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Sample records for acute ethanol treatment

  1. Acute ethanol treatment upregulates Th1, Th2, and Hdc in larval zebrafish in stable networks.

    Puttonen, Henri A J; Sundvik, Maria; Rozov, Stanislav; Chen, Yu-Chia; Panula, Pertti

    2013-01-01

    Earlier studies in zebrafish have revealed that acutely given ethanol has a stimulatory effect on locomotion in fish larvae but the mechanism of this effect has not been revealed. We studied the effects of ethanol concentrations between 0.75 and 3.00% on 7-day-old larval zebrafish (Danio rerio) of the Turku strain. At 0.75-3% concentrations ethanol increased swimming speed during the first minute. At 3% the swimming speed decreased rapidly after the first minute, whereas at 0.75 and 1.5% a prolonged increase in swimming speed was seen. At the highest ethanol concentration dopamine levels decreased significantly after a 10-min treatment. We found that ethanol upregulates key genes involved in the biosynthesis of histamine (hdc) and dopamine (th1 and th2) following a short 10-min ethanol treatment, measured by qPCR. Using in situ hybridization and immunohistochemistry, we further discovered that the morphology of the histaminergic and dopaminergic neurons and networks in the larval zebrafish brain was unaffected by both the 10-min and a longer 30-min treatment. The results suggest that acute ethanol rapidly decreases dopamine levels, and activates both forms or th to replenish the dopamine stores within 30 min. The dynamic changes in histaminergic and dopaminergic system enzymes occurred in the same cells which normally express the transcripts. As both dopamine and histamine are known to be involved in the behavioral effects of ethanol and locomotor stimulation, these results suggest that rapid adaptations of these networks are associated with altered locomotor activity. PMID:23754986

  2. Acute ethanol treatment upregulates th1, th2 and hdc in larval zebrafish in stable networks

    Pertti Panula

    2013-05-01

    Full Text Available Earlier studies in zebrafish have revealed that acutely given ethanol has a stimulatory effect on locomotion in fish larvae but the mechanism of this effect has not been revealed. We studied the effects of ethanol concentrations between 0.75% and 3.00% on 7-day-old larval zebrafish (Danio rerio of the Turku strain. At 0.75-3% concentrations ethanol increased swimming speed during the first minute. At 3% the swimming speed decreased rapidly after the first minute, whereas at 0.75 and 1.5% a prolonged increase in swimming speed was seen. At the highest ethanol concentration dopamine levels decreased significantly after a 10-min treatment. We found that ethanol upregulates key genes involved in the biosynthesis of histamine (hdc and dopamine (th1 and th2 following a short 10-min ethanol treatment, measured by qPCR. Using in situ hybridisation and immunohistochemistry, we further discovered that the morphology of the histaminergic and dopaminergic neurons and networks in the larval zebrafish brain was unaffected by both the 10-min and a longer 30-min treatment. The results suggest that acute ethanol rapidly decreases dopamine levels, and activates both forms or th to replenish the dopamine stores within 30 minutes. The dynamic changes in histaminergic and dopaminergic system enzymes occured in the same cells which normally express the transcripts. As both dopamine and histamine are known to be involved in the behavioural effects of ethanol and locomotor stimulation, these results suggest that rapid adaptations of these networks are associated with altered locomotor activity.

  3. Acute ethanol treatment upregulates th1, th2, and hdc in larval zebrafish in stable networks

    Puttonen, Henri A. J.; Sundvik, Maria; Rozov, Stanislav; Chen, Yu-Chia; Panula, Pertti

    2013-01-01

    Earlier studies in zebrafish have revealed that acutely given ethanol has a stimulatory effect on locomotion in fish larvae but the mechanism of this effect has not been revealed. We studied the effects of ethanol concentrations between 0.75 and 3.00% on 7-day-old larval zebrafish (Danio rerio) of the Turku strain. At 0.75-3% concentrations ethanol increased swimming speed during the first minute. At 3% the swimming speed decreased rapidly after the first minute, whereas at 0.75 and 1.5% a pr...

  4. Acute ethanol treatment upregulates th1, th2 and hdc in larval zebrafish in stable networks

    Pertti Panula

    2013-01-01

    Earlier studies in zebrafish have revealed that acutely given ethanol has a stimulatory effect on locomotion in fish larvae but the mechanism of this effect has not been revealed. We studied the effects of ethanol concentrations between 0.75% and 3.00% on 7-day-old larval zebrafish (Danio rerio) of the Turku strain. At 0.75-3% concentrations ethanol increased swimming speed during the first minute. At 3% the swimming speed decreased rapidly after the first minute, whereas at 0.75 and 1.5% a p...

  5. Differential gene expression and lipid metabolism in fatty liver induced by acute ethanol treatment in mice

    Ethanol induces cumulative liver damage including steatosis, steatohepatitis and cirrhosis. The aim of this study is to investigate the global intrahepatic gene expression profile in the mouse liver treated with ethanol. A single oral dose of 0.5 or 5 g/kg ethanol was administered to male ICR mice, and liver samples were obtained after 6, 24 and 72 h. Histopathological evaluation showed typical fatty livers in the high-dose group at 24 h. Microarray analysis identified 28 genes as being ethanol responsive (two-way ANOVA; p < 0.05), after adjustment by the Benjamini-Hochberg multiple testing correction; these genes displayed ≥ 2-fold induction or repression. The expression of genes that are known to be involved in fatty acid synthesis was examined. The transcript for lipogenic transcription factor, sterol regulatory element (SRE)-binding factor 1 (Srebf1), was upregulated by acute ethanol exposure. Of the genes known to contain SRE or SRE-like sequences and to be regulated by SRE-binding protein 1 (SREBP1), those encoding malic enzyme (Mod1), ATP-citrate lyase (Acly), fatty acid synthase (Fasn) and stearyl-CoA desaturase (Scd1) were induced by ethanol. Quantitative real-time PCR confirmed the changes in the expression levels of the selected genes. The change in the Srebf1 mRNA level correlates well with that of the SREBP1 protein expression as well as its binding to the promoters of the target genes. The present study identifies differentially expressed genes that can be applied to the biomarkers for alcohol-binge-induced fatty liver. These results support the hypothesis by which ethanol-induced steatosis in mice is mediated by the fatty acid synthetic pathway regulated by SREBP1

  6. Effect of acute and chronic ethanol pre-treatment on the disposition of phencyclidine (PCP) in the rat.

    Vadlamani, N L; Pontani, R B; Misra, A L

    1982-05-01

    Disposition of [H] Phencyclidine in brain, plasma and adipose tissue of rats acutely and chronically-treated with ethanol was studied using a method possessing high sensitivity and specificity for PCP. In rats acutely-treated with ethanol (5 g/kg PO dose) and PCP (10 mg/kg IP dose), dispositional factors did not play a role in the intensifies pharmacological and behavioral effects of PCP. However in rats chronically-treated with 2.5 g/kg PO dose of ethanol twice a day for 19 days, the disposition of PCP (5 mg/kg IP dose) was significantly altered and the values of PCP in brain, plasma and adipose tissue were significantly higher than those in the control group. Although inhibition of PCP metabolism and a comparatively slower rate of its elimination appear to account for the potentiation of drug effects in animals chronically-treated with ethanol, interaction of drugs at the level of the central nervous system cannot be ruled out. PMID:7089042

  7. Actions of acute and chronic ethanol on presynaptic terminals.

    Roberto, Marisa; Treistman, Steven N; Pietrzykowski, Andrzej Z; Weiner, Jeff; Galindo, Rafael; Mameli, Manuel; Valenzuela, Fernando; Zhu, Ping Jun; Lovinger, David; Zhang, Tao A; Hendricson, Adam H; Morrisett, Richard; Siggins, George Robert

    2006-02-01

    This article presents the proceedings of a symposium entitled "The Tipsy Terminal: Presynaptic Effects of Ethanol" (held at the annual meeting of the Research Society on Alcoholism, in Santa Barbara, CA, June 27, 2005). The objective of this symposium was to focus on a cellular site of ethanol action underrepresented in the alcohol literature, but quickly becoming a "hot" topic. The chairs of the session were Marisa Roberto and George Robert Siggins. Our speakers were chosen on the basis of the diverse electrophysiological and other methods used to discern the effects of acute and chronic ethanol on presynaptic terminals and on the basis of significant insights that their data provide for understanding ethanol actions on neurons in general, as mechanisms underlying problematic behavioral effects of alcohol. The 5 presenters drew from their recent studies examining the effects of acute and chronic ethanol using a range of sophisticated methods from electrophysiological analysis of paired-pulse facilitation and spontaneous and miniature synaptic currents (Drs. Weiner, Valenzuela, Zhu, and Morrisett), to direct recording of ion channel activity and peptide release from acutely isolated synaptic terminals (Dr. Treistman), to direct microscopic observation of vesicular release (Dr. Morrisett). They showed that ethanol administration could both increase and decrease the probability of release of different transmitters from synaptic terminals. The effects of ethanol on synaptic terminals could often be correlated with important behavioral or developmental actions of alcohol. These and other novel findings suggest that future analyses of synaptic effects of ethanol should attempt to ascertain, in multiple brain regions, the role of presynaptic terminals, relevant presynaptic receptors and signal transduction linkages, exocytotic mechanisms, and their involvement in alcohol's behavioral actions. Such studies could lead to new treatment strategies for alcohol intoxication

  8. Fluctuations in serum ethanol concentration in the treatment of acute methanol poisoning: a prospective study of 21 patients

    Zakharov, S.; Navrátil, Tomáš; Salek, T.; Kurcová, I.; Pelclová, D.

    2015-01-01

    Roč. 159, č. 4 (2015), s. 666-676. ISSN 1213-8118 Institutional support: RVO:61388955 Keywords : methanol poisoning * ethanol * antidote Subject RIV: CG - Electrochemistry Impact factor: 1.200, year: 2014

  9. Acute ethanol administration induces oxidative changes in rat pancreatic tissue.

    Altomare, E; Grattagliano, I; Vendemiale, G.; V. Palmieri; Palasciano, G

    1996-01-01

    BACKGROUND--There is mounting clinical evidence that ethanol toxicity to the pancreas is linked with glutathione depletion from oxidative stress but there is not experimental proof that this occurs. AIMS AND METHODS--The effect of acute ethanol ingestion (4 g/kg) on the pancreatic content of reduced (GSH) and oxidised (GSSG) glutathione, malondialdehyde (MDA), and carbonyl proteins were therefore studied in the rat. RESULTS--Ethanol caused a significant reduction in GSH (p < 0.02) and an incr...

  10. Severe hypotension and hypothermia caused by acute ethanol toxicity

    Wilson, E; W. S. Waring

    2007-01-01

    This article reports the time course and clinical features of acute ethanol poisoning in an elderly man who had previously abstained from alcohol. Several hours after ingestion, severe hypotension and hypothermia developed, and the consciousness level was reduced. Supportive measures were sufficient to allow the patient's blood pressure and temperature to recover by 24 h post ingestion. The clinical manifestations of ethanol toxicity are often confounded by coexistent drug ingestion and varia...

  11. Effects of acute ethanol administration on nocturnal pineal serotonin N-acetyltransferase activity

    The effect of acute ethanol administration on pineal serotonin N-acetyltransferase (NAT) activity, norepinephrine and indoleamine content was examined in male rats. When ethanol was administered in two equal doses (2 g/kg body weight) over a 4 hour period during the light phase, the nocturnal rise in NAT activity was delayed by seven hours. The nocturnal pineal norepinephrine content was not altered by ethanol except for a delay in the reduction of NE with the onset of the following light phase. Although ethanol treatment led to a significant reduction in nocturnal levels of pineal serotonin content, there was no significant effect upon pineal content of 5-hydroxyindoleacetic acid (5-HIAA). The data indicate that ethanol delays the onset of the rise of nocturnal pineal NAT activity

  12. Treatment of acute pancreatitis

    Al-Mofleh Ibrahim

    1998-01-01

    Full Text Available There is no specific treatment for acute pancreatitis. Majority of patients with acute pancreatitis respond to medical therapy. Supportive measures and close observations represent the cornerstone of the medical therapy. Failure to respond to medical treatment may indicate choledocholithiasis or infected necrosis. Endoscopic papillotomy with stone retrieval is beneficial in patients with severe biliary pancreatitis. Image-guided fine needle aspiration and bacteriological examination of aspirate is reliable in detecting infection and deliniating causative pathogen. Surgical debridement is the method of choice for treatment of infected necrosis. In contrast, in pancreatic abscess, surgery is preserved for those, who do not respond to percutaneous drainage combined with antibiotics. The benefit of antisecretory and antiproteolytic agents is debatable. A combination of antioxidants, calcium channel antagonists and antibiotics may play a major role in the treatment of acute pancreatitis in the future.

  13. Deletion of circadian gene Per1 alleviates acute ethanol-induced hepatotoxicity in mice

    The severity of ethanol-induced liver injury is associated with oxidative stress and lipid accumulation in the liver. Core circadian clock is known to mediate antioxidative enzyme activity and lipid metabolism. However, the link between circadian clock and ethanol-induced hepatotoxicity remains unclear. Here we showed that extents of acute ethanol-induced liver injury and steatosis in mice exhibit circadian variations consistent with hepatic expression of Period (Per) genes. Mice lacking clock gene Per1 displayed less susceptible to ethanol-induced liver injury, as evidenced by lower serum transaminase activity and less severe histopathological changes. Ethanol-induced lipid peroxidation was alleviated in Per1−/− mice. However, Per1 deletion had no effect on antioxidants depletion caused by ethanol administration. Ethanol-induced triglycerides (TG) accumulation in the serum and liver was significantly decreased in Per1−/− mice compared with that in wild-type (WT) mice. Analysis of gene expression in the liver revealed peroxisome proliferators activated receptor-gamma (PPARγ) and its target genes related to TG synthesis are remarkably down-regulated in Per1−/− mice. HepG2 cells were treated with ethanol at 150 mM for 3 days. Per1 overexpression augmented lipid accumulation after treatment with ethanol in HepG2 cells, but had no effect on ethanol-induced oxidative stress. Expression of genes related to lipogenesis, including PPARγ and its target genes, was up-regulated in cells overexpressing Per1. In conclusion, these results indicated that circadian rhythms of ethanol-induced hepatotoxicity are controlled by clock gene Per1, and deletion of Per1 protected mice from ethanol-induced liver injury by decreasing hepatic lipid accumulation

  14. The discriminative stimulus properties of ethanol and acute ethanol withdrawal states in rats.

    Gauvin, D V; Harland, R D; Criado, J R; Michaelis, R C; Holloway, F A

    1989-10-01

    Twelve male Sprague-Dawley rats were trained in a standard two-choice Drug 1-Drug 2 discrimination task utilizing 3.0 mg/kg chlordiazepoxide (CDP, an anxiolytic drug) and 20 mg/kg pentylenetetrazol (PTZ, an anxiogenic drug) as discriminative stimuli under a VR 5-15 schedule of food reinforcement. Saline tests conducted at specific time points after acute high doses of ethanol (3.0 and 4.0 g/kg) indicated a delayed rebound effect, evidenced by a shift to PTZ-appropriate responding. Insofar as such a shift in lever selection indexes a delayed anxiety-like state, this acute 'withdrawal' reaction can be said to induce an affective state similar to that seen with chronic ethanol withdrawal states. Ethanol generalization tests: (1) resulted in a dose- and time-dependent biphasic generalization to CDP, (2) failed to block the PTZ stimulus and (3) failed to block the time- and dose-dependent elicitation of an ethanol-rebound effect. These data suggest that ethanol's anxiolytic effects are tenuous. PMID:2791886

  15. Treatment of ethanol-induced acute pulmonary hypertension and right ventricular dysfunction in pigs, by sildenafil analogue (UK343-664 or nitroglycerin

    Sidi Avner

    2008-01-01

    Full Text Available In patients at risk for sudden ethanol (ETOH intravascular absorption, prompt treatment of pulmonary hypertension (PHTN will minimise the risk of cardiovascular decompensation. We investigated the haemodynamic effects of intravenous ETOH and the pulmonary vasodilatory effects of a sildenafil analogue (UK343-664 and nitroglycerin (NTG during ETOH-induced PHTN in pigs. We studied pulmonary and systemic haemodynamics, and right ventricular rate or time derivate of pressure rise during ventricular contraction ( =dP/dT, as an index of contractility, in 23 pigs. ETOH was infused at a rate of 50 mg/kg/min, titrated to achieve a twofold increase in mean pulmonary arterial pressure (MPAP, and then discontinued. The animals were randomised to receive an infusion of 2 ml/kg ( n = 7 normal saline, a 500-μg/kg bolus of UK343-664 ( n = 8, or NTG 1 μg/kg ( n = 8; each was given over 60 seconds. Following ETOH infusion, dP/dT decreased central venous pressure (CVP, and MPAP increased significantly, resulting in significantly increased pulmonary vascular resistance (PVR. Within 2 minutes after treatment with either drug, CVP, heart rate (HR, and the systemic vascular resistance-to-pulmonary vascular resistance (SVR/PVR ratio returned to baseline. However, at that time, only in the UK343-664 group, MPAP and dP/dT partially recovered and were different from the respective values at PHTN stage. NTG and UK343-664 decreased PVR within 2 minutes, from 1241±579 and 1224±494 dyne · cm/sec 5 , which were threefold-to-fourfold increased baseline values, to 672±308 and 538±203 dyne · cm/sec 5 respectively. However, only in the UK343-664 group, changes from baseline PVR values after treatment were significant compared to the maximal change during target PHTN. Neither drug caused a significant change in SVR. In this model of ETOH-induced PHTN, both UK343-664 and NTG were effective pulmonary vasodilators with a high degree of selectivity. However, the changes from

  16. Acute and chronic ethanol exposure differentially affect induction of hippocampal LTP.

    Fujii, Satoshi; Yamazaki, Yoshihiko; Sugihara, Toshimichi; Wakabayashi, Ichiro

    2008-05-23

    Using hippocampal slices, we found that chronic ethanol consumption by rats induces tolerance to the impairing effects of acute ethanol treatment on induction of long-term potentiation (LTP) in CA1 neurons. In hippocampal slices from pair-fed control rats, stable LTP was induced by tetanic stimulation consisting of 25 or more pulses at 100 Hz, but not by tetanic stimulation of 15 pulses at 100 Hz, and LTP induction was blocked if the tetanus was delivered in the presence of 8.6 mM ethanol, 1 microM muscimol, a gamma-aminobutyric acid (GABA) A receptor agonist, or 2.5 microM dl-2-amino-5-phosphonovaleric acid (AP5), an N-methyl-d-aspartate (NMDA) receptor antagonist. In hippocampal slices from rats chronically fed a liquid diet containing ethanol, a tetanus consisting of 15 pulses at 100 Hz did induce stable LTP, indicating a decrease in the stimulation threshold for inducing LTP. Application of ethanol, muscimol, or AP5 did not affect LTP induction in these cells, suggesting that the effects of chronic ethanol exposure on LTP induction are mediated by a reduction in GABAergic inhibition or an increase in NMDA receptor activity in hippocampal CA1 neurons. PMID:18423576

  17. Hepatoprotective Evaluation of Ganoderma lucidum Pharmacopuncture: In vivo Studies of Ethanol-induced Acute Liver Injury

    Sun-Hee Jang

    2014-09-01

    Full Text Available Objectives: Alcohol abuse is a public issue and one of the major causes of liver disease worldwide. This study was aimed at investigating the protective effect of Ganoderma lucidum pharmacopuncture (GLP against hepatotoxicity induced by acute ethanol (EtOH intoxication in rats. Methods: Sprague-Dawley (SD rats were divided into 4 groups of 8 animals each: normal, control, normal saline pharmacopuncture (NP and GLP groups. The control, NP and GLP groups received ethanol orally. The NP and the GLP groups were treated daily with injections of normal saline and Ganoderma lucidum extract, respectively. The control group received no treatment. The rats in all groups, except the normal group, were intoxicated for 6 hours by oral administration of EtOH (6 g/kg BW. The same volume of distilled water was administered to the rats in the normal group. Two local acupoints were used: Qimen (LR14 and Taechung (LR3. A histopathological analysis was performed, and the liver function and the activities of antioxidant enzymes were assessed. Results: GLP treatment reduced the histological changes due to acute liver injury induced by EtOH and significantly reduced the increase in the alanine aminotransferase (ALT enzyme; however, it had an insignificant effect in reducing the increase in aspartate aminotransferase (AST enzyme. It also significantly ameliorated the superoxide dismutase (SOD and the catalase (CAT activities. Conclusion: The present study suggests that GLP treatment is effective in protecting against ethanol-induced acute hepatic injury in SD rats by modulating the activities of ethanol metabolizing enzymes and by attenuating oxidative stress.

  18. Brewing complications: the effect of acute ethanol exposure on wound healing

    Radek, Katherine A.; Ranzer, Matthew J.; DiPietro, Luisa A.

    2009-01-01

    Ethanol consumption is linked to a higher incidence of traumatic wounds and increases the risk for morbidity and mortality following surgical or traumatic injury. One of the most profound effects of acute ethanol exposure on wound healing occurs during the inflammatory response, and altered cytokine production is a primary component. Acute ethanol exposure also impairs the proliferative response during healing, causing delays in epithelial coverage, collagen synthesis, and blood vessel regrow...

  19. Evaluation of acute skin irritation and phototoxicity by aqueous and ethanol fractions of Angelica keiskei

    Lee, Sang-Han

    2012-01-01

    In this study, to assess whether aqueous and ethanol fractions of Angelica keiskei induce acute skin irritation and phototoxicity, acute skin irritancy and phototoxicity tests were performed. The skin of rabbits or guinea pigs was treated with these fractions (100 mg/dose) and whether the animals sustained significant skin damage was determined. The data demonstrated that the aqueous and ethanol fractions of Angelica keiskei did not induce acute toxicity in the skin of the animals, as assesse...

  20. Brain reward deficits accompany withdrawal (hangover) from acute ethanol in rats

    Schulteis, Gery; Liu, Jian

    2006-01-01

    Withdrawal from an acute bolus injection of ethanol produces affective or emotional signs that include anxiogenic-like behavior (Gauvin et al., 1992) and conditioned place aversion (Morse et al., 2000). The current study assessed whether brain reward deficits that accompany withdrawal from chronic ethanol dependence (Schulteis et al., 1995) are also observed upon withdrawal from acute intoxication. Rats were implanted with stimulating electrodes aimed at the medial forebrain bundle in the lat...

  1. [Pharmacological treatment of acute cough].

    Småbrekke, Lars; Melbye, Hasse

    2009-05-14

    Acute cough may cause considerable distress for patients with upper airway infections, and is a symptom commonly presented to doctors. We wanted to assess the evidence basis for pharmacological treatment of this condition. Predefined terms (MeSH and Emtree) and free text were used to search PubMed and Embase for double-blind randomized trials, reviews and guidelines. Little evidence supports the use of guaifenesine, bromhexine and acetylcysteine for acute cough associated with upper airway infections. Likewise, there is insufficient evidence to decide whether noscapine, codeine and ehylmorphine are beneficial for acute cough on this indication. Well-designed randomized controlled trials with valid outcomes are needed to document possible benefits of treatment. Treatment with codeine or ethylmorphine may be at the expense of adverse effects, abuse or dependence. PMID:19448753

  2. Treatment of biomass to obtain ethanol

    Dunson, Jr., James B.; Elander, Richard T.; Tucker, III, Melvin P.; Hennessey, Susan Marie

    2011-08-16

    Ethanol was produced using biocatalysts that are able to ferment sugars derived from treated biomass. Sugars were obtained by pretreating biomass under conditions of high solids and low ammonia concentration, followed by saccharification.

  3. Treatment Option Overview (Adult Acute Lymphoblastic Leukemia)

    ... Treatment Childhood AML Treatment Research Adult Acute Lymphoblastic Leukemia Treatment (PDQ®)–Patient Version General Information About Adult Acute Lymphoblastic Leukemia Go to Health Professional Version Key Points Adult ...

  4. Treatment Option Overview (Adult Acute Myeloid Leukemia)

    ... Treatment Childhood AML Treatment Research Adult Acute Myeloid Leukemia Treatment (PDQ®)–Patient Version General Information About Adult Acute Myeloid Leukemia Go to Health Professional Version Key Points Adult ...

  5. Treatment Options for Adult Acute Myeloid Leukemia

    ... Treatment Childhood AML Treatment Research Adult Acute Myeloid Leukemia Treatment (PDQ®)–Patient Version General Information About Adult Acute Myeloid Leukemia Go to Health Professional Version Key Points Adult ...

  6. Treatment Options for Adult Acute Lymphoblastic Leukemia

    ... Treatment Childhood AML Treatment Research Adult Acute Lymphoblastic Leukemia Treatment (PDQ®)–Patient Version General Information About Adult Acute Lymphoblastic Leukemia Go to Health Professional Version Key Points Adult ...

  7. Acute treatment of migraine headaches.

    Taylor, Frederick R

    2010-04-01

    Optimum acute treatment of migraine requires prevention of headache as a top priority. Recognition of the multitude of migraine presentations, the frequency of total headache attacks, and number of days of headache disability are critical. Successful treatment requires excellent patient-clinician communication enhancing confidence and mutual trust based on patient needs and preferences. Optimum management of acute migraine nearly always requires pharmacologic treatment for rapid resolution. Migraine-specific triptans, dihydroergotamine, and several antiinflammatories have substantial empirical clinical efficacy. Older nonspecific drugs, particularly butalbital and opioids, contribute to medication overuse headache and are to be avoided. Clinicians should utilize evidence-based acute migraine-specific therapy stressing the imperative acute treatment goal of early intervention, but not too often with the correct drug, formulation, and dose. This therapy needs to provide cost-effective fast results, meaningful to the patient while minimizing the need for additional drugs. Migraine-ACT evaluates 2-hour pain freedom with return to normal function, comfort with treatment, and consistency of response. Employ a thoroughly educated patient, formulary, testimonials, stratification, and rational cotherapy against the race to central sensitization for optimum outcomes. PMID:20352584

  8. Drosophila highwire gene modulates acute ethanol sensitivity in the nervous system

    Awoyemi A.AWOFALA

    2011-01-01

    Animals exhibit behavioral differences in their sensitivity to ethanol,a trait that is at least in part due to genetic predispositions.This study has implicated a large neuronal protein involving Highwire,a Drosophila E3 ubiquitin ligase (Hiw,a homolog of Pam,a protein associated with Myc found in humans) in acute sensitivity to ethanol sedation.Flies lacking Hiw were hypersensitive to the sedating effect of ethanol whereas those overexpressing Hiw showed decreased sensitivity to ethanol.Furthermore,RNAi functional knockdown of Hiw in adult neurons or ellipsoid body neurons showed increased sensitivity to ethanol sedation.None of these manipulations of the hiw gene caused changes in the rate of ethanol absorption and/or metabolism.These results suggest a previously unknown role for this highly conserved gene in regulating the behavioral responses to an addictive drug.

  9. Acute treatment of atrial fibrillation.

    Kowey, P R; Marinchak, R A; Rials, S J; Filart, R A

    1998-03-12

    Atrial fibrillation (AFib) is a common clinical entity, responsible for significant morbidity and mortality, but it also accounts for a large percentage of healthcare dollar expenditures. Efforts to treat this arrhythmia in the past have focused on subacute antithrombotic therapy and eventually use of antiarrhythmic drugs for maintenance of sinus rhythm. However, there has been a growing interest in the concept of acute electrical and pharmacologic conversion. This treatment strategy has a number of benefits, including immediate alleviation of patient symptoms, avoidance of antithrombotic therapy, and prevention of electrophysiologic remodeling, which is thought to contribute to the perpetuation of the arrhythmia. There is also increasing evidence that this is a cost-effective strategy in that it may obviate admission to the hospital and the cost of long-term therapy. This article represents a summary of the treatments that may be used acutely to control the ventricular response to AFib, prevent thromboembolic events, and provide for acute conversion either pharmacologically or electrically. It includes information on modalities that are currently available and those that are under active development. We anticipate that an active, acute treatment approach to AFib and atrial flutter will become the therapeutic norm in the next few years, especially as the benefits of these interventions are demonstrated in clinical trials. PMID:9525568

  10. Influence of zinc sulfate intake on acute ethanol-induced liver injury in rats

    Sema Bolkent; Pelin Arda-Pirincci; Sehnaz Bolkent; Refiye Yanardag; Sevim Tunali; Sukriye Yildirim

    2006-01-01

    AIM: To investigate the role of metallothionein and proliferating cell nuclear antigen (PCNA) on the morphological and biochemical effects of zinc sulfate in ethanol-induced liver injury.METHODS: Wistar albino rats were divided into four groups. Group I; intact rats, group Ⅱ; control rats given only zinc, group Ⅲ; animals given absolute ethanol, group Ⅳ; rats given zinc and absolute ethanol.Ethanol-induced injury was produced by the 1 mL of absolute ethanol, administrated by gavage technique to each rat. Animals received 100 mg/kg per day zinc sulfate for 3 d 2 h prior to the administration of absolute ethanol.RESULTS: Increases in metallothionein immunoreactivity in control rats given only zinc and rats given zinc and ethanol were observed. PCNA immunohistochemistry showed that the number of PCNA-positive hepatocytes was increased significantly in the livers of rats administered ethanol + zinc sulfate. Acute ethanol exposure caused degenerative morphological changes in the liver. Blood glutathione levels decreased, serum alkaline phosphatase and aspartate transaminase activities increased in the ethanol group when compared to the control group. Liver glutathione levels were reduced, but lipid peroxidation increased in the livers of the group administered ethanol as compared to the other groups. Administration of zinc sulfate in the ethanol group caused a significant decrease in degenerative changes, lipid peroxidation, and alkaline phosphatase and aspartate transaminase activities, but an increase in liver glutathione.CONCLUSION: Zinc sulfate has a protective effect on ethanol-induced liver injury. In addition, cell proliferation may be related to the increase in metallothionein immunoreactivity in the livers of rats administered ethanol + zinc sulfate.

  11. Effect of gamma irradiation on acute oral toxicity of ethanolic extract of red ginger (zingiber officinale)

    Red ginger is widely used in traditional medicine to treat various types of diseases. Evaluation of the toxic properties of red ginger is very important to know the negative harmful impact to human health. Therefore, before it is consumed by humans, it is needed to conduct acute oral toxicity of red ginger extract in mice. Thin rhizome of red ginger in poly ethylene plastic packaging was irradiated by gamma rays at a dose of 10 kGy with a dose rate of 10 kGy/h. The ethanol extract of unirradiated as well as irradiated red ginger was then tested for the acute oral toxicity using OECD Guideline test method. The results showed that throughout the 14 days of treatment there was a change in behavior pattern, clinical symptoms and body weight of control mice and treatment groups. Histopathological examination of kidneys, heart, liver, lungs and spleen of the dose less than 1250 mg/kg body weight showed normal condition and no significant side effects observation. While central venous damage and a reduced number of hepatocyte cells in male mice occurred in the test dose higher than 2000 mg/kg body weight, whereas in female mice it occurred in the test group dose higher than 1250 mg/kg bw. Based on renal histology of male and female mice at doses higher than 1250 mg/kg body weight, there were damage to Bowman's capsule, glomerulus, proximal vessel and distal vessels. LD50 of unirradiated and irradiated with 10 kGy of ethanol extract of red ginger were 1887 mg/kg body weight and 2639 mg/kg body weight, respectively, and it can be categorized as moderately toxic. Oral administration of ethanol extract of red ginger with dose of 1250 mg/kg body weight gave an effect in mice organs. From these results it can be concluded that oral administration of both unirradiated and irradiated with a dose 10 kGy of ethanol extract consider safe at a dose less than 1250 mg/kg body weigh. (author)

  12. Perillyl alcohol protects against ethanol induced acute liver injury in Wistar rats by inhibiting oxidative stress, NFκ-B activation and proinflammatory cytokine production

    Oxidative stress and inflammation are two major etiological factors that are suggested to play key roles in the development of ethanol induced liver injury. Release of proinflammatory cytokine like tumor necrosis factor alpha (TNF-α) and activation of nuclear factor kappa-B (NFκ-B) may strongly intensify inflammation and cell damage. Additionally, reactive oxygen species (ROS) also exerts significant effect in this whole cell signaling machinery. The present study was designed to investigate the protective effects of perillyl alcohol (POH) on ethanol-induced acute liver injury in Wistar rats and its probable mechanism. We have successfully demonstrated that pre-treatment with POH, besides exerting antioxidant activity might be able to modulate TNF-α release and NFκ-B activation. Rats were divided into five groups and treated with ethanol or POH via an intragastric tube for one week. Control group was treated with vehicle, and ethanol treated group was given ethanol (5 g/kg body wt). Animal of treatment groups were pretreated with POH (50 and 100 mg/kg body wt) and have been given ethanol. Serum aspartate aminotransferase, alanine aminotransferase and lactate dehydrogenase and hepatic malondialdehyde were increased significantly by ethanol treatment. Ethanol administration decreased hepatic reduced glutathione content and various antioxidant enzymes activity. TNF-α production and NFκ-B activation was also found to be increased after ethanol administration. POH pre-treatment significantly ameliorates ethanol induced acute liver injury possibly by inhibition of lipid peroxidation, replenishment of endogenous enzymatic and non-enzymatic defense system, downregulation of TNF-α as well as NFκ-B.

  13. Acute Inhalation Exposure to Titanium Ethanolate as a Possible Cause of Metal Fume Fever

    M Ahmadimanesh

    2014-04-01

    Full Text Available Occupational inhalation exposure to noxious agents is not uncommon. Herein, we present a 26-year-old male student who had accidental acute inhalation exposure to a large quantity of titanium ethanolate and hydrogen chloride in chemistry lab. He was referred to the emergency department of our hospital with low-grade fever, dyspnea, headache, fatigue and myalgia. After 24 hrs of symptomatic treatment (oxygen therapy and acetaminophen, the fever was subsided and the patient discharged home in a good clinical condition. The presented symptoms could be interpreted as a form of metal fume fever. It can therefore be concluded that organo-metallic compound of titanium metal may have the potential to produce metal fume fever in human.

  14. Hepatoprotective Evaluation of Ganoderma lucidum Pharmacopuncture: In vivo Studies of Ethanol-induced Acute Liver Injury

    Sun-Hee Jang; Sung-woo Cho; Hyun-Min Yoon; Kyung-Jeon Jang; Chun-Ho Song; Cheol-Hong Kim

    2014-01-01

    Objectives: Alcohol abuse is a public issue and one of the major causes of liver disease worldwide. This study was aimed at investigating the protective effect of Ganoderma lucidum pharmacopuncture (GLP) against hepatotoxicity induced by acute ethanol (EtOH) intoxication in rats. Methods: Sprague-Dawley (SD) rats were divided into 4 groups of 8 animals each: normal, control, normal saline pharmacopuncture (NP) and GLP groups. The control, NP and GLP groups received ethanol orally. The NP a...

  15. Involvement of AMPK in Alcohol Dehydrogenase Accentuated Myocardial Dysfunction Following Acute Ethanol Challenge in Mice

    GUO Rui; Scott, Glenda I.; Ren, Jun

    2010-01-01

    Objectives Binge alcohol drinking often triggers myocardial contractile dysfunction although the underlying mechanism is not fully clear. This study was designed to examine the impact of cardiac-specific overexpression of alcohol dehydrogenase (ADH) on ethanol-induced change in cardiac contractile function, intracellular Ca2+ homeostasis, insulin and AMP-dependent kinase (AMPK) signaling. Methods ADH transgenic and wild-type FVB mice were acutely challenged with ethanol (3 g/kg/d, i.p.) for 3...

  16. ACUTE PRENATAL EXPOSURE TO ETHANOL AND SOCIAL BEHAVIOR: EFFECT OF AGE, SEX, AND TIMING OF EXPOSURE

    Mooney, Sandra M.; Varlinskaya, Elena I.

    2010-01-01

    During development of the central nervous system, neurons pass through critical periods of vulnerability to environmental factors. Exposure to ethanol during gastrulation or during neuronal generation results in a permanent reduction in the number of neurons in trigeminal-associated cranial nerve nuclei. Normal functioning of the trigeminal system is required for social behavior, the present study examined the effects of acute prenatal exposure to ethanol on social interactions across ontogen...

  17. Percutaneous ethanol ablation of hepatocellular carcinoma: Periprocedural onset alcohol toxicity and pancreatitis following conventional percutaneous ethanol ablation treatment

    Burton, Kirsteen Rennie; O’Dwyer, Helena; Scudamore, Charles

    2009-01-01

    A novel case of acute pancreatitis in a patient treated with percutaneous ethanol injection (PEI) ablation for hepatocellular carcinoma is described. The most commonly reported adverse effects of PEI are hepatic or peritoneal hemorrhage, hepatic insufficiency or infarction. There are no previous reports of fatal acute pancreatitis as a result of conventional PEI.

  18. Evaluation of Acute and Subacute Oral Toxicity of the Ethanol Extract from Antidesma Acidum Retz.

    Sireeratawong, Seewaboon; Thamaree, Sopit; Ingkaninan, Kornkanok; Piyabhan, Pritsana; Vannasiri, Supaporn; Khonsung, Parirat; Singhalak, Tipaya; Jaijoy, Kanjana

    2012-01-01

    Toxicity tests of 95% ethanol extract of the root of Antidesma acidum were studied in male and female rats. The oral acute toxicity test at 5,000 mg/kg revealed that the ethanol extract did not produce toxic effects on signs, general behavious, mortality and gross appearance of internal organs of rats. Furthermore, the oral sub-acute toxicity test at the dose of 1,000 mg/kg/day displayed no significant changes in body and internal organs' weights, normal hematological and clinical blood chemi...

  19. Acute and Cytotoxicity Studies of Aqueous and Ethanolic Leaf Extracts of Chromolaena odorata.

    Asomugha, R N; Ezejiofor, A N; Okafor, P N; Ijeh, I I

    2015-01-01

    Chromolaena odorata, a commonly used traditional remedy for different ailments, believed to be quite safe in terms of toxicity was evaluated for acute toxicity and cytotoxic potentials. Acute toxicity was done on albino Wistar rats using the Lorke method while brine shrimps were used to test for cytotoxicity. The results showed that the estimated LD50 for the aqueous and ethanolic extracts was 2154 and > 5000 mg kg(-1) body weight, respectively. Cytotoxicity to brine shrimps showed LC50 values of 324 and 392 ppm for aqueous and ethanolic extracts, respectively. These results indicate the relative non toxic nature of Chromolaena odorata extracts. PMID:26353417

  20. Influences of acute ethanol exposure on locomotor activities of zebrafish larvae under different illumination.

    Guo, Ning; Lin, Jia; Peng, Xiaolan; Chen, Haojun; Zhang, Yinglan; Liu, Xiuyun; Li, Qiang

    2015-11-01

    Larval zebrafish present unique opportunities to study the behavioral responses of a model organism to environmental challenges during early developmental stages. The purpose of the current study was to investigate the locomotor activities of AB strain zebrafish larvae at 5 and 7 days post-fertilization (dpf) in response to light changes under the influence of ethanol, and to explore potential neurological mechanisms that are involved in ethanol intoxication. AB strain zebrafish larvae at both 5 and 7 dpf were treated with ethanol at 0% (control), 0.1%, 0.25%, 0.5%, 1%, and 2% (v/v%). The locomotor activities of the larvae during alternating light-dark challenges, as well as the locomotor responses immediately following the light transitions, were investigated. The levels of various neurotransmitters were also measured in selected ethanol-treated groups. The larvae at 5 and 7 dpf demonstrated similar patterns of locomotor responses to ethanol treatment. Ethanol treatment at 1% increased the swimming distances of the zebrafish larvae in the dark periods, but had no effect on the swimming distances in the light periods. In contrast, ethanol treatment at 2% increased the swimming distances in the light periods, but did not potentiate the swimming activity in the dark periods, compared to controls. Differences in the levels of neurotransmitters that are involved in norepinephrine, dopamine, and serotonin pathways were also observed in groups with different ethanol treatments. These results indicated the behavioral studies concerning the ethanol effects on locomotor activities of zebrafish larvae could be carried out as early as 5 dpf. The 1% and 2% ethanol-treated zebrafish larvae modeled ethanol effects at different intoxication states, and the differences in neurotransmitter levels suggested the involvement of various neurotransmitter pathways in different ethanol intoxication states. PMID:26384924

  1. Chronic Intermittent Ethanol Exposure Enhances the Excitability and Synaptic Plasticity of Lateral Orbitofrontal Cortex Neurons and Induces a Tolerance to the Acute Inhibitory Actions of Ethanol.

    Nimitvilai, Sudarat; Lopez, Marcelo F; Mulholland, Patrick J; Woodward, John J

    2016-03-01

    Alcoholism is associated with changes in brain reward and control systems, including the prefrontal cortex. In prefrontal areas, the orbitofrontal cortex (OFC) has been suggested to have an important role in the development of alcohol-abuse disorders and studies from this laboratory demonstrate that OFC-mediated behaviors are impaired in alcohol-dependent animals. However, it is not known whether chronic alcohol (ethanol) exposure alters the fundamental properties of OFC neurons. In this study, mice were exposed to repeated cycles of chronic intermittent ethanol (CIE) exposure to induce dependence and whole-cell patch-clamp electrophysiology was used to examine the effects of CIE treatment on lateral OFC (lOFC) neuron excitability, synaptic transmission, and plasticity. Repeated cycles of CIE exposure and withdrawal enhanced current-evoked action potential (AP) spiking and this was accompanied by a reduction in the after-hyperpolarization and a decrease in the functional activity of SK channels. CIE mice also showed an increase in the AMPA/NMDA ratio, and this was associated with an increase in GluA1/GluA2 AMPA receptor expression and a decrease in GluN2B NMDA receptor subunits. Following CIE treatment, lOFC neurons displayed a persistent long-term potentiation of glutamatergic synaptic transmission following a spike-timing-dependent protocol. Lastly, CIE treatment diminished the inhibitory effect of acute ethanol on AP spiking of lOFC neurons and reduced expression of the GlyT1 transporter. Taken together, these results suggest that chronic exposure to ethanol leads to enhanced intrinsic excitability and glutamatergic synaptic signaling of lOFC neurons. These alterations may contribute to the impairment of OFC-dependent behaviors in alcohol-dependent individuals. PMID:26286839

  2. ACUTE TOXICITY, PHYTOCHEMISTRY AND ANTIBACTERIAL ACTIVITY OF AQUEOUS AND ETHANOLIC LEAF EXTRACTS OF CASSIA ALATA LINN

    Timothy SY; Lamu FW; Rhoda AS; Adati RG; Maspalma ID; Askira M

    2012-01-01

    Cassia alata Linn is an important medicinal plant as well as an ornamental flowering plant that has diverse reported medicinal values. This study focused on the evaluation of the phytochemical components, antibacterial as well as acute toxicity studies. The leaves of the plant were collected, dried, ground and extracted using 95% ethanol and water. The extracts were used for acute toxicity study, phytochemical screening and antibacterial assay using cup-plate method. The result from this stud...

  3. Role of interleukin-10 (IL-10) in regulation of GABAergic transmission and acute response to ethanol

    Suryanarayanan, A.; Carter, JM; Landin, JD; Morrow, AL; Werner, DF; Spigelman, I

    2016-01-01

    Mounting evidence indicates that ethanol (EtOH) exposure activates neuroimmune signaling. Alterations in pro-inflammatory cytokines after acute and chronic EtOH exposure have been heavily investigated. In contrast, little is known about the regulation of neurotransmission and/or modulation by anti-inflammatory cytokines in the brain after an acute EtOH exposure. Recent evidence suggests that interleukin-10 (IL-10), an anti-inflammatory cytokine, is upregulated during withdrawal from chronic E...

  4. The acute toxicity of ethanol extract from irradiated Temulawak (curcuma xanthorrizha roxb.) which have anticancer activity

    Pasteurization of herbs and herbal medicinal products have been carried out by several herbal industries, but information about the safety of irradiated herbal medicine is still a little, even the influence of gamma irradiation for pasteurization purpose on the toxicity of crude Temulawak has never been investigated. The ethanol extract of Curcuma xanthorrizha Roxb. has cytotoxic activity which potential as an anticancer. In this research, the acute toxicity tests were carried out to the ethanol extract from Curcuma xanthorrizha without irradiation and irradiated with doses of 5 and 10 kGy. The acute toxicity tests of ethanol extract were conducted in mice by observing the effect of extracts on animal behavior (pharmacologic profile) after a single dose of test material, the development of animal body weight and death every day for 14 days and observed several organ weights on day 14. Acute toxicity test results after administration of extracts on male and female mice a dose up to 7500 mg/kg body weight (BW) showed that no deaths and no significant toxic effect, so that the ethanol extract of Curcuma xanthorrizha without irradiation and irradiated with doses of 5 and 10 kGy can be declared safe. Thus LD50 from ethanol extract of Curcuma xanthorrizha without irradiation and irradiated (5 and 10 kGY) in mice was greater than 7500 mg/kg body weight. (author)

  5. Acute Ethanol Inhibition of γ Oscillations Is Mediated by Akt and GSK3β.

    Wang, JianGang; Zhao, JingXi; Liu, ZhiHua; Guo, FangLi; Wang, Yali; Wang, Xiaofang; Zhang, RuiLing; Vreugdenhil, Martin; Lu, Chengbiao

    2016-01-01

    Hippocampal network oscillations at gamma band frequency (γ, 30-80 Hz) are closely associated with higher brain functions such as learning and memory. Acute ethanol exposure at intoxicating concentrations (≥50 mM) impairs cognitive function. This study aimed to determine the effects and the mechanisms of acute ethanol exposure on γ oscillations in an in vitro model. Ethanol (25-100 mM) suppressed kainate-induced γ oscillations in CA3 area of the rat hippocampal slices, in a concentration-dependent, reversible manner. The ethanol-induced suppression was reduced by the D1R antagonist SCH23390 or the PKA inhibitor H89, was prevented by the Akt inhibitor triciribine or the GSk3β inhibitor SB415286, was enhanced by the NMDA receptor antagonist D-AP5, but was not affected by the MAPK inhibitor U0126 or PI3K inhibitor wortmanin. Our results indicate that the intracellular kinases Akt and GSk3β play a critical role in the ethanol-induced suppression of γ oscillations and reveal new cellular pathways involved in the ethanol-induced cognitive impairment. PMID:27582689

  6. [Surgical treatment of acute mediastinitis].

    Krüger, M; Decker, S; Schneider, J P; Haverich, A; Schega, O

    2016-06-01

    Despite modern intensive care management, acute mediastinitis is still associated with a high morbidity and mortality (up to approximately 40 %). Effective antibiotic therapy, intensive care management, elimination of the causative sources of infection and drainage of the affected mediastinal compartments are the cornerstones of therapy in a multidisciplinary treatment concept. Early diagnosis, prompt and uncompromising initial therapy and planned computed tomography (CT) control after the first stages of therapy in order to decide on the necessity for surgical re-interventions are essential for achieving optimal results. Knowledge of the specific anatomical characteristics is crucial for the understanding of this disease and its treatment; therefore, the current knowledge on fascial layers and interstitial spaces from the neck to the mediastinum is described and discussed. A possible foudroyant spread of the infection, especially within the posterior mediastinum, has to be anticipated. The approach to the mediastinum depends on the mediastinal compartments affected, on the causative disease and on the patient's clinical situation. The surgical approach should be adapted to the particular clinical situation of the individual patient and to the surgical experience of the surgeon. When in doubt, the more invasive approach to the mediastinum, such as bilateral thoracotomy, is recommended. An ascending mediastinitis due to pancreatitis is a very rare condition; however, as chest pains are often the main clinical sign surgeons should be aware of this differential diagnosis. An intraoperative brown-black serous fluid in the mediastinal tissue is virtually pathognomonic. The treatment results of esophageal perforation as the most frequent cause of mediastinitis have been improved by integration of various interventional procedures. Hyperbaric oxygen therapy or immunoglobulin treatment can play an auxiliary role in selected patients with acute mediastinitis. PMID

  7. Acute psychomotor effects of MDMA and ethanol (co-) administration over time in healthy volunteers

    Dumont, G J H; Schoemaker, R C; Touw, D J; Sweep, F C G J; Buitelaar, J K; van Gerven, J M A; Verkes, R J

    2010-01-01

    In Western societies, a considerable percentage of young people use 3,4-methylenedioxymethamphetamine (MDMA or 'ecstasy'). The use of alcohol (ethanol) in combination with ecstasy is common. The aim of the present study was to assess the acute psychomotor and subjective effects of (co-) administrati

  8. Nephroprotective effect of ethanolic extract of abutilon indicum root in gentamicin induced acute renal failure

    Jacob Jesurun RS

    2016-06-01

    Conclusions: The ethanolic extract of abutilon indicum root has nephron protective effect in gentamicin induced acute renal failure. Nephro protective action in this study could be due to the antioxidant and other phytochemical of abutilon indicum root. [Int J Basic Clin Pharmacol 2016; 5(3.000: 841-845

  9. Organ-specific inflammation following acute ethanol and burn injury

    Bird, Melanie D.; Kovacs, Elizabeth J

    2008-01-01

    Clinical and experimental evidence demonstrates that ethanol exposure prior to injury alters local and systemic inflammatory responses, increasing morbidity and mortality. Moreover, the aberrant inflammatory responses can directly and indirectly lead to the poor prognosis after injury by altering leukocyte infiltration into the wound site and remote organs and by suppressing immunity leading to increased susceptibility to opportunistic infections. Recent studies from our laboratory have focus...

  10. Basics of acute stroke treatment

    Acute stroke presents an emergency that requires immediate referral to a specialized hospital, preferably with a stroke unit. Disability and mortality are reduced by 30% in patients treated in stroke units compared to those treated on regular wards, even if a specialized team is present on the ward. Systolic blood pressure may remain high at 200-220 mmHg in the acute phase and should not be lowered too quickly. Further guidelines for basic care include: optimal O2 delivery, blood sugar levels below 100-150 mg%, and lowering body temperature below 37.5 C using physical means or drugs. Increased intracranial pressure should be treated by raising the upper body of the patient, administration of glycerol, mannitol, and/or sorbitol, artificial respiration, and special monitoring of Tris buffer. Decompressive craniectomy may be considered in cases of ''malignant'' media stroke and expansive cerebellar infarction. Fibrinolysis is the most effective stroke treatment and is twice as effective in the treatment of stroke than myocardial infarction. Fibrinolysis may be initiated within 3 h of a stroke in the anterior circulation. If a penumbra is detectable by ''PWI-DWI mismatch MRI,'' specialized hospitals may perform fibrinolysis up to 6 h after symptom onset. In cases of stroke in the basilar artery, fibrinolysis may be performed even later after symptom onset. Intra-arterial fibrinolysis is performed in these cases using rt-PA or urokinase. Follow-up treatment of stroke patients should not only address post-stroke depression and neuropsychological deficits, but also include patient education about risk factors such as high blood pressure, diabetes mellitus, and cardiac arrhythmias. (orig.)

  11. Evaluation of the Acute and Subchronic Toxicities of Ethanol Leaf Extract of Spathodea campanulata P. Beauv.

    E E Ilodigwe

    2010-06-01

    Full Text Available Summary: The acute and subchronic toxicities of the ethanol leaf extract of Spathodea campanulata, a popular Nigerian traditional anti-convulsant remedy was investigated. For the acute toxicity study, 1000-5000 mg/kg of the ethanol leaf extract were administered to rats and obvious toxic symptoms and mortality 24 hours post-adminstration of the extract were determined. The median lethal dose (LD50 of the extract was determined. In the subchronic study, 750-3000 mg/kg of the extract were administered daily for 90 days. The food and water consumption, body weight changes, as well as heamatological and biochemical parameters were determined periodically. The phytotochemical constituents of the extract were also investigated. Phytochemical analysis revealed the presence of tannins, saponins, anthraquinone glycosides, and flavonoids.. The estimated LD50 of the extract was 4466.84 mg/kg. There was no mortality during the period of study but the animals showed signs of anorexia, weakness, sluggishness and significant (p<0.05 reduction in food and water intake and body weight. The effects on haemoglobin concentration, PCV, RBC and WBC counts were non significant (P>0.05. The extract caused significant (p<0.05 increases in serum liver enzymes, AST, ALP and ALT. These changes showed recovery after 28 days post-treatment. These results suggest that the leaf extract of S. campanulata is safe in the treatment of epilepsy. Industrial relevance: Epilepsy is a chronic disorder that requires life-long management. The available anti-epileptic drugs (AEDs are not only limited by adverse effects, but are not readily accessible in resource poor communities where this disease appears more prevalent. The use of medicinal plants especially Spathodea campanulata in the treatment of epilepsy is very popular in Nigeria. Compared to AEDs, it is very cheap, readily available and relatively free from adverse effects. The results of the present study will enable the industry

  12. The Zebrafish, a Novel Model Organism for Screening Compounds Affecting Acute and Chronic Ethanol-Induced Effects.

    Tran, S; Facciol, A; Gerlai, R

    2016-01-01

    Alcohol addiction is a major unmet medical and economic issue for which very few efficacious pharmacological treatment options are currently available. The development and identification of new compounds and drugs to treat alcohol addiction is hampered by the high costs and low amenability of traditional laboratory rodents to high-throughput behavioral screens. The zebrafish represents an excellent compromise between systems complexity and practical simplicity by overcoming many limitations inherent in these rodent models. In this chapter, we review current advances in the behavioral and neurochemical characterization of ethanol-induced changes in zebrafish. We also discuss the basic principles and methods of and the most recent advances in using paradigms with which one can screen for compounds altering acute and chronic ethanol-induced effects in zebrafish. PMID:27055623

  13. Phytochemical and acute toxicity studies of ethanol extract from Pedada (Sonneratia caseolaris) fruit flour (PFF)

    Jariyah Jariyah; Simon B Widjanarko; Yunianta Yunianta; T. Estiasih

    2015-01-01

    Studies on the phytochemical and acute toxicity of pedada fruit flour (PFF) were carried out. In acute toxicity test, oral administration of the extract to Swiss albino mice at four levels dose, i.e. 0, 10.50; 15.75 and 21.00 g/kg body weight.  Phytochemical analysis of the ethanol extract of PFF showed the presence of saponins, sapogenins, terpenoids, flavonoids, tannins,  polyphenols. Phytochemicals such as alkaloids were not detected. The results of acute toxicity (LD50) showed that the et...

  14. Assessment of Expression of Genes Coding GABAA Receptors during Chronic and Acute Intoxication of Laboratory Rats with Ethanol.

    Osechkina, N S; Ivanov, M B; Nazarov, G V; Batotsyrenova, E G; Lapina, N V; Babkin, A V; Berdinskikh, I S; Melekhova, A S; Voitsekhovich, K O; Lisitskii, D S; Kashina, T V

    2016-02-01

    Expression of genes encoding the individual subunits of ionotropic GABAA receptor was assessed after acute and chronic intoxication of rats with ethanol. The chronic 1-month-long exposure to ethanol signifi cantly decreased (by 38%) expression of Gabrb1 gene in the hippocampus. Acute exposure to ethanol elevated expression of genes Gabrb1 (by 1.7 times), Gabra1 (by 3.8 times), and Gabra4 (by 6.5 times), although it diminished expression of Gabra2 gene by 1.4 times. In preliminarily alcoholized rats, acute intoxication with ethanol enhanced expression of genes Gabrb1 and Gabra5 by 1.7 and 8.7 times, respectively. There was neither acute nor chronic effect of ethanol on expression of gene Gabra3. PMID:26902358

  15. Phytochemical and acute toxicity studies of ethanol extract from Pedada (Sonneratia caseolaris fruit flour (PFF

    Jariyah Jariyah

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Studies on the phytochemical and acute toxicity of pedada fruit flour (PFF were carried out. In acute toxicity test, oral administration of the extract to Swiss albino mice at four levels dose, i.e. 0, 10.50; 15.75 and 21.00 g/kg body weight.  Phytochemical analysis of the ethanol extract of PFF showed the presence of saponins, sapogenins, terpenoids, flavonoids, tannins,  polyphenols. Phytochemicals such as alkaloids were not detected. The results of acute toxicity (LD50 showed that the ethanol extract of PFF in mice was found more than 21.00 g/kg body weight. It could be concluded that the PFF belongs to relatively less dangerous category ‘non toxic’ and ‘safe’ for food products.

  16. Acute effects of ethanol in the control of protein synthesis in isolated rat liver cells

    The acute effect of ethanol on hepatic protein synthesis is a rather controversial issue. In view of the conflicting reports on this subject, the effect of ethanol on protein labeling from L-[3H]valine in isolated liver cells was studied under a variety of experimental conditions. When tracer doses of the isotope were utilized, ethanol consistently decreased the rate of protein labeling, regardless of the metabolic conditions of the cells. This inhibition was not prevented by doses of 4-methylpyrazole large enough to abolish all the characteristic metabolic effects of ethanol, and it was not related to perturbations on the rates of L-valine transport and/or proteolysis. When ethanol was tested in the presence of saturating doses of L-[3H]valine no effect on protein labeling was observed. These observations suggest that the ethanol effect in decreasing protein labeling from tracer doses of the radioactive precursor does not reflect variations in the rate of protein synthesis but reflects changes in the specific activity of the precursor. These changes probably are secondary to variations in the dimensions of the amino acid pool utilized for protein synthesis. Even though it showed a lack of effect when tested alone, in the presence of saturating doses of the radioactive precursor ethanol inhibited the stimulatory effects on protein synthesis mediated by glucose and several gluconeogenic substrates. This effect of ethanol was not prevented by inhibitors of alcohol dehydrogenase, indicating that a shift of the NAD system to a more reduced state is not the mediator of its action. It is suggested that ethanol probably acted by changing the steady-state levels of some common effector(s) generated from the metabolism of all these fuels or else by preventing the inactivation of a translational repressor

  17. Acute behavioural comparisons of toluene and ethanol in human subjects.

    Echeverria, D; Fine, L.; Langolf, G; Schork, T.; Sampaio, C

    1991-01-01

    A comparison of toluene and ethanol (EtOH) induced changes in central nervous system (CNS) function and symptoms were evaluated in two studies, and when possible the effects of toluene were expressed in EtOH equivalent units. The toluene concentrations were 0, 75, and 150 ppm, bracketing the American Conference of Governmental Industrial Hygienists threshold limit value (ACGIH TLV) of 100 ppm. The socially relevant EtOH doses were 0.00, 0.33, and 0.66 g EtOH/kg body weight, equivalent to two ...

  18. The Effect of Acute Ethanol and Gabapentin Administration on Spatial Learning and Memory

    Fahimeh Yeganeh

    2011-09-01

    Full Text Available  Introduction: Patients with epilepsy can have impaired cognitive abilities. Many factors contribute to this impairment, including the adverse effects of antiepileptic drugs like Gabapentin (GBP. Apart from anti-epilectic action, Gabapentin is used to relieve ethanol withdrawal syndrome. Because both GBP and ethanol act on GABA ergic system, the purpose of this study was to evaluate their effect and interaction on spatial learning and memory. Material and Methods: Male Sprague-Dawley rats were trained in the Morris water maze for 5 consecutive days. On the sixth day, a probe test was performed to assess the retention phase or spatial rats’ memory ability. Ethanol (1.5 g/kg i.p. and GBP (30 mg/kg i.p. was administered each day 30 and 40 minutes before testing respectively. Results: Acute ethanol administration selectively impaired spatial memory (p<0.05, yet it failed to impair the acquisition phase (learning. Contradictorily GBP selectively impaired learning on second and forth days. Conclusion: These findings demonstrate that GBP and acute ethanol impair different phases of learning probably by modifying different neuronal pathways in cognitive areas of the brain.

  19. Protective Effects of the Traditional Herbal Formula Oryeongsan Water Extract on Ethanol-Induced Acute Gastric Mucosal Injury in Rats

    Jeon, Woo-Young; Lee, Mee-Young; Shin, In-Sik; Lim, Hye-Sun; Shin, Hyeun-Kyoo

    2012-01-01

    This study was performed to evaluate the protective effect and safety of Oryeongsan water extract (OSWE) on ethanol-induced acute gastric mucosal injury and an acute toxicity study in rats. Acute gastric lesions were induced via intragastric oral administration of absolute ethanol at a dose of 5 mL/kg. OSWE (100 and 200 mg/kg) was administered to rats 2 h prior to the oral administration of absolute ethanol. The stomach of animal models was opened and gastric mucosal lesions were examined. Ga...

  20. Effects of ethanol on voltage-sensitive Na-channels in cultured skeletal muscle: Up-regulation as a result of chronic treatment

    The effects of acute and chronic treatment with ethanol were studied on the number and activity of tetrodotoxin-sensitive Na-channels in cultured rat skeletal muscle. The number of channels was determined by measurements of specific binding of [3H] saxitoxin (STX) in whole cell preparations. Measurements were also made of the frequency and rate of rise of spontaneously occurring action potentials, which are the physiologic expression of Na-channel density. Acute ethanol (37.5-150 mM), while causing depolarization of membrane potential and blockade of electrical activity, was without effect on specific STX binding. Neither methanol, acetaldehyde nor ethylene glycol had significant effects on these properties when given acutely in the same concentrations as ethanol. Chronic ethanol caused dose-related increases in STX binding and action potential properties with maximal levels being attained after 3 days of treatment at a concentration of 150 mM. On removal of ethanol from the culture medium all properties returned to control levels after 48 hr. Both increased external K+ and tetrodotoxin, which up-regulate Na-channels by reducing cytosolic Ca++, potentiated the ethanol-induced increase in Na-channel density. The increase in STX binding was not associated with changes in affinity of the binding sites for the ligand but was completely prevented by treatment with cycloheximide and actinomycin D. The results demonstrate that ethanol interacts with the cell membrane to induce synthesis of STX-binding sites

  1. Hydrothermal treatment and ethanol pulping of sunflower stalks.

    Caparrós, S; Ariza, J; López, F; Nacimiento, J A; Garrote, G; Jiménez, L

    2008-03-01

    The influence of temperature in the hydrothermal treatment of sunflower stalks on the composition of the liquid fraction obtained was examined. The remaining solid fraction was subjected to ethanol pulping in order to obtain pulp that was used to produce paper sheets. The pulp was characterized in terms of yield, kappa index, viscosity, and cellulose, hemicellulose and lignin contents; and the paper sheets in terms of breaking length, stretch, burst index and tear index. Hydrothermal treatment of the raw material at 190 degrees C provided a liquid phase with maximal hemicellulose-derived oligomers and monosaccharide (glucose, xylose and arabinose) contents (26.9 and 4.2 g/L, respectively). Pulping the solid fraction obtained by hydrothermal treatment at 180 degrees C, with 70% ethanol at a liquid/solid ratio of 8:1 at 170 degrees C for 120 min provided pulp with properties on a par with those of soda pulp from the sunflower stalks, namely: 36.3% yield, 69.1% cellulose, 12.6% hemicellulose, 18.2% lignin and 551 ml/g viscosity. Also, paper sheets obtained from the ethanol pulp were similar in breaking length (3.8 km), stretch (1.23%), burst index (1.15 kN/g) and tear index (2.04 m Nm(2)/g) to those provided by soda pulp. PMID:17369038

  2. Acute and chronic ethanol exposure differentially regulate CB1 receptor function at glutamatergic synapses in the rat basolateral amygdala.

    Robinson, Stacey L; Alexander, Nancy J; Bluett, Rebecca J; Patel, Sachin; McCool, Brian A

    2016-09-01

    The endogenous cannabinoid (eCB) system has been suggested to play a key role in ethanol preference and intake, the acute effects of ethanol, and in the development of withdrawal symptoms following ethanol dependence. Ethanol-dependent alterations in glutamatergic signaling within the lateral/basolateral nucleus of the amygdala (BLA) are critical for the development and expression of withdrawal-induced anxiety. Notably, the eCB system significantly regulates both glutamatergic and GABAergic synaptic activity within the BLA. Chronic ethanol exposure significantly alters eCB system expression within regions critical to the expression of emotionality and anxiety-related behavior, including the BLA. Here, we investigated specific interactions between the BLA eCB system and its functional regulation of synaptic activity during acute and chronic ethanol exposure. In tissue from ethanol naïve-rats, a prolonged acute ethanol exposure caused a dose dependent inhibition of glutamatergic synaptic activity via a presynaptic mechanism that was occluded by CB1 antagonist/inverse agonists SR141716a and AM251. Importantly, this acute ethanol inhibition was attenuated following 10 day chronic intermittent ethanol vapor exposure (CIE). CIE exposure also significantly down-regulated CB1-mediated presynaptic inhibition at glutamatergic afferent terminals but spared CB1-inhibition of GABAergic synapses arising from local inhibitory-interneurons. CIE also significantly elevated BLA N-arachidonoylethanolamine (AEA or anandamide) levels and decreased CB1 receptor protein levels. Collectively, these data suggest a dynamic regulation of the BLA eCB system by acute and chronic ethanol. PMID:26707595

  3. An Explanation for the Paradoxical Induction and Suppression of an Acute Phase Response by Ethanol

    Pruett, Brandon S.; Pruett, Stephen B

    2006-01-01

    Binge ethanol (EtOH) consumption suppresses inflammatory responses and resistance to infection, but paradoxically it is associated with increased levels of acute phase proteins (which are indicators of inflammation) and an increased risk of inflammation mediated pathologies such as cardiovascular disease and cirrhosis of the liver. The latter effect may be mediated by increased translocation of bacteria leading to activation of toll-like receptor 4 (TLR4). In this study, the dose-response and...

  4. Tectoridin, an isoflavone glycoside from the flower of Pueraria lobata, prevents acute ethanol-induced liver steatosis in mice

    In traditional Chinese medicine, the flower of Pueraria lobata (Puerariae Flos) has been used in therapy to counteract the problems associated with alcohol drinking and liver injury. In this study, we investigated the hepatoprotective effects and its mechanisms of tectoridin, an isoflavone glycoside from the flower of P. lobata (Willd.) Ohwi. Ethanol (5 g/kg) was given orally every 12 h for a total of three doses. 1 h after the last dose of ethanol, tectoridin (25, 50 and 100 mg/kg) was given intragastrically five times in three consecutive days. The mice were sacrificed at 4 h after tectoridin treatment. Peroxisome proliferators-activated receptor α (PPARα), sterol regulatory element-binding protein (SREBP)-1c and their target genes were evaluated by biochemical analysis and quantitative real-time polymerase chain reaction (qPCR). Mitochondria were isolated for the mitochondrial permeability transition (MPT) and membrane potential (ΔΨm) assay. Acute ethanol exposure resulted in the significant increase of the alanine aminotransferase (ALT), aspartate aminotransferase (AST) and triglyceride (TG) levels and hepatic mitochondria dysfunction shown as the increase of MPT and the decrease of ΔΨm. However, tectoridin treatment dramatically attenuated these effects. In addition, tectoridin remarkably alleviated the over-production of thiobarbituric acid-reactive substance. Furthermore, tectoridin inhibited the decrease of PPARα expression and its target genes, including medium-chain acyl-CoA dehydrogenase (MCAD), acyl-CoA oxidase (ACO) and cytochrome P450 4A (CYP 4A) at mRNA and enzyme activity levels. These data showed that tectoridin protected against ethanol-induced liver steatosis mainly through modulating the disturbance of PPARα pathway and ameliorating mitochondrial function.

  5. Clinical Practice Guidelines for Acute Pancreatitis Treatment.

    Francisco García Valdés; Jorge Luis Ulloa Capestany; Reinaldo Jiménez Prendes; Rudis Miguel Monzón Rodríguez; Carlos Jaime Geroy Gómez

    2009-01-01

    Clinical Practice Guidelines for Acute Pancreatitis Treatment. It is the acute inflammatory reaction of the pancreas, affecting a gland that was previously healthy and causes its self-digestion with variable complications of local and distal systems of organs. Its etiological agents, clinical presentation, diagnostic methods and therapy are described. It includes assessment guidelines focused on the most important aspects to be accomplished.

  6. Whey protein concentrate promotes the production of glutathione (GSH) by GSH reductase in the PC12 cell line after acute ethanol exposure.

    Tseng, Yang-Ming; Lin, Shu-Kai; Hsiao, Jen-Kuei; Chen, Ing-Jun; Lee, Jang-Hwa; Wu, Szu-Hsien; Tsai, Li-Yu

    2006-04-01

    Excessive ethanol consumption may increase the production of reactive oxygen species (ROS), which results in the damage of tissues, especially the neurons and glial cells in the central nervous system (CNS). The purpose of this study is to evaluate the effects of whey protein concentrate (WPC) on the glutathione (GSH) status after acute ethanol exposure in the pheochromocytoma (PC12) cell line. In this study, we assayed the cell viability, the percentage of lactate dehydrogenase released (% LDH released), the level of GSH, and the activity of GSH reductase (GRx). The results showed that with the supplement of WPC, the cell viability displayed no significant difference after acute exposure of ethanol in groups with or without ethanol treatment. The ethanol-induced cytotoxicity showed a slight decrease ,and the level of GSH showed a significant increase. The activity of GRx significantly increased when 0.1, 10mg/ml of WPC was supplied. In conclusion, these results suggest that WPC in a moderate concentration should be a precursor agent to promote the production of GSH and will enhance the antioxidant capacity in the PC12 cell line. PMID:16360258

  7. Acute effects of ethanol on hepatic uptake and distribution of narcotics in the isolated perfused rabbit liver

    Kreek, M.J.; Rothschild, M.A.; Oratz, M.; Mongelli, J.; Handley, A.C.

    This study was performed as an initial step in systematically defining the hepatic interactions between ethanol and opioids using a controlled in vitro system. The acute effects of ethanol on the initial uptake and distribution of long- and short-acting narcotics were studied using isolated rabbit liver perfused with rabbit blood without or with ethanol. A pulse injection of 1.5 mg of 14C-labeled narcotic (methadone, 1-alpha-acetylmethadol (LAAM), morphine, or meperidine) was made into the portal vein cannula followed by perfusion for 2 min. Radioactivity was determined in liver homogenates and subcellular fractions; methadone and its metabolites were measured by thin-layer chromatography with zonal scanning in each fraction. Ethanol preperfusion and concomitant ethanol perfusion did not effect hepatic uptake of methadone, LAAM, morphine, or meperidine. Although subcellular localization of morphine and meperidine differed from that of methadone and LAAM, perfusion with ethanol did not alter the acute hepatic uptake and distribution of any of the narcotics. These findings suggest that acute exposure to ethanol does not alter the acute hepatic disposition of narcotics.

  8. Acute effects of ethanol on hepatic uptake and distribution of narcotics in the isolated perfused rabbit liver

    This study was performed as an initial step in systematically defining the hepatic interactions between ethanol and opioids using a controlled in vitro system. The acute effects of ethanol on the initial uptake and distribution of long- and short-acting narcotics were studied using isolated rabbit liver perfused with rabbit blood without or with ethanol. A pulse injection of 1.5 mg of 14C-labeled narcotic [methadone, 1-alpha-acetylmethadol (LAAM), morphine, or meperidine] was made into the portal vein cannula followed by perfusion for 2 min. Radioactivity was determined in liver homogenates and subcellular fractions; methadone and its metabolites were measured by thin-layer chromatography with zonal scanning in each fraction. Ethanol preperfusion and concomitant ethanol perfusion did not effect hepatic uptake of methadone, LAAM, morphine, or meperidine. Although subcellular localization of morphine and meperidine differed from that of methadone and LAAM, perfusion with ethanol did not alter the acute hepatic uptake and distribution of any of the narcotics. These findings suggest that acute exposure to ethanol does not alter the acute hepatic disposition of narcotics

  9. EFFECTS OF LUDARTIN AND LEUKOMISIN ON THE ACUTE HYPERLIPIDEMIA MODEL INDUCED BY ETHANOL

    A. V. Ratkin

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available Objective: study sesquiterpene lactones ludartin and leukomisin lipid-lowering properties on the model of acute hyperlipidemia induced by ethanol in rats.Material and methods. Rats during 7 days injected into the stomach ludartin and leukomisin in a dose 10 mg/kg or reference drug nicotinic acid in a dose 25 mg/kg. Hyperlipidemia caused by single introduc-tion of ethanol into the stomach in a dose 5 g/kg. In blood serum of tail vein measured the triacylgly-cerols, total cholesterol, high density and low density lipoproteins cholesterol, also the level of free fatty acids. Calculated the ratio of high density lipoproteins cholesterol to the amount of low density lipopro-teins cholesterol and the index of atherogenicity.Results. A single dose of ethanol increased serum level of triacylglycerols in 1.9 times, free fatty acids – in 3.2 times, low density lipoproteins – on 44% in comparison with the intact animals indices. It shows the development of acute hyperlipidemia. Serum total cholesterol, high density lipoproteins cholesterol and the index of atherogenicity were not changed. Course introduction of sesquiterpene lactones ludartin and leukomisin against the background of acute hyperlipidemia was accompanied by a decrease in the serum of triacylglycerols levels respectively by 37.5% and 49.5%. Nicotinic acid lowered the content of triacylglycerols by 42.4%. Ludartin, leukomisin and nicotinic acid reduced the increased level of free fatty acids in the blood serum by 63.4%, 41.6% and 67.9%. Ludartin, leukomisin and nicotinic acid de-creased by 15.8%, 20.3% and 17.2% of total cholesterol in the blood serum. In acute hyperlipidemia ludartin and leukomisin reduced low density lipoproteins cholesterol by 23.8% and 14.8%, respectively, nicotinic acid – by 15.7%. Both of sesquiterpene lactone and nicotinic acid did not modify the content of high density lipoproteins cholesterol. When introduction ludartin and nicotinic acid ratio of high density

  10. Surgical treatment of acute pancreatitis

    Klose, K.J.; Neher, M.; Kuhn, F.P.; Kuemmerle, F.; Thelen, M.

    1983-03-31

    The diagnosis of acute pancreatitis is based on anamnestic, clinical and chemical data. Ultrasound and computed tomography permit direct visualisation of the pancreas and establish the diagnosis. In cases of haemorrhagic-necrotising pancreatitis they demonstrate the extent of morphological changes and permit exclusion of other causes of an acute abdomen. The imaging methods support indications for operation in cases of subtotal or total parenchymatous necrosis and in pancreatic abscesses. Conservative expectant approaches in patients with severe clinical course and slight morphological changes as well as in agreement of clinical and morphological findings are facilitated. Complete demonstration of parenchymatous and peripancreatic necroses furnishes useful additional information for total extirpation. Gallstone disease can be demonstrated or excluded preoperatively. Since introduction of ultrasound and computed tomography for the diagnosis of acute pancreatitis a marked diminution of early surgical intervention and delayed operation has been achieved.

  11. Chronic ethanol treatment potientials ethanol-induced increases in interstitial nucleus accumbens endocannabinoid levels in rats

    Alvarez-Jaimes, Lily; Stouffer, David G.; Parsons, Loren H

    2009-01-01

    We employed in vivo microdialysis to characterize the effect of an ethanol challenge injection on endocannabinoid levels in the nucleus accumbens of ethanol-naïve and chronic ethanol-treated rats. Ethanol (0.75 and 2 g/kg, i.p.) dose-dependently increased dialysate 2-arachidonoylglycerol (to a maximum 157 ± 20% of baseline) and decreased anandamide (to a minimum 52 ± 9% of baseline) in ethanol-naïve rats. The endocannabinoid clearance inhibitor N-(4-hydrophenyl) arachidonoylamide (AM404; 3 mg...

  12. Transgenic mice with increased astrocyte expression of IL-6 show altered effects of acute ethanol on synaptic function.

    Hernandez, Ruben V; Puro, Alana C; Manos, Jessica C; Huitron-Resendiz, Salvador; Reyes, Kenneth C; Liu, Kevin; Vo, Khanh; Roberts, Amanda J; Gruol, Donna L

    2016-04-01

    A growing body of evidence has revealed that resident cells of the central nervous system (CNS), and particularly the glial cells, comprise a neuroimmune system that serves a number of functions in the normal CNS and during adverse conditions. Cells of the neuroimmune system regulate CNS functions through the production of signaling factors, referred to as neuroimmune factors. Recent studies show that ethanol can activate cells of the neuroimmune system, resulting in the elevated production of neuroimmune factors, including the cytokine interleukin-6 (IL-6). Here we analyzed the consequences of this CNS action of ethanol using transgenic mice that express elevated levels of IL-6 through increased astrocyte expression (IL-6-tg) to model the increased IL-6 expression that occurs with ethanol use. Results show that increased IL-6 expression induces neuroadaptive changes that alter the effects of ethanol. In hippocampal slices from non-transgenic (non-tg) littermate control mice, synaptically evoked dendritic field excitatory postsynaptic potential (fEPSP) and somatic population spike (PS) at the Schaffer collateral to CA1 pyramidal neuron synapse were reduced by acute ethanol (20 or 60 mM). In contrast, acute ethanol enhanced the fEPSP and PS in hippocampal slices from IL-6 tg mice. Long-term synaptic plasticity of the fEPSP (i.e., LTP) showed the expected dose-dependent reduction by acute ethanol in non-tg hippocampal slices, whereas LTP in the IL-6 tg hippocampal slices was resistant to this depressive effect of acute ethanol. Consistent with altered effects of acute ethanol on synaptic function in the IL-6 tg mice, EEG recordings showed a higher level of CNS activity in the IL-6 tg mice than in the non-tg mice during the period of withdrawal from an acute high dose of ethanol. These results suggest a potential role for neuroadaptive effects of ethanol-induced astrocyte production of IL-6 as a mediator or modulator of the actions of ethanol on the CNS, including

  13. Acute ethanol intake induces superoxide anion generation and mitogen-activated protein kinase phosphorylation in rat aorta: A role for angiotensin type 1 receptor

    Ethanol intake is associated with increase in blood pressure, through unknown mechanisms. We hypothesized that acute ethanol intake enhances vascular oxidative stress and induces vascular dysfunction through renin–angiotensin system (RAS) activation. Ethanol (1 g/kg; p.o. gavage) effects were assessed within 30 min in male Wistar rats. The transient decrease in blood pressure induced by ethanol was not affected by the previous administration of losartan (10 mg/kg; p.o. gavage), a selective AT1 receptor antagonist. Acute ethanol intake increased plasma renin activity (PRA), angiotensin converting enzyme (ACE) activity, plasma angiotensin I (ANG I) and angiotensin II (ANG II) levels. Ethanol induced systemic and vascular oxidative stress, evidenced by increased plasma thiobarbituric acid-reacting substances (TBARS) levels, NAD(P)H oxidase‐mediated vascular generation of superoxide anion and p47phox translocation (cytosol to membrane). These effects were prevented by losartan. Isolated aortas from ethanol-treated rats displayed increased p38MAPK and SAPK/JNK phosphorylation. Losartan inhibited ethanol-induced increase in the phosphorylation of these kinases. Ethanol intake decreased acetylcholine-induced relaxation and increased phenylephrine-induced contraction in endothelium-intact aortas. Ethanol significantly decreased plasma and aortic nitrate levels. These changes in vascular reactivity and in the end product of endogenous nitric oxide metabolism were not affected by losartan. Our study provides novel evidence that acute ethanol intake stimulates RAS activity and induces vascular oxidative stress and redox-signaling activation through AT1-dependent mechanisms. These findings highlight the importance of RAS in acute ethanol-induced oxidative damage. -- Highlights: ► Acute ethanol intake stimulates RAS activity and vascular oxidative stress. ► RAS plays a role in acute ethanol-induced oxidative damage via AT1 receptor activation. ► Translocation of p47

  14. Acute ethanol intake induces superoxide anion generation and mitogen-activated protein kinase phosphorylation in rat aorta: A role for angiotensin type 1 receptor

    Yogi, Alvaro; Callera, Glaucia E. [Kidney Research Centre, Ottawa Hospital Research Institute, University of Ottawa, Ontario (Canada); Mecawi, André S. [Department of Physiology, Faculty of Medicine of Ribeirão Preto, University of São Paulo (USP), Ribeirão Preto, SP (Brazil); Batalhão, Marcelo E.; Carnio, Evelin C. [Department of General and Specialized Nursing, College of Nursing of Ribeirão Preto, USP, São Paulo (Brazil); Antunes-Rodrigues, José [Department of Physiology, Faculty of Medicine of Ribeirão Preto, University of São Paulo (USP), Ribeirão Preto, SP (Brazil); Queiroz, Regina H. [Department of Clinical, Toxicological and Food Science Analysis, Faculty of Pharmaceutical Sciences, USP, São Paulo (Brazil); Touyz, Rhian M. [Kidney Research Centre, Ottawa Hospital Research Institute, University of Ottawa, Ontario (Canada); Tirapelli, Carlos R., E-mail: crtirapelli@eerp.usp.br [Department of Psychiatric Nursing and Human Sciences, Laboratory of Pharmacology, College of Nursing of Ribeirão Preto, USP, Ribeirão Preto, SP (Brazil)

    2012-11-01

    Ethanol intake is associated with increase in blood pressure, through unknown mechanisms. We hypothesized that acute ethanol intake enhances vascular oxidative stress and induces vascular dysfunction through renin–angiotensin system (RAS) activation. Ethanol (1 g/kg; p.o. gavage) effects were assessed within 30 min in male Wistar rats. The transient decrease in blood pressure induced by ethanol was not affected by the previous administration of losartan (10 mg/kg; p.o. gavage), a selective AT{sub 1} receptor antagonist. Acute ethanol intake increased plasma renin activity (PRA), angiotensin converting enzyme (ACE) activity, plasma angiotensin I (ANG I) and angiotensin II (ANG II) levels. Ethanol induced systemic and vascular oxidative stress, evidenced by increased plasma thiobarbituric acid-reacting substances (TBARS) levels, NAD(P)H oxidase‐mediated vascular generation of superoxide anion and p47phox translocation (cytosol to membrane). These effects were prevented by losartan. Isolated aortas from ethanol-treated rats displayed increased p38MAPK and SAPK/JNK phosphorylation. Losartan inhibited ethanol-induced increase in the phosphorylation of these kinases. Ethanol intake decreased acetylcholine-induced relaxation and increased phenylephrine-induced contraction in endothelium-intact aortas. Ethanol significantly decreased plasma and aortic nitrate levels. These changes in vascular reactivity and in the end product of endogenous nitric oxide metabolism were not affected by losartan. Our study provides novel evidence that acute ethanol intake stimulates RAS activity and induces vascular oxidative stress and redox-signaling activation through AT{sub 1}-dependent mechanisms. These findings highlight the importance of RAS in acute ethanol-induced oxidative damage. -- Highlights: ► Acute ethanol intake stimulates RAS activity and vascular oxidative stress. ► RAS plays a role in acute ethanol-induced oxidative damage via AT{sub 1} receptor activation.

  15. In vitro anti oxidant activity and acute oral toxicity of Terminalia paniculata bark ethanolic extract on Sprague Dawley rats

    Ramgopal Mopuri; Balaji Meriga

    2014-01-01

    Objective: To ensure the safety and evaluate the anti oxidant activity of Terminalia paniculata (T.paniculata) ethanolic extract in Sprague Dawley rats. Methods: The solvent extracts (hexane, ethyl acetate and ethanol) of T. paniculata were subjected to phytochemical analysis and their DPPH radical scavenging activity was assayed. The oral acute toxicity was evaluated using ethanolic extract of T. paniculata. Results:Ethyl acetate and ethanolic extracts showed more phytochemicals, whereas highest DPPH scavenging activity was found in ethanolic extract. In an acute toxicity study, T. paniculata ethanolic extract was orally administered (1 000 mg/kg body weight) to rats and observed for 72 h for any toxic symptoms and the dose was continued up to 14 d. On the 15th day rats were sacrificed and blood samples were collected from control and test animals and analyzed for some biochemical parameters. We did not observe any behavioral changes in test groups in comparison with their controls. Also, there were no significant alterations in biochemical, hematological (hemoglobin content and blood cells count) and liver function parameters such as serum glutamate pyruvate transaminase, serum glutamate oxaloacetate transaminase, alkaline phosphatase, total proteins, albumin and bilirubin levels between T. paniculata ethanolic extract treated and normal control groups. Conclusions:Together our results demonstrated that T. paniculata ethanolic possessed potent antioxidant activity and it was safer and non toxic to rats even at higher doses and therefore could be well considered for further investigation for its medicinal and therapeutic efficacy.

  16. Acute kidney injury following isotretinoin treatment

    Armaly, Zaher; Haj, Shehadeh; Bowirrat, Abdalla; Alhaj, Mohammed; Jabbour, Adel; Fahoum, Yumna; Abassi, Zaid

    2013-01-01

    Patient: Female, 17 Final Diagnosis: Acute kidney injury Symptoms: Flank pain • nausea • vomiting Medication: Isotretinoin Clinical Procedure: Acne treatment Specialty: Nephrology Objective: Unknown etiology Background: Isotretinoin is widely used for the treatment of acne that is unresponsive to topical therapy. Despite its efficacy, isotretinoin has various adverse effects, including cheilitis, increased risk of cutaneous Staphylococcus aureus infections, and liver function abnormalities. C...

  17. Acute biliary pancreatitis: Diagnosis and treatment

    Hazem Zakaria

    2009-01-01

    Full Text Available Gallstones are the commonest cause of acute pancreatitis (AP, a potentially life-threatening condition, worldwide. The pathogenesis of acute pancreatitis has not been fully understood. Laboratory and radiological investigations are critical for diagnosis as well prognosis prediction. Scoring systems based on radiological findings and serologic inflammatory markers have been proposed as better predictors of disease severity. Early endoscopic retrograde cholangiopancreatography (ERCP is beneficial in a group of patients with gallstone pancreatitis. Laparoscopic cholecystectomy with preoperative endoscopic common bile duct clearance is recommended as a treatment of choice for acute biliary pancreatitis. The timing of cholecystectomy, following ERCP, for biliary pancreatitis can vary markedly depending on the severity of pancreatitis

  18. Acute ethanol induces apoptosis by stimulating TRPC6 via elevation of superoxide in oxygenated podocytes

    Lu, Xiao-Yu; Liu, Bing-Chen; Wang, Li-Hua; Yang, Li-li; Bao, Qing; Zhai, Yu-Jia; Alli, Abdel A.; Thai, Tiffany L.; Eaton, Douglas C.; WANG Wei-zhi; Ma, He-Ping

    2015-01-01

    Our recent studies indicate that hydrogen peroxide (H2O2) only at high concentrations can cause oxidative stress in renal epithelial cells and induce apoptosis of podocytes. Consistently, the present study shows that H2O2, even at 1 mM, failed to induce intracellular oxidative stress and apoptosis of the podocytes due to efficient activity of catalase, an enzyme which degrades H2O2 to produce water and oxygen (O2). However, H2O2 acted as a source of O2 to allow acute ethanol to induce superox...

  19. Evolving Treatments for Acute Ischemic Stroke.

    Zerna, Charlotte; Hegedus, Janka; Hill, Michael D

    2016-04-29

    The purpose of this article is to review advances in stroke treatment in the hyperacute period. With recent evolutions of technology in the fields of imaging, thrombectomy devices, and emergency room workflow management, as well as improvement in statistical methods and study design, there have been ground breaking changes in the treatment of acute ischemic stroke. We describe how stroke presents as a clinical syndrome and how imaging as the most important biomarker will help differentiate between stroke subtypes and treatment eligibility. The evolution of hyperacute treatment has led to the current standard of care: intravenous thrombolysis with tissue-type plasminogen activator and endovascular treatment for proximal vessel occlusion in the anterior cerebral circulation. All patients with acute ischemic stroke are in need of hyperacute secondary prevention because the risk of recurrence is highest closest to the index event. The dominant themes of modern stroke care are the use of neurovascular imaging and speed of diagnosis and treatment. PMID:27126651

  20. INCREASES IN ANXIETY-LIKE BEHAVIOR INDUCED BY ACUTE STRESS ARE REVERSED BY ETHANOL IN ADOLESCENT BUT NOT ADULT RATS

    Varlinskaya, Elena I.; Spear, Linda P.

    2011-01-01

    Repeated exposure to stressors has been found to increase anxiety-like behavior in laboratory rodents, with the social anxiety induced by repeated restraint being extremely sensitive to anxiolytic effects of ethanol in both adolescent and adult rats. No studies, however, have compared social anxiogenic effects of acute stress or the capacity of ethanol to reverse this anxiety in adolescent and adult animals. Therefore, the present study was designed to investigate whether adolescent [postnata...

  1. Evaluation of Biofield Treatment on Atomic and Thermal Properties of Ethanol

    Trivedi, Mahendra Kumar

    2015-01-01

    Ethanol is a polar organic solvent, and frequently used as a fuel in automobile industries, principally as an additive with gasoline due to its higher octane rating. It is generally produced from biomass such as corn, sugar and some other agriculture products. In the present study, impact of biofield treatment on ethanol was evaluated with respect to its atomic and thermal properties. The ethanol sample was divided into two parts i.e., control and treatment. Control part was remained untreate...

  2. Acute Oral Toxicity Studies of Ethanol Leaf Extracts Of Derris Scandens & Pulicaria Wightiana In Albino Rats

    Vidya Sabbani

    2015-02-01

    Full Text Available Objective: The present study was designed to find out LD50 and to ascertain the safety of ethanol extracts of leaves of Derris scan dens and Pulicaria wightiana by acute oral toxicity study in female rats as per OECD guideline 425.Methods: Rats were sequentially administered with ethanol leaf extracts of Derris scandens (Ds & Pulicaria wightiana(Pw  in single dosages of 175, 550, and 2000 mg/kg of body weight. All the animals were individually studied for mortality, wellness parameters and body weight for 14 days.Results: No mortality and no significant changes were observed in body weight and wellness parameters at 175, 550 and 2000 mg/kg body wt. doses of both Derris scandens and Pulicaria wightiana , which reveal the safety of these plants  in the doses up to 2000 mg/kg body weight.Conclusion: Conclusively, LD50 value of ethanol extracts of leaves of Derris scandens and Pulicaria wightiana were found to be more than 2000 mg/kg body weight.

  3. Acute and 28-Day Subchronic Oral Toxicity of an Ethanol Extract of Zingiber zerumbet (L. Smith in Rodents

    Chia Ju Chang

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available The objective of this study was to evaluate the acute and subacute toxicity (28 days of the ethanol extract of Z. zerumbet rhizomes (EEZZ via the oral route in Wistar rats of both sexes. In the acute toxicity study, Wistar rats were administered a single dose of 15 g kg−1 of body weight by gavage, and were monitored for 14 days. EEZZ did not produce any toxic signs or deaths; the 50% lethal dose must be higher than 15 g kg−1. In the subchronic toxicity study, EEZZ was administered by gavage at doses of 1000, 2000 and 3000 mg/kg daily for 4 weeks to Wistar rats. The subacute treatment with EEZZ did not alter either the body weight gain or the food and water consumption. The hematological and biochemical analysis did not show significant differences in any of the parameters examined in female or male groups. Necropsy and histopathological examination, did not reveal any remarkable and treatment related changes. A no-observed adverse-effect level for EEZZ is 3000 mg kg−1 for rats under the conditions of this study. Hence, consumption of EEZZ for various medicinal purposes is safe.

  4. Effects of acute or chronic ethanol exposure during adolescence on behavioral inhibition and efficiency in a modified water maze task.

    Shawn K Acheson

    Full Text Available Ethanol is well known to adversely affect frontal executive functioning, which continues to develop throughout adolescence and into young adulthood. This is also a developmental window in which ethanol is misused by a significant number of adolescents. We examined the effects of acute and chronic ethanol exposure during adolescence on behavioral inhibition and efficiency using a modified water maze task. During acquisition, rats were trained to find a stable visible platform onto which they could escape. During the test phase, the stable platform was converted to a visible floating platform (providing no escape and a new hidden platform was added in the opposite quadrant. The hidden platform was the only means of escape during the test phase. In experiment 1, adolescent animals received ethanol (1.0 g/kg 30 min before each session during the test phase. In experiment 2, adolescent animals received chronic intermittent ethanol (5.0 g/kg for 16 days (PND30 To PND46 prior to any training in the maze. At PND72, training was initiated in the same modified water maze task. Results from experiment 1 indicated that acute ethanol promoted behavioral disinhibition and inefficiency. Experiment 2 showed that chronic intermittent ethanol during adolescence appeared to have no lasting effect on behavioral disinhibition or new spatial learning during adulthood. However, chronic ethanol did promote behavioral inefficiency. In summary, results indicate that ethanol-induced promotion of perseverative behavior may contribute to the many adverse behavioral sequelae of alcohol intoxication in adolescents and young adults. Moreover, the long-term effect of adolescent chronic ethanol exposure on behavioral efficiency is similar to that observed after chronic exposure in humans.

  5. Commonly Used Acute Migraine Treatments

    ... or intranasal Dihydroergotamine is available as an intranasal, intramuscular, or intravenous treatment May work on more than ... suddenly stop taking preventive medications because of the risk of rebound headache or other side effects. Preventive ...

  6. The role of glycerol-3-phosphate dehydrogenase 1 in the progression of fatty liver after acute ethanol administration in mice

    Highlights: • Ethanol administration increased GPD1 mRNA expression. • Ethanol administration increased glucose incorporation into TG glycerol moieties. • No increase in hepatic TG levels was observed in ethanol-injected GPD1 null mice. • We propose that GPD1 is required for ethanol-induced TG accumulation in the liver. - Abstract: Acute ethanol consumption leads to the accumulation of triglycerides (TGs) in hepatocytes. The increase in lipogenesis and reduction of fatty acid oxidation are implicated as the mechanisms underlying ethanol-induced hepatic TG accumulation. Although glycerol-3-phosphate (Gro3P), formed by glycerol kinase (GYK) or glycerol-3-phosphate dehydrogenase 1 (GPD1), is also required for TG synthesis, the roles of GYK and GPD1 have been the subject of some debate. In this study, we examine (1) the expression of genes involved in Gro3P production in the liver of C57BL/6J mice in the context of hepatic TG accumulation after acute ethanol intake, and (2) the role of GPD1 in the progression of ethanol-induced fatty liver using GPD1 null mice. As a result, in C57BL/6J mice, ethanol-induced hepatic TG accumulation began within 2 h and was 1.7-fold greater than that observed in the control group after 6 h. The up-regulation of GPD1 began 2 h after administering ethanol, and significantly increased 6 h later with the concomitant escalation in the glycolytic gene expression. The incorporation of 14C-labelled glucose into TG glycerol moieties increased during the same period. On the other hand, in GPD1 null mice carrying normal GYK activity, no significant increase in hepatic TG level was observed after acute ethanol intake. In conclusion, GPD1 and glycolytic gene expression is up-regulated by ethanol, and GPD1-mediated incorporation of glucose into TG glycerol moieties together with increased lipogenesis, is suggested to play an important role in ethanol-induced hepatic TG accumulation

  7. The role of glycerol-3-phosphate dehydrogenase 1 in the progression of fatty liver after acute ethanol administration in mice

    Sato, Tomoki, E-mail: s13220@u-shizuoka-ken.ac.jp [Laboratory of Nutritional Biochemistry, Graduate School of Nutritional and Environmental Sciences, University of Shizuoka, 52-1 Yada, Suruga-ku, Shizuoka 422-8526 (Japan); Morita, Akihito, E-mail: moritaa@u-shizuoka-ken.ac.jp [Laboratory of Nutritional Biochemistry, Graduate School of Nutritional and Environmental Sciences, University of Shizuoka, 52-1 Yada, Suruga-ku, Shizuoka 422-8526 (Japan); Mori, Nobuko, E-mail: morin@b.s.osakafu-u.ac.jp [Department of Biological Science, Graduate School of Science, Osaka Prefecture University, 1-2 Gakuen-cho, Naka-ku, Sakai 599-8570 (Japan); Miura, Shinji, E-mail: miura@u-shizuoka-ken.ac.jp [Laboratory of Nutritional Biochemistry, Graduate School of Nutritional and Environmental Sciences, University of Shizuoka, 52-1 Yada, Suruga-ku, Shizuoka 422-8526 (Japan)

    2014-02-21

    Highlights: • Ethanol administration increased GPD1 mRNA expression. • Ethanol administration increased glucose incorporation into TG glycerol moieties. • No increase in hepatic TG levels was observed in ethanol-injected GPD1 null mice. • We propose that GPD1 is required for ethanol-induced TG accumulation in the liver. - Abstract: Acute ethanol consumption leads to the accumulation of triglycerides (TGs) in hepatocytes. The increase in lipogenesis and reduction of fatty acid oxidation are implicated as the mechanisms underlying ethanol-induced hepatic TG accumulation. Although glycerol-3-phosphate (Gro3P), formed by glycerol kinase (GYK) or glycerol-3-phosphate dehydrogenase 1 (GPD1), is also required for TG synthesis, the roles of GYK and GPD1 have been the subject of some debate. In this study, we examine (1) the expression of genes involved in Gro3P production in the liver of C57BL/6J mice in the context of hepatic TG accumulation after acute ethanol intake, and (2) the role of GPD1 in the progression of ethanol-induced fatty liver using GPD1 null mice. As a result, in C57BL/6J mice, ethanol-induced hepatic TG accumulation began within 2 h and was 1.7-fold greater than that observed in the control group after 6 h. The up-regulation of GPD1 began 2 h after administering ethanol, and significantly increased 6 h later with the concomitant escalation in the glycolytic gene expression. The incorporation of {sup 14}C-labelled glucose into TG glycerol moieties increased during the same period. On the other hand, in GPD1 null mice carrying normal GYK activity, no significant increase in hepatic TG level was observed after acute ethanol intake. In conclusion, GPD1 and glycolytic gene expression is up-regulated by ethanol, and GPD1-mediated incorporation of glucose into TG glycerol moieties together with increased lipogenesis, is suggested to play an important role in ethanol-induced hepatic TG accumulation.

  8. Ethanol extracts of Scutellaria baicalensis protect against lipopolysaccharide-induced acute liver injury in mice

    Hai Nguyen Thanh; Hue Pham Thi Minh; Tuan Anh Le; Huong Duong Thi Ly; Tung Nguyen Huu; Loi Vu Duc; Thu Dang Kim; Tung Bui Thanh

    2015-01-01

    To investigated the protective potential of ethanol extracts of Scutellaria baicalensis (S. baicalensis ) against lipopolysaccharide (LPS)-induced liver injury. Methods: Dried roots of S. baicalensis were extracted with ethanol and concentrated to yield a dry residue. Mice were administered 200 mg/kg of the ethanol extracts orally once daily for one week. Animals were subsequently administered a single dose of LPS (5 mg/kg of body weight, intraperitoneal injection). Both protein and mRNA levels of cytokines, such as tumor necrosis factor alpha, interleukin-1β, and interleukin-6 in liver tissues were evaluated by ELISA assay and quantitative PCR. Cyclooxygenase-2, inducible nitric oxide synthase, and nuclear factor-κB protein levels in liver tissues were analyzed by western blotting. Results: Liver injury induced by LPS significantly increased necrosis factor alpha, interleukin-1β, interleukin-6, cyclooxygenase-2, inducible nitric oxide synthase, and nuclear factor-κB in liver tissues. Treatment with ethanol extracts of S. baicalensis prevented all of these observed changes associated with LPS-induced injury in liver mice. Conclusions: Our study showed that S. baicalensis is potentially protective against LPS-induced liver injury in mice.

  9. Clinical Practice Guidelines for Acute Pericarditis Treatment

    Félix Rolando Jorrín Román; Lázaro De la Cruz Aviles; Roberto Vega Hernández; Francisco Riverón Mena

    2009-01-01

    Clinical Practice Guidelines for Acute Pericarditis Treatment. It has been defined as a syndrome caused by the inflammation of the pericardium for diverse aetiologies. The etiological agents, clinical presentation, diagnostic methods and steps that must be taken are described in this document. It includes assessment guidelines focused on the most important aspects to be accomplished.

  10. Antiproteases in the Treatment of Acute Pancreatitis

    Motoji Kitagawa

    2007-07-01

    Full Text Available The pathogenesis of acute pancreatitis relates to the inappropriate activation of trypsinogen to trypsin and a lack of the prompt elimination of the active trypsin inside the pancreas. Therefore, trypsin is believed to be the key enzyme in the initiation and exacerbation of acute pancreatitis by activating pancreatic zymogens. The activation of digestive enzymes causes pancreatic injury and results in an inflammatory response. The acute inflammatory response in the pancreas induces the systemic production of cytokines causing substantial tissue damage, and may progress beyond the pancreas to a systemic inflammatory response syndrome (SIRS, multi-organ failure (MOF or death [1]. In several studies, protease inhibitors have not been shown to be of significant value in the treatment of acute pancreatitis and are not available in the United States [2]. Several guidelines [3, 4, 5, 6, 7, 8, 9, 10, 11, 12] on the treatment of acute pancreatitis do not recommend them and the debate about the use of protease inhibitors is mentioned.

  11. Radioimmunotherapy for Treatment of Acute Leukemia.

    Bodet-Milin, Caroline; Kraeber-Bodéré, Françoise; Eugène, Thomas; Guérard, François; Gaschet, Joëlle; Bailly, Clément; Mougin, Marie; Bourgeois, Mickaël; Faivre-Chauvet, Alain; Chérel, Michel; Chevallier, Patrice

    2016-03-01

    Acute leukemias are characterized by accumulation of immature cells (blasts) and reduced production of healthy hematopoietic elements. According to the lineage origin, two major leukemias can be distinguished: acute myeloid leukemia (AML) and acute lymphoid leukemia (ALL). Although the survival rate for pediatric ALL is close to 90%, half of the young adults with AML or ALL and approximately 90% of older patients with AML or ALL still die of their disease, raising the need for innovative therapeutic approaches. As almost all leukemic blasts express specific surface antigens, targeted immunotherapy appears to be particularly promising. However, published results of immunotherapy alone are generally modest. Radioimmunotherapy (RIT) brings additional therapeutic mechanisms using radiolabeled monoclonal antibodies (mAbs) directed to tumor antigens, thus adding radiobiological cytotoxicity to immunologic cytotoxicity. Because of the high radiosensitivity of tumor cells and the diffuse widespread nature of the disease, making it rapidly accessible to circulating radiolabeled mAbs, acute leukemias represent relevant indications for RIT. With the development of recombinant and humanized mAbs, innovative radionuclides, and more efficient radiolabeling and pretargeting techniques, RIT has significantly improved over the last 10 years. Different approaches of α and β RIT targeting CD22, CD33, CD45, or CD66 antigens have already been evaluated or are currently being developed in the treatment of acute leukemia. This review summarizes the preclinical and clinical studies demonstrating the potential of RIT in treatment of AML and ALL. PMID:26897718

  12. Treatment of acute variceal bleeding

    Bendtsen, Flemming; Krag, Aleksander Ahm; Møller, Søren

    2008-01-01

    The management of variceal bleeding remains a clinical challenge with a high mortality. Standardisation in supportive and new therapeutic treatments seems to have improved survival within the last 25 years. Although overall survival has improved in recent years, mortality is still closely related...... to failure to control initial bleeding or early re-bleeding occurring in up to 30-40% of patients. Initial procedures are to secure and protect the airway, and administer volume replacement to stabilize the patient. Treatment with vasoactive drugs should be started as soon as possible, since a...... adhesives should be used. In conclusion: Improvements in resuscitation and prevention of complications have together with introduction of vasoactive drugs and refinement of endoscopic therapy majorily changed the prognosis of the patient presenting with variceal bleeding....

  13. Acute withdrawal: diagnosis and treatment.

    Brust, John C M

    2014-01-01

    Symptoms of alcohol withdrawal range in severity from mild "hangover" to fatal delirium tremens (DTs). Tremor, hallucinosis, and seizures usually occur within 48 hours of abstinence. Seizures tend to be generalized without focality, occurring singly or in a brief cluster, but status epilepticus is not unusual. DTs usually appears after 48 hours of abstinence and consists of marked inattentiveness, agitation, hallucinations, fluctuating level of alertness, marked tremulousness, and sympathetic overactivity. The mainstay of treatment for alcohol withdrawal is benzodiazepine pharmacotherapy, which can be used to control mild early symptoms, to prevent progression to DTs, or to treat DTs itself. Alternative less evidence-based pharmacotherapies include phenobarbital, anticonvulsants, baclofen, gamma-hydroxybutyric acid, beta-blockers, alpha-2-agonists, and N-methyl-d-aspartate receptor blockers. Treatment of DTs is a medical emergency requiring heavy sedation in an intensive care unit, with close attention to autonomic instability, fever, fluid loss, and electrolyte imbalance. Frequent comorbid disorders include hypoglycemia, liver failure, pancreatitis, sepsis, meningitis, intracranial hemorrhage, and Wernicke-Korsakoff syndrome. PMID:25307572

  14. Model studies for evaluating the acute neurobehavioral effects of complex hydrocarbon solvents. I. Validation of methods with ethanol

    McKee, R.H.; Lammers, J.H.C.M.; Hoogendijk, E.M.G.; Emmen, H.H.; Muijser, H.; Barsotti, D.A.; Owen, D.E.; Kulig, B.M.

    2006-01-01

    As a preliminary step to evaluating the acute neurobehavioral effects of hydrocarbon solvents and to establish a working model for extrapolating animal test data to humans, joint neurobehavioral/toxicokinetic studies were conducted which involved administering ethanol to rats and volunteers. The spe

  15. ACECLOFENAC ENCAPSULATED ETHANOLIC NANO-VESICLES FOR EFFECTIVE TREATMENT OF OSTEOART HRITIS

    Arvinder Kaur et al

    2012-08-01

    Full Text Available In the present study, ethanolic nanovesicles of Aceclofenac developed for the site specific delivery to joints for effective treatment of osteoarthritis. Ethanolic nano-vesicles were prepared by solvent dispersion method. Vesicles were characterized for vesicular size, surface morphology, size and size distribution, zeta potential, entrapment efficiency. Formulations were also evaluated for drug-vesicle (excipients interaction, in vitro permeation, in vitro deposition. The TEM showed dark vesicular structures by which it is possible to notice the outer most bilayer. In the ethanol concentration range of 20-40%, the size of the vesicles increased with decreasing ethanol concentration, with the largest vesicles in preparations containing 20% ethanol (809.34±2.329 nm and the smallest in preparations containing 40% ethanol (627±3.684 nm. Zeta potential of formulations shows negative value, which indicates that, the higher concentration of ethanol make the negative charge on vesicles surface. The entrapment was found to increase with increase in ethanol concentration, however percent entrapment decreased when ethanol concentration exceeded 40%. The FTIR spectra reveled no considerable change in IR peaks of Aceclofenac loaded ethanolic vesicles when compared to pure drugs there by indicating absence of any interaction.

  16. Large-scale analysis of acute ethanol exposure in zebrafish development: a critical time window and resilience.

    Shaukat Ali

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: In humans, ethanol exposure during pregnancy causes a spectrum of developmental defects (fetal alcohol syndrome or FAS. Individuals vary in phenotypic expression. Zebrafish embryos develop FAS-like features after ethanol exposure. In this study, we ask whether stage-specific effects of ethanol can be identified in the zebrafish, and if so, whether they allow the pinpointing of sensitive developmental mechanisms. We have therefore conducted the first large-scale (>1500 embryos analysis of acute, stage-specific drug effects on zebrafish development, with a large panel of readouts. METHODOLOGY/PRINCIPAL FINDINGS: Zebrafish embryos were raised in 96-well plates. Range-finding indicated that 10% ethanol for 1 h was suitable for an acute exposure regime. High-resolution magic-angle spinning proton magnetic resonance spectroscopy showed that this produced a transient pulse of 0.86% concentration of ethanol in the embryo within the chorion. Survivors at 5 days postfertilisation were analysed. Phenotypes ranged from normal (resilient to severely malformed. Ethanol exposure at early stages caused high mortality (≥88%. At later stages of exposure, mortality declined and malformations developed. Pharyngeal arch hypoplasia and behavioral impairment were most common after prim-6 and prim-16 exposure. By contrast, microphthalmia and growth retardation were stage-independent. CONCLUSIONS: Our findings show that some ethanol effects are strongly stage-dependent. The phenotypes mimic key aspects of FAS including craniofacial abnormality, microphthalmia, growth retardation and behavioral impairment. We also identify a critical time window (prim-6 and prim-16 for ethanol sensitivity. Finally, our identification of a wide phenotypic spectrum is reminiscent of human FAS, and may provide a useful model for studying disease resilience.

  17. Pediculicidal treatment using ethanol and Melia azedarach L.

    Rutkauskis, João Ricardo; Jacomini, Debora; Temponi, Livia Godinho; Sarragiotto, Maria Helena; da Silva, Edson Antonio Alves; Jorge, Tereza Cristina Marinho; Jorge, Tereza Cristina Marino

    2015-06-01

    Pediculosis is an infestation of the scalp caused by Pediculus humanus capitis, known as lice, which affects thousands of people throughout the world. Disease control is achieved by topical insecticides, whose indiscriminate use has led to the emergence of resistant populations of lice. Melia azedarach L. (Meliaceae) is an Asian tree that is found in Brazil, where it is popularly known as cinnamon or santa-bárbara. This study aimed to evaluate a pediculicidal treatment, made from a hydroethanolic extract of M. azedarach, and to study the effect of extraction solvents (ethanol and water) on insect mortality. The chemical composition of crude extract was studied by gas chromatography, identifying 32 methyl esters of fatty acids, with esters of heneicosanoic, palmitic, and arachidic acids present in greatest abundance. The (1)H and (13)C nuclear magnetic resonance (NMR) spectra suggested the presence of flavonoids and terpenes. Quercetin-3-O-β-D-glucopyranoside (1) and quercetin-3-O-β-D-glucopyranosyl-(1 → 6)-O-β-D-glucopyranoside (2) were isolated from the extract. The bioassay of pediculicidal activity shows that the M. azedarach extract had a pediculicidal activity, inducing the death of all lice faster than 1% permethrin, a topical insecticide commonly used to control lice. PMID:25758585

  18. Model studies for evaluating the acute neurobehavioral effects of complex hydrocarbon solvents I. Validation of methods with ethanol.

    McKee, R H; Lammers, J H C M; Hoogendijk, E M G; Emmen, H H; Muijser, H; Barsotti, D A; Owen, D E; Kulig, B M

    2006-12-01

    As a preliminary step to evaluating the acute neurobehavioral effects of hydrocarbon solvents and to establish a working model for extrapolating animal test data to humans, joint neurobehavioral/toxicokinetic studies were conducted which involved administering ethanol to rats and volunteers. The specific objectives of the present studies were to evaluate the acute central nervous system (CNS) effects of ethanol in rats and humans and to assess relationships between internal levels of exposure and behavioral effects. A more general objective was to validate a battery of neurobehavioral tests that could be used to carry out comparative studies in both species. Accordingly, a range of tests including standardized observational measures, spontaneous motor activity assessments and learned visual discrimination performance was utilized in rat studies to evaluate acute CNS effects. Groups of rats were given ethanol at levels of approximately 0.5, 1.0 or 2.0g/kg, with blood level measurements to verify internal doses. In a volunteer study, 12 healthy male subjects were given 0.65g/kg ethanol, a level approximating the limit for motor vehicle operation in The Netherlands, and neurobehavioral effects were measured prior to and 1 and 3h after ethanol administration, with a computerized neurobehavioral test battery. Blood and air measurements were made to quantify internal doses. Results of the behavioral tests in rats provided evidence of ethanol-induced changes in neuromuscular, sensori-motor, and activity domains. There were also significant changes in visual discrimination, particularly in the areas of general measures of responding and psychomotor speed. In humans there were small but statistically significant effects on learning and memory, psychomotor skills and attention. However, the effects were subtle and not all parameters within given domains were affected. These studies demonstrated a qualitative similarity in response between rats and humans. PMID:16831461

  19. Acute ethanol exposure increases the susceptibility of the donor hearts to ischemia/reperfusion injury after transplantation in rats.

    Shiliang Li

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: Many donor organs come from youths involved in alcohol-related accidental death. The use of cardiac allografts for transplantation from donors after acute poisoning is still under discussion while acute ethanol intoxication is associated with myocardial functional and morphological changes. The aims of this work were 1 to evaluate in rats the time-course cardiac effects of acute ethanol-exposure and 2 to explore how its abuse by donors might affect recipients in cardiac pump function after transplantation. METHODS: Rats received saline or ethanol (3.45 g/kg, ip. We evaluated both the mechanical and electrical aspects of cardiac function 1 h, 6 h or 24 h after injection. Plasma cardiac troponin-T and glucose-levels were measured and histological examination of the myocardium was performed. In addition, heart transplantation was performed, in which donors received ethanol 6 h or 24 h prior to explantation. Graft function was measured 1 h or 24 h after transplantation. Myocardial TBARS-concentration was measured; mRNA and protein expression was assessed by quantitative real-time PCR and Western blot, respectively. RESULTS: Ethanol administration resulted in decreased load-dependent (-34 ± 9% and load-independent (-33 ± 12% contractility parameters, LV end-diastolic pressure and elevated blood glucose levels at 1 h, which were reversed to the level of controls after 6 h and 24 h. In contrast to systolic dysfunction, active relaxation and passive stiffness are slowly recovered or sustained during 24 h. Moreover, troponin-T-levels were increased at 1 h, 6 h and 24 h after ethanol injection. ST-segment elevation (+47 ± 10%, elongated QT-interval (+38 ± 4%, enlarged cardiomyocyte, DNA-strand breaks, increased both mRNA and protein levels of superoxide dismutase-1, glutathione peroxydase-4, cytochrome-c-oxidase and metalloproteinase-9 were observed 24 h following ethanol-exposure. After heart transplantation, decreased myocardial

  20. THE TREATMENT OF ACUTE BILIARY PANCREATITIS

    Elena Gologan

    2009-11-01

    Full Text Available Acute gallstone pancreatitis represents about half of all pancreatitis and it has still a high mortality despite the progress in the early diagnosis and proper treatment. There are certain difficulties in choosing the optimal treatment because of the polymorphism of presentations, the diversity of pathological types, the particularities of the cases and the risks that are to assume in any kind of treatment strategy the doctor choose. Another difficult factor to assume is the moment of the interventional approach, which is still controversial due to its high dependence of too many factors. The conservative treatment of acute gallstone pancreatitis is not usually followed by the remission of the inflammatory process but leads to the aggravation of the disease. The removal of the cause of the ampular obstruction (the stone can be spontaneously in some cases; however, in most cases of severe disease the removal requires surgical or endoscopic interventional approach. The most important controversy lies between these two methods, and to choose the proper moment of each intervention.

  1. Sub-acute toxicity of a hydro-ethanolic whole plant extract of Synedrella nodiflora (L Gaertn in rats

    Samuel Adjei

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Objectives: Synedrella nodiflora (L Gaertn (family Asteraceae is traditionally used in Ghana for the management of epilepsy, hiccup and threatened abortion. The anticonvulsant and other related neuro-pharmacological effects of a hydro-ethanolic extract in murine models have been established. To this end, we evaluated a sub-acute toxicity of the hydro-ethanolic whole plant extract in rats. Materials and Methods: The effects of a continuous 14-day oral administration of the extract (100, 300 and 1000 mg/kg on haematological and serum biochemical parameters were measured. Results: The extract produced no mortality in the rats treated during the study period. The extract also did not significantly affect any of the haematological and serum biochemical indices measured. Conclusion: This result suggests that a 14-day oral administration of the hydro-ethanolic extract of Synedrella nodiflora is relatively safe in Sprague-Dawley male rats under the present laboratory conditions.

  2. Short Communication: Is Ethanol-Based Hand Sanitizer Involved in Acute Pancreatitis after Excessive Disinfection?—An Evaluation with the Use of PBPK Model

    Céline Huynh-Delerme; Catherine Artigou; Laurent Bodin; Robert Tardif; Ginette Charest-Tardif; Cécile Verdier; Nessryne Sater; Mostafa Ould-Elhkim; Catherine Desmares

    2012-01-01

    An occupational physician reported to the French Health Products Safety Agency (Afssaps) a case of adverse effect of acute pancreatitis (AP) in a teaching nurse, after multiple demonstrations with ethanol-based hand sanitizers (EBHSs) used in a classroom with defective mechanical ventilation. It was suggested by the occupational physician that the exposure to ethanol may have produced a significant blood ethanol concentration and subsequently the AP. In order to verify if the confinement situ...

  3. Acute and 28-Day Subchronic Oral Toxicity of an Ethanol Extract of Zingiber zerumbet (L.) Smith in Rodents

    Yuan-Shiun Chang; Shorong-Shii Liou; I-Min Liu; Thing-Fong Tzeng; Chia Ju Chang

    2012-01-01

    The objective of this study was to evaluate the acute and subacute toxicity (28 days) of the ethanol extract of Z. zerumbet rhizomes (EEZZ) via the oral route in Wistar rats of both sexes. In the acute toxicity study, Wistar rats were administered a single dose of 15 g kg−1 of body weight by gavage, and were monitored for 14 days. EEZZ did not produce any toxic signs or deaths; the 50% lethal dose must be higher than 15 g kg−1. In the subchronic toxicity study, EEZZ was administered by gavage...

  4. Mechanical recanalization in acute stroke treatment

    The development of endovascular techniques for the treatment of acute stroke began with the introduction of local intra-arterial fibrinolysis. In parallel to designing new systemic therapy approaches, catheter systems for loosening, disintegrating, or removing cerebral thrombi have undergone assessment in recent years to serve as alternatives or supplements to fibrinolytic treatment. Mechanical alteration of intracranial thrombi with balloon catheters, manipulations with the guide wire, or ultrasound waves transmitted into the vascular system as well as techniques for thrombus aspiration, snare extraction, or more complex hydrodynamic or laser-guided thrombectomy systems have been tested in feasibility studies, which evidenced basic functionality and relative safety. Broad clinical applications outside of the clinical trial setting cannot yet be recommended since the new catheter systems are still in early phase clinical testing. (orig.)

  5. Microbial fuel cell treatment of ethanol fermentation process water

    Borole, Abhijeet P.

    2012-06-05

    The present invention relates to a method for removing inhibitor compounds from a cellulosic biomass-to-ethanol process which includes a pretreatment step of raw cellulosic biomass material and the production of fermentation process water after production and removal of ethanol from a fermentation step, the method comprising contacting said fermentation process water with an anode of a microbial fuel cell, said anode containing microbes thereon which oxidatively degrade one or more of said inhibitor compounds while producing electrical energy or hydrogen from said oxidative degradation, and wherein said anode is in electrical communication with a cathode, and a porous material (such as a porous or cation-permeable membrane) separates said anode and cathode.

  6. Effect of Voluntary Ethanol Consumption Combined with Testosterone Treatment on Cardiovascular Function in Rats: Influence of Exercise Training.

    Engi, Sheila A; Planeta, Cleopatra S; Crestani, Carlos C

    2016-01-01

    This study evaluated the effects of voluntary ethanol consumption combined with testosterone treatment on cardiovascular function in rats. Moreover, we investigated the influence of exercise training on these effects. To this end, male rats were submitted to low-intensity training on a treadmill or kept sedentary while concurrently being treated with ethanol for 6 weeks. For voluntary ethanol intake, rats were given access to two bottles, one containing ethanol and other containing water, three 24-hour sessions per week. In the last two weeks (weeks 5 and 6), animals underwent testosterone treatment concurrently with exercise training and exposure to ethanol. Ethanol consumption was not affected by either testosterone treatment or exercise training. Also, drug treatments did not influence the treadmill performance improvement evoked by training. However, testosterone alone, but not in combination with ethanol, reduced resting heart rate. Moreover, combined treatment with testosterone and ethanol reduced the pressor response to the selective α1-adrenoceptor agonist phenylephrine. Treatment with either testosterone or ethanol alone also affected baroreflex activity and enhanced depressor response to acetylcholine, but these effects were inhibited when drugs were coadministrated. Exercise training restored most cardiovascular effects evoked by drug treatments. Furthermore, both drugs administrated alone increased pressor response to phenylephrine in trained animals. Also, drug treatments inhibited the beneficial effects of training on baroreflex function. In conclusion, the present results suggest a potential interaction between toxic effects of testosterone and ethanol on cardiovascular function. Data also indicate that exercise training is an important factor influencing the effects of these substances. PMID:26760038

  7. Acute effects of ethanol and acetate on glucose kinetics in normal subjects

    The authors compared the effects of two ethanol doses on glucose kinetics and assessed the role of acetate as a mediator of ethanol-induced insulin resistance. Ten normal males were studied on four occasions, during which either a low or moderate ethanol, acetate, or saline dose was administered. Both ethanol doses similarly inhibited basal glucose production. The decrease in Ra was matched by a comparable decrease in glucose utilization (Rd), resulting in maintenance of normoglycemia. During hyperinsulinemia glucose disposal was lower in the moderate than the low-dose ethanol or saline studies. During acetate infusion, the blood acetate level was comparable with those in the ethanol studies. Acetate had no effect on glucose kinetics. In conclusion, (1) in overnight fasted subjects, ethanol does not cause hypoglycemia because its inhibitory effect on Ra is counterbalanced by equal inhibition of Rd; (2) basal Ra and Rd are maximally inhibited already by small ethanol doses, whereas inhibition of insulin-stimulated glucose disposal requires a moderate ethanol dose; and (3) acetate is not the mediator of ethanol-induced insulin resistance

  8. Acute effects of ethanol and acetate on glucose kinetics in normal subjects

    Yki-Jaervinen, H.; Koivisto, V.A.; Ylikahri, R.; Taskinen, M.R. (Helsinki Univ. and Research Labs. of the Finnish State Alcohol Co. (Finland))

    1988-02-01

    The authors compared the effects of two ethanol doses on glucose kinetics and assessed the role of acetate as a mediator of ethanol-induced insulin resistance. Ten normal males were studied on four occasions, during which either a low or moderate ethanol, acetate, or saline dose was administered. Both ethanol doses similarly inhibited basal glucose production. The decrease in R{sub a} was matched by a comparable decrease in glucose utilization (R{sub d}), resulting in maintenance of normoglycemia. During hyperinsulinemia glucose disposal was lower in the moderate than the low-dose ethanol or saline studies. During acetate infusion, the blood acetate level was comparable with those in the ethanol studies. Acetate had no effect on glucose kinetics. In conclusion, (1) in overnight fasted subjects, ethanol does not cause hypoglycemia because its inhibitory effect on R{sub a} is counterbalanced by equal inhibition of R{sub d}; (2) basal R{sub a} and R{sub d} are maximally inhibited already by small ethanol doses, whereas inhibition of insulin-stimulated glucose disposal requires a moderate ethanol dose; and (3) acetate is not the mediator of ethanol-induced insulin resistance.

  9. Process Design of Wastewater Treatment for the NREL Cellulosic Ethanol Model

    Steinwinder, T.; Gill, E.; Gerhardt, M.

    2011-09-01

    This report describes a preliminary process design for treating the wastewater from NREL's cellulosic ethanol production process to quality levels required for recycle. In this report Brown and Caldwell report on three main tasks: 1) characterization of the effluent from NREL's ammonia-conditioned hydrolyzate fermentation process; 2) development of the wastewater treatment process design; and 3) development of a capital and operational cost estimate for the treatment concept option. This wastewater treatment design was incorporated into NREL's cellulosic ethanol process design update published in May 2011 (NREL/TP-5100-47764).

  10. Treatment of acute opioid withdrawal with ibogaine.

    Alper, K R; Lotsof, H S; Frenken, G M; Luciano, D J; Bastiaans, J

    1999-01-01

    Ibogaine is an alkaloid with putative effect in acute opioid withdrawal. Thirty-three cases of treatments for the indication of opioid detoxification performed in non-medical settings under open label conditions are summarized involving an average daily use of heroin of .64 +/- .50 grams, primarily by the intravenous route. Resolution of the signs of opioid withdrawal without further drug seeking behavior was observed within 24 hours in 25 patients and was sustained throughout the 72-hour period of posttreatment observation. Other outcomes included drug seeking behavior without withdrawal signs (4 patients), drug abstinence with attenuated withdrawal signs (2 patients), drug seeking behavior with continued withdrawal signs (1 patient), and one fatality possibly involving surreptitious heroin use. The reported effectiveness of ibogaine in this series suggests the need for systematic investigation in a conventional clinical research setting. PMID:10506904

  11. Pre-hospital treatment of acute poisonings in Oslo

    Nore Anne K

    2008-11-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Poisoned patients are often treated in and discharged from pre-hospital health care settings. Studies of poisonings should therefore not only include hospitalized patients. Aims: To describe the acutely poisoned patients treated by ambulance personnel and in an outpatient clinic; compare patients transferred to a higher treatment level with those discharged without transfer; and study the one-week mortality after pre-hospital discharge. Methods A one-year multi-centre study with prospective inclusion of all acutely poisoned patients ≥ 16 years of age treated in ambulances, an outpatient clinic, and hospitals in Oslo. Results A total of 3757 health service contacts from 2997 poisoning episodes were recorded: 1860 were treated in ambulances, of which 15 died and 750 (40% were discharged without transfer; 956 were treated in outpatient clinic, of which 801 (84% were discharged without transfer; and 941 episodes were treated in hospitals. Patients discharged alive after ambulance treatment were mainly poisoned by opiates (70%, were frequently comatose (35%, had respiratory depression (37%, and many received naloxone (49%. The majority of the patients discharged from the outpatient clinic were poisoned by ethanol (55%, fewer were comatose (10%, and they rarely had respiratory depression (4%. Among the hospitalized, pharmaceutical poisonings were most common (58%, 23% were comatose, and 7% had respiratory depression. Male patients comprised 69% of the pre-hospital discharges, but only 46% of the hospitalized patients. Except for one patient, who died of a new heroin overdose two days following discharge from an ambulance, there were no deaths during the first week after the poisonings in the 90% of the pre-hospital discharged patients with known identity. Conclusion More than half of the poisoned patients treated in pre-hospital treatment settings were discharged without transfer to higher levels. These poisonings were more often

  12. Xanthine oxidase status in ethanol-intoxicated rat liver.

    Abbondanza, A; Battelli, M G; Soffritti, M; Cessi, C

    1989-12-01

    The status of xanthine oxidase in ethanol-induced liver injury has been investigated in the rat, by acute and chronic ethanol treatments. A 38% increase of the enzyme O-form was observed after repeated ethanol administration. Chronic intoxication caused a significant decrease of total xanthine oxidase activity after both prolonged ethanol feeding and life span ethanol ingestion. The intermediate D/O-form of xanthine oxidase (that can act either as an oxidase or as a dehydrogenase, being able to react with O2 as well as with NAD+ as electron acceptor) increased 5.5-fold after prolonged ethanol feeding. PMID:2690670

  13. Near- and supercritical ethanol treatment of biocrude from hydrothermal liquefaction of microalgae.

    Yang, Le; Li, Yongdan; Savage, Phillip E

    2016-07-01

    Biocrude produced from algae by hydrothermal liquefaction was treated with near- and supercritical ethanol and ethanol-water mixtures at 210-290°C for 0.5-4h. Longer reaction times and higher temperatures better promoted esterification reactions. Dilution of the ethanol with water led to lower yields of treated biocrude and reduced ester content. The viscosity of treated biocrude was an order of magnitude lower than that of the crude bio-oil, and the treated biocrude exhibited the characteristics of a Newtonian fluid. Overall, treatment of biocrude with near- and supercritical ethanol generated a treated bio-oil with lower viscosity, more ester content, and in nearly 100wt% yield. PMID:27055767

  14. Functional Alterations in the Dorsal Raphe Nucleus Following Acute and Chronic Ethanol Exposure

    Lowery-Gionta, Emily G; Marcinkiewcz, Catherine A.; Kash, Thomas L.

    2014-01-01

    Alcoholism is a pervasive disorder perpetuated in part to relieve negative mood states like anxiety experienced during alcohol withdrawal. Emerging evidence demonstrates a role for the serotonin-rich dorsal raphe (DR) in anxiety following ethanol withdrawal. The current study examined the effects of chronic ethanol vapor exposure on the DR using slice electrophysiology in male DBA2/J mice. We found that chronic ethanol exposure resulted in deficits in social approach indicative of increased a...

  15. Acute, subacute and subchronic toxicological studies of carissa carandas leaves (ethanol extract): a plant active against cardiovascular diseases

    The Purpose of this research study was to examine the toxicological effects of aqueous: ethanol (1:1) extract of Carissa carandas leaves extracts in rats. Methodolgy: Acute toxicity studies were conducted to check the LD50 values in experimental animals. Autopsy after acute toxicity revealed that no gross changes were observed in organs like liver, spleen, heart and kidney among the animals of group N (control) and S (treated). The appearance of organs of Group S animals was comparable with that of Group N animals. Results: No signs of toxicity and mortality were observed in treated group after sub acute toxicity as compared to the control group. The histopathological studies after subchronic toxicity in doses of 1750 mg/kg (p.o.) and 5000 mg/kg (p.o) showed no toxic effects on organs like liver, heart, kidney and spleen. While chronic toxicity in dose 5000 mg/kg (p.o.) showed some histological changes. (author)

  16. Evaluation of the acute and subchronic oral toxicity of ethanol extract from Valeriana pavonii species in Wistar rats

    María Del Pilar Olaya

    2010-10-01

    Full Text Available Introduction: One of the most frequent problems found in medicinal plants is the absence of clinical, toxicological, and pharmacological studies. Valeriana pavonii is one of the species used in Colombia as an anxiolytic.  Further study of this specie is rendered to add information in the toxicological area. Objective: The acute and subchronic oral toxicity of V. pavonii ethanolic extract was evaluated in Wistar rats of both sexes. Materials and methods: The rats were distributed into four groups: the control group received the vehicle (0.5 mL/100 g of corporal weight and the other three groups received increasing levels of the dosage for 90 days to evaluate characteristics like physical exam, laboratory test (blood chemistry and  haematology, and anatomopathological findings. Results: This study reveals that there were no signs of toxicity, mortality, or significant alterations attributable to the ethanolic extract of V. pavonii. Conclusions: The Not Observed Adverse Effect Levels (NOAEL of V. pavonii ethanolic extract were 2000 and 1000 mg/kg of body weight for the acute and subchronic toxicity studies, respectively.

  17. Evaluation of the acute and subchronic oral toxicity of ethanol extract from Valeriana pavonii species in Wistar rats

    Mario Francisco Guerrero

    2010-09-01

    Full Text Available Introduction: One of the most frequent problems found in medicinal plants is the absence of clinical, toxicological, and pharmacological studies. Valeriana pavonii is one of the species used in Colombia as an anxiolytic. Further study of this specie is rendered to add information in the toxicological area.Objective: The acute and subchronic oral toxicity of V. pavonii ethanolic extract was evaluated in Wistar rats of both sexes.Materials and methods: The rats were distributed into four groups: the control group received the vehicle (0.5 mL/100 g of corporal weight and the other three groups received increasing levels of the dosage for 90 days to evaluate characteristics like physical exam, laboratory test (blood chemistry and haematology, and anatomopathological findings.Results: This study reveals that there were no signs of toxicity, mortality, or significant alterations attributable to the ethanolic extract of V. pavonii.Conclusions: The Not Observed Adverse Effect Levels (NOAEL of V. pavonii ethanolic extract were 2000 and 1000 mg/kg of body weight for the acute and subchronic toxicity studies, respectively.

  18. Developmental differences in EEG and sleep responses to acute ethanol administration and its withdrawal (hangover) in adolescent and adult Wistar rats.

    Ehlers, Cindy L; Desikan, Anita; Wills, Derek N

    2013-12-01

    Age-related differences in sensitivity to the acute effects of alcohol may play an important role in the increased risk for the development of alcoholism seen in teens that begin drinking at an early age. The present study evaluated the acute and protracted (hangover) effects of ethanol in adolescent (P33-P40) and adult (P100-P107) Wistar rats, using the cortical electroencephalogram (EEG). Six minutes of EEG was recorded during waking, 15 min after administration of 0, 1.5, or 3.0 g/kg ethanol, and for 3 h at 20 h post ethanol, during the rats' next sleep cycle. Significantly higher overall frontal and parietal cortical power was seen in a wide range of EEG frequencies in adolescent rats as compared to adult rats in their waking EEG. Acute administration of ethanol did not produce differences between adolescents and adults on behavioral measures of acute intoxication. However, it did produce a significantly less intense acute EEG response to ethanol in the theta frequencies in parietal cortex in the adolescents as compared to the adults. At 20 h following acute ethanol administration, during the rats' next sleep cycle, a decrease in slow-wave frequencies (1-4 Hz) was seen and the adolescent rats were found to display more reduction in the slow-wave frequencies than the adults did. The present study found that adolescent rats, as compared to adults, demonstrate low sensitivity to acute ethanol administration in the theta frequencies and more susceptibility to disruption of slow-wave sleep during hangover. These studies may lend support to the idea that these traits may contribute to increased risk for alcohol use disorders seen in adults who begin drinking in their early teenage years. PMID:24169089

  19. Endovascular treatment of acute ischemic stroke

    Paramdeep Singh

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Early recanalization of the occluded artery leads to better clinical outcomes in patients with acute ischemic stroke (AIS through protection of the time-sensitive penumbra. Intravenous administration of pharmacologic thrombolytic agents has been a standard treatment for AIS. To get better rates of recanalization, enhance the time window, and diminish the possibility of intracranial hemorrhage, endovascular thrombectomy was launched, with first authorization of the Merci clot retriever, a corkscrew-like apparatus, followed by approval of the Penumbra thromboaspiration system. Both devices lead to a high rate of recanalization. On the other hand, time to recanalization was on an average of 45 minutes, with most of the patients attaining only partial recanalization. More lately, retrievable stents have shown promise in decreasing the time to recanalization, and attaining a superior rate of complete clot resolution. The retrievable stent can be released within the clot to engage it within the struts of the stent, and afterwards it is taken back by pulling it under flow arrest. Neurointerventional techniques have a persistently ever-increasing and stimulating role in the management of AIS, as indicated by the advent of several important techniques. Stent retrievers have the capability to be ascertained as the most important approach to endovascular stroke treatment.

  20. [Pharmacological correction of toxic liver damage in patients with heavy forms of acute ethanol intoxication].

    Shikalova, I A; Shilov, V V; Vasil'ev, S A; Batotsyrenov, B V; Loladze, A T

    2012-01-01

    The efficiency of using remaxol and ademethionine in the therapy of patients with heavy acute alcohol intoxication on the background of toxic liver damage has been studied. The administration of remaxol led to improvement of the clinical treatment of alcohol intoxication, which is manifested by a decrease in the rate and duration of delirium tremens (from 33.9 to 10.8%), frequency of secondary lung disorders (from 18.5 to 3.1%), duration of stay in hospital (from 7.3 +/- 0.6 to 5.6 +/- 0.3 days), and total therapy duration (from 11.8 +/- 1.05 to 5.6 +/- 0.3 days). The results of biochemical investigations confirmed that remaxol and ademethionine provide effective treatment of the toxic liver damage. Remaxol decreases the degree of metabolic disorders to a greater extent than does ademethionine. PMID:22702109

  1. Rheological properties and structural characterization of salep improved by ethanol treatment.

    Kurt, Abdullah; Kahyaoglu, Talip

    2015-11-20

    Glucomannan is the main and important constituent of salep. The other contents are called as impurities. In this study, the removal of them was achieved by ethanol treatment to increase salep quality (40%, 50%, 60%, and 70%). The highest glucomannan and the lowest impurities contents were succeeded with the 40% ethanol treatment (SF40). Apparent viscosity of SF40 increased about 5 folds as compared with native salep. SF40 also had higher intrinsic viscosity [η] and lower critical concentration (C(*)) than other samples. The improved molecular entanglement between glucomannan chains were demonstrated with increased Berry number Cx[η]. The storage (G') and loss (G″) moduli spectra of SF40 were found higher within the whole range of frequency and temperature. This simple ethanol process could be used as a promising modification method for improving the properties of salep. PMID:26344324

  2. Short Communication: Is Ethanol-Based Hand Sanitizer Involved in Acute Pancreatitis after Excessive Disinfection?—An Evaluation with the Use of PBPK Model

    Huynh-Delerme, Céline; Artigou, Catherine; Bodin, Laurent; Tardif, Robert; Charest-Tardif, Ginette; Verdier, Cécile; Sater, Nessryne; Ould-Elhkim, Mostafa; Desmares, Catherine

    2012-01-01

    An occupational physician reported to the French Health Products Safety Agency (Afssaps) a case of adverse effect of acute pancreatitis (AP) in a teaching nurse, after multiple demonstrations with ethanol-based hand sanitizers (EBHSs) used in a classroom with defective mechanical ventilation. It was suggested by the occupational physician that the exposure to ethanol may have produced a significant blood ethanol concentration and subsequently the AP. In order to verify if the confinement situation due to defective mechanical ventilation could increase the systemic exposure to ethanol via inhalation route, a physiologically based pharmacokinetic (PBPK) modeling was used to predict ethanol blood levels. Under the worst case scenario, the simulation by PBPK modeling showed that the maximum blood ethanol concentration which can be predicted of 5.9 mg/l is of the same order of magnitude to endogenous ethanol concentration (mean = 1.1 mg/L; median = 0.4 mg/L; range = 0–35 mg/L) in nondrinker humans (Al-Awadhi et al., 2004). The present study does not support the likelihood that EBHS leads to an increase in systemic ethanol concentration high enough to provoke an acute pancreatitis. PMID:22577377

  3. Short Communication: Is Ethanol-Based Hand Sanitizer Involved in Acute Pancreatitis after Excessive Disinfection?—An Evaluation with the Use of PBPK Model

    Céline Huynh-Delerme

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available An occupational physician reported to the French Health Products Safety Agency (Afssaps a case of adverse effect of acute pancreatitis (AP in a teaching nurse, after multiple demonstrations with ethanol-based hand sanitizers (EBHSs used in a classroom with defective mechanical ventilation. It was suggested by the occupational physician that the exposure to ethanol may have produced a significant blood ethanol concentration and subsequently the AP. In order to verify if the confinement situation due to defective mechanical ventilation could increase the systemic exposure to ethanol via inhalation route, a physiologically based pharmacokinetic (PBPK modeling was used to predict ethanol blood levels. Under the worst case scenario, the simulation by PBPK modeling showed that the maximum blood ethanol concentration which can be predicted of 5.9 mg/l is of the same order of magnitude to endogenous ethanol concentration (mean = 1.1 mg/L; median = 0.4 mg/L; range = 0–35 mg/L in nondrinker humans (Al-Awadhi et al., 2004. The present study does not support the likelihood that EBHS leads to an increase in systemic ethanol concentration high enough to provoke an acute pancreatitis.

  4. Acute effects of oral and intravenous ethanol on rat hepatic enzyme activities.

    Stifel, F B; Greene, H L; Lufkin, E G; Wrensch, M R; Hagler, L; Herman, R H

    1976-05-28

    1. Oral administration of ethanol (3 ml) of 95% in 12 ml total volume over a two day period) significantly decrease plasma glucose and insulin levels and the activities of two key gluconeogenic enzymes, pyruvate carboxylase (pyruvate: CO2 ligase (ADP), EC 6.4.1.1) and fructose diphosphatase, (D-Fru-1,6-P2 1-phosphohydrolase, EC 3.1.3.11), and one glycolytic enzyme, fructose-1,6-P2 aldolase (Fru-1,6-P2 D-glyceraldehyde-3-P lyase, EC 4.1.2.13). In each instance, the administration of 2400 mug daily of oral folate in conjuction with the ethanol prevented these alterations in carbohydrate metabolism. 2. Intravenous injection of ethanol produced a rapid decrease (within 10--15 min) in the activities of hepatic phosphofructokinase, (ATP:D-fructose-6-phosphate 6-phosphotransferase, EC 2.7.1.11), pyruvate kinase, (ATP:pyruvate phosphotransferase, EC 2.7.1.40), fructose diphosphatase and fructose-1,6-P2 aldolase. 3. Intravenous ethanol significantly increased hepatic cyclic AMP concentration approximately 60% within 10 min, while oral ethanol did not alter hepatic cyclic AMP concentrations. 4. These data confirm the known antagonism ethanol and folate and suggest that oral folate might offer a protective effect against hypoglycemia in rats receiving ethanol. PMID:179581

  5. Empirical treatment of acute cystitis in women.

    Nicolle, Lindsay E

    2003-07-01

    Empirical antimicrobial treatment for acute cystitis in women requires continuing reassessment as the antimicrobial susceptibility of community isolates of Escherichia coli evolves. Current recommendations for 3 days trimethoprim or trimethoprim/sulphamethoxazole are compromised by increasing resistance of community E. coli to these agents. Fluoroquinolones are an alternate 3-day therapy, but increasing resistance is being reported from some countries, and widespread community use may promote resistance, limiting effectiveness of these agents for more serious infections. Alternate regimens supported by recent clinical trials suggest pivmecillinam given twice daily for 7 days is as effective as 3 days of quinolone therapy, while microbiological cure is 80% with 3 days therapy twice daily, and 90% with 3 days therapy thrice daily. Nitrofurantoin given for 7 days has a cure rate of 80-85%. Fosfomycin trometamol as a single dose has cure rates of 75-85%. All these agents are effective, but a compromise in efficacy or duration of therapy compared with current 3-day regimens may have to be considered. PMID:12842322

  6. Evaluation of Acute and Sub-chronic Toxicities of Aqueous Ethanol Root Extract of Raphia hookeri Palmaceae on Swiss Albino Rats

    G.O. Mbaka

    2014-08-01

    Full Text Available This study evaluated the acute and sub-chronic toxicities of treatment with aqueous ethanol root extract of Raphia hookri (Palmaceae on rats. In acute toxicity study, the root extract in a graded doses of 125-2000 mg/kg bwt administered Intra-Peritoneal (IP produced dose dependent mortality with median acute toxicity (LD50 of approximately 562.3 mg/kg bwt. The animals fed with the extract by gavages tolerated up to 4000 mg/kg body weight (bwt with no sign of physical/behavioural changes hence 1/20th of the dose (200 mg/kg was used as the highest therapeutic dose. In sub-chronic toxicity study, significant increase (p0.05 decrease in Red Blood Cell (RBC count and haemoglobin (Hb level while White Blood Cell (WBC showed increase. In tissue analysis, the extract caused marked deleterious effect on the testes leading to drastic reduction in sperm cells whereas tissues of liver, kidney and heart however showed normal appearance.

  7. ANALYSIS OF PRE-HOSPITAL TREATMENT OF ACUTE CORONARY SYNDROME

    O. V. Reshetko

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available Aim. To evaluate the pre-hospital treatment of patients with acute coronary syndromes (acute myocardial infarction and unstable angina in 2001 and 2006.Material and methods. Retrospective pre-hospital treatment survey was performed in 1114 patients with acute coronary syndrome (acute myocardial infarction (AMI or unstable angina (UA in 2001 and 2006.Results. For acute myocardial infarction use of aspirin, β-blockers, heparin was 0%, 0%, 81,5% in 2001 and 23,9%, 8%, 13,4% in 2006, respectively. Use of aspirin, β-blockers, heparin in unstable angina were 0%, 16,2%, 12,3% in 2001 and 3,4%, 1,6%, 0,5% in 2006, respectively. Fibrinolytic therapy was not provided. Polypragmasia reduced in 2006 in comparison with 2001.Conclusions. This survey demonstrates the discordance between existing current practice and guidelines for acute coronary syndrome.

  8. Acute Biliary Pancreatitis: Diagnosis and Treatment

    Hazem Zakaria

    2009-01-01

    Gallstones are the commonest cause of acute pancreatitis (AP), a potentially life-threatening condition, worldwide. The pathogenesis of acute pancreatitis has not been fully understood. Laboratory and radiological investigations are critical for diagnosis as well prognosis prediction. Scoring systems based on radiological findings and serologic inflammatory markers have been proposed as better predictors of disease severity. Early endoscopic retrograde cholangiopancreatography (ERCP) is benef...

  9. Evolving Role of Endovascular Treatment of Acute Ischemic Stroke

    Ciccone, Alfonso; del Zoppo, Gregory J.

    2014-01-01

    The perceived advantages of endovascular treatment for acute ischemic stroke in terms of recanalization, the multimodal and targeted approaches, and perhaps the more permissive rules on devices than on medications for their licensing favored the assumption that endovascular treatment is superior to intravenous thrombolysis for acute treatment of ischemic stroke, and its adoption in more advanced stroke centers. However, this assumption has been questioned by recent clinical trial experience s...

  10. Nephroprotective effect of ethanolic extract of abutilon indicum root in gentamicin induced acute renal failure

    Jacob Jesurun RS; Lavakumar S.

    2016-01-01

    Background: The term acute renal failure (ARF) is at present called acute kidney injury (AKI). AKI is a reversible condition in which there is a sudden decline in renal function, manifested by elevated SCr and BUN which occurs in hours to days to weeks. The present study was to evaluate the nephron protective effect of abutilon indicum root in gentamicin induced acute renal failure in wistar albino rats. Methods: Experimental evaluation was done in gentamicin induced acute renal failure. 2...

  11. Treatment of Acute Diarrhoea: Past and Now

    Caramia

    2015-11-01

    Full Text Available Context Since ancient times diarrhoea has been a highly fatal disease and even today diarrhoea, the topic of this review, is a problem affecting millions of people around the world despite the efforts of governments and professionals from the medical area. Worldwide the most common cause of children’s death is diarrhoea. Evidence Acquisition Diarrhoea disorders generally appear with watery stools, sometimes mixed with blood, accompanied by abdominal pain, vomiting and fever. The symptoms depend on the content and distribution of body fluid, daily water requirements and physiological water loss in connection with age through sweating, urination and breathing, the degree of fluid and electrolyte loss in the liquid stool. Results Several effective interventions have been introduced as part of diarrhoea management in the last two decades such as oral rehydration solution, zinc supplementation, vitamin A supplementation and oral administration of antibiotics and vaccines. To reduce the mortality rate, control of safe drinking water, good sanitation and vaccination against typhoid and cholera are recommended, especially in high-risk populations. Probiotics have been proposed, after more than a half of century, as additional therapy in the treatment of acute diarrhoea. Several probiotic strains showed benefit in meta-analyses of randomised controlled trials. Conclusions Due to the high level of evidence available, the term “oral bacteriotherapy”, used for decades in the prevention and therapy of gastroenteritis in the growing age and adults, has expanded, but probiotics are acquiring significant scientific value based on the results from human trials. The future of probiotics depends on further explanation/elucidation of basic mechanisms, allowing scientists and physicians to maximize their health benefits.

  12. Adolescent and adult rats differ in the amnesic effects of acute ethanol in two hippocampus-dependent tasks: Trace and contextual fear conditioning.

    Hunt, Pamela S; Barnet, Robert C

    2016-02-01

    Experience-produced deficits in trace conditioning and context conditioning have been useful tools for examining the role of the hippocampus in learning. It has also been suggested that learning in these tasks is especially vulnerable to neurotoxic effects of alcohol during key developmental periods such as adolescence. In five experiments we systematically examined the presence and source of age-dependent vulnerability to the memory-disrupting effects of acute ethanol in trace conditioning and contextual fear conditioning. In Experiment 1a pre-training ethanol disrupted trace conditioning more strongly in adolescent (postnatal day, PD30-35) than adult rats (PD65-75). In Experiment 1b when pre-training ethanol was accompanied by pre-test ethanol no deficit in trace conditioning was observed in adolescents, suggesting that state-dependent retrieval failure mediated ethanol's disruption of trace conditioning at this age. Experiment 2a and b examined the effect of ethanol pretreatment on context conditioning. Here, adult but not adolescent rats were impaired in conditioned freezing to context cues. Experiment 2c explored state-dependency of this effect. Pre-training ethanol continued to disrupt context conditioning in adults even when ethanol was also administered prior to test. Collectively these findings reveal clear age-dependent and task-dependent vulnerabilities in ethanol's disruptive effects on hippocampus-dependent memory. Adolescents were more disrupted by ethanol in trace conditioning than adults, and adults were more disrupted by ethanol in context conditioning than adolescents. We suggest that adolescents may be more susceptible to changes in internal state (state-dependent retrieval failure) than adults and that ethanol disrupted performance in trace and context conditioning through different mechanisms. Relevance of these findings to theories of hippocampus function is discussed. PMID:26192910

  13. Acute Ethanol Pretreatment Increases FAS-Mediated Liver Injury in Mice: Role of Oxidative Stress and CYP2E1-Dependent and Independent Pathways

    Wang, Xiaodong; Cederbaum, Arthur I.

    2006-01-01

    This study evaluated whether acute ethanol pretreatment potentiates Fas-mediated liver injury and if oxidative stress and CYP2E1 play a role in any enhanced hepatotoxicity. There were 3-fold increases of transaminases and more extensive apoptotic necrosis of hepatocytes, and focal hemorrhages of the hepatic lobule in mice treated with Jo2 plus ethanol compared to saline control or to mice treated with Jo2 or ethanol alone. CYP2E1 catalytic activity and protein were increased 2-fold by the acu...

  14. GM1 ganglioside reduces the motor incoordination and loss of righting reflex caused by acute ethanol in C57BL/6J mice

    Wallis, C.; Rezazadeh, S.M.; Forster, M.J.; Lal, H. (Texas Coll. of Osteopathic Medicine, Ft. Worth (United States))

    1992-02-26

    Ethanol produces its intoxicating effects by modifying neuronal membranes. Gangliosides stabilize neuronal membranes and promote their recovery from a variety of insults. In this experiment, the efficacy of GM1(i.p.) to reverse ethanol intoxication was evaluated in male mice trained to run on a constantly accelerating rotorod. When mice were tested 15-min following saline or ethanol GM1 pre-treatment reduced rotorod performance by 15% but was ineffective in modifying the ethanol-impaired performance. However, when mice were tested at 15, 35, 55, 75, and 95 min intervals following ethanol, GM1 pre-treatments dose-dependently reduced the efficacy and duration of ethanol in producing motor incoordination. Further, GM1 given prior to ethanol significantly prolonged the time to onset of the loss of righting reflex from 1.4 to 1.9 min, and reduced the duration of the righting-reflex loss from 94 to 77 min. This GM1 effect was seen at 24 h, but not at 48 or 72 h after its administration. The blood ethanol concentration at awakening was significantly higher in 24h GM1-treated animals than in controls suggesting that the GM1 effect was not due to an alteration in ethanol clearance. These findings support the hypothesis that GM1 promotes recovery from ethanol intoxication via a neuroprotective mechanism.

  15. Pyranocycloartobiloxanthone A, a novel gastroprotective compound from Artocarpus obtusus Jarret, against ethanol-induced acute gastric ulcer in vivo.

    Sidahmed, Heyam M A; Hashim, Najihah Mohd; Amir, Junaidah; Abdulla, Mahmood Ameen; Hadi, A Hamid A; Abdelwahab, Siddig Ibrahim; Taha, Manal Mohamed Elhassan; Hassandarvish, Pouya; Teh, Xinsheng; Loke, Mun Fai; Vadivelu, Jamuna; Rahmani, Mawardi; Mohan, Syam

    2013-07-15

    Pyranocycloartobiloxanthone A (PA), a xanthone derived from the Artocarpus obtusus Jarret, belongs to the Moraceae family which is native to the tropical forest of Malaysia. In this study, the efficacy of PA as a gastroprotective compound was examined against ethanol-induced ulcer model in rats. The rats were pretreated with PA and subsequently exposed to acute gastric lesions induced by absolute ethanol. The ulcer index, gastric juice acidity, mucus content, histological analysis, glutathione (GSH) levels, malondialdehyde level (MDA), nitric oxide (NO) and non-protein sulfhydryl group (NP-SH) contents were evaluated in vivo. The activities of PA as anti-Helicobacter pylori, cyclooxygenase-2 (COX-2) inhibitor and free radical scavenger were also investigated in vitro. The results showed that the oral administration of PA protects gastric mucosa from ethanol-induced gastric lesions. PA pretreatment significantly (p<0.05) restored the depleted GSH, NP-SH and NO levels in the gastric homogenate. Moreover, PA significantly (p<0.05) reduced the elevated MDA level due to ethanol administration. The gastroprotective effect of PA was associated with an over expression of HSP70 and suppression of Bax proteins in the ulcerated tissue. In addition, PA exhibited a potent FRAP value and significant COX-2 inhibition. It also showed a significant minimum inhibitory concentration (MIC) against H. pylori bacterium. The efficacy of PA was accomplished safely without the presence of any toxicological parameters. The results of the present study indicate that the gastroprotective effect of PA might contribute to the antioxidant and anti-inflammatory properties as well as the anti-apoptotic mechanism and antibacterial action against Helicobacter pylori. PMID:23570997

  16. Treatment of acute otitis media in general practice

    Plejdrup Hansen, Malene; Jarbol, Dorte Ejg; Gahrn-Hansen, Bente;

    2012-01-01

    Recommendations for antibiotic treatment of acute otitis media (AOM) have changed over the years, and today many experts recommend initial observation. However, antibiotic prescribing should be considered in children aged...

  17. Effect of Voluntary Ethanol Consumption Combined with Testosterone Treatment on Cardiovascular Function in Rats: Influence of Exercise Training.

    Sheila A Engi

    Full Text Available This study evaluated the effects of voluntary ethanol consumption combined with testosterone treatment on cardiovascular function in rats. Moreover, we investigated the influence of exercise training on these effects. To this end, male rats were submitted to low-intensity training on a treadmill or kept sedentary while concurrently being treated with ethanol for 6 weeks. For voluntary ethanol intake, rats were given access to two bottles, one containing ethanol and other containing water, three 24-hour sessions per week. In the last two weeks (weeks 5 and 6, animals underwent testosterone treatment concurrently with exercise training and exposure to ethanol. Ethanol consumption was not affected by either testosterone treatment or exercise training. Also, drug treatments did not influence the treadmill performance improvement evoked by training. However, testosterone alone, but not in combination with ethanol, reduced resting heart rate. Moreover, combined treatment with testosterone and ethanol reduced the pressor response to the selective α1-adrenoceptor agonist phenylephrine. Treatment with either testosterone or ethanol alone also affected baroreflex activity and enhanced depressor response to acetylcholine, but these effects were inhibited when drugs were coadministrated. Exercise training restored most cardiovascular effects evoked by drug treatments. Furthermore, both drugs administrated alone increased pressor response to phenylephrine in trained animals. Also, drug treatments inhibited the beneficial effects of training on baroreflex function. In conclusion, the present results suggest a potential interaction between toxic effects of testosterone and ethanol on cardiovascular function. Data also indicate that exercise training is an important factor influencing the effects of these substances.

  18. Inhibition of ethanol-producing yeast and bacteria by degradation products produced during pre-treatment of biomass.

    Klinke, H B; Thomsen, A B; Ahring, B K

    2004-11-01

    An overview of the different inhibitors formed by pre-treatment of lignocellulosic materials and their inhibition of ethanol production in yeast and bacteria is given. Different high temperature physical pre-treatment methods are available to render the carbohydrates in lignocellulose accessible for ethanol fermentation. The resulting hydrolyzsates contain substances inhibitory to fermentation-depending on both the raw material (biomass) and the pre-treatment applied. An overview of the inhibitory effect on ethanol production by yeast and bacteria is presented. Apart from furans formed by sugar degradation, phenol monomers from lignin degradation are important co-factors in hydrolysate inhibition, and inhibitory effects of these aromatic compounds on different ethanol producing microorganisms is reviewed. The furans and phenols generally inhibited growth and ethanol production rate (Q(EtOH)) but not the ethanol yields (Y(EtOH)) in Saccharomyces cerevisiae. Within the same phenol functional group (aldehyde, ketone, and acid) the inhibition of volumetric ethanol productivity was found to depend on the amount of methoxyl substituents and hence hydrophobicity (log P). Many pentose-utilizing strains Escherichia coli, Pichia stipititis, and Zymomonas mobilis produce ethanol in concentrated hemicellulose liquors but detoxification by overliming is needed. Thermoanaerobacter mathranii A3M3 can grow on pentoses and produce ethanol in hydrolysate without any need for detoxification. PMID:15300416

  19. Magnetic Resonance Imaging in Acute Ischemic Stroke Treatment

    Kim, Bum Joon; Kang, Hyun Goo; Kim, Hye-Jin; Ahn, Sung-Ho; Kim, Na Young; Warach, Steven; Kang, Dong-Wha

    2014-01-01

    Although intravenous administration of tissue plasminogen activator is the only proven treatment after acute ischemic stroke, there is always a concern of hemorrhagic risk after thrombolysis. Therefore, selection of patients with potential benefits in overcoming potential harms of thrombolysis is of great importance. Despite the practical issues in using magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) for acute stroke treatment, multimodal MRI can provide useful information for accurate diagnosis of stroke,...

  20. Acute ethanol exposure inhibits silencing of cerebellar Golgi cell firing induced by granule cell axon input

    Paolo eBotta

    2014-02-01

    Full Text Available Golgi cells (GoCs are specialized interneurons that provide inhibitory input to granule cells in the cerebellar cortex. GoCs are pacemaker neurons that spontaneously fire action potentials, triggering spontaneous inhibitory postsynaptic currents in granule cells and also contributing to the generation tonic GABAA receptor-mediated currents in granule cells. In turn, granule cell axons provide feedback glutamatergic input to GoCs. It has been shown that high frequency stimulation of granule cell axons induces a transient pause in GoC firing in a type 2-metabotropic glutamate receptor (mGluR2-dependent manner. Here, we investigated the effect ethanol on the pause of GoC firing induced by high frequency stimulation of granule cell axons. GoC electrophysiological recordings were performed in parasagittal cerebellar vermis slices from postnatal day 23 to 26 rats. Loose-patch cell-attached recordings revealed that ethanol (40 mM reversibly decreases the pause duration. An antagonist of mGluR2 reduced the pause duration but did not affect the effect of ethanol. Whole-cell voltage-clamp recordings showed that currents evoked by an mGluR2 agonist were not significantly affected by ethanol. Perforated-patch experiments in which hyperpolarizing and depolarizing currents were injected into GoCs demonstrated that there is an inverse relationship between spontaneous firing and pause duration. Slight inhibition of the Na+/K+ pump mimicked the effect of ethanol on pause duration. In conclusion, ethanol reduces the granule cell axon-mediated feedback mechanism by reducing the input responsiveness of GoCs. This would result in a transient increase of GABAA receptor-mediated inhibition of granule cells, limiting information flow at the input stage of the cerebellar cortex.

  1. Surfactant treatment for acute respiratory distress syndrome

    Lopez-Herce, J.; de Lucas, N; Carrillo, A.; Bustinza, A.; Moral, R.

    1999-01-01

    OBJECTIVE—To determine prospectively the efficacy of surfactant in acute respiratory distress syndrome.
STUDY DESIGN—Twenty patients, 1 month to 16 years of age, diagnosed with an acute pulmonary disease with severe hypoxaemia (PaO2/FiO2 < 100) (13 with systemic or pulmonary disease and seven with cardiac disease) were treated with one to six doses of 50-200 mg/kg of porcine surfactant administered directly into the trachea. The surfactant was considered to be effectiv...

  2. Ethanol Extract of Fructus Schisandrae Decreases Hepatic Triglyceride Level in Mice Fed with a High Fat/Cholesterol Diet, with Attention to Acute Toxicity

    Si-Yuan Pan

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available Effects of the ethanol extract of Fructus Schisandrae (EtFSC on serum and liver lipid contents were investigated in mice fed with high fat/cholesterol (HFC diet for 8 or 15 days. The induction of hypercholesterolemia by HFC diet caused significant increases in serum and hepatic total cholesterol (TC levels (up to 62% and 165%, resp. and hepatic triglyceride (TG levels (up to 528% in mice. EtFSC treatment (1 or 5 g/kg/day for 7 days; from Day 1 to 7 or from Day 8 to 14, i.g. significantly decreased the hepatic TG level (down to 35% and slightly increased the hepatic index (by 8% in hypercholesterolemic mice. Whereas fenofibrate treatment (0.1 g/kg/day for 7 days, i.g. significantly lowered the hepatic TG level (by 61%, it elevated the hepatic index (by 77% in hypercholesterolemic mice. Acute toxicity test showed that EtFSC was relatively non-toxic, with an LD50 value of 35.63 ± 6.46 g/kg in mice. The results indicate that EtFSC treatment can invariably decrease hepatic TG in hypercholesterolemic mice, as assessed by both preventive and therapeutic protocols, suggesting its potential use for fatty liver treatment.

  3. Ethanol Extract of Fructus Schisandrae Decreases Hepatic Triglyceride Level in Mice Fed with a High Fat/Cholesterol Diet, with Attention to Acute Toxicity

    Pan, Si-Yuan; Yu, Zhi-Ling; Dong, Hang; Xiang, Chun-Jing; Fong, Wang-Fun; Ko, Kam-Ming

    2011-01-01

    Effects of the ethanol extract of Fructus Schisandrae (EtFSC) on serum and liver lipid contents were investigated in mice fed with high fat/cholesterol (HFC) diet for 8 or 15 days. The induction of hypercholesterolemia by HFC diet caused significant increases in serum and hepatic total cholesterol (TC) levels (up to 62% and 165%, resp.) and hepatic triglyceride (TG) levels (up to 528%) in mice. EtFSC treatment (1 or 5 g/kg/day for 7 days; from Day 1 to 7 or from Day 8 to 14, i.g.) significantly decreased the hepatic TG level (down to 35%) and slightly increased the hepatic index (by 8%) in hypercholesterolemic mice. Whereas fenofibrate treatment (0.1 g/kg/day for 7 days, i.g.) significantly lowered the hepatic TG level (by 61%), it elevated the hepatic index (by 77%) in hypercholesterolemic mice. Acute toxicity test showed that EtFSC was relatively non-toxic, with an LD50 value of 35.63 ± 6.46 g/kg in mice. The results indicate that EtFSC treatment can invariably decrease hepatic TG in hypercholesterolemic mice, as assessed by both preventive and therapeutic protocols, suggesting its potential use for fatty liver treatment. PMID:19592476

  4. Acute prenatal exposure to ethanol on gestational day 12 elicits opposing deficits in social behaviors and anxiety-like behaviors in Sprague Dawley rats.

    Diaz, Marvin R; Mooney, Sandra M; Varlinskaya, Elena I

    2016-09-01

    Our previous research has shown that in Long Evans rats acute prenatal exposure to a high dose of ethanol on gestational day (G) 12 produces social deficits in male offspring and elicits substantial decreases in social preference relative to controls, in late adolescents and adults regardless of sex. In order to generalize the observed detrimental effects of ethanol exposure on G12, pregnant female Sprague Dawley rats were exposed to ethanol or saline and their offspring were assessed in a modified social interaction (SI) test as early adolescents, late adolescents, or young adults. Anxiety-like behavior was also assessed in adults using the elevated plus maze (EPM) or the light/dark box (LDB) test. Age- and sex-dependent social alterations were evident in ethanol-exposed animals. Ethanol-exposed males showed deficits in social investigation at all ages and age-dependent alterations in social preference. Play fighting was not affected in males. In contrast, ethanol-exposed early adolescent females showed no changes in social interactions, whereas older females demonstrated social deficits and social indifference. In adulthood, anxiety-like behavior was decreased in males and females prenatally exposed to ethanol in the EPM, but not the LDB. These findings suggest that social alterations associated with acute exposure to ethanol on G12 are not strain-specific, although they are more pronounced in Long Evans males and Sprague Dawley females. Furthermore, given that anxiety-like behaviors were attenuated in a test-specific manner, this study indicates that early ethanol exposure can have differential effects on different forms of anxiety. PMID:27154534

  5. Changes of blood serum in acute cerebral infarction after treatment

    Objective: To investigate the changes of serum of HDL, LDL, TXB2, 6-K-PGF1α, TG and β-LP in acute cerebral infarction after treatment. Method: The serum levels of HDL, LDL, TXB2, 6-K-PGF1α, TG and β-LP in 94 acute cerebral infarction patients were detected by RIA and biochemistry assay respectively. Results: The results showed that the serum HDL and 6-K-PGF1α levels in acute cerebral infarction patients were increased (P2 were decreased (P<0.01) after treatment. Conclusion: The Hyper coagulable state and blood fat index in acute cerebral infarction after treatment could improve obviously. (authors)

  6. Treatment for acute anterior cruciate ligament tear

    Frobell, Richard B; Roos, Harald P; Roos, Ewa M; Roemer, Frank W; Ranstam, Jonas; Lohmander, Stefan

    2013-01-01

    To compare, in young active adults with an acute anterior cruciate ligament (ACL) tear, the mid-term (five year) patient reported and radiographic outcomes between those treated with rehabilitation plus early ACL reconstruction and those treated with rehabilitation and optional delayed ACL...

  7. TREATMENT OF 100 CASES OF ACUTE URTICARIA WITH ELECTROACUPUNCTURE

    钟鸿; 武哲丽

    2004-01-01

    Objective: To observe the therapeutic effect of clinical treatment of acute urticaria chiefly by electroacupuncture (EA). Methods: A total of 180 outpatients with acute urticaria were randomized into treatment group and control group. 100 cases in the treatment group were were managed by chlorpheniramine maleate and Vitamin C. Results: After 3 days' treatment, of the 100 and 80 cases in treatment and control groups, 79 and 53 were cured, 10 and 6 markedly effective, 5 and 8 effective, and 6 and 13 failed, with the effective rates being 94.00% and 83.75% respectively. The therapeutic effect of electroacupunture was significantly superior to that of medication(P<0.05). Conclusion: The was a more effective therapy for acute urticaria.

  8. Colonic stent and percutaneous ethanol injection as a treatment for colocutaneous fistula secondary to benign stricture

    Qandeel, H; Abudeeb, H; Hammad, A; Murch, C; Mukherjee, A

    2012-01-01

    We report successful treatment of colocutanteous stulae at the site of a benign colonic anastomotic stricture using Self-Expandable Metal Stents (SEMS) and Percutaneous Ethanol Injection (PEI). The stricture and the secondary stulae developed after Hartmann’s procedure for sigmoid diverticular abscess followed by reversal of the Hartmann’s procedure with a de-functioning loop ileostomy. Although there have been previously reported cases of SEMS for closure of malignant colonic stula, there ar...

  9. Effect of ethanol post-treatment on the bubble-electrospun poly(vinyl alcohol) nanofiber

    Zhao Jiang-Hui; Xu Lan; Liu Qixia

    2015-01-01

    Poly(vinyl alcohol) nanofibers were prepared by bubble electrospinning. After the ethanol post-treatment, poly(vinyl alcohol) nanofibers showed enhanced hydrophobicity with water contact angle change from 0 to 78.9°, and the break strength of poly(vinyl alcohol) nanofibers was dramatically improved from 8.23 MPa to 17.36 MPa. The facile strategy with improved hydrophobicity and mechanical properties of poly(vinyl alcohol) nanofibers will provide potential b...

  10. Anti-ulcerogenic effect of cavidine against ethanol-induced acute gastric ulcer in mice and possible underlying mechanism.

    Li, Weifeng; Wang, Xiumei; Zhang, Hailin; He, Zehong; Zhi, Wenbing; Liu, Fang; Wang, Yu; Niu, Xiaofeng

    2016-09-01

    Cavidine, a major alkaloid compound isolated from Corydalis impatiens, has various pharmacological effects but its effect on gastric ulcer has not been previously explored. The current study aimed to investigate the possible anti-ulcerogenic potential of cavidine in the model of ethanol-induced gastric ulcer. Mice received cavidine (1, 5 or 10mg/kg, ig), cimetidine (CMD, 100mg/kg, ig) or vehicle at 12h and 1h before absolute ethanol administration (0.5mL/100g), and animals were euthanized 3h after ethanol ingestion. Gross and histological gastric lesions, biochemical, immunological and Western blot parameters were taken into consideration. The results showed that ethanol administration produced apparent mucosal injuries with morphological and histological damage, whereas cavidine pre-treatment reduced the gastric injuries. Cavidine pre-treatment also ameliorated the contents of malonaldehyde (MDA) and myeloperoxidase (MPO) activity, and increased the mucosa levels of glutathione (GSH), superoxide dismutase (SOD) and prostaglandin E2 (PGE2), relative to the model group. Also cavidine was able to decrease the levels of interleukin-6 (IL-6) and tumor necrosis factor-alpha (TNF-α), inhibit the up-regulation of cyclo-oxygenase-2 (COX-2) expression and activation of Nuclear factor-kappa B (NF-κB) pathway. Taken together, these results indicated that cavidine exerts a gastroprotective effect against gastric ulceration, and the underlying mechanism might be associated with the stimulation of PGE2, reduction of oxidative stress, suppression of NF-κB expression and subsequent reduced COX-2 and pro-inflammatory cytokines. PMID:27380619

  11. Gas chromatography-mass spectrometry of ethyl palmitate calibration and resolution with ethyl oleate as biomarker ethanol sub acute in urine application study

    Suaniti, Ni Made; Manurung, Manuntun

    2016-03-01

    Gas Chromatography-Mass Spectrometry is used to separate two and more compounds and identify fragment ion specific of biomarker ethanol such as palmitic acid ethyl ester (PAEE), as one of the fatty acid ethyl esters as early detection through conyugated reaction. This study aims to calibrate ethyl palmitate and develop analysis with oleate acid. This methode can be used analysis ethanol and its chemistry biomarker in ethanol sub-acute consumption as analytical forensic toxicology. The result show that ethanol level in urine rats Wistar were 9.21 and decreased 6.59 ppm after 48 hours consumption. Calibration curve of ethyl palmitate was y = 0.2035 x + 1.0465 and R2 = 0.9886. Resolution between ethyl palmitate and oleate were >1.5 as good separation with fragment ion specific was 88 and the retention time was 18 minutes.

  12. In-Patient Treatment of Severe Acute Malnutrition

    Rytter, Maren Johanne Heilskov

    of malnutrition, Kwashiorkor, where the children develop oedema. Finally, we explored symptoms, findings or treatments given that were associated with a higher risk of death in the children. Hopefully, these findings may contribute to improving the treatment offered to children with severe acute......Severe acute malnutrition is a serious health problem among children in low-income countries. Particularly malnourished children requiring in-hospital treatment are at high risk of dying. This dissertation investigates possible reasons for this high mortality, by following a group of 120 children...... during their in-hospital treatment of severe acute malnutrition at Mwanamugimu Nutrition Unit in Kampala, Uganda. We assessed how malnutrition affected the children’s immune system, by measuring the size of their thymus gland with ultrasound. We examined characteristics of children with the serious form...

  13. Differential Diagnosis and Treatment Proposal for Acute Endodontic Infection.

    Keine, Kátia Cristina; Kuga, Milton Carlos; Pereira, Kamila Figueiredo; Diniz, Ana Carolina Soares; Tonetto, Mateus Rodrigues; Galoza, Marina Oliveira Gonçalves; Magro, Miriam Graziele; de Barros, Yolanda Benedita Abadia Martins; Bandéca, Matheus Coelho; de Andrade, Marcelo Ferrarezi

    2015-01-01

    The objective of this study was to describe the main lesions that simulate clinically and propose a treatment protocol for acute endodontic infection. Signs and clinical symptoms of periodontal abscess, gingival abscess, odontoma, herpes simplex, pericoronitis, acute pulpitis and necrotizing ulcerative gingivitis/periodontitis (NUG/NUP) were described and compared with acute endodontic infections. A treatment protocol was described by optimizing the procedures in access cavity, microbial decontamination and detoxification of the root canal, apical debridement, intracanal and systemic medication and surgical drainage procedures. The convenience of the use of 5.25% sodium hypochlorite, root canal instrumentation using a crown-down technique, intracanal medication with 2% chlorhexidine or triple antibiotic paste and the convenience of the use of antibiotics, analgesics, and surgical drainage to solve cases of acute dentoalveolar abscess was discussed. PMID:27018033

  14. Acute ethanol impairs photic and nonphotic circadian phase resetting in the Syrian hamster

    Ruby, Christina L.; Prosser, Rebecca A.; Marc A. DePaul; Roberts, Randy J.; Glass, J. David

    2008-01-01

    Disrupted circadian rhythmicity is associated with ethanol (EtOH) abuse, yet little is known about how EtOH affects the mammalian circadian clock of the suprachiasmatic nucleus (SCN). Clock timing is regulated by photic and nonphotic inputs to the SCN involving glutamate release from the retinohypothalamic tract and serotonin (5-HT) from the midbrain raphe, respectively. Our recent in vitro studies in the SCN slice revealed that EtOH blocks photic phase-resetting action of glutamate and enhan...

  15. Acute exposure to ethanol on gestational day 15 affects social motivation of female offspring

    Varlinskaya, Elena I.; Mooney, Sandra M.

    2013-01-01

    Alterations in social behavior are a hallmark of many neurodevelopmental disorders in humans. In rodents, social behavior is affected by prenatal insults. The outcomes are dependent on the timing of the insult as well as the sex and age of the animal tested. The limbic system is particularly important for social behavior, and a peak of neurogenesis within this system occurs on gestational day (G)15. Neurons appear particularly vulnerable to ethanol insult around the time they become post-mito...

  16. Neurodevelopmental Sequelae of Pediatric Acute Lymphoblastic Leukemia and Its Treatment

    Janzen, Laura A.; Spiegler, Brenda J.

    2008-01-01

    This review will describe the neurocognitive outcomes associated with pediatric acute lymphoblastic leukemia (ALL) and its treatment. The literature is reviewed with the aim of addressing methodological issues, treatment factors, risks and moderators, special populations, relationship to neuroimaging findings, and directions for future research.…

  17. Acute intermittent porphyria: Diagnostic dilemma and treatment options

    Mohan Deep Kaur; Nita Hazarika; Namita Saraswat; Rajesh Sood

    2015-01-01

    Acute intermittent porphyria (AIP) presents with diverse group of symptoms making its early diagnosis difficult. Delaying diagnosis and treatment of AIP can be fatal or can cause long term or permanent neurological damage. We present here a case report of AIP where the diagnosis was missed. The diversity of symptoms and details concerning the treatment options for AIP are discussed.

  18. Induction of brain CYP2E1 by chronic ethanol treatment and related oxidative stress in hippocampus, cerebellum, and brainstem

    Ethanol is one of the most commonly abused substances, and oxidative stress is an important causative factor in ethanol-induced neurotoxicity. Cytochrome P450 2E1 (CYP2E1) is involved in ethanol metabolism in the brain. This study investigates the role of brain CYP2E1 in the susceptibility of certain brain regions to ethanol neurotoxicity. Male Wistar rats were intragastrically treated with ethanol (3.0 g/kg, 30 days). CYP2E1 protein, mRNA expression, and catalytic activity in various brain regions were respectively assessed by immunoblotting, quantitative quantum dot immunohistochemistry, real-time RT-PCR, and LC–MS. The generation of reactive oxygen species (ROS) was analyzed using a laser confocal scanning microscope. The hippocampus, cerebellum, and brainstem were selectively damaged after ethanol treatment, indicated by both lactate dehydrogenase (LDH) activity and histopathological analysis. Ethanol markedly increased the levels of CYP2E1 protein, mRNA expression, and activity in the hippocampus and cerebellum. CYP2E1 protein and activity were significantly increased by ethanol in the brainstem, with no change in mRNA expression. ROS levels induced by ethanol paralleled the enhanced CYP2E1 proteins in the hippocampus, granular layer and white matter of cerebellum as well as brainstem. Brain CYP2E1 activity was positively correlated with the damage to the hippocampus, cerebellum, and brainstem. These results suggest that the selective sensitivity of brain regions to ethanol neurodegeneration may be attributed to the regional and cellular-specific induction of CYP2E1 by ethanol. The inhibition of CYP2E1 levels may attenuate ethanol-induced oxidative stress via ROS generation.

  19. A Standardized Composition from Extracts of Myristica Fragrans, Astragalus Membranaceus, and Poria Cocos Protects Liver from Acute Ethanol Insult.

    Yimam, Mesfin; Jiao, Ping; Hong, Mei; Jia, Qi

    2016-08-01

    Despite the promising advances in therapeutic discovery, there still is a major challenge in the development of a safe, effective, and economical intervention for managing alcohol-related liver disorders. In this study, we describe the potential use of "MAP," a standardized composition comprising three extracts from Myristica fragrans, Astragalus membranaceus, and Poria cocos, in ameliorating alcohol-induced acute liver toxicity. Ethanol-induced acute hepatotoxicity as an animal model of binge drinking was utilized. Mice received oral doses of MAP at 300 mg/kg for four consecutive days. Mice were orally gavaged with 50% ethanol in 12 mL/kg dosing volume following the third dose of MAP every 12 h thereafter for a total of three doses. Hepatic functional tests from serum collected at T12, and hepatic glutathione (GSH), superoxide dismutases (SODs), and triglyceride from liver homogenates were evaluated. Histopathology analysis and alcoholic steatohepatitis (ASH) scoring were also determined. Excessive increases of serum alanine aminotransferase and aspartate aminotransferase were significantly inhibited at 46.3% and 43.6%, respectively, when mice were treated with MAP. MAP replenished the depleted SOD by more than 60%, while causing significant stimulation of GSH productions. MAP showed statistically significant reduction in ballooning degeneration, vascular steatosis, cytoplasmic or nuclear condensation, and shrinkage, as well as inflammations when compared to vehicle-treated alcohol-induced liver toxicity model. Mice treated with MAP showed statistically significant reduction in ASH scoring when compared to vehicle control. Therefore, the composition MAP could be potentially utilized as an effective hepatic-detoxifying agent for the protection of liver damage caused by alcohol consumptions. PMID:27355692

  20. A study of antimicrobial activity, acute toxicity and cytoprotective effect of a polyherbal extract in a rat ethanol-HCl gastric ulcer model

    Haule Emmanuel E

    2012-10-01

    . Both the individual plant extracts and the mixed extracts of 5 plants exhibited weak to moderate antibacterial activity against four G-ve bacteria. Despite Ozoroa insignis being toxic to mice at doses above 1000 mg/kg body wt, the other plant extracts and the combined extract of the 5 plants were tolerated by mice up to 5000 mg/kg body wt. The brine shrimp test results showed the same pattern of toxicity with Ozoroa insignis being the most toxic (LC50 = 10.63 μg/ml. Phytochemical tests showed that the combined extract of the five plants contained tannins, saponins, steroids, cardiac glycosides, flavonoids and terpenoids. Flavonoids, tannins and terpenoids are known to have antioxidant activity. Conclusion The combined extract of the five plants exhibited a dose-dependent protective activity in the rat ethanol-HCl gastric ulcer model. The extracts also exhibited weak antibacterial activity against four Gram negative bacteria and low acute toxicity in mice and brine shrimps. Although the results support claims by traditional healers who use a decoction of the five plants for treatment of peptic ulcers, more models of gastric ulceration and proper animal toxicity studies are needed to validate possible clinical use of the polyherbal extract. It is also evident that the doses of the crude extracts showing protection of the gastric mucosa are too large for realistic translation to direct clinical application, but further studies using bioassay guided fractionation are important to either identify more practical fractions or active compound/s.

  1. Acute Coronary Syndrome- Conservative vs Invasive Treatment

    LIM; Yean Teng

    2001-01-01

    @@atients with Acute Coronary Syndrome (ACS)are a clinical continuum-with patients presenting with unstable angina on one end, with patients with ST elevation myocardial infarction (STEMI) at the other end of the spectrum. In between are those with non- ST elevation myocardial infarction (NSTEMI) The pathophysiology is similar in these patients, namely isruption and fissuring of an atheromatous plaque,leading to enhanced platelet activation and local vasohyperactivity, with reduced flow and thrombus formation. While medical experts have reached consensus in the management of STEMI patients (thrombolysis nd / or percutaneous coronary intervention), optimalmanagement of patients with UA/NSTEMI remainsunclear.

  2. Treatment of acute retrolental fibroplasia by cryopexy.

    Ben-Sira, I; Nissenkorn, I; Grunwald, E; YASSUR;, Y.

    1980-01-01

    Fifteen to 20% of premature infants weighing below 1500 g develop variable degrees of acute retrolental fibroplasia (RLF). Approximately 5% of those infants who develop RLF can be expected to become blind. A prospective study was carried out to evaluate if early cryopexy can prevent this blindness. The study showed that, among 533 infants admitted to the neonatal intensive care unit between July 1976 and December 1978, 55 had some degree of active RLF. In 18 eyes of 9 infants in whom the reti...

  3. Cement vertebroplasty combined with ethanol injection in the treatment of vertebral hemangioma

    CHEN Liang; ZHANG Chun-lin; TANG Tian-si

    2007-01-01

    Background A number of methods have been used in the treatment of symptomatic and aggressive vertebral hemangioma, but none of them is optimal. Vertebral hemangioma treated with cement vertebroplasty or ethanol injection alone showed relatively good results despite their limitations.Methods Between February 2002 and May 2004, twelve patients with vertebral hemangioma were subjected to combined cement vertebroplasty and ethanol injection, five of them were men and seven women, and aged from 26 to 54 years (mean, 41 years). The following levels of the spine were involved: T9: 1, T10: 3, T12: 2, L1: 1, L2: 2, L3:2 and L4: 1.The clinical results and radiographic records of the patients were assessed after 2 years and 5 months of follow-up.Results The average score of back pain significantly decreased from 6.5 before operation to 1.7 one month after operation. No severe complications occurred during and after operation. During the period of follow-up, symptoms were not deteriorated. At the end of follow-up, neither radiographic sign of aggressive destruction nor collapse of the involved vertebra was observed. Significant improvement in the 12 patients was demonstrated on 7 of 8 SF-36 Health Scale except for mental health.Conclusions Cement vertebroplasty combined with ethanol injection as a safe and effective technique is an alternative to the treatment of patients with vertebral hemangioma.

  4. Erythrocyte 3H-ouabain binding and digitalis treatment in ethanol addicted patients

    The binding of 3H-ouabain to human erythrocytes was analyzed in a population of hospitalized male ethanol addicted patients under long term digitalis treatment. In the non-alcoholic patient group the long term digitalis treatment induced an increase in Bmax and Kd values; such modification was not observed in the alcoholic patients. Chronic alcohol intake itself induced an increase in 3H-ouabain kinetic parameters. These observations confirm that ouabain binding to human erythrocytes is subject to pharmacological and toxicological regulation and that adaptive changes in peripheral tissues can be useful in predicting possible parallel modifications in other less accessible tissues. 22 references, 1 table

  5. Knee Luxation - Surgical treatment in acute cases

    Introduction: Traumatic luxation of the knee is an infrequent pathology with low number of reported cases. That implies a true challenge for the orthopedic surgeon due to its great of presentation. Objective: Establish a scheme of surgical management for this complex injury. Methodology: Observational study with different kinds of cases of patients from Universitario Del Valle Hospital and from the Imbanaco Medical Center. These surgeries occurred from December of 1999 to February of the 2003. Patients: 16. Age average: 31 years old. Age group: 13 to 64 years. Sex: 14 male and 2 female. Luxation Types: 15 closed and 1 exposed. Procedures: Correction of the extra-capsular structures and reintegration of the crossed ligaments in cases of avulsion using an acute management approach. In the two last patients, it was performed a simultaneous reconstruction of the crossed posterior and anterior with an auto-graft followed by patients monitoring from 12 to 50 months. The most common luxation type was KDIII L according to anatomical classification. A patient with vascular injury, two with external popliteo ciatic nerve injury and one broken patellar tendon, the results were evaluated according to the scale of Lysholm, IKDC and For Special Surgery. Conclusions: The acute management of the extra-articular structures gives the best results; therefore, if the surgeon does not have enough experience, this procedure should be to left for secondary reconstruction when the patient has normal arch of mobility

  6. Esophageal strictures during treatment for acute lymphoblastic leukemia.

    Kelly, Kevin

    2012-02-01

    Esophageal stricture is a rare complication of paediatric cancer treatment that usually occurs after esophageal exposure to radiotherapy. We describe 4 cases of esophageal stricture during chemotherapy for acute lymphoblastic leukemia. All patients presented with refractory vomiting and were diagnosed with radiologic contrast studies. None of the patients had received radiotherapy. Esophageal candidiasis was seen in 2 patients but the remaining 2 patients had earlier systemic candidiasis. High-dose dexamethasone may predispose these children to both esophageal candidiasis and peptic esophagitis. The etiology of esophageal strictures during treatment for acute leukemia is likely to be multifactorial but systemic candidiasis may play a significant role.

  7. Liver transplantation for acute intermittent porphyria:a viable treatment?

    Faisal S Dar; Koji Asai; Ali Raza Haque; Thomas Cherian; Mohamed Rela; Nigel Heaton

    2010-01-01

    BACKGROUND:Acute intermittent porphyria (AIP) is the most common hepatic porphyria. Its clinical presentation includes severe disabling and life-threatening neurovisceral symptoms and acute psychiatric symptoms. These symptoms result from the overproduction and accumulation of porphyrin precursors, 5-aminoleuvulinic acid (ALA) and porphobilinogen (PBG). The effect of medical treatment is transient and is not effective once irreversible neurological damage has occurred. Liver transplantation (LT) replaces hepatic enzymes and can restore normal excretion of ALA and PBG and prevent acute attacks. METHOD:Two cases of LT for AIP were identiifed retro-spectively from a prospectively maintained LT database. RESULT:LT was successful with resolution of AIP in two patients who suffered from repeated acute attacks. CONCLUSION:LT can correct the underlying metabolic abnormality in AIP and improves quality of life signiifcantly.

  8. [Treatment of the acute diverticulitis: A systematic review].

    Dréanic, Johann; Sion, Elena; Dhooge, Marion; Dousset, Bertrand; Camus, Marine; Chaussade, Stanislas; Coriat, Romain

    2015-11-01

    Acute diverticulitis is a common disease with increasing incidence. In most of cases, diagnosis is made at an uncomplicated stage offering a curative attempt under medical treatment and use of antibiotics. There is a risk of diverticulitis recurrence. Uncomplicated diverticulitis is opposed to complicated forms (perforation, abscess or fistula). Recent insights in the pathophysiology of diverticulitis, the natural history, and treatments have permitted to identify new treatment strategies. For example, the use of antibiotics tends to decrease; surgery is now less invasive, percutaneous drainage is preferred, peritoneal lavage is encouraged. Treatments of the diverticulitis are constantly evolving. In this review, we remind the pathophysiology and natural history, and summarize new recommendations for the medical and surgical treatment of acute diverticulitis. PMID:26358668

  9. Pre-treatment and ethanol fermentation potential of olive pulp at different dry matter concentrations

    Haagensen, Frank [Bioprocess Science and Technology group, Biocentrum-DTU, Building 227, Technical University of Denmark, 2800 Lyngby (Denmark); Skiadas, Ioannis V.; Gavala, Hariklia N.; Ahring, Birgitte K. [Bioprocess Science and Technology group, Biocentrum-DTU, Building 227, Technical University of Denmark, 2800 Lyngby (Denmark); Copenhagen Institute of Technology (Aalborg University Copenhagen), Section for Sustainable Biotechnology, Department of Biotechnology, Chemistry and Environmental Engineering, Lautrupvang 15, DK 2750 Ballerup (Denmark)

    2009-11-15

    Renewable energy sources have received increased interest from the international community with biomass being one of the oldest and the most promising ones. In the concept of exploitation of agro-industrial residues, the present study investigates the pre-treatment and ethanol fermentation potential of the olive pulp, which is the semi solid residue generated from the two-phase processing of the olives for olive oil production. Wet oxidation and enzymatic hydrolysis have been applied aiming at the enhancement of carbohydrates' bioavailability. Different concentrations of enzymes and enzymatic durations have been tested. Both wet oxidation and enzymic treatment were evaluated based on the ethanol obtained in a subsequent fermentation step by Saccharomyces cerevisiae and Thermoanaerobacter mathranii. It was found that a four-day hydrolysis time was adequate for a satisfactory release of glucose and xylose. The combination of wet oxidation and enzymatic hydrolysis resulted in the glucose and xylose concentration increase of 138 and 444%, respectively, compared to 33 and 15% with only enzymes added. However, the highest ethanol production was obtained when only enzymic pre-treatment was applied, implying that wet oxidation is not a recommended pre-treatment process for olive pulp at the conditions tested. It was also showed that increased dry matter concentration did not have a negative effect on the release of sugars, indicating that the cellulose and xylan content of the olive pulp is relatively easily available. The results of the experiments in batch processes clearly emphasize that the simultaneous saccharification and fermentation (SSF) mode is advantageous in comparison with the separate hydrolysis and fermentation (SHF) mode concerning process contamination. (author)

  10. Pivmecillinam for the treatment of acute uncomplicated urinary infection.

    Nicolle, L E

    1999-12-01

    Pivmecillinam is a beta-lactam antimicrobial marketed almost two decades ago. It has been used widely for the treatment of acute cystitis in selected areas of the world, particularly in Scandinavia. With increasing resistance of community Escherichia coli isolates to trimethoprim and trimethoprim/sulphamethoxazole, as previously observed for ampicillin and sulphonamides, reassessment of empiric antimicrobial regimens for acute uncomplicated urinary infection is necessary. Thus, it is timely to revisit the role of pivmecillinam for the treatment of acute cystitis. Clinical studies document the efficacy of this antimicrobial with short course therapy for acute cystitis, and clinical practice in countries where it has been used for many years confirms its efficacy and tolerability. If this agent were more widely used for empiric treatment for acute cystitis, use of antimicrobials such as the quinolones might be avoided. Further trials to define the comparative efficacy of pivmecillinam with other antimicrobials, and further studies of community resistance in E. coli isolates to this agent are needed. PMID:10692756

  11. Possibilities of nontoxic autonomous thyroid nodules treatment by percutaneous ethanol injection

    Anđelković Zoran

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available Background/Aim. According to the current principles, autonomous functional thyroid nodules are treated by surgery or by radioiodin therapy. Ultrasound guided percutaneous ethanol injection into solid tumors of the soft tissues was a starting point in attempts to treat the thyroid nodules by the same method. The aim of the study was to assess the efficiency of percutaneous injection in treating solitary, nontoxic, autonomous thyroid nodules of up to 15 mL volume. Methods. In 25 patients with solitary nontoxic autonomous thyroid nodules diagnosed by tehnetium-99m scanning as an intensive area having a complete supremacy in the paranodal tissue, an ultrasound guided percutaneous ethanol injection was applied. The procedure was carried out repeatedly once a week until the reduction in nodule size to 50% of the initial size was achieved. Results. An average size of the nodule before curing was 9.68 ± 5.01 mL. An average quantity of the injected ethanol was 9.52 ± 5.08 mL, ie 1.06 ± 0.48 mL/mg of the tissue. The regression of the nodule size in the successfully (Δvol% u = - 57.09 ± 13.75%, p < 0.001 and partly successfully cured (Δvol du = -48.45 ± 14.35%, p < 0.05 was statistically significant compared to the size before the treatment. After ceasing ethanol injection, 18 months later, a further size regression (Δvol% = -79.20 ± 9.89% compared to the initial one (p < 0.001 was noticed. Soon, after the procedure was finished, a statistically significant concentration increase of Thyroid Stimulating Hormone (TSH was noticed compared to the initial values (0.18 ± 0.16 vs 0.34 ± 0.31 mU/L, p < 0.01. According to the given criteria, in two female patients satisfactory results were not achieved, but, a year later, in one of them the nodule was not seen by repeated scintigram. The number and frequency of side effects were insignificant. Conclusion. Repeated percutaneous ethanol injections into nontoxic solitary autonomous thyroid nodules result in

  12. Wet oxidation treatment of organic household waste enriched with wheat straw for simultaneous saccharification and fermentation into ethanol

    Lissens, G.; Klinke, H.B.; Verstraete, W.; Ahring, Birgitte Kiær; Thomsen, Anne Belinda

    2004-01-01

    -toxic carboxylic acids mainly (2.2-4.5 % on DS basis). Simultaneous saccharification and fermentation (SSF) of the treated waste at 10% DS by Saccharomyces cerevisae yielded average ethanol concentrations of 16.5 to 22 g l(-1) for enzyme loadings of 5 and 25 FPU g(-1) DS, respectively. The cellulose to ethanol...... conversion efficiency during SSF was 50, 62 65 and 70% for a total enzyme loading of 5, 10, 15 and 25 FPU g(-1) DS, respectively. Hence, this study shows that wet oxidation is a suitable pre-treatment for the conversion of organic waste carbohydrates into ethanol and that compatible conversion yields (60...

  13. Treatment of Acute Lumbar Sprain by Acupuncture plus Cupping

    WANG Jun-ying; WANG Si-you

    2003-01-01

    Fifty cases of acute lumbar sprain were treated by the combination of acupuncture, cupping and kinesitherapy. Forty-three cases were cured and 7 cases improved, the total effective rate being 100%. This therapy has an exact effect with a short course of treatment.

  14. Second Malignant Neoplasms After Treatment of Childhood Acute Lymphoblastic Leukemia

    Schmiegelow, K.; Levinsen, Mette Frandsen; Attarbaschi, Andishe;

    2013-01-01

    PURPOSE: Second malignant neoplasms (SMNs) after diagnosis of childhood acute lymphoblastic leukemia (ALL) are rare events. PATIENTS AND METHODS: We analyzed data on risk factors and outcomes of 642 children with SMNs occurring after treatment for ALL from 18 collaborative study groups between 1980...

  15. Acute and chronic ethanol consumption differentially impact pathways limiting hepatic protein synthesis

    Karinch, Anne M.; Martin, Jonathan H.; Vary, Thomas C.

    2008-01-01

    This review identifies the various pathways responsible for modulating hepatic protein synthesis following acute and chronic alcohol intoxication and describes the mechanism(s) responsible for these changes. Alcohol intoxication induces a defect in global protein synthetic rates that is localized to impaired translation of mRNA at the level of peptide-chain initiation. Translation initiation is regulated at two steps: formation of the 43S preinitiation complex [controlled by eukaryotic initia...

  16. Guidelines for acute ischemic stroke treatment: part II: stroke treatment

    Sheila Cristina Ouriques Martins

    2012-11-01

    Full Text Available The second part of these Guidelines covers the topics of antiplatelet, anticoagulant, and statin therapy in acute ischemic stroke, reperfusion therapy, and classification of Stroke Centers. Information on the classes and levels of evidence used in this guideline is provided in Part I. A translated version of the Guidelines is available from the Brazilian Stroke Society website (www.sbdcv.com.br.

  17. Treatment of Acute Excited Psychosis with Intramuscular Haloperidol

    Finnegan, Paul; Buckingham, Robert

    1980-01-01

    Haloperidol (Haldol) is useful in the management of acutely psychotic patients who present with excited behavior which threatens their safety and the safety of others. The use of haloperidol allows rapid control of psychotic behavior with minimal risk of hypotension and avoidance of the excessive sedation associated with other antipsychotics. This article summarizes the rationale, indications, goals and treatment techniques of rapid treatment with intramuscular haloperidol. Major side effects...

  18. Recent advances in the treatment of acute myeloid leukemia

    Abdel-Wahab, Omar; Levine, Ross L.

    2010-01-01

    Acute myeloid leukemia (AML) is a disorder with significant molecular and clinical heterogeneity. Although there have been clear advances in the identification of somatic genetic and epigenetic alterations present in the malignant cells of patients with AML, translating this knowledge into an integrated view with an impact on the clinical treatment of AML has been slower to evolve. Recent clinical advances in the treatment of AML include studies demonstrating the benefit of dose-intense dauno...

  19. Pharmaceutical treatment of acute bipolar depression

    Fountoulakis, Konstantinos N

    2010-01-01

    The treatment of bipolar depression is one of the most challenging fields in contemporary psychiatry. The best data concern the antipsychotics quetiapine and the olanzapine-fluoxetine combination. However, the usefulness of antidepressants in bipolar depression remains controversial; positive data are available for fluoxetine but negative results have been published for paroxetine. Accumulated knowledge so far suggests that bipolar patients need continuous administration of an antimanic agent...

  20. Ethanol production potential from fermented rice noodle wastewater treatment using entrapped yeast cell sequencing batch reactor

    Siripattanakul-Ratpukdi, Sumana

    2012-03-01

    Fermented rice noodle production generates a large volume of starch-based wastewater. This study investigated the treatment of the fermented rice noodle wastewater using entrapped cell sequencing batch reactor (ECSBR) compared to traditional sequencing batch reactor (SBR). The yeast cells were applied because of their potential to convert reducing sugar in the wastewater to ethanol. In present study, preliminary treatment by acid hydrolysis was performed. A yeast culture, Saccharomyces cerevisiae, with calcium alginate cell entrapment was used. Optimum yeast cell loading in batch experiment and fermented rice noodle treatment performances using ECSBR and SBR systems were examined. In the first part, it was found that the cell loadings (0.6-2.7 × 108 cells/mL) did not play an important role in this study. Treatment reactions followed the second-order kinetics with the treatment efficiencies of 92-95%. In the second part, the result showed that ECSBR performed better than SBR in both treatment efficiency and system stability perspectives. ECSBR maintained glucose removal of 82.5 ± 10% for 5-cycle treatment while glucose removal by SBR declined from 96 to 40% within the 5-cycle treatment. Scanning electron microscopic images supported the treatment results. A number of yeast cells entrapped and attached onto the matrix grew in the entrapment matrix.

  1. Evidence-based treatment for acute spinal cord injury

    Zhouming Deng; Jiajia Su; Lin Cai; Ansong Ping; Wei Jin; Renxiong Wei; Yan Zhan

    2011-01-01

    OBJECTIVE: To formulate an evidence-based treatment for one patient with acute spinal cord injury and summarize evidence for evaluating acute spinal cord injury treatment. METHODS: Studies related to the treatment for acute spinal cord injury were identified via a search of National Guideline Clearinghouse (NGC, 2000-11), the Cochrane Library (Issue 1, 2011), TRIP Database (2000-11), and PubMed (1966-2011). Treatment strategies were formulated according to three basic principles: best evidence, doctor's professional experience, and wishes of the patient. RESULTS: A total of 34 articles were selected, including 1 NGC guideline, 22 systematic reviews, and 11 randomized controlled trials. Based on our review, we arrived at the following recommendations: no clinical evidence exists definitively to recommend the use of any of neuroprotective pharmaceuticals; surgery should be undertaken early; mechanical compression devices and low-molecular weight heparin should be employed to prevent thrombosis; respiratory muscle training is beneficial for pulmonary function and quality of life; and functional electrical stimulation and acupuncture can promote functional recovery. The patient accordingly underwent surgery 6 hours after trauma without receiving any neuroprotective pharmaceuticals; low-molecular weight heparin and intermittent pneumatic compression were applied to prevent thrombosis. He also underwent respiratory muscle training daily for 8 weeks and received functional electrical stimulation for 15 minutes and acupuncture for 30 minutes every day. After follow-up for 3 months, the above therapeutic regimen was confirmed efficacious for acute spinal cord injury.CONCLUSION: Evidence-based medicine provides an individualized treatment protocol for acute spinal cord injury, which can significantly improve the therapeutic effect and prognosis.

  2. Chronic treatment with a selective 5-HT6 receptor antagonist alters the behavioral and neurochemical effects of ethanol in young adult rats.

    Jayarajan, Pradeep; Nirogi, Ramakrishna; Shinde, Anil; Benade, Vijay; Muddana, Nageswara Rao

    2016-04-01

    Experimental evidence indicates a potential role of 5-HT6 receptors in the regulation of addictive behavior. We studied the effects of a potent and selective 5-HT6 receptor antagonist (compound A) on voluntary ethanol intake and behavioral/neurochemical changes induced by ethanol. The pharmacokinetic interaction of compound A and ethanol was assessed. The effect of compound A on schedule-induced ethanol polydipsia was studied to determine its effect on voluntary ethanol intake. Open-field and ethanol-induced loss of righting reflex assays were carried out to determine the effect of compound A on the ataxic and sedative effects of ethanol. The effect on motor learning was evaluated using rotarod and brain microdialysis was carried out to study the effect on monoaminergic neurotransmission. No significant changes were observed in the pharmacokinetic parameters of compound A when cotreated with ethanol. Compound A significantly decreased voluntary ethanol consumption and attenuated the effects of ethanol on motor learning. Compound A also antagonized the sedative and ataxic effects of ethanol. The effect of ethanol on the dopaminergic and noradrenergic neurotransmission was blocked by compound A. The effects of compound A were evident only after chronic treatment. Compound A may have attenuated the behavioral effects of ethanol by blocking the ethanol-induced efflux of dopamine and norepinephrine in the motor cortex. PMID:25932717

  3. Retrobulbar blood flow and visual field alterations after acute ethanol ingestion

    Weber A

    2013-08-01

    Full Text Available Anke Weber, Andreas Remky, Marion Bienert, Klaudia Huber-van der Velden, Thomas Kirschkamp, Corinna Rennings, Gernot Roessler, Niklas Plange Department of Ophthalmology, RWTH Aachen University, Aachen, Germany Background: The purpose of this study was to test the effect of ethyl alcohol on the koniocellular and magnocellular pathway of visual function and to investigate the relationship between such visual field changes and retrobulbar blood flow in healthy subjects. Methods: In 12 healthy subjects (mean age 32 ± 4 years, color Doppler imaging, short-wavelength automated perimetry, and frequency doubling perimetry was performed before and 60 minutes after oral intake of 80 mL of 40 vol% ethanol. Mean and pattern standard deviations for short-wavelength automated and frequency doubling perimetry were assessed. End diastolic velocity (EDV and peak systolic velocity (PSV were measured in the central retinal and ophthalmic arteries using color Doppler imaging. Systemic blood pressure, heart rate, intraocular pressure, and blood alcohol concentration were determined. Results: Mean PSV and EDV in the central retinal artery showed a significant increase after alcohol intake (P = 0.03 and P = 0.02, respectively. Similarly, we found a significant acceleration of blood flow velocity in the ophthalmic artery (P = 0.02 for PSV; P = 0.04 for EDV. Mean intraocular pressure decreased by 1.0 mmHg after alcohol ingestion (P = 0.01. Retinal sensitivity in short-wavelength automated perimetry did not alter, whereas in frequency doubling perimetry, the mean deviation decreased significantly. Systolic and diastolic blood pressure did not change significantly. Mean blood alcohol concentration was 0.38 ± 0.16 g/L. Conclusion: Although ethanol is known to cause peripheral vasodilation, our subjects had no significant drop in systemic blood pressure. However, a significant increase of blood flow velocity was seen in the retrobulbar vessels. Regarding visual function

  4. Minimally Invasive Surgical Treatment of Acute Epidural Hematoma: Case Series

    2016-01-01

    Background and Objective. Although minimally invasive surgical treatment of acute epidural hematoma attracts increasing attention, no generalized indications for the surgery have been adopted. This study aimed to evaluate the effects of minimally invasive surgery in acute epidural hematoma with various hematoma volumes. Methods. Minimally invasive puncture and aspiration surgery were performed in 59 cases of acute epidural hematoma with various hematoma volumes (13–145 mL); postoperative follow-up was 3 months. Clinical data, including surgical trauma, surgery time, complications, and outcome of hematoma drainage, recovery, and Barthel index scores, were assessed, as well as treatment outcome. Results. Surgical trauma was minimal and surgery time was short (10–20 minutes); no anesthesia accidents or surgical complications occurred. Two patients died. Drainage was completed within 7 days in the remaining 57 cases. Barthel index scores of ADL were ≤40 (n = 1), 41–60 (n = 1), and >60 (n = 55); scores of 100 were obtained in 48 cases, with no dysfunctions. Conclusion. Satisfactory results can be achieved with minimally invasive surgery in treating acute epidural hematoma with hematoma volumes ranging from 13 to 145 mL. For patients with hematoma volume >50 mL and even cerebral herniation, flexible application of minimally invasive surgery would help improve treatment efficacy. PMID:27144170

  5. Prooxidant activity of norbixin in model of acute gastric ulcer induced by ethanol in rats.

    Rovani, B T; de Freitas, R B; Augusti, P R; Araldi, I C; Somacal, S; Quatrin, A; Emanuelli, T; da Rocha, M P; Bauermann, L de Freitas

    2016-07-01

    Free radicals and oxidative stress play a central role in gastric injuries caused by ethanol (EtOH). Antioxidant strategies to counteract EtOH toxicity are highly desirable. Norbixin (NBIX) is a carotenoid with antioxidant potential largely used in the food industry. This study evaluated the NBIX effects in a model of gastric ulcer induced by EtOH in rats. Male Wistar rats received NBIX doses of 0, 10, and 25 mg/kg by gavage 1 h after EtOH administration (0 or 75% solution, 1 mL/200 g of animal). The animals were euthanized 1 h after the NBIX administration, and their stomachs were removed for macroscopic and histopathological analyses, quantification of nonprotein sulfhydryl (NPSH) groups, lipid peroxidation (LPO) levels, and catalase (CAT) activity determination. NBIX increased LPO in gastric mucosa and caused CAT inhibition and NPSH depletion in EtOH-treated animals. Results showed that NBIX did not protect gastric tissue against EtOH damage, and this could be associated to a prooxidant effect. PMID:26353805

  6. Developmental differences in EEG and sleep responses to acute ethanol administration and its withdrawal (hangover) in adolescent and adult Wistar rats

    Ehlers, Cindy L.; Desikan, Anita; Wills, Derek N.

    2013-01-01

    Age-related differences in sensitivity to the acute effects of alcohol may play an important role in the increased risk for the development of alcoholism seen in teens that begin drinking at an early age. The present study evaluated the acute and protracted (hangover) effects of ethanol in adolescent (P33–P40) and adult (P100–P107) Wistar rats, using the cortical electroencephalogram (EEG). Six minutes of EEG was recorded during waking, 15 min after administration of 0, 1.5, or 3.0 g/kg ethan...

  7. Anti-infection treatment of iatrogenic acute radiation sickness

    Objective: To occumulatle experience of anti-infection treatment in acute radiation sickness (ARS) induced by medical treatment in order to provide beneficial help for victims of accidental of acute radiation sickness. Methods: The changes of peripheral blood indices, body temperature and clinical symptoms of 17 cases who were clinically irradiated with 6.0-7.2 Gy X-rays were observed both before peripheral blood stem cell transplantation(PBSCT) and after anti-infection treatment. Results: WBC count began to decrease to below 1 x 109/L from the 8th to 10th days after irradiation and maintained at row level for 4 days or for 13.3 days if the patients had not received rhG-CSF treatment. In 29.4% of patients the body temperature was higher than 38.5 degree C. After comprehensive enviromental protection and anti-infection treatment, all patients could successfully tide over the period of bone marrow depression without appearance of the typical critical phase of ARS. Conclusion: PBSCT and rhG-CSF treatment can reduce the time span for reconstruction of bone marrow. Comprehensive enviromental protection and combined anti-infection treatment are key points fm successful treatment. (authors)

  8. Long-term tolerability of telcagepant for acute treatment of migraine in a randomized trial

    Connor, Kathryn M; Aurora, Sheena K; Loeys, Tom; Ashina, Messoud; Jones, Christopher; Giezek, Hilde; Massaad, Rachid; Williams-Diaz, Angela; Lines, Christopher; Ho, Tony W

    2011-01-01

    To evaluate the long-term tolerability of telcagepant for acute treatment of intermittent migraine attacks. Background.- Telcagepant is a calcitonin gene-related peptide (CGRP) receptor antagonist being investigated for the acute treatment of migraine....

  9. Changes in lymphocyte and macrophage subsets due to morphine and ethanol treatment during a retrovirus infection causing murine AIDS

    Watson, R.R.; Prabhala, R.H.; Darban, H.R.; Yahya, M.D.; Smith, T.L.

    1988-01-01

    The number of lymphocytes of various subsets were not significantly changed by the ethanol exposure except those showing activation markers which were reduced. The percentage of peripheral blood cells showing markers for macrophage functions and their activation were significantly reduced after binge use of ethanol. Ethanol retarded suppression of cells by retroviral infection. However by 25 weeks of infection there was a 8.6% survival in the ethanol fed mice infected with retrovirus which was much less than virally infected controls. Morphine treatment also increased the percentage of cells with markers for macrophages and activated macrophages in virally infected mice, while suppressing them in uninfected mice. The second and third morphine injection series suppressed lymphocyte T-helper and T-suppressor cells, but not total T cells. However, suppression by morphine was significantly less during retroviral disease than suppression caused by the virus only. At 25 weeks of infection 44.8% of morphine treated, infected mice survived.

  10. Oral squamous cell carcinoma following treatment of acute lymphoblastic leukaemia

    With substantially increased survival after most paediatric cancers over the past decades have come the late sequelae of treatment. Of all late complications of treatment, second malignancies are generally considered to be the most serious. We report on a 20-year-old man with an oral squamous cell carcinoma 17 years after initial chemotherapy and irradiation for acute lymphoblastic leukaemia. Although occurrence of the oral malignancy in this patient could have been treatment-related, one should keep in mind that the occurrence of second tumours may also be based on a shared genetic aetiology. (au) 9 refs

  11. Oral squamous cell carcinoma following treatment of acute lymphoblastic leukaemia

    Waal, R.I.F. van der; Waal, I. van der [Univ. Hospital Vrije Univ., Dept. of Oral and Maxillofacial Surgery/Oral Pathology, Amsterdam (Netherlands); Veerman, A.J.P. [Univ. Hospital Vrije Univ., Dept. of Paediatric Oncology, Amsterdam (Netherlands); Snow, G.B. [Univ. Hospital Vrije Univ., Dept. of Otorhinolaryngology, Amsterdam (Netherlands)

    1997-02-01

    With substantially increased survival after most paediatric cancers over the past decades have come the late sequelae of treatment. Of all late complications of treatment, second malignancies are generally considered to be the most serious. We report on a 20-year-old man with an oral squamous cell carcinoma 17 years after initial chemotherapy and irradiation for acute lymphoblastic leukaemia. Although occurrence of the oral malignancy in this patient could have been treatment-related, one should keep in mind that the occurrence of second tumours may also be based on a shared genetic aetiology. (au) 9 refs.

  12. Treatment of Relapsed/Refractory Acute Lymphoblastic Leukemia in Adults.

    Ronson, Aharon; Tvito, Ariella; Rowe, Jacob M

    2016-06-01

    Patients with relapsed and refractory acute lymphoblastic leukemia (ALL) have a dismal prognosis with less than 10 % of patients surviving 5 years. Most such patients cannot be rescued with currently available therapies, whatever the initial treatment they receive. Therefore, there is an urgent need for novel treatment options. Fortunately, over the past several years, an improved understanding of the biology of the disease has allowed the identification of rational molecular targets for therapeutic endeavors and the emergence of novel therapies has sparked great interest. This review will discuss the current treatment landscape for adult patients with relapsed and/or refractory ALL. PMID:27207612

  13. Pre-treatment step with Leuconostoc mesenteroides or L. pseudomesenteroides strains removes furfural from Zymomonas mobilis ethanolic fermentation broth

    Furfural (furan-2-carboxaldehyde), formed during dilute acid hydrolysis of biomass, is an inhibitor of growth and ethanol production by Zymomonas mobilis. The present study used a biological pre-treatment to reduce that amount of furfural in a model biofuel fermentation broth. The pre-treatment in...

  14. Inhibition of ethanol-producing yeast and bacteria by degradation products produced during pre-treatment of biomass

    Klinke, H.B.; Thomsen, A.B.; Ahring, Birgitte Kiær

    2004-01-01

    An overview of the different inhibitors formed by pre-treatment of lignocellulosic materials and their inhibition of ethanol production in yeast and bacteria is given. Different high temperature physical pre-treatment methods are available to render the carbohydrates in lignocellulose accessible ...

  15. Extrusion as a thermo-mechanical pre-treatment for lignocellulosic ethanol

    Lamsal, B. [Department of Food Science and Human Nutrition, Iowa State University (United States); Yoo, J.; Brijwani, K.; Alavi, S. [Department of Grain Science and Industry, Kansas State University (United States)

    2010-12-15

    Two physical pre-treatment methods, particle size reduction by grinding and thermo-mechanical extrusion, were evaluated as alternatives to traditional biomass pretreatments for lignocellulosic ethanol. Commonly available agricultural co-products wheat bran and soybean hull were the model substrates. Extrusion led to higher reducing sugar yields as compared to grinding for wheat bran, but not in the case of soybean hulls. The best combination of extrusion screw speed and maximum barrel temperature were 7 Hz/150 C and 3.7 Hz/110 C. The use of a solvent mixture (sodium hydroxide, urea, and thiourea) and calcium chloride solution in combination with extrusion treatment did not lead to improvement in reducing sugar yield. However, extensive washing to get rid of solvents and enzymatic inhibitors improved the conversion efficiency substantially, resulting in total reducing sugar yields of 60-73% and 25-36%, respectively, for wheat bran and soybean hull. (author)

  16. Pre-treatment and ethanol fermentation potential of olive pulp at different dry matter concentrations

    Haagensen, Frank Drøscher; Skiadas, Ioannis V.; Gavala, Hariklia N.;

    2009-01-01

    potential of the olive pulp, which is the semi solid residue generated from the two-phase processing of the olives for olive oil production. Wet oxidation and enzymatic hydrolysis have been applied aiming at the enhancement of carbohydrates' bioavailability. Different concentrations of enzymes and enzymatic...... applied, implying that wet oxidation is not a recommended pre-treatment process for olive pulp at the conditions tested. It was also showed that increased dry matter concentration did not have a negative effect on the release of sugars, indicating that the cellulose and xylan content of the olive pulp is...... durations have been tested. Both wet oxidation and enzymic treatment were evaluated based on the ethanol obtained in a subsequent fermentation step by Saccharomyces cerevisiae and Thermoanaerobacter mathranii. It was found that a four-day hydrolysis time was adequate for a satisfactory release of glucose...

  17. Surgical treatment of acute pulmonary embolism--a 12-year retrospective analysis

    Lehnert, Per; Møller, Christian H; Carlsen, Jørn;

    2012-01-01

    Surgical embolectomy for acute pulmonary embolism (PE) is considered to be a high risk procedure and therefore a last treatment option. We wanted to evaluate the procedures role in modern treatment of acute PE.......Surgical embolectomy for acute pulmonary embolism (PE) is considered to be a high risk procedure and therefore a last treatment option. We wanted to evaluate the procedures role in modern treatment of acute PE....

  18. Random matrix treatment of intramolecular vibrational redistribution. II. Coriolis interactions in 1-butyne and ethanol

    The measures are the dilution factor φd, the interaction width Δε, and the effective level density ρeffc. In the presence of multiple coupling mechanisms (near the best fit to the ethanol ν14 band), the correlations between φd and Δε and the bright-bath Coriolis coupling mechanisms follow the expected trends. It was also found that ρeffc is sensitive to the x, y Coriolis coupling among the bath states. The results were not sensitive to the z-type Coriolis coupling among the bath states in the region of the ethanol simulation, but ρeffc was sensitive to it in the simulation of the 1-butyne ν16 band. Best-fit coupling parameters were obtained for both simulated bands. The rms bright-bath z-type Coriolis coupling was found to be 0.028±0.005 cm-1 which is about three times the value obtained from a naive approach which neglects the interaction of the multiple coupling mechanisms. A direct count vibrational level density, ρvib, provided good agreement with the experiments when a full treatment of the torsional modes was included and a 20% enhancement of the density from neglected diagonal anharmonicities was added. A method of quantifying the conservation of the rotational quantum number, K, is provided by the inequalities, ρvib≤ρeffc≤(2J+1)ρvib. For 1-butyne, ρeffc is closer to ρvib than for ethanol indicating that K is more nearly conserved. While this work treats only anharmonic and Coriolis coupling, the random matrix formalism provides the ability to treat a wide variety of coupling schemes. copyright 1995 American Institute of Physics

  19. Flowcharts for the diagnosis and treatment of acute cholangitis and cholecystitis: Tokyo Guidelines

    Miura, Fumihiko; Takada, Tadahiro; Kawarada, Yoshifumi; Nimura, Yuji; Wada, Keita; Hirota, Masahiko; Nagino, Masato; Tsuyuguchi, Toshio; Mayumi, Toshihiko; Yoshida, Masahiro; Steven M. Strasberg; Henry A. Pitt; Belghiti, Jacques; de Santibanes, Eduardo; Gadacz, Thomas R.

    2007-01-01

    Diagnostic and therapeutic strategies for acute biliary inflammation/infection (acute cholangitis and acute cholecystitis), according to severity grade, have not yet been established in the world. Therefore we formulated flowcharts for the management of acute biliary inflammation/infection in accordance with severity grade. For mild (grade I) acute cholangitis, medical treatment may be sufficient/appropriate. For moderate (grade II) acute cholangitis, early biliary drainage should be performe...

  20. Treatment of acute radiodermatitis with Cryptomphalus Aspersa Secretion

    A clinical study with 100 patients with acute radiodermatitis is presented. They received treatment with Cryptomphalus Aspersa secretion (n=50) or its excipients (n=50) for three months. They were evaluated after first week, and at one, two, three and six months after initiation of therapy. In the group treated with Cryptomphalus Aspersa, a statistically significant clinical improvement in erythema, itching and burning pain was noted, both at first week and one month after starling therapy. These results open a new way in the future treatment of acute radiodermatitis. Cryptomphalus Aspersa is an alternative therapy for many patients diagnosed of malignant tumors which require radiotherapy, with specially good results in breast and neck radiodermatitis. (Author) 10 refs

  1. Patient Satisfaction in the Treatment of Acute Hamstring Strain Injury

    LingLing- Lai

    2014-05-01

    Full Text Available Introduction: The impact of musculoskeletal injuries often caused loss time in sport participation. Athletes who suffered from these injuries experienced a decrease in performance and physical disability. Although a variety of treatments have been implemented to the muscle injuries, the administration of autologous blood injection is replacing the conventional rehabilitation to expedite the process of muscle recovery. Platelet-rich plasma (PRP is relatively new in muscle injury treatment and there is lack of evidence of the satisfaction of PRP treatment in muscle injuries. Purposes: The study aimed to investigate the patient satisfaction in the administration of PRP treatment and rehabilitation program for acute hamstring strain injury. Methods: Participants (competitive, semi-competitive and recreational athletes with acute hamstring strain injury (Grade II were recruited. Participants were randomly divided into either the PRP treatment or rehabilitation program. Participants were required to attend weekly follow up assessment for recovery evaluation. All the participants were required to complete a patient satisfaction questionnaire (PSQ-18 at the end of study.  The questionnaire is divided into seven sub-scales: general satisfaction, technical quality, interpersonal manner, communication, financial aspect, time spent with doctor, accessibility and convenience. Results: Participants were 22.35 ± 3.41 years. Duration from injury to first presentation in clinic ranged from two to ten days. Mean duration of recovery was 5.64 weeks. No statistically significant difference in the patient satisfaction sub-scales score between the two groups (p>0.05. Conclusion: The present study demonstrates that PRP treatment is as satisfactory as conventional rehabilitation program in managing acute hamstring strain injury. Both  modalities are correspondingly safe and have high degree of satisfaction. Given the acceptable outcomes, patients are likely to

  2. Rifaximin for the treatment of acute infectious diarrhea

    Hong, Kyoung Sup; Kim, Joo Sung

    2011-01-01

    Rifaximin is a nonabsorbable rifamycin derivative with an excellent safety profile and a broad spectrum of antimicrobial activity against a variety of enteropathogens causing acute infectious diarrhea. After oral ingestion, its bioavailability is known to be less than 0.4%, and it has a low potential for significant drug interactions. In the treatment of travelers’ diarrhea caused by noninvasive diarrheagenic Escherichia coli, it has been demonstrated that rifaximin significantly shortens the...

  3. FACTORS RELATED TO SEVERE ACUTE ASTHMA ATTACK AND TREATMENT

    Kohinur Begum et al

    2012-01-01

    Asthma is a major public health burden that affects a large number of individuals. The prevalence of this chronic disease is very high in Bangladesh. This study is intended to understand the causes of disease and factors that contribute to its progression and to develop improved treatment strategies. The study population included severe acute attack of asthma patients admitted to National Institute of Diseases of the Chest and Hospital, Mohakhali, Dhaka, Bangladesh during October-December 201...

  4. Our experience in the treatment of acute deafness

    Mihailović-Kokić Branka

    2002-01-01

    Full Text Available The article deals with the results of treatment of 40 patients with acute deafness of unknown aetyology. Better results were obtained in patients with small degree of loss of hearing without vestibular symptomatology and in patients in whom therapy was started earlier. We suggest the early confirmation of diagnosis and urgent use of infusion therapy which improves the perfusion of the inner ear.

  5. Idiopathic thrombocytopenic purpura following successful treatment of acute lymphoblastic leukemia.

    Tannir, N M; Kantarjian, H

    2001-03-01

    Thrombocytopenia is common in patients with acute lymphocytic leukemia (ALL) at diagnosis. It is a universal side effect of dose-intensive regimens employed in the treatment of adult ALL. In patients with ALL who achieve remission, thrombocytopenia frequently indicates relapse. We report three adult patients successfully treated for ALL who developed thrombocytopenia and were found to have immune-mediated thrombocytopenia (ITP). Possible pathophysiologic mechanisms underlying the association of ALL and ITP are discussed. PMID:11342378

  6. Pre-hospital treatment of acute poisonings in Oslo

    Nore Anne K; Bjornaas Mari A; Hovda Knut E; Heyerdahl Fridtjof; Figueiredo Jose CP; Ekeberg Oivind; Jacobsen Dag

    2008-01-01

    Background Poisoned patients are often treated in and discharged from pre-hospital health care settings. Studies of poisonings should therefore not only include hospitalized patients. Aims: To describe the acutely poisoned patients treated by ambulance personnel and in an outpatient clinic; compare patients transferred to a higher treatment level with those discharged without transfer; and study the one-week mortality after pre-hospital discharge. ...

  7. Treatment-Resistant Depression and Mortality after Acute Coronary Syndrome

    Carney, Robert M.; Freedland, Kenneth E

    2009-01-01

    Depression is a risk factor for morbidity and mortality in patients with coronary heart disease (CHD), especially following acute coronary syndrome (ACS). Evidence from recent clinical trials suggests that treatment-resistant depression may be associated with a particularly high risk of mortality or cardiac morbidity in post-ACS patients. This manuscript reviews this evidence, and considers possible explanations for this relationship. Directions for future research are also considered, with p...

  8. CT-guided percutaneous ethanol injection in the treatment of thyroid adenoma

    Objective: To evaluate the safety and efficacy of CT-guided percutaneous ethanol injection (CT-PEI) in the treatment of thyroid adenoma. Methods: Fifty-four patients with 73 nodules were included in the study. Thyroid adenoma was confirmed by pathology. The serum level T3, T4 and TSH were normal in all cases. CT-PEI (0.3-2.5 ml ethanol/cm3 nodular tissue) was given for 115 times (mean 1.58 +- 0.78 times/nodule). Results: Complete cure was observed in 37 nodules (50.7%). In 28 nodules (38.3%) volume reduction was greater than 80%. A significant nodule reduction (50%-80%) was observed in 7 nodules. Only 1 (1.4%) nodule volume reduction was 28.9%. Apart from 1 case of transient dysphonia and 2 cases of mild pain and burning sensation, no side effect was observed. Conclusion: CT-PEI is a safe and effective therapeutic procedure with few side effects for thyroid adenoma

  9. Acute and long-term treatment of mania.

    Vieta, Eduard; Sanchez-Moreno, Jose

    2008-01-01

    The treatment of mania starts with a correct diagnosis and elementary measures to prevent risks for the patient, relatives, and others. Sometimes, compulsory admission and treatment may be required for a few days. Patients with psychotic or mixed mania may be more difficult to treat. At the present time, there is solid evidence supporting the use of lithium, the anticonvulsants valproate and carbamazepine, and the antipsychotics chlorpromazine, haloperidol, risperidone, olanzapine, quetiapine, ziprasidone, aripiprazole, and asenapine in acute mania, and some evidence supporting the use of clozapine or electroconvulsive therapy in treatment-refractory cases. However, in clinical practice, combination therapy is the rule rather than the exception. The treatment of acute mania deserves a long-term view, and the evidence base for some treatments may be stronger than for others. When taking decisions about treatment, tolerability should also be a major concern, as differences in safety and tolerability may exceed differences in efficacy for most compounds. Psychoeducation of patients and caregivers is a powerful tool that should be used in combination with medication for optimal long-term outcome. Functional recovery should be the ultimate goal. PMID:18689287

  10. Effects of Heat, pH, and Gamma Irradiation Treatments on Lipase Inhibitory Activity of Sargassum thunbergii Ethanol Extract

    Inhibitory activity of Sagassum thunbergii (ST) against porcine pancreatic lipase was assessed after heat treatment, pH changes, and gamma irradiation. This analysis revealed that the ST ethanol extract exhibited high lipase inhibitory activity (37.37%) at 5 mg/mL. The ST ethanol extract was treated with heat at 60°C for 10, 30, and 60 min; 80 and 100°C for 10 and 20 min; and 121°C for 15 min, pH (2, 4, 6, 8 and 10) and γ -irradiation (3, 7 and 20 kGy). The lipase inhibitory activity of the ST ethanol extract increased in all heat treatments, especially at 121°C for 15 min (51.55%) compared with the control. With regard to pH stability, the ST ethanol extract showed no significant changes at pH 4 ~ 8, but somewhat decreased inhibitory activity was revealed at pH 2 (26.25%) and 10 (29.93%). On the other hand, the ST ethanol extract was not affected by γ -irradiation treatment conditions used in this study. These results suggest that ST has a potential role as a functional food agent. (author)

  11. Safe intravenous thrombolysis in acute stroke despite treatment with rivaroxaban.

    Bornkamm, Katharina; Harloff, Andreas

    2014-11-01

    Data regarding intravenous thrombolysis in stroke patients receiving new oral anticoagulant drugs (nOAC) is sparse. In the near future, however, an increasing number of patients with atrial fibrillation will suffer recurrent stroke despite treatment with nOAC. This will cause a significant therapeutic dilemma as thrombolysis is contraindicated under such circumstances. We describe an 81-year-old patient presenting with acute ischemic stroke who was successfully treated with intravenous thrombolysis despite ongoing treatment with rivaroxaban. Our case report indicates that thrombolysis under nOAC may be safe under certain conditions and emphasizes the importance of establishing and performing specific anticoagulation tests for nOAC. PMID:24938385

  12. Treatment of Acute Lymphoblastic Leukemia from Traditional Chinese Medicine

    Ya-Li Hsiao

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Acute lymphoblastic leukemia (ALL is a cancer that immature white blood cells continuously overproduce in the bone marrow. These cells crowd out normal cells in the bone marrow bringing damage and death. Methotrexate (MTX is a drug used in the treatment of various cancer and autoimmune diseases. In particular, for the treatment of childhood acute lymphoblastic leukemia, it had significant effect. MTX competitively inhibits dihydrofolate reductase (DHFR, an enzyme that participates in the tetrahydrofolate synthesis so as to inhibit purine synthesis. In addition, its downstream metabolite methotrexate polyglutamates (MTX-PGs inhibit the thymidylate synthase (TS. Therefore, MTX can inhibit the synthesis of DNA. However, MTX has cytotoxicity and neurotoxin may cause multiple organ injury and is potentially lethal. Thus, the lower toxicity drugs are necessary to be developed. Recently, diseases treatments with Traditional Chinese Medicine (TCM as complements are getting more and more attention. In this study, we attempted to discover the compounds with drug-like potential for ALL treatment from the components in TCM. We applied virtual screen and QSAR models based on structure-based and ligand-based studies to identify the potential TCM component compounds. Our results show that the TCM compounds adenosine triphosphate, manninotriose, raffinose, and stachyose could have potential to improve the side effects of MTX for ALL treatment.

  13. Dynamic high pressure microfluidization treatment of zein in aqueous ethanol solution.

    Sun, Cuixia; Dai, Lei; Liu, Fuguo; Gao, Yanxiang

    2016-11-01

    Dynamic high pressure microfluidization (DHPM) treatment at the pressures of 25, 50, 75, 100, 125 and 150MPa was performed to explore its effects on the characteristics of zein in aqueous ethanol solution. The results showed that after DHPM treatment at 125MPa, the volume percentage of zein nanoparticles (d<100nm) was increased from 68.8% to 94.7%, and the fluorescence intensity approached to the maximum. DHPM treatment at the pressure of 25MPa led to the increase of α-helix and β-sheet of zein from 57.1% to 59.4% and from 16.8% to 17.9%, respectively. The partial denaturation of zein was induced after DHPM process at pressures from 50 to 150MPa. The morphology of zein was modified from nanosphere to the needle-like shapes after DHPM treatment at 75MPa, and the deduction was proposed that the morphological change at 75MPa was ascribed to the existence of the intermediate transition state. PMID:27211662

  14. Pharmacogenetics Influence Treatment Efficacy in Childhood Acute Lymphoblastic Leukemia

    Devidsen, M.L.; Dalhoff, K.; Schmiegelow, K.

    2008-01-01

    Pharmacogenetics covers the genetic variation affecting pharmacokinetics and pharmacodynamics. and their influence on drug-response phenotypes. The genetic variation includes an estimated 15 million single nucleotide polymorphisms (SNP) and is a key determinator for the interindividual differences...... treatment response. In the future, high-throughput, low-cost, genetic platforms will allow screening of hundreds or thousands of targeted SNPs to give a combined gene-dosage effect ( = individual SNP risk profile), which may allow pharmacogenetic-based individualization of treatment Udgivelsesdato: 2008/11...... in treatment resistance and toxic side effects. As most childhood acute lymphoblastic leukemia treatment protocols include up to 13 different chemotherapeutic agents, the impact of individual SNPs has been difficult to evaluate. So far Focus has mainly been on the widely used glucocorticosteroids...

  15. [Treatment of acute myocardial infarction--an elucidative report].

    Madsen, E B; Godtfredsen, J; Hansen, J F; Jensen, G; Nielsen, B L; Nielsen, P E; Nielsen, T T; Pedersen, A; Rømer, F; Sandøe, E

    1989-06-01

    The present-day optimal treatment of patients with acute myocardial infarction (AMI) is reviewed. The prehospital phase should be as brief as possible. Emergency observation and treatment in hospital should be initiated without delay. Schematic stages for mobilization have been discarded and free mobilization is recommended. Routine acute intervention with thrombolysis is recommended for patients in whom symptoms have been present for 6-12 hours and treatment with Aspirin is recommended. Beta-blocking agents are recommended for patients with increased risk after discharge. Treatment of ventricular and supraventricular arrhythmias, block and cardiac failure are reviewed in detail. Patients without complications should be monitored for three to five days and may be discharged after seven to ten days. Exercise ECG should be carried out at discharge to assess the working capacity, ischaemia and subjective reaction. The importance of good patient information is emphasized. Cessation of smoking, control of lipids and blood pressure are important as secondary interventions. As far as possible, outpatient control should be offered after discharge. The criteria for referral to specialized cardiological departments are established both for emergency and elective referral. Patients under the age of 70 years with high risk for repeated AMI or death after discharge (with residual ischaemia) should possibly be referred for coronary arteriography. PMID:2567543

  16. Magnetic resonance imaging in acute ischemic stroke treatment.

    Kim, Bum Joon; Kang, Hyun Goo; Kim, Hye-Jin; Ahn, Sung-Ho; Kim, Na Young; Warach, Steven; Kang, Dong-Wha

    2014-09-01

    Although intravenous administration of tissue plasminogen activator is the only proven treatment after acute ischemic stroke, there is always a concern of hemorrhagic risk after thrombolysis. Therefore, selection of patients with potential benefits in overcoming potential harms of thrombolysis is of great importance. Despite the practical issues in using magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) for acute stroke treatment, multimodal MRI can provide useful information for accurate diagnosis of stroke, evaluation of the risks and benefits of thrombolysis, and prediction of outcomes. For example, the high sensitivity and specificity of diffusion-weighted image (DWI) can help distinguish acute ischemic stroke from stroke-mimics. Additionally, the lesion mismatch between perfusion-weighted image (PWI) and DWI is thought to represent potential salvageable tissue by reperfusion therapy. However, the optimal threshold to discriminate between benign oligemic areas and the penumbra is still debatable. Signal changes of fluid-attenuated inversion recovery image within DWI lesions may be a surrogate marker for ischemic lesion age and might indicate risks of hemorrhage after thrombolysis. Clot sign on gradient echo image may reflect the nature of clot, and their location, length and morphology may provide predictive information on recanalization by reperfusion therapy. However, previous clinical trials which solely or mainly relied on perfusion-diffusion mismatch for patient selection, failed to show benefits of MRI-based thrombolysis. Therefore, understanding the clinical implication of various useful MRI findings and comprehensively incorporating those variables into therapeutic decision-making may be a more reasonable approach for expanding the indication of acute stroke thrombolysis. PMID:25328872

  17. Wet oxidation treatment of organic household waste enriched with wheat straw for simultaneous saccharification and fermentation into ethanol

    Lissens, G.; Klinke, H.B.; Verstraete, W.;

    2004-01-01

    Organic municipal solid waste enriched with wheat straw was subjected to wet-oxidation as a pre-treatment for subsequent enzymatic conversion and fermentation into bio-ethanol. The effect of tempera (185-195degrees C), oxygen pressure (3-12) and sodium carbonate (0-2 g l(-1)) addition on enzymati...

  18. Hepatotoxic potential of combined toluene-chronic ethanol exposure

    Howell, S.R.; Christian, J.E.; Isom, G.E.

    1986-05-01

    The hepatoxic properties of concurrent chronic oral ethanol ingestion and acute toluene inhalation were evaluated. Male rats were maintained on ethanol-containing or control liquid diets for 29 days. Animals of each group were subjected to five 20-min exposures to 10 000 ppm toluene with 30 min of room air inhalation between exposures on days 22, 24, 26, and 28 of liquid diet feeding. Some of the ethanol-fed animals were withdrawn from ethanol 14 h before exposure. Ethanol-withdrawn animals displayed an increased sensitivity to the narcotic action of toluene. Animals were sacrificed and assays performed on day 29. Stress markers (plasma corticosterone, free fatty acid, and glucose) were not affected by treatments. A modest elevation in plasma aspartate amino-transferase occurred in non-withdrawn animals receiving both ethanol and toluene. Ethanol-toluene exposure increased both relative liver weight and liver triglycerides. Toluene antagonized the hypertriglyceridemia associated with chronic ethanol ingestion. This study indicates that combined ethanol and toluene exposure has minor potential to induce acute liver injury, but results in altered deposition of hepatic triglycerides.

  19. Cohort study of lumbar percutaneous chemonucleolysis using ethanol gel in sciatica refractory to conservative treatment

    Touraine, Sebastien; Tran, Olivia; Laredo, Jean-Denis [Hopital Lariboisiere, AP-HP, Radiologie Osteo-Articulaire, Paris Cedex 10 (France); Damiano, Joel [Hopital Lariboisiere, AP-HP, Rhumatologie, Centre Viggo-Petersen, Paris Cedex 10 (France)

    2015-11-15

    To investigate the efficacy of percutaneous chemonucleolysis using ethanol gel (PCEG) in alleviating radicular pain due to disc herniation after failure of conservative treatment. After failure of conservative treatment, PCEG was performed under fluoroscopic guidance in 42 patients with sciatica >4/10 on a Visual Analog Scale (VAS) for at least 6 weeks and consistent disc herniation on MRI or CT <3 months. The VAS pain score was determined at baseline, then after 1 and 3 months. We assessed the influence of patient-related factors (age, gender, pain duration) and disc herniation-related factors (level, migration pattern, disc herniation-related spinal stenosis) on outcome of PCEG. Mean pain duration was 6.7 months. Pain intensity decreased by 44 % and 62.6 % after 1 and 3 months, respectively, versus baseline (P = 0.007). A mild improvement was noted by the rheumatologist in 30/42 (71.4 %) and 36/42 (85.7 %) patients after 1 and 3 months, respectively, and in 31/42 (73.8 %) and 33/42 (78.6 %) patients by self-evaluation. Patients who failed PCEG were significantly older (49.8 vs. 37.3 years, P = 0.03). None of the other variables studied were significantly associated with pain relief. PCEG may significantly improve disc-related radicular pain refractory to conservative treatment. (orig.)

  20. [Endoscopic ultrasound-guided ethanol ablation: an alternative option for the treatment of pancreatic insulinoma].

    Bor, Renáta; Farkas, Klaudia; Bálint, Anita; Molnár, Tamás; Nagy, Ferenc; Valkusz, Zsuzsanna; Sepp, Krisztián; Tiszlavicz, László; Hamar, Sándor; Szepes, Zoltán

    2014-10-12

    Endoscopic ultrasound is the most accurate imaging modality for the diagnosis of pancreatic cancer, and endoscopic ultrasound-guided fine needle injection has already been used for palliative interventions. Surgical resection is currently the standard treatment for pancreatic insulinoma. Medical treatment may be necessary for symptomatic patients with unresectable disease. Case reports have been published about the success of endoscopic ultrasound-guided alcoholic ablation, but it has not been reported previously in Hungarian literature. The authors present the history of an 83-year-old woman who was evaluated because of repeated hypoglycemic coma occurring during the night. Endosonographic image and laboratory findings (elevated serum insulin and chromogranin A) revealed pancreatic insulinoma. Because of severe comorbidities and high risk of surgical resection, the decision was made to ablate the insulinoma by endoscopic ultrasound-guided alcohol injection. A total of 3 mL 95% ethanol was injected into the tumor. Despite the discontinuation of the diazoxide therapy the hypoglycemic episodes disappeared. This case history confirms that endoscopic ultrasound-guided alcoholic ablation is a novel, minimal invasive alternative treatment for patients with pancreatic neuroendocrine tumors in whom surgery is not feasible. PMID:25282110

  1. Cohort study of lumbar percutaneous chemonucleolysis using ethanol gel in sciatica refractory to conservative treatment

    To investigate the efficacy of percutaneous chemonucleolysis using ethanol gel (PCEG) in alleviating radicular pain due to disc herniation after failure of conservative treatment. After failure of conservative treatment, PCEG was performed under fluoroscopic guidance in 42 patients with sciatica >4/10 on a Visual Analog Scale (VAS) for at least 6 weeks and consistent disc herniation on MRI or CT <3 months. The VAS pain score was determined at baseline, then after 1 and 3 months. We assessed the influence of patient-related factors (age, gender, pain duration) and disc herniation-related factors (level, migration pattern, disc herniation-related spinal stenosis) on outcome of PCEG. Mean pain duration was 6.7 months. Pain intensity decreased by 44 % and 62.6 % after 1 and 3 months, respectively, versus baseline (P = 0.007). A mild improvement was noted by the rheumatologist in 30/42 (71.4 %) and 36/42 (85.7 %) patients after 1 and 3 months, respectively, and in 31/42 (73.8 %) and 33/42 (78.6 %) patients by self-evaluation. Patients who failed PCEG were significantly older (49.8 vs. 37.3 years, P = 0.03). None of the other variables studied were significantly associated with pain relief. PCEG may significantly improve disc-related radicular pain refractory to conservative treatment. (orig.)

  2. Postnatal day 7 ethanol treatment causes persistent reductions in adult mouse brain volume and cortical neurons with sex specific effects on neurogenesis

    Coleman, Leon G.; Oguz, Ipek; Lee, Joohwi; Styner, Martin; Crews, Fulton T.

    2012-01-01

    Ethanol treatment on postnatal day seven (P7) causes robust brain cell death and is a model of late gestational alcohol exposure (Ikonomidou et al., 2000). To investigate the long-term effects of P7 ethanol treatment on adult brain, mice received either two doses of saline or ethanol on P7 (2.5g/kg, s.c., 2 hours apart) and were assessed as adults (P82) for brain volume (using postmortem MRI) and cellular architecture (using immunohistochemistry). Adult mice that received P7 ethanol had reduc...

  3. Early Antibiotic Treatment in Acute Pancreatitis: More News

    Jan J De Waele

    2006-07-01

    Full Text Available Early antibiotic treatment still remains a therapeutic challenge in the clinical management of acute pancreatitis and several papers have been published in this field [1, 2, 3, 4, 5, 6, 7, 8, 9, 10, 11, 12, 13, 14]. In particular, the antibiotic of choice in preventing the infection of pancreatic necrosis seems to be imipenem [4, 9, 10, 11, 13]. Subsequently, Manes et al. [15] have reported that meropenem, an antibiotic of the same family as imipenem having considerable stability in the presence of renal dehydropeptidase-I and enhanced activity against gram-negative bacteria including Pseudomonas aeruginosa, has an efficacy similar to imipenem in terms of the incidence of pancreatic infection and extrapancreatic infections. We have previously emphasized that further studies should be carried out to specifically decide on the optimal doses of meropenem in patients with acute pancreatitis and that there is a need for studies which answer the following questions. What should the timing of early antibiotic treatment be?. What are the resistant strains selected by meropenem?. Which are the nosocomial infections and fungal superinfections resulting from this new treatment? [16, 17]. These questions are still open and the study from Manes et al. is welcome to attempt to answer some of the aforementioned questions [18]. In this study, the authors compared antibiotic prophylaxis with early antibiotic treatment started after the demonstration of pancreatic necrosis. They studied 215 consecutive patients with acute pancreatitis who were randomized to either Group A (n=108, who started antibiotic therapy (meropenem 500 mg tid at admission, or Group B (n=107, who received antibiotics after computed tomography showed necrosis. C-reactive protein was determined in all patients within 48 hours from the onset of symptoms and computed tomography was performed in both groups after at least 48 h of hospitalization; the clinical course of disease was also compared

  4. Side effects of treatment in childhood acute leukemia, 2

    We evaluated delayed neurotoxicities in treatment of childhood acute leukemia. Of 28 patients treated over 2 years who were examined on computed tomography of brain scans, 7 patients had abnormal findings. These abnormalities included two cases of leukoencephalopathy, three cases of intracranial calcifications, and two of ventricular dilatation. These patients were under 6 years old at the onset of disease, especially under 3 years old. Also, delayed neurotoxicities developed after relapse of leukemia, especially CNS relapse. It was considered that these were caused by cranial irradiation, intravenous methotrexate injection, intrathecal methotrexate, and sometimes high-dose Ara-C therapy, etc. Most of the cases of leukoencephalopathy were associated with treatment of intermediate-dose or high-dose methotrexate after relapse. These abnormalities must be carefully considered in the treatment of younger children with leukemia and patients with relapse. (author)

  5. Treatment of severe acute pancreatitis through retroperitoneal laparoscopic drainage

    Chun Tang; Baolin Wang; Bing Xie; Hongming Liu; Ping Chen

    2011-01-01

    A treatment method based on drainage via retroperitoneal laparoscopy was adopted for 15 severe acute pancreatitis (SAP) patients to investigate the feasibility of the method.Ten patients received only drainage via retroperitoneai laparoscopy,four patients received drainage via both retroperitoneal and preperitoneal laparoscopy,and one patient received drainage via conversion to laparotomy.Thirteen patients exhibited a good drainage effect and were successfully cured without any other surgical treatment.Two patients had encapsulated effusions or pancreatic pseudocysts after surgery,but were successfully cured after lavage and B ultrasound-guided percutaneous catheter drainage.SAP treatment via retroperitoneal laparoscopic drainage is an effective surgical method,resulting in minor injury.

  6. Lithium-mediated protection against ethanol neurotoxicity

    JiaLuo

    2010-06-01

    Full Text Available Lithium has long been used as a mood stabilizer in the treatment of manic-depressive (bipolar disorder. Recent studies suggest that lithium has neuroprotective properties and may be useful in the treatment of acute brain injuries such as ischemia and chronic neurodegenerative diseases such as Alzheimer’s disease, Parkinson’s disease, Huntington’s disease and amyotrophic lateral sclerosis. One of the most important neuroprotective properties of lithium is its anti-apoptotic action. Ethanol is a neuroteratogen and fetal alcohol spectrum disorders (FASD are caused by maternal ethanol exposure during pregnancy. FASD is the leading cause of mental retardation. Ethanol exposure causes neuroapoptosis in the developing brain. Ethanol-induced loss of neurons in the central nervous system underlies many of the behavioral deficits observed in FASD. Excessive alcohol consumption is also associated with Wernicke–Korsakoff syndrome and neurodegeneration in the adult brain. Recent in vivo and in vitro studies indicate that lithium is able to ameliorate ethanol-induced neuroapoptosis. Lithium is an inhibitor of glycogen synthase kinase 3 (GSK3 which has recently been identified as a mediator of ethanol neurotoxicity. Lithium’s neuroprotection may be mediated by its inhibition of GSK3. In addition, lithium also affects many other signaling proteins and pathways that regulate neuronal survival and differentiation. This review discusses the recent evidence of lithium-mediated protection against ethanol neurotoxicity and potential underlying mechanisms.

  7. ACUTE ANTI-INFLAMMATROY ACTIVITY OF ETHANOLIC EXTRACT OF LEAVES OF CLERODENDRUM VISCOSUM BY CARRAGEENIN INDUCED PAW OEDEMA METHOD IN WISTAR ALBINO RATS

    Rao S.N

    2013-04-01

    Full Text Available Inflammation is an important feature of many diseases. It is the response of a tissue to an injury, infection, irritation of foreign substance. In fact, it is a part of host defense, but when it is severe, it may be far worse than the diseases itself and in extreme condition, it may be too fatal also. There is an increasing demand for the medicinal plants in developing countries like India. Attention has to be given to assess the medicinal value of such plants to explore the potential drugs out of it. The aim of the study was to investigate acute anti-inflammatory activity of ethanolic extract of the leaves of Clerodendrum viscosum (EELCV by carrageenin induced paw oedema in Wistar Albino rats. Dried powdered leaves of Clerodendrum viscosum were subjected to soxhlet extraction by using 90% ethanol. Based on acute oral toxicity study according to Organization for Economic Cooperation and Development (OECD guidelines No. 423, three doses of the test drug were selected (75, 150 and 300 mg/kg p.o. Oral administration of EELCV at doses of 150 and 300mg/kg showed significant (p<0.01 and moderately significant acute anti-inflammatory activity (p<0.05 respectively by carrageenin induced paw oedema in Wistar Albino rats compared to control.

  8. TREATMENT OF HIGH ETHANOL CONCENTRATION WASTEWATER BY CONSTRUCTED WETLANDS: ENHANCED COD REMOVAL AND BACTERIAL COMMUNITY DYNAMICS

    Rodriguez Caballero, Adrian

    2011-01-01

    Winery wastewater is characterized by its high chemical oxygen demand (COD), seasonal occurrence and variable composition, including periodic high ethanol concentrations. In addition, winery wastewater may contain insufficient inorganic nutrients for optimal biodegradation of organic constituents. Two pilot-scale constructed wetlands (CWs) were used to treat artificial wastewater: the first was amended with ethanol and the second with ethanol, inorganic nitrogen (N) and phosphorus (P). A numb...

  9. Reassessment of Defibrase in the treatment of Acute Cerebral lnfarction

    Liu XQ; Guo YP; Wang WZ; Zhang CX; Yang JH; Qin Z

    2000-01-01

    Objective: to assess the safety and efficacy of defibrase in the treatment of acute cerebral iinfarction by a large sample, multicerter, randomized, double-blind, and placebo-controlled clinical trial Methods: 2244 cases with acute infarction in 41centers were randomly allocated to receive either an imitial intrdvcnons infusion of defibrase 10Bu or placebo in 250ml of normal saline within 24 hours of stroke onset Subsequent in fusions of defibrase 5Bu or placebo on the third and fifth days respectively. This treatment protocol was determined on the bases of the pretrial of 114 patientsin 8 centers The end points fincluded Climcally Neurological De ficits Scale of Stroke, Barthel Index, Mortality, adverse reaction and the level of plasma fibrinogen (FIB)Results: (1) the level of plasma FIB in defibrase group was reurarkably declied after treatment whereas the bleeding evcnts and other adverse reaction was not incteased in comparison with control group There was difference in the imtcnsity of degrading plasna FIB between defibrase from Agkistrodon halys and that frorn Agkistrodon acutns. (2) Theare were no statistically significant differences at Clinically Neurological Deficits Scale of Stroke at 2 weeks, Barthel Index sc ore and mortality at 3 months between two groups. Conclutions: This study showed that defibrase atppears safe and effective in degading plastua FIB.The dose of defibrase should regnlate propcrly according to preparations from diffcrent snake venom .This study did not show that clinical efficacy of defibrase was supetior to those present used medicines for acute cerebral infarction It is necessary to further study about the relations between its clinical efficacy and the dose,protocol of drug administration and indication.

  10. Influence of the thickness and thermal treatment on the humidity and ethanol sensing properties of Sn-O-Te layers

    Thin Sn-O-Te layers were prepared by thermal vacuum co-evaporation of Sn and TeO2. Depending on the atomic ratio of Sn to Te (RSn/Te) and on the subsequent treatments, layers sensitive towards humidity or ethanol vapor were obtained. The as-deposited amorphous layers with RSn/Te ≈ 0.8 and a thickness of 60 nm showed very good characteristics as humidity sensors operating at room temperature. Layers with RSn/Te ≈ 2.3, additionally doped with Pt and crystallized by thermal treatment up to 360 °C, were found to be sensitive to ethanol vapor at 120 °C and 240 °C. The RSn/Te ratio in the films was estimated by EDS. The composition and structure of the thermally treated layers were studied by X-ray diffraction (XRD). The sensitivity to humidity and ethanol was determined on the basis of the electrical resistance changes in the presence of humidity and ethanol vapor. The influence was studied of the layer thickness and of the sequence of thermal treatment and Pt doping on the layer composition and gas sensing properties.

  11. Diagnosis and treatment of acute low back pain.

    Casazza, Brian A

    2012-02-15

    Acute low back pain is one of the most common reasons for adults to see a family physician. Although most patients recover quickly with minimal treatment, proper evaluation is imperative to identify rare cases of serious underlying pathology. Certain red flags should prompt aggressive treatment or referral to a spine specialist, whereas others are less concerning. Serious red flags include significant trauma related to age (i.e., injury related to a fall from a height or motor vehicle crash in a young patient, or from a minor fall or heavy lifting in a patient with osteoporosis or possible osteoporosis), major or progressive motor or sensory deficit, new-onset bowel or bladder incontinence or urinary retention, loss of anal sphincter tone, saddle anesthesia, history of cancer metastatic to bone, and suspected spinal infection. Without clinical signs of serious pathology, diagnostic imaging and laboratory testing often are not required. Although there are numerous treatments for nonspecific acute low back pain, most have little evidence of benefit. Patient education and medications such as nonsteroidal anti-inflammatory drugs, acetaminophen, and muscle relaxants are beneficial. Bed rest should be avoided if possible. Exercises directed by a physical therapist, such as the McKenzie method and spine stabilization exercises, may decrease recurrent pain and need for health care services. Spinal manipulation and chiropractic techniques are no more effective than established medical treatments, and adding them to established treatments does not improve outcomes. No substantial benefit has been shown with oral steroids, acupuncture, massage, traction, lumbar supports, or regular exercise programs. PMID:22335313

  12. Functional Treatment Comparing with Immobilization after Acute Ankle Sprain

    Hamidreza Mohammadi

    2013-02-01

    Full Text Available Background: Ankle injuries are among the most prevalent injuries with which a physician may encounter. In this study, the efficiency of the functional treatment was compared with the immobilization treatment in healing the acute ankle sprain. Materials and Methods: This clinical trial study was carried out on 100 male patients whose ankle sprain had been diagnosed by Yasuj Shahid Beheshti Hospital. Using block allocation randomization method and regardless of damage degree, patients were divided into two groups, functional method (1st group or immobilization with plaster (2nd group, for treatment. Several variables such as range of motion, pain intensity, inflammation, joint tenderness and returning to work after 2, 6 and 12 weeks were examined. Results: After two weeks, the average pain intensity in the first group (33.2±3.2 has been decreased compared to the second group (55±1.2, which showed a significant difference between the two groups (p<0.05. The average ankle range of motion in the first and second groups was 29.08±1.2 degrees and 20.4±2.2 degrees, respectively which had been increased significantly in the first group compared to the second group (p<0.03. Similarly, a considerable difference was observed in decreased inflammation and tenderness in the first group compared to the second one. Conclusion: In acute ankle sprains, the functional treatment is better than the immobilization treatment in alleviating pain, inflammation and improving the range of joint motion.

  13. Novel 14S,21-dihydroxy-docosahexaenoic acid Rescues Wound Healing and Associated Angiogenesis Impaired by Acute Ethanol Intoxication/Exposure

    Tian, Haibin; Lu, Yan; Shah, Shraddha P.; Hong, Song

    2010-01-01

    Acute ethanol intoxication and exposure (AE) has been known to impair wound healing and associated angiogenesis. Here we found that AE diminished the formation of novel reparative lipid mediator 14S,21-dihydroxy-docosa-4Z,7Z,10Z,12E,16Z,19Z-hexaenoic acid (14S,21-diHDHA) and its biosynthetic intermediate 14S-hydroxy-DHA (14S-HDHA) from docosahexaenoic acid (DHA) in murine wounds. However, AE did not reduce the formation of DHA and the intermediate 21-HDHA. These results indicate that in the b...

  14. Treatment of acute upper respiratory tract infections in children

    Rončević-Babin Nevenka P.

    2002-01-01

    Full Text Available Introduction Acute respiratory tract infections are the most common diseases of childhood. A preschool child suffers up to 5-7 infections of upper airways during a year. Upper airway infections make 80 - 90% of all respiratory infections. Etiology and treatment In 75% of all cases respiratory infections are of viral etiology, 15% of bacterial and 10% are caused by mycoplasma, rickettsiae, fungi, parasites. The treatment of respiratory infections includes antimicrobial therapy (causal, relief of symptoms (symptomatic and application of general principles of child treatment. The choice of antimicrobial drug is based on the evidence of agents and their sensitivity to antimicrobial drugs, age, patient's condition, previous treatment and possible allergic reactions to the drug. In cases where adequate specimen cannot be obtained for microbiologic tests, when these tests do not reveal the agent, or therapy must start before evidence of the agent is available, we must decide about the therapy, taking in consideration the most frequent agents, and those that would cause the most devastating clinical picture. This therapy can be modified later, according to the isolated agent and its sensitivity to the drug. Considering the incidence and importance of respiratory infections in morbidity and mortality of children, the aim of this article was to present guidelines in treatment of respiratory infections. The main point remains that the treatment should take into consideration the individual patient before all.

  15. Stenting in the treatment of acute ischemic stroke: literature review.

    EdgarASamaniego

    2011-12-01

    Full Text Available Recanalization of acute large artery occlusions is a strong predictor of good outcome. The development of thrombectomy devices resulted in a significant improvement in recanalization rates compared to thrombolytics alone. However, clinical trials and registries with these thrombectomy devices in acute ischemic stroke (AIS have shown recanalization rates in the range of 40-81%. The last decade has seen the development of nickel titanium self-expandable stents (SES. These stents, in contrast to balloon-mounted stents, allow better navigability and deployment in tortuous vessels and therefore are optimal for the cerebral circulation. SES were initially used for stent-assisted coil embolization of intracranial aneurysms and for treatment of intracranial stenosis. However, a few authors have recently reported feasibility of deployment of SES in AIS. The use of these devices yielded higher recanalization rates compared to traditional thrombectomy devices. Encouraged by these results, retrievable SES systems have been recently used in AIS. These devices offer the advantage of resheathing and retrieving of the stent even after full deployment. Some of these stents can also be detached in case permanent stent placement is needed. Retrievable SES are being used in Europe and currently tested in clinical trials in the United States. We review the recent literature in the use of stents for the treatment of AIS secondary to large vessel occlusion.

  16. Nonoperative dynamic treatment of acute achilles tendon rupture

    Barfod, Kristoffer Weisskirchner; Bencke, Jesper; Bloch Lauridsen, Hanne;

    2014-01-01

    BACKGROUND: Dynamic rehabilitation has been suggested to be an important part of nonoperative treatment of acute Achilles tendon rupture that results in functional outcome and rerupture rates comparable with those of operative treatment. However, the optimal role of weight-bearing during early...... Rupture Score (ATRS) after one year. Secondary outcomes included heel-rise work, health-related quality of life, and the rerupture rate. Outcome assessors were blinded to the intervention. RESULTS: Thirty patients were randomized to each group; twenty-nine in the weight-bearing group and twenty-seven in...... months, the total heel-rise work performed by the injured limb relative to that by the uninjured limb was 53% in the weight-bearing group and 58% in the control group (p = 0.37). There were three reruptures in the weight-bearing group and two in the control group (p = 1.0). CONCLUSIONS: The ATRS and heel...

  17. [RESULTS OF AN ACUTE THROMBOSIS OF HEMORRHOIDAL NODES TREATMENT].

    Akhmedova, E V

    2015-09-01

    The results of treatment of 182 patients, suffering an acute thrombosis of hemorrhoidal nodes of various severity, were studied. In 93 (51.1%) patients (main group) an active surgical tactics was applied. There were conducted urgent, early and postponed operations. In 89 (48.9%) patients (control group) a conservative-expectant tactic was applied. The patients were operated on in terms of 9 - 10 days after admission to hospital. The terms of operation and the method of hemorrhoidectomy were choosed without taking into account the disease severity. Complications in the main group have occurred in 27 (29%) patients, their stationary treatment have lasted 7 - 11 days. In a control group complications were revealed in 27 (30.3%) patients, their stationary stay have lasted from 9 to 28 days. PMID:26817088

  18. Brain damage after treatment for acute lymphoblastic leukemia

    In 34 patients treated for acute lymphoblastic leukemia (ALL), central nervous system (CNS) damage was assessed by clinical evaluation and brain magnetic resonance imaging (MRI). Twenty-seven of them had been off therapy from 5 to 109 months (median 64 months) while 7 had not completed the maintenance phase of their treatment. All the patients were disease-free when evaluated. None of the 3 patients who showed clinical CNS damage during the follow-up was symptomatic when submitted to MRI, while periventricular hyperintensity in T2-weighted images, suggestive of leukoencephalopathy, was present in 8 of the 34 patients. These subclinical abnormalities appear to be more frequent, transient in nature and treatment-related in patients evaluated shortly after the induction phase. Similar MRI findings seem, on the contrary, to be consequences of the disease on the CNS when appearing in long-term survivors. (orig.)

  19. Anti-infectious treatment in acute respiratory distress syndrome

    Min GAO

    2013-02-01

    Full Text Available Acute respiratory distress syndrome (ARDS is closely correlated with infection. Severe infection, e.g., sepsis and septic shock, can result in ARDS. Ventilator associated pneumonia (VAP is one of the common complications in ARDS related infection. As regards ARDS related infection, community acquired infection (CAI is different from hospital acquired infection (HAI in bacterial spectrum. The former is mainly caused by Streptococcus pneumonia, Hemophilus influenzae, Moraxelle catarrhalis, atypical pathogens and Klebsiella pneumoniae. However, HAI is mainly caused by Pseudomonas aeruginosa, Acinetobacter baumanii, methicillin-resistant Staphylococcus aureus(MRSA, and other drug-resistant bacteria. The drug-resistant bacterial infection not only makes treatment difficult, but also leads to an increase in mechanical ventilation time, length of ICU stay, mortality rate, and medical costs. The present paper has reviewed the relationship between ARDS and infection, therapeutic principles and measures of ARDS related infection, and introduced the optimal strategy of anti-infectious treatment of ARDS.

  20. Nitrogen reduction in wastewater treatment using different anox-circulation flow rates and ethanol as a carbon source.

    Poutiainen, H; Laitinen, S; Pradhan, S; Pessi, M; Heinonen-Tanski, H

    2010-05-01

    We studied the optimization of nitrogen reduction from municipal wastewater in a laboratory-scale modified Ludzack-Ettinger activated sludge wastewater treatment plant (WWTP). The unit consisted of primary denitrification, secondary nitrification, a sludge clarifier and a post-denitrification unit. The process simulates the Kuopio WWTP, which provided the influent utilized. We describe the effect of varying anox-circulation schemes on the nitrogen removal efficiency. We further compare the denitrification efficiencies of ethanol and methanol applied in the post-denitrification unit, and compare the properties and costs of these chemicals as carbon sources. Maximum efficiency of total nitrogen removal (70.8%) was obtained with 256% anox-circulation. The process was, however, not very sensitive, as a wide range of 150-400% of anox-circulations gave good results for nitrogen reduction. The unit achieved high BOD, and COD reductions of wastewater also when nitrogen reduction was moderate. The addition of 40 mg/L/day of ethanol to the post-denitrification tank meant that the nitrate-levels of effluent could be controlled to below 10 mg/L of nitrate nitrogen. Methanol and ethanol were equally effective for denitrification. The use of ethanol instead of methanol could reduce treatment costs by 30% to 0.02 E/m3 of treated wastewater according to 2008 market prices. PMID:20540423

  1. Acute Toxicity and Gastroprotective Role of M. pruriens in Ethanol-Induced Gastric Mucosal Injuries in Rats

    Shahram Golbabapour; Maryam Hajrezaie; Pouya Hassandarvish; Nazia Abdul Majid; A. Hamid A. Hadi; Noraziah Nordin; Mahmood A. Abdulla

    2013-01-01

    The investigation was to evaluate gastroprotective effects of ethanolic extract of M. pruriens leaves on ethanol-induced gastric mucosal injuries in rats. Forty-eight rats were divided into 8 groups: negative control, extract control, ulcer control, reference control, and four experimental groups. As a pretreatment, the negative control and the ulcer control groups were orally administered carboxymethylcellulose (CMC). The reference control was administered omeprazole orally (20 mg/kg). The e...

  2. Treatment of acute lower respiratory tract infections in children

    Rončević-Babin Nevenka P.

    2002-01-01

    Full Text Available Introduction Acute respiratory tract infections are the most common childhood diseases. A preschool child suffers up to 5-7 infections of upper airways during a year. Lower airway infections make 5-20% of all respiratory infections. Etiologic factors In developed countries, 75% of pneumonias in childhood are of viral etiology, in 15% of bacterial, and in 10% of some other causative agent (mycoplasma, rickettsiae, fungi, parasites. In developing countries, bacterial pneumonias are present in much higher percentages. Treatment Treatment of respiratory infections includes antimicrobial therapy (causal, relief of symptoms (symptomatic and conduction of general principles in child treatment. The choice of antimicrobial drug is based on evidence of agents and their sensitivity to antimicrobial drugs, age, patient's condition, previous treatment and possible allergic reactions to the drug. In cases where we cannot provide adequate specimen for microbiologic testing, when these tests do not reveal the agent, or when therapy must be started before the agent is available, we must decide about the therapy, taking in consideration the most frequent agents, and those that would cause the most devastating clinical picture. This therapy can later be modified according to the isolated agent and its sensitivity to the drug. Conclusion Having in mind the incidence and importance of respiratory infections in morbidity and mortality of children the aim of this article was to show guidelines in treatment of respiratory infections in children. The main point remains that we should take in consideration the individual patient before all.

  3. [The new possibility for the treatment of acute cough].

    Klyachkina, I L

    2015-01-01

    ) can be recommended for the inclusion in the combined treatment of the patients presenting with acute and chronic diseases accompanied by the excretion of viscous and difficult-of-discharge bronchial mucus (such as acute and chronic bronchitis, pneumonia, chronic obstructive pulmonary disease, bronchial asthma with difficulty in sputum discharge, and bronchoectatic disease). PMID:26525480

  4. Endovascular treatment of acute basilar artery occlusion: time to treatment is crucial

    Aim: To evaluate the safety and efficacy of multimodal endovascular treatment (EVT) of acute basilar artery occlusion (BAO), including bridging therapy [intravenous thrombolysis (IVT) with subsequent EVT], to compare particular EVT techniques and identify predictors of clinical outcome. Materials and methods: This retrospective, multi-centre study comprised 72 acute ischaemic stroke patients (51 males; mean age 59.1 ± 13.3 years) with radiologically confirmed BAO. The following data were collected: baseline characteristics, risk factors, pre-event antithrombotic treatment, neurological deficit at time of treatment, localization of occlusion, time to therapy, recanalization rate, post-treatment imaging findings. Thirty- and 90-day outcomes were evaluated using the modified Rankin scale with a good clinical outcome defined as 0–3 points. Results: Successful recanalization was achieved in 94.4% patients. Stepwise binary logistic regression analysis identified the presence of arterial hypertension (OR = 0.073 and OR = 0.067, respectively), National Institutes of Health Stroke Scale (NIHSS) at the time of treatment (OR = 0,829 and OR = 0.864, respectively), and time to treatment (OR = 0.556 and OR = 0.502, respectively) as significant independent predictors of 30- and 90-day clinical outcomes. Conclusion: Data from this multicentre study showed that multimodal EVT was an effective recanalization method in acute BAO. Bridging therapy shortens the time to treatment, which was identified as the only modifiable outcome predictor. - Highlights: • Various treatments are being used in recanalization of basilar artery occlusion. • Multimodal endovascular treatment is an effective recanalization method. • Time-to-treatment is the only modifiable outcome predictor. • Bridging therapy shortens time-to-treatment. • Arterial hypertension, neurologic deficit are associated with poor outcome

  5. Selective portal vein embolization with ethanol in treatment of implanted liver tumor in rats

    Objective: To evaluate the feasibility, safety and efficacy of selective portal vein embolization (SPVE) in treatment of liver tumor in rats and to provide the groundwork for its future clinical applications. Methods: 24 healthy rats underwent the embolization. Pre- and post-SPVE portogram and liver chemical profile were obtained. Four rats were sacrificed at 10 min, 7, 14, 21 and 28 days respectively following follow-up portography. The liver, heart, lungs and kidneys were examined macroscopically and microscopically. Fifteen rats implanted with Walker-256 tumor sized from 3 to 10 mm in liver were scanned with MRI and portography pre-SPVE taken. Post-SPVE 3 rats were examined with MRI for each group at the same interval as above and the lives were examined microscopically. Results: (1) The blood flow to the target portal branches were immediately halted after SPVE. These vessels remained occluded without collateral formation up to 28 days. (2) The liver indexes and BUN level increased after embolization, but returned to normal within 21 d. Macroscopic and microscopic changes were not found in the heart, lungs or kidneys. (3) In the healthy rats, the affected segment was atrophic and the remaining liver underwent compensatory hypertrophy. Histologic examination revealed that the targeted portal veins were coagulated, the endothelium were degenerated and the local hepatocytes were necrotic after embolization. (4) In the rats with implanted liver tumor, the affected segment including the tumor was necrotic and atrophic. The tumors were completely necrotic, and no viable tumor cell was seen under microscope in 12 among the 15 rats. Three tumors 10 mm in diameter were not completely necrotic. Part of tumor cells were still alive and infiltrated into the surrounding liver. Conclusion: SPVE with ethanol is effective in the treatment of small liver tumor in rats. However, in case of bigger tumors involving several segments, SPVE should be combined with other treatment

  6. ACUTE APENDICITIS – GUIDELINES OF DIAGNOSIS AND TREATMENT ON CLINICAL EVIDENCE (II)

    E. Maloman; N. Gladun; Ungureanu, S.; C. Lepadatu

    2006-01-01

    Acute appendicitis is the most frequent cause of acute abdomen. In this paper we present the treatment according to our experience in acute apendicitis. We made a exposure of the surgical methods and the approach techniques. We also performed a review of the literature.

  7. Treatment of acute ischemic stroke: Awareness among general practitioners

    Aaron S

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available For promptly referral of a patient with acute ischemic stroke (AIS for possible thrombolysis, general practitioners (GPs need to equipped with the advanced knowledge of AIS treatment. We assessed the knowledge regarding treatment of AIS among GPs practicing in and around a quaternary care teaching hospital in south India. A total of 109 GPs who attend to medical emergencies were interviewed using a standard questionnaire. Of the 109 GPs interviewed, 54% felt that tissue plasminogen activator (tPA can be used in the treating AIS, but only 24% had chosen tPA as the best treatment option and 22% opted for other agents like citicholine or edavarone. Only 17% were aware that tPA should be given within 3 h. and 35% felt that intra-arterial thrombolysis as a treatment option.. Only 30% felt the need for good sugar control and 37% wanted aggressive lowering of blood pressure. Majority of GPs are not clear about beneficial effects of thrombolysis and are not updated regarding BP and sugar control in the setting of AIS.

  8. Treatment options for acute uncomplicated cystitis in adults.

    Naber, K G

    2000-09-01

    Urinary tract infection (UTI) is classified as uncomplicated if it occurs in a patient with a structurally and functionally normal urinary tract. Acute uncomplicated cystitis is observed chiefly in women. It needs, however, to be differentiated depending on whether it occurs in premenopausal, postmenopausal or pregnant women. Only a small number of 15-50 year old, otherwise healthy men suffer acute uncomplicated cystitis. In premenopausal, non-pregnant women, single-dose antimicrobial therapy is generally less effective than the same antibiotic used for longer duration. However, most antimicrobial agents given for 3 days are as effective as those given for longer duration, and adverse events tend to be found more often with longer treatment. Trimethoprim (or co-trimoxazole) can be recommended as first-line empirical therapy only in communities with resistance rates of uropathogens to trimethoprim of pivmecillinam, especially when fluoroquinolones are contraindicated or a high proportion (>10%) of Escherichia coil strains in the community are already resistant to fluoroquinolones, as in Spain, for example. Recurrent UTIs are common among young, healthy women even though they generally have anatomically and physiologically normal urinary tracts. The following prophylactic antimicrobial regimens are recommended: (i) the use of long-term, low-dose prophylactic antimicrobials taken at bedtime; (ii) post-coital prophylaxis for women in whom episodes of infection are associated with sexual intercourse. Other prophylactic methods are not as yet as effective as antimicrobial prophylaxis. PMID:11051620

  9. Acute Toxicity and Gastroprotective Role of M. pruriens in Ethanol-Induced Gastric Mucosal Injuries in Rats

    Hassandarvish, Pouya; Abdul Majid, Nazia; Hadi, A. Hamid A.; Nordin, Noraziah; Abdulla, Mahmood A.

    2013-01-01

    The investigation was to evaluate gastroprotective effects of ethanolic extract of M. pruriens leaves on ethanol-induced gastric mucosal injuries in rats. Forty-eight rats were divided into 8 groups: negative control, extract control, ulcer control, reference control, and four experimental groups. As a pretreatment, the negative control and the ulcer control groups were orally administered carboxymethylcellulose (CMC). The reference control was administered omeprazole orally (20 mg/kg). The ethanolic extract of M. pruriens leaves was given orally to the extract control group (500 mg/kg) and the experimental groups (62.5, 125, 250, and 500 mg/kg). After 1 h, CMC was given orally to the negative and the extract control groups. The other groups received absolute ethanol. The rats were sacrificed after 1 h. The ulcer control group exhibited significant mucosal injuries with decreased gastric wall mucus and severe damage to the gastric mucosa. The extract caused upregulation of Hsp70 protein, downregulation of Bax protein, and intense periodic acid schiff uptake of glandular portion of stomach. Gastric mucosal homogenate showed significant antioxidant properties with increase in synthesis of PGE2, while MDA was significantly decreased. The ethanolic extract of M. pruriens leaves was nontoxic (<5 g/kg) and could enhance defensive mechanisms against hemorrhagic mucosal lesions. PMID:23781513

  10. Acute toxicity and gastroprotective role of M. pruriens in ethanol-induced gastric mucosal injuries in rats.

    Golbabapour, Shahram; Hajrezaie, Maryam; Hassandarvish, Pouya; Abdul Majid, Nazia; Hadi, A Hamid A; Nordin, Noraziah; Abdulla, Mahmood A

    2013-01-01

    The investigation was to evaluate gastroprotective effects of ethanolic extract of M. pruriens leaves on ethanol-induced gastric mucosal injuries in rats. Forty-eight rats were divided into 8 groups: negative control, extract control, ulcer control, reference control, and four experimental groups. As a pretreatment, the negative control and the ulcer control groups were orally administered carboxymethylcellulose (CMC). The reference control was administered omeprazole orally (20 mg/kg). The ethanolic extract of M. pruriens leaves was given orally to the extract control group (500 mg/kg) and the experimental groups (62.5, 125, 250, and 500 mg/kg). After 1 h, CMC was given orally to the negative and the extract control groups. The other groups received absolute ethanol. The rats were sacrificed after 1 h. The ulcer control group exhibited significant mucosal injuries with decreased gastric wall mucus and severe damage to the gastric mucosa. The extract caused upregulation of Hsp70 protein, downregulation of Bax protein, and intense periodic acid schiff uptake of glandular portion of stomach. Gastric mucosal homogenate showed significant antioxidant properties with increase in synthesis of PGE2, while MDA was significantly decreased. The ethanolic extract of M. pruriens leaves was nontoxic (<5 g/kg) and could enhance defensive mechanisms against hemorrhagic mucosal lesions. PMID:23781513

  11. Combination treatment for acute non-specific low back pain

    A. E. Barulin

    2014-10-01

    Full Text Available Spinal pain syndromes come to the forefront in the structure of referral rates for medical advice and considerably reduce quality of life in this category of patients. The paper considers the role of an edematous component in the development and chronization of pain. Occurring edema gives rise to local hemo- and lymphodynamic disorders, dysregulated vascular tone, activated thrombogenesis, and increased vascular permeability, eventually leading to the excessive irritation of nociceptors, the enhancement of a pain component, and the progression of tissue swelling.Objective: to study the efficacy of L-lysine escinate in the combination treatment of acute non-specific low back pain.Patients and methods. Sixty-two patients aged 21 to 53 patients (mean age 36.4±0.9 years with acute low back pain were examined. L-lysine escinate having venotonic and anti-inflammatory activities was chosen as an agent to correct edema syndrome. The results of clinical, neurological, and manual muscular testing and assessment of the biomechanics of the vertebral column, obtained using the original soft package “Visual optic analysis” developed by the authors, were analyzed. All the patients were found to have acute non-specific low back pain or radiculopathy (entrapment syndrome and considerable changes in the biomechanics of the vertebral column. The patients were treated in accordance with the standards of medical care for spinal pain. L-lysine escinate was additionally incorporated as an antiedema drug into the therapeuticcomplex of the patients in the study group.Results and discussion. The study patient group demonstrated a more pronounced trend towards reductions in pain syndrome and local muscle edema. It was noted that L-lysine escinate was effective in treating both acute pain syndromes and exacerbations of chronic low back pain and that additional non-drug programs should be included in order to correct an impaired motor stereotype.

  12. Drug for the treatment of acute lethal or chronic radiolesions

    The patent claim refers to a drug for total or partial treatment of acute lethal or chronic radiolesions and their harmful effects, marked by the fact that it contains the following components for a daily dose: 103 - 8 x 105 KJU of a Kallikrein-Inhibitor-Polypeptide, 1 mg - 2 x 102 mg thiamine diphosphate, 0.1 mg - 102 mg of an α1-glycoprotein complex, 1 mg - 2 x 102 mg L-Tryptophane, 1 mg - 103 mg Arginin, and 0.1 mg - 102 mg of a lipoprotein complex. The drug is marked by being effective in 60-70% of the cases of Wistar- or R-incest rats after use over at least 30 days. It is also effective in 50-60% of the cases of York-pigs after LD 80-100/30 C060, the foregoing knowledge of the (lethal) moment of radiation being unnecessary. (orig./MG)

  13. Cord blood transplantation for the treatment of acute leukemia

    Meerim Park; Young-ho Lee

    2013-01-01

    Objective This review discussed the available data on treatment outcomes of cord blood transplantation (CBT) for acute leukemia.Data sources The data cited in this review were obtained from articles listed in Medline and Pubmed.Study selection We reviewed the articles of clinical results from various registries and institutions,as well as our experiences with CBT in children,adolescents and adults.Results This research has clearly shown that cord blood (CB) has several unique characteristics resulting in distinct advantage and disadvantages when compared to transplantation with unrelated donor bone marrow or peripheral blood stem cells.The field of CBT has advanced from investigating its safety and feasibility to addressing more specific issues such as accelerating engraftment,extending access,and examining outcomes in specific subgroups of patients.Many approaches have been investigated in the attempt to improve engraftment and survival.Variable factors have been identified,such as factors related to donor choice (human leukocyte antigen (HLA) compatibility,cell dose,and others) and transplantation (conditioning and graft-versus-host disease prophylaxis regimen).Data support that CB should be considered a reasonable option in those that do not have HLA matched sibling donor and for those in whom the time to transplant is critical.Conclusions CB is a reasonable alternative to unrelated donor bone marrow or peripheral blood progenitor cells for transplantation.Recently developed strategies aimed at improving hematopoietic recovery and reducing early transplantation-related mortality could further improve treatment outcomes of CBT for patients with acute leukemia.

  14. [Acute necrotizing pancreatitis--diagnostic and treatment strategy].

    Madzhov, R; Georgiev, K; Arnaudov, P; Radev, R; Bankov, P

    2003-01-01

    Despite of the current achievements of medicine, the mortality of necrotizing pancreatitis (NP) is still too high--up to 35-40% and stands as a serious diagnostic and treatment problem. The results of treatment of 148 patients, admitted in the clinic with diagnosis NP, 95 males and 53 females, are discussed. The ratio between patients with acute oedematic and acute NP is 81.1% to 18.9%. According to the hystopatology findings, the results are as follows: pancreatic necrosis--128 patients, peripancreatic necrosis--42 patients, retropancreatic necrosis--29 patients, phlegmonous cholecystitis--31 patients. For the exact diagnostic estimation of the development and prognosis of NP, we are based on: Clinic symptomatology, biochemical constellations (the prognostic scale of Ranson), ultrasonography, CT, ERCP, ES, laparoscopy (48 pts), and laparoscopic drainage (34 pts) of the abdominal cavity with one or two drains, in order to decrease the intoxication and manage intraperitoneal irrigation with antibiotics and enzymes. The operative intervations consists of a thorough exploration, broad necrectomy combined with lavage and large drainage. COLD (controlled open lesser sac drainage) has been performed at 34 cases. In 31 pts cholecystectomy and choledochotomy with T-tube drainage of d. choledochus (Kehr drainage) was performed. Reoperations have been made at 34 pts (22.9%); in 11 of them--2 operative revisions have been carried out, in 3 cases--three, and in 3 cases--4 operative revisions were performed. The total postoperative death rate was 21.6% (32 patients). The most common postoperative complications were as follows: pulmonary complications at 11 cases, pleural effusions--9 pts, intraabdominal abscesses--6 patients, postnecrotic pseudocysts--9 cases, pancreatic fistulas--6 cases, fistulas of the colon--2 pts, bleeding--4 patients. PMID:15584453

  15. Minimal Subdermal Shaving by Means of Sclerotherapy Using Absolute Ethanol: A New Method for the Treatment of Axillary Osmidrosis

    Hyung­Sup Shim

    2013-07-01

    Full Text Available Background Axillary osmidrosis is characterized by unpleasant odors originating from the axillary apocrine glands, resulting in psychosocial stress. The main treatment modality is apocrine gland removal. Until now, of the various surgical techniques have sometimes caused serious complications. We describe herein the favorable outcomes of a new method for ablating apocrine glands by minimal subdermal shaving using sclerotherapy with absolute ethanol.Methods A total of 12 patients underwent the procedure. The severity of osmidrosis was evaluated before surgery. Conventional subdermal shaving was performed on one side (control group and ablation by means of minimal subdermal shaving and absolute ethanol on the other side (study group. Postoperative outcomes were compared between the study and control groups.Results The length of time to removal of the drain was 1 day shorter in the study group than in the control group. There were no serious complications, such as hematoma or seroma, in either group, but flap margin necrosis and flap desquamation occurred in the control group, and were successfully managed with conservative treatment. Six months after surgery, we and our patients were satisfied with the outcomes.Conclusions Sclerotherapy using absolute ethanol combined with minimal subdermal shaving may be useful for the treatment of axillary osmidrosis. It can reduce the incidence of seroma and hematoma and allow the skin flap to adhere to its recipient site. It can degrade and ablate the remaining apocrine glands and eliminate causative organisms. Furthermore, since this technique is relatively simple, it takes less time than the conventional method.

  16. A combination therapy of ethanol injection and radiofrequency ablation under general anesthesia for the treatment of hepatocellular carcinoma

    Kazutaka Kurokohchi; Tomohiko Taminato; Shigeki Kuriyama; Seishiro Watanabe; Hirohito Yoneyama; Akihiro Deguchi; Tsutomu Masaki; Takashi Himoto; Hisaaki Miyoshi; Hamdy Saad Mohammad; Akira Kitanaka

    2008-01-01

    AIM: To summarize the effects of laparoscopic ethanol injection and radiofrequency ablation (L-EI-RFA), thora-coscopic (T-EI-RFA) and open-surgery assisted EI-RFA (O-EI-RFA) under general anesthesia for the treatment of hepatocellular carcinoma (HCC).METHODS: Time-lag performance of RFA after ethanol injection (Time-lag PEI-RFA) was performed in all cases. The volume of coagulated necrosis and the applied energy for total and per unit volume coagulated necrosis were examined in the groups treated under general (group G) or local anesthesia (group L).RESULTS: The results showed that the total applied energy and the applied energy per unit volume of whole and marginal, coagulated necrosis were significantly larger in group G than those in the group L, resulting in a larger volume of coagulated necrosis in the group G. The rate of local tumor recurrence within one year was extremely low in group G.CONCLUSION: These results suggest that EI-RFA, under general anesthesia, may be effective for the treatment of HCC because a larger quantity of ethanol and energy could be applied during treatment under pain-free condition for the patients.

  17. Valacyclovir in the treatment of acute retinal necrosis

    Taylor Simon RJ

    2012-09-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background To report the outcome of oral valacyclovir as the sole antiviral therapy for patients with acute retinal necrosis (ARN. Methods This study reports a retrospective, interventional case series of nine consecutive patients with ten eyes with newly diagnosed ARN treated with oral valacyclovir as the sole antiviral agent. Eight patients received oral valacyclovir 2 g tid (Valtrex, GlaxoSmithKline and one patient with impaired renal function received oral 1 g tid. The main outcome measures were response to treatment, time to initial response to treatment, time to complete resolution of retinitis, best corrected visual acuity (BCVA at final follow-up, retinal detachment and development of recurrent or second eye disease. Results Retinitis resolved in ten of ten (100% affected eyes. The median time to initial detectable response was seven days and the median time to complete resolution was 21 days. A final BCVA of 20/40 or better was achieved in 6/10 (60% of eyes. 3/10 eyes (30% developed a retinal detachment. No patients developed either disease reactivation or second eye involvement over the course of the study (mean follow up 31 weeks, range 7 to 104 weeks. Conclusions Treatment with oral valacyclovir as the sole antiviral therapy resulted in complete resolution of retinitis. Final BCVA and retinal detachment rate were comparable with previously reported outcomes for intravenous acyclovir.

  18. Intrinsic properties of larval zebrafish neurons in ethanol.

    Hiromi Ikeda

    Full Text Available The behavioral effects of ethanol have been studied in multiple animal models including zebrafish. Locomotion of zebrafish larvae is resistant to high concentrations of ethanol in bath solution. This resistance has been attributed to a lower systemic concentration of ethanol in zebrafish when compared with bath solution, although the mechanism to maintain such a steep gradient is unclear. Here we examined whether the intrinsic properties of neurons play roles in this resistance. In order to minimize the contribution of metabolism and diffusional barriers, larvae were hemisected and the anterior half immersed in a range of ethanol concentrations thereby ensuring the free access of bath ethanol to the brain. The response to vibrational stimuli of three types of reticulospinal neurons: Mauthner neurons, vestibulospinal neurons, and MiD3 neurons were examined using an intracellular calcium indicator. The intracellular [Ca(2+] response in MiD3 neurons decreased in 100 mM ethanol, while Mauthner neurons and vestibulospinal neurons required >300 mM ethanol to elicit similar effects. The ethanol effect in Mauthner neurons was reversible following removal of ethanol. Interestingly, activities of MiD3 neurons displayed spontaneous recovery in 300 mM ethanol, suggestive of acute tolerance. Finally, we examined with mechanical vibration the startle response of free-swimming larvae in 300 mM ethanol. Ethanol treatment abolished long latency startle responses, suggesting a functional change in neural processing. These data support the hypothesis that individual neurons in larval zebrafish brains have distinct patterns of response to ethanol dictated by specific molecular targets.

  19. Enhancement of gamma-ray-induced mutation frequency in rice by post-treatment with chloral hydrate, methanol and their mixtures with ethanol

    An evaluation has been made of the mutagenic activity of ethanol, chlorate hydrate (CH) and methanol on rice seed. In independent treatments with ethanol, methanol, CH and four aqueous mixtures of these chemicals, chlorophyll-deficient mutants were not recovered in the M2 generation. However, in sequential treatments with gamma rays + CH, gamma rays + methanol and gamma rays + aqueous mixtures of these chemicals, significant increases in the yields of chlorophyll mutations were observed as compared to that of a 30 kR gamma ray treatment. In contrast, post-irradiation treatment with ethanol failed to provoke any increase in the frequency of chlorophyll mutants in the M2 generation. The results indicate that CH and methanol alone and mixed with ethanol can potentiate gamma ray-induced genetic lesions in rice seed. (author)

  20. Radiation therapy treatment of acute refractory renal allograft rejection

    Purpose: To evaluate the impact of the use of radiotherapy to preserve the renal graft in patients with recurrent graft rejection that failed to respond to medical treatment and identify risk factors to predict the probability of graft loss. Material and Methods: Between June 1989 and December 1995, 53 renal graft recipients were treated at our institution after experiencing several episodes of rejection. Rejection was defined as an unexplained, consecutive, daily rise in serum creatinine. Each episode was confirmed with renal biopsy. Patients who experienced rejection were initially treated with solu medrol bolus and prednisone. Patients with steroid-resistant or recurrent rejection received OKT3, polyclonal antilymphocyte antibody, FK506, or mycophenolate mofetil. Those who failed to respond to medical treatment were referred for radiotherapy. Treatment consisted of a dose of 600 cGy given in 3 or 4 fractions using 6 MV photons, AP or AP/PA. All patients underwent ultrasound kidney localization; a 2 cm margin was given around the kidney. Results: Median follow-up from the date of transplant to the last follow-up was 22 months (range 1-83 months), the median time from the date of transplant to the initiation of radiotherapy was 3 months, and the median time from the initiation of radiotherapy to the last follow up was 10 months (range 0.1 to 64 months). Of these 34 men and 19 women, median age of 3), Ninety-one percent were cadaveric transplant recipients., human leukocyte antigen matching on HLA-A and HLA-B (zero antigens in 26 patients/one or two shared antigens in 27 patients), HLA-DR locus (zero antigens in 34 patients/one or two shared antigens in 19 patients), transplant panel-reactive antibodies at transplantation (median PRA-Curr of 3% and median PRA-Max of 8%), number of acute rejection episodes, interval from the date of the transplant to the first rejection (median 1 month, range 5 days to 68 months), serum creatinine levels at the time of the first

  1. Radiofrequency ablation or percutaneous ethanol injection for the treatment of liver tumors

    Daniel Ansari; Roland Andersson

    2012-01-01

    The liver is a common location of both primary and secondary malignancies.For unresectable liver cancer,many local ablative therapies have been developed.These include e.g.,percutaneous ethanol injection (PEI),percutaneous acetic acid injection,radiofrequency ablation (RFA),cryoablation,microwave ablation,laser-induced thermotherapy,and high-intensity focused ultrasound.RFA has recently gained interest and is the most widely applied thermoablative technique.RFA allows more effective tumor control in fewer treatment sessions compared with PEI,but with a higher rate of complications.However,there are certain circumstances where PEI therapy represents a better strategy to control liver tumors than RFA,especially in situations where RFA is difficult,for example when large vessels surround the tumor.In the context of hepatocellular carcinoma (HCC),both RFA and PEI are feasible and of benefit in non-operable patients.RFA seems superior to PEI in HCC > 2 cm,and the combination of inter-ventions may be of benefit in selected patients.Liver resection is superior to RFA for patients with HCC meeting the Milan criteria,but RFA can be employed in tumors ≤ 3 cm and where there is an increased expected operative mortality.In addition,some lines of evidence indicate that RFA and PEI can be employed as a bridge to liver transplantation.The use of RFA in colorectal liver metastases is currently limited to unresectable disease and for patients unfit for surgery.The aim of this article is to summarize the current status of RFA in the management of liver tumors and compare it to the cheap and readily available technique of PEI.

  2. The effects of ethanol and silymarin treatment during gestation on spatial working memory.

    Romero David

    2004-02-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Using a rat model we have found that the bioflavonoid silymarin (SY ameliorates some of the negative consequences of in utero exposure to ethanol (EtOH. In the current study our aim was to determine if spatial working memory (SWM was impaired in offspring whose mothers were maintained on a liquid diet containing EtOH during different gestational weeks. We also determined if SWM was altered with a concomitant administration of SY with EtOH during specific gestational weeks. Methods We provided pregnant Fischer/344 rats with liquid diets containing 35% EtOH derived calories (EDC during specific weeks of the gestational period. A silymarin/phospholipid compound containing 29.8% silybin co-administered with EtOH was also administered during specific weeks of the gestational period. We tested SWM of the offspring with a radial arm maze on postnatal day (PND 60. After testing the rats were sacrificed and their brains perfused for later analysis. Results We observed SWM deficits, as well as a significantly lower brain weight in female offspring born of mothers treated with EtOH during the third week of gestation in comparison to mothers treated during either the first or second weeks of gestation. Rats from any group receiving EtOH in co-administration with SY showed no significant deficits in SWM. Conclusion EtOH treatment during the last week of gestation had the greatest impact on SWM. The addition of SY to the EtOH liquid diet appeared to ameliorate the EtOH-induced learning deficits.

  3. How assess drugs in the treatment of acute bipolar mania?

    Bourin, Michel; Thibaut, Florence

    2013-01-01

    Bipolar affective disorder is a serious mental disease associated with significant morbidity and mortality. Good-quality research available to guide treatment strategies remains insufficient, particularly with regard to manic or hypomanic episodes. A critical review of the various stages of mania might be helpful for pharmaceutical companies and investigators as a prerequisite for the clinical evaluation of potential antimanic properties of medications. The main difficulty is with a comparison between anticonvulsants, antipsychotics, and mood stabilizers such as lithium (with equal efficacy in the acute phase and the prevention of recurrent manic episodes). No consensus has been reached with regard to the treatment of bouts of acute mania in various parts of the world. Controlled clinical trials have, at last, provided irrefutable evidence of the activity of lithium, which has long been used alone, as well as that of divalproate or its derivatives and, to a lesser extent, carbamazepine. The new antipsychotic agents have more recently established their efficacy, especially aripiprazole, asenapine, quetiapine; olanzapine, risperidone, and ziprasidone (not sure where the paradox is). In Europe, haloperidol is still the reference substance used in clinical trials despite the fact that it is not officially indicated in the treatment of mania. In the USA, lithium, divalproate, or antipsychotics can be prescribed as first-line treatment. In Europe, lithium remains the first-line medication, whereas divalproate and atypical antipsychotic agents are used only as second-line therapy. Although both types of medication (antipsychotics, normothymic agents, and/or anticonvulsants) have proved to be clinically effective in the management of mania by reducing the mania scores overall, the same does not apply, however, to all symptoms of mania. Factorial approaches to mania have all shown that since there are several clinical forms of mania, several clusters of manic symptoms can

  4. Diagnosis and treatment of acute and chronic leukemia

    The Cancergram covers both acute and chronic leukemia in all of its forms (acute lymphocytic, acute monocytic, acute or sub-acute granulocytic, chronic granulocytic, chronic lymphocytic, chronic monocytic, plasma cell, stem cell, and hairy cell). Other neoplastic conditions of the reticuloendothelial system, lymphatic system, spleen, multiple myeloma, macroglobulinemia and other monoclonal gammopathies are excluded, and will be coveted by other Cancergrams now under development. This Cancergram includes abstracts concerning all clinical aspects of the disease, such as diagnosis and staging, supportive care, evaluation, and therapy. Animal models, tissue culture experiments, carcinogenesis and other pre-clinical studies are generally excluded, except for those considered to have direct clinical relevance

  5. Long-term response to successful acute pharmacological treatment of psychotic depression

    Wijkstra, Jaap; Burger, Huibert; van den Broek, Walter W.; Birkenhager, Tom K.; Janzing, Joost G. E.; Boks, Marco P. M.; Bruijn, Jan A.; van der Loos, Marc L. M.; Breteler, Leonie M. T.; Verkes, Robbert J.; Nolen, Willem A.

    2010-01-01

    Background: Data about follow-up after acute pharmacological treatment of psychotic depression are scarce. Methods: A 4 month open follow-up was done, preferentially with same medication as during acute treatment, of patients (n=59) with DSM-IV-TR major depressive disorder with psychotic features, a

  6. TREATMENT OF ADOLESCENT AND YOUNG ADULTS WITH ACUTE LYMPHOBLASTIC LEUKEMIA

    Josep-Maria Ribera

    2014-07-01

    Full Text Available The primary objective of this review was to update and discuss the current concepts andthe results of the treatment of acute lymphoblastic leukemia (ALL in adolescents and young adults(AYA. After a brief consideration of the epidemiologic and clinicobiologic characteristics of ALLin the AYA population, the main retrospective comparative studies stating the superiority ofpediatric over adult-based protocols were reviewed. The most important prospective studies inyoung adults using pediatric inspired or pediatric unmodified protocols were also reviewedemphasizing their feasibility at least up to the age of 40 yr and their promising results, with eventfreesurvival rates of 60-65% or greater. Results of trials from pediatric groups have shown that theunfavourable prognosis of adolescents is no more adequate. The majority of the older adolescentswith ALL can be cured with risk-adjusted and minimal residual disease-guided intensivechemotherapy, without stem cell transplantation. However, some specific subgroups, which aremore frequent in adolescents than in children (e.g., early pre-T, iAMP21, and BCR-ABL-like,deserve particular attention. In summary, the advances in treatment of ALL in adolescents havebeen translated to young adults, and that explains the significant improvement in survival of thesepatients in recent years.

  7. Antidepressant Treatment for Acute Bipolar Depression: An Update

    Ben H. Amit

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available While studies in the past have focused more on treatment of the manic phase of bipolar disorder (BD, recent findings demonstrate the depressive phase to be at least as debilitating. However, in contrast to unipolar depression, depression in bipolar patients exhibits a varying response to antidepressants, raising questions regarding their efficacy and tolerability. Methods. We conducted a MEDLINE and Cochrane Collaboration Library search for papers published between 2005 and 2011 on the subject of antidepressant treatment of bipolar depression. Sixty-eight articles were included in the present review. Results. While a few studies did advocate the use of antidepressants, most well-controlled studies failed to show a robust effect of antidepressants in bipolar depression, regardless of antidepressant class or bipolar subtype. There was no significant increase in the rate of manic/hypomanic switch, especially with concurrent use of mood stabilizers. Prescribing guidelines published in recent years rely more on atypical antipsychotics, especially quetiapine, as a first-line therapy. Conclusions. Antidepressants probably have no substantial role in acute bipolar depression. However, in light of conflicting results between studies, more well-designed trials are warranted.

  8. Antidepressant Treatment for Acute Bipolar Depression: An Update

    Amit, Ben H.; Weizman, Abraham

    2012-01-01

    While studies in the past have focused more on treatment of the manic phase of bipolar disorder (BD), recent findings demonstrate the depressive phase to be at least as debilitating. However, in contrast to unipolar depression, depression in bipolar patients exhibits a varying response to antidepressants, raising questions regarding their efficacy and tolerability. Methods. We conducted a MEDLINE and Cochrane Collaboration Library search for papers published between 2005 and 2011 on the subject of antidepressant treatment of bipolar depression. Sixty-eight articles were included in the present review. Results. While a few studies did advocate the use of antidepressants, most well-controlled studies failed to show a robust effect of antidepressants in bipolar depression, regardless of antidepressant class or bipolar subtype. There was no significant increase in the rate of manic/hypomanic switch, especially with concurrent use of mood stabilizers. Prescribing guidelines published in recent years rely more on atypical antipsychotics, especially quetiapine, as a first-line therapy. Conclusions. Antidepressants probably have no substantial role in acute bipolar depression. However, in light of conflicting results between studies, more well-designed trials are warranted. PMID:22319648

  9. Clofarabine in the treatment of poor risk acute myeloid leukaemia.

    Krawczyk, Janusz

    2010-09-01

    Clofarabine is a second generation nucleoside analogue. It inhibits DNA repair and activates the mitochondrial apoptotic pathway leading to cell death. In vitro clofarabine has demonstrated synergy with daunorubicin and Ara-C and in phase II clinical trials has shown promising activity in poor risk Acute myeloid leukaemia (AML) patients. In our institution over a 24 month period 22 AML patients (11 M, 11 F) with poor risk features, deemed unsuitable for standard therapy, were treated with clofarabine, alone (eight patients) or in combination (14 patients) for up to three cycles of treatment. The median age was 67.5 years (24-76) with 16 patients > 60 years. At the time of treatment 18 patients had active AML. Four patients intolerant of standard induction received clofarabine as consolidation. The overall response rate (ORR) for the 18 patients with active AML was 61%, nine patients (50%) achieving a complete response (CR). Induction and consolidation were well tolerated with no unexpected toxicities. Predictably, all patients developed grade 4 neutropenia but the median duration was only 20 days (17-120). Induction mortality was acceptable at 17%. In conclusion, clofarabine (alone or in combination) is active in poor risk AML with an acceptable safety profile and should be considered a potential option in poor risk AML patients.

  10. Evaluation of artemisinins for the treatment of acute myeloid leukemia

    Drenberg, Christina D.; Buaboonnam, Jassada; Orwick, Shelley J.; Hu, Shuiying; Li, Lie; Fan, Yiping; Shelat, Anang A.; Guy, R. Kiplin; Rubnitz, Jeffrey

    2016-01-01

    Purpose Investigate antileukemic activity of artemisinins, artesunate (ART), and dihydroartemisinin (DHA), in combination with cytarabine, a key component of acute myeloid leukemia (AML) chemotherapy using in vitro and in vivo models. Methods Using ten human AML cell lines, we conducted a high-throughput screen to identify antimalarial agents with antileukemic activity. We evaluated effects of ART and DHA on cell viability, cytotoxicity, apoptosis, lysosomal integrity, and combination effects with cytarabine in cell lines and primary patient blasts. In vivo pharmacokinetic studies and efficacy of single-agent ART or combination with cytarabine were evaluated in three xenograft models. Results ART and DHA had the most potent activity in a panel of AML cell lines, with selectivity toward samples harboring MLL rearrangements and FLT3-ITD mutations. Combination of ART or DHA was synergistic with cytarabine. Single-dose ART (120 mg/kg) produced human equivalent exposures, but multiple dose daily administration required for in vivo efficacy was not tolerated. Combination treatment produced initial regression, but did not prolong survival in vivo. Conclusions The pharmacology of artemisinins is problematic and should be considered in designing AML treatment strategies with currently available agents. Artemisinins with improved pharmacokinetic properties may offer therapeutic benefit in combination with conventional therapeutic strategies in AML. PMID:27125973

  11. Effects of ultraviolet irradiation, pulsed electric field, hot water and ethanol vapours treatment on functional properties of mung bean sprouts

    Goyal, Ankit; Siddiqui, Saleem; Upadhyay, Neelam; Soni, Jyoti

    2011-01-01

    The present investigation was conducted with the objective to study the effects of various treatments and storage conditions on ascorbic acid, total phenols, antioxidant activity and polyphenol oxidase activity of mung bean sprouts. The sprouts subjected to various treatments viz., pulsed electric field (PEF) (10,000 V for 10 s), hot water dip (HWD) (50 °C for 2 min), ethanol vapours (1 h) and UV-Irradiation (10 kJm-2 in laminar flow chamber for 1 h); and then stored at room (25 ± 1 °C) and l...

  12. Tipifarnib in the treatment of newly diagnosed acute myelogenous leukemia

    Judith E Karp

    2008-09-01

    Full Text Available Judith E Karp1, Jeffrey E Lancet21Division of Hematologic Malignancies, Johns Hopkins Sidney Kimmel Comprehensive Cancer Center, Baltimore, Maryland, USA; 2H. Lee Moffitt Comprehensive Cancer Center, Tampa, Florida, USAAbstract: Farnesyltransferase inhibitors (FTIs represent a new class of signal transduction inhibitors that block the processing of cellular polypeptides that have cysteine terminal residues and, by so doing, interdict multiple pathways involved in proliferation and survival of diverse malignant cell types. Tipifarnib is an orally bioavailable, nonpeptidomimetic methylquinolone FTI that has exhibited clinical activity in patients with myeloid malignancies including elderly adults with acute myelogenous leukemia (AML who are not candidates for traditional cytotoxic chemotherapy, patients with high-risk myelodysplasia, myeloproliferative disorders, and imatinib-resistant chronic myelogenous leukemia. Because of its relatively low toxicity profile, tipifarnib provides an important alternative to traditional cytotoxic approaches for elderly patients who are not likely to tolerate or even benefit from aggressive chemotherapy. In this review, we will focus on the clinical development of tipifarnib for treatment of newly diagnosed AML, both as induction therapy for elderly adults with poor-risk AML and as maintenance therapy following achievement of first complete remission following induction and consolidation therapies for poor-risk AML. As with all other malignancies, the optimal approach is likely to lie in rational combinations of tipifarnib with cytotoxic, biologic and/or immunomodulatory agents with non-cross-resistant mechanisms of action. Gene expression profi ling has identified networks of differentially expressed genes and gene combinations capable of predicting response to single agent tipifarnib. The clinical and correlative laboratory trials in progress and under development will provide the critical foundations for

  13. Deletion of N-type calcium channels alters ethanol reward and reduces ethanol consumption in mice

    Newton, P. M.; Orr, C J; Wallace, M J; Kim, C.; Shin, H. S.; Messing, R O

    2004-01-01

    N-type calcium channels are modulated by acute and chronic ethanol exposure in vitro at concentrations known to affect humans, but it is not known whether N-type channels are important for behavioral responses to ethanol in vivo. Here, we show that in mice lacking functional N-type calcium channels, voluntary ethanol consumption is reduced and place preference is developed only at a low dose of ethanol. The hypnotic effects of ethanol are also substantially diminished, whereas ethanol-induced...

  14. Treatment of acute experimental schistosomiasis Tratamento da esquistossomose aguda experimental

    Zilton A. Andrade

    1989-12-01

    Full Text Available A model of acute schistosomiasis of the mouse was used to observe whether curative treatment would be followed by an enhancement of the hepatic and splenic lesions, as a consequence of the massive destruction of worms and eggs within the portal system. Mice infected with 50 cercariae of Schistosoma mansoni were treated with both oxamniquine and praziquantel on the 50th day of infection and submitted to a sequential histologic examination from the 2nd to the 45th day after treatment. Although severe focal lesions due to dead and disintegranting worms were present in the livers of the treated animals, no aggravation of the general changes (reative hepatitis and splenitis, or periovular granulomas was seen in comparison with a control non-treated group. Of 50 animals treated during the acute phase of schistosomiasis only one died espontaneously, while 16 ou of 30 infected controls died before the end of the experiment. The present investigation indicates that curative treatment during the acute phase of schistosomiasis does not enhance previous lesions at first and results in progressive disappearance of the lesions starting six days following chemotherapy.Foi utilizado um modelo de esquistossomose aguda do camundongo para testar se o tratamentop curativo da parasitose nesta fase poderia produzir uma exacerbação das lesões hepáticas e esplênicas, em virtude da destruição maciça de vermes e ovos nointerior do sistema porta. Camundongos infectados com 50 cercárias do Schistosoma mansoni foram tratados no 50º dia da infecção por uma combinação de oxamniquine e praziquantel e submetidos a exames histopatológicos seqüenciados desde o 2º até o 45º dia após o tratamento. Muito embora tenham sido encontrados lesões focais intensas causadas por vermes mortos no interior do fígado, não foi encontrada qualquer evidência de agravamento das lesões gerais (hepatite reacional e esplenite, ou nos granulomas periovulares quando se fez

  15. Adsorption of ethanol onto activated carbon: Modeling and consequent interpretations based on statistical physics treatment

    Bouzid, Mohamed; Sellaoui, Lotfi; Khalfaoui, Mohamed; Belmabrouk, Hafedh; Lamine, Abdelmottaleb Ben

    2016-02-01

    In this work, we studied the adsorption of ethanol on three types of activated carbon, namely parent Maxsorb III and two chemically modified activated carbons (H2-Maxsorb III and KOH-H2-Maxsorb III). This investigation has been conducted on the basis of the grand canonical formalism in statistical physics and on simplified assumptions. This led to three parameter equations describing the adsorption of ethanol onto the three types of activated carbon. There was a good correlation between experimental data and results obtained by the new proposed equation. The parameters characterizing the adsorption isotherm were the number of adsorbed molecules (s) per site n, the density of the receptor sites per unit mass of the adsorbent Nm, and the energetic parameter p1/2. They were estimated for the studied systems by a non linear least square regression. The results show that the ethanol molecules were adsorbed in perpendicular (or non parallel) position to the adsorbent surface. The magnitude of the calculated adsorption energies reveals that ethanol is physisorbed onto activated carbon. Both van der Waals and hydrogen interactions were involved in the adsorption process. The calculated values of the specific surface AS, proved that the three types of activated carbon have a highly microporous surface.

  16. Transcatheter embolization for treatment of acute lower gastrointestinal bleeding

    Treatment of lower gastrointestinal bleeding was attempted in 13 patients by selective embolization of branches of the mesenteric arteries with Gelfoam. Bleeding was adequately controlled in 11 patients with active bleeding during the examination. One patient improved after embolization but bleeding recurred within 24 hours and in another patient the catheterization was unsuccessful. Five patients with diverticular hemorrhage were embolized in the right colic artery four times, and once in the middle colic artery. Three patients had embolization of the ileocolic artery because of hemorrhage from cecal angiodysplasia, post appendectomy, and leukemia infiltration. Three patients had the superior hemorrhoidal artery embolized because of bleeding from unspecific proctitis, infiltration of the rectum from a carcinoma of the bladder, and transendoscopic polypectomy. One patient was septic and bled from jejunal ulcers. Ischemic changes with infarction of the large bowel developed in two patients and were treated by partial semi-elective colectomy, three and four days after embolization. Four other patients developed pain and fever after embolization. Transcatheter embolization of branches of mesenteric arteries in an effective way to control acute lower gastrointestinal bleeding, but still has a significant rate of complications that must be seriously weighed against the advantages of operation. (orig.)

  17. Sumatriptan iontophoretic transdermal system for the acute treatment of migraine.

    Vikelis, Michail; Mitsikostas, Dimos D; Rapoport, Alan M

    2014-03-01

    SUMMARY We will describe the pharmacokinetic profile, clinical efficacy and safety data of the sumatriptan iontophoretic transdermal system (Zecuity®, NuPathe Inc., PA, USA), recently approved for the acute treatment of migraine with or without aura in adults, by the US FDA. This transdermal system utilizes a low-level electrical current to deliver sumatriptan transdermally and circumvents the GI tract. Pharmacokinetic studies have shown that iontophoretic delivery of sumatriptan achieves detectable plasma concentrations 15 min after activation with a maximum mean serum concentration of 22 ng/ml. A randomized, double-blind, controlled clinical trial demonstrated minimal triptan-related side effects and superior efficacy versus placebo. The pain-free rate at 2 h postdose was 18% of patients applying the sumatriptan patch versus 9% using the placebo (p = 0.0092). This sumatriptan transdermal system may be a good choice for migraineurs with severe nausea or vomiting, those with intolerable triptan-related adverse events and/or those not responding optimally to oral medications. PMID:24641436

  18. Successful Treatment of Acute Lethal Dose of Acrylamide Poisoning

    Ali Banagozar Mohammadi

    2015-03-01

    Full Text Available Background: Acrylamide (C3H5NO is a vinyl monomer. This water-soluble crystalline solid is a colorless, odorless agent which is used in scientific laboratories and some industries. Acrylamide has cellular oxidative effects. Acute or chronic poisoning with this agent happens as a result of skin, respiratory, or oral contacts. Clinical manifestations depend on the dose, duration, and frequency of contact. Management of these patients consists of conservative and palliative therapies to reduce the oxidative effects. Case: The case was a 29-year-old girl with a Master of Sciences degree in genetics who worked in a university research center with previous history of depression. She had ingested 100cc of 30% Acrylamide solution for intentional suicide attempt. The patient was successfully managed using N-acetyl cysteine, vitamin C, and melatonin. Conclusion: Early diagnosis and appropriate treatment with recommended agents together with supportive therapies can save the life of patients exposed to potentially lethal doses of acrylamide, although intentional or accidental.

  19. Acute Abdomen in Interstitial Ectopic Pregnancy, An Emergency Laparoscopic Treatment

    E. Picardo

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available The present case report demonstrates a laparoscopic approach to treat interstitial cornual pregnancy in emergency. Interstitial ectopic pregnancy develops in the uterine portion of the fallopian tube which accounts for 2–4% of all ectopic pregnancies and has the potential to cause life-threatening hemorrhage at rupture. The mortality rate for a woman diagnosed with such a pregnancy is 2–2.5%. Diagnosis of interstitial pregnancy is made by ultrasound. In this case a 32 year-old woman, Gravida 0 Parity 0 Living 0 Ectopic 1, presented to the emergency obstetrical room complaining acute abdominal pain. There was a history of 10 weeks of pregnancy but no pelvic ultrasound scan was performed before the access. A transvaginal ultrasound scan immediately performed demonstrated a gestational sac with viable fetus in the right interstitial region. Moreover there was an ultrasound evidence of hemoperitoneum. She was transferred to the operating room and an emergency laparoscopy surgery was performed. The postoperative course was uneventful and the patient was discharged two days after the surgery. Interstitial pregnancies present a difficult management problem with no absolute standard of care in literature. Laparoscopic technique is under study with favorable results. For our personal point of view a treatment via laparoscopy could be performed both in elective and in emergency cases.

  20. Acute Renal Failure in Children: Etiology, Treatment and Outcome

    Shaheen lhab

    2006-01-01

    Full Text Available Children with acute renal failure (ARF may be treated in pediatric renal or intensive care (PICU units where there is an increasing use of continuous renal replacement therapies such as hemofiltration (HF. Over three years, we prospectively recorded details of all patients with ARF treated both within our regional pediatric renal unit, in two local neonatal intensive care units (NICUs, and one PICU, which are all supported by our institution. Our study included eighty-three ARF patients (43% male with a median age of 5.7 years (range 1 day - 19.8 years; 41% of patients were < 2 years, 20% 2-5 years, 13% 5-10 years and 26% > 10 years of age. A total of 37 patients (45% were treated in the renal unit versus 46 (55% patients in NICU/PICU. The initial treatment modality was conservative in 33%, peritoneal dialysis (PD in 23%, hemodialysis (HD in 15%, HF in 28%, and isolated plasmafiltration in one percent of the patients. About 16% of the patients required more than one treatment modality. Outcome data at three months showed normal renal function in 49%, deaths in 20%, dialysis dependent disease in 14%, chronic renal failure (GFR < 60ml/min/1.73m 2 in eight percent, and proteinuria and/or hypertension in seven percent of the patients. Only one (3% death occurred in 37 patients treated in the renal unit compared to 16 deaths in 46 patients (35% treated in the NICU/PICU. Our findings further confirm the low mortality rate with isolated renal failure and the substantial mortality and renal workload in intensive care areas where renal failure is often part of multi-organ failure. Further prospective studies will be required to analyze the impact of early hemofiltration in such patients.

  1. Anti-Ulcerogenic Properties of Lycium chinense Mill Extracts against Ethanol-Induced Acute Gastric Lesion in Animal Models and Its Active Constituents

    Opeyemi J. Olatunji

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available The objective of this study was to explore the gastroprotective properties of the aerial part of Lycium chinense Mill (LCA against ethanol-induced gastric mucosa lesions in mice models. Administration of LCA at doses of 50, 100, 200 and 400 mg/kg body weight prior to ethanol consumption dose dependently inhibited gastric ulcers. The gastric mucosal injury was analyzed by gastric juice acidity, glutathione (GSH, superoxide dismutase (SOD, malondialdehyde (MDA, myeloperoxidase (MPO activities. Furthermore, the levels of the inflammatory mediators, tumor necrosis factor-α (TNF-α, interleukin-6 (IL-6 and interleukin-1β (IL-1β in serum were also analyzed using ELISA. Pathological changes were also observed with the aid of hematoxylin-eosin (HE staining. Our results indicated that LCA significantly reduced the levels of MPO, MDA and increased SOD and GSH activities. Furthermore, LCA also significantly inhibited the levels of TNF-α, IL-6, and IL-1β in the serum of ulcerated mice in a dose dependent manner. Immunohistological analysis indicated that LCA also significantly attenuated the overexpression of nuclear factor-κB in pretreated mice models. This findings suggests Lycium chinense Mill possesses gastroprotective properties against ethanol-induced gastric injury and could be a possible therapeutic intervention in the treatment and management of gastric ulcers.

  2. Anti-Ulcerogenic Properties of Lycium chinense Mill Extracts against Ethanol-Induced Acute Gastric Lesion in Animal Models and Its Active Constituents.

    Olatunji, Opeyemi J; Chen, Hongxia; Zhou, Yifeng

    2015-01-01

    The objective of this study was to explore the gastroprotective properties of the aerial part of Lycium chinense Mill (LCA) against ethanol-induced gastric mucosa lesions in mice models. Administration of LCA at doses of 50, 100, 200 and 400 mg/kg body weight prior to ethanol consumption dose dependently inhibited gastric ulcers. The gastric mucosal injury was analyzed by gastric juice acidity, glutathione (GSH), superoxide dismutase (SOD), malondialdehyde (MDA), myeloperoxidase (MPO) activities. Furthermore, the levels of the inflammatory mediators, tumor necrosis factor-α (TNF-α), interleukin-6 (IL-6) and interleukin-1β (IL-1β) in serum were also analyzed using ELISA. Pathological changes were also observed with the aid of hematoxylin-eosin (HE) staining. Our results indicated that LCA significantly reduced the levels of MPO, MDA and increased SOD and GSH activities. Furthermore, LCA also significantly inhibited the levels of TNF-α, IL-6, and IL-1β in the serum of ulcerated mice in a dose dependent manner. Immunohistological analysis indicated that LCA also significantly attenuated the overexpression of nuclear factor-κB in pretreated mice models. This findings suggests Lycium chinense Mill possesses gastroprotective properties against ethanol-induced gastric injury and could be a possible therapeutic intervention in the treatment and management of gastric ulcers. PMID:26694339

  3. Acute pancreatitis : new frontiers in diagnosis and treatment

    van Santvoort, H.C.

    2010-01-01

    Acute pancreatitis is an acute inflammation of the pancreas mostly caused by gallstones and alcohol abuse. Around 15 to 20% of patients show a severe clinical course, which is characterised by multiple organ failure and necrosis of the pancreatic parenchyma and/ or peripancreatic fat tissue. In arou

  4. Acute Dystonia Due to Citalopram Treatment: A Case Series

    Moosavi, S. Mohammad; Ahmadi, Mahshid; Monajemi, Mani B.

    2014-01-01

    Introduction: Abnormal movements such as acute dystonia, dyskinesia, parkinsonism, exacerbation of Parkinson disease, akathisia and possibly neuroleptic malignant syndrome may be associated with the use of selective serotonin reuptake inhibitors (SSRIs) rarely. Citalopram, a typical SSRI, used in serotonergic dysfunction related disorders, potentially can cause extrapyramidal symptoms such as acute dystonia. Methods: In a retrospective survey on patients referred to psychiatric clinic between...

  5. Basics of acute stroke treatment; Grundzuege der akuten Schlaganfalltherapie

    Haass, A. [Neurologische Universitaetsklinik Homburg/Saar (Germany)

    2005-05-01

    Acute stroke presents an emergency that requires immediate referral to a specialized hospital, preferably with a stroke unit. Disability and mortality are reduced by 30% in patients treated in stroke units compared to those treated on regular wards, even if a specialized team is present on the ward. Systolic blood pressure may remain high at 200-220 mmHg in the acute phase and should not be lowered too quickly. Further guidelines for basic care include: optimal O{sub 2} delivery, blood sugar levels below 100-150 mg%, and lowering body temperature below 37.5 C using physical means or drugs. Increased intracranial pressure should be treated by raising the upper body of the patient, administration of glycerol, mannitol, and/or sorbitol, artificial respiration, and special monitoring of Tris buffer. Decompressive craniectomy may be considered in cases of ''malignant'' media stroke and expansive cerebellar infarction. Fibrinolysis is the most effective stroke treatment and is twice as effective in the treatment of stroke than myocardial infarction. Fibrinolysis may be initiated within 3 h of a stroke in the anterior circulation. If a penumbra is detectable by ''PWI-DWI mismatch MRI,'' specialized hospitals may perform fibrinolysis up to 6 h after symptom onset. In cases of stroke in the basilar artery, fibrinolysis may be performed even later after symptom onset. Intra-arterial fibrinolysis is performed in these cases using rt-PA or urokinase. Follow-up treatment of stroke patients should not only address post-stroke depression and neuropsychological deficits, but also include patient education about risk factors such as high blood pressure, diabetes mellitus, and cardiac arrhythmias. (orig.) [German] Jeder akute Schlaganfall ist ein Notfall und muss sofort in einer spezialisierten Klinik, am besten einer Stroke Unit, behandelt werden. Die Stroke-Unit-Behandlung senkt den Behinderungsgrad und die Letalitaet um 30% staerker als die

  6. Efficacy and safety of parecoxib in the treatment of acute renal colic: a randomized clinical trial

    Sidney Glina; Ronaldo Damiao; Joao Afif-Abdo; Carlos Francisco Santa Maria; Raúl Novoa; Carlos Eurico Dornelles Cairoli; Dalia Wajsbrot; Gaston Araya

    2011-01-01

    PURPOSE: Although nonselective nonsteroidal anti-inflammatory drugs (nsNSAIDs) and opioids are effective treatments for acute renal colic, they are associated with adverse events (AEs). As cyclooxygenase-2 selective NSAIDs may provide a safer alternative, we compared the efficacy and safety of parecoxib versus an nsNSAID in subjects with acute renal colic. MATERIALS AND METHODS: Phase IV., multicenter, double-blind, noninferiority, active-controlled study: 338 subjects with acute renal colic ...

  7. Blood transfusion for the treatment of acute anaemia in inflammatory bowel disease and other digestive diseases

    García-Erce, José Antonio; Gomollón, Fernando; Muñoz, Manuel

    2009-01-01

    Allogeneic blood transfusion (ABT) is frequently used as the first therapeutic option for the treatment of acute anaemia in patients with inflammatory bowel disease (IBD), especially when it developed due to gastrointestinal or perioperative blood loss, but is not risk-free. Adverse effects of ABT include, but are not limited to, acute hemolytic reaction (wrong blood or wrong patient), febrile non-hemolytic transfusional reaction, bacterial contamination, transfusion-related acute lung injury...

  8. Effect of Korean red ginseng extract on liver damage induced by short-term and long-term ethanol treatment in rats

    Seo, Su-Jeong; Cho, Jae Youl; Jeong, Yeon Ho; Choi, Yong-Soon

    2013-01-01

    Korean red ginseng (KRG) is prepared by the process of steaming the roots of Panax ginseng. In this study, the feeding effects of KRG-water extract (KRGE) on ethanol-induced liver damage were elucidated by measuring serum biomarkers in rats. Serum γ-glutamyltranspeptidase (γ-GT) activity and the concentration of malondialdehyde (MDA) were significantly increased by short-term and long-term ethanol treatment in rats, whereas the activities of serum glutamate pyruvate transaminase (GPT) and glu...

  9. Early diagnosis and treatment of severe acute cholangitis

    Wei-Zhong Zhang; Yi-Shao Chen; Jin-Wei Wang; Xue-Rong Chen

    2002-01-01

    AIM: To investigate the diagnostic standard for earlyidentification of severe acute cholangitis in order to lowerthe incidence of morbidity and mortality rate.METHODS: A diagnostic standard was proposed in thisstudy as follows: documented biliary duct obstruction byultrasound or computerized tomography or other imagingtools with the manifestation of systemic inflammatoryresponse syndrome (SIRS). The surgical proceduresincluded emergency common bile duct exploration with Ttube insertion or cholecystostomy with secondary commonbile duct exploration. And incidence of postoperativemultiple organ dysfunction syndrome (MODS), duration ofsystemic inflammatory response and hospital mortality wereanalyzed.RESULTS: Fourty - three patients conforming to thediagnostic standard described above were employed in thisstudy. 1 patient was admitted in acutely ill condition andcomplicated with acute relapse of chronic bronchitis,cholecystostomy procedure was performed but the patientwas complicated with postoperative acute lung injury whiclwas treated by assisted mechanical ventilation for 5 d; 2 wllater, two- stage common bile duct Exploration and T tubeinsertion were performed. The remaining 42 patientsunderwent primary common bile duct exploration and T tubeinsertion, 1 developed acute lung injury and recovered 3 dlater, 2 patients developedl acute renal dysfunction, 1 ofwhich recovered 2 d later and the other died on d 4. For allpatients, the postoperative systemic inflammatory responsepersisted for 2 to 8 d with median of 3 d.CONCLUSION: Early diagnosis of severe acute cholangitiscan be made using this diagnostic standard, furtherdevelopment of systemic inflammatory response could beprevented and incidence of MODS as well as hospitalmortality decreased.

  10. Ethanol Extract of Fructus Schisandrae Decreases Hepatic Triglyceride Level in Mice Fed with a High Fat/Cholesterol Diet, with Attention to Acute Toxicity

    Si-Yuan Pan; Zhi-Ling Yu; Hang Dong; Chun-Jing Xiang; Wang-Fun Fong; Kam-Ming Ko

    2011-01-01

    Effects of the ethanol extract of Fructus Schisandrae (EtFSC) on serum and liver lipid contents were investigated in mice fed with high fat/cholesterol (HFC) diet for 8 or 15 days. The induction of hypercholesterolemia by HFC diet caused significant increases in serum and hepatic total cholesterol (TC) levels (up to 62% and 165%, resp.) and hepatic triglyceride (TG) levels (up to 528%) in mice. EtFSC treatment (1 or 5 g/kg/day for 7 days; from Day 1 to 7 or from Day 8 to 14, i.g.) significant...

  11. Percutaneous Ethanol Injection as a Possible Curative Treatment for Malignant Portal Vein Thrombosis in Hepatocellular Carcinoma

    Postoperative residual hepatocellular carcinoma(HCC) with malignant portal vein thrombosis in a 48-year-old man was cured with transarterial chemoembolization (TACE) for the parenchymalportion and percutaneous ethanol injection (PEI) for the malignantportal vein thrombosis. No evidence of tumor recurrence was noted after 18 months of follow-up. The only severe complication in our patient was biliary stricture which was treated with an internal stent viaendoscopic retrograde pancreatico-cholangiography (ERCP)

  12. Percutaneous ethanol injection as a possible curative treatment for malignant portal vein thrombosis in hepatocellular carcinoma

    Postoperative residual hepatocellular carcinoma (HCC) with malignant portal vein thrombosis in a 48-year-old man was cured with transarterial chemoembolization (TACE) for the parenchymal portion and percutaneous ethanol injection (PEI) for the malignant portal vein thrombosis. No evidence of tumor recurrence was noted after 18 months of follow-up. The only severe complication in our patient was biliary stricture which was treated with an internal stent via endoscopic retrograde pancreatico-cholangiography (ERCP).

  13. Radiofrequency ablation or percutaneous ethanol injection for the treatment of liver tumors

    2012-01-01

    The liver is a common location of both primary and secondary malignancies. For unresectable liver cancer, many local ablative therapies have been developed. These include e.g., percutaneous ethanol injection (PEI), percutaneous acetic acid injection, radiofrequency ablation (RFA), cryoablation, microwave ablation, laser-induced thermotherapy, and high-intensity focused ultrasound. RFA has recently gained interest and is the most widely applied thermoablative technique. RFA allows more effecti...

  14. Early preventive treatment for severe acute pancreatitis combined with lung injury

    刘学民; 刘青光; 潘承恩

    2002-01-01

    @@ Severe acute pancreatitis (SAP) can cause systematic inflammatory response syndrome (SIRS),which leads to injury or failure of the internal organs and systems.1 Among them,acute respiratory distress syndrome(ARDS)is a severe or fatal complication.In this article,the early preventive treatment for SAP combined with lung injure is studied.

  15. Risk factors of acute hepatic failure during antituberculosis treatment : two cases and literature review

    Smink, F.; van Hoek, B.; Ringers, J.; van Altena, R.; Arend, S. M.

    2006-01-01

    Hepatotoxicity is a well-known side effect of antituberculosis treatment (ATT). If not recognised in time, drug-induced hepatitis can develop, which may rapidly progress to acute liver failure. We describe two patients with acute hepatic failure caused by ATT, whose pretreatment liver function had b

  16. Targeted fibrillar nanocarbon RNAi treatment of acute kidney injury

    Alidori, Simone; Akhavein, Nima; Thorek, Daniel L. J.; Behling, Katja; Romin, Yevgeniy; Queen, Dawn; Beattie, Bradley J.; Manova-Todorova, Katia; Bergkvist, Magnus; Scheinberg, David A.; McDevitt, Michael R.

    2016-01-01

    RNA interference has tremendous yet unrealized potential to treat a wide range of illnesses. Innovative solutions are needed to protect and selectively deliver small interfering RNA (siRNA) cargo to and within a target cell to fully exploit siRNA as a therapeutic tool in vivo. Herein, we describe ammonium-functionalized carbon nanotube (fCNT)–mediated transport of siRNA selectively and with high efficiency to renal proximal tubule cells in animal models of acute kidney injury (AKI). fCNT enhanced siRNA delivery to tubule cells compared to siRNA alone and effectively knocked down the expression of several target genes, including Trp53, Mep1b, Ctr1, and EGFP. A clinically relevant cisplatin-induced murine model of AKI was used to evaluate the therapeutic potential of fCNT-targeted siRNA to effectively halt the pathogenesis of renal injury. Prophylactic treatment with a combination of fCNT/siMep1b and fCNT/siTrp53 significantly improved progression-free survival compared to controls via a mechanism that required concurrent reduction of meprin-1β and p53 expression. The fCNT/siRNA was well tolerated, and no toxicological consequences were observed in murine models. Toward clinical application of this platform, fCNTs were evaluated for the first time in nonhuman primates. The rapid and kidney-specific pharmacokinetic profile of fCNT in primates was comparable to what was observed in mice and suggests that this approach is amenable for use in humans. The nanocarbon-mediated delivery of siRNA provides a therapeutic means for the prevention of AKI to safely overcome the persistent barrier of nephrotoxicity during medical intervention. PMID:27009268

  17. Treatment of acute lateral ankle ligament rupture in the athlete. Conservative versus surgical treatment.

    Lynch, S A; Renström, P A

    1999-01-01

    Acute lateral ankle ligament sprains are common in young athletes (15 to 35 years of age). Diagnostic and treatment protocols vary. Therapies range from cast immobilisation or acute surgical repair to functional rehabilitation. The lateral ligament complex includes 3 capsular ligaments: the anterior tibiofibular (ATFL), calcaneofibular (CFL) and posterior talofibular (PTFL) ligaments. Injuries typically occur during plantar flexion and inversion; the ATFL is most commonly torn. The CFL and the PTFL can also be injured and, after severe inversion, subtalar joint ligaments are also affected. Commonly, an athlete with a lateral ankle ligament sprain reports having 'rolled over' the outside of their ankle. The entire ankle and foot must be examined to ensure there are no other injuries. Clinical stability tests for ligamentous disruption include the anterior drawer test of ATFL function and inversion tilt test of both ATFL and CFL function. Radiographs may rule out treatable fractures in severe injuries or when pain or tenderness are not associated with lateral ligaments. Stress radiographs do not affect treatment. Ankle sprains are classified from grades I to III (mild, moderate or severe). Grade I and II injuries recover quickly with nonoperative management. A non-operative 'functional treatment' programme includes immediate use of RICE (rest, ice, compression, elevation), a short period of immobilisation and protection with a tape or bandage, and early range of motion, weight-bearing and neuromuscular training exercises. Proprioceptive training on a tilt board after 3 to 4 weeks helps improve balance and neuromuscular control of the ankle. Treatment for grade III injuries is more controversial. A comprehensive literature evaluation and meta-analysis showed that early functional treatment provided the fastest recovery of ankle mobility and earliest return to work and physical activity without affecting late mechanical stability. Functional treatment was complication

  18. Acute pancreatitis : new frontiers in diagnosis and treatment

    van Santvoort, H.C.

    2010-01-01

    Acute pancreatitis is an acute inflammation of the pancreas mostly caused by gallstones and alcohol abuse. Around 15 to 20% of patients show a severe clinical course, which is characterised by multiple organ failure and necrosis of the pancreatic parenchyma and/ or peripancreatic fat tissue. In around 30% of patients with necrotising pancreatitis, secondary infection of necrosis occurs, probably due to bacterial translocation from the patient’s own gut. Infected necrosis is an indication for ...

  19. Drug-induced acute myopia following chlorthalidone treatment

    Mahesh G; Giridhar A; Saikumar S; Fegde Sachin

    2007-01-01

    We report a case of sudden loss of vision due to the development of acute myopia after the intake of chlorthalidone used for treating systemic hypertension. Clinically this was associated with ciliary spasm, shallow peripheral choroidal effusion and retinal striae at the macula with increase in macular thickness seen on optical coherence tomography. All these findings were reversed completely once the drug was discontinued. Development of acute myopia should be kept in mind as an adverse effe...

  20. Anxiolytic effects of swimming exercise and ethanol in two behavioral models: beneficial effects and increased sensitivity in mice

    Júlia Niehues da Cruz; Daniela Delwing de Lima; Débora Delwing Dal Magro; José Geraldo Pereira da Cruz

    2012-01-01

    Several behavioral mechanisms have been suggested to explain the effects of ethanol or physical exercise on anxiety. The purpose of the current study was to assess the effects of chronic and acute administration of ethanol on swimming exercise in mice, sequentially submitted to the elevated plus-maze and open-field tests. In the first experiment, sedentary or physical exercise groups received chronic treatment with ethanol (0.1, 0.2, 0.4, 2 or 4 g ethanol/kg/day by ora...

  1. Treatment of Acute Myeloid Leukemia in Adolescent and Young Adult Patients

    Guldane Cengiz Seval

    2015-03-01

    Full Text Available The objectives of this review were to discuss standard and investigational treatment strategies for adolescent and young adult with acute myeloid leukemia, excluding acute promyelocytic leukemia. Acute myeloid leukemia (AML in adolescent and young adult patients (AYAs may need a different type of therapy than those currently used in children and older patients. As soon as AML is diagnosed, AYA patient should be offered to participate in well-designed clinical trials. The standard treatment approach for AYAs with AML is remission induction chemotherapy with an anthracycline/cytarabine combination, followed by either consolidation chemotherapy or stem cell transplantation, depending on the ability of the patient to tolerate intensive treatment and cytogenetic features. Presently, continuing progress of novel drugs targeting specific pathways in acute leukemia may bring AML treatment into a new era.

  2. Aspiration Alone, Aspiration Plus Steroid Injection and Aspiration Plus Ethanol Injection for Treatment of Dorsal Wrist Ganglions: A Comparative Study among Three Methods

    Khandoker Abdur Rahim

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Background: There are varieties of treatment modalities to treat dorsal wrist ganglion cysts. But none of these has been the standard. So, we designed this study to compare among different treatment modalities. Objective: To compare the effects of aspiration alone, aspiration plus methylprednisone injection and aspiration plus ethanol injection into the dorsal wrist ganglions. Materials and Methods: This prospective study was performed in Dhaka Medical College Hospital, Dhaka from March 2010 to May 2011. Sixty six patients with dorsal wrist ganglions were treated in three groups –– aspiration alone in 24 patients (Group A, aspiration plus methylprednisolone injection into the cyst in 20 patients (Group B and aspiration plus ethanol injection, then reaspiration of the ethanol from the cyst after 3–5 minutes, in 22 patients (Group C. Elastic compression bandage was applied in all patients and recommended for 3 weeks. Follow-up was done at 1, 3, 6 and 12 months and conclusive assessment was done during final visit. Results: The success rate in Group A was seen in 9 patients (37.5%, in Group B in 11 (55% and in Group C in 14 (63.5% patients. The most frequent side-effect was pain during ethanol injection which was relieved by reaspiration of cyst. Conclusion: Injection of ethanol into the dorsal wrist ganglion was associated with higher success rate compared to aspiration and methylprednisolone injection. Further studies with larger sample size should be performed to assess the effect of ethanol injection in this disease.

  3. Cholecystostomy as Bridge to Surgery and as Definitive Treatment or Acute Cholecystectomy in Patients with Acute Cholecystitis

    Agnieszka Popowicz

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Purpose. Percutaneous cholecystostomy (PC has increasingly been used as bridge to surgery as well as sole treatment for patients with acute cholecystitis (AC. The aim of the study was to assess the outcome after PC compared to acute cholecystectomy in patients with AC. Methods. A review of medical records was performed on all patients residing in Stockholm County treated for AC in the years 2003 and 2008. Results. In 2003 and 2008 altogether 799 and 833 patients were admitted for AC. The number of patients treated with PC was 21/799 (2.6% in 2003 and 50/833 (6.0% in 2008. The complication rate (Clavien-Dindo ≥ 2 was 4/71 (5.6% after PC and 135/736 (18.3% after acute cholecystectomy. Mean (standard deviation hospital stay was 11.4 (10.5 days for patients treated with PC and 5.1 (4.3 days for patients undergoing acute cholecystectomy. After adjusting for age, gender, Charlson comorbidity index, and degree of cholecystitis, the hospital stay was significantly longer for patients treated with PC than for those undergoing acute cholecystectomy (P<0.001 but the risk for intervention-related complications was found to be significantly lower (P=0.001 in the PC group. Conclusion. PC can be performed with few serious complications, albeit with a longer hospital stay.

  4. Hematocolpos as a Result of Delayed Treatment of Acute Straddle Injury in an Adolescent Girl

    Hae Jin Hwang; Hyun Wook Lim; Young Shin Han; Jeong In Choi; Min Jeong Kim

    2016-01-01

    Accidental genital trauma is most commonly caused by straddle-type injuries and is usually treatable by nonoperative management, and most of the injuries have a good prognosis. When the bleeding occurred due to straddle injury in adolescent girl, experienced gynecological examination and treatment were very important. We experienced a case of straddle injury to the posterior fourchette that caused acute hematocolpos due to delayed adequate treatment with hypotension and acute abdomen in an ad...

  5. Diagnosis and treatment of acute ankle injuries: development of an evidence-based algorithm

    Hans Polzer; Karl Georg Kanz; Wolf Christian Prall; Florian Haasters; Ben Ockert; Wolf Mutschler; Stefan Grote

    2011-01-01

    Acute ankle injuries are among the most common injuries in emergency departments. However, there are still no standardized examination procedures or evidence-based treatment. Therefore, the aim of this study was to systematically search the current literature, classify the evidence, and develop an algorithm for the diagnosis and treatment of acute ankle injuries. We systematically searched PubMed and the Cochrane Database for randomized controlled trials, meta-analyses, systematic reviews or,...

  6. Diagnosis and treatment of acute ankle injuries: development of an evidence-based algorithm

    Hans Polzer; Karl-Georg Kanz; Wolf Christian Prall; Florian Haasters; Ben Ockert; Wolf Mutschler; Stefan Grote

    2012-01-01

    Acute ankle injuries are among the most common injuries in emergency departments. However, a standardized examination and an evidence-based treatment are missing. Therefore, aim of this study was to systematically search the current literature, classify the evidence and develop an algorithm for diagnosis and treatment of acute ankle injuries. We systematically searched PubMed and the Cochrane Database for randomized controlled trials, meta-analysis, systematic reviews, or if applicable observ...

  7. Ethanol and neuronal metabolism.

    Mandel, P; Ledig, M; M'Paria, J R

    1980-01-01

    The effect of ethanol on membrane enzymes (Na+, K+ and Mg2+ ATPases, 5'-nucleotidase, adenylate cyclase) alcohol dehydrogenase, aldehyde dehydrogenase and superoxide dismutase were studied in nerve cells (established cell lines, primary cultures of chick and rat brain) cultured in the presence of 100 mM ethanol, and in total rat brain, following various ethanol treatments of the rats (20% ethanol as the sole liquid source, intraperitoneal injection). The results show a difference between neuronal and glial cells. Most of the observed changes in enzymatic activities returned rapidly to control values when ethanol was withdrawn from the culture medium or from the diet. Alcohol dehydrogenase was more stimulated by ethanol than aldehyde dehydrogenase; therefore acetaldehyde may be accumulated. The inhibition of superoxide dismutase activity may allow an accumulation of cytotoxic O2- radicals in nervous tissue and may explain the polymorphism of lesions brought about by alcohol intoxication. PMID:6264495

  8. Protective effects of alginate–chitosan microspheres loaded with alkaloids from Coptis chinensis Franch. and Evodia rutaecarpa (Juss. Benth. (Zuojin Pill against ethanol-induced acute gastric mucosal injury in rats

    Wang QS

    2015-11-01

    Full Text Available Qiang-Song Wang,1,2,* Xiao-Ning Zhu,1,* Heng-Li Jiang,1,* Gui-Fang Wang,3 Yuan-Lu Cui1 1Tianjin State Key Laboratory of Modern Chinese Medicine, Research Center of Traditional Chinese Medicine, Tianjin University of Traditional Chinese Medicine, 2Institute of Biomedical Engineering, Chinese Academy of Medical Science & Peking Union Medical College, 3Pharmacy Department, Baokang Hospital, Tianjin University of Traditional Chinese Medicine, Tianjin, People’s Republic of China *These authors contributed equally to this work Abstract: Zuojin Pill (ZJP, a traditional Chinese medicine formula, consists of Coptis chinensis Franch. and Evodia rutaecarpa (Juss. Benth. in a ratio of 6:1 (w/w and was first recorded in “Danxi’s experiential therapy” for treating gastrointestinal disorders in the 15th century. However, the poor solubility of alkaloids from ZJP restricted the protective effect in treating gastritis and gastric ulcer. The aim of the study was to investigate the protective mechanism of mucoadhesive microspheres loaded with alkaloids from C. chinensis Franch. and E. rutaecarpa (Juss. Benth. on ethanol-induced acute gastric mucosal injury in rats. Surface morphology, particle size, drug loading, encapsulation efficiency, in vitro drug release, mucoadhesiveness, and fluorescent imaging of the microspheres in gastrointestinal tract were studied. The results showed that the mucoadhesive microspheres loaded with alkaloids could sustain the release of drugs beyond 12 hours and had gastric mucoadhesive property with 82.63% retention rate in vitro. The fluorescence tracer indicated high retention of mucoadhesive microspheres within 12 hours in vivo. The mucoadhesive microspheres loaded with alkaloids could reduce the gastric injury by decreasing the mucosal lesion index, increasing the percentage of inhibition and increasing the amount of mucus in the gastric mucosa in an ethanol-induced gastric mucosal injury rat model. Moreover, the

  9. Acute anti-inflammatory activity of ethanolic extract of leaves of Leucas indica by carrageenan induced paw oedema in wistar albino rats

    Chandrashekar R.

    2013-06-01

    Full Text Available Background: Inflammation is basically a defense phenomenon but can lead to serious pathological conditions. It is treated by various agents with good to moderate success because of both considerable toxicity and side effects. There are various mediators to cause an inflammatory reaction that can contribute to the associated symptoms and tissue injury. Even though non steroidal anti-inflammatory drugs are the most commonly prescribed drugs in the world, their use as anti-inflammatory agents continues to be principally limited by their undesired side effects. Hence, the traditional medical practitioners and scientists are turning towards Indian System of Medicine (ISM. Methods: Dried powdered leaves of Leucas indica were subjected to solvent extraction by using 90 % ethanol. Based on acute oral toxicity study according to Organization for Economic Cooperation and Development (OECD guidelines No. 423, three doses of the test drug 75, 150 & 300mg/kg were selected and subjected to preclinical anti-inflammatory screening by carrageenin induced paw oedema in Wistar Albino rats. Results : Oral administration of Ethanolic Extract Of Leaves of Leucas Indica (EELLI at doses of 150 mg/kg and 300mg/kg showed significant anti-inflammatory activity 52.58% (p<0.01 and 36.87% (p<0.05 respectively compared to control. Conclusion: Even though oral administration of EELLI has shown significant anti-inflammatory activity, further studies are required to evaluate its comprehensive analysis including quantitative / semi quantitative analysis, characterize its chemical structure and assess its pharmacotherapeutic activities with exact mechanism of action as an anti-inflammatory agent. [Int J Basic Clin Pharmacol 2013; 2(3.000: 302-305

  10. Acute gross sterile pyuria after oral ciprofloxacin treatment of urinary tract infection

    Pathoom Sukkaromdee; Viroj Wiwanitkit

    2016-01-01

    The sterile pyuria is an interesting problem in urology. Acute gross sterile pyuria is not a common clinical problem and is difficult to make a correct diagnosis. Here, the authors reported a case of acute gross sterile pyuria after oral ciprofloxacin treatment of urinary tract infection. The patient developed problem after complete course of 7-day acute upper urinary tract treatment. The patient was observed with cloudy whitish urine that had never seen before. The urinalysis showed sterile pyuria. This case was treated by conservative method and the problem was resolved within 7 days.

  11. ACG Clinical Guideline: Diagnosis, Treatment, and Prevention of Acute Diarrheal Infections in Adults.

    Riddle, Mark S; DuPont, Herbert L; Connor, Bradley A

    2016-05-01

    Acute diarrheal infections are a common health problem globally and among both individuals in the United States and traveling to developing world countries. Multiple modalities including antibiotic and non-antibiotic therapies have been used to address these common infections. Information on treatment, prevention, diagnostics, and the consequences of acute diarrhea infection has emerged and helps to inform clinical management. In this ACG Clinical Guideline, the authors present an evidence-based approach to diagnosis, prevention, and treatment of acute diarrhea infection in both US-based and travel settings. PMID:27068718

  12. The treatment of acute soft tissue trauma in Danish emergency rooms

    Johannsen, F; Langberg, Henning

    1997-01-01

    Rest, ice, compression, elevation (RICE) is the most recommended treatment for acute traumatic soft tissue injuries. A questionnaire was given to all Danish emergency rooms (n = 5) regarding their routines for acute treatment of ankle sprains and muscle contusions. Complete answers were received...... from 37 emergency rooms (73%), covering the treatment of 111 ankle sprains and 101 muscle contusions. Treatment with RICE was given in a minority of injuries, ice (21%), compression (32%) and elevation (58%) similarly between injury types. A complete RICE treatment was rarely applied (3%). Verbal...... information on RICE and rehabilitation was given in less than half of the cases. We conclude that the acute treatment of ankle sprains and muscle contusions in the Danish emergency rooms is not applied in accordance with consensus from international literature, and that the instruction in rehabilitation...

  13. Efficacy of synbiotic treatment in children with acute rotavirus diarrhea

    Made Ratna Dewi

    2015-03-01

    Full Text Available Background Diarrhea is one of the major causes of morbidity and mortality in children throughout the world, mostly due to rotavirus infection. In daily practice, we routinely use the World Health Organization Five steps for managing acute diarrhea.This practice has shown great success in diarrhea management, but concerns remain on reducing the duration of diarrhea to prevent complications. Synbiotics can reduce the severity of diarrhea. However, there has been limited data on synbiotic therapy for treating acute rotavirus diarrhea in children. Objective To compare the durations of acute rotavirus diarrhea treated with synbiotics vs. placebo. Methods This study was a randomized, double-blind, clinical trial, performed at the Pediatric Gastrohepatology Division, Sanglah and Wangaya Hospitals in Denpasar. Subjects were children aged 6 to 59 months with acute rotavirus diarrhea. Rotavirus was diagnosed by immune chromatography assay. The synbiotic group received probiotic comprised of Lactobacillus sp., Streptococcus sp., Bifidobacterium sp. (total viable count 1.00x109 CFU per dose, and prebiotic consisted of 990.00 mg fructooligosacharide (FOS. The placebo consisted of lactose monohydrate packaged similarly as the synbiotics. Subjects orally ingested 1 pack per day for 5 days. Results Seventy children with acute rotavirus diarrhea was involved in this study. The median duration of diarrhea in the synbiotic group was 50.0 (SE 1.1; 95%CI 47.9 to 52.1 hours, while that of the placebo group was 63.0 (SE 5.9; 95%CI 51.4 to 74.6 hours. Based on Kaplan-Meier survival analysis, the duration of diarrhea in the synbiotic group was significantly shorter than that of the placebo group (log-rank test P <0.0001. Conclusion In children with acute rotaviral diarrhea, synbiotic reduces the duration of diarrhea compared to placebo. [Paediatr Indones. 2015;55:74-8.].

  14. Early Treatment of Severe Acute Respiratory Distress Syndrome.

    Przybysz, Thomas M; Heffner, Alan C

    2016-02-01

    Acute respiratory distress syndrome (ARDS) is defined by acute diffuse inflammatory lung injury invoked by a variety of systemic or pulmonary insults. Despite medical progress in management, mortality remains 27% to 45%. Patients with ARDS should be managed with low tidal volume ventilation. Permissive hypercapnea is well tolerated. Conservative fluid strategy can reduce ventilator and hospital days in patients without shock. Prone positioning and neuromuscular blockers reduce mortality in some patients. Early management of ARDS is relevant to emergency medicine. Identifying ARDS patients who should be transferred to an extracorporeal membrane oxygenation center is an important task for emergency providers. PMID:26614238

  15. Nonoperative, dynamic treatment of acute achilles tendon rupture

    Barfod, Kristoffer Weisskirchner; Bencke, Jesper; Lauridsen, Hanne Bloch;

    2015-01-01

    Acute Achilles tendon rupture alters the biomechanical properties of the plantar flexor muscle-tendon complex that can affect functional performance and the risk of repeat injury. The purpose of the present study was to compare the biomechanical properties of the plantar flexor muscle-tendon comp......Acute Achilles tendon rupture alters the biomechanical properties of the plantar flexor muscle-tendon complex that can affect functional performance and the risk of repeat injury. The purpose of the present study was to compare the biomechanical properties of the plantar flexor muscle...

  16. Autophagy Protects against CYP2E1/Chronic Ethanol-Induced Hepatotoxicity

    Yongke Lu

    2015-10-01

    Full Text Available Autophagy is an intracellular pathway by which lysosomes degrade and recycle long-lived proteins and cellular organelles. The effects of ethanol on autophagy are complex but recent studies have shown that autophagy serves a protective function against ethanol-induced liver injury. Autophagy was found to also be protective against CYP2E1-dependent toxicity in vitro in HepG2 cells which express CYP2E1 and in vivo in an acute alcohol/CYPE1-dependent liver injury model. The goal of the current report was to extend the previous in vitro and acute in vivo experiments to a chronic ethanol model to evaluate whether autophagy is also protective against CYP2E1-dependent liver injury in a chronic ethanol-fed mouse model. Wild type (WT, CYP2E1 knockout (KO or CYP2E1 humanized transgenic knockin (KI, mice were fed an ethanol liquid diet or control dextrose diet for four weeks. In the last week, some mice received either saline or 3-methyladenine (3-MA, an inhibitor of autophagy, or rapamycin, which stimulates autophagy. Inhibition of autophagy by 3-MA potentiated the ethanol-induced increases in serum transaminase and triglyceride levels in the WT and KI mice but not KO mice, while rapamycin prevented the ethanol liver injury. Treatment with 3-MA enhanced the ethanol-induced fat accumulation in WT mice and caused necrosis in the KI mice; little or no effect was found in the ethanol-fed KO mice or any of the dextrose-fed mice. 3-MA treatment further lowered the ethanol-decrease in hepatic GSH levels and further increased formation of TBARS in WT and KI mice, whereas rapamycin blunted these effects of ethanol. Neither 3-MA nor rapamycin treatment affected CYP2E1 catalytic activity or content or the induction CYP2E1 by ethanol. The 3-MA treatment decreased levels of Beclin-1 and Atg 7 but increased levels of p62 in the ethanol-fed WT and KI mice whereas rapamycin had the opposite effects, validating inhibition and stimulation of autophagy, respectively. These

  17. Dexamethasone and dextran 40 treatment of 32 patients with severe acute pancreatitis

    Zi-Fa Wang; Chang Liu; Yi Lu; Rui Dong; Jun Xu; Liang Yu; Ying-Min Yao; Qing-Guang Liu; Cheng-En Pan

    2004-01-01

    AIM: Based on the pathogenesis of severe acute pancreatitis and our experimental studies, to investigate the effect of dexamethasone and dextran in treatment of patients with severe acute pancreatitis.METHODS: Thirty-two patients with severe acute pancreatitis were treated with 0.5-1 rg/kg per day dexamethasone for 3-5 d, and 500-1 000 mL/d of dextran 40 for 7 d, besides the routine therapy.RESULTS: After 4-8 h of treatment, abdominal pain began to be relieved; range of tenderness began to be localized in 27 patients. They were cured with nonsurgical treatment.Five of them were deteriorated, and treated with surgery.Four patients in this group died.CONCLUSION: Dexamethasone and dextran 40 block the pathologic process of severe acute pancreatitis through inhibition of inflammatory mediators and improvement of microcirculation disorders respectively.

  18. JAK kinase inhibitors for the treatment of acute lymphoblastic leukemia

    Degryse, Sandrine; Cools, Jan

    2015-01-01

    Recent studies of acute lymphoblastic leukemia have identified activating mutations in components of the interleukin-7 receptor complex (IL7R, JAK1, and JAK3). It will be of interest to investigate both JAK1 and JAK3 kinase inhibitors as targeted agents for these leukemias.

  19. Percutaneous mechanical thrombectomy for treatment of acute femoropopliteal bypass occlusion

    Lichtenberg M

    2012-05-01

    Full Text Available Michael Lichtenberg1, Matthias Käunicke1, Birgit Hailer1,21Cardiovascular Clinic, Vascular Center, Katholisches Klinikum Essen, Germany; 2University of Witten/Herdecke, GermanyAbstract: Acute and subacute ischemia of the legs in acute and subacute femoropopliteal bypass occlusion is a dramatic situation that endangers the survival of the limbs, depending on the severity of the ischemia. Different therapy options like percutaneous mechanical thrombectomy procedures, which include rotational thrombectomy, have become available in recent years, in addition to local lysis and surgical thrombectomy. Surgical thrombectomy using the Fogarty catheter technique, in particular, shows an increased incidence of perioperative complications but only small technical success rates in randomized trials. On the other hand, local lysis is associated with increased costs due to resource-consuming measures, such as intensive monitoring and repeat angiographies, in addition to bleeding complications. In the past, further development of the Straub Rotarex® system as an endovascular therapy option has demonstrated good success leading to amputation-free survival in multiple studies. At the same time, a low rate of complications with use has been documented. Most examinations have been conducted in the thigh. To date, there are little investigational data on its use in acutely and subacutely occluded femoropopliteal bypasses. In this paper, the current study-based significance of the Rotarex system for this indication is analyzed based on the existing literature and the authors' own experiences with 22 patients.Keywords: acute limb ischemia, femoropopliteal bypass, local lysis, rotational thrombectomy

  20. Academic career after treatment for acute lymphoblastic leukaemia

    Kingma, A; Rammeloo, LAJ; van der Does-van den Berg, A; Rekers-Mombarg, L; Postma, A

    2000-01-01

    Aim-To evaluate academic career in long term survivors of childhood acute lymphoblastic leukaemia (ALL), in comparison to their healthy siblings. Patients-Ninety four children treated for ALL with cranial irradiation 18 or 25 Gy and intrathecal methotrexate as CNS prophylaxis. Median age at evaluati

  1. Neostigmine for treatment of acute colonic pseudo-obstruction

    Suri S

    2005-01-01

    Full Text Available Acute colonic pseudo-obstruction is managed with bolus neostigmine as shown in a recent prospective, double blind, placebo-controlled study. Parasympathetic stimulation with neostigmine leads to abdominal pain, salivation, and symptomatic bradycardia. We submit a more effective method may involve use of neostigmine infusion to reduce complications and improve efficacy.

  2. Acute Stress Disorder: Conceptual Issues and Treatment Outcomes

    Koucky, Ellen M.; Galovski, Tara E.; Nixon, Reginald D. V.

    2012-01-01

    Acute stress disorder (ASD) was included as a diagnosis to the 4th edition of the "Diagnostic and Statistical Manual" (American Psychiatric Association, 1994) as a way of describing pathological reactions in the first month following a trauma. Since that time, ASD has been the focus of some controversy, particularly regarding the theoretical basis…

  3. Antioxidant Properties and Gastroprotective Effects of 2-(EthylthioBenzohydrazones on Ethanol-Induced Acute Gastric Mucosal Lesions in Rats.

    Nafal Nazarbahjat

    Full Text Available A series of new 2-(ethylthiobenzohydrazone derivatives (1-6 were prepared and characterised by IR, 1H NMR, and 13C NMR spectroscopy and mass spectrometry. The newly prepared compounds were screened for their in vitro antioxidant activities using free radical scavenging 2,2-diphenyl-1-picrylhydrazyl (DPPH and ferric reducing antioxidant power (FRAP assays. Among them, most powerful antioxidant, compound 1 has been selected in order to illustrate anti-ulcer effect on ethanol-induced gastric mucosal lesions in rats. Four groups of Sprague Dawley rats were respectively treated with 10% Tween 20 as ulcer control group, 20 mg/kg omeprazole as reference group, 50 mg/kg and 100 mg/kg compound 1 as experimental animals. Macroscopically, ulcer control group showed extensive hemorrhagic lesions of gastric mucosa compared with omeprazole or compound 1. Rats pre-treated with compound 1 showed increased in gastric pH and gastric mucus. Histologically, ulcer control group showed severe damage to gastric mucosa with edema and leucocytes infiltration of submucosal layer. In immunohistochemical analysis, rats which were pre-treated with compound 1 showed up-regulation of HSP70 and down-regulation of Bax proteins. In conclusion, the gastroprotective effect of compound 1 may be due to its antioxidant activity, and/or due to up-regulation of HSP70 and down-regulation of Bax protein in stained tissue section.

  4. Hypoxyradiotherapy of uterine cervix cancer to decrease of acute side-effects and treatment complications

    The authors have reported on preliminary results of hypoxyradiotherapy in the course of external irradiation in patients with uterine cervix cancer from a view-point of the occurrence of acute reactions and treatment complications. A mixture of nitrogen and oxygen containing 8.0 to 8.5% of O2 was used to provoke acute hypoxia during irradiation. The applied dosis of external irradiation was simultaneously increased by 40%. On the basis of a randomized study with 120 patients, acute hypoxia was found to protect healthy tissues against post-radiation damage. When the dosis of 96 Gy in the paracervical space and that of 75 Gy in the pelvic wall were applied, acute side-effects decreases significantly if compared with a conventional radiotherapeutic procedure (p<0.01). Radiological preconditions for using acute hypoxia in radiotherapy are discussed. (orig.)

  5. Myocardial infarction following recombinant tissue plasminogen activator treatment for acute ischemic stroke: a dangerous complication

    ZHOU Zhi-gang; WANG Rui-lan; YU Kang-long

    2012-01-01

    Thrombolysis with intravenous tissue plasminogen activator (t-PA) is currently an approved therapy for patients with acute ischemic stroke.Acute myocardial infarction (AMI) immediately following t-PA treatment for stroke is a rare but serious complication.A case of acute myocardial infarction (MI) following IV t-PA infusion for acute stroke was observed.This is a 52-year-old male with a known history of hypertension and chest pain,who subsequently developed MI four hours after IV t-PA was administered for acute ischemic stroke.The disruption of intra-cardiac thrombus and subsequent embolization to the coronary arteries may be an important mechanism.In addition.spontaneous recanalization of infarct-related arteries may be associated with 9reater myocardial salvage and better prognosis.

  6. [The protective effect of pantothenic acid derivatives and changes in the system of acetyl CoA metabolism in acute ethanol poisoning].

    Moiseenok, A G; Dorofeev, B F; Omel'ianchik, S N

    1988-01-01

    Calcium pantothenate (CaP), calcium 4'-phosphopantothenate (CaPP), pantethine, panthenol, sulfopantetheine and CoA decrease acute toxicity of acetaldehyde in mice. All studied compounds diminish duration of the narcotic action of ethanol--ET (3.5 g/kg intraperitoneally) in mice and rats. In the latter this effect is realized at the expense of "long sleeping" and "middle sleeping" animals. CaP (150 mg/kg subcutaneously) and CaPP (100 mg/kg subcutaneously) prevent hypothermia and a decrease of oxygen consumption in rats induced by ET administration. Combined administration of ET, CaP and CaPP leads to a characteristic increase of acid-soluble CoA fractions in the rat liver and a relative decrease of acetyl CoA synthetase and N-acetyltransferase reactions. The antitoxic effect of preparations of pantothenic acid is not mediated by CoA-dependent reactions of detoxication, but most probably is due to intensification of ET oxidation and perhaps to its elimination from the organism. PMID:2905277

  7. [Invasive diagnosis, transcatheter and surgical treatment of acute coronary syndromes].

    Fabián, J; Hricák, V; Fridrich, V; Fischer, V

    1998-01-01

    On the basis of long-term personal experiences and critical evaluation of the present literatury sources authors described the role of invasive diagnostic methods and transcathetral and cardiosurgical possibilities in the recognition and therapy of acute coronary syndromes. These techniques are, and in the forthcoming year shall be available only in specialized institutions. The paper describes the indication for these aggressive techniques as well as their limitations and complications. The goal of the presented article is to inform both the cardiological and frequently broad physicians' societies about the possibilities of diaventional cardiology and cardiosurgery which will be gradually more applied in the care of the patients with acute coronary syndromes. (Ref. 39, Tab. 2, Fig. 3.) PMID:9919748

  8. Hybrid Treatment of Acute Abdominal Aortic Thrombosis Presenting with Paraplegia.

    Azzarone, Matteo; De Troia, Alessandro; Iazzolino, Luigi; Nabulsi, Bilal; Tecchio, Tiziano

    2016-05-01

    Acute thrombotic or embolic occlusion of the abdominal aorta is a rare vascular emergency associated with high morbidity and mortality rates. Classically, the clinical presentation is a severe peripheral ischemia with bilateral leg pain as the predominant feature. Aortic occlusion presenting as an isolated acute onset of paraplegia due to spinal cord ischemia is very rare and requires improved awareness to prevent adverse outcomes associated with delayed diagnosis. We report the case of a 54-year-old man who presented with sudden paraplegia due to the thrombotic occlusion of the infrarenal aorta involving the first segment of the common iliac arteries on both sides; emergent transperitoneal aorto iliac thrombectomy combined with the endovascular iliac kissing-stent technique were performed achieving perioperative complete regression of the symptoms. PMID:26968371

  9. Acute cerebral infarction: pathophysiology and modern treatment concepts

    This review focuses on the pathophysiological changes in acute cerebral ischemia, with special emphasis on disturbances of the cerebral blood flow (CBF) and the associated penumbra concept. Alternatively, the model of peri-infarct depolarization is demonstrated. Metabolic and molecular changes caused by cerebral ischemia and reperfusion are discussed, namely energy failure, release of glutamate with an excitatoric burst, calcium influx in neurons, generation of free radicals, activation of different proteases, disturbances of protein synthesis, induction of gene expression and apoptosis, loss of membrane integrity, edema formation and microvascular disturbances. In summary, the pathophysiological changes after focal cerebral ischemia and reperfusion are most adequately described by a network of interacting different mechanisms of tissue alterations. The simple concept of a cascade of ischemic effect which would be easy to block seems to be less applicable. A time window of approximately 6 h for the acute stroke therapy is postulated on the base of the above mentioned pathophysiological changes. (orig./AJ)

  10. Amifostine Treatment of a Patient with Refractory Acute Myeloid Leukemia

    Tekgündüz, Emre; ERİKÇİ, ALEV AKYOL; Ahmet ÖZTÜRK

    2009-01-01

    The prognosis for the majority of acute myeloid leukemia (AML) patients without a donor is dismal whether conventional salvage chemotherapy regimens or investigational strategies are used, and most of these patients will eventually die of their disease. There is no standard chemotherapy regimen that provides durable complete remission in patients with refractory AML. Beneficial effects of amifostine, either alone or in combination with conventional chemotherapy, was demonstrated in patients w...

  11. Recently published papers: Acute kidney injury – diagnosis and treatment

    Lee, Jasmine BL; Forni, Lui G

    2009-01-01

    When faced with the management of the patient on intensive care with acute kidney injury, the clinician has various choices to consider. The conventional therapy, where appropriate, is renal replacement therapy. This technique used to be relatively straightforward but now a relative feast of alternatives is available, not least in choice of buffer and anticoagulant. Two recent studies add to the growing body of literature concerning alternative anticoagulant regimes, and one in particular sho...

  12. Anti-infectious treatment in acute respiratory distress syndrome

    Gao, Min; Xiao, Zhen-Liang; Fu-xiang LI

    2013-01-01

    Acute respiratory distress syndrome (ARDS) is closely correlated with infection. Severe infection, e.g., sepsis and septic shock, can result in ARDS. Ventilator associated pneumonia (VAP) is one of the common complications in ARDS related infection. As regards ARDS related infection, community acquired infection (CAI) is different from hospital acquired infection (HAI) in bacterial spectrum. The former is mainly caused by Streptococcus pneumonia, Hemophilus influenzae, Moraxelle catarrhalis, ...

  13. Holmium:YAG laser angioplasty: treatment of acute myocardial infarction

    Topaz, On

    1993-06-01

    We report our clinical experience with a group of 14 patients who presented with acute myocardial infarction. A holmium:YAG laser was applied to the infarct-related artery. This laser emits 250 - 600 mJ per pulse, with a pulse length of 250 microseconds and repetition rate of 5 Hz. Potential benefits of acute thrombolysis by lasers include the absence of systemic lytic state; a shortened thrombus clearing time relative to using thrombolytics; safe removal of the intracoronary thrombus and facilitation of adjunct balloon angioplasty. Potential clinical difficulties include targeting the obstructive clot and plaque, creation of debris and distal emboli and laser-tissue damage. It is conceivable that holmium:YAG laser can be a successful thrombolytic device as its wave length (2.1 microns) coincides with strong water absorption peaks. Since it is common to find an atherosclerotic plaque located under or distal to the thrombotic occlusion, this laser can also be applied for plaque ablation, and the patient presenting with acute myocardial infarction can clearly benefit from the combined function of this laser system.

  14. Characterization of chemically induced ovarian carcinomas in an ethanol-preferring rat model: influence of long-term melatonin treatment.

    Luiz Gustavo A Chuffa

    Full Text Available Ovarian cancer is the fourth most common cause of cancer deaths among women, and chronic alcoholism may exert co-carcinogenic effects. Because melatonin (mel has oncostatic properties, we aimed to investigate and characterize the chemical induction of ovarian tumors in a model of ethanol-preferring rats and to verify the influence of mel treatment on the overall features of these tumors. After rats were selected to receive ethanol (EtOH, they were surgically injected with 100 µg of 7,12-dimethyl-benz[a]anthracene (DMBA plus sesame oil directly under the left ovarian bursa. At 260 days old, half of the animals received i.p. injections of 200 µg mel/100 g b.w. for 60 days. Four experimental groups were established: Group C, rats bearing ovarian carcinomas (OC; Group C+EtOH, rats voluntarily consuming 10% (v/v EtOH and bearing OC; Group C+M, rats bearing OC and receiving mel; and Group C+EtOH+M, rats with OC consuming EtOH and receiving mel. Estrous cycle and nutritional parameters were evaluated, and anatomopathological analyses of the ovarian tumors were conducted. The incidence of ovarian tumors was higher in EtOH drinking animals 120 days post-DMBA administration, and mel efficiently reduced the prevalence of some aggressive tumors. Although mel promoted high EtOH consumption, it was effective in synchronizing the estrous cycle and reducing ovarian tumor mass by 20%. While rats in the C group displayed cysts containing serous fluid, C+EtOH rats showed solid tumor masses. After mel treatment, the ovaries of these rats presented as soft and mobile tissues. EtOH consumption increased the incidence of serous papillary carcinomas and sarcomas but not clear cell carcinomas. In contrast, mel reduced the incidence of sarcomas, endometrioid carcinomas and cystic teratomas. Combination of DMBA with EtOH intake potentiated the incidence of OC with malignant histologic subtypes. We concluded that mel reduces ovarian masses and the incidence of

  15. Oral Ambulatory Treatment of Acute Osteomyelitis in Children: A Case-Control Study.

    Roul-Levy, Antoine; Looten, Vincent; Bachy, Manon; Grimprel, Emmanuel; Carbajal, Ricardo; Vialle, Raphaël

    2016-03-01

    The treatment of acute hematogenous osteomyelitis has evolved in recent years to a shorter parenteral treatment with an early switch to the oral route. Current publications recommend a 2- to 4-day parenteral treatment before the oral switch. We retrospectively analyzed a series of 45 children aged 1 to 11 years and treated in our department for acute osteomyelitis without severity criterion. Nineteen of 45 patients were treated by an exclusive ambulatory oral treatment by amoxicillin and clavulanic acid. Twenty six of 45 patients had a 2- to 4-day parenteral treatment before the oral switch. The minimum follow-up was 6 months. The primary endpoint was a clinical, radiographic, and biologic healing, 6 months after the beginning of the treatment. The secondary endpoints evaluated were the length of hospitalization, the total duration of treatment, and the type of antibiotic used. On the primary endpoint, we did not find any significant difference between the 2 treatments (P = 0.38). On the duration of treatment, we found a significant difference (P = 0.049) in favor of oral treatment. The ambulatory oral treatment by amoxicillin and clavulanic acid seems to be a valid alternative to the classical parenteral then oral sequence in the treatment of acute hematogenous osteomyelitis in children without severity criterion. PMID:26928094

  16. The Evolution and Current Utility of Esophageal Stent Placement for the Treatment of Acute Esophageal Perforation.

    Herrera, Argenis; Freeman, Richard K

    2016-08-01

    Esophageal stent placement was used primarily for the treatment of malignant strictures until the development of a new generation of biomaterials allowed the production of easily removable, occlusive stents in 2001. Since then, thoracic surgeons have gained experience using esophageal stents for the treatment of acute esophageal perforation. As part of a hybrid treatment strategy, including surgical drainage of infected spaces, enteral nutrition, and aggressive supportive care, esophageal stent placement has produced results that can exceed those of traditional surgical repair. This review summarizes the evolution of esophageal stent use for acute perforation and provides evidence-based recommendations for the technique. PMID:27427525

  17. High Feasibility of Empiric HIV Treatment for Patients With Suspected Acute HIV in an Emergency Department.

    Jacobson, Kathleen R; Arora, Sanjay; Walsh, Kristin B; Lora, Meredith; Merjavy, Stephen; Livermore, Shanna; Menchine, Michael

    2016-07-01

    Earlier intervention in acute HIV infection limits HIV reservoirs and may decrease HIV transmission. We developed criteria for empiric antiretroviral therapy (ART) in an emergency department (ED) routine HIV screening program. We assessed the feasibility and willingness of patients with suspected acute HIV infection in the ED to begin ART. A suspected acute HIV infection was defined as a positive HIV antigen antibody combination immunoassay with pending HIV-antibody differentiation test results and HIV RNA viral load. During the study period, there were 16 confirmed cases of acute HIV infection: 11 met our criteria for empiric ART and agreed to treatment, 10 were prescribed ART, and 1 left the ED against medical advice without a prescription for ART. Eight patients completed at least one follow-up visit. Empiric HIV treatment in an ED is feasible, well received by patients, and offers a unique entry point into the HIV care continuum. PMID:27028498

  18. Anxiolytic effects of swimming exercise and ethanol in two behavioral models: beneficial effects and increased sensitivity in mice

    Júlia Niehues da Cruz

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available Several behavioral mechanisms have been suggested to explain the effects of ethanol or physical exercise on anxiety. The purpose of the current study was to assess the effects of chronic and acute administration of ethanol on swimming exercise in mice, sequentially submitted to the elevated plus-maze and open-field tests. In the first experiment, sedentary or physical exercise groups received chronic treatment with ethanol (0.1, 0.2, 0.4, 2 or 4 g ethanol/kg/day by oral gavage for 14 days before the tests. In the second experiment, groups received a single dose of ethanol (ip: 0.6, 0.8, 1.0 or 1.2 g/kg, ten minutes before the start of behavioral tests. The present study found an anxiolytic-like effect after chronic ethanol treatment or swimming exercise, evidence of beneficial effects. Moreover, we conclude that exercise can increase behavioral sensitivity to ethanol in acute treatment. The experiments described here show that the effects of ethanol on the behavior displayed in the elevated plus-maze and open-field are not only dose-dependent but also modified by swimming exercise. These results may provide valuable insights into possible molecular mechanisms governing these adaptations.

  19. Study the effect of gamma irradiation H2SO4, NaOH, and CH3COOH treatments for ethanol production from fermented rice straw

    This experiment was carried out to know the ethanol and total carbohydrate concentrations in fermented rice straw which was irradiated with gamma ray 60-Co from latex irradiator with the doses of 0 and 200 kGy. Rice straw was mixed with H2SO4 NaOH 0,1 and 2% (v/v), (w/v) and with CH3COOH 0, 1, 3, and 5% (v/v) in the ratio 1:4 (w/v). The rice straw was crushed to be powder 6 mesh. Cellulase was added for saccharification. The yeast strain used for fermentation was S.Cerevisiae and the incubation time was 40 hours, at room temperature (28+/-2 Celsius centigrade). Results showed that gamma irradiation with dose of 200 kGy increased the ethanol and total carbohydrate productions (P=<0.01). Additions of H2SO4, NaOH also had significant effect to enchance the ethanol production (P=<0.05), (P=<0.01) but this effect was not significant on the total carbohydrate. Treatment with adding CH3COOH on rice straw had no significant effect either on ethanol and total carbohydrate of rice straw.The effect of interaction between irradiation and addition of solutions mentioned above had no significant effects, but the ethanol production had a tendency to increase with those combination treatments. (authors). 6 refs, 3 figs, 6 tabs

  20. Ethanol production from lignocellulose

    Ingram, Lonnie O.; Wood, Brent E.

    2001-01-01

    This invention presents a method of improving enzymatic degradation of lignocellulose, as in the production of ethanol from lignocellulosic material, through the use of ultrasonic treatment. The invention shows that ultrasonic treatment reduces cellulase requirements by 1/3 to 1/2. With the cost of enzymes being a major problem in the cost-effective production of ethanol from lignocellulosic material, this invention presents a significant improvement over presently available methods.

  1. Osteonecrosis in children treated for acute lymphoblastic leukemia: a magnetic resonance imaging study after treatment

    Ojala, A.; Lanning, F.; Paakko, E.; Lanning, B. [Oulu Univ. (Finland)

    1998-02-01

    The purpose of this study was to find out the prevalence of osteonecrosis in children with acute lymphoblastic leukaemia (ALL) in complete bone marrow remission at the end of the treatment. Finally, the study suggests that the intensification phase of the treatment protocols with intensive dexamethasone medication might be responsible for the development of osteonecrosis. (N.C.)

  2. Risk factors for treatment related mortality in childhood acute lymphoblastic leukaemia

    Lund, Bendik; Åsberg, Ann; Heyman, Mats;

    2011-01-01

    BACKGROUND: In spite of major improvements in the cure rate of childhood acute lymphoblastic leukaemia (ALL), 2-4% of patients still die from treatment related complications. PROCEDURE: We investigated the pattern of treatment related deaths (TRDs) and possible risk factors in the NOPHO ALL-92 and...

  3. Osteonecrosis in children treated for acute lymphoblastic leukemia: a magnetic resonance imaging study after treatment

    The purpose of this study was to find out the prevalence of osteonecrosis in children with acute lymphoblastic leukaemia (ALL) in complete bone marrow remission at the end of the treatment. Finally, the study suggests that the intensification phase of the treatment protocols with intensive dexamethasone medication might be responsible for the development of osteonecrosis. (N.C.)

  4. Sertraline versus paroxetine in the treatment of panic disorder: an acute, double-blind noninferiority comparison.

    Bandelow, B.; Behnke, K.; Lenoir, S.; Hendriks, G.J.; Alkin, T.; Goebel, C.; Clary, C.M.

    2004-01-01

    OBJECTIVE: Several classes of medications have demonstrated efficacy in panic disorder, but direct comparison of 2 proven treatments is still uncommon. The purpose of this study was to compare sertraline and paroxetine in the acute treatment of panic disorder. METHOD: Adult outpatients with panic di

  5. Risk factors for treatment related mortality in childhood acute lymphoblastic leukaemia

    Lund, Bendik; Åsberg, Ann; Heyman, Mats;

    2011-01-01

    BACKGROUND: In spite of major improvements in the cure rate of childhood acute lymphoblastic leukaemia (ALL), 2-4% of patients still die from treatment related complications. PROCEDURE: We investigated the pattern of treatment related deaths (TRDs) and possible risk factors in the NOPHO ALL-92 and...... towards patients at risk. Pediatr Blood Cancer. © 2010 Wiley-Liss, Inc....

  6. Clofarabine for the treatment of adult acute lymphoid leukemia: the Group for Research on Adult Acute Lymphoblastic Leukemia intergroup.

    Huguet, Françoise; Leguay, Thibaut; Raffoux, Emmanuel; Rousselot, Philippe; Vey, Norbert; Pigneux, Arnaud; Ifrah, Norbert; Dombret, Hervé

    2015-04-01

    Clofarabine, a second-generation purine analog displaying potent inhibition of DNA synthesis and favorable pharmacologic profile, is approved for the treatment of acute lymphoblastic leukemia (ALL) after failure of at least two previous regimens in patients up to 21 years of age at diagnosis. Good neurologic tolerance, synergy with alkylating agents, management guidelines defined through pediatric ALL and adult acute myeloid leukemia, have also prompted its administration in more than 100 adults with Philadelphia chromosome-positive and negative B lineage and T lineage ALL, as single agent (40 mg/m(2)/ day for 5 days), or in combination. In a Group for Research on Adult Acute Lympho- blastic Leukemia (GRAALL) retrospective study of two regimens (clofarabine ± cyclophosphamide + / - etoposide (ENDEVOL) ± mitoxantrone ± asparaginase ± dexamethasone (VANDEVOL)), remission was achieved in 50% of 55 relapsed/refractory patients, and 17-35% could proceed to allogeneic stem cell. Clofarabine warrants further exploration in advanced ALL treatment and bridge-to-transplant. PMID:24996442

  7. The Proteome of Mesenteric Lymph During Acute Pancreatitis and Implications for Treatment

    Anubhav Mittal

    2009-03-01

    Full Text Available The protein fraction of mesenteric lymph during acute pancreatitis and other critical illness is thought to contain toxic factors. However, we do not have a complete description of the mesenteric lymph proteome during acute pancreatitis. Objective The aim of this study was to define the proteomic changes in mesenteric lymph during acute pancreatitis. Setting Animal Laboratory, University of Auckland, New Zealand. Design Mesenteric lymph was collected from sixteen male Wistar rats randomised to Group 1 (n=8 with taurocholate induced acute pancreatitis and Group 2 (n=8 sham control. The lymph was subjected to proteomic analysis using iTRAQTM (Applied Biosystems, Foster City, CA, USA and liquid chromatography-tandem mass spectrometry. Results Two hundred and forty-five proteins including 35 hypothetical proteins were identified in mesenteric lymph. Eight of the 245 proteins had a significant increase in their relative abundance in acute pancreatitis conditioned mesenteric lymph, and 7 of these were pancreatic catabolic enzymes (pancreatic amylase 2, pancreatic lipase, carboxypeptidase A2, chymotrypsinogen B, carboxypeptidase B1, cationic trypsinogen, ribonuclease 1. Conclusions This is the first comprehensive description of the proteome of mesenteric lymph during acute pancreatitis and has demonstrated a significantly increased relative abundance of 7 secreted pancreatic catabolic enzymes in acute pancreatitis conditioned mesenteric lymph. This study provides a clear rationale for further research to investigate the efficacy of enteral protease inhibitors in the treatment of acute pancreatitis.

  8. Economic Evaluation of Triflusal and Aspirin in the Treatment of Acute Myocardial Infarction

    Josep Darba; Inaki Izquierdo; Caridad Pontes; Carlos Navas; Joan Rovira

    2002-01-01

    Objective: To compare the costs to the Spanish healthcare system of 35 days' treatment with triflusal (600 mg/day) and aspirin (300 mg/day) in patients with confirmed acute myocardial infarction within 24 hours of onset of symptoms. Design: A cost minimisation analysis based on the results of the Triflusal in Acute Myocardial Infarction study (TIM) was conducted. The hypothesis was that despite a higher acquisition cost of triflusal, savings would result because of differences in efficacy and...

  9. Potential for a pluripotent adult stem cell treatment for acute radiation sickness

    Rodgerson, Denis O.; Reidenberg, Bruce E; Harris, Alan G; Pecora, Andrew L.

    2012-01-01

    Accidental radiation exposure and the threat of deliberate radiation exposure have been in the news and are a public health concern. Experience with acute radiation sickness has been gathered from atomic blast survivors of Hiroshima and Nagasaki and from civilian nuclear accidents as well as experience gained during the development of radiation therapy for cancer. This paper reviews the medical treatment reports relevant to acute radiation sickness among the survivors of atomic weapons at Hir...

  10. TREATMENT OF 20 CASES OF ACUTE LUMBAR DISC PROTRUSION WITH YIN THERAPY FOR YANG DISORDER

    TAO Jing; KANG Ming-fei; ZHAO Rong

    2006-01-01

    @@ Lumbar disc protrusion is one of the common reasons of lumbar and leg pain. How to alleviate acute pain effectively is the major problem encountered in the clinical medicine. From June 2005 to March 2006, yin therapy for yang disorder had been adopted in the treatment of 20 cases of acute lumbar disc protrusion and the significant therapeutic effects had been achieved. The report is as follows.

  11. Ethanol poisoning

    ... this page: //medlineplus.gov/ency/article/002644.htm Ethanol poisoning To use the sharing features on this page, please enable JavaScript. Ethanol poisoning is caused by drinking too much alcohol. ...

  12. Oral Zinc Supplementation for the Treatment of Acute Diarrhea

    Sh Gheibi

    2014-04-01

    Full Text Available Introduction: Diarrheal diseases are a serious health problem and important causes of growth retardation and death in the developing world, especially those of prolonged duration. Since diarrhea is constantly found in children with zinc deficiency, very studies supported zinc supplements beneficial on the duration and severity of diarrhea among children. We review the impact of zinc effects on diarrhea in South-West Asia to update the evidences and to assess its effect on the global burden of diarrhea.   Materials and Methods: We conduct a systematic review through January 2014, for randomized controlled trials relevant to effect of zinc on diarrhea in children. We searched the MeSH terms zinc, acute gastroenteritis and children from various databases of Cochrane Library and PubMed, then clinical trials done in South-West Asia, selected for making written. Results: In recent years, several studies have reported the therapeutic effect of zinc supplementation on diarrheal diseases that was beneficial on decreased episode duration, stool output, stool frequency, hospitalization duration. In some countries in West Asia such as Lebanon, Israel, Saudi Arabia and Iran in clinical trials showed a faster improvement in acute gastroenteritis in children less than five years. But in some countries, such as Turkey, this effect was not significant.   Conclusions: Oral zinc supplementation significantly decreases diarrhea duration and has a greater effect on malnourished children. Zinc supplementation seems to be an appropriate public health strategy, mainly in areas of endemic deficiencies. Global attempts should is increased to support recommended regimen of therapeutic zinc by WHO in all areas. Keywords: Acute Gastroenteritis, Children, Zinc, South-West Asia.  

  13. PROBIOTICS AS TREATMENT OF ACUTE DIARRHEA IN INFANT AND CHILDREN

    I Wayan Wawan

    2013-10-01

    Full Text Available Normal 0 false false false EN-US X-NONE X-NONE MicrosoftInternetExplorer4 Diarrhea is a common disease in children after acute respiratory tract infection. Expected, diarrhea was found approximately one billion cases per year and the first etiology of morbidity and mortality in children in Asia, Africa, and America Latin. The management of acute diarrhea according to WHO recommendation consisted of oral rehydration (low osmolarity ORS, diet, zinc supplementation, selective antibiotic, and education to parents. In several randomized controlled trials (RCT and meta-analysis was showing that probiotics effective for primary and secondary prevention of acute diarrhea.     st1\\:*{behavior:url(#ieooui } /* Style Definitions */ table.MsoNormalTable {mso-style-name:"Table Normal"; mso-tstyle-rowband-size:0; mso-tstyle-colband-size:0; mso-style-noshow:yes; mso-style-priority:99; mso-style-qformat:yes; mso-style-parent:""; mso-padding-alt:0in 5.4pt 0in 5.4pt; mso-para-margin:0in; mso-para-margin-bottom:.0001pt; mso-pagination:widow-orphan; font-size:11.0pt; font-family:"Calibri","sans-serif"; mso-ascii-font-family:Calibri; mso-ascii-theme-font:minor-latin; mso-fareast-font-family:"Times New Roman"; mso-fareast-theme-font:minor-fareast; mso-hansi-font-family:Calibri; mso-hansi-theme-font:minor-latin; mso-bidi-font-family:"Times New Roman"; mso-bidi-theme-font:minor-bidi;}

  14. Radiation treatment of testicular relapse in acute lymphoblastic leukemia

    Ten patients with testicular relapse among 128 cases of acute lymphoblastic leukemia are reported. At the time of the initial diagnosis of leukemia all patients with later testicular relapse showed one or more risk factors as predictive for leukemic infiltration of the testicles. All patients except one, who underwent orchiectomy and died 11 weeks after surgical intervention, received radiation therapy with doses ranging from 12 to 20 Gy and chemotherapy. The local control was excellent. Average survival time from testicular relapse to death was 68 weeks in 8 of 9 patients treated by irradiation and chemotherapy. One patient is still alive without signs of disease after 6 years. (orig.)

  15. Ethanol Basics

    None

    2015-01-30

    Ethanol is a widely-used, domestically-produced renewable fuel made from corn and other plant materials. More than 96% of gasoline sold in the United States contains ethanol. Learn more about this alternative fuel in the Ethanol Basics Fact Sheet, produced by the U.S. Department of Energy's Clean Cities program.

  16. Treatment of acute pancreatitis with mexidol and low-intensity laser radiation

    Parzyan, G. R.; Geinits, A. V.

    2001-04-01

    This article presents the results of treatment of 54 patients with acute pancreatitis. The patients were divided into two groups according to the method of treatment. The control group (26 patients) received a conventional therapy, whereas the experimental group (28 patients) received mexidol in combination with the intravenous laser irradiation of blood. Clinical and laboratory tests confirmed a high efficiency of the combined therapy based on the administration of mexidol antioxidant and low-intensity (lambda) equals 0.63 micrometers diode laser irradiation of blood. This therapeutic technique produced an influence on the basic pathogenetic mechanisms of acute pancreatitis. The application of this method of treatment improved the course and prognosis of acute pancreatitis.

  17. Enzyme analyses of the acute damage of liver function by LP-TAE treatment

    Objective: To evaluate the changes of enzyme for acute damage to liver function during the treatment of big hepatic carcinoma by Lipiodol-Transcatheter Arterial Embolization (LP-TAE) and analyze the influence to acute liver function change concerned with different doses of Lipiodol (LP). Methods: 30 patients of big hepatic carcinoma diagnosed by CT, MRI, DSA etc. were collected with the venous blood samples before and the third day after by Lp-TAE treatment together with analyses of the relation between the changes of enzyme and the doses of Lipiodol (LP). Results: All cases suffered from acute liver dysfunction to a greater or less extent correlative with different doses of lipiodol. Conclusions: The proper proportion of doses between lipiodol and anti-cancerous drugs should be emphasized during treatment of LP-TAE in big hepatic cancers for prevention of liver dis-function, furthermore with hope to have a rule for lipiodol dosage

  18. Treatment of Acute Achilles Tendon Rupture in Scandinavia Does Not Adhere to Evidence-based Guidelines

    Barfod, Kristoffer W; Nielsen, Fredrik; Helander, Katarina N;

    2013-01-01

    The best treatment of acute Achilles tendon rupture has been discussed for decades. During the past half decade, evidence has increased in favor of nonoperative treatment and dynamic and weightbearing rehabilitation. We hypothesized that the treatment strategies would show great variation and that...... adherence to evidence-based recommendations would not be as good as desired. The purpose of the present study was to investigate how acute Achilles tendon rupture is treated in Scandinavia. A questionnaire was distributed to all orthopedic departments treating acute Achilles tendon ruptures in Denmark......, Sweden, Norway, and Finland. The questionnaire was returned by 138 of 148 departments (response rate 93%). Two-way tables with Fisher's exact test were used for statistical analysis. In Denmark, Norway, Sweden, and Finland, 19 of 23 (83%), 44 of 48 (92%), 26 of 40 (65%), and 8 of 27 (30%) departments...

  19. Treatment of acute ankle ligament injuries: a systematic review

    Petersen, Wolf; Rembitzki, Ingo Volker; Koppenburg, Andreas Gösele; Ellermann, Andre; Liebau, Christian; Brüggemann, Gerd Peter; Best, Raymond

    2013-01-01

    Background Lateral ankle sprains are common musculoskeletal injuries. Objectives The objective of this study was to perform a systematic literature review of the last 10 years regarding evidence for the treatment and prevention of lateral ankle sprains. Data source Pubmed central, Google scholar. Study eligibility criteria Meta-analysis, prospective randomized trials, English language articles. Interventions Surgical and non-surgical treatment, immobilization versus functional treatment, diff...

  20. Alcoholate corrosion of aluminium in ethanol blends -the effects of water content, surface treatments, temperature, time and pressure

    Linder, Jenny

    2012-01-01

    As it becomes more important to replace fossil fuels with alternative fuels, biofuels like ethanol are becoming more commercially used. The increased use of ethanol brings good influences such as lower impact on the environment. However, the use of ethanol can also bring negative effects regarding corrosion of metals. In the automotive industry aluminium has been seen affected by a novel very aggressive corrosion phenomenon, alcoholate corrosion. This master thesis investigation has investiga...

  1. Arsenic speciation in saliva of acute promyelocytic leukemia patients undergoing arsenic trioxide treatment

    Chen, Baowei; Cao, Fenglin; Yuan, Chungang; Lu, Xiufen; Shen, Shengwen; Zhou, Jin; Le, X Chris

    2013-01-01

    Arsenic trioxide has been successfully used as a therapeutic in the treatment of acute promyelocytic leukemia (APL). Detailed monitoring of the therapeutic arsenic and its metabolites in various accessible specimens of APL patients can contribute to improving treatment efficacy and minimizing arsenic-induced side effects. This article focuses on the determination of arsenic species in saliva samples from APL patients undergoing arsenic treatment. Saliva samples were collected from nine APL pa...

  2. Conessine, an H3 receptor antagonist, alters behavioral and neurochemical effects of ethanol in mice.

    Morais-Silva, Gessynger; Ferreira-Santos, Mariane; Marin, Marcelo T

    2016-05-15

    Ethanol abuse potential is mainly due to its reinforcing properties, crucial in the transition from the recreational to pathological use. These properties are mediated by mesocorticolimbic and nigrostriatal dopaminergic pathways and neuroadaptations in these pathways seem to be responsible for addiction. Both pathways are modulated by other neurotransmitters systems, including neuronal histaminergic system. Among the histamine receptors, H3 receptor stands out due to its role in modulation of histamine and other neurotransmitters release. Thus, histaminergic system, through H3 receptors, may have an important role in ethanol addiction development. Aiming to understand these interactions, conessine, an H3 receptor antagonist, was given to mice subjected to the evaluation of ethanol-induced psychostimulation, ethanol CPP and quantification of norepinephrine, dopamine, serotonin and their metabolites in mesocorticolimbic and nigrostriatal pathways following acute ethanol treatment. Systemic conessine administration exacerbated ethanol effects on locomotor activity. Despite of conessine reinforcing effect on CPP, this drug did not alter acquisition of ethanol CPP. Ethanol treatment affects the serotoninergic neurotransmission in the ventral tegmental area, the dopaminergic neurotransmission in the pre-frontal cortex (PFC) and caudate-putamen nucleus (CPu) and the noradrenergic neurotransmission in the CPu. In the PFC, conessine blocked ethanol effects on dopaminergic and noradrenergic neurotransmission. The blockade of H3 receptors and ethanol seem to interact in the modulation of dopaminergic neurotransmission of nigrostriatal pathway, decreasing dopamine metabolites in substantia nigra. In conclusion, conessine was able to change psychostimulant effect of ethanol, without altering its reinforcing properties. This exacerbation of ethanol-induced psychostimulation would be related to alterations in dopaminergic neurotransmission in the nigrostriatal pathway. PMID

  3. Consensus definitions of 14 severe acute toxic effects for childhood lymphoblastic leukaemia treatment: a Delphi consensus.

    Schmiegelow, Kjeld; Attarbaschi, Andishe; Barzilai, Shlomit; Escherich, Gabriele; Frandsen, Thomas Leth; Halsey, Christina; Hough, Rachael; Jeha, Sima; Kato, Motohiro; Liang, Der-Cherng; Mikkelsen, Torben Stamm; Möricke, Anja; Niinimäki, Riitta; Piette, Caroline; Putti, Maria Caterina; Raetz, Elizabeth; Silverman, Lewis B; Skinner, Roderick; Tuckuviene, Ruta; van der Sluis, Inge; Zapotocka, Ester

    2016-06-01

    Although there are high survival rates for children with acute lymphoblastic leukaemia, their outcome is often counterbalanced by the burden of toxic effects. This is because reported frequencies vary widely across studies, partly because of diverse definitions of toxic effects. Using the Delphi method, 15 international childhood acute lymphoblastic leukaemia study groups assessed acute lymphoblastic leukaemia protocols to address toxic effects that were to be considered by the Ponte di Legno working group. 14 acute toxic effects (hypersensitivity to asparaginase, hyperlipidaemia, osteonecrosis, asparaginase-associated pancreatitis, arterial hypertension, posterior reversible encephalopathy syndrome, seizures, depressed level of consciousness, methotrexate-related stroke-like syndrome, peripheral neuropathy, high-dose methotrexate-related nephrotoxicity, sinusoidal obstructive syndrome, thromboembolism, and Pneumocystis jirovecii pneumonia) that are serious but too rare to be addressed comprehensively within any single group, or are deemed to need consensus definitions for reliable incidence comparisons, were selected for assessment. Our results showed that none of the protocols addressed all 14 toxic effects, that no two protocols shared identical definitions of all toxic effects, and that no toxic effect definition was shared by all protocols. Using the Delphi method over three face-to-face plenary meetings, consensus definitions were obtained for all 14 toxic effects. In the overall assessment of outcome of acute lymphoblastic leukaemia treatment, these expert opinion-based definitions will allow reliable comparisons of frequencies and severities of acute toxic effects across treatment protocols, and facilitate international research on cause, guidelines for treatment adaptation, preventive strategies, and development of consensus algorithms for reporting on acute lymphoblastic leukaemia treatment. PMID:27299279

  4. Ethanol sclerotherapy of peripheral venous malformations

    Rimon, U. E-mail: rimonu@sheba.health.gov.il; Garniek, A.; Galili, Y.; Golan, G.; Bensaid, P.; Morag, B

    2004-12-01

    Background: venous malformations are congenital lesions that can cause pain, decreased range of movement, compression on adjacent structures, bleeding, consumptive coagulopathy and cosmetic deformity. Sclerotherapy alone or combined with surgical excision is the accepted treatment in symptomatic malformations after failed treatment attempts with tailored compression garments. Objectives: to report our experience with percutaneous sclerotherapy of peripheral venous malformations with ethanol 96%. Patients and methods: 41 sclerotherapy sessions were performed on 21 patients, aged 4-46 years, 15 females and 6 males. Fourteen patients were treated for painful extremity lesions, while five others with face and neck lesions and two with giant chest malformations had treatment for esthetic reasons. All patients had a pre-procedure magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) study. In all patients, 96% ethanol was used as the sclerosant by direct injection using general anesthesia. A minimum of 1-year clinical follow-up was performed. Follow-up imaging studies were performed if clinically indicated. Results: 17 patients showed complete or partial symptomatic improvement after one to nine therapeutic sessions. Four patients with lower extremity lesions continue to suffer from pain and they are considered as a treatment failure. Complications were encountered in five patients, including acute pulmonary hypertension with cardiovascular collapse, pulmonary embolus, skin ulcers (two) and skin blisters. All patients fully recovered. Conclusion: sclerotherapy with 96% ethanol for venous malformations was found to be effective for symptomatic improvement, but serious complications can occur.

  5. Ethanol sclerotherapy of peripheral venous malformations

    Background: venous malformations are congenital lesions that can cause pain, decreased range of movement, compression on adjacent structures, bleeding, consumptive coagulopathy and cosmetic deformity. Sclerotherapy alone or combined with surgical excision is the accepted treatment in symptomatic malformations after failed treatment attempts with tailored compression garments. Objectives: to report our experience with percutaneous sclerotherapy of peripheral venous malformations with ethanol 96%. Patients and methods: 41 sclerotherapy sessions were performed on 21 patients, aged 4-46 years, 15 females and 6 males. Fourteen patients were treated for painful extremity lesions, while five others with face and neck lesions and two with giant chest malformations had treatment for esthetic reasons. All patients had a pre-procedure magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) study. In all patients, 96% ethanol was used as the sclerosant by direct injection using general anesthesia. A minimum of 1-year clinical follow-up was performed. Follow-up imaging studies were performed if clinically indicated. Results: 17 patients showed complete or partial symptomatic improvement after one to nine therapeutic sessions. Four patients with lower extremity lesions continue to suffer from pain and they are considered as a treatment failure. Complications were encountered in five patients, including acute pulmonary hypertension with cardiovascular collapse, pulmonary embolus, skin ulcers (two) and skin blisters. All patients fully recovered. Conclusion: sclerotherapy with 96% ethanol for venous malformations was found to be effective for symptomatic improvement, but serious complications can occur

  6. Acute Ethanol Exposure Prevents PMA-mediated Augmentation of N-methyl-d-aspartate Receptor Function in Primary Cultured Cerebellar Granule Cells

    Reneau, Jason; Reyland, Mary E.; Popp, R. Lisa

    2011-01-01

    Many intracellular proteins and signaling cascades contribute to the ethanol sensitivity of native N-methyl-d-aspartate receptors (NMDARs). One putative protein is the serine / threonine kinase, Protein kinase C (PKC). The purpose of this study was to assess if PKC modulates the ethanol sensitivity of native NMDARs expressed in primary cultured cerebellar granule cells (CGCs). With the whole-cell patch-clamp technique, we assessed if ethanol inhibition of NMDA-induced currents (INMDA) (100 μM...

  7. Psychosocial Acute Treatment in Early-Episode Schizophrenia Disorders

    Bola, John R.

    2006-01-01

    Objective: This article reviews evidence on the treatment of early episode schizophrenia spectrum disorders that contradicts, in some cases, the American Psychiatric Association's generic recommendation of antipsychotic medication treatment for at least a year. Method: Evidence on lack of diagnostic validity, absence of demonstrated long-term…

  8. Turning Rate Dynamics of Zebrafish Exposed to Ethanol

    Mwaffo, Violet; Porfiri, Maurizio

    2015-06-01

    Zebrafish is emerging as a species of choice in alcohol-related pharmacological studies. In these studies, zebrafish are often exposed to acute ethanol treatments and their activity scored during behavioral assays. Computational modeling of zebrafish behavior is expected to positively impact these efforts by offering a predictive toolbox to plan hypothesis-driven studies, reduce the number of subjects, perform pilot trials, and refine behavioral screening. In this work, we demonstrate the use of the recently proposed jump persistent turning walker to model the turning rate dynamics of zebrafish exposed to acute ethanol administration. This modeling framework is based on a stochastic mean reverting jump process to capture the sudden and large changes in orientation of swimming zebrafish. The model is calibrated on an available experimental dataset of 40 subjects, tested at different ethanol concentrations. We demonstrate that model parameters are modulated by ethanol administration, whereby both the relaxation rate and jump frequency of the turning rate dynamics are influenced by ethanol concentration. This effort offers a first evidence for the possibility of complementing zebrafish pharmacological research with computational modeling of animal behavior.

  9. Acute Suppurative Parotitis Treatment by Diode Laser Combined with ER:YAG Laser

    Yu, Li-Ling; KE, Jyuhn H.; Wang, Hong Lan

    2012-01-01

    Background and aim: The diode laser combined with Er:YAG laser is a new treatment modality for acute sialadenitis. A 78-year-old woman with acute suppurative parotitis was treated by traditional probe to the duct orifice with oral antibiotics for 2 weeks. The symptoms and signs did not subside after treatment. The Er:YAG laser was used to reduce severe infection and inflammation and low level laser therapy (LLLT) was applied to relieve pain sensation during incision and drainage. Less scar fo...

  10. Topical corticosteroids in the treatment of acute sunburn - A randomized, double-blind clinical trial

    Faurschou, A.; Wulf, Hans Chr.

    2008-01-01

    Objective: To examine the effect of topical corticosteroid treatment on acute sunburn. Design: Randomized, double-blind clinical trial. Setting: University dermatology department. Patients: Twenty healthy volunteers with Fitzpatrick skin types I (highly sensitive, always burns easily, tans...... in the acute sunburn reaction when applied 6 or 23 hours after UV exposure. Clinical Trial Registry: clinicaltrials. gov Identifier: NCT00206882 Udgivelsesdato: 2008/5...... or high-potency corticosteroid 6 hours after UV-B exposure were significantly different from SIFs in areas that received no treatment (SIF 1.1-1.7; P clinically relevant. The areas...

  11. Aspiration Alone, Aspiration Plus Steroid Injection and Aspiration Plus Ethanol Injection for Treatment of Dorsal Wrist Ganglions: A Comparative Study among Three Methods

    Khandoker Abdur Rahim

    2016-01-01

    Background: There are varieties of treatment modalities to treat dorsal wrist ganglion cysts. But none of these has been the standard. So, we designed this study to compare among different treatment modalities. Objective: To compare the effects of aspiration alone, aspiration plus methylprednisone injection and aspiration plus ethanol injection into the dorsal wrist ganglions. Materials and Methods: This prospective study was performed in Dhaka Medical College Hospital, Dhaka from Mar...

  12. A new approach to treatment of acute heart failure.

    Goldsmith, Steven R

    2016-05-01

    Conventional therapies for acute decongestion have yielded uniformly poor results in patients with acute heart failure (AHF). The failure of current strategies may be due to advanced disease in hospitalized patients, incomplete therapy, inherent limitations to existing therapy, or some combination of all three factors. Loop diuretics are the mainstay of current therapy and are in theory not ideal since while producing immediate intravascular volume reduction and relief of symptoms they activate neurohormonal forces that are deleterious to both the heart and the kidney. Ultrafiltration is an alternative to loop diuretics but has not proved advantageous in the setting of renal dysfunction, and if not carefully applied may also aggravate neurohormonal imbalance. In theory decongestive therapy for AHF should remove large volumes of fluid quickly and safely and improve symptoms, particularly dyspnea, without aggravating renal dysfunction or causing neurohormonal activation. Several studies have now suggested that the use of aquaretics such as antagonists to the V2 receptor for arginine vasopressin may be useful as adjunctive therapy in AHF, particularly when renal dysfunction and/or hyponatremia are present. These agents leverage osmotic forces to produce tissue decongestion while causing a water diuresis. They do not adversely affect renal function or neurohormonal balance. Building on the current base of knowledge about outcomes in AHF together with the only study of vasopressin antagonists as short-term monotherapy in chronic heart failure, it would be reasonable to design a trial in AHF in which the use of loop diuretics was minimized in favor of these agents. PMID:26946929

  13. Trends in antibiotic treatment of acute otitis media and treatment failure in children, 2000-2011.

    Leah J McGrath

    Full Text Available OBJECTIVES: Guidelines to treat acute otitis media (AOM were published in 2004. Initial declines in prescribing were shown, but it's unknown if they were sustained. We examine trends in antibiotic dispensing patterns to treat AOM among a large population of children. We also document trends in antibiotic failure. STUDY DESIGN: Children aged 3 months to 12 years with an AOM diagnosis, enrolled in a commercial claims database between January 1, 2000-December 31, 2011 were included. Pharmacy claims within 7 days of diagnosis were searched for antibiotic prescriptions. Antibiotic failure was defined as a dispensing of a different antibiotic class within 2-18 days after the first prescription. We analyzed trends in antibiotic use and failure by class of antibiotic and year. RESULTS: We identified over 4 million children under 13 years with AOM. The proportion of antibiotic dispensing decreased from 66.0% in 2005 to 51.9% in 2007, after which the instances of dispensing rebounded to pre-guideline levels. However, levels began decreasing again in 2010 and the antibiotic use rate in 2011 was 57.6%. Cephalosporin prescriptions increased by 41.5% over eleven years. Antibiotic failure decreased slightly, and macrolides had the lowest proportion of failures, while all other classes had failure rates around 10%. CONCLUSIONS: In recent years, antibiotic dispensing to treat AOM remains high. In addition, the use of broad-spectrum antibiotics is increasing despite having a high rate of treatment failure. Overprescribing of antibiotics and use of non-penicillin therapy for AOM treatment could lead to the development of antibiotic-resistant infections.

  14. Glycine inhibits ethanol-induced oxidative stress, neuroinflammation and apoptotic neurodegeneration in postnatal rat brain.

    Amin, Faiz Ul; Shah, Shahid Ali; Kim, Myeong Ok

    2016-06-01

    Here we investigated for the first time the inhibitory potential of Glycine (Gly) against ethanol-induced oxidative stress, neuroinflammation and apoptotic neurodegeneration in human neuroblastoma SH-SY5Y cells and in the developing rat brain. The Gly co-treatment significantly increased the cell viability, inhibited the expression of phospho-Nuclear Factor kappa B (p-NF-kB) and caspase-3 and reduced the oxidative stress in ethanol-treated SH-SY5Y cells in a PI3K-dependent manner. Seven days old male rat pups were injected with ethanol (5 g/kg subcutaneously, prepared in a 20% saline solution) and Gly (1 g/kg). Gly co-treatment stimulated the PI3K/Akt signaling pathway to limit the ethanol induced reactive oxygen species (ROS) production in the developing rat brain. It lowered the ethanol-elevated levels of phospho-c Jun N terminal kinase (p-JNK) and its various downstream apoptotic markers, including Bax, cytochrome C, caspase-3 and PARP-1. Additionally, the Gly treatment upregulated antiapoptotic Bcl-2 proteins and prevented ethanol-induced neurodegeneration as assessed by Fluoro-Jade-B (FJB) and Nissl staining. Furthermore, the Gly administration caused significant reduction in the ethanol-induced neuroinflammation by inhibiting the expression of inflammatory markers such as p-NF-kB, cyclooxygenase 2 (COX2) and tumor necrosis factor-α (TNF-α) and reversed the ethanol-induced synaptic protein markers expression. The results suggest that acute Gly treatment reduces ethanol-induced oxidative stress and neuronal cell loss in SH-SY5Y cells and in the developing rat brain. Therefore, Gly may be considered as potential treatment in ethanol-intoxicated newborns and infants. PMID:27058626

  15. Acute cholecystitis in high-risk patients: percutaneous cholecystostomy vs conservative treatment

    Hatzidakis, Adam A.; Prassopoulos, Panos; Petinarakis, Ioannis; Gourtsoyiannis, Nicholas C. [Department of Radiology, University Hospital of Heraklion, Medical School of Crete, Crete (Greece); Sanidas, Elias; Tsiftsis, Dimitrios [Department of Surgical Oncology, University Hospital of Heraklion, Medical School of Crete (Greece); Chrysos, Emmanuel; Chalkiadakis, Georgios [Department of General Surgery, University Hospital of Heraklion, Medical School of Crete (Greece)

    2002-07-01

    Our objective was to compare the effectiveness of percutaneous cholecystostomy (PC) vs conservative treatment (CO) in high-risk patients with acute cholecystitis. The study was randomized and comprised 123 high-risk patients with acute cholecystitis. All patients fulfilled the ultrasonographic criteria of acute inflammation and had an APACHE II score {>=}12. Percutaneous cholecystostomy guided by US or CT was successful in 60 of 63 patients (95.2%) who comprised the PC group. Sixty patients were conservatively treated (CO group). One patient died after unsuccessful PC (1.6%). Resolution of symptoms occurred in 54 of 63 patients (86%). Eleven patients (17.5%) died either of ongoing sepsis (n=6) or severe underlying disease (n=5) within 30 days. Seven patients (11%) were operated on because of persisting symptoms (n=3), catheter dislodgment (n=3), or unsuccessful PC (n=1). Cholecystolithotripsy was performed in 5 patients (8%). Elective surgery was performed in 9 cases (14%). No further treatment was needed in 32 patients (51%). In the CO group, 52 patients (87%) fully recovered and 8 patients (13%) died of ongoing sepsis within 30 days. All successfully treated patients showed clinical improvement during the first 3 days of treatment. Percutaneous cholecystostomy in high-risk patients with acute cholecystitis did not decrease mortality in relation to conservative treatment. Percutaneous cholecystostomy might be suggested to patients not presenting clinical improvement following 3 days of conservative treatment, to critically ill intensive care unit patients, or to candidates for percutaneous cholecystolithotripsy. (orig.)

  16. Ecallantide: a plasma kallikrein inhibitor for the treatment of acute attacks of hereditary angioedema.

    Stolz, L E; Horn, P T

    2010-08-01

    Hereditary angioedema (HAE) is a debilitating, potentially fatal disease characterized by variable and unpredictable acute attacks of swelling affecting the subcutaneous tissue and mucosa. It is an autosomal dominant disorder resulting from a genetic deficiency of functional C1-esterase inhibitor. Available treatments include long-term prophylaxis, short-term prophylaxis and treatment of acute attacks. Ecallantide is a novel, specific and potent inhibitor of plasma kallikrein that was recently approved in the United States for the treatment of acute attacks of HAE in patients aged 16 years and older. In two phase III clinical trials, the subcutaneous administration of 30 mg ecallantide resulted in significantly greater symptom improvement than placebo for acute attacks of HAE. Ecallantide was generally well tolerated throughout the clinical development program. The main safety concern following ecallantide treatment is hypersensitivity reactions, including anaphylaxis. A Risk Evaluation and Management Strategy (REMS) has been implemented to minimize this risk and a long-term observational safety study is currently under way to collect more information about hypersensitivity and immunogenicity. Ecallantide represents a novel treatment option for patients with HAE. PMID:20830315

  17. Patient Satisfaction in the Treatment of Acute Hamstring Strain Injury

    LingLing- Lai; M. Nahar A. M.; Lim, B. H.; Hamid. M. S. A; S Khoo; Yusof, A

    2014-01-01

    Introduction: The impact of musculoskeletal injuries often caused loss time in sport participation. Athletes who suffered from these injuries experienced a decrease in performance and physical disability. Although a variety of treatments have been implemented to the muscle injuries, the administration of autologous blood injection is replacing the conventional rehabilitation to expedite the process of muscle recovery. Platelet-rich plasma (PRP) is relatively new in muscle injury treatment and...

  18. Selection of acute stroke patients for treatment of visual neglect.

    Stone, S P; Patel, P.; Greenwood, R J

    1993-01-01

    Although visual neglect is a predictor of poor outcome after stroke, some patients regain independence, whilst others take up considerable rehabilitation resources. Intensive treatment of visual neglect is available and a knowledge of the predictive features in the recovery of these patients would be helpful in the early selection of patients for treatment. A study was therefore carried out to determine the prognosis of patients presenting with visual neglect at two to three days after stroke...

  19. Arthroscopically Assisted Treatment of Acute Dislocations of the Acromioclavicular Joint

    Braun, Sepp; Beitzel, Knut; Buchmann, Stefan; Imhoff, Andreas B.

    2015-01-01

    Arthroscopically assisted treatments for dislocations of the acromioclavicular joint combine the advantages of exact and visually controlled coracoid tunnel placement with the possibility of simultaneous treatment of concomitant injuries. The clinical results of previous arthroscopically assisted techniques have been favorable at midterm and long-term follow-up. The presented surgical technique combines the advantages of arthroscopically positioned coracoclavicular stabilization with an additional suture cord cerclage of the acromioclavicular joint capsule for improved horizontal stability. PMID:26870646

  20. Endovascular treatment of nonvariceal acute arterial upper gastrointestinal bleeding

    Andersen, Poul Erik; Duvnjak, Stevo

    2010-01-01

    Transcatheter arterial embolization as treatment of upper nonvariceal gastrointestinal bleeding is increasingly being used after failed primary endoscopic treatment. The results after embolization have become better and surgery still has a high mortality. Embolization is a safe and effective...... procedure, but its use is has been limited because of relatively high rates of rebleeding and high mortality, both of which are associated with gastrointestinal bleeding and non-gastrointestinal related mortality causes. Transcatheter arterial embolization is a valuable minimal invasive method in the...

  1. Acute and long-term treatment of mania

    Vieta, Eduard; Sanchez-Moreno, Jose

    2008-01-01

    The treatment of mania starts with a correct diagnosis and elementary measures to prevent risks for the patient, relatives, and others. Sometimes, compulsory admission and treatment may be required for a few days. Patients with psychotic or mixed mania may be more difficult to treat. At the present time, there is solid evidence supporting the use of lithium, the anticonvulsants valproate and carbamazepine, and the antipsychotics chlorpromazine, haloperidol, risperidone, olanzapine, quetiapine...

  2. Treatment of autonomously functioning thyroid nodules at a single institution. Radioiodine therapy, surgery, and ethanol injection therapy

    The purpose of this study was to clarify the efficacy of radioiodine (RI) therapy in Japanese patients with autonomously functioning thyroid nodules (AFTNs). We performed a retrospective analysis to assess the management of AFTN patients. Thyroid lobectomy was performed to treat toxic adenoma (TA) patients, and total thyroidectomy to treat toxic multinodular goiter (TMNG) patients. RI therapy was administered in the form of a single dose (500 MBq) of isotope in the outpatient clinic. Percutaneous ethanol injection therapy (PEIT) was performed under ultrasound guidance. Of the total 205 patients, consisting of 159 TA and 46 TMNG patients, 99 underwent surgery, 50 received RI therapy, and 56 received PEIT. Remission of thyrotoxicosis was achieved in all of the patients who were treated surgically. Hypothyroidism was documented in six of the 72 patients who were treated surgically other than by total thyroidectomy. Remission of thyrotoxicosis was observed in 43 of the 50 patients who were treated by RI therapy. Nine TA patients developed hypothyroidism during the follow-up period after RI therapy. Several PEIT sessions were required to achieve a remission of thyrotoxicosis. Remission of thyrotoxicosis was achieved in 29 of the 56 patients treated by PEIT, and thyrotoxicosis recurred in 17 these 56 patients. Surgery is the treatment of choice for large nodules and nodules that are resistant to other treatments, because it allows prompt control of thyrotoxicosis. RI therapy is a safe and effective means of controlling thyrotoxicosis in AFTN patients. We conclude that RI therapy is the treatment of choice for definitive treatment of AFTN patients who do not have local compression symptoms. (author)

  3. Acute severe asthma: new approaches to assessment and treatment.

    Papiris, Spyros A; Manali, Effrosyni D; Kolilekas, Likurgos; Triantafillidou, Christina; Tsangaris, Iraklis

    2009-01-01

    The precise definition of a severe asthmatic exacerbation is an issue that presents difficulties. The term 'status asthmaticus' relates severity to outcome and has been used to define a severe asthmatic exacerbation that does not respond to and/or perilously delays the repetitive or continuous administration of short-acting inhaled beta(2)-adrenergic receptor agonists (SABA) in the emergency setting. However, a number of limitations exist concerning the quantification of unresponsiveness. Therefore, the term 'acute severe asthma' is widely used, relating severity mostly to a combination of the presenting signs and symptoms and the severity of the cardiorespiratory abnormalities observed, although it is well known that presentation does not foretell outcome. In an acute severe asthma episode, close observation plus aggressive administration of bronchodilators (SABAs plus ipratropium bromide via a nebulizer driven by oxygen) and oral or intravenous corticosteroids are necessary to arrest the progression to severe hypercapnic respiratory failure leading to a decrease in consciousness that requires intensive care unit (ICU) admission and, eventually, ventilatory support. Adjunctive therapies (intravenous magnesium sulfate and/or others) should be considered in order to avoid intubation. Management after admission to the hospital ward because of an incomplete response is similar. The decision to intubate is essentially based on clinical judgement. Although cardiac or respiratory arrest represents an absolute indication for intubation, the usual picture is that of a conscious patient struggling to breathe. Factors associated with the increased likelihood of intubation include exhaustion and fatigue despite maximal therapy, deteriorating mental status, refractory hypoxaemia, increasing hypercapnia, haemodynamic instability and impending coma or apnoea. To intubate, sedation is indicated in order to improve comfort, safety and patient-ventilator synchrony, while at the

  4. The effectiveness and safety of treatments used for acute diarrhea and acute gastroenteritis in children: protocol for a systematic review and network meta-analysis

    Florez, Ivan D.; Al-Khalifah, Reem; Sierra, Javier M.; Granados, Claudia M.; Yepes-Nuñez, Juan J.; Cuello-Garcia, Carlos; Perez-Gaxiola, Giordano; Zea, Adriana M.; Hernandez, Gilma N.; Veroniki, Areti-Angeliki; Guyatt, Gordon H; Thabane, Lehana

    2016-01-01

    Background Acute diarrhea and acute gastroenteritis (AD/AGE) are common among children in low- and middle-income countries (LMIC) and high-income countries (HIC). Supportive therapy including maintaining feeding, prevention of dehydration, and use of oral rehydration solution (ORS), is the mainstay of treatment in all children. Several additional treatments aiming to reduce the episode duration have been compared to placebo, but the differences in effectiveness among them are unknown. Methods...

  5. [Current approaches to the treatment of severe hypoxic respiratory insufficiency (acute lung injury; acute respiratory distress syndrome)].

    Kluge, S; Müller, T; Pfeifer, M

    2011-02-01

    Lung-protective ventilation with a low tidal volume, plateau pressure 90% and permissive hypercapnia results in reduction of the mortality rate in patients with acute lung injury (ALI) and acute respiratory distress syndrome (ARDS). The level of the positive end-expiratory pressure (PEEP) must be chosen in relation to oxygen requirement. High frequency oscillatory ventilation and neurally adjusted ventilatory assist are promising methods. However, further studies with firm end-points have to be awaited before a final judgment is possible. Veno-venous extracorporeal membrane oxygenation (ECMO) can ensure life-sustaining gas exchange in patients with severe vitally compromised pulmonary failure, to provide time for lung tissue to heal and reduce ventilatory stress. The latest guidelines for analgesia and sedation in intensive care medicine demand consistent monitoring of the level of sedation and the intensity of pain. The sedation should be interrupted daily, with phases of awakenings and, if possible, spontaneous breathing. Methods of supportive treatment: Positional treatment (prone position) and inhalation of vasodilators can improve ventilation/perfusion mismatch and thus oxygenation. However, administration of surfactant is currently not advised in adult respiratory failure. PMID:21271478

  6. Ibuprofen for acute treatment of episodic tension-type headache in adults

    Derry, Sheena; Wiffen, Philip J; Moore, R Andrew;

    2015-01-01

    BACKGROUND: Tension-type headache (TTH) affects about one person in five worldwide. It is divided into infrequent episodic TTH (fewer than one headache per month), frequent episodic TTH (1 to 14 headaches per month), and chronic TTH (15 headaches a month or more). Ibuprofen is one of a number of...... analgesics suggested for acute treatment of headaches in frequent episodic TTH. OBJECTIVES: To assess the efficacy and safety of oral ibuprofen for treatment of acute episodic TTH in adults. SEARCH METHODS: We searched CENTRAL (The Cochrane Library), MEDLINE, EMBASE, and our own in-house database to January...... 2015. We sought unpublished studies by asking personal contacts and searching on-line clinical trial registers and manufacturers' websites. SELECTION CRITERIA: We included randomised, placebo-controlled studies (parallel-group or cross-over) using oral ibuprofen for symptomatic relief of an acute...

  7. Post-traumatic intraarterial thrombolytic treatment for acute occlusion of the extremities artery

    Objective: To explore the clinical value of intraarterial thrombolytic therapy for acute arterial occlusion of the extremities artery after trauma. Methods: Six cases with acute arterial occlusion of the extremities after trauma underwent intraarterial thrombolytic therapy and the efficiency was analysed. Results: Digital Subtraction Angiograph (DSA)clearly displayed the location, extent and dimensions of the occlusive extremity arteries. All the occlusive arteries were recanalized with successful rate of 100%. 4 cases appeared to have ischemia-reperfusion injury after treatment, outcoming with recovery in one case by musculoaponeuratic splitting, and 3 cases through medication; and simultaneously the pulse of the occlusive arteries returned to normal and the local pains reduced or disapeared afterwards; without serious complications of necrosis, hemorrhage etc. Conclusions: The intraarterial thrombolytic treatment of acute arterial occlusion of the extremities after trauma is safe, effective, minimal invasive and less complication; providing the preparation for further stent placement. (authors)

  8. TREATMENT OF 70 CASES OF ACUTE GASTROENTERITIS WITH ELECTROACUPUNCTURE OF MAIN ACUPOINT NEIGUAN AND GONGSUN

    钟鸿

    2004-01-01

    Objective: To observe clinical therapeutic effect of electro-acupuncture (EA) of Neiguan (PC 6), Gongsun (SP 4), etc.In the treatment of acute gastroenteritis.Methods: A total of acute gastroenteritis patients observed were randomized into two groups, I.e.70 cases in the treatment group receiving EA of main acupoint Neiguan (PC 6) and Gongsun (SP 4) and acupuncture of supplementary acupoint Guanyuan (CV 4), Zusanli (ST 36), Pishu (BL 20) and 50 cases in the control group treated by oral administration of Norfloxacin capsules.Results: Statistically, the therapeutic results of the 2 groups were not significantly different (P>0.05), showing that EA of Neiguan (PC6) and Gongsun (SP 4) is an effective therapeutic method for acute gastroenteritis.

  9. Progress in research into the mechanism of Radix salviae miltiorrhizae in treatment of acute pancreatitis

    Xi-Ping Zhang; Zhi-Jun Li; Da-Ren Liu

    2006-01-01

    BACKGROUND: Acute pancreatitis (AP) is a common acute abdomen with high mortality, multiple complications and complicated causes. There is no effective therapy for AP. Radix salviae miltiorrhizae (Danshen), a traditional herbal medicine, has a low price and a wide range of clinical applications. It is effective to promote blood lfow, eliminate stagnancy, and relieve pain. It is also found to be effective in treating AP. We reviewed the progress in research into the mechanism of Radix salviae miltiorrhizae in treatment of AP. DATA SOURCES: An english-language literature search was conducted using MEDLINE (1988-2005) on Radix salviae miltiorrhizae (Danshen) and acute pancreatitis. RESULTS:The mechanisms of Danshen in the treatment of AP include improvement of microcirculatory disturbances;elimination of oxygen free radicals; modulation of the metabolism of lipid inlfammatory mediator;and blocking of calcium inlfow and prevention of calcium overload. CONCLUSION:Danshen can effectively reduce the mortality and complications of AP.

  10. Current standard treatment of adult acute promyelocytic leukaemia.

    Lo-Coco, Francesco; Cicconi, Laura; Breccia, Massimo

    2016-03-01

    The outcome of patients with acute promyelocytic leukaemia (APL) has dramatically improved over the last two decades, due to the introduction of combined all-trans retinoic acid (ATRA) and chemotherapy regimens and, more recently, to the advent of arsenic trioxide (ATO). ATRA and anthracycline-based chemotherapy remains a widely used strategy, providing cure rates above 80%, but it is associated with risk of severe infections and occurrence of secondary leukaemias. ATO is the most effective single agent in APL and, used alone or in combination with ATRA or ATRA and reduced-intensity chemotherapy, results in greater efficacy with considerably less haematological toxicity. The toxic profile of ATO includes frequent, but manageable, QTc prolongation and increase of liver enzymes. Two large randomized studies have shown that ATRA + ATO is superior to ATRA + chemotherapy for newly diagnosed low-risk APL resulting in 2-4 year event-free survival rates above 90% and very few relapses. According to real world data, the spectacular progress in APL outcomes reported in clinical trials has not been paralleled by a significant improvement in early death rates, this remains the most challenging issue for the final cure of the disease. PMID:26687281

  11. Endobutton technique for the treatment of acute acromioclavicular joint dislocations

    Raif Özden

    2014-06-01

    Full Text Available Objective: Acromioclavicular (AC joint dislocation is a common injury frequently affecting young athletes. The aim of this study is to evaluate postoperative functional results in cases diagnosed with acute AC joint dislocation stabilized with endobutton system. Methods: This fixation procedure has been applied on 10 patients. Indications of the technique included: a grade V AC joint dislocation (7 patients, and grade III AC joint dislocation (3 patient according to Rockwood classification. The coracoclavicular (CC interval and AC joint were reduced using two endobuttons. One endobutton was fitted on the clavicle and the second was placed at the undersurface of the coracoid. Outcomes were assessed with the Constant shoulder score and visual analog pain scale. Results: All the patients had powerful intraoperative fixation. Immediately after surgery, and 6 weeks, and 1 year postoperative radiographs showed adequate reduction of the CC distance and the AC joint. The mean Constant shoulder score was 89 (88–92 in the injured shoulder and 90 (88–93 in the uninjured shoulder. There was no statically significant difference between the injured and normal shoulder in terms of Constant shoulder score and there was no complication during the process. Conclusion: This technique is a safe and effective method for providing fixation for the AC joint.

  12. Changes of Platelet Indices in Juvenile Idiopathic Arthritis in Acute Phase and After Two Months Treatment

    Marjan Vakili

    2016-05-01

    Full Text Available Background Various indices have been raised as predictors of activity and severity of juvenile idiopathic arthritis. Objectives This study was conducted to investigate the changes of platelet indices in acute phase and two months after treatment in these patients. Patients and Methods In a cohort study, platelet count, mean platelet volume (MPV, platelet distribution width (PDW, plateletcrit (PCT were evaluated in children referred to children’s medical center, Tehran due to juvenile idiopathic arthritis from March 2013 to March 2014 during the acute phase and two months after standard treatment. The statistical data were analyzed by SPSS 19 software, and the significance level was set as P < 0.05. Results In this study, 55 children (24 boys and 31 girls with mean ± SD age of 7.50 ± 3.35 years were studied. The mean ± SD value of platelet count was 441872.7 ± 151836.9 in the acute phase and reached 395418.2 ± 119601.6 two months after treatment (P = 0.01. The mean ± SD PCT in the acute phase of various subtypes of the disease was 0.32 ± 0.11, which reached 0.29 ± 0.10 after treatment (P = 0.09. However, the PDW range in different subtypes of the disease reached 13.4 ± 8.0 from 13.9 ± 2.9 and MPV reached 8.7 ± 0.9 from 8.8 ± 1.1 after treatment, but they were not significantly different from the results in the acute phase (P = 0.5. Conclusions Platelet count is one of the most remarkable indices in JIA. Evaluation of PCT can also help determine the severity of the inflammatory process in the follow-up and treatment process.

  13. Efficacy and safety of parecoxib in the treatment of acute renal colic: a randomized clinical trial

    Sidney Glina

    2011-12-01

    Full Text Available PURPOSE: Although nonselective nonsteroidal anti-inflammatory drugs (nsNSAIDs and opioids are effective treatments for acute renal colic, they are associated with adverse events (AEs. As cyclooxygenase-2 selective NSAIDs may provide a safer alternative, we compared the efficacy and safety of parecoxib versus an nsNSAID in subjects with acute renal colic. MATERIALS AND METHODS: Phase IV., multicenter, double-blind, noninferiority, active-controlled study: 338 subjects with acute renal colic were randomized to parecoxib 40 mg i.v. plus placebo (n = 174 or ketoprofen 100 mg IV plus placebo (n = 164. 338 subjects with acute renal colic were randomized to parecoxib 40 mg IV (n = 174 or ketoprofen 100 mg IV(n = 164 plus placebo. Subjects were evaluated 15, 30, 45, 60, 90 and 120 minutes after treatment start and 24 hours after discharge. Primary endpoint was the mean pain intensity difference (PID at 30 minutes by visual analog scale (VAS (per-protocol population. An ANCOVA model was used with treatment group, country, and baseline score as covariates. Non-inferiority of parecoxib to ketoprofen was declared if the lower bound of the 95% confidence interval (CI for the difference between the two groups excluded the pre-established margin of 10 mm for the primary endpoint. RESULTS: Baseline demographics were similar. The mean (SD mPID30 min was 33.84 (24.61 and 35.16 (26.01 for parecoxib and ketoprofen, respectively. For treatment difference (parecoxib-ketoprofen the lower bound of the 95% CI was 6.53. The mean change from baseline in VAS 30 minutes after study medication was ~43 mm; AEs were comparable between treatments. CONCLUSIONS: Parecoxib is as effective as ketoprofen in the treatment of pain due to acute renal colic, is well tolerated, and has a comparable safety profile.

  14. Graft irradiation in the treatment of acute rejection of renal transplants: a randomized study

    A randomized study of graft irradiation in the treatment of acute rejection of renal transplants was conducted from 1978 to 1981. Patients developing clinical signs of an acute graft rejection received customary antirejection treatment in the form of intravenous administration of high-dose (1 gm per day) of methylprednisolone. They were at the same time randomized to either receive therapeutic irradiation (175 rad every other day to a total of 525 rad) or sham irradiation. Neither the patient nor the Transplant Service surgeons knew at any time whether the radiation treatment had been given. Eighty-three rejection episodes occurring in 64 grafts were entered into the study. Acute rejection was reversed in 84.5% of grafts in the control and 75% in the treated group. The incidence of recurrent rejection was higher in the treated group (66 vs. 46%) and graft survival was lower (22% vs. 54%). The study failed to demonstrate a beneficial effect of graft irradiation in the treatment of acute renal allograft rejection, when used in conjunction with high dose steriods

  15. Reversion by ozone treatment of acute nephrotoxicity induced by cisplatin in rats

    Ricardo González

    2004-01-01

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: Ozone therapy has become a useful treatment for pathological processes, in which the damage mediated by reactive oxygen species is involved. Several lines of evidence suggest that cisplatin-induced acute nephrotoxicity is partially mediated by reactive oxygen species.

  16. The potential of alkaline phosphatase as a treatment for sepsis-associated acute kidney injury

    Peters, Esther; Masereeuw, R.; Pickkers, Peter

    2014-01-01

    Sepsis-associated acute kidney injury (AKI) is associated with a high attributable mortality and an increased risk of developing chronic kidney failure in survivors. As a successful therapy is, as yet, unavailable, a pharmacological treatment option is clearly warranted. Recently, two small phase II

  17. Transcatheter thrombolysis treatment of acute A-V internal fistula thrombogenesis in hemodialysis patients

    Objective: To investigate the value of transcatheter thrombolysis treatment of acute A-V internal fistula thrombogenesis in hemodialysis patients. Methods: The acute A-V fistula thrombogenesis in 32 hemodialysis patients with chronic renal failure were treated with transcatheter pulse-spray pharmacomechanical thrombolysis (PSPMT). Results: Acute A-V fistula thrombogenesis was verified in all 32 patients by angiography and treated with transcatheter PSPMT. the immediate clinical success rate of thrombolysis was achieved in 97% except for one case. The A-V fistulas were proved to reopen by post-treatment angiography. Recurrent thrombosis was found in 4 cases, reopening with transcatheter PSPMT was achieved in 2 of them and the rest 2 cases were undergone PTA because of localized vascular stenosis. All the 32 A-V fistulae were reopened after treatment without serious complications such as hemorrhage, pulmonary embolism and others. Conclusions: Transcatheter PSPMT is a safe, effective and microinvasive treatment for acute A-V fistula thrombolysis with higher immediate reopening rate. Transcatheter PSPMT combined with PTA and intravascular stent grafting can improve long-term patency rate

  18. Prediction of immunophenotype, treatment response, and relapse in childhood acute lymphoblastic leukemia using DNA microarrays

    Willenbrock, Hanni; Juncker, Agnieszka; Schmiegelow, K.; Knudsen, Steen; Ryder, L.P.

    2004-01-01

    Gene expression profiling is a promising tool for classification of pediatric acute lymphoblastic leukemia ( ALL). We analyzed the gene expression at the time of diagnosis for 45 Danish children with ALL. The prediction of 5-year event-free survival or relapse after treatment by NOPHO-ALL92 or 2000...

  19. Handwriting and fine motor problems after treatment for acute lymphoblastic leukemia

    Reinders-Messelink, H.A.; Schoemaker, M.M.; Goeken, L.N H; van den Briel, M.M.; Kamps, W.A; Simner, M L; Leedham, C G; Thomassen, A J W M

    1996-01-01

    Fine motor skills and handwriting performance were investigated in 17 children at least two years after treatment for acute lymphoblastic leukemia. It was hypothesized that as a late effect of vincristine neuropathy, children would still have fine motor and/or handwriting problems. Gross and fine mo

  20. Fine motor and handwriting problems after treatment for childhood acute lymphoblastic leukemia

    ReindersMesselink, HA; Schoemaker, MM; Hofte, M; Goeken, LNH; Kingma, A; vandenBriel, MM; Kamps, WA

    1996-01-01

    Motor skills were investigated in 18 children 2 years after treatment for acute lymphoblastic leukemia (ALL). Cross and fine motor functioning were examined with the Movement Assessment Battery for Children. Handwriting as a specific fine motor skill was studied with a computerized writing task. We

  1. Graft irradiation in the treatment of acute rejection of renal transplants: a randomized study

    Pilepich, M.V.; Anderson, C.B.; Etheredge, E.E.; Sicard, G.A.; Melzer, J.S.; Blum, J.

    1982-05-01

    A randomized study of graft irradiation in the treatment of acute rejection of renal transplants was conducted from 1978 to 1981. Patients developing clinical signs of an acute graft rejection received customary antirejection treatment in the form of intravenous administration of high-dose (1 gm per day) of methylprednisolone. They were at the same time randomized to either receive therapeutic irradiation (175 rad every other day to a total of 525 rad) or sham irradiation. Neither the patient nor the Transplant Service surgeons knew at any time whether the radiation treatment had been given. Eighty-three rejection episodes occurring in 64 grafts were entered into the study. Acute rejection was reversed in 84.5% of grafts in the control and 75% in the treated group. The incidence of recurrent rejection was higher in the treated group (66 vs. 46%) and graft survival was lower (22% vs. 54%). The study failed to demonstrate a beneficial effect of graft irradiation in the treatment of acute renal allograft rejection, when used in conjunction with high dose steriods.

  2. Acute lateral ankle sprains: from functional treatment to prevention

    Kemler, H.J.

    2015-01-01

    Ankle sprains are common in daily life and often considered to be minor injuries. The objective in this thesis was to provide more evidence on the burden and optimal management of ankle sprains in terms of the magnitude of the problem, the prognostic consequences and ways to improve treatment and p

  3. Intranasal fentanyl in the treatment of acute pain--a systematic review

    Hansen, M S; Mathiesen, O; Trautner, S;

    2012-01-01

    Due to its non-invasive mode of administration, intranasal (IN) application of drugs may be a valuable alternative to non-invasive pain management. With characteristics that appear to be ideal for IN application, IN fentanyl may have a place in the out-of-hospital treatment and the paediatric....... No significant analgesic differences between IN fentanyl and intravenous (IV) fentanyl were demonstrated in treatment of acute and post-operative pain. Significant analgesic effect of IN fentanyl was demonstrated in the treatment of breakthrough pain in cancer patients. In the paediatric population, results...... fentanyl, respectively. Significant analgesic effect of IN fentanyl was demonstrated in the treatment of breakthrough pain in cancer patients. However, the significant deficiencies in trials investigating acute and post-operative pain, and the paediatric population makes firm recommendations impossible....

  4. Stigma as a barrier to treatment for child acute malnutrition in Marsabit County, Kenya.

    Bliss, Jessica Robin; Njenga, Martin; Stoltzfus, Rebecca Joyce; Pelletier, David Louis

    2016-01-01

    Acute malnutrition affects millions of children each year, yet global coverage of life-saving treatment through the community-based management of acute malnutrition (CMAM) is estimated to be below 15%. We investigated the potential role of stigma as a barrier to accessing CMAM. We surveyed caregivers bringing children to rural health facilities in Marsabit County, Kenya, divided into three strata based on the mid-upper arm circumference of the child: normal status (n = 327), moderate acute malnutrition (MAM, n = 241) and severe acute malnutrition (SAM, n = 143). We used multilevel mixed effects logistic regression to estimate the odds of reporting shame as a barrier to accessing health care. We found that the most common barriers to accessing child health care were those known to be universally problematic: women's time and labour constraints. These constituted the top five most frequently reported barriers regardless of child acute malnutrition status. In contrast, the odds of reporting shame as a barrier were 3.64 (confidence interval: 1.66-8.03, P < 0.05) times higher in caregivers of MAM and SAM children relative to those of normal children. We conclude that stigma is an under-recognized barrier to accessing CMAM and may constrain programme coverage. In light of the large gap in coverage of CMAM, there is an urgent need to understand the sources of acute malnutrition-associated stigma and adopt effective means of de-stigmatization. PMID:25989353

  5. Effect of preoperative small dose of tirofiban on PCI treatment in patients with acute coronary syndrome

    Li Wang; Yi He; Hua Ran; Wei-Qiong Li; Zheng-Zhong Wang

    2016-01-01

    Objective:To analyze the effect of preoperative small dose of tirofiban on PCI treatment prognosis in patients with acute coronary syndrome.Methods:A total of 108 cases with acute coronary syndrome who received PCI treatment in our hospital from August 2011 to May 2014 were included for study and randomly divided into observation group and control group by half according to different treatment methods. Control group received PCI treatment alone, observation group received small dose of tirofiban combined with PCI treatment, and then differences in hemorheology indicators, platelet function, left ventricular systolic function and left ventricular diastolic function parameters, serum indicators and so on were compared between two groups after treatment.Results:Whole blood high shear viscosity, whole blood low shear viscosity, reduced high shear viscosity, reduced low shear viscosity, plasma ratio viscosity, erythrocyte aggregation index and erythrocyte deformability index of observation group after treatment were all less than those of control group (P<0.05); PAdT, PAgT, CD62p, CD40L and P-selectin values of observation group after treatment were all lower than those of control group (P<0.05); LPER and LPFR values of observation group 1 week after treatment were higher than those of control group while LTPER and LTPFR values were lower than those of control group (P<0.05); serum GA, MCP-1, PAI-1, NT-proBNP, PAC-1, VCAM-1 and ICAM-1 values of observation group after treatment were all lower than those of control group (P<0.05).Conclusions: Small dose of tirofiban combined with PCI treatment for patients with acute coronary syndrome can effectively enhance therapeutic effect, inhibit platelet activity while protect heart function and optimize long-term treatment outcome.

  6. Mechanistic Studies of the Anti-Ulcerogenic Activity and Acute Toxicity Evaluation of Dichlorido-Copper(II-4-(2-5-Bromo-benzylideneaminoethyl Piperazin-1-ium Phenolate Complex against Ethanol-Induced Gastric Injury in Rats

    A. Hamid A. Hadi

    2011-10-01

    Full Text Available The compound dichlorido-copper(II-4-(2-5-bromobenzylideneaminoethyl piperazin-1-ium phenolate (CuLBS was synthesized, characterized and screened for acute toxicity and protective activity against ethanol-induced gastric mucosal injury in rats. Gross microscopic lesions, biochemical and immunological parameters and histochemcial staining of glycogen storage were taken into consideration. Oral administration of CuLBS (30 and 60 mg/Kg for two weeks dose-dependently flattened gastric mucosa, significantly increased gastric mucus and total acidity, compared with control group (P < 0.01. Serum levels of liver enzymes aspartate (AST and alanine transaminases (ALT, pro-inflammatory (IL-6 and TNF-α and anti-inflammatory (IL-10 cytokines in the rats exposed to ethanol induced ulceration have been altered. Administration of CuLBS showed considerable (P < 0.05 protection against ulceration by modulating the acute alterations of cytokines AST, ALT and stomach glycogen. Interestingly, CuLBS did not interfere with the natural release of nitric oxide. CuLBS alone (60 mg/Kg did not exhibit any ulcerogenic effect as assessed using Adami’s scoring scale. An acute toxicity study showed that rats treated with CuLBS (1,000 and 2,000 mg/Kg manifested no abnormal signs. These findings therefore, suggested that the gastroprotective activity of CuLBS might contribute in modulating the inflammatory cytokine-mediated oxidative damage to gastric mucosa.

  7. Integrated ozonation and biomethanization treatments of vinasse derived from ethanol manufacturing

    Anaerobic digestion of vinasse derived from bioethanol manufacturing, in which total COD was found to be 68.56 ± 8.17 g/L, was studied in batch laboratory-scale reactors at mesophilic temperature (35 deg. C). The vinasse was subjected to a short ozonation pre-treatment (15 min) in which more than 50% reduction of phenols was observed, although the total organic carbon concentration remained approximately stable, indicating that the phenols were transformed into other simpler forms. The anaerobic biodegradability of raw and pre-treated vinasse was similar, reaching values close to 80% (COD). However, the methane yield coefficient and methane production rate enhanced by around 13.6% and 41.16%, respectively, when the ozonized vinasse was fed. These results indicate that the integration of chemical-biological treatments could be a viable option for the purification of this hazardous wastewater.

  8. Assessing Compliance With Mercaptopurine Treatment in Younger Patients With Acute Lymphoblastic Leukemia in First Remission | Division of Cancer Prevention

    This randomized phase III trial studies compliance to a mercaptopurine treatment intervention compared to standard of care in younger patients with acute lymphoblastic leukemia in remission. Assessing ways to help patients who have acute lymphoblastic leukemia to take their medications as prescribed may help them in taking their medications more consistently and may improve treatment outcomes. |

  9. Pivmecillinam versus sulfamethizole for short-term treatment of uncomplicated acute cystitis in general practice: a randomized controlled trial

    Bjerrum, Lars; Gahrn-Hansen, Bente; Grinsted, Per

    2009-01-01

    To investigate whether short-term treatment with pivmecillinam was more effective than sulfamethizole in patients with acute uncomplicated urinary tract infection (UTI).......To investigate whether short-term treatment with pivmecillinam was more effective than sulfamethizole in patients with acute uncomplicated urinary tract infection (UTI)....

  10. 75 FR 32490 - Issues in the Development of Medical Products for the Prophylaxis and/or Treatment of Acute...

    2010-06-08

    ... Prophylaxis and/or Treatment of Acute Antibody Mediated Rejection in Kidney Transplant Recipients; Public... prophylaxis and/or treatment of acute antibody mediated rejection (AMR) in kidney transplant recipients. This..., academia, and industry on various aspects of development of medical products for prophylaxis...

  11. PATHOGENESIS AND TREATMENT OF THROMBOHEMORRHAGIC DIATHESIS IN ACUTE PROMYELOCYTIC LEUKEMIA

    Anna Falanga

    2011-12-01

    Full Text Available Acute promyelocytic leukemia (APL is a distinct subtype of myeloid leukemia characterized by t(15;17 chromosomal translocation, which involves the retinoic acid receptor-alpha (RAR-alpha. APL typically presents with a life-threatening hemorrhagic diathesis. Before the introduction of all-trans retinoic acid (ATRA for the cure of APL, fatal hemorrhages due, at least in part, to the APL-associated coagulopathy, were a major cause of induction remission failure. The laboratory abnormalities of blood coagulation found in these patients are compatible with a syndrome of disseminated intravascular coagulation (DIC. Major determinants of the coagulopathy of APL are endogenous factors expressed by the leukemic cells, including procoagulant factors, fibrinolytic proteins, and non-specific proteolytic enzymes. In addition, these cells have an increased capacity to adhere to the vascular endothelium, and to secrete inflammatory cytokines [i.e. interleukin-1beta (IL-1beta and tumor necrosis factor (TNF-alpha], which in turn stimulate the expression of prothrombotic activities by endothelial cells and leukocytes. ATRA can interfere with each of the principal hemostatic properties of the leukemic cell, thus reducing the APL cell procoagulant potential, in parallel to the induction of cellular differentiation. This effect occurs in vivo, in the bone marrow of APL patients receiving ATRA, and is associated with the improvement of the bleeding symptoms. Therapy with arsenic trioxide (ATO also beneficially affects coagulation in APL. However, early deaths from bleeding still remain a major problem in APL and further research is required in this field. In this review, we will summarize our current knowledge of the pathogenesis of the APL-associated coagulopathy and will overview the therapeutic approaches for the management of this complication.

  12. PATHOGENESIS AND TREATMENT OF THROMBOHEMORRHAGIC DIATHESIS IN ACUTE PROMYELOCYTIC LEUKEMIA

    Laura Russo

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available

    Acute promyelocytic leukemia (APL is a distinct subtype of myeloid leukemia characterized by t(15;17 chromosomal translocation, which involves the retinoic acid receptor-alpha (RAR-alpha. APL typically presents with a life-threatening hemorrhagic diathesis. Before the introduction of all-trans retinoic acid (ATRA for the cure of APL, fatal hemorrhages due, at least in part, to the APL-associated coagulopathy, were a major cause of induction remission failure. The laboratory abnormalities of blood coagulation found in these patients are compatible with a syndrome of disseminated intravascular coagulation (DIC.

    Major determinants of the coagulopathy of APL are endogenous factors expressed by the leukemic cells, including procoagulant factors, fibrinolytic proteins, and non-specific proteolytic enzymes. In addition, these cells have an increased capacity to adhere to the vascular endothelium, and to secrete inflammatory cytokines [i.e. interleukin-1beta (IL-1beta and tumor necrosis factor (TNF-alpha], which in turn stimulate the expression of prothrombotic activities by endothelial cells and leukocytes.

    ATRA can interfere with each of the principal hemostatic properties of the leukemic cell, thus reducing the APL cell procoagulant potential, in parallel to the induction of cellular differentiation. This effect occurs in vivo, in the bone marrow of APL patients receiving ATRA, and is associated with the improvement of the bleeding symptoms. Therapy with arsenic trioxide (ATO also beneficially affects coagulation in APL. However, early deaths from bleeding still remain a major problem in APL and further research is required in this field.

    In this review, we will summarize our current knowledge of the pathogenesis of the APL-associated coagulopathy and will overview the therapeutic approaches for the management of this complication.

  13. A Case of Acute Pancreatitis Possibly Associated with Combined Salicylate and Simvastatin Treatment

    Giannoulis G

    2005-05-01

    Full Text Available CONTEXT: Drug-induced acute pancreatitis is a rather rare clinical entity. From time to time, several cases have been reported in which statins or salicylates have been associated with the development of acute pancreatitis. There is only one report which implies the involvement of both drugs in pancreatic inflammation. CASE REPORT: A 58-year-old Caucasian male with a history of coronary heart disease and hypercholesterolemia, under treatment with acetyl-salicylate for 6 years and simvastatin for 2 months, presented to the Emergency Department of our hospital with epigastric pain and vomiting of 24-hour duration. The clinical and laboratory investigation led to the diagnosis of acute pancreatitis. Conservative and rich-in-fluid treatment resulted in clinical and laboratory amelioration, and the patient was discharged on day 15, after full restoration of his health. In our patient, all possible common causes of acute pancreatitis were excluded. CONCLUSION: Conclusion It is a rational assumption to connect this case to the co-administration of simvastatin and acetyl-salicylate. However, the pathophysiological mechanism behind the onset of acute pancreatitis due to a statin, or, even more, due to its combination with salicylate, remains vague.

  14. Impact of Oxandrolone Treatment on Acute Outcomes After Severe Burn Injury

    Pham, Tam N.; Klein, Matthew B.; Gibran, Nicole S.; Arnoldo, Brett D.; Gamelli, Richard L.; Silver, Geoffrey M.; Jeschke, Marc G.; Finnerty, Celeste C.; Tompkins, Ronald G.; Herndon, David N

    2008-01-01

    Pharmacologic modulation of hypermetabolism clearly benefits children with major burns, however, its role in adult burns remains to be defined. Oxandrolone appears to be a promising anabolic agent although few outcome data are as yet available. We examined whether early oxandrolone treatment in severely burned adults was associated with improved outcomes during acute hospitalization. We evaluated for potential associations between oxandrolone treatment and outcomes in a large cohort of severe...

  15. Acute weight gain, gender, and therapeutic response to antipsychotics in the treatment of patients with schizophrenia

    Zhao Zhongyun; Stensland Michael; Ascher-Svanum Haya; Kinon Bruce J

    2005-01-01

    Abstract Background Previous research indicated that women are more vulnerable than men to adverse psychological consequences of weight gain. Other research has suggested that weight gain experienced during antipsychotic therapy may also psychologically impact women more negatively. This study assessed the impact of acute treatment-emergent weight gain on clinical and functional outcomes of patients with schizophrenia by patient gender and antipsychotic treatment (olanzapine or haloperidol). ...

  16. Paliperidone palmitate injection for the acute and maintenance treatment of schizophrenia in adults

    Kim, Shiyun; Solari, Hugo; Weiden, Peter J; Bishop, Jeffrey R

    2012-01-01

    Purpose To review the use of paliperidone palmitate in treatment of patients with schizophrenia. Methods Published clinical trial data for the development and utilization of paliperidone palmitate for the treatment of schizophrenia were assessed in this review. Four short-term, randomized, double-blind, placebo-controlled trials investigated the efficacy of paliperidone palmitate in acute exacerbation of schizophrenia. Paliperidone palmitate was also studied as a maintenance treatment to prevent or delay relapse in stable schizophrenia. In addition, paliperidone palmitate was compared to risperidone long-acting injection for noninferiority in three studies. Results Paliperidone palmitate has been shown to be effective in reducing symptoms as measured by the Positive and Negative Syndrome Scale total scores in the four acute treatment studies. In the maintenance treatment studies, paliperidone palmitate was found to be more effective than placebo in preventing or delaying the time to first relapse in stable schizophrenia patients. In addition, paliperidone palmitate was shown to be noninferior to risperidone long-acting injection in two studies. It was shown to be reasonably well tolerated in all clinical trials. Acute treatment phase should be initiated with a dose of 234 mg on day one and 156 mg on day eight, followed by a recommended monthly maintenance dose of 39–234 mg based on efficacy and tolerability results from the clinical studies. Conclusion Providing an optimal long-term treatment can be challenging. Paliperidone palmitate can be used as an acute treatment even in outpatient setting, and it has shown to be well tolerated by patients. Also, it does not require overlapping oral antipsychotic supplementation while being initiated, and is dosed once per month. PMID:22879739

  17. Systematic review of probiotics for the treatment of community-acquired acute diarrhea in children

    Applegate, Jennifer A; Fischer Walker, Christa L.; Ambikapathi, Ramya; Robert E. Black

    2013-01-01

    Background Oral rehydration salts (ORS), zinc, and continued feeding are the recommended treatments for community-acquired acute diarrhea among young children. However, probiotics are becoming increasingly popular treatments for diarrhea in some countries. We sought to estimate the effect of probiotics on diarrhea morbidity and mortality in children < 5 years of age. Methods We conducted a systematic review of randomized controlled trials to estimate the effect of probiotic microorganisms for...

  18. Posttraumatic Stress Disorder and Acute Stress Disorder II: Considerations for Treatment and Prevention

    Cahill, Shawn P.; Pontoski, Kristin; D'Olio, Carla M.

    2005-01-01

    Posttraumatic stress disorder is a common and often chronic and disabling anxiety disorder that can develop after exposure to highly stressful events characterized by actual or threatened harm to the self or others. This is the second of two invited articles summarizing the nature and treatment of PTSD and the associated condition of acute stress disorder (ASD). The present article reviews evidence for the efficacy of psychological and pharmacological treatments for PTSD and ASD. In summary, ...

  19. An Evaluation of the Efficacy of Lornoxicam in Acute Renal Colic Treatment

    TEMELTAŞ, Gökhan; ASAN, Çağrı; Müezzinoğlu, Talha; Büyüksu, Coşkun

    2008-01-01

    Purpose: In order to provide analgesia in renal colic, related to acute urinary obstruction, many different agents are used. Use of prostaglandin synthesis inhibitors is very common for this purpose. In our study, we aim to evaluate the analgesic effect of lornoxicam, included in above mentioned group, in renal colic treatment. Materials and Methods: The patients, who were taken to emergency room due to renal colic, were assigned into two group. Before any treatment, they were evaluated w...

  20. Acute disseminated encephalomyelitis after treatment with Japanese B encephalitis vaccine (Nakayama-Yoken and Beijing strains).

    Ohtaki, E; Matsuishi, T; Hirano, Y; Maekawa, K

    1995-01-01

    Seven children with acute disseminated encephalomyelitis (ADEM) after treatment with Japanese B encephalitis vaccine (JBEV) (Nakayama-Yoken strain 1968-88 and Beijing strain 1989-93) were identified by mailed questionnaires and by compilation of previously published case reports. It was considered that encephalomyelitis might have been related to vaccine treatment as the vaccine is derived from mouse brain tissue infected with Japanese B encephalitis virus, a potentially cross reactive antige...

  1. Paliperidone palmitate injection for the acute and maintenance treatment of schizophrenia in adults

    Kim S

    2012-07-01

    Full Text Available Shiyun Kim,1 Hugo Solari,2 Peter J Weiden,2 Jeffrey R Bishop11Department of Pharmacy Practice, University of Illinois at Chicago College of Pharmacy, 2Department of Psychiatry, University of Illinois at Chicago College of Medicine, Chicago, IL, USAPurpose: To review the use of paliperidone palmitate in treatment of patients with schizophrenia.Methods: Published clinical trial data for the development and utilization of paliperidone palmitate for the treatment of schizophrenia were assessed in this review. Four short-term, randomized, double-blind, placebo-controlled trials investigated the efficacy of paliperidone palmitate in acute exacerbation of schizophrenia. Paliperidone palmitate was also studied as a maintenance treatment to prevent or delay relapse in stable schizophrenia. In addition, paliperidone palmitate was compared to risperidone long-acting injection for noninferiority in three studies.Results: Paliperidone palmitate has been shown to be effective in reducing symptoms as measured by the Positive and Negative Syndrome Scale total scores in the four acute treatment studies. In the maintenance treatment studies, paliperidone palmitate was found to be more effective than placebo in preventing or delaying the time to first relapse in stable schizophrenia patients. In addition, paliperidone palmitate was shown to be noninferior to risperidone long-acting injection in two studies. It was shown to be reasonably well tolerated in all clinical trials. Acute treatment phase should be initiated with a dose of 234 mg on day one and 156 mg on day eight, followed by a recommended monthly maintenance dose of 39–234 mg based on efficacy and tolerability results from the clinical studies.Conclusion: Providing an optimal long-term treatment can be challenging. Paliperidone palmitate can be used as an acute treatment even in outpatient setting, and it has shown to be well tolerated by patients. Also, it does not require overlapping oral

  2. Treatment of Acute Tuberculous Spondylitis by the Spinal Shortening Osteotomy: A Technical Notes and Case Illustrations

    Chanplakorn, Pongsthorn; Chanplakorn, Niramol; Kraiwattanapong, Chaiwat; Wajanavisit, Wiwat; Laohacharoensombat, Wichien

    2011-01-01

    Surgical treatment for spinal tuberculosis is necessary in particular cases that a large amount of necrotic tissue is encountered and there is spinal cord compression. A spinal shortening osteotomy procedure has previously been described for the correction of the sagittal balance in a late kyphotic deformity, but there have been no reports on this as a surgical treatment in the acute stage. Thus, the aim of this report is to present the surgical techniques and clinical results of 3 patients w...

  3. Comparison the effectiveness of aripiprazole and risperidone for the treatment of acute bipolar mania

    Amir Akhavan Rezayat; Paria Hebrani; Fatemeh Behdani; Mohamad Salaran; Majid Nabizadeh Marvast

    2014-01-01

    Background: Second-generation antipsychotics, approved for the treatment of mania, are associated with adverse effects such as weight gain and metabolic disorders. Aripiprazole, a recently introduced second-generation antipsychotic, are thought to account for its low propensity for weight gain, metabolic disturbances and sedation. The purpose of this study was to investigate the effect of risperidone versus aripiprazole in the treatment of acute mania. Materials and Methods: Fifty patients wi...

  4. Identifying patterns in treatment response profiles in acute bipolar mania: a cluster analysis approach

    Houston John P; Lipkovich Ilya A; Ahl Jonna

    2008-01-01

    Abstract Background Patients with acute mania respond differentially to treatment and, in many cases, fail to obtain or sustain symptom remission. The objective of this exploratory analysis was to characterize response in bipolar disorder by identifying groups of patients with similar manic symptom response profiles. Methods Patients (n = 222) were selected from a randomized, double-blind study of treatment with olanzapine or divalproex in bipolar I disorder, manic or mixed episode, with or w...

  5. Early Treatment of Acute Pancreatitis: Do Not Forget the Need for Water

    Raffaele Pezzilli

    2011-09-01

    Full Text Available FV: fluid volume; FV48: fluid volume administered during the initial 48 h; FVH: fluid volume during hospitalization; FVR: FV ratio as FV48/FVH An Italian survey on the treatment of acute pancreatitis published in 2007 [1] assessed the compliance of 56 medical and surgical centers equally distributed throughout Italy to the Italian guidelines on acute pancreatitis [2]. The severity of the disease was clinically assessed according to the Atlanta criteria [3] and the majority of patients were observed and treated early after the onset of acute pancreatitis; in fact, the mean interval between the onset of pain and hospital admission was 14.9±37.2 hours (mean±SD in patients with mild acute pancreatitis and 17.8±39.1 hours (mean±SD in those with severe pancreatitis. One of the results of this study was that the amount of fluids administered to acute pancreatitis patients was significantly higher in patients with severe acute pancreatitis than in those with the mild form. The appropriate fluid replacement may be one of reasons for the low mortality (3.1% observed in the patients with acute pancreatitis enrolled in this study. Low mortality due to early fluid administration is now supported by the findings of three recent studies coming from Japan and the United States [4, 5, 6]. In the first study we examined [4], the authors revised the data of 9,489 acute pancreatitis patients 18 years of age or older who were categorized into four study groups: ventilation, hemodialysis, a combination of ventilation and hemodialysis, and neither ventilation nor hemodialysis. They analyzed the fluid volume (FV administered during the initial 48 h (FV48 and during hospitalization (FVH, and calculated the FV ratio (FVR as FV48/FVH. The authors found that FV48 and FVR were higher in patients requiring ventilation as compared to those not requiring ventilation.

  6. Advancements in the treatment of pediatric acute leukemia and brain tumor - continuous efforts for 100% cure.

    Ju, Hee Young; Hong, Che Ry; Shin, Hee Young

    2014-10-01

    Treatment outcomes of pediatric cancers have improved greatly with the development of improved treatment protocols, new drugs, and better supportive measures, resulting in overall survival rates greater than 70%. Survival rates are highest in acute lymphoblastic leukemia, reaching more than 90%, owing to risk-based treatment through multicenter clinical trials and protocols developed to prevent central nervous system relapse and testicular relapse in boys. New drugs including clofarabine and nelarabine are currently being evaluated in clinical trials, and other targeted agents are continuously being developed. Chimeric antigen receptor-modified T cells are now attracting interest for the treatment of recurrent or refractory disease. Stem cell transplantation is still the most effective treatment for pediatric acute myeloid leukemia (AML). However, in order to reduce treatment-related death after stem cell transplantation, there is need for improved treatments. New drugs and targeted agents are also needed for improved outcome of AML. Surgery and radiation therapy have been the mainstay for brain tumor treatment. However, chemotherapy is becoming more important for patients who are not eligible for radiotherapy owing to age. Stem cell transplant as a means of high dose chemotherapy and stem cell rescue is a new treatment modality and is often repeated for improved survival. Drugs such as temozolomide are new chemotherapeutic options. In order to achieve 100% cure in children with pediatric cancer, every possible treatment modality and effort should be considered. PMID:25379043

  7. Early diagnostics and treatment with acute burn sepsis

    Ahmedov A.A.; Shakirov B.M.; Karabaev H.K

    2015-01-01

    Objective: To determine the value of the procalcitonin test used for early diagnosis of sepsis and to study the course and treatment of burn sepsis in patients with severe burns. Methods: Eighty patients in the Burn Department of Republican Scientific Centre of Emergency Medical Care, aged 17-75 years with burn injuries covering 30%-85% of the body surface, were enrolled in the study. Procalcitonin is marker of sepsis, procalcitonin > 2 ng/mL, sensitivity -89%, specific feature -94%. Results: The result showed that among septic patients with severe burns, rational use of intensive therapy for burn sepsis and septic shock in combination with parentrial ozonotherapy resulted in decreases of syndrome of poly organ insufficiency and lethal outcomes from 70%accordingly. The result allows the conclusion that the treatment examined leads to a significant increase in survival coefficient. Conclusions: This in turn confirms the efficacy of early necrectomy and auto dermoplasty of deep burn wounds in victims with sepsis.

  8. Alleviation of acute radiation damages by post-irradiation treatments

    Radiation induced hematopoietic and gastro-intestinal damages in mice were tried to alleviate experimentally by post-treatment. Combined treatment of OK-432 and aztreonam clearly prevented the radiation induced sepsis and elevated the survival rate in mice; the survival was 80% in the OK-432 plus aztreonam group while it was 55% in the group treated with OK-432 alone and 0% with saline. Irsogladine maleate, an anti-ulcer drug, increased the survival rate of jejunal crypt stem cells with a clear dose-related trend. The D0 for irsogladine maleate was 2.8 Gy although it was 2.3 Gy for saline, These findings suggest that some conventional drugs are effective for radiation induced hematopoietic and gastro-intestinal damages and the possibility that they can be applied for people exposed to radiation accidentally. (author)

  9. Effects of Heat Treatment on Flavonoids Content and Antioxidant Capacity of Buckwheat (Fagopyrum tataricum Gaert) Flour Ethanolic Extracts

    ZHONG Geng; Romeo T Toledo; CHEN Zong-dao

    2003-01-01

    The chemical composition, total flavonoids and antioxidant capacity of 50% ethanolic extracts from raw and cooked buckwheat flour from southwest of China were determined. The heat treatment used to gelatinize the flour starch significantly reduced the total flavonoids in the extract from 83.52 to 67.36 mg 100 g-1 of dry matter in the raw and cooked flour, respectively. The antioxidant capacity of the extracts was evaluated using autooxidation in a β-carotene-linoleate model system (AA or AAC), DPPH radical scavenging assay (IP) and oxygen radical absorbance capacity (ORAC) assay. Values for raw buckwheat flour extract were 97.84, 874.31, 76.45 and 94.92% for AA, AAC, ORAC and IP, respectively, while values in cooked buckwheat flour were 86.14, 842.88, 63.93 and 94.74% for AA, AAC, ORAC and IP, respectively. Values before cooked and raw buckwheat flour extracts were significantly different (P<0.05) for AA, AAC, and ORAC.

  10. Update on acute endovascular and surgical stroke treatment

    Kondziella, D; Cortsen, M; Eskesen, V;

    2013-01-01

    Emergency stroke care has become a natural part of the emerging discipline of neurocritical care and demands close cooperation between the neurologist and neurointerventionists, neurosurgeons, and anesthesiologists. Endovascular treatment (EVT), including intra-arterial thrombolysis, mechanical...... thrombectomy and angioplasty/stenting, is under rapid development. Although EVT has yet to be shown in randomized controlled trials to improve clinical outcome compared to intravenous thrombolysis, it is far better in achieving recanalization of occluded large cerebral vessels, which is crucial for rescuing...

  11. [Acute hemorrhagic necrosis of the breast following treatment with Cumarin].

    Lüchtrath, H; Walkowsky, A

    1983-08-01

    A case of hemorrhagic necrosis of the breast is reported in a thirty-four year old woman who received Cumarin treatment for deep leg vein thrombosis and pulmonary embolism. It was necessary to remove the breast. The microscopic examination showed complete blockage of the vessels by fibrin thrombi in almost all veins. The cause of this venous thrombosis was explained as a Shwartzman-Sanarelli-Phenomenon. PMID:6555120

  12. Antidepressant Treatment for Acute Bipolar Depression: An Update

    Amit, Ben H.; Abraham Weizman

    2012-01-01

    While studies in the past have focused more on treatment of the manic phase of bipolar disorder (BD), recent findings demonstrate the depressive phase to be at least as debilitating. However, in contrast to unipolar depression, depression in bipolar patients exhibits a varying response to antidepressants, raising questions regarding their efficacy and tolerability. Methods. We conducted a MEDLINE and Cochrane Collaboration Library search for papers published between 2005 and 2011 on the subje...

  13. Hyperbaric oxygen combined with drug therapy in the treatment of acute cerebral infarction clinical analysis

    Wen-Cui Lin; Kang Lin; Jing Wang; Shuai Li

    2015-01-01

    Objective:To explore the effects of hyperbaric oxygen combined with edaravone, salviae miltiorrhizae and ligustrazine and sodium ozagrel in the treatment of acute cerebral infarction clinical analysis.Methods: A total of 200 cases of acute cerebral infraction patients were randomly divided into observation group and control group. The control group was treated with edaravone, salvia miltiorrhizae and ligustrazine and sodium ozagrel; on the basis of treatment in control group, the observation group was combined with hyperbaric oxygen therapy. The neurological deficit scores were observed before and after treatment in patients of two groups, meanwhile the activities of daily living (ADL) and clinical effects were compared.Results: The total effective rate in observation group (92%) was significantly higher than control group (79%), the differences were statistically significant; the score of ADL in observation group after treatment was obviously higher than control group [(79.91±5.16)vs (61.62±5.60)], and the differences were statistically significant. The neurological deficit scores after treatment were obviously lower than the control group [(9.55±4.13)vs (15.46±4.92)], the differences were statistically significant.Conclusion: Hyperbaric oxygen combined with edaravone, salvia miltiorrhizae and ligustrazine and sodium ozagrel in the treatment of acute cerebral infarction can improve the symptoms of microcirculation and neurologic impairment, and improve the patient s quality of life.

  14. New developments in the treatment of the acute radiation syndrome

    Radiation accidents associated with the use of nuclear power, radiation devices and industrial applications have resulted in a number of individuals with significant partial or total body exposures, in a limited number with lethal outcome. Such exposures generally result in life-threatening suppression of bone marrow and immune functions and may be accompanied by high doses to the skin and underlying tissues. In recent years, new methods of diagnosis and treatment of such patients have entered development, while experience with relatively large-scale accidents, such as the Chernobyl cases, have clearly demonstrated the limitations of previous approaches. In particular bone marrow transplantation has met with limited success, mostly due to the inhomogeneous nature of accidental exposures as well as the frequent occurrence of other injuries other man bone marrow damage. Present day technology allows for direct estimates of the number of residual bone marrow stem cells to enable a rapid decision on the type of treatment indicated, while some twenty-five recombinant hemopoietic growth factors are under investigation to accelerate the recovery of white blood cells and platelets, as well as immune functions. If applied appropriately, such growth factor treatment will successfully replace bone marrow transplantation in the majority of accident cases. Advances in hemopoietic stem cell biology, both in terms of source of stem cells as well as their isolation, will on the other hand make stem cell infusion a much less risky operation than bone marrow transplantation has been in the past

  15. Effects of chronic ethanol administration on hepatic glycoprotein secretion in the rat

    The effects of chronic ethanol feeding on protein and glycoprotein synthesis and secretion were studied in rat liver slices. Liver slices from rats fed ethanol for 4-5 wk showed a decreased ability to incorporate [14C]glucosamine into medium trichloracetic acid-precipitable proteins when compared to the pair-fed controls; however, the labeling of hepatocellular glycoproteins was unaffected by chronic ethanol treatment. Immunoprecipitation of radiolabeled secretory (serum) glycoproteins with antiserum against rat serum proteins showed a similar marked inhibition in the appearance of glucosamine-labeled proteins in the medium of slices from ethanol-fed rats. Minimal effects, however, were noted in the labeling of intracellular secretory glycoproteins. Protein synthesis, as determined by measuring [14C]leucine incorporation into medium and liver proteins, was decreased in liver slices from ethanol-fed rats as compared to the pair-fed controls. This was the case for both total proteins as well as immunoprecipitable secretory proteins, although the labeling of secretory proteins retained in the liver slices was reduced to a lesser extent than total radiolabeled hepatic proteins. When the terminal sugar, [14C]fucose, was employed as a precursor in order to more closely focus on the final steps of hepatic glycoprotein secretion, liver slices obtained from chronic ethanol-fed rats exhibited impaired secretion of fucose-labeled proteins into the medium. When ethanol (5 or 10 mM) was added to the incubation medium containing liver slices from the ethanol-fed rats, the alterations in protein and glycoprotein synthesis and secretion caused by the chronic ethanol treatment were further potentiated. The results of this study indicate that liver slices prepared from chronic ethanol-fed rats exhibit both impaired synthesis and secretion of proteins and glycoproteins, and these defects are further potentiated by acute ethanol administration

  16. Converting lignocellulosic solid waste into ethanol for the State of Washington: an investigation of treatment technologies and environmental impacts.

    Schmitt, Elliott; Bura, Renata; Gustafson, Rick; Cooper, Joyce; Vajzovic, Azra

    2012-01-01

    There is little research literature on the conversion of lignocellulosic rich waste streams to ethanol, and even fewer have investigated both the technical aspects and environmental impacts together. This study assessed technical and environmental challenges of converting three lignocellulosic waste streams to ethanol: municipal solid waste (MSW), low grade mixed waste paper (MWP), and organic yard waste (YW). Experimental results showed high conversion yields for all three streams using suitable conversion methods. Environmental impacts are highly dependent on conversion technology, and process conditions used. Life cycle assessment results showed that both chemicals production and waste collection are important factors to be included within a waste-to-ethanol study. PMID:22119432

  17. Duration of adrenal insufficiency during treatment for childhood acute lymphoblastic leukemia

    Vestergaard, Therese Risom; Juul, Anders; Lausten-Thomsen, Ulrik; Lausen, Birgitte Frederiksen; Hjalgrim, Henrik; Kvist, Tine Kajsa; Andersen, Elisabeth Anne Wreford; Schmiegelow, Kjeld

    2011-01-01

    Children with acute lymphoblastic leukemia (ALL) recive high doses of glucocorticosteroid as part of their treatment. This may lead to suppression of the hypothalamic-pituitary-adrenal axis, acute adrenal insufficiency, and ultimately to life-threatening conditions. This study explores the adrenal...... function in 96 children with ALL treated according to common protocols. After cessation of induction glucocorticosteroid therapy, they received hydrocortisone substitution therapy (10 mg/m/24 h) until an adrenocorticotropic hormone test (250 µg tetracosatide) showed a sufficient adrenal response [plasma (p...

  18. The effects of ethanol on angiogenesis after myocardial infarction, and preservation of angiogenesis with rosuvastatin after heavy drinking.

    Zhang, Yuying; Yuan, Haitao; Sun, Yongle; Wang, Yong; Wang, Aihong

    2016-08-01

    The cardioprotective effects of moderate alcohol consumption and statins have been known for years. However, heavy or binge drinking confers a high risk of cardiovascular disease. This study aimed to investigate the effects of different levels of alcohol consumption on acute myocardial infarction that was induced experimentally in rats, with a focus on the potential mechanism of angiogenesis and the effects of statins on heavy drinking. The experimental rats were fed low-dose ethanol (0.5 g/kg/day), high-dose ethanol (5 g/kg/day), and high-dose ethanol with rosuvastatin (10 mg/kg/day) during the entire experiment. Acute myocardial infarctions were induced 4 weeks after the beginning of the experiment. We assessed the capillary density in the myocardium via immunohistochemistry and quantified the expression of vascular endothelial growth factor (VEGF) and endostatin via enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay kits on the 4th day after myocardial infarction. The results revealed that low ethanol consumption promoted angiogenesis in association with higher VEGF and lower endostatin. High ethanol intake suppressed angiogenesis with unchanged VEGF and elevated endostatin. Treatment with rosuvastatin preserved angiogenesis following high ethanol intake, with an upregulation of VEGF. This study highlights that low ethanol consumption obviously promotes angiogenesis in myocardial-infarction rats while increasing the expression of VEGF, whereas high ethanol consumption inhibits ischemia-induced angiogenesis. This study also provides evidence that rosuvastatin alleviates the inhibitory effects of heavy drinking on angiogenesis. PMID:27565753

  19. Evaluation and Treatment of an Acute Internal Exposure to Plutonium

    As a result of an explosion caused by burning plutonium accidentally dropped into carbon tetrachloride, an individual was exposed internally to large amounts of plutonium. The skin of his entire body was contaminated to milligram quantities. The tip of the second finger, left hand, was severed. The left thumb had a severe laceration on the anterior surface at the interphalangeal joint, a compound fracture, and dislocation. There were several small lacerations on other fingers and back of the left hand. Small pieces of metal were driven into the hand. Treatment to reduce surface contamination consisted of shaving off hair and eyebrows and initial and daily washings of other parts of the body with sodium hypochlorite until contamination was reduced to acceptable levels. Evaluations of deposition in the thumb were done by measurement of 17 - keV X - rays. These evaluations led to the decision to amputate the thumb and finger. The individual was given DTPA treatment within 1 hour after injury and was placed on a subsequent schedule of periodic treatments. Rapid evalution of plutonium in urine and observations of the effectiveness of DTPA were accomplished by measurement of 14 - keV X - rays from the raw urine. The limit of detection by this method is 14 200 dpm per 24-h urine sample. This limit can be extended by an evaporation and dissolution technique to 570 dpm per 24-h urine sample. Accumulated urine excretion for the first 60 d was 117 μg. The individual was counted in the Rocky Flats Body Counter. Counts were made in the liver region, lung region, and left hand following amputation. Using a plastic human phantom for calibration, evaluations of lung and liver deposition were obtained. Evaluation of residual hand deposition was accomplished using a paraffin phantom for calibration and a positioning jig for the hand. Advantages of utilizing each of several available X - and gamma - ray energies were determined. (author)

  20. Neuromuscular disorders in acute leukemia and lymphoma treatment

    E. A. Politova

    2014-07-01

    Full Text Available Different mechanisms of neuromuscular complications, their clinical presentation, methods of diagnosis, prognosis and treatment options arepresented. The material is presented according to the level of nervous system damage, with inclusion of different clinical entities. Authors revieweda wide range of disease – disease of the spinal cord, peripheral nerves and plexus, neuromuscular junction and muscle – as a result of chemotherapy and radiation therapy. Systemic effects of drugs on peripheral nervous system, various departments of which can be simultaneously involved in the pathological process, were also highlighted.

  1. Transcatheter thrombolysis treatment for acute thrombosis in arteriovenous fistulas in hemodialysis patients

    Objective: To assess the clinical value of transcatheter thrombolysis in treating acute arteriovenous fistula thrombosis in hemodialysis patients and to discuss its technical points. Methods: During the period from Jan. 2008 to Jan. 2011, 67 times of acute arteriovenous fistula thrombosis occurred in 50 hemodialysis patients. The diagnosis was confirmed by angiographic findings. First the guide-wire was inserted and pushed forward to pass through the thrombus, then bolus injection (pulse spray) of urokinase (250000 units) through catheter was performed. If the thrombus could not be cleared away, transcatheter micro-pump continuous infusion of urokinase was employed for 1-3 days until the thrombosis was completely dissolved, which was confirmed by angiographic re-examination at 24, 48 and 72 hours after the start of thrombolysis. Results: Of the total 67 times of acute arteriovenous fistula thrombosis, the arteriovenous fistula reopened in 8 cases after transcatheter thrombolysis with pulse spray of urokinase. At 24, 48 and 72 hours after the initiation of thrombolysis treatment, the thrombus was completely dissolved in 34, 18 and 5 cases, respectively. The thrombolysis treatment failed in two cases. No serious complications such as pulmonary embolization, hemorrhage, etc. occurred during the therapeutic course. Conclusion: For the treatment of acute arteriovenous fistula thrombosis in hemodialysis patients, transcatheter thrombolysis is an easily-manipulated, effective, minimally-invasive and safe technique. Therefore, it is of great clinical value. (authors)

  2. Treatment of mild to moderate pain of acute soft tissue injury: diflunisal vs acetaminophen with codeine.

    Muncie, H L; King, D E; DeForge, B

    1986-08-01

    Acute soft tissue injuries create pain and limitation of function. Treatment requires analgesia and time for full recovery. Acetaminophen with codeine (650 mg plus 60 mg, respectively, every 4 to 6 hours) is used frequently as the analgesic of choice. Diflunisal (1,000 mg initially then 500 mg twice a day) vs acetaminophen with codeine was prospectively studied in the treatment of acute mild to moderate pain from soft tissue injuries. Thirty-five patients with acute strains, sprains, or low back pain were randomized to treatment (17 acetaminophen with codeine vs 18 diflunisal). Both groups were similar in the amount of pain and type of injury at initiation of therapy. Patient pain rating went from 3.3 +/- 0.6 to 1.6 +/- 1.5 for acetaminophen with codeine and from 3.3 +/- 0.6 to 1.3 +/- 1.1 for diflunisal. However, 65 percent of acetaminophen with codeine patients experienced side effects, with 35 percent of these patients stopping the medication because of intolerable side effects. In the diflunisal group, 28 percent of the patients experienced side effects and 5 percent had to stop the medication early. Diflunisal was found to be an effective analgesic in mild to moderate pain of acute soft tissue injuries, and caused fewer and more tolerable side effects than did acetaminophen with codeine. PMID:2942630

  3. Acupuncture Treatment for Acute Ankle Injury in the Emergency Department: A Preliminary Case Report.

    Tantivesruangdet, Nopmanee

    2016-02-01

    Acupuncture is an ancient medical treatment that is increasingly attracting the interest of the public. It is a complementary therapy that is widely used for management of pain, especially chronic discomfort caused by migraine, low-back pain and osteoarthritis of the knee(¹⁻³). The evidence base for the effectiveness of acupuncture and its clinical applications is controversial, and although its efficacy and safety in the management of acute pain have been demonstrated, the quality of this modality is still questionable. The present study reports a case of acute ankle injury, which was treated with acupuncture. A 33-year-old man presented with acute twisted ankle injury. He had pain with swelling around the ankle, and he was experiencing difficulty in walking. His clinical diagnosis was acute ankle sprain with severe pain. Several drug treatments are used for pain control, but in this case, we used acupuncture. After treatment, his pain diminished significantly with a decrease in VAS pain level from 8 to 4 in 20 minutes. At follow-up after one month, we found no skin infection in this case. PMID:27266242

  4. Genome-wide transcriptomic alterations induced by ethanol treatment in human dental pulp stem cells (DPSCs).

    Khalid, Omar; Kim, Jeffrey J; Duan, Lewei; Hoang, Michael; Elashoff, David; Kim, Yong

    2014-12-01

    Human dental pulp stem cells (DPSCs) isolated from adult dental pulp are multipotent mesenchymal stem cells that can be directed to differentiate into osteogenic/odontogenic cells and also trans-differentiate into neuronal cells. The utility of DPSC has been explored in odontogenic differentiation for tooth regeneration. Alcohol abuse appears to lead to periodontal disease, tooth decay and mouth sores that are potentially precancerous. Persons who abuse alcohol are at high risk of having seriously deteriorated teeth, gums and compromised oral health in general. It is currently unknown if alcohol exposure has any impact on adult stem cell maintenance, stem cell fate determination and plasticity, and stem cell niche environment. Here we provide detailed experimental methods, analysis and information associated with our data deposited into Gene Expression Omnibus (GEO) under GSE57255. Our data provide transcriptomic changes that are occurring by EtOH treatment of DPSCs at 24-hour and 48-hour time point. PMID:25045622

  5. Genome-wide transcriptomic alterations induced by ethanol treatment in human dental pulp stem cells (DPSCs

    Omar Khalid

    2014-12-01

    Full Text Available Human dental pulp stem cells (DPSCs isolated from adult dental pulp are multipotent mesenchymal stem cells that can be directed to differentiate into osteogenic/odontogenic cells and also trans-differentiate into neuronal cells. The utility of DPSC has been explored in odontogenic differentiation for tooth regeneration. Alcohol abuse appears to lead to periodontal disease, tooth decay and mouth sores that are potentially precancerous. Persons who abuse alcohol are at high risk of having seriously deteriorated teeth, gums and compromised oral health in general. It is currently unknown if alcohol exposure has any impact on adult stem cell maintenance, stem cell fate determination and plasticity, and stem cell niche environment. Here we provide detailed experimental methods, analysis and information associated with our data deposited into Gene Expression Omnibus (GEO under GSE57255. Our data provide transcriptomic changes that are occurring by EtOH treatment of DPSCs at 24-hour and 48-hour time point.

  6. Minor changes on cranial MRI during treatment in children with acute lymphoblastic leukaemia

    Paeaekkoe, E. [Dept. of Diagnostic Radiology, Univ. of Oulu (Finland); Vainionpaeae, L. [Dept. of Paediatrics, Univ. of Oulu (Finland); Pyhtinen, J. [Dept. of Diagnostic Radiology, Univ. of Oulu (Finland); Lanning, M. [Dept. of Paediatrics, Univ. of Oulu (Finland)

    1996-04-01

    Cranial MRI was used to study treatment-related changes in children undergoing therapy for acute lymphoblastic leukaemia (ALL) or lymphoma. Nineteen children (18 with ALL, 1 with lymphoma) underwent MRI at the beginning of treatment and at intervals during it, to a total of 105 imaging studies and a minimum of 3 per case. Nine patients had finished all therapy, all received consolidation treatment. No patient had central nervous system (CNS) leukaemia at diagnosis or developed a CNS relapse. Mild treatment-related white matter changes were observed in only 2 patients after consolidation therapy with three 5 g/m{sup 2} pulses of intravenous methotrexate. Transient enlargement of the ventricles and cortical sulci was observed in 13 patients, always temporally related to steroid treatment. These preliminary data suggest that treatment-related white matter changes are rare and no routine MRI follow-up is needed during treatment in asymptomatic children after a baseline assessment. (orig.)

  7. Minor changes on cranial MRI during treatment in children with acute lymphoblastic leukaemia

    Cranial MRI was used to study treatment-related changes in children undergoing therapy for acute lymphoblastic leukaemia (ALL) or lymphoma. Nineteen children (18 with ALL, 1 with lymphoma) underwent MRI at the beginning of treatment and at intervals during it, to a total of 105 imaging studies and a minimum of 3 per case. Nine patients had finished all therapy, all received consolidation treatment. No patient had central nervous system (CNS) leukaemia at diagnosis or developed a CNS relapse. Mild treatment-related white matter changes were observed in only 2 patients after consolidation therapy with three 5 g/m2 pulses of intravenous methotrexate. Transient enlargement of the ventricles and cortical sulci was observed in 13 patients, always temporally related to steroid treatment. These preliminary data suggest that treatment-related white matter changes are rare and no routine MRI follow-up is needed during treatment in asymptomatic children after a baseline assessment. (orig.)

  8. [Open thrombectomy in treatment of acute thromboses of lower-limb deep veins].

    Shaĭdakov, E V; Porembskaia, O Ia; Tsarev, O I; Khmel'niker, S M

    2014-01-01

    Thrombosis of lower-limb deep veins is one of the most common vascular diseases in the world. For a long time the generally accepted treatment policy was conservative therapy with anticoagulants. The article is a review of the literature containing the results of studies carried out over the past two decades and confirming efficacy of surgical treatment for acute venous thrombosis. Presented are the data showing that thrombectomy performed within the first 10-14 days from the onset of the disease, improving quality of life of patients and preventing invalidization thereof. The gained world experience makes it possible to work out the most effective approaches to treatment of acute venous thromboses. PMID:25646547

  9. A double-blind, randomized trial of IV immunoglobulin treatment in acute optic neuritis

    Roed, H.G; Langkilde, Annika Reynberg; Sellebjerg, F; Lauritzen, M; Bang, P; Morup, A; Frederiksen, J.L.

    2005-01-01

    OBJECTIVE: To investigate if IV immunoglobulin (IVIG) treatment in the acute phase of optic neuritis (ON) could improve visual outcome and reduce MRI disease activity 6 months after onset of ON. METHODS: Sixty-eight patients with ON were randomized within 4 weeks from onset of symptoms. Thirty...... treatment groups during follow-up. CONCLUSIONS: There was no effect of IV immunoglobulin (IVIG) on long-term visual function following acute optic neuritis, nor was there an effect of IVIG treatment in reducing latency on visual evoked potentials and thus preserving function of axons of the optic nerve......-four patients were randomized to IVIG 0.4 g/kg body wt, and 34 patients were randomized to placebo. Infusions were given at days 0, 1, 2, 30, and 60. Contrast sensitivity, visual acuity, and color vision were measured at baseline and after 1 week, 1 month, and 6 months. Pattern reversal visual evoked potential...

  10. Effects of Repetitive Hyperbaric Oxygen Treatment in Patients with Acute Cerebral Infarction: A Pilot Study

    Cheng-Hsin Chen

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available The role of hyperbaric oxygen therapy (HBOT in the treatment of acute ischemic stroke is controversial. This prospective study assessed the efficacy and safety of HBOT as adjuvant treatment on 46 acute ischemic stroke in patients who did not receive thrombolytic therapy. The HBOT group (n=16 received conventional medical treatment with 10 sessions of adjunctive HBOT within 3–5 days after stroke onset, while the control group (n=30 received the same treatment but without HBOT. Early (around two weeks after onset and late (one month after onset outcomes (National Institutes of Health Stroke Scale, NIHSS scores and efficacy (changes of NIHSS scores of HBOT were evaluated. The baseline clinical characteristics were similar in both groups. Both early and late outcomes of the HBOT group showed significant difference (P≤0.001. In the control group, there was only significant difference in early outcome (P=0.004. For early efficacy, there was no difference when comparing changes of NIHSS scores between the two groups (P=0.140 but there was statistically significant difference when comparing changes of NIHSS scores at one month (P≤0.001. The HBOT used in this study may be effective for patients with acute ischemic stroke and is a safe and harmless adjunctive treatment.

  11. Reverse kinetics of angiopoietin-2 and endotoxins in acute pyelonephritis: Implications for anti-inflammatory treatment?

    Safioleas, Konstantinos; Giamarellos-Bourboulis, Evangelos J; Carrer, Dionyssia-Pinelopi; Pistiki, Aikaterini; Sabracos, Lambros; Deliveliotis, Charalambos; Chrisofos, Michael

    2016-05-01

    Based on former studies showing an antagonism between angiopoietin-2 (Ang-2) and bacterial endotoxins (LPS), we investigated the role of Ang-2 as immunomodulatory treatment. At first, kinetics of circulating LPS in Gram-negative pyelonephritis developing after urinary obstruction was studied. Serum LPS, interleukin (IL)-6 and Ang-2 were measured in 25 patients with acute pyelonephritis and sepsis before and after removal of the obstruction performed either with insertion of a pigtail catheter (n=12) or percutaneous drainage (n=13). At a second stage, Ang-2 was given as anti-inflammatory treatment in 40 rabbits one hour after induction of acute pyelonephritis by ligation of the ureter at the level of pelvo-ureteral junction and upstream bacterial inoculation. Survival was recorded; blood mononuclear cells were isolated and stimulated for the production of tumour necrosis factor-alpha (TNFα). The decrease in circulating LPS was significantly greater among patients undergoing drainage than pigtail insertion. This was accompanied by reciprocal changes of Ang-2 and IL-6. Treatment with Ang-2 prolonged survival from Escherichia coli pyelonephritis despite high levels of circulating LPS. When Ang-2 was given as treatment of Pseudomonas aeruginosa pyelonephritis, sepsis-induced decrease of TNFα production by circulating mononuclear cells was reversed without an effect on tissue bacterial overgrowth. It is concluded that Ang-2 and LPS follow reverse kinetics in acute pyelonephritis. When given as experimental treatment, Ang-2 prolongs survival through an effect on mononuclear cells. PMID:26844659

  12. Inter ventional treatment of acute hepatic artery occlusion after liver transplantation

    Zhi-Wei Li; Mao-Qiang Wang; Ning-Xin Zhou; Zhe Liu; Zhi-Qiang Huang

    2007-01-01

    BACKGROUND: With the development of the associated technology, interventional treatment has become an important method for the treatment of hepatic artery occlusion in some countries. This study was undertaken to evaluate the role of interventional methods in the diagnosis and treatment of acute hepatic artery occlusion after liver transplantation. METHODS: The diagnosis and treatment of 9 cases of acute hepatic artery occlusion after liver transplantation were retrospectively analyzed. RESULTS: In 109 cases of liver transplantation, 9 were diagnosed by angiography. Among them, 7 were diagnosed by Doppler ultrasound. After transcatheter thrombolysis, the hepatic arteries were partially or totally patent again in 6 cases of hepatic artery occlusion after liver transplantation, and stent placements in the hepatic artery were performed in 5 cases. All stents proved patent and no patient required another liver transplantation. CONCLUSIONS: Angiography plays an important role in diagnosing hepatic artery complications after liver transplantation. Interventional therapy is a valuable method in the treatment of acute hepatic artery occlusion after liver transplantation.

  13. Acute toxicity profile in prostate cancer with conventional and hypofractionated treatment

    To compare the acute toxicities in radical treatment of prostate cancer between conventional schedule (C-ARM) with 78 Gy/39 fractions and hypofractionation conformal treatment (H-ARM) with 69 Gy/23 fractions. This prospective double arm study consisted of 217 patients with prostate cancer, 112 in H-ARM and 105 in C-ARM arm. C-ARM received conventional six- field conformal radiotherapy with 78 Gy in 39 fractions while H-ARM received hypofractionation with 69 Gy in 23 fractions. Weekly assessment of acute reactions was done during treatment and with one, and 3 months using RTOG scale. Univariated analysis was performed to evaluate differences between the incidences of acute reaction in the treatment arms. Variables with p value less than 0.1 were included in the multivariated logistic regression. There was no difference between H-ARM versus C-ARM for severity and incidence in genitourinary (GU) and gastrointestinal (GI) acute toxicity. During the treatment comparing H-ARM with C-ARM no differences was observed for GI toxicity (grade 0–3; H-ARM = 45.5%, 34%, 18.7% and 1.8% versus C-ARM = 47.6%, 35.2%, 17.2% and 0). For acute GU toxicity no difference was detected between H-ARM (grade 0–3; 22.3%, 54.5%, 18.7% and 4.5%) and C-ARM (grade 0–3; 25.8%, 53.3%, 17.1% and 3.8%). At the 3- months follow-up, persistent Grade > =2 acute GU and GI toxicity were 2.5% and 1.8% in H-ARM versus 5.7% and 3% in C-ARM (p > 0.05). In univariated and multivariated analyses, there was not any dosimetric predictor for GI and GU toxicity. Our data demonstrate that hypofractionated radiotherapy achieving high biological effective dose using conformal radiotherapy is feasible for prostate cancer, being well tolerated with minimal severe acute toxicity

  14. New cost-effective treatment strategies for acute emergency situations.

    Chandra, Subani; Chong, David H

    2014-01-01

    In an era of ever-increasing healthcare costs, new treatments must not only improve outcomes and quality of care but also be cost-effective. This is most challenging for emergency and critical care. Bigger and better has been the mantra of Western medical care for decades, leading to costlier but not necessarily better care. Recent advances focused on new implementation processes for evidence-based best practices such as checklists and bundles have transformed medical care. We outline recent advances in medical practice that have positively affected both the quality of care and its cost-effectiveness. Future medical care must be smarter and more effective if we are to meet the increasing demands of an aging patient population in the context of ever more limited resources. PMID:24160941

  15. Developing drug strategies for the neuroprotective treatment of acute ischemic stroke.

    Tuttolomondo, Antonino; Pecoraro, Rosaria; Arnao, Valentina; Maugeri, Rosario; Iacopino, Domenico Gerardo; Pinto, Antonio

    2015-01-01

    Developing new treatment strategies for acute ischemic stroke in the last twenty years has offered some important successes, but also several failures. Most trials of neuroprotective therapies have been uniformly negative to date. Recent research has reported how excitatory amino acids act as the major excitatory neurotransmitters in the cerebral cortex and hippocampus. Furthermore, other therapeutic targets such as free radical scavenger strategies and the anti-inflammatory neuroprotective strategy have been evaluated with conflicting data in animal models and human subjects with acute ischemic stroke. Whereas promising combinations of neuroprotection and neurorecovery, such as citicoline, albumin and cerebrolysin have been tested with findings worthy of further evaluation in larger randomized clinical trials. Understanding the complexities of the ischemic cascade is essential to developing pharmacological targets for acute ischemic stroke in neuroprotective or flow restoration therapeutic strategies. PMID:26469760

  16. Elemental diet as primary treatment of acute Crohn's disease: a controlled trial.

    O'Moráin, C; Segal, A W; Levi, A J

    1984-06-23

    Acute exacerbations of Crohn's disease are usually treated with prednisolone or potentially more toxic immunosuppressive drugs or by surgery. In pilot studies replacing the normal diet by a protein free elemental diet also induced remission. A controlled trial was therefore conducted in which 21 patients acutely ill with exacerbations of Crohn's disease were randomised to receive either prednisolone 0.75 mg/kg/day or an elemental diet (Vivonex) for four weeks. Assessment at four and 12 weeks showed that the patients treated with the elemental diet had improved as much as and by some criteria more than the steroid treated group. Elemental diet is a safe and effective treatment for acute Crohn's disease. PMID:6428577

  17. Novel immunotherapeutic approaches for the treatment of acute leukemia (myeloid and lymphoblastic).

    Ishii, Kazusa; Barrett, Austin J

    2016-02-01

    There have been major advances in our understanding of the multiple interactions between malignant cells and the innate and adaptive immune system. While the attention of immunologists has hitherto focused on solid tumors, the specific immunobiology of acute leukemias is now becoming defined. These discoveries have pointed the way to immune interventions building on the established graft-versus-leukemia (GVL) effect from hematopoietic stem-cell transplant (HSCT) and extending immunotherapy beyond HSCT to individuals with acute leukemia with a diversity of immune manipulations early in the course of the leukemia. At present, clinical results are in their infancy. In the coming years larger studies will better define the place of immunotherapy in the management of acute leukemias and lead to treatment approaches that combine conventional chemotherapy, immunotherapy and HSCT to achieve durable cures. PMID:26834952

  18. Meta-analysis of defibrase in treatment of acute cerebral infarction

    2006-01-01

    Background Fibrinogen-depleting agents are promising in the treatment of cerebral ischemic disease. They were studied by many trials, and the outcomes were different because of different regimens and different doses. In this study, we assessed the efficacy and safety of defibrase on acute cerebral infarction in China.Methods A search using Chinese hospital knowledge database (CHKD) and MEDLINE database for randomized controlled trials was carried out. A CHKD (1994 June 2005) search was performed with the keyword "defibrase", then a second search for the keyword "acute cerebral infarction"; a MEDLINE search (1950 June 2005) was performed with the following keywords: [(cerebral ischemia), OR (acute cerebral infarction), OR (stroke)], AND [defibrase]. Meta-analysis was performed with RevMan software 4.2.Results Included were 14 studies comparing the efficiency and safety of defibrase with other drugs in the treatment of acute cerebral infarction. Patients' records were pooled (total 646 patients; defibrase, n=328, no defibrase n=318). Neurological deficit score (NDS) before treatment showed weighted mean differences (WMD)=0.95, 95% confidence interval (CI)= (-0.60, 2.50), P=0.23; NDS after treatment showed WMD=-2.20, 95% CI= (-4.21, -0.18), P=0.03; Barthel index at 3 months showed WMD=4.45, 95% CI= (-0.13, 9.03), P=0.06; the plasma fibrinogen level before treatment showed WMD=0.02, 95% CI= (-0.16, 0.19), P=0.86; plasma fibrinogen level after treatment showed WMD=-1.51, 95% CI= (-1.88, -1.15), P<0.00 001. Conclusions With the given dose and regimen of defibrase in China, defibrase may play a role of anticoagulation. It might inhibit the progression of stroke and prevent the recurrence of stroke.

  19. [Usage of medicines inducing secretolisys in treatment of acute otitis media in children].

    Gotsadze, K; Gogatishvili, R

    2005-05-01

    Acute otitis media is one of the most common diseases in childhood and adolescence. Its incorrect and non-rational treatment increases the frequency of complicated acute forms of the disease. Objective of the study was to define effectiveness of mucoregulatory medication (namely Sinupret produced by Bionorica A.G. Germany) for treatment of complicated forms of AOM along with antibiotics in children. The trial has been conducted at Tbilisi M. Guramishvili Pediatric Clinic. It represented a randomized controlled trial of two prescribing strategies for acute otitis media. The participants have been 64 children with AOM-preperforation stage. Among them 32 patients (study group) got oral antibiotics--Amoxicillin along with the mucoregulatory remedy (Sinupret) and the rest 32 patients (control group) received Amoxicillin orally (Amoxicillin was used 40-45 mg/kg/24 h in children and 1,5-3 g/24 h in adults) divided in three administrations. The clinical effect of treatment was assessed according to the following data: subjectively-complaints of patients; objectively-clinical examination data (otoscopy), blood test data; tympanometric data. Measurements have been conducted at the beginning of treatment, on the third, seventh days, at the end of the course of treatment and two weeks later. Subjectively patients complained about unbearable pains in the ear, anxiety, abrupt reduction of hearing, murmurs in the ears acquiring pulsative nature, high temperature. For the treatment of complicated forms of acute otitis media (III stage) mucoregulatory remedies in combination with antibiotics were quite effective. It reduces necessity of paracentesys; increases the efficiency of accompanying antibiotic therapy and reduces frequency of complications. PMID:15988076

  20. Ethanol fermentation

    1981-01-01

    The inulin of chicory slices was hydrolyzed enzymically and fermented to ethanol. Maximum ethanol yield was achieved with fermentation combined with saccharification, using cellulase and inulinase for saccharification. The fermenting organism was Saccharomyces cerevisiae. Kluyveromyces fragilis, containing endogenous inulinase, was also used, but with lower yield.

  1. Therapeutic effectiveness and safety parathyroid adenoma ablation with percutaneous ethanol injection under sonographic guidance in patients with chronic renal failure and secondary hyperparathyroidism refractory to medical treatment

    Secondary hyperparathyroidism unresponsive to medical treatment is a common complication in patients with chronic renal failure and prolonged dialysis therapy, which requires surgery of the parathyroid glands, with the risks and costs of surgery. Objective: To evaluate the therapeutic effectiveness and safety of ablation of parathyroid adenomas by percutaneous ethanol injection under ultrasound guidance. Method: After approval by the institutional medical ethics committee, informed written consent was obtained in 15 patients who met the inclusion criteria. Sonographically guided ethanol was injected consecutively into adenomas, with an interval of time less than six months. Results: Size, Doppler vascularity of adenomas, and the levels of parathyroid hormone, calcium and phosphorus were measured before and after ablation as criteria for treatment response in 15 patients. Of all patients, six (40%) had no therapeutic response. Therapeutic response was observed in nine patients (60%). In the latter group, five patients (33.3%) had successful response and symptomatic improvement, in two patients (13.3%), therapeutic response was suboptimal, and in two patients (13.3%), the response was unsatisfactory. The procedure was safe. Local pain, transient dysphonia and cough were considered minor complications and were the most common, with resolution in all cases. There were no major complications. Conclusion: Ablation of parathyroid adenomas with percutaneous ethanol injection and ultrasound guidance, in uremic patients with secondary hyperparathyroidism unresponsive to medical treatment is an effective and safe therapy. Studies involving more patients and longer follow up are needed in order to stablish more conclusive results

  2. Impact of Oxandrolone Treatment on Acute Outcomes After Severe Burn Injury

    Pham, Tam N.; Klein, Matthew B.; Gibran, Nicole S.; Arnoldo, Brett D.; Gamelli, Richard L.; Silver, Geoffrey M.; Jeschke, Marc G.; Finnerty, Celeste C.; Tompkins, Ronald G.; Herndon, David N.

    2013-01-01

    Pharmacologic modulation of hypermetabolism clearly benefits children with major burns, however, its role in adult burns remains to be defined. Oxandrolone appears to be a promising anabolic agent although few outcome data are as yet available. We examined whether early oxandrolone treatment in severely burned adults was associated with improved outcomes during acute hospitalization. We evaluated for potential associations between oxandrolone treatment and outcomes in a large cohort of severely burned adults in the context of a multicenter observational study. Patients were dichotomized with respect to oxandrolone treatment, defined as administration within 7 days after admission, with duration of at least 7 days. Acute hospitalization outcomes were compared with univariate and multivariate analyses. One hundred seventeen patients were included in this analysis. Mean patient age was 42.6 years (range, 18–86); 77% were male, with an average TBSA of 44.1%. Baseline and injury characteristics were similar among treatment and nontreatment cohorts. Oxandrolone treatment (N =59) did not impact length of stay but was associated with a lower mortality rate (P = .01) by univariate analysis. Oxandrolone treatment was independently associated with higher survival by adjusted analyses (P = .02). Examination of early oxandrolone treatment in this cohort of severely burned adults suggests that this therapy is safe and may be associated with improved survival. Further studies are necessary to define the exact mechanisms by which oxandrolone is beneficial during inpatient treatment. PMID:18849836

  3. Anti-Ulcerogenic Properties of Lycium chinense Mill Extracts against Ethanol-Induced Acute Gastric Lesion in Animal Models and Its Active Constituents

    Opeyemi J. Olatunji; Hongxia Chen; Yifeng Zhou

    2015-01-01

    The objective of this study was to explore the gastroprotective properties of the aerial part of Lycium chinense Mill (LCA) against ethanol-induced gastric mucosa lesions in mice models. Administration of LCA at doses of 50, 100, 200 and 400 mg/kg body weight prior to ethanol consumption dose dependently inhibited gastric ulcers. The gastric mucosal injury was analyzed by gastric juice acidity, glutathione (GSH), superoxide dismutase (SOD), malondialdehyde (MDA), myeloperoxidase (MPO) activit...

  4. CHALLENGES IN TREATMENT OF RENAL GRAFT ACUTE ANTIBODY-MEDIATED REJECTION

    A. I. Sushkov

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Diagnostic criteria and treatment protocols for acute antibody-mediated rejection (AMR of kidney allograft remain controversial. We report the case of early severe AMR after primary kidney transplantation. The graft removal was considered in the absence of treatment efficacy and in the presence of systemic infl ammatory response syndrome. However, at surgery the graft looked normal and it was not removed. The repeated treatment course (plasmapheresis, antithymocyte globulin, intravenous immunoglobulin and rituximab was effective. The patient has good and stable graft function in 1 year after transplantation. 

  5. Endovascular Treatment in Emergency Setting of Acute Arterial Injuries After Orthopedic Surgery

    Purpose: To assess the feasibility and effectiveness of emergency endovascular treatment of acute arterial injuries after orthopedic surgery. Materials and Methods: Fifteen patients (mean age 68.3 years) with acute arterial injuries after orthopedic surgery were observed, in particular, 5 patients with pseudoaneurysm, 9 patients with active bleeding, and 1 patient with arterial dissection. Transarterial embolization (TAE) and positioning of covered and noncovered stents were the treatments performed. Follow-up after stent implantation (mean 36 months) was performed with color Doppler US (CDU) at 1, 3, 6, and 12 months and yearly thereafter. Plain X-ray was performed to evidence dislodgment or fracture of the graft. A minimum of 12 months’ follow-up is available after TAE. Results: Immediate technical success was obtained in all cases. No major complications occurred. Overall clinical success rate was 100%. During mean follow-up, stent-graft occlusions did not occurred. No recurrence and/or consequence of TAE was registered during a minimum follow-up of 12 months. Conclusions: Percutaneous treatment is a feasible and safe tool for treating arterial injuries because it can provide fast and definitive resolution of the damage. This low-invasiveness approach can be proposed as first-line treatment in patients with acute injuries after orthopedic surgery.

  6. Catheter-directed thrombolysis in the treatment of acute deep venous thrombosis: a meta-analysis.

    Zheng, J J; Zhang, Z H; Shan, Z; Wang, W J; Li, X X; Wang, S M; Li, Y-X; Cheng, G-S

    2014-01-01

    We performed a meta-analysis for systematic evaluation of the status quo of catheter thrombolysis for the treatment of acute lower limb deep vein thrombosis in China. We searched the China Biomedical bibliographic database (CBM), China National Knowledge Infrastructure (CNKI), Weipu full-text electronic journals, Wanfang full-text database, and Medline (1990 through June 2011) for clinical randomized controlled trials of catheter-directed thrombolysis and superficial venous thrombolysis to compare their efficacies for the treatment of acute deep vein thrombosis. The results were analyzed by using the Cochrane-recommended RevMan 4.2 software package, and the odds ratio (OR) was used as the combined measure of efficacy. The search retrieved 8 randomized controlled trials, and meta-analysis using the total rate of effective treatment as the clinical observation index found that the combined OR for the catheter thrombolysis group versus the superficial venous thrombolysis group was significant (P < 0.01; OR = 11.78; 95% confidence interval = 6.99-19.87). In conclusion, the meta-analysis indicated that catheter thrombolysis was more effective than superficial venous thrombolysis for the treatment of acute deep vein thrombosis in the lower limb in Chinese individuals. However, the included trials were only of medium quality, so more rational and scientific clinical trials are needed to validate this conclusion. PMID:25078578

  7. Anticoagulant treatment for acute pulmonary embolism: a pathophysiology-based clinical approach.

    Agnelli, Giancarlo; Becattini, Cecilia

    2015-04-01

    The management of patients with acute pulmonary embolism is made challenging by its wide spectrum of clinical presentation and outcome, which is mainly related to patient haemodynamic status and right ventricular overload. Mechanical embolic obstruction and neurohumorally mediated pulmonary vasoconstriction are responsible for right ventricular overload. The pathophysiology of acute pulmonary embolism is the basis for risk stratification of patients as being at high, intermediate and low risk of adverse outcomes. This risk stratification has been advocated to tailor clinical management according to the severity of pulmonary embolism. Anticoagulation is the mainstay of the treatment of acute pulmonary embolism. New direct oral anticoagulants, which are easier to use than conventional anticoagulants, have been compared with conventional anticoagulation in five randomised clinical trials including >11 000 patients with pulmonary embolism. Patients at high risk of pulmonary embolism (those with haemodynamic compromise) were excluded from these studies. Direct oral anticoagulants have been shown to be as effective and at least as safe as conventional anticoagulation in patients with pulmonary embolism without haemodynamic compromise, who are the majority of patients with this disease. Whether these agents are appropriate for the acute-phase treatment of patients at intermediate-high risk pulmonary embolism (those with both right ventricle dysfunction and injury) regardless of any risk stratification remains undefined. PMID:25700388

  8. Changing Trends in Treatment of Acute Mania: Experience of a Tertiary Centre Over a Decade.

    Arıkan, Mehmet Kemal; Poyraz, Cana Aksoy; Baş, Alper; Sağlam, N Gamze Usta; Batun, Gizem Cetiner; Gültekin, Gözde; Poyraz, Burç Çağrı

    2016-06-01

    We investigated trends over a decade in the prescription of lithium, antiepileptics, and antipsychotic agents at discharge for patients hospitalised for acute mania. We conducted a retrospective review of medical records for 165 inpatients with acute mania who had been hospitalised in Cerrahpaşa Faculty of Medicine, Department of Psychiatry during 2001-2002 and 2011-2012. Among 165 patients, prescription of olanzapine at discharge increased from 3 to 46 % (p haloperidol decreased from 55 to 21 % (p < 0.001). Use of other atypical antipsychotics did not change significantly (risperidone decreased from 14 to 11 %, p = 0.5; quetiapine increased from 10 to 16 %, p = 0.2). Use of valproate, carbamazepine, and lithium did not change significantly. Use of electroconvulsive therapy in acute mania decreased by half from 27 to 13 % (p = 0.02). Typical antipsychotics alone or in combination with antiepileptics were the most common treatment regimen at discharge at 2001-2002; while 10 years later, they had been largely replaced by lithium or antiepileptics combined with second generation antipsychotics. Antipsychotic agents remained to be an important component of acute treatment of mania in our practice. PMID:26220636

  9. Relaxin for the Treatment of Acute Decompensated Heart Failure: Pharmacology, Mechanisms of Action, and Clinical Evidence.

    Ng, Tien M H; Goland, Sorel; Elkayam, Uri

    2016-01-01

    Acute heart failure remains a major cause of morbidity, and its treatment requires an increasing investment of the health care system. Whereas success in treating chronic heart failure has been achieved over the last decades, several pharmacological approaches for acute heart failure have been introduced but have failed to demonstrate any clinical benefit. Serelaxin is a recombinant human relaxin-2 vasoactive peptide that causes systemic and renal vasodilation. Data suggest that the clinical benefits may be attributable to a potential combination of multiple actions of serelaxin, including improving systemic, cardiac, and renal hemodynamics, and protecting cells and organs from damage via neurohormonal, anti-inflammatory, antiremodeling, antifibrotic, anti-ischemic, and proangiogenic effects. Recently, a number of clinical trials have demonstrated that serelaxin infusion over 48 hours improved dyspnea with more rapid relief of congestion during the first days after admission for heart failure. In addition, administration of serelaxin diminished cardiac, renal, and hepatic damage, which were associated with improved long-term mortality. Available data support substantial clinical benefits and significant promise for serelaxin as a treatment option for patients with acute heart failure. This review focuses on the pharmacology and mechanisms of action of serelaxin and provides a detailed discussion of the clinical evidence for this novel therapy in acute heart failure. PMID:26331289

  10. Techno-economic evaluation of stillage treatment with anaerobic digestion in a softwood-to-ethanol process

    Barta Zsolt

    2010-09-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Replacing the energy-intensive evaporation of stillage by anaerobic digestion is one way of decreasing the energy demand of the lignocellulosic biomass to the ethanol process. The biogas can be upgraded and sold as transportation fuel, injected directly into the gas grid or be incinerated on-site for combined heat and power generation. A techno-economic evaluation of the spruce-to-ethanol process, based on SO2-catalysed steam pretreatment followed by simultaneous saccharification and fermentation, has been performed using the commercial flow-sheeting program Aspen Plus™. Various process configurations of anaerobic digestion of the stillage, with different combinations of co-products, have been evaluated in terms of energy efficiency and ethanol production cost versus the reference case of evaporation. Results Anaerobic digestion of the stillage showed a significantly higher overall energy efficiency (87-92%, based on the lower heating values, than the reference case (81%. Although the amount of ethanol produced was the same in all scenarios, the production cost varied between 4.00 and 5.27 Swedish kronor per litre (0.38-0.50 euro/L, including the reference case. Conclusions Higher energy efficiency options did not necessarily result in lower ethanol production costs. Anaerobic digestion of the stillage with biogas upgrading was demonstrated to be a favourable option for both energy efficiency and ethanol production cost. The difference in the production cost of ethanol between using the whole stillage or only the liquid fraction in anaerobic digestion was negligible for the combination of co-products including upgraded biogas, electricity and district heat.

  11. Risk factors of delayed pre-hospital treatment seeking in patients with acute coronary syndrome: A prospective study

    Fathi, Marzieh; Rahiminiya, Aysan; Zare, Mohammad Amin; Tavakoli, Nader

    2016-01-01

    Objectives Despite enormous efforts in public education, treatment seeking time still remains more than optimal in patients with acute coronary syndrome. This prospective study tries to determine the risk factors of pre-hospital delay in patients with acute coronary syndrome. Methods Descriptive data of 190 patients with diagnosis of acute coronary syndrome attending in 2 tertiary level teaching hospital emergency departments were analyzed to determine risk factors of delayed pre-hospital tre...

  12. The acute treatment of migraine in adults: the american headache society evidence assessment of migraine pharmacotherapies.

    Marmura, Michael J; Silberstein, Stephen D; Schwedt, Todd J

    2015-01-01

    The study aims to provide an updated assessment of the evidence for individual pharmacological therapies for acute migraine treatment. Pharmacological therapy is frequently required for acutely treating migraine attacks. The American Academy of Neurology Guidelines published in 2000 summarized the available evidence relating to the efficacy of acute migraine medications. This review, conducted by the members of the Guidelines Section of the American Headache Society, is an updated assessment of evidence for the migraine acute medications. A standardized literature search was performed to identify articles related to acute migraine treatment that were published between 1998 and 2013. The American Academy of Neurology Guidelines Development procedures were followed. Two authors reviewed each abstract resulting from the search and determined whether the full manuscript qualified for review. Two reviewers studied each qualifying full manuscript for its level of evidence. Level A evidence requires at least 2 Class I studies, and Level B evidence requires 1 Class I or 2 Class II studies. The specific medications - triptans (almotriptan, eletriptan, frovatriptan, naratriptan, rizatriptan, sumatriptan [oral, nasal spray, injectable, transcutaneous patch], zolmitriptan [oral and nasal spray]) and dihydroergotamine (nasal spray, inhaler) are effective (Level A). Ergotamine and other forms of dihydroergotamine are probably effective (Level B). Effective nonspecific medications include acetaminophen, nonsteroidal anti-inflammatory drugs (aspirin, diclofenac, ibuprofen, and naproxen), opioids (butorphanol nasal spray), sumatriptan/naproxen, and the combination of acetaminophen/aspirin/caffeine (Level A). Ketoprofen, intravenous and intramuscular ketorolac, flurbiprofen, intravenous magnesium (in migraine with aura), and the combination of isometheptene compounds, codeine/acetaminophen and tramadol/acetaminophen are probably effective (Level B). The antiemetics prochlorperazine

  13. Treatment disparities in acute coronary syndromes, heart failure, and kidney disease.

    McCullough, Peter A; Maynard, Robert C

    2011-01-01

    It has been consistently observed that patients with renal dysfunction have more premature, severe, complicated, and fatal cardiovascular disease than age- and sex-matched individuals with normal renal function. There have been 4 major explanations for this finding: (1) positive confounding by third variables associated with chronic kidney disease (CKD), including diabetes mellitus and hypertension; (2) therapeutic nihilism or lesser use of beneficial therapies in CKD; (3) greater toxicities of therapies, such as bleeding from anticoagulants or contrast-induced kidney injury; (4) biological factors which result directly from CKD that work to promote and accelerate cardiovascular disease. In this paper, we focus on the issue of treatment disparities or therapeutic nihilism and its contribution to poor outcomes in the setting of acute coronary syndromes and acutely decompensated heart failure. This issue is important because if we can overcome barriers to the utilization of beneficial treatments, then clinical outcomes should improve over time. PMID:21625092

  14. Short-term mortality, readmission, and recurrence in treatment of acute diverticulitis with abscess formation

    Gregersen, Rasmus; Andresen, Kristoffer; Burcharth, Jakob; Pommergaard, Hans-Christian; Rosenberg, Jacob

    2016-01-01

    PURPOSE: The aim of the study was to investigate short-term mortality, readmission, and recurrence in a national cohort of patients with Hinchey Ib-II diverticulitis. METHODS: The retrospective cohort-investigation was conducted using a database consisting of the entire Danish population (n = 6......,641,672) in year 2000-2012, formed by linking the Danish Registers. Patients admitted with acute Hinchey Ib-II diverticulitis were identified from ICD-10 discharge codes and stratified according to treatment into an operative, drainage, and antibiotics group. The primary outcome was 30-day mortality from...... associated with mortality with odds-ratio 1.49 (1.23-1.81) and readmission with odds-ratio 2.91 (1.24-6.80). CONCLUSION: Acute diverticulitis with abscess formation is a severe and life-threatening condition. Direct comparisons of treatment groups were not possible due to possible confounding by indication....

  15. Treatment-related toxicities in children with acute lymphoblastic leukaemia predisposition syndromes

    Schmiegelow, Kjeld

    2016-01-01

    Although most children with acute lymphoblastic leukaemia (ALL) do not harbor germline mutations that strongly predispose them to development of this malignancy, large syndrome registries and detailed mapping of exomes or whole genomes of familial leukaemia kindreds have revealed that 3-5% of all...... anticancer agents, while others are not. This review summarises our current knowledge on the risk of acute toxicities for these ALL patients and provides guidance for treatment adjustments....... patients is important in order to adjust therapy and offer genetic counseling and cancer surveillance to mutation carriers in the family. In the coming years large genomic screening projects are expected to reveal further hitherto unrecognised familial ALL syndromes. The treatment of ALL cases harboring...

  16. Endovascular stent graft treatment of acute thoracic aortic transections due to blunt force trauma.

    Bjurlin, Marc A

    2012-02-01

    Endovascular stent graft treatment of acute thoracic aortic transections is an encouraging minimally invasive alternative to open surgical repair. Between 2006 and 2008, 16 patients with acute thoracic aortic transections underwent evaluation at our institution. Seven patients who were treated with an endovascular stent graft were reviewed. The mean Glasgow Coma Score was 13.0, probability of survival was .89, and median injury severity score was 32. The mean number of intensive care unit days was 7.7, mean number of ventilator support days was 5.4, and hospital length of stay was 10 days. Mean blood loss was 285 mL, and operative time was 143 minutes. Overall mortality was 14%. Procedure complications were a bleeding arteriotomy site and an endoleak. Endovascular treatment of traumatic thoracic aortic transections appears to demonstrate superior results with respect to mortality, blood loss, operative time, paraplegia, and procedure-related complications when compared with open surgical repair literature.

  17. Acinar cell ultrastructure after taurine treatment in rat acute necrotizing pancreatitis

    To evaluate the organelle-based changes in acinar cells in experimental acute necrotizing pancreatitis (ANP) after taurine treatment and the association of electron microscopic findings with histopathalogical changes and oxidative stress markers. The study was performed in February 2005at Gulhane School of Medicine and Hacettepe University, Turkey. Forty-five rats were divided into 3 groups. Acute necrotizing pancreatitis was induced in groups II and III. Groups I and II were treated with saline and Group III with taurine 1000mg/kg/day, i.p, for 48 hours. Histopathological and ultrastructural examinations were determined using one-way analysis of variance and Kruskal-Wallis tests. Histopathologic findings improved significantly after taurine treatment. Degree of injury in rough and smooth endoplasmic reticulums, Golgi apparatus, mitochondria and nucleus of acinar cells also decreased with taurine in correlation with biochemical and histological results. Taurine improves acinar cell organelle structure, and ultrastructural recovery in ANP reflects histological improvement. (author)

  18. Successful treatment with interferon of chicken pox in children with acute leukemia.

    Kim,Byung Soo

    1984-02-01

    Full Text Available Childhood leukemia, especially acute lymphocytic leukemia, can now be completely cured by a multimodality approach in one out of every two patients. Since prolonged maintenance therapy with anti-cancer agents for three years is required for complete cure, a significant problem during this course of treatment is death due to secondary infection. Those with childhood leukemia receiving anti-cancer chemotherapy who became secondarily injected with chicken pox can now be treated successfully with interferon in the four cases reported here. Chicken pox was cured even while one of them was in relapse. Therefore, it can be said that a bright prospect, namely interferon, is on the horizon in the treatment of secondary viral diseases associated with acute leukemia.

  19. Factors associated with marketable milk production recovery after treatment of naturally occurring acute coliform mastitis.

    Shinozuka, Yasunori; Kaneko, Sohei; Kurose, Tomoyasu; Watanabe, Aiko; Kuruhara, Kana; Kawai, Kazuhiro

    2016-06-01

    Milk production loss after recovery from acute coliform mastitis causes major economic losses for dairy industries. Declines in milk production and composition are caused by multiple factors, including cow factors, microorganisms and treatments, but the influence of each factor has not been determined. To investigate risk factors for milk loss after treatment for acute coliform mastitis, multiple logistic regression analyses were conducted in 53 clinical cases. Systemic administration of fluoroquinolone was significantly associated with recovery of marketable milk production. The time to slaughter was significantly shorter in cows with complete loss of quarter milk production than in cows that produced marketable milk. In this study, we identified factors associated with increased risk of milk production loss. PMID:26860356

  20. Endovascular Treatment of Acute Portal Vein Thrombosis After Liver Transplantation in a Child

    Although operative techniques in hepatic transplantation have reduced the time and mortality on waiting lists, the rate of vascular complications associated with these techniques has increased. Stenosis or thrombosis of the portal vein is an infrequent complication, and if present, surgical treatment is considered the traditional management. This article describes a case of acute portal vein thrombosis after liver transplantation from a living donor to a child managed by percutaneous techniques

  1. Endovascular treatment of acute arterial complications after living-donor liver transplantation

    Aim: The aim of this study was to evaluate the efficacy of endovascular treatment for acute arterial complications following living-donor liver transplantation (LDLT). Materials and methods: Of 79 LDLT patients, 17 (mean age 48 ± 8 years, range 33-66 years) who had acute arterial complications and underwent endovascular treatment were evaluated. Transcatheter arterial embolization was performed to control peritoneal bleeding. Catheter-directed thrombolysis using urokinase was performed in hepatic artery thromboses. The locations of complications and materials used were evaluated. The technical and clinical success rates were calculated. Results: Twenty-three acute arterial complications, including four hepatic artery thromboses and 19 cases of peritoneal haemorrhages were identified in 22 angiographic sessions in 17 patients. The mean duration between LDLT and first angiography was 3.2 ± 3.5 days (range 1-13 days). Hepatic artery recanalization with catheter-directed thrombolysis using urokinase was achieved in two patients. Transcatheter arterial embolization for peritoneal bleeding was successfully performed in 16 cases. The most common bleeding focus was the right inferior phrenic artery. Additional surgical management was needed in five patients to control bleeding or hepatic artery recanalization. Technical and clinical success rates of transcatheter arterial embolization were 84.2 and 63.1%, respectively. Overall technical success was achieved in 18 of 23 arterial complications (78.2%), and clinical success was achieved in 14 of 23 arterial complications (60.8%). Conclusion: Endovascular treatment for the acute arterial complications of haemorrhage or thrombosis in LDLT patients is safe and effective. Therefore, it should be considered as the first line of treatment in selective cases

  2. Experimental acute otitis media : aspects on treatment, protection and structural changes

    Westman, Eva

    2003-01-01

    Acute otitis media (AOM) is a common disease in childhood and is one of the most common causes for outpatient antibiotic treatment. The major aetiological agents of AOM have varied over the decades. Now the three most common pathogens are Streptococcus pneumoniae, Haemophilus influenzae and Moraxella catarrhalis. The resistance patterns of these organisms have also varied from the beginning of the antibiotic era to the situation we have today with an increasing incidence of penicillin-resista...

  3. Clinical efficacy of dalbavancin for the treatment of acute bacterial skin and skin structure infections (ABSSSI)

    Leuthner KD; Buechler KA; Kogan D; Saguros A; Lee HS

    2016-01-01

    Kimberly D Leuthner,1 Kristin A Buechler,1 David Kogan,1 Agafe Saguros,1 H Stephen Lee2 1Department of Pharmaceutical Services, University Medical Center of Southern Nevada, Las Vegas, NV, USA; 2Roseman University of Health Sciences College of Pharmacy, Henderson, NV, USA Abstract: Acute bacterial skin and skin structure infections (ABSSSI) are a common disease causing patients to seek treatment through the health care system. With the continued increase of drug-resistant bacterial pathogen...

  4. Effect and Prognostic Analysis of Treatment for Acute Myeloid Leukemia Using Chinese Drugs Combined with Chemotherapy

    胡晓梅; 刘锋; 郑春梅; 李柳; 刘池; 张姗姗; 肖海燕; 杨晓红; 王洪志; 许勇钢; 胡乃平; 麻柔

    2009-01-01

    Objective:To observe the clinical efficacy of Chinese drugs combined with chemotherapy in the treatment of acute myeloid leukemia(AML) and to investigate the prognostic relevance of the main parameters in AML treated with integrative medicine.Methods:Forty AML patients hospitalized at the authors' hospital were treated with Chinese drugs and chemotherapy.The routine examination,immunophenotype and karyotype analyses were carried out.The clinical efficacy was observed and the prognostic factors were analy...

  5. Impact of basic lymphedema management and antifilarial treatment on acute dermatolymphangioadenitis episodes and filarial antigenaemia

    H A El-Nahas; A M El-Shazly; Abulhassan, M; N A Nabih; N Mousa

    2011-01-01

    Background: A major factor in the progression of lymphedema is acute dermatolymphangioadenitis (ADLA). Aims : To study ADLA episodes and antigenaemia in patients with different grades of filarial lymphedema at pre- and two years post-treatment. Setting and Design: A prospectively conducted study from May 2008 through May 2010. Patients and Methods: Forty five patients complaining of limb swelling with present or past history of limb redness suggestive of ADLA attacks were included. Patients w...

  6. Experiences on the Integrative Medical Diagnosis and Treatment of Acute Kidney Injury

    CHEN Yi-ping

    2010-01-01

    @@ The definition of acute renal failure (ARF) has not gotten common understanding yet in a long time, which leads to the difficulty in comparing the outcomes of some different studies, and has impacted the advance of diagnosis and treatment on the illness to certain extents. Most of the scholars hold that the attention paid to the early diagnosis and intervention of ARF was insufficient in recent years.

  7. Acute visceral cysticercosis by Taenia hydatigena in lambs and treatment with praziquantel.

    Scala, A; Urrai, G; Varcasia, A; Nicolussi, P; Mulas, M; Goddi, L; Pipia, A P; Sanna, G; Genchi, M; Bandino, E

    2016-01-01

    An acute outbreak of Taenia hydatigena cysticercosis, causing mortality in 5 of 21 (23.8%) female lambs, is reported. Gross post-mortem examinations and histology showed Cysticercus tenuicollis as the cause of death. Biochemical parameters in infected lambs confirmed severe hepatitis. Praziquantel, given once at 15 mg/kg body weight (bw), was administered and a dramatic improvement in the clinical condition and biochemical parameters was observed up to 30 days following treatment. PMID:25120032

  8. Topiramate Add-on Lithium Carbonate for Treatment of Acute Mania

    Mirsepassi, Zahra; Mazinani, Robabeh; Fadai, Farbod; Alibeigi, Neda; Nazeri astaneh, Ali

    2013-01-01

    Objective: The purpose of this study was to evaluate the effect of adjunctive topiramate in treating acute mania. Methods: In this study which was a double-blinded randomized clinical trial, 46 bipolar patients in manic episode, were treated with lithium carbonate and topiramate versus lithium carbonate and placebo and treatment responses were assessed by Young Mania Rating Scale (YMRS) weekly. Results: In both intervention and control groups, YMRS score had significant decline after 8 weeks(...

  9. Effect of Tamoxifen and Lithium on Treatment of Acute Mania Symptoms in Children and Adolescents

    Fallah, Elham; Arman, Sorror; Najafi, Mostafa; Shayegh, Bahar

    2016-01-01

    Objective Many studies have supported the role of protein kinase C (PKC) inhibitors in the physiopathology and treatment of bipolar disorder in adults. Tamoxifen is one of the drugs with the effect of PKC inhibition. This study aimed to determine the effect of tamoxifen on the rate of improvement mania symptoms in the sample of children and adolescents with acute mania. Materials & Methods In this randomized, placebo-controlled clinical trial study, registered in www.irct.ir with the code of ...

  10. Successful treatment with interferon of chicken pox in children with acute leukemia.

    Kim, Byung Soo

    1984-01-01

    Childhood leukemia, especially acute lymphocytic leukemia, can now be completely cured by a multimodality approach in one out of every two patients. Since prolonged maintenance therapy with anti-cancer agents for three years is required for complete cure, a significant problem during this course of treatment is death due to secondary infection. Those with childhood leukemia receiving anti-cancer chemotherapy who became secondarily injected with chicken pox can now be treated successfully with...

  11. An alternative treatment in hypertriglyceridemia-induced acute pancreatitis in pregnancy: Plasmapheresis

    Dilek Altun

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available Hormonal influences during pregnancy can compromise otherwise controlled lipid levels in women with familial hypertriglyceridemia and predispose to pancreatitis leading to increased morbidity in both mother and fetus. Both cholesterol and triglyceride levels in serum increase progressively during pregnancy. The mainstay of treatment includes dietary restriction of fatty meal and lipid-lowering medications. Experiences with plasmapheresis are limited. We report two cases of hypertriglyceridemia-induced acute pancreatitis during pregnancy, which were successfully treated by plasmapheresis.

  12. Oral idarubicin plus cytosine arabinoside in the treatment of acute non lymphoblastic leukemia in elderly patients.

    Pagano, L; Sica, S; Marra, R; Voso, M T; Storti, S; Di Mario, A; Leone, G

    1991-01-01

    Eighteen acute nonlymphoblastic leukemia patients greater than 60 yr., 12 at diagnosis and 6 in first relapse, were treated with the association of oral Idarubicin and subcutaneous Aracytin. One patient was not evaluable. Eight out of 17 patients achieved complete remission (47%), 4 patients died in induction and 5 proved resistant to treatments. Mucocutaneous and gastrointestinal toxicity was mild. The most frequent extra-hematological complications were infections. We observed an important hepatic toxicity in 1 case. PMID:1820991

  13. Host genome variations and risk of infections during induction treatment for childhood acute lymphoblastic leukaemia

    Lund, Bendik; Wesolowska-Andersen, Agata; Lausen, Birgitte;

    2014-01-01

    Objectives: To investigate association of host genomic variation and risk of infections during treatment for childhood acute lymphoblastic leukaemia (ALL). Methods: We explored association of 34 000 singlenucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs) related primarily to pharmacogenomics and immune function...... to risk of infections among 69 ALL patients on induction therapy. Results: Forty-eight (70%) patients experienced infectious events including 23 with positive blood cultures. Infectious events and positive blood cultures were associated significantly with 24 and 21 SNPs, respectively (P

  14. Somatostatin in the treatment of acute pancreatitis: A prospective randomised controlled trial

    Choi, T. K.; Mok, F; Zhan, W H; Fan, S. T.; Lai, E C; Wong, J

    1989-01-01

    A prospective study was carried out to evaluate the efficacy of somatostatin in the treatment of acute pancreatitis. Seventy one patients were randomised to control (h = 36), or to the somatostatin group (h = 35) who received somatostatin 100 micrograms/h after a 250 microgram bolus for the first two days. The following were compared in the two groups on admission and two days later: laboratory tests of prognostic significance, severity of pancreatitis, and also morbidity and mortality. Of th...

  15. Tapentadol immediate release: a new treatment option for acute pain management

    Marc Afilalo

    2010-02-01

    Full Text Available Marc Afilalo1, Jens-Ulrich Stegmann2, David Upmalis31Sir Mortimer B. Davis Jewish General Hospital, Montréal, Canada; 2Global Drug Safety, Grünenthal GmbH, Aachen, Germany; 3Johnson & Johnson Pharmaceutical Research and Development, L.L.C., Raritan, New Jersey, USAAbstract: The undertreatment of acute pain is common in many health care settings. Insufficient management of acute pain may lead to poor patient outcomes and potentially life-threatening complications. Opioids provide relief of moderate to severe acute pain; however, therapy with pure µ-opioid agonists is often limited by the prevalence of side effects, particularly opioid-induced nausea and vomiting. Tapentadol is a novel, centrally acting analgesic with 2 mechanisms of action, µ-opioid receptor agonism and norepinephrine reuptake inhibition. The analgesic effects of tapentadol are independent of metabolic activation and tapentadol has no active metabolites; therefore, in theory, tapentadol may be associated with a low potential for interindividual efficacy variations and drug–drug interactions. Previous phase 3 trials in patients with various types of moderate to severe acute pain have shown that tapentadol immediate release (IR; 50 to 100 mg every 4 to 6 hours provides analgesia comparable to that provided by the pure µ-opioid agonist comparator, oxycodone HCl IR (10 or 15 mg every 4 to 6 hours, with a lower incidence of nausea, vomiting, and constipation. Findings suggest tapentadol may represent an improved treatment option for acute pain.Keywords: tapentadol IR, acute pain, opioid, gastrointestinal tolerability

  16. Interventional Treatment of Abdominal Compartment Syndrome during Severe Acute Pancreatitis: Current Status and Historical Perspective

    Dejan V. Radenkovic

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Abdominal compartment syndrome (ACS in patients with severe acute pancreatitis (SAP is a marker of severe disease. It occurs as combination of inflammation of retroperitoneum, visceral edema, ascites, acute peripancreatic fluid collections, paralytic ileus, and aggressive fluid resuscitation. The frequency of ACS in SAP may be rising due to more aggressive fluid resuscitation, a trend towards conservative treatment, and attempts to use a minimally invasive approach. There remains uncertainty about the most appropriate surgical technique for the treatment of ACS in SAP. Some unresolved questions remain including medical treatment, indications, timing, and interventional techniques. This review will focus on interventional treatment of this serious condition. First line therapy is conservative treatment aiming to decrease IAP and to restore organ dysfunction. If nonoperative measures are not effective, early abdominal decompression is mandatory. Midline laparostomy seems to be method of choice. Since it carries significant morbidity we need randomized studies to establish firm advantages over other described techniques. After ACS resolves efforts should be made to achieve early primary fascia closure. Additional data are necessary to resolve uncertainties regarding ideal timing and indication for operative treatment.

  17. Paliperidone Palmitate Once-Monthly Injectable Treatment for Acute Exacerbations of Schizoaffective Disorder.

    Fu, Dong-Jing; Turkoz, Ibrahim; Simonson, R Bruce; Walling, David; Schooler, Nina; Lindenmayer, Jean-Pierre; Canuso, Carla; Alphs, Larry

    2016-08-01

    The optimal treatment for schizoaffective disorder (SCA) is not well established. In this initial 6-month open-label treatment period of a large, multiphase, relapse-prevention study, the efficacy and safety of paliperidone palmitate once-monthly (PP1M) injectable were evaluated in subjects with symptomatic SCA. Subjects with acute exacerbation of SCA (ie, with psychotic and either depressive and/or manic symptoms) were enrolled and treated with PP1M either as monotherapy or in combination with antidepressants or mood stabilizers (combination therapy group). After flexible-dose treatment with PP1M for 13 weeks, stabilized subjects continued into a 12-week fixed-dose PP1M treatment period. A total of 667 subjects were enrolled; 320 received monotherapy and 347 received PP1M as combination therapy; 334 subjects completed the entire 25-week treatment. Statistically significant and clinically meaningful improvements from baseline were observed for all efficacy measures in psychosis (per Positive and Negative Syndrome Scale), mood symptoms (per Young Mania Rating Scale and Hamilton Depression Rating Scale-21 items), and functioning (per Personal and Social Performance Scale) from week 1 to all time points during the 25-week treatment period (P acute exacerbation of SCA provided rapid, broad, and persistent reduction in psychotic, depressive, and manic symptoms, as well as improved functioning. PMID:27322760

  18. Interventional Treatment of Abdominal Compartment Syndrome during Severe Acute Pancreatitis: Current Status and Historical Perspective.

    Radenkovic, Dejan V; Johnson, Colin D; Milic, Natasa; Gregoric, Pavle; Ivancevic, Nenad; Bezmarevic, Mihailo; Bilanovic, Dragoljub; Cijan, Vladimir; Antic, Andrija; Bajec, Djordje

    2016-01-01

    Abdominal compartment syndrome (ACS) in patients with severe acute pancreatitis (SAP) is a marker of severe disease. It occurs as combination of inflammation of retroperitoneum, visceral edema, ascites, acute peripancreatic fluid collections, paralytic ileus, and aggressive fluid resuscitation. The frequency of ACS in SAP may be rising due to more aggressive fluid resuscitation, a trend towards conservative treatment, and attempts to use a minimally invasive approach. There remains uncertainty about the most appropriate surgical technique for the treatment of ACS in SAP. Some unresolved questions remain including medical treatment, indications, timing, and interventional techniques. This review will focus on interventional treatment of this serious condition. First line therapy is conservative treatment aiming to decrease IAP and to restore organ dysfunction. If nonoperative measures are not effective, early abdominal decompression is mandatory. Midline laparostomy seems to be method of choice. Since it carries significant morbidity we need randomized studies to establish firm advantages over other described techniques. After ACS resolves efforts should be made to achieve early primary fascia closure. Additional data are necessary to resolve uncertainties regarding ideal timing and indication for operative treatment. PMID:26839539

  19. [Current state of knowledge and developments in the prophylaxis and acute treatment of migraine].

    Schriever, J; Bühlen, M; Broich, K

    2014-08-01

    For the acute treatment of the headache phase of a migraine attack, a variety of different pharmacotherapeutic treatment options exist. These range from nonspecifically acting non-opioid analgesics (e.g., paracetamol) and nonsteroidal anti-inflammatory substances (e.g., acetylsalicylic acid, ibuprofen, naproxen, diclofenac) to agents specifically interfering with the serotonin system (ergot alkaloids such as ergotamine and its derivatives, triptans). In patients with significant emesis co-occurring during an attack, additional antiemetics such as metoclopramide or domperidone may be administered. In migraine prophylaxis, largely divergent agents, e.g., β-adrenoceptor antagonists, Ca-antagonists, or anticonvulsants, are commonly used. The diversity of these compounds may help the treating physician to tailor prophylactic treatment to the patient's individual needs. The treatment success of the individual patient is difficult to predict both in acute and prophylactic migraine treatment. Apart from contraindications or associated side effects of a particular substance, the individual patient's response to treatment is therefore a major determinant in selecting the suitable medication. PMID:25028243

  20. Diagnosis and treatment of acute ankle injuries: development of an evidence-based algorithm

    Hans Polzer

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available Acute ankle injuries are among the most common injuries in emergency departments. However, a standardized examination and an evidence-based treatment are missing. Therefore, aim of this study was to systematically search the current literature, classify the evidence and develop an algorithm for diagnosis and treatment of acute ankle injuries. We systematically searched PubMed and the Cochrane Database for randomized controlled trials, meta-analysis, systematic reviews, or if applicable observational studies and classified them according to their level of evidence. According to the currently available literature, the following recommendations are given. The Ottawa Ankle/Foot Rule should be applied in order to rule out fractures, Physical examination is sufficient for diagnosing injuries to the lateral ligament complex. Classification into stable and unstable injuries is applicable and of clinical importance. The squeeze-, crossed leg- and external rotation test are indicative for injuries of the syndesmosis. Magnetic resonance imaging is recommended to verify such injuries. Stable ankle sprains have a good prognosis, while for unstable ankle sprains conservative treatment is at least as effective as operative treatment without carrying possible complications. Early functional treatment leads to the fastest recovery and the least rate of re-injury. Supervised rehabilitation reduces residual symptoms and re-injuries. Taken these recommendations into account, we here present an applicable and evidence-based step by step decision pathway for the diagnosis and treatment of acute ankle injuries, which can be implemented in any emergency department or doctor’s practice. It provides quality assurance for the patient and confidence for the attending physician.