediatric inpatient ward. The most common recorded complications in our cohort were peritoneal fluid leaks 13 (22%, peritonitis 11 (20%, and catheter malfunction 5 (9%. Nine patients (16% needed surgical revision of their PD catheters. There were no bleeding events related to PD despite a mean platelets count of 40.9 (±23.5 × 103/mm3 and rare use of platelets infusions. Despite its methodological limitations, this paper adds to the limited body of evidence supporting the use of acute PD as the primary ARRT modality in children with D+HUS.

  18. Clinical value of fecal calprotectin in the diagnosis of infectious diarrhea%粪钙卫蛋白测定判断感染性腹泻的临床价值

    白乌日娜; 蒋琳; 计春燕; 黄平晓; 陈志强; 覃丽佳; 谭诗云

    2011-01-01

    目的 探讨粪便钙卫蛋白(FCP)在腹泻鉴别诊断中的临床应用价值.方法 感染性腹泻48例、腹泻型肠易激综合征(D-IBS)30例及正常对照组30例分别留取粪便5~10 g,用ELISA法检测粪便钙卫蛋白含量;同时收集患者病史及临床资料.结果感染性腹泻病人粪便钙卫蛋白检测值(515.21 μg/g,n=48 )显著高于D-IBS组(35.02 μg/g,n=30)和正常对照组(25.18 μg/g,n=30)(P<0.001).D-IBS组和正常对照组之间无明显差异(P>0.05).感染性腹泻FCP检测值与粪便显微镜下白细胞个数呈正相关(r=0.761).设定FCP值100 μg/g 为临界值时判断感染性腹泻的检测敏感性为85.4% 特异性为90.0% 准确性为87.2%.结论 FCP有望用于感染性腹泻和非感染性腹泻的初步鉴别,具有快速、简便、准确率高、患者依从性好等优点,值得临床推广应用.%Objective To explore the clinical value of fecal calprotectin in the differential diagnosis of infectious diarrhea. Methods Thirty people for health examination as controls, forty-eight patients with infectious diarrhea and thirty patients with diarrhea-predominant irritable bowel syndrome (D-IBS) were recruited. Stool sample (5 ~ 10 g) was collected in each people to determine fecal calprotectin by an emzyme-linked immunosorbent assay; meanwhile the case history and clinical data were collected simultaneously. Results The fecal calprotectin concentration in infectious diarrhea patients (515.21 μg/g, n = 48) was significantly higher than that in the healthy controls (25.18 μg/g, n = 30)and the D-IBS patients (35.02 μg/g,n = 30, P <0. 001 ). There was no statistical significance of calprotectin concentration between D-IBS patieuts and healthy controls (P > 0. 05). The level of FCP in infectious diarrhea patients was related with the quantity of fecal leukoeytes (r =0. 761 ). When the cut-off limit of fecal calprotectin was set as 100 μg/g, its diagnostic sensitivity of infectious diarrhea was 85.4

  19. Infectious events prior to chemotherapy initiation in children with acute myeloid leukemia.

    Carol Portwine

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: The primary objective was to describe infectious complications in children with acute myeloid leukemia from presentation to the healthcare system to initiation of chemotherapy and to describe how these infections differ depending on neutropenia. METHODS: We conducted a retrospective, population-based cohort study that included children and adolescents with acute myeloid leukemia diagnosed and treated at 15 Canadian centers. We evaluated infections that occurred between presentation to the healthcare system (for symptoms that led to the diagnosis of acute myeloid leukemia until initiation of chemotherapy. RESULTS: Among 328 children, 92 (28.0% were neutropenic at presentation. Eleven (3.4% had sterile-site microbiologically documented infection and four had bacteremia (only one Gram negative. Infection rate was not influenced by neutropenia. No child died from an infectious cause prior to chemotherapy initiation. CONCLUSION: It may be reasonable to withhold empiric antibiotics in febrile non-neutropenic children with newly diagnosed acute myeloid leukemia until initiation of chemotherapy as long as they appear well without a clinical focus of infection. Future work could examine biomarkers or a clinical score to identify children presenting with leukemia and fever who are more likely to have an invasive infection.

  20. Evaluating the cost utility of racecadotril for the treatment of acute watery diarrhea in children: the RAWD model

    Rautenberg TA

    2012-04-01

    Full Text Available Tamlyn Anne Rautenberg1,2, Ute Zerwes1, Douglas Foerster3,4, Rick Aultman51Assessment in Medicine GmbH, Lörrach, Germany; 2Leeds Institute of Health Sciences, University of Leeds, Leeds, United Kingdom; 3Abbott Products Operations AG, Allschwil, Switzerland; 4University of Bielefeld, School of Public Health, Bielefeld, Germany; 5Semalytics, Arizona, United States of AmericaBackground: The safety and efficacy of racecadotril to treat acute watery diarrhea (AWD in children is well established, however its cost effectiveness for infants and children in Europe has not yet been determined.Objective: To evaluate the cost utility of racecadotril adjuvant with oral rehydration solution (ORS compared to ORS alone for the treatment of AWD in children younger than 5 years old. The analysis is performed from a United Kingdom National Health Service (NHS perspective.Methods: A decision tree model has been developed in Microsoft® Excel. The model is populated with the best available evidence. Deterministic and probabilistic sensitivity analyses (PSA have been performed. Health effects are measured as quality-adjusted life years (QALYs and the model output is cost (2011 GBP per QALY. The uncertainty in the primary outcome is explored by probabilistic analysis using 1000 iterations of a Monte Carlo simulation.Results: Deterministic analysis results in a total incremental cost of –£379 in favor of racecadotril and a total incremental QALY gain in favor of racecadotril of +0.0008. The observed cost savings with racecadotril arise from the reduction in primary care reconsultation and secondary referral. The difference in QALYs is largely attributable to the timely resolution of symptoms in the racecadotril arm. Racecadotril remains dominant when base case parameters are varied. Monte Carlo simulation and PSA confirm that racecadotril is the dominant treatment strategy and is almost certainly cost effective, under the central assumptions of the model, at a

  1. Lactobacillus casei strain GG in the treatment of infants with acute watery diarrhea: A randomized, double-blind, placebo controlled clinical trial [ISRCTN67363048

    Chea-Woo Elsa

    2004-09-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Adjuvant therapy to ORT with probiotic bacteria for infants with acute watery diarrhea has been under active investigation. Most studies have been done in the developed world showing benefit only for viral mild gastroenteritis. We evaluated the effect of a milk formula containing one billion (109 cfu/ml of Lactobacillus casei strain GG (LGG upon duration and severity of diarrhea in infants in an environment with more severe acute diarrhea, where etiologic agents other than rotavirus are involved more frequently, and where mixed infections are more prevalent. Methods Male infants aged 3–36 months brought for treatment of acute watery diarrhea of less than 48 hours were eligible. After rehydration was completed with the WHO's oral rehydration solution, patients were randomly assigned to receive a milk formula either containing LGG or not. Stool volume was periodically measured using a devise suited to collect stools separate from urine. Duration of diarrhea was estimated based on stools physical characteristics. Results Eighty nine patients received the placebo milk formula and ninety received the LGG containing formula. Both groups were comparable in their baseline characteristics. Total stool output was significantly larger (p = 0.047 in the LGG group (247.8 ml/kg than in the placebo group (195.0 ml/kg. No significant differences were found in duration of diarrhea (58.5 hours with LGG vs. 50.4 hours with placebo, rate of treatment failure (21.1% with LGG vs. 18.0% with placebo, and proportion of patients with unresolved diarrhea after 120 hours (12.2% with LGG vs. 12.5% with placebo. The rate of stools with reducing substances after 24 hours of treatment increased significantly in both groups (from 41.4% to 72.2% with LGG and from 45.9% to 68.0% with placebo. Conclusion This study did not show a positive effect of LGG on the clinical course of acute watery diarrhea. Positive beneficial effects of LGG, as had been reported

  2. KNOWLEDGE, ATTITUDE AND PRACTICES OF MOTHERS REGARDING ACUTE DIARRHEA MANAGEMENT IN THE URBAN POPULATION OF HILLY REGION OF UTTARAKHAND

    Amit K

    2012-03-01

    Full Text Available ABSTRACT - Ba ckground : Diarrhoea is the leading cause of mortality and morbidity. Diarrhoeal disease kills 1.5 million children every year. Globally, there are about two billion cases of diarrhoeal disease every year. Methods : The cross sectional survey was conducted o ver a period of six months among 392 mothers of children who were suffering from diarrhea or had a episode within two weeks of the date of interview from urban field practicing areas of the department of community medicine, Veer Chandra Singh Garhwali gov ernment medical college, Srinagar, Garhwal. Results : Out of 392 respondents only 168 (43% gave ORS to the children. Only 28(7.1% children were given Zn tablets. Correct method of preparation of ORS and sugar salt solution at home was not known to most of the mothers. 73% of the mothers believed that frequency of feeding must be decreased at the time of diarrhoeal episode. Conclusions : The study shows a gap is there in the required knowledge, attitudes and practices regarding acute diarrhoeal diseases amon g caregivers. It demands concerted efforts from various departments for a positive behavior change. Key words - Acute Diarrhoeal disease, ORS, Zinc, Hilly region

  3. Analysis of factors influencing the overall effect of racecadotril on childhood acute diarrhea. Results from a real-world and post-authorization surveillance study in Venezuela

    Jose Chacón

    2010-06-01

    Full Text Available Jose ChacónOn behalf of the Racecadotril Post-authorization Record Group; Centro Clinico Profesional Caracas, Caracas, VenezuelaAbstract: Drug efficacy might differ from clinical trial results when performed in clinical daily conditions. Therefore, it is mandatory to conduct trials about effectiveness to improve external validity. This post-authorization, open-label, noncontrolled, prospective, multicenter, observational, and naturalistic trial was designed to search for factors influencing the racecadotril overall effect on childhood acute watery diarrhea in a real-world setting of Venezuela. There were 3,873 children with acute watery diarrhea treated with racecadotril, an enkephalin breakdown blocker plus oral rehydration therapy by 97 pediatricians. Evaluations were carried out daily until emission of two consecutive formed stools or absence of watery bowel movements for 24 hours. The primary end-point was time-to-relief, defined as the time from first racecadotril dose to the last watery bowel movement time. Age, gender, nursing type, nursing status during diarrhea, diarrhea severity, and co-medication were considered as factors in the statistical analysis. The primary end-point was evaluated by factors using UNIANOVA, and post-hoc tests were done. A multiple regression analysis was carried out to identify factors affecting drug performance, racecadotril effectiveness and tolerability overall assessment was searched by physicians and patients, and inter-observer agreement was evaluated by kappa statistics. The mean time-to-relief was 18.5 ± 12.5 hours [95% confidence interval 17.9–19.0] and the diarrhea severity was the only variable with significant and independent weight on racecadotril effectiveness explaining 23% of time-to-relief variance, but even in severe diarrhea cases this time was less than 24 hours. High agreement about satisfactory perception on effectiveness and tolerability was reached among physicians and patients. In

  4. Hospital Based Prospective Observational Study to Audit the Prescription Practices and Outcomes of Paediatric Patients (6 months to 5 years age group) Presenting with Acute Diarrhea

    Kondekar, Santosh; Rathi, Surbhi

    2016-01-01

    Introduction Diarrhea is a leading killer of children, accounting for 9% of all deaths among under-five children worldwide. WHO protocol deviation in management of diarrheas in children is likely due to various reasons. Aim To study the prescription practices, regarding adherence to WHO protocol and deviations, in the management of acute diarrhea in children presenting at a tertiary care hospital and its impact on the outcome. Materials and Methods This was a prospective observational hospital based study at a tertiary care carried out over a 12-month period including all cases of acute diarrhea (defined as 3 or more loose stools in last 24 hours) in children belonging to the age group of 6 months to 5 years. Patients were followed up on day 3,7,14 and 28 from the day of presentation. Software SPSS Version 17.0 was used for analysis. Correlation regression analysis was used to study predictiveness of different variables affecting outcome. Results In this study, 447 children aged between 6 months and 5 years were enrolled, of which 45 cases were lost in follow-up and excluded. The median age was 14 months. Some deviation from WHO protocol was noted in 78.4% of the cases. Most common deviations from WHO protocol were addition of probiotics (78.1% of cases) and addition of race cadotril (15.9% of cases). Inadvertent use of antibiotics in diarrhea was noted in 12.2% of cases. Presence of fever was strong predictor for use of antibiotics. Cases of early recovery within 3 days of presentation were higher in WHO protocol deviation group. Use of probiotics had statistically significant association with early recovery. Conclusion In diarrhea management, WHO protocol deviation is common. Probiotics are likely to help in early recovery. PMID:27437317

  5. Development and Validation of a Biomarker for Diarrhea-Predominant Irritable Bowel Syndrome in Human Subjects

    Mark Pimentel; Walter Morales; Ali Rezaie; Emily Marsh; Anthony Lembo; James Mirocha; Leffler, Daniel A.; Zachary Marsh; Stacy Weitsman; Kathleen S Chua; Gillian M Barlow; Enoch Bortey; William Forbes; Allen Yu; Christopher Chang

    2015-01-01

    Diarrhea-predominant irritable bowel syndrome (IBS) is diagnosed through clinical criteria after excluding "organic" conditions, and can be precipitated by acute gastroenteritis. Cytolethal distending toxin B (CdtB) is produced by bacteria that cause acute gastroenteritis, and a post-infectious animal model demonstrates that host antibodies to CdtB cross-react with vinculin in the host gut, producing an IBS-like phenotype. Therefore, we assessed circulating anti-CdtB and anti-vinculin antibod...

  6. The Effect of G-ORS Along With Rice Soup in the Treatment of Acute Diarrhea in Children: A Single-Blind Randomized Controlled Trial

    Kianmehr, Mojtaba; Saber, Ashraf; Moshari, Jalil; Ahmadi, Reza; Basiri-moghadam, Mahdi

    2016-01-01

    Background The world health organization guidelines for treatment of diarrhea in children emphasize on continued feeding together with prescription of oral rehydration solution (ORS) and supplementary zinc therapy. However, conflicting viewpoints exist regarding the optimal diet and dietary ingredients for children with diarrhea. Moreover, few studies have investigated the effect of rice soup along with ORS in the treatment of this disease. Objectives This study aimed to explore effects of simultaneous taking of glucose oral rehydration solution (G-ORS) and rice soup in the treatment of acute diarrhea in 8 to 24-month-old children. Patients and Methods This single-blind controlled clinical trial was conducted in the pediatric ward of 22nd of Bahman hospital, Gonabad, Iran between June 2013 and February 2014. Forty children aged 8-24 months with acute diarrhea were randomly assigned into an intervention group (G-ORS plus rice soup group) comprising 20 babies and a control group (G-ORS) of 20 children based on balanced blocking randomization. The variables under investigation were diarrhea duration, patient hospitalization, need for intravenous (IV) fluids and stool output frequency. Data was analyzed using independent samples t and chi-square test. Results At the end of study, the time for treating acute watery diarrhea in the intervention and control groups were 21.10 ± 8.81 and 34.55 ± 5.82 hours (P < 0.001) and hospital stay were 34.05 ± 6.62 and 40.20 ± 6.32 hours (P = 0.005). Moreover, stool output frequency were 4.20 ± 0.95 and 8.00 ± 1.37 (P < 0.001) in the first 24 hours, and 2.18 ± 0.60 and 2.80 ± 0.76 (P = 0.03) in the second 24 hours of treatment in intervention and control groups, respectively. Conclusions Rice soup regimen was highly effective and inexpensive in the treatment of acute diarrhea in children. Thus, in addition to the common treatment by G-ORS, rice soup can be consumed simultaneously with G-ORS.

  7. [Effects of nifuroxazide (Ercefuryl), trimethoprim-sulfamethoxazole and bactisubtil in acute diarrhea].

    Bulbulović-Telalbasić, S

    1991-01-01

    The clinical effects of Nifuroxasid (N), Trimetoprim sulphametoxasol (TS) and Bactisubtil (B) on bacillar dysentery and alimentary toxicoinfections in the patients treated at the Clinic from January 1984 to the end of December 1989 have been analysed. According to the clinical signs, patients have been divided in ten categories of light, mild and heavy forms. In total, 329 cases of bacillar dysentery and 89 cases of alimentary toxicoinfections have been analysed. The following was established: A. Bacilar dysentery: the fastest normalization of the stool was achieved with N in every clinical form (averages 2.2, 3.5 and 4.05 days). With TS the effects were slower (3.0, 3.9 and 4.4 days), but the slowest normalization was recorded with B (3.4, 4.6 and 5.4 days). However, with TS, some Shigella strains showed resistance (in 23 out of 94 antibiograms), which diminished the effects. B. Alimentary toxicoinfections were treated only with N and B, since these forms of diarrhea caused by toxigenic factors were milder. Better results were achieved with N in this case as well. PMID:1366328

  8. Effect of Brad's yeast in the prevention of secondary diarrhea in neonatal infectious pneumonia%布拉酵母菌预防新生儿感染性肺炎继发腹泻的效果观察

    冯永歌

    2012-01-01

    Objective To observe the clinical efficacy and safety of Brad's yeast in the prevention of secondary diarrhea in neonatal infectious pneumonia. Methods 120 cases of children fit the diagnosis of neonatal infectious pneumonia were assigned to observation group (62 cases) and control group (58 cases). Both groups were given antibiotics and symptomatic supportive treatment, while the observation group was given additional full course of oral administration of Brad's yeast. Children with secondary diarrhea in both groups were given montmorillonite powder orally. Time of occurrence, incidence of diarrhea, the number of diarrhea three days after onset, diarrhea duration and adverse reactions in the course of treatment of both groups were statistically analyzed. Results There were 33 cases of diarrhea in the control group, with the incidence rate of 56.9%; in the observation group there were 12 cases of diarrhea, with the incidence rate of 19.4%. Differences analysis results between the two groups were statistically significant (x2 = 11.87, P < 0.01). Diarrhea onset times, number of diarrhea three days after onset and diarrhea duration of the two groups were significantly different (P < 0.01 or P < 0.05). In addition to antibiotics allergic reactions in both groups, the control group showed four cases of fungal stomatitis. No other significant adverse reactions occurred. Conclusion Brad's yeast used in the prevention of secondary diarrhea in neonatal infectious pneumonia shows good effect. It can significantly reduce and delay the occurrence of secondary diarrhea, reduce the secondary diarrhea extent, lead to rapid recovery after symptomatic treatment of diarrhea. It is safe to be used in the prevention of neonatal antibiotic-associated diarrhea except for critically ill cases.%目的 观察布拉酵母菌用于预防新生儿感染性肺炎继发腹泻的临床效果及安全性.方法 将符合新生儿感染性肺炎诊断的患儿120例分为观察组(62

  9. Short-Term Effect of Prebiotics Administration on Stool Characteristics and Serum Cytokines Dynamics in Very Young Children with Acute Diarrhea

    Nachum Vaisman

    2010-06-01

    Full Text Available We investigated the effect of a mixture of long-chain fructo-oligosaccharides, galacto-oligosaccharides and acidic oligosaccharides on the number and consistency of stools and on immune system biomarkers in 104 supplemented and non-supplemented subjects (aged 9–24 months with acute diarrhea. Interleukin-1 (IL-1, IL-1RA, IL-6, IL-8, IL-10, TNF-α and sIL-2R cytokine levels were determined. The significant decrease in number of stools and increase in stool consistency in the supplemented group was of little clinical relevance. The only significant change in pro- and anti-inflammatory cytokines was decreased TNF-α levels in the supplemented group. Prebiotic supplementation during acute diarrhea episodes did not influence the clinical course.

  10. Effectiveness of nursing management mode in prevention of infectious diarrhea in psychiatric patients%护理管理模式预防精神病患者感染性腹泻的有效性探究

    郑胜丽; 林珊珊; 徐跃慧; 刘立滢

    2015-01-01

    目的:探讨护理管理模式改善精神病患者感染性腹泻的有效性,以降低其发生率。方法选择2013年1月-2014年1月收治的7300精神病患者,其中2013年1-6月为护理干预前,根据上报医院感染及出院病历资料,对感染性腹泻患者粪便进行细菌学检测,并于2013年6月开始对住院患者进行护理干预,数据采用SPSS 15.0软件进行统计分析。结果护理干预前发生医院感染性腹泻患者有120例发生率1.64%,护理干预后(2013年7月-2014年1月)发生医院感染性腹泻患者有64例发生率0.88%;与神经症/癔症/应激相关障碍等相比,与精神分裂症、情感性精神障碍、器质性精神障碍的感染率对比后,差异有统计学意义( P<0.05);在120例医院感染性腹泻患者中,88例患者具有不洁食物史、发热、恶心、呕吐、腹泻,12例患者伴随肠胀气、肠麻痹、肠梗阻、水与电解质紊乱,20例患者在1年内腹泻>5次;与护理干预前医院感染性腹泻发生率1.64%相比,护理干预后医院感染性腹泻发生率为0.88%,差异有统计学意义( P<0.05)。结论精神病患者感染性腹泻发生率虽然较高,但采取合理护理干预后,可显著降低感染性腹泻的发生率。%OBJECTIVE To explore the effectiveness of nursing management mode in improvement of infectious di‐arrhea in the psychiatric patients so as to reduce the incidence rate .METHODS A total of 7 300 psychiatric patients who were treated in the hospital from Jan 2013 to Jan 2014 were enrolled in the study ,the time period from Jan to Jun 2013 was before the nursing intervention ,then the bacteriological test was performed for the stool samples of the patients with infectious diarrhea according to the reported data of nosocomial infections and the data of dis‐charged cases;the nursing interventions were taken for the hospitalized patients since Jun

  11. The Fecal Microbiome in Dogs with Acute Diarrhea and Idiopathic Inflammatory Bowel Disease

    Jan S. Suchodolski; Melissa E Markel; Garcia-Mazcorro, Jose F.; Unterer, Stefan; Heilmann, Romy M.; Scot E Dowd; Kachroo, Priyanka; Ivanov, Ivan; Minamoto, Yasushi; Dillman, Enricka M.; Steiner, Jörg M.; Cook, Audrey K.; Toresson, Linda

    2012-01-01

    Background Recent molecular studies have revealed a highly complex bacterial assembly in the canine intestinal tract. There is mounting evidence that microbes play an important role in the pathogenesis of acute and chronic enteropathies of dogs, including idiopathic inflammatory bowel disease (IBD). The aim of this study was to characterize the bacterial microbiota in dogs with various gastrointestinal disorders. Methodology/Principal Findings Fecal samples from healthy dogs (n = 32), dogs wi...

  12. Traveler's Diarrhea

    ... You also can take a medicine called loperamide (brand name: Imodium). However, if you have bloody diarrhea, ... traveler’s diarrhea? Is traveler’s diarrhea common in the country I’m traveling to? If I get traveler’s ...

  13. Pharmacologic Agents for Chronic Diarrhea.

    Lee, Kwang Jae

    2015-10-01

    Chronic diarrhea is usually associated with a number of non-infectious causes. When definitive treatment is unavailable, symptomatic drug therapy is indicated. Pharmacologic agents for chronic diarrhea include loperamide, 5-hydroxytryptamine type 3 (5-HT3) receptor antagonists, diosmectite, cholestyramine, probiotics, antispasmodics, rifaximin, and anti-inflammatory agents. Loperamide, a synthetic opiate agonist, decreases peristaltic activity and inhibits secretion, resulting in the reduction of fluid and electrolyte loss and an increase in stool consistency. Cholestyramine is a bile acid sequestrant that is generally considered as the first-line treatment for bile acid diarrhea. 5-HT3 receptor antagonists have significant benefits in patients with irritable bowel syndrome (IBS) with diarrhea. Ramosetron improves stool consistency as well as global IBS symptoms. Probiotics may have a role in the prevention of antibiotic-associated diarrhea. However, data on the role of probiotics in the treatment of chronic diarrhea are lacking. Diosmectite, an absorbent, can be used for the treatment of chronic functional diarrhea, radiation-induced diarrhea, and chemotherapy-induced diarrhea. Antispasmodics including alverine citrate, mebeverine, otilonium bromide, and pinaverium bromide are used for relieving diarrheal symptoms and abdominal pain. Rifaximin can be effective for chronic diarrhea associated with IBS and small intestinal bacterial overgrowth. Budesonide is effective in both lymphocytic colitis and collagenous colitis. The efficacy of mesalazine in microscopic colitis is weak or remains uncertain. Considering their mechanisms of action, these agents should be prescribed properly. PMID:26576135

  14. 2006-2010年上海市金山区其他感染性腹泻流行特征%Epidemiological Analysis of Other Infectious Diarrhea in Jinshan District of Shanghai during 2006 -2010

    李澜; 宋灿磊; 曹志诚; 莫平华; 朱建明

    2011-01-01

    [Objective] To analyze the epidemiological analysis of other infectious diarrhea in Jinshan district of Shanghai during 2006 -2010, provide the scientific evidences for making prevention and control measures. [Methods] The data of other infectious diarrhea cases reported by national diseases information management system were analyzed by descriptive epidemiology method. [Results] During 2006 -2010, 1 599 cases of other infectious diarrhea were reported in Jinshan district, the annual incidence rate ranged from 38. 10/lakh to 56. 95/lakh, which showed a single-peak distribution. 62. 93% of patients were people aged 20 ~ 49 years old, and most of cases were workers and farmers. The peak season was from June to October. The cases diagnosed by laboratory testing accounted for 58. 53% of the total reported cases. Among cases which were diagnosed with clear pathogen, 72. 72% infected with Vibrio parahaemolyticus and 25. 71% infected with Salmonella. [Conclusion] From 2006 to 2010, the high incidence of other infectious diarrhea in Jinshan district was observed in summer and autumn, young adults were the high-risk population, and Vibrio parahaemolyticus was the important factor influencing the distribution of other infectious diarrhea cases.%目的 分析上海市金山区2006-2010年其他感染性腹泻的流行病学特征,为制定预防和控制措施提供科学依据.方法 对金山区2006-2010年疾病监测信息报告系统上报的其他感染性腹泻病例进行描述流行病学分析.结果 2006-2010年金山区共报告其他感染性腹泻病冽1599例,年发病率在38.10/10万~56.95/10万之间,呈单峰状分布;20 ~ 49岁年龄组占发病总数的62.39%,病例以工人及农民为主;病例集中分布于6-10月份;实验室诊断病例占报告总病例数的58.53%,其中副溶血弧菌及沙门菌感染分别占有明确病原体诊断病例的72.72%和25.71%.结论 金山区2006 -2010年其他感染性腹泻流行集中分布

  15. Serologic profile of Epstein-Barr virus infection in acute infectious mononucleosis

    Brkić Snežana V.

    2003-01-01

    Full Text Available The aim of our study was to determine classes of antibodies in different clinical forms of Epstein-Barr Virus (EBV primary infections. The investigation included 100 patients with acute mononucleosis who were hospitalized at the Clinic for Infectious Diseases in Novi Sad during 1995-1997. Apart from clinical and laboratory parameters, 5 different ELISA assays were performed: IgM EBVVCA, IgG EBVVCA, IgG EBNA, IgA EBVEA and IgG EBVEA. All patients were IgM EBVVCA positive, only 42% IgG EBVVCA positive and 6% IgG EBNA positive. Antibodies due to EBVEA IgA were established in 58% of patients and IgG class in 41%. Serologic profile of early EBV primary infection was established in 25%, acute EBV primary infection in 69% and late EBV primary infection in 6%. A statistically significant difference regarding absolute lymphocyte count and serologic response to early antigens of EBV infection was established in patients with positive findings. Clinical findings in the throat correlated with serologic response to early EBV proteins. We didn't find any correlation due to duration of illness, fever clinical forms of EBV primary infection and liver damage. Paul Bunnell test was positive only in 42% of our patients, with significantly higher number of negative results in groups of early and late EBV primary infections.

  16. Acute post-infectious glomerulonephritis in adults: A single center report

    Mouna Hamouda

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Acute post-infectious glomerulonephritis (APIGN is uncommonly seen in adults; its incidence is progressively declining, particularly in developed countries. The aim of this study was to evaluate the epidemiological, clinical and biologic features of APIGN in a Tunisian center. A retrospective descriptive analytic study was carried out on 50 patients aged more than 15 years who were admitted to the Monastir Hospital between 1991 and 2007, with a diagnosis of APIGN. There were more males than females (66% vs. 34%, and the mean age of the patients was 36.8 ± 10 years. Only 10% had an immunocompromised background, including diabetes. The most common site of infection was upper respiratory tract, followed by skin and pneumonia. The most common causative agent was Streptococcus (66%, followed by Staphylococcus (12%. 73.8% of the patients had low C3 complement levels. The mean peak serum creatinine was 190 μmol, and 4% of patients required acute dialysis. The patients were followed-up for a mean period of 18 months (range, 0.16-97 months. During follow-up, of the 46 patients reviewed in the consultation, the majority showed complete remission, 12 patients had persisting abnormalities such as hypertension in 17%, chronic renal failure in 8% and proteinuria in 6.5%, and one patient had concomitant hypertension and chronic renal failure. Our study suggests that APIGN is still endemic in some parts of the world such as Tunisia, and our data showed a favorable prognosis in adults.

  17. Risk factors associated with the introduction of acute clinical infectious bursal disease among Danish broiler chickens in 1998

    Flensburg, Mimi Folden; Ersbøll, Annette Kjær; Jørgensen, Poul Henrik

    2002-01-01

    The objective of the present study was to investigate risk factors associated with the introduction of acute clinical infectious bursal disease (IBD) among Danish broiler chickens in 1998. Data on 218 flocks were collected from hatcheries, abattoirs, farmers and veterinarians; 49 of the flocks had...... experienced acute clinical IBD (cases), 169 were unexposed (controls). The study was carried out using a case-control design. Cases were defined as the first flock on each premises to experience acute clinical IBD, and these were compared with non-diseased, non-IBD-vaccinated control flocks chosen randomly...

  18. Management of children with prolonged diarrhea [version 1; referees: 3 approved

    Antonietta Giannattasio

    2016-02-01

    Full Text Available Prolonged diarrhea is usually defined as acute-onset diarrhea lasting 7 days or more, but less than 14 days. Its trend has been declining in recent years because of improvement in the management of acute diarrhea, which represents the ideal strategy to prevent prolonged diarrhea. The pathogenesis of prolonged diarrhea is multifactorial and essentially based on persistent mucosal damage due to specific infections or sequential infections with different pathogens, host-related factors including micronutrient and/or vitamin deficiency, undernutrition and immunodeficiency, high mucosal permeability due to previous infectious processes and nutrient deficiency with consequential malabsorption, and microbiota disruption. Infections seem to play a major role in causing prolonged diarrhea in both developing and developed areas. However, single etiologic pathogens have not been identified, and the pattern of agents varies according to settings, host risk factors, and previous use of antibiotics and other drugs. The management of prolonged diarrhea is complex. Because of the wide etiologic spectrum, diagnostic algorithms should take into consideration the age of the patient, clinical and epidemiological factors, and the nutritional status and should always include a search for enteric pathogens. Often, expensive laboratory evaluations are of little benefit in guiding therapy, and an empirical approach may be effective in the majority of cases. The presence or absence of weight loss is crucial for driving the initial management of prolonged diarrhea. If there is no weight loss, generally there is no need for further evaluation. If weight loss is present, empiric anti-infectious therapy or elimination diet may be considered once specific etiologies have been excluded.

  19. Acute diarrhea in hospitalized children of the municipality of juiz de fora, MG, Brazil: prevalence and risk factors associated with disease severity Diarreia aguda em crianças hospitalizadas no município de Juiz de Fora, MG: prevalência e fatores de risco associados à gravidade da doença

    Monica Couto Guedes Sejanes da Rocha; Delaine La Gatta Carminate; Sandra Helena Cerrato Tibiriçá; Iná Pires de Carvalho; Maria Luzia da Rosa e Silva; Júlio Maria Fonseca Chebli

    2012-01-01

    CONTEXT: Acute diarrhea is a common cause of hospitalization among children under 5 years of age. Knowing the prevalence and risk factors associated with the severity of acute diarrhea is essential to control morbidity and mortality. OBJECTIVE: Describe the prevalence of demographic, epidemiologic and clinical features of children under 6 years of age hospitalized for acute diarrhea, and investigate the association between these determinants and the severity of the diarrheic episode. METHOD: ...

  20. Diarrhea in neonatal intensive care unit

    Annalisa; Passariello; Gianluca; Terrin; Maria; Elisabetta; Baldassarre; Mario; De; Curtis; Roberto; Paludetto; Roberto; Berni; Canani

    2010-01-01

    AIM:To investigate the frequency,etiology,and current management strategies for diarrhea in newborn.METHODS:Retrospective,nationwide study involving 5801 subjects observed in neonatal intensive care units during 3 years.The main anamnesis and demographic characteristics,etiology and characteristics of diarrhea,nutritional and therapeutic management,clinical outcomes were evaluated.RESULTS:Thirty-nine cases of diarrhea(36 acute,3 chronic) were identified.The occurrence rate of diarrhea was 6.72 per 1000 hosp...

  1. Clinical analysis of acute infectious portal vein thrombosis%急性感染性门静脉血栓形成的临床分析

    郭俏; 徐杨

    2013-01-01

    目的:探讨急性感染性门静脉血栓形成的临床特点及早期诊治方法。方法:回顾性分析中南大学湘雅二医院2003-2013年间收治的5例急性感染性门静脉血栓的临床资料。结果:5例患者均有腹部原发感染性疾病,超声检查发现门静脉血栓1例,增强CT检查发现5例。全部患者均予抗生素治疗,合用抗凝治疗3例。4例患者病情好转,其中2例血管部分或全部再通,1例因多器官功能衰竭放弃治疗。结论:急性门静脉血栓形成是腹部感染疾病少见但非常严重的并发症,早期表现为发热、腹胀、呕吐、腹泻,病情进展可有感染性休克、血性腹水、腹膜炎、肠梗阻或肠坏死、多器官功能衰竭;腹部超声及增强CT检查有助于早期确诊;积极抗感染、抗凝治疗并及时切除坏死肠段可有效实现血管再通及降低病死率。%Objective:To investigate the clinal characteristics of acute infectious portal vein thrombosis (PVT) and to explore effective methods to diagnose and treat the disease at the early stage. Methods:The clinical data of 5 patients with acute infectious PVT from 2003 to 2013 were analyzed retrospectively. Results:All patients suffered from abdominal infectious diseases before PVT were diagnosed. One patient was diagnosed by ultrasonography, and all 5 patients were conifrmed by contrast-enhanced CT scan. All patients received the treatment of antibiotics, and 3 combined with anticoagulant therapy. In a result, 4 patiens improved gradually, among whom 2 obtained partial or complete revascularization. One patient gave up therapy because of multiple organ dysfuction. Conclusion:Acute PVT is a rare but severe complication of abdominal infectious diseases, which may start with fever, distention, vomiting, or diarrhea, finally progress to septic shock, hemorrhagic ascites, peritonitis, intestinal obstruction, bowel necrosis, or multiple organ dysfuction. Ultrasonography

  2. Risk factors associated with the introduction of acute clinical infectious bursal disease among Danish broiler chickens in 1998

    Flensburg, Mimi Folden; Ersbøll, Annette Kjær; Jørgensen, Poul Henrik

    2002-01-01

    The objective of the present study was to investigate risk factors associated with the introduction of acute clinical infectious bursal disease (IBD) among Danish broiler chickens in 1998. Data on 218 flocks were collected from hatcheries, abattoirs, farmers and veterinarians; 49 of the flocks had...... from each unaffected farm. The resulting numbers of cases and controls used for statistical analyses were 16 and 61, respectively. Statistically significant associations were seen between the initial 16 Danish cases of acute clinical IBD in 1998 and certain hatcheries, age of parent birds and a certain...

  3. Drug Therapy in Diarrhea

    M Khalili

    1985-09-01

    Full Text Available The drug used in diarrhea must be effective in that they reduce the secretion and increase the absorption of the intestinal mucosa. This seems to be only possible with morphine derivatives. But these are not recommended as they may cause ileus. Antibiotics are indicated in only few cases of severe intestinal infections. Other frequently used drugs such as adsorbents are practically of no effect. Thus, rehydration, electrolyte substitution and realimentation remain the most effective method of treatment of acute diarrhea in infants.

  4. Acute and subacute non-infectious lung diseases. Usefulness of HRCT for evaluation of activity especially in follow-up

    The purpose of this study was to survey the usefulness of high-resolution CT (HRCT) for the evaluation of activity in acute and subacute non-infectious diffuse infiltrative lung diseases before and after corticosteroid treatment. Sequential HRCT images and chest radiographs obtained before and after treatment were retrospectively evaluated in 33 patients with acute or subacute non-infectious diffuse infiltrative lung diseases. All these patients were histologically confirmed to have pulmonary Inflammation and to have responded to treatment with corticosteroid. Radiographic and CT scores were correlated with the degree of dyspnea and the results of arterial blood gas analysis using Spearman's rank-correlation coefficient. On follow-up HRCT, the profusion score of areas with increased attenuation was significantly correlated with arterial oxygen tension (PaO2) (p=.003, r=-.53) and the alveolar-arterial oxygen tension difference (AaDO2) (p=.001, r=.57). No other correlation was found after treatment. Nodular and linear opacities were more commonly seen on follow-up chest radiographs and HRCT images than on initial ones. HRCT is useful for the evaluation of disease activity in acute and subacute non-infectious infiltrative lung diseases before and after treatment if paying special attention to the profusion of ground-glass attenuation. Even if pretreatment HRCT has not been performed, posttreatment HRCT should be examined. (author)

  5. Appropriate Management of Acute Diarrhea in Children Among Public and Private Providers in Gujarat, India: A Cross-Sectional Survey.

    Walker, Christa L Fischer; Taneja, Sunita; LeFevre, Amnesty; Black, Robert E; Mazumder, Sarmila

    2015-01-01

    Diarrhea remains a leading cause of morbidity and mortality among children under 5 years of age in low- and middle-income countries. In 2006, the Indian government formally endorsed the World Health Organization guidelines that introduced zinc supplementation and low-osmolarity oral rehydration salts (ORS) for the treatment of diarrhea. Despite this, zinc is rarely prescribed and has not been available in the public sector in India until very recently. The Diarrhea Alleviation Through Zinc and ORS Treatment (DAZT) project was implemented in Gujarat between 2011 and 2013 to accelerate the uptake of zinc and ORS among public and private providers in 6 rural districts. As part of an external evaluation of DAZT, we interviewed 619 randomly selected facility- and community-based public and private providers 2-3 months after a 1-day training event had been completed (or, in the case of private providers, after at least 1 drug-detailing visit by a pharmaceutical representative had occurred) and supplies were in place. The purpose of the interviews was to assess providers' knowledge of appropriate treatment for diarrhea in children, reported treatment practices, and availability of drugs in stock. More than 80% of all providers interviewed reported they had received training or a drug-detailing visit on diarrheal treatment in the past 6 months. Most providers in all cadres (range, 68% to 100%) correctly described how to prepare ORS and nearly all (range, 90% to 100%) reported routinely prescribing it to treat diarrhea in children. Reported routine prescription of zinc was lower, ranging from 62% among private providers to 96% among auxiliary nurse-midwives. Among providers who reported ever not recommending zinc (n = 242), the 2 most frequently reported reasons for not doing so were not completely understanding zinc for diarrhea treatment and not having zinc in stock at the time of contact with the patient. In a multiple logistic regression analysis, recent training or

  6. PFGE, Lior serotype, and antimicrobial resistance patterns among Campylobacter jejuni isolated from travelers and US military personnel with acute diarrhea in Thailand, 1998-2003

    Serichantalergs Oralak

    2010-11-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Campylobacter jejuni is a major cause of gastroenteritis worldwide. In Thailand, several strains of C. jejuni have been isolated and identified as major diarrheal pathogens among adult travelers. To study the epidemiology of C. jejuni in adult travelers and U.S. military personnel with acute diarrhea in Thailand from 1998-2003, strains of C. jejuni were isolated and phenotypically identified, serotyped, tested for antimicrobial susceptibility, and characterized using pulsed-field gel electrophoresis (PFGE. Results A total of 312 C. jejuni isolates were obtained from travelers (n = 46 and U.S. military personnel (n = 266 in Thailand who were experiencing acute diarrhea. Nalidixic acid and ciprofloxacin resistance was observed in 94.9% and 93.0% of the isolates, respectively. From 2001-2003, resistance to tetracycline (81.9%, trimethoprim-sulfamethoxazole (57.9%, ampicillin (28.9%, kanamycin (5.9%, sulfisoxazole (3.9%, neomycin (2.0%, and streptomycin (0.7% was observed. Combined PFGE analysis showed considerable genetic diversity among the C. jejuni isolates; however, four PFGE clusters included isolates from the major Lior serotypes (HL: 36, HL: 11, HL: 5, and HL: 28. The PFGE analysis linked individual C. jejuni clones that were obtained at U.S. military exercises with specific antimicrobial resistance patterns. Conclusions In summary, most human C. jejuni isolates from Thailand were multi-resistant to quinolones and tetracycline. PFGE detected spatial and temporal C. jejuni clonality responsible for the common sources of Campylobacter gastroenteritis.

  7. Controlled, double-blind, randomized clinical trial to evaluate the impact of fruit juice consumption on the evolution of infants with acute diarrhea

    Mendes Carlos

    2005-08-01

    Full Text Available Abstract In order to assess the effects of juice feedings during acute diarrhea a double-blind, randomized study was performed in 90 children, mean age of 10 ± 4.28 months. Thirty patients with acute diarrhea were fed twice-daily 15 ml/kg of Apple Juice (AJ, 30 received White Grape Juice (WGJ, and 30 were given colored and flavored water (WA as part of their age appropriate dietary intake. The duration and severity of diarrhea were the main endpoint variables of the study performed in a metabolic unit. The patients were similar among the 3 groups, had diarrhea for 50–64 hours prior to admission, and were dehydrated when admitted to the unit for study. Half of the patients in each group were well nourished and the others had mild to moderate degrees of malnutrition. Rotavirus infection was the agent causing the illness in 63% of the patients. The infants fed juice ingested 14–17% more calories than those given WA, (those receiving AJ and WGJ ingested 95 and 98 Calories/Kg/d respectively whereas those receiving WA consumed 81 cal/kg/d. The increased energy intake was not at the expense of other foods or milk formula. The mean body weight gain was greater among patients receiving WGJ (+ 50.7 gm as compared with the patients in the AJ group (+ 18.3 gm or the patients fed WA (- 0.7 gm (p = 0.08. The duration of the illness was longer in the infants fed juice as compared with those given WA (p = 0.006, the mean +/- SD duration in hours was 49.4 ± 32.6, 47.5 ± 38.9 and 26.5 ± 27.4 in patients fed AJ, WGJ and WA respectively. All patients improved while ingesting juice and none of them developed persistent diarrhea; most recovered within 50 hours of the beginning of treatment and less than one fourth had diarrhea longer than 96 hours in the unit. The fecal losses were also increased among the juice fed patients (p = 0.001; the mean ± SD fecal excretion in g/kg/h was 3.94 ± 2.35, 3.59 ± 2.35, and 2.19 ± 1.63 in AJ, WGJ and WA respectively

  8. A case-control study examining association between infectious agents and acute myocardial infarction

    Sunanda N Shrikhande

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Background: Coronary heart disease is multi-factorial in origin and its burden is expected to rise in developing countries, including India. Evidence suggests that the inflammation caused by infection is associated with the development of atherosclerosis and heart disease. An increasing number of clinical and experimental studies point to a contribution of various infectious organisms to the development of atherosclerosis in humans. Acute myocardial infarction (AMI is associated with atherosclerosis. Objectives: The objective of the following study is to study the association between Helicobacter pylori, Chlamydia pneumoniae and C-reactive protein (CRP with AMI. Materials and Methods: This group-matched case-control study was carried out in Government Medical College, Nagpur, Maharashtra, India. The study compared the risk of occurrence of AMI (outcome if subjects were ever-infected with H. pylori or C. pneumoniae; and their CRP positivity (exposure. Incident cases of myocardial infarctions in a tertiary care hospital were included as cases. Results: The study recruited 265 cases and 265 controls and detected an odds ratio (OR of 2.50 (95% confidence interval [CI]: 1.69-3.70 and an OR of 2.50 (95% CI: 1.71-3.65 for C. pneumoniae and H. pylori, respectively. Raised CRP levels had an OR of 3.85 (95% CI: 2.54-5.87. Conclusion: Although our study indicates the role of infections in the etiology of AMI in study population, the relative public health impact of these agents in the overall prevalence of AMI needs urgent research attention.

  9. Diarrhea - overview

    ... intolerance (which causes problems after drinking milk and eating other dairy products) Malabsorption syndromes Less common causes of diarrhea include: Carcinoid syndrome Disorders of the nerves that supply the intestines Removal ...

  10. Travelers' Diarrhea

    ... Visiting Friends and Family in Areas with Chikungunya, Dengue, or Zika Travel to the Olympics Infographic: Olympic ... East, Africa, Mexico, and Central and South America. Prevention In otherwise healthy adults, diarrhea is rarely serious ...

  11. Molecular characterization of rotavirus isolated from alpaca (Vicugna pacos) crias with diarrhea in the Andean Region of Cusco, Peru.

    Garmendia, Antonio E; Lopez, Wellington; Ortega, Nastassja; Chamorro, Marycris J

    2015-10-22

    Alpacas (Vicugna pacos), a species of South American camelids (SAC), suffer high morbidity and mortality from infectious diseases. Diarrhea is one of the leading causes of alpaca cria mortality in Peru and elsewhere. In order to develop appropriate control and/or treatment, it is necessary to identify infectious pathogens that cause diarrhea in crias. Rotavirus was isolated in cell culture from feces collected from crias with acute diarrhea that tested positive to rotaviral antigen by rapid immunochromatographic methods in an earlier study. The isolates were identified as rotaviruses by RT-PCR run with specific primers for human rotavirus VP7 coding sequences using total RNA extracted from cells displaying cytopathic effects as template. These alpaca isolates were further identified as group A rotaviruses by means of a VP6-specific PCR and were designated as ALRVA-K'ayra/Perú/3368-10 and ALRVA-K'ayra/Perú/3386-10. Molecular G and P typing, placed the former as G3/P11 and the latter as G3/P?. Sequence analysis of two genome segments (coding for VP4 and VP7) from the alpaca isolates revealed partial homologies to swine and human rotaviruses, respectively. These results demonstrate that rotaviruses are associated with a proportion of cases of diarrhea in crias, although prevalence and impact remain to be determined. The isolation of rotaviruses from alpaca crias with diarrhea will contribute positively to further understand the pathogen and its role in the diarrhea complex. PMID:26243695

  12. CONTENTS OF LYMPHOCYTE SUB-POPULATIONS IN THE CHILDREN WITH ACUTE LEUKEMIA AND LYMPHOMAS DEPENDENT ON INFECTIOUS COMPLICATION AND NEUTROPENIA

    M. V. Peshikova

    2005-01-01

    Full Text Available Abstract. The aim of the present work was to evaluate the contents of some lymphocyte sub-populations in peripheral blood of the children with tumors of hematopoietic and lymphoid tissues, depending on infectious complication of cytostatic therapy and neutropenia. In all children undergoing cytostatic therapy for acute lympho-blastic leukemia and non-B cell non-Hodgkinґs lymphomas, we found significant decrease in the numbers of CD95 lymphocytes, absolute amounts of natural killer cells (CD16, CD56-lymphocytes and activated lymphocytes (СD11b, HLA-DR-cells, irrespective of neutrophile numbers in their blood and infectious complications. However, absolute number of CD25- lymphocytes was significantly decreased in the children with neutropenia. Relative contents of CD16, CD56, СD11b, HLA-DR, CD25-lymphocytes did not significantly differ from those in healthy children, or they were found to be significantly increased.

  13. CONTENTS OF LYMPHOCYTE SUB-POPULATIONS IN THE CHILDREN WITH ACUTE LEUKEMIA AND LYMPHOMAS DEPENDENT ON INFECTIOUS COMPLICATION AND NEUTROPENIA

    M. V. Peshikova

    2014-07-01

    Full Text Available Abstract. The aim of the present work was to evaluate the contents of some lymphocyte sub-populations in peripheral blood of the children with tumors of hematopoietic and lymphoid tissues, depending on infectious complication of cytostatic therapy and neutropenia. In all children undergoing cytostatic therapy for acute lympho-blastic leukemia and non-B cell non-Hodgkinґs lymphomas, we found significant decrease in the numbers of CD95 lymphocytes, absolute amounts of natural killer cells (CD16, CD56-lymphocytes and activated lymphocytes (СD11b, HLA-DR-cells, irrespective of neutrophile numbers in their blood and infectious complications. However, absolute number of CD25- lymphocytes was significantly decreased in the children with neutropenia. Relative contents of CD16, CD56, СD11b, HLA-DR, CD25-lymphocytes did not significantly differ from those in healthy children, or they were found to be significantly increased.

  14. Acute kidney injury in a tropical country: a cohort study of 253 patients in an infectious diseases intensive care unit

    Elizabeth De Fransceco Daher

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Introduction: Acute kidney injury (AKI is a frequent and potentially fatal complication in infectious diseases. The aim of this study was to investigate the clinical aspects of AKI associated with infectious diseases and the factors associated with mortality. Methods: This retrospective study was conducted in patients with AKI who were admitted to the intensive care unit (ICU of a tertiary infectious diseases hospital from January 2003 to January 2012. The major underlying diseases and clinical and laboratory findings were evaluated. Results: A total of 253 cases were included. The mean age was 46±16 years, and 72% of the patients were male. The main diseases were human immunodeficiency virus (HIV infection, HIV/acquired immunodeficiency syndrome (AIDS (30%, tuberculosis (12%, leptospirosis (11% and dengue (4%. Dialysis was performed in 70 cases (27.6%. The patients were classified as risk (4.4%, injury (63.6% or failure (32%. The time between AKI diagnosis and dialysis was 3.6±4.7 days. Oliguria was observed in 112 cases (45.7%. The Acute Physiology and Chronic Health Evaluation (APACHE II scores were higher in patients with HIV/AIDS (57±20, p-value=0.01 and dengue (68±11, p-value=0.01. Death occurred in 159 cases (62.8%. Mortality was higher in patients with HIV/AIDS (76.6%, p-value=0.02. A multivariate analysis identified the following independent risk factors for death: oliguria, metabolic acidosis, sepsis, hypovolemia, the need for vasoactive drugs, the need for mechanical ventilation and the APACHE II score. Conclusions: AKI is a common complication in infectious diseases, with high mortality. Mortality was higher in patients with HIV/AIDS, most likely due to the severity of immunosuppression and opportunistic diseases.

  15. Etiology of Acute Diarrhea in Tunisian Children with Emphasis on Diarrheagenic Escherichia coli: Prevalence and Identification of E. coli Virulence Markers.

    Imen Ben Salem-Ben Nejma

    2014-07-01

    Full Text Available Diarrheal diseases can be caused by viral, bacterial and parasitic infections. This paper provides a preliminary image of diarrhea with regards to etiology and epidemiologic factors in Tunisian children less than five years of age.Overall, 124 diarrhoeal stools were collected from patients suffering from acute diarrhea and 54 stool samples from healthy children. All stools were examined for the presence of enteric pathogens.In diarrheagenic children, 107 pathogenic bacteria were isolated (12 Salmonella spp. (9.7% and 95 diarrheagenic Escherichia coli strains (76.6%: 29 enteroaggregative E.coli (EAEC (23.4%, 15 enteroinvasive E.coli (EIEC (12.1%, 17 enteropathogenic E.coli (EPEC (13.7%, 26 enterotoxigenic E.coli (ETEC (21% and 2 enterohemoragic E.coli (EHEC (1.6%. However, in the control group, 23 pathogenic E.coli strains were isolated (42.6%: 8 EAEC (14.8%, 12 EIEC (22.2% and 3 EPEC (5.5%. Among diarrheagenic E.coli (DEC, only ETEC strains were significantly recovered from diarrheagenic children than from healthy controls (P < 0.0003. Group A rotavirus was identified in 33.9% (n=42 of diarrheagenic children and in 11.1% among the control group (n=6. Concerning norovirus, 8.9% (n=11 of the samples collected from diarrheagenic children and 9.2% (n=5 from the control group were positive. The prevalence of rotaviruses and Salmonella spp were also significantly higher in patients with diarrhea than in controls (P = 0.002 and P < 0.019, respectively. Finally, enteropathogenic parasites (Entamoeba coli and cryptosporidium Oocystes were isolated from 4.8% and 9.2% of diarrheagenic and control children, respectively.These results provide baseline data about the relative importance of different enteropathogens in Tunisian children.

  16. Epidemiological characteristics of viral diarrhea in children of Uzbekistan

    R. Latipov

    2012-05-01

    Full Text Available With the purpose of an estimation of the contribution of virus activators in the etiological structure of acute intestinal infections in children during the rise of prevalence of acute intestinal infections from 2009 to 2011 there were studied 1050 children admitted to the hospital with diarrheal diseases. It is established, that acute intestinal infections have a viral nature in 56.67% of cases. Thus the leading role belongs to rotaviruses and adenoviruses. Infectious agents of diarrheal diseases are rotaviruses in 28.1 % of cases, adenoviruses - in 17.05 %, and astroviruses - in 11.43 %. The viral monoinfections occur more often, than mixed-infections. The rise of sporadic diseases of viral diarrhea was characterized by seasonal prevalence. For intestinal infections of viral etiology the seasonal rise in a cold season with peak of the rate of diseases of rotaviral infection in April, adenoviral infection in November, and astroviral infection in December is characteristic.

  17. 夏秋季散发感染性腹泻发病原因的病例对照研究%Case-control Study of Infectious Causes of Sporadic Diarrhea in Summer and Autumn

    刘琼

    2016-01-01

    目的:探究夏秋季感染性腹泻发生的原因及防范措施。方法选取我市2013年8月1日~2013年9月30日发现的感染性腹泻病患36例为病例组,同时选择在该科住院的其它疾病患者36例为对照组,分析两组病例病前3 d的饮食、饮水及水源供应情况。结果病前3 d有饮用可疑污染水:病例组36例,对照组0例,经检验差异具有统计学意义(P<0.05);饮用自来水者7例,占19.4%;自备水者13例,占36.1%;二次供水者16例,占44.4%。水质细菌学指标:管网水3/15、二次供水8/15、自备水8/11。在细菌指标超标的样品中,细菌总数最高高出国家规定标准的7倍。总大肠杆菌最高高出国家规定标准的1600倍。结论饮用水污染是导致夏秋季感染性腹泻的主要原因。%Objective Exploring the causes and preventive measures of infectious diarrhea in summer and autumn occurred.Methods Chose infectious diarrhea patients the city August 1 2013 to September 30 2013 found 36 cases for the case group,and selected 36 cases other diseases that hospitalized in the control group,the two groups were analyzed disease the first three days of eating,drinking water and water supply.ResultsThree days before the disease had contaminated drinking water suspicious: case group of 36 patients in the control group,0 cases. Statisticaly significant(P<0.05)by testing difference,drinking water in 7 cases,accounting for 19.4%,owned water 13 cases,accounting for 36.1%,secondary water supply in 16 cases,accounting for 44.4%. Bacteriological water quality indicators: water pipe 3/15,8/15 secondary water supply,water supplied 8/11. In bacterial indicators exceeded samples,the highest total number of bacteria was up seven times the national standard. E. highest total was up 1 600 times the national standard.Conclusion Drinking water polution is the cause of infectious diarrhea in summer and autumn the main reason.

  18. The clinical value of neutrophil CD64 and CRP in diagnosis of infectious diarrhea in children%C D64及C-反应蛋白在儿童感染性腹泻中的临床意义

    程蓉; 吴成

    2014-01-01

    目的:探讨CD64及CRP在儿童感染性腹泻中的意义。方法收集96例腹泻患儿的临床资料,分为细菌性腹泻组(40例),病毒性腹泻组(36例)及非感染性腹泻组(20例);细菌性腹泻组分为轻度腹泻组(27例)和重度腹泻组(13例)。采用流式细胞术检测外周血中性粒细胞表面CD64的表达,免疫比浊法检测外周血中C反应蛋白(CRP)的水平。结果治疗前细菌性腹泻组CD64和CRP水平显著高于病毒性腹泻组及非感染性腹泻组(P<0.01);重度细菌性腹泻组 CD64较轻度组高(P<0.05);细菌性腹泻患儿治疗后,CD64及CRP表达水平下降(P<0.01);治疗前CD64与CRP水平呈正相关(r=0.784,P<0.01)。结论联合检测CD64和CRP水平对儿童细菌性腹泻的早期诊断、判断病情及观察疗效具有一定的指导意义。%Objective To explore the clinical value of peripheral blood neutrophil CD64 and CRP in the diagnosis of infectious diar-rhea in children.Methods We collected the clinical data of 96 patients,who were classified into three groups:bacterial diarrhea group (n=40),viral diarrhea group (n=36)and non infectious diarrhea group (n=20);bacterial diarrhea group are subdivided into mild diarrhea group (n=27)and severe diarrhea group (n=13).The levels of peripheral blood neutrophil CD64 were measured using flow cytometry and dynamic changes of C-reactive protein were detected with immunonephelometry.Results The CD64 index and CRP levels of pre-treatment bacterial diarrhea group were significantly higher than those of viral diarrhea group and non-infectious diarrhea group (P<0.01).The CD64 index of severe bacterial diarrhea group were significantly higher than those of mild group (P<0.05).After standard treatment,the CD64 in-dex and CRP levels of severe diarrhea group decreased significantly (P<0.01).Correlation analysis showed that before treatment the CD64 index was positively

  19. Respiratory infectious phenotypes in acute exacerbation of COPD: an aid to length of stay and COPD Assessment Test

    Dai MY

    2015-10-01

    Full Text Available Meng-Yuan Dai,1 Jin-Ping Qiao,2 Yuan-Hong Xu,2 Guang-He Fei1 1Pulmonary Department, 2Department of Clinical Laboratory, First Affiliated Hospital of Anhui Medical University, Hefei, Anhui, People’s Republic of China Purpose: To investigate the respiratory infectious phenotypes and their impact on length of stay (LOS and the COPD Assessment Test (CAT Scale in acute exacerbation of COPD (AECOPD. Patients and methods: We categorized 81 eligible patients into bacterial infection, viral infection, coinfection, and non-infectious groups. The respiratory virus examination was determined by a liquid bead array xTAG Respiratory Virus Panel in pharyngeal swabs, while bacterial infection was studied by conventional sputum culture. LOS and CAT as well as demographic information were recorded. Results: Viruses were detected in 38 subjects, bacteria in 17, and of these, seven had both. Influenza virus was the most frequently isolated virus, followed by enterovirus/rhinovirus, coronavirus, bocavirus, metapneumovirus, parainfluenza virus types 1, 2, 3, and 4, and respiratory syncytial virus. Bacteriologic analyses of sputum showed that Pseudomonas aeruginosa was the most common bacteria, followed by Acinetobacter baumannii, Klebsiella, Escherichia coli, and Streptococcus pneumoniae. The longest LOS and the highest CAT score were detected in coinfection group. CAT score was positively correlated with LOS. Conclusion: Respiratory infection is a common causative agent of exacerbations in COPD. Respiratory coinfection is likely to be a determinant of more severe acute exacerbations with longer LOS. CAT score may be a predictor of longer LOS in AECOPD. Keywords: COPD, acute exacerbation, respiratory infectious, phenotypes, LOS, CAT

  20. Focal mesangial-sclerosing glomerulonephritis and acute-spontaneous infectious canine hepatitis: structural, immunohistochemical and subcellular studies.

    Hervás, J; Gómez-Villamandos, J C; Pérez, J; Carrasco, L; Sierra, M A

    1997-06-01

    The glomerular alterations observed in a dog with acute spontaneous infectious canine hepatitis (ICH) are described. Histologic changes of the glomeruli were enlargement of the mesangium with presence of intranuclear inclusion bodies and without proliferation of mesangial cells. Electron microscopy revealed adenovirus replication sites in glomerular mesangial cells and in endothelial cells of glomerular capillaries, as well as a focal mesangial-sclerosing glomerulonephritis associated with electron dense deposits which were closely related with extracellular ICH viral particles and immunohistochemically reactive for immunoglobulin (Ig) G, IgA, IgM and C3c complement components. PMID:9239835

  1. Greater numbers of nucleotide substitutions are introduced into the genomic RNA of bovine viral diarrhea virus during acute infections of pregnant cattle than of non-pregnant cattle

    Neill John D

    2012-08-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Bovine viral diarrhea virus (BVDV strains circulating in livestock herds show significant sequence variation. Conventional wisdom states that most sequence variation arises during acute infections in response to immune or other environmental pressures. A recent study showed that more nucleotide changes were introduced into the BVDV genomic RNA during the establishment of a single fetal persistent infection than following a series of acute infections of naïve cattle. However, it was not known if nucleotide changes were introduce when the virus crossed the placenta and infected the fetus or during the acute infection of the dam. Methods The sequence of the open reading frame (ORF from viruses isolated from four acutely infected pregnant heifers following exposure to persistently infected (PI calves was compared to the sequences of the virus from the progenitor PI calf and the virus from the resulting progeny PI calf to determine when genetic change was introduced. This was compared to genetic change found in viruses isolated from a pregnant PI cow and its PI calf, and in three viruses isolated from acutely infected, non-pregnant cattle exposed to PI calves. Results Most genetic changes previously identified between the progenitor and progeny PI viruses were in place in the acute phase viruses isolated from the dams six days post-exposure to the progenitor PI calf. Additionally, each progeny PI virus had two to three unique nucleotide substitutions that were introduced in crossing the placenta and infection of the fetus. The nucleotide sequence of two acute phase viruses isolated from steers exposed to PI calves revealed that six and seven nucleotide changes were introduced during the acute infection. The sequence of the BVDV-2 virus isolated from an acute infection of a PI calf (BVDV-1a co-housed with a BVDV-2 PI calf had ten nucleotides that were different from the progenitor PI virus. Finally, twenty nucleotide changes were

  2. Effect Analysis of Racecadotril in the Treatment of Acute Diarrhea%消旋卡多曲治疗急性腹泻的效果分析

    郭明明; 蔡锐彬; 刘江辉; 邹德志

    2014-01-01

    目的:观察消旋卡多曲治疗成人急性腹泻的治疗效果,探讨消旋卡多曲治疗急性腹泻的临床应用价值。方法以2012年1月至2014年1月间我院急诊科收治的100例成人急性腹泻患者为研究对象,按照随机分组的原则将所有患者随机分为观察组和对照组各50例接受治疗。对照组患者采用WHO标准化口服补液治疗以纠正患者水电解质代谢紊乱和酸碱失衡,观察组患者在对照组患者治疗基础上加用消旋卡多曲。对比两组患者的治疗效果,以明确消旋卡多曲在成人急性腹泻治疗中的作用。结果经过治疗,观察组治疗有效率为96.00%,高于对照组的84.00%,差异有统计学意义(P<0.05);治疗过程中,观察组患者每天大便次数少于对照组,大便性质恢复时间、水电解质代谢恢复正常时间、治疗时间均短于对照组,差异有统计学意义(P<0.05)。结论常规治疗基础上加用消旋卡多曲治疗急性腹泻,可迅速缓解患者病情,缩短病程。%Objective To observe and investigate the therapeutic effect and clinical value of racecadotril in treating acute diarrhea in adults. Methods 100 cases of patients with acute diarrhea treated in our emergency department from January 2012 to January 2014 were selected as objects and randomly divided into observation group and control group, with 50 cases in each group. The control group was given with WHO standardized oral rehydration therapy to correct the water electrolyte metabolic disturbance and acid-base imbalance, and the observation group received racecadotril on the basis of the control group. The therapeutic effect was compared in order to clarify the role of racecadotril in treating acute diarrhea in adults. Results After treatment, the effective rate of the observation group was 96.00%, higher than 84.00%of the control group, with statistical significant difference (P <0.05);the shit times of the observation group

  3. Drug-induced diarrhea

    Diarrhea associated with medicines ... Nearly all medicines may cause diarrhea as a side effect. The drugs listed below, however, are more likely to cause diarrhea. Laxatives are meant to cause diarrhea. ...

  4. Diarrhea in infants

    When your infant has diarrhea; When your baby has diarrhea; BRAT diet; Diarrhea in children ... Children who have diarrhea may have less energy, dry eyes, or a dry, sticky mouth. They may also not wet their diaper as ...

  5. Zinc therapy for different causes of diarrhea

    Hafaz Zakky Abdillah

    2013-11-01

    Full Text Available Background The incidence of diarrhea in Indonesia has declined in the past five years. In spite of the increasing number of studies on the treatment for acute diarrhea, especially the use of zinc, it is not known if bacterial vs. non-bacterial etiology makes a difference in the reduction of severity of acute diarrhea in children on zinc therapy. Objective To assess the effect of zinc therapy in reducing the severity of acute bacterial and non-bacterial diarrhea. Methods We performed a cross-sectional study in the Secanggang District, Langkat Regency of North Sumatera, from August to November 2009 in children aged 2 months to 14 years. Microscopic stool examinations were undertaken to separate subjects into the acute bacterial or non-bacterial diarrhea groups. Both groups received 10 mg/day of zinc sulphate for subjects aged <6 months or 20 mg/day for those aged ≥6 months for 10 days. Measurement of disease severity was based on the frequency of diarrhea (times/day and the duration of diarrhea (hours after initial drug consumption. We performed independent T-test for statistical analysis. Results Sixty-two children participated in this study, with 31 children in the acute bacterial group, and the remainder in the non-bacterial group. There were no significant differences between the two groups in frequency of diarrhea (2.61 vs 2.70 times/day, respectively, P=0.27 or in duration of diarrhea (63.39 vs 66.68 hours, respectively, P=0.06. Conclusion Zinc is not more effective in reducing the severity of acute bacterial diarrhea compared to non-bacterial diarrhea in children. [Paediatr Indones. 2013;53:334-8.].

  6. [Etiology and structure of infectious complications of cytostatic therapy in children with acute lymphoblastic leukemia and non-B-cell non-Hodgkin lymphomas].

    Peshikova, M V; Dolgushin, I I; Rusanova, N N

    2002-01-01

    A retrospective analysis of medical histories with acute lymphoblast leucosis and non-B-cell non-Hodgkin lymphomas made it possible to reveal infectious complications of cytostatic therapy in 100% of children, namely: sepsis (0.3%), unidentified infection (12%), local infection (87.7%). Infectious complications of the cytopenic nature were localized mainly in the upper sections of the gastrointestinal tract and in upper respiratory tract. Bacterial infectious complications caused by opportunistic microorganisms with the prevalence of Gram positive flora, resistant to cephalosporins of generations I and II, occurred most frequently. PMID:11949261

  7. Pathological studies on bovine viral diarrhea

    Bovine viral diarrhea virus (BVDV) is classified as an RNA virus in the family flavin viride and is a member of the genus pest virus (Collet et al 1989). BVDV has a worldwide distribution and infections in cattle populations (Kahrs et al 1970). It was recognized since 50 years ago, the initial description of an acute enteric disease of cattle in North America, which was characterized by outbreaks of diarrhea and erosive of digestive tract (Olafsonp et al 1946). The disease and causative agent were named bovine viral diarrhea (B V D ) and (B V DV), respectively. This virus was subsequently associated with a sporadically occurring and highly fatal enteric disease that was termed mucosal disease (M D), (Ramsey and Chivers 1953). The initial isolate of BVDV did not produce cytopathic effect in cell culture, whereas an isolate from MD did produce cytopathic effects (Lee et al 1957). In vitro characteristic of non cytopathic or sytopathic effects of BVDV is referred to as the biotype of the virus. It has now been established that MD occurs only when xattle that are born immuno tolerant to and persistently infected with a noncyropathic BVDV become super infected with a cytopathic BVDV. The knowledge of the molecular biology. Pathogenesis and epidemiology of BVDV has greatly evolved in the past 10-15 years and has provided a better understanding of this complex infectious agent. Infection with BVDV can result in a wide spectrum of diseases ranging from subclinical infection s to a highly fatal from known as mucosal disease (ND). The clinical response to infection depends on multiple interactive factors. Host factors that influence the clinical outcome of BVDV infection include whether the host is immunocompetent or immuno tolerant to BVDV, pregnancy status, gestational age of the fetus, immune status (passively derived or actively derived from previous infection or vaccination) and concurrent level of environmental stress

  8. Help Desk Answers: Are IV fluids better than oral rehydration for children with acute diarrhea and vomiting?

    Patnaik, Suvag; Nanda, Mitali; Tiburicio, Jose

    2016-04-01

    Intravenous fluid therapy (IVF) has a slightly lower failure rate than oral replacement therapy (ORT) in children with acute gastroenteritis, but the clinical significance is questionable. IVF takes longer to initiate than ORT and lengthens the hospital stay. PMID:27262252

  9. Cytokine-Mediated Loss of Blood Dendritic Cells During Epstein-Barr Virus-Associated Acute Infectious Mononucleosis: Implication for Immune Dysregulation.

    Panikkar, Archana; Smith, Corey; Hislop, Andrew; Tellam, Nick; Dasari, Vijayendra; Hogquist, Kristin A; Wykes, Michelle; Moss, Denis J; Rickinson, Alan; Balfour, Henry H; Khanna, Rajiv

    2015-12-15

    Acute infectious mononucleosis (IM) is associated with altered expression of inflammatory cytokines and disturbed T-cell homeostasis, however, the precise mechanism of this immune dysregulation remains unresolved. In the current study we demonstrated a significant loss of circulating myeloid and plasmacytoid dendritic cells (DCs) during acute IM, a loss correlated with the severity of clinical symptoms. In vitro exposure of blood DCs to acute IM plasma resulted in loss of plasmacytoid DCs, and further studies with individual cytokines showed that exposure to interleukin 10 could replicate this effect. Our data provide important mechanistic insight into dysregulated immune homeostasis during acute IM. PMID:26080368

  10. Hospital-Based Surveillance for Infectious Etiologies Among Patients with Acute Febrile Illness in Georgia, 2008-2011.

    Kuchuloria, Tinatin; Imnadze, Paata; Mamuchishvili, Nana; Chokheli, Maiko; Tsertsvadze, Tengiz; Endeladze, Marina; Mshvidobadze, Ketevan; Gatserelia, Lana; Makhviladze, Manana; Kanashvili, Marine; Mikautadze, Teona; Nanuashvili, Alexander; Kiknavelidze, Khatuni; Kokaia, Nora; Makharadze, Manana; Clark, Danielle V; Bautista, Christian T; Farrell, Margaret; Fadeel, Moustafa Abdel; Maksoud, Mohamed Abdel; Pimentel, Guillermo; House, Brent; Hepburn, Matthew J; Rivard, Robert G

    2016-01-01

    Information on the infectious causes of undifferentiated acute febrile illness (AFI) in Georgia is essential for effective treatment and prevention. In May 2008, a hospital-based AFI surveillance was initiated at six hospitals in Georgia. Patients aged ≥ 4 years with fever ≥ 38°C for ≥ 48 hours were eligible for surveillance. Blood culture and serologic testing were conducted for Leptospira spp., Brucella spp., West Nile virus (WNV), Crimean-Congo hemorrhagic fever virus, Coxiella burnetii, tick-borne encephalitis virus (TBEV), hantavirus, Salmonella enterica serovar Typhi (S. Typhi), and Rickettsia typhi. Of 537 subjects enrolled, 70% were outpatients, 54% were males, and the mean age was 37 years. Patients reported having fatigue (89%), rigors (87%), sweating (83%), pain in joints (49%), and sleep disturbances (42%). Thirty-nine (7%) patients were seropositive for R. typhi, 37 (7%) for Brucella spp., 36 (7%) for TBEV, 12 (2%) for Leptospira spp., 10 (2%) for C. burnetii, and three (0.6%) for S. Typhi. None of the febrile patients tested positive for WNV antibodies. Of the patients, 73% were negative for all pathogens. Our results indicate that most of the targeted pathogens are present in Georgia, and highlight the importance of enhancing laboratory capacity for these infectious diseases. PMID:26438032

  11. Traveler's Diarrhea.

    Giddings, Stanley L; Stevens, A Michal; Leung, Daniel T

    2016-03-01

    Traveler's diarrhea (TD) is the most common travel-related illness, and it can have a significant impact on the traveler. Pretravel consultation provides an excellent opportunity for the clinician to counsel the traveler and discuss strategies such as food and water hygiene, vaccinations, and medications for prophylaxis or self-treatment that may decrease the incidence and impact of TD. Postinfectious sequelae, such as postinfectious irritable bowel syndrome, reactive arthritis, and Guillain-Barre syndrome, may develop weeks or months after return. PMID:26900116

  12. Severe Diarrhea in a 4-Month-Old Baby Girl with Acute Gastroenteritis: A Case Report and Review of the Literature

    Ionela Loredana Guzganu

    2012-01-01

    A 4.5-month-old baby girl presented to hospital with a 2-day history of watery diarrhea and fever. Rehydration and electrolytic balance were restored with intravenous fluid therapy followed by oral rehydration solution but diarrhea did not improve by the fourth day of hospitalization despite treatment with a probiotic. The patient was next treated with gelatin tannate, a medical device recently marketed in Europe to control and reduce the symptoms of diarrhea in infants, children, and adults....

  13. Optimal combinations of acute phase proteins for detecting infectious disease in pigs

    Heegaard, Peter M. H.; Stockmarr, Anders; Piñeiro, Matilde;

    2011-01-01

    The acute phase protein (APP) response is an early systemic sign of disease, detected as substantial changes in APP serum concentrations and most disease states involving inflammatory reactions give rise to APP responses. To obtain a detailed picture of the general utility of porcine APPs to dete...

  14. The evolution of bovine viral diarrhea: a review

    Goens, Denise

    2002-01-01

    The economic importance of bovine viral diarrhea is increasing with the emergence of seemingly more virulent viruses, as evidenced by outbreaks of hemorrhagic syndrome and severe acute bovine viral diarrhea beginning in the 1980s and 1990s. It appears that evolutionary changes in bovine viral diarrhea virus were responsible for these outbreaks. The genetic properties of the classical bovine viral diarrhea virus that contribute to the basis of current diagnostic tests, vaccines, and our unders...

  15. Management of children’s acute diarrhea by community pharmacies in five towns of Ethiopia: simulated client case study

    Abegaz TM; Belachew SA; Abebe TB; Gebresilassie BM; Teni FS; Woldie HG

    2016-01-01

    Tadesse Melaku Abegaz,1 Sewunet Admasu Belachew,1 Tamrat Befekadu Abebe,1 Begashaw Melaku Gebresilassie,1 Fitsum Sebsibe Teni,2 Habtamu Gebremeskel Woldie3 1Department of Clinical Pharmacy, School of Pharmacy, Gondar University, Gondar, 2Department of Pharmaceutics and Social Pharmacy, School of Pharmacy, College of Health Sciences, Addis Ababa University, Addis Ababa, 3Department of Hospital Pharmacy, Debremarkos Teaching and Referral Hospital, Debremarkos, Ethiopia Background: Acute diarr...

  16. A proposed emergency management program for acute care facilities in response to a highly virulent infectious disease.

    Petinaux, Bruno; Ferguson, Brandy; Walker, Milena; Lee, Yeo-Jin; Little, Gary; Parenti, David; Simon, Gary

    2016-01-01

    To address the organizational complexities associated with a highly virulent infectious disease (HVID) hazard, such as Ebola Virus Disease (EVD), an acute care facility should institute an emergency management program rooted in the fundamentals of mitigation, preparedness, response, and recovery. This program must address all known facets of the care of a patient with HVID, from unannounced arrival to discharge. The implementation of such a program not only serves to mitigate the risks from an unrecognized exposure but also serves to prepare the organization and its staff to provide for a safe response, and ensure a full recovery. Much of this program is based on education, training, and infection control measures along with resourcing for appropriate personal protective equipment which is instrumental in ensuring an organized and safe response of the acute care facility in the service to the community. This emergency management program approach can serve as a model in the care of not only current HVIDs such as EVD but also future presentations in our healthcare setting. PMID:26963227

  17. Infectious agents in coronary atheromas: a possible role in the pathogenesis of plaque rupture and acute myocardial infarction.

    Higuchi, Maria de Lourdes; Ramires, Jose A F

    2002-01-01

    In this review we report our recent findings of histopathological features of plaque instability and the association with Mycoplasma pneumoniae (MP) and Chlamydia pneumoniae (CP) infection, studying thrombosed coronary artery segments (CAS) of patients who died due to acute myocardial infarction. Vulnerable plaques are known to be associated with fat atheromas and inflammation of the plaque. Here we demonstrated that vulnerability is also related with focal positive vessel remodeling that maintains relatively well preserved lumen even in the presence of large atheromatous plaques. This phenomena may explain why the cinecoronariography may not detect large and dangerous vulnerable plaques. Greater amount of these bacteria in vulnerable plaques is associated with adventitial inflammation and positive vessel remodeling: the mean numbers of lymphocytes were significantly higher in adventitia than in the plaque, good direct correlation was obtained between numbers of CD20 B cells and numbers of CP infected cells in adventitia, and between % area of MP-DNA in the plaque and cross sectional area of the vessel, suggesting a cause-effect relationship. Mycoplasma is a bacterium that needs cholesterol for proliferation and may increase virulence of other infectious agents. In conclusion, co-infection by Mycoplasma pneumoniae and Chlamydia pneumoniae may represent an important co-factor for plaque instability, leading to coronary plaque thrombosis and acute myocardial infarction, since larger amount of these bacteria strongly correlated with histological signs of more vulnerability of the plaque. The search of CMV and Helicobacter pilori in these tissues resulted negative. PMID:12219114

  18. Infectious agents in coronary atheromas: a possible role in the pathogenesis of plaque rupture and acute myocardial infarction

    HIGUCHI Maria de Lourdes

    2002-01-01

    Full Text Available In this review we report our recent findings of histopathological features of plaque instability and the association with Mycoplasma pneumoniae (MP and Chlamydia pneumoniae (CP infection, studying thrombosed coronary artery segments (CAS of patients who died due to acute myocardial infarction. Vulnerable plaques are known to be associated with fat atheromas and inflammation of the plaque. Here we demonstrated that vulnerability is also related with focal positive vessel remodeling that maintains relatively well preserved lumen even in the presence of large atheromatous plaques. This phenomena may explain why the cinecoronariography may not detect large and dangerous vulnerable plaques. Greater amount of these bacteria in vulnerable plaques is associated with adventitial inflammation and positive vessel remodeling: the mean numbers of lymphocytes were significantly higher in adventitia than in the plaque, good direct correlation was obtained between numbers of CD20 B cells and numbers of CP infected cells in adventitia, and between % area of MP-DNA in the plaque and cross sectional area of the vessel, suggesting a cause-effect relationship. Mycoplasma is a bacterium that needs cholesterol for proliferation and may increase virulence of other infectious agents. In conclusion, co-infection by Mycoplasma pneumoniae and Chlamydia pneumoniae may represent an important co-factor for plaque instability, leading to coronary plaque thrombosis and acute myocardial infarction, since larger amount of these bacteria strongly correlated with histological signs of more vulnerability of the plaque. The search of CMV and Helicobacter pilori in these tissues resulted negative.

  19. The most common causes of and risk factors for diarrhea among children less than five years of age admitted to Dong Anh Hospital, Hanoi, Northern Vietnam

    2006-01-01

    Background: Acute diarrheal disease among children younger than 5 years old remains a major cause of morbidity and mortality worldwide. Severe infectious diarrhea in children occurs most frequently under circumstances of poor environmental sanitation and hygiene, inadequate water supplies, and poverty. In Vietnam, the control of diarrhoeal disease (CDD), including promotion of breast-feeding, oral rehydration therapy and specific health education is a part of national strategies aiming to imp...

  20. "Proliferation of cytotoxic and activated T cells during acute Epstein-Barr virus induced Infectious Mononucleosis "

    Mansoori SD

    2002-05-01

    Full Text Available The immune responses that develop following Epstien-Barr Virus (EBV infection are complex and involve both humoral and to a greater extent cell-mediated immune mechanisms. To evaluate the immune response, flow cytometric analysis of the peripheral blood of six patients during the acute phase of EBV infection was performed. This analysis revealed a significant increase in the percentages and the absolute number of CD8+cytotoxic and activated (HLA-DR+ - T lymphocytes and in some cases with a concomitan decrease in the percentages of B (CD19+ lymphocytes and T helper (CD4+ lymphocytes. These patient invariably had inverted CD4/CD8 ratio. All changes reversed to normal level during the recovery phase of infection. It is therefore concluded that EBV specific cytotoxic and activated T lymphocytes are essential in controlling acute EBV infection presented by the infected B cells.

  1. 2008-2012年深圳市宝安区其他感染性腹泻流行病学特征%Epidemiological Characteristics of Infectious diarrhea other than CDTP in Baoan District of Shenzhen City from 2008-2012

    周小涛; 熊田甜; 朱奕; 马智超; 陈兵; 吴泰顺

    2013-01-01

    目的 了解深圳市宝安区2008-2012年其他感染性腹泻流行病学概况,探讨宝安区其他感染性腹泻防制策略.方法 收集深圳市宝安区2008-2012年疫情网络上报的所有其他感染性腹泻病例和期间的暴发疫情,进行描述性分析.结果 2008-2012年深圳市宝安区共报告其他感染性腹泻病例49 709例,年发病人数的范围为7 296~12 913人,发病呈上升趋势.发病时间主要集中在10、11、12月份;在儿童患者中,主要以散居儿童为主,各年所占比例均达到87%以上;成人患者主要以工人为主,各年所占比例均在65%左右;发病率最高的是石岩街道(254.92/10万);实验室诊断病例占总报告病例数的96.3%,轮状病毒感染病例在实验室诊断病例中占96.99%;引起该地较大暴发疫情的是诺如病毒感染性腹泻.结论 深圳市宝安区其他感染性腹泻发病主要以5岁以下儿童为主(尤其是散居儿童),秋冬季是其发病高峰,轮状病毒是该病的主要病原体.%[Objective] To investigate the epidemiological characteristics of infectious diarrhea other than cholera,dysentery,typhoid and paratyphoid (CDTP) in Baoan District of Shenzhen City from 2008-2012,explore relative measures for preventing and controlling infectious diarrhea other than CDTP.[Methods] All cases and outbreaks of infectious diarrhea other than CDTP occurred in Baoan District from 2008 to 2012 reported by epidemic network report system were collected,and then analyzed by a descriptive research method.[Results]49 546 cases of infectious diarrhea other than CDTP were reported in Baoan District of Shenzhen City during the period of 2008-2012,the annual case number ranged from 7 296 to 12 916,and the incidence rate showed a rising trend.The peak season was October to December.The proportions of scattered children in children cases of each year were all more than 87%,and the workers accounted for about 65% of adult cases of each year

  2. [Relationship between child day-care attendance and acute infectious disease. A systematic review].

    Ochoa Sangrador, Carlos; Barajas Sánchez, M Verisima; Muñoz Martín, Beatriz

    2007-01-01

    Child day-care attendance is considered to be an acute early childhood disease risk factor, the studies available however not affording the possibility of fully quantifying this risk. A systematic review of clinical trials and cohort studies was conducted, in which the effects child day-care attendance had on the health of young children based on the Cochrane Collaboration, PubMed and Spanish Medical Index databases, without any time or language-related limits, were analyzed and rounded out with analyses of referenced works and an additional EMBASE search. The methodological quality was evaluated by means of personalized criteria. Pooling measures (relative risks, incidence density ratios and weighted mean differences) were calculated with their confidence intervals, assuming random effects models. A significant increase was found to exist of a risk consistent over time and among different social and geographical environments. Considering the most methodologically-stringent studies with adjusted effect estimates, child day-care attendance was related to an increased risk of upper respiratory tract infection (RR=1,88), acute otitis media (RR=1,58), otitis media with fluid draining (RR=2,43), lower respiratory tract infections (overall RR=210; acute pneumonia RR=1.70; broncholitis RR=1,80; bronchitis RR=2,10) and gastroenteritis (RR=1,40). Child day-care attendance could be responsible for 33%-50% of the episodes of respiratory infection and gastroenteritis among the exposed population. In conclusion, it can be said that the risk for childhood health attributable to the child day-care attendance is discreet but of high-impact. This information has some major implications for research, clinical practice, healthcare authorities and society as a whole. PMID:17639680

  3. A cross-sectional survey on acute diarrhea and risk factors of dietary behavior in Shanghai%上海市急性腹泻及饮食行为危险因素现况调查

    刘弘; 罗宝章; 吴春峰; 陆冬磊; 邢之慧

    2012-01-01

    Objective To study acute diarrhea status and risk factors of dietary behavior in Shanghai. Methods A stratified multi-stage cluster random household sampling was used in this cross-sectional survey. Results The incidence rate of acute diarrhea among Shanghai residents was 0. 68 episodes per person-year. It was 0. 75 episodes per person-year for males and 0.62 episodes per person-year for females. It was estimated to be 0.96, 0.54, 0.71, 0.71 and 0.64 episodes per person-year for age groups of 0 - 7 , 8 - 17 , 18 - 33 , 34 - 59 and ≥60, respectively. 24. 34% of respondents suspected their illness was due to contaminated food. 40. 03% of respondents had visited doctor. Single variable and logistic regression analysis showed that odds ratio of acute diarrhea were 1.37 ( 95 % confidence interval, 1. 13 - 1. 67 ) , 0.66 (95% confidence interval, 0.49 -0.88) and 0.76 (95% confidence interval, 0.62 -0.94) for the respondents who had the behavior of eating delicatessen, keeping food at low temperature and salty taste. Conclusion Acute diarrhea is a common illness among residents in Shanghai. The incidence of acute diarrhea was slightly higher in males. After the age of eight, the incidence declined, but increased again in adult and then declined above 60. The behavior of eating delicatessen was a risk factor for acute diarrhea. The habit of keeping the food at low temperature and salty taste might be the protective factors for acute diarrhea.%目的 了解上海市急性腹泻现况及饮食行为危险因素.方法 采用多阶段随机抽样,进行横断面入户问卷调查.结果 上海市居民急性腹泻年发生率0.68次/人年.男性0.75次/人年、女性0.62次/人年,0~7岁、8 ~17岁、18 ~33岁、34 ~59岁、≥60岁分别为0.96、0.54、0.71、0.71、0.64次/人年.有24.34%人自诉有可疑食物史、40.03%的人就诊.单因素及Logistic回归多因素分析显示:食用散装熟食者的急性腹泻OR值为1.37、95%CI (1.13~1.67),

  4. Antibiotic use and clinical outcomes in the acute setting under management by an infectious diseases acute physician versus other clinical teams: a cohort study

    Jones, Nicola; Mistry, Vikash; Crook, Derrick; Peto, Tim; Walker, A Sarah

    2016-01-01

    Objectives To assess the magnitude of difference in antibiotic use between clinical teams in the acute setting and assess evidence for any adverse consequences to patient safety or healthcare delivery. Design Prospective cohort study (1 week) and analysis of linked electronic health records (3 years). Setting UK tertiary care centre. Participants All patients admitted sequentially to the acute medical service under an infectious diseases acute physician (IDP) and other medical teams during 1 week in 2013 (n=297), and 3 years 2012–2014 (n=47 585). Primary outcome measure Antibiotic use in days of therapy (DOT): raw group metrics and regression analysis adjusted for case mix. Secondary outcome measures 30-day all-cause mortality, treatment failure and length of stay. Results Antibiotic use was 173 vs 282 DOT/100 admissions in the IDP versus non-IDP group. Using case mix-adjusted zero-inflated Poisson regression, IDP patients were significantly less likely to receive an antibiotic (adjusted OR=0.25 (95% CI 0.07 to 0.84), p=0.03) and received shorter courses (adjusted rate ratio (RR)=0.71 (95% CI 0.54 to 0.93), p=0.01). Clinically stable IDP patients of uncertain diagnosis were more likely to have antibiotics held (87% vs 55%; p=0.02). There was no significant difference in treatment failure or mortality (adjusted p>0.5; also in the 3-year data set), but IDP patients were more likely to be admitted overnight (adjusted OR=3.53 (95% CI 1.24 to 10.03), p=0.03) and have longer length of stay (adjusted RR=1.19 (95% CI 1.05 to 1.36), p=0.007). Conclusions The IDP-led group used 30% less antibiotic therapy with no adverse clinical outcome, suggesting antibiotic use can be reduced safely in the acute setting. This may be achieved in part by holding antibiotics and admitting the patient for observation rather than prescribing, which has implications for costs and hospital occupancy. More information is needed to indicate whether any such longer admission will

  5. Acute diarrhea associated with Salmonella enterica in Belo Horizonte-MG: prevalence and characterization of isolates Diarreia aguda associada a Salmonella enterica em Belo Horizonte-MG: prevalência e caracterização das amostras isoladas

    Mireille Ângela Bernardes Sousa

    2013-02-01

    Full Text Available Introduction: Acute infectious diarrhea is still regarded as a public health problem associated with a wide range of etiologic agents, from which Salmonella enterica is particularly worth mentioning inasmuch as it is a major cause of inflammatory diarrhea in both developed and developing countries. Objective: To assess the distribution of S. enterica among children with acute diarrhea in Belo Horizonte and to characterize bacterium isolates. Material and methods: The study group comprised a total of 157 children from low socioeconomic background. Stool samples were collected for leukocyte analysis and Salmonella bacterial culture. The isolates were serotyped and evaluated as to antimicrobial susceptibility profile, extended-spectrum β-lactamases (ESBL production, and presence of virulence markers (invA, iroB, and spvC. RESULTS: A total of 5/3.2% children were infected by S. enterica, 3/60% by S. enterica Typhimurium, 1/20% by S. enterica Enteritidis and 1/20% S. enterica subsp. enterica serotype 8.20:z4,z23:-. Fecal leucocytes were detected in two out of five fecal specimens positive for S. enterica. Isolates from three children were resistant to nalidixic acid, nalidixic acid + chloramphenicol, and nalidixic acid + chloramphenicol + ampicillin. ESBL production was not detected. All samples presented invA and iroB genes. spvC marker was observed in isolates from two children infected by S. Typhimurium and S. Enteritidis. Conclusion: The results demonstrate that S. enterica infection is uncommon among children from our region. Furthermore, they indicate the need for periodic monitoring of bacterial antimicrobial susceptibility profile in order to establish suitable antimicrobial therapy when required.INTRODUÇÃO: A diarreia infecciosa aguda é considerada um problema de saúde pública associado a uma ampla gama de agentes etiológicos, entre os quais destaca-se Salmonella enterica, causa importante de diarreia inflamatória em pa

  6. Radiological Findings in Children with Acute Pneumonia: Age More Important Than Infectious Agent

    Purpose: To evaluate whether radiological findings and healing time in children with pneumonia are correlated to etiologic agent. Material and Methods: A total of 346 children with radiologically verified acute pneumonia, and with accomplished serological tests for bacteria and viruses, were included in the study. Five etiological groups were analysed: children with bacterial etiology only, with viral etiology only, with mixed bacterial and viral etiology, with Mycoplasma only, and children with no etiology. Results: The chest films of each etiological group were analysed and the findings were correlated to the children's age. The radiological findings did not differ between the etiological groups. Radiological findings correlated significantly with the patient's age. The radiological healing frequency at check-up X-ray was found to be significantly lower in children with mixed bacterial and viral etiology compared to children in each of the other groups and to the material as a whole. Conclusion: Conclusions about the etiology could not be drawn from the chest X-ray findings

  7. Radiological Findings in Children with Acute Pneumonia: Age More Important Than Infectious Agent

    Wahlgren, H.; Mortensson, W.; Eriksson, M.; Finkel, Y.; Forsgren, M.; Leinonen, M. [Astrid Lindgren' s Children' s Hospital, Karolinska Hospital, Stockholm (Sweden). Depts. of Pediatric Radiology and Pediatrics

    2005-07-01

    Purpose: To evaluate whether radiological findings and healing time in children with pneumonia are correlated to etiologic agent. Material and Methods: A total of 346 children with radiologically verified acute pneumonia, and with accomplished serological tests for bacteria and viruses, were included in the study. Five etiological groups were analysed: children with bacterial etiology only, with viral etiology only, with mixed bacterial and viral etiology, with Mycoplasma only, and children with no etiology. Results: The chest films of each etiological group were analysed and the findings were correlated to the children's age. The radiological findings did not differ between the etiological groups. Radiological findings correlated significantly with the patient's age. The radiological healing frequency at check-up X-ray was found to be significantly lower in children with mixed bacterial and viral etiology compared to children in each of the other groups and to the material as a whole. Conclusion: Conclusions about the etiology could not be drawn from the chest X-ray findings.

  8. Impaired Epstein-Barr Virus-Specific Neutralizing Antibody Response during Acute Infectious Mononucleosis Is Coincident with Global B-Cell Dysfunction.

    Panikkar, Archana; Smith, Corey; Hislop, Andrew; Tellam, Nick; Dasari, Vijayendra; Hogquist, Kristin A; Wykes, Michelle; Moss, Denis J; Rickinson, Alan; Balfour, Henry H; Khanna, Rajiv

    2015-09-01

    Here we present evidence for previously unappreciated B-cell immune dysregulation during acute Epstein-Barr virus (EBV)-associated infectious mononucleosis (IM). Longitudinal analyses revealed that patients with acute IM have undetectable EBV-specific neutralizing antibodies and gp350-specific B-cell responses, which were associated with a significant reduction in memory B cells and no evidence of circulating antibody-secreting cells. These observations correlate with dysregulation of tumor necrosis factor family members BAFF and APRIL and increased expression of FAS on circulating B cells. PMID:26109734

  9. A Randomized Controlled Trial of Glucose versus Amylase Resistant Starch Hypo-Osmolar Oral Rehydration Solution for Adult Acute Dehydrating Diarrhea

    Ramakrishna, Balakrishnan S.; Subramanian, Venkataraman; Mohan, Vivek; Sebastian, Bendon K; Young, Graeme P.; Farthing, Michael J; Binder, Henry J.

    2008-01-01

    Background Reduction of gross diarrhea rate in excess of that seen over time with intravenous therapy and appropriate antibiotics is not usually achieved by oral glucose-electrolyte rehydration therapy for cholera and cholera-like diarrheas. Methodology and Principal Findings This prospective randomized clinical trial at a tertiary referral hospital in southern India was undertaken to determine whether amylase resistant starch, substituting for glucose in hypo-osmolar oral rehydration solutio...

  10. Risk Assessment and Epidemiological Characteristics of Infectious Bovine Rhinotracheitis and Bovine Viral Diarrhea in Dairy Herds in Beijing%北京地区奶牛场牛传染性鼻气管炎、牛病毒性腹泻病风险评估及流行情况分析

    李栋梁; 赵景义; 沈俊乐; 史苍桀; 曹杰

    2013-01-01

    The epidemiology of the infectious bovine rhinotracheitis (IBR) and bovine viral diarrhea (BVD) were assessed in the medium and small dairy herds and the farming community in Beijing.The percent of IBR antibodypositive heifers was 50.52%,and the result was 70.98% for BVDV.At the herds level,the antibody positive rate reached 50% (12/24) for IBR and 87.50% (21/24) for BVD.IBR high-risk herds were 9,BVD high-risk herds were 12,seven herds were combination risk of IBR and BVDV.The serological investigation and analysis showed that IBR prevalence is relatively serious in Beijing,and vaccine should be considered; Most of herds had BVDV history or contact with acute infection,high-risk herds need to start BVDV eradication program.%本研究对北京地区中小奶牛场及养殖小区进行了牛传染性鼻气管炎(IBR)、牛病毒性腹泻病(BVD)的风险评估.结果表明,参试牛场及小区的后备牛IBR血清阳性率达50.52%,BVD血清抗体阳性率达70.98%;从牛场水平看,24个牛场中IBR抗体场间阳性率达到50% (12/24),BVD抗体场间阳性率达到87.50%(21/24),IBR高风险牛场9个,BVD高风险牛场12个,双高风险牛场7个.此次评估结果表明,北京地区IBR流行情况较为严重,应考虑疫苗免疫;参试的大部分牛场有BVDV的急性感染史或接触史,高风险牛场应启动BVDV清除计划.

  11. Safety and Efficacy of Low-osmolarity ORS vs. Modified Rehydration Solution for Malnourished Children for Treatment of Children with Severe Acute Malnutrition and Diarrhea: A Randomized Controlled Trial.

    Kumar, Ruchika; Kumar, Praveen; Aneja, S; Kumar, Virendra; Rehan, Harmeet S

    2015-12-01

    World Health Organization-recommended rehydration solution for malnourished children (ReSoMal) for rehydrating severe acute malnourished children is not available in India. In present study, 110 consecutive children aged 6-59 months with severely acute malnourishment and acute diarrhea were randomized to low-osmolarity oral rehydration solution (ORS) (osmolarity: 245, sodium: 75) with added potassium (20 mmol/l) or modified ReSoMal (osmolarity: 300, sodium: 45). In all, 15.4% of modified ReSoMal group developed hyponatremia as compared with 1.9% in low-osmolarity ORS, but none developed severe hyponatremia or hypernatremia. Both groups had equal number of successful rehydration (52 each). Both types of ORS were effective in correcting hypokalemia and dehydration, but rehydration was achieved in shorter duration with modified ReSoMal. PMID:26314308

  12. Is irritable bowel syndrome an infectious disease?

    Thompson, John Richard

    2016-01-28

    Irritable bowel syndrome (IBS) is the most common of all gastroenterological diseases. While many mechanisms have been postulated to explain its etiology, no single mechanism entirely explains the heterogeneity of symptoms seen with the various phenotypes of the disease. Recent data from both basic and clinical sciences suggest that underlying infectious disease may provide a unifying hypothesis that better explains the overall symptomatology. The presence of small intestinal bowel overgrowth (SIBO) has been documented in patients with IBS and reductions in SIBO as determined by breath testing correlate with IBS symptom improvement in clinical trials. The incidence of new onset IBS symptoms following acute infectious gastroenteritis also suggests an infectious cause. Alterations in microbiota-host interactions may compromise epithelial barrier integrity, immune function, and the development and function of both central and enteric nervous systems explaining alterations in the brain-gut axis. Clinical evidence from treatment trials with both probiotics and antibiotics also support this etiology. Probiotics appear to restore the imbalance in the microflora and improve IBS-specific quality of life. Antibiotic trials with both neomycin and rifaximin show improvement in global IBS symptoms that correlates with breath test normalization in diarrhea-predominant patients. The treatment response to two weeks of rifaximin is sustained for up to ten weeks and comparable results are seen in symptom reduction with retreatment in patients who develop recurrent symptoms. PMID:26819502

  13. Prevalência baixa de adenovírus em crianças com diarreia em Belo Horizonte-MG Low prevalence of adenoviruses in children with acute diarrhea in Belo Horizonte-MG

    Ricardo Jenner Duarte

    2012-08-01

    Full Text Available INTRODUÇÃO: Diversos microrganismos são reconhecidos como agentes de diarreia aguda, entre eles, os adenovírus, cuja associação com a doença apresenta variações geográficas e é pouco conhecida no Brasil. OBJETIVOS: Investigar a presença de adenovírus em fezes de crianças com diarreia aguda e sem diarreia, em Belo Horizonte-MG, e estudar os fatores epidemiológicos associados à adenovirose intestinal. MATERIAL E MÉTODOS: O teste imunocromatográfico qualitativo (kit VIKIA® Rota-Adeno, bioMérieux foi utilizado para pesquisa de antígenos de adenovírus em amostras fecais obtidas de 268 crianças com diarreia aguda e 124 sem diarreia, em 2005 e 2006, no Hospital Infantil João Paulo II, Belo Horizonte-MG. Dados laboratoriais, clínicos e epidemiológicos foram registrados em banco de dados (SPSS Statistical package, IBM. RESULTADOS: Adenovírus foi detectado nas fezes de 16 crianças (4,1%: 12 (4,5% com diarreia e quatro (3,2% sem diarreia. A virose foi mais comum em meninas e a distribuição etária da infecção foi homogênea. Entre as 16 crianças com infecção pelo vírus, 11 (68,8% tinham até 12 meses de idade. Entretanto, diferença significativa não foi observada para os parâmetros analisados. Distribuição sazonal da infecção por adenovírus não foi detectada. CONCLUSÃO: Nossos dados demonstram que a prevalência da adenovirose é baixa na população pediátrica no nosso meio.INTRODUCTION: Several microorganisms, among them enteric adenovirus, are widely recognized as etiological agents of acute diarrhea. The association between adenovirus and the disease varies among geographical regions and is poorly known in Brazil. OBJECTIVES: To investigate the presence of adenovirus in stool samples from children with and without diarrhea in Belo Horizonte-MG. To study factors associated with enteric adenovirus infection. MATERIAL AND METHOD: A qualitative immunochromatographic assay (kit VIKIA® Rota-Adeno, bio

  14. Eldercare at Home: Diarrhea

    ... rice, applesauce, mashed potatoes, dry toast, crackers, eggs, fish, poultry, cottage cheese, and yogurt. These foods are ... him or her what has been done to deal with the diarrhea. If diarrhea is not severe ...

  15. Chronic Diarrhea in Children

    ... can include cramping abdominal pain nausea or vomiting fever chills bloody stools Children with chronic diarrhea who have ... can include cramping, abdominal pain, nausea or vomiting, fever, chills, or bloody stools. Children with chronic diarrhea who ...

  16. A Prospective Study of Acute Diarrhea in a Cohort of United States Military Personnel on Deployment to the Multinational Force and Observers, Sinai, Egypt

    Riddle, Mark S.; Rockabrand, David M.; Schlett, Carey; Monteville, Marshall R.; Frenck, Robert W.; Romine, Marcy; Ahmed, Salwa F.; Sanders, John W.

    2011-01-01

    To better understand the epidemiology of diarrhea in deployed personnel to the Middle East, a prospective cohort study of travelers' diarrhea (TD) was conducted between May 2004 and January 2005 at the Multinational Force and Observers (MFO) camp in the southern Sinai. A baseline entry questionnaire and stool specimen was provided on study entry, and volunteers were followed every 6 weeks. Of 211 volunteers, 145 (68.7%) completed one or more follow-up visits. In total, 416 follow-up surveys w...

  17. Effect of amino acid powder on infants with acute diarrhea complicated with lactose intolerance%氨基酸奶粉对急性腹泻并发乳糖不耐受患儿的疗效

    王仁丰; 项秀荷

    2013-01-01

    目的:观察氨基酸奶粉在婴儿急性腹泻并发乳糖不耐受治疗中的效果。方法选取大便检测还原糖阳性的急性腹泻患儿130例作为研究对象,随机分为治疗组62例和对照组68例。两组均给予常规药物治疗的基础上,治疗组给予氨基酸特殊配方奶粉喂养,对照组给予无乳糖婴儿配方奶粉喂养,观察5天后两组的治疗效果。结果氨基酸奶粉喂养组腹泻的总有效率为95.16%,无乳糖奶粉喂养组的总有效率为82.35%,治疗组的总有效率高于对照组,差异有统计学意义(χ2=5.212,P<0.05)。结论氨基酸奶粉在婴儿急性腹泻并发乳糖不耐受的治疗中效果显著,能减轻腹泻症状,疗效优于无乳糖奶粉。%Objective To observe the efficacy of amino acid powder on infants with acute diarrhea complicated with lactose intolerance . Methods Totally 130 infants with acute diarrhea whose stool examination was positive for reducing sugar were selected in the study , and they were randomly divided into treatment group ( n =62 ) and control group ( n =68 ) .Based on conventional drug treatment , the treatment group was given special amino acid powder feeding , while the control group was given lactose-free infant powder feeding .The curative effect of two groups was observed after 5 days.Results The total effective rate was 95.16% and 82.35% in the treatment group and the control group, respectively, and the difference was statistically significant (χ2 =5.212, P<0.05).Conclusion The effect of amino acid powder on infants with acute diarrhea complicated with lactose intolerance is remarkable .Amino acid powder can alleviate the symptoms of diarrhea , and its efficacy is better than that of lactose-free powder .

  18. Lactancia materna y diarrea aguda en los primeros tres meses de vida Breast feeding and the incidence of acute diarrhea during the first three months of life

    Claudia Macías-Carrillo

    2005-02-01

    ón como el aseguramiento de la provisión de agua potable para el recién nacido.OBJECTIVE: To assess the effect of exclusive breastfeeding and its interactions with selected socioeconomic factors, on the incidence of acute infantile diarrhea during the first three months of life. MATERIAL AND METHODS: A prospective cohort study with a follow up of three months was conducted in 327 mother and child pairs, living in the city of Durango, Mexico, between April and June 1994. Data analyses included simple univariate and bivariate cross-tabulations, as well as multivariate logistic regression models with random effects. RESULTS: Infants who were not exclusively breastfed were at a significantly increased risk of having acute diarrhea during early infancy (ORcombined breastfeeding= 3.23; 95% CI 1.84-5.68 and ORartificial breastfeeding=4.36; 95% CI 2.32-8.19. Moreover, the protective effect of breastfeeding was independent from the effects of the following factors: poor maternal education, lack of social support for baby care, and being an adolescent mother. However, lack of potable water and lack of sewerage were potential effect modifiers of type of lactation deltaG=9.26; p=0.09; ORno water/no sewerage= 2.58; 95% CI 1.10-6.03 in the final multivariate model, for simultaneous lack of potable water and sewerage, which is greater than the sum of the individual OR for each variable. CONCLUSIONS: Similar to previous studies, exclusive breastfeeding was found to have great importance, since this practice protects the child's health and allows for a better development, despite unfavorable social and economic conditions. In particular, it seems that the protection conferred by breastfeeding is stronger when home conditions are poor, but this same condition presents an intervention opportunity, particularly the assurance of potable water provision for the infant when breastfeeding is not an option.

  19. Probiotic bacteria in prevention and treatment of diarrhea

    Jasmina Havranek; Šimun Zamberlin; Iva Dolenčić Špehar; Tamara Prtilo; Milna Tudor; Dubravka Samaržija

    2009-01-01

    Probiotic bacteria have beneficial effects in prevention and treatment of different diseases. The results of preventive and therapeutic effect of probiotic bacteria on diarrhea during last ten years are shown in this paper. The greatest preventive and therapeutic effect of probiotic bacteria was identified for acute diarrhea in children caused by rotaviruses. Significant, but slightly lower effect of probiotic bacteria was proved for antibiotic associated diarrhea. Positive effect in preventi...

  20. [The evaluation of sensitivity and specificity of technique of detection of C-reactive protein under diagnostic of infectious complications in patients with acute lymphoblastic leucosis receiving chemotherapy].

    Vladimirova, S G; Tarasova, L N; Dokshina, I A; Cherepanova, V A

    2014-11-01

    The C-reactive protein is a generally recognized marker of inflammation and bacterial infection. However, issue of diagnostic effectiveness of this indicator is still open-ended in case of patients with oncologic hematological diseases. The level of C-reactive protein can increase under neoplastic processes. On the contrary, the inhibition of immune response observed under cytoplastic therapy can decrease synthesis of this protein. The study was organized to establish levels of C-reactive protein as markers of infection in adult patients with acute lymphoblastic leucosis under application of chemotherapy and to evaluate their diagnostic effectiveness. The sampling included 34 patients with acute lymphoblastic leucosis all patients had infectious complications at various stages of treatment. The levels of C-reactive protein in groups of patients with localized infections (mucositis, abscess, pneumonia, etc.) or fever of unknown genesis had no statistical differences but were reliably higher in patients without infectious complications. The concentrations of C-reactive protein in patients with syndrome of systemic inflammatory response and sepsis had no differences. At the same time, level of C-reactive protein under systemic infection (syndrome of systemic inflammatory response, sepsis) was reliably higher than in case of localized infection. The diagnostically reliable levels of C-reactive protein were established as follows: lower than 11 mg/l--infectious complications are lacking; higher than 11 mg/l--availability of infectious process; higher than 82 mg/l--generalization of infection. The given levels are characterized by high diagnostic sensitivity (92% and 97% correspondingly) and specificity (97% and 97%) when patients receive therapy without application of L-asparaginase. At the stages of introduction of this preparation effecting protein synthesizing function of liver sensitivity of proposed criteria are decreased (69% and 55% correspondingly). However; due

  1. A Prospective Study of Acute Diarrhea in a Cohort of United States Military Personnel on Deployment to the Multinational Force and Observers, Sinai, Egypt

    Riddle, Mark S.; Rockabrand, David M.; Schlett, Carey; Monteville, Marshall R.; Frenck, Robert W.; Romine, Marcy; Ahmed, Salwa F.; Sanders, John W.

    2011-01-01

    To better understand the epidemiology of diarrhea in deployed personnel to the Middle East, a prospective cohort study of travelers' diarrhea (TD) was conducted between May 2004 and January 2005 at the Multinational Force and Observers (MFO) camp in the southern Sinai. A baseline entry questionnaire and stool specimen was provided on study entry, and volunteers were followed every 6 weeks. Of 211 volunteers, 145 (68.7%) completed one or more follow-up visits. In total, 416 follow-up surveys were completed, which described an overall incidence of 25.2 episodes per 100 person months (95% confidence interval = 21.2–30.0). Additionally, stools were collected in 72 of 77 diarrhea-associated clinic visits, with bacterial pathogens most commonly isolated (enterotoxigenic Escherichia coli in 30 [42%] samples and Campylobacter jejuni in 7 [10%] samples) Despite modern preventive methods, diarrhea is still a common problem for deployed US military personnel in Egypt, frequently resulting in diminished ability to work. PMID:21212203

  2. Health related quality of life and impact of infectious comorbidity in outpatient management of patients with acute leukemia

    Møller, Tom; Adamsen, Lis; Appel, Charlotte;

    2012-01-01

    longitudinal HRQOL evaluation (European Organisation for Research and Treatment of Cancer core 30-item questionnaire; EORTC-QLQ C-30) and the impact of infectious comorbidity among 60 patients with leukemia (median age 47) treated in an outpatient management program at Copenhagen University Hospital....... Significant improvement was seen on several HRQOL scores during follow-up. Explorative general linear models (GLMs) suggest that high cumulative severity of infectious comorbidity significantly reduces physical functioning and overall quality of life at treatment completion....

  3. Initial Sequential Organ Failure Assessment score versus Simplified Acute Physiology score to analyze multiple organ dysfunction in infectious diseases in Intensive Care Unit

    Remyasri Nair

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Aims: To investigate initial Sequential Organ Failure Assessment (SOFA score of patients in Intensive Care Unit (ICU, who were diagnosed with infectious disease, as an indicator of multiple organ dysfunction and to examine if initial SOFA score is a better mortality predictor compared to Simplified Acute Physiology Score (SAPS. Materials and Methods: Hospital-based study done in medical ICU, from June to September 2014 with a sample size of 48. Patients aged 18 years and above, diagnosed with infectious disease were included. Patients with history of chronic illness (renal/hepatic/pulmonary/  cardiovascular, diabetes, hypertension, chronic obstructive pulmonary disease, heart disease, those on immunosuppressive therapy/chemoradiotherapy for malignancy and patients in immunocompromised state were excluded. Blood investigations were obtained. Six organ dysfunctions were assessed using initial SOFA score and graded from 0 to 4. SAPS was calculated as the sum of points assigned to each of the 17 variables (12 physiological, age, type of admission, and three underlying diseases. The outcome measure was survival status at ICU discharge. Results: We categorized infectious diseases into dengue fever, leptospirosis, malaria, respiratory tract infections, and others which included undiagnosed febrile illness, meningitis, urinary tract infection and gastroenteritis. Initial SOFA score was both sensitive and specific; SAPS lacked sensitivity. We found no significant association between age and survival status. Both SAPS and initial SOFA score were found to be statistically significant as mortality predictors. There is significant association of initial SOFA score in analyzing organ dysfunction in infectious diseases (P < 0.001. SAPS showed no statistical significance. There was statistically significant (P = 0.015 percentage of nonsurvivors with moderate and severe dysfunction, based on SOFA score. Nonsurvivors had higher SAPS but was not statistically

  4. Initial Sequential Organ Failure Assessment score versus Simplified Acute Physiology score to analyze multiple organ dysfunction in infectious diseases in Intensive Care Unit

    Nair, Remyasri; Bhandary, Nithish M.; D’Souza, Ashton D.

    2016-01-01

    Aims: To investigate initial Sequential Organ Failure Assessment (SOFA) score of patients in Intensive Care Unit (ICU), who were diagnosed with infectious disease, as an indicator of multiple organ dysfunction and to examine if initial SOFA score is a better mortality predictor compared to Simplified Acute Physiology Score (SAPS). Materials and Methods: Hospital-based study done in medical ICU, from June to September 2014 with a sample size of 48. Patients aged 18 years and above, diagnosed with infectious disease were included. Patients with history of chronic illness (renal/hepatic/pulmonary/  cardiovascular), diabetes, hypertension, chronic obstructive pulmonary disease, heart disease, those on immunosuppressive therapy/chemoradiotherapy for malignancy and patients in immunocompromised state were excluded. Blood investigations were obtained. Six organ dysfunctions were assessed using initial SOFA score and graded from 0 to 4. SAPS was calculated as the sum of points assigned to each of the 17 variables (12 physiological, age, type of admission, and three underlying diseases). The outcome measure was survival status at ICU discharge. Results: We categorized infectious diseases into dengue fever, leptospirosis, malaria, respiratory tract infections, and others which included undiagnosed febrile illness, meningitis, urinary tract infection and gastroenteritis. Initial SOFA score was both sensitive and specific; SAPS lacked sensitivity. We found no significant association between age and survival status. Both SAPS and initial SOFA score were found to be statistically significant as mortality predictors. There is significant association of initial SOFA score in analyzing organ dysfunction in infectious diseases (P < 0.001). SAPS showed no statistical significance. There was statistically significant (P = 0.015) percentage of nonsurvivors with moderate and severe dysfunction, based on SOFA score. Nonsurvivors had higher SAPS but was not statistically significant (P

  5. The fecal microbiome in cats with diarrhea.

    Jan S Suchodolski

    Full Text Available Recent studies have revealed that microbes play an important role in the pathogenesis of gastrointestinal (GI diseases in various animal species, but only limited data is available about the microbiome in cats with GI disease. The aim of this study was to evaluate the fecal microbiome in cats with diarrhea. Fecal samples were obtained from healthy cats (n = 21 and cats with acute (n = 19 or chronic diarrhea (n = 29 and analyzed by sequencing of 16S rRNA genes, and PICRUSt was used to predict the functional gene content of the microbiome. Linear discriminant analysis (LDA effect size (LEfSe revealed significant differences in bacterial groups between healthy cats and cats with diarrhea. The order Burkholderiales, the families Enterobacteriaceae, and the genera Streptococcus and Collinsella were significantly increased in diarrheic cats. In contrast the order Campylobacterales, the family Bacteroidaceae, and the genera Megamonas, Helicobacter, and Roseburia were significantly increased in healthy cats. Phylum Bacteroidetes was significantly decreased in cats with chronic diarrhea (>21 days duration, while the class Erysipelotrichi and the genus Lactobacillus were significantly decreased in cats with acute diarrhea. The observed changes in bacterial groups were accompanied by significant differences in functional gene contents: metabolism of fatty acids, biosynthesis of glycosphingolipids, metabolism of biotin, metabolism of tryptophan, and ascorbate and aldarate metabolism, were all significantly (p<0.001 altered in cats with diarrhea. In conclusion, significant differences in the fecal microbiomes between healthy cats and cats with diarrhea were identified. This dysbiosis was accompanied by changes in bacterial functional gene categories. Future studies are warranted to evaluate if these microbial changes correlate with changes in fecal concentrations of microbial metabolites in cats with diarrhea for the identification of potential diagnostic or

  6. Bovine viral diarrhea virus modulations of monocyte derived macrophages

    Bovine viral diarrhea virus (BVDV) is a single stranded, positive sense RNA virus and is the causative agent of bovine viral diarrhea (BVD). Disease can range from persistently infected (PI) animals displaying no clinical symptoms of disease to an acute, severe disease. Presently, limited studies ha...

  7. Infectious Diseases

    Infectious diseases kill more people worldwide than any other single cause. Infectious diseases are caused by germs. Germs are tiny living ... to live NIH: National Institute of Allergy and Infectious Diseases

  8. Neuroprotective effects of nimodipine and MK-801 on acute infectious brain edema induced by injection of pertussis bacilli to neocortex of rats

    陈立华; 刘丽旭; 杨于嘉; 刘运生; 曹美鸿

    2003-01-01

    Objective: To explore the mechanism and type of acute infectious brain edema induced by injection of pertussis bacilli (PB) in rat neocortex, to study the neuroprotective effect of non-competitive antagonist of N-methl-D-aspartate ( NMDA ) receptor ( MK-801 ) and antagonist of Ca2+ channels ( nimodipine )on brain edema, and to investigate the relationship between percentage of water content and cytosolic free calcium concentration ([Ca2+]i) in synaptosomes or content of Evans Blue (EB).Methods: 95 SD rats were randomly divided into five groups, ie, normal control group, sham-operated control group, PB group, nimodipine treatment group and MK-801 pretreatment group. The acute infectious brain edema was induced by injection of PB into the rats. Quantitative measurements of water content and the concentration of EB were performed. [Ca2+]i was determined in calcium fluorescent indication Fura-2/AM loaded neuronal synaptosome with a spectrofluorophotometer. To observe the effect of MK-801 and nimodipine, we administered MK-801 48 hours and 24 hours before the injection of PB in MK-801 pretreatment group, and nimodipine after the injection of PB in nimodipine treatment group. The specific binding of NMDA receptor was measured with [3H]-MK-801 in the neuronal membrane of cerebral cortex. Results: The levels of water content and EB content of brain tissues, and [Ca2+]i in the neuronal synaptosomes increased more significantly in the PB-injected cerebral hemisphere in the PB group than those of normal control group and sham-operated control group (P0.05). Conclusions: The changes in the permeability of blood-brain barrier (BBB) and Ca2+-overload may participate in the pathogenesis of infectious brain edema. Treatment with nimodipine can dramatically reduce the damage of brain edema and demonstrate neuroprotective effect on brain edema by inhibiting the excess of Ca2+ influx and reducing the permeability of BBB. MK-801 pretreatment may inhibit the delayed Ca2+ influx into

  9. Molecular biology of bovine viral diarrhea virus

    Bovine viral diarrhea viruses (BVDV) are arguably the most important viral pathogen of ruminants worldwide and can cause severe economic loss. Clinical symptoms of the disease caused by BVDV range from subclinical to severe acute hemorrhagic syndrome, with the severity of disease being strain depend...

  10. Virulent Properties of Russian Bovine Viral Diarrhea Virus Strains in Experimentally Infected Calves

    Koteneva, Svetlana V.; Semenova, Olga V.; Sergeev, Alexander A.; Titova, Ksenya A.; Morozova, Anastasia A.

    2016-01-01

    The results of experimental study of three noncytopathic and two cytopathic bovine viral diarrhea virus (BVDV) strains isolated from cattle in the Siberian region and belonging to the type 1 (subtypes 1a, 1b, and 1d) have been presented. All investigated strains caused the development of infectious process in the seronegative 4–6-month-old calves after aerosol challenge with the dose of 6 log10 TCID50. The greatest virulence had noncytopathic strain and cytopathic strain related to the subtypes 1d and 1b, respectively. All strains in infected calves caused some signs of moderate acute respiratory disease and diarrhea: depression 3–5 days postinfection (p.i.), refusal to food, severe hyperthermia to 41.9°С, serous exudate discharges from the nasal cavity and eyes, transient diarrhea with blood, leukopenia (up to 2700 cells/mm3), and macroscopic changes in the respiratory organs and intestine. The infected animals recovered from 12 to 15 days p.i. and in 90% cases formed humoral immune response 25 days p.i. (antibody titers to BVDV: 1 : 4–1 : 16). Our results confirmed the presence of virulent BVDV1 strains and showed the need for researches on the molecular epidemiology of the disease, development of more effective diagnostic systems, and optimization of control programs with use of vaccines. PMID:27190687

  11. Virulent Properties of Russian Bovine Viral Diarrhea Virus Strains in Experimentally Infected Calves

    Alexander G. Glotov

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available The results of experimental study of three noncytopathic and two cytopathic bovine viral diarrhea virus (BVDV strains isolated from cattle in the Siberian region and belonging to the type 1 (subtypes 1a, 1b, and 1d have been presented. All investigated strains caused the development of infectious process in the seronegative 4–6-month-old calves after aerosol challenge with the dose of 6 log10 TCID50. The greatest virulence had noncytopathic strain and cytopathic strain related to the subtypes 1d and 1b, respectively. All strains in infected calves caused some signs of moderate acute respiratory disease and diarrhea: depression 3–5 days postinfection (p.i., refusal to food, severe hyperthermia to 41.9°С, serous exudate discharges from the nasal cavity and eyes, transient diarrhea with blood, leukopenia (up to 2700 cells/mm3, and macroscopic changes in the respiratory organs and intestine. The infected animals recovered from 12 to 15 days p.i. and in 90% cases formed humoral immune response 25 days p.i. (antibody titers to BVDV: 1 : 4–1 : 16. Our results confirmed the presence of virulent BVDV1 strains and showed the need for researches on the molecular epidemiology of the disease, development of more effective diagnostic systems, and optimization of control programs with use of vaccines.

  12. Virulent Properties of Russian Bovine Viral Diarrhea Virus Strains in Experimentally Infected Calves.

    Glotov, Alexander G; Glotova, Tatyana I; Koteneva, Svetlana V; Semenova, Olga V; Sergeev, Alexander A; Titova, Ksenya A; Morozova, Anastasia A; Sergeev, Artemiy A

    2016-01-01

    The results of experimental study of three noncytopathic and two cytopathic bovine viral diarrhea virus (BVDV) strains isolated from cattle in the Siberian region and belonging to the type 1 (subtypes 1a, 1b, and 1d) have been presented. All investigated strains caused the development of infectious process in the seronegative 4-6-month-old calves after aerosol challenge with the dose of 6 log10 TCID50. The greatest virulence had noncytopathic strain and cytopathic strain related to the subtypes 1d and 1b, respectively. All strains in infected calves caused some signs of moderate acute respiratory disease and diarrhea: depression 3-5 days postinfection (p.i.), refusal to food, severe hyperthermia to 41.9°С, serous exudate discharges from the nasal cavity and eyes, transient diarrhea with blood, leukopenia (up to 2700 cells/mm(3)), and macroscopic changes in the respiratory organs and intestine. The infected animals recovered from 12 to 15 days p.i. and in 90% cases formed humoral immune response 25 days p.i. (antibody titers to BVDV: 1 : 4-1 : 16). Our results confirmed the presence of virulent BVDV1 strains and showed the need for researches on the molecular epidemiology of the disease, development of more effective diagnostic systems, and optimization of control programs with use of vaccines. PMID:27190687

  13. [A Case of Acute Acalculous Cholecystitis During Infectious Mononucleosis Caused by the Epstein-Barr Virus in a Young Woman].

    Ono, Shiro; Kobayashi, Tadanao; Nishio, Kenji

    2016-05-01

    Infection with the Epstein-Barr virus (EBV) is a common disease and is mainly asymptomatic during childhood, whereas infectious mononucleosis with clinical signs such as fever, pharyngitis, lymphadenopathy and hepatosplenomegaly often occurs in adolescents and adults with primary infection. Acalculous cholecystitis has been reported as a rare complication. We report herein a case of acalculous cholecystitis accompanied by infectious mononucleosis by EBV, which was treated successfully by medical treatment. A 33-year-old woman who had been admitted by fever, pharyngitis and lymphadenopathy developed a right upper quadrant pain, that was diagnosed as acalculous cholecystitis based on an imaging study. Antibiotic treatment did not resolve the symptoms, and surgical intervention was considered. We diagnosed her as having infectious mononucleosis based on a typical physical presentation and seropositivity for the EBV viral capsid antigen, suggesting that the acalculous cholecystatis might have been a complication of the EBV infection. After the administration of glucocorticoid and acyclovir, the patient became afebrile and the abdominal pain disappeared. Though acalculous cholecystitis rarely accompanies infectious mononucleosis caused by EBV, clinicians should be aware of this complication to avoid unnecessary cholecystectomy. PMID:27529970

  14. Acute infectious diseases and immunologic responses. Some stories from clinical practice apropos the Influenza A (H1N1) pandemic

    Alfredo Darío Espinosa Brito

    2011-01-01

    Apropos of the appearance of some unusual clinical pictures in the course of the recent epidemic of Influenza A (H1N1), and with the intention of sharing controversial ideas related to the immunologic responses of the patients to the infectious agents, we expose here a group of stories arisen from a clinical practice of almost five decades.

  15. Acute infectious diseases and immunologic responses. Some stories from clinical practice apropos the Influenza A (H1N1 pandemic

    Alfredo Darío Espinosa Brito

    2011-04-01

    Full Text Available Apropos of the appearance of some unusual clinical pictures in the course of the recent epidemic of Influenza A (H1N1, and with the intention of sharing controversial ideas related to the immunologic responses of the patients to the infectious agents, we expose here a group of stories arisen from a clinical practice of almost five decades.

  16. Fight against infectious diseases.

    Soda, K; Kamakura, M; Kitamura, K

    1996-08-01

    During early Meiji era in Japan, there were frequent epidemics of fatal acute communicable diseases such as cholera, dysentery and smallpox, and preventive measures and preparations for acute infectious diseases were urgently needed. Together with improvement of scientific preparations, the Communicable Disease Prevention Law was promulgated in 1897. Then gradually until 1940's, the focus of preventive measures have been shifted from acute infectious diseases to chronic ones, particularly tuberculosis. After the World War II, except the short period of social confusion, major legally-defined communicable diseases had been decreasing rapidly mainly due to the use of antibiotics and improvement of environmental sanitation. At the same time, the introduction of preventive vaccination marked a new era for the prevention of infectious diseases and was largely responsible for the remarkable decrease of infant mortality in Japan. Recently the concept of defense by vaccination against infectious diseases has evolved from group-oriented to individual-oriented, so that the Preventive Vaccination Law was drastically revised in 1994. Currently, effective counter-measures against newly emerged infectious diseases, as viral hepatitis, institution-acquired infection, viral hemorrhagic fever etc., have been implemented. For the future, improvement of infections disease surveillance, vaccine development and expansion of vaccination coverage along with monitoring side-effects, preventive health education on AIDS/STDs, addressing the special needs of foreigners living in Japan and international collaboration for disease control abroad are all vital to the success of protection of the public's health from infectious diseases in Japan. PMID:8800275

  17. Diarréia aguda: o conhecimento materno sobre a doença reduz o número de hospitalizações nos menores de dois anos? Acute diarrhea: does mother's knowledge of the disease reduce admission of children under two years of age?

    Lygia Carmen de Moraes Vanderlei

    2004-09-01

    Full Text Available OBJETIVOS: Analisar o conhecimento materno sobre as causas, sinais de desidratação e manejo da diarréia aguda e a ocorrência de hospitalização, por complicações desta doença, em seus filhos menores de dois anos. MÉTODOS: Desenho de corte transversal aninhado em estudo de caso _ controle. Casos: crianças internadas por complicações da diarréia aguda no Instituto Materno Infantil de Pernambuco. Controles: crianças com doenças ambulatoriais exceto diarréia aguda. Variáveis: internamento por diarréia aguda (dependente; condições socioeconômicas; estado nutricional das crianças; tempo de aleitamento materno; conhecimento materno sobre diarréia aguda e seu manejo. Na análise foi utilizado software Epi-info 6.0. RESULTADOS: Houve associação estatística entre internamento por diarréia aguda e condições socioeconômicas precárias (p OBJECTIVES: To analyze the relationship of mother's knowledge about signs of dehydration, causes and management of acute diarrhea with admission of children under two years of age with the disease. METHODS: A nested cross-sectional and case-control study was carried out with children who were admitted at the "Instituto Materno Infantil de Pernambuco" with acute diarrhea: and control children admitted with other diseases. Variables were: patient admission having or not acute diarrhea (dependent; social-economic condition, nutritional state; duration of breastfeeding; mother's knowledge about acute diarrhea and its management (independent. The Epi-info software, 6.0 was used for analysis. RESULTS: There was statistical association between patient admission with acute diarrhea and poor social-economic conditions (p= 0.01; malnutrition (p=0.01; short time of breastfeeding (p=0.01, lack of mother's knowledge about how to avoid dehydration (p=0.05 and effectiveness of oral rehydration solutions (p=0.02. There was no statistical association with knowledge about causes, signs of dehydration or

  18. Clinical, Paraclinical, and Antimicrobial Resistance Features of Community-Acquired Acute Bacterial Meningitis at a Large Infectious Diseases Ward in Tehran, Iran.

    Heydari, Behrooz; Khalili, Hossein; Karimzadeh, Iman; Emadi-Kochak, Hamid

    2016-01-01

    In this study demographic, clinical, paraclinical, microbiological, and therapeutic features of patients with community-acquired acute bacterial meningitis admitted to a referral center for infectious diseases in Iran, have been evaluated. Medical records of adult (> 18 years) individuals with confirmed diagnosis of community-acquired bacterial meningitis during a 4-year period were retrospectively reviewed. All required data were obtained from patients' medical charts. Available findings about antimicrobial susceptibility of isolated bacteria from CSF and/or blood were also collected. Kirby-Bauer disc diffusion method was used to determine their antimicrobial susceptibility profile. Details of medical management including antibiotic regimen, duration, patients' outcome, and possible sequelae of meningitis were recorded. The most commonly isolated microorganism from CSF or blood of patients was Streptococcus pneumonia (33.33%) followed by Neisseria meningitidis (27.78%) and Haemophilus influenza (16.67%). The most common antimicrobial regimen was ceftriaxone plus vancomycin (69.44%) followed by ceftriaxone plus vancomycin plus ampicillin (11.11%). Neurological sequelae of meningitis including cranial nerve palsy, deafness, and hemiparesis were identified in 4 (11.11%), 2 (5.56%), and 1 (2.78%) subjects, respectively. Regarding mortality, only 3 (8.33%) patients died from bacterial meningitis and the remaining 33 individuals discharged from the hospital. In conclusion, findings of the current study demonstrated that the mean incidence of acute bacterial meningitis in a referral infectious diseases ward in Iran was 9 episodes per year. The majority cases of community-acquired acute bacterial meningitis admitted to our center had negative CSF culture and classic triad of meningitis was absent in them. PMID:27610176

  19. The clinical study of the children acute diarrhea treated by ultrashot waves%超短波治疗脑性瘫痪儿童腹泻的临床研究

    李伟明

    2001-01-01

    目的 察微热量超短波治疗脑性瘫痪患儿急性腹泻的疗效。方法23例脑瘫急性腹泻患儿口服补液盐和饮食指导同时,应用超短波微热量腹部前后对置法治疗,对照组23例,服用庆大霉素溶液15mg·kg-1·d-1。结果 疗组的治愈显效率和总有效率分别为86.9%和95.6%,明显优于对照组60.8%和78.3%(P均<0.01)。结论 热量超短波是一种治疗脑瘫患儿急性腹泻的好方法。%Objective To observe the effect of ultrashot waves on the acute diarrhea in young children.Method The ultrashot waves group was 23 patients.They were treated by ultrashot waves for six days.The contral group was 23 patients.They were given gentamycin liquid for six days.Result The good effective rate and total effective rate in ultrashot waves group(86.9%,95.6% )were higher than those of control group(60.8%,78.3%)(P<0.01) Conclusion The ultrashot waves therapy is a good method for the acute diarrhea of young children.

  20. Epidemiology of prolonged testicular infections with bovine viral diarrhea virus.

    Givens, M Daniel; Riddell, Kay P; Edmondson, Misty A; Walz, Paul H; Gard, Julie A; Zhang, Yijing; Galik, Patricia K; Brodersen, Bruce W; Carson, Robert L; Stringfellow, David A

    2009-10-20

    Previously, bovine viral diarrhea virus (BVDV) had been found in prolonged testicular infections following acute infection of immunocompetent bulls. The primary purpose of this research was to evaluate the production and maintenance of prolonged testicular infections after exposure to BVDV of seronegative bulls in varying circumstances. The secondary objective was to initiate assessment of the potential for transmission of BVDV via semen of bulls exhibiting a prolonged testicular infection. In total, 10 research trials were conducted. The first trial examined the duration of detectable virus in semen after intranasal inoculation of peri-pubertal bulls. The second to fifth trials examined the potential for prolonged testicular infections resulting from natural exposure of seronegative bulls to persistently infected heifers. In the last five trials, the potential for viral transmission from bulls exhibiting prolonged testicular infections to a small number of exposed animals (n=28) was evaluated. Results of this research demonstrated that prolonged testicular infections could result in detection of viral RNA in semen for 2.75 years with infectious virus grown from testicular tissue 12.5 months after viral exposure. A type 1b strain of BVDV caused prolonged testicular infection after natural exposure of seronegative bulls to a persistently infected heifer. However, transmission of BVDV to susceptible animals was not detected in the final five trials of this research. In conclusion, BVDV can persist in testicular tissue after acute infection for several years, but the potential for viral transmission from these prolonged testicular infections appears to be low. PMID:19473788

  1. Occurrence of gastrointestinal parasites in dogs (Canis familiaris) with acute diarrhea from metropolitan region of Londrina, Parana State, Brazil/
    Ocorrência de parasitos gastrintestinais em cães (Canis familiaris) com diarréia aguda oriundos da região metropolitana de Londrina, Estado do Paraná, Brasil

    Pedro Luiz Camargo; Odilon Vidotto; Milton Hissashi Yamamura; Fábio Augusto Galli dos Santos

    2007-01-01

    One hundred and fifty fecal samples from dogs with acute diarrhea (Group 1) and from 50 dogs without diarrhea (Group 2) were collected and analyzed at the Veterinary Teaching Hospital of the State University of Londrina, between October, 2004 and October 2005. From the positive samples (29.3%) of Group 1, 72.7% were infected by only one agent, while 27.3% had mixed infection. The following genera wereobserved by coproparasitologic evaluation: Giardia sp. (9.3%), Ancylostoma sp. (7.3%), Cystoi...

  2. Translating Molecular Physiology of Intestinal Transport into Pharmacologic Treatment of Diarrhea: Stimulation of Na+ Absorption

    Singh, Varsha; Yang, Jianbo; Chen, Tiane-e; Zachos, Nick; Kovbasnjuk, Olga; Verkman, Alan; Donowitz, Mark

    2013-01-01

    Diarrheal diseases remain a leading cause of morbidity and mortality for children in developing countries while representing an important cause of morbidity worldwide. The WHO recommended low osmolarity oral rehydration solutions plus zinc save lives in patients with acute diarrhea1, but there are no approved, safe drugs which have been shown to be effective against most causes of acute diarrhea. Identification of abnormalities in electrolyte handling by the intestine in diarrhea, including i...

  3. 急性呼吸道传染病患者的防控及护理%Prevention, control and nursing of acute respiratory infectious diseases

    孔庆新

    2011-01-01

    Objective To discuss the characteristics of acute respiratory infectious disease,and the key points of prevention,control and nursing of this diseases.Methods 1067 patients with acute respiratory infectious diseases from January 2007 to February 2011were selected,the clinical prevention and protection,treatment and nursing underwent investigation and analysis.Results All 1067 patients were admitted as confirmed or suspected diagnosis of acute respiratory infectious disease,they received treatment and nursing and were discharged well-off without being source of infection.79 patients occurred nosocomial infection,which accounted for 7.4%.Conclusions Hospitals should take preventing principle,obey the prevention and control principles of early discovery,early isolation,ear diagnosis and early treatment,to control the disease in the seminal state.During the treatment process of acute respiratory infectious diseases,nurses should implement strict isolation system,give health education,clinical monitoring and nursing of stable stage in order to promote early recovery of patients.%目的 探讨急性呼吸道传染病的特点以及防治控制和护理工作的要点.方法 抽取本院2007年1月至2011年2月所收治的急性呼吸道传染病患者1067例,对其临床防护、治疗以及护理工作进行了临床监测以及回溯式综合调查分析.结果 所有1067例患者在以确诊或疑似呼吸道传染病病例入院治疗以后,均及时得以治疗护理并顺利出院,未成为传染源.住院期间有79例患者发生了院内感染,感染率为7.4%.结论 医院应秉承预防为主的原则,遵从早发现、早隔离、早诊断、早治疗等医疗防控原则,将急性呼吸道传染病控制于萌芽状态.在对急性呼吸道传染病患者的治疗过程中,应遵照严格的隔离制度,主动的给予健康宣教、临床病情监测、稳定期护理等,以促进患者早日康复.

  4. Therapeutic effect of Chinese patent medicine "Wuhuanghu" on porcine infectious pleuropneumonia and its acute and subchronic toxicity as well as evaluation of safety pharmacology.

    Wang, Guangxi; Kang, Shuai; Yin, Zhongqiong; Jia, Ren-Yong; Lai, Xin; Zhou, Xun; Liang, Xiao-Xia; Li, Li-Xia; Zou, Yuan-Feng; Lv, Cheng; He, Chang-Liang; Ye, Gang; Yin, Li-Zi; Jing, Bo

    2015-09-01

    Chinese patent medicines play an important role in veterinary clinical use. The aim of this study is to research the anti-infection effect of Chinese patent medicine "Wuhuanghu" for the treatment of porcine infectious pleuropneumonia and to evaluate the safety of "Wuhuanghu" in order to provide a comprehensive understanding of its toxicity. The anti-infection results showed that the treatment with "Wuhuanghu" could significantly inhibit pneumonia and decrement of the pneumonia in high, medium and low doses of "Wuhuanghu" groups were 70.97%, 61.29% and 58.06% respectively. The acute toxicity test showed that rats in the highest group (5000mg/kg) had no death and no abnormal response, suggesting the LD50 of "Wuhuanghu" was more than 5000mg/kg. The subchronic toxicity study showed that hematology indexes in all groups had no obvious differences; blood biochemical index, only albumin and total cholesterol in middle and low doses of "Wuhuanghu" groups were significantly decreased when compared with control group. The clinical pathology showed that the target organ of "Wuhuanghu" was liver. The safety pharmacology study indicated that "Wuhuanghu" had no side effects on rats. In conclusion, "Wuhuanghu" has therapeutic and protective effects to porcine infectious pleuropneumonia in a dose-dependent manner and "Wuhuanghu" is a safe veterinary medicine. PMID:26245812

  5. 急性腹泻中医证候季节性分布规律的临床研究%Clinical research on seasonal distribution of acute diarrhea syndromes

    苏芳静

    2015-01-01

    Objective: To summarize and analyze seasonal distribution of acute diarrhea syndromes. Methods: 578 patients’ clinical data were selected. According to general information of patients, time of onset, pathogenesis, symptoms, signs and laboratory test results, clinical syndrome type distribution were summarized. Results: Sex ratio was not signiifcantly different (P>0.05). Most patients were young people, and with the Han and Shi syndrome. In spring, short red urine was signiifcantly higher than that in winter; In winter, thin stool with chills and fever was signiifcantly higher than that in spring; in summer, scanty dark urine, diarrhea unhappy, sticky stool were signiifcantly higher than those in autumn; In autumn, thin stool with chills and fever was signiifcantly higher than that in summer (P0.05);患者以中青年人居多;寒湿证居多,寒热证其次;春季小便短赤明显高于冬季;冬季大便清稀与恶寒发热明显高于春季;夏季小便短赤、泻下不爽、大便黏腻明显高于秋季;秋季大便清稀与恶寒发热明显高于夏季(P<0.05)。结论:急性腹泻四季皆有发病,且以夏秋为多见,青年患者居多,患者应注意饮食调节;且各季发病证候不同,这也为中医辨证治疗提供了参考依据。

  6. Diarrhea (For Parents)

    ... KidsHealth in the Classroom What Other Parents Are Reading Upsetting News Reports? What to Say Vaccines: Which ... Is Hand Washing So Important? Dehydration Basic Blood Chemistry Tests Word! Diarrhea "Stomach Flu" Belly Pain Why ...

  7. Infectious agents in coronary atheromas: a possible role in the pathogenesis of plaque rupture and acute myocardial infarction

    Maria de Lourdes HIGUCHI; Jose A. F. RAMIRES

    2002-01-01

    In this review we report our recent findings of histopathological features of plaque instability and the association with Mycoplasma pneumoniae (MP) and Chlamydia pneumoniae (CP) infection, studying thrombosed coronary artery segments (CAS) of patients who died due to acute myocardial infarction. Vulnerable plaques are known to be associated with fat atheromas and inflammation of the plaque. Here we demonstrated that vulnerability is also related with focal positive vessel remodeling that mai...

  8. Control of radiation-induced diarrhea with cholestyramine

    Cholestyramine is a non-absorbable ion-exchange resin which specifically binds bile salts. We have treated seven patients with acute or chronic radiation-induced diarrhea that was refractory to the usual methods of control with cholestyramine. In each case, the diarrhea was controlled with cholestyramine. This observation supports previous experimental work with animals which indicated that bile salts contribute to the genesis of radiation-induced diarrhea. Cholestyramine is well-tolerated, but should not be administered with certain oral medications. The results of this small series are preliminary, but point the way toward a more extensive clinical trial to define the usefulness of cholestyramine in the treatment of refractory acute or chronic radiation-induced diarrhea

  9. Short-term effect of prebiotics administration on stool characteristics and serum cytokines dynamics in very young children with acute diarrhea

    N. Vaisman (Nachum); J. Press (Josef); E. Leibovitz (Eugene); G. Boehm (Günther); V. Barak (Vivian)

    2010-01-01

    textabstractWe investigated the effect of a mixture of long-chain fructo-oligosaccharides, galacto-oligosaccharides and acidic oligosaccharides on the number and consistency of stools and on immune system biomarkers in 104 supplemented and non-supplemented subjects (aged 9-24 months) with acute diar

  10. Role of zinc in pediatric diarrhea

    Chaitali Bajait; Vijay Thawani

    2011-01-01

    Zinc supplementation is a critical new intervention for treating diarrheal episodes in children. Recent studies suggest that administration of zinc along with new low osmolarity oral rehydration solutions / salts (ORS), can reduce the duration and severity of diarrheal episodes for up to three months. The World Health Organization (WHO) and UNICEF recommend daily 20 mg zinc supplements for 10 - 14 days for children with acute diarrhea, and 10 mg per day for infants under six months old, to cu...

  11. Diarrheal Diseases - Acute and Chronic

    ... and drinking contaminated or raw foods and beverages. Screening/Diagnosis Most episodes of acute diarrhea resolve quickly without antibiotic therapy and with simple dietary modifications. See a ...

  12. Nosocomial diarrhea: evaluation and treatment of causes other than Clostridium difficile.

    Polage, Christopher R; Solnick, Jay V; Cohen, Stuart H

    2012-10-01

    Diarrhea is common among hospitalized patients but the causes are distinct from those of diarrhea in the community. We review existing data about the epidemiology of nosocomial diarrhea and summarize recent progress in understanding the mechanisms of diarrhea. Clinicians should recognize that most cases of nosocomial diarrhea have a noninfectious etiology, including medications, underlying illness, and enteral feeding. Apart from Clostridium difficile, the frequency of infectious causes such as norovirus and toxigenic strains of Clostridium perfringens, Klebsiella oxytoca, Staphylococcus aureus, and Bacteroides fragilis remains largely undefined and test availability is limited. Here we provide a practical approach to the evaluation and management of nosocomial diarrhea when tests for C. difficile are negative. PMID:22700831

  13. When your child has diarrhea

    ... ency/patientinstructions/000693.htm When your child has diarrhea To use the sharing features on this page, ... sports drinks is OK. Diet for Children With Diarrhea In many cases, you can continue feeding your ...

  14. Effective prophylaxis against rotavirus diarrhea using a combination of Lactobacillus rhamnosus GG and antibodies

    Hammarström Lennart; Svensson Lennart; Brüssow Harald; Marcotte Harold; Pant Neha

    2007-01-01

    Abstract Background Rotavirus is a worldwide cause of infectious infantile diarrhea that claims over 600,000 lives annually. Recently, two new vaccine candidates have been developed but their efficacy in developing countries, still remains to be proven. Oral delivery of specific immunoglobulins provides passive immunity and is a fast acting treatment for rotavirus diarrhea. Probiotic bacteria have also gained considerable attention lately as treatment for rotavirus diarrhea. Here we report an...

  15. Alimentación sostenida durante diarrea aguda en niños menores de cinco años Sustained feeding during acute diarrhea in children younger than five years of age

    HOMERO MARTÍNEZ-SALGADO

    1998-03-01

    Full Text Available Objetivo. Identificar alimentos locales con aceptabilidad cultural para nutrir a niños con diarrea aguda y probar su aceptación e impacto sobre el peso corporal en niños enfermos. Material y métodos. Se entrevistó a 142 madres de niños menores de cinco años en comunidades rurales, para conformar dietas culturalmente aceptables mediante sorteo de grupos, desplegado en un diagrama multidimensional. Se hizo un ensayo sobre el curso clíniño de 54 niños de 4-50 meses de edad cursando las primeras 48 horas de un episodio diarreico, quienes recibieron las dietas desarrolladas. Resultados. Se diseñaron dietas de acuerdo con la edad del niño y con el tiempo de evolución de la enfermedad. En las 47.6 ± 22.2 horas que permanecieron hospitalizados, los niños consumieron 44.8 ± 28.6 kcal/kg/día (además de la leche materna y ganaron 70.6 ± 179.7 g. Hubo una relación directa entre mayor edad y mayor consumo calórico, y entre éste y mayor ganancia de peso. Conclusiones. Los niños mostraron buena aceptabilidad a las dietas ofrecidas, de tal manera que se evitó la pérdida de peso.Objective. To identify locally available and culturally acceptable foods for children with acute diarrhea, and test their acceptance and effect on the childís weight. Material and methods. 142 mothers of children younger than five years of age living in rural communities were interviewed to indentify culturally accepted diets by means of group sorting. These were displayed in a multidimensional scale. A descriptive study was performed of the clinical course of 54 children, ages 4 to 50 months who received the designed diets during the first 48 hours of diarrhea. Results. The designed diets considered age of the child, and stage of the disease. Children spent 47.6 ± 22.2 h in the hospital during which they consumed 44.8 ± 28.6 kcal/kg/day (additional to breast milk and they gained 70.6 ± 179.7 g. A direct relationship was observed between increasing age and

  16. [Antibiotic-associated diarrhea in clinical practice].

    Luzina, E V; Lareva, N V

    2013-01-01

    Antibiotic-associated diarrhea (AAD) is considered to mean at least 3 shapeless stool episodes within 2 or more consecutive days when using antibacterial agents. Due to the fact that antibiotics are used most commonly to treat many diseases, AAD is one of the topical problems for different clinical specialists. There has recently been increased interest in this condition due to its higher morbidity and mortality rates and the emergence of novel treatment-resistant virulent strains of Clostridium difficile 027 and 078/126. The paper discusses the possible risk of developing AAD depending on the class of the antibiotic used, as well as the mechanisms of its development. Infectious diarrhea most frequently results from bacterial overgrowth due to that the obligate intestinal microflora is suppressed by antibacterial drugs. C. difficile, Clostridium perfringers, Staphylococcus aureus, Salmonella spp., Klebsiella oxytoca, and Candida spp. are etiological factors in the development of this diarrhea. The severest intestinal lesions include pseudomembranous colitis (PMC) caused by C. difficile. The clinical and endoscopic picture and methods for the diagnosis and treatment of PMC are described. Therapy for this menacing condition is traditionally based on the use of metronidazole and vancomycin. In 2011, the US Food and Drug Administration approved the new drug fidaxomycin whose superiority over vancomycin has been demonstrated by a recurrence criterion. The paper discusses in detail other treatment options, including the use of probiotics. PMID:23653946

  17. BOVINE VIRAL DIARRHEA VIRUSES

    Bovine viral diarrhea virus (BVDV) is an umbrella term for two species of viruses, BVDV1 and BVDV2, within the Pestivirus genus of the Flavivirus family. BVDV viruses are further subclassified as cytopathic and noncytopathic based on their activity in cultured epithelial cells. Noncytopathic BVDV p...

  18. 扬州地区急性散发性诺如病毒感染性腹泻的临床特点分析%Clinical Characteristics of Norovirus infection with Acute Viral Diarrhea of Yangzhou City

    张有江; 程明; 侯建国; 张晋; 徐勤

    2014-01-01

    目的:分析55例急性散发性诺如病毒性腹泻患者的流行病学特征和临床特点,为该病的防治提供科学依据。方法收集扬州市三家哨点医院2013年1月~12月门诊腹泻患者大便标本513份,分析临床资料,同时用 RT-PCR方法检测诺如病毒。结果诺如病毒阳性者55例,阳性率10.7%。感染者的年龄与未感染诺如病毒患者比较差异有统计学意义(χ2=4.27,P<0.05),而性别、职业、是否为食源性疾病与未感染诺如病毒患者比较差异无统计学意义(χ2=0.086~3.21,P值均>0.05)。临床症状的发生诺如病毒感染者更易出现发热(χ2=4.6,P<0.05),而其他症状如腹泻次数(≥5次/天)、腹痛、恶心、呕吐等与未感染诺如病毒患者比较差异无统计学意义(χ2=0.139~3.636,P值均>0.05)。结论诺如病毒是急性腹泻的常见病原体,发病率较高,单凭临床症状很难与其他腹泻相鉴别,需通过病原学诊断确诊。%Objective To investigate the clinical and epidemiological characteristics in 55 patients with Acute Viral Diarrhea caused by Norovirus.And provide basis for preventing and controlling the spread of the disease.Methods A total of 5 1 3 fe-cal samples of diarrhea cases from 3 surveillance hospitals in 2013 from January to December were collected,analyzed the clinical date and detected Norovirus useing RT-PCR.Results The number of Norovirus positive was 55,positive rate was 10.7%.There were significant differences between Norovirus infection and not infected patients for age (χ2=4.27,P0.05).The clinical symptoms of acute gastroenteritis pa-tients caused by Norovirus infection was fever (χ2=4.6,P0.05).Conclusion Norovirus is common pathogens of a-cute diarrhoea,which incidence is higher.Clinical symptoms alone is difficult to differentiate with other diarrheaphases.The confirmed diagnosis is depended on the etiology.

  19. Fatores de risco para internamento por diarréia aguda em menores de dois anos: estudo de caso-controle Risk factors for hospitalization due to acute diarrhea in children under two years old: a case-control study

    Lygia Carmen de Moraes Vanderlei

    2003-04-01

    Full Text Available O objetivo deste estudo foi investigar a associação entre determinantes sócio-econômico-demográficos e biológicos e hospitalização por diarréia aguda (DA em menores de dois anos. Utilizou-se estudo tipo caso-controle de base hospitalar no período de maio a outubro de 1997, em hospital pediátrico de nível terciário em Recife, Pernambuco. Os casos (n = 185 foram crianças internadas por DA e os controles (n = 185 foram crianças com doenças ambulatoriais, exceto diarréia, que tinham apresentado a doença nos últimos 15 dias, atendidas no mesmo local e período. Utilizaram-se os programas Epi Info e Stata para a análise dos dados. Foram calculados o odds ratio e os intervalos de confiança de 95% por meio da técnica de regressão logística múltipla, para o controle dos fatores de confusão, considerando um modelo hierarquizado dos fatores de risco. A investigação mediante o modelo proposto mostrou existência de associação entre internamento por DA e piso de terra ou tábua, paridade das mães igual a cinco ou mais filhos, criança menor de seis meses e gravidade dos episódios, que depende da interação entre condições sócio-econômicas desfavoráveis, baixa idade das crianças e episódio diarréico grave.The aim of this study was to investigate the socioeconomic, demographic, and biological determinants of hospitalization due to acute diarrhea (AD in children under two years old. The hospital-based, case-control study was conducted from May to October 1997 in a pediatric hospital in Recife, Pernambuco, Brazil. Cases (n = 185 were children hospitalized due to AD, and controls (n = 185 were children with various diseases (except AD presenting in the previous 15 days in the same area and time period. Data analysis used the Epi Info and Stata software. Odds ratios and 95% confidence intervals were calculated by multiple logistic regression to control confounding factors, considering a hierarchical risk factor model

  20. Calcium-sensing receptor: A new target for therapy of diarrhea

    Cheng, Sam Xianjun

    2016-01-01

    Management of acute diarrhea remains a global challenge, particularly in resource-limiting countries. Oral rehydration solution (ORS), a passive rehydrating therapy developed approximately 40 years ago, remains the mainstay treatment. Although ORS is effective for hydration, since it does not inhibit enterotoxin-mediated excessive secretion, reduced absorption and compromised barrier function - the primary mechanisms of diarrhea, ORS does not offer a rapid relief of diarrhea symptom. There ar...

  1. Infectious laryngotracheitis: a review

    H Hidalgo

    2003-01-01

    Infectious laryngotracheitis (ILT) herpesvirus continues to cause outbreaks of respiratory disease in chickens world-wide. Sporadic cases of ILT occur in all classes of birds, including hobby/show/game chickens, broilers, heavy breeders, and commercial laying hens. These epornitics of ILT tend to occur where there are large populations of naïve, unvaccinated birds, i.e., in concentrated areas of broiler production. ILT virus can be transmitted through (a) chickens with acute upper respiratory...

  2. Infectious abdominal emergencies

    Infectious disease is a common cause of acute abdomen. The diagnosis is based on clinical examination and basic laboratory tests. However, medical imaging routinely performed according to the clinical findings is frequently useful. Hepatic and splenic abscesses are correctly demonstrated by ultrasonography and computed tomography. Ultrasonography is the reference standard for the diagnosis of acute cholecystitis. The US examination is also performed for the diagnosis of appendicitis and its complications. Ultrasonography and barium enema are commonly performed for the evaluation of sigmoid diverticulitis. Computed tomography is the reference standard to determine medical or surgical procedures. (authors). 20 refs., 15 figs

  3. Glomerulonefritis aguda post-infecciosa asociada a neumonía neumocócica Acute post infectious glomerulonephritis associated to pneumococcal pneumonia

    S. Fernández de Miguel

    2009-01-01

    scientific literature is also reviewed. This case serves to support the concept that other organisms besides Streptococcus pyogenes can trigger a post-infectious glomerulonephritis and should be considered in the differential diagnosis. The most common onset use to be a nephritis 3 to 10 days after the primary infection, but the acute presentation of pneumonia and glomerulonephritis has been described. Clinical studies showed low serum complement C3 and elevated anti-streptolysin-O titers, since it has been described in others publications. Pneumonia aetiology was confirmed by positive pneumoccocal antigenemia both in urine and pleural exudates. Pneumonia-associated acute glomerulonephritis runs a benign course and has a good prognosis.

  4. Infectious Arthritis

    Most kinds of arthritis cause pain and swelling in your joints. Joints are places where two bones meet, such as your elbow or knee. Infectious arthritis is an infection in the joint. The infection ...

  5. Persistent diarrhea as an emerging child health problem

    Galal Osman

    1997-01-01

    Full Text Available Persistent diarrhea (i.e. acute episodes lasting more than 14 days has been recognized by the WHO as a major public health problem in developing countries and a research topic of high priority. Persistent diarrhea is often associated with malnutrition, growth faltering, and a substantial risk of mortality in children below 5 years of age. Reported incidence and case-fatality rates from persistent diarrhea vary substantially. Substantial disagreement exists regarding definition, incidence and various putative risk factors. Resolution of such measurement related problems will allow for an accurate estimate of the force of morbidity and mortality from presistent diarrhea, while the elucidation of its risk factors will simplify policy making and the tailoring of intervention programs.

  6. AN EPIDEMIOLOGY BASED INPATIENT DATA ANALYSIS AT AN INFECTIOUS DISEASE HOSPITAL

    Meera

    2015-04-01

    Full Text Available INTRODUCTION: Communicable diseases continue to be the leading cause of considerable m ortality & morbidity in our country . At the hospital where the study was done , patients with febrile illnesses from various parts of the state are admitted for infectious diseases which include Viral fevers , acute diarrheal diseases ( ADD , Enteric fever , Cholera , Infectious hepatitis , Malaria , Dengue , Chikungunya , Measles , Mumps , Chicken pox , Diphtheria , Tetanus , Dog bites & Rabies . CONTEXT: Patients attending outpatient department ( OPD of an infectious disease hospital with febrile illnesses . AIM OF THE STUDY: The aim of the study was to determine the prevalence of various communicable diseases among patients attending the OPD of the hospital , the rate of admission with provisional diagnosis and patient outcome in relation to the disease . MATERIAL & METHO DS: Patients who attended the OPD from September 2012 till August 2013 were included in the study . Clinical and personal data was documented for each patient . Laboratory investigations were done as guided by clinical presentation . All patients with moderat e to severe morbidity & serious illnesses were admitted . RESULT OF THE STUDY: The study showed that while the incidence of infective illnesses like acute diarrhea , malaria , dengue & clinical diphtheria is high , tetanus and rabies cases are not uncommon .

  7. Role of zinc in pediatric diarrhea

    Chaitali Bajait

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available Zinc supplementation is a critical new intervention for treating diarrheal episodes in children. Recent studies suggest that administration of zinc along with new low osmolarity oral rehydration solutions / salts (ORS, can reduce the duration and severity of diarrheal episodes for up to three months. The World Health Organization (WHO and UNICEF recommend daily 20 mg zinc supplements for 10 - 14 days for children with acute diarrhea, and 10 mg per day for infants under six months old, to curtail the severity of the episode and prevent further occurrences in the ensuing -two to three months, thereby decreasing the morbidity considerably. This article reviews the available evidence on the efficacy and safety of zinc supplementation in pediatric diarrhea and convincingly concludes that zinc supplementation has a beneficial impact on the disease outcome.

  8. Hidratación oral continua o a dosis fraccionadas en niños deshidratados por diarrea aguda Oral rehydration in continuous administration or in fractionated doses in dehydrated children with acute diarrhea

    Felipe Mota-Hernández

    2002-01-01

    Full Text Available Objetivo. Evaluar la seguridad y efectividad de dos técnicas de hidratación oral. Material y métodos. Ensayo clínico aleatorio, hecho en el Servicio de Hidratación Oral del Hospital Infantil de México, Federico Gómez, entre septiembre de 1998 y junio de 1999. Cuarenta pacientes deshidratados por diarrea aguda, menores de cinco años, recibieron suero oral ad libitum (grupo AL y otros cuarenta lo recibieron en dosis fraccionada (grupo DF. Las características clínicas fueron similares en ambos grupos. Los resultados se presentan como promedio y desviación estándar o mediana, según la distribución de frecuencias simples y relativas. Resultados. El promedio de gasto fecal en el grupo AL fue 11.0±7.5 g/kg/h y en el grupo DF 7.1±7.4 (p=0.03. La ingesta de suero, el tiempo de hidratación y la diuresis promedio, fueron similares entre ambos grupos (p>0.05. Seis pacientes del grupo AL y cinco del DF tuvieron gasto fecal alto (>10 g/kg/hora, mejorando con la administración de atole de arroz. Un paciente del grupo AL y dos pacientes del DF tuvieron vómitos persistentes, mejorando con gastroclisis. Ningún paciente requirió rehidratación intravenosa. Conclusiones. Estos resultados sugieren que la administración de suero oral ad libitum, bajo supervisión, es tan segura y efectiva como la técnica de dosis fraccionada para el tratamiento de niños deshidratados por diarrea aguda.Objective. To evaluate the safety and effectiveness of two oral rehydration techniques. Material and Methods. A randomized clinical trial was conducted at the oral rehydration unit of Hospital Infantil de Mexico "Federico Gomez", between September 1998 and June 1999. Forty patients five-year old and younger children, dehydrated due to acute diarrhea, were given oral rehydration solution (ORS ad libitum (AL group; another forty patients received ORS in fractionated doses (FD group. Clinical characteristics were similar in both groups. Results are presented as

  9. Probiotics for Prevention and Treatment of Diarrhea.

    Guarino, Alfredo; Guandalini, Stefano; Lo Vecchio, Andrea

    2015-01-01

    Probiotics are increasingly used for prevention and treatment of diarrhea more in children than in adults. Given the broad spectrum of diarrhea, this review focuses on the main etiologies: acute gastroenteritis, antibiotic-associated diarrhea (AAD), and necrotizing enterocolitis (NEC). For each, we reviewed randomized controlled trials, meta-analyses, and guidelines. For acute gastroenteritis we found 12 guidelines: 5 recommended probiotics and 7 did not. However, the guidelines containing positive recommendations provided proof of evidence from clinical trials and meta-analyses. Lactobacillus rhamnosus GG (LGG) and Saccharomyces boulardii had the most compelling evidence of efficacy as they reduced the duration of the disease by 1 day. For AAD 4 meta-analyses were found, reporting variable efficacy of probiotics in preventing diarrhea, based on the setting, patient's age, and antibiotics. The most effective strains were LGG and S. boulardii. For NEC, we found 3 randomized controlled trials, 5 meta-analyses, and 4 position papers. Probiotics reduced the risk of NEC enterocolitis and mortality in preterm babies. Guidelines did not support a routine use of probiotics and asked for further data for such sensitive implications. In conclusion, there is strong and solid proof of efficacy of probiotics as active treatment of gastroenteritis in addition to rehydration. There is solid evidence that probiotics have some efficacy in prevention of AAD, but the number needed to treat is an issue. For both etiologies LGG and S. boulardii have the strongest evidence. In NEC the indications are more debated, yet on the basis of available data and their implications, probiotics should be carefully considered. PMID:26447963

  10. The clinical study of the children acute diarrhea treated by ultrashot waves%超短波治疗脑性瘫痪儿童腹泻的临床研究

    李伟明

    2001-01-01

    目的 观察微热量超短波治疗脑性瘫痪患儿急性腹泻的疗效。方法23例脑瘫急性腹泻患儿口服补液盐和饮食指导同时,应用超短波微热量腹部前后对置法治疗,对照组23例,服用庆大霉素溶液15mg·kg-1·d-1。结果 疗组的治愈显效率和总有效率分别为86.9%和95.6%,明显优于对照组60.8%和78.3%(P均<0.01)。结论 热量超短波是一种治疗脑瘫患儿急性腹泻的好方法。%Objective To observe the effect of ultrashot waves on the acutediarrhea in young children.Method The ultrashot waves group was 23 patients.They were treated by ultrashot waves for six days.The contral group was 23 patients.They were given gentamycin liquid for six days.Result The good effective rate and total effective rate in ultrashot waves group(86.9%,95.6% )were higher than those of control group(60.8%,78.3%)(P<0.01) Conclusion The ultrashot waves therapy is a good method for the acute diarrhea of young children.

  11. Envolvimento de Aeromonas em surto de doença diarréica aguda em São Bento do Una, Pernambuco Aeromonas associated with an acute diarrhea outbreak in São Bento do Una, Pernambuco

    Ernesto Hofer

    2006-04-01

    Full Text Available No primeiro semestre de 2004, ocorreu um surto de diarréia em São Bento do Una, Pernambuco, registrando-se 2.170 casos. Nas 582 coproculturas realizadas, 145 (25% revelaram um enteropatógeno bacteriano, destacando 114 casos (19,5% com a participação de Aeromonas, representadas por Aeromonas caviae (57/9,8%, Aeromonas veronii biovar sobria (23/3,9%, Aeromonas veronii biovar veronii (15/2,6% e outras espécies (19/3,2%. Nos 31 episódios restantes (5,3%, foram detectados: V. cholerae O1 Ogawa toxigênico (18/3,1%, Salmonella spp (8/1,4%, Shigella spp (3/0,5% e Vibrio cholerae não O1/não O139 (2/0,3%.An acute diarrhea outbreak, with 2170 cases, was described during January to July, 2004, in São Bento do Una, Pernambuco. 582 stools were examined and an enteric pathogen was recovered in 25% (145 patients. Aeromonas species were the most frequent (114-19.5% and the main isolates were Aeromonas caviae (57-9.8%, Aeromonas veronii biovar sobria (23-3.9%, Aeromonas veronii biovar veronii (15-2.6% and other species (19-3.2%. The other isolated enteropathogens were Vibrio cholerae O1-Ogawa toxigenic (18-3.1%, Salmonella spp (8-1.4%, Shigella spp (3-0.5% and Vibrio cholerae non-O1/non-O139 (2-0.3%.

  12. Loperamide-Induced Acute Pancreatitis

    Halla Vidarsdottir; Hanna Vidarsdottir; Pall Helgi Moller; Einar Stefan Bjornsson

    2013-01-01

    Acute pancreatitis is a common disease leading to hospitalizations, most often caused by gallstones or alcohol. We present a case of a patient diagnosed with acute pancreatitis considered to be due to loperamide treatment for diarrhea.

  13. Drug Therapy in Diarrhea

    Khalili, M

    1985-01-01

    The drug used in diarrhea must be effective in that they reduce the secretion and increase the absorption of the intestinal mucosa. This seems to be only possible with morphine derivatives. But these are not recommended as they may cause ileus. Antibiotics are indicated in only few cases of severe intestinal infections. Other frequently used drugs such as adsorbents are practically of no effect. Thus, rehydration, electrolyte substitution and realimentation remain the most effective method of...

  14. Post-irradiation diarrhea

    In radiotherapy of pelvic cancers, the X-ray dose to be delivered to the tumour is limited by the tolerance of healthy surrounding tissue. In recent years, a number of serious complications of irradiation of pelvic organs were encountered. Modern radiotherapy necessitates the acceptance of a calculated risk of complications in order to achieve a better cure rate. To calculate these risks, one has to know the radiation dose-effect relationship of normal tissues. Of the normal tissues most at risk when treating pelvic tumours only the bowel is studied. In the literature regarding post-irradiation bowel complications, severe and mild complications are often mixed. In the present investigation the author concentrated on the group of patients with relatively mild symptoms. He studied the incidence and course of post-irradiation diarrhea in 196 patients treated for carcinoma of the uterine cervix or endometrium. The aims of the present study were: 1) to determine the incidence, course and prognostic significance of post-irradiation diarrhea; 2) to assess the influence of radiotherapy factors; 3) to study the relation of bile acid metabolism to post-irradiation diarrhea; 4) to investigate whether local factors (reservoir function) were primarily responsible. (Auth.)

  15. Nosocomial diarrhea in children:is astrovirus the leading pathogen?

    Anita Chakravarti; Manisha Jain; Mayank Singh Chauhan; Anju Sharma; Sayani Tewari

    2010-01-01

    Objective:To screen for the presence of mixed infection with rotavirus. Methods:The present study included 140 children aged less than 2 years with acute diarrhea. Fecal samples of all these patients were analyzed for the presence of astroviral antigen by enzyme immunoassay. Also 40 rotavirus positive fecal samples were screened for the presence of astrovirus. Results:In case of acute diarrhea in children the prevalence of astrovirus was around 34%(48/140). It was seen that even in rotavirus positive cases astrovirus co infection was 25%. Conclusions:Astrovirus is a growing problem which is often underrecognised. With the rotavirus vaccine licensure being imminent astrovirus will emerge out as the single most important cause of viral diarrhea.

  16. Determination Pattern of Antibiotic Resistance in Entropathogenic Escherichia coli Strains Isolated from Children with Diarrhea

    P. Karami; Aslani, M M; M. Najafi Mosleh; M.Y. Alikhani

    2012-01-01

    Introduction & Objective: Diarrheal diseases are considered a major health problem, especially in children. Enteropathogenic Escherichia coli (EPEC) strains are the common cause of diarrhea in children especially in developing countries. Because of undesirable effects of diarrhea and its interference with children's growth, in some cases antibiotic treatment is recommended. In recent years, resistance toward common and effective antibiotics in the treatment of infectious diseases became one o...

  17. The burden of common infectious disease syndromes at the clinic and household level from population-based surveillance in rural and urban Kenya.

    Daniel R Feikin

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: Characterizing infectious disease burden in Africa is important for prioritizing and targeting limited resources for curative and preventive services and monitoring the impact of interventions. METHODS: From June 1, 2006 to May 31, 2008, we estimated rates of acute lower respiratory tract illness (ALRI, diarrhea and acute febrile illness (AFI among >50,000 persons participating in population-based surveillance in impoverished, rural western Kenya (Asembo and an informal settlement in Nairobi, Kenya (Kibera. Field workers visited households every two weeks, collecting recent illness information and performing limited exams. Participants could access free high-quality care in a designated referral clinic in each site. Incidence and longitudinal prevalence were calculated and compared using Poisson regression. RESULTS: INCIDENCE RATES RESULTING IN CLINIC VISITATION WERE THE FOLLOWING: ALRI--0.36 and 0.51 episodes per year for children <5 years and 0.067 and 0.026 for persons ≥ 5 years in Asembo and Kibera, respectively; diarrhea--0.40 and 0.71 episodes per year for children <5 years and 0.09 and 0.062 for persons ≥ 5 years in Asembo and Kibera, respectively; AFI--0.17 and 0.09 episodes per year for children <5 years and 0.03 and 0.015 for persons ≥ 5 years in Asembo and Kibera, respectively. Annually, based on household visits, children <5 years in Asembo and Kibera had 60 and 27 cough days, 10 and 8 diarrhea days, and 37 and 11 fever days, respectively. Household-based rates were higher than clinic rates for diarrhea and AFI, this difference being several-fold greater in the rural than urban site. CONCLUSIONS: Individuals in poor Kenyan communities still suffer from a high burden of infectious diseases, which likely hampers their development. Urban slum and rural disease incidence and clinic utilization are sufficiently disparate in Africa to warrant data from both settings for estimating burden and focusing interventions.

  18. Bacterial causes of AIDS-associated diarrhea in Thailand.

    Suthienkul, O; Aiumlaor, P; Siripanichgon, K; Eampokalap, B; Likhanonsakul, S; Utrarachkij, F; Rakue, Y

    2001-03-01

    The incidence of bacterial diarrhea in AIDS patients has increased steadily and has led to enormous medical and public health problems. In this study, the clinical data together with 350 rectal swab samples each from AIDS patients with diarrhea (APD) and non-AIDS patients with diarrhea (NAPD), were collected and examined for bacterial enteropathogens at the Bamrasnaradura Infectious Diseases Hospital (BIDH), Nonthaburi, Thailand from May to December 1996. Patients were matched by age and sex. The majority of these patients were male (79%, 554/700), aged between 15 and 34 years (70.9%). The study found that the isolation rates of bacterial enteropathogens causing diarrhea in APD (18%, 62/350) were considerably lower than those in NAPD (43%, 152/350) (pvtl and vt2. No V. cholerae strains were detected in APD. The least effective antibiotics were ampicillin, tetracycline and cotrimoxazole. Antibiotic resistant patterns of the isolated organisms were similar from both groups. The results from this study might be useful in Thailand in the diagnosis and management of clinical cases of bacterial diarrhea, especially APD. PMID:11485080

  19. Value of ROC analysis of Doppler ultrasound in diagnosis of acute infectious cholecystitis%ROC分析法评价多普勒超声对急性感染性胆囊炎的诊断价值

    郁素云; 王磊; 陈云素

    2013-01-01

    目的 探讨彩色多普勒超声对急性感染性胆囊炎的定性诊断价值,为提高急性感染性胆囊炎的定性诊断率提供理论依据.方法 对68例急性感染性胆囊炎行腹部彩色多普勒超声检查,评价患者的胆囊形态、超声Murphy征、胆汁透声的好与差及胆囊壁的厚、薄或粗糙程度;利用受试者的工作特征(ROC)曲线评价上述指标对急性感染性胆囊炎的诊断价值.结果 急性胆囊炎组胆囊肿大62例、超声Murphy征阳性66例、胆汁透声差57例、胆囊壁厚或粗糙63例,阳性率分别为91.2%、97.1%、83.8%、92.6%,均明显高于非胆囊炎组,差异有统计学意义(P<0.01);将上述4个指标加以综合对急性感染性胆囊炎的诊断正确率为95.0%,灵敏度为95.2%,特异性为94.7%,ROC曲线下面积为0.985.结论 多普勒超声能评价急性感染性胆囊炎的胆囊形态、胆囊壁厚或粗糙程度、胆汁透声情况及超声Murphy征,可提高该病定性诊断准确率.%OBJECTIVE To evaluate the qualitative value of color Doppler ultrasound in diagnosis of acute infectious cholecystitis so as to provide a theoretical basis for improving the qualitative diagnosis of acute infectious cholecystitis. METHODS A total of 68 cases of acute infectious cholecystitis patients underwent the abdominal color Doppler ultrasound. The gallbladder morphology, ultrasound Murphy sign, the good or poor sound for bile, thick or thin or roughness of gallbladder wall were evaluated by the method of Doppler ultrasound; the diagnostic value of the above indicators for the acute infectious cholecystitis was evaluated by receiver operating characteristics (ROC) curves. RESULTS There were 62 cases (91. 2%) with acute cholecystitis gallbladder enlargement, 66 cases (97. 1%) with ultrasound Murphy sign, 57 cases (83. 8%) with the poor sound of bile, and 63 cases (92.6%) with gallbladder wall thickness or roughness, significantly higher than that of the

  20. Antibiotic Resistance in Children with Bloody Diarrhea

    Hamedi Abdolkarim

    2009-05-01

    Full Text Available Shigellosis is an important public health problem, especially in developing countries. Antibiotic treatment of bacterial dysentery, aimed at resolving diarrhea or reducing its duration is especially indicated whenever malnutrition is present. First-line drugs include ampicillin and trimethoprim sulfamethoxazole(TMP-SMX; however multidrug-resistance has occurred and careful antibiotic selection must be considered in prescribing .When epidemiologic data indicate a rise in resistancy, fluoroquinolones may be used in adults and oral third-generation cephalosporins and nalidixic acid in children. All children (n=2400 with acute diarrhea who were admitted to the Pediatric department of Dr.sheykh Hospital Mashhad, Iran from March 2004 to March 2005 were selected and their stool culture were obtained, then positive cultures (312 cases,13% were evaluated by antibiogram. This study showed that in heavily populated areas of IRAN like Mashhad, 97% shigella strain isolated from children with bloody diarrhea were sensitive to nalidixic acid, ciprofloxacin and cefixime and rarely susceptible to ampicillin and cotrimoxazole. There is increasing resistance of Shigella to most of the antibiotics in use, and for this reason, careful selection of antibiotics must use considered in each area. Development and use of new drugs are expensive and have severe limitations in the third world. Simple prophylactic alternatives are therefore, required, such as awareness of hygienic child care practices and early promotion of breast feeding. For treatment of shigellosis in infants Ceftriaxon, and in children Nalidixic Acid is recommended.

  1. Bovine Virus Diarrhea (BVD)

    Hoar, Bruce R.

    2004-01-01

    Bovine virus diarrhea (BVD) is a complicated disease to discuss as it can result in a wide variety of disease problems from very mild to very severe. BVD can be one of the most devastating diseases cattle encounter and one of the hardest to get rid of when it attacks a herd. The viruses that cause BVD have been grouped into two genotypes, Type I and Type II. The disease syndrome caused by the two genotypes is basically the same, however disease caused by Type II infection is often more severe...

  2. Assessment of Apoptosis Level of Naive CD8+ T-lymphocytes in Children with Acute Infectious Mononucleosis in CD95 and DR3 Receptors Activation

    Е.N. Filatova

    2015-09-01

    Full Text Available The aim of the investigation was to estimate the relation of CD95 and DR3 receptors activation with apoptosis level of naive cytotoxic Т-lymphocytes (nCТL in children with acute infectious mononucleosis (AIM. Materials and Methods. The test materials were peripheral blood samples of healthy children and children with AIM. nCTL were isolated by negative immunomagnetic separation. Specific activation of CD95 and DR3 receptors was performed using monoclonal antibodies. An apoptosis level and expression of receptors were studied by flow cytometry. Results. The percentage of cell apoptosis decreased in children with AIM in freshly isolated nCTL, as well as in CD95 receptor activation compared to healthy children. nCTL apoptosis in healthy children regardless of culture conditions was accompanied by the reduced quantity of CD95+DR3– cells and CD95 expression density on their surface. In children with AIM the decrease of these indices required CD95 activation. Compared to healthy children, the percentage of CD95+DR3+ cells in children with AIM decreased in CD95 activation. In CD95 receptor activation in healthy children and children with AIM, the content of CD95+DR3+ cells correlated directly with an apoptosis level. DR3 receptor activation was accompanied neither by nCTL apoptosis level change nor the changed content of DR3+ cells in both healthy children and children with AIM. Conclusion. nCTL are less sensitive to apoptosis in children with AIM compared to healthy children. DR3 receptor activation results in no change of nCTL apoptosis level both in healthy children and children with AIM. CD95 activation in patients with AIM is accompanied by increased resistance of CD95+DR3– cells to apoptosis and the susceptibility to apoptosis of CD95+DR3+ cells. The evaluation of nCTL susceptibility to CD95-induced apoptosis in AIM can serve as a subtest to assess the state of a cell component of immune system.

  3. Surveillance of Food- and Smear-Transmitted Pathogens in European Soldiers with Diarrhea on Deployment in the Tropics: Experience from the European Union Training Mission (EUTM) Mali

    Hagen Frickmann; Philipp Warnke; Claudia Frey; Salvatore Schmidt; Christian Janke; Kay Erkens; Ulrich Schotte; Thomas Köller; Winfried Maaßen; Andreas Podbielski; Alfred Binder; Rebecca Hinz; Benjamin Queyriaux; Dorothea Wiemer; Norbert Georg Schwarz

    2015-01-01

    Introduction. Since 2013, European soldiers have been deployed on the European Union Training Mission (EUTM) in Mali. From the beginning, diarrhea has been among the most “urgent” concerns. Diarrhea surveillance based on deployable real-time PCR equipment was conducted between December 2013 and August 2014. Material and Methods. In total, 53 stool samples were obtained from 51 soldiers with acute diarrhea. Multiplex PCR panels comprised enteroinvasive bacteria, diarrhea-associated Escherichia...

  4. The effect of high-dose vitamin A supplementation given with bacille Calmette-Guérin vaccine at birth on infant rotavirus infection and diarrhea: a randomized prospective study from Guinea-Bissau

    Diness, Birgitte Rode; Christoffersen, Dorthe; Pedersen, Ulla Britt;

    2010-01-01

    Prophylactic vitamin A supplementation (VAS) reduces mortality and may reduce morbidity associated with diarrhea in children >6 months of age. Rotavirus is the most common cause of acute dehydrating diarrhea among children worldwide.......Prophylactic vitamin A supplementation (VAS) reduces mortality and may reduce morbidity associated with diarrhea in children >6 months of age. Rotavirus is the most common cause of acute dehydrating diarrhea among children worldwide....

  5. 犊牛饲养过程中的腹泻问题%The Diarrhea in Calf Raising

    林清; 昝林森

    2009-01-01

    From the practice of western medicine and Chinese traditional medicine, calf diarrhea was classified into trophism diarrhea, infectious diarrhea, milk diarrhea, wet and hot diarrhea and spleen weakness diarrhea, etc. Clinical symptoms, aetiological agent, preventive measure, method of treatment were thoroughly reviewed. It will be helpful to instruct the actual production.%本文分别从西医和中医的角度把犊牛腹泻病归纳为营养性腹泻和传染性腹泻;乳伤泄泻、湿热泄泻和脾虚泄泻等类型.并对该病的临床症状、发病原因、预防措施、治疗方法等进行了较为详细论述,以期对实际生产具有全面的指导作用.

  6. New Neonatal Porcine Diarrhea Syndrome in Denmark Characterization of the intestinal lesions and identification of the etiology

    Jonach, Beata Renata; Jensen, Tim Kåre; Boye, Mette

    In recent years, a new form of porcine neonatal diarrhea, termed ‘New Neonatal Porcine Diarrhea Syndrome' (NNPDS) has been reported from several European countries including Denmark. This condition is characterized by watery to creamy, non-hemorrhagic diarrhea occurring during the first week of...... life, high morbidity and relatively low mortality and weak or no response to the antibiotic treatment. This diarrhea affects pig farms despite good management practice and routine sows vaccination. None of well-known enteric pathogens causing neonatal porcine diarrhea has so far been associated with...... developed villus atrophy of various degrees with concomitant crypt hyperplasia in the jejunum and ileum (Chapter 4.1). Villus atrophy is a common pathological feature seen in numerous infectious intestinal conditions and is associated with malabsorptive diarrhea due to insufficient absorption of water and...

  7. Rotavirus in children with diarrhea in Tripoli, Libya

    Kalaf, Rasha Noori; Elahmer, Omar R.; Zorgani, Abdulaziz A.; Ghenghesh, Khalifa Sifaw

    2011-01-01

    The most common cause of acute diarrhea in young children in developed and developing countries are rotaviruses. In developing countries, it is estimated that 20-70% of hospitalizations and close to one million children below the age of five die annually because of rotavirus infections. Of the seven groups (A-G) of rotaviruses, group A is usually the cause of rotavirus-associated diarrhea. Infections due to rotaviruses occur via the fecal-oral route. Previous studies from Libya showed that ro...

  8. Infectious uveitis in Virginia

    Engelhard SB

    2015-08-01

    Full Text Available Stephanie B Engelhard,1 Zeina Haddad,1 Asima Bajwa,1 James Patrie,2 Wenjun Xin,2 Ashvini K Reddy1 1Department of Ophthalmology, 2Department of Public Health Sciences, University of Virginia, Charlottesville, VA, USA Purpose: To report the causes, clinical features, and outcomes of infectious uveitis in patients managed in a mid-Atlantic tertiary care center.Methods: Retrospective, observational study of infectious uveitis patients seen at the University of Virginia from 1984 to 2014.Results: Seventy-seven of 491 patients (15.7% were diagnosed with infectious uveitis (mean age 58 years, 71.4% female, 76.6% Caucasian. The mean follow-up was 5 years. Anterior uveitis was the most common anatomic classification (39 patients, 50.6% followed by panuveitis (20 patients, 26.0% and posterior uveitis (18 patients, 23.4%. The most common infectious etiology was herpetic anterior uveitis (37 patients, 48.1% followed by toxoplasma uveitis (14 patients, 18.2%. The most prevalent viral pathogen was varicella-zoster virus (21 patients, 27.3% followed by herpes simplex virus (20 patients, 26.0%. Acute retinal necrosis (ARN was diagnosed in 14 patients (18.2%. Aqueous humor yielded an etiologic diagnosis in seven (50% of ARN patients, four of whom tested positive for cytomegalovirus and three for varicella-zoster virus. On presentation, 43 patients (55.8% had a visual acuity (VA better than 20/40 and 17 (22.1% had a VA worse than 20/200. VA at the final follow-up was better than 20/40 in 39 patients (50.6% and worse than 20/200 in 22 patients (28.6%. In all, 16 (20.8% and 10 (13.0% patients required cataract and vitrectomy surgery, respectively. A total of 14 patients (18.2% were on glaucoma topical treatment and four (5.2% required glaucoma surgery.Conclusion: The most common type of infectious uveitis seen over the study period was herpetic anterior uveitis secondary to varicella-zoster virus or herpes simplex virus, found to be most prevalent in patients

  9. Levofloxacin in Preventing Infection in Young Patients With Acute Leukemia Receiving Chemotherapy or Undergoing Stem Cell Transplantation

    2016-04-08

    Acute Leukemias of Ambiguous Lineage; Bacterial Infection; Diarrhea; Fungal Infection; Musculoskeletal Complications; Neutropenia; Recurrent Childhood Acute Lymphoblastic Leukemia; Recurrent Childhood Acute Myeloid Leukemia; Secondary Acute Myeloid Leukemia; Untreated Childhood Acute Myeloid Leukemia and Other Myeloid Malignancies

  10. Translating molecular physiology of intestinal transport into pharmacologic treatment of diarrhea: stimulation of Na+ absorption.

    Singh, Varsha; Yang, Jianbo; Chen, Tiane-e; Zachos, Nicholas C; Kovbasnjuk, Olga; Verkman, Alan S; Donowitz, Mark

    2014-01-01

    Diarrheal diseases remain a leading cause of morbidity and mortality for children in developing countries, while representing an important cause of morbidity worldwide. The World Health Organization recommended that low osmolarity oral rehydration solutions plus zinc save lives in patients with acute diarrhea, but there are no approved, safe drugs that have been shown to be effective against most causes of acute diarrhea. Identification of abnormalities in electrolyte handling by the intestine in diarrhea, including increased intestinal anion secretion and reduced Na(+) absorption, suggest a number of potential drug targets. This is based on the view that successful drug therapy for diarrhea will result from correcting the abnormalities in electrolyte transport that are pathophysiologic for diarrhea. We review the molecular mechanisms of physiologic regulation of intestinal ion transport and changes that occur in diarrhea and the status of drugs being developed to correct the transport abnormalities in Na(+) absorption that occur in diarrhea. Mechanisms of Cl(-) secretion and approaches to anti-Cl(-) secretory therapies of diarrhea are discussed in a companion review. PMID:24184676

  11. Genetic change in the open reading frame of bovine viral diarrhea virus is introduced more rapidly during the establishment of a single persistent infection than by multiple acute infections

    Bovine viral diarrhea viruses (BVDV) are ubiquitous viral pathogens of cattle. There is a high degree of sequence diversity between strains circulating in livestock herds. The driving force behind change in sequence is not known but the inaccurate replication of the genomic RNA by a viral RNA polyme...

  12. Avian infectious laryngotracheitis.

    Bagust, T J; Jones, R C; Guy, J S

    2000-08-01

    Avian infectious laryngotracheitis (ILT) herpesvirus continues to cause sporadic cases of respiratory disease in chickens world-wide. Sources of transmission of ILT infection are three-fold, namely: chickens with acute upper respiratory tract disease, latently infected 'carrier' fowls which excrete infectious laryngotracheitis virus (ILTV) when stressed, and all fomites (inanimate articles as well as the personnel in contact with infected chickens). Infectious laryngotracheitis virus infectivity can persist for weeks to months in tracheal mucus or carcasses. Rigorous site biosecurity is therefore critical in ILT disease control. Furthermore, while current (modified live) ILT vaccines can offer good protection, the strains of ILTV used in vaccines can also produce latent infections, as well as ILT disease following bird-to-bird spread. The regional nature of reservoirs of ILTV-infected flocks will tend to interact unfavourably with widely varying ILT control practices in the poultry industry, so as to periodically result in sporadic and unexpected outbreaks of ILT in intensive poultry industry populations. Precautions for trade-related movements of chickens of all ages must therefore include an accurate knowledge of the ILT infection status, both of the donor and recipient flocks. PMID:10935275

  13. What I Need to Know about Diarrhea

    ... Organizations​​ (PDF, 341 KB)​​​​​ Alternate Language URL Español Diarrhea Page Content On this page: What is diarrhea? ... prevented? Points to Remember Clinical Trials What is diarrhea? Diarrhea is frequent, loose, and watery bowel movements. ...

  14. Diseases of the small bowel in chronic diarrhea: diagnosis and treatment

    M. Simadibrata

    2002-09-01

    Full Text Available The incidence of chronic diarrhea in Asia is between 0.8-1.0%. The diseases and abnormalities according to the location, which can cause chronic diarrhea, are divided into three locations: the small bowel, the large bowel and extraintestinal. The small bowel diseases include infectious and non-infectious diseases. The infectious diseases are bacterial infections, parasitic infections etc. The non-infectious diseases include of Crohn’s disease, Celiac sprue, NSAID enteropathy, lactose intolerance, benign tumor, carcinoid tumor, carcinoma, post surgery complications, laxative etc. The approaches to diagnosis include good anamnesis, careful physical examination, supporting laboratory tests, more specialized supporting examinations including X-ray of the colon, esophagogastroduodenum follow-through, enteroclysis, ileo-colonoscopy and endoscopy on the upper portion of the digestive tract including the small intestine with biopsy for histopathology examinations. The treatment for chronic diarrhea is divided into supportive and causal therapy. (Med J Indones 2002; 11: 179-89 Keywords: small bowel, chronic diarrhea, approaches to diagnosis, treatment

  15. CT evaluation of infectious colitis

    Computed tomography (CT) is useful for evaluating the diagnosis of gastrointestinal disease, such as infectious colitis, in patients with severe pain and bloody diarrhea. During the 7 years between November 1993 and October 2000, 34 patients with infectious colitis (18 male, 16 female; mean age 42±19 yrs), received emergency CT and colonoscopy because of severe abdominal pain and dysentery. The following organisms were isolated: pathogenic Escherichia coli (12), 6 of which were O157: H7 (O-157), Salmonella species (11), Campylobacter species (5), Vibrio parahaemolyticus (3), Yersinia enterocolotica (2) and Shigella species (1). Thickening of the intestinal wall greater than 10 mm was seen in the ascending colon in the 6 cases with E. coli O157, in 5/11 cases with Salmonella, 4/5 with Campylobacter and 1/6 with non-O157 pathogenic E. Coli. marked intestinal wall thickening, greater than 20 mm, was seen in the ascending colon of the 4 of the patients with an O-157 infection. In all patients with O-157 colitis, slight ascites was noted in the pelvic space. In additions, ascites was also seen in 3/13 patients with Salmonella and 1/5 patients with Campylobacter colitis. The CT findings, in the patients with infectious colitis, are non-specific but knowledge and recognition of the findings will help in patient evaluation and proper treatment. (author)

  16. Acute diarrhea in hospitalized children of the municipality of juiz de fora, MG, Brazil: prevalence and risk factors associated with disease severity Diarreia aguda em crianças hospitalizadas no município de Juiz de Fora, MG: prevalência e fatores de risco associados à gravidade da doença

    Monica Couto Guedes Sejanes da Rocha

    2012-12-01

    Full Text Available CONTEXT: Acute diarrhea is a common cause of hospitalization among children under 5 years of age. Knowing the prevalence and risk factors associated with the severity of acute diarrhea is essential to control morbidity and mortality. OBJECTIVE: Describe the prevalence of demographic, epidemiologic and clinical features of children under 6 years of age hospitalized for acute diarrhea, and investigate the association between these determinants and the severity of the diarrheic episode. METHOD: Retrospective, cross-sectional study, during the period from January, 2005 through December, 2008, in the municipality of Juiz de Fora, MG, Brazil. Files from 6,201 children from 0 to 6 years of age, hospitalized in two public teaching institutions (which account for 84% of all the hospitalizations in the municipality, were assessed. Acute diarrhea was defined as the presence of at least three evacuations of liquid or loose stools, within 24 hours, for a maximum period of 14 days. The patients with acute diarrhea were divided in two groups, according to disease severity, severe diarrhea being considered whenever hospitalization lasted for at least 4 days. Epidemiologic and clinical data were assessed and compared through the application of the chi-squared test and the binomial logistic regression model. RESULTS: The prevalence rate for admission due to acute diarrhea was 8.4%. The factors significantly associated with the severity of the diarrheic episode were: age under 6 months (P = 0.01, OR = 2.762; disease onset during fall (P = 0.033, OR = 1.742, presence of fever (P = 0.017, OR = 1.715 and antibiotic use during hospitalization (P = 0.000, OR = 3.872. CONCLUSIONS: Diarrhea is the third most common cause of hospitalization among children under 6 years of age in Juiz de Fora. Young age (under or equal to 6 months, fever, antibiotic use during hospitalization and disease onset during fall are risk factors associated with longer hospital stay

  17. Modeling Infectious Diseases

    ... Background Information > Modeling Infectious Diseases Fact Sheet Modeling Infectious Diseases Fact Sheet Tagline (Optional) Using computers to prepare ... Content Area Predicting the potential spread of an infectious disease requires much more than simply connecting cities on ...

  18. About Infectious Mononucleosis

    ... Healthcare Providers Laboratory Testing References & Resources About Infectious Mononucleosis Recommend on Facebook Tweet Share Compartir On this ... may cause the spleen to rupture. Diagnosing Infectious Mononucleosis Healthcare providers typically diagnose infectious mononucleosis based on ...

  19. Acute Otitis Media

    A Joshan

    2000-07-01

    Full Text Available Acute Otitis Media is a common problem of childhood. It is characterized by otalgia, fever, irritability, anorexia and vomiting or diarrhea. Diagnosis is most often made by pneumatic otoscopy. Acute Otitis Media is mostly caused by S.pneumonia or H.influenza there are sensitive to penicillins.

  20. Acute hypocomplementemic post-infectious glomerulonephritis as a complication of sinus-related orbital cellulitis: case report Glomerulonefrite pós-infecciosa hipocomplementêmica aguda como complicação de celulite orbitária relacionada aos seios paranasais: relato de caso

    Jayter Silva Paula; Antonio Augusto Velasco e Cruz; Patrícia Mitiko Santelo Akaishi; Tiana Burman

    2008-01-01

    Group A beta-hemolytic streptococcus is the most common agent implicated in post-infectious acute glomerulonephritis. We report a case of acute poststreptococcal glomerulonephritis associated with sinus-related orbital abscess in an 11-year-old boy treated with surgical drainage and intravenous ceftriaxone and clindamycin. Twelve days after supportive measures, renal function was normalized. We also discuss this potentially severe nonsuppurative complication of orbital cellulitis caused by gr...

  1. Porcine epidemic diarrhea virus infection: Etiology, epidemiology, pathogenesis and immunoprophylaxis.

    Jung, Kwonil; Saif, Linda J

    2015-05-01

    Porcine epidemic diarrhea virus (PEDV), a member of the genera Alphacoronavirus in the family Coronaviridae, causes acute diarrhea/vomiting, dehydration and high mortality in seronegative neonatal piglets. For the last three decades, PEDV infection has resulted in significant economic losses in the European and Asian pig industries, but in 2013-2014 the disease was also reported in the US, Canada and Mexico. The PED epidemic in the US, from April 2013 to the present, has led to the loss of more than 10% of the US pig population. The disappearance and re-emergence of epidemic PED indicates that the virus is able to escape from current vaccination protocols, biosecurity and control systems. Endemic PED is a significant problem, which is exacerbated by the emergence (or potential importation) of multiple PEDV variants. Epidemic PEDV strains spread rapidly and cause a high number of pig deaths. These strains are highly enteropathogenic and acutely infect villous epithelial cells of the entire small and large intestines although the jejunum and ileum are the primary sites. PEDV infections cause acute, severe atrophic enteritis accompanied by viremia that leads to profound diarrhea and vomiting, followed by extensive dehydration, which is the major cause of death in nursing piglets. A comprehensive understanding of the pathogenic characteristics of epidemic or endemic PEDV strains is needed to prevent and control the disease in affected regions and to develop an effective vaccine. This review focuses on the etiology, epidemiology, disease mechanisms and pathogenesis as well as immunoprophylaxis against PEDV infection. PMID:25841898

  2. DIAGNOSTIC SIGNIFICATION OF EXANTHEMA IN THE PREHOSPITAL CARE IN INFECTIOUS DISEASES

    N. F. Plavunov

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Disease, with exanthema, pose a significant differential diagnostic difficulty for physicians multidisciplinary hospitals and require the consultation of an infectious disease physician. The article highlights the problem of early diagnostics of acute infectious diseases proceeding with exanthema. The analysis of quality of diagnostics of infectious disease on the outcomes of the consultative infectious ambulance team for 2013-2014.

  3. Status and Significance of Benign Infantile Convulsion with Mild Gastroenteritis in the Spectrum of Infantile Convulsion with Acute Diarrhea%轻度胃肠炎伴婴幼儿良性惊厥在婴幼儿急性腹泻伴惊厥疾病谱中的地位及意义

    林伟青; 蔡晓莹; 林广裕; 吴扬; 肖泽曦; 林创兴; 陈派镇; 冯学永; 马廉

    2012-01-01

    Objective To explore the status and significance of benign infantile convulsion with mild gastroenteritis ( BICE) in the spectrum of infantile convulsion with acute diarrhea. Methods One hundred and eighty - four cases of convulsion with acute diarrhea treated in our hospital from 2009 to 2011 were analyzed retrospectively. Results Among the 184 cases of convulsion with acute diarrhea, there were 58 cases of BICE, 49 cases of febrile seizures, 43 cases of epilepsy, 19 cases of viral encephalitis, 6 cases of hyponatremic encephalopathy, 5 cases of hypernatremic encephalopathy, 2 cases of toxic encephalopathy and 2 cases of hypocalcemie seizures. The average age of children with BICE was (17.47 ±7.90) months. The symptoms were generally mild with little or no signs of dehydration. The seizure occurred mostly during the first two days of the illness and was brief in a tetanic or clonic form. Positive rotavirus antigens were detected in 65.52% . There were no abnormal findings in the routine blood test, blood bioche-mistry, cerebrospinal fluid, cerebral computerized tomography/magnetic resonance imaging and electroencephalogram examinations. After hospitalization, the children were given fluids intravenously. Sodium pheno-barbital was administered after the first convulsion and if seizures recurred, diazepam was given intravenously. All children were fully recovered in 2 to 5 days after hospitalization. Conclusions BICE occurs frequently in the infantile convulsion with acute diarrhea and symptomatic treatment is sufficient in patient care. Thus, unnecessary medical tests and excessive treatment should be avoided.%目的 探讨轻度胃肠炎伴婴幼儿良性惊厥(BICE)在婴幼儿急性腹泻伴惊厥疾病谱中的地位及意义.方法 对2009-2011年收治的急性腹泻并有惊厥症状患儿的住院资料进行回顾性分析.结果 184例急性腹泻伴惊厥的病例中,轻度胃肠炎伴婴幼儿良性惊厥58例、热性惊厥49例、癫(痫)43

  4. Infectious Risks of Traveling Abroad.

    Chen, Lin H; Blair, Barbra M

    2015-08-01

    A popular leisure activity, international travel can be associated with some infections. The most common travel-related illnesses appear to be gastrointestinal, dermatologic, respiratory, and systemic febrile syndromes. The pretravel medical consultation includes immunizations, malaria chemoprophylaxis, self-treatment for traveler's diarrhea, and advice on the prevention of a myriad of other infectious causes including dengue, chikungunya, rickettsiosis, leptospirosis, schistosomiasis, and strongyloidiasis. Travel to locations experiencing outbreaks such as Ebola virus disease, Middle East respiratory syndrome, avian influenza, and chikungunya call for specific alerts on preventive strategies. After travel, evaluation of an ill traveler must explore details of exposure, including destinations visited; activities; ingestion of contaminated food or drinks; contact with vectors, animals, fresh water, or blood and body fluids; and other potential exposures. Knowledge of the geographic distribution of infectious diseases is important in generating the differential diagnoses and testing accordingly. Empiric treatment is sometimes necessary when suspicion of a certain diagnosis is strong and confirmatory tests are delayed or lacking, particularly for infections that are rapidly progressive (for example, malaria) or for which timing of testing is prolonged (such as leptospirosis). PMID:26350325

  5. A study of dietetic on the diarrhea

    Tae-Hyeun Baek

    2006-01-01

    Objectives : This research examined about dietary therapy on the diarrhea based on the literary findings, for clinical treatment and prevention of the diarrhea. Methods : This Research examined on histories, compositions, applications, and effects of the diarrhea on about 100 cases of dietary therapy of the diarrhea from recent Chinese literatures Results : 1. Various vegetables, animals and mineral materials including herbs, grains, vegetables, fruits, food and drink were used for the di...

  6. Analysis of the Salmonella typhimurium Proteome through Environmental Response toward Infectious Conditions

    Adkins, Joshua N.; Mottaz, Heather M.; Norbeck, Angela D.; Gustin, Jean K.; Rue, Joanne; Clauss, Therese RW; Purvine, Samuel O.; Rodland, Karin D.; Heffron, Fred; Smith, Richard D.

    2006-08-01

    Salmonella enterica serovar Typhimurium (aka, S. typhimurium) is a facultative intracellular pathogen that causes ~40,000 reported cases of acute gastroenteritis and diarrhea a year in the United States. To develop a deeper understanding of the infectious state of S. typhimurium, liquid chromatography-mass spectrometry-based “bottom-up” proteomics was used to globally analyze the proteins present under specific growth conditions. Salmonella typhimurium LT2 strain cells were grown in contrasting culture conditions that mimicked both natural free-living conditions and an infectious state, i.e., logarithm phase, stationary phase and Mg-depleted medium growth. Initial comparisons of the LT2 strain protein abundances among cell culture conditions indicate that the majority of proteins do not change significantly. Not unexpectedly, cells grown in Mg-depleted medium conditions had a higher abundance of Mg2+ transport proteins than found in other growth conditions. A second more virulent Salmonella typhimurium strain (14028) was also studied with these growth conditions and used to directly compare to the LT2 strain. The strain comparison offers a unique opportunity to compare and contrast observations in these closely related bacteria. One particular protein family, propanediol utilization proteins, was drastically more abundant in the 14028 strain than in the LT2 strain, and may be a contributor to increased pathogenicity in the 14028 strain.

  7. Acute Abdominal Pain in Children.

    Reust, Carin E; Williams, Amy

    2016-05-15

    Acute abdominal pain accounts for approximately 9% of childhood primary care office visits. Symptoms and signs that increase the likelihood of a surgical cause for pain include fever, bilious vomiting, bloody diarrhea, absent bowel sounds, voluntary guarding, rigidity, and rebound tenderness. The age of the child can help focus the differential diagnosis. In infants and toddlers, clinicians should consider congenital anomalies and other causes, including malrotation, hernias, Meckel diverticulum, or intussusception. In school-aged children, constipation and infectious causes of pain, such as gastroenteritis, colitis, respiratory infections, and urinary tract infections, are more common. In female adolescents, clinicians should consider pelvic inflammatory disease, pregnancy, ruptured ovarian cysts, or ovarian torsion. Initial laboratory tests include complete blood count, erythrocyte sedimentation rate or C-reactive protein, urinalysis, and a pregnancy test. Abdominal radiography can be used to diagnose constipation or obstruction. Ultrasonography is the initial choice in children for the diagnosis of cholecystitis, pancreatitis, ovarian cyst, ovarian or testicular torsion, pelvic inflammatory disease, pregnancy-related pathology, and appendicitis. Appendicitis is the most common cause of acute abdominal pain requiring surgery, with a peak incidence during adolescence. When the appendix is not clearly visible on ultrasonography, computed tomography or magnetic resonance imaging can be used to confirm the diagnosis. PMID:27175718

  8. Celiac Disease Presenting as Profound Diarrhea and Weight Loss – A Celiac Crisis

    Bul, Vadim; Sleesman, Brett; Boulay, Brian

    2016-01-01

    Patient: Male, 46 Final Diagnosis: Celiac crisis Symptoms: Abdominal pain • chronic diarrhea • lightheadedness • weakness • weight loss Medication: — Clinical Procedure: — Specialty: Gastroenterology and Hepatology Objective: Rare disease Background: Celiac disease is a hypersensitivity enteropathy that can have various presentations in adults. Rarely, patients can present with severe lab abnormalities, dehydration and weight loss caused by celiac disease – a celiac crisis. Case Report: A 46-year-old male with a past medical history significant for diabetes mellitus, type 2 (DM2) and recently treated Bell’s Palsy presented to the emergency room complaining of weakness, diarrhea and lightheadedness. On presentation, the patient had a systolic blood pressure (SBP) of 60 mm Hg and a lactic acidosis with pH of 7.28. Infectious etiologies of diarrhea were ruled out. The patient had an EGD which showed erythema of the duodenal bulb. Serum anti-gliadin and anti-TTG IgA were both elevated suggesting Celiac disease. Biopsies showed histopathology consistent with celiac disease. The patient’s diarrhea resolved after initiation of a gluten free diet. He gained 25 kilograms after discharge and did not require further hospitalizations for diarrhea. Conclusions: Celiac crisis is a very rare presentation of celiac disease in adults but nonetheless should be considered in patients with marked metabolic derangements in the setting of osmotic diarrhea. Treatment consists of a gluten free diet and may require management with steroids and total parenteral nutrition (TPN). PMID:27492679

  9. Effective prophylaxis against rotavirus diarrhea using a combination of Lactobacillus rhamnosus GG and antibodies

    Hammarström Lennart

    2007-09-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Rotavirus is a worldwide cause of infectious infantile diarrhea that claims over 600,000 lives annually. Recently, two new vaccine candidates have been developed but their efficacy in developing countries, still remains to be proven. Oral delivery of specific immunoglobulins provides passive immunity and is a fast acting treatment for rotavirus diarrhea. Probiotic bacteria have also gained considerable attention lately as treatment for rotavirus diarrhea. Here we report an evaluation of the therapeutic potential of different probiotics and their combination with anti – rotavirus antibodies in a mouse model of rotavirus diarrhea. Results Of the six probiotic bacteria tested, Lactobacillus rhamnosus strain GG had the strongest influence in reducing prevalence, duration and severity of diarrhea and was therefore chosen for combination treatment with immunoglobulins. The combination treatment reduced the diarrhea outcome measures significantly, prevented histopathological changes and reduced the virus load in the intestines. Conclusion The advantages associated with immunoglobulins and probiotics based therapy is that the treatment provides a rapid therapeutic effect and is cost efficient. These components do not require special storage conditions and could potentially complement the rehydration therapy that is currently used.

  10. Development and validation of a biomarker for diarrhea-predominant irritable bowel syndrome in human subjects.

    Mark Pimentel

    Full Text Available Diarrhea-predominant irritable bowel syndrome (IBS is diagnosed through clinical criteria after excluding "organic" conditions, and can be precipitated by acute gastroenteritis. Cytolethal distending toxin B (CdtB is produced by bacteria that cause acute gastroenteritis, and a post-infectious animal model demonstrates that host antibodies to CdtB cross-react with vinculin in the host gut, producing an IBS-like phenotype. Therefore, we assessed circulating anti-CdtB and anti-vinculin antibodies as biomarkers for D-IBS in human subjects. Subjects with D-IBS based on Rome criteria (n=2375 were recruited from a large-scale multicenter clinical trial for D-IBS (TARGET 3. Subjects with inflammatory bowel disease (IBD (n=142, subjects with celiac disease (n=121, and healthy controls (n=43 were obtained for comparison. Subjects with IBD and celiac disease were recruited based on the presence of intestinal complaints and histologic confirmation of chronic inflammatory changes in the colon or small intestine. Subjects with celiac disease were also required to have an elevated tTG and biopsy. All subjects were aged between 18 and 65 years. Plasma levels of anti-CdtB and anti-vinculin antibodies were determined by ELISA, and compared between groups. Anti-CdtB titers were significantly higher in D-IBS subjects compared to IBD, healthy controls and celiac disease (P<0.001. Anti-vinculin titers were also significantly higher in IBS (P<0.001 compared to the other groups. The area-under-the-receiver operating curves (AUCs were 0.81 and 0.62 for diagnosis of D-IBS against IBD for anti-CdtB and anti-vinculin, respectively. Both tests were less specific in differentiating IBS from celiac disease. Optimization demonstrated that for anti-CdtB (optical density≥2.80 the specificity, sensitivity and likelihood ratio were 91.6%, 43.7 and 5.2, respectively, and for anti-vinculin (OD≥1.68 were 83.8%, 32.6 and 2.0, respectively. These results confirm that anti-CdtB and

  11. Infectious Risks of Air Travel.

    Mangili, Alexandra; Vindenes, Tine; Gendreau, Mark

    2015-10-01

    Infectious diseases are still among the leading causes of death worldwide due to their persistence, emergence, and reemergence. As the recent Ebola virus disease and MERS-CoV outbreaks demonstrate, the modern epidemics and large-scale infectious outbreaks emerge and spread quickly. Air transportation is a major vehicle for the rapid spread and dissemination of communicable diseases, and there have been a number of reported outbreaks of serious airborne diseases aboard commercial flights including tuberculosis, severe acute respiratory syndrome, influenza, smallpox, and measles, to name a few. In 2014 alone, over 3.3 billion passengers (a number equivalent to 42% of the world population) and 50 million metric tons of cargo traveled by air from 41,000 airports and 50,000 routes worldwide, and significant growth is anticipated, with passenger numbers expected to reach 5.9 billion by 2030. Given the increasing numbers of travelers, the risk of infectious disease transmission during air travel is a significant concern, and this chapter focuses on the current knowledge about transmission of infectious diseases in the context of both transmissions within the aircraft passenger cabin and commercial aircraft serving as vehicles of worldwide infection spread. PMID:26542037

  12. Influence of pre-existing invasive aspergillosis on allo-HSCT outcome: a retrospective EBMT analysis by the Infectious Diseases and Acute Leukemia Working Parties.

    Penack, O; Tridello, G; Hoek, J; Socié, G; Blaise, D; Passweg, J; Chevallier, P; Craddock, C; Milpied, N; Veelken, H; Maertens, J; Ljungman, P; Cornelissen, J; Thiebaut-Bertrand, A; Lioure, B; Michallet, M; Iacobelli, S; Nagler, A; Mohty, M; Cesaro, S

    2016-03-01

    Historically, invasive aspergillosis (IA) has been a major barrier for allogeneic hematopoietic stem cell transplantation (allo-HSCT). The influence of invasive IA on long-term survival and on transplant-related complications has not been investigated in a larger patient cohort under current conditions. Our aim was to analyze the long-term outcome of patients undergoing allo-HSCT with a history of prior IA. We used European Society for Blood and Marrow Transplantation database data of first allo-HSCTs performed between 2005 and 2010 in patients with acute leukemia. One thousand one hundred and fifty patients with data on IA before allo-HSCT were included in the analysis. The median follow-up time was 52.1 months. We found no significant impact of IA on major transplant outcome variables such as overall survival, relapse-free survival, non-relapse mortality, cumulative incidence of acute GvHD grade II-IV, chronic GvHD, pulmonary complications and leukemia relapse. However, we found a trend toward lower overall survival (P=0.078, hazard ratio (HR) (95% confidence interval (CI)): 1.16 (0.98, 1.36)) and higher non-relapse mortality (P=0.150, HR (95% CI): 1.19 (0.94, 1.50)) in allo-HSCT recipients with pre-existing IA. Our data suggest that a history of IA should not generally be a contraindication when considering the performance of allo-HSCT in patients with acute leukemia. PMID:26501769

  13. Clinical and experimental study on treatment for acute watery diarrhea in infants and young children with Xieke Qimo(泻克脐膜)%泻克脐膜治疗婴幼儿急性水样便腹泻临床与实验研究

    胡义保; 孙轶秋; 隆红艳; 周干南

    2001-01-01

    目的:探讨泻克脐膜治疗婴幼儿急性水样便腹泻的疗效。方法:应用泻克脐膜治疗婴幼儿急性水样便腹泻,并与十香暖脐膏对照,观察临床疗效并进行动物实验研究。结果:临床研究显示:止泻及消除呕吐、腹胀治疗组较对照组为优(P<0.05或P<0.01)。动物实验结果显示:泻克脐膜具有抗腹泻、抑制肠蠕动亢进、缓解腹痛、抗炎等作用。结论:泻克脐膜是治疗婴幼儿急性水样便腹泻的中药新型制剂。%Objective:To study the effect of Xieke Qimo(泻克脐膜) on acute watery diarrhea(AWD)in infants and young children.Methods:The patients were divided into two groups.The treated group was treated with Xieke Qimo for external application,while the control group treated with Shixiang Nuanqi soft extract(十香暖脐膏).The clinically curative effects were observed and the experimental study was done.Results:The clinical study indicated that treated group acquired more effective curative effects on stopping diarrhea,dispelling vomit and abdominal distension(P<0.05 or P<0.01).Animal test showed that Xieke Qimo had the actions on resisting diarrhea,inhibiting the hyperfunction of intestinal peristalsis,attenuating the abdominal pain,resisting inflammation,etc.Conclusions:Xieke Qimo is a new type preparation and can be used to treat AWD in infants and young children effectively.

  14. Prevention and treatment of traveler's diarrhea: a clinical pharmacological approach.

    Scarpignato, C; Rampal, P

    1995-01-01

    Diarrhea represents a major health problem for travelers to developing countries. Although the syndrome is usually self-limited and recovery occurs in the majority of cases without any specific form of therapy, there is a need for safe and effective ways of preventing and treating it. Since the syndrome is most often caused by an infection acquired by ingesting fecally contaminated food or beverages, precautions regarding dietary habits remain the cornerstone of prophylaxis, but dietary self-restrictions do not always translate to reduced rates of diarrheal illness. Administration of probiotics (e.g. lactobacilli or Saccharomyces boulardii) and immunoprophylaxis with the newer oral cholera vaccines have been tried with promising results. Antimicrobials remain, however, the most successful form of prophylaxis, being effective in up to 90% of travelers. For those with impaired health who will take prophylaxis, systemic agents with proved efficacy should be recommended. For other otherwise healthy persons, poorly absorbed agents are preferable in order to avoid the serious, albeit rare, toxicity of systemic drugs. The key factor in the management of acute watery traveler's diarrhea, particularly in infants and young children, is the restoration of water and electrolyte balance. This does not reduce the duration of the illness but will limit dehydration and prevent acidosis. Many patients will require no additional therapy, whereas some will need pharmacologic treatment to shorten the duration of diarrhea or to relieve the accompanying symptoms, like abdominal discomfort, nausea and vomiting. A typical 3- to 5-day illness can be reduced to approximately 1 day by trimethoprim-sulfamethoxazole (TMP-SMX) combination. Some other systemic antimicrobials have been successfully used but, during the last few years, the 4-fluoroquinolone drugs have received considerable attention and have been shown to be highly effective in reducing the duration of traveler's diarrhea. These

  15. Application of qPCR assays for diagnosing causes of viral mink diarrhea. Preliminary results

    Hartby, Christina Marie; Kvisgaard, Lise Kirstine; Larsen, Lars Erik;

    ). Diarrhea in mink can be caused by infectious agents (virus, bacteria and parasites) and food-related/multifactorial conditions. Known enteric viral infections are mink enteritis virus (MEV) and mink astrovirus. Coronaviruses and caliciviruses have also been implicated as potential causes or contributors to...... diarrhea in mink. Rotavirus is poorly described in mink, but has previously been demonstrated in feces from mink pups with and without clinical signs (Jorgensen et al. 1996). The pathogenicity of these viruses could be related to viral load, virulence and the age of the mink. Therefore, there is a need for...... a quantitative diagnostic approach. We have developed new or adapted previously published real-time PCR/RT-PCR assays for MEV, astrovirus, rota- and coronavirus diagnostics. The technical test validation was initially carried out on archived diarrhea samples from diagnosed positive animals and on...

  16. [Antidiarrheal drugs for chronic diarrhea].

    Vohmann, B; Hoffmann, J C

    2013-11-01

    Chronic diarrhea can be caused by multiple disease entities. Basic diagnostic tests are required in order to administer specific therapies whenever possible. If no specific treatment can be used, a symptomatic management should be initiated in order to prevent massive electrolyte- and water losses. Substances that can be used are loperamide, cholestyramine, bulking agents, probiotics, anticholinergic agents and in severe cases opioids. If used properly these agents can be prescribed longterm with an acceptable side effect profile. PMID:24163167

  17. Diarrhea caused by carbohydrate malabsorption.

    Hammer, Heinz F; Hammer, Johann

    2012-09-01

    This article will focus on the role of the colon in the pathogenesis of diarrhea in carbohydrate malabsorption or physiologically incomplete absorption of carbohydrates, and on the most common manifestation of carbohydrate malabsorption, lactose malabsorption. In addition, incomplete fructose absorption, the role of carbohydrate malabsorption in other malabsorptive diseases, and congenital defects that lead to malabsorption will be covered. The article concludes with a section on diagnostic tools to evaluate carbohydrate malabsorption. PMID:22917167

  18. The Pattern of Variation between Diarrhea and Malaria Coexistence with Corresponding Risk Factors in, Chikhwawa, Malawi: A Bivariate Multilevel Analysis

    Salule Masangwi

    2015-07-01

    Full Text Available Developing countries face a huge burden of infectious diseases, a number of which co-exist. This paper estimates the pattern and variation of malaria and diarrhea coexistence in Chikhwawa, a district in Southern Malawi using bivariate multilevel modelling with Bayesian estimation. A probit link was employed to examine hierarchically built data from a survey of individuals (n = 6,727 nested within households (n = 1,380 nested within communities (n = 33. Results show significant malaria [ ] and diarrhea [ ] variations with a strong correlation between them [ ] at household level. There are significant malaria [ ] and diarrhea [   ] variations at community level but with a small correlation [ ] between them. There is also significant correlation between malaria and diarrhea at individual level [ 0.241]. These results suggest a close association between reported malaria-like illness and diarrheal illness especially at household and individual levels in Southern Malawi.

  19. Etiology of diarrhea in young children in Denmark: a case-control study

    Olesen, B.; Neimann, J.; Bottiger, B.;

    2005-01-01

    -matched controls were examined, and their parents were interviewed concerning symptoms. Rotavirus, adenovirus, and astrovirus were detected by enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay, and norovirus and sapovirus were detected by PCR. Salmonella, thermotolerant Campylobacter, Yersinia, Shigella, and Vibrio spp. were......Infectious gastroenteritis is one of the most common diseases in young children. To clarify the infectious etiology of diarrhea in Danish children less than 5 years of age, we conducted a 2-year prospective case-control study. Stools from 424 children with diarrhea and 870 asymptomatic age...... by microscopy. Overall, a potential pathogen was found in 54% of cases. More cases than controls were infected with rotavirus, Salmonella, norovirus, adenovirus, Campylobacter, sapovirus, STEC, classical EPEC, Yersinia, and Cryptosporidium strains, whereas A/EEC, although common, was not associated with illness...

  20. Infectious mononucleosis #3 (image)

    Infectious mononucleosis is caused by the Epstein-Barr virus. It is a viral infection causing high temperature, sore throat, and swollen lymph glands. Infectious mononucleosis can be contagious if the infected person comes ...

  1. Recovery of cytopathogenic and noncytopathogenic bovine viral diarrhea viruses from cDNA constructs.

    Meyers, G; Tautz, N.; Becher, P; Thiel, H J; Kümmerer, B M

    1997-01-01

    After cDNA cloning of the genome of bovine viral diarrhea virus (BVDV) isolate CP7, a full-length cDNA clone was constructed. RNA transcribed in vitro from this construct was shown to direct the generation of infectious BVDV upon transfection into bovine cells. To confirm the de novo generation of infectious BVDV from cloned cDNA a genetically tagged virus was constructed. In comparison with parental BVDV, the recombinant virus was slightly retarded in growth. The NS2 coding region of the CP7...

  2. Observational Study of Travelers' Diarrhea.

    Meuris

    1995-03-01

    Background: European air travelers returning from Algeria, Egypt, Mexico, Morocco, and Tunisia were interviewed about their experience of travelers' diseases upon arrival in Brussels. Diarrhea was mentioned by 37% of the adults and 27% of the children. These subjects were questioned about the types of measures taken, type and duration of drug treatment (if any), and about duration of diarrhea and side effects experienced. Methods: Final analysis was performed based on 2160 interviews. The largest proportion of diarrhea was reported in the age group 15-24 years (46%). Results: The majority of the 2160 subjects had opted for drug treatment (81%): 927 subjects for loperamide alone, 235 for loperamide in combination with nifuroxazide, and 178 for nifuroxazide alone. Other drugs had been used less frequently. The median time to recovery was 2.4 days with loperamide compared to 3.2 days with nifuroxazide and to 3.4 days for the no-treatment group. Conclusions: A stratification of the results by severity of the diarrhea suggests a rank of antidiarrheal potency as follows: loperamide > nifuroxazide > no-drug treatment. The side effect with the highest incidence was constipation (2.4% with loperamide). (J Travel Med 2:11-15, 1995) Travelers' diarrhea is usually defined as the passage of at least three unformed stools per day or any number of such stools when accompanied by fever, abdominal cramping, or vomiting. The definition may be broadened to include more trivial bowel disturbance.1,2 The duration of this self-limited disease generally is 3 to 5 days. Medical intervention aims at shortening the duration of disease, thus allowing the sufferer to resume his or her usual activities at an early stage. A shortened period of recovery to physical well-being has obvious favorable economic implications if the traveler is on business and may help the maintenance of a desired level of quality of life while a traveler is on holiday. An observational study of various medical

  3. Neutropenic enterocolitis (typhlitis) associated with infectious mononucleosis

    Neutropenic enterocolitis (typhlitis) is an unusual acute complication of neutropenia, most often associated with leukaemia and lymphoma and characterized by segmental caecal and ascending colonic ulceration that may progress to necrosis, perforation, and septicaemia. We present a unique case of an 8-year-old girl with recently diagnosed infectious mononucleosis having findings consistent with typhlitis on abdominal CT. (orig.)

  4. Neutropenic enterocolitis (typhlitis) associated with infectious mononucleosis

    Sigirci, Ahmet [Inonu University School of Medicine, Department of Radiology, Turgut Ozal Medical Centre, Malatya (Turkey); Akinci, Aysehan; Oezgen, Uensal; Oezen, Metehan [Inonu University School of Medicine, Department of Paediatrics, Turgut Ozal Medical Centre, Malatya (Turkey)

    2006-02-01

    Neutropenic enterocolitis (typhlitis) is an unusual acute complication of neutropenia, most often associated with leukaemia and lymphoma and characterized by segmental caecal and ascending colonic ulceration that may progress to necrosis, perforation, and septicaemia. We present a unique case of an 8-year-old girl with recently diagnosed infectious mononucleosis having findings consistent with typhlitis on abdominal CT. (orig.)

  5. Characteristics of Hodgkin's lymphoma after infectious mononucleosis

    Hjalgrim, Henrik; Askling, Johan; Rostgaard, Klaus;

    2003-01-01

    BACKGROUND: Infectious mononucleosis-related Epstein-Barr virus (EBV) infection has been associated with an increased risk of Hodgkin's lymphoma in young adults. Whether the association is causal remains unclear. METHODS: We compared the incidence rates of Hodgkin's lymphoma in two population......-based Danish cohorts of patients who were tested for infectious mononucleosis: 17,045 with serologic evidence of having had acute EBV infection, and 24,614 with no such evidence. We combined the cohort of patients who had serologically verified infectious mononucleosis with a cohort of 21,510 Swedish patients...... with infectious mononucleosis (combined total, 38,555). Biopsy specimens of Hodgkin's lymphomas occurring during follow-up in this combined cohort were tested serologically for the presence of EBV. Using this information, we modeled the relative risk of EBV-negative and EBV-positive Hodgkin's lymphoma...

  6. Infectious Disease Management: Lessons from Cuba

    Noni E Macdonald

    2006-01-01

    Full Text Available Over the past decade in Canada, infectious disease outbreaks have repeatedly been in the public spotlight. The Escherichia coli outbreak in Walkerton, Ontario (1, the severe acute respiratory syndrome outbreak in Toronto, Ontario (2 and the Clostridium difficile hospital outbreak in Montreal, Quebec (3, have cost lives, grabbed headlines and stressed local health care systems. Each outbreak raised questions about our ability to prevent outbreaks, detect outbreaks early, and respond efficiently and effectively to infectious disease crises; these outbreaks also highlighted gaps in Canada's preparedness for managing major infectious disease problems when multiple jurisdictions are involved (4. Canada's poor track record of tuberculosis control in the north (5 raises the concern that this problem is not limited to crisis situations, but rather has deeper implications for the management of infectious diseases in Canada.

  7. 2009-2010年南京地区腹泻婴幼儿中人类杯状病毒感染流行病学特点分析%Epidemiological characteristics of human caliciviruses in infants and young children with acute diarrhea in Nanjing in 2009-2010

    林谦; 程卫霞; 金玉; 李玫; 练敏; 周进苏; 陆芬; 段招军

    2012-01-01

    目的 研究南京地区5岁及以下腹泻患儿人类杯状病毒感染的分子流行病学特点.方法 2009年7月至 2010年6月在南京儿童医院共采集1~59个月的腹泻患儿粪便标本300份,采用多重RT-PCR方法检测人类杯状病毒 (诺如 病毒、札如病毒).结果 300份标本中71份检出人杯状病毒,检出率23.67%.其中,诺如病毒67份,其中58份为GⅡ/4 基因型(2006b亚型),8份为GⅡ/3基因型,1份为GⅡ/12基因型;扎如病毒4份,其中2份为GI/1基因型,GI/2和GⅡ/1基因 型各1份.结论 人类杯状病毒是南京地区腹泻婴幼儿中的主要病原体之一,主要的流行优势株是诺如病毒GⅡ/4基因型 (2006b亚型).%Objective To study molecular epidemiological characteristics of human caliciviruses among infants and young children aged 0-5 years old with acute diarrhea in Nanjing. Methods Stool specimens were collected from 300 infants and young children less than 5 years old admitted with acute gastroenteritis to Nanjing Children’s Hospital from July 2009 to June 2010.Human caliciviruses (including noroviruses and sapoviruses) were detected by RT-multiplex PCR. Results Human caliciviruses were identified in 71 cases from the 300 specimens and the detection rate was 23.67%. Out of these 71 positive samples, 67 cases were Norovirus including 58 of GII/4 (2006b strain), 8 of GII/3 and 1 of GII/12; 4 cases were Sapovirus including 2 of GI/1, 1 of GI/2 and 1 of GII/1, respectively. Conclusions Human calicivirus is one of the main pathogens of diarrhea in infants and young children in Nanjing. Norovirus GII/4 genotype (2006b strain) was the most predominant strain.

  8. Frequency and causes of infectious abortion in a dairy herd in Queretaro, Mexico

    Escamilla, H. Patricia; Martínez, M. José Juan; Medina, C. Mario; Morales, S. Elizabeth

    2007-01-01

    The objective of this study was to determine the frequency of infectious bovine abortion and to identify some of its causes, specifically brucellosis, leptospirosis, bovine viral diarrhea, infectious bovine rhinotracheitis, and neosporosis. The study was carried out in a dairy herd in the state of Queretaro, Mexico, between September 2002 and March 2003. At the beginning of the study, blood samples were taken from a random 33% of the 300 lactating or pregnant cows; antibodies against Leptospi...

  9. Occurrence of gastrointestinal parasites in dogs (Canis familiaris with acute diarrhea from metropolitan region of Londrina, Parana State, Brazil/ Ocorrência de parasitos gastrintestinais em cães (Canis familiaris com diarréia aguda oriundos da região metropolitana de Londrina, Estado do Paraná, Brasil

    Pedro Luiz de Camargo

    2007-10-01

    Full Text Available One hundred and fifty fecal samples from dogs with acute diarrhea (Group 1 and from 50 dogs without diarrhea (Group 2 were collected and analyzed at the Veterinary Teaching Hospital of the State University of Londrina, between October, 2004 and October 2005. From the positive samples (29.3% of Group 1, 72.7% were infected by only one agent, while 27.3% had mixed infection. The following genera wereobserved by coproparasitologic evaluation: Giardia sp. (9.3%, Ancylostoma sp. (7.3%, Cystoisospora (7.3%, Entamoeba sp. (6.7%, Toxocara sp.(4%, Pentatrichomanas hominis (3.3%, and Trichurisvulpis (1.3%. From the 50 animals without diarrhea, six (12% were positive by coproparasitologic evaluation: two (4% for Ancylostoma sp., three (6% with Giardia sp., and one (2% for both Ancylostoma sp. and Cystoisospora sp. There was a significant relationship between infection and diarrhea (P=0,005, age and infection (PForam examinadas 150 amostras de fezes colhidas de cães com diarréia aguda (Grupo 1, e outras 50 de animais sem diarréia (Grupo 2, atendidos entre outubro de 2004 e outubro 2005, no Hospital Veterinário Escola da Universidade Estadual de Londrina. Dos 150 animais do G1, 44 (29,3% estavam infectados por helmintos e/ou protozoários, sendo que destes, 32 (72,7% apresentavam infecção simples e 12 (27,3% infecções múltiplas. Os gêneros identificados nestes animais foram: Giardia sp. (9,3%, Cystoisospora sp. (7,3%, Ancylostoma sp. (7,3%, Entamoeba sp. (6,7%, Toxocara sp. (4%, Pentatrichomonas hominis (3,3% e Trichuris vulpis (1,3%. Dos 50 animais sem diarréia, seis (12% eram positivos, dois (4% para Ancylostoma sp., três (6% para Giardia sp. e um (2% para Ancylostoma sp. e Cystoisospora simultaneamente. Houve relação estatisticamente significativa (P=0,005 entre o parasitismo e a ocorrência de diarréia, assim como entre a faixa etária e a proporção de infecções (P<0,001, porém, machos e fêmeas foram igualmente acometidos (P=0,08. O

  10. Infectious endocarditis: rlieumatologic aspects

    G M Tarasova

    2008-01-01

    Full Text Available Objective. To assess rheumatologic aspects of modern infectious endocarditis (IE and to determine role of anti-inflammatory therapy in complex treatment of the disease. Material and methods. 50 pts with IE (24 female, 26 male aged 16 to 60 years were included. Primary IE was diagnosed in 15, secondary - in 35 cases. 7 pts had acute and 43 — subacute course. 40 pts had definite and 10 — probable IE. Results. Mean period till correct diagnosis establishment was 112± 116,5 days. Diagnostic difficulties were more frequent in subacute variant of IE (p=0,03. Heart diseases prevailed among cardiac risk factors (p=0,0l. Clinical picture of IE was very polymorphous. Glucocorticoids (GC were administered to 21 pts in addition to antibiotics due to signs of organ immunopatology and high laboratory measures of immune activity. Positive effect of glucocorticoids was achieved in 64% of pts. Conclusion. Development of immunological changes complicates timely diagnosis of IE and requires exclusion of different diseases including rheumatic pathology. IE treatment strategy does not exclude administration of GC low doses for prominent immunopathological signs in addition to massive antibacterial therapy.

  11. Infectious laryngotracheitis: a review

    Hidalgo H

    2003-01-01

    Full Text Available Infectious laryngotracheitis (ILT herpesvirus continues to cause outbreaks of respiratory disease in chickens world-wide. Sporadic cases of ILT occur in all classes of birds, including hobby/show/game chickens, broilers, heavy breeders, and commercial laying hens. These epornitics of ILT tend to occur where there are large populations of naïve, unvaccinated birds, i.e., in concentrated areas of broiler production. ILT virus can be transmitted through (a chickens with acute upper respiratory tract disease, (b latently infected "carrier" fowls, and (c fomites and contaminated persons. Chicken flocks which are endemic infected with ILT virus occur only in some regions of countries or even in particular multiple-age production farms. In these cases modified live vaccines are actually used, even though these biological products, as well as wild ILTV strains, can establish latent infections. In the case of heavy breeders and laying hens, which are typically vaccinated against ILT, sporadic cases are often related to errors in vaccine application and to biosecurity failures.

  12. The Contribution of Infections with Bovine Viral Diarrhea Viruses to Bovine Respiratory Disease

    The contribution of bovine viral diarrhea viruses (BVDV) to the development of bovine respiratory disease is the sum of a number of different factors. These factors include the contribution of acute uncomplicated BVDV infections, the high incidence of respiratory disease in animals persistently inf...

  13. Celiac Disease Presenting as Profound Diarrhea and Weight Loss - A Celiac Crisis.

    Bul, Vadim; Sleesman, Brett; Boulay, Brian

    2016-01-01

    BACKGROUND Celiac disease is a hypersensitivity enteropathy that can have various presentations in adults. Rarely, patients can present with severe lab abnormalities, dehydration and weight loss caused by celiac disease - a celiac crisis. CASE REPORT A 46-year-old male with a past medical history significant for diabetes mellitus, type 2 (DM2) and recently treated Bell's Palsy presented to the emergency room complaining of weakness, diarrhea and lightheadedness. On presentation, the patient had a systolic blood pressure (SBP) of 60 mm Hg and a lactic acidosis with pH of 7.28. Infectious etiologies of diarrhea were ruled out. The patient had an EGD which showed erythema of the duodenal bulb. Serum anti-gliadin and anti-TTG IgA were both elevated suggesting Celiac disease. Biopsies showed histopathology consistent with celiac disease. The patient's diarrhea resolved after initiation of a gluten free diet. He gained 25 kilograms after discharge and did not require further hospitalizations for diarrhea. CONCLUSIONS Celiac crisis is a very rare presentation of celiac disease in adults but nonetheless should be considered in patients with marked metabolic derangements in the setting of osmotic diarrhea. Treatment consists of a gluten free diet and may require management with steroids and total parenteral nutrition (TPN). PMID:27492679

  14. Diarréia aguda grave associada à Escherichia coli enteropatogênica clássica (EPEC: características clínicas e perdas fecais em lactentes hospitalizados Severe acute diarrhea associated to classic enteropathogenic by clinical features and fecal losses in hospitalized infants

    C.A.G. Oliva

    1997-12-01

    estudados. A duração da diarréia mostrou curso agudo (menor ou igual a 14 dias na maioria das crianças estudadas, reafirmando a evolução potencialmente autolimitada da diarréia aguda. Sete (18,4% pacientes, entretanto, desenvolveram quadro de diarréia persistente, indicando que tal evolução é esperada em uma parcela razoável de lactentes jovens hospitalizados com tal enfermidade. Os volumes médios de ingestão das fórmulas alimentares encontrados mostram o impacto da diarréia aguda na diminuição da ingestão alimentar. As médias observadas nas três diferentes fórmulas alimentares ficaram abaixo da ingestão calórica sugerida como padrão pela FAO/WHO (100cal/kg/dia. Não houve diferenças entre os volumes de aceitação segundo os tipos de fórmulas alimentares utilizadas.Enteropathogenic Escherichia coli (EPEC strains are the most prevalent enteropathogenic agents isolated in the stools of hospitalized infants with severe acute diarrhea in São Paulo. These microorganisms induce a severe intestinal secretion of fluids and electrolytes that can cause dehydration leading to hospital admission in the majority of the cases. OBJECTIVES. This investigation aims at the following objectives: 1 to study the clinical features of acute diarrhea in male infants who were hospitalized owing to EPEC infection; 2 to determine the fecal fluid losses, formula intake and variation of the body weight during the evolution of the disease. PATIENTS AND METHODS. Thirty eight male infants with acute diarrhea due to EPEC strains were studied. The clinical and epidemiological features of the patients were recorded and the different EPEC serogroups were identified. The infants were kept in a metabolic bed in order to allow the collection of stools and urine separately during the whole period of the disease, and daily metabolic balances were also obtained. The mean duration of the metabolic study was 5.8 days, and during this period of time 220 daily metabolic balances were

  15. Infectious ileocecitis--appendicitis mimicking syndrome.

    Zganjer, M; Roic, G; Cizmic, A; Pajic, A

    2005-01-01

    The purpose of our study is to emphasize the central role of ultrasound (US) in finding the cause of abdominal pain in children. Ultrasound of the lower abdomen quadrant should be considered in all cases in which the clinical signs and symptoms are not diagnostic of appendicitis. There is a wide range of clinical syndromes and diseases which can easily be diagnosed using a high resolution ultrasound with adjunct of color and power Doppler. The spectrum of abnormalities includes appendicitis, mesenteric lymphadenitis, infectious ileocecitis, Crohn's disease, intussusception, ovarian cysts, and encysted cerebrospinal fluid. One of the most common causes of acute abdominal pain in children is acute terminal ileitis (infectious ileocecitis) with mesenteric lymphadenitis. Ultrasound is the best tool to rapidly differentiate this disease from acute appendicitis, and prevent unnecessary laparotomy (Ref. 12). PMID:16201735

  16. Incidence of diarrhea in children living in urban slums in Salvador, Brazil

    Maria Clotildes N. de Melo

    2008-02-01

    Full Text Available Diarrhea remains a major health issue in developing countries, with high morbidity and mortality rates. Determining the incidence of acute diarrhea in children and its associated factors is crucial to the planning of preventive approaches. The objective of this study was to determine the incidence of diarrhea and to assess some relevant associated factors to it in children younger than 40 months living in two slums of Salvador, Brazil. This is the first prospective cohort, community-based study that was performed in two periurban slums of Salvador, Brazil. Eighty-four children younger than 40 months were randomly selected and visited every other day for one year. The chi-square test was used to evaluate the occurrence of diarrhea and its associated factors. During the surveillance period, 232 diarrhea episodes were identified, resulting in an incidence rate of 2.8 episodes/child/year. In average (mean value of 84 children,each child suffered 11.1 days of diarrhea per year, yielding an average duration of 3.9 days per episode. The highest incidence rates were found among children under one year old. Early weaning, male sex, malnutrition, having a mother younger than 25 years or who considered her child malnourished, missed immunizations and previous pneumonia were associated factors for suffering diarrheal episodes. The rates of incidence and duration of diarrhea that we found are in accordance to those reported by others. Additionally, our results reinforce the importance of environmental and health-related associated factors to the onset of diarrhea.

  17. Diarrhea

    ... products? Yes Your symptoms may be caused by LACTOSE INTOLERANCE. People who have this condition have trouble digesting ... other dairy products. If you think you have lactose intolerance, talk to your doctor. He or she may ...

  18. Evaluating the Patient With Diarrhea: A Case-Based Approach

    Sweetser, Seth

    2012-01-01

    The evaluation of the patient with diarrhea can be complex and the treatment challenging. In this article, the definition of diarrhea and the pathophysiologic mechanisms that lead to diarrhea are reviewed. A simplified 5-step approach to the patient with diarrhea is provided and applied in a case-oriented manner applicable to everyday clinical practice. On completion of this article, you should be able to (1) define diarrhea, (2) outline various pathophysiologic mechanisms of diarrhea, and (3...

  19. Effect of mild diarrhea on tacrolimus exposure

    Boekel, G.A.J van; Aarnoutse, R.E.; Heijden, J.J. van der; Hoogtanders, K.E.; Hilbrands, L.B.

    2012-01-01

    BACKGROUND: Diarrhea is a frequent adverse event in patients treated with the combination of tacrolimus and mycophenolate mofetil (MMF). In case of severe diarrhea, the total exposure to tacrolimus can substantially increase, which is reflected in a rise of the predose trough level (C0). In mild dia

  20. LU's Combined Acupuncture Techniques for Diarrhea

    LI Yan-fang; CHEN Chen; NI Zhi-zhen; ZHONG Chen; XIAO Yuan-chun

    2003-01-01

    @@ Diarrhea refers to frequent discharge of loose, even watery stool. In clinic, we used the famous acupuncturist LU Shou-yan's combined acupuncture techniques of along-against, lifting-thrusting and quickslow reinforcing and reducing to treat diarrhea. Now it is reported as follows.

  1. Diarrhea - what to ask your doctor - child

    What to ask your doctor about diarrhea - child; Loose stools - what to ask your doctor - child ... FOODS What foods can make my child's diarrhea worse? How should I prepare the foods for my child? If my child is still breastfeeding or bottle feeding, do I need to ...

  2. Chronic intractable diarrhea caused by gastrointestinal mastocytosis.

    Seo, Hyungil; Park, Sang Hyoung; Byeon, Jeong-Sik; Woo, Chang Gok; Hong, Seung-Mo; Chang, Kiju; So, Hoonsub; Kwak, Minseob; Kim, Wan Soo; Lee, Jeong-Mi; Yang, Dong-Hoon; Kim, Kyung-Jo; Ye, Byong Duk; Myung, Seung-Jae; Yang, Suk-Kyun

    2016-07-01

    As mast cells have been highlighted in the pathogenesis of diarrhea-predominant irritable bowel syndrome, a new term "mastocytic enterocolitis" was suggested by Jakate and colleagues to describe an increase in mucosal mast cells in patients with chronic intractable diarrhea and favorable response to treatment with antihistamines. Although it is not an established disease entity, two cases have been reported in the English medical literature. Here, for the first time in Asia, we report another case of chronic intractable diarrhea caused by gastrointestinal mastocytosis. The patient was a 70-year-old male with chronic intractable diarrhea for 3 months; the cause of the diarrhea remained obscure even after exhaustive evaluation. However, biopsy specimens from the jejunum were found to have increased mast cell infiltration, and the patient was successfully treated with antihistamines. PMID:27433151

  3. α1,2-Fucosyllactose Does Not Improve Intestinal Function or Prevent Escherichia coli F18 Diarrhea in Newborn Pigs

    Cilieborg, Malene Skovsted; Sangild, Per Torp; Jensen, Michael Ladegaard;

    2016-01-01

    OBJECTIVES:: Infectious diarrhea, a leading cause of morbidity and deaths, is less prevalent in breast-fed infants compared with infants fed infant formula. The dominant human milk oligosaccharide (HMO), α-1,2-fucosyllactose (2’-FL), has structural homology to bacterial adhesion sites in the...... intestine and may in part explain the protective effects of human milk. We hypothesized that 2’-FL prevents diarrhea via competitive inhibition of pathogen adhesion in a pig model for sensitive newborn infants. METHODS:: Intestinal cell studies were coupled with studies on cesarean-delivered newborn pigs (n...

  4. Overview of Infectious Diseases

    ... Español Text Size Email Print Share Overview of Infectious Diseases Page Content Article Body I nfectious diseases are ... worms Last Updated 11/21/2015 Source Immunizations & Infectious Diseases: An Informed Parent's Guide (Copyright © 2006 American Academy ...

  5. [Infectious diseases research].

    Carratalà, Jordi; Alcamí, José; Cordero, Elisa; Miró, José M; Ramos, José Manuel

    2008-12-01

    There has been a significant increase in research activity into infectious diseases in Spain in the last few years. The Spanish Society of Infectious Diseases and Clinical Microbiology (SEIMC) currently has ten study groups, with the cooperation of infectious diseases specialists and microbiologists from different centres, with significant research activity. The program of Redes Temáticas de Investigación Cooperativa en Salud (Special Topics Cooperative Health Research Networks) is an appropriate framework for the strategic coordination of research groups from the Spanish autonomous communities. The Spanish Network for Research in Infectious Diseases (REIPI) and the Network for Research in AIDS (RIS) integrate investigators in Infectious Diseases from multiple groups, which continuously perform important research projects. Research using different experimental models in infectious diseases, in numerous institutions, is an important activity in our country. The analysis of the recent scientific production in Infectious Diseases shows that Spain has a good position in the context of the European Union. The research activity in Infectious Diseases carried out in our country is a great opportunity for the training of specialists in this area of knowledge. PMID:19195467

  6. Environmental Factors Associated with High Fly Densities and Diarrhea in Vellore, India.

    Collinet-Adler, Stefan; Babji, Sudhir; Francis, Mark; Kattula, Deepthi; Premkumar, Prasanna Samuel; Sarkar, Rajiv; Mohan, Venkat Ragava; Ward, Honorine; Kang, Gagandeep; Balraj, Vinohar; Naumova, Elena N

    2015-09-01

    Diarrhea causes significant morbidity and mortality in Indian children under 5 years of age. Flies carry enteric pathogens and may mediate foodborne infections. In this study, we characterized fly densities as a determinant of infectious diarrhea in a longitudinal cohort of 160 urban and 80 rural households with 1,274 individuals (27% under 5 years of age) in Vellore, India. Household questionnaires on living conditions were completed at enrollment. Fly abundance was measured during the wet and dry seasons using fly ribbons placed in kitchens. PCRs for enteric bacteria, viruses, and protozoa were performed on 60 fly samples. Forty-three (72%) fly samples were positive for the following pathogens: norovirus (50%), Salmonella spp. (46.7%), rotavirus (6.7%), and Escherichia coli (6.7%). Ninety-one episodes of diarrhea occurred (89% in children under 5 years of age). Stool pathogens isolated in 24 of 77 (31%) samples included E. coli, Shigella spp., Vibrio spp., Giardia, Cryptosporidium, and rotavirus. Multivariate log-linear models were used to explore the relationships between diarrhea and fly densities, controlling for demographics, hygiene, and human-animal interactions. Fly abundance was 6 times higher in rural than urban sites (P < 0.0001). Disposal of garbage close to homes and rural living were significant risk factors for high fly densities. The presence of latrines was protective against high fly densities and diarrhea. The adjusted relative risks of diarrheal episodes and duration of diarrhea, associated with fly density at the 75th percentile, were 1.18 (95% confidence interval [CI], 1.03 to 1.34) and 1.15 (95% CI, 1.02 to 1.29), respectively. Flies harbored enteric pathogens, including norovirus, a poorly documented pathogen on flies. PMID:26116684

  7. Clinical trial evaluating cholestyramine to prevent diarrhea in patients maintained on low-fat diets during pelvic radiation therapy

    A prospective randomized trial to determine the value of a low fat diet with or without cholestyramine in the treatment of acute intestinal complications of pelvic irradiation is presented. A total of 35 patients receiving pelvic irradiation were entered in the study and all patients had received a 40 gm fat diet. The group was then randomized to receive either placebo (17 patients) or cholestyramine (18 patients). Diarrhea occurred in six out of 16 evaluable patients in the control group and only one of the 17 evaluable patients in the cholestyramine group. The frequency of diarrhea and the diarrhea scale remained high in the placebo group in the entire observation period. Statistical analysis had revealed better diarrhea control in the cholestyramine group. In this report mechanism by which diarrhea occurs following pelvic irradiation is discussed. The adverse effects associated with the use of cholestyramine have been presented. It was concluded that cholestyramine is effective in preventing acute diarrhea induced by pelvic irradiation in patients receiving a low fat diet but is associated with side effects

  8. Management of childhood diarrhea and use of oral rehydration salts in a suburban West African community

    Sodemann, Morten; Jakobsen, M S; Mølbak, Kare;

    1999-01-01

    In a household survey in Guinea-Bissau, 319 episodes of diarrhea in children were followed by interviews every second day with the aim of investigating perceived morbidity and subsequent actions taken. The majority of the mothers had good knowledge of oral rehydration salts (ORS). However, only 58......% of the episodes were treated with ORS and the amount given was insufficient. Mothers with no knowledge of ORS did not use it during the observed attack of diarrhea regardless of contact with a health center, which suggests that maternal knowledge is an important determinant of whether health...... personnel provide ORS. Children with diarrhea considered to be caused by teething were less likely to receive ORS in the acute phase (risk ratio = 0.6, 95% confidence interval [CI] = 0.5-0.9). Univariate analyses showed that the use of ORS was related to number of reported symptoms, the mother being the...

  9. Spatial dynamics of airborne infectious diseases

    Robinson, M; Drossinos, Y

    2011-01-01

    Disease outbreaks, such as those of Severe Acute Respiratory Syndrome in 2003 and the 2009 pandemic A(H1N1) influenza, have highlighted the potential for airborne transmission in indoor environments. Respirable pathogen-carrying droplets provide a vector for the spatial spread of infection with droplet transport determined by diffusive and convective processes. An epidemiological model describing the spatial dynamics of disease transmission is presented. The effects of an ambient airflow, as an infection control, are incorporated leading to a delay equation, with droplet density dependent on the infectious density at a previous time. It is found that small droplets ($\\sim 0.4\\ \\mu$m) generate a negligible infectious force due to the small viral load and the associated duration they require to transmit infection. In contrast, larger droplets ($\\sim 4\\ \\mu$m) can lead to an infectious wave propagating through a fully susceptible population or a secondary infection outbreak for a localised susceptible population...

  10. Diarrhea complicating enteral feeding after liver transplantation.

    Benya, R; Damle, P; Mobarhan, S

    1990-03-01

    In this case report we present in detail the complex nature of enteral feeding, diarrhea, hypoalbuminemia, and edema in a critically ill patient. We also discuss the use of a peptide-elemental formula in this patient, who suffered continuous diarrhea for 15 weeks after liver transplantation. Use of this formula was associated with cessation of the diarrhea and permitted adequate nutritional delivery. After 26 weeks of mechanical pulmonary ventilation, extubation was possible. This case illustrates the ineffectiveness of parenteral albumin infusions for treatment of enteral edema and demonstrates the restoration of normal intestinal absorptive capacity when ultrafiltration was instituted and the patient's generalized edematous state was corrected. PMID:2106103

  11. FastStats: Infectious Disease

    ... this? Submit What's this? Submit Button NCHS Home Infectious Disease Recommend on Facebook Tweet Share Compartir Data are ... Health, United States trend tables with data on infectious disease Seroprevalence of six infectious diseases among adults in ...

  12. Prevalence of Clostridium Difficile- Associated Diarrhea in Hospitalized Patients with Nosocomial Diarrhea

    N Sadeghifard

    2005-09-01

    Full Text Available Clostridium difficile is a frequently identified cause of nosocomial gastrointestinal disease. It has been proved to be a causative agent in antibiotic-associated diarrhea, antibiotic-associated colitis, and pseudomembraneous colitis. This study was aimed to determine the prevalence of C.difficile- associated diarrhea in hospitalized patients with nosocomial diarrhea. The 942 hospitalized patients stool samples with nosocomial diarrhea were collected at three hospitals in Tehran from Dec 2002 to Feb 2004.All the stool samples were cultured and in 97 (prevalence: 10.9% samples grew C.difficile that 57 (prevalence: 6.1% isolates were toxigenic by cytotoxicity assay and so 57 patients had C.difficile- associated diarrhea. Results of statistical analysis showed significant difference between the rate of C.difficile associated diarrhea and the patients ages (P<0.05.

  13. 9 CFR 113.311 - Bovine Virus Diarrhea Vaccine.

    2010-01-01

    ... 9 Animals and Animal Products 1 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Bovine Virus Diarrhea Vaccine. 113.311... Virus Vaccines § 113.311 Bovine Virus Diarrhea Vaccine. Bovine Virus Diarrhea Vaccine shall be prepared... virus diarrhea susceptible calves shall be used as test animals (20 vaccinates and five controls)....

  14. Acute dysautonomia following mumps.

    Mathuranath P

    1999-04-01

    Full Text Available Pure acute or subacute dysautonomia is a rare entity. Its etiology is as yet unknown. However, majority of these cases have a preceding viral infection such as herpes simplex, infectious mononucleosis, rubella or coxsackie B. A unique patient in whom acute dysautonomia followed mumps is reported.

  15. Acute dysautonomia following mumps.

    Mathuranath P; Duralpandian J; Kishore A

    1999-01-01

    Pure acute or subacute dysautonomia is a rare entity. Its etiology is as yet unknown. However, majority of these cases have a preceding viral infection such as herpes simplex, infectious mononucleosis, rubella or coxsackie B. A unique patient in whom acute dysautonomia followed mumps is reported.

  16. Calcium-sensing receptor: A new target for therapy of diarrhea.

    Cheng, Sam Xianjun

    2016-03-01

    Management of acute diarrhea remains a global challenge, particularly in resource-limiting countries. Oral rehydration solution (ORS), a passive rehydrating therapy developed approximately 40 years ago, remains the mainstay treatment. Although ORS is effective for hydration, since it does not inhibit enterotoxin-mediated excessive secretion, reduced absorption and compromised barrier function - the primary mechanisms of diarrhea, ORS does not offer a rapid relief of diarrhea symptom. There are a few alternative therapies available, yet the use of these drugs is limited by their expense, lack of availability and/or safety concerns. Novel anti-diarrheal therapeutic approaches, particularly those simple affordable therapies, are needed. This article explores intestinal calcium-sensing receptor (CaSR), a newly uncovered target for therapy of diarrhea. Unlike others, targeting this host antidiarrheal receptor system appears "all-inclusive": it is anti-secretory, pro-absorptive, anti-motility, and anti-inflammatory. Thus, activating CaSR reverses changes of both secretory and inflammatory diarrheas. Considering its unique property of using simple nutrients such as calcium, polyamines, and certain amino acids/oligopeptides as activators, it is possible that through targeting of CaSR with a combination of specific nutrients, novel oral rehydrating solutions that are inexpensive and practical to use in all countries may be developed. PMID:26973410

  17. Probiotics and Antibiotic-Associated Diarrhea and Clostridium difficile Infection

    Surawicz, Christina M.

    Diarrhea is a common side effect of antibiotics. Antibiotics can cause diarrhea in 5-25% of individuals who take them but its occurrence is unpredictable. Diarrhea due to antibiotics is called antibiotic-associated diarrhea (AAD). Diarrhea may be mild and resolve when antibiotics are discontinued, or it may be more severe. The most severe form of AAD is caused by overgrowth of Clostridium difficile which can cause severe diarrhea, colitis, pseudomembranous colitis, or even fatal toxic megacolon. Rates of diarrhea vary with the specific antibiotic as well as with the individual susceptibility.

  18. Etiology of acute diarrhea among children in Ribeirão Preto-SP, Brazil Principais enteropatógenos causadores de diarréia em crianças, na região de Ribeirão Preto-SP, Brasil

    Marta Inês Cazentini MEDEIROS

    2001-02-01

    Full Text Available To study the main enteropathogens causing diarrhea in the region of Ribeirão Preto regarding serogroups and serotypes, the feces of 1836 children under 10 years old, from both sexes, attack of acute gastroenteritis, were analysed during a period of 4 years in Adolfo Lutz Institute - Ribeirão Preto, SP. The pathogens identified by standard methods were the following: Escherichia coli, Salmonella spp., Shigella spp., Campylobacter spp., Yersinia spp., and Cryptosporidium spp. Positive samples were 22.8% (419 with 1.7% association of pathogens. Larger isolates were mainly from children 0 to 11 months old. Enteropathogenic E. coli (EPEC was most frequent (8.7% with predominance of serogroup O119 (40.2%, followed by Shigella (6.2%, 63.6% of which S. sonnei.Com o objetivo de caracterizar os principais enteropatógenos causadores de diarréia na região de Ribeirão Preto, quanto aos sorogrupos e sorotipos, por um período de 4 anos foram estudadas fezes de 1836 crianças, menores de 10 anos de idade, de ambos os sexos, portadoras de gastrenterite aguda no IAL de Ribeirão Preto, SP. Foram pesquisados os seguintes enteropatógenos: Escherichia coli, Salmonella sp., Shigella sp., Campylobacter sp., Yersinia sp., e Cryptosporidium sp., identificados através de metodologia tradicional. Foram positivas 419 (22,8% amostras, com 1,7% de associação entre enteropatógenos. Houve predomínio na faixa etária de 0 a 11 meses. Destacou-se a E.coli enteropatogênica (EPEC (8,7%, sendo mais frequente o sorogrupo O119 (40,2%, seguida do gênero Shigella (6,2%, dos quais 63,2% corresponderam à S. sonnei.

  19. ACUTE ABDOMEN SECONDARY TO NEOPLASM IN A HIV/SIDA PATIENT (IN SPANISH

    Herrera-Lomónaco Sandra

    2014-06-01

    Full Text Available Introduction: patients with HIV/SIDA might present as complications, symptoms of acute abdomen that could be of infectious, neoplasic or idiopathic etiology. The frequency of epithelial, mesenchymal and hemato-lymphoid neoplasm, tend to be increased in the HIV/SIDA patients. Case report: a 23-year-old male with diagnosis of HIV since three years ago and without regular antiretroviral treatment due to voluntary suspension. He presented symptoms of two days of evolution consistent in diarrhea, pain in right iliac region, vomiting and clinical signs of peritoneal irritation. Then, with diagnosis of acute abdomen secondary to acute appendicitis, he was carried to laparotomy. During the surgery procedure, intestinal perforation in the ileocecal region was found. Debridement, enterorrhaphy and appendicectomy were done, with adequate postoperative improvement. The histopathological diagnosis was Diffuse Large-B-cell Non-hodgkin Lymphoma of the ileocecal region. He was discharged for the oncological and integral management of the HIV/SIDA. Conclusion: the Diffuse Large-B-cell Non-Hodgkin Lymphoma is the type of lymphoma most frequently reported in association with the HIV/SIDA. The presented case is unusual, where the intestinal perforation caused acute abdomen imitating appendicular event. The lack of use of antiretroviral treatment probably contributed to the development and evolution of the Diffuse Large-B-cell Non-Hodgkin Lymphoma. Rev. cienc.biomed.2014;5(2:351-356. KEYWORDS Acute abdomen, Neoplasm, Non-Hodgkin lymphoma, HIV.

  20. Bile acids in radiation-induced diarrhea

    Radiation-induced bowel disease manifested by debilitating diarrhea is an unfortunate consequence of therapeutic irradiation for pelvic malignancies. Although the mechanism for this diarrhea is not well understood, many believe it is the result of damage to small bowel mucosa and subsequent bile acid malabsorption. Excess amounts of bile acids, especially the dihydroxy components, are known to induce water and electrolyte secretion and increase bowel motility. We have directly measured individual and total bile acids in the stool samples of 11 patients with radiation-induced diarrhea and have found bile acids elevated two to six times normal in eight of them. Our patients with diarrhea and increased bile acids in their stools had prompt improvement when given cholestyramine. They had fewer stools and returned to a more normal life-style

  1. 消旋卡多曲颗粒联合葡萄糖酸锌治疗轮状病毒所致水样腹泻的疗效观察%Curative Effect of Racecadotril Combined with Zinc Gluconate in Treating on Infants with Acute Watery Diarrhea Induced by Rotavirus

    江超雄; 王慧; 许珏; 许春娣

    2014-01-01

    Objective:To investigate the curative effect and safety of racecadotril combined with zinc gluconate in treating on infants with acute watery diarrhea induced by rotavirus.Methods:Ninety-five male infants with acute watery diarrhea,whose rotavirus antigens are positive through stool colloidal gold labeled assay,were divided into two groups according with random number table,treatment group (n=48) and control group (n =47).Both groups were supplied with zinc gluconate,the dietary guidance,and ORS for mild dehydration and intravenous fluid depending on their dehydration state.In addition,racecadotril was applied to the treatment group.Therapeutic effects were compared after 3 days of treatment.To observe the frequency,state and weight of stool,and adverse reaction such as vomit,abdomen ache,abdomen distention and rash.Results:The total effective rate of the control group and treatment group were 70.2% (33/47) and 93.8% (45/48) respectively.There was significant difference between two groups (P<0.01),and there were also significant differences of weight of stool within 24 hours,48 hours and 72 hours between two groups (P<0.01).No adverse reaction was found during the treatment.Conclusions:Racecadotril combined with zinc gluconate in treating on infants with acute watery diarrhea induced by rotavirus could restrain the production of liquid substances in the early stage,low the frequency and improve the state of stool.It also could shorten the disease course and reduce the supplement of water and electrolyte intake.In a word,it is effective and safe to be applied widely.%目的:探讨消旋卡多曲颗粒联合葡萄糖酸锌治疗轮状病毒所致小儿急性水样腹泻的疗效和安全性.方法:95例急性水样腹泻男性患儿,采用胶体金标法检测大便均提示轮状病毒抗原阳性,按随机数字表法分为观察组48例和对照组47例.两组患儿根据脱水情况,轻度者给予口服补盐液,中度者给予静脉补液,并指导患

  2. A multicenter randomized parallel-controlled study on the efficacy and safety of ER XIE TING GRANULES in children with acute diarrhea%儿泻停颗粒治疗小儿急性腹泻病的多中心随机平行对照临床试验

    儿泻停颗粒临床试验协作组

    2013-01-01

    目的 观察并评价儿泻停颗粒治疗小儿急性腹泻病的疗效以及安全性.方法 采用多中心、随机、开放、平行对照的临床试验方法,纳入1489例2011年3月至2012年7月期间全国15家三级医院收治的急性腹泻病患儿,随机数字表随机分成治疗组和对照组,治疗组应用儿泻停颗粒,对照组应用蒙脱石散.观察并比较治疗后第3天以及第7天的疗效以及药物相关不良反应,并以疗效相差大于10%为优效的标准对两组治疗腹泻的有效性做优效检验或非劣检验.结果 1458例完成了观察,其中治疗组726例,对照组732例.治疗组治疗后第3天以及第7天的痊愈率、总有效率分别为44.2%、94.1%、88.8%、97.9%,明显高于对照组的痊愈率和总有效率39.3%、88.4%、83.9%、97.4% (Z =3.2,P <0.01;Z=2.46,P<0.05).520例(34.9%)患儿为轮状病毒肠炎,进入治疗组266例、进入对照组254例.轮状病毒肠炎患儿中治疗组治疗后第3天以及第7天的痊愈率和总有效率分别为40.6%、95.1%、89.9%、98.9%,也明显高于对照组的26.4%、84.3%、78.8%、96.8%(Z=4.807、3.519,P均<0.01).急性腹泻病以及轮状病毒肠炎治疗后第3天和第7天的痊愈率、总有效率差值的95%可信区间下限均小于10%.试验期间未见明显药物相关不良反应.结论 儿泻停颗粒治疗小儿急性腹泻病以及轮状病毒肠炎疗效与蒙脱石散一致,无明显不良反应.%Objective To evaluate the efficacy and safety of ER XIE TING GRANULES in children with acute diarrhea.Method A multicenter,randomized,open-label,parallel-controlled clinical trial was carried out in 15 hospitals during March 2011 to July 2012.A total of 1489 children with acute diarrhea were enrolled and divided randomly into two groups and treated with ER XIE TING GRANULES (treatment group)and smectite powder (control group).The therapeutic efficacy and adverse drug reactions were evaluated

  3. CLINICAL AND IMMUNOLOGICAL ASPECTS OF INFECTIOUS MONONUCLEOSIS

    Kolyada T.I.

    2008-05-01

    Full Text Available The connection between the severity of clinical manifestations and immune response features in patients with acute infectious mononucleosis (IM was studied. It was established, that in IM patients with minor disease severity dominated the cellular-mediated response. In IM patients with mild disease severity the humoral-oriented immune response predominated. The described above findings suggest the need of differential approach of immune modulators application in IM therapy, depending on the level of disease severity

  4. Periodic EEG complexes in infectious mononucleosis encephalitis.

    Greenberg, D A; Weinkle, D J; Aminoff, M. J.

    1982-01-01

    The presence of periodic EEG complexes in patients with an acute viral encephalitis is generally held to suggest that infection is due to herpes simplex. We now report a patient with clinical and laboratory findings of infectious mononucleosis, and neurologic involvement manifested by lymphocyte meningitis, coma, seizures, aphasia, hemiparesis and hemianopsia. Serial EEGs showed periodic, predominantly left-sided slow wave complexes occurring every 4 to 5 seconds, which disappeared with clini...

  5. Molecular biology of avian infectious laryngotracheitis virus

    Fuchs, Walter; Veits, Jutta; Helferich, Dorothee; Granzow, Harald; Teifke, Jens; Mettenleiter, Thomas

    2007-01-01

    Infectious laryngotracheitis virus (ILTV) is an alphaherpesvirus that causes an economically important chicken disease, which results in delayed growth, reduced egg production, and also frequently in death of the animals. After acute infection of the upper respiratory tract, the virus can establish latency in the central nervous system, and subsequent reactivations can lead to infection of naive chickens. For prevention of ILT, conventionally attenuated live vaccines are available. However, t...

  6. Bovine viral diarrhea virus: biotypes and disease.

    Deregt, D; Loewen, K G

    1995-01-01

    Bovine viral diarrhea virus continues to produce significant economic losses for the cattle industry and challenges investigators with the complexity of diseases it produces and the mechanisms by which it causes disease. This paper updates and attempts to clarify information regarding the roles of noncytopathic and cytopathic bovine viral diarrhea viruses in persistent infections and mucosal disease. It also covers, in brief, what is known of the new diseases: thrombocytopenia and hemorrhagic...

  7. A study of dietetic on the diarrhea

    Tae-Hyeun Baek

    2006-06-01

    Full Text Available Objectives : This research examined about dietary therapy on the diarrhea based on the literary findings, for clinical treatment and prevention of the diarrhea. Methods : This Research examined on histories, compositions, applications, and effects of the diarrhea on about 100 cases of dietary therapy of the diarrhea from recent Chinese literatures Results : 1. Various vegetables, animals and mineral materials including herbs, grains, vegetables, fruits, food and drink were used for the dietary therapy. 2. Methods of the preparation for use as therapeutics were decoction, pulvis, gruel, medicinal wine, cake, tea, paste and gelatin and etc. 3. Frequently used materials were sesame oil, honey, ear mushroom, shiitake mushroom, kelp, walnut seed, hemp seed, groundnut, glutinous rice, apricot stone, yellow bean peel, radish, potato, spinage, and spring onion. Conclusion : Though dietary therapy for the diarrhea is not based on clinical or experimental data, but through experience. It is mostly based on Yin-Yang and five elements, visceral manifestation, channels and their collateral channels and chinese herbal medicine theories. If we use them properly according to oriental medicine method, it will be effective on treating and preventing the diarrhea.

  8. Clostridium difficile-associated diarrhea in the Clinical Center of Vojvodina, Serbia, in the period 2008 to 2012

    Stefan-Mikić Sandra

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Clostridium difficile-associated diarrhea (CDAD has been recognized as the leading cause of diarrhea worldwide. In the last five years, it has become the leading cause of diarrhea in the Clinical Center of Vojvodina (CCV as well. The aim of this study was to determine the epidemiology and total cost of treatment for all patients with Clostridium difficile-associated diarrhea hospitalized at the Infectious Disease Clinic of the CCV; to analyze the costs of treatment with regard to therapeutic approach; to compare the costs of treatment in each year of the investigated period related to the number of patients, and to analyze the outcome of treatment. The study was retrospective, and the data were collected from the medical records of 472 patients with Clostridium difficile diarrhea treated from 2008 to 2012 and analyzed. Of the total 472 patients with CDAD, 54.23% were female and the average age was 65.84. A statistically significant majority of them had been previously treated in other hospitals and a minority in ambulatory settings (395 inpatients vs. 77 outpatients, p=0.000, p<0.05. Of the 395 previously hospitalized patients, most were from the Clinic of Urology of the CCV (58, 14.68%. When comparing therapeutic options, oral vancomycin was significantly more frequently used than other protocols. The average mortality rate during the study period was 6.51%. In this period, total hospital costs related to Clostridium difficile diarrhea in the Infectious Disease Clinic were $636,679.92. Implementation of infection-control measures and a restricted use of antibiotics would result in a great reduction in material costs.

  9. Clostridium difficile causing acute renal failure: Case presentation and review

    Arrich, Jasmin; Sodeck, Gottfried H.; Sengölge, Gürkan; Konnaris, Christoforos; Müllner, Marcus; Laggner, Anton N; Domanovits, Hans

    2005-01-01

    AIM: Clostridium difficile infection is primarily a nosocomial infection but asymptomatic carriers of Clostridium difficile can be found in up to 5% of the general population. Ampicillin, cephalosporins and clindamycin are the antibiotics that are most frequently associated with Clostridium difficile-associated diarrhea or colitis. Little is known about acute renal failure as a consequence of Clostridium difficile-associated diarrhea.

  10. [Proteomics in infectious diseases].

    Quero, Sara; Párraga-Niño, Noemí; García-Núñez, Marian; Sabrià, Miquel

    2016-04-01

    Infectious diseases have a high incidence in the population, causing a major impact on global health. In vitro culture of microorganisms is the first technique applied for infection diagnosis which is laborious and time consuming. In recent decades, efforts have been focused on the applicability of «Omics» sciences, highlighting the progress provided by proteomic techniques in the field of infectious diseases. This review describes the management, processing and analysis of biological samples for proteomic research. PMID:25583331

  11. Infectious optic neuropathy.

    Golnik, Karl C

    2002-03-01

    A wide variety of infectious agents are known to cause optic neuropathy. This article will consider the bacteria, spirochetes, fungi, and viruses that most commonly affect the optic nerve. Clinical presentation is variable, but some pathogens often produce a characteristic funduscopic pattern. Diagnosis is usually made on the basis of clinical suspicion and serologic testing. Polymerase chain reaction is also increasingly utilized. Most infectious agents can be effectively treated but visual recovery is highly variable. PMID:15513450

  12. Study on Immune Interference of Infectious Bovine Rhinotracheitis Virus and Bovine Viral Diarrhea Virus%牛传染性鼻气管炎弱毒与牛病毒性腹泻弱毒抗原免疫干扰的研究

    郭利; 张淑琴; 王炜; 冷雪; 武华

    2012-01-01

    本试验使用3~6月龄健康易感牛9头(牛传染性鼻气管炎病毒(IBRV)和牛病毒性腹泻病毒(BVDV)抗原、抗体均阴性),共分3组,每组3头犊牛.第1组首免肌肉注射IBRV-LNM弱毒疫苗株种毒,接种1周后,每头牛接种BVDV-SM弱毒疫苗株;第2组只接种BVDV-SM弱毒疫苗株种毒,接种时间同第1组;第3组为对照组,接种MDBK细胞培养液.接种BVDV-SM疫苗毒后每周采血至疫苗毒接种后28 d,测定接种后BVDV抗体效价,并采用BVDV-JL检验用强毒进行攻毒试验.结果表明,第1组与第2组试验动物血清中牛病毒性腹泻病毒抗体水平无明显差异,能够抵抗BVDV-JL强毒攻击达到免疫保护的效果,说明牛传染性鼻气管炎病毒IBRV-LNM弱毒疫苗株接种后在牛体内对牛病毒性腹泻病毒BVDV-SM疫苗毒不产生免疫干扰作用.%This test using totle 9 head of catties, which were 3 to 6 month old healthy and susceptible (IBRVand BVDV antigen negtive,antibody titer is less than or equal to 2) .were divided into 3 groups,each group of 3 cows. The first group was injected with IBRV-LNM attenuated vaccine strain,one weeks later each animal was inoculated with BVDV-SM attenuated vaccine strain. The second group was only inoculated with BVDV-SM attenuated vaccine strain at the same time with the first group. The third group was the control group and inoculated with MDBK cell culture fluid, the determination of BVDV antibody titer post-vaccination every week until 28 days,and then challenged with BVDV-JL virulent strain. The results showed that the serum of bovine viral diarrhea virus antibody levels had no significant differences between the first and the second group, and observation after the challenge showed that the vaccine effectively protected calves from the challenge. This suggested that IBRV attenuated strain was not restrained BVDV attenuated vaccine virus in vivo.

  13. Clinical symptoms of the acute radiation syndrome in cattle. Comparison between dairy cow and calf

    In 4 experiments 39 cows aged between 3.5 and 11.5 years and in 5 experiments 38 calves, aged between 2.5 and 4 months, were exposed to bilateral ionizing whole-body irradiation using roentgen or gamma rays. In both complexes an acute radiation sickness was produced ranging from LD0/30 to LD100/30. The course of the radiation disease and the overall clinical picture were basically similar in the comparable lethality range. But in the main reaction phase, 3 complexes were more severe in calves: infectious processes of the respiratory organs, diarrhea, and heamorrhagic diathesis. The causes are supposed in the different influence of the germ setting. (author)

  14. Infectious (Non)tolerance—Frustrated Commensalism Gone Awry?

    Nussbaum, Jesse C.; Locksley, Richard M.

    2012-01-01

    Despite advances in medicine, infectious diseases remain major causes of death and disability worldwide. Acute or chronic infectious agents mediate host tissue damage and cause a spectrum of disease as diverse as overwhelming sepsis and shock within hours to persistent tissue inflammation causing organ failure or even cancer over years. Although pathogen exposure can cause disease via host-derived inflammation, pathogens share recognized elements with harmless human commensals. Mouse models a...

  15. Diarréia aguda em crianças menores de um ano: subsídios para o delineamento do cuidar Diarrea aguda en niños menores de un año: subsidios para el delineamiento del cuidado Acute diarrhea in lesser Children of one year: subsidies for the delineation of taking care

    Ivonete Vieira Pereira

    2008-06-01

    incluir cuestiones culturales en las actividades educativas como parte de una política pública de cuidado.Observational descriptive study with a quantitive approach which data is based on an epidemiological survey aims to determine the reasons of the high prevalence of acute diarrheas illnesses in minors of one year in Ananindeua, Pará. The sample was constituted by the families registered in the cadaster of the Family Health Program. It was evidenced that the social-economic-cultural aspects had influenced in the diarrhea occurrence, therefore how the lesser mother’s age and the scholarship, bigger the illness prevalence. This population lives in an occupation area, without basic sanitation, with garbage and dejections in opened sky, being below of the poverty boundary. About precocious weaning, water and tea were introduced in the first fifteen days and ar tificial milk during the first month, there was a resistance to use oral rehydrating therapy. They used domestic treatment. It concludes that reversion of structural factors, is necessary and cultural matters should be included in educational activities of a public care policy.

  16. Isolation and Genetic Analysis of Bovine Viral Diarrhea Virus from Infected Cattle in Indiana

    H. Leon Thacker; Maria Negron; Duane A. Murphy; Raizman, Eran A.; Schnur, Megan E.; Roman M. Pogranichniy

    2011-01-01

    Species and biotype distribution was determined in 44 bovine viral diarrhea virus- (BVDV-) positive samples submitted to the Animal Disease Diagnostic Laboratory (ADDL) in Indiana during 2006–2008. BVDV RNA was detected in the 5′-untranslated region and Npro region using reverse transcriptase PCR followed by sequencing analysis of the PCR product. Additionally, cases were classified into one of six categories according to history and/or lesions: acute symptomatic, hemorrhagic, respiratory dis...

  17. Presence of infectious agents and co-infections in diarrheic dogs determined with a real-time polymerase chain reaction-based panel

    Gizzi, Aline Baumann da Rocha; Oliveira, Simone Tostes; Leutenegger, Christian M; Estrada, Marko; Kozemjakin, Denise Adamczyk; Stedile, Rafael; Marcondes, Mary; Biondo, Alexander Welker

    2014-01-01

    Background Infectious diarrhea can be caused by bacteria, viruses, or protozoan organisms, or a combination of these. The identification of co-infections in dogs is important to determine the prognosis and to plan strategies for their treatment and prophylaxis. Although many pathogens have been individually detected with real-time polymerase chain reaction (PCR), a comprehensive panel of agents that cause diarrhea in privately owned dogs has not yet been established. The objective of this stu...

  18. Virulent Properties of Russian Bovine Viral Diarrhea Virus Strains in Experimentally Infected Calves

    Glotov, Alexander G.; Tatyana I. Glotova; Koteneva, Svetlana V.; Semenova, Olga V.; Alexander A. Sergeev; Titova, Ksenya A.; Morozova, Anastasia A.; Sergeev, Artemiy A.

    2016-01-01

    The results of experimental study of three noncytopathic and two cytopathic bovine viral diarrhea virus (BVDV) strains isolated from cattle in the Siberian region and belonging to the type 1 (subtypes 1a, 1b, and 1d) have been presented. All investigated strains caused the development of infectious process in the seronegative 4–6-month-old calves after aerosol challenge with the dose of 6 log10 TCID50. The greatest virulence had noncytopathic strain and cytopathic strain related to the subtyp...

  19. Emergent infectious uveitis

    Khairallah Moncef

    2009-01-01

    Full Text Available Infectious causes should always be considered in all patients with uveitis and it should be ruled out first. The differential diagnosis includes multiple well-known diseases including herpes, syphilis, toxoplasmosis, tuberculosis, bartonellosis, Lyme disease, and others. However, clinicians should be aware of emerging infectious agents as potential causes of systemic illness and also intraocular inflammation. Air travel, immigration, and globalization of business have overturned traditional pattern of geographic distribution of infectious diseases, and therefore one should work locally but think globally, though it is not possible always. This review recapitulates the systemic and ocular mainfestations of several emergent infectious diseases relevant to the ophthalmologist including Rickettsioses, West Nile virus infection, Rift valley fever, dengue fever, and chikungunya. Retinitis, chorioretinitis, retinal vasculitis, and optic nerve involvement have been associated with these emergent infectious diseases. The diagnosis of any of these infections is usually based on pattern of uveitis, systemic symptoms and signs, and specific epidemiological data and confirmed by detection of specific antibody in serum. A systematic ocular examination, showing fairly typical fundus findings, may help in establishing an early clinical diagnosis, which allows prompt, appropriate management.

  20. Forecasting Infectious Disease Outbreaks

    Shaman, J. L.

    2015-12-01

    Dynamic models of infectious disease systems abound and are used to study the epidemiological characteristics of disease outbreaks, the ecological mechanisms affecting transmission, and the suitability of various control and intervention strategies. The dynamics of disease transmission are non-linear and consequently difficult to forecast. Here, we describe combined model-inference frameworks developed for the prediction of infectious diseases. We show that accurate and reliable predictions of seasonal influenza outbreaks can be made using a mathematical model representing population-level influenza transmission dynamics that has been recursively optimized using ensemble data assimilation techniques and real-time estimates of influenza incidence. Operational real-time forecasts of influenza and other infectious diseases have been and are currently being generated.

  1. Acute pancreatitis: Manifestation of acute HIV infection in an adolescent

    Bitar, Anas; Altaf, Muhammad; Sferra, Thomas J.

    2012-01-01

    Summary Background: Pancreatitis in the pediatric age group is not as common as in adults. Etiologies are various and differ from those in adults. Although infectious etiology accounts for a significant number of cases of pancreatitis, acute infection with Human Immunodeficiency Virus (HIV) was rarely reported as a possible etiology for acute pancreatitis in adults. Acute pancreatitis has never been reported as a presenting manifestation of acute HIV infection in children. Case Report: We des...

  2. Advances in understanding of bile acid diarrhea.

    Camilleri, Michael

    2014-01-01

    Bile acids (BA) are actively reabsorbed in the terminal ileum by the apical Na(+)-dependent bile salt transporter. This review addresses the epidemiology, pathophysiology, diagnosis and treatment of BA diarrhea (BAD). BAD is typically caused by ileal resection or disease; 25-33% of patients with chronic functional diarrhea or irritable bowel syndrome-diarrhea (IBS-D) have BAD, possibly from deficiency in the ileal hormone, FGF-19, which normally provides feedback inhibition of BA synthesis. Diagnosis of BAD is typically based on reduced BA retention of radiolabeled BA ((75)SeHCAT), increased BA synthesis (serum C4) or increased fecal BA loss. In clinical practice, diagnosis is often based on response to BA sequestrants (e.g., cholestyramine or colesevelam). Diagnostic tests for BA malabsorption (BAM) need to be used more extensively in clinical practice. In the future, farnesoid X receptor agonists that stimulate ileal production of FGF-19 may be alternative treatments of BAD. PMID:24410472

  3. Diarrhea - what to ask your health care provider - adult

    What to ask your health care provider about diarrhea - adult; Loose stools - what to ask your health ... medicines, vitamins, herbs, or supplements I take cause diarrhea? Should I stop taking any of them? What ...

  4. Travel and migration associated infectious diseases morbidity in Europe, 2008

    Lopez-Velez Rogelio

    2010-11-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Europeans represent the majority of international travellers and clinicians encountering returned patients have an essential role in recognizing, and communicating travel-associated public health risks. Methods To investigate the morbidity of travel associated infectious diseases in European travellers, we analysed diagnoses with demographic, clinical and travel-related predictors of disease, in 6957 ill returned travellers who presented in 2008 to EuroTravNet centres with a presumed travel associated condition. Results Gastro-intestinal (GI diseases accounted for 33% of illnesses, followed by febrile systemic illnesses (20%, dermatological conditions (12% and respiratory illnesses (8%. There were 3 deaths recorded; a sepsis caused by Escherichia coli pyelonephritis, a dengue shock syndrome and a Plasmodium falciparum malaria. GI conditions included bacterial acute diarrhea (6.9%, as well as giardiasis and amebasis (2.3%. Among febrile systemic illnesses with identified pathogens, malaria (5.4% accounted for most cases followed by dengue (1.9% and others including chikungunya, rickettsial diseases, leptospirosis, brucellosis, Epstein Barr virus infections, tick-borne encephalitis (TBE and viral hepatitis. Dermatological conditions were dominated by bacterial infections, arthropod bites, cutaneous larva migrans and animal bites requiring rabies post-exposure prophylaxis and also leishmaniasis, myasis, tungiasis and one case of leprosy. Respiratory illness included 112 cases of tuberculosis including cases of multi-drug resistant or extensively drug resistant tuberculosis, 104 cases of influenza like illness, and 5 cases of Legionnaires disease. Sexually transmitted infections (STI accounted for 0.6% of total diagnoses and included HIV infection and syphilis. A total of 165 cases of potentially vaccine preventable diseases were reported. Purpose of travel and destination specific risk factors was identified for several

  5. Is racecadotril effective for acute diarrhea in children? -First update

    Josefina Sáez

    2016-06-01

    Full Text Available Este resumen Epistemonikos (Living FRISBEE: Living FRIendly Summary of the Body of Evidence using Epistemonikos es una actualización del resumen publicado en Diciembre de 2015, basado en la detección de dos nuevas revisiones sistemáticas que no habían sido identificadas en la versión anterior. La gastroenteritis o diarrea aguda es una enfermedad habitualmente autolimitada, pero que consume recursos sanitarios y constituye un motivo de consulta frecuente en pediatría. El racecadotrilo, un inhibidor de la encefalinasa intestinal, se ha usado como tratamiento porque disminuiría la duración de la diarrea y la pérdida de líquidos, pero no hay evidencia que justifique su uso rutinario. Utilizando la base de datos Epistemonikos, la cual es mantenida mediante búsquedas en 30 bases de datos, identificamos cinco revisiones sistemáticas que en conjunto incluyen nueve estudios aleatorizados relevantes para nuestra pregunta. Realizamos un metanálisis y tablas de resumen de los resultados utilizando el método GRADE. Concluimos que el uso de racecadotrilo probablemente disminuye la duración del cuadro de diarrea aguda en población pediátrica y que no se asociaría a mayor tasa de eventos adversos.

  6. Infectious Haematopoietic Necrosis

    Institute, Marine

    2011-01-01

    This leaflet gives information on infectious haematopoietic necrosis. This disease is caused by a single stranded RNA virus of the family Rhabdoviridae, genus Novirhabdoviridae. IHN is listed as a non-exotic disease under EU Directive 2006/88/EC, and is notifiable in Ireland, according to S.I. No. 261 of 2008.

  7. Infectious Salmon Anaemia

    Institute, Marine

    2011-01-01

    This leaflet gives information on infectious salmon anaemia (ISA). ISA is caused by a single stranded RNA virus of the family Orthomyxoviridae. ISA is listed as a non-exotic disease under EU Directive 2006/88/EC, and is notifiable in Ireland, according to S.I. No. 261 of 2008.

  8. Production of cattle immunotolerant to bovine viral diarrhea virus.

    McClurkin, A W.; Littledike, E T; Cutlip, R C; Frank, G H; Coria, M F; Bolin, S R

    1984-01-01

    Inoculation of bovine virus diarrhea virus into 58 to 125 day old fetuses of bovine virus diarrhea virus seropositive pregnant cows, or inoculation of bovine virus diarrhea virus into seronegative cows 42 to 114 days pregnant, may produce clinically normal calves which are persistently infected with the specific isolate of bovine virus diarrhea virus yet seronegative to the homologous and heterologous isolates. Reinoculation of these persistently infected cattle with their homologous isolate ...

  9. Hospital acquired diarrhea in a burn center of Tehran

    Faranak Alinejad; Mitra Barati; Mahbobe Satarzadeh Tabrisi; Mohsen Saberi

    2016-01-01

    Background and Objectives: Incidence of hospital-acquired diarrhea has increased rapidly and burn patients are at high risk of getting it. Infection with C. difficile is the most common cause of antibiotic associated diarrhea. The aim of this study was to determine the baseline characteristics and clinical presentation of hospital-acquired diarrhea and compare C. difficile and non-C. difficile diarrhea in burn patients treated at a burn center.Materials and Methods: During a 1-year study all ...

  10. RT-PCR em pools de soros sangüíneos para o diagnóstico da infecção aguda e de animais persistentemente infectados pelo vírus da diarréia viral bovina RT-PCR in pools of bovine blood serum to detect acute infection and persistently infected animals with bovine viral diarrhea virus

    D. Pilz

    2007-02-01

    Full Text Available Utilizou-se a técnica da RT-PCR para a detecção da região 5' UTR do genoma do vírus da diarréia viral bovina (BVDV em pools de soros sangüíneos provenientes de um rebanho, constituído por 226 animais, que apresentava distúrbios da reprodução. A partir das amostras individuais de soro e de acordo com a categoria dos animais e o número de animais por categoria foram formados 10 pools (A a J de soros. A primeira avaliação revelou a amplificação de um produto com 290pb nas reações referentes aos grupos D (35 vacas e H (25 bezerros lactentes que, após o desmembramento em amostras individuais, resultou na identificação de 11 vacas lactantes e 12 bezerros em amamentação positivos. Para a identificação de animais persistentemente infectados (PI entre os 23 positivos na primeira avaliação, realizou-se a segunda colheita de soros sangüíneos, três meses após. A RT-PCR das amostras individuais de soro revelou resultado positivo em cinco bezerros. Em dois, foi possível isolar o BVDV em cultivo de células MDBK. A especificidade das reações da RT-PCR foi confirmada pelo seqüenciamento dos produtos amplificados a partir do soro de uma vaca com infecção aguda, de um bezerro PI e das duas amostras do BVDV isoladas em cultivo celular. A utilização da RT-PCR em pools de soros sangüíneos demonstrou ser uma estratégia rápida de diagnóstico etiológico e de baixo custo tanto para a detecção de infecção aguda quanto de animais PI.The 5' untranslated region of the bovine viral diarrhea virus (BVDV genome was detected by RT-PCR assay in pools of blood sera samples collected from a cattle herd (n=226 animals with reproductive failures. Based on the classes of animal and the number of animals per class, the individual blood serum samples were distributed in 10 sera pools (A to J. During the first evaluation a 290bp amplicon was amplified in reactions from groups D (35 cows and H (25 sucking calves. The individual analysis

  11. Prevalence of infectious agents in free-ranging white-tailed deer in northeastern Mexico.

    Cantu, Antonio; Ortega-S, J Alfonso; Mosqueda, Juan; Garcia-Vazquez, Zeferino; Henke, Scott E; George, John E

    2008-10-01

    The objectives of this study were to determine the prevalence of antibodies against brucellosis, leptospirosis, infectious bovine rhinotracheitis virus, and bovine viral diarrhea virus (BVDV) in white-tailed deer (Odocoileus virginianus) in northeastern Mexico. Deer (n=521) were captured from helicopter using a netgun on 15 ranches covering 62,114 ha in the states of Coahuila, Nuevo Leon, and Tamaulipas during spring 2004. The prevalence of antibodies against Leptospira, infectious bovine rhinotracheitis, BVDV, and brucellosis were 5.6, 41.1, 63.5, and 0%, respectively, indicating that white-tailed deer and cattle may share disease agents when cohabiting in northeastern Mexico. PMID:18957659

  12. A comparative analysis of response to ORS (oral rehydration solution vs. ORS + gelatin tannate in two cohorts of pediatric patients with acute diarrhea Análisis comparativo de dos cohortes de pacientes pediátricos con diarrea aguda y respuesta a la solución de rehidratación oral (SRO frente a SRO + tanato de gelatina

    J. Esteban Carretero

    2009-01-01

    Full Text Available Aim: the study aims to observe the response to treatment with ORS only or ORS + gelatin tannate in two cohorts of pediatric patients with acute diarrhea, with the primary efficacy endpoint being the number of stools at 12 hours from baseline. Methods: children aged 3 months to 12 years were included in the study. Only children with acute diarrhea, more than 3 liquid stools, and duration inferior to 72 h were included. Number of stools was recorded as absolute number, categorized as ≤ 3 and ≥ 4 stools over 12 hours, and as a stool decrease index (SDI. Other clinical variables were recorded, including weight, fever, vomiting, stool characteristics, and signs of peritonitis/sepsis. Results: baseline characteristics for the two populations included a mean age of 2.3 years in the ORS group and 2.6 years in the ORS + gelatin tannate group. Children younger than 2 years represented 59.8 and 54.3% in the ORS and ORS + gelatin tannate groups, respectively. Clinical variables such as vomiting, dehydration, weigth, and stool decrease index were used to compare the two groups. We found a statistical significant difference between the two groups (p Objetivo: el estudio tiene como objetivo observar la respuesta al tratamiento con SRO o SRO + tanato de gelatina en dos cohortes de pacientes pediátricos que presentan diarrea aguda, siendo el número de deposiciones a las 12 horas desde el tratamiento inicial el criterio principal de valoración de la eficacia. Métodos: en el estudio se incluyeron niños de entre 3 meses y 12 años de edad. Únicamente se incluyeron niños con diarrea aguda, con más de 3 deposiciones líquidas y menos de 72 horas de evolución. Se registró la variable principal del número de deposiciones y de análisis como número absoluto, categorizado como ≤ 3 y ≥ 4 deposiciones en 12 horas y como un índice de disminución de deposiciones (IDD. Se registraron otras variables clínicas como peso, fiebre, vómitos, caracter

  13. Incidence of Diarrhea in Hospitalized Patients with Standard Enteral Formula

    Shabbu Ahmadi bonakdar

    2014-10-01

    Conclusion: Evaluation of patients receiving Milatech standard formula showed that diarrhea wasn’t seen in hospitalized patients. Diarrhea was reported by the nurses may refer to other diarrhea genic causes including of long length of stay, entral duration or medical side effects or infections.

  14. National Foundation for Infectious Diseases

    About NFID Contact Us NFID Store Home Infectious Disease Information Infectious Disease Information Chickenpox (Varicella) Diphtheria Ebola Hepatitis A Hepatitis B Hepatitis C Hib Disease HPV (Human Papillomavirus) Influenza (Flu) MRSA Measles ...

  15. Congenital acute megakaryocytic leukemia

    N B Mathur

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available Congenital leukemia (CL is an extremely rare disorder in the newborn, significant proportion of which is of myeloid origin, primarily of M4 or M5 morphology. As compared to pediatric leukemia, CL is a more aggressive disease. Acute myeloid leukemia (AML-M7 or acute megakaryocytic leukemia is a rare type of AML with an incidence of 0.5 per million per year. Median age of presentation is 6 years, and children may present with a broad variety of symptoms including low-grade fever, diarrhea, easy bruising, failure to gain weight and life-threatening conditions.

  16. Probiotics and prebiotics in infectious gastroenteritis.

    Vandenplas, Yvan

    2016-02-01

    Acute gastroenteritis (AGE) is worldwide a common problem in infants and children. While AGE is still an important cause of morbidity and mortality in developing countries, it is mainly a problem with high socioeconomic impact in the rest of the world. Oral rehydration solutions (ORS) and rapid refeeding remain the cornerstone of the management. However, ORS does not decrease the duration of diarrhea. There is evidence that selected strains of probiotics decrease the duration of AGE with 24 h, both in ambulatory care and in hospitalized children, resulting also in a decrease of the duration of hospitalization. Synbiotics are equally effective as probiotics alone, but prebiotics are not effective. Both pro- and prebiotics have limited to no efficacy in the prevention of AGE. The administration of pre- and probiotics is considered to be safe, even in newborns. Only these pre-, pro and synbiotics that have been clinically tested can be recommended. PMID:27048896

  17. Detection of Infectious Laryngotracheitis Virus by Real-Time PCR in Naturally and Experimentally Infected Chickens

    ZHAO Yan; Kong, Congcong; Cui, Xianlan; Cui, Hongyu; Shi, Xingming; ZHANG, XIAOMIN; Hu, Shunlei; Hao, Lianwei; Wang, Yunfeng

    2013-01-01

    Infectious laryngotracheitis (ILT) is an acute, highly contagious upper-respiratory infectious disease of chickens. In this study, a real-time PCR method was developed for fast and accurate detection and quantitation of ILTV DNA of chickens experimentally infected with ILTV strain LJS09 and naturally infected chickens. The detection lower limit of the assay was 10 copies of DNA. There were no cross reactions with the DNA and RNA of infectious bursal disease virus, chicken anemia virus, reticu...

  18. Relation between Ascites Syndrome Incidence and Infectious Bronchitis in Broiler Chickens by ELISA Method

    Adel Feizi; Mehrdad Nazeri

    2011-01-01

    Infectious bronchitis is an acute viral disease with high contagious and mortality among chicks. The aim of this study was to survey of relation between ascites syndrome incidence and infectious bronchitis in broiler chickens by ELISA method in Iran. Eight Ross strain broiler farm affected by infectious bronchitis were selected in this study. Blood samples were gathered early stages of disease and blood sampling was repeated two times with seven days interval. ELISA serologic test was used fo...

  19. Antidiarrheal Medicines: OTC Relief for Diarrhea

    ... any over-the-counter (OTC) medicine to relieve your symptoms. What types of OTC medicines treat diarrhea? Over-the-counter medicines are medicines you can buy without a prescription from your doctor. Some OTC medicines can help you feel ...

  20. Rota virus Diarrhea in Hospitalized Children

    Objective: To determine the frequency and clinical features of Rota virus diarrhea in children presenting in a tertiary care hospital. Study Design: A cross-sectional, observational study. Place and Duration of Study: National Institute of Child Health, Karachi, from January to June 2007. Methodology: A total of three hundred children of either gender aged 1 month to 5 years, who presented with diarrhea of < 7 days as a primary illness were enrolled. Children with bloody diarrhea or nosocomial gastroenteritis acquired during hospitalization for other disease were not included. Detection of Rota virus in stool was done by enzyme linked immunoassay. Results: Out of 300 children, 188 (63%) tested positive and 112 (37%) tested negative for Rota virus. Positive Rota virus cases in 7 - 12 months of age was (n = 34, 18.08%). Overall, 151 (80.3%) children with Rota virus were less than 3 years old. 182 (60.7%) had fever, 118 (39.3%) had vomiting and 156 (82.9%) children had both fever and vomiting. Conclusion: This study shows that Rota virus is a common organism causing diarrhea in children less than 3 years of age. There is a need to incorporate Rota virus vaccine in the national EPI program to decrease the disease burden as highlighted in this study. (author)

  1. Refractory diarrhea: A paraneoplastic syndrome of neuroblastoma.

    Han, Wei; Wang, Huan-Min

    2015-07-01

    Neuroblastoma (NB) is the most common extracranial solid tumor in children. Diarrheal NB is quite rare and is not easy to diagnose in the early stage. Six cases of diarrheal NB in our hospital treated from 1996 to 2006 were retrospectively analyzed, including characteristics such as electrolyte imbalance, pathologic features, vasoactive intestinal peptide (VIP) immunohistochemical staining results, treatment, and prognosis. All patients were boys with 3-8 loose or watery stools each day and routine fecal tests were normal. Abdominal tumors were identified by B-ultrasound. Drugs were ineffective. Three patients underwent surgery, and the remaining three patients received surgery and chemotherapy. Diarrhea stopped after treatment in five patients. Two patients died due to intractable hypokalemia. The tumor was located in the adrenal gland in four patients, in the upper retroperitoneum in one patient, and in the presacral area in one patient. Pathologic findings were NB and ganglioneuroblastoma. Five patients were at clinical stage I-II, and one was at stage III. Four patients survived (followed-up for 6 mo to 4 years). Immunohistochemical staining for VIP was positive. Refractory diarrhea is a paraneoplastic syndrome of NB and is rare. Patients aged 1-3 years who present with chronic intractable diarrhea should be followed closely. Intractable diarrhea, hypokalemia, and dysplasia are the initial clinical manifestations. Increased VIP is characteristic of this disease. Potassium supplementation plays a vital role in the treatment procedure, especially preoperatively. The prognosis of diarrheal NB is good following appropriate treatment. PMID:26167095

  2. Travelers' diarrhea: Risk reduction and management.

    Moore, Karen S

    2015-11-15

    Travelers' diarrhea is a common complaint for patients traveling abroad. Onset of illness, symptoms experienced, and the duration of symptoms are greatly impacted by the causative agent. This article explores the causes, prevention recommendations, and treatment methodologies recommended for this common condition. PMID:26474195

  3. Diarrhea Management Training in Early Childhood Settings.

    Winnail, Scott D.; Artz, Lynn M.; Geiger, Brian F.; Petri, Cynthia J.; Bailey, Rebecca; Mason, J.W.

    2001-01-01

    Addresses the health of young children and how to safely and effectively care for children with diarrhea in the home and in early child care settings. Discusses specific intervention and program activities, including specially designed materials for mixing homemade oral rehydration usage. (Author/SD)

  4. Epidemiology of Functional Diarrhea and Comparison with Diarrhea-Predominant Irritable Bowel Syndrome: A Population-Based Survey in China

    Yan-Fang Zhao; Xiao-Jing Guo; Zhan-Sai Zhang; Xiu-Qiang Ma; Rui Wang; Xiao-Yan Yan; Jia He

    2012-01-01

    BACKGROUND: The epidemiology of functional diarrhea and its impacts on Chinese remain unclear, and there are no data on the comparative epidemiology of functional diarrhea and diarrhea-predominant irritable bowel syndrome (IBS-D). This study was to explore the epidemiology of functional diarrhea and its impacts, and to identify its distinction from IBS-D. METHODS AND FINDINGS: A cross-sectional survey was conducted in 16078 respondents, who were interviewed under a randomized stratified multi...

  5. 75 FR 24835 - Infectious Diseases

    2010-05-06

    ... included in this RFI. The primary routes of infectious disease transmission in US healthcare settings are... reducing the risk of infectious disease transmission to patients and HCWs, the guidelines are non-mandatory... patients or clients who may have an infectious disease, please explain how your workplace...

  6. Mechanism of diarrhea in microscopic colitis

    Marijana Protic; Njegica Jojic; Daniela Bojic; Svetlana Milutinovic; Dusanka Necic; Bozidar Bojic; Petar Svorcan; Miodrag Krstic; Obren Popovic

    2005-01-01

    AIM: To search the pathophysiological mechanism of diarrhea based on daily stool weights, fecal electrolytes,osmotic gap and pH.METHODS: Seventy-six patients were included: 51 with microscopic colitis (MC) [40 with lymphocytic colitis (LC);11 with collagenous colitis (CC)]; 7 with MC without diarrhea and 18 as a control group (CG). They collected stool for 3 d. Sodium and potassium concentration were determined by flame photometry and chloride concentration by titration method of Schales. Fecal osmotic gap was calculated from the difference of osmolarity of fecal fluid and double sum of sodium and potassium concentration.RESULTS: Fecal fluid sodium concentration was significantly increased in LC 58.11±5.38 mmol/L (P<0.01)and CC 54.14±8.42 mmol/L (P<0.05) than in CG 34.28±2.98 mmol/L. Potassium concentration in LC 74.65±5.29 mmol/L (P<0.01) and CC 75.53±8.78 mmol/L (P<0.05) was significantly less compared to CG 92.67±2.99 mmol/L.Chloride concentration in CC 36.07±7.29 mmol/L was significantly higher than in CG 24.11±2.05 mmol/L (P<0.05).Forty-four (86.7%) patients had a secretory diarrhea compared to fecal osmotic gap. Seven (13.3%) patients had osmotic diarrhea.CONCLUSION: Diarrhea in MC mostly belongs to the secretory type. The major pathophysiological mechanism in LC could be explained by a decrease of active sodium absorption. In CC, decreased Cl/HCO3 exchange rate and increased chloride secretion are coexistent pathways.

  7. Causes of Infectious Diseases Which Tend to Get Into Febrile Convulsion

    Blouki Moghaddam; Bidabadi; Hassanzadeh Rad; Dalili

    2015-01-01

    Background Febrile convulsions are seizures associated with fever during childhood. They generally have excellent prognosis. However, as they may signify a serious underlying acute infectious disease, each case must be carefully examined and appropriately investigated. Objectives The aim of this study was to investigate the causes of infectious diseases, which tend to get into febrile convulsion in patients hospitalized in 17th Sh...

  8. Lymphogranulomatosis Progress in Patient with EBV Infectious Mononucleosis

    Т.V. Stchuklina; О.А. Saburova; I.А. Otmachova; О.V. Korochkina; D.М. Sobchak

    2015-01-01

    There has been presented a case history of lymphogranulomatosis in a patient with EBV infectious mononucleosis, which confirms possible activation of lymphoproliferative diseases and hematological malignancies after acute EBV infection, and proves the need for a wide use of virological and immunological techniques.

  9. ​Lymphogranulomatosis Progress in Patient with EBV Infectious Mononucleosis

    Т.V. Stchuklina

    2015-09-01

    Full Text Available There has been presented a case history of lymphogranulomatosis in a patient with EBV infectious mononucleosis, which confirms possible activation of lymphoproliferative diseases and hematological malignancies after acute EBV infection, and proves the need for a wide use of virological and immunological techniques.

  10. Molecular detection of lactose fermenting enteroinvasive Escherichia coli from patients with diarrhea in Tehran-Iran

    Mohammadzadeh, Mohammad; Goudarzi, Hossein; Dabiri, Hossein; Fallah, Fatemeh

    2015-01-01

    Background and Objectives: Enteroinvasive Escherichia coli (EIEC) is one the cause of acute diarrhea and bacillary dysentery in developing countries. Routine diagnostic microbiology tests are not capable to distinguish EIEC from other pathogenic or non-pathogenic E. coli. PCR, targeting ipaH, virF, virB and other virulence genes, is a diagnostic method for detecting E. coli pathotypes. Using PCR, we identified EIEC by PCR targeting ipaH and virF genes among E.coli isolates from patients with diarrhea at the selected hospitals in Tehran. Materials and Methods: Isolates of E. coli were cultured from 140 specimens of patients with diarrhea using culture and IMViC test. DNA was extracted using commercial kits and and tested for uidA, ipaH and virF genes by PCR. Results: Totally, 140 E. coli isolates were confirmed by IMViC tests and PCR targeting uidA gene. Of 140 E. coli isolates, 5 (3.6%) were positive for the ipaH gene, 4 (2.9%) contained virF gene and 4 (2.9%) were positive for both ipaH and virF genes. Conclusion: These results indicated that EIEC is a considerable acute diarrheagenic pathogen in adults and infants. Moreover, virF gene is suggested for evaluation of invasiveness of EIEC. PMID:26697158

  11. VIRAL ETIOLOGY ACUTE INTESTINAL INFECTIONS MOLECULAR MONITORING IN CHILDREN’S HOSPITAL

    A. V. Sergeeva

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available On the territory of the Russian Federation in the overall structure of acute intestinal infections the proportion of viral diarrhea among children varies from 24 to 78% of cases depending on the season. The acute viral intestinal infections etiological confirmation is performed mainly among patients of infectious hospitals. The prevalence of viral acute intestinal infections in non-infectious hospitals, including infections associated with medical care, remains unclear. Currently estimation of viral component in the acute intestinal infections overall structure mainly consists in determination of rotavirus infection prevalence excluding other pathogens. As the part of viral etiology hospital infections epidemiological surveillance in non-infections children’s hospital the study of acute viral intestinal infections etiological structure and molecular genetics characterization of identified enteric viruses is conducted. The syndrome diagnosis of acute intestinal infections cases was introduced — an identification and evaluation of patients with signs of dysfunction of the gastrointestinal tract, that is not related to the underlying disease. A set of laboratory methods included identification of various intestinal pathogens DNA (RNA by PCR-RT method; genotyping of enteric viruses using sequencing; nucleotide sequence analysis of cDNA fragments using the BLAST software package for identification of closely related strains and an online service for automatic genotyping of noroviruses by Norovirus Genotyping Tool Version 1.0. Alignment of nucleotide sequences and phylogenetic analysis was performed using the software MEGA 5.0. The obtained sequence fragments of the genome was downloaded in GenBank international database. The use of molecular genetics research methods allowed to differentiate viral pathogens of acute intestinal infections and to establish the fact of nosocomial transmission. The proportion of viral etiology acute intestinal

  12. Clinical efficacy of ciprofloxacin compared with placebo in bacterial diarrhea.

    Pichler, H E; Diridl, G; Stickler, K; Wolf, D

    1987-04-27

    In a double-blind, randomized trial, 85 adult patients with acute diarrhea (more than three watery stools per day) received either 500 mg of ciprofloxacin twice daily or placebo for five days. Seventy-six patients were evaluated, 38 patients in the ciprofloxacin group (16 with Salmonella species, 19 with Campylobacter jejuni, and three with Shigella species) and 38 patients in the placebo group (21 with Salmonella species, 11 with C. jejuni, and six with Shigella species). The duration of fever in patients treated with ciprofloxacin was 1.3 days versus 3.1 days in the placebo group (p less than 0.05). The mean duration of diarrhea in the ciprofloxacin group was 1.5 days versus 2.9 days in the placebo group (p less than 0.001). The corresponding numbers in patients with salmonellosis were 1.9 versus 3.4 days (p less than 0.01). In the ciprofloxacin group, all stool culture results became negative within 48 hours of treatment. Relapse occurred in four patients with salmonellosis within three weeks after the end of treatment. In the placebo group, only four of 38 patients had negative stool culture results during treatment and results were negative in only 13 at one week after the treatment period (p less than 0.001). Modest transient elevation of serum transaminase levels was detected in three patients in the ciprofloxacin group and in two patients in the placebo group. Epigastric pain occurred in one patient, and leukopenia occurred in one patient in the ciprofloxacin group. Gastrointestinal discomfort was recorded in two patients and rash was found in one patient in the placebo group. PMID:3555057

  13. A survey on relationships between thyroid hormone levels and clinical findings in dairy calf diarrhea

    Ali Hajimohammadi

    2015-03-01

    Full Text Available Calf diarrhea is an important disease that occurs in association with the interaction of various infectious agents and calf susceptibility. The economic losses is associated with death loss and treatment costs, reduction of live weight gain, and reduction of productive life span, which may be considerable. Thyroid hormones previously thought mainly in thermoregulation and energy metabolism. Recently, several studies have challenged on their roles in the metabolic response of animals to certain conditions such as nutritional, environmental, or disease state. The aim of the present study was to survey relationships between thyroid hormones in calves with diarrhea in the different clinical features. Holstein calves (50 within 1 day to 2 months old with signs of diarrhea and healthy calves (40 with similar age and sex were selected. Standard clinical examinations and also dehydration degree assessment were carried out on each calf and recorded accordingly. Calves with clinical signs of diarrhea were divided in different groups based on the severity of the clinical findings, fever and degree of dehydration. Blood samples were taken from the jugular vein from all calves into vacutainer tubes for serum collection.T4, fT4, T3 and fT3 concentrations were measured by validated methods. A significant increase in T4, T3 and fT3 in diarrheic calves was observed (P<0.05. Thyroid hormones in calves with severe clinical signs decreased significantly (P<0.001 compared to calves with moderate or mild systemic clinical signs. Thyroid hormones between febrile diarrheic calves compared to afebrile diarrheic calves had no significant changes. Diarrheic calves with severe dehydration compared to diarrheic calves with mild and moderate dehydration had significant decreases in their thyroid hormones (P<0.001.

  14. Treatment of Infantile Diarrhea by Acupuncture and Laser Irradiation - A Report of 60 Cases

    丁渡明

    2004-01-01

    @@ Infantile diarrhea is a common disease in babies of less than 2 years old in summer or autumn. It is due to acute dyspepsia mainly caused by improper feeding or attack of cold or damp pathogens.Clinically, it is characterized by increased times of defecation (5-6, or even dozens of times a day),yellow-green or blue-green thin feces intermingled with mucus, milk-mass and indigested food which have a sour and fetid odor, accompanied with loss of appetite, abdominal distending pain, nausea,vomiting, and even fever, irritability, dehydration and electrolyte disturbance in severe cases. The microscopy reveals that there are leukocytes and fat globules in feces. We have treated 60 cases of infantile diarrhea with acupuncture and He-Ne laser point irradiation and obtained satisfactory therapeutic results.

  15. The Pattern of Variation between Diarrhea and Malaria Coexistence with Corresponding Risk Factors in, Chikhwawa, Malawi: A Bivariate Multilevel Analysis.

    Masangwi, Salule; Ferguson, Neil; Grimason, Anthony; Morse, Tracy; Kazembe, Lawrence

    2015-07-01

    Developing countries face a huge burden of infectious diseases, a number of which co-exist. This paper estimates the pattern and variation of malaria and diarrhea coexistence in Chikhwawa, a district in Southern Malawi using bivariate multilevel modelling with Bayesian estimation. A probit link was employed to examine hierarchically built data from a survey of individuals (n = 6,727) nested within households (n = 1,380) nested within communities (n = 33). Results show significant malaria [σ²μ₁=0.901 (95% CI:0.746,1.056)] and diarrhea [σ²μ₂=1.009 (95% CI:0.860,1.158)] variations with a strong correlation between them [r(¹,²)μ=0.565] at household level. There are significant malaria [σ²ν₁=0.053 (95% CI: 0.018,0.088)] and diarrhea [σ²ν₂=0.099(95% CI : 0.030,0.168) ] variations at community level but with a small correlation [r(¹,²) ν=0.124] between them. There is also significant correlation between malaria and diarrhea at individual level [ r(¹,²) e=0.241]. These results suggest a close association between reported malaria-like illness and diarrheal illness especially at household and individual levels in Southern Malawi. PMID:26197332

  16. Efficacy of intravenous ondansetron to prevent vomiting episodes in acute gastroenteritis: a randomized, double blind, and controlled trial

    Sanguansak Rerksuppaphol

    2010-09-01

    Full Text Available Acute gastroenteritis is one of the most common infectious diseases of childhood. Its symptoms are vomiting, diarrhea, and dehydration. In the emergency ward, intravenous rather than oral rehydration is usually preferred because of the high likelihood of emesis. Treatments to reduce emesis are of value in improving the rehydration procedure. Our study is a double-blind randomized trial and proposes the use of ondansetron as an anti-emetic drug to treat children with acute gastroenteritis. Seventy-four in-patients, aged 3 months to 15 years, were enrolled and randomly assigned to an ondansetron or placebo group. Inclusion criteria were the diagnosis of acute gastroenteritis and the absence of other diseases or allergies to drugs. A single bolus (0.15 mg/kg of ondansetron was injected intravenously; normal 0.9% saline solution was used as a placebo. This treatment induced vomiting cessation in the ondansetron group significantly in comparison to the placebo group. The length of the hospital stay and the oral rehydration fluid volume were similar in the two groups and no adverse effects were noticed. Thus, safety, low cost, and overall bene­fit of ondansetron treatment suggests that this drug can be administered successfully to children with acute gastroenteritis.

  17. Mycotic and other nonbacterial infectious diseases

    The infectious diseases discussed in this chapter are caused by a variety of organisms, many of which are capable of producing acute, fulminating, generalized disease in which there is associated involvement of the lungs. These organisms may also cause disease, usually chronic, limited primarily to the lungs. Some of the organisms are saprophytes or of very low virulence, but in compromised hosts they may produce life-threatening acute pneumonias. The diseases must be differentiated from each other as well as from pulmonary tuberculosis and occasionally from lung tumor. The ultimate diagnosis depends upon demonstration of the causative agent in bronchial secretions or in sections of the lung. In some instances bacteriologic studies based on immunologic reactions are sufficient. These consist of skin tests, agglutination, complement fixation, and precipitation reactions

  18. Molecular detection of lactose fermenting enteroinvasive Escherichia coli from patients with diarrhea in Tehran-Iran

    Mohammad Mohammadzadeh

    2015-11-01

    Full Text Available Background and Objectives: Enteroinvasive Escherichia coli (EIEC is one the cause of acute diarrhea and bacillary dysentery in developing countries. Routine diagnostic microbiology tests are not capable to distinguish EIEC from other pathogenic or non-pathogenic E. coli. PCR, targeting ipaH, virF, virB and other virulence genes, is a diagnostic method for detecting E. coli pathotypes. Using PCR, we identified EIEC by PCR targeting ipaH and virF genes among E.coli isolates from patients with diarrhea at the selected hospitals in Tehran.Materials and Methods: Isolates of E. coli were cultured from 140 specimens of   patients with diarrhea using culture and IMViC test. DNA was extracted using commercial kits and and tested  for uidA, ipaH and virF genes by PCR.Results: Totally, 140 E. coli isolates were confirmed by IMViC tests and PCR targeting uidA gene. Of 140 E. coli isolates, 5 (3.6% were positive for the ipaH gene, 4 (2.9% contained virF gene and 4 (2.9% were positive for both ipaH and virF genes.Conclusion: These results indicated that EIEC is a considerable acute diarrheagenic pathogen in adults and infants. More- over, virF gene is suggested  for evaluation of invasiveness of EIEC.Keywords: Enteroinvasive Escherichia coli, diarrhea, ipaH, virF

  19. Frequência de Escherichia coli e sua sensibilidade aos antimicrobianos em menores de cinco anos hospitalizados por diarreia aguda The frequency of Escherichia coli and its sensitivity to antimicrobials in children aged under five years admitted to hospital for treatment of acute diarrhea

    Maria do Rosário S. de Almeida Lélis de Moura

    2012-06-01

    Full Text Available OBJETIVOS: determinar a frequência de Escherichia coli diarreiogênica e sua sensibilidade aos antimicrobianos em menores de cinco anos hospitalizados por diarreia aguda. MÉTODOS: estudo prospectivo tipo corte transversal realizado no Instituto de Medicina Integral Prof. Fernando Figueira, entre janeiro de 2010 e fevereiro de 2011. Foram excluídas as crianças com diagnóstico de imunodeficiência ou usando antimicrobianos. Para cada paciente foi feito uma única coleta de swab retal nas primeiras 24 horas de internação. Os patógenos foram identificados na coprocultura e sorotipagem. Os antibiogramas foram obtidos por disco-difusão. RESULTADOS: 140 crianças foram arroladas, em sua maioria provinham de famílias de baixa renda da Região Metropolitana do Recife. Foram isolados 99 microorganismos: 9 (6,4% E. coli enteropatogênica (EPEC e 4 (2,9% E. coli enteroinvasora (EIEC e 80 (57,1% outras E.coli não EPEC, não EIEC, 3 (2,1% Shigella spp e 3 (2,1% Salmonella spp. O perfil de sensibilidade aos antimicrobianos demonstrou níveis elevados de resistência à ampicilina e sulfametoxazol-trimetoprima. CONCLUSÕES: a baixa frequência de EPEC observada pode estar associada às condições de saneamento básico favoráveis apresentadas pelos pacientes do estudo. A análise local do perfil da sensibilidade da E. coli aos antimicrobianos reforça a recomendação da Organização Mundial de Saúde para o uso racional dessas drogas visando prevenção da resistência bacteriana.OBJECTIVES: to determine the frequency of diarrheic Escherichia coli and its sensitivity to antimicrobials in children aged under five years admitted to hospital for treatment of acute diarrhea. METHODS: a prospective cross-sectional study was carried out at the Instituto de Medicina Integral Prof. Fernando Figueira, between January 2010 and February 2011. Children were excluded if they had been diagnosed as immunodeficient or were using antimicrobials. A single rectal

  20. Acute Appendicitis in Infants. A Case Report

    Sergio Luis González López

    2013-04-01

    Full Text Available Acute appendicitis is more common in school-age children, but it rarely occurs in infants. The younger the patient, the fastest the course of the disease. In addition, there are greater risks of complications. A case of a nine-month-old infant, admitted to the pediatric hospital with fever and diarrhea, is presented. After several tests, he underwent surgery. Peritonitis caused by acute gangrenous appendicitis was diagnosed. While the patient was in the intensive care unit, he suffered a septic shock and acute multiple organ failure. As a result, he died 24 hours later. The biopsy confirmed the diagnosis of acute gangrenous appendicitis. Acute appendicitis is a disease that must be considered by doctors who treat infants with fever, diarrhea and abdominal pain related to irritability. Thus, an early diagnosis of the disease as well as the implementation of an appropriate surgical treatment can be performed.

  1. Low cost extraction and isothermal amplification of DNA for infectious diarrhea diagnosis.

    Shichu Huang

    Full Text Available In order to counter the common perception that molecular diagnostics are too complicated to work in low resource settings, we have performed a difficult sample preparation and DNA amplification protocol using instrumentation designed to be operated without wall or battery power. In this work we have combined a nearly electricity-free nucleic acid extraction process with an electricity-free isothermal amplification assay to detect the presence of Clostridium difficile (C. difficile DNA in the stool of infected patients. We used helicase-dependent isothermal amplification (HDA to amplify the DNA in a low-cost, thermoplastic reaction chip heated with a pair of commercially available toe warmers, while using a simple Styrofoam insulator. DNA was extracted from known positive and negative stool samples. The DNA extraction protocol utilized an air pressure driven solid phase extraction device run using a standard bicycle pump. The simple heater setup required no electricity or battery and was capable of maintaining the temperature at 65°C±2°C for 55 min, suitable for repeatable HDA amplification. Experiments were performed to explore the adaptability of the system for use in a range of ambient conditions. When compared to a traditional centrifuge extraction protocol and a laboratory thermocycler, this disposable, no power platform achieved approximately the same lower limit of detection (1.25×10(-2 pg of C. difficile DNA while requiring much less raw material and a fraction of the lab infrastructure and cost. This proof of concept study could greatly impact the accessibility of molecular assays for applications in global health.

  2. Low Cost Extraction and Isothermal Amplification of DNA for Infectious Diarrhea Diagnosis

    Huang, Shichu; Do, Jaephil; Mahalanabis, Madhumita; Fan, Andy; Zhao, Lei; Jepeal, Lisa; Singh, Satish K.; Klapperich, Catherine M.

    2013-01-01

    In order to counter the common perception that molecular diagnostics are too complicated to work in low resource settings, we have performed a difficult sample preparation and DNA amplification protocol using instrumentation designed to be operated without wall or battery power. In this work we have combined a nearly electricity-free nucleic acid extraction process with an electricity-free isothermal amplification assay to detect the presence of Clostridium difficile (C. difficile) DNA in the...

  3. Low cost extraction and isothermal amplification of DNA for infectious diarrhea diagnosis.

    Huang, Shichu; Do, Jaephil; Mahalanabis, Madhumita; Fan, Andy; Zhao, Lei; Jepeal, Lisa; Singh, Satish K; Klapperich, Catherine M

    2013-01-01

    In order to counter the common perception that molecular diagnostics are too complicated to work in low resource settings, we have performed a difficult sample preparation and DNA amplification protocol using instrumentation designed to be operated without wall or battery power. In this work we have combined a nearly electricity-free nucleic acid extraction process with an electricity-free isothermal amplification assay to detect the presence of Clostridium difficile (C. difficile) DNA in the stool of infected patients. We used helicase-dependent isothermal amplification (HDA) to amplify the DNA in a low-cost, thermoplastic reaction chip heated with a pair of commercially available toe warmers, while using a simple Styrofoam insulator. DNA was extracted from known positive and negative stool samples. The DNA extraction protocol utilized an air pressure driven solid phase extraction device run using a standard bicycle pump. The simple heater setup required no electricity or battery and was capable of maintaining the temperature at 65°C±2°C for 55 min, suitable for repeatable HDA amplification. Experiments were performed to explore the adaptability of the system for use in a range of ambient conditions. When compared to a traditional centrifuge extraction protocol and a laboratory thermocycler, this disposable, no power platform achieved approximately the same lower limit of detection (1.25×10(-2) pg of C. difficile DNA) while requiring much less raw material and a fraction of the lab infrastructure and cost. This proof of concept study could greatly impact the accessibility of molecular assays for applications in global health. PMID:23555883

  4. Fatores de risco para diárreia persistente em lactentes Risk factors to persistent diarrhea in infants

    Maria das Graças Moura Lins

    2003-12-01

    Full Text Available RACIONAL: A diarréia persistente é uma doença multicausal. A análise do risco para o prolongamento do quadro diarréico envolve variáveis ambientais, biológicas e do manejo clínico. OBJETIVO: Identificar fatores de risco para a diarréia persistente em crianças hospitalizadas na fase aguda do quadro diarréico. PACIENTES E MÉTODOS: O estudo foi do tipo caso-controle. A amostra consistiu de 216 crianças menores de 24 meses hospitalizadas por diarréia de início abrupto, no Instituto Materno-Infantil de Pernambuco, Recife, PE. O grupo de casos incluiu as crianças com diarréia persistente e o de controles aquelas com diarréia aguda. Foram analisadas variáveis socioeconômicas, biológicas, de morbidade anterior, clínicas e do manejo terapêutico prévio à admissão. Utilizou-se o odds ratio não ajustado e ajustado, com seus respectivos intervalos de confiança de 95%, observando-se o nível de significância de 5%. A análise multivariada foi feita através de regressão logística. RESULTADOS: O risco de persistência da diarréia foi maior nas crianças com: disenteria, febre no início do quadro, dieta suspensa e uso de antibiótico à admissão hospitalar. O risco de diarréia persistente foi cerca de três vezes maior para crianças sem geladeira no domicílio e que apresentavam hiperemia perianal ao exame físico na admissão hospitalar, sendo estas as variáveis que apresentaram significância estatística após o ajuste para fatores de confusão. CONCLUSÕES: A melhoria das condições ambientais e o manejo adequado e individualizado da criança hospitalizada por diarréia pode contribuir para a redução da morbidade da doença.BACKGROUND: Persistent diarrhea is a multicausal disease. The analysis of risk factors for persistent diarrhea includes environmental and biological variables as well as therapeutical management. AIM: To identify risk factors for persistent diarrhea among children hospitalized with acute diarrhea

  5. Management of Diarrhea in Infants and Children

    Issenman, Robert M.

    1987-01-01

    Diarrhea affecting infants and children is an important primary-care problem. Most winter infections are caused by rotavirus, but newer viral, bacterial and protozoan pathogens have been discovered. Fluid and electrolyte therapy is the mainstay of therapy. Antiemetic, antibiotic and antidiarrheal medications can usually be avoided. Commercial clear fluid products have been reformulated to allow effective rehydration and maintenance of hydration, thus avoiding hospitalization or use of intrave...

  6. [Trial chemoprophylaxis of traveler's diarrhea using nifuroxazide].

    Bourée, P; Kouchner, G

    1986-06-01

    Traveler's diarrhea is a very common condition that affects approximately 12 million subjects each year. This disorder is benign but nevertheless interferes with the traveler's plans in 40% of cases. Several drugs have been used for prophylaxis, in association with appropriate precautions concerning food and drink. Trimethoprim-sulfamethoxazole and cyclines are effective but may induce adverse effects. Nifuroxazide in a dose of 400 mg each day throughout the trip has proved effective. Tolerance was outstanding with no adverse effects. PMID:3534765

  7. Chronic diarrhea. Diagnosis and clinical evaluation

    Chronic diarrhea is a syndrome of great clinical complexity, which is frequently encountered by general physicians, internists and gastroenterologists. Differential diagnosis is very broad and sometime finding the precise cause can be difficult, expensive and frustration. Literature published about this topic lack, in general, adequate controlled studies and for this reason recommendations for diagnostic evaluation and treatment are based upon series of cases, experience of the institutions or expert opinion and not on reasonable evidence. On the other hand, many of the classical diagnostic tests that have survived until now were designed over physiologic foundations and have not been validated extensively with the precision of a clinical test. This limits its acceptance, application and standardization in the daily practice. There is not a general agreement about diagnosis and treatment of chronic diarrhea and many of the experts divert recommendation about their recommendations. The purpose of this paper is to define some general guidelines about the clinical evaluation of patients with chronic diarrhea that lead us to a rational approach based upon clinical trials and the appropriate use of the many different tests

  8. Management of chemotherapy induced diarrhea (abstract)

    Diarrhoea is seen with many tumors and following several chemotherapy regimen esp. those containing 5-fluorouracil and high dose folinic acid it causes debility even death, delays cancer treatment, reduces compliance increases cost. It causes dehydration, renal failure volume depletion. Quality of life is worsened and hospitalization may be needed in multifactorial, with secretion; absorption imbalance due to mucosal damage, necrosis or inflammation. Local infection is set up by opportunistic organism and cell necrosis. The large volume of fluid and electrolytes overwhelms colonic absorptive capacity. Agent usually used for treatment is opioids (such as Diphenoxylate / Loperamide]. Bismuth (for inflammatory diarrhea). NSAIDs or alpha 2-agonists. For optimal management, the cause and severity should be assessed and treatment planned. Advice is given about certain dietary restraints and avoidance of some drugs. Fever, infection, dehydration and electrolyte losses are treated, pain relieved. Diphenoxylate / Loperamide (later is more effective; 4 mg, STAT, then 2mg every 4 hours or even 2 hourly) may be used. It is moderately effective in CID. Octreotide is useful in carcinoid. VIPoma, AIDS idiopathic secretary diarrhea, ileostomy, dumping syndrome. It acts directly on epithelial cells to reduce secretin, motilin pancreatic polypeptide. It slows transit time, reduces fluid and electrolyte secretin, increases absorption of electrolytes. It is effective in 5 FU and high dose chemotherapy with a 90% response rates seen after 3 days treatment. High Dose Chemotherapy and total body irradiation - induced diarrhea usually resolves within 72 hours. (author)

  9. Genomic Motifs as a Novel Indicator of the Relationship between Strains Isolated from the Epidemic of Porcine Epidemic Diarrhea in 2013-2014

    Yamamoto, Takehisa; Suzuki, Tohru; Ohashi, Seiichi; Miyazaki, Ayako; TSUTSUI, Toshiyuki

    2016-01-01

    Porcine epidemic diarrhea virus (PEDV) is a positive-sense RNA virus that causes infectious gastroenteritis in pigs. Following a PED outbreak that occurred in China in 2010, the disease was identified for the first time in the United States in April 2013, and was reported in many other countries worldwide from 2013 to 2014. As a novel approach to elucidate the epidemiological relationship between PEDV strains, we explored their genome sequences to identify the motifs that were shared within r...

  10. The effect of bovine viral diarrhea virus (BVDV) strains on bovine monocyte-derived dendritic cells (Mo-DC) phenotype and capacity to produce BVDV

    Rajput, Mrigendra KS; Darweesh, Mahmoud F; Park, Kaci; Braun, Lyle J; Mwangi, Waithaka; Young, Alan J; Chase, Christopher CL

    2014-01-01

    Background Dendritic cells (DC) are important antigen presentation cells that monitor, process, and present antigen to T cells. Viruses that infect DC can have a devastating impact on the immune system. In this study, the ability of bovine viral diarrhea virus (BVDV) to replicate and produce infectious virus in monocyte-derived dendritic cells (Mo-DC) and monocytes was studied. The study also examined the effect of BVDV infection on Mo-DC expression of cell surface markers, including MHCI, MH...

  11. Clostridium difficile causing acute renal failure: Case presentation and review

    Jasmin Arrich; Gottfried H. Sodeck; Gürkan Seng(o)lge; Christoforos Konnaris; Marcus Müllner; Anton N. Laggner; Hans Domanovits

    2005-01-01

    AIM: Clostridium difficile infection is primarily a nosocomial infection but asymptomatic carriers of Clostridium difficile can be found in up to 5% of the general population.Ampicillin, cephalosporins and clindamycin are the antibiotics that are most frequently associated with Clostridium difficile-associated diarrhea or colitis. Little is known about acute renal failure as a consequence of Clostridium difficile-associated diarrhea.METHODS: In this case report, we describe the course of Clostridium difficile-associated diarrhea in an 82-yearold patient developing acute renal failure. Stopping the offending agent and symptomatic therapy brought a rapid improvement of diarrhea and acute renal failure, full recovery was gained 18 d after admission. In a systematic review we looked for links between the two conditions.RESULTS: The link between Clostridium difficilr-associated diarrhea and acute renal failure in our patient was most likely volume depletion. However, in experimental studies a direct influence of Clostridium difficile toxins on renal duct cells could be shown.CONCLUSION: Rapid diagnosis, nonspecific supportive treatment and specific antibiotic treatment, especially in the elderly, may lower excess mortality Clostridium difficile-associated diarrhea and renal failure being possible complications.

  12. Mitigating Infectious Disease Outbreaks

    Davey, Victoria

    The emergence of new, transmissible infections poses a significant threat to human populations. As the 2009 novel influenza A/H1N1 pandemic and the 2014-2015 Ebola epidemic demonstrate, we have observed the effects of rapid spread of illness in non-immune populations and experienced disturbing uncertainty about future potential for human suffering and societal disruption. Clinical and epidemiologic characteristics of a newly emerged infectious organism are usually gathered in retrospect as the outbreak evolves and affects populations. Knowledge of potential effects of outbreaks and epidemics and most importantly, mitigation at community, regional, national and global levels is needed to inform policy that will prepare and protect people. Study of possible outcomes of evolving epidemics and application of mitigation strategies is not possible in observational or experimental research designs, but computational modeling allows conduct of `virtual' experiments. Results of well-designed computer simulations can aid in the selection and implementation of strategies that limit illness and death, and maintain systems of healthcare and other critical resources that are vital to public protection. Mitigating Infectious Disease Outbreaks.

  13. [Globalization and infectious diseases].

    Mirski, Tomasz; Bartoszcze, Michał; Bielawska-Drózd, Agata

    2011-01-01

    Globalization is a phenomenon characteristic of present times. It can be considered in various aspects: economic, environmental changes, demographic changes, as well as the development of new technologies. All these aspects of globalization have a definite influence on the emergence and spread of infectious diseases. Economic aspects ofglobalization are mainly the trade development, including food trade, which has an impact on the spread of food-borne diseases. The environmental changes caused by intensive development of industry, as a result of globalization, which in turn affects human health. The demographic changes are mainly people migration between countries and rural and urban areas, which essentially favors the global spread of many infectious diseases. While technological advances prevents the spread of infections, for example through better access to information, it may also increase the risk, for example through to create opportunities to travel into more world regions, including the endemic regions for various diseases. The phenomenon ofglobalization is also closely associated with the threat of terrorism, including bioterrorism. It forces the governments of many countries to develop effective programs to protect and fight against this threat. PMID:22390054

  14. The Cambridge Infectious Diseases Consortium

    Wood, James

    2010-01-01

    The Cambridge Infectious Diseases Consortium (CIDC) was established to provide a multi-institutional, world class quality environment for infectious disease research addressing important questions and for the recruitment and training of high quality veterinarians into careers in infectious disease research. The programme has been a demonstrable success in achieving these overall aims. The institutions that have played a key role in the consortium include the Department of Veterinary Medic...

  15. Determination Pattern of Antibiotic Resistance in Entropathogenic Escherichia coli Strains Isolated from Children with Diarrhea

    P. Karami

    2012-04-01

    Full Text Available Introduction & Objective: Diarrheal diseases are considered a major health problem, especially in children. Enteropathogenic Escherichia coli (EPEC strains are the common cause of diarrhea in children especially in developing countries. Because of undesirable effects of diarrhea and its interference with children's growth, in some cases antibiotic treatment is recommended. In recent years, resistance toward common and effective antibiotics in the treatment of infectious diseases became one of the most important challenges in medical society, for this purpose, antibiotic sensitivity and resistance of strains in every geographical zone must be determined. So in this study, of antibiotic patterns of these bacteria were examined.Materials & Methods: This cross-sectional study was performed on 192 strains of Enteropathogen Escherichia coli isolated from children who were suffering from diarrhea in 1389-1390 in the microbiology laboratory of Hamadan University of medical sciences. To identify these strains, standard biochemical and serology tests were used. The antibiotic sensitivity test of these isolates was carried out with disc diffusion agar method according to the CLSI standards for 14 different antibiotics disc. Resistance toward 3 or more than 3 classes of antibiotics were defined as multidrug resistance.Results: The result of this study shows EPEC strains had the highest resistance to cefpodoxime (97%, trimethoprim (60.7%, tetracycline (58.4% and ampicillin (45.8%. Multidrug resistance was 68.7 percent. These strains also showed the highest sensitivity against imipenem, ceftriaxone, and ciprofloxacin antibiotics.Conclusion: EPEC strains that were studied with resistance to ampicillin, tetracycline and convenient sensitivity against fluoroquinolones are one of the major factors in children’s diarrhea. A result of this research suggests that antimicrobial resistance in Escherichia coli strains are high and prescribing and antibiotic is not

  16. Acute hypocomplementemic post-infectious glomerulonephritis as a complication of sinus-related orbital cellulitis: case report Glomerulonefrite pós-infecciosa hipocomplementêmica aguda como complicação de celulite orbitária relacionada aos seios paranasais: relato de caso

    Jayter Silva Paula

    2008-08-01

    Full Text Available Group A beta-hemolytic streptococcus is the most common agent implicated in post-infectious acute glomerulonephritis. We report a case of acute poststreptococcal glomerulonephritis associated with sinus-related orbital abscess in an 11-year-old boy treated with surgical drainage and intravenous ceftriaxone and clindamycin. Twelve days after supportive measures, renal function was normalized. We also discuss this potentially severe nonsuppurative complication of orbital cellulitis caused by group A beta-hemolytic streptococcus.Os estreptococos beta-hemolíticos do grupo A são os agentes mais comumente envolvidos na glomerulonefrite aguda pós-infecciosa. Relatamos um caso de glomerulonefrite pós-estreptocócica aguda associada a um abscesso orbitário secundário à sinusite, em menino de 11 anos de idade, o qual foi tratado com ceftriaxona e clindamicina endovenosas e drenagem cirúrgica. Doze dias após tratamento de suporte, a função renal se normalizou. Também discutimos a importância desta grave e potencial complicação não supurativa das celulites orbitárias causadas pelos estreptococos beta-hemolíticos do grupo A.

  17. Syndromic diarrhea/Tricho-hepato-enteric syndrome

    2013-01-01

    Abstract Syndromic diarrhea/Tricho-hepato-enteric syndrome (SD/THE) is a rare and severe bowel disorder caused by mutation in SKIV2L or in TTC37, 2 genes encoding subunits of the putative human SKI complex. The estimated prevalence is 1/1,000,000 births and the transmission is autosomal recessive. The classical form is characterized by 5 clinical signs: intractable diarrhea of infancy beginning in the first month of life, usually leading to failure to thrive and requiring parenteral nutrition; facial dysmorphism characterised by prominent forehead and cheeks, broad nasal root and hypertelorism; hair abnormalities described as woolly and easily removable; immune disorders resulting from defective antibody production; intrauterine growth restriction. The aetiology is a defect in TTC37, a TPR containing protein, or in the RNA helicase SKIV2L, both constituting the putative human ski complex. The ski complex is a heterotetrameric cofactor of the cytoplasmic RNA exosome which ensures aberrants mRNAs decay. The diagnosis SD/THE is initially based on clinical findings and confirmed by direct sequencing of TTC37 and SKIV2L. Differential diagnosis with the other causes of intractable diarrhea is easily performed by pathologic investigations. During their clinical course, most of the children require parenteral nutrition and often immunoglobulin supplementation. With time, some of them can be weaned off parenteral nutrition and immunoglobulin supplementation. The prognosis depends on the management and is largely related to the occurrence of parenteral nutrition complications or infections. Even with optimal management, most of the children seem to experience failure to thrive and final short stature. Mild mental retardation is observed in half of the cases. Abstract in French Les diarrhées syndromiques ou syndrome tricho-hepato-enterique (SD/THE) sont un syndrome rare et sévère dont l’incidence est estimée à 1 cas pour 1 million de naissances et la transmission

  18. Bovine viral diarrhea virus type 2 in vivo infection modulates TLR4 responsiveness in differentiated Myeloid cells which is associated with decreased MyD88 expression

    Bovine viral diarrhea virus (BVDV) causes clinical signs in cattle ranging from mild to severe acute infection which can lead to increased susceptibility to secondary bacteria. In this study we examined the effects of BVDV genotype 2 (BVDV2) infection on the ability of myeloid lineage cells derived...

  19. Empirically Derived Dehydration Scoring and Decision Tree Models for Children With Diarrhea: Assessment and Internal Validation in a Prospective Cohort Study in Dhaka, Bangladesh

    Levine, Adam C.; Glavis-Bloom, Justin; Modi, Payal; Nasrin, Sabiha; Rege, Soham; Chu, Chieh; Schmid, Christopher H.; Alam, Nur H

    2015-01-01

    The DHAKA Dehydration Score and the DHAKA Dehydration Tree are the first empirically derived and internally validated diagnostic models for assessing dehydration in children with acute diarrhea for use by general practice nurses in a resource-limited setting. Frontline providers can use these new tools to better classify and manage dehydration in children.

  20. Comparison of the breadth and complexity of bovine viral diarrhea (BVDV) populations circulating in 34 persistently infected cattle generated in one outbreak

    Exposure to bovine viral diarrhea viruses (BVDV) may result in acute and persistent infections. Persistent infections are the consequence of in utero exposure during the first trimester of gestation. The resulting persistently infected (PI) animals are immunotolerant to the virus. Clinical presen...

  1. Survey of caregivers in Kenya to assess perceptions of zinc as a treatment for diarrhea in young children and adherence to recommended treatment behaviors

    Evan Simpson

    2013-06-01

    Full Text Available In 2004, the United Nations Children’s Fund (UNICEF and the World Health Organization (WHO revised their recommendations for management of acute diarrhea in children to include zinc treatment as well as oral rehydration solution (ORS. Little is known about how caregivers in low–resource settings perceive and use zinc treatment.

  2. Identification of amino acid changes in the envelope glycoproteins of bovine viral diarrhea viruses isolated from alpaca that may be involved in host adaptation

    Bovine viral diarrhea viruses (BVDV) are most commonly associated with infections of cattle. However, BVDV is often isolated from closely related ruminants with a number of BVDV-1b viruses being isolated from alpacas that were both acutely and persistently infected (PI). The complete nucleotide se...

  3. Zinc supplementation for treating diarrhea in children: a systematic review and meta-analysis Administración de suplementos de zinc para tratar la diarrea infantil: revisión sistemática y metanálisis

    Tais Freire Galvao; Maria Fernanda Reis e Silva Thees; Rossana Ferreira Pontes; Marcus Tolentino Silva; Mauricio Gomes Pereira

    2013-01-01

    OBJECTIVE: To update the available evidence about zinc use for treating diarrhea in children and to assess its effect on the malnourished population, a subgroup that has not been fully explored in previous analyses. METHODS: A systematic review was performed of randomized clinical trials that assessed children up to 5 years old with acute diarrhea who received zinc supplementation. Controls received a placebo or oral rehydration therapy. After searching the main databases, without language re...

  4. Epidemiology of rotavirus A diarrhea in Chókwè, Southern Mozambique, from February to September, 2011.

    Langa, Jerónimo S; Thompson, Ricardo; Arnaldo, Paulo; Resque, Hugo Reis; Rose, Tatiana; Enosse, Sonia M; Fialho, Alexandre; de Assis, Rosane Maria Santos; da Silva, Marcelle Figueira Marques; Leite, José Paulo Gagliardi

    2016-10-01

    Acute diarrhea disease caused by Rotaviruses A (RVA) is still the leading cause of morbidity and mortality in children ≤5 years old in developing countries. An exploratory cross-sectional study was conducted between February and September, 2011 to determine the proportion of acute diarrhea caused by RVA. A total of 254 stool specimens were collected from children ≤5 years old with acute diarrhea, including outpatients (222 children) and inpatients (32 children), in three local health centers in Chókwè District, Gaza Province, South of Mozambique. RVA antigens were detected using enzyme immunoassay (EIA); the RVA G (VP7) and P (VP4) genotypes were determined by RT-PCR or analysis sequencing. Sixty (24%) out of 254 fecal specimens were positive for RVA by EIA; being 58 (97%) from children ≤2 years of age. RVA prevalence peaks in June and July (coldest and drier months) and the G[P] binary combination observed were G12P[8] (57%); G1P[8] (9%); G12P[6] (6%); and 2% for each of the following genotypes: G1P[6], G2P[6] G4P[6], and G9P[8]. Non-Typeable (NT) G and/or P genotypes were observed as follows: G12P [NT] (6%); G1P [NT], G3P[NT] and GNTP[NT] (4%). Considering the different GP combinations, G12 represented 67% of the genotypes. This is the first data showing the diversity of RVA genotypes in Mozambique highlighting the epidemiological importance of these viruses in acute diarrhea cases in children ≤2 years old. In addition, these findings will provide a baseline data before the introduction of the RVA monovalent (Rotarix(®) ) vaccine in the National Immunization Program in September 2015. J. Med. Virol. 88:1751-1758, 2016. © 2016 Wiley Periodicals, Inc. PMID:27003797

  5. Acute ongecompliceerde urineweginfecties: antibiotische therapie en antibioticumresistentie.

    Nijs, S.; Bartelds, A.I.M.; Stobberingh, E.E.

    2005-01-01

    Acute ongecompliceerde urineweginfecties (UWI) zijn de meest voorkomende bacteriële infecties bij vrouwen. Voor de empirische behandeling van een ongecompliceerde UWI zijn actuele antibioticagevoeligheidspercentages nodig van ongeselecteerde uropathogenen. In deze studie werd van ongeselecteerde uro

  6. Wetlands and infectious diseases

    Zimmerman Robert H.

    2001-01-01

    Full Text Available There is a historical association between wetlands and infectious disease that has led to the modification of wetlands to prevent disease. At the same time there has been the development of water resources projects that increase the risk of disease. The demand for more water development projects and the increased pressure to make natural wetlands economically beneficial creates the need for an ecological approach to wetland management and health assessment. The environmental and health interactions are many. There is a need to take into account the landscape, spatial boundaries, and cross-boundary interactions in water development projects as well as alternative methods to provide water for human needs. The research challenges that need to be addressed are discussed.

  7. [Infectious diseases (beside AIDS)].

    Bellini, C; Senn, L; Zanetti, G

    2008-01-01

    A simplified version of the US guidelines for prophylaxis of infectious endocarditis was published in 2007. Changes are expected in Switzerland as well. Posaconsole is a new antifungal agent available mostly for prophylaxis in immunocompromised patients. Epidemiology of sexually transmitted infections warrants screening in young adults and after one episode. A meta-analysis clarified the impact of antibiotic therapy in patients with Campylobacter spp. infection. In the field of emerging diseases, we discuss Norovirus epidemics, community-acquired bacteria producing extended-spectrum betalactamases, extensively resistant tuberculosis, and new respiratory viruses. Finally, we address a basic research topic that may change practice in the future: the relationship between individual susceptibility to infection and innate immunity. PMID:18251213

  8. Surveillance of Food- and Smear-Transmitted Pathogens in European Soldiers with Diarrhea on Deployment in the Tropics: Experience from the European Union Training Mission (EUTM) Mali

    Frickmann, Hagen; Warnke, Philipp; Frey, Claudia; Schmidt, Salvatore; Janke, Christian; Erkens, Kay; Schotte, Ulrich; Köller, Thomas; Maaßen, Winfried; Podbielski, Andreas; Binder, Alfred; Hinz, Rebecca; Queyriaux, Benjamin; Wiemer, Dorothea; Schwarz, Norbert Georg; Hagen, Ralf Matthias

    2015-01-01

    Introduction. Since 2013, European soldiers have been deployed on the European Union Training Mission (EUTM) in Mali. From the beginning, diarrhea has been among the most “urgent” concerns. Diarrhea surveillance based on deployable real-time PCR equipment was conducted between December 2013 and August 2014. Material and Methods. In total, 53 stool samples were obtained from 51 soldiers with acute diarrhea. Multiplex PCR panels comprised enteroinvasive bacteria, diarrhea-associated Escherichia coli (EPEC, ETEC, EAEC, and EIEC), enteropathogenic viruses, and protozoa. Noroviruses were characterized by sequencing. Cultural screening for Enterobacteriaceae with extended-spectrum beta-lactamases (ESBL) with subsequent repetitive sequence-based PCR (rep-PCR) typing was performed. Clinical information was assessed. Results. Positive PCR results for diarrhea-associated pathogens were detected in 43/53 samples, comprising EPEC (n = 21), ETEC (n = 19), EAEC (n = 15), Norovirus (n = 10), Shigella spp./EIEC (n = 6), Cryptosporidium parvum (n = 3), Giardia duodenalis (n = 2), Salmonella spp. (n = 1), Astrovirus (n = 1), Rotavirus (n = 1), and Sapovirus (n = 1). ESBL-positive Enterobacteriaceae were grown from 13 out of 48 samples. Simultaneous infections with several enteropathogenic agents were observed in 23 instances. Symptoms were mild to moderate. There were hints of autochthonous transmission. Conclusions. Multiplex real-time PCR proved to be suitable for diarrhea surveillance on deployment. Etiological attribution is challenging in cases of detection of multiple pathogens. PMID:26525953

  9. Surveillance of Food- and Smear-Transmitted Pathogens in European Soldiers with Diarrhea on Deployment in the Tropics: Experience from the European Union Training Mission (EUTM Mali

    Hagen Frickmann

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Introduction. Since 2013, European soldiers have been deployed on the European Union Training Mission (EUTM in Mali. From the beginning, diarrhea has been among the most “urgent” concerns. Diarrhea surveillance based on deployable real-time PCR equipment was conducted between December 2013 and August 2014. Material and Methods. In total, 53 stool samples were obtained from 51 soldiers with acute diarrhea. Multiplex PCR panels comprised enteroinvasive bacteria, diarrhea-associated Escherichia coli (EPEC, ETEC, EAEC, and EIEC, enteropathogenic viruses, and protozoa. Noroviruses were characterized by sequencing. Cultural screening for Enterobacteriaceae with extended-spectrum beta-lactamases (ESBL with subsequent repetitive sequence-based PCR (rep-PCR typing was performed. Clinical information was assessed. Results. Positive PCR results for diarrhea-associated pathogens were detected in 43/53 samples, comprising EPEC (n=21, ETEC (n=19, EAEC (n=15, Norovirus (n=10, Shigella spp./EIEC (n=6, Cryptosporidium parvum (n=3, Giardia duodenalis (n=2, Salmonella spp. (n=1, Astrovirus (n=1, Rotavirus (n=1, and Sapovirus (n=1. ESBL-positive Enterobacteriaceae were grown from 13 out of 48 samples. Simultaneous infections with several enteropathogenic agents were observed in 23 instances. Symptoms were mild to moderate. There were hints of autochthonous transmission. Conclusions. Multiplex real-time PCR proved to be suitable for diarrhea surveillance on deployment. Etiological attribution is challenging in cases of detection of multiple pathogens.

  10. Surveillance of Food- and Smear-Transmitted Pathogens in European Soldiers with Diarrhea on Deployment in the Tropics: Experience from the European Union Training Mission (EUTM) Mali.

    Frickmann, Hagen; Warnke, Philipp; Frey, Claudia; Schmidt, Salvatore; Janke, Christian; Erkens, Kay; Schotte, Ulrich; Köller, Thomas; Maaßen, Winfried; Podbielski, Andreas; Binder, Alfred; Hinz, Rebecca; Queyriaux, Benjamin; Wiemer, Dorothea; Schwarz, Norbert Georg; Hagen, Ralf Matthias

    2015-01-01

    Introduction. Since 2013, European soldiers have been deployed on the European Union Training Mission (EUTM) in Mali. From the beginning, diarrhea has been among the most "urgent" concerns. Diarrhea surveillance based on deployable real-time PCR equipment was conducted between December 2013 and August 2014. Material and Methods. In total, 53 stool samples were obtained from 51 soldiers with acute diarrhea. Multiplex PCR panels comprised enteroinvasive bacteria, diarrhea-associated Escherichia coli (EPEC, ETEC, EAEC, and EIEC), enteropathogenic viruses, and protozoa. Noroviruses were characterized by sequencing. Cultural screening for Enterobacteriaceae with extended-spectrum beta-lactamases (ESBL) with subsequent repetitive sequence-based PCR (rep-PCR) typing was performed. Clinical information was assessed. Results. Positive PCR results for diarrhea-associated pathogens were detected in 43/53 samples, comprising EPEC (n = 21), ETEC (n = 19), EAEC (n = 15), Norovirus (n = 10), Shigella spp./EIEC (n = 6), Cryptosporidium parvum (n = 3), Giardia duodenalis (n = 2), Salmonella spp. (n = 1), Astrovirus (n = 1), Rotavirus (n = 1), and Sapovirus (n = 1). ESBL-positive Enterobacteriaceae were grown from 13 out of 48 samples. Simultaneous infections with several enteropathogenic agents were observed in 23 instances. Symptoms were mild to moderate. There were hints of autochthonous transmission. Conclusions. Multiplex real-time PCR proved to be suitable for diarrhea surveillance on deployment. Etiological attribution is challenging in cases of detection of multiple pathogens. PMID:26525953

  11. Neuroimaging of Infectious and Inflammatory Diseases of the Pediatric Cerebellum and Brainstem.

    Rossi, Andrea; Martinetti, Carola; Morana, Giovanni; Severino, Mariasavina; Tortora, Domenico

    2016-08-01

    Cerebellar involvement by infectious-inflammatory conditions is rare in children. Most patients present with acute ataxia, and are typically previously healthy, young (often preschool) children. Viral involvement is the most common cause and ranges from acute postinfectious ataxia to acute cerebellitis MR imaging plays a crucial role in the evaluation of patients suspected of harboring inflammatory-infectious involvement of the cerebellum and brainstem. Knowledge of the imaging features of these disorders and technical competence on pediatric MR imaging are necessary for a correct interpretation of findings, which in turn prompts further management. PMID:27423804

  12. Diarrhea & Child Care: Controlling Diarrhea in Out-of-Home Child Care. NCEDL Spotlights, No. 4.

    Churchill, Robin B.; Pickering, Larry K.

    This report, the fourth in the National Center for Early Development and Learning's (NCEDL) "Spotlights" series, is based on excerpts from a paper presented during a "Research into Practice in Infant/Toddler Care" synthesis conference in fall 1997. The report addresses controlling diarrhea in out-of-home child care. The report notes that the rate…

  13. 76 FR 39041 - Infectious Diseases

    2011-07-05

    ...OSHA invites interested parties to participate in informal stakeholder meetings concerning occupational exposure to infectious diseases. OSHA plans to use the information gathered at these meetings to explore the possible development of a proposed rule to protect workers from occupational exposure to infectious agents in settings, either where workers provide direct patient care or where......

  14. Infectious Diseases in Day Care.

    Sleator, Esther K.

    Discussed in this publication are infectious illnesses for which children attending day care appear to be at special risk. Also covered are the common cold, some infectious disease problems receiving media attention, and some other annoying but not serious diseases, such as head lice, pinworms, and contagious skin conditions. Causes,…

  15. Syndromic diarrhea/Tricho-hepato-enteric syndrome

    Fabre Alexandre

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Syndromic diarrhea/Tricho-hepato-enteric syndrome (SD/THE is a rare and severe bowel disorder caused by mutation in SKIV2L or in TTC37, 2 genes encoding subunits of the putative human SKI complex. The estimated prevalence is 1/1,000,000 births and the transmission is autosomal recessive. The classical form is characterized by 5 clinical signs: intractable diarrhea of infancy beginning in the first month of life, usually leading to failure to thrive and requiring parenteral nutrition; facial dysmorphism characterised by prominent forehead and cheeks, broad nasal root and hypertelorism; hair abnormalities described as woolly and easily removable; immune disorders resulting from defective antibody production; intrauterine growth restriction. The aetiology is a defect in TTC37, a TPR containing protein, or in the RNA helicase SKIV2L, both constituting the putative human ski complex. The ski complex is a heterotetrameric cofactor of the cytoplasmic RNA exosome which ensures aberrants mRNAs decay. The diagnosis SD/THE is initially based on clinical findings and confirmed by direct sequencing of TTC37 and SKIV2L. Differential diagnosis with the other causes of intractable diarrhea is easily performed by pathologic investigations. During their clinical course, most of the children require parenteral nutrition and often immunoglobulin supplementation. With time, some of them can be weaned off parenteral nutrition and immunoglobulin supplementation. The prognosis depends on the management and is largely related to the occurrence of parenteral nutrition complications or infections. Even with optimal management, most of the children seem to experience failure to thrive and final short stature. Mild mental retardation is observed in half of the cases. Abstract in French Les diarrhées syndromiques ou syndrome tricho-hepato-enterique (SD/THE sont un syndrome rare et sévère dont l’incidence est estimée à 1 cas pour 1 million de naissances et la

  16. Characterization of bovine viral diarrhea virus proteins.

    Purchio, A F; Larson, R.; Collett, M S

    1984-01-01

    Virus-specific proteins were examined in cultured cells infected with bovine viral diarrhea virus. By using antisera obtained from virus-infected animals, three major virus-specific polypeptides with molecular weights of 115,000 (115K), 80K, and 55K were observed. Minor proteins of 45,000 and 38,000 daltons were also noted. Tryptic peptide mapping indicated that the 115K and the 80K polypeptides were structurally related. The 55K protein was glycosylated and appeared not to be related to the ...

  17. Diarrhea and acaroid mites: A clinical study

    Chao-Pin Li; Yu-Bao Cui; Jian Wang; Qing-Gui Yang; Ye Tian

    2003-01-01

    AIM: To explore the characteristics of diarrhea caused by acaroid mites.METHODS: Acaroid mites in fresh stools of 241 patients with diarrhea were separated by flotation in saturated saline.Meanwhile, skin prick test, total IgE and mite-specific IgE were detected in all patients.RESULTS: The total positive rate of mites in stool samples of the patients was 17.01% (41/241), the positive rates of mites in male and female patients were 15.86 % (23/145)and 18.75 % (18/96), respectively, without significant difference (P>0.05). The percentage of skin prick test as ″+++″″++ ″″+ ″″±″″-″ was″+++, ″++″,″ +″, ″±″ and ″-″was 9.13 % (22/241), 7.47 %(18/241), 5.81% (14/241), 4.98 % (12/241) and 72.61%(175/241), respectively. The serum levels of total IgE, mitespecific IgE in patients with and without mites in stool samples were (165.72±78.55) IU/ml, (132.44±26.80) IU/ml and (145.22±82.47) IU/ml, (67.35±45.28) IU/ml,respectively, with significant difference (P<0.01). The positive rate of mites in stool samples in staffs working in traditional Chinese medicine storehouses or rice storehouses (experimental group) was 26.74 % (23/86), which was significantly higher than that (11.61%, 18/155) in people engaged in other professions (X2=8.97, P<0.01).CONCLUSION: Acaroid mites cause diarrhea and increase serum levels of total IgE and mite-specific IgE of patients,and the prevalence of diarrhea caused by acaroid mites is associated with occupations rather than the gender of patients.

  18. Severe acute malnutrition and infection

    Jones, Kelsey D. J.; Berkley, James A

    2014-01-01

    Severe acute malnutrition (SAM) is associated with increased severity of common infectious diseases, and death amongst children with SAM is almost always as a result of infection. The diagnosis and management of infection are often different in malnourished versus well-nourished children. The objectives of this brief are to outline the evidence underpinning important practical questions relating to the management of infectious diseases in children with SAM and to highlight research gaps. Over...

  19. [Transient hyperphosphatasemia observed in a boy with acute lymphoblastic leukemia].

    Kikuchi, S; Fujikawa, S; Hara, K; Ohira, M; Kojima, C; Maekawa, M

    1997-08-01

    A detailed time course of alkaline phosphatase (ALP; EC3.1.3.1) activity of transient hyperphosphatasemia (TH) in a 9-year-old boy with acute lymphoblastic leukemia (ALL) is described. The patient's serum ALP activity rose transiently to 49 times the upper limit of normal adult, without any evidences of hepatic and bone disease. The half-life of ALP activity was calculated about 10 days. We characterized ALP isoenzymes by usual electrophoresis using cellulose acetate membrane (Titan III iso-vis) and polyacrylamide disc gel (AlkPhor), and isoelectric focusing using polyacrylamide slab gel. The former two methods showed typical two bands (fast-alpha 2 and alpha 2 beta bands) and the latter one method revealed more basic bands of liver and bone, suggesting the extensive sialylation. The patient complained fever and diarrhea. Enterococcus faecium was detected from his stool. Etiologically, two more patients in the same ward showed TH in the same period. It suggested TH would be occurred by infectious states. Awareness of such benign forms of hyperphosphatasemia not related to malignancy will aid the physician in the differential diagnosis of elevated ALP activity. PMID:9283233

  20. Managing Radiation Therapy Side Effects: What to Do When You Have Loose Stools (Diarrhea)

    ... What to do when you have loose stools (diarrhea) “Diarrhea kept me from going out and doing things. ... human services national institutes of health What is diarrhea? Do you have bowel movements more often than ...

  1. What Is a Pediatric Infectious Diseases Specialist?

    ... Size Email Print Share What is a Pediatric Infectious Diseases Specialist? Page Content Article Body If your child ... teen years. What Kind of Training Do Pediatric Infectious Diseases Specialists Have? Pediatric infectious diseases specialists are medical ...

  2. Illness in Returned Travelers and Immigrants/Refugees: The 6-Year Experience of Two Australian Infectious Diseases Units.

    O'Brien, Daniel P.; Leder, Karin; Matchett, Elizabeth; Brown, Graham V.; Torresi, Joseph

    2008-01-01

    BACKGROUND: Data comparing returned travelers and immigrants/refugees managed in a hospital setting is lacking. METHODS: We prospectively collected data on 1,106 patients with an illness likely acquired overseas who presented to two hospital-based Australian infectious diseases units over a 6-year period. RESULTS: Eighty-three percent of patients were travelers and 17% immigrants/refugees. In travelers, malaria (19%), gastroenteritis/diarrhea (15%), and upper respiratory tract infection (URTI...

  3. Utilidad del estudio de las heces para el diagnóstico y manejo de lactantes y prescolares con diarrea aguda Stool work-up protocol in infants and preschool children with acute diarrhea: is it useful for diagnosis and treatment

    Alfredo Larrosa-Haro

    2002-07-01

    analyze the results of a stool work-up protocol in a series of infants and preschoolers with acute diarrhea. Material and Methods. A cross-sectional descriptive study was conducted between April 1999 and March 2000, among 288 children seen at a pediatric office in Guadalajara, Mexico. The mean age (±1SD was 23.1±13.9 months; 43% were females. Data were collected on demographic and clinical characteristics. The stool work-up consisted of fresh smear and methylene blue and Kinyoun smears, as well as determination of pH and reducing substances. Stool culture was performed in samples with ³ 3 leukocytes/microscopic field and rotavirus antigen detection only in selected cases. Data were analyzed using descriptive statistics, chi², odds ratios, and 95% confidence intervals. Results. Enterophatogens (% identified were: rotavirus 47.1, Campylobacter jejuni 27.4, Salmonella spp. 5.1, Shigella spp. 4.3, Cryptosporidium parvum 2.8, Giardia lamblia 2.4, Blastocystis hominis 1.4, Entamoeba histolytica 0.7. An OR of 5.7 was obtained for isolation of enteroinvasive bacteria in the presence of fecal leukocytes. Lactose intolerance was detected in 19.1%. The frequencies of rotavirus antigen identification and lactose intolerance were significantly higher in infants; the OR for lactose intolerance in infants with rotavirus was 21. Mucus and blood in the stools were associated to enteroinvasive bacteria and Cryptosporidium parvum. Conclusions. The current stool work-up protocol allowed the identification of enteropathogenic parasites, rotavirus and lactose intolerance in a short period of time. Leukocytes in stools were associated to the isolation of enteroinvasive bacteria. The frequency of agents associated to diarrheal disease was similar to that from other national studies. This stool work-up protocol could be useful as a tool to limit the unnecessary prescription of drugs and to follow universal recommendations for dietary management of these patients.

  4. Infectious diseases in large-scale cat hoarding investigations.

    Polak, K C; Levy, J K; Crawford, P C; Leutenegger, C M; Moriello, K A

    2014-08-01

    Animal hoarders accumulate animals in over-crowded conditions without adequate nutrition, sanitation, and veterinary care. As a result, animals rescued from hoarding frequently have a variety of medical conditions including respiratory infections, gastrointestinal disease, parasitism, malnutrition, and other evidence of neglect. The purpose of this study was to characterize the infectious diseases carried by clinically affected cats and to determine the prevalence of retroviral infections among cats in large-scale cat hoarding investigations. Records were reviewed retrospectively from four large-scale seizures of cats from failed sanctuaries from November 2009 through March 2012. The number of cats seized in each case ranged from 387 to 697. Cats were screened for feline leukemia virus (FeLV) and feline immunodeficiency virus (FIV) in all four cases and for dermatophytosis in one case. A subset of cats exhibiting signs of upper respiratory disease or diarrhea had been tested for infections by PCR and fecal flotation for treatment planning. Mycoplasma felis (78%), calicivirus (78%), and Streptococcus equi subspecies zooepidemicus (55%) were the most common respiratory infections. Feline enteric coronavirus (88%), Giardia (56%), Clostridium perfringens (49%), and Tritrichomonas foetus (39%) were most common in cats with diarrhea. The seroprevalence of FeLV and FIV were 8% and 8%, respectively. In the one case in which cats with lesions suspicious for dermatophytosis were cultured for Microsporum canis, 69/76 lesional cats were culture-positive; of these, half were believed to be truly infected and half were believed to be fomite carriers. Cats from large-scale hoarding cases had high risk for enteric and respiratory infections, retroviruses, and dermatophytosis. Case responders should be prepared for mass treatment of infectious diseases and should implement protocols to prevent transmission of feline or zoonotic infections during the emergency response and when

  5. Diarrhea associated with myenteric ganglionitis in a dog

    Diarrhea in a Border Terrier was associated with inflammatory lesions of the myenteric plexus. This lesion has been documented rarely in dogs. It is speculated that the myenteric plexus lesions were responsible for an autonomic nervous system dysfunction, which resulted in extreme intestinal hypermotility and subsequent diarrhea. Suggested tests for dogs suspected to have autonomic dysfunction are given

  6. Fecal Viral Concentration and Diarrhea in Norovirus Gastroenteritis

    Lee, Nelson; Martin C W Chan; Wong, Bonnie; Choi, K.W.; Sin, Winnie; Lui, Grace; Chan, Paul K.S.; Lai, Raymond W.M.; Cockram, C.S.; Sung, Joseph J Y; Leung, Wai K

    2007-01-01

    Fecal viral concentrations of 40 patients infected with norovirus genogroup GII.4 correlated with diarrhea duration and frequency of vomiting. Higher viral concentration and older age were independently associated with prolonged diarrhea (>4 days). These findings provide information on the pathogenesis and transmission of norovirus infections.

  7. Severe cytomegalovirus colitis with hemolytic anemia mimicking travelers’ diarrhea

    Nakyoung Hwang

    2015-08-01

    Full Text Available A case of cytomegalovirus (CMV colitis mimicking travelers’ diarrhea following short-term travel is reported. The patient was a Croatian man visiting Korea for work. He presented with fever and severe bloody diarrhea. He was diagnosed with a primary CMV infection complicated with CMV colitis and hemolytic anemia and recovered with antiviral therapy and concomitant steroid therapy.

  8. Development of a high throughput TaqMan assay for the detection of infectious laryngotracheitis virus in vector vaccinated chickens

    Infectious laryngotracheitis virus (ILTV) causes an acute, highly contagious upper-respiratory disease of chickens. Sensitive detection of the causative alphaherpesvirus is important in clinical investigations and experimental studies. In particular, it is essential to quantify the viral genome co...

  9. Village-randomized clinical trial of home distribution of zinc for treatment of childhood diarrhea in rural Western kenya.

    Daniel R Feikin

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: Zinc treatment shortens diarrhea episodes and can prevent future episodes. In rural Africa, most children with diarrhea are not brought to health facilities. In a village-randomized trial in rural Kenya, we assessed if zinc treatment might have a community-level preventive effect on diarrhea incidence if available at home versus only at health facilities. METHODS: We randomized 16 Kenyan villages (1,903 eligible children to receive a 10-day course of zinc and two oral rehydration solution (ORS sachets every two months at home and 17 villages (2,241 eligible children to receive ORS at home, but zinc at the health-facility only. Children's caretakers were educated in zinc/ORS use by village workers, both unblinded to intervention arm. We evaluated whether incidence of diarrhea and acute lower respiratory illness (ALRI reported at biweekly home visits and presenting to clinic were lower in zinc villages, using poisson regression adjusting for baseline disease rates, distance to clinic, and children's age. RESULTS: There were no differences between village groups in diarrhea incidence either reported at the home or presenting to clinic. In zinc villages (1,440 children analyzed, 61.2% of diarrheal episodes were treated with zinc, compared to 5.4% in comparison villages (1,584 children analyzed, p<0.0001. There were no differences in ORS use between zinc (59.6% and comparison villages (58.8%. Among children with fever or cough without diarrhea, zinc use was low (<0.5%. There was a lower incidence of reported ALRI in zinc villages (adjusted RR 0.68, 95% CI 0.46-0.99, but not presenting at clinic. CONCLUSIONS: In this study, home zinc use to treat diarrhea did not decrease disease rates in the community. However, with proper training, availability of zinc at home could lead to more episodes of pediatric diarrhea being treated with zinc in parts of rural Africa where healthcare utilization is low. TRIAL REGISTRATION: ClinicalTrials.gov NCT

  10. Diagnosis and Treatment of Infantile Diarrhea%小儿腹泻的诊断与治疗

    张琳琼

    2014-01-01

    在发展中国家5岁以下儿童腹泻有着高发病率、高死亡率。急性腹泻迁延不愈可能导致消化、吸收障碍,引起营养不良,提高死亡的风险。因此,腹泻病是我国重点防治的疾病之一。本文就目前小儿腹泻的诊治进行了综述,便于临床医师参考。%Diarrhea is stil responsible for high rates of morbidity and mortality in children under 5 years of age with diarrhea in developing countries. The prolongation of the acute episode may cause digestive and absorptive malfunction and, consequently, malnutrition, raising the risk of death,Therefore , Infantile diarrhea is one of the key prevention and control of diseases in our country. The diagnosis and treatment of infantile diarrhea were reviewed,for clinicians reference.

  11. Infectious Diseases in the Homeless

    2008-08-26

    In this podcast, Ted Pestorius speaks with Dr. Marian McDonald, Associate Director for Minority and Women’s Health at CDC about an article in September 2008 issue of Emerging Infectious Diseases on infectious diseases in the homeless. There are an estimated 100 million homeless people worldwide today, and this number is likely to grow. The homeless population is vulnerable to many diseases, including HIV, hepatitis, and tuberculosis. Dr. McDonald discusses why this population is so vulnerable.  Created: 8/26/2008 by Emerging Infectious Diseases.   Date Released: 8/27/2008.

  12. Herpesvirus infection and infectious mononucleosis

    E. V. Sharipova

    2014-09-01

    Full Text Available In this review we present current information on various aspects of infectious mononucleosis in children. Based on the analysis of scientific literature highlights the major etiological factors that lead to the development of this disease. The paper describes the clinical and laboratory features of infectious mononucleosis caused by Epstein-Barr virus, cytomegalovirus, human herpes virus type VI. Presents literature data on the impact of herpes infection on the development of mononucleosis. Showing modern aspects of an integrated diagnosis of herpesvirus infection in infectious mononucleosis in children.

  13. Reducing Non-Infectious Risks of Blood Transfusion

    Gilliss, Brian M.; Looney, Mark R.; Gropper, Michael A.

    2011-01-01

    As screening for transfusion-associated infections has improved, non-infectious complications of transfusion now cause the majority of morbidity and mortality associated with transfusion in the United States. For example, transfusion-related acute lung injury, transfusion-associated circulatory overload, and hemolytic transfusion-reactions are the first, second, and third leading causes of death from transfusion respectively. These complications and others are reviewed here and several contro...

  14. Pathogenicity and immunogenicity local isolat infectious laryngo tracheitis virus

    Risa Indriani; Helmy Hamid; R.M. Abdul Adjid; Muharam Saepulloh

    2016-01-01

    Infectious laryngotracheitis (ILT) is an acute and contagious respiratory diseases of chicken. The virus is Gallid herpes and belong to family herpesviridae. Two local strains of ILT virus those were BGR-6 and BKS-3 were isolated and their pathogenicity and immunogenicity were further observed after five time pareses on coris allantoic of specific pathogenic free embryonated eggs. The pathogenicity of both isolates to be possible for use as seed vaccine were detected based on pathogenicity in...

  15. First complete genome sequence of infectious laryngotracheitis virus

    Ficorilli Nino P; Browning Glenn F; Petermann Ivonne; Noormohammadi Amir H; Markham John F; Markham Philip F; Lee Sang-Won; Hartley Carol A; Devlin Joanne M

    2011-01-01

    Abstract Background Infectious laryngotracheitis virus (ILTV) is an alphaherpesvirus that causes acute respiratory disease in chickens worldwide. To date, only one complete genomic sequence of ILTV has been reported. This sequence was generated by concatenating partial sequences from six different ILTV strains. Thus, the full genomic sequence of a single (individual) strain of ILTV has not been determined previously. This study aimed to use high throughput sequencing technology to determine t...

  16. Infectious abdominal emergencies; Urgences abdominales d`origine infectieuse

    Porcel, A.; Arrive, L.; Mehdi, M.; Monnier-Cholley, L.; Ayadi, K.; Tubiana, J.M. [Centre Hospitalier Universitaire Saint-Antoine, 75 - Paris (France)

    1996-12-31

    Infectious disease is a common cause of acute abdomen. The diagnosis is based on clinical examination and basic laboratory tests. However, medical imaging routinely performed according to the clinical findings is frequently useful. Hepatic and splenic abscesses are correctly demonstrated by ultrasonography and computed tomography. Ultrasonography is the reference standard for the diagnosis of acute cholecystitis. The US examination is also performed for the diagnosis of appendicitis and its complications. Ultrasonography and barium enema are commonly performed for the evaluation of sigmoid diverticulitis. Computed tomography is the reference standard to determine medical or surgical procedures. (authors). 20 refs., 15 figs.

  17. Breastfeeding and the risk for diarrhea morbidity and mortality

    Victora Cesar

    2011-04-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Lack of exclusive breastfeeding among infants 0-5 months of age and no breastfeeding among children 6-23 months of age are associated with increased diarrhea morbidity and mortality in developing countries. We estimate the protective effects conferred by varying levels of breastfeeding exposure against diarrhea incidence, diarrhea prevalence, diarrhea mortality, all-cause mortality, and hospitalization for diarrhea illness. Methods We systematically reviewed all literature published from 1980 to 2009 assessing levels of suboptimal breastfeeding as a risk factor for selected diarrhea morbidity and mortality outcomes. We conducted random effects meta-analyses to generate pooled relative risks by outcome and age category. Results We found a large body of evidence for the protective effects of breastfeeding against diarrhea incidence, prevalence, hospitalizations, diarrhea mortality, and all-cause mortality. The results of random effects meta-analyses of eighteen included studies indicated varying degrees of protection across levels of breastfeeding exposure with the greatest protection conferred by exclusive breastfeeding among infants 0-5 months of age and by any breastfeeding among infants and young children 6-23 months of age. Specifically, not breastfeeding resulted in an excess risk of diarrhea mortality in comparison to exclusive breastfeeding among infants 0-5 months of age (RR: 10.52 and to any breastfeeding among children aged 6-23 months (RR: 2.18. Conclusions Our findings support the current WHO recommendation for exclusive breastfeeding during the first 6 months of life as a key child survival intervention. Our findings also highlight the importance of breastfeeding to protect against diarrhea-specific morbidity and mortality throughout the first 2 years of life.

  18. Emerging infectious diseases: vulnerabilities, contributing factors and approaches.

    Lashley, Felissa R

    2004-04-01

    We live in an ever more connected global village linked through international travel, politics, economics, culture and human-human and human-animal interactions. The realization that the concept of globalization includes global exposure to disease-causing agents that were formerly confined to small, remote areas and that infectious disease outbreaks can have political, economic and social roots and effects is becoming more apparent. Novel infectious disease microbes continue to be discovered because they are new or newly recognized, have expanded their geographic range, have been shown to cause a new disease spectrum, have jumped the species barrier from animals to humans, have become resistant to antimicrobial agents, have increased in incidence or have become more virulent. These emerging infectious disease microbes may have the potential for use as agents of bioterrorism. Factors involved in the emergence of infectious diseases are complex and interrelated and involve all classifications of organisms transmitted in a variety of ways. In 2003, outbreaks of interest included severe acute respiratory syndrome, monkeypox and avian influenza. Information from the human genome project applied to microbial organisms and their hosts will provide new opportunities for detection, diagnosis, treatment, prevention, control and prognosis. New technology related not only to genetics but also to satellite and monitoring systems will play a role in weather, climate and the approach to environmental manipulations that influence factors contributing to infectious disease emergence and control. Approaches to combating emerging infectious diseases include many disciplines, such as animal studies, epidemiology, immunology, ecology, environmental studies, microbiology, pharmacology, other sciences, health, medicine, public health, nursing, cultural, political and social studies, all of which must work together. Appropriate financial support of the public health infrastructure

  19. Acute kidney injury in children.

    Merouani, A; Flechelles, O; Jouvet, P

    2012-04-01

    Acute kidney injury (AKI) affects 5% of critically ill hospitalized children and is a risk factor for increased morbidity and mortality. The current review focuses on new definitions of acute kidney injury, standardized to reflect the entire spectrum of the disease, as well as on ongoing research to identify early biomarkers of kidney injury. Its also provides an overview of current practice and available therapies, with emphasis on new strategies for the prevention and pharmacological treatment of diarrhea-associated hemolytic uremic syndrome. Furthermore, a decision-making algorithm is presented for the use of renal replacement therapies in critically ill children with AKI. PMID:22495187

  20. Therapeutic Effect of Budesonide Inhalation on Acute Infectious Laryngitis and Bronchitis%布地奈德吸入治疗急性喉炎、喉气管支气管炎疗效观察

    韩明达

    2015-01-01

    目的:分析探讨布地奈德吸入治疗急性喉炎、喉气管支气管炎症的临床效果。方法选取88例患有急性喉炎、喉气管支气管炎的患者作为研究对象,将其随机分成对照组和观察组,每组44例患者。对照组患者采用地塞米松静脉注射进行治疗,观察者则采取布地奈德雾化吸入进行治疗;治疗结束后,对比两组患者的治疗效果。结果采取布地奈德雾化吸入治疗的观察组患者在治疗效果及症状缓解上明显优于对照组,P<0.05,差异具有统计学意义。结论采用布地奈德雾化吸入治疗急性喉炎、喉气管支气管炎具有显著的治疗效果,患者症状能够得到迅速恢复。%Objective To explore the clinical effect analysis of budesonide inhalation in the treatment of acute laryngitis, bronchitis disease. Methods 88 cases with acute laryngitis, bronchitis of children as the research object, and were randomly separated into the observation group and the control group, 44 cases in each group of patients. The control group was treated with intravenous dexamethasone treatment, observers take budesonide inhalation treatment,in the end of the treatment, compared two groups of patients with treatment effect.Results Take budesonide atomization inhalation treatment observation group patients in the treatment and remission of symptoms signiifcantly better than the control group,P<0.05,with significant difference.Conclusion Inhalation in the treatment of acute laryngitis, bronchitis has signiifcant therapeutic effect of budesonide in children with symptoms, can be quickly restored.

  1. Post-infectious irritable bowel syndrome

    Marroon Thabane; John K Marshall

    2009-01-01

    Post-infectious irritable bowel syndrome (PI-IBS) is a common disorder wherein symptoms of IBS begin after an episode of acute gastroenteritis. Published studies have reported incidence of PI-IBS to range between 5% and 32%. The mechanisms underlying the development of PI-IBS are not fully understood, but are believed to include persistent sub-clinical inflammation, changes in intestinal permeability and alteration of gut flora. Individual studies have suggested that risk factors for PI-IBS include patients' demographics, psychological disorders and the severity of enteric illness. However, PI-IBS remains a diagnosis of exclusion with no specific disease markers and, to date, no definitive therapy exists. The prognosis of PIIBS appears favorable with spontaneous and gradual resolution of symptoms in most patients.

  2. INFECTIOUS COMPLICATIONS IN CHRONIC LYMPHOCYTIC LEUKEMIA

    AnnaMaria Nosari

    2012-11-01

    Full Text Available Infectious complications have been known to be a major cause of morbidity and mortality in CLL patients who are predisposed to infections because of both the humoral immunodepression inherent to hematologic disease, which is related to stage and duration of CLL, and to further immunosuppression related to therapy. The majority of infections in CLL patients treated with alkilating agents is of bacterial origin. The immunodeficiency and natural infectious history of alkylator-resistant, corticosteroid-treated patients appears to have changed with the administration of purine analogs, which has been complicated by very severe and unusual infections and also more viral infections due to sustained reduction of CD4-positive T lymphocytes. The following introduction of monoclonal antibody therapies, in particular alemtuzumab, further increased the immunodepression, increasing also infections which appeared more often in patients with recurrent neutropenia due to chemotherapy cycles. Epidemiological data regarding fungal infections in lymphoproliferative disorders are scarce. Italian SEIFEM group in a retrospective multicentre study regarding CLL patients reported an incidence of mycoses 0.5%; however, chronic lymphoproliferative disorders emerged as second haematological underlying disease after acute leukemia in a French study on aspergillosis; in particular CLL with aspergillosis accounted for a third of these chronic lymphoproliferative diseases presenting mould infection.

  3. INFECTIOUS COMPLICATIONS IN CHRONIC LYMPHOCYTIC LEUKEMIA

    AnnaMaria Nosari

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available

    Infectious complications have been known to be a major cause of morbidity and mortality in CLL patients who are predisposed to infections because of both the humoral immunodepression inherent to hematologic disease, which is related to stage and duration of CLL, and to further immunosuppression related to therapy. The majority of infections in CLL patients treated with alkilating agents is of bacterial origin. The immunodeficiency and natural infectious history of alkylator-resistant, corticosteroid-treated patients appears to have changed with the administration of purine analogs, which has been complicated by very severe and unusual infections and also more viral infections due to sustained reduction of CD4-positive T lymphocytes. The following introduction of monoclonal antibody therapies, in particular alemtuzumab, further increased the immunodepression, increasing also infections which appeared more often in patients with recurrent neutropenia due to chemotherapy cycles.

    Epidemiological data regarding fungal infections in lymphoproliferative disorders are scarce. Italian SEIFEM group in a retrospective multicentre study regarding CLL patients reported an incidence of mycoses 0.5%; however, chronic lymphoproliferative disorders emerged as second haematological underlying disease after acute leukemia in a French study on aspergillosis; in particular CLL with aspergillosis accounted for a third of these chronic lymphoproliferative diseases presenting mould infection.

  4. Multiple sclerosis after infectious mononucleosis

    Nielsen, Trine Rasmussen; Rostgaard, Klaus; Nielsen, Nete Munk; Koch-Henriksen, Nils; Haahr, Sven; Sørensen, Per Soelberg; Hjalgrim, Henrik

    2007-01-01

    BACKGROUND: Infectious mononucleosis caused by the Epstein-Barr virus has been associated with increased risk of multiple sclerosis. However, little is known about the characteristics of this association. OBJECTIVE: To assess the significance of sex, age at and time since infectious mononucleosis......, and attained age to the risk of developing multiple sclerosis after infectious mononucleosis. DESIGN: Cohort study using persons tested serologically for infectious mononucleosis at Statens Serum Institut, the Danish Civil Registration System, the Danish National Hospital Discharge Register, and the...... Danish Multiple Sclerosis Registry. SETTING: Statens Serum Institut. PATIENTS: A cohort of 25 234 Danish patients with mononucleosis was followed up for the occurrence of multiple sclerosis beginning on April 1, 1968, or January 1 of the year after the diagnosis of mononucleosis or after a negative Paul...

  5. Infectious spondylitis in adults

    In adults, infectious spondylitis is a rare but sever disease, caused by a bacterial thrombus in tissue of reduced resistance. In conventional radiographs initial findings are a narrowing of the intervertebral space, local osteoporosis and poorly defined erosive borders of the vertebral endplates. These changings can be found at least three to six weeks after the onset of disease. However, in Szintigraphy and MRT pathologic alterations are evident after ten to twelve days. Thus, early diagnosis and treatment becomes possible. In early stages of the disease of localized lysis surrounded by a reactive sclerosis appears in predisposed areas of the vertebral body (subchondral, anterobasal, ventral, central). Apparently, a soft tissue tumor is associated. Sclerosis and reduction of the soft tissue tumor are the first signs of repair processes. After at least 12 weeks, computed tomography can reveal typical sintering of the vertebral body and occasionally the development of a bony sequester. In addition, MRT as well as CT can be helpful in the detection and localization of complications as abscesses or affection of the vertebral canal. The tuberculous spondylitis can sometimes cause difficulties in differential diagnosis. Clinical findings, affection of several vertebral bodies, large soft tissue tumors with appearance of calcification as well as not typical locations are strongly suggestive of tuberculous spondylitis, but these findings are not specific of the disease. Degenerative disorders such as erosive osteochondrosis or changings due ot chronic dialysis (e.g amyloid or crystal arthropathies) may cause even more problems in differential diagnosis. Typical for a blastomatous process is the integrity of the interverebral disc space, which is a rare finding in spondylitis. (orig.)

  6. Infectious Disease, Endangerment, and Extinction

    MacPhee, Ross D. E.; Greenwood, Alex D.

    2013-01-01

    Infectious disease, especially virulent infectious disease, is commonly regarded as a cause of fluctuation or decline in biological populations. However, it is not generally considered as a primary factor in causing the actual endangerment or extinction of species. We review here the known historical examples in which disease has, or has been assumed to have had, a major deleterious impact on animal species, including extinction, and highlight some recent cases in which disease is the chief s...

  7. Investigative modalities in infectious keratitis

    Gupta Noopur; Tandon Radhika

    2008-01-01

    Standard recommended guidelines for diagnosis of infectious keratitis do exist. Based on an extensive Medline literature search, the various investigative modalities available for aiding the diagnosis of microbial keratitis have been reviewed and described briefly. Preferred practice patterns have been outlined and the importance of routine pre-treatment cultures in the primary management of infectious keratitis has been highlighted. Corneal scraping, tear samples and corneal biopsy are few o...

  8. Herpesvirus infection and infectious mononucleosis

    E. V. Sharipova; I. V. Babachenko

    2014-01-01

    In this review we present current information on various aspects of infectious mononucleosis in children. Based on the analysis of scientific literature highlights the major etiological factors that lead to the development of this disease. The paper describes the clinical and laboratory features of infectious mononucleosis caused by Epstein-Barr virus, cytomegalovirus, human herpes virus type VI. Presents literature data on the impact of herpes infection on the development of mononucleosis. S...

  9. Global mapping of infectious disease

    Hay, SI; Battle, KE; Pigott, DM; Smith, DL; Moyes, CL; S. Bhatt; Brownstein, JS; Collier, N.; Myers, MF; George, DB; Gething, PW

    2013-01-01

    The primary aim of this review was to evaluate the state of knowledge of the geographical distribution of all infectious diseases of clinical significance to humans. A systematic review was conducted to enumerate cartographic progress, with respect to the data available for mapping and the methods currently applied. The results helped define the minimum information requirements for mapping infectious disease occurrence, and a quantitative framework for assessing the mapping opportunities for ...

  10. Non-infectious orbital vasculitides

    Perumal, B; Black, E H; Levin, F; Servat, J J

    2012-01-01

    Non-infectious vasculitides comprise a large number of diseases. Many of these diseases can cause inflammation within the orbit and a clinical presentation, which mimics numerous other processes. Orbital disease can often be the initial presentation of a systemic process and early diagnosis can help prevent long-term, potentially fatal consequences. The evaluation and treatment of non-infectious orbital vasculitides are often complicated and require a thorough understanding of the disease and...

  11. Bacterial gastroenteritis

    Infectious diarrhea - bacterial gastroenteritis; Acute gastroenteritis; Gastroenteritis - bacterial ... Bacterial gastroenteritis can affect 1 person or a group of people who all ate the same food. It is ...

  12. Distinct alkaline phosphatase in serum of patients with lymphatic leukemia and infectious mononucleosis

    Neumann, H.; Moran, E.M.; Russell, R.M.; Rosenberg, I.H.

    1974-10-11

    A distinct alkaline phosphatase (phosphatase N) was demonstrated in the serum of patients with acute lymphatic leukemia, chronic lymphatic leukemia, and infectious mononucleosis. This enzyme closely resembles that extracted from the thymus of mice with lymphoma or lymphatic leukemia, both in its electrophoretic mobility and its substrate specificity. The phosphatase N activity was related to the clinical state of patients with lymphatic leukemia and disappeared with recovery from infectious mononucleosis.

  13. Hepatitis in skunks caused by the virus of infectious canine hepatitis.

    Karstad, L; Ramsden, R; Berry, T J; Binn, L N

    1975-10-01

    Two cases of acute, fatal, hepatitis occurred in young, striped skunks (Mephitis mephitis) trapped in southern Ontario. Histologically, lesions in the liver were similar to infectious canine hepatitis. A virus was isolated which produced large intranuclear inclusions in dog kidney cell cultures. These inclusions were Feulgen-positive and fluoresced green with acridine orange stain. The skunk hepatitis isolate was identified as the virus of infectious canine hepatitis by virus neutralization tests. PMID:172663

  14. Complete Genome Sequence of the First Chinese Virulent Infectious Laryngotracheitis Virus

    Kong, Congcong; ZHAO Yan; Cui, Xianlan; ZHANG, XIAOMIN; Cui, Hongyu; Xue, Mei; Wang, Yunfeng

    2013-01-01

    Infectious laryngotracheitis (ILT) is an acute respiratory disease caused by infectious laryngotracheitis virus (ILTV). The complete genome sequences of five attenuated ILTV vaccine strains and six virulent ILTV strains as well as two Australian ILTV field strains have been published in Australia and the USA so far. To provide the complete genome sequence information of ILTVs from different geographic regions, the whole genome of ILTV LJS09 isolated in China was sequenced. The genome of ILTV ...

  15. Trains of Thought in Treating Infectious Atypical Pneumonia with Integrative Chinese and Western Medicine Approach

    林琳

    2003-01-01

    @@ Infectious atypical pneumonia (also called severe acute respiratory syndrome, SARS by WHO) is a new type of infectious disease, whose disease condition is fierce and ferocious, rapid in changing, seriously threatened human health and life. The author has treated around 200 SARS patients in Guangzhou and Hong Kong with integrative Chinese and western medicine (ICWM) approach from January 2003till present. Now I would like to make a comment on ICWM in treating SARS.

  16. Optimal control of diarrhea transmission in a flood evacuation zone

    Erwina, N.; Aldila, D.; Soewono, E.

    2014-03-01

    Evacuation of residents and diarrhea disease outbreak in evacuation zone have become serious problem that frequently happened during flood periods. Limited clean water supply and infrastructure in evacuation zone contribute to a critical spread of diarrhea. Transmission of diarrhea disease can be reduced by controlling clean water supply and treating diarrhea patients properly. These treatments require significant amount of budget, which may not be fulfilled in the fields. In his paper, transmission of diarrhea disease in evacuation zone using SIRS model is presented as control optimum problem with clean water supply and rate of treated patients as input controls. Existence and stability of equilibrium points and sensitivity analysis are investigated analytically for constant input controls. Optimum clean water supply and rate of treatment are found using optimum control technique. Optimal results for transmission of diarrhea and the corresponding controls during the period of observation are simulated numerically. The optimum result shows that transmission of diarrhea disease can be controlled with proper combination of water supply and rate of treatment within allowable budget.

  17. Epidemiology of functional diarrhea and comparison with diarrhea-predominant irritable bowel syndrome: a population-based survey in China.

    Yan-Fang Zhao

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: The epidemiology of functional diarrhea and its impacts on Chinese remain unclear, and there are no data on the comparative epidemiology of functional diarrhea and diarrhea-predominant irritable bowel syndrome (IBS-D. This study was to explore the epidemiology of functional diarrhea and its impacts, and to identify its distinction from IBS-D. METHODS AND FINDINGS: A cross-sectional survey was conducted in 16078 respondents, who were interviewed under a randomized stratified multi-stage sampling design in five cities of China. All respondents completed the modified Rome II questionnaire, and the 36-item Short Form health survey (SF-36 was used for assessing health-related quality of life in 20% of the sample. Overall, 248 respondents (1.54% had functional diarrhea and 277 (1.72% had IBS-D. Functional diarrhea was positively associated with increasing age and body mass index (trend test P<0.05. The three most common symptoms for at least 3 weeks in the past months were loose, mushy or watery stools (n = 203, 81.85%, more than three bowel movements a day (n = 100, 40.32% and having to rush to the toilet to have a bowel movement (n = 72, 29.03%. Meaningful impairment was observed in 5 of the 8 SF-36 domains in respondents with functional diarrhea. The demographics are mostly similar between the respondents with functional diarrhea and IBS-D; however, respondents with IBS-D had more frequent symptoms of diarrhea and even lower scores in SF-36 domains than those with functional diarrhea. CONCLUSIONS: The prevalence of functional diarrhea in China is substantially lower than that in Western countries and relatively higher than that in other Asian countries. It impaired health-related quality of life, and respondents with IBS-D have even worse quality of life. Further population-based studies are needed to investigate the epidemiology of functional diarrhea and the differences between functional diarrhea and IBS-D.

  18. Hospital acquired diarrhea in a burn center of Tehran

    Faranak Alinejad

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Background and Objectives: Incidence of hospital-acquired diarrhea has increased rapidly and burn patients are at high risk of getting it. Infection with C. difficile is the most common cause of antibiotic associated diarrhea. The aim of this study was to determine the baseline characteristics and clinical presentation of hospital-acquired diarrhea and compare C. difficile and non-C. difficile diarrhea in burn patients treated at a burn center.Materials and Methods: During a 1-year study all patients with hospital-acquired diarrhea at Motahari Burn Hospital, Teh- ran, Iran enrolled in this study. We compared patients with a stool sample positive for C. difficile toxin or tracing the antigen in patients who were negative for detection of toxin in their stool sample specimens.Results: Diarrhea developed in 37 patients out of 3200 admitted patients with a mean burn size of 34.8 ±20.1%. Among them, 8 patients had a positive result for C. difficile. The mean time between antibiotic therapy and occurrence of diarrhea was 9.5 ± 6.2 days. Nine (23.7% patients died in the 7.8± 4.2 days, mostly due to co-morbidities. The mean duration of di- arrhea was 3.6 ± 2 days. Twenty two (57.9% patients were treated with oral metronidazol and eleven (28.9% patients were treated with combination of metronidazole and vancomycin, higher rate of combination therapy was seen in Clostridium difficile CDI.Conclusion: Overall, the prevalence of hospital-acquired diarrhea was 120/10,000  and 21% of them caused by infection with C. difficile. Presence of peripheral leukocytosis and colitis were the alarm sign for diagnosis of C. difficile infection. Keywords: Hospital-acquired diarrhea (HAD, Burn, Clostridium difficile infection (CDI

  19. Gastroenterites e infecções respiratórias agudas em crianças menores de 5 anos, em área da região Sudeste do Brasil, 1986-1987: II - Diarréias Gastroenteritis and acute respiratory infections among children up to 5 years old in an area of Southeastern Brazil, 1986-1987: II - Diarrhea

    Eliseu Alves Waldman

    1997-02-01

    morbi-mortalidade por diarréias no Município de São Paulo, durante a década de 80, período em que houve acentuada queda nas internações hospitalares por essa causa. Tal tendência deve ser acompanhada atentamente, pois influenciará modificações nas características da demanda de assistência à saúde infantil.INTRODUCTION: The decrease morbi-mortality gastroenteritis in is related to the factor responsible largely for the fall in infant mortality and mortality from communicable diseases in developing countries. Nevertheless, diarrhea is still a considerable public health problem in these countries, especially among children under 5 years old. OBJECTIVES: To describe some aspects of the of gastroenteritis epidemiology among children up to 5 years old, resident in areas of S. Paulo county. MATERIAL AND METHOD: A probabilistic sample of children up to 5 years old was studied (n=468. The epidemiological survey was undertaken in five areas S. Paulo county (Brazil from March 1986 to May 1987. Data were obtained through household interviews once a month over a year. RESULTS: During the follow-up 139 diarrhea episodes were registered, with a mean duration of 5.5 days. Twenty percent of the diarrhea events were followed by at least one other case in the household. The incidence of gastroenteritis was 2.78 episodes per 100 children/month. The highest incidence affected the children of up to 2 years of age. In 46.1% of the gastroenteritis episodes medical assistance was not sought, the children were treated by their mothers or not at all; 51.8% of the diarrhea events were attended to by the primary health care service, and only 2.1% were attended to by a hospital. No child died as a consequence of diarrhea. Of the therapeutical interventions used the most frequent were oral rehydration (25.2% and oral rehydration with antibiotics (11.5%. Various socio-economic and personal background factors such as living conditions, water supply, sewarage, coverage; family income per

  20. Llama nanoantibodies with therapeutic potential against human norovirus diarrhea.

    Garaicoechea, Lorena; Aguilar, Andrea; Parra, Gabriel I; Bok, Marina; Sosnovtsev, Stanislav V; Canziani, Gabriela; Green, Kim Y; Bok, Karin; Parreño, Viviana

    2015-01-01

    Noroviruses are a major cause of acute gastroenteritis, but no vaccines or therapeutic drugs are available. Llama-derived single chain antibody fragments (also called VHH) are small, recombinant monoclonal antibodies of 15 kDa with several advantages over conventional antibodies. The aim of this study was to generate recombinant monoclonal VHH specific for the two major norovirus (NoV) genogroups (GI and GII) in order to investigate their potential as immunotherapy for the treatment of NoV diarrhea. To accomplish this objective, two llamas were immunized with either GI.1 (Norwalk-1968) or GII.4 (MD2004) VLPs. After immunization, peripheral blood lymphocytes were collected and used to generate two VHH libraries. Using phage display technology, 10 VHH clones specific for GI.1, and 8 specific for GII.4 were selected for further characterization. All VHH recognized conformational epitopes in the P domain of the immunizing VP1 capsid protein, with the exception of one GII.4 VHH that recognized a linear P domain epitope. The GI.1 VHHs were highly specific for the immunizing GI.1 genotype, with only one VHH cross-reacting with GI.3 genotype. The GII.4 VHHs reacted with the immunizing GII.4 strain and showed a varying reactivity profile among different GII genotypes. One VHH specific for GI.1 and three specific for GII.4 could block the binding of homologous VLPs to synthetic HBGA carbohydrates, saliva, and pig gastric mucin, and in addition, could inhibit the hemagglutination of red blood cells by homologous VLPs. The ability of Nov-specific VHHs to perform well in these surrogate neutralization assays supports their further development as immunotherapy for NoV treatment and immunoprophylaxis. PMID:26267898