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Sample records for acute cardioprotective effect

  1. [Cardioprotective effect of GABA derivatives in acute alcohol intoxication].

    Perfilova, V N; Tiurenkov, I N; Berestovitskaia, V M; Vasil'eva, O S

    2006-01-01

    Cardioprotective properties of GABA analogs under conditions of acute alcoholic intoxication have been studied using the following functional tests: volume loads, tests for adrenoreactivity, and maximum isometric load. The experiments showed that a 32% aqueous ethanol solution intraperitoneally injected in a dose of 8 g/kg produces a cardiotoxic action, which is manifested by a decrease in the inotropic reserve in load tests. Citrocard (50 mg/kg), phenibut (50 mg/kg), and piracetam (200 mg/kg) prevent the alcohol-induced myocardium injury, as shown by the heart contractility retained on a higher level in the test group than in the control group. PMID:16995433

  2. Lack of acute cardioprotective effect from preischaemic erythropoietin administration in a porcine coronary occlusion model

    Kristensen, Jens; Mæng, Michael; Rehling, Michael;

    2005-01-01

    BACKGROUND: Recombinant human erythropoietin (rhEPO) has been proposed to possess important tissue protective, apart from haematopoietic, effects. Cardioprotective effects have thus been reported in rodents exposed to myocardial ischaemia. Pathways common to the mediation of ischaemic...

  3. Cardioprotective Effect of the Compound Yangshen Granule in Rat Models with Acute Myocardial Infarction

    Xie Ming

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available The protective effect of Compound Yangshen Granules was observed in myocardial infarction rat model. Rats were randomly divided into 6 groups: the model group, the control group (sham operated, the positive drug group, and small, medium, and large dosage of the Yangshen granule groups, respectively. The rats in the 3 Yangshen granule groups were orally administrated with 0.7 g/kg, 1.4 g/kg, and 2.8 g/kg for 7 consecutive days, whereas the rats of the positive drug group treated with 0.14 g/kg of Danshen Dropping Pills, and rats in the control and model groups orally administrated with saline. The rat model of acute myocardial infarction was established with ligation of coronary artery. Electrocardiograms at different time points, the blood rheology, myocardial enzymes, infarct size, and myocardial morphologic changes were measured. The results demonstrated that the granules could improve blood rheology, decrease st-segment of electrocardiograms and the activities of LDH and CK in serum, reduce myocardial infarction size, and alleviate myocardial histopathologic changes. In addition, the effect of the granules depended on the dose administrated orally. The results suggest that the Yangshen granules could produce cardioprotection effect and have potential benefits in the prevention of ischemic heart disease.

  4. Acute hemodynamic effects of erythropoietin do not mediate its cardioprotective properties

    Ismayil Ahmet

    2012-08-01

    Activation of nitric oxide (NO signaling is considered, at list partially, a mechanistic basis for EPO-induced cardioprotection. Surprisingly, hemodynamic response subsequent to NO activation after EPO administration has never been reported. The objectives of this study were to evaluate the acute hemodynamic and cardiovascular responses to EPO administration, to confirm their NO genesis, and to test the hypothesis that EPO-induced cardioprotection is mediated through cardiovascular changes related to NO activation. In Experiment 1, after 3000 U/kg of rhEPO was administered intravenously to Wistar rats, arterial blood pressure, monitored via indwelling catheter, progressively declined almost immediately until it leveled off 90 minutes after injection at 20% below control level. In Experiment 2 the 25% reduction of mean blood pressure, compared to control group, was observed 2 hours after intravenous injection of either 3000 or 150 U/kg of rhEPO. Detailed pressure–volume loop analyses of cardiac performance (Experiment 3 2 hours after intravenous injection of human or rat recombinant EPO (3000 U/kg revealed a significant reduction of systolic function (PRSW was 33% less than control. Reduction of arterial blood pressure and systolic cardiac function in response to rhEPO were blocked in rats pretreated with a non-selective inhibitor of nitric oxide synthase (L-NAME. In Experiment 4, 24 hours after a permanent ligation of a coronary artery, myocardial infarction (MI measured 26±3.5% of left ventricle in untreated rats. MI in rats treated with 3000 U/kg of rhEPO immediately after coronary ligation was 56% smaller. Pretreatment with L-NAME did not attenuate the beneficial effect of rhEPO on MI size, while MI size in rats treated with L-NAME alone did not differ from control. Therefore, a single injection of rhEPO resulted in a significant, NO-mediated reduction of systemic blood pressure and corresponding reduction of cardiac systolic function. However

  5. Pleiotropic preconditioning-like cardioprotective effects of hypolipidemic drugs in acute ischemia-reperfusion in normal and hypertensive rats.

    Ravingerová, Táňa; Ledvényiová-Farkašová, Veronika; Ferko, Miroslav; Barteková, Monika; Bernátová, Iveta; Pecháňová, Ol'ga; Adameová, Adriana; Kolář, František; Lazou, Antigone

    2015-07-01

    Although pleiotropy, which is defined as multiple effects derived from a single gene, was recognized many years ago, and considerable progress has since been achieved in this field, it is not very clear how much this feature of a drug is clinically relevant. During the last decade, beneficial pleiotropic effects from hypolipidemic drugs (as in, effects that are different from the primary ones) have been associated with reduction of cardiovascular risk. As with statins, the agonists of peroxisome proliferator-activated receptors (PPARs), niacin and fibrates, have been suggested to exhibit pleiotropic activity that could significantly modify the outcome of a cardiovascular ailment. This review examines findings demonstrating the impacts of treatment with hypolipidemic drugs on cardiac response to ischemia in a setting of acute ischemia-reperfusion, in relation to PPAR activation. Specifically, it addresses the issue of susceptibility to ischemia, with particular regard to the preconditioning-like cardioprotection conferred by hypolipidemic drugs, as well as the potential molecular mechanisms behind this cardioprotection. Finally, the involvement of PPAR activation in the mechanisms of non-metabolic cardioprotective effects from hypolipidemic drugs, and their effects on normal and pathologically altered myocardium (in the hearts of hypertensive rats) is also discussed. PMID:25965412

  6. Integrated Assessment of Cardioprotective Effect of Sevoflurane

    Pichugin V.V.

    2011-12-01

    Full Text Available The aim of the investigation is to give integrated (clinical, functional, morphological and biochemical assessment of cardioprotective effect of low-flow anesthesia based on Sevoflurane. Materials and Methods. There was carried out retro- and prospective analysis of clinical studies of 815 patients who underwent heart surgeries with extracorporeal circulation. All the patients were divided into two groups according to the anesthetic used: 370 patients of first group were given Sevoflurane as the main anesthetic, and Propofol was used in the control group (445 patients. Results. Sevoflurane has been stated to contribute to favourable cardiac resuscitation after ischemia, reduce the incidence of acute postoperative failure, provide higher values of myocardial contractive function in the post-perfusion period, decrease oxygen consumption by peripheral tissues, and facilitate more adequate microcirculation in myocardium and maintain the ultrastructure of cardiomyocytes. It enables to conclude about a marked cardioprotective effect of Sevoflurane.

  7. CARDIOPROTECTIVE EFFECTS OF PHYTOSTEROLS

    Jyotika Dhankhar

    2013-02-01

    Full Text Available Foods and nutrients play a vital role in normal functioning of the body. They are helpful in maintaining the health of the individual and in reducing the risk of various diseases. Worldwide acceptance of this fact formed a recognition link between "nutrition" and "health" and the concept of "nutraceuticals" has evolved. More than any other disease, the etiology of cardiovascular disease reveals many risk factors that are amenable to nutraceutical intervention. The scientific literature shows that there are several bioactive ingredients that are present in small amounts in plants that can affect mammalian biological processes relevant to cardiovascular disease and other common human diseases. The ability of bioactive ingredients to positively influence cardiovascular risk factors should be recognized as an enormous opportunity in the treatment of a highly prevalent disease. Nutraceuticals hold promise in clinical therapy as they have the potential to significantly reduce the risk of side effects associated with drugs and pills along with reducing the global health care cost. Common ingredients that have been studied include soluble fiber (from oats and psyllium; long-chain omega-3 fatty acids; plant sterols or phytosterols; polyphenols (from dark chocolate, red wine, green tea, or extravirgin olive oil; isoflavones from soy; Chinese red-yeast rice; and probiotics from dairy products. Amongst this vast array of bioactives, there is emerging evidence indicating role of phytosterols in mitigating risk of cardiovascular disease and promoting general health and well-being. Phytosterols are cholesterol-like molecules found in all plant foods. They are absorbed only in trace amounts but inhibit the absorption of intestinal cholesterol including recirculating endogenous biliary cholesterol, a key step in cholesterol elimination. In this review, an attempt has been made to summarize some of the recent research findings on phytosterols that have beneficial

  8. Pleiotropic preconditioning-like cardioprotective effects of hypolipidemic drugs in acute ischemia–reperfusion in normal and hypertensive rats

    Ravingerová, T.; Ledvényiová-Farkašová, V.; Ferko, M.; Barteková, M.; Bernátová, I.; Pecháňová, O.; Adameová, A.; Kolář, František; Lazou, A.

    2015-01-01

    Roč. 93, č. 7 (2015), s. 495-503. ISSN 0008-4212 R&D Projects: GA MŠk(CZ) 7AMB14SK115 Institutional support: RVO:67985823 Keywords : myocardial ischemia * cardioprotection * hypolipidemic drugs Subject RIV: FA - Cardiovascular Diseases incl. Cardiotharic Surgery Impact factor: 1.770, year: 2014

  9. Cardioprotective effect of methanolic extract of Marrubium vulgare L. on isoproterenol-induced acute myocardial infarction in rats.

    Yousefi, Keyvan; Soraya, Hamid; Fathiazad, Fatemeh; Khorrami, Arash; Hamedeyazdan, Sanaz; Maleki-Dizaji, Nasrin; Garjani, Alireza

    2013-08-01

    Isoproterenol injection (100 mg/kg; sc) produced changes in ECG pattern including ST-segment elevation and suppressed R-amplitude. The methanolic extract of M. vulgare at doses of 10, 20, and 40 mg/kg significantly amended the ECG changes. A severe myocardial necrosis and edematous along with a sharp reduction in the arterial blood pressure, left ventricular contractility (LVdP/dt(max or min)), but a marked increase in the left ventricular end-diastolic pressure (LVEDP) were seen in the isoproterenol group. All parameters were significantly improved by the extract treatment. The extract (10 mg/kg) strongly increased LVdP/dt(max). Similarly, treatment with 40 mg/kg of M. vulgare lowered the elevated LVEDP and the heart to body weight ratio. In addition to in vitro antioxidant activity, the extract suppressed markedly the elevation of malondialdehyde levels both in serum and in myocardium. The results demonstrate that M. vulgare protects myocardium against isoproterenol-induced acute myocardial infarction and suggest that the effects could be related to antioxidant activities. PMID:24228389

  10. Acute administration of n-3 rich triglyceride emulsions provides cardioprotection in murine models after ischemia-reperfusion.

    Hylde Zirpoli

    Full Text Available Dietary n-3 fatty acids (FAs may reduce cardiovascular disease risk. We questioned whether acute administration of n-3 rich triglyceride (TG emulsions could preserve cardiac function and decrease injury after ischemia/reperfusion (I/R insult. We used two different experimental models: in vivo, C57BL/6 mice were exposed to acute occlusion of the left anterior descending coronary artery (LAD, and ex-vivo, C57BL/6 murine hearts were perfused using Langendorff technique (LT. In the LAD model, mice treated with n-3 TG emulsion (1.5 g/kg body weight, immediately after ischemia and 1 h later during reperfusion, significantly reduced infarct size and maintained cardiac function (p<0.05. In the LT model, administration of n-3 TG emulsion (300 mg TG/100 ml during reperfusion significantly improved functional recovery (p<0.05. In both models, lactate dehydrogenase (LDH levels, as a marker of injury, were significantly reduced by n-3 TG emulsion. To investigate the mechanisms by which n-3 FAs protects hearts from I/R injury, we investigated changes in key pathways linked to cardioprotection. In the ex-vivo model, we showed that n-3 FAs increased phosphorylation of AKT and GSK3β proteins (p<0.05. Acute n-3 TG emulsion treatment also increased Bcl-2 protein level and reduced an autophagy marker, Beclin-1 (p<0.05. Additionally, cardioprotection by n-3 TG emulsion was linked to changes in PPARγ protein expression (p<0.05. Rosiglitazone and p-AKT inhibitor counteracted the positive effect of n-3 TG; GSK3β inhibitor plus n-3 TG significantly inhibited LDH release. We conclude that acute n-3 TG injection during reperfusion provides cardioprotection. This may prove to be a novel acute adjunctive reperfusion therapy after treating patients with myocardial infarction.

  11. Upregulated Hsp27 expression in the cardioprotection induced by acute stress and oxytocin in ischemic reperfused hearts of the rat.

    Moghimian, Maryam; Faghihi, Mahdieh; Karimian, Seyed Morteza; Imani, AliReza; Mobasheri, Maryam Beigom

    2014-12-31

    In view of the cardioprotective effect of oxytocin (OT) released in response to stress, the aim of this study was to evaluate the role of heat shock proteins Hsps 70, 27 and 20 in stress-induced cardioprotection in isolated, perfused rat hearts. Rats were divided in two main groups: unstressed and stressed rats, and all of them were subjected to i.c.v. infusion of vehicle or drugs: unstressed rats [control: vehicle, OT (100 ng/5 μl), atosiban (ATO; 4.3 μg/5 μl) as OT antagonist, ATO+OT], and stressed rats [St: stress, OT+St, ATO+St]. After anesthesia, hearts were isolated and subjected to 30 min regional ischemia and 60 min subsequent reperfusion (IR). Acute stress protocol included swimming for 10 min before anesthesia. Malondialdehyde in coronary effluent was measured and the expression of Hsp 70, 27 and 20 was measured in myocardium using real-time reverse transcriptase polymerase chain reaction (RT-PCR). The malondialdehyde levels, which decreased in the St and OT groups, increased by the administration of atosiban as an OT antagonist. The expression of Hsp27 increased 4 to 5 folds by stress induction and i.c.v. infusion of OT. Central administration of atosiban prior to both stress and OT decreased Hsp27 mRNA levels. These findings suggest that endogenous OT may participate in stress-induced cardioprotection via Hsp27 over-expression as an early response. PMID:25575521

  12. Therapeutic Hypothermia for Cardioprotection in Acute Myocardial Infarction

    Kang, In Sook; Fumiaki, Ikeno; Pyun, Wook Bum

    2016-01-01

    Mild therapeutic hypothermia of 32–35℃ improved neurologic outcomes in outside hospital cardiac arrest survivor. Furthermore, in experimental studies on infarcted model and pilot studies on conscious patients with acute myocardial infarction, therapeutic hypothermia successfully reduced infarct size and microvascular resistance. Therefore, mild therapeutic hypothermia has received an attention as a promising solution for reduction of infarction size after acute myocardial infarction which are...

  13. Cardioprotective effect of pioglitazone in diabetic and non-diabetic rats subjected to acute myocardial infarction involves suppression of AGE-RAGE axis and inhibition of apoptosis.

    Khodeer, Dina M; Zaitone, Sawsan A; Farag, Noha E; Moustafa, Yasser M

    2016-05-01

    Insulin resistance increases risk of cardiovascular diseases. This work investigated the protective effect of pioglitazone on myocardial infarction (MI) in non-diabetic and diabetic rats, focusing on its role on advanced glycated endproducts (AGEs) and cardiac apoptotic machinery. Male rats were divided into 2 experiments: experiment I and II (non-diabetic and diabetic rats) were assigned as saline, MI (isoproterenol, 85 mg/kg, daily), and MI+pioglitazone (5, 10, and 20 mg/kg). Injection of isoproterenol in diabetic rats produced greater ECG disturbances compared to non-diabetic rats. Treatment with pioglitazone (5 mg/kg) reduced the infarct size and improved some ECG findings. Pioglitazone (10 mg/kg) enhanced ECG findings, improved the histopathological picture and downregulated apoptosis in cardiac tissues. Whereas the higher dose of pioglitazone (20 mg/kg) did not improve most of the measured parameters but rather worsened some of them, such as proapoptotic markers. Importantly, a positive correlation was found between serum AGEs and cardiac AGE receptors (RAGEs) versus caspase 3 expression in the two experiments. Therefore, the current effect of pioglitazone was, at least in part, mediated through downregulation of AGE-RAGE axis and inhibition of apoptosis. Consequently, these data suggest that pioglitazone, at optimized doses, may have utility in protection from acute MI. PMID:27119311

  14. Cardioprotection and thyroid hormones.

    Pingitore, Alessandro; Nicolini, Giuseppina; Kusmic, Claudia; Iervasi, Giorgio; Grigolini, Paolo; Forini, Francesca

    2016-07-01

    The evolution of cardiac disease after an acute ischemic event depends on a complex and dynamic network of mechanisms alternating from ischemic damage due to acute coronary occlusion to reperfusion injury due to the adverse effects of coronary revascularization till post-ischemic remodeling. Cardioprotection is a new purpose of the therapeutic interventions in cardiology with the goal to reduce infarct size and thus prevent the progression toward heart failure after an acute ischemic event. In a complex biological system such as the human one, an effective cardioprotective strategy should diachronically target the network of cross-talking pathways underlying the disease progression. Thyroid system is strictly interconnected with heart homeostasis, and recent studies highlighted its role in cardioprotection, in particular through the preservation of mitochondrial function and morphology, the antifibrotic and proangiogenetic effect and also to the potential induction of cell regeneration and growth. The objective of this review was to highlight the cardioprotective role of triiodothyronine in the complexity of post-ischemic disease evolution. PMID:27011011

  15. Fenofibrate plus Metformin Produces Cardioprotection in a Type 2 Diabetes and Acute Myocardial Infarction Model

    Víctor Hugo Oidor-Chan

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available We investigated whether fenofibrate, metformin, and their combination generate cardioprotection in a rat model of type 2 diabetes (T2D and acute myocardial infarction (AMI. Streptozotocin-induced diabetic- (DB- rats received 14 days of either vehicle, fenofibrate, metformin, or their combination and immediately after underwent myocardial ischemia/reperfusion (I/R. Fenofibrate plus metformin generated cardioprotection in a DBI/R model, reported as decreased coronary vascular resistance, compared to DBI/R-Vehicle, smaller infarct size, and increased cardiac work. The subchronic treatment with fenofibrate plus metformin increased, compared with DBI/R-Vehicle, total antioxidant capacity, manganese-dependent superoxide dismutase activity (MnSOD, guanosine triphosphate cyclohydrolase I (GTPCH-I expression, tetrahydrobiopterin : dihydrobiopterin (BH4 : BH2 ratio, endothelial nitric oxide synthase (eNOS activity, nitric oxide (NO bioavailability, and decreased inducible NOS (iNOS activity. These findings suggest that PPARα activation by fenofibrate + metformin, at low doses, generates cardioprotection in a rat model of T2D and AMI and may represent a novel treatment strategy to limit I/R injury in patients with T2D.

  16. Fenofibrate plus Metformin Produces Cardioprotection in a Type 2 Diabetes and Acute Myocardial Infarction Model

    Oidor-Chan, Víctor Hugo; Hong, Enrique; Pérez-Severiano, Francisca; Montes, Sergio; Torres-Narváez, Juan Carlos; del Valle-Mondragón, Leonardo; Pastelín-Hernández, Gustavo; Sánchez-Mendoza, Alicia

    2016-01-01

    We investigated whether fenofibrate, metformin, and their combination generate cardioprotection in a rat model of type 2 diabetes (T2D) and acute myocardial infarction (AMI). Streptozotocin-induced diabetic- (DB-) rats received 14 days of either vehicle, fenofibrate, metformin, or their combination and immediately after underwent myocardial ischemia/reperfusion (I/R). Fenofibrate plus metformin generated cardioprotection in a DBI/R model, reported as decreased coronary vascular resistance, compared to DBI/R-Vehicle, smaller infarct size, and increased cardiac work. The subchronic treatment with fenofibrate plus metformin increased, compared with DBI/R-Vehicle, total antioxidant capacity, manganese-dependent superoxide dismutase activity (MnSOD), guanosine triphosphate cyclohydrolase I (GTPCH-I) expression, tetrahydrobiopterin : dihydrobiopterin (BH4 : BH2) ratio, endothelial nitric oxide synthase (eNOS) activity, nitric oxide (NO) bioavailability, and decreased inducible NOS (iNOS) activity. These findings suggest that PPARα activation by fenofibrate + metformin, at low doses, generates cardioprotection in a rat model of T2D and AMI and may represent a novel treatment strategy to limit I/R injury in patients with T2D. PMID:27069466

  17. Effects of Glucose Concentration on Propofol Cardioprotection against Myocardial Ischemia Reperfusion Injury in Isolated Rat Hearts

    Xinhua Yao; Yalan Li; Mingzhe Tao; Shuang Wang; Liangqing Zhang; Jiefu Lin; Zhengyuan Xia; Hui-min Liu

    2015-01-01

    The anesthetic propofol confers cardioprotection against myocardial ischemia-reperfusion injury (IRI) by reducing reactive oxygen species (ROS). However, its cardioprotection on patients is inconsistent. Similarly, the beneficial effect of tight glycemic control during cardiac surgery in patients has recently been questioned. We postulated that low glucose (LG) may promote ROS formation through enhancing fatty acid (FA) oxidation and unmask propofol cardioprotection during IRI. Rat hearts wer...

  18. CARDIOPROTECTIVE EFFECT OF NATIVE ANTIHYPOXANTS IN EXPERIMENTAL COBALT CARDIOMYOPATHY

    I. V. Zadnipryany

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available The aim of research – the study of cardioprotective properties of antioxidants in terms of histotoxic hypoxia under experimental conditions.Materials and methods. The study was conducted on 20 adult male Wistar rats divided into 3 experimental groups, which for 7 days were intraperitoneally injected aqueous CoCl2 solution at a dose of 60 mg/kg. Rats of the first experimental group (n = 6 had no administered drug correction, a the second group of animals (n = 7 after the cobalt chloride daily injections was administered intragastrically Enoant Premium aqueous solution at a dose of 2.5 ml / kg, along with 0.05 ml of water, the rats the third test group (n = 7 after the administration of cobalt chloride were exposed to cytoflavin correction concentrate and grape polyphenols administered simultaneously. Studies of myocardium were conducted using light and electron microscopy.Results of the research. The result of the cobalt toxic effect on the heart of animals in experiments lead to the development of cardiomyopathy, which required timely cardioprotection. Morphological changes in the second group of rats, despite a slight improvement compared with the group without correction,were characterized, above all, by uneven from mild to severe edema of the myocardium. Structure of myocardium observed in the third group of male rats after cobalt intoxication, generally reflected a tendency to minimization of the extent of the damage, which was manifested in the form of normalization of cell structures and muscle fibers.Conclusion. The administration of succinic acid derivatives combined with the grape polyphenols demonstrated vivid cytoprotective properties evidenced by mostly preserved myocardium structure in rats exposed to histotoxic hypoxia in comparison to only administration of plant polyphenols group. 

  19. Effects of Brazilian Cardioprotective Diet Program on risk factors in patients with coronary heart disease: a Brazilian Cardioprotective Diet randomized pilot trial

    Bernardete Weber; Andrea Polo Galante; Angela Cristine Bersch-Ferreira; Camila Ragne Torreglosa; Vitor Oliveira Carvalho; Elivane da Silva Victor; Jose Amalth do Espírito-Santo; Maria Beatriz Ross-Fernandes; Rafael Marques Soares; Rosana Perim Costa; Enilda de Sousa Lara; Anna Maria Buehler; Otávio Berwanger

    2012-01-01

    OBJECTIVE: To evaluate the effectiveness of the Brazilian Cardioprotective Diet Program in reducing blood pressures, fasting glucose levels and body mass indices in patients with established atherothrombotic disease. METHOD: This randomized controlled pilot trial included outpatients who were over 45 years of age with atherothrombotic cardiovascular disease. Group A, who received the Brazilian Cardioprotective Diet Program, had weekly sessions with dietitians. Groups B and C received the usua...

  20. Antihypertensive and cardioprotective effects of pumpkin seed oil.

    El-Mosallamy, Aliaa E M K; Sleem, Amany A; Abdel-Salam, Omar M E; Shaffie, Nermeen; Kenawy, Sanaa A

    2012-02-01

    Pumpkin seed oil is a natural product commonly used in folk medicine for treatment of prostatic hypertrophy. In the present study, the effects of treatment with pumpkin seed oil on hypertension induced by the nitric oxide synthase inhibitor N(ω)-nitro-L-arginine methyl ester hydrochloride (L-NAME) (50 mg /kg/day) in rats were studied and compared with those of the calcium channel blocker amlodipine. Pumpkin seed oil (40 or 100 mg/kg), amlodipine (0.9 mg/kg), or vehicle (control) was given once daily orally for 6 weeks. Arterial blood pressure (BP), heart rate, electrocardiogram (ECG) changes, levels of serum nitric oxide (NO) (the concentrations of nitrite/nitrate), plasma malondialdehyde (MDA), blood glutathione, and erythrocytic superoxide dismutase activity were measured. Histopathological examination of heart and aorta was conducted as well. L-NAME administration resulted in a significant increase in BP starting from the second week. Pumpkin seed oil or amlodipine treatment significantly reduced the elevation in BP by L-NAME and normalized the L-NAME-induced ECG changes-namely, prolongation of the RR interval, increased P wave duration, and ST elevation. Both treatments significantly decreased the elevated levels of MDA and reversed the decreased levels of NO metabolites to near normal values compared with the L-NAME-treated group. Amlodipine also significantly increased blood glutathione content compared with normal (but not L-NAME-treated) rats. Pumpkin seed oil as well as amlodipine treatment protected against pathological alterations in heart and aorta induced by L-NAME. In conclusion, this study has shown that pumpkin seed oil exhibits an antihypertensive and cardioprotective effects through a mechanism that may involve generation of NO. PMID:22082068

  1. Cardioprotective and anti-inflammatory effects of treatment with Adenocaine/Mg2+ in a porcine model of endotoxemia

    Granfeldt, Asger

    Cardioprotective and anti-inflammatory effects of treatment with Adenocaine/Mg2+ in a porcine model of endotoxemia American Heart Scientific sessions Resuscitation Science symposium 16-20 November......Cardioprotective and anti-inflammatory effects of treatment with Adenocaine/Mg2+ in a porcine model of endotoxemia American Heart Scientific sessions Resuscitation Science symposium 16-20 November...

  2. Cardioprotective effects of mitochondrial KATP channels activated at different time

    魏珂; 闵苏; 龙村

    2004-01-01

    Backgroud Recent studies in adult hearts have indicated that KATP channels in the inner mitochondrial membrance are responsible for the protection. And we investigated whether opening of mitochondrial KATP channels (mKATP) could provide myocardial protection for immature rabbits and determined its role in cardioprotection.Methods Thirty-four 3-4-week-old rabbits, weighing 300-350 g, were divided randomly into five groups: Group Ⅰ (control group, n=8); Group Ⅱ [diazoxide preconditioning group; n=8; the hearts were pretreated with 100 μmol/L diazoxide for 5 minutes followed by 10-minute wash out with Krebs-Henseleit buffer (KHB)]; Group Ⅲ [diazoxide+5-hydroxydeconate (5-HD) preconditioning group; n=5; the hearts were pretreated with 100 μmol/L diazoxide and 100 μmol/L 5-HD); Group Ⅳ (diazoxide+cardioplegia group; n=8; cardioplegia containing 100 μmol/L diazoxide perfused the hearts for 5 minutes before ischemia); Group Ⅴ (diazoxide+5-HD+cardioplegia group; n=5; the cardioplegia contained 100 μmol/L diazoxide and 100 μmol/L 5-HD). All hearts were excised and connected to langend ?Zrff perfusion system and passively perfused with KHB at 38℃ under a pressure of 70 cmH2O. After reperfusion, the recovery rate of left ventricular diastolic pressure (LVDP), ±dp/dtmax, coronary flow (CF), the creatinine kinase (CK), lactate dehydrogenase (LDH), aspartate aminotransferase (AST) in coronary sinus venous effluent and the tissue ATP were measured. Mitochondria were evaluated semiquantitatively by morphology.Results After ischemia and reperfusion (I/R), the two groups that were treated by diazoxide only (Groups Ⅱ and Ⅳ) had a significant improvement in LVDP, ±dp/dtmax, and CF recovery. AST, LDH, and CK were decreased, and the levels of tissue ATP in the two groups were higher. Mitochondria was protected better in Group Ⅳ than in other groups. Conclusions Activating mKATP channels before and during ischemia can similarly protect immature rabbit hearts

  3. A New Therapeutic Modality for Acute Myocardial Infarction: Nanoparticle-Mediated Delivery of Pitavastatin Induces Cardioprotection from Ischemia-Reperfusion Injury via Activation of PI3K/Akt Pathway and Anti-Inflammation in a Rat Model

    Kazuhiro Nagaoka; Tetsuya Matoba; Yajing Mao; Yasuhiro Nakano; Gentaro Ikeda; Shizuka Egusa; Masaki Tokutome; Ryoji Nagahama; Kaku Nakano; Kenji Sunagawa; Kensuke Egashira

    2015-01-01

    Aim There is an unmet need to develop an innovative cardioprotective modality for acute myocardial infarction (AMI), for which the effectiveness of interventional reperfusion therapy is hampered by myocardial ischemia-reperfusion (IR) injury. Pretreatment with statins before ischemia is shown to reduce MI size in animals. However, no benefit was found in animals and patients with AMI when administered at the time of reperfusion, suggesting insufficient drug targeting into the IR myocardium. H...

  4. Cardioprotective Effects of Atorvastatin plus Trimetazidine in Percutaneous Coronary Intervention

    Lin, Xuefeng; Ma, Aiqun; Zhang, Wei; Lu, Qun; Sun, Chaofeng; Tian, Hongyan; Lei, Xinjun; Bai, Xiaojun

    2013-01-01

    Objective: To explore the effects of preoperative administration of conventional doses of atorvastatin plus trimetazidine on the myocardial injury of patients during the perioperative period of percutaneous coronary intervention (PCI). Methodology: 475 cases of acute coronary syndrome patients before PCI were randomly divided into the control group (238 cases) and experimental group (237 cases).The control group was treated with conventional doses of atorvastatin calcium (20 mg each time, onc...

  5. Mechanism of cardioprotective effect of erythropoietin-induced preconditioning in rat heart

    Garg Kavita

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available Objective : The cardioprotective potential of human recombinant erythropoietin (alpha (Epo against ischemia-reperfusion-induced injury is well known. But, the underlying mechanisms are not well elucidated. The aim of this study was to characterize the mechanism involved in the cardioprotective effect of Epo-induced preconditioning in isolated rat heart. Materials and Methods : The heart was mounted on a Langendorff apparatus. After 10 min of stabilization, four cycles of ischemic preconditioning (IPC were given followed by 30 min of global ischemia and 120 min of reperfusion. Epo preconditioning was induced by four cycles of 5-min perfusion of K-H solution containing Epo (1.0 U/ml followed by 5 min perfusion with K-H solution. Myocardial infarct size was estimated macroscopically using the triphenyltetrazolium chloride staining technique. The extent of myocardial injury was measured by release of lactate dehydrogenase and creatine kinase-MB in the coronary effluent. Results : The present study demonstrates that Epo preconditioning was almost as effective as IPC. Administration of Wortmannin (100 nM, a PI-3K inhibitor, or Chelerythrine (1 μM, a protein kinase-C (PKC inhibitor, or AG490 (5 μM, a JAK-2 inhibitor, significantly attenuated the cardioprotective effects of Epo-induced preconditioning. Conclusion : Our result suggest that the cardioprotective potential of Epo-induced preconditioning in isolated rat heart was due to an interplay of the JAK-2, PI-3K and PKC pathways. Inhibition of any one of the three pathways was sufficient to block the cardioprotective effect of Epo-induced preconditioning in isolated rat heart.

  6. Effects of Glucose Concentration on Propofol Cardioprotection against Myocardial Ischemia Reperfusion Injury in Isolated Rat Hearts.

    Yao, Xinhua; Li, Yalan; Tao, Mingzhe; Wang, Shuang; Zhang, Liangqing; Lin, Jiefu; Xia, Zhengyuan; Liu, Hui-Min

    2015-01-01

    The anesthetic propofol confers cardioprotection against myocardial ischemia-reperfusion injury (IRI) by reducing reactive oxygen species (ROS). However, its cardioprotection on patients is inconsistent. Similarly, the beneficial effect of tight glycemic control during cardiac surgery in patients has recently been questioned. We postulated that low glucose (LG) may promote ROS formation through enhancing fatty acid (FA) oxidation and unmask propofol cardioprotection during IRI. Rat hearts were isolated and randomly assigned to be perfused with Krebs-Henseleit solution with glucose at 5.5 mM (LG) or 8 mM (G) in the absence or presence of propofol (5 μg/mL) or propofol plus trimetazidine (TMZ). Hearts were subjected to 35 minutes of ischemia followed by 60 minutes of reperfusion. Myocardial infarct size (IS) and cardiac CK-MB were significantly higher in LG than in G group (P < 0.05), associated with reduced left ventricular developed pressure and increases in postischemic cardiac contracture. Cardiac 15-F2t-isoprostane was higher, accompanied with higher cardiac lipid transporter CD36 protein expression in LG. Propofol reduced IS, improved cardiac function, and reduced CD36 in G but not in LG. TMZ facilitated propofol cardioprotection in LG. Therefore, isolated heart with low glucose lost sensitivity to propofol treatment through enhancing FA oxidation and TMZ supplementation restored the sensitivity to propofol. PMID:26491698

  7. Effects of Glucose Concentration on Propofol Cardioprotection against Myocardial Ischemia Reperfusion Injury in Isolated Rat Hearts

    Xinhua Yao

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available The anesthetic propofol confers cardioprotection against myocardial ischemia-reperfusion injury (IRI by reducing reactive oxygen species (ROS. However, its cardioprotection on patients is inconsistent. Similarly, the beneficial effect of tight glycemic control during cardiac surgery in patients has recently been questioned. We postulated that low glucose (LG may promote ROS formation through enhancing fatty acid (FA oxidation and unmask propofol cardioprotection during IRI. Rat hearts were isolated and randomly assigned to be perfused with Krebs-Henseleit solution with glucose at 5.5 mM (LG or 8 mM (G in the absence or presence of propofol (5 μg/mL or propofol plus trimetazidine (TMZ. Hearts were subjected to 35 minutes of ischemia followed by 60 minutes of reperfusion. Myocardial infarct size (IS and cardiac CK-MB were significantly higher in LG than in G group (P < 0.05, associated with reduced left ventricular developed pressure and increases in postischemic cardiac contracture. Cardiac 15-F2t-isoprostane was higher, accompanied with higher cardiac lipid transporter CD36 protein expression in LG. Propofol reduced IS, improved cardiac function, and reduced CD36 in G but not in LG. TMZ facilitated propofol cardioprotection in LG. Therefore, isolated heart with low glucose lost sensitivity to propofol treatment through enhancing FA oxidation and TMZ supplementation restored the sensitivity to propofol.

  8. Cardioprotective Effect of Extended Remote Ischemic Preconditioning in Patients Coronary Artery Bypass Grafting Undergoing: A Randomized Clinical Trial

    Ali Karami; Mohamad Bagher Khosravi; Masih Shafa; Simin Azemati; Saeed Khademi; Seyed Hedayatalla Akhlagh; Behzad Maghsodi

    2016-01-01

    Background: The cardioprotective effect of ischemic preconditioning has been known for many years. Since the temporary ischemia in the heart may cause lethal cardiac effects, the idea of creating ischemia in organs far from the heart such as limbs was raised as remote ischemic preconditioning (RIPC). We hypothesized that the extension of RIPC has more cardioprotective effect in patients undergoing coronary artery bypass graft (CABG) surgeries. Methods: In this triple-blind randomized clini...

  9. Cardioprotective effects of ischemic postconditioning in patients treated with primary percutaneous coronary intervention, evaluated by magnetic resonance

    Lønborg, Jacob; Kelbaek, Henning; Vejlstrup, Niels;

    2010-01-01

    Postconditioning has been suggested to reduce myocardial damage during primary percutaneous coronary intervention (PPCI) in patients with ST-segment-elevation myocardial infarction. However, because clinical experience is limited, we examined the cardioprotective effects of postconditioning, usin...

  10. Possible involvement of caveolin in attenuation of cardioprotective effect of ischemic preconditioning in diabetic rat heart

    Singh Manjeet

    2011-07-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Nitric oxide (NO has been noted to produce ischemic preconditioning (IPC-mediated cardioprotection. Caveolin is a negative regulator of NO, which inhibits endothelial nitric oxide synthase (eNOS by making caveolin-eNOS complex. The expression of caveolin is increased during diabetes mellitus (DM. The present study was designed to investigate the involvement of caveolin in attenuation of the cardioprotective effect of IPC during DM in rat. Methods Experimental DM was induced by single dose of streptozotocin (50 mg/Kg, i.p, and animals were used for experiments four weeks later. Isolated heart was mounted on Langendorff's apparatus, and was subjected to 30 min of global ischemia and 120 min of reperfusion. IPC was given by four cycles of 5 min of ischemia and 5 min of reperfusion with Kreb's-Henseleit solution (K-H. Extent of injury was measured in terms of infarct size by triphenyltetrazolium chloride (TTC staining, and release of lactate dehydrogenase (LDH and creatin kinase-MB (CK-MB in coronary effluent. The cardiac release of NO was noted by measuring the level of nitrite in coronary effluent. Results IPC- induced cardioprotection and release of NO was significantly decreased in diabetic rat heart. Pre-treatment of diabetic rat with daidzein (DDZ a caveolin inhibitor (0.2 mg/Kg/s.c, for one week, significantly increased the release of NO and restored the attenuated cardioprotective effect of IPC. Also perfusion of sodium nitrite (10 μM/L, a precursor of NO, significantly restored the lost effect of IPC, similar to daidzein in diabetic rat. Administration of 5-hydroxy deaconate (5-HD, a mito KATP channel blocker, significantly abolished the observed IPC-induced cardioprotection in normal rat or daidzein and sodium nitrite perfused diabetic rat heart alone or in combination. Conclusions Thus, it is suggested that attenuation of the cardioprotection in diabetic heart may be due to decrease the IPC mediated release of NO in

  11. Cardioprotective Effect of Saffron Extract and Safranal in Isoproterenol-Induced Myocardial Infarction in Wistar Rats

    Roya Mehdizadeh; Mohammad–Reza Parizadeh; Ali-Reza Khooei; Soghra Mehri; Hossein Hosseinzadeh

    2013-01-01

    Objective(s): This study was designed to evaluate the cardioprotective effect of Crocus sativus L. (saffron) aqueous extract and safranal, the major constituent of the essential oil of saffron, on lipid peroxidation, biochemical parameters and histopathological findings in isoproterenol (ISO)-induced myocardial infarction in Wistar rats. Materials and Methods: The saffron extract (20, 40, 80 and 160 mg/kg/day IP) or control were administered for 9 days along with ISO (85 mg/kg, SC, at 24 hr i...

  12. Evaluation of cardioprotective effect of silk cocoon (Abresham) on isoprenaline-induced myocardial infarction in rats

    Ritesh Kumar Srivastav; Hefazat Hussain Siddiqui; Tarique Mahmood; Farogh Ahsan

    2013-01-01

    Objective: The study was conducted to evaluate cardioprotective effect of silk cocoon (Abresham) Bombyx mori (B. mori) on isoprenaline-induced myocardial infarction. This study deals with the cocoons, which is called Abresham in the Unani system of medicine. It is one of the 64 drugs which Avicenna has mentioned in Avicenna’s tract on cardiac drugs and used in the treatment of cardiovascular diseases. Abresham is a chief ingredient of the two very famous Unani formulation viz. Khamira Abresha...

  13. Cardioprotective Effects of Tualang Honey: Amelioration of Cholesterol and Cardiac Enzymes Levels

    Md. Ibrahim Khalil; E. M. Tanvir; Rizwana Afroz; Siti Amrah Sulaiman; Siew Hua Gan

    2015-01-01

    The present study was designed to investigate the cardioprotective effects of Malaysian Tualang honey against isoproterenol- (ISO-) induced myocardial infarction (MI) in rats by investigating changes in the levels of cardiac marker enzymes, cardiac troponin I (cTnI), triglycerides (TG), total cholesterol (TC), lipid peroxidation (LPO) products, and antioxidant defense system combined with histopathological examination. Male albino Wistar rats (n = 40) were pretreated orally with Tualang honey...

  14. Cardioprotective effect of fenugreek on isoproterenol-induced myocardial infarction in rats

    Madhesh Murugesan

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available Objectives : This study is designed to evaluate the cardioprotective effect of fenugreek on isoproterenol- induced myocardial infarction and is investigated by an in vivo method in rats. Materials and Methods : Male Wistar albino rats were divided into four groups (n=10. Group I received 0.5% CMC treated as normal control group. Group II received isoproterenol (85 mg/kg body weight intraperitoneal (i.p. for two consecutive days (14 th and 15 th days. Group III received fenugreek (250 mg/kg body weight intragastric intubation for 15 days. Group IV rats received fenugreek as in Group III and additionally isoproterenol was given for two consecutive days (14 th and 15 th days. Results : The results described the cardioprotective effect that observed in Group IV showed significantly (P< 0.05 decreased levels of TBARS and enhanced the activities of both enzymatic and non-enzymatic antioxidants (SOD, CAT, GPx and GSH in myocardial infarcted rats when compared to Groups II and III. Histopathological studies were also co-relating with the above biochemical parameters. Conclusion : These findings concluded the cardioprotective effect of fenugreek on lipid peroxidation and antioxidant defense system during isoproterenol-induced myocardial infarction in rats.

  15. CARDIOPROTECTIVE EFFECT OF MORUS ALBA L. LEAVES IN ISOPRENALINE INDUCED RATS

    S. Madhumitha and A. Indhuleka*

    2012-05-01

    Full Text Available The study was designed to evaluate the cardioprotective effect of methanolic extract of Morus alba L. leaves against isoprenaline- induced myocardial infarction and was investigated by an in vivo method in rats. Male Wistar albino rats were divided into four groups (n=6. Group I rats served as normal control. Group II rats served as isoprenaline induced toxic control (110 mg/kg body weight which was injected intraperitoneally (i.p. for two consecutive days (14th and 15th days. Group III rats were given Morus alba intragastric intubation (500 mg/kg body weight for 15 days. Group IV rats were also given Morus alba as in Group III and additionally isoprenaline was given for two consecutive days (14th and 15th days.The results described the cardioprotective effect that was observed in Group IV which showed a significant (P< 0.05 decreased levels of TBARS and enhanced the activities of both enzymatic and non-enzymatic antioxidants (SOD, CAT, GPx and GSH in myocardial infarcted rats when compared to Groups II and III. In serum, the biomarkers (LDH, CK activities were significantly (P< 0.05 increased in Group II compared to pretreated Group IV. Histopathological studies were also co-relating with the above biochemical parameters. These findings concluded the cardioprotective effect of Morus alba on lipid peroxidation and antioxidant defense system during isoprenaline -induced myocardial infarction in rats.

  16. Evaluation of cardioprotective effect of silk cocoon (Abresham on isoprenaline-induced myocardial infarction in rats

    Ritesh Kumar Srivastav

    2013-05-01

    Full Text Available Objective: The study was conducted to evaluate cardioprotective effect of silk cocoon (Abresham Bombyx mori (B. mori on isoprenaline-induced myocardial infarction. This study deals with the cocoons, which is called Abresham in the Unani system of medicine. It is one of the 64 drugs which Avicenna has mentioned in Avicenna’s tract on cardiac drugs and used in the treatment of cardiovascular diseases. Abresham is a chief ingredient of the two very famous Unani formulation viz. Khamira Abresham Sada, and Khamira Abresham Hakim Arshad Wala. Materials and Methods: The ethanolic extract of B. mori (Abresham silk cocoons in the dose of 250 mg/kg and 500 mg/kg body weight was administered orally for 28 days before isoprenaline administration to test their cardioprotective effect. Isoprenaline (85 mg/kg was administered subcutaneously on days 29th and 30th, respectively in order to induce myocardial infarction. Results: The parameters for evaluation of cardioprotective activity were the physical parameters and the biochemical estimations. The physical parameters were gross examination of heart, heart weight/body weight ratio and histopathology examination. In biochemical estimations, the activity of various cardiac enzymes such as aspartate transaminase, alanine transaminase, creatinine kinase, lactate dehydrogenase, and the gold marker troponin-I were determined. The levels altered by isoproterenol were restored significantly by the administration of the both doses of test extract especially at higher dose. Conclusion: The result of this study shows that alcoholic extract B. mori hassignificant cardioprotective activity against isoprenaline-induced myocardial infarction.

  17. Cardioprotective effect of Urtica parviflora leaf extract against doxorubicin-induced cardiotoxicity in rats

    N.R.Barman; Prasanna K.Kar; Prakash K.Hazam; Himadri S.Pal; Arvind Kumar; Sanjib Bhattacharya; Pallab K.Haldar

    2013-01-01

    AIM:The present study evaluated the cardioprotective property of the hydroethanol extract of Urtica parviflora leaf material (EEUP) against doxorubicin-induced cardiotoxicity in rats.METHODS:Cardiotoxicity was produced by doxorubicin administration (15 mg·kg-1 i.p.for 21 days).The rats received EEUP at 200 and 400 mg·kg-1 b.w.(i.p.) daily for 21 days,After 24 h,serum cardiac biomarkers,i.e.creatine phosphokinase (CPK) and lactate dehydrogenase (LDH); serum lipid profiles,like high density lipoprotein (HDL),low density lipoprotein (LDL) and triglyceride (TG); serum biochemical parameters,viz.aspartate aminotransferase (AST),alanine transaminase (ALT) and alkaline phosphatase (ALP); myocardial antioxidant parameters,viz.malondialdehyde (MDA),superoxide dismutase (SOD),catalase (CAT) and reduced glutathione (GSH) were measured.RESULTS:EEUP treatment significantly (P < 0.01) and dose dependently protected the myocardium by decreasing the elevated level of MDA; elevating the diminished levels of GSH,SOD,CAT and HDL,with a concomitant decrease in the elevated levels of HDL,LDL,and TG.EEUP also significantly (P <0.01) reduced the increased activities of AST,ALT,ALP,CPK and LDH.The results revealed that EEUP demonstrated dose dependent cardioprotective efficacy by restoration of the serum biomarkers profile and antioxidant property.CONCLUSION:From the present study,U.parviflora leaf extract showed promising cardioprotective effect against doxorubicin-induced cardiotoxicity in Wistar rats.

  18. Effects of Brazilian Cardioprotective Diet Program on risk factors in patients with coronary heart disease: a Brazilian Cardioprotective Diet randomized pilot trial

    Bernardete Weber

    2012-12-01

    Full Text Available OBJECTIVE: To evaluate the effectiveness of the Brazilian Cardioprotective Diet Program in reducing blood pressures, fasting glucose levels and body mass indices in patients with established atherothrombotic disease. METHOD: This randomized controlled pilot trial included outpatients who were over 45 years of age with atherothrombotic cardiovascular disease. Group A, who received the Brazilian Cardioprotective Diet Program, had weekly sessions with dietitians. Groups B and C received the usual dietary therapy that is given to patients with cardiovascular diseases as proposed by the Brazilian guidelines. This diet had the same nutrient profile as that given to Group A, but it was customized by the integration of typical Mediterranean foods. The difference between Groups B and C was the number of sessions with the dietitian. Group B received weekly sessions, while group C only had monthly sessions. ClinicalTrials.gov: NCT 01453166. RESULTS: There was a greater reduction in systolic (7.8% and diastolic (10.8% blood pressures in Group A compared with Group B (2.3% and 7.3%, and Group C (3.9% and 4.9%, respectively. Fasting glucose decreased by 5.3% and 2% in Groups A and B, respectively. Fasting glucose increased by 3.7% in Group C. The BMIs decreased by 3.5% and 3.3% in Groups A and B, respectively. Group C did not present with any changes in BMI. However, none of these data showed statistical differences between the groups, which is methodologically acceptable in pilot trials. CONCLUSIONS: The Brazilian Cardioprotective Diet Program seems to be more effective in reducing blood pressures, fasting glucose levels, weights and BMIs in patients with previous cardiovascular disease compared with the diet that has been proposed by the Brazilian guidelines.

  19. Cardioprotective effect of royal jelly on paclitaxel-induced cardio-toxicity in rats

    Hassan Malekinejad

    2016-02-01

    Full Text Available Objective(s:Paclitaxel is a potent chemotherapy agent with severe side effects, including allergic reactions, cardiovascular problems, complete hair loss, joint and muscle pain, which may limit its use and lower its efficiency. The cardioprotective effect of royal jelly was investigated on paclitaxel-induced damages. Materials and Methods:Adult male Wistar rats were divided into control and test groups (n=8. The test group was assigned into five subgroups; 4 groups, along with paclitaxel administration (7.5 mg/kg BW, weekly, received various doses of royal jelly (50, 100, and 150 mg/kg BW for 28 consecutive days. The last group received only royal jelly at 100 mg/kg. In addition to oxidative and nitrosative stress biomarkers, the creatine kinase (CK-BM level was also determined. To show the cardioprotective effect of royal jelly on paclitaxel-induced damages, histopathological examinations were conducted. Results:Royal jelly lowered the paclitaxel-elevated malondialdehyde and nitric oxide levels in the heart. Royal jelly could also remarkably reduce the paclitaxel-induced cardiac biomarker of creatine kinase (CK-BM level and pathological injuries such as diffused edema, hemorrhage, congestion, hyaline exudates, and necrosis. Moreover, royal jelly administration in a dose-dependent manner resulted in a significant (P

  20. Cardioprotective Effects of Tualang Honey: Amelioration of Cholesterol and Cardiac Enzymes Levels

    Md. Ibrahim Khalil

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available The present study was designed to investigate the cardioprotective effects of Malaysian Tualang honey against isoproterenol- (ISO- induced myocardial infarction (MI in rats by investigating changes in the levels of cardiac marker enzymes, cardiac troponin I (cTnI, triglycerides (TG, total cholesterol (TC, lipid peroxidation (LPO products, and antioxidant defense system combined with histopathological examination. Male albino Wistar rats (n = 40 were pretreated orally with Tualang honey (3 g/kg/day for 45 days. Subcutaneous injection of ISO (85 mg/kg in saline for two consecutive days caused a significant increase in serum cardiac marker enzymes (creatine kinase-MB (CK-MB, lactate dehydrogenase (LDH, and aspartate transaminase (AST, cTnI, serum TC, and TG levels. In addition, ISO-induced myocardial injury was confirmed by a significant increase in heart lipid peroxidation (LPO products (TBARS and a significant decrease in antioxidant enzymes (SOD, GPx, GRx, and GST. Pretreatment of ischemic rats with Tualang honey conferred significant protective effects on all of the investigated biochemical parameters. The biochemical findings were further confirmed by histopathological examination in both Tualang-honey-pretreated and ISO-treated hearts. The present study demonstrates that Tualang honey confers cardioprotective effects on ISO-induced oxidative stress by contributing to endogenous antioxidant enzyme activity via inhibition of lipid peroxidation.

  1. Cardioprotective Effects of Melatonin on Recovery of Rat Donor Hearts after 12-Hour Preservation

    高思海; 李平; 潘铁成; 杨辰垣

    2003-01-01

    The cardioprotective effects of melatonin on recovery of rat donor hearts after 12 h of preservation were investigated. Wistar rats weighing 200 to 250 g (n= 24) were randomly divided into 3 groups. In the non-storage group (n= 8), donor hearts were not stored. In the melatonin group (n=8), donor hearts were stored in 4 ℃ St. Thomas solution with melatonin (0. 1 mmol/L). In the control group (n=8), donor hearts were stored in 4 C St. Thomas solution only. The coronary flow (CF), cardiac function, coronary vasodilatory response, creatine kinase (CK) and high energy phosphate levels were measured after the hearts had been preserved for 12 h. Transmission electron microscopy was used to examine the microstructural changes after 12 h of preservation. The recovery of cardiac function and coronary vasodilatory response were significantly improved in the melatonin group (P<0.01). CK release decreased greatly in the melatonin group (P<0.01). High energy phosphate levels were significantly better preserved in the melatonin group (P<0. 01). Histological findings were much better in the melatonin group than in the control group. These results suggest that melatonin has cardioprotective effects on the recovery of rat donor hearts after 12 h of preservation.

  2. Cardioprotective effects of magnesium valproate in type 2 diabetes mellitus.

    Patel, Bhoomika M; Raghunathan, Suchi; Porwal, Urvashi

    2014-04-01

    We have evaluated the effect of magnesium valproate (210 mg/kg/day, p.o.) in type 2 diabetes induced cardiovascular complications induced by streptozotocin (STZ, 90 mg/kg, i.p.) in neonatal wistar rats. Various biochemical, cardiovascular and hemodynamic parameters were measured at the end of 8 weeks of treatment. STZ produced significant hyperglycaemia, hypoinsulinemia and dyslipidemia, which was prevented by magnesium valproate treatment. STZ produced increase in Creatinine Kinase, C-reactive protein and lactate dehydrogenase levels and treatment with magnesium valproate produced reduction in these levels. STZ produced increase in cardiac and LV hypertrophy index, LV/RV ratio, LV collagen deposition and LV cardiomyocyte diameter which were decreased by magnesium valproate treatment. Magnesium valproate also prevented STZ induced hemodynamic alterations and oxidative stress. These results were further supported by histopathological studies in which magnesium valproate showed marked reduction in fibrosis and cardiac fiber disarray. In conclusion, our data suggests that magnesium valproate is beneficial as an anti-diabetic agent in type-2 diabetes mellitus and also prevents its cardiac complications. PMID:24530414

  3. Cardioprotective Effect of Saffron Extract and Safranal in Isoproterenol-Induced Myocardial Infarction in Wistar Rats

    Roya Mehdizadeh

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Objective(s:This study was designed to evaluate the cardioprotective effect of Crocus sativus L. (saffronaqueous extract and safranal, the major constituent of the essential oil of saffron, on lipid peroxidation, biochemical parameters and histopathological findings in isoproterenol (ISO-induced myocardial infarction in Wistar rats. Materials and Methods:The saffron extract (20, 40, 80 and 160 mg/kg/day IP or control were administered for 9 days along with ISO (85 mg/kg, SC, at 24 hr interval on 8th and 9th day in rats. Activities of creatine kinase-muscle, brain (CK-MB and lactate dehydrogenase (LDH were measured using standard commercial kits. The level of malondialdehyde in heart tissue was estimated with thiobarbituric acid reactive species test. For histopathological examination, hematoxylin and eosin (H&E staining was used. Results:ISO administration induced a statistically significant increase          (P

  4. Mast cells, peptides and cardioprotection - an unlikely marriage?

    Walsh, S K

    2012-01-31

    1 Mast cells have classically been regarded as the \\'bad guys\\' in the setting of acute myocardial ischaemia, where their released contents are believed to contribute both to tissue injury and electrical disturbances resulting from ischaemia. Recent evidence suggests, however, that if mast cell degranulation occurs in advance of ischaemia onset, this may be cardioprotective by virtue of the depletion of mast cell contents that can no longer act as instruments of injury when the tissue becomes ischaemic. 2 Many peptides, such as ET-1, adrenomedullin, relaxin and atrial natriuretic peptide, have been demonstrated to be cardioprotective when given prior to the onset of myocardial ischaemia, although their physiological functions are varied and the mechanisms of their cardioprotective actions appear to be diverse and often ill defined. However, one common denominator that is emerging is the ability of these peptides to modulate mast cell degranulation, raising the possibility that peptide-induced mast cell degranulation or stabilization may hold the key to a common mechanism of their cardioprotection. 3 The aim of this review was to consolidate the evidence implying that mast cell degranulation could play both a detrimental and protective role in myocardial ischaemia, depending upon when it occurs, and that this may underlie the cardioprotective effects of a range of diverse peptides that exerts physiological effects within the cardiovascular system.

  5. Cardioprotective Effect of Phenytoin on Doxorubicin-induced Cardiac Toxicity in a Rat Model.

    Razmaraii, Nasser; Babaei, Hossein; Mohajjel Nayebi, Alireza; Asadnasab, Gholamreza; Ashrafi Helan, Javad; Azarmi, Yadollah

    2016-03-01

    Doxorubicin (DOX) is an effective anticancer agent, but adverse cardiotoxic effects limit its use. Compounds reducing DOX cardiotoxicity could improve its therapeutic index. This study investigated the protective effects of phenytoin (Phen) for DOX-induced cardiomyopathy. Male Wistar rats were randomized into 5 groups to receive either saline, DOX (2 mg/kg per 48 hours, 6 doses, intraperitoneally) or DOX + Phen (5, 10, or 20 mg/kg/d, starting 4 days before DOX, intraperitoneally). The animals were assessed 24 hours after the last injection. Left ventricular (LV) function and hemodynamic parameters were assessed using transthoracic echocardiography, electrocardiography, and a Millar pressure catheter. Histopathological studies were performed, and the effect of Phen on the cytotoxicity of DOX was evaluated in vitro for the human breast adenocarcinoma cell line. DOX-impaired LV function significantly decreased the LV systolic and diastolic pressures, rate of rise/decrease of LV pressure, ejection fraction, fractional shortening, and contractility index. DOX caused structural changes in myocardial cells. Treatment with Phen decreased DOX-induced toxicity, significantly improved ventricular function, and ameliorated structural changes in the myocardium. Phen also did not interfere with the antitumor effect of DOX. The results confirm the cardioprotective effect of Phen against DOX-induced cardiomyopathy without removing antitumor effect of DOX. PMID:26544684

  6. Cardiac Sirt1 mediates the cardioprotective effect of caloric restriction by suppressing local complement system activation after ischemia-reperfusion.

    Yamamoto, Tsunehisa; Tamaki, Kayoko; Shirakawa, Kohsuke; Ito, Kentaro; Yan, Xiaoxiang; Katsumata, Yoshinori; Anzai, Atsushi; Matsuhashi, Tomohiro; Endo, Jin; Inaba, Takaaki; Tsubota, Kazuo; Sano, Motoaki; Fukuda, Keiichi; Shinmura, Ken

    2016-04-15

    Caloric restriction (CR) confers cardioprotection against ischemia-reperfusion (I/R) injury. We previously found the essential roles of endothelial nitric oxide synthase in the development of CR-induced cardioprotection and Sirt1 activation during CR (Shinmura K, Tamaki K, Ito K, Yan X, Yamamoto T, Katsumata Y, Matsuhashi T, Sano M, Fukuda K, Suematsu M, Ishii I. Indispensable role of endothelial nitric oxide synthase in caloric restriction-induced cardioprotection against ischemia-reperfusion injury.Am J Physiol Heart Circ Physiol308: H894-H903, 2015). However, the exact mechanism by which Sirt1 in cardiomyocytes mediates the cardioprotective effect of CR remains undetermined. We subjected cardiomyocyte-specificSirt1knockout (CM-Sirt1(-/-)) mice and the corresponding control mice to either 3-mo ad libitum feeding or CR (-40%). Isolated perfused hearts were subjected to 25-min global ischemia, followed by 60-min reperfusion. The recovery of left ventricle function after I/R was improved, and total lactate dehydrogenase release into the perfusate during reperfusion was attenuated in the control mice treated with CR, but a similar cardioprotective effect of CR was not observed in the CM-Sirt1(-/-)mice. The expression levels of cardiac complement component 3 (C3) at baseline and the accumulation of C3 and its fragments in the ischemia-reperfused myocardium were attenuated by CR in the control mice, but not in the CM-Sirt1(-/-)mice. Resveratrol treatment also attenuated the expression levels of C3 protein in cultured neonatal rat ventricular cardiomyocytes. Moreover, the degree of myocardial I/R injury in conventionalC3knockout (C3(-/-)) mice treated with CR was similar to that in the ad libitum-fedC3(-/-)mice, although the expression levels of Sirt1 were enhanced by CR. These results demonstrate that cardiac Sirt1 plays an essential role in CR-induced cardioprotection against I/R injury by suppressing cardiac C3 expression. This is the first report suggesting that

  7. [The cardioprotective action of the anticonvulsant preparation sodium valproate in disorders of cardiac contractile function caused by acute myocardial infarct in rats].

    Belkina, L M; Korchazhkina, N B; Kamskova, Iu G; Fomin, N A

    1997-01-01

    The preventive and therapeutical effects of sodium valproate (SV), 200 mg/kg, on cardiac contractile disorders (developed pressure, rate-pressure products, dp/dt) were studied in rats having 2-day myocardial infarction (MI). The postinfarction rather than preinfarction use of SV substantially restricted the depressed resting left ventricular function. Given by two regimens, SV increased cardiac resistance to the maximum isometric load induced by 60-sec ligation of the ascending aorta. The cardioprotective effect of the drug was shown due to its positive chronotropic action rather than its inotropic one. Thus, SV may be used as an effective drug for the prevention and treatment of postinfarct cardiac dysfunctions. PMID:9235532

  8. Cardioprotective Effects of Quercetin in Cardiomyocyte under Ischemia/Reperfusion Injury

    Yi-Wen Chen

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Quercetin, a polyphenolic compound existing in many vegetables, fruits, has antiinflammatory, antiproliferation, and antioxidant effect on mammalian cells. Quercetin was evaluated for protecting cardiomyocytes from ischemia/reperfusion injury, but its protective mechanism remains unclear in the current study. The cardioprotective effects of quercetin are achieved by reducing the activity of Src kinase, signal transducer and activator of transcription 3 (STAT3, caspase 9, Bax, intracellular reactive oxygen species production, and inflammatory factor and inducible MnSOD expression. Fluorescence two-dimensional differential gel electrophoresis (2D-DIGE and matrix-assisted laser desorption ionization time-of-flight mass spectrometry (MALDI-TOF MS can reveal the differentially expressed proteins of H9C2 cells treated with H2O2 or quercetin. Although 17 identified proteins were altered in H2O2-induced cells, these proteins such as alpha-soluble NSF attachment protein (α-SNAP, Ena/VASP-like protein (Evl, and isopentenyl-diphosphate delta-isomerase 1 (Idi-1 were reverted by pretreatment with quercetin, which correlates with kinase activation, DNA repair, lipid, and protein metabolism. Quercetin dephosphorylates Src kinase in H2O2-induced H9C2 cells and likely blocks the H2O2-induced inflammatory response through STAT3 kinase modulation. This probably contributes to prevent ischemia/reperfusion injury in cardiomyocytes.

  9. Cardioprotective effects of Glycyrrhiza uralensis extract against doxorubicin-induced toxicity.

    Zhang, Ling; Yang, Yinxin; Yu, Lingyan; Wang, Yi; Liu, Li; Fan, Xiaohui

    2011-03-01

    The purpose of the present study was to investigate the cardioprotective effects of Glycyrrhiza uralensis extract (GUE) against doxorubicin (DOX)-induced cardiotoxicity. Imprinting control region (ICR) mice were treated with saline, DOX (20 mg/kg intraperitoneal [ip] for once), GUE (100 mg/kg intragastric [ig] for 8 days), co-treatments with DOX and GUE (100 mg/kg ig for 8 days), and amifostine (100 mg/kg intravenous [iv] for once), respectively. Serum levels of lactate dehydrogenase (LDH) and creatine kinase isoenzyme (CK-MB), glutathione peroxidase (GSH-P(X)) activity, and glutathione (GSH) level in heart tissue were measured. Histopathologic analysis of heart tissue was also performed. Treatment with GUE significantly protected the mice from DOX-induced cardiotoxicity, indicated by decreased levels of serum LDH and CK-MB, improved heart morphology and increased GSH-P(X) activity and GSH level. Additionally, GUE did not compromise the tumor-inhibitory effect of DOX. In conclusion, our studies imply the potentially clinical application of GUE to overcome the cardiotoxicity of doxorubicin. PMID:21378374

  10. Cardioprotective effect of Saraca indica against cyclophosphamide induced cardiotoxicity in rats: A biochemical, electrocardiographic and histopathological study

    A. H. M. Viswanatha Swamy

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Objectives: Cardioprotective activity of alcoholic extract of Saraca indica (SI bark was investigated against cyclophosphamide induced cardiotoxicity. Materials and Methods: Cardiotoxicity was induced in Wistar rats by administering cyclophosphamide (200 mg/kg, i.p. single injection on first day of experimental period. Saraca indica (200 and 400 mg/kg, p.o. was administered immediately after administration of cyclophosphamide on first day and daily for 10 days. The general observations and mortality were measured. Results: Cyclophosphamide administration significantly (p < 0.05 increased lipid peroxidation (LPO and decreased the levels of antioxidant markers such as reduced glutathione (GSH, superoxide dismutase (SOD and catalase (CAT. Cyclophosphamide elevated the levels of biomarker enzymes like creatine kinase (CK, creatine kinase isoenzyme MB (CK-MB, lactate dehydrogenase (LDH, aspartate transaminase (AST, alanine transaminase (ALT and alkaline phosphatase (ALP. Further, the cyclophosphamide treated rats showed changes in electrocardiogram (ECG along with increased levels of cholesterol and triglycerides. Treatment with Saraca indica significantly (p < 0.05 reversed the status of cardiac biomarkers, ECG, oxidative enzymes and lipid profile in cyclophosphamide induced cardiotoxicity. Potential cardioprotective effect of Saraca indica was supported by histopathological examination that reduced severity of cellular damage of the myocardium. Conclusion: The biochemical, ECG and histopathology reports support the cardioprotective effect of Saraca indica which could be attributed to antioxidant activity.

  11. Cardioprotective effect of Kolaviron (Garcinia kola seed extract in cholesterol-fed rats.

    NWANERI-CHIDOZIE V. O.

    2014-03-01

    Full Text Available Flavonoids – a group of polyphenolic substances are naturally present in vegetables, fruits, seeds and beverages such as tea and wine. Studies have shown that flavonoid intake is inversely correlated with mortality from coronary heart diseases and myocardial infarction. The effect of kolaviron (a flavonoid complex extracted from Garcinia kola seeds on the organ weights (lungs, kidneys, heart, spleen and liver of rats administered with cholesterol, five times a week, for eight consecutive weeks was investigated. The results revealed that cholesterol administration at a dose of 30mg/day for eight consecutive weeks caused a significant increase (p<0.001 in relative heart weights of the cholesterol-fed rats when compared with the control. However, co-treatment with kolaviron at doses 100 and 200mg/kg significantly (p<0.001 reduced the cholesterol induced enlargement of the heart. This is a pointer to the cardioprotective potential of kolaviron; and thus suggests a possible use as a dietary supplement for the prevention and management of coronary heart diseases.

  12. Adenosine A1 Receptor Mediates Delayed Cardioprotective Effect of Sildenafil in Mouse

    Salloum, Fadi N.; Das, Anindita; Thomas, Christopher S; Yin, Chang; Kukreja, Rakesh C.

    2007-01-01

    Sildenafil induces powerful cardioprotection against ischemia/reperfusion (I/R) injury. Since adenosine is known to be major trigger of ischemic preconditioning, we hypothesized that A1 adenosine receptor (A1AR) activation plays a role in sildenafil-induced cardioprotective signaling. Adult male C57BL-wild type (WT) mice or their corresponding A1AR knockout (A1AR-KO) mice were treated intraperitoneally (i.p.) with either sildenafil (0.71 mg/kg, equivalent to 50 mg dose for a 70 kg patient) or...

  13. Flavonoids and mitochondrial pharmacology: A new paradigm for cardioprotection.

    Testai, Lara

    2015-08-15

    Acute myocardial ischemia is one of the major causes of illness and of deaths in Western society; therefore the definition of the signaling pathways involved in the cardioprotection represents a challenging goal in order to discover novel pharmacological approaches. In this regard, a number of epidemiologic studies demonstrate a relationship between intake of flavonoid-rich foods and reduction of cardiovascular risk factors and mortality. Moreover, numerous experimental studies have examined flavonoid-induced cardioprotective effects on several animal models of myocardial ischemia/reperfusion. As concerns the mechanisms of action, although the antioxidant effect of flavonoids has been long thought to be a crucial factor accounting for cardioprotection, mitochondrial pathways (ion channels, protein kinases, etc.) are presently emerging as specific pharmacological targets more relevantly involved in the anti-ischemic effects of some flavonoids. Since these pharmacodynamic features seem to be poorly considered, this review examines the mitochondrial role in the cardioprotective mechanisms of some members of this phytochemical class, by describing the biological pathways and reporting an overview of the most important experimental evidence in this field. PMID:26006042

  14. Anti-obesity and cardioprotective effects of cinnamic acid in high fat diet- induced obese rats.

    Mnafgui, Kais; Derbali, Amal; Sayadi, Sami; Gharsallah, Neji; Elfeki, Abdelfattah; Allouche, Noureddine

    2015-07-01

    Obesity is a chronic metabolic disorder that is associated with numerous diseases including hyperlipidemia, diabetes mellitus, hypertension, atherosclerosis, cardiovascular disease, and cancer. Cinnamic acid is a phytochemical compound having many biological effects and could be considered for the management of obesity. This study is aimed to assess the possible anti-obesity and cardioprotective properties of cinnamic acid (CA) in high fat diet-fed rats (HFD). Male Wistar rats were divided into 4 groups. They received normal diet, HFD diet, HFD supplemented with fluvastatin (2 mg/kg/day) or cinnamic acid (30 mg/kg/day) for 7 weeks. The results showed an increase in body weight of HFD rats by ~27 % as compared to control group. Moreover, serum lipase activity underwent a significant rise by 103 % which led to an increase in the levels of total cholesterol (T-Ch), triglycerides (TG), LDL-cholesterol in serum of untreated HFD-fed rats. Furthermore, the concentration of leptin and angiotensin-converting enzyme (ACE) activity exhibited remarkable increases in serum of HFD-fed rats as compared to controls. Whereas, the administration of CA to HFD-fed rats improved the body weight gain and serum lipid profile and reverted back near to normal the activities of lipase and ACE. In addition, the echocardiography evidenced that CA is able to protect the aorta and aortic arch and avoided vasoconstriction by increasing their diameters and improved liver steatosis and kidney indices of toxicity. Overall, these results suggest that cinnamic acid exerts anti-obesity and antihypertensive effects through inhibition of lipid digestive enzymes and ACE. PMID:26139902

  15. Cardioprotective effects of diltiazem reevaluated by a novel myocardial ischemic model in Chinese miniature swine

    Jian-xun LIU; Zhen YU; Xin-zhi LI; Jian-hua FU; Xiao-hong SHANG; Ai-guo YAN; Yue SHI; Yan-lei MA

    2007-01-01

    Aim: To develop a new model of myocardial ischemia in Chinese miniature swine and reevaluate the cardioprotective effects of diltiazem. Methods: Myocardial ischemia was induced by injecting self-embolus into the left anterior descending(LAD) coronary artery in qualified miniature swine. Diltiazem (5 mg.kg-1.d-1) was orally administered to the swine by mixing into normal pig diet from 1 to 6 d after self-embolus injection. The coronary angiography, 30 point body surface electro-cardiogram (BS-ECG), hemodynamics, biochemistry, quantitative histology and pathohistology were determined 6 d after self-embolus injection. Results: Embo-lization occurred in the LAD coronary artery of the Chinese miniature swine in-jected by self-embolus. There were significant myocardial ischemia and large cardiac muscle infarction in the Chinese miniature swine, which were accompa-nied with increased BS-ECG, decreased hemodynamic indexes of the cardiac output,cardiac index, left cardiac work and left cardiac work index, and increased systemic vascular resistance index. Pathohistological analysis revealed myocardial degen-eration, necrosis, fibrosis, inflammatory cell infiltration and granulation tissue hyperblastosis (n=6). Diltiazem diminished the extent of the LAD embolism, ame-liorated myocardial ischemia, improved the hemodynamic indexes, increased the plasma superoxide dismutase activity, decreased the plasma malondialdehyde content, narrowed the myocardial ischemic area and weakened the pathohistological damage in the cardiac muscle (n=6). Conclusion: Myocardial ischemia induced by injecting self-embolus into the LAD coronary artery in Chinese miniature swine is quite close to clinical pathophysiological conditions. Diltiazem is effective to inhibit the myocardial ischemia and restore the heart function in this novel model.

  16. Protein kinase C-zeta inhibition exerts cardioprotective effects in ischemia-reperfusion injury.

    Phillipson, Aisha; Peterman, Ellen E; Taormina, Philip; Harvey, Margaret; Brue, Richard J; Atkinson, Norrell; Omiyi, Didi; Chukwu, Uchenna; Young, Lindon H

    2005-08-01

    Ischemia followed by reperfusion (I/R) in the presence of polymorphonuclear leukocytes (PMNs) results in marked cardiac contractile dysfunction. A cell-permeable PKC-zeta peptide inhibitor was used to test the hypothesis that PKC-zeta inhibition could attenuate PMN-induced cardiac contractile dysfunction by suppression of superoxide production from PMNs and increase nitric oxide (NO) release from vascular endothelium. The effects of the PKC-zeta peptide inhibitor were examined in isolated ischemic (20 min) and reperfused (45 min) rat hearts reperfused with PMNs. The PKC-zeta inhibitor (2.5 or 5 microM, n = 6) significantly attenuated PMN-induced cardiac dysfunction compared with I/R hearts (n = 6) receiving PMNs alone in left ventricular developed pressure (LVDP) and the maximal rate of LVDP (+dP/dt(max)) cardiac function indexes (P < 0.01), and these cardioprotective effects were blocked by the NO synthase inhibitor, N(G)-nitro-L-arginine methyl ester (50 microM). Furthermore, the PKC-zeta inhibitor significantly increased endothelial NO release 47 +/- 2% (2.5 microM, P < 0.05) and 54 +/- 5% (5 microM, P < 0.01) over basal values from the rat aorta and significantly inhibited superoxide release from phorbol-12-myristate-13-acetate-stimulated rat PMNs by 33 +/- 12% (2.5 microM) and 40 +/- 8% (5 microM) (P < 0.01). The PKC-zeta inhibitor significantly attenuated PMN infiltration into the myocardium by 46-48 +/- 4% (P < 0.01) at 2.5 and 5 microM, respectively. In conclusion, these results suggest that the PKC-zeta peptide inhibitor attenuates PMN-induced post-I/R cardiac contractile dysfunction by increasing endothelial NO release and by inhibiting superoxide release from PMNs thereby attenuating PMN infiltration into I/R myocardium. PMID:15792991

  17. Hydrogen sulfide exhibits cardioprotective effects by decreasing endoplasmic reticulum stress in a diabetic cardiomyopathy rat model.

    Li, Fang; Luo, Jian; Wu, Zhixiong; Xiao, Ting; Zeng, Ou; Li, Lin; Li, Yan; Yang, Jun

    2016-07-01

    Endoplasmic reticulum (ER) stress is critical in the occurrence and development of diabetic cardiomyopathy (DC). Hydrogen sulfide (H2S) has been found to be the third gaseous signaling molecule with anti‑ER stress effects. Previous studies have shown that H2S acts as a potent inhibitor of fibrosis in the heart of diabetic rats. This study aimed to demonstrate whether H2S exhibits protective effects on the myocardium of streptozotocin (STZ)‑induced diabetic rats by suppressing ER stress. In this study, diabetic models were established by intraperitoneal (i.p.) injection of 40 mg/kg STZ. The STZ‑treated mice were divided into three groups, and subsequently treated with normal saline, 30 µmol/kg or 100 µmol/kg NaHS, i.p., respectively, for 8 weeks. The extent of myocyte hypertrophy was measured using hematoxylin and eosin‑stained sections and collagen components were investigated using immunostaining. The expression of glucose-regulated protein (Grp78), C/EBP‑homologous protein (CHOP) and caspase‑12 in the heart tissue of each group was detected by western blot analysis. It was demonstrated that H2S could improve myocardial hypertrophy and myocardial collagen deposition in diabetic rats. In addition, it could reduce the expression of Grp78, caspase-12 and CHOP. In conclusion, these findings demonstrate that H2S suppresses STZ‑induced ER stress in the hearts of rats, and it may serve as a novel cardioprotective agent for DC. PMID:27222111

  18. Comparison of cardioprotective effects of mibefradil and ramipril in stroke-prone spontaneously hypertensive rats

    Qin-gui XIA; Thomas UNGER; Alexander REINECKE; Marc DORENKAMP; Christain STORZ; Havvo BITTERLING; Susanne PENZ; Jack CLEUTJENS; Mat JAP DAEMEN; Reichiger SIMON

    2004-01-01

    AIM: To elucidate the cardioprotective effects of T-type calcium channel blocker mibefradil and compare with that of the angiotensin-converting enzyme inhibitor ramipril in a stroke-prone spontaneously hypertensive rats (SHRSP) model of congestive heart failure (CHF) after myocardial infarction (MI). METHODS: SHR-SP rats were subjected to permanent ligation of the left anterior decending coronary artery. Treatment with mibefradil (10after induction of MI. Sham-operated rats served as controls. RESULTS: In placebo-treated MI rats, six weeks after MI, left ventricular circumference, inner diameter, and left ventricular end-diastolic pressure (LVEDP) were increased, whereas mean arterial blood pressure (MAP) and maximum rate of rise of left ventricular pressure (dp/dtmax) were decreased compared with sham-operated controls (P<0.01). In ramipril-treated MI rats, heart weight,heart weight to body weight ratio and interstitial collagen content were reduced (P<0.05, P<0.01), LVEDP was slightly decreased (P>0.05), and dp/dtmax was improved (P<0.01) compared with placebo-treated MI rats. In contrast, in mibefradil-treated MI rats, heart weight, heart weight to body weight ratio were slightly but not significantly reduced, LVEDP was slightly elevated compared with placebo-treated MI rats, and was elevated (P<0.05)compared with ramipril-treated MI rats, although interstitial collagen content were reduced (P<0.01) compared with placebo-treated MI rats. CONCLUSION: Chronic treatment with ramipril diminishes cardiac remodeling of heart failure after MI to a greater extent than mibefradil. Moreover, 6 weeks after MI, mibefradil treatment results in a slight rise in LVEDP compared with placebo-treated rats. Therefore, treatment with mibefradil might be deleterious rather than beneficial compared with ramipril or even placebo treatment in experimental MI.

  19. The Cardioprotective Effect of Vitamin E (Alpha-Tocopherol) Is Strongly Related to Age and Gender in Mice

    Hu, Xiao-Xia; Fu, Li; Li, Yan; Lin, Ze-Bang; Liu, Xiang; Wang, Jing-Feng; Chen, Yang-xin; Wang, Zhi-Ping; Zhang, Xi; Ou, Zhi-Jun; Ou, Jing-Song

    2015-01-01

    Vitamin E (VitE) only prevented cardiovascular diseases in some patients and the mechanisms remain unknown. VitE levels can be affected by aging and gender. We hypothesize that age and gender can influence VitE’s cardioprotective effect. Mice were divided into 4 groups according to age and gender, and each group of mice were divided into a control group and a VitE group. The mice were administered water or VitE for 21 days; Afterward, the cardiac function and myocardial infarct size and cardi...

  20. Preventive aerobic training exerts a cardioprotective effect on rats treated with monocrotaline.

    Pacagnelli, Francis Lopes; de Almeida Sabela, Ana Karênina Dias; Okoshi, Katashi; Mariano, Thaoan Bruno; Campos, Dijon Henrique Salomé; Carvalho, Robson Francisco; Cicogna, Antônio Carlos; Vanderlei, Luiz Carlo Marques

    2016-06-01

    Pulmonary arterial hypertension (PAH) is a chronic disease which causes overload to the right ventricle. The effect of preventive training on cardiac remodelling in this condition is still unknown. This study aimed to evaluate the influence of preventive training on hypertrophy, heart function and gene expression of calcium transport proteins in rats with monocrotaline-induced PAH. Thirty-two male Wistar rats were randomly divided into four groups: S, sedentary control; T, trained control; SM, sedentary monocrotaline; and TM, trained monocrotaline. The preventive training protocol was performed on a treadmill for 13 weeks, five times/week. The first two weeks were adopted for adaptation to training with gradual increases in speed/time. The speed of the physical training from the third to tenth weeks was gradually increased from 0.9 to 1.1 km/h for 60 min. Next, monocrotaline was applied (60 mg/kg) to induce PAH and lactate threshold analysis performed to determine the training speeds. The training speed of the TM group in the following two weeks was 0.8 km/h for 60 min and the T = 0.9 km/h for 60 min; in the final two weeks, both groups trained at the same speed and duration 0.9 km/h, 60 min. Cardiac function was assessed through echocardiography, ventricular hypertrophy through histomorphometric analysis and gene expression through RT-qPCR. Right cardiac function assessed through the peak flow velocity was SM = 75.5 cm/s vs. TM = 92.0 cm/s (P = 0.001), and ventricular hypertrophy was SM = 106.4 μm² vs. TM = 77.7 μm² (P = 0.004). There was a decrease in the gene expression of ryanodine S = 1.12 au vs. SM = 0.60 au (P = 0.02) without alterations due to training. Thus, we conclude that prior physical training exerts a cardioprotective effect on the right ventricle in the monocrotaline rat model. PMID:27365256

  1. [Approaches potentiating cardioprotective effect of ambulatory physical training in patients with ischemic heart disease and multivessel coronary artery involvement after coronary stenting].

    Liamina, N P; Kotel'nikova, E V; Biziaeva, E A; Karpova, É S

    2014-01-01

    Cardiorehabilitation of patients with multivessel coronary lesions is an obligatory component of ambulatory stage of care. With the aim of potentiating cardioprotective and antiischemic impact of rehabilitative preventive measures in 36 patients with ischemic heart disease (IHD) and multivessel coronary artery involvement who had undergone percutaneous coronary intervention we studied cardioprotective and antiischemic effect of long-term (24 weeks) administration of 70 mg/day trimetazidine in combination with moderate intensity physical training with the use of distance surveillance by a physician. The chosen therapeutic approach in patients with residual ischemia after incomplete anatomical revascularization provided early persistent formation of cardioprotective and antiischemic effect proven by increase of tolerance to physical exercise, improvement of diastolic function, and positive dynamics of both ECG parameters and biochemical markers of myocardial ischemia. PMID:25675716

  2. The effect of uraemia on the duration of arrhythmias in the context of cardioprotective ischaemic conditioning strategies

    McCafferty, Kieran; Byrne, Conor J; Kieswich, Julius; Raftery, Martin; Thiemermann, Christoph; Yaqoob, Muhammad M

    2014-01-01

    Background Sudden cardiac death is a leading cause of death in patients with chronic kidney disease and end stage renal disease. Ischaemic conditioning strategies confer profound myocardial protection and, in the absence of uraemia, have been reported to reduce myocardial dysrhythmias. Recent data confirms that ischaemic conditioning can protect the uraemic heart. However, the effect of uraemia on myocardial arrhythmogenesis in the context of ischaemia-reperfusion injury and whether ischaemic conditioning can modulate this is unknown. Objective We investigated the effect of underling chronic uraemia on the duration of arrhythmias in the context of cardioprotective ischaemic conditioning strategies. Methods We examined the effect of chronic uraemia on arrhythmias occurring in the context of myocardial ischaemia-reperfusion injury and the ability of ischaemic preconditioning (IPC), remote ischaemic preconditioning (RIPC) and ischaemic postconditioning (iPOST) to suppress arrhythmogenesis in uraemic and non-uraemic animals. Results IPC led to a reduction in the frequency and duration of arrhythmias occurring during ischaemia and reperfusion. Neither RIPC nor iPOST affected the duration or frequency of ischaemic or reperfusion arrhythmias. Underlying uraemia did not alter the frequency or duration of ischaemic arrhythmias in any of the experiments however it was associated with a reduction in reperfusion arrhythmia duration in the IPC and iPOST experiments. Conclusions These studies demonstrate that underlying chronic uraemia does not reduce the threshold for arrhythmia timing or duration resulting from myocardial ischaemia-reperfusion and underlying uraemia did not alter the effects of these cardioprotective ischaemic conditioning strategies in the context of arrhythmia duration. Summary This novel work in a rodent model of chronic uraemia establishes that underlying uraemia does not increase the susceptibility to myocardial ischaemia-reperfusion induced arrhythmias

  3. Progress of cardioprotective effects of high density lipoprotein: function and mechanism

    Hai-ge SUN

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available The high density lipoprotein (HDL in human plasma is a heterogeneous lipoprotein consisting of roughly equal contents of lipid and protein in roughly equal content, and it consists of several subtypes. HDL possesses several well-documented functions, including anti-atherosclerosis by promoting reverse cholesterol transport, inhibiting the oxidative modification of low density lipoproteins (LDLs, inhibiting vascular inflammation, preventing thrombosis and apoptosis, and promoting endothelial repair. Recently, more cardiovascular protective functions of HDL have been found, mainly including the ability of suppressing immune inflammatory reaction, inhibiting the proliferation of hematopoietic stem cells, and regulating the plasma glucose level. It is of great importance to understand how different HDL subtypes contribute to the potentially cardioprotective functions. DOI: 10.11855/j.issn.0577-7402.2014.11.13

  4. Cardioprotective Effect of Extended Remote Ischemic Preconditioning in Patients Undergoing Coronary Artery Bypass Grafting : A Randomized Clinical Trial

    Karami, Ali; Khosravi, Mohamad Bagher; Shafa, Masih; Azemati, Simin; Khademi, Saeed; Akhlagh, Seyed Hedayatalla; Maghsodi, Behzad

    2016-01-01

    Background: The cardioprotective effect of ischemic preconditioning has been known for many years. Since the temporary ischemia in the heart may cause lethal cardiac effects, the idea of creating ischemia in organs far from the heart such as limbs was raised as remote ischemic preconditioning (RIPC). We hypothesized that the extension of RIPC has more cardioprotective effect in patients undergoing coronary artery bypass graft (CABG) surgeries. Methods: In this triple-blind randomized clinical trial study, 96 patients were randomly divided into 3 groups and two blood pressure cuffs were placed on both upper and lower extremities. In group A, only upper extremity cuff and in group B upper limb and lower limb cuff was inflated intermittently and group C was the control group. RIPC was induced with three 5-min cycles of cuff inflation about 100 mmHg over the initial systolic blood pressure before starting cardiopulmonary bypass. The primary endpoints were troponin I and creatine phosphokinase-myoglobin isoenzyme (CK-MB). Results: Six hours after the termination of CPB, there was a peak release of the troponin I level in all groups (group A=4.90 ng/ml, group B=4.40 ng/ml, and group C=4.50 ng/ml). There was a rise in plasma CK-MB in all groups postoperatively and there were not any significant differences in troponin I and CK-MB release between the three groups. Conclusion: RIPC induced by upper and lower limb ischemia does not reduce postoperative myocardial enzyme elevation in adult patients undergoing CABG. Trial Registration Number: IRCT2012071710311N1 PMID:27365547

  5. Cardioprotective Effect of the Aqueous Extract of Lavender Flower against Myocardial Ischemia/Reperfusion Injury

    Dong Wang

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available This study was conducted to evaluate the cardioprotective property of the aqueous extract of lavender flower (LFAE. The myocardial ischemia/reperfusion (I/R injury of rat was prepared by Langendorff retrograde perfusion technology. The heart was preperfused with K-H solution containing LFAE for 10 min before 20 minutes global ischemia, and then the reperfusion with K-H solution was conducted for 45 min. The left ventricular developed pressure (LVDP and the maximum up/downrate of left ventricular pressure (±dp/dtmax were recorded by physiological recorder as the myocardial function and the myocardial infarct size was detected by TTC staining. Lactate dehydrogenase (LDH and creatine kinase (CK activities in the effluent were measured to determine the myocardial injury degree. The superoxide anion dismutase (SOD and malondialdehyde (MDA in myocardial tissue were detected to determine the oxidative stress degree. The results showed that the pretreatment with LFAE significantly decreased the myocardial infarct size and also decreased the LDH, CK activities, and MDA level, while it increased the LVDP, ±dp/dtmax, SOD activities, and the coronary artery flow. Our findings indicated that LFAE could provide protection for heart against the I/R injury which may be related to the improvement of myocardial oxidative stress states.

  6. Evaluation of cardioprotective effect of aqueous extract of Garcinia indica Linn. fruit rinds on isoprenaline-induced myocardial injury in Wistar albino rats

    Patel, Kaksha J.; Ashwin K. Panchasara; Manish J Barvaliya; Purohit, Bhargav M.; Seema N Baxi; Vadgama, Vishal K.; Tripathi, C.B.

    2015-01-01

    In the present study, cardioprotective effect of aqueous extract of Garcinia indica Linn. fruit rinds in isoprenaline-induced myocardial infarction in Wistar albino rats was evaluated. In vitro total phenolic, total flavonoid content and 2, 2’-diphenyl-1-picrylhydrazyl hydrate radical scavenging activity was measured. In vivo effect of aqueous extract of G. indica was evaluated in Wistar albino rats by isoprenaline-induced myocardial injury model. Thirty six rats were randomly divided in 6 gr...

  7. Cardioprotection conferred by exercise training is blunted by blockade of the opioid system

    Tatiana F.G. Galvão; Matos, Katt C; Brum, Patrícia C; Negrão, Carlos E.; Protásio Lemos da Luz; Chagas, Antônio Carlos P

    2011-01-01

    OBJECTIVES: To investigate the effect of opioid receptor blockade on the myocardial protection conferred by chronic exercise and to compare exercise training with different strategies of myocardial protection (opioid infusion and brief periods of ischemia-reperfusion) preceding irreversible left anterior descending coronary ligation. INTRODUCTION: The acute cardioprotective effects of exercise training are at least partly mediated through opioid receptor-dependent mechanisms in ischemia-reper...

  8. Estimation of Drug Effectiveness by Modeling Three Time-dependent Covariates: An Application to Data on Cardioprotective Medications in the Chronic Dialysis Population

    Phadnis, Milind A; Shireman, Theresa I.; Wetmore, James B.; Rigler, Sally K.; Zhou, Xinhua; Spertus, John A.; Ellerbeck, Edward F.; Mahnken, Jonathan D.

    2014-01-01

    In a population of chronic dialysis patients with an extensive burden of cardiovascular disease, estimation of the effectiveness of cardioprotective medication in literature is based on calculation of a hazard ratio comparing hazard of mortality for two groups (with or without drug exposure) measured at a single point in time or through the cumulative metric of proportion of days covered (PDC) on medication. Though both approaches can be modeled in a time-dependent manner using a Cox regressi...

  9. Beneficial effect of zinc chloride and zinc ionophore pyrithione on attenuated cardioprotective potential of preconditioning phenomenon in STZ-induced diabetic rat heart.

    Jamwal, Sumit; Kumar, Kushal; Reddy, B V Krishna

    2016-05-01

    Ischemic preconditioning (IPC) is well demonstrated to produce cardioprotection by phosphorylation and subsequent inactivation of glycogen synthase kinase-3β (GSk-3β) in the normal rat heart, but its effect is attenuated in the diabetic rat heart. This study was designed to investigate the effect of zinc chloride and zinc ionophore pyrithione (ZIP) on the attenuated cardioprotective potential of IPC in the diabetic rat heart. Diabetes mellitus (DM) was induced by a single intraperitoneal administration of streptozotocin (STZ) (50 mg/kg; i.p). The isolated perfused rat heart was subjected to 30 minutes of ischemia followed by 120 minutes of reperfusion. Myocardial infarct size was estimated by triphenyltetrazolium chloride (TTC) staining and cardiac injury was measured by estimating lactate dehydrogenase (LDH) and creatine kinase-MB (CK-MB) in the coronary effluent. Also, GSK-3β was measured and neutrophil accumulation was measured by estimating myeloperoxidase (MPO) levels. IPC significantly decreased the myocardial infarct size, the release of LDH and CK-MB, the GSK-3β levels and the MPO levels in the normal rat heart. Pre- and post-ischemic treatment with zinc chloride and zinc ionophore pyrithione (ZIP) in the normal and diabetic rat hearts significantly decreased the myocardial infarct size, the level of CK-MB and LDH in the coronary effluent and GSK-3β and MPO levels. Our results suggest that pharmacological preconditioning with zinc chloride and ZIP significantly restored the attenuated cardioprotective potential of IPC in the diabetic rat heart. PMID:26423303

  10. Evaluation of myocardial preconditioning and adenosine effects in cardioprotection in rat hearts with ischemia-reperfusion injury using 99MTc-glucarate imaging

    Significant tolerance to myocardial ischemia-reperfusion injury, as assessed by biochemical assay and noninvasive infarct-avid imaging, was induced with an IPC protocol in the rat model. The cardioprotection of IPC could be simulated by adenosine receptor A1 agonist CCPA, or blocked by antagonist SPT. Thus, adenosine mediates protection by ischemic preconditioning in this specific rat heart model. 99mTc-glucarate imaging is not only useful in detecting early ischemia-reperfusion injury, but also invaluable in evaluating the effects of cardioprotective treatments. uantitative anal ses on dynamic images with 99mTc-glucarate would make it possible to identify myocardial ischemia-reperfusion injury more accurate, and provide a unique tool for evaluation of cardioprotection. The FASTSPECT imaging with the ischenuc-reperfused rat heart model provides a solution-specific approach with high-resolution and fast dynamic acquisition for kinetic studies of new myocardial imaging agents as the evidence of its major role in the present study. (authors)

  11. Cardioprotective effect of resveratrol analogue isorhapontigenin versus omega-3 fatty acids in isoproterenol-induced myocardial infarction in rats.

    Abbas, Amr M

    2016-09-01

    Myocardial infarction (MI) is a common cause of mortality worldwide. Isorhapontigenin is a derivative of stilbene with chemical structure similar to resveratrol. The omega-3 fatty acids (FA) have beneficial effects on neurodegenerative, inflammatory, and cardiovascular diseases. The aim of this study was to investigate the effects of pretreatment with isorhapontigenin and omega-3 FA on rat model of isoproterenol-induced MI. Fifty-six rats were divided into seven groups: normal, normal + isorhapontigenin, normal + omega-3 FA, MI, MI + isorhapontigenin, MI + omega-3 FA, and MI + isorhapontigenin + omega-3 FA. Serum levels of cardiac marker enzymes [lactate dehydrogenase (LDH) and creatine kinase-MB (CK-MB)], cardiac troponin I (cTnI), inflammatory markers [tumor necrosis factor-alpha (TNF-α) and interleukin-6], and lipid profile [triglycerides, total cholesterol (T.Ch), high and low density lipoproteins (HDL, LDL), and phospholipids] as well as cardiac levels of malondialdehyde and anti-oxidants [reduced glutathione (GSH), superoxide dismutase (SOD), and catalase)] were measured in all rats. ECG and histopathological examination were performed. Isoproterenol caused a significant elevation of ST segment, decreased R wave amplitude, HDL, and anti-oxidants, and increased LDH, CK-MB, cTnI, TNF-α, interleukin-6, malondialdehyde, triglycerides, T.Ch, LDL, and phospholipids. Omega-3 FA or isorhapontigenin significantly decreased the ST segment elevation, LDH, CK-MB, cTnI, TNF-α, interleukin-6, malondialdehyde, and phospholipids and increased R wave amplitude and anti-oxidants. The effects of combined omega-3 FA and isorhapontigenin were more significant than either of them alone. Therefore, we conclude that omega-3 FA and isorhapontigenin have a cardioprotective effect on rats with isoproterenol-induced MI through their anti-oxidant and anti-inflammatory actions. PMID:27193109

  12. The Cardioprotective Effect of Vitamin E (Alpha-Tocopherol Is Strongly Related to Age and Gender in Mice.

    Xiao-Xia Hu

    Full Text Available Vitamin E (VitE only prevented cardiovascular diseases in some patients and the mechanisms remain unknown. VitE levels can be affected by aging and gender. We hypothesize that age and gender can influence VitE's cardioprotective effect. Mice were divided into 4 groups according to age and gender, and each group of mice were divided into a control group and a VitE group. The mice were administered water or VitE for 21 days; Afterward, the cardiac function and myocardial infarct size and cardiomyocyte apoptosis were measured after myocardial ischemia reperfusion(MI/R. VitE may significantly improved cardiac function in young male mice and aged female mice by enhancing ERK1/2 activity and reducing JNK activity. Enhanced expression of HSP90 and Bcl-2 were also seen in young male mice. No changes in cardiac function and cardiac proteins were detected in aged male mice and VitE was even liked to exert a reverse effect in cardiac function in young mice by enhancing JNK activity and reducing Bcl-2 expression. Those effects were in accordance with the changes of myocardial infarction size and cardiomyocyte apoptosis in each group of mice. VitE may reduce MI/R injury by inhibiting cardiomyocyte apoptosis in young male mice and aged female mice but not in aged male mice. VitE was possibly harmful for young female mice, shown as increased cardiomyocyte apoptosis after MI/R. Thus, we speculated that the efficacy of VitE in cardiac protection was associated with age and gender.

  13. The Cardioprotective Effect of Vitamin E (Alpha-Tocopherol) Is Strongly Related to Age and Gender in Mice

    Li, Yan; Lin, Ze-Bang; Liu, Xiang; Wang, Jing-Feng; Chen, Yang-Xin; Wang, Zhi-Ping; Zhang, Xi; Ou, Zhi-Jun; Ou, Jing-Song

    2015-01-01

    Vitamin E (VitE) only prevented cardiovascular diseases in some patients and the mechanisms remain unknown. VitE levels can be affected by aging and gender. We hypothesize that age and gender can influence VitE’s cardioprotective effect. Mice were divided into 4 groups according to age and gender, and each group of mice were divided into a control group and a VitE group. The mice were administered water or VitE for 21 days; Afterward, the cardiac function and myocardial infarct size and cardiomyocyte apoptosis were measured after myocardial ischemia reperfusion(MI/R). VitE may significantly improved cardiac function in young male mice and aged female mice by enhancing ERK1/2 activity and reducing JNK activity. Enhanced expression of HSP90 and Bcl-2 were also seen in young male mice. No changes in cardiac function and cardiac proteins were detected in aged male mice and VitE was even liked to exert a reverse effect in cardiac function in young mice by enhancing JNK activity and reducing Bcl-2 expression. Those effects were in accordance with the changes of myocardial infarction size and cardiomyocyte apoptosis in each group of mice. VitE may reduce MI/R injury by inhibiting cardiomyocyte apoptosis in young male mice and aged female mice but not in aged male mice. VitE was possibly harmful for young female mice, shown as increased cardiomyocyte apoptosis after MI/R. Thus, we speculated that the efficacy of VitE in cardiac protection was associated with age and gender. PMID:26331272

  14. Enhanced cell survival and paracrine effects of mesenchymal stem cells overexpressing hepatocyte growth factor promote cardioprotection in myocardial infarction.

    Zhao, Liyan; Liu, Xiaolin; Zhang, Yuelin; Liang, Xiaoting; Ding, Yue; Xu, Yan; Fang, Zhen; Zhang, Fengxiang

    2016-05-15

    Poor cell survival post transplantation compromises the therapeutic benefits of mesenchymal stem cells (MSCs) in myocardial infarction (MI). Hepatocyte growth factor (HGF) is an important cytokine for angiogenesis, anti-inflammation and anti-apoptosis. This study aimed to evaluate the cardioprotective effects of MSCs overexpressing HGF in a mouse model of MI. The apoptosis of umbilical cord-derived MSCs (UC-MSCs) and HGF-UC-MSCs under normoxic and hypoxic conditions was detected. The conditioned medium (CdM) of UC-MSCs and HGF-UC-MSCs under a hypoxic condition was harvested and its protective effect on neonatal cardiomyocytes (NCMs) exposed to a hypoxic challenge was examined. UC-MSCs and HGF-UC-MSCs were transplanted into the peri-infarct region in mice following MI and heart function assessed 4 weeks post transplantation. The apoptosis of HGF-UC-MSCs under hypoxic conditions was markedly decreased compared with that of UC-MSCs. NCMs treated with HGF-UC-MSC hypoxic CdM (HGF-UC-MSCs-hy-CdM) exhibited less cell apoptosis in response to hypoxic challenge than those treated with UC-MSC hypoxic CdM (UC-MSCs-hy-CdM). HGF-UC-MSCs-hy-CdM released the inhibited p-Akt and lowered the enhanced ratio of Bax/Bcl-2 induced by hypoxia in the NCMs. HGF-UC-MSCs-hy-CdM expressed higher levels of HGF, EGF, bFGF and VEGF than UC-MSCs-hy-CdM. Transplantation of HGF-UC-MSCs or UC-MSCs greatly improved heart function in the mouse model of MI. Compared with UC-MSCs, transplantation of HGF-UC-MSCs was associated with less cardiomyocyte apoptosis, enhanced angiogenesis and increased proliferation of cardiomyocytes. This study may provide a novel therapeutic strategy for MSC-based therapy in cardiovascular disease. PMID:27025401

  15. The effect of high intensity interval training on cardioprotection against ischemia-reperfusion injury in wistar rats

    Rahimi, Mostafa; Shekarforoush, Shahnaz; Asgari, Ali Reza; Khoshbaten, Ali; Rajabi, Hamid; Bazgir, Behzad; Mohammadi, Mohammad Taghi; Sobhani, Vahid; Shakibaee, Abolfazl

    2015-01-01

    The aims of the present study were to determine whether short term high intensity interval training (HIIT) could protect the heart against ischemia reperfusion (IR) injury; and if so, to evaluate how long the exercise-associated protection can be lasted. Sixty-three rats were randomly assigned into sedentary (n = 15), sham (n = 7), and exercise groups (n = 41). Rats in the exercise groups performed 5 consecutive days of HIIT on treadmill: 5 min warm up with 50 % VO2max, 6×2 min with 95-105 % VO2max (about 40 to 45 m/min), 5×2 min recovery with 65-75 % VO2max (about 28 to 32 m/min), and 3 min cool down with 50 % VO2max, all at 0 % grade. Animals exposed to an in vivo cardiac IR surgery, performed at days 1, 7, and 14 following the final exercise session. Ischemia-induced arrhythmias, myocardial infarct size (IS), plasma lactate dehydrogenase (LDH) and creatine kinase (CK) activities were measured in all animals. Compared to sedentary rats, exercised animals sustained less IR injury as evidenced by a lower size of infarction and lower levels of LDH and CK at day one and day 7 post exercise. In comparison of sedentary group, IS significantly decreased in EX-IR1 and EX-IR7 groups (50 and 35 %, respectively), but not in EX-IR14 group (19 %). The exercise-induced cardioprotection disappeared 14 days following exercise cessation. There were no significant changes in ischemia-induced arrhythmia between exercised and sedentary rats. The results clearly demonstrate that HIIT protects the heart against myocardial IR injury. This protective effect can be sustained for at least one week following the cessation of the training. PMID:26417361

  16. CARDIOPROTECTIVE EFFECT OF ESCULETIN ON CARDIAC MARKER ENZYMES AND MEMRANE BOUND ENZYMES IN ISOPROTERENOL-INDUCED MYOCARDIAL INFARCTION IN WISTAR RATS

    Palanivel Karthika; Murugan Rajadurai; Palanisamy Ganapathy; Ganesan Kanchana

    2011-01-01

    This study evaluates the cardioprotective effect of esculetin on isoproterenol (ISO)-induced myocardial infarction (MI) in rats. Rats were pretreated with esculetin (10 and 20 mg/kg) orally for a period of 21 days. After the treatment period ISO (85 mg/kg) was administered subcutaneously to rats at an interval of 24 h for 2 days. ISO-induced rats showed a significant increase in the activities of marker enzymes such as creatine kinase (CK), creatine kinase-MB (CK-MB), aspartate transaminase (...

  17. Cardioprotective Effects of Lagenaria siceraria Fruit Juice on Isoproterenol-induced Myocardial Infarction in Wistar Rats: A Biochemical and Histoarchitecture Study

    Upaganlawar, A; Balaraman, R.

    2011-01-01

    The present study was designed to evaluate the cardioprotective effects of Lagenaria siceraria fruit juice in isoproterenol-induced myocardial infarction. Rats injected with isoproterenol (200 mg/kg, s.c.) showed a significant increase in the levels of serum uric acid, tissue Na++ and Ca++ ions and membrane-bound Ca+2-ATPase activity. A significant decrease in the levels of serum protein, tissue K+ ion, vitamin E level, and the activities of Na+/K+-ATPase and mg+2-ATPase was observed. Isoprot...

  18. Telmisartan and cardioprotection

    Akhrass PR

    2011-11-01

    Full Text Available Philippe R Akhrass, Samy I McFarlaneState University of New York, Downstate Medical Center, Brooklyn, NY, USAAbstract: Cardiovascular risk reduction has been the target of several large clinical trials in the last decade. As the activation of the renin-angiotensin-aldosterone system (RAAS plays a central role in the pathogenesis of atherosclerosis and cardiovascular disease, RAAS blockade has been suggested to be among the most efficient cardioprotective interventions, as revealed with the angiotensin converting enzyme (ACE inhibitors trials. The angiotensin receptor blockers' (ARBs efficacy in lowering blood pressure has been very well established. Telmisartan is however the first ARB to show a promising role in reducing cardiovascular risk in high-risk patients. This article will highlight the role of telmisartan in cardioprotection, underlying specifically the results of two major randomized controlled trials: ONTARGET (ONgoing Telmisartan Alone and in combination with Ramipril Global Endpoint Trial and TRANSCEND (Telmisartan Randomized AssessmeNt Study in aCE-iNtolerant subjects with cardiovascular Disease.Keywords: telmisartan, cardioprotection, ONTARGET, TRANSCEND

  19. Cardioprotective effect of berberine against myocardial ischemia/reperfusion injury via attenuating mitochondrial dysfunction and apoptosis

    Wang, Yongjun; Liu, Jianzhen; Ma, Airui; Chen, Yanqiang

    2015-01-01

    Berberine, an isoquinoline alkaloid originally isolated from the Chinese herb Coptischinensis, has been shown to display a wide range of pharmacological effects. The present study aims to investigate the effect of berberine on myocardial ischemia/reperfusion. Sixty male Sprague-Dawley rats were randomized equally into three groups: sham group, IR group, IR + berberine group. Rats were treated with berberine for 4 weeks and then I/R was performed. Myocardial infarction area was measured. Serum...

  20. Mechanisms underlying the cardioprotective effects of tetracyclines in myocardial ischemic injury

    Griffin, Michael O.

    2007-01-01

    The tetracycline class of antibiotics, which include the members doxycycline (DOX) and minocycline (MIN), have additional biological effects independent of their antimicrobial actions, of which inhibition of matrix metalloproteinases (MMPs) is the best characterized. Tetracyclines are also capable of scavenging reactive oxygen species (ROS) and inhibiting apoptosis and likely possess other undescribed important biological properties. These non-antimicrobial actions of the tetracyclines promot...

  1. Impact effect of lycopene and tomato-based products network on cardioprotective biomarkers in vivo

    Nermin N. El-Nashar

    2012-05-01

    Full Text Available Background: Dietary intake plays an important role as nutritional supplements are known to provide potential health benefits in cardiovascular disease. Recent studies suggest that the dietary intake of tomatoes and tomato products containing lycopene are associated with a decreased risk of cardiovascular disease. In order to substantiate these facts, the present study was undertaken to investigate the effectiveness of lycopene from tomato products on the potential effects of oxidative stress and atherosclerosis in vivo, focusing on early atherosclerotic events.Methods: Thirty male albino rats were assigned randomly into 5 groups; group C was the negative control group fed a basal diet, group H was the positive control fed a high-fat diet(HFD, group TS (HFD was fed a 8% lyophilized tomato paste, group TW (HFD was fed a24% lyophilized raw tomato, and group L (HFD was fed 0.1% mg pure lycopene. The level of serum; total cholesterol (TC, total triglyceride (TG, high-density lipoprotein cholesterol (HDLc, and low-density lipoprotein cholesterol (LDL-c was measured after 8 weeks of experimental treatment. Malondialdehyde (MDH plasma levels were measured in heart tissue homogenate. Furthermore, pathologic changes of the heart and aorta were also assessed.Results: We found that TC, TG, LDL-c and MDH, levels were significantly increased in group H (P < 0.05 compared to the negative control group. Administration of TS, TW and L demonstrated significant changes in these parameters (P < 0.05. The TW group (fed 24% oflyophilized raw tomato components had more positive effects than the TS & L groups. Furthermore, morphologic changes of heart and aorta revealed that TW and TS had a similar preventive effect against the development of atherosclerosis.Functional Foods in Health and Disease 2012, 2(5:151-165Conclusion: Our study indicated that raw tomatoes have a higher potential effect when compared to tomato paste or lycopene alone. This potential effect

  2. Cardioprotective effect of Solanum nigrum against doxorubicin induced cardiotoxicity-an experimental study

    Privy Varshney; Pinki Vishwakarma; Monica Sharma; Manish Saini; Shaily Bhatt; Ganesh Singh,; Saxena, K. K.

    2016-01-01

    Background: Solanum nigrum (S.nigrum) a medicinal herb is widely used in the Indian system of medicine for treatment of various ailments. The methanolic extract of S.nigrum berries had shown cardio protective and antioxidant effect. However, so far aqueous extract of S.nigrum is not scientifically evaluated for its cardio protective potential. Hence the present study was designed to find out cardio protective role of S.nigrum against doxorubicin induced cardiotoxicity. Methods: Seventy two...

  3. Evaluation of antiobesity and cardioprotective effect of Gymnema sylvestre extract in murine model

    Vinay Kumar; Uma Bhandari; Chakra Dhar Tripathi; Geetika Khanna

    2012-01-01

    Objective: Obesity plays a central role in the insulin resistance syndrome, which is associated with hyperinsulinemia, hypertension, hyperlipidemia, type 2 diabetes mellitus, and an increased risk of atherosclerotic cardiovascular disease. The present study was done to assess the effect of Gymnema sylvestre extract (GSE) in the high fat diet (HFD)-induced cellular obesity and cardiac damage in Wistar rats. Materials and Methods: Adult male Wistar rats (150-200 g body weight) were used in t...

  4. Cardioprotective effects of gallic acid in diabetes-induced myocardial dysfunction in rats

    Patel, Snehal S.; Goyal, Ramesh K.

    2011-01-01

    Background: Normalization of hyperglycemia, hyperlipidemia, and oxidative stress is an important objective in preventing diabetes-induced cardiac dysfunction. Objective: This study was undertaken to examine the effects of gallic acid in myocardial dysfunctions associated with type-1 diabetes. Materials and Methods: Diabetes was induced by single intravenous injection of streptozotocin (STZ, 50 mg/kg i.v.). Gallic acid was administered daily at three different doses (100, 50, and 25 mg/kg p.o....

  5. Estimation of Drug Effectiveness by Modeling Three Time-dependent Covariates: An Application to Data on Cardioprotective Medications in the Chronic Dialysis Population.

    Phadnis, Milind A; Shireman, Theresa I; Wetmore, James B; Rigler, Sally K; Zhou, Xinhua; Spertus, John A; Ellerbeck, Edward F; Mahnken, Jonathan D

    2014-01-01

    In a population of chronic dialysis patients with an extensive burden of cardiovascular disease, estimation of the effectiveness of cardioprotective medication in literature is based on calculation of a hazard ratio comparing hazard of mortality for two groups (with or without drug exposure) measured at a single point in time or through the cumulative metric of proportion of days covered (PDC) on medication. Though both approaches can be modeled in a time-dependent manner using a Cox regression model, we propose a more complete time-dependent metric for evaluating cardioprotective medication efficacy. We consider that drug effectiveness is potentially the result of interactions between three time-dependent covariate measures, current drug usage status (ON versus OFF), proportion of cumulative exposure to drug at a given point in time, and the patient's switching behavior between taking and not taking the medication. We show that modeling of all three of these time-dependent measures illustrates more clearly how varying patterns of drug exposure affect drug effectiveness, which could remain obscured when modeled by the more standard single time-dependent covariate approaches. We propose that understanding the nature and directionality of these interactions will help the biopharmaceutical industry in better estimating drug efficacy. PMID:25343005

  6. CARDIOPROTECTIVE EFFECT OF ESCULETIN ON CARDIAC MARKER ENZYMES AND MEMRANE BOUND ENZYMES IN ISOPROTERENOL-INDUCED MYOCARDIAL INFARCTION IN WISTAR RATS

    Palanivel Karthika

    2011-04-01

    Full Text Available This study evaluates the cardioprotective effect of esculetin on isoproterenol (ISO-induced myocardial infarction (MI in rats. Rats were pretreated with esculetin (10 and 20 mg/kg orally for a period of 21 days. After the treatment period ISO (85 mg/kg was administered subcutaneously to rats at an interval of 24 h for 2 days. ISO-induced rats showed a significant increase in the activities of marker enzymes such as creatine kinase (CK, creatine kinase-MB (CK-MB, aspartate transaminase (AST, alanine transaminase (ALT, and lactate dehydrogenase (LDH in serum and there by subsequent decrease in the heart, and also ISO-induced rats showed a significant increase in heart weight. A significant decrease in the activity of sodium/potassium dependent adenosine triphosphatase (Na+/K+-ATPase and increased in the activities of calcium and magnesium dependent adenosine triphosphatase (Ca2+ and Mg2+-ATPase were observed in the heart of ISO-induced rats. Pretreatment with esculetin positively altered the activities of marker enzymes and the biochemical parameters in ISO-induced rats. Thus, our study shows that esculetin posses cardioprotective effect in ISO-induced MI in rats. Results obtained from histopathological studies also supported that esculetin has preventive effect against ISO-induced myocardial infarction.

  7. Cardioprotective Effects of Lagenaria siceraria Fruit Juice on Isoproterenol-induced Myocardial Infarction in Wistar Rats: A Biochemical and Histoarchitecture Study

    Upaganlawar, A; Balaraman, R

    2011-01-01

    The present study was designed to evaluate the cardioprotective effects of Lagenaria siceraria fruit juice in isoproterenol-induced myocardial infarction. Rats injected with isoproterenol (200 mg/kg, s.c.) showed a significant increase in the levels of serum uric acid, tissue Na++ and Ca++ ions and membrane-bound Ca+2-ATPase activity. A significant decrease in the levels of serum protein, tissue K+ ion, vitamin E level, and the activities of Na+/K+-ATPase and mg+2-ATPase was observed. Isoproterenol injected rats also showed a significant increase in the intensity of lactate dehydrogenase isoenzyme and histopathologic alterations in the heart. Treatment with L. siceraria fruit juice (400 mg/kg/day, p.o.) for 30 days and administration of isoproterenol on 29th and 30th days showed a protective effect on altered biochemical and histopathologic changes. These findings indicate the cardioprotective effect of L. siceraria fruit juice in isoproterenol-induced myocardial infarction in rats. PMID:22224036

  8. The cardioprotective and inotropic components of the postconditioning effects of GLP-1 and GLP-1(9-36)a in an isolated rat heart

    Ossum, Alvilde; van Deurs, Ulla; Engstrøm, Thomas;

    2009-01-01

    GLP-1 and its metabolite GLP-1(9-36)a have been shown to exert cardiotropic effects, and were demonstrated to be cardioprotective agents in isolated, postischemic rat or mouse hearts. An agent's total effect on myocardial performance in a postconditioning paradigm is a sum of its myocyte...... protocol, as exemplified by use of GLP-1 and GLP-1(9-36)a following a global ischemia in isolated rat hearts. Peptides were administered during the first 15min of 120min reperfusion. GLP-1 0.3nM reduced infarct size from 23.2+/-2.4% to 14.1+/-2.3% of area-at-risk (n=15, P=0.0223), an effect abolished by...... the GLP-1 receptor antagonist, exendin(9-39) 5nM. GLP-1 showed only a small, non-significant tendency to increase mechanical performance (increase of LVDP by 26.7%, P=0.1621; RPP 33.5%, P=0.0858; dP/dt(max) 28.5%, P=0.1609). This could be accounted for by the cardioprotective component of GLP-1 action...

  9. Cardioprotective effect of NO-Metoprolol in murine Coxsackievirus B3-induced myocarditis

    Glück, Brigitte; Dahlke, Katja; Zell, Roland; Krumbholz, Andi; Decker, Michael [Hrsg.; Lehmann, Jochen; Wutzler, Peter

    2010-01-01

    Abstract The effect of NO-metoprolol, i.e. 3-nitrooxypivaloyl metoprolol-amide, a novel NO-releasing derivative of the ?1-blocking drug metoprolol was investigated in A.CA/SnJ mice infected with coxsackievirus B3 (CVB3) and compared to metoprolol and placebo. Daily treatment of mice with the respective drug started immediately (experiment A) or three days after virus infection (experiment B) and was continued until day 13 post infection (p.i.). Two doses of NO-metoprolol were admin...

  10. Antioxidant and Cardioprotective Effect of Coconut Water against Doxorubicin Induced Cardiomyopathy

    Nnodim Johnkennedy; Dike-Ndudim Joy; Elendu Humphrey Ndubueze; Nwagbaraocha Melvina; Egbuobi Richard; Onyeze Vitus

    2013-01-01

    Background: Cardiomyopathy is a chronic dis-order affecting the muscle of the heart. It mayresult in to heart failure. Aim: To investigatethe effects of coconut water on antioxidant andcardiac markers on doxorubicin induced cardi-omyopathy in wistar rats. Material and Meth-ods: 21 wistar rats were divided into 3 groupsof 7 rats per group. Group I served as Controlwhile Group II and Group III were administered2.5mg/Kg doxorubicin. Group III in additionwas administered with 3ml of coconut water...

  11. 5-Azacytidine modulates interferon regulatory factor 1 in macrophages to exert a cardioprotective effect

    Jeong, Hye-yun; Kang, Wan Seok; Hong, Moon Hwa; Jeong, Hae Chang; Shin, Myun-Geun; Jeong, Myung Ho; Kim, Yong Sook; Ahn, Youngkeun

    2015-01-01

    Macrophages are actively involved in inflammatory responses during the progression of cardiac injury, including myocardial infarction (MI). A previous study showed that 5-azacytidine (5AZ), a DNA methylation inhibitor, can ameliorate cardiac injury by shifting macrophages toward an anti-inflammatory phenotype via iNOS inhibition. Here, we show that the beneficial effect of 5AZ is associated with sumoylation of interferon regulatory factor-1 (IRF1) in macrophages. IRF1 is a critical transcription factor for iNOS induction and is antagonized by IRF2. In the stimulated macrophages, IRF1 accumulated in the nucleus without degradation by 5AZ treatment. In animal study, 5AZ administration resulted in significant improvements in cardiac function and fibrosis. IRF1-expressing macrophages were more abundant in the 5AZ-treated MI group than in the PBS-treated MI group. Because sumoylated IRF1 is known to mimic IRF2, we examined the IRF1 sumoylation. Sumoylated IRF1 was resistant to degradation and significantly increased in the 5AZ-treated MI group. Collectively, 5AZ had a protective effect after MI by potentiation of IRF1 sumoylation and is suggested as a novel therapeutic intervention for cardiac repair. PMID:26510961

  12. 5-Azacytidine modulates interferon regulatory factor 1 in macrophages to exert a cardioprotective effect.

    Jeong, Hye-yun; Kang, Wan Seok; Hong, Moon Hwa; Jeong, Hae Chang; Shin, Myun-Geun; Jeong, Myung Ho; Kim, Yong Sook; Ahn, Youngkeun

    2015-01-01

    Macrophages are actively involved in inflammatory responses during the progression of cardiac injury, including myocardial infarction (MI). A previous study showed that 5-azacytidine (5AZ), a DNA methylation inhibitor, can ameliorate cardiac injury by shifting macrophages toward an anti-inflammatory phenotype via iNOS inhibition. Here, we show that the beneficial effect of 5AZ is associated with sumoylation of interferon regulatory factor-1 (IRF1) in macrophages. IRF1 is a critical transcription factor for iNOS induction and is antagonized by IRF2. In the stimulated macrophages, IRF1 accumulated in the nucleus without degradation by 5AZ treatment. In animal study, 5AZ administration resulted in significant improvements in cardiac function and fibrosis. IRF1-expressing macrophages were more abundant in the 5AZ-treated MI group than in the PBS-treated MI group. Because sumoylated IRF1 is known to mimic IRF2, we examined the IRF1 sumoylation. Sumoylated IRF1 was resistant to degradation and significantly increased in the 5AZ-treated MI group. Collectively, 5AZ had a protective effect after MI by potentiation of IRF1 sumoylation and is suggested as a novel therapeutic intervention for cardiac repair. PMID:26510961

  13. Antiatherosclerotic and Cardioprotective Effects of Time-Released Garlic Powder Pills.

    Karagodin, Vasily P; Sobenin, Igor A; Orekhov, Alexander N

    2016-01-01

    Garlic is believed to produce beneficial changes in different cardiovascular risk factors, thus possessing antiatherosclerotic properties. The hypotensive and cholesterol-lowering effects were investigated in two studies in men with mild arterial hypertension and in men with mild hypercholesterolemia. Eight-week treatment resulted in the reduction of both systolic and diastolic blood pressure by 5.2% (P=0.008) and 4.0% (P=0.014), respectively. In hypolipidemic study, the 12-week treatment resulted in a decrease in LDL cholesterol by 11.8% (P=0.002), while HDL cholesterol increased by 11.5% (P=0.013). In men with cerebral atherosclerosis it has been demonstrated that 14-days treatment inhibited ADP-induced platelet aggregation by 25.4% (Pplasma fibrinolytic activity by 22.4% (Ppowder pills on the progression of carotid atherosclerosis in asymptomatic men. A significant correlation has been revealed between the changes in blood serum atherogenicity and the changes in carotid intima-media thickness (r=0.144, P=0.045). Evidence obtained from these studies as well as series of double-blinded placebo-controlled clinical trials indicates that garlic powder pills are effective for prevention of cardiovascular disorders. PMID:26561055

  14. Cardioprotective Effect of High Intensity Interval Training and Nitric Oxide Metabolites (NO2-, NO3-

    Aliasghar FALLAHI

    2015-10-01

    Full Text Available  Background: The aim of this study was to investigate the effects of High-Intensity Interval Training (HIIT on nitric oxide metabolites (NO2-, NO3- and myocardial infarct size after Ischemia/Reperfusion (I/R injury in healthy male rats.Methods: A total of 44 Wistar rats were randomly divided into 4 groups including HIIT (n=8, HIIT + IR protocol (n=14, control (n=8, and control + IR (n=14. Each training session of HIIT consisted of 1 hour of exercise in three stages: 6-minute running at 50-60% VO2max for warm-up; 7 intervals of 7-minute running on treadmill with a slope of 50 to 20° (4 minutes with an intensity of 80-100% VO2max and 3 minutes at 50-60% VO2max; and 5-minute running at 50-60% VO2max for cool-down. The control group did not participate in any exercise program. Nitric Oxide (NO and its metabolites were measured by using Griess reaction test.  Results: The results showed that eight weeks of exercise training exerted a significantly increasing effect on nitrite (8.55 µmol per liter, equivalent to 34.79%, nitrate (62.02 µmol per liter, equivalent to 149.48%, and NOx (66 µmol per liter, equivalent to 98.11% in the HIIT group compared with the control group. The results showed myocardial infract size (IS was significantly smaller (23.2%, P<0.001 in the exercise training group compared with the control group.Conclusion: Incremental changes in NO-NO3-, NO2- axis are one of mechanisms through which HIIT program can protect the heart from I/R injury and decrease myocardial infarction.   

  15. Cardioprotective effects of gallic acid in diabetes-induced myocardial dysfunction in rats

    Snehal S Patel

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available Background: Normalization of hyperglycemia, hyperlipidemia, and oxidative stress is an important objective in preventing diabetes-induced cardiac dysfunction. Objective: This study was undertaken to examine the effects of gallic acid in myocardial dysfunctions associated with type-1 diabetes. Materials and Methods: Diabetes was induced by single intravenous injection of streptozotocin (STZ, 50 mg/kg i.v.. Gallic acid was administered daily at three different doses (100, 50, and 25 mg/kg p.o. for 8 weeks at the end of which blood samples were collected and analyzed for various biochemical parameters. Results: Injection of STZ produced significant loss of body weight (BW, polyphagia, polydypsia, hyperglycemia, hypoinsulinemia, hyperlipidemia, hypertension, bradycardia, and myocardial functional alterations. Treatment with gallic acid significantly lowered fasting glucose, the AUC glucose level in a dose-dependent manner; however, the insulin level was not increased significantly at same the dose and prevented loss of BW, polyphagia, and polydypsia in diabetic rats. It also prevented STZ-induced hyperlipidemia, hypertension, bradycardia, structural alterations in cardiac tissue such as increase in force of contraction, left ventricular weight to body weight ratio, collagen content, protein content, serum lactate dehydrogenase, and creatinine kinase levels in a dose-dependent manner. Further, treatment also produced reduction in lipid peroxidation and increase in antioxidant parameters in heart of diabetic rats. Conclusion: The results of this study suggest that gallic acid to be beneficial for the treatment of myocardial damage associated with type-1 diabetes.

  16. Mechanisms Involved in Exercise-Induced Cardioprotection: A Systematic Review

    Juliana Pereira Borges

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Background: Acute myocardial infarction is the leading cause of morbidity and mortality worldwide. Furthermore, research has shown that exercise, in addition to reducing cardiovascular risk factors, can also protect the heart against injury due to ischemia and reperfusion through a direct effect on the myocardium. However, the specific mechanism involved in exerciseinduced cardiac preconditioning is still under debate. Objective: To perform a systematic review of the studies that have addressed the mechanisms by which aerobic exercise promotes direct cardioprotection against ischemia and reperfusion injury. Methods: A search was conducted using MEDLINE, Literatura Latino-Americana e do Caribe de Informação em Ciências da Saúde, and Scientific Electronic Library Online databases. Data were extracted in a standardized manner by two independent researchers, who were responsible for assessing the methodological quality of the studies. Results: The search retrieved 78 studies; after evaluating the abstracts, 30 studies were excluded. The manuscripts of the remaining 48 studies were completely read and, of these, 20 were excluded. Finally, 28 studies were included in this systematic review. Conclusion: On the basis of the selected studies, the following are potentially involved in the cardioprotective response to exercise: increased heat shock protein production, nitric oxide pathway involvement, increased cardiac antioxidant capacity, improvement in ATP-dependent potassium channel function, and opioid system activation. Despite all the previous investigations, further research is still necessary to obtain more consistent conclusions.

  17. Evaluation of antiobesity and cardioprotective effect of Gymnema sylvestre extract in murine model

    Kumar, Vinay; Bhandari, Uma; Tripathi, Chakra Dhar; Khanna, Geetika

    2012-01-01

    Objective: Obesity plays a central role in the insulin resistance syndrome, which is associated with hyperinsulinemia, hypertension, hyperlipidemia, type 2 diabetes mellitus, and an increased risk of atherosclerotic cardiovascular disease. The present study was done to assess the effect of Gymnema sylvestre extract (GSE) in the high fat diet (HFD)-induced cellular obesity and cardiac damage in Wistar rats. Materials and Methods: Adult male Wistar rats (150–200 g body weight) were used in this study. HFD was used to induce obesity. Body mass index, hemodynamic parameters, serum leptin, insulin, glucose, lipids, apolipoprotein levels, myocardial apoptosis, and antioxidant enzymes were assessed. Organ and visceral fat pad weights and histopathological studies were also carried out. Results: Oral feeding of HFD (20 g/day) for a period of 28 days resulted in a significant increase in body mass index, organ weights, visceral fat pad weight, cardiac caspase-3, cardiac DNA laddering (indicating apoptotic inter-nucleosomal DNA fragment), and lipid peroxide levels of cardiac tissues of rats. Further, mean arterial blood pressure, heart rate, serum leptin, insulin, LDH, LDL-C, total cholesterol, triglycerides, and apolipoprotein-B levels were enhanced significantly, whereas serum HDL-C, apoliporotein-A1 levels, and cardiac Na+ K+ ATPase, antioxidant enzymes levels were significantly decreased. Furthermore, treatment with standardized ethanolic GSE (200 m/kg/p.o.) for a period of 28 days resulted in significant reversal of above mentioned changes in the obese Wistar rats. Conclusion: The present study has demonstrated the significant antiobesity potential of GSE in murine model of obesity. PMID:23112423

  18. Cardioprotective effect of total paeony glycosides against isoprenaline-induced myocardial ischemia in rats.

    Long, Jiangang; Gao, Meili; Kong, Yu; Shen, Xian; Du, Xiaoyang; Son, Young-Ok; Shi, Xianglin; Liu, Jiankang; Mo, Xiaoyan

    2012-06-15

    Paeoniae radix is a traditional Chinese medicinal herb for treating some diseases; important components are total paeony glycosides (TPGs), an approved drug by the State Food and Drug Administration (SFDA) for the therapy of rheumatoid arthritis (RA). We firstly reported myocardial benefits of TPGs previously, and the present study is to further investigate the underlying mechanisms for preventing oxidative damage in cardiomyopathy. We measured the capacity of TPGs to scavenge free radicals in vitro. Then 60 SD rats were randomly divided into five groups: (1) a normal control group, (2) an isoprenaline (ISO)-induced myocardial ischemic model group, (3) a TPG treatment group (TPGs 269.4 mg/kg delivered by intragastric administration for 3 days before ISO administration and TPGs 449 mg/kg delivered for 3 days after ISO administration), (4) a TPG therapy group (TPGs 449 mg/kg delivered for 3 days after ISO administration), and (5) a positive control group (propranolol 15 mg/kg for 3 days after ISO administration). The ISO-induced myocardial ischemic model was established by subcutaneous injection of 1mg/kg/8h ISO (2 times). The activities of myocardial enzymes, including glutamic oxaloacetic transaminase (GOT), creatine kinase (CK), lactate dehydrogenase (LDH), antioxidant enzyme superoxide dismutase (SOD) as well as the content of lipid peroxidation product malondialdehyde (MDA) were detected. We found that TPGs potently eliminated hydroxyl radicals and superoxide in vitro using ESR assays. Compared with model rats, TPG treatment, TPG therapy and the positive control treatment exhibited significantly reduced activities of GOT, LDH, and CK (p < 0.01), increased activity of SOD (p < 0.01) and lower levels of MDA (p < 0.05). More interestingly, the protective effect of TPG treatment was even better than that of propranolol. These results suggest that TPGs significantly ameliorate ISO-induced myocardial ischemia and their action might be through reducing oxidative stress

  19. Discovery and cardioprotective effects of the first non-Peptide agonists of the G protein-coupled prokineticin receptor-1.

    Adeline Gasser

    Full Text Available Prokineticins are angiogenic hormones that activate two G protein-coupled receptors: PKR1 and PKR2. PKR1 has emerged as a critical mediator of cardiovascular homeostasis and cardioprotection. Identification of non-peptide PKR1 agonists that contribute to myocardial repair and collateral vessel growth hold promises for treatment of heart diseases. Through a combination of in silico studies, medicinal chemistry, and pharmacological profiling approaches, we designed, synthesized, and characterized the first PKR1 agonists, demonstrating their cardioprotective activity against myocardial infarction (MI in mice. Based on high throughput docking protocol, 250,000 compounds were computationally screened for putative PKR1 agonistic activity, using a homology model, and 10 virtual hits were pharmacologically evaluated. One hit internalizes PKR1, increases calcium release and activates ERK and Akt kinases. Among the 30 derivatives of the hit compound, the most potent derivative, IS20, was confirmed for its selectivity and specificity through genetic gain- and loss-of-function of PKR1. Importantly, IS20 prevented cardiac lesion formation and improved cardiac function after MI in mice, promoting proliferation of cardiac progenitor cells and neovasculogenesis. The preclinical investigation of the first PKR1 agonists provides a novel approach to promote cardiac neovasculogenesis after MI.

  20. Nonylphenol disrupts the cardio-protective effects of 17β-estradiol on ischemia/reperfusion injury in isolated hearts of guinea pig.

    Wang, Yan; Hu, Huiyuan; Zhao, Meimi; Zhao, Jinsheng; Yin, Dandan; Sun, Xuefei; Liu, Shuyuan; Gao, Qinghua; Yu, Lifeng; Hao, Liying

    2013-01-01

    Nonylphenol (NP), a widely distributed, toxic, endocrine-disrupting chemical, has estrogenic properties. However, its cardiac effects remain unclear. In this study, the effects of NP on isolated guinea pig hearts were studied in three separate experiments. First, hearts were perfused with 10⁻⁷ M NP or 10⁻⁵ M NP to determine whether NP was toxic to isolated healthy hearts. Next, hearts were subjected to 50 min of ischemia and 60 min of reperfusion (I50R60) with 10⁻⁷ M NP or 10⁻⁵ M NP to determine whether NP could aggravate ischemia/reperfusion (I/R) injury. Finally, the interaction of the cardio-protective agent 17β-estradiol (E₂) with NP was studied using 10⁻⁷ M E₂, 10⁻⁷ M E₂ plus 10⁻⁷ M NP, and 10⁻⁷ M E₂ plus 10⁻⁵ M NP. Heart rate (HR) and coronary flow (CF) were significantly decreased and the leakage of lactate dehydrogenase (LDH) in effluent was increased in the 10⁻⁵ M NP group. However, there were no obvious changes in HR, CF, the leakage of LDH or creatine kinase (CK), or the activity of superoxide dismutase in either of the NP treatments in the I50R60 model. Treatment with 10⁻⁷ M E₂ attenuated I/R injury by increasing HR, decreasing the leakage of LDH and CK, and decreasing infarct size. However, these effects were reversed by both concentrations of NP. These data demonstrate that NP had direct toxic effects on normal hearts and NP might disrupt the cardio-protective effects of E₂ on I/R injury. PMID:24067721

  1. Cardioprotective effects of lipoic acid, quercetin and resveratrol on oxidative stress related to thyroid hormone alterations in long-term obesity.

    Cheserek, Maureen Jepkorir; Wu, Guirong; Li, Longnan; Li, Lirong; Karangwa, Eric; Shi, Yonghui; Le, Guowei

    2016-07-01

    This study investigated possible mechanisms for cardioprotective effects of lipoic acid (LA), quercetin (Q) and resveratrol (R) on oxidative stress related to thyroid hormone alterations in long-term obesity. Female C57BL/6 mice were fed on high-fat diet (HFD), HFD+LA, HFD+R, HFD+Q and normal diet for 26weeks. Body weight, blood pressure, thyroid hormones, oxidative stress markers, angiotensin converting enzyme (ACE), nitric oxide synthase (NOS) and ion pump activities were measured, and expression of cardiac genes was analyzed by real-time polymerase chain reaction. HFD induced marked increase (Pblood pressure and oxidative stress, while plasma triidothyronine levels reduced. ACE activity increased (Pblood pressure. In conclusion, LA, resveratrol and quercetin supplementation reduces obesity thereby restoring plasma thyroid hormone levels and attenuating oxidative stress in the heart and thus may have therapeutic potential in heart diseases. PMID:27260466

  2. Oxytocin and cardioprotection in diabetes and obesity

    Jankowski, Marek; Broderick, Tom L; Gutkowska, Jolanta

    2016-01-01

    Oxytocin (OT) emerges as a drug for the treatment of diabetes and obesity. The entire OT system is synthesized in the rat and human heart. The direct myocardial infusion with OT into an ischemic or failing heart has the potential to elicit a variety of cardioprotective effects. OT treatment attenuates cardiomyocyte (CMs) death induced by ischemia-reperfusion by activating pro-survival pathways within injured CMs in vivo and in isolated cells. OT treatment reduces cardiac apoptosis, fibrosis, ...

  3. 9th Hatter Biannual Meeting: position document on ischaemia/reperfusion injury, conditioning and the ten commandments of cardioprotection.

    Bell, R M; Bøtker, H E; Carr, R D; Davidson, S M; Downey, J M; Dutka, D P; Heusch, G; Ibanez, B; Macallister, R; Stoppe, C; Ovize, M; Redington, A; Walker, J M; Yellon, D M

    2016-07-01

    In the 30 years since the original description of ischaemic preconditioning, understanding of the pathophysiology of ischaemia/reperfusion injury and concepts of cardioprotection have been revolutionised. In the same period of time, management of patients with coronary artery disease has also been transformed: coronary artery and valve surgery are now deemed routine with generally excellent outcomes, and the management of acute coronary syndromes has seen decade on decade reductions in cardiovascular mortality. Nonetheless, despite these improvements, cardiovascular disease and ischaemic heart disease in particular, remain the leading cause of death and a significant cause of long-term morbidity (with a concomitant increase in the incidence of heart failure) worldwide. The need for effective cardioprotective strategies has never been so pressing. However, despite unequivocal evidence of the existence of ischaemia/reperfusion in animal models providing a robust rationale for study in man, recent phase 3 clinical trials studying a variety of cardioprotective strategies in cardiac surgery and acute ST-elevation myocardial infarction have provided mixed results. The investigators meeting at the Hatter Cardiovascular Institute workshop describe the challenge of translating strong pre-clinical data into effective clinical intervention strategies in patients in whom effective medical therapy is already altering the pathophysiology of ischaemia/reperfusion injury-and lay out a clearly defined framework for future basic and clinical research to improve the chances of successful translation of strong pre-clinical interventions in man. PMID:27164905

  4. Synergistic cardioprotective effects of Danshensu and hydroxysafflor yellow A against myocardial ischemia-reperfusion injury are mediated through the Akt/Nrf2/HO-1 pathway.

    Hu, Tianxin; Wei, Guo; Xi, Miaomiao; Yan, Jiajia; Wu, Xiaoxiao; Wang, Yanhua; Zhu, Yanrong; Wang, Chao; Wen, Aidong

    2016-07-01

    In clinical practice, the traditional Chinese medicinal herbs, Radix Salvia Miltiorrhiza and Carthamus tinctorius L., are usually prescribed in combination due to their significant cardioprotective effects. However, the mechanisms responsible for these combined effects remain unknown. Thus, in this study, we investigated the mechanisms responsible for the combined effects of Danshensu (DSS) and hydroxysafflor yellow A (HSYA) by establishing a rat model of myocardial ischemia/reperfusion (MI/R), as well as a model of hypoxia/reoxygenation (H/R) using H9c2 cells. The combination index (CI) was calculated using the median-effect method. DSS and HSYA in combination led to a CI value of <1 as regards infarct size in vivo and cell viability in vitro. The rats with MI/R injury that were treated with DSS and/or HSYA were found to have significantly lower levels of creatine kinase-MB (CK-MB) and cardiac troponin I (cTnI) and malondialdehyde (MDA), and a lower expressoin of 8-hydroxydeoxyguanosine (8-OHdG), and markedly enhanced superoxide dismutase (SOD) activity. Our in vitro experiments revealed that the cells treated with DSS and/or HSYA had a reduced lactate dehydrogenase (LDH) activity and a decreased percentage of cell apoptosis (increased Bcl-2/Bax ratio, decreased expression of cleaved caspase-3). DSS and HSYA increased the expression of heme oxygenase-1 (HO-1), the phosphorylation of Akt and the translocation of nuclear factor erythroid 2-related factor 2 (Nrf2). Furthermore, the Akt inhibitor, LY294002, partially hampered the expression of Nrf2 and HO-1. The HO-1 inhibitor, zinc protoporphyrin IX (ZnPP‑IX), did not decrease the expression of p-Akt and Nrf2, although it abolished the anti-apoptotic and antioxidant effects of DSS and HSYA. The findings of our study thus demonstrate that DSS and HSYA confer synergistic cardioprotective effects through the Akt/Nrf2/HO-1 signaling pathway, to certain extent, by enhancing the antioxidant

  5. Synergistic cardioprotective effects of Danshensu and hydroxysafflor yellow A against myocardial ischemia-reperfusion injury are mediated through the Akt/Nrf2/HO-1 pathway

    HU, TIANXIN; WEI, GUO; XI, MIAOMIAO; YAN, JIAJIA; WU, XIAOXIAO; WANG, YANHUA; ZHU, YANRONG; WANG, CHAO; WEN, AIDONG

    2016-01-01

    In clinical practice, the traditional Chinese medicinal herbs, Radix Salvia Miltiorrhiza and Carthamus tinctorius L., are usually prescribed in combination due to their significant cardioprotective effects. However, the mechanisms responsible for these combined effects remain unknown. Thus, in this study, we investigated the mechanisms responsible for the combined effects of Danshensu (DSS) and hydroxysafflor yellow A (HSYA) by establishing a rat model of myocardial ischemia/reperfusion (MI/R), as well as a model of hypoxia/reoxygenation (H/R) using H9c2 cells. The combination index (CI) was calculated using the median-effect method. DSS and HSYA in combination led to a CI value of <1 as regards infarct size in vivo and cell viability in vitro. The rats with MI/R injury that were treated with DSS and/or HSYA were found to have significantly lower levels of creatine kinase-MB (CK-MB) and cardiac troponin I (cTnI) and malondialdehyde (MDA), and a lower expressoin of 8-hydroxydeoxyguanosine (8-OHdG), and markedly enhanced superoxide dismutase (SOD) activity. Our in vitro experiments revealed that the cells treated with DSS and/or HSYA had a reduced lactate dehydrogenase (LDH) activity and a decreased percentage of cell apoptosis (increased Bcl-2/Bax ratio, decreased expression of cleaved caspase-3). DSS and HSYA increased the expression of heme oxygenase-1 (HO-1), the phosphorylation of Akt and the trans-location of nuclear factor erythroid 2-related factor 2 (Nrf2). Furthermore, the Akt inhibitor, LY294002, partially hampered the expression of Nrf2 and HO-1. The HO-1 inhibitor, zinc protoporphyrin IX (ZnPP-IX), did not decrease the expression of p-Akt and Nrf2, although it abolished the anti-apoptotic and antioxidant effects of DSS and HSYA. The findings of our study thus demonstrate that DSS and HSYA confer synergistic cardioprotective effects through the Akt/Nrf2/HO-1 signaling pathway, to certain extent, by enhancing the antioxidant defense system and exerting

  6. Cardioprotective effect of aqueous extract of Chichorium intybus L. on ischemia-reperfusion injury in isolated rat heart

    Najmeh Sadeghi

    2015-10-01

    Full Text Available Objective: Several studies have shown that Chichorium intybus L. (C. intybus which possesses flavonoid compounds has an effective role in treatment of cardiovascular diseases. Contractile dysfunction mostly occurs after acute myocardial infarction, cardiac bypass surgery, heart transplantation and coronary angioplasty. The aim of the present study was to investigate the effect of aqueous extract of C. intybus on ischemia- reperfusion injury in isolated rat heart. Materials and Methods: The animals were divided into four groups (Sham, Control, 1 mg/ml and 3 mg/ml of extract of 8 rats. The aorta was cannulated, and then the heart was mounted on a Langendorff apparatus. Next, a balloon was inserted into the left ventricle (LV and peak positive value of time derivate of LV pressure (+dp/dt, coronary flow (CF, and left ventricular systolic pressure (LVSP in pre-ischemia and reperfusion period were calculated by a Power Lab system. All groups underwent a 30-minute global ischemia followed by a 60-minute reperfusion. Results: The results showed that heart rate (HR, coronary flow, and left ventricular developed pressure (LVDP and rate of pressure product (RPP significantly decreased in the control group during reperfusion, while these values in the groups receiving the extract (3mg/ml improved significantly during reperfusion (p

  7. Dietary docosahexaenoic acid-enriched glycerophospholipids exert cardioprotective effects in ouabain-treated rats via physiological and metabolic changes.

    Bernard, Monique; Maixent, Jean-Michel; Gerbi, Alain; Lan, Carole; Cozzone, Patrick Jean; Pieroni, Gérard; Armand, Martine; Coste, Thierry Charles

    2016-02-17

    Docosahexaenoic acid (DHA) might prevent heart failure or optimise drug treatments by improving cardiac contraction. We investigated whether DHA-enriched avian glycerophospholipids (GPL-DHA) exert cardioprotection in ouabain-treated rats after 4 weeks of dietary supplementation with 10, 35 or 60 mg DHA per kg body weight versus none (DHA10, DHA35, DHA60 and control groups, respectively). The contractile responsiveness to different doses of ouabain (10(-7) to 10(-4) M), ouabain intoxication (at 3 × 10(-4) M), and relative variations in cardiac energy metabolism were determined using (31)P NMR in isolated perfused rat hearts. The fatty acid composition of cardiac membranes was analysed by gas chromatography. DHA accretion in the heart was dose-dependent (+8%, +30% and +45% for DHA10, DHA35 and DHA60, respectively). The cardiac phosphocreatine content significantly increased at the baseline in DHA35 (+45%) and DHA60 groups (+85%), and at the different doses of ouabain in the DHA60 group (+73% to 98%). The maximum positive inotropy achieved at 10(-4) M ouabain was significantly increased in all DHA groups versus control (+150%, +122.5% and +135% for DHA10, DHA35 and DHA60, respectively), and ouabain intoxication was delayed. The increase in myocardial phosphocreatine content and the improved efficacy of ouabain on myocardial contraction without toxicity suggest the potential of GPL-DHA as a dietary supplement or ingredient for functional food, and possibly as a co-treatment with digitalis drugs in humans. PMID:26662260

  8. Weight losing, antihyperlipidemic and cardioprotective effects of the alkaloid fraction of Hunteria umbellata seed extract on normal and triton-induced hyperlipidemic rats

    Adejuwon; Adewale; Adeneye; Peter; Anthony; Crooks

    2015-01-01

    Objective: To investigate the weight losing, antihyperlipidemic and cardioprotective effects of the alkaloid fraction of Hunteria umbellata(H. umbellata) seed.Methods: Adult female Wistar rats(weight range: 120-150 g) were randomly divided into 4 and 5 treatment groups in the normal and triton-induced hyperlipidemic models, respectively. and were daily treated for 14 d before they were humanely sacrificed under inhaled diethyl ether anesthesia. About 5 mL of whole blood was obtained by cardiac puncture from each treated rat, from which serum for lipids assay was subsequently separated. Tissue samples of livers of treated rats were harvested and processed for histopathological analysis.Results: Repeated daily oral treatments of normal rats with 25 and 50 mg/kg/day of alkaloid fraction of H. umbellata resulted in significant(P<0.05 and P<0.001) and dose-dependent weight loss, and decreases in the serum triglyceride, total cholesterol and low density lipoprotein cholesterol, while significantly(P<0.001) increased the serum levels of high density lipoprotein cholesterol fraction. Similarly, oral pre-treatments with 25 and 50 mg/kg/day of alkaloid fraction of H. umbellata for 14 d before induction of hyperlipidemia with triton WR-1339 significantly(P<0.01, P<0.001) and dose-dependently attenuated increases in the average body weights, serum levels of triglyceride, total cholesterol and low density lipoprotein cholesterol while also significantly(P<0.01, P<0.001) and dose-dependently attenuated significant(P<0.001) decrease in the serum high-density lipoproteincholesterol levels when compared to the untreated control values. However, the results obtained for 50 mg/kg of alkaloid fraction of H. umbellata in both normal and triton WR-1339-induced hyperlipidemic rats were comparable to that recorded for 20 mg/kg of simvastatin. Similarly, oral pretreatments with 25 and 50 mg/kg/day of alkaloid fraction of H. umbellata significantly improved the histological lesions of fatty

  9. Trimetazidine and cardioprotection: facts and perspectives.

    Tsioufis, Konstantinos; Andrikopoulos, George; Manolis, Athanasios

    2015-03-01

    Trimetazidine (TMZ) is a metabolic agent used in cardiology for more than 40 years. Several studies assessed the cardioprotective effects of TMZ in patients with chronic coronary heart disease (CHD) as well as in patients with heart failure (HF). In light of the inclusion of TMZ in the current guidelines on the management of stable CHD, we reviewed the published literature on TMZ, focusing mainly its effects on patients with stable angina and HF. According to the published literature, there is sufficient evidence to support the addition of this agent in the treatment of symptomatic patients with stable angina. PMID:24719262

  10. Triterpenoid saponins from Clematis tangutica and their cardioprotective activities.

    Zhang, Wei; Wang, Xiaoyang; Tang, Haifeng; Wang, Minchang; Ji, Lanju; Wen, Aidong; Wang, Jianbo

    2013-01-01

    Phytochemical investigation of the whole plants of Clematis tangutica led to the isolation of three new triterpenoid saponins (1-3), together with four known saponins (4-7). Their structures were determined by extensive spectral analysis and chemical evidences. Compounds 1-7 were evaluated for their cardioprotective activities in cardiomyocytes anoxia/reoxygenation (A/R) model. The results showed that those saponins exhibited cardioprotective effects by decreasing the levels of creatine kinase-MB (CK-MB) and lactate dehydrogenase (LDH). PMID:23266737

  11. Cholinesterase inhibitors: cardioprotection in Alzheimer's disease.

    Monacelli, Fiammetta; Rosa, Gianmarco

    2014-01-01

    Alzheimer's disease is a life shortening disease, and the lack of disease modifying therapy implies a huge impact on life expectancy as well as an outgrowing financial and socioeconomic burden. Cholinesterase inhibitors (ChEIs) represent the first line symptomatic therapy, whose benefit to harm ratio is still a matter of debate. Acetylcholinesterase enzyme is a core interest for pharmacological and toxicological research to unmask the fine balance between therapeutic drug efficacy, tolerability, safety, and detrimental effects up to adverse drug reaction. So far, a body of evidence advocated that an increased vagal tone was associated to an increased risk of gastrointestinal and cardiac side effects (negative chronotropic, arrhytmogenic, hypotensive effects), able to hamper ChEIs effects on cognition, reducing administration feasibility and compliance, especially in older and comorbid patients. Conversely, a growing body of evidence is indicating a protective role of ChEIs on overall cardiovascular mortality in patients with dementia, through a series of in vitro and in vivo investigations. The present review is aimed to report the up to date literature in the controversial field of ChEIs and cardioprotection in dementia, offering a state of the art, which may constitute the conceptual framework to be enlarged in order to build higher evidence. Chronic vagal nerve stimulation acted upon by donepezil might improve long term survival through pharmacological properties apart from cholinesterase inhibition, able to offer cardioprotection, abating the overall cardiovascular risk, and, thus profiling a new line of therapeutic intervention for ChEI drug class. PMID:25024324

  12. Evaluation of cardioprotective effect of ischemic preconditioning on ischemic myocardium using 99Tcm-Syt I-C2A in the myocardial ischemia-reperfusion rat model

    Objective: Precondition is an approach to myocardial protection during ischemia-reperfusion by inhibiting myocardial cell apoptosis. The purpose of this study was to evaluate the cardioprotective effect using 99Tcm-synaptotagmin I (Syt I) -C2A to detect myocardial cell apoptosis in the myocardial is-chemia-reperfusion rat model. Methods: (1) The C2A domain of Syt I was labeled with 99Tcm using 2-iminothiophene hydrochloride (IT) method. Radiochemical purity was determined with thin layer chroma-tography. The binding activity of radiolabeled protein was assessed using camptothecin-treated Jurket cells. (2) One group of 6 rats was prepared for myocardial ischemia-reperfusion model (A group), and another group of 6 rats was prepared for myocardial ischemia precondition model (B group). 99Tcm-Syt I-C2A was injected via the tail vein at a dosage of about 7.4 MBq. At 1h after injection, the rat was sacrificed, and the heart was removed to rinse with saline and dye with triphenyl tetrazolium coride (TTC). According to the resdt of myocardial dye, theischemic myocardium was separated from the viable myocardium and weight was measured, and then its radioactivity was determined by gamma counting. The difference of radioactive uptake in the ischemic myocardium between these two group models was compared using percentage activity of injection dose per gram of tissue (%ID/g) ± standard deviation [(x -bar)± s]. SPSS 12.0 was used for data analysis, and t-test was used to compare data. Results: (1) The radiochemical purity of 99Tcm-Syt I-C2A was (98.90 ± 0.43)%, and the radioactivity in the camptothecin-treated group was (10.99 ± 0.55) folds higher than that of non-treated viable control group. (2)In the ischemia-reperfusion model, the radioactive uptake of 99Tcm-Syt, I-C2A was (2.41 ± 0.32)% ID/g in the ischemic myocardium, and (0.16 ± O.02)% ID/g in the nomud myocardiunm. However, in the myocardial ischemia precondition model, (0.46 ± 0.05)% ID/g in the ischemic

  13. Cardioprotective and neuroprotective roles of oleuropein in olive.

    Omar, Syed Haris

    2010-07-01

    Traditional diets of people living in the Mediterranean basin are, among other components, very rich in extra-virgin olive oil, the most typical source of visible fat. Olive is a priceless source of monounsaturated and di-unsaturated fatty acids, polyphenolic antioxidants and vitamins. Oleuropein is the main glycoside in olives and is responsible for the bitter taste of immature and unprocessed olives. Chemically, oleuropein is the ester of elenolic acid and 3,4-dihydroxyphenyl ethanol, which possesses beneficial effects on human health, such as antioxidant, antiatherogenic, anti-cancer, anti-inflammatory and antimicrobial properties. The phenolic fraction extracted from the leaves of the olive tree, which contains significant amounts of oleuropein, prevents lipoprotein oxidation. In addition, oleuropein has shown cardioprotective effect against acute adriamycin cardiotoxicity and an anti-ischemic and hypolipidemic activities. Recently, oleuropein has shown neuroprotection by forming a non-covalent complex with the Aβ peptide, which is a key hallmark of several degenerative diseases like Alzheimer and Parkinson. Thus, a large mass of research has been accumulating in the area of olive oil, in the attempt to provide evidence for the health benefits of olive oil consumption and to scientifically support the widespread adoption of traditional Mediterranean diet as a model of healthy eating. These results provide a molecular basis for some of the benefits potentially coming from oleuropein consumption and pave the way to further studies on the possible pharmacological use of oleuropein to prevent or to slow down the cardiovascular and neurodegenerative diseases. PMID:23964170

  14. Glucose Effect in the Acute Porphyrias

    ... You are here Home Diet and Nutrition The glucose effect in acute porphyrias The disorders Acute Intermittent ... are treated initially with the administration of carbohydrate/glucose. This therapy has its basis in the ability ...

  15. Timing of erythropoietin treatment for cardioprotection in ischemia/reperfusion

    Lipsic, E; van der Meer, P; Henning, RH; Suurmeijer, AJH; Boddeus, KM; van Veldhuisen, DJ; van Gilst, WH; Schoemaker, RG

    2004-01-01

    Erythropoietin (EPO) is a hormone known to stimulate hematopoiesis. However, recent research suggests additional properties of EPO, such as protection against ischemia/reperfusion (I/R) injury in various tissues. We studied the effect of timing of EPO administration on cardioprotection during I/R in

  16. Long term cardioprotective action of trimetazidine and potential effect on the inflammatory process in patients with ischaemic dilated cardiomyopathy

    Di Napoli, P; Taccardi, A A; Barsotti, A

    2005-01-01

    Objective: To investigate the long term effects of trimetazidine in patients with dilated ischaemic cardiomyopathy. The effects of trimetazidine on left ventricular function as well as its tolerability profile and potential anti-inflammatory effects were studied.

  17. Impact of Mitochondrial Ca2+-Sensitive Potassium (mBKCa) Channels in Sildenafil-Induced Cardioprotection in Rats

    Behmenburg, Friederike; Dorsch, Marianne; Huhn, Ragnar; Mally, David; Heinen, André; Hollmann, Markus W.; Berger, Marc M

    2015-01-01

    Background Mitochondrial large-conductance Ca2+-sensitive potassium (mBKCa) channels are involved in myocardial ischemic preconditioning. Their role in sildenafil-induced cardioprotection is unknown. We investigated whether sildenafil-induced acute cardioprotection is mediated by activation of mBKCa channels in the rat heart in vitro. Methods Male Wistar rats (n = 8 per group) were randomized and anesthetized with pentobarbital (90 mg/kg). Hearts were isolated, mounted on a Langendorff system...

  18. Hypertrophied hearts: what of sevoflurane cardioprotection?

    Larsen, Jens Kjærgaard Rolighed; Smerup, Morten Holdgaard; Hasenkam, John Michael;

    2009-01-01

    cardioprotection with anaesthetics remain controversial--in contrast to solid experimental evidence. Concomitant left ventricular hypertrophy is found in some cardiac surgery patients and could change cardioprotection efficacy. Hypertrophy could potentially render the heart less susceptible to sevoflurane...... cardioprotection and more susceptible to ischaemic injury. We investigated whether hypertrophy blocks sevoflurane cardioprotection, and whether tolerance to ischaemia is altered by left ventricular hypertrophy, in an established experimental animal model of ischaemia-reperfusion. METHODS: Anaesthetized juvenile...... left ventricular hypertrophy development in two further groups and these animals underwent identical ischaemia-reperfusion protocols, with or without sevoflurane cardioprotection. Myocardial infarct sizes were compared post-mortem. RESULTS: The mean myocardial infarct size (% of area-at-risk) was...

  19. CARDIO-PROTECTIVE EFFECT OF ALCOHOLIC EXTRACT OF CYPERUS ROTUNDUS RHIZOME ON ISOPROTERENOL-INDUCED MYOCARDIAL NECROSIS IN RATS

    Syed Mehdi Raza et al

    2012-08-01

    Full Text Available The study was designed to scientifically evaluate the effect of alchoholic extract of Cyperus rotundus rhizomes, a traditional medicinal herb, on isoproterenol-induce myocardial necrosis in rats model. The albino wistar rats were divided into five different groups with six animal in each group. Group I serves as a control group, group II were given isoproterenol (85 mg/kg s.c for 2 days while Group III was treated with metoprolol (10 mg/kg for 28 days and isoproterenol on last 2 days. This group serves as standard group and its effect was used for comparison with that of test drug (Cyperus rotundus extract. Group IV and V were given Cyperus rotundus rhizome extract (300 mg/kg and 150 mg/kg respectively for 28 days and isoproterenol on last 29th and 30th day. The level of enzymes transaminases (aspartate transaminase and alanine transaminase, Lactate dehydrogenase (LDH, Cretinine kinase (CK were estimated in serum and the extent of necrosis was studied by grading. Isoproterenol significantly increased the activities of CK, LDH and the transaminases in serum. Pretreatment with the alchoholic extract of Cyperus rotundus had a significant effect on the activities of marker enzymes compared to the other groups. The effect was compared with the effect on marker enzymes in the group treated with Metaprolol. The metaprolol treated group shows reduced level of marker enzymes, nearer to the control group. The pretreatment with Cyperus rotundus extract at the dose 300 mg/kg shows more significant reduction then at the dose of 150 mg/kg. The study confirms the protective effects of Cyperus rotundus rhizome extract against isoproterenol-induced biochemical alterations in rats.

  20. Cardioprotective effect of Vedic Guard against doxorubicin-induced cardiotoxicity in rats: A biochemical, electrocardiographic, and histopathological study

    Basavaraj C Koti

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Background: Vedic Guard is a polyherbal formulation used in the treatment of various ailments, however, is not scientifically assessed for its effect on doxorubicin-induced cardiotoxicity. Objective: To find out the preventive role of Vedic Guard against doxorubicin-induced myocardial toxicity in rats. Materials and Methods: Cardiotoxicity was produced by doxorubicin (15 mg/kg for 2 weeks. Vedic Guard (270 mg/kg, orally was administered as pre-treatment for 2 weeks and then for 2 weeks alternated with doxorubicin (DXR. The general observations, mortality, histopathology, biomarker like lactate dehydrogenase (LDH, creatine phosphokinase (CPK, aspartate aminotransferase (AST, alanine transaminase (ALT, electrocardiographic (ECG parameters, antioxidants such as glutathione (GSH, superoxide dismutase (SOD, and catalase (CAT were monitored after 3 weeks of last dose. Results: The repeated administration of DXR causes cardiomyopathy associated with an antioxidant deficit. Pre-treatment with Vedic Guard decreases serum enzyme viz LDH, CPK, AST, and ALT levels to that of normal values. Vedic Guard significantly protected the myocardium from the toxic effect of DXR, by increasing the levels of antioxidants such as GSH, SOD, and CAT and decreased the elevated level of malondialdehyde. The study shows significant alteration of ECG pattern in DXR administered rats. The characteristic findings were elevation of ST segment, reduction in P waves, QRS complex, and R-R interval. Vedic Guard showed a protective effect against DXR-induced altered ECG pattern. It also reduced the severity of cellular damage of the myocardium confirmed by histopathology. Conclusion: The results of the present study indicated c ardioprotective effect of Vedic Guard might be attributed to its antioxidant activity.

  1. Cardioprotective Effect of High Intensity Interval Training and Nitric Oxide Metabolites (NO2 −, NO3 −)

    Fallahi, Aliasghar; Gaeini, Abbasali; SHEKARFROUSH, Shahnaz; Khoshbaten, Ali

    2015-01-01

     Background: The aim of this study was to investigate the effects of High-Intensity Interval Training (HIIT) on nitric oxide metabolites (NO2-, NO3-) and myocardial infarct size after Ischemia/Reperfusion (I/R) injury in healthy male rats.Methods: A total of 44 Wistar rats were randomly divided into 4 groups including HIIT (n=8), HIIT + IR protocol (n=14), control (n=8), and control + IR (n=14). Each training session of HIIT consisted of 1 hour of exercise in three stages: 6-minute running at...

  2. CARDIO-PROTECTIVE EFFECT OF ALCOHOLIC EXTRACT OF CYPERUS ROTUNDUS RHIZOME ON ISOPROTERENOL-INDUCED MYOCARDIAL NECROSIS IN RATS

    Syed Mehdi Raza et al

    2012-01-01

    The study was designed to scientifically evaluate the effect of alchoholic extract of Cyperus rotundus rhizomes, a traditional medicinal herb, on isoproterenol-induce myocardial necrosis in rats model. The albino wistar rats were divided into five different groups with six animal in each group. Group I serves as a control group, group II were given isoproterenol (85 mg/kg s.c) for 2 days while Group III was treated with metoprolol (10 mg/kg) for 28 days and isoproterenol on last 2 days. This ...

  3. Intermittent fasting combined with calorie restriction is effective for weight loss and cardio-protection in obese women

    Klempel Monica C

    2012-11-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Intermittent fasting (IF; severe restriction 1 d/week facilitates weight loss and improves coronary heart disease (CHD risk indicators. The degree to which weight loss can be enhanced if IF is combined with calorie restriction (CR and liquid meals, remains unknown. Objective This study examined the effects of IF plus CR (with or without a liquid diet on body weight, body composition, and CHD risk. Methods Obese women (n = 54 were randomized to either the IFCR-liquid (IFCR-L or IFCR-food based (IFCR-F diet. The trial had two phases: 1 2-week weight maintenance period, and 2 8-week weight loss period. Results Body weight decreased more (P = 0.04 in the IFCR-L group (3.9 ± 1.4 kg versus the IFCR-F group (2.5 ± 0.6 kg. Fat mass decreased similarly (P P = 0.04 in the IFCR-L (19 ± 10%; 20 ± 9%, respectively versus the IFCR-F group (8 ± 3%; 7 ± 4%, respectively. LDL peak particle size increased (P Conclusion These findings suggest that IF combined with CR and liquid meals is an effective strategy to help obese women lose weight and lower CHD risk.

  4. Cardioprotective Effect of High Intensity Interval Training and Nitric Oxide Metabolites (NO2−, NO3−)

    FALLAHI, Aliasghar; GAEINI, Abbasali; SHEKARFROUSH, Shahnaz; KHOSHBATEN, Ali

    2015-01-01

    Background: The aim of this study was to investigate the effects of High-Intensity Interval Training (HIIT) on nitric oxide metabolites (NO2−, NO3−) and myocardial infarct size after Ischemia/Reperfusion (I/R) injury in healthy male rats. Methods: A total of 44 Wistar rats were randomly divided into 4 groups including HIIT (n=8), HIIT + IR protocol (n=14), control (n=8), and control + IR (n=14). Each training session of HIIT consisted of 1 hour of exercise in three stages: 6-minute running at 50–60% VO2max for warm-up; 7 intervals of 7-minute running on treadmill with a slope of 5° to 20° (4 minutes with an intensity of 80–100% VO2max and 3 minutes at 50–60% VO2max); and 5-minute running at 50–60% VO2max for cool-down. The control group did not participate in any exercise program. Nitric Oxide (NO) and its metabolites were measured by using Griess reaction test. Results: The results showed that eight weeks of exercise training exerted a significantly increasing effect on nitrite (8.55 μmol per liter, equivalent to 34.79%), nitrate (62.02 μmol per liter, equivalent to 149.48%), and NOx (66 μmol per liter, equivalent to 98.11%) in the HIIT group compared with the control group. The results showed myocardial infract size (IS) was significantly smaller (23.2%, PHIIT program can protect the heart from I/R injury and decrease myocardial infarction. PMID:26587502

  5. Protein kinase C betaII peptide inhibitor exerts cardioprotective effects in rat cardiac ischemia/reperfusion injury.

    Omiyi, Didi; Brue, Richard J; Taormina, Philip; Harvey, Margaret; Atkinson, Norrell; Young, Lindon H

    2005-08-01

    Ischemia followed by reperfusion (I/R) in the presence of polymorphonuclear leukocytes (PMNs) results in a marked cardiac contractile dysfunction. A cell-permeable protein kinase C (PKC) betaII peptide inhibitor was used to test the hypothesis that PKC betaII inhibition could attenuate PMN-induced cardiac dysfunction by suppression of superoxide production from PMNs and increase NO release from vascular endothelium. The effects of the PKC betaII peptide inhibitor were examined in isolated ischemic (20 min) and reperfused (45 min) rat hearts with PMNs. The PKC betaII inhibitor (10 microM; n = 7) significantly attenuated PMN-induced cardiac dysfunction compared with I/R hearts (n = 9) receiving PMNs alone in left ventricular developed pressure (LVDP) and the maximal rate of LVDP (+dP/dt(max)) cardiac function indices (p < 0.01). The PKC betaII inhibitor at 10 microM significantly increased endothelial NO release from a basal value of 1.85 +/- 0.18 pmol NO/mg tissue to 3.49 +/- 0.62 pmol NO/mg tissue from rat aorta. It also significantly inhibited superoxide release (i.e., absorbance) from N-formyl-L-methionyl-L-leucyl-L-phenylalanine-stimulated rat PMNs from 0.13 +/- 0.01 to 0.02 +/- 0.004 (p < 0.01) at 10 microM. Histological analysis of the left ventricle of representative rat hearts from each group showed that the PKC betaII peptide inhibitor-treated hearts experienced a marked reduction in PMN vascular adherence and infiltration into the postreperfused cardiac tissue compared with I/R + PMN hearts (p < 0.01). These results suggest that the PKC betaII peptide inhibitor attenuates PMN-induced post-I/R cardiac contractile dysfunction by increasing endothelial NO release and by inhibiting superoxide release from PMNs. PMID:15878997

  6. Cardioprotective effect of an L/N-type calcium channel blocker in patients with hypertensive heart disease

    Left ventricular (LV) diastolic dysfunction is related to increased cardiac sympathetic activity. We investigated the effect of cilnidipine, an L/N-type calcium channel blocker, on LV diastolic function and cardiac sympathetic activity in patients with hypertensive heart disease (HHD) using radionuclide myocardial imaging. Thirty-two frame electrocardiography (ECG)-gated 99mTc-sestamibi (MIBI) myocardial single photon emission computed tomography (SPECT), and 123I-metaiodobenzylguanidine (MIBG) imaging were performed before and 6 months after drug administration in 32 outpatients with HHD. Sixteen of the patients were treated with cilnidipine and the other 16 were treated with nifedipine retard. The parameters for assessing LV diastolic function evaluated using ECG-gated 99mTc-MIBI SPECT were peak filling rate (PFR), first-third filling rate (1/3FR), and time to peak filling (TPF). Cardiac sympathetic activity was assessed as early and delayed heart to mediastinum (H/M) ratios and a washout rate (WR), using 123I-MIBG imaging. The PFR and 1/3FR significantly increased after 6 months of treatment with cilnidipine (p<0.05 for both), but did not with nifedipine retard. The H/M ratios significantly increased (p<0.05 for both) in conjunction with a decreased WR (p<0.05) in the cilnidipine group. Moreover, a significant positive correlation was seen between the rate of change in PFR and the rate of change in early and delayed H/M ratios in the cilnidipine group (p<0.05 for both). The same results were obtained for the relationship between the rate of change in 1/3FR and the rate of change in H/M ratios (p<0.05 for both). However, no such relationship was seen in the nifedipine group. These data indicate that cilnidipine seems to suppress cardiac sympathetic overactivity via blockade of N-type calcium channels and improves LV diastolic function in patients with HHD. (author)

  7. Cardioprotection by Klotho through downregulation of TRPC6 channels in the mouse heart

    Xie, Jian; Cha, Seung-Kuy; An, Sung-Wan; Kuro-o, Makoto; Birnbaumer, Lutz; Huang, Chou-Long

    2012-01-01

    Klotho is a membrane protein predominantly produced in the kidney that exerts some anti-ageing effects. Ageing is associated with an increased risk of heart failure; whether Klotho is cardioprotective is unknown. Here we show that Klotho-deficient mice have no baseline cardiac abnormalities but develop exaggerated pathological cardiac hypertrophy and remodeling in response to stress. Cardioprotection by Klotho in normal mice is mediated by downregulation of TRPC6 channels in the heart. We dem...

  8. Freshly Crushed Garlic is a Superior Cardioprotective Agent than Processed Garlic

    Mukherjee, Subhendu; Lekli, Istvan; Goswami, Shyamal; Das, Dipak K

    2009-01-01

    In this study, we compared the cardioprotective effects of freshly crushed garlic vis-à-vis that of processed garlic. Two groups of rats were gavaged with respective garlic preparations while the control group received vehicle only. After 30 days, all the rats were sacrificed and isolated hearts were subjected to 30 min ischemia followed by 2 h of reperfusion. Both the garlic preparations provided cardioprotection, but superior cardiac performance was noticed for those fed with freshly crushe...

  9. Cardioprotective properties of Crataegus oxycantha extract against ischemia-reperfusion injury

    Swaminathan, Jayachandran Kesavan; Khan, Mahmood; Mohan, Iyappu K; Selvendiran, Karuppaiyah; Devaraj, S. Niranjali; Rivera, Brian K.; Kuppusamy, Periannan

    2010-01-01

    The aim of the study was to investigate the cardioprotective effect and mechanism of Crataegus oxycantha (COC) extract, a well-known natural antioxidant-based cardiotonic, against ischemia/reperfusion (I/R) injury. Electron paramagnetic resonance studies showed that COC extract was capable of scavenging superoxide, hydroxyl, and peroxyl radicals, in vitro. The cardioprotective efficacy of the extract was studied in a crystalloid perfused heart model of I/R injury. Hearts were subjected to 30 ...

  10. Phospholemman Ser69 phosphorylation contributes to sildenafil-induced cardioprotection against reperfusion injury

    Madhani, Melanie; Hall, Andrew R.; Cuello, Friederike; Charles, Rebecca L.; Burgoyne, Joseph R.; Fuller, William; Hobbs, Adrian J.; Shattock, Michael J.; Eaton, Philip

    2010-01-01

    The phosphodiesterase type-5 inhibitor sildenafil has powerful cardioprotective effects against ischemia-reperfusion injury. PKG-mediated signaling has been implicated in this protection, although the mechanism and the downstream targets of this kinase remain to be fully elucidated. In this study we assessed the role of phospholemman (PLM) phosphorylation, which activates the Na+/K+-ATPase, in cardioprotection afforded by sildenafil administered during reperfusion. Isolated perfused mouse hea...

  11. New targets of urocortin-mediated cardioprotection.

    Barry, Seán P; Lawrence, Kevin M; McCormick, James; Soond, Surinder M; Hubank, Mike; Eaton, Simon; Sivarajah, Ahila; Scarabelli, Tiziano M; Knight, Richard A; Thiemermann, Christoph; Latchman, David S; Townsend, Paul A; Stephanou, Anastasis

    2010-08-01

    The urocortin (UCN) hormones UCN1 and UCN2 have been shown previously to confer significant protection against myocardial ischaemia/reperfusion (I/R) injury; however, the molecular mechanisms underlying their action are poorly understood. To further define the transcriptional effect of UCNs that underpins their cardioprotective activity, a microarray analysis was carried out using an in vivo rat coronary occlusion model of I/R injury. Infusion of UCN1 or UCN2 before the onset of reperfusion resulted in the differential regulation of 66 and 141 genes respectively, the majority of which have not been described previously. Functional analysis demonstrated that UCN-regulated genes are involved in a wide range of biological responses, including cell death (e.g. X-linked inhibitor of apoptosis protein), oxidative stress (e.g. nuclear factor erythroid derived 2-related factor 1/nuclear factor erythroid derived 2-like 1) and metabolism (e.g. Prkaa2/AMPK). In addition, both UCN1 and UCN2 were found to modulate the expression of a host of genes involved in G-protein-coupled receptor (GPCR) signalling including Rac2, Gnb1, Dab2ip (AIP1), Ralgds, Rnd3, Rap1a and PKA, thereby revealing previously unrecognised signalling intermediates downstream of CRH receptors. Moreover, several of these GPCR-related genes have been shown previously to be involved in mitogen-activated protein kinase (MAPK) activation, suggesting a link between CRH receptors and induction of MAPKs. In addition, we have shown that both UCN1 and UCN2 significantly reduce free radical damage following myocardial infarction, and comparison of the UCN gene signatures with that of the anti-oxidant tempol revealed a significant overlap. These data uncover novel gene expression changes induced by UCNs, which will serve as a platform to further understand their mechanism of action in normal physiology and cardioprotection. PMID:20501665

  12. The cardio-protective signaling and mechanisms of adiponectin

    Nanayakkara, Gayani; Kariharan, Thiruchelvan; Wang, Lili; Zhong, Juming; Amin, Rajesh

    2012-01-01

    Adiponectin is an endogenous insulin-sensitizing hormone which has been found to regulate energy metabolism throughout the body, including the heart. However, low levels of adiponectin are found in patients with diabetes, hypertension and cardiovascular diseases. Thus it has been suggested to be an independent predictor for cardiovascular risk. Paradoxically, recent studies have also determined that adiponectin has cardioprotective effects against various cardiac related pathologies which lea...

  13. Cardioprotective efficacy depends critically on pharmacological dose, duration of ischaemia, health status of animals and choice of anaesthetic regimen: a case study with folic acid

    Zuurbier, Coert J.; Heinen, Andre; Koeman, Anneke; Stuifbergen, Roy; Hakvoort, Theodorus BM; Weber, Nina C; Hollmann, Markus W.

    2014-01-01

    Background Acute, high-dose folic acid (FA) administration has recently been shown to possess unprecedented effective cardioprotection against ischaemia/reperfusion (I/R) injury. Here we explore the translation potential of FA as treatment modality for cardiac I/R. Methods Dependency of FA protection on dose, ischaemia duration, and eNOS was examined in an isolated mouse heart I/R model, whereas dependency on animal health status and anaesthesia was examined in an in vivo rat model of regiona...

  14. Cardioprotective effect of breviscapine: inhibition of apoptosis in H9c2 cardiomyocytes via the PI3K/Akt/eNOS pathway following simulated ischemia/reperfusion injury.

    Wang, Jun; Ji, Shu-Yun; Liu, Si-Zhu; Jing, Rui; Lou, Wei-Juan

    2015-09-01

    Breviscapine (BE) is a standardized Chinese herbal medicine extracted from Erigeron breviscapus (Vant.) Hand.-Mazz. It has been widely used to treat cardiovascular and cerebrovascular diseases. However, there are no reports on the protective effects and underlying molecular mechanisms of BE action on myocardial ischemia/reperfusion (MI/R)-induced cardiomyocyte apoptosis. In the present study, we aimed to confirm the cardioprotective effect of BE from MI/R injury in vivo, and investigate the potential molecular mechanisms against simulated ischemia/reperfusion (SI/R)-induced cardiomyocyte apoptosis in vitro. The rat model of MI/R injury was induced by 30 min of transient vessel occlusion followed by 3 h of reperfusion. BE significantly reduced the myocardium infarct size and production of cardiac troponin (cTnl) in serum. In an in vitro experiment, H9c2 cardiomyocytes were incubated with vehicle or ischemic buffer during hypoxia; then, they were reoxygenated with or without BE. BE markedly improved the cell viability and decreased lactate dehydrogenase (LDH) release. We confirmed the anti-apoptotic effect of BE with the Hoechst 33258 staining assay, and this effect was associated with an increase in Bcl-2 and a decrease in active caspase-3 expression. Western blot analysis also showed that BE increased the phosphorylation of Akt and eNOS in H9c2 cells, and the protective effects of BE were partially inhibited by the phosphatidylinositol 3'-kinase (PI3K) specific inhibitor LY294002. Our results suggested that BE could provide significant cardioprotection against MI/R injury, and the potential mechanisms might involve suppression of cardiomyocyte apoptosis through activating the PI3K/Akt/eNOS signaling pathway. PMID:26492644

  15. Gene expression profile of rat left ventricles reveals persisting changes following chronic mild exercise protocol: implications for cardioprotection

    Esposito Fabio

    2009-07-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Epidemiological studies showed that physical exercise, specifically moderate lifelong training, is protective against cardiovascular morbidity and mortality. Most experimental work has focused into the effects and molecular mechanisms underlying intense, rather than mild exercise, by exploring the acute effect of training. Our study aims at investigating the cardioprotective effect of mild chronic exercise training and the gene expression profile changes at 48 hrs after the exercise cessation. Rats were trained at mild intensity on a treadmill: 25 m/min, 10%incline, 1 h/day, 3 days/week, 10 weeks; about 60% of the maximum aerobic power. By Affymetrix technology, we investigated the gene expression profile induced by exercise training in the left ventricle (LV of trained (n = 10 and control (n = 10 rats. Cardioprotection was investigated by ischemia/reperfusion experiments (n = 10 trained vs. n = 10 control rats. Results Mild exercise did not induce cardiac hypertrophy and was cardioprotective as demonstrated by the decreased infarct size (p = 0.02 after ischemia/reperfusion experiments in trained with respect to control rats. Ten genes and 2 gene sets (two pathways resulted altered in LV of exercised animals with respect to controls. We validated by real-time PCR the increased expression of four genes: similar to C11orf17 protein (RGD1306959, caveolin 3, enolase 3, and hypoxia inducible factor 1 alpha. Moreover, caveolin 3 protein levels were higher in exercised than control rats by immunohistochemistry and Western Blot analysis. Interestingly, the predicted gene similar to C11orf17 protein (RGD1306959 was significantly increased by exercise. This gene has a high homology with the human C11orf17 (alias: protein kinase-A interacting protein 1 or breast cancer associated gene 3. This is the first evidence that this gene is involved in the response to the exercise training. Conclusion Our data indicated that few, but significant

  16. Molecular Mechanisms in Exercise-Induced Cardioprotection

    Saeid Golbidi

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available Physical inactivity is increasingly recognized as modifiable behavioral risk factor for cardiovascular diseases. A partial list of proposed mechanisms for exercise-induced cardioprotection include induction of heat shock proteins, increase in cardiac antioxidant capacity, expression of endoplasmic reticulum stress proteins, anatomical and physiological changes in the coronary arteries, changes in nitric oxide production, adaptational changes in cardiac mitochondria, increased autophagy, and improved function of sarcolemmal and/or mitochondrial ATP-sensitive potassium channels. It is currently unclear which of these protective mechanisms are essential for exercise-induced cardioprotection. However, most investigations focus on sarcolemmal KATP channels, NO production, and mitochondrial changes although it is very likely that other mechanisms may also exist. This paper discusses current information about these aforementioned topics and does not consider potentially important adaptations within blood or the autonomic nervous system. A better understanding of the molecular basis of exercise-induced cardioprotection will help to develop better therapeutic strategies.

  17. The Coronary Circulation as a Target of Cardioprotection.

    Heusch, Gerd

    2016-05-13

    The atherosclerotic coronary vasculature is not only the culprit but also a victim of myocardial ischemia/reperfusion injury. Manifestations of such injury are increased vascular permeability and edema, endothelial dysfunction and impaired vasomotion, microembolization of atherothrombotic debris, stasis with intravascular cell aggregates, and finally, in its most severe form, capillary destruction with hemorrhage. In animal experiments, local and remote ischemic pre- and postconditioning not only reduce infarct size but also these manifestations of coronary vascular injury, as do drugs which recruit signal transduction steps of conditioning. Clinically, no-reflow is frequently seen after interventional reperfusion, and it carries an adverse prognosis. The translation of cardioprotective interventions to clinical practice has been difficult to date. Only 4 drugs (brain natriuretic peptide, exenatide, metoprolol, and esmolol) stand unchallenged to date in reducing infarct size in patients with reperfused acute myocardial infarction; unfortunately, for these drugs, no information on their impact on the ischemic/reperfused coronary circulation is available. PMID:27174955

  18. The Paracrine Effect of Skeletal Myoblasts Is Cardioprotective Against Oxidative Stress and Involves EGFR-ErbB4 Signaling, Cystathionase, and the Unfolded Protein Response.

    Siltanen, Antti; Nuutila, Kristo; Imanishi, Yukiko; Uenaka, Hisazumi; Mäkelä, Johanna; Pätilä, Tommi; Vento, Antti; Miyagawa, Shigeru; Sawa, Yoshiki; Harjula, Ari; Kankuri, Esko

    2016-01-01

    Therapeutic effects of skeletal myoblast transplantation into the myocardium are mediated via paracrine factors. We investigated the ability of myoblast-derived soluble mediators to protect cardiomyocytes from oxidative stress. Fetal rat cardiac cells were treated with conditioned medium from cultures of myoblasts or cardiac fibroblasts, and oxidative stress was induced with H2O2. Myoblast-derived factors effectively prevented oxidative stress-induced cardiac cell death and loss of mitochondrial membrane potential. This protective effect was mediated via epidermal growth factor (EGF) receptor and c-Met signaling, and mimicked by neuregulin 1 but not EGF. Microarray analysis of cardiac cells treated with myoblast versus cardiac fibroblast-derived mediators revealed differential regulation of genes associated with antioxidative effects: cystathionine-γ-lyase (cst), xanthine oxidase, and thioredoxin-interacting protein as well as tribbles homolog 3 (trib3). Cardiac cell pretreatment with tunicamycin, an inducer of trib3, also protected them against H2O2-induced cell death. Epicardial transplantation of myoblast sheets in a rat model of acute myocardial infarction was used to evaluate the expression of CST and trib3 as markers of myoblasts' paracrine effect in vivo. Myoblast sheets induced expression of the CST as well as trib3 in infarcted myocardium. CST localized around blood vessels, suggesting smooth muscle cell localization. Our results provide a deeper molecular insight into the therapeutic mechanisms of myoblast-derived paracrine signaling in cardiac cells and suggest that myoblast transplantation therapy may prevent oxidative stress-induced cardiac deterioration and progression of heart failure. PMID:26021843

  19. The anti-apoptotic and cardioprotective effects of salvianolic acid a on rat cardiomyocytes following ischemia/reperfusion by DUSP-mediated regulation of the ERK1/2/JNK pathway.

    Tongda Xu

    Full Text Available The purpose of this study was to observe the effects of salvianolic acid A (SAA pretreatment on the myocardium during ischemia/reperfusion (I/R and to illuminate the interrelationships among dual specificity protein phosphatase (DUSP 2/4/16, ERK1/2 and JNK pathways during myocardial I/R, with the ultimate goal of elucidating how SAA exerts cardioprotection against I/R injury (IRI. Wistar rats were divided into the following six groups: control group (CON, I/R group, SAA+I/R group, ERK1/2 inhibitor PD098059+I/R group (PD+I/R, PD+SAA+I/R group, and JNK inhibitor SP600125+I/R group (SP+I/R. The cardioprotective effects of SAA on the myocardium during I/R were investigated with a Langendorff device. Heart rate (HR, left ventricular systolic pressure (LVSP, left ventricular end-diastolic pressure (LVEDP, maximum rate of ventricular pressure rise and fall (±dp/dtmax, myocardial infarction areas (MIA, lactate dehydrogenase (LDH, and cardiomyocytes apoptosis were monitored. To determine the crosstalk betwee JNK and ERK1/2 via DUSP2/4/16 with SAA pretreatment, siRNA-DUSP2/4/16 were performed. The expression levels of Bcl-2, Bax, caspase 3, p-JNK, p-ERK1/2 and DUSP2/4/16 in cardiomyocytes were assayed by Western blot. Our results showed that LDH, MIA and cell apoptosis were decreased, and various parameters of heart function were improved by SAA pretreatment and SP application. In the I/R group, the expression levels of p-ERK1/2 and DUSP4/16 were not significantly different compared with the CON group, however, the protein expression levels of p-ERK1/2, Bcl-2 and DUSP4/16 were higher, while p-JNK, Bax, caspase 3 and DUSP2 levels were reduced among the SAA+I/R, PD+SAA+I/R and SP+I/R groups. The above indices were not significantly different between the SAA+I/R and SP+I/R groups. Compared with the SAA+I/R group, p-ERK1/2 was increased and p-JNK was decreased in the SAA+si-DUSP2+I/R, however, p-ERK was downregulated and p-JNK was upregulated in SAA+si-DUSP4

  20. Protective Effect of Melatonin on Acute Pancreatitis

    Jolanta Jaworek

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available Melatonin, a product of the pineal gland, is released from the gut mucosa in response to food ingestion. Specific receptors for melatonin have been detected in many gastrointestinal tissues including the pancreas. Melatonin as well as its precursor, L-tryptophan, attenuates the severity of acute pancreatitis and protects the pancreatic tissue from the damage caused by acute inflammation. The beneficial effect of melatonin on acute pancreatitis, which has been reported in many experimental studies and supported by clinical observations, is related to: (1 enhancement of antioxidant defense of the pancreatic tissue, through direct scavenging of toxic radical oxygen (ROS and nitrogen (RNS species, (2 preservation of the activity of antioxidant enzymes; such as superoxide dismutase (SOD, catalase (CAT, or glutathione peroxidase (GPx, (3 the decline of pro-inflammatory cytokine tumor necrosis α (TNFα production, accompanied by stimulation of an anti-inflammatory IL-10, (4 improvement of pancreatic blood flow and decrease of neutrophil infiltration, (5 reduction of apoptosis and necrosis in the inflamed pancreatic tissue, (6 increased production of chaperon protein (HSP60, and (7 promotion of regenerative process in the pancreas. Conclusion. Endogenous melatonin produced from L-tryptophan could be one of the native mechanisms protecting the pancreas from acute damage and accelerating regeneration of this gland. The beneficial effects of melatonin shown in experimental studies suggest that melatonin ought to be employed in the clinical trials as a supportive therapy in acute pancreatitis and could be used in people at high risk for acute pancreatitis to prevent the development of pancreatic inflammation.

  1. Electrical stimulation to optimize cardioprotective exosomes from cardiac stem cells.

    Campbell, C R; Berman, A E; Weintraub, N L; Tang, Y L

    2016-03-01

    Injured or ischemic cardiac tissue has limited intrinsic capacity for regeneration. While stem cell transplantation is a promising approach to stimulating cardiac repair, its success in humans has thus far been limited. Harnessing the therapeutic benefits of stem cells requires a better understanding of their mechanisms of action and methods to optimize their function. Cardiac stem cells (CSC) represent a particularly effective cellular source for cardiac repair, and pre-conditioning CSC with electrical stimulation (EleS) was demonstrated to further enhance their function, although the mechanisms are unknown. Recent studies suggest that transplanted stem cells primarily exert their effects through communicating with endogenous tissues via the release of exosomes containing cardioprotective molecules such as miRNAs, which upon uptake by recipient cells may stimulate survival, proliferation, and angiogenesis. Exosomes are also effective therapeutic agents in isolation and may provide a feasible alternative to stem cell transplantation. We hypothesize that EleS enhances CSC-mediated cardiac repair through its beneficial effects on production of cardioprotective exosomes. Moreover, we hypothesize that the beneficial effects of biventricular pacing in patients with heart failure may in part result from EleS-induced preconditioning of endogenous CSC to promote cardiac repair. With future research, our hypothesis may provide applications to optimize stem cell therapy and augment current pacing protocols, which may significantly advance the treatment of patients with heart disease. PMID:26880625

  2. Spinal Neuronal NOS Signaling Contributes to Morphine Cardioprotection in Ischemia Reperfusion Injury in Rats.

    Jiang, Lingling; Hu, Jun; He, Shufang; Zhang, Li; Zhang, Ye

    2016-09-01

    Morphine has been widely used as rescue treatment for heart attack and failure in humans for many decades. Relatively little has been known about the role of spinal opioid receptors in morphine cardioprotection. Recent studies have shown that intrathecal injection of morphine can reduce the heart injury caused by ischemia (I)/reperfusion (R) in rats. However, the molecular and cellular mechanisms underlying intrathecal morphine cardioprotection has not been determined. Here, we report that intrathecal morphine postconditioning (IMPOC) rescued mean artery pressure (MAP) and reduced myocardial injury in I/R. Pretreatment with either naloxone (NAL), a selective mu-opioid receptor antagonist, or nitric oxide synthase (NOS) inhibitors via intrathecal delivery completely abolished IMPOC cardioprotection, suggesting that the spinal mu-opioid receptor and its downstream NOS signaling pathway are involved in the mechanism of the morphine-induced effect. Consistent with this, IMPOC significantly enhanced spinal neural NOS phosphorylation, nitric oxide, and cGMP content in a similar time course. Intrathecal application of 1H-[1,2,4]oxadiazolo[4,3-a]quinoxalin-1-one, a specific inhibitor of guanylate cyclase, completely ablated IMPOC-induced enhancement of cardioprotection and spinal cGMP content. IMPOC rescue of MAP and ischemic injury is correlated with IMPOC enhancement of NOS signaling. Collectively, these findings strengthen the concept of spinal mu-opioid receptors as a therapeutic target that mediates morphine-induced cardioprotection. We also provide evidence suggesting that the activation of spinal NOS signaling is essential for morphine cardioprotection. PMID:27358482

  3. Acute Biphasic Effects of Ayahuasca.

    Schenberg, Eduardo Ekman; Alexandre, João Felipe Morel; Filev, Renato; Cravo, Andre Mascioli; Sato, João Ricardo; Muthukumaraswamy, Suresh D; Yonamine, Maurício; Waguespack, Marian; Lomnicka, Izabela; Barker, Steven A; da Silveira, Dartiu Xavier

    2015-01-01

    Ritual use of ayahuasca, an amazonian Amerindian medicine turned sacrament in syncretic religions in Brazil, is rapidly growing around the world. Because of this internationalization, a comprehensive understanding of the pharmacological mechanisms of action of the brew and the neural correlates of the modified states of consciousness it induces is important. Employing a combination of electroencephalogram (EEG) recordings and quantification of ayahuasca's compounds and their metabolites in the systemic circulation we found ayahuasca to induce a biphasic effect in the brain. This effect was composed of reduced power in the alpha band (8-13 Hz) after 50 minutes from ingestion of the brew and increased slow- and fast-gamma power (30-50 and 50-100 Hz, respectively) between 75 and 125 minutes. Alpha power reductions were mostly located at left parieto-occipital cortex, slow-gamma power increase was observed at left centro-parieto-occipital, left fronto-temporal and right frontal cortices while fast-gamma increases were significant at left centro-parieto-occipital, left fronto-temporal, right frontal and right parieto-occipital cortices. These effects were significantly associated with circulating levels of ayahuasca's chemical compounds, mostly N,N-dimethyltryptamine (DMT), harmine, harmaline and tetrahydroharmine and some of their metabolites. An interpretation based on a cognitive and emotional framework relevant to the ritual use of ayahuasca, as well as it's potential therapeutic effects is offered. PMID:26421727

  4. Acute Biphasic Effects of Ayahuasca.

    Eduardo Ekman Schenberg

    Full Text Available Ritual use of ayahuasca, an amazonian Amerindian medicine turned sacrament in syncretic religions in Brazil, is rapidly growing around the world. Because of this internationalization, a comprehensive understanding of the pharmacological mechanisms of action of the brew and the neural correlates of the modified states of consciousness it induces is important. Employing a combination of electroencephalogram (EEG recordings and quantification of ayahuasca's compounds and their metabolites in the systemic circulation we found ayahuasca to induce a biphasic effect in the brain. This effect was composed of reduced power in the alpha band (8-13 Hz after 50 minutes from ingestion of the brew and increased slow- and fast-gamma power (30-50 and 50-100 Hz, respectively between 75 and 125 minutes. Alpha power reductions were mostly located at left parieto-occipital cortex, slow-gamma power increase was observed at left centro-parieto-occipital, left fronto-temporal and right frontal cortices while fast-gamma increases were significant at left centro-parieto-occipital, left fronto-temporal, right frontal and right parieto-occipital cortices. These effects were significantly associated with circulating levels of ayahuasca's chemical compounds, mostly N,N-dimethyltryptamine (DMT, harmine, harmaline and tetrahydroharmine and some of their metabolites. An interpretation based on a cognitive and emotional framework relevant to the ritual use of ayahuasca, as well as it's potential therapeutic effects is offered.

  5. Gadolinium and ruthenium red attenuate remote hind limb preconditioning-induced cardioprotection: possible role of TRP and especially TRPV channels.

    Randhawa, Puneet Kaur; Jaggi, Amteshwar Singh

    2016-08-01

    Remote ischemic preconditioning is a well reported therapeutic strategy that induces cardioprotective effects but the underlying intracellular mechanisms have not been widely explored. The current study was designed to investigate the involvement of TRP and especially TRPV channels in remote hind limb preconditioning-induced cardioprotection. Remote hind limb preconditioning stimulus (4 alternate cycles of inflation and deflation of 5 min each) was delivered using a blood pressure cuff tied on the hind limb of the anesthetized rat. Using Langendorff's system, the heart was perfused and subjected to 30-min ischemia and 120-min reperfusion. The myocardial injury was assessed by measuring infarct size, lactate dehydrogenase (LDH), creatine kinase (CK), LVDP, +dp/dtmax, -dp/dtmin, heart rate, and coronary flow rate. Gadolinium, TRP blocker, and ruthenium red, TRPV channel blocker, were employed as pharmacological tools. Remote hind limb preconditioning significantly reduced the infarct size, LDH release, CK release and improved coronary flow rate, hemodynamic parameters including LVDP, +dp/dtmax, -dp/dtmin, and heart rate. However, gadolinium (7.5 and 15 mg kg(-1)) and ruthenium red (4 and 8 mg kg(-1)) significantly attenuated the cardioprotective effects suggesting the involvement of TRP especially TRPV channels in mediating remote hind limb preconditioning-induced cardioprotection. Remote hind limb preconditioning stimulus possibly activates TRPV channels on the heart or sensory nerve fibers innervating the heart to induce cardioprotective effects. Alternatively, remote hind limb preconditioning stimulus may also activate the mechanosensitive TRP and especially TRPV channels on the sensory nerve fibers innervating the skeletal muscles to trigger cardioprotective neurogenic signaling cascade. The cardioprotective effects of remote hind limb preconditioning may be mediated via activation of mechanosensitive TRP and especially TRPV channels. PMID:27118661

  6. Cardioprotective Potentials of Plant-Derived Small Molecules against Doxorubicin Associated Cardiotoxicity

    Ojha, Shreesh; Al Taee, Hasan; Goyal, Sameer; Mahajan, Umesh B.; Patil, Chandrgouda R.; Arya, D. S.; Rajesh, Mohanraj

    2016-01-01

    Doxorubicin (DOX) is a potent and widely used anthracycline antibiotic for the treatment of several malignancies. Unfortunately, the clinical utility of DOX is often restricted due to the elicitation of organ toxicity. Particularly, the increased risk for the development of dilated cardiomyopathy by DOX among the cancer survivors warrants major attention from the physicians as well as researchers to develop adjuvant agents to neutralize the noxious effects of DOX on the healthy myocardium. Despite these pitfalls, the use of traditional cytotoxic drugs continues to be the mainstay treatment for several types of cancer. Recently, phytochemicals have gained attention for their anticancer, chemopreventive, and cardioprotective activities. The ideal cardioprotective agents should not compromise the clinical efficacy of DOX and should be devoid of cumulative or irreversible toxicity on the naïve tissues. Furthermore, adjuvants possessing synergistic anticancer activity and quelling of chemoresistance would significantly enhance the clinical utility in combating DOX-induced cardiotoxicity. The present review renders an overview of cardioprotective effects of plant-derived small molecules and their purported mechanisms against DOX-induced cardiotoxicity. Phytochemicals serve as the reservoirs of pharmacophore which can be utilized as templates for developing safe and potential novel cardioprotective agents in combating DOX-induced cardiotoxicity. PMID:27313831

  7. [Cardioprotective properties of new glutamic acid derivative under stress conditions].

    Perfilova, V N; Sadikova, N V; Berestovitskaia, V M; Vasil'eva, O S

    2014-01-01

    The effect of new glutamic acid derivative on the cardiac ino- and chronotropic functions has been studied in experiments on rats exposed to 24-hour immobilization-and-pain stress. It is established that glutamic acid derivative RGPU-238 (glufimet) at a dose of 28.7 mg/kg increases the increment of myocardial contractility and relaxation rates and left ventricular pressure in stress-tested animals by 13 1,1, 72.4, and 118.6%, respectively, as compared to the control group during the test for adrenoreactivity. Compound RGPU-238 increases the increment of the maximum intensity of myocardium functioning by 196.5 % at 30 sec of isometric workload as compared to the control group. The cardioprotective effect of compound RGPU-238 is 1.5 - 2 times higher than that of the reference drug phenibut. PMID:25365864

  8. The cardio-protective diet

    S. Sivasankaran

    2010-01-01

    Globalization has made calorie rich, cheap, convenient marketed foods the main menu for the common man. Indians are particularly susceptible to the adverse outcomes of this dietary change because of ethnic, epigenetic reasons and sarcopenic adiposity (less muscle more fat for the same body weight). Children have smaller body frame making them more susceptible to adverse effects of hyperglycaemia leading to stress on beta cells and their damage. This has resulted in escalation of lifestyle dis...

  9. Time to Give Up on Cardioprotection? A Critical Appraisal of Clinical Studies on Ischemic Pre-, Post-, and Remote Conditioning.

    Heusch, Gerd; Rassaf, Tienush

    2016-08-19

    The mortality from acute myocardial infarction (AMI) remains significant, and the prevalence of post-myocardial infarction heart failure is increasing. Therefore, cardioprotection beyond timely reperfusion is needed. Conditioning procedures are the most powerful cardioprotective interventions in animal experiments. However, ischemic preconditioning cannot be used to reduce infarct size in patients with AMI because its occurrence is not predictable; several studies in patients undergoing surgical coronary revascularization report reduced release of creatine kinase and troponin. Ischemic postconditioning reduces infarct size in most, but not all, studies in patients undergoing interventional reperfusion of AMI, but may require direct stenting and exclusion of patients with >6 hours of symptom onset to protect. Remote ischemic conditioning reduces infarct size in patients undergoing interventional reperfusion of AMI, elective percutaneous or surgical coronary revascularization, and other cardiovascular surgery in many, but not in all, studies. Adequate dose-finding phase II studies do not exist. There are only 2 phase III trials, both on remote ischemic conditioning in patients undergoing cardiovascular surgery, both with neutral results in terms of infarct size and clinical outcome, but also both with major problems in trial design. We discuss the difficulties in translation of cardioprotection from animal experiments and proof-of-concept trials to clinical practice. Given that most studies on ischemic postconditioning and all studies on remote ischemic preconditioning in patients with AMI reported reduced infarct size, it would be premature to give up on cardioprotection. PMID:27539973

  10. Adjuvant Cardioprotection in Cardiac Surgery: Update

    Robert Wagner

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Cardiac surgery patients are now more risky in terms of age, comorbidities, and the need for complex procedures. It brings about reperfusion injury, which leads to dysfunction and/or loss of part of the myocardium. These groups of patients have a higher incidence of postoperative complications and mortality. One way of augmenting intraoperative myocardial protection is the phenomenon of myocardial conditioning, elicited with brief nonlethal episodes of ischaemia-reperfusion. In addition, drugs are being tested that mimic ischaemic conditioning. Such cardioprotective techniques are mainly focused on reperfusion injury, a complex response of the organism to the restoration of coronary blood flow in ischaemic tissue, which can lead to cell death. Extensive research over the last three decades has revealed the basic mechanisms of reperfusion injury and myocardial conditioning, suggesting its therapeutic potential. But despite the enormous efforts that have been expended in preclinical studies, almost all cardioprotective therapies have failed in the third phase of clinical trials. One reason is that evolutionary young cellular mechanisms of protection against oxygen handling are not very robust. Ischaemic conditioning, which is among these, is also limited by this. At present, the prevailing belief is that such options of treatment exist, but their full employment will not occur until subquestions and methodological issues with the transfer into clinical practice have been resolved.

  11. 9th Hatter Biannual Meeting: position document on ischaemia/reperfusion injury, conditioning and the ten commandments of cardioprotection

    Bell, R. M.; Bøtker, H. E.; Carr, R. D.; Davidson, S. M.; Downey, J. M.; Dutka, D P; Heusch, G; Ibanez, B.; MacAllister, R; Stoppe, C; Ovize, M.; Redington, A.; Walker, J. M.; Yellon, D M

    2016-01-01

    In the 30 years since the original description of ischaemic preconditioning, understanding of the pathophysiology of ischaemia/reperfusion injury and concepts of cardioprotection have been revolutionised. In the same period of time, management of patients with coronary artery disease has also been transformed: coronary artery and valve surgery are now deemed routine with generally excellent outcomes, and the management of acute coronary syndromes has seen decade on decade reductions in cardio...

  12. Linoleic acid attenuates cardioprotection induced by resolvin D1.

    Gilbert, Kim; Malick, Mandy; Madingou, Ness; Bourque-Riel, Valérie; Touchette, Charles; Rousseau, Guy

    2016-05-01

    We previously observed that resolvin D1 (RvD1), a metabolite of the omega-3 polyunsaturated fatty acid (PUFA) docosahexaenoic acid, reduces infarct size by a mechanism involving the PI3-K/Akt pathway. In parallel, the beneficial effect of a high omega-3 PUFA diet on infarct size can be attenuated by increased omega-6 PUFA consumption. The present study was designed to determine if augmented linoleic acid (LA), an omega-6 PUFA administered at the same time, attenuates the cardioprotective action of RvD1. Male Sprague-Dawley rats received 0.1μg RvD1 alone or with one of three LA doses (1, 5 or 10μg) directly into the left ventricle chamber 5min before ischemia. The animals underwent 40min of ischemia by occlusion of the left descending coronary artery followed by 30min or 24h of reperfusion. Infarct size and neutrophil accumulation were evaluated after 24h of reperfusion, while caspase-3, -8 and -9 and Akt activities were assessed at 30min of reperfusion. LA attenuated cardioprotection afforded by RvD1, resulting in significantly increased infarct size. Neutrophil accumulation and Akt activity were similar between groups. Caspase activities, especially caspase-9, which could be activated by ischemia, were stimulated in the presence of LA, suggesting that this omega-6 PUFA accentuates ischemia intensity. The present results indicate that LA significantly attenuates the beneficial effect of RvD1 on infarct size. Therefore, reduction of omega-6 intake should be considered to maintain the protection afforded by RvD1. PMID:27133431

  13. KATP-channel activation: effects on myocardial recovery from ischaemia and role in the cardioprotective response to adenosine A1-receptor stimulation

    Ford, William R.; Lopaschuk, Gary D.; Schulz, Richard; Clanachan, Alexander S

    1998-01-01

    Optimization of myocardial energy substrate metabolism improves the recovery of mechanical function of the post-ischaemic heart. This study investigated the role of KATP-channels in the regulation of the metabolic and mechanical function of the aerobic and post-ischaemic heart by measuring the effects of the selective KATP-channel activator, cromakalim, and the effects of the KATP-channel antagonist, glibenclamide, in rat fatty acid perfused, working hearts in vitro. The role of KATP channels...

  14. Hemodynamic and neurohumoral effects of various grades of selective adenosine transport inhibition in humans. Implications for its future role in cardioprotection.

    Rongen, G A; Smits, P; Verdonck, K.; Willemsen, J.J.; Abreu, R.A. de; Belle, H. van; Thien, Th.

    1995-01-01

    In 12 healthy male volunteers (27-53 yr), a placebo-controlled randomized double blind cross-over trial was performed to study the effect of the intravenous injection of 0.25, 0.5, 1, 2, 4, and 6 mg draflazine (a selective nucleoside transport inhibitor) on hemodynamic and neurohumoral parameters and ex vivo nucleoside transport inhibition. We hypothesized that an intravenous draflazine dosage without effect on hemodynamic and neurohumoral parameters would still be able to augment the forearm...

  15. Cardioprotective Signature of Short-Term Caloric Restriction.

    Hossein Noyan

    Full Text Available To understand the molecular pathways underlying the cardiac preconditioning effect of short-term caloric restriction (CR.Lifelong CR has been suggested to reduce the incidence of cardiovascular disease through a variety of mechanisms. However, prolonged adherence to a CR life-style is difficult. Here we reveal the pathways that are modulated by short-term CR, which are associated with protection of the mouse heart from ischemia.Male 10-12 wk old C57bl/6 mice were randomly assigned to an ad libitum (AL diet with free access to regular chow, or CR, receiving 30% less food for 7 days (d, prior to myocardial infarction (MI via permanent coronary ligation. At d8, the left ventricles (LV of AL and CR mice were collected for Western blot, mRNA and microRNA (miR analyses to identify cardioprotective gene expression signatures. In separate groups, infarct size, cardiac hemodynamics and protein abundance of caspase 3 was measured at d2 post-MI.This short-term model of CR was associated with cardio-protection, as evidenced by decreased infarct size (18.5±2.4% vs. 26.6±1.7%, N=10/group; P=0.01. mRNA and miR profiles pre-MI (N=5/group identified genes modulated by short-term CR to be associated with circadian clock, oxidative stress, immune function, apoptosis, metabolism, angiogenesis, cytoskeleton and extracellular matrix (ECM. Western blots pre-MI revealed CR-associated increases in phosphorylated Akt and GSK3ß, reduced levels of phosphorylated AMPK and mitochondrial related proteins PGC-1α, cytochrome C and cyclooxygenase (COX IV, with no differences in the levels of phosphorylated eNOS or MAPK (ERK1/2; p38. CR regimen was also associated with reduced protein abundance of cleaved caspase 3 in the infarcted heart and improved cardiac function.

  16. Effects of structural analogues of apelin-12 in acute myocardial infarction in rats

    Oleg I Pisarenko

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Objective: To examine cardioprotective effects of Ρ-terminal fragment of adipokine apelin-12 (A12, its novel structural analogue [MeArg1 , NLe 10 ]-A12 (I, and [d-Ala 12 ]-A12 (II, a putative antagonist of APJ receptor, employing in vivo model of ischemia/reperfusion (I/R injury. Materials and Methods: Peptides were synthesized by the automatic solid phase method using Fmoc technology. Anesthetized open-chest male Wistar rats were subjected to left anterior descending (LAD coronary artery occlusion and coronary reperfusion. Hemodynamic variables and electrocardiogram (ECG were monitored throughout the experiment. Myocardial injury was assessed by infarct size (IS, activity of necrosis markers in plasma, and metabolic state of the area at risk (AAR. Results: Intravenous injection of A12, I, or II at the onset of reperfusion led to a transient reduction of the mean arterial pressure. A12 or I administration decreased the percent ratio of IS/AAR by 40% and 30%, respectively, compared with control animals which received saline. Both peptides improved preservation of high-energy phosphates, reduced lactate accumulation in the AAR, and lowered CK-MB and LDH activities in plasma at the end of reperfusion compared with these indices in control. Treatment with II did not significantly affect either the IS/AAR, % ratio, or activities of both markers of necrosis compared with control. The overall metabolic protection of the AAR in the treated groups increased in the following rank: II < A12 < I. Conclusions: The structural analogue of apelin-12 [MeArg 1 , NLe 10 ]-A12 may be a promising basis to create a new drug for the treatment of acute coronary syndrome.

  17. Albuminuria and blood pressure, independent targets for cardioprotective therapy in patients with diabetes and nephropathy

    Holtkamp, Frank A; de Zeeuw, Dick; de Graeff, Pieter A;

    2011-01-01

    The long-term cardioprotective effect of angiotensin receptor blockers (ARBs) is associated with the short-term lowering of its primary target blood pressure, but also with the lowering of albuminuria. Since the individual blood pressure and albuminuria response to an ARB varies between and withi...... an individual, we tested whether the variability and discordance in systolic blood pressure (SBP) and albuminuria response to ARB therapy are associated with its long-term effect on cardiovascular outcomes....

  18. Efficacy of amifostine in protection against doxorubicin-induced acute cardiotoxic effects in rats

    Dragojević-Simić Viktorija

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Background/Aim. Amifostine (AMI is a broad-spectrum cytoprotector which protects against variety of radio- and chemotherapy-related toxicities without decreasing their antitumor action. The aim of the study was to investigate the potential protective effects of AMI against acute cardiotoxic effects of doxorubicin (DOX in male Wistar rats. Methods. AMI (300 mg/kg ip was given 30 min before DOX (6 mg/kg and 10mg/kg b.w., iv. The evaluation of DOXinduced cardiotoxic effects, as well as cardioprotective efficacy of AMI was performed 48 h after their administration by determining serum activities of enzymes known to be markers of cardiac damage (creatine kinase - CK, aspartate aminotransferase - AST, lactate dehydrogenase - LDH, and its isoenzyme α-hydroxybutirate dehydrogenase - α- HBDH, as well as the histopathological and ultrastructural analysis of the heart tissue. Results. AMI successfully prevented a significant increase in serum activity of CK, AST, LDH and α-HBDH in animals treated with DOX in the dose of 6 mg/kg (121.14 ± 18.37 vs 167.70 ± 44.24; 771.42 ± 161.99 vs 1057.00 ± 300.00; 3230.00 ± 1031.73 vs 4243.10 ± 904.06; 202.57 ± 42.46 vs 294.90 ± 80.20 UI/l, respectively, and ameliorated DOX-induced structural damage of the rat myocardium. Pretreatment with AMI in rats given 10 mg/kg DOX reduced the cardiac damage score (CDS from 2.62 ± 0.51 to 1.62 ± 0.51, i.e. to the CDS value obtained with the lower dose of DOX (6 mg/kg. The ultrastructural analysis of the rat myocardium showed that AMI successfully protected the sarcolemma of cardiomyocytes and reduced mitochondria damage induced by DOX given in the dose of 6 mg/kg. Besides, capillaries were less morphologically changed and apoptosis of endothelial cells was extremely rare in AMI-protected animals. AMI itself did not cause any prominent changes in the examined parameters in comparison with the control rats. Conclusion. AMI provided a significant protection against DOX

  19. Cardioprotection conferred by exercise training is blunted by blockade of the opioid system

    Tatiana F. G Galvão

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available OBJECTIVES: To investigate the effect of opioid receptor blockade on the myocardial protection conferred by chronic exercise and to compare exercise training with different strategies of myocardial protection (opioid infusion and brief periods of ischemia-reperfusion preceding irreversible left anterior descending coronary ligation. INTRODUCTION: The acute cardioprotective effects of exercise training are at least partly mediated through opioid receptor-dependent mechanisms in ischemia-reperfusion models. METHODS: Male Wistar rats (n = 76 were randomly assigned to 7 groups: (1 control; (2 exercise training; (3 morphine; (4 intermittent ischemia-reperfusion (three alternating periods of left anterior descending coronary occlusion and reperfusion; (5 exercise training+morphine; (6 naloxone (a non-selective opioid receptor blocker plus morphine; (7 naloxone before each exercise-training session. Myocardial infarction was established in all groups by left anterior descending coronary ligation. Exercise training was performed on a treadmill for 60 minutes, 5 times/week, for 12 weeks, at 60% peak oxygen (peak VO2. Infarct size was histologically evaluated. RESULTS: Exercise training significantly increased exercise capacity and ΔVO2 (VO2 peak - VO2 rest (p<0.01 vs. sedentary groups. Compared with control, all treatment groups except morphine plus naloxone and exercise training plus naloxone showed a smaller infarcted area (p<0.05. No additional decrease in infarct size occurred in the exercise training plus morphine group. No difference in myocardial capillary density (p = 0.88 was observed in any group. CONCLUSIONS: Exercise training, morphine, exercise training plus morphine and ischemia-reperfusion groups had a smaller infarcted area than the control group. The effect of chronic exercise training in decreasing infarct size seems to occur, at least in part, through the opioid receptor stimulus and not by increasing myocardial perfusion

  20. Cardioprotective effects of luteolin on ischemia/reperfusion injury in diabetic rats are modulated by eNOS and the mitochondrial permeability transition pathway.

    Yang, Jin-Ting; Qian, Ling-Bo; Zhang, Feng-Jiang; Wang, Jue; Ai, Heng; Tang, Li-Hui; Wang, Hui-Ping

    2015-04-01

    Myocardial ischemia/reperfusion (I/R) injury in diabetes is associated with oxidative stress, endothelial nitric oxide synthase (eNOS) dysfunction, and mitochondrial collapse, whereas luteolin is known to protect the cardiovascular system against diabetes and I/R injury. Here, we investigated whether luteolin pretreatment diminishes myocardial I/R injury in diabetic rats by affecting eNOS and the mitochondrial permeability transition pore (mPTP). After diabetic rats were produced by streptozotocin treatment (65 mg/kg) for 3 weeks, luteolin (100 mg·kg·d) or L-NAME (25 mg·kg·d) was administered intragastrically for 2 weeks. Hearts were then isolated and subjected to 30 minutes of global ischemia followed by 120 minutes of reperfusion. Pretreatment with luteolin significantly improved left ventricular function and coronary flow throughout reperfusion, increased cardiac tissue viability and manganese superoxide dismutase (MnSOD) activity, and reduced coronary lactate dehydrogenase release, and the myocardial malonaldehyde level in diabetic I/R rat hearts. All these improving effects of luteolin were significantly attenuated by L-NAME. Luteolin also significantly upregulated eNOS expression in diabetic rat hearts after I/R. Ca-induced mPTP opening and mitochondrial inner membrane potential reduction were significantly inhibited in ventricular myocytes isolated from luteolin-treated diabetic rats, and this effect was attenuated by L-NAME. These findings indicate that luteolin protects the diabetic heart against I/R injury by upregulating the myocardial eNOS pathway, and downstream effects include the enhancement of MnSOD and inhibition of mPTP. PMID:25502309

  1. A Comparative Study of Cardioprotective Effect of Three Anesthetic Agents by Measuring Serum Level of Troponin-T after Coronary Artery Bypass Grafting

    Vali Imantalab

    2012-09-01

    Full Text Available Background: Cardiac surgery is associated with some degree of myocardial injury. Preconditioning first described in 1986 was pharmacologic and non- pharmacologic. Among the long list of anesthetic drugs, isoflurane as an inhaling agent along with midazolam and propofol as injectable substances have been documented to confer some preconditioning effects on myocardium. Objectives: In this study cardiac Troponin T (cTnT ,as a reliable marker, was used for evaluating myocardial injury. Methods: This prospective double blind study was comprised of 60 patients scheduled for CABG and were randomly assigned into three groups who received infusion of propofol or midazolam or isoflorane. Surgical procedures and anesthetics were similar for 3 groups. cTnT measured preoperatively and at 12, 24 and 36hr after arrival in ICU. Results: There were no statistically significant differences in mean cTnT levels between three groups in the preoperative period and 12-24 hours after arrival in ICU. However, mean cTnT in 3 groups at 36 hours after arrival in ICU were different (P< 0.013 and cTnT level was significantly higher in midazolam group (P<0.001 and lowest in isoflurane group (P=0.002. Conclusion: There were significant differences on cTnT levels between anesthetic groups of isofluran, midazolam and propofol at 36 hr after surgery. Preconditioning effect of isoflurane was higher than the other two groups.

  2. The Role of exosomes in reperfusion injury and cardio-protection

    Das, D.

    2016-01-01

    The mechanism by which remote ischaemic preconditioning (RIPC) exerts its cardioprotective effects is not fully understood. Exosomes are lipid bound membranous vesicles that range from 30-100nm in size. With increasing interest in the scientific community about these vesicles as a mode of intercellular communication, in this project we explore the possible mechanistic role of human plasma exosomes in RIPC. We first developed a consistent and reliable model for the isolation of human plasma ex...

  3. Screening of cardioprotective activity of leaves of Andrographis paniculata against isoproterenol induced myocardial infarction in rats

    Dipendra Kumar Sah; Nagarathana P.K.M.

    2016-01-01

    Objective: The objective of the present study was to investigate the cardioprotective effects of methanolic extract of leaves of Andrographis paniculata against Isoproterenol-induced myocardial infarction (MI) in rats.Method: The rats were divided into five experimental groups viz., Normal control, ISO-treated (Disease control), Propranolol (10 mg/kg + ISO), Andrographis paniculata (100 mg/kg +ISO) and Andrographis paniculata (200 mg/kg + ISO). Myocardial infarction in rats was induced by the...

  4. Sarcolemmal cholesterol and caveolin-3 dependence of cardiac function, ischemic tolerance, and opioidergic cardioprotection

    See Hoe, Louise E; Schilling, Jan M.; Tarbit, Emiri; Kiessling, Can J.; Busija, Anna R.; Niesman, Ingrid R.; Du Toit, Eugene; Ashton, Kevin J; Roth, David M.; John P. Headrick; Patel, Hemal H.; Peart, Jason N.

    2014-01-01

    Cholesterol-rich caveolar microdomains and associated caveolins influence sarcolemmal ion channel and receptor function and protective stress signaling. However, the importance of membrane cholesterol content to cardiovascular function and myocardial responses to ischemia-reperfusion (I/R) and cardioprotective stimuli are unclear. We assessed the effects of graded cholesterol depletion with methyl-β-cyclodextrin (MβCD) and lifelong knockout (KO) or overexpression (OE) of caveolin-3 (Cav-3) on...

  5. Optimising cardioprotection during myocardial ischaemia: targeting potential intracellular pathways with glucagon-like peptide-1.

    Clarke, Sophie J; McCormick, Liam M; Dutka, David P

    2014-01-01

    Coronary heart disease and type-2 diabetes are both major global health burdens associated with an increased risk of myocardial infarction (MI). Following MI, ischaemia-reperfusion injury (IRI) remains a significant contributor to myocardial injury at the cellular level. Research has focussed on identifying a strategy or intervention to minimise IRI to optimise reperfusion therapy, with the aim of delivering a superior clinical outcome. The incretin hormone glucagon-like peptide-1, already an established basis for the treatment of type-2 diabetes, also has the potential to protect against IRI. We explain the physiology and cellular processes involved in IRI, and the intracellular pathways activated by GLP-1, which could intercept IRI and deliver cardioprotection. The review also examines the current preclinical and clinical evidence for GLP-1 in cardioprotection and future directions for research as we look for an effective adjunctive treatment to minimise IRI. PMID:24410815

  6. Beneficial effects of carbon monoxide-releasing molecule-2 (CORM-2) on acute doxorubicin cardiotoxicity in mice: Role of oxidative stress and apoptosis

    Doxorubicin (DXR) has been used in variety of human malignancies for decades. Despite its efficacy in cancer, clinical usage is limited because of its cardiotoxicity, which has been associated with oxidative stress and apoptosis. Carbon monoxide-releasing molecules (CORMs) have been shown to reduce the oxidative damage and apoptosis. The present study investigated the effects of CORM-2, a fast CO-releaser, against DXR-induced cardiotoxicity in mice using biochemical, histopathological and gene expression approaches. CORM-2 (3, 10 and 30 mg/kg/day) was administered intraperitoneally (i.p.) for 10 days and terminated the study on day 11. DXR (20 mg/kg, i.p.) was injected before 72 h of termination. Mice treated with DXR showed cardiotoxicity as evidenced by elevation of serum creatine kinase (CK) and lactate dehydrogenase (LDH), tissue malondialdehyde (MDA), caspase-3 and decrease the level of total antioxidant status (TAS) in heart tissues. Pre- and post-treatment with CORM-2 (30 mg/kg, i.p.) elicited significant improvement in CK, LDH, MDA, caspase-3 and TAS levels. Histopathological studies showed that cardiac damage with DXR has been reversed with CORM-2 + DXR treatment. There was dramatic decrease in hematological count in DXR-treated mice, which has been improved with CORM-2. Furthermore, there was also elevation of mRNA expression of heme oxygenase-1, hypoxia inducible factor-1 alpha, vascular endothelial growth factor and decrease in inducible-nitric oxide synthase expression upon treatment with CORM-2 that might be linked to cardioprotection. These data suggest that CORM-2 treatment provides cardioprotection against acute doxorubicin-induced cardiotoxicity in mice and this effect may be attributed to CORM-2-mediated antioxidant and anti-apoptotic properties.

  7. The Effects of Acute Stress on Rainbow Trout (Oncorhynchus mykiss)

    KUBİLAY, Ayşegül

    2002-01-01

    The physiological effects of acute stressors (transport, handling, netting and confinement) on rainbow trout in an aquaculture system were investigated. Serum cortisol level, serum glucose and lysozyme activity were determined in rainbow trout stressed by acute stressors, and compared with those of unstressed (control) fish. Serum cortisol, glucose levels and lysozyme activity were significantly higher(P

  8. Oleanolic acid: a novel cardioprotective agent that blunts hyperglycemia-induced contractile dysfunction.

    Rudo F Mapanga

    Full Text Available Diabetes constitutes a major health challenge. Since cardiovascular complications are common in diabetic patients this will further increase the overall burden of disease. Furthermore, stress-induced hyperglycemia in non-diabetic patients with acute myocardial infarction is associated with higher in-hospital mortality. Previous studies implicate oxidative stress, excessive flux through the hexosamine biosynthetic pathway (HBP and a dysfunctional ubiquitin-proteasome system (UPS as potential mediators of this process. Since oleanolic acid (OA; a clove extract possesses antioxidant properties, we hypothesized that it attenuates acute and chronic hyperglycemia-mediated pathophysiologic molecular events (oxidative stress, apoptosis, HBP, UPS and thereby improves contractile function in response to ischemia-reperfusion. We employed several experimental systems: 1 H9c2 cardiac myoblasts were exposed to 33 mM glucose for 48 hr vs. controls (5 mM glucose; and subsequently treated with two OA doses (20 and 50 µM for 6 and 24 hr, respectively; 2 Isolated rat hearts were perfused ex vivo with Krebs-Henseleit buffer containing 33 mM glucose vs. controls (11 mM glucose for 60 min, followed by 20 min global ischemia and 60 min reperfusion ± OA treatment; 3 In vivo coronary ligations were performed on streptozotocin treated rats ± OA administration during reperfusion; and 4 Effects of long-term OA treatment (2 weeks on heart function was assessed in streptozotocin-treated rats. Our data demonstrate that OA treatment blunted high glucose-induced oxidative stress and apoptosis in heart cells. OA therapy also resulted in cardioprotection, i.e. for ex vivo and in vivo rat hearts exposed to ischemia-reperfusion under hyperglycemic conditions. In parallel, we found decreased oxidative stress, apoptosis, HBP flux and proteasomal activity following ischemia-reperfusion. Long-term OA treatment also improved heart function in streptozotocin-diabetic rats. These

  9. High plasma concentrations of asymmetric dimethylarginine inhibit ischemic cardioprotection in hypercholesterolemic rats

    A low concentration of nitric oxide associated with a high concentration of asymmetric dimethylarginine (ADMA) can explain the lack of ischemic cardioprotection observed in the presence of hypercholesterolemia. The objective of the present study was to evaluate the effect of hypercholesterolemia on ischemic pre- and postconditioning and its correlation with plasma concentrations of ADMA. Male Wistar rats (6-8 weeks old) fed a 2% cholesterol diet (n = 21) for 8 weeks were compared to controls (n = 25) and were subjected to experimental myocardial infarction and reperfusion, with ischemic pre- and postconditioning. Total cholesterol and ADMA were measured in plasma before the experimental infarct and the infarct area was quantified. Weight, total cholesterol and plasma ADMA (means ± SE; 1.20 ± 0.06, 1.27 ± 0.08 and 1.20 ± 0.08 vs 0.97 ± 0.04, 0.93 ± 0.05 and 0.97 ± 0.04 µM) were higher in animals on the hypercholesterolemic diet than in controls, respectively. Cardioprotection did not reduce infarct size in the hypercholesterolemic animals (pre: 13.55% and post: 8% compared to 7.95% observed in the group subjected only to ischemia and reperfusion), whereas infarct size was reduced in the animals on a normocholesterolemic diet (pre: 8.25% and post: 6.10% compared to 12.31%). Hypercholesterolemia elevated ADMA and eliminated the cardioprotective effects of ischemic pre- and postconditioning in rats

  10. High plasma concentrations of asymmetric dimethylarginine inhibit ischemic cardioprotection in hypercholesterolemic rats

    Landim, M.B.P.; Dourado, P.M.M.; Casella-Filho, A.; Chagas, A.C.P.; Luz, P.L. da [Unidade de Aterosclerose, Instituto do Coração, Faculdade de Medicina, Universidade de São Paulo, São Paulo, SP (Brazil)

    2013-05-10

    A low concentration of nitric oxide associated with a high concentration of asymmetric dimethylarginine (ADMA) can explain the lack of ischemic cardioprotection observed in the presence of hypercholesterolemia. The objective of the present study was to evaluate the effect of hypercholesterolemia on ischemic pre- and postconditioning and its correlation with plasma concentrations of ADMA. Male Wistar rats (6-8 weeks old) fed a 2% cholesterol diet (n = 21) for 8 weeks were compared to controls (n = 25) and were subjected to experimental myocardial infarction and reperfusion, with ischemic pre- and postconditioning. Total cholesterol and ADMA were measured in plasma before the experimental infarct and the infarct area was quantified. Weight, total cholesterol and plasma ADMA (means ± SE; 1.20 ± 0.06, 1.27 ± 0.08 and 1.20 ± 0.08 vs 0.97 ± 0.04, 0.93 ± 0.05 and 0.97 ± 0.04 µM) were higher in animals on the hypercholesterolemic diet than in controls, respectively. Cardioprotection did not reduce infarct size in the hypercholesterolemic animals (pre: 13.55% and post: 8% compared to 7.95% observed in the group subjected only to ischemia and reperfusion), whereas infarct size was reduced in the animals on a normocholesterolemic diet (pre: 8.25% and post: 6.10% compared to 12.31%). Hypercholesterolemia elevated ADMA and eliminated the cardioprotective effects of ischemic pre- and postconditioning in rats.

  11. Cardioprotective properties of Crataegus oxycantha extract against ischemia-reperfusion injury

    Swaminathan, Jayachandran Kesavan; Khan, Mahmood; Mohan, Iyappu K; Selvendiran, Karuppaiyah; Devaraj, S. Niranjali; Rivera, Brian K.; Kuppusamy, Periannan

    2010-01-01

    The aim of the study was to investigate the cardioprotective effect and mechanism of Crataegus oxycantha (COC) extract, a well-known natural antioxidant-based cardiotonic, against ischemia/reperfusion (I/R) injury. Electron paramagnetic resonance studies showed that COC extract was capable of scavenging superoxide, hydroxyl, and peroxyl radicals, in vitro. The cardioprotective efficacy of the extract was studied in a crystalloid perfused heart model of I/R injury. Hearts were subjected to 30 min of global ischemia followed by 45 min of reperfusion. During reperfusion, COC extract was infused at a dose rate of 1 mg/ml/min for 10 min. Hearts treated with COC extract showed a significant recovery in cardiac contractile function, reduction in infarct size, and decrease in creatine kinase and lactate dehydrogenase activities. The expressions of xanthine oxidase and NADPH oxidase were significantly reduced in the treated group. A significant upregulation of the anti-apoptotic proteins Bcl-2 and Hsp70 with simultaneous downregulation of the pro-apoptotic proteins cytochrome c and cleaved caspase-3 was observed. The molecular signaling cascade including phospho-Akt (ser-473) and HIF-1α that lead to the activation or suppression of apoptotic pathway also showed a significant protective role in the treatment group. No significant change in phospho-p38 levels was observed. The results suggested that the COC extract may reduce the oxidative stress in the reperfused myocardium, and play a significant role in the inhibition of apoptotic pathways leading to cardioprotection. PMID:20171068

  12. Cardioprotective adaptation of rats to intermittent hypobaric hypoxia is accompanied by the increased association of hexokinase with mitochondria.

    Waskova-Arnostova, Petra; Elsnicova, Barbara; Kasparova, Dita; Hornikova, Daniela; Kolar, Frantisek; Novotny, Jiri; Zurmanova, Jitka

    2015-12-15

    Chronic hypoxia increases the myocardial resistance to acute ischemia-reperfusion injury by affecting the mitochondrial redox balance. Hexokinase (HK) bears a high potential to suppress the excessive formation of reactive oxygen species because of its increased association with mitochondria, thereby inhibiting the membrane permeability transition pore opening and preventing cell death. The purpose of this study was to determine the effect of severe intermittent hypobaric hypoxia (7,000 m, 8 h/day, 5 wk) on the function and colocalization of HK isoforms with mitochondria in the left (LV) and right ventricles of rat myocardium. The real-time RT-PCR, Western blot, enzyme coupled assay, and quantitative immunofluorescence techniques were used. Our results showed significantly elevated expression of HK isoforms (HK1 and HK2) in the hypoxic LV. In addition, intermittent hypoxia increased the total HK activity and the association of HK isoforms with mitochondria in both ventricles. These findings suggest that HK may contribute to the cardioprotective phenotype induced by adaptation to severe intermittent hypobaric hypoxia. PMID:26494452

  13. Acute stress modulates genotype effects on amygdala processing in humans

    Cousijn, Helena; Rijpkema, Mark; Qin, Shaozheng; van Marle, Hein J. F.; Franke, Barbara; Hermans, Erno J.; van Wingen, Guido; Fernández, Guillén

    2010-01-01

    Probing gene–environment interactions that affect neural processing is crucial for understanding individual differences in behavior and disease vulnerability. Here, we tested whether the current environmental context, which affects the acute brain state, modulates genotype effects on brain function in humans. We manipulated the context by inducing acute psychological stress, which increases noradrenergic activity, and probed its effect on tonic activity and phasic responses in the amygdala us...

  14. The effects of acute nicotine on contextual safety discrimination

    Kutlu, Munir G.; Oliver, Chicora; Gould, Thomas J.

    2014-01-01

    Anxiety disorders, such as post-traumatic stress disorder (PTSD), may be related to an inability to distinguish safe versus threatening environments and to extinguish fear memories. Given the high rate of cigarette smoking in patients with PTSD, as well as the recent finding that an acute dose of nicotine impairs extinction of contextual fear memory, we conducted a series of experiments to investigate the effect of acute nicotine in an animal model of contextual safety discrimination. Followi...

  15. Curative effects of Tiron on dogs with acute uranium intoxication

    It was reported that the tiron had good therapeutic effects on small animals with acute uranium intoxication. The tiron's therapeutic effects as a first aid on large animals (38 dogs) with acute uranium poisoning are reported in this paper. Indices reflecting its effect were as follows: excretion rate of uranium from the dogs, several appropriate biochemical tests, clinical manifestations, histo-pathological changes of kidney and liver, and also the mortality of dogs. The results showed that the tiron or a combination of tiron and NaHCO3 has a good therapeutic effect as a first aid on the dogs receiving lethal dose of uranyl nitrate

  16. Acute and long-term psychiatric side effects of mefloquine

    Ringqvist, Asa; Bech, Per; Glenthøj, Birte;

    2014-01-01

    BACKGROUND: The aim of the study was to explore the profile of acute and long-term psychiatric side effects associated with mefloquine. METHODS: Subjects (n = 73) reported to a Danish national register during five consecutive years for mefloquine associated side effects were included. Acute...... psychiatric side effects were retrospectively assessed using the SCL-90-R and questions based on Present State Examination (PSE). Subjects reporting suspected psychotic states were contacted for a personal PSE interview. Electronic records of psychiatric hospitalizations and diagnoses were cross-checked. Long......-term effects were evaluated with SF-36. SCL-90-R and SF-36 data were compared to age- and gender matched controls. RESULTS: In the SCL-90-R, clinically significant scores for anxiety, phobic anxiety and depression were found in 55%, 51%, and 44% of the mefloquine group. Substantial acute phase psychotic...

  17. Mitochondrial BKCa Channel as a Target for Cardioprotection

    Kolář, František

    Dordrecht : Springer, 2013 - (Pierce, G.; Mizin, V.; Omelchenko, A.), s. 163-175 ISBN 978-94-007-6512-2. - (NATO Science for Peace and Security Series A. Chemistry and Biology) R&D Projects: GA ČR(CZ) GAP303/12/1162 Institutional support: RVO:67985823 Keywords : mitochondrion * potassium channels * cardioprotection Subject RIV: FA - Cardiovascular Diseases incl. Cardiotharic Surgery

  18. Erythropoietin: ready for prime-time cardioprotection.

    Riksen, N.P.; Hausenloy, D.J.; Yellon, D.M.

    2008-01-01

    To improve clinical outcomes in patients presenting with an acute myocardial infarction, new strategies to limit infarct size and postinfarct remodelling are warranted. Recent animal studies have revealed that erythropoietin has the potential to achieve both these goals. Even more intriguing is the

  19. Mutual inhibition of insulin signaling and PHLPP-1 determines cardioprotective efficiency of Akt in aged heart.

    Xing, Yuan; Sun, Wanqing; Wang, Yishi; Gao, Feng; Ma, Heng

    2016-05-01

    Insulin protects cardiomyocytes from myocardial ischemia/reperfusion (MI/R) injury through activating Akt. However, phosphatase PHLPP-1 (PH domain leucine-rich repeat protein phosphatase-1) dephosphorylates and inactivates Akt. The balanced competitive interaction of insulin and PHLPP-1 has not been directly examined. In this study, we have identified the effect of mutual inhibition of insulin signaling and PHLPP-1 on the cardioprotective efficiency of Akt in aged heart. Young (3 months) and aged (20 months) Sprague Dawley (SD) rats were subjected to MI/Rin vivo. The PHLPP-1 level was higher in aged vs. young hearts at base. But, insulin treatment failed to decrease PHLPP-1 level during reperfusion in the aged hearts. Consequently, the cardioprotection of insulin-induced Akt activation was impaired in aged hearts, resulting in more susceptible to MI/R injury. In cultured rat ventricular myocytes, PHLPP-1 knockdown significantly enhanced insulin-induced Akt phosphorylation and reduced simulated hypoxia/reoxygenation-induced apoptosis. Contrary, PHLPP-1 overexpression terminated Akt phosphorylation and deteriorated myocytes apoptosis. Using in vivo aged animal models, we confirmed that cardiac PHLPP-1 knockdown or enhanced insulin sensitivity by exercise training dramatically increased insulin-induced Akt phosphorylation. Specifically, MI/R-induced cardiomyocyte apoptosis and infarct size were decreased and cardiac function was increased. More importantly, we found that insulin regulated the degradation of PHLPP-1 and insulin treatment could enhance the binding between PHLPP-1 and β-transducin repeat-containing protein (β-TrCP) to target for ubiquitin-dependent degradation. Altogether, we have identified a new mechanism by which insulin suppresses PHLPP-1 to enhance Akt activation. But, aged heart possesses lower insulin effectiveness and fails to decrease PHLPP-1 during MI/R, which subsequently limited Akt activity and cardioprotection. PHLPP-1 could be a

  20. Intracoronary Delivery of Mitochondria to the Ischemic Heart for Cardioprotection

    Cowan, Douglas B.; Yao, Rouan; Akurathi, Vamsidhar; Snay, Erin R.; Thedsanamoorthy, Jerusha K.; Zurakowski, David; Ericsson, Maria; Friehs, Ingeborg; Wu, Yaotang; Levitsky, Sidney; del Nido, Pedro J.; Packard, Alan B.

    2016-01-01

    We have previously shown that transplantation of autologously derived, respiration-competent mitochondria by direct injection into the heart following transient ischemia and reperfusion enhances cell viability and contractile function. To increase the therapeutic potential of this approach, we investigated whether exogenous mitochondria can be effectively delivered through the coronary vasculature to protect the ischemic myocardium and studied the fate of these transplanted organelles in the heart. Langendorff-perfused rabbit hearts were subjected to 30 minutes of ischemia and then reperfused for 10 minutes. Mitochondria were labeled with 18F-rhodamine 6G and iron oxide nanoparticles. The labeled mitochondria were either directly injected into the ischemic region or delivered by vascular perfusion through the coronary arteries at the onset of reperfusion. These hearts were used for positron emission tomography, microcomputed tomography, and magnetic resonance imaging with subsequent microscopic analyses of tissue sections to confirm the uptake and distribution of exogenous mitochondria. Injected mitochondria were localized near the site of delivery; while, vascular perfusion of mitochondria resulted in rapid and extensive dispersal throughout the heart. Both injected and perfused mitochondria were observed in interstitial spaces and were associated with blood vessels and cardiomyocytes. To determine the efficacy of vascular perfusion of mitochondria, an additional group of rabbit hearts were subjected to 30 minutes of regional ischemia and reperfused for 120 minutes. Immediately following regional ischemia, the hearts received unlabeled, autologous mitochondria delivered through the coronary arteries. Autologous mitochondria perfused through the coronary vasculature significantly decreased infarct size and significantly enhanced post-ischemic myocardial function. In conclusion, the delivery of mitochondria through the coronary arteries resulted in their rapid

  1. Acute effects of winter air pollution on respiratory health

    Zee, van der S.

    1999-01-01

    In this thesis, acute respiratory health effects of exposure to winter air pollution are investigated in panels of children (7-11 yr) and adults (50-70 yr) with and without chronic respiratory symptoms, living in urban and non-urban areas in the Netherlands. The study was performed during three cons

  2. Cardioprotective actions by a water-soluble carbon monoxide-releasing molecule.

    Clark, James E; Naughton, Patrick; Shurey, Sandra; Green, Colin J; Johnson, Tony R; Mann, Brian E; Foresti, Roberta; Motterlini, Roberto

    2003-07-25

    Carbon monoxide, which is generated in mammals during the degradation of heme by the enzyme heme oxygenase, is an important signaling mediator. Transition metal carbonyls have been recently shown to function as carbon monoxide-releasing molecules (CO-RMs) and to elicit distinct pharmacological activities in biological systems. In the present study, we report that a water-soluble form of CO-RM promotes cardioprotection in vitro and in vivo. Specifically, we found that tricarbonylchloro(glycinato)ruthenium(II) (CORM-3) is stable in water at acidic pH but in physiological buffers rapidly liberates CO in solution. Cardiac cells pretreated with CORM-3 (10 to 50 micromol/L) become more resistant to the damage caused by hypoxia-reoxygenation and oxidative stress. In addition, isolated hearts reperfused in the presence of CORM-3 (10 micromol/L) after an ischemic event displayed a significant recovery in myocardial performance and a marked and significant reduction in cardiac muscle damage and infarct size. The cardioprotective effects mediated by CORM-3 in cardiac cells and isolated hearts were totally abolished by 5-hydroxydecanoic acid, an inhibitor of mitochondrial ATP-dependent potassium channels. Predictably, cardioprotection is lost when CORM-3 is replaced by an inactive form (iCORM-3) that is incapable of liberating CO. Using a model of cardiac allograft rejection in mice, we also found that treatment of recipients with CORM-3 but not iCORM-3 considerably prolonged the survival rate of transplanted hearts. These data corroborate the notion that transition metal carbonyls could be used as carriers to deliver CO and highlight the bioactivity and potential therapeutic features of CO-RMs in the mitigation of cardiac dysfunction. The full text of this article is available online at http://www.circresaha.org. PMID:12842916

  3. Evaluation of the antidepressant-like effects of acute and sub-acute administration of crocin and crocetin in mice

    Bahareh Amin; Alireza Nakhsaz; Hossein Hosseinzadeh

    2015-01-01

    Objective: The present study was designed to investigate the putative antidepressant effects of crocin and crocetin, two major active ingredients of Crocus sativus L. (saffron) using mice in two different regimens of acute and sub-acute administration. Material and Methods: In acute treatment, antidepressant-like activities of crocin and crocetin (10, 20 and 40 mg/kg, i.p.) were evaluated using forced swim test (FST). In sub-acute study (21 times with 24-h intervals), antidepressant-like effe...

  4. Moderate toxic effects following acute zonisamide overdose

    Hofer, K E; Trachsel, C; Rauber-Lüthy, C; Kupferschmidt, H; Kullak-Ublick, G A; Ceschi, A

    2011-01-01

    Zonisamide is an antiepileptic drug that acts on voltage-sensitive sodium and calcium channels, with a modulatory effect on GABA-mediated neuronal inhibition and an inhibitory effect on carbonic anhydrase. It is used mainly for the treatment of partial seizures, and is generally well tolerated at therapeutic doses. The most common reported adverse effects are somnolence, anorexia, dizziness, and headache. There are limited data on zonisamide overdose in the literature, and no case of zonisami...

  5. Protein Kinase G-dependent Cardioprotective Mechanism of Phosphodiesterase-5 Inhibition Involves Phosphorylation of ERK and GSK3β*

    Das, Anindita; Xi, Lei; Kukreja, Rakesh C.

    2008-01-01

    Sildenafil, a potent inhibitor of phosphodiesterase-5 (PDE-5) induces powerful protection against myocardial ischemia-reperfusion injury. PDE-5 inhibition increases cGMP levels that activate cGMP-dependent protein kinase (PKG). However, the cause and effect relationship of PKG in sildenafil-induced cardioprotection and the downstream targets of PKG remain unclear. Adult ventricular myocytes were treated with sildenafil and subjected to simulated ischemia and reoxygenat...

  6. Cardiovascular Effects of Acute Organophosphate Poisoning

    Shankar Laudari

    2014-06-01

    Conclusion:Cardiac effects of OP poisoning can be life-threatening. Prompt diagnosis, early supportive and definitive therapies with atropine and oximes along with vigilant monitoring of the patients for prominent cardiac effects such as QT prolongation, VT or VF during hospital stay can definitely save lives of the victims.

  7. Phosphodiesterase-5 inhibition mimics intermittent reoxygenation and improves cardioprotection in the hypoxic myocardium.

    Giuseppina Milano

    Full Text Available UNLABELLED: Although chronic hypoxia is a claimed myocardial risk factor reducing tolerance to ischemia/reperfusion (I/R, intermittent reoxygenation has beneficial effects and enhances heart tolerance to I/R. AIM OF THE STUDY: To test the hypothesis that, by mimicking intermittent reoxygenation, selective inhibition of phosphodiesterase-5 activity improves ischemia tolerance during hypoxia. Adult male Sprague-Dawley rats were exposed to hypoxia for 15 days (10% O₂ and treated with placebo, sildenafil (1.4 mg/kg/day, i. p., intermittent reoxygenation (1 h/day exposure to room air or both. Controls were normoxic hearts. To assess tolerance to I/R all hearts were subjected to 30-min regional ischemia by left anterior descending coronary artery ligation followed by 3 h-reperfusion. Whereas hypoxia depressed tolerance to I/R, both sildenafil and intermittent reoxygenation reduced the infarct size without exhibiting cumulative effects. The changes in myocardial cGMP, apoptosis (DNA fragmentation, caspase-3 activity (alternative marker for cardiomyocyte apoptosis, eNOS phosphorylation and Akt activity paralleled the changes in cardioprotection. However, the level of plasma nitrates and nitrites was higher in the sildenafil+intermittent reoxygenation than sildenafil and intermittent reoxygenation groups, whereas total eNOS and Akt proteins were unchanged throughout. CONCLUSIONS: Sildenafil administration has the potential to mimic the cardioprotective effects led by intermittent reoxygenation, thereby opening the possibility to treat patients unable to be reoxygenated through a pharmacological modulation of NO-dependent mechanisms.

  8. Screening of cardioprotective activity of leaves of Andrographis paniculata against isoproterenol induced myocardial infarction in rats

    Dipendra Kumar Sah

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Objective: The objective of the present study was to investigate the cardioprotective effects of methanolic extract of leaves of Andrographis paniculata against Isoproterenol-induced myocardial infarction (MI in rats.Method: The rats were divided into five experimental groups viz., Normal control, ISO-treated (Disease control, Propranolol (10 mg/kg + ISO, Andrographis paniculata (100 mg/kg +ISO and Andrographis paniculata (200 mg/kg + ISO. Myocardial infarction in rats was induced by the administration of isoproterenol at a dose of 85mg/kg i.p., the rats in group IV and group V were pretreated with methanolic extract of Andrographis paniculata in the dose of 100mg/kg b.w. and 200mg/kg b.w. through oral route. Cardiac marker enzymes, lipid profile and antioxidant enzymes as biomarker of cardiotoxicity were determined in experimental animals.Result: Animals treated with flavonoid of leaves of Andrographis paniculata showed significant decrease in LDL-Cholesterol, total cholesterol, Triglycerides, AST, ALT, ALP, antioxidant enzymes viz., superoxide dismutase, catalase LPO and increase in HDL-Cholesterol and further was confirmed by histopathological study.Conclusion: The results of the study demonstrate that Andrographis paniculata strongly protected the myocardium against isoproterenol-induced infarction and suggest that the cardioprotective effects could be related to antioxidant activities.

  9. Early and delayed cardioprotective intervention with dexrazoxane each show different potential for prevention of chronic anthracycline cardiotoxicity in rabbits

    Despite incomplete understanding to its mechanism of action, dexrazoxane (DEX) is still the only clearly effective cardioprotectant against chronic anthracycline (ANT) cardiotoxicity. However, its clinical use is currently restricted to patients exceeding significant ANT cumulative dose (300 mg/m2), although each ANT cycle may induce certain potentially irreversible myocardial damage. Therefore, the aim of this study was to compare early and delayed DEX intervention against chronic ANT cardiotoxicity and study the molecular events involved. The cardiotoxicity was induced in rabbits with daunorubicin (DAU; 3 mg/kg/week for 10 weeks); DEX (60 mg/kg) was administered either before the 1st or 7th DAU dose (i.e. after ≈300 mg/m2 cumulative dose). While both DEX administration schedules prevented DAU-induced premature deaths and severe congestive heart failure, only the early intervention completely prevented the left ventricular dysfunction, myocardial morphological changes and mitochondrial damage. Further molecular analyses did not support the assumption that DEX cardioprotection is based and directly proportional to protection from DAU-induced oxidative damage and/or deletions in mtDNA. Nevertheless, DAU induced significant up-regulation of heme oxygenase 1 pathway while heme synthesis was inversely regulated and both changes were schedule-of-administration preventable by DEX. Early and delayed DEX interventions also differed in ability to prevent DAU-induced down-regulation of expression of mitochondrial proteins encoded by both nuclear and mitochondrial genome. Hence, the present functional, morphological as well as the molecular data highlights the enormous cardioprotective effects of DEX and provides novel insights into the molecular events involved. Furthermore, the data suggests that currently recommended delayed intervention may not be able to take advantage of the full cardioprotective potential of the drug

  10. Acute effects of aflatoxins on guinea pig isolated ileum.

    Luzi, A; Cometa, M F; Palmery, M

    2002-10-01

    Previous studies on the aflatoxins have focused mainly on their chronic toxic effects. In this study we investigated the acute gastrointestinal effects of four common aflatoxins on isolated guinea pig ileum. AFB(1) (EC(50) 4.6+/-0.4 microM) and AFB(2) (EC(50)17+/-4.4 microM) contracted isolated guinea pig ileum in a dose-dependent manner, whereas AFG(1) and AFG(2) evoked no contractions. Atropine (5.9 nM 11.8 and 23.6 nM) antagonized AFB(1)-induced contractions in a dose-dependent manner. Pretreatment with the nicotinic ganglionic blocker, hexamethonium (up to 55 microM), left AFB(1)-induced contractions unchanged. In contrast, tetrodotoxin (0.3 microM), blocked AFB(1) contractile activity. The two inhibitors of ACh release, morphine (0.3 microM) and clonidine (0.4 microM), antagonized EC(50) AFB(1)-induced contractions, and apamin, a drug that increases neuronal excitability, facilitated the EC(50) AFB(1)-induced contractile effect. The choline uptake blocker, hemicholinium (17.4 microM) markedly reduced AFB(1)-induced contractions. These results suggest that aflatoxins induce their contractile effect indirectly through the cholinergic system by stimulating acetylcholine release from the postganglionic parasympathetic nerve endings. The acute actions of aflatoxins on isolated guinea pig ileum could explain their acute gastrointestinal effects in humans and animals. PMID:12206819

  11. Acute effects of aerobic exercise promote learning

    Renza Perini; Marta Bortoletto; Michela Capogrosso; Anna Fertonani; Carlo Miniussi

    2016-01-01

    The benefits that physical exercise confers on cardiovascular health are well known, whereas the notion that physical exercise can also improve cognitive performance has only recently begun to be explored and has thus far yielded only controversial results. In the present study, we used a sample of young male subjects to test the effects that a single bout of aerobic exercise has on learning. Two tasks were run: the first was an orientation discrimination task involving the primary visual cor...

  12. Acute effects of cannabis on breath-holding duration.

    Farris, Samantha G; Metrik, Jane

    2016-08-01

    Distress intolerance (an individual's perceived or actual inability to tolerate distressing psychological or physiological states) is associated with cannabis use. It is unknown whether a biobehavioral index of distress intolerance, breath-holding duration, is acutely influenced (increased or decreased) by cannabis. Such information may further inform understanding of the expression of psychological or physiological distress postcannabis use. This within-subjects study examined whether smoked marijuana with 2.7%-3.0% delta-9-tetrahydrocannabinol (THC), relative to placebo, acutely changed duration of breath holding. Participants (n = 88; 65.9% male) were nontreatment-seeking frequent cannabis users who smoked placebo or active THC cigarette on two separate study days and completed a breath-holding task postsmoking. Controlling for baseline breath-holding duration and participant sex, THC produced significantly shorter breath-holding durations relative to placebo. There was a significant interaction of drug administration × frequency of cannabis use, such that THC decreased breath-holding time among less frequent but not among more frequent users. Findings indicate that cannabis may exacerbate distress intolerance (via shorter breath-holding durations). As compared to less frequent cannabis users, frequent users display tolerance to cannabis' acute effects including increased ability to tolerate respiratory distress when holding breath. Objective measures of distress intolerance are sensitive to contextual factors such as acute drug intoxication, and may inform the link between cannabis use and the expression of psychological distress. (PsycINFO Database Record PMID:27454678

  13. Effects of melatonin in experimental stroke models in acute, sub-acute, and chronic stages

    Hsiao-Wen Lin

    2009-03-01

    Full Text Available Hsiao-Wen Lin, E-Jian LeeNeurophysiology Laboratory, Neurosurgical Service, Department of Surgery, National Cheng Kung University Medical Center and Medical School, Tainan, TaiwanAbstract: Melatonin (N-acetyl-5-methoxy-tryptamine, a naturally occurring indole produced mainly by the pineal gland, is a well known antioxidant. Stroke (cerebral ischemia is the second leading cause of death worldwide. To date, however, effective and safe treatment for stroke remains unavailable. Melatonin is both lipid- and water-soluble and readily crosses the blood–brain barrier (BBB. Increasing evidence has shown that, in animal stroke models, administering melatonin significantly reduces infarct volume, edema, and oxidative damage and improves electrophysiological and behavioral performance. Here, we reviewed studies that assess effects of melatonin on cerebral ischemia in acute, sub-acute, and chronic stages. In addition to its potent antioxidant properties, melatonin exerts antiapoptotic, antiexcitotoxic, anti-inflammatory effects and promotes mitochondrial functions in animals with cerebral ischemia. Given that melatonin shows almost no toxicity to humans and possesses multifaceted protective capacity against cerebral ischemia, it is valuable to consider using melatonin in clinical trials on patients suffering from stroke.Keywords: cerebral ischemia, melatonin, stroke, neuroprotection

  14. Evaluation of Chloroform Extract and Its Fractions of Ocimum gratissimum (Linn. Leaves for Cardioprotective Activity

    Dobhal Y

    2013-05-01

    Full Text Available The present study has been designed to investigate the efficacy of active extract and its fraction of Ocimum gratissimum (Linn. leaves on ischaemia and reperfusion-induced myocardial injury using wister albino rats. Petroleum ether, chloroform, acetone and methanolic extracts of Ocimum gratissimum (Linn. leaves were prepared and screened for their cardioprotective potential. Among all the extracts chloroform extract reduce myocardial injury. The chloroform extract further purified using column chromatographic technique that results four major fractions viz F1, F2, F3 and F4. These fractions screened for myocardial infarct size and LDH and CK-MB release in coronary effluent at dose level of 100mg/kg body weight as compared with that of standard Trimetazidine(35mg/kg body weight. The fraction F4 of chloroform extract significantly prevented myocardial infarct size and LDH and CK-MB release as compared with that of standard trimetazidine. Further, cardioprotective effect of the fraction F4 of chloroform extracts of Ocimum gratissimum (Linn. was significantly (p˂0.05 compared to vehicle control group.

  15. Novel insights in pathophysiology of antiblastic drugs-induced cardiotoxicity and cardioprotection.

    Deidda, Martino; Madonna, Rosalinda; Mango, Ruggiero; Pagliaro, Pasquale; Bassareo, Pier P; Cugusi, Lucia; Romano, Silvio; Penco, Maria; Romeo, Francesco; Mercuro, Giuseppe

    2016-05-01

    Despite advances in supportive and protective therapy for myocardial function, heart failure caused by various clinical conditions, including cardiomyopathy due to antineoplastic therapy, remains a major cause of morbidity and mortality. Because of the limitations associated with current therapies, investigators have been searching for alternative treatments that can effectively repair the damaged heart and permanently restore its function. Damage to the heart can result from both traditional chemotherapeutic agents, such as anthracyclines, and new targeted therapies, such as trastuzumab. Because of this unresolved issue, investigators are searching for alternative therapeutic strategies. In this article, we present state-of-the-art technology with regard to the genomic and epigenetic mechanisms underlying cardiotoxicity and cardioprotection, the role of anticancer in influencing the redox (reduction/oxidation) balance and the function of stem cells in the repair/regeneration of the adult heart. These findings, although not immediately transferable to clinical applications, form the basis for the development of personalized medicine based on the prevention of cardiotoxicity with the use of genetic testing. Proteomics, metabolomics and investigations on reactive oxygen species-dependent pathways, particularly those that interact with the production of NO and energy metabolism, appear to be promising for the identification of early markers of cardiotoxicity and for the development of cardioprotective agents. Finally, autologous cardiac stem and progenitor cells may represent future contributions in the field of myocardial protection and recovery in the context of antiblastic therapy. PMID:27183528

  16. Effects of Ozonated Olive Oil on Acute Radiation Proctitis in Rats

    Gültekin, Fatma Ayça; BAKKAL, Bekir Hakan; Sümer, Demet; Köktürk, Füruzan; Bektaş, Sibel

    2013-01-01

    Background: Acute radiation proctitis is a common complication of pelvic radiation and management of acute radiation proctitis is under evaluation. The beneficial effects of ozonated olive oil (OzOO) have already been shown in the treatment of chronic wounds. Thus, this study was designed to evaluate the therapeutic effects of topical OzOO on acute radiation proctitis. Aims: To evaluate the therapeutic effects of topical OzOO on acute radiation proctitis. Study Design: An...

  17. Spaceflight Sensorimotor Analogs: Simulating Acute and Adaptive Effects

    Taylor, Laura C.; Harm, Deborah L.; Kozlovskaya, Inessa; Reschke, Millard F.; Wood, Scott J.

    2009-01-01

    Adaptive changes in sensorimotor function during spaceflight are reflected by spatial disorientation, motion sickness, gaze destabilization and decrements in balance, locomotion and eye-hand coordination that occur during and following transitions between different gravitational states. The purpose of this study was to conduct a meta-synthesis of data from spaceflight analogs to evaluate their effectiveness in simulating adaptive changes in sensorimotor function. METHODS. The analogs under review were categorized as either acute analogs used to simulate performance decrements accompanied with transient changes, or adaptive analogs used to drive sensorimotor learning to altered sensory feedback. The effectiveness of each analog was evaluated in terms of mechanisms of action, magnitude and time course of observed deficits compared to spaceflight data, and the effects of amplitude and exposure duration. RESULTS. Parabolic flight has been used extensively to examine effects of acute variation in gravitational loads, ranging from hypergravity to microgravity. More recently, galvanic vestibular stimulation has been used to elicit acute postural, locomotor and gaze dysfunction by disrupting vestibular afferents. Patient populations, e.g., with bilateral vestibular loss or cerebellar dysfunction, have been proposed to model acute sensorimotor dysfunction. Early research sponsored by NASA involved living onboard rotating rooms, which appeared to approximate the time course of adaptation and post-exposure recovery observed in astronauts following spaceflight. Exposure to different bed-rest paradigms (6 deg head down, dry immersion) result in similar motor deficits to that observed following spaceflight. Shorter adaptive analogs have incorporated virtual reality environments, visual distortion paradigms, exposure to conflicting tilt-translation cues, and exposure to 3Gx centrifugation. As with spaceflight, there is considerable variability in responses to most of the analogs

  18. Acute psychological effects of one high intensity exercise

    Kleppe, Kim Daniel

    2011-01-01

    The aim of this study was to examine if there are positive acute mood effects of one high intensity exercise. Method: self-completion questionnaires were used to measure the state mood of the participants. 20 persons with a diagnosis of a psychotic disorder (group one), 22 persons with a psychiatric diagnosis of a non-psychotic disorder (group two) and 20 persons with no psychiatric disorder (group three) performed one high intensity exercise while completing the same questionnaire before and...

  19. Effect of carbon dioxide in acute mountain sickness

    Harvey, T C; Raichle, M E; Winterborn, M H;

    1988-01-01

    The effect of adding CO2 to inhaled air in six subjects with acute mountain sickness was investigated during a medical expedition to 5400 m.3% CO2 in ambient air increased ventilation and resulted in a rise in PaO2 of between 24% and 40%. There was a 9-28% increase in PaCO2 and a reduction of the...

  20. Acute Effects of Marijuana Smoking on Negative and Positive Affect

    Metrik, Jane; Kahler, Christopher W.; McGeary, John E.; Monti, Peter M.; Rohsenow, Damaris J.

    2011-01-01

    Human studies and animal experiments present a complex and often contradictory picture of the acute impact of marijuana on emotions. The few human studies specifically examining changes in negative affect find either increases or reductions following delta-9-tetrahydrocannabinol (THC) administration. In a 2 × 2, instructional set (told THC vs. told no THC) by drug administration (smoked marijuana with 2.8% THC vs. placebo) between-subjects design, we examined the pharmacologic effect of marij...

  1. Mitochondria as Key Targets of Cardioprotection in Cardiac Ischemic Disease: Role of Thyroid Hormone Triiodothyronine

    Francesca Forini

    2015-03-01

    Full Text Available Ischemic heart disease is the major cause of mortality and morbidity worldwide. Early reperfusion after acute myocardial ischemia has reduced short-term mortality, but it is also responsible for additional myocardial damage, which in the long run favors adverse cardiac remodeling and heart failure evolution. A growing body of experimental and clinical evidence show that the mitochondrion is an essential end effector of ischemia/ reperfusion injury and a major trigger of cell death in the acute ischemic phase (up to 48–72 h after the insult, the subacute phase (from 72 h to 7–10 days and chronic stage (from 10–14 days to one month after the insult. As such, in recent years scientific efforts have focused on mitochondria as a target for cardioprotective strategies in ischemic heart disease and cardiomyopathy. The present review discusses recent advances in this field, with special emphasis on the emerging role of the biologically active thyroid hormone triiodothyronine (T3.

  2. Intravenous glutamine enhances COX-2 activity giving cardioprotection.

    McGuinness, Jonathan

    2009-03-01

    Preconditioning, a highly evolutionary conserved endogenous protective response, provides the most powerful form of anti-infarct protection known. We investigated whether acute intravenous glutamine, through an effect on cyclooxygenase (COX)-2 and heat shock protein (HSP) 72, might induce preconditioning.

  3. Effect of acute exercise on prostate cancer cell growth.

    Helene Rundqvist

    Full Text Available Physical activity is associated with reduced risk of several cancers, including aggressive prostate cancer. The mechanisms mediating the effects are not yet understood; among the candidates are modifications of endogenous hormone levels. Long-term exercise is known to reduce serum levels of growth stimulating hormones. In contrast, the endocrine effects of acute endurance exercise include increased levels of mitogenic factors such as GH and IGF-1. It can be speculated that the elevation of serum growth factors may be detrimental to prostate cancer progression into malignancy. The incentive of the current study is to evaluate the effect of acute exercise serum on prostate cancer cell growth. We designed an exercise intervention where 10 male individuals performed 60 minutes of bicycle exercise at increasing intensity. Serum samples were obtained before (rest serum and after completed exercise (exercise serum. The established prostate cancer cell line LNCaP was exposed to exercise or rest serum. Exercise serum from 9 out of 10 individuals had a growth inhibitory effect on LNCaP cells. Incubation with pooled exercise serum resulted in a 31% inhibition of LNCaP growth and pre-incubation before subcutaneous injection into SCID mice caused a delay in tumor formation. Serum analyses indicated two possible candidates for the effect; increased levels of IGFBP-1 and reduced levels of EGF. In conclusion, despite the fear of possible detrimental effects of acute exercise serum on tumor cell growth, we show that even the short-term effects seem to add to the overall beneficial influence of exercise on neoplasia.

  4. Effect of copaiba oil on acute pancreatitis in mice

    Daniel L. Medeiros

    2014-06-01

    Full Text Available Objective: The anti-inflammatory activity of copaiba oil was evaluated using a cerulein-induced acute pancreatitis model in mice. Methods: Mice were pretreated with Copaiba sp oleoresin before induction of pancreatitis. Pancreatitis was induced by intraperitoneal injection (five injections at hourly intervals of cerulein solution and, 6 h later, pancreatic and lung damage were analyzed macroscopically for the severity of necrosis, and by protein plasma extravasation and plasma amylase activity (a biomarker of acute pancreatic damage; myeloperoxidase activity (MPO; a neutrophil marker and thiobarbituric reactive species (TBARS; a lipid peroxidation index were determined in the pancreas and lung. Results: A significant reduction in protein plasma extravasation of damaged pancreatic tissue was observed in mice that received copaiba oil. This effect was confirmed biochemically by reduction of protein plasma extravasation, and associated with reduced plasma amylase and MPO activity. Conclusion: These findings indicate the anti-inflammatory effect of copaiba oil on experimental acute pancreatitis induced by cerulein in mice. [J Exp Integr Med 2014; 4(2.000: 107-114

  5. Effect of Taurine on Febrile Episodes in Acute Lymphoblastic Leukemia

    Mina Islambulchilar

    2015-03-01

    Full Text Available Purpose: The purpose of our study was to evaluate the effect of oral taurine on the incidence of febrile episodes during chemotherapy in young adults with acute lymphoblastic leukemia. Methods: Forty young adults with acute lymphoblastic leukemia, at the beginning of maintenance course of their chemotherapy, were eligible for this study. The study population was randomized in a double blind manner to receive either taurine or placebo (2 gram per day orally. Life quality and side effects including febrile episodes were assessed using questionnaire. Data were analyzed using Pearson’s Chi square test. Results: Of total forty participants, 43.8% were female and 56.3 % were male. The mean age was 19.16±1.95 years (ranges: 16-23 years. The results indicated that the levels of white blood cells are significantly (P<0.05 increased in taurine treated group. There was no elevation in blasts count. A total of 70 febrile episodes were observed during study, febrile episodes were significantly (P<0.05 lower in taurine patients in comparison to the control ones. Conclusion: The overall incidence of febrile episodes and infectious complications in acute lymphoblastic leukemia patients receiving taurine was lower than placebo group. Taurine’s ability to increase leukocyte count may result in lower febrile episodes.

  6. Effects of acute oligohydramnios on respiratory system of fetal sheep.

    Savich, R D; Guerra, F A; Lee, C C; Padbury, J F; Kitterman, J A

    1992-08-01

    Prolonged oligohydramnios, or a lack of amniotic fluid, is associated with pulmonary hypoplasia and subsequent perinatal morbidity, but it is unclear whether short-term or acute oligohydramnios has any effect on the fetal respiratory system. To investigate the acute effects of removal of amniotic fluid, we studied nine chronically catheterized fetal sheep at 122-127 days gestation. During a control period, we measured the volume of fluid in the fetal potential airways and air spaces (VL), production rate of that fluid, incidence and amplitude of fetal breathing movements, tracheal pressures, and fetal plasma concentrations of cortisol, epinephrine, and norepinephrine. We then drained the amniotic fluid for a short period of time [24-48 h, 30.0 +/- 4.0 (SE) h] and repeated the above measurements. The volume of fluid drained for the initial studies was 1,004 +/- 236 ml. Acute oligohydramnios decreased VL from 35.4 +/- 2.9 ml/kg during control to 22.0 +/- 1.6 after oligohydramnios (P less than 0.004). Acute oligohydramnios did not affect the fetal lung fluid production rate, fetal breathing movements, or any of the other measured variables. Seven repeat studies were performed in six of the fetuses after reaccumulation of the amniotic fluid at 130-138 days, and in four of these studies the lung volume also decreased, although the overall mean for the repeat studies was not significantly different (27.0 +/- 5.2 ml/kg for control vs. 25.5 +/- 5.5 ml/kg for oligohydramnios). Again, none of the other measured variables were altered by oligohydramnios in the repeat studies.(ABSTRACT TRUNCATED AT 250 WORDS) PMID:1399988

  7. mTORC2 phosphorylation of Akt1: a possible mechanism for hydrogen sulfide-induced cardioprotection.

    Yue Zhou

    Full Text Available Hydrogen sulfide (H2S is known to have cardiac protective effects through Akt activation. Akt acts as a 'central sensor' for myocyte survival or death; its activity is regulated by multiple kinases including PI3K, mTORC2, PDK1 and phosphatases including PTEN, PP2A and PHLPPL. Based on the previous finding that PI3K inhibitor LY294002 abolishes H2S-induced Akt phosphorylation and cardioprotection, it is accepted that PI3K is the mediator of H2S-induced Akt phosphorylation. However, LY294002 inhibits both PI3K and mTOR, and PI3K only recruits Akt to the membrane where Akt is phosphorylated by Akt kinases. We undertook a series of experiments to further evaluate the role of mTORC2, PDK1, PTEN, PP2A and PHLPPL in H2S-induced Akt phosphorylation and cardioprotection, which, we believe, has not been investigated before. Hearts from adult Sprague-Dawley rats were isolated and subjected to (i normoxia, (ii global ischemia and (iii ischemia/reperfusion in the presence or absence of 50 µM of H2S donor NaHS. Cardiac mechanical function and lactate dehydrogenase (LDH release were assessed. All hearts also were Western analyzed at the end of perfusion for Akt and a panel of appropriate Akt regulators and targets. Hearts pretreated with 50 µM NaHS had improved function at the end of reperfusion (Rate pressure product; 19±4×10(3 vs. 10±3×10(3 mmHg/min, p<0.05 and reduced cell injury (LDH release 19±10 vs. 170±87 mU/ml p<0.05 compared to untreated hearts. NaHS significantly increased phospho-Akt, phospho-mTOR, phospho-Bim and Bcl-2 in reperfused hearts (P<0.05. Furthermore using H9c2 cells we demonstrate that NaHS pretreatment reduces apoptosis following hypoxia/re-oxygenation. Importantly, PP242, a specific mTOR inhibitor, abolished both cardioprotection and protein phosphorylation in isolated heart and reduced apoptotic effects in H9c2 cells. Treating hearts with NaHS only during reperfusion produced less cardioprotection through a similar mechanism

  8. Effects of gabapentin in acute inflammatory pain in humans

    Werner, M U; Perkins, F M; Holte, Kathrine; Pedersen, J L; Kehlet, H

    2001-01-01

    BACKGROUND AND OBJECTIVES: The aim of the study was to examine the analgesic effects of the anticonvulsant, gabapentin, in a validated model of acute inflammatory pain. METHODS: Twenty-two volunteers were investigated in a double-blind, randomized, placebo-controlled cross-over study. Gabapentin 1...... stimuli (visual analog scale [VAS]), assessments of thermal and mechanical detection thresholds, and areas of secondary hyperalgesia. Side effects drowsiness and postural instability were assessed by subjective ratings (VAS). RESULTS: The burn injury induced significant primary and secondary hyperalgesia...... inflammation following a thermal injury. These observations suggest a clinical potential of gabapentin in the treatment of postoperative pain....

  9. The effects of citicoline on acute ischemic stroke

    Overgaard, Karsten

    2014-01-01

    Early reopening of the occluded artery is, thus, important in ischemic stroke, and it has been calculated that 2 million neurons die every minute in an ischemic stroke if no effective therapy is given; therefore, "Time is Brain." In massive hemispheric infarction and edema, surgical decompression...... other neuroprotective agent had any beneficial effect in confirmative clinical trials or had any positive effect in the subgroup analysis. Citicoline is the only drug that in a number of different clinical stroke trials continuously had some neuroprotective benefit....... lowers the risk of death or severe disability defined as a modified Rankin Scale score greater than 4 in selected patients. The majority, around 80%-85% of all ischemic stroke victims, does not fulfill the criteria for revascularization therapy, and also for these patients, there is no effective acute...... therapy. Also there is no established effective acute treatment of spontaneous intracerebral bleeding. Therefore, an effective therapy applicable to all stroke victims is needed. The neuroprotective drug citicoline has been extensively studied in clinical trials with volunteers and more than 11...

  10. Evaluation of the antidepressant-like effects of acute and sub-acute administration of crocin and crocetin in mice

    Bahareh Amin

    2015-08-01

    Full Text Available Objective: The present study was designed to investigate the putative antidepressant effects of crocin and crocetin, two major active ingredients of Crocus sativus L. (saffron using mice in two different regimens of acute and sub-acute administration. Material and Methods: In acute treatment, antidepressant-like activities of crocin and crocetin (10, 20 and 40 mg/kg, i.p. were evaluated using forced swim test (FST. In sub-acute study (21 times with 24-h intervals, antidepressant-like effects of oral administration of drugs were examined using FST and tail suspension test (TST. Locomotor activity and motor coordination were studied using open field and rotarod tests, respectively. Results: Acute treatment with crocin (40 mg/kg and crocetin (20 and 40 mg/kg produced antidepressant-like effect in FST without affecting the baseline locomotion in mice. Sub-acute oral administration of crocin significantly decreased immobility time only at the highest dose (100 mg/kg. Crocetin (12.5, 25 and 50 mg/kg was able to decrease immobility time in FST and TST. Locomotor activity and coordination of mice were not affected by crocin or crocetin. Conclusion: Since higher doses of crocin was required to show antidepressant effects, more efficacy of crocetin may be concluded. This observation provides further support for metabolism of crocin to crocetin following oral administration.

  11. Lack of cardioprotection from metabolic support with glutamine or glutamate in a porcine coronary occlusion model

    Kristensen, Jens; Mæng, Michael; Mortensen, Ulrik;

    2005-01-01

    OBJECTIVE: Previous experimental studies indicate that glutamine or glutamate may provide cardioprotection by improving the oxidative metabolism in myocardial ischemia. We investigated the effect of glutamine or glutamate, given during reperfusion, on resulting infarct size and hemodynamic recovery...... outcome measures were the hemodynamic variables. RESULTS: The infarct sizes as a proportion of the area at risk (mean+/-SD) were: control group, 0.64 +/- 0.19 (n = 9); glutamine group, 0.87 +/- 0.07 (p < 0.05 vs control group) (n = 8); glutamate group, 0.72 +/- 0.11 (n = 9). Glutamine increased systemic...... vascular resistance, while glutamate preserved cardiac output during infusion. CONCLUSION: Substrate supplementation with the anaplerotic precursors glutamine and glutamate is ineffective as adjunctive therapy for severe myocardial ischemia. Beneficial effects documented in less complex experimental...

  12. Effect of HIV infection on time to recovery from an acute manic episode

    E Nakimuli-Mpungu; B Mutamba; Nshemerirwe, S; Kiwuwa, MS; Musisi, S

    2010-01-01

    Introduction Understanding factors affecting the time to recovery from acute mania is critical in the management of manic syndromes. The aim of this study was to determine the effect of HIV infection on time to recovery from acute mania. Methods We performed a retrospective study in which medical charts of individuals who were treated for acute mania were reviewed. Survival analysis with Cox regression models were used to compare time to recovery from an acute manic episode between human immu...

  13. Nephroprotective effect of ethanolic extract of abutilon indicum root in gentamicin induced acute renal failure

    Jacob Jesurun RS; Lavakumar S.

    2016-01-01

    Background: The term acute renal failure (ARF) is at present called acute kidney injury (AKI). AKI is a reversible condition in which there is a sudden decline in renal function, manifested by elevated SCr and BUN which occurs in hours to days to weeks. The present study was to evaluate the nephron protective effect of abutilon indicum root in gentamicin induced acute renal failure in wistar albino rats. Methods: Experimental evaluation was done in gentamicin induced acute renal failure. 2...

  14. Marijuana’s Acute Effects on Cognitive Bias for Affective and Marijuana Cues

    Metrik, Jane; Aston, Elizabeth R.; Kahler, Christopher W.; Rohsenow, Damaris J.; McGeary, John E.; Valerie S. Knopik

    2015-01-01

    Marijuana produces acute increases in positive subjective effects and decreased reactivity to negative affective stimuli, though may also acutely induce anxiety. Implicit attentional and evaluative processes may explicate marijuana’s ability to acutely increase positive and negative emotions. This within-subjects study examined whether smoked marijuana with 2.7–3.0 % delta-9-tetrahydrocannabinol (THC), relative to placebo, acutely changed attentional processing of rewarding and negative affec...

  15. A labdane diterpene exerts ex vivo and in vivo cardioprotection against post-ischemic injury: involvement of AKT-dependent mechanisms.

    Cuadrado-Berrocal, Irene; Gómez-Gaviro, María V; Benito, Yolanda; Barrio, Alicia; Bermejo, Javier; Fernández-Santos, María Eugenia; Sánchez, Pedro L; Desco, Manuel; Fernández-Avilés, Francisco; Fernández-Velasco, María; Boscá, Lisardo; de Las Heras, Beatriz

    2015-02-15

    Therapeutic approaches to protect the heart from ischemia/reperfusion (I/R) injury are an area of intense research, as myocardial infarction is a major cause of mortality and morbidity. Diterpenes are bioactive natural products with great therapeutic potential. In the present study, we have investigated the in vivo cardioprotective effects of a labdane diterpene (DT1) against cardiac I/R injury and the molecular mechanisms involved. DT1 attenuates post-ischemic injury via an AKT-dependent activation of HIF-1α, survival pathways and inhibition of NF-κB signaling. Myocardial infarction (MI) was induced in Wistar rats occluding the left coronary artery (LCA) for 30min followed by 72h reperfusion. DT1 (5mg/kg) was intravenously administered at reperfusion. In addition, we investigated the mechanisms of cardioprotection in the Langendorff-perfused model. Cardioprotection was observed when DT1 was administered after myocardial injury. The molecular mechanisms involved the activation of the survival pathway PDK-1, AKT and AMPK, a reduced phosphorylation of PKD1/2 and sustained HIF-1α activity, leading to increased expression of anti-apoptotic proteins and decreased caspase-3 activation. Pharmacological inhibition of AKT following MI and prior to DT1 challenge significantly decreased the cardioprotection afforded by DT1 therapy at reperfusion. Cardiac function after MI was significantly improved after DT1-treatment, as evidenced by hemodynamic recovery and decreased myocardial infarct size. These findings demonstrate an efficient in vivo cardioprotection by diterpene DT1 against I/R when administered at reperfusion, opening new therapeutic strategies as adjunctive therapy for the pharmacological management of I/R injury. PMID:25557296

  16. Acute mucocutaneous and systemic adverse effects of Etretinate

    "Mortazavi H

    2003-06-01

    Full Text Available This cross sectional study was carried out between 1993 to 1998 at Razi Skin Hospital, the affiliated Dermatology Department of Tehran University of Medical Sciences. Eight hundred patients receiving etretinate for various skin diseases took part in this study. Among them, 457 patients with first admission to dermatologic clinic who had at least four regular sequential visits and responding to our questionnaire were selected to enter the study for evaluating acute toxicity of etretinate. Cheilitis with a frequency of 88 percent was the most frequent side effect. Hair loss (22.97%, dry mouth with thirst (15.09%, dryness of mucous membranes (13.12%, xerosis with pruritus (11.15%, nose bleeding (8.31%, paronychia (5.47%, facial dermatitis (3.06%, conjunctivitis (2.84% and in addition to mucocutaneous ones, chills (2.63%, headache (2.19%, mental depression (2.19%, urinary frequency (1.53% and papilledema (0.44% were among the other observed toxicities, The relationship between mucocutaneous side effect with dosage of etretinate, sex and, age of the patients was evaluated. The association between mucoctaneous toxicities and sex was significant, sex and, age of the patients was evaluated. The association between mucocutaneous toxicities and sex was significant (P<0.05. We observed four rare side effect in the patients including hair color lightening appering as whitening or blondness, hair waving, dyspareunia and gynecomastia. In conclusion, females were more to acute mucocutaneous toxicities of etretinate.

  17. Cardioprotection by 6-gingerol in diabetic rats.

    El-Bassossy, Hany M; Elberry, Ahmed A; Ghareib, Salah A; Azhar, Ahmad; Banjar, Zainy Mohammed; Watson, Malcolm L

    2016-09-01

    The current study was conducted to evaluate the effect of 6-gingerol (6G) on cardiac complications in streptozotocin (STZ)-induced diabetic (DM) rats. STZ-induced DM rats (single 50 mg/kg i.p. injection, 15 days prior to drug treatment) or time-matched controls were treated with 6G (75 mg/day route orally). After a further 8 weeks, blood was collected for biochemical analysis and 8-isoprostenol was measured in urine. Cardiac hemodynamics and ECG was assessed. 6G significantly attenuated the increased level of blood glucose in diabetic rats and improved cardiac hemodynamics in including RR interval, max dP/dt, min dP/dt and Tau. In addition, 6G alleviated the elevated ST segment, T amplitude and R amplitude with no significant effect on disturbed levels of adiponectin, TGF-β or 8-isoprostenol induced by diabetes. The results showed that treatment with 6G has an ameliorative effect on cardiac dysfunction induced by diabetes. Which may be not related to its potential antioxidant effect. PMID:27378426

  18. SOCS3: A novel therapeutic target for cardioprotection.

    Yasukawa, Hideo; Nagata, Takanobu; Oba, Toyoharu; Imaizumi, Tsutomu

    2012-10-01

    The suppressors of cytokine signaling (SOCS) family of proteins are cytokine-inducible inhibitors of Janus kinase (JAK)-signal transducer and activator of the transcription (STAT) signaling pathways. Among the family, SOCS1 and SOCS3 potently suppress cytokine actions by inhibiting JAK kinase activities. The generation of mice lacking individual SOCS genes has been instrumental in defining the role of individual SOCS proteins in specific cytokine pathways in vivo; SOCS1 is an essential negative regulator of interferon-γ (IFNγ) and SOCS3 is an essential negative regulator of leukemia inhibitory factor (LIF). JAK-STAT3 activating cytokines have exhibited cardioprotective roles in the heart. The cardiac-specific deletion of SOCS3 enhances the activation of cardioprotective signaling pathways, inhibits myocardial apoptosis and fibrosis and results in the inhibition of left ventricular remodeling after myocardial infarction (MI). We propose that myocardial SOCS3 is a key determinant of left ventricular remodeling after MI, and SOCS3 may serve as a novel therapeutic target to prevent left ventricular remodeling after MI. In this review, we discuss the signaling pathways mediated by JAK-STAT and SOCS proteins and their roles in the development of myocardial injury under stress (e.g., pressure overload, viral infection and ischemia). PMID:24058778

  19. EFFECTS OF ACUTE HYPOGLYCEMIA ON THE OREXIN SYSTEM IN RAT

    Yu-yan Zhao; Lei Guo; Jian Du; Guo-liang Liu

    2005-01-01

    Objective To evaluate the effects of acute glucose level changes on expression of prepro-orexin, orexin 1 receptor (OX1R) and orexin 2 receptor (OX2R) mRNA in rat hypothalamus tissue and pancreatic islets cells.Methods Thirty adult male Wistar rats were randomly divided into three equal groups (n= 10). The acute hypoglycemia rat model was induced by a single subcutaneous injection of insulin. Twenty acute hypoglycemia rats were divided into group B and group C. Group B was allowed to eat freely, while group C was food-deprived. Control rats were injected the same volume of saline. The effect of glucose levels (2.8 mmol/L and 8.3 mmol/L) on pancreatic islet cell orexin system was detected in pancreas islet cell cultured in vitro. The expression of prepro-orexin and OXR mRNA was examined in rat hypothalamus tissue and pancreatic islets cell cultured in vitro using reverse transcription-polymerase chain reaction (RTPCR).Results Expression of orexin mRNA increased about 150% for the food-deprived hypoglycemia rats in comparison with control group (P < 0.01), whereas expression of OX1R mRNA decreased up to 30% (P < 0.01). However, expression of OX2R mRNA was unchanged in comparison with control group. In vitro, after incubation with 2.8 mmol/L glucose for 6hours, the expression of prepro-orexin mRNA increased 2 times in rat pancreas islet cells in comparison with 8.3 mmol/Lglucose group (P < 0.01). But the expression of OX1R mRNA was not sensitive to acute glucose fluctuation.Conclusions Orexin in rat hypothalamus is stimulated by decline in blood glucose and inhibited by signals related to feeding. Moreover, glucose plays a role in modulating the gene expression of prepro-orexin in rat pancreatic islet cells.

  20. Effectiveness of chelation therapy with time after acute uranium intoxication

    The effect of increasing the time interval between acute uranium exposure and chelation therapy was studied in male Swiss mice. Gallic acid, 4,5-dihydroxy-1,3- benzenedisulfonic acid (Tiron), diethylenetriaminepentaacetic acid (DTPA), and 5-aminosalicylic acid (5-AS) were administered ip at 0, 0.25, 1, 4, and 24 hr after sc injection of 10 mg/kg of uranyl acetate dihydrate. Chelating agents were given at doses equal to one-fourth of their respective LD50 values. Daily elimination of uranium into urine and feces was determined for 4 days after which time the mice were killed, and the concentration of uranium was measured in kidney, spleen, and bone. The excretion of uranium was especially rapid in the first 24 hr. Treatment with Tiron or gallic acid at 0, 0.25, or 1 hr after uranium exposure significantly increased the total excretion of the metal. In kidney and bone, only administration of Tiron at 0, 0.25, or 1 hr after uranium injection, or gallic acid at 1 hr after uranium exposure significantly reduced tissue uranium concentrations. Treatment at later times (4 to 24 hr) did not increase the total excretion of the metal and did not decrease the tissue uranium concentrations 4 days after uranyl acetate administration. The results show that the length of time before initiating chelation therapy for acute uranium intoxication greatly influences the effectiveness of this therapy

  1. Senescence marker protein 30 has a cardio-protective role in doxorubicin-induced cardiac dysfunction.

    Makiko Miyata

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: Senescence marker protein 30 (SMP30, which was originally identified as an aging marker protein, is assumed to act as a novel anti-aging factor in the liver, lungs and brain. We hypothesized that SMP30 has cardio-protective function due to its anti-aging and anti-oxidant effects on doxorubicin (DOX-induced cardiac dysfunction. METHODS AND RESULTS: SMP30 knockout (SMP30 KO mice, SMP30 transgenic (SMP30 TG mice with cardiac-specific overexpression of SMP30 gene and wild-type (WT littermate mice at 12-14 weeks of age were given intra-peritoneal injection of DOX (20 mg/kg or saline. Five days after DOX injection, echocardiography revealed that left ventricular ejection fraction was more severely reduced in the DOX-treated SMP30 KO mice than in the DOX-treated WT mice, but was preserved in the DOX-treated SMP30 TG mice. Generation of reactive oxygen species and oxidative DNA damage in the myocardium were greater in the DOX-treated SMP30 KO mice than in the DOX-treated WT mice, but much less in the SMP30 TG mice. The numbers of deoxynucleotidyltransferase-mediated dUTP nick end-labeling positive nuclei in the myocardium, apoptotic signaling pathways such as caspase-3 activity, Bax/Bcl-2 ratio and phosphorylation activity of c-Jun N-terminal kinase were increased in SMP30 KO mice and decreased in SMP30 TG mice compared with WT mice after DOX injection. CONCLUSIONS: SMP30 has a cardio-protective role by anti-oxidative and anti-apoptotic effects in DOX-induced cardiotoxicity, and can be a new therapeutic target to prevent DOX-induced heart failure.

  2. Berberine Pretreatment Confers Cardioprotection Against Ischemia-Reperfusion Injury in a Rat Model of Type 2 Diabetes.

    Chang, Wenguang; Li, Kun; Guan, Fengying; Yao, Fan; Yu, Yang; Zhang, Ming; Hatch, Grant M; Chen, Li

    2016-09-01

    Preclinical and clinical studies have demonstrated that berberine (BBR) improves diabetic complications and reduces mortality of patients with congestive heart failure. The therapeutic effects of BBR have been reported to be mediated by its regulation of adenosine monophosphate (AMP)-activated protein kinase (AMPK). We previously reported that BBR protects against ischemia-reperfusion injury via regulating AMPK activity in both ischemic and nonischemic areas of the rat heart. Since diabetic hearts are more sensitive to ischemia-reperfusion injury, we examined whether BBR treatment exhibited cardioprotective effects in the diabetic heart. Type 2 diabetic rats were pretreated plus or minus BBR for 7 days and subjected to 30-minute ischemia followed by 120-minute reperfusion. Pretreatment of type 2 diabetic rats with BBR reduced ischemia-reperfusion injury infarct size and attenuated arrhythmia compared to untreated diabetic controls. Subsequent to ischemia-reperfusion, serum triglyceride, total cholesterol, and malondialdehyde levels were reduced by pretreatment of type 2 diabetic rats with BBR compared to untreated diabetic controls. In contrast, serum glucose and superoxide dismutase levels were unaltered. The mechanism for the BBR-mediated cardioprotective effect was examined. Pretreatment with BBR did not alter AMPK activity in ischemic areas at risk but increased AMPK activity in nonischemic areas compared to untreated diabetic controls. The increased AMPK activity in nonischemic areas was due an elevated ratio of AMP to adenosine triphosphate (ATP) and adenosine diphosphate to ATP. In addition, pretreatment with BBR increased protein kinase B (AKT) phosphorylation and reduced glycogen synthase kinase 3β (GSK3β) activity in nonischemic areas compared to untreated diabetic controls. These findings indicate that BBR protects the diabetic heart from ischemia-reperfusion injury. In addition, BBR may mediate this cardioprotective effect through AMPK activation, AKT

  3. Acute effect of different stretching methods on isometric muscle strength

    Gabriel Vasconcellos de Lima Costa e Silva

    2014-03-01

    This study investigated the acute effect of static stretching methods (SS and proprioceptive neuromuscular facilitation (PNF on the static muscle strength (SMS. Eleven young male subjects with strength training experience, performed 3 tests with a 48h interval between them, randomly selected, where each one subject carried out all procedures: a hand grip without stretching; b hand grip preceded by static stretching of wrist flexors muscles; c hand grip preceded by PNF stretching of wrist flexors muscles. The Shapiro-Wilk test verified the normality of data, and a one-way ANOVA with repeated measures, followed by Tukey’s post hoc test, evaluated the differences between the groups. The significance was set at p 0.05. In conclusion, both stretching methods had caused negative effects on isometric strength, reducing its levels.

  4. Cardioprotective and Antioxidant Influence of Aqueous Extracts from Sesamum indicum Seeds on Oxidative Stress Induced by Cadmium in Wistar Rats

    Oyinloye, Babatunji Emmanuel; Ajiboye, Basiru Olaitan; Ojo, Oluwafemi Adeleke; Nwozo, Sarah Onyenibe; Kappo, Abidemi Paul

    2016-01-01

    Background: Oxidative stress has been implicated in the pathogenesis of several acute and chronic diseases of the heart as a result of indiscriminate exposure to cardiotoxic heavy metals. The study reported here was designed to evaluate the possible ameliorative effect of aqueous extracts from Sesamum indicum (SI) seeds on oxidative stress induced by cadmium (Cd) in Wistar rats. Materials and Methods: Daily administration of Cd (200 mg/L Cd as CdCl2) in the animals’ main drinking water for 21 days led to oxidative stress. Thereafter, the ameliorative effects were assessed by measuring biochemical parameters such as extent of lipid peroxidation (LPO), lipid profile, and enzymatic and nonenzymatic antioxidants, as well as serum aminotransferase activities. Results: Treatment with SI extract elicited notable reduction in serum total cholesterol, triglyceride, and low-density lipoprotein cholesterol levels as well as concomitant increase in high-density lipoprotein cholesterol. SI extract also reversed the elevations witnessed in serum aminotransferase activities, LPO level, and ameliorated enzymatic and nonenzymatic antioxidant status in the heart of Cd-exposed rats. Conclusion: Thus, SI appears to be an attractive candidate with potential for the novel treatment of cardiotoxicity and management of oxidative stress arising from Cd exposure. SUMMARY Cadmium (200 mg/L) exposure in drinking water caused pronounced oxidative stress and cardiac tissue damage in animal modelAqueous extract of Sesamum indicum (SI) seeds at a dose of 200 or 400 mg/kg body weight exhibited a significant reversal effect in all biochemical parameters measured such as extent of lipid peroxidation, lipid profile, and enzymatic and nonenzymatic antioxidants, as well as serum aminotransferase activitiesAqueous extract of SI seeds possess antioxidant and cardioprotective potential in a dose-dependent manner, thus conferring protection against oxidative stress induced by cadmium. Abbreviation used

  5. The effects of different remedies on acute myocardial infarction

    Objective: To investigate the different treatment effects of intravenous thrombolysis vs primary coronary angioplasty and interhospital transfer for primary coronary angioplasty in acute myocardial infarction within 12 hours after onset. Methods: During January 2004 to December 2005, 63 consecutive patients with acute myocardial infarction admitted directly for primary PCI and 25 patients transferred from other hospitals for primary. PCI were compared with 32 patients treated with intravenous thrombolysis. Each patients arrived at hospital within 12 h from chest pain onset. T-test and Chi-square test were used to analyze the rate of mortality, re-infarction, heart failure in-hospital and 1-year latter. Results: Among the 3 groups, for group of intravenous thrombolysis, time interval from arriving to having reflow was the shortest (1.1 ± 0.2 h vs 2.3 ± 1.0 h vs 2.1 ± 1.1 h, P < 0.01), the mortalities in hospital (6.3% vs 3.2% vs 4.0%) and 1-year follow up (12.5% vs 4.8% vs 8.0%)were highest in spite of no statistic difference. After 1 year, the rate of reinfarction in intravenous thrombolysis group is higher than that in PCI group (18.8% vs 4.5%, P < 0.05). Conclusions: The key point of AMI remedy is to open the criminal vessel as fast as possible. Interhospital transfer for PCI is feasible and safe. (authors)

  6. Characterization of a critical role for CFTR chloride channels in cardioprotection against ischemia/reperfusion injury

    Sunny Yang XIANG; Linda L YE; LI-lu Marie DUAN; Li-hui LIU; Zhi-dong GE; John A AUCHAMPACH; Garrett J GROSS; Dayue Darrel DUAN

    2011-01-01

    Aim: To further characterize the functional role of cystic fibrosis transmembrane conductance regulator (CFTR) in early and late (second window) ischemic preconditioning (IPC)- and postcondtioning (POC)-mediated cardioprotection against ischemia/reperfusion (I/R) injury.Methods: CFTR knockout (CFTR-/-) mice and age- and gender-matched wild-type (CFTR+/+) and heterozygous (CFTR+/-) mice were used.In in vivo studies, the animals were subjected to a 30-min coronary occlusion followed by a 40-min reperfusion. In ex vivo (isolate heart) studies, a 45-min global ischemia was applied. To evaluate apoptosis, the level of activated caspase 3 and TdT-mediated dUTP-X nick end labeling (TUNEL) were examined.Results: In the in vivo I/R models, early IPC significantly reduced the myocardial infarct size in wild-type (CFTR+/+) (from 40.4%±5.3% to 10.4%±2.0%, n=8, P<0.001) and heterozygous (CFTR+/-) littermates (from 39.4%±2.4% to 15.4%±5.1%, n=6, P<0.001) but failed to protect CFTR knockout (CFTR-/-) mice from I/R induced myocardial infarction (46.9%±6.2% vs 55.5%±7.8%, n=6, P>0.5). Similar results were observed in the in vivo late IPC experiments. Furthermore, in both in vivo and ex vivo I/R models, POC significantly reduced myocardial infarction in wild-type mice, but not in CFTR knockout mice. In ex vivo I/R models, targeted inactivation of CFTRgene abolished the protective effects of IPC against I/R-induced apoptosis.Conclusion: These results provide compelling evidence for a critical role for CFTR Cl- channels in IPC- and POC-mediated cardioprotection against I/R-induced myocardial injury.

  7. Cost effectiveness of diagnostic strategies for patients with acute, undifferentiated chest pain

    Goodacre, S; Calvert, N.

    2003-01-01

    Objectives: Patients presenting to hospital with acute, undifferentiated chest pain have a low, but important, risk of significant myocardial ischaemia. Potential diagnostic strategies for patients with acute, undifferentiated chest pain vary from low cost, poor effectiveness (discharging all home) to high cost, high effectiveness (admission and intensive investigation). This paper aimed to estimate the relative cost effectiveness of these strategies.

  8. Protective effects of rhubarb on experimental severe acute pancreatitis

    Yu-Qing Zhao; Xiao-Hong Liu; Tetsuhide Ito; Jia-Ming Qian

    2004-01-01

    AIM: To investigate the effects of rhubarb on severe acute pancreatitis (SAP) in rats.METHODS: Severe acute pancreatitis was induced by two intraperitoneal injections of cerulein (40 μg/kg body weight) plus 5-h restraint water-immersion stress. Rhubarb (75-150 mg/kg) was orally fed before the first cerulein injection.The degree of pancreatic edema, serum amylase level,local pancreatic blood flow (PBF), and histological alterations were investigated. The effects of rhubarb on pancreatic exocrine secretion in this model were evaluated by comparing with those of somatostatin.RESULTS: In the Cerulein+Stress group, severe edema and diffuse hemorrhage in the pancreas were observed,the pancreatic wet weight (11.60±0.61 g/Kg) and serum amylase (458 490±43 100 U/L) were markedly increased (P<0.01 vs control). In the rhubarb (150 mg/kg) treated rats, necrosis and polymorphonuclear neutrophil (PMN) infiltration in the pancreas were significantly reduced (P<0.01), and a marked decrease (50%) in serum amylase levels was also observed (P<0.01). PBF dropped to 38%(93±5 Ml/min per 100 g) of the control in the Cerulein+Stressgroup and partly recovered in the Cerulein+Stress+Rhubarb 150 mg group (135±12 Ml/min per 100 g) (P<0.01). The pancreatic exocrine function was impaired in the SAP rats.The amylase levels of pancreatic juice were reduced in the rats treated with rhubarb or somatostatin, comparing with that of untreated SAP group. The bicarbonate concentration of pancreatic juice was markedly elevated only in the rhubarb treated group (P<0.01).CONCLUSION: Rhubarb can exert protective effects on SAP, probably by inhibiting the inflammation of pancreas,improving pancreatic microcirculation, and altering exocrine secretion.

  9. Effects of gabapentin in acute inflammatory pain in humans

    Werner, M U; Perkins, F M; Holte, Kathrine;

    2001-01-01

    ,200 mg or placebo was given on 2 separate study days. Three hours after drug administration, a first-degree burn injury was produced on the medial aspect of the nondominant calf (12.5 cm(2), 47 degrees C for 7 minutes). Quantitative sensory testing (QST) included pain ratings to thermal and mechanical......BACKGROUND AND OBJECTIVES: The aim of the study was to examine the analgesic effects of the anticonvulsant, gabapentin, in a validated model of acute inflammatory pain. METHODS: Twenty-two volunteers were investigated in a double-blind, randomized, placebo-controlled cross-over study. Gabapentin 1...... (P <.0001). Gabapentin diminished the decrease in mechanical pain threshold in the burn area (P =.04) and reduced secondary hyperalgesia, but the reduction was not significant (P =.06). Heat pain thresholds, pain during the burn, and mechanical pain in the area of secondary hyperalgesia were not...

  10. Side effect of cranial radiation in childhood acute leukemia, 1

    We examined the somnolence syndrome, which is one of the side effects of cranial irradiation. Out of 53 patients in acute leukemia who had received cranial irradiation, nine patients (17%) developed the somnolence syndrome. Patients with the somnolence syndrome showed slow waves on EEG. Some patients had ventricular dilatation and widening of sulci before cranial irradiation on CT findings, but these findings improved after cranial irradiation. Out of nine cases with the somnolence syndrome, 6 patients survived and did not experience difficulties in school. But one patient showed calcification on CT brain scan. It is considered that the cause of the somnolence syndrome is a trasient inhibition of myelin synthesis and most patients improved without serious sequelae. It is necessary to follow up many cases of somnolence syndrome. (author)

  11. Protective effects of gelsolin on acute radiation symptom

    This paper is to study the protective effect of gelsolin on acute radiation symptoms after total body irradiation. The concentration of plasma gelsolin was determined by a commercial ELISA Kit before and post-irradiation at different times by 137Cs γ rays with 4 Gy and 8 Gy. Levels of prothrombin time (PT), activated partial thromboplastin time (APTT) and fibrinogen (FIB) were detected by an STAGO blood coagulation instrument at different times post-irradiation with 6 Gy γ ray. Otherwise the contents of the plasma malonaldehyde (MDA), superoxide dismutase (SOD) and whole blood glutathione (GSH) were examined at 2 d and 7 a respectively after radiation. We found that the plasma levels of gelsolin were rising at 24 h post-radiation and a persistent degression tendency of gelsolin concentration was found from 24 h to 72 h post-irradiation with 4 Gy and 8 Gy. This decreasing degree had a positive correlation with the exposure dose. On the day from 4 d to 7 d after radiation treatment, the gelsolin treatment group had significantly higher PT and APTT, but low FIB than those of irradiated control group. Within 14 d to 18 d post-radiation, APTT, PT and FIB in gelsolin treatment group were lower than those in irradiated control group, but only APTT and PT differences were prominent. Levels of GSH and SOD in gelsolin treatment group were conspicuously higher than those in irradiated control group; whereas MDA levels were significantly lower than the irradiated control group. Gelsolin may have some certain protective effects on acute radiation disease in improving radiation hemorrhagic injury and eliminating free radicals. (authors)

  12. Acute Effect of Hookah Smoking on the Human Coronary Microcirculation.

    Nelson, Michael D; Rezk-Hanna, Mary; Rader, Florian; Mason, O'Neil R; Tang, Xiu; Shidban, Sarah; Rosenberry, Ryan; Benowitz, Neal L; Tashkin, Donald P; Elashoff, Robert M; Lindner, Jonathan R; Victor, Ronald G

    2016-06-01

    Hookah (water pipe) smoking is a major new understudied epidemic affecting youth. Because burning charcoal is used to heat the tobacco product, hookah smoke delivers not only nicotine but also large amounts of charcoal combustion products, including carbon-rich nanoparticles that constitute putative coronary vasoconstrictor stimuli and carbon monoxide, a known coronary vasodilator. We used myocardial contrast echocardiography perfusion imaging with intravenous lipid shelled microbubbles in young adult hookah smokers to determine the net effect of smoking hookah on myocardial blood flow. In 9 hookah smokers (age 27 ± 5 years, mean ± SD), we measured myocardial blood flow velocity (β), myocardial blood volume (A), myocardial blood flow (A × β) as well as myocardial oxygen consumption (MVO2) before and immediately after 30 minutes of ad lib hookah smoking. Myocardial blood flow did not decrease with hookah smoking but rather increased acutely (88 ± 10 to 120 ± 19 a.u./s, mean ± SE, p = 0.02), matching a mild increase in MVO2 (6.5 ± 0.3 to 7.6 ± 0.4 ml·minute(-1), p hookah, the increased MVO2 was accompanied by decreased heart rate variability, an indirect index of adrenergic overactivity, and eliminated by β-adrenergic blockade (i.v. propranolol). In conclusion, nanoparticle-enriched hookah smoke either is not an acute coronary vasoconstrictor stimulus or its vasoconstrictor effect is too weak to overcome the physiologic dilation of coronary microvessels matching mild cardiac β-adrenergic stimulation. PMID:27067622

  13. Acute Effects of Carbohydrate Supplementation on Intermittent Sports Performance

    Lindsay B. Baker

    2015-07-01

    Full Text Available Intermittent sports (e.g., team sports are diverse in their rules and regulations but similar in the pattern of play; that is, intermittent high-intensity movements and the execution of sport-specific skills over a prolonged period of time (~1–2 h. Performance during intermittent sports is dependent upon a combination of anaerobic and aerobic energy systems, both of which rely on muscle glycogen and/or blood glucose as an important substrate for energy production. The aims of this paper are to review: (1 potential biological mechanisms by which carbohydrate may impact intermittent sport performance; (2 the acute effects of carbohydrate ingestion on intermittent sport performance, including intermittent high-intensity exercise capacity, sprinting, jumping, skill, change of direction speed, and cognition; and (3 what recommendations can be derived for carbohydrate intake before/during exercise in intermittent sports based on the available evidence. The most researched intermittent sport is soccer but some sport-specific studies have also been conducted in other sports (e.g., rugby, field hockey, basketball, American football, and racquet sports. Carbohydrate ingestion before/during exercise has been shown in most studies to enhance intermittent high-intensity exercise capacity. However, studies have shown mixed results with regards to the acute effects of carbohydrate intake on sprinting, jumping, skill, change of direction speed, and cognition. In most of these studies the amount of carbohydrate consumed was ~30–60 g/h in the form of a 6%–7% carbohydrate solution comprised of sucrose, glucose, and/or maltodextrin. The magnitude of the impact that carbohydrate ingestion has on intermittent sport performance is likely dependent on the carbohydrate status of the individual; that is, carbohydrate ingestion has the greatest impact on performance under circumstances eliciting fatigue and/or hypoglycemia. Accordingly, carbohydrate ingestion before

  14. Acute Kidney Injury Induced by Herbal Products: A Case Report

    Erhan TATAR

    2014-09-01

    Full Text Available Recently, consumption of herbal products has become widespread both in Turkey and worldwide. However, the safety of these products is substantially controversial. We here present a case of acute kidney injury in a patient with excessive use of herbal products for cardio-protective purposes.

  15. Effect of combined Antioxidants on Acute Myocardial infarction size

    B.Farahani; K.Hadiyan; A.Mohseni

    2001-01-01

    SummaryBackground and purpose : The role of oxygen-derived free radicals in destruction of myocardial cells during acute ischemia or reperfusion has been proved. This phenomenon made the workers to study and find the inhibitory therapeutic methods in order to reduce the myocardial cell destruction during acute myocardial infarction. This study evaluates the role of combined antioxidants on acute myocardial infarction sige in patients referring to vali asr hospital of Arak.Materials and Method...

  16. From neurotoxic to chemosensory effects: new insights on acute solvent neurotoxicity exemplified by acute effects of 2-ethylhexanol.

    van Thriel, Christoph; Kiesswetter, Ernst; Schäper, Michael; Blaszkewicz, Meinolf; Golka, Klaus; Juran, Stephanie; Kleinbeck, Stefan; Seeber, Andreas

    2007-03-01

    Historically, acute solvent neurotoxicity was strongly related to reversible narcotic states that could be detected by neurobehavioral tests (e.g., simple reaction time). Nowadays, the occupational exposure to chemicals is markedly reduced and the avoidance of chemosensory effects is more important for the regulation of solvents. Exemplarily, this study examines if the chemosensory perception of 2-ethylhexanol is capable to distract performance in demanding neurobehavioral tasks. In two experiments three time-weighted average concentrations of 2-ethylhexanol (C(TWA): 1.5, 10, and 20 ppm) were investigated. In experiment A (n=24) variable concentrations over time (4h) were used, experiment B (n=22) investigated constant concentrations. The experiments were conducted in a 29 m3 exposure laboratory. Cross-over designs with randomized sequences of exposures were used. Among the 46 male participants 19 subjects reported enhanced chemical sensitivity; the other 27 subjects did not show this personality feature. During the exposure periods neurobehavioral tests were presented twice (beginning; end), the intensity of chemosensory perceptions were rated thrice. The intensity of chemosensory perceptions showed a clear dose-dependency. Subjects' performance in the vigilance test was not affected by the different exposures. Moreover, the results of neurobehavioral tests measuring executive function were neither affected by the C(TWA) concentration nor by the exposure peaks. With increasing C(TWA), a subgroup of the chemically sensitive subjects showed deteriorated accuracy in a divided attention task. Especially the 20 ppm conditions were very annoying. Only during the constant 10 ppm condition the time courses of the annoyance and nasal irritation ratings indicated some adaptation. In general, with the applied neurobehavioral tests distractive effects of acute 2-ethylhexanol exposures up to 20 ppm could not be confirmed. In sensitive groups such distractive effects of

  17. Sirtuin 1 (SIRT1 activation mediates sildenafil induced delayed cardioprotection against ischemia-reperfusion injury in mice.

    Mona Shalwala

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: It has been well documented that phosphodiesterase-5 inhibitor, sildenafil (SIL protects against myocardial ischemia/reperfusion (I-R injury. SIRT1 is part of the class III Sirtuin family of histone deacetylases that deacetylates proteins involved in cellular stress response including those related to I-R injury. OBJECTIVE/HYPOTHESIS: We tested the hypothesis that SIL-induced cardioprotection may be mediated through activation of SIRT1. METHODS: Adult male ICR mice were treated with SIL (0.7 mg/kg, i.p., Resveratrol (RSV, 5 mg/kg, a putative activator of SIRT1 used as the positive control, or saline (0.2 mL. The hearts were harvested 24 hours later and homogenized for SIRT1 activity analysis. RESULTS: Both SIL- and RSV-treated mice had increased cardiac SIRT1 activity (P<0.001 as compared to the saline-treated controls 24 hours after drug treatment. In isolated ventricular cardiomyocytes, pretreatment with SIL (1 µM or RSV (1 µM for one hour in vitro also upregulated SIRT1 activity (P<0.05. We further examined the causative relationship between SIRT1 activation and SIL-induced late cardioprotection. Pretreatment with SIL (or RSV 24 hours prior to 30 min ischemia and 24 hours of reperfusion significantly reduced infarct size, which was associated with a significant increase in SIRT1 activity (P<0.05. Moreover, sirtinol (a SIRT1 inhibitor, 5 mg/kg, i.p. given 30 min before I-R blunted the infarct-limiting effect of SIL and RSV (P<0.001. CONCLUSION: Our study shows that activation of SIRT1 following SIL treatment plays an essential role in mediating the SIL-induced cardioprotection against I-R injury. This newly identified SIRT1-activating property of SIL may have enormous therapeutic implications.

  18. Acute and Chronic Effects of Cocaine on the Spontaneous Behavior of Pigeons

    Pinkston, Jonathan W.; Branch, Marc N.

    2010-01-01

    The present experiment examined the effects of acute and daily cocaine on spontaneous behavior patterns of pigeons. After determining the acute effects of a range of doses, 9 pigeons were divided into three groups that received one of three doses of cocaine daily, either 1.0, 3.0, or 10.0 mg/kg cocaine. Measures were taken of spontaneous…

  19. Environmental effects of acute oil spills. Marine environment

    Biological effects as result of acute oil spill pollution may be considered as a product of: the existing biophysical conditions; occurrence and appearance of organisms in time and space; the fate of the oil in time and space; the vulnerability of the various organisms for oil and oil derivatives in a three-dimensional perspective. In general, it seems as every individual oil spill has its own nature and dynamics, inter alia because the physical, chemical and biological conditions never are the same. This means that the properties of the recipients often are more important than the amount of oil that is spilled. This may be exemplified by two oil spills in recent time. Exxon Valdez (1989), where 35000 ton oil were released in a partly closed sea area, caused considerable effects. From Braer (1993) the double amount of oil was spilled, but in an open sea area and at a time where the presence of dense concentrations of environmental components was limited, and the physical conditions favorable with respect to evaporation and dilution. Preliminary results show that the environmental effects were very limited. 311 refs., 32 figs., 10 tabs

  20. Acute effects of acrolein in human volunteers during controlled exposure

    Dwivedi, Aishwarya M.; Johanson, Gunnar; Lorentzen, Johnny C.; Palmberg, Lena; Sjögren, Bengt; Ernstgård, Lena

    2015-01-01

    Abstract Context: Acrolein is a reactive aldehyde mainly formed by combustion. The critical effect is considered to be irritation of the eyes and airways; however, the scarce data available make it difficult to assess effect levels. Objective: The aim of the study was to determine thresholds for acute irritation for acrolein. Methods: Nine healthy volunteers of each sex were exposed at six occasions for 2 h at rest to: clean air, 15 ppm ethyl acetate (EA), and 0.05 ppm and 0.1 ppm acrolein with and without EA (15 ppm) to mask the potential influence of odor. Symptoms related to irritation and central nervous system effects were rated on 100-mm Visual Analogue Scales. Results: The ratings of eye irritation were slightly but significantly increased during exposure to acrolein in a dose-dependent manner (p acrolein alone but not during any of the other five exposure conditions. Conclusion: Based on subjective ratings, the present study showed minor eye irritation by exposure to 0.1 ppm acrolein. PMID:26635308

  1. Acute effect of ephedrine on 24-h energy balance

    Shannon, J. R.; Gottesdiener, K.; Jordan, J.; Chen, K.; Flattery, S.; Larson, P. J.; Candelore, M. R.; Gertz, B.; Robertson, D.; Sun, M.

    1999-01-01

    Ephedrine is used to help achieve weight control. Data on its true efficacy and mechanisms in altering energy balance in human subjects are limited. We aimed to determine the acute effect of ephedrine on 24-h energy expenditure, mechanical work and urinary catecholamines in a double-blind, randomized, placebo-controlled, two-period crossover study. Ten healthy volunteers were given ephedrine (50 mg) or placebo thrice daily during each of two 24-h periods (ephedrine and placebo) in a whole-room indirect calorimeter, which accurately measures minute-by-minute energy expenditure and mechanical work. Measurements were taken of 24-h energy expenditure, mechanical work, urinary catecholamines and binding of (+/-)ephedrine in vitro to human beta1-, beta2- and beta3-adrenoreceptors. Twenty-four-hour energy expenditure was 3.6% greater (8965+/-1301 versus 8648+/-1347 kJ, Penergy expenditure in normal human subjects. A lack of binding of ephedrine to beta3-adrenoreceptors and the observed decrease in urinary noradrenaline during ephedrine treatment suggest that the thermogenic effect of ephedrine results from direct beta1-/beta2-adrenoreceptor agonism. An indirect beta3-adrenergic effect through the release of noradrenaline seems unlikely as urinary noradrenaline decreased significantly with ephedrine.

  2. Effects of acute and chronic administration of methylprednisolone on oxidative stress in rat lungs* **

    Torres, Ronaldo Lopes; Torres, Iraci Lucena da Silva; Laste, Gabriela; Ferreira, Maria Beatriz Cardoso; Cardoso, Paulo Francisco Guerreiro; Belló-Klein, Adriane

    2014-01-01

    Objective: To determine the effects of acute and chronic administration of methylprednisolone on oxidative stress, as quantified by measuring lipid peroxidation (LPO) and total reactive antioxidant potential (TRAP), in rat lungs. Methods: Forty Wistar rats were divided into four groups: acute treatment, comprising rats receiving a single injection of methylprednisolone (50 mg/kg i.p.); acute control, comprising rats i.p. injected with saline; chronic treatment, comprising rats receiving methy...

  3. Effects of urtica dioica extract on experimental acute pancreatitis model in rats

    Yilmaz, Baris; Basar, Ömer; Aktas, Bora; Altinbas, Akif; Ekiz, Fuat; Büyükcam, Fatih; Albayrak, Aynur; Ginis, Zeynep; Öztürk, Gülfer; Coban, Sahin; Ucar, Engin; Kaya, Oskay; Yüksel, Osman; Caner, Sedat; Delibasi, Tuncay

    2014-01-01

    Acute pancreatitis is the acute inflammation of pancreas and peripancreatic tissues, and distant organs are also affected. The aim of this study was to investigate the effect of Urtica dioica extract (UDE) treatment on cerulein induced acute pancreatitis in rats. Twenty-one Wistar Albino rats were divided into three groups: Control, Pancreatitis, and UDE treatment group. In the control group no procedures were performed. In the pancreatitis and treatment groups, pancreatitis was induced with ...

  4. ANALGETIC EFFECT OF J. CURCAS ON ACUTE DENTAL PAIN

    Indrya Kirana Mattulada

    2015-06-01

    Full Text Available Reducing pain is the first phase of treatment in dentistry. Pain can be reduced by application of peroral analgetic medicines such as paracetamol, although on certain circumstances such as pulpitis paim, this is less helpful. Dentists often use eugenol to alleviate acute pulpitis pain, while latex of Jaropha curcas is one of the most popular analgetic agent used by people. The objective of this study was to compare the analgetic effect of the latex of J. curcas with paracetamol by the hot plate test. Thirty male mices aged 2 – 3 months old, weight 20 -30 gram were divided into 5 groups. The lyophilized latex of J. curcas was diluted into 5, 10, and 15% respectively, and the dose was 5 mg/Kg BW. The dose of paracetamol (positive control was 1,3 mg/Kg BW and sterile aquabidest (negative control was 1,3 mg/Kg BW. All agents were administered orally. Analgetic activity was evaluated after 3, 6, and 24 hours. The test was considered positive if the latent time of the test group was equal or 3 times higher than the control group. Data was analyzed by 1-way Anova. Had it been a difference, research would be continued using HSD test (p,0,05. Latex of J. curcas has the same analgetic effect as paracetamol on 3 and 6 hours observation, but was reduced on 24 hours observation.

  5. Neurological Effects of Acute Carbon Monoxide Poisoning in Children

    Coskun YARAR

    2009-11-01

    Full Text Available Carbon monoxide poisoning (COP is one of the most common causes of mortality and morbidity due to poisoning in all over the world. Although the incidence of COP has not been known exactly in the childhood, almost one-third of CO exposures occurred in children. The data regarding COP in children are inconclusive. Children may be more vulnerable to CO exposure than adults as a result of their high respiration and metabolic rates, high oxygen metabolism, and immature central nervous system. Recent researches proposed new theories about neurological effects of CO toxicity. The clinical presentations associated acute COP may be various and nonspecific. Unrecognized CO exposure may lead to significant morbidity and mortality. CO exposed children often become symptomatic earlier, and recover more rapidly, than similarly CO exposed adults. Mild clinical signs and symptoms associated with COP are headache, dizziness, weakness, lethargy, and myalgia; however, severe signs and symptoms such as blurred vision, syncope, convulsion, coma, cardiopulmonary arrest and death can also accompany with COP. Neurologic manifestations can include altered mental status at different degrees, neck stiffness, tremor, ataxia, and positive Babinski's sign. Delayed neurologic sequels (DNS of COP might be seen in children like adults. DNS symptoms and signs in children include memory problems, mental retardation, mutism, fecal and urinary incontinence, motor deficits, facial palsy, psychosis, chronic headache, seizures, and epilepsy. After CO exposure children must be cared to detect and treat DNS. Although hyperbaric oxygen therapy (HBOT is reported to prevent development of DNS, its indications, application duration and procedures are controversial in both of the children and adults. Although their predictive values are limited, exposing to CO more than eight hours and suffering from CO-induced coma, cardiac arrest, lactic acidosis, high COHb levels, and pathologic findings

  6. Consensus definitions of 14 severe acute toxic effects for childhood lymphoblastic leukaemia treatment

    Schmiegelow, Kjeld; Attarbaschi, Andishe; Barzilai, Shlomit;

    2016-01-01

    toxic effects, that no two protocols shared identical definitions of all toxic effects, and that no toxic effect definition was shared by all protocols. Using the Delphi method over three face-to-face plenary meetings, consensus definitions were obtained for all 14 toxic effects. In the overall......Although there are high survival rates for children with acute lymphoblastic leukaemia, their outcome is often counterbalanced by the burden of toxic effects. This is because reported frequencies vary widely across studies, partly because of diverse definitions of toxic effects. Using the Delphi...... method, 15 international childhood acute lymphoblastic leukaemia study groups assessed acute lymphoblastic leukaemia protocols to address toxic effects that were to be considered by the Ponte di Legno working group. 14 acute toxic effects (hypersensitivity to asparaginase, hyperlipidaemia, osteonecrosis...

  7. Overexpression of TFAM or twinkle increases mtDNA copy number and facilitates cardioprotection associated with limited mitochondrial oxidative stress.

    Masataka Ikeda

    Full Text Available Mitochondrial DNA (mtDNA copy number decreases in animal and human heart failure (HF, yet its role in cardiomyocytes remains to be elucidated. Thus, we investigated the cardioprotective function of increased mtDNA copy number resulting from the overexpression of human transcription factor A of mitochondria (TFAM or Twinkle helicase in volume overload (VO-induced HF.Two strains of transgenic (TG mice, one overexpressing TFAM and the other overexpressing Twinkle helicase, exhibit an approximately 2-fold equivalent increase in mtDNA copy number in heart. These TG mice display similar attenuations in eccentric hypertrophy and improved cardiac function compared to wild-type (WT mice without any deterioration of mitochondrial enzymatic activities in response to VO, which was accompanied by a reduction in matrix-metalloproteinase (MMP activity and reactive oxygen species after 8 weeks of VO. Moreover, acute VO-induced MMP-2 and MMP-9 upregulation was also suppressed at 24 h in both TG mice. In isolated rat cardiomyocytes, mitochondrial reactive oxygen species (mitoROS upregulated MMP-2 and MMP-9 expression, and human TFAM (hTFAM overexpression suppressed mitoROS and their upregulation. Additionally, mitoROS were equally suppressed in H9c2 rat cardiomyoblasts that overexpress hTFAM or rat Twinkle, both of which exhibit increased mtDNA copy number. Furthermore, mitoROS and mitochondrial protein oxidation from both TG mice were suppressed compared to WT mice.The overexpression of TFAM or Twinkle results in increased mtDNA copy number and facilitates cardioprotection associated with limited mitochondrial oxidative stress. Our findings suggest that increasing mtDNA copy number could be a useful therapeutic strategy to target mitoROS in HF.

  8. Costs and effectiveness of a brief MRI examination of patients with acute knee injury

    E.H.G. Oei (Edwin); J.J. Nikken (Jeroen); A.Z. Ginai (Abida); G.P. Krestin (Gabriel); J.A.N. Verhaar (Jan); A.B. van Vugt (Arie); M.G.M. Hunink (Myriam)

    2009-01-01

    textabstractThe aim of this study was to assess the costs and effectiveness of selective short magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) in patients with acute knee injury. A model was developed to evaluate the selective use of MRI in patients with acute knee injury and no fracture on radiography based on th

  9. Effects of chronic kidney disease on platelet response to antiplatelet therapy in acute myocardial infarction patients

    邓捷

    2012-01-01

    Objective To elucidate the effects of dual antiplatelet therapy on platelet response in acute myocardial infarction patients with chronic kidney disease. Methods From September 2011 to June 2012,a total of 195 acute myocardial infarction patients with drug eluting stent implanting were enrolled. Among them,133 cases had normal

  10. Acute and sub-acute effects of repetitive kicking on hip adduction torque in injury-free elite youth soccer players

    Jensen, Jesper; Bandholm, Thomas; Hölmich, Per;

    2014-01-01

    Hip adduction strength is important for kicking and acceleration in soccer players. Changes in hip adduction strength may therefore have an effect on soccer players' athletic performance. The purpose of this study was to investigate the acute and sub-acute effects of a kicking drill session on hi...

  11. Clinical effect of rhEGF on acute radiation stomatitis

    Objective: To evaluate the clinical effect of recombinant human epidermal growth factor (rhEGF) on acute radiation stomatitis (ARS). Methods: A total of 90 patients with head and neck malignant tumor going to receive radiotherapy were randomized into 3 groups: prophylactic application group (group A); therapeutic application group (group B) and the control group(group C). The irradiated mucous membrane was sprayed with rhEGF at the beginning of radiotherapy in group A and sprayed after grade I radiation stomatitis had appeared in group B. Comparison was made with control patients (group C) who received routine oral care with Dobell's solution. The rate of ARS and the clinical effect of rhEGF were evaluated. Results: The ARS appeared in 73% (22/30) of the patients after irradiated at a dose more than 10 Gy in group A, and appeared in 83% (25/30) of the patients irradiated at a dose less than 10 Gy in group C. In groups A and B, the rates of grades III and IV ARS were obviously lower than those in group C. The average curative time of the rhEGF treatment groups (group A or B) was less than 7 days whereas, that of the control group (group C) was more than 10 days. The total effective rate of the rhEGF treatment groups was significantly higher than that of the control group (P<0.01). Conclusion: Prophylactic application of rhEGF can postpone the development of ARS. rhEGF can reduce the incidence of grades III and IV of ARS and shorten the curative time of ARS by either prophylactic or therapeutic application. Therefore, it should be highly recommended and popularized. (authors)

  12. Protective Effects of Hydrogen Gas on Experimental Acute Pancreatitis

    Zhou, Hao-xin; Han, Bing; Hou, Li-Min; An, Ting-Ting; Jia, Guang; Cheng, Zhuo-Xin; Ma, Yong; Zhou, Yi-Nan; Kong, Rui; Wang, Shuang-Jia; Wang, Yong-Wei; Sun, Xue-Jun; Pan, Shang-Ha; Sun, Bei

    2016-01-01

    Acute pancreatitis (AP) is an inflammatory disease mediated by damage to acinar cells and pancreatic inflammation. In patients with AP, subsequent systemic inflammatory responses and multiple organs dysfunction commonly occur. Interactions between cytokines and oxidative stress greatly contribute to the amplification of uncontrolled inflammatory responses. Molecular hydrogen (H2) is a potent free radical scavenger that not only ameliorates oxidative stress but also lowers cytokine levels. The aim of the present study was to investigate the protective effects of H2 gas on AP both in vitro and in vivo. For the in vitro assessment, AR42J cells were treated with cerulein and then incubated in H2-rich or normal medium for 24 h, and for the in vivo experiment, AP was induced through a retrograde infusion of 5% sodium taurocholate into the pancreatobiliary duct (0.1 mL/100 g body weight). Wistar rats were treated with inhaled air or 2% H2 gas and sacrificed 12 h following the induction of pancreatitis. Specimens were collected and processed to measure the amylase and lipase activity levels; the myeloperoxidase activity and production levels; the cytokine mRNA expression levels; the 8-hydroxydeoxyguanosine, malondialdehyde, and glutathione levels; and the cell survival rate. Histological examinations and immunohistochemical analyses were then conducted. The results revealed significant reductions in inflammation and oxidative stress both in vitro and in vivo. Furthermore, the beneficial effects of H2 gas were associated with reductions in AR42J cell and pancreatic tissue damage. In conclusion, our results suggest that H2 gas is capable of ameliorating damage to the pancreas and AR42J cells and that H2 exerts protective effects both in vitro and in vivo on subjects with AP. Thus, the results obtained indicate that this gas may represent a novel therapy agent in the management of AP. PMID:27115738

  13. Acute effect of hematological parameters on aerobic and anaerobic exercise

    Serkan İbiş

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available Main of aim of this study in which 18 volunteers with average of 21,6 years are involved is to search acute effect of hematological parameters on aerobic and anaerobic exercise. Max VO2 values of volunteers are obtained using Astrand bicycle ergonometric test.   Aerobic exercise was taken with %50 of max VO2 for 45 minutes and anaerobic exercise was taken with %120 of max VO2 till exhausted. Blood samples were taken before exercise, just after exercise and 24 hours after exercise and we looked at hematocrit values. Statistical analysis was done using one-way ANOVA test. There are no significant values observed in hemotological results for aerobic exercise. But, there were some significant values observed in Hb, Hct, Wbc just after anaerobic exercise whereas some significant decreases were observed for 24 hours after exercise. Comparison of both exercises time showed that there is significant increase in anaerobic exercise and decreases in aerobic exercise. As a result, maximal and hard exercise affects hematological values more then moderate exercise. The reason of this observation is because there has been a change in hematocrit levels and movement of leucocyte from margination pool to demargination pool in blood circulation duration of exercise and after exercise.

  14. Effects of Montelukast in an Experimental Model of Acute Pancreatitis.

    Angı, Serkan; Eken, Hüseyin; Kılıc, Erol; Karaköse, Oktay; Balci, Gürhan; Somuncu, Erkan

    2016-01-01

    BACKGROUND We evaluated the hematological, biochemical, and histopathological effects of Montelukast on pancreatic damage in an experimental acute pancreatitis model created by cerulein in rats before and after the induction of pancreatitis. MATERIAL AND METHODS Forty rats were divided into 4 groups with 10 rats each. The study groups were: the Cerulein (C) group, the Cerulein + early Montelukast (CMe) group, the Cerulein + late Montelukast (CMl) group, and the Control group. The pH, pO2, pCO2, HCO3, leukocyte, hematocrit, pancreatic amylase, and lipase values were measured in the arterial blood samples taken immediately before rats were killed. RESULTS There were statistically significant differences between the C group and the Control group in the values of pancreatic amylase, lipase, blood leukocyte, hematocrit, pH, pO2, pCO2, HCO3, and pancreatic water content, and also in each of the values of edema, inflammation, vacuolization, necrosis, and total histopathological score (Ppancreatic amylase, lipase, pH, PO2, pCO2, HCO3, pancreatic water content, histopathological edema, inflammation, and total histopathological score values were significantly different between the groups (Ppancreatitis might not result in any benefit; however, when they are given in the early phases or prophylactically, they may decrease pancreatic damage. PMID:27479458

  15. Hepatic effect of NAC on sevear acute pancteatise of rats

    Fang Chen; Ye-Jiang Zhou

    2014-01-01

    Objective:To analyze the hepatic protection of n-acetyl cysteine(NAC) on severe acute pancreatitis(SAP).Methods:SD rats were randomly divided into control group,SAP group and NAC group.SAPAHO method was adopted to establish the model,2 h after modeling, rats inNAC group had intraperitoneal injection ofNAC(200 mg/kg).Ten rats from each group were sacrificed in every6 and12 h at different time points respectively.Liver damage, liver function and serum amylase,AST,ALT and malondialdehyde(MDA) were determined.Results:Serum amylase,AST, ALT andMDA content inSAP,NAC group at each time point were significantly higher in the control group(P<0.05), serum amylase,AST,ALT andMDA content inNAC group rats were lower in theSAP group significantly(P<0.05);Microscopic examination showed that the liver injury in rats and theNAC group significantly reduced in theSAP group.Conclusions:NAC provides effective protection against liver damage toSAP, protective fromSAP liver injury.

  16. Effective management of acute deep vein thrombosis: direct oral anticoagulants.

    Roussin, A

    2015-02-01

    Deep vein thrombosis (DVT) is a manifestation of venous thromboembolism (VTE) and accounts for most venous thromboembolic events. Although DVT is not directly life-threatening, thrombi in the proximal veins of the leg can embolize to the lungs to form a pulmonary embolism, which may prove rapidly fatal. If untreated, DVT can also lead to significant morbidity, including development of post-thrombotic syndrome. Among many risk factors, surgery, hospitalization, older age and active cancer increase the risk of VTE, and a previous event increases the risk of recurrence. Early detection and effective clot resolution are vital in managing DVT. Conventional approaches to acute treatment of VTE involve initial fast-acting parenteral heparin overlapping with and followed by vitamin K antagonist therapy. However, vitamin K antagonists have a narrow therapeutic window, require regular monitoring, and have multiple food and drug interactions. Results from phase III clinical studies involving direct Factor Xa and IIa inhibitors suggest that these agents provide an alternative therapeutic option that overcomes some of the complications associated with conventional treatment with predictable pharmacological properties and convenient dosing schedules. Analysis of data from the rivaroxaban EINSTEIN studies also suggests that these agents have the potential to improve patient-reported treatment satisfaction and reduce the length of hospital stay compared with conventional therapy. This review considers these treatment options, suitable treatment durations to prevent recurrence, and the management of DVT treatment in challenging patient groups. PMID:24927023

  17. Cerebral blood flow effects of acute intravenous heroin administration.

    Kosel, Markus; Noss, Roger S; Hämmig, Robert; Wielepp, Peter; Bundeli, Petra; Heidbreder, Rebeca; Kinser, Jane A; Brenneisen, Rudolf; Fisch, Hans-Ulrich; Kayser, Sarah; Schlaepfer, Thomas E

    2008-04-01

    We examined acute effects of intravenous diacetylmorphine (heroin) administration - which induces a characteristic biphasic response: A short rush-sensation associated with intense pleasurable feelings followed by a subjectively different period of euphoria on cerebral blood flow. This was assessed in nine male heroin dependent patients participating in a heroin maintenance program in a setting resembling everyday pattern of heroin abuse. 99mTc-HMPAO was administered 45 s (rush) and 15 min (euphoria) after administration of i.v. heroin and 45 s after administration of saline (placebo). Plasma concentration of diacetylmorphine and its metabolites were measured with high-pressure liquid chromatography (HPLC). Compared to the euphoria condition, rush was associated with blood flow increase in the left posterior cerebellar lobe, left anterior cingulate gyrus and right precuneus. Our results are in line with recent reports indicating that the cerebellum is an important component in functional brain systems subserving sensory and motor integration, learning, modulation of affect, motivation and social behaviour, which all play important roles in reinforcing properties of opioids. PMID:18207374

  18. Effects of acute spinalization on neurons of postural networks.

    Zelenin, Pavel V; Lyalka, Vladimir F; Hsu, Li-Ju; Orlovsky, Grigori N; Deliagina, Tatiana G

    2016-01-01

    Postural limb reflexes (PLRs) represent a substantial component of postural corrections. Spinalization results in loss of postural functions, including disappearance of PLRs. The aim of the present study was to characterize the effects of acute spinalization on two populations of spinal neurons (F and E) mediating PLRs, which we characterized previously. For this purpose, in decerebrate rabbits spinalized at T12, responses of interneurons from L5 to stimulation causing PLRs before spinalization, were recorded. The results were compared to control data obtained in our previous study. We found that spinalization affected the distribution of F- and E-neurons across the spinal grey matter, caused a significant decrease in their activity, as well as disturbances in processing of posture-related sensory inputs. A two-fold decrease in the proportion of F-neurons in the intermediate grey matter was observed. Location of populations of F- and E-neurons exhibiting significant decrease in their activity was determined. A dramatic decrease of the efficacy of sensory input from the ipsilateral limb to F-neurons, and from the contralateral limb to E-neurons was found. These changes in operation of postural networks underlie the loss of postural control after spinalization, and represent a starting point for the development of spasticity. PMID:27302149

  19. The Antioxidant Potential of Azadirachta indica Ameliorates Cardioprotection Following Diabetic Mellitus-Induced Microangiopathy

    Gupta, Naveen Kumar; Srivastva, Nidhi; Bubber, Parvesh; Puri, Sanjeev

    2016-01-01

    Background: Cardiac complications associated with diabetes mellitus have become major cause of concern. Antidiabetic drugs, with varied mode of action, are although available, apprehensions exist for their limited action or side effects upon prolonged use. Efforts are therefore inclined toward finding other alternatives. The present study was, thus, undertaken to evaluate the cardioprotective effect of Azadirachta indica (AI) on microangiopathic changes in rat model of diabetes. Materials and Methods: Diabetes was induced in male rats by single intraperitoneal injection of streptozotocin (60 mg/kg body weight). Seven days after glucose levels are stabilized, aqueous leaf extract of AI (ALE) (600 mg/kg1 body weight) was administered orally to diabetic animals every day for 7 days. Results: High blood glucose characterizing diabetes in these animals was found to show increased lipid peroxidation (LPO), altered antioxidant biomarkers together with microangiopathic alterations. The treatment of diabetic rats with ALE reduced the levels of blood glucose, LPO, and restored the activities of antioxidant enzyme. Light and transmission electron microscopic analysis revealed reduced necrotic areas and inflammation in tissue architecture of ALE treated heart in comparison to untreated diabetic group. Conclusion: AI provides cardioprotection by ameliorating oxidative stress in rat model of diabetic mellitus. SUMMARY The streptozotocin (STZ) treatment (60 mg/kg body weight) to animals induced diabetic changes such as elevated blood glucose levels, decreased body weight, altered lipid profiles together with development of proxidant state evidenced by elevated levels of lipid peroxidation (LPO), depletion in reduced glutathione (GSH) levels and altered antioxidant enzymes with consequent microangiopathic alterations in heart tissue evinced by localization of necrotic and inflamed areas in heart tissueThe treatment of animals with Azadirachta indica leaf extract (ALE) (600 mg

  20. Effects of oral montelukast on airway function in acute asthma.

    Cýllý, A; Kara, A; Ozdemir, T; Oğüş, C; Gülkesen, K H

    2003-05-01

    Montelukast, a specific cysteinyl leukotriene receptor antagonist, has been shown to improve pulmonary function within 1 h of ingestion. This study was undertaken to compare the effects on peak expiratory flow rate (PEFR) of oral montelukast added to intravenous steroid, intravenous steroid alone and placebo during the 24 h period following administration. Seventy asthmatic patients (FEV1 40-80% predicted and > or = 15% improvement after inhaled beta agonist) were enrolled in a single blind study to receive oral montelukast (10 mg) plus intravenous prednisolone (1 mg/kg), intravenous prednisolone (1 mg/kg) or placebo in a randomised fashion. The patients received one ofthe above three groups of medication before any other treatments. This was immediately followed by the aerosol treatments of 100 mcg of terbutaline sulphate divided into three doses during 1 h as described in the consensus statement. Thereafter, patients were observed for 24 h to document the effects on PEFR, Borg dyspnoea score and need for rescue medication. The primary end point was percentage change at different time points. Secondary end points were Borg dyspnoea score and use of rescue medication. Compared with placebo, montelukast added to the prednisolone group and the prednisolone alone group had significant percentage change from baseline in PEFR in the entire 24 h period (P<0.05). The difference in PEFR between montelukast plus prednisolone group and prednisolone group favoured the montelukast plus prednisolone group but did not reach statistical significance. Furthermore, montelukast plus prednisolone group required less inhaled short-acting beta agonistthan other two groups. The results of this study indicate that adding montelukast to steroid in acute asthma may have some additive improvement in lung functions. PMID:12735671

  1. Acute exercise improves cognition in the depressed elderly: the effect of dual-tasks

    Paulo Eduardo Vasques; Helena Moraes; Heitor Silveira; Andrea Camaz Deslandes; Jerson Laks

    2011-01-01

    OBJECTIVE: The goal of this study was to assess the acute effect of physical exercise on the cognitive function of depressed elderly patients in a dual-task experiment. INTRODUCTION: Physical exercise has a positive effect on the brain and may even act as a treatment for major depressive disorder. However, the effects of acute cardiovascular exercise on cognitive function during and after one session of aerobic training in elderly depressive patients are not known. METHODS: Ten elderly subjec...

  2. The effect of acute stress exposure on ischemia and reperfusion injury in rat heart: role of oxytocin.

    Moghimian, Maryam; Faghihi, Mahdieh; Karimian, Seyed Morteza; Imani, Alireza

    2012-07-01

    Previous studies showed the protective effects of oxytocin (OT) on myocardial injury in ischemic and reperfused rat heart. Moreover, exposure to various stressors not only evokes sudden cardiovascular effects but also triggers the release of OT in the rat. The present study was aimed to evaluate the possible cardioprotective effects of endogenous OT released in response to stress (St), and effects of administration of exogenous OT on the ischemic-reperfused isolated heart of rats previously exposed to St. Wistar rats were divided into six groups: ischemia/reperfusion (IR); St: rats exposed to swim St for 10 min before anesthesia; St+atosiban (ATO): an OT receptor antagonist, was administered (1.5 mg/kg i.p.) prior to St; St+OT: OT was administered (0.03 mg/kg i.p.) prior to St; OT: OT was administrated prior to anesthesia; ATO was given prior to anesthesia. Isolated hearts were perfused with Krebs buffer solution by the Langendorff method and subjected to 30 min of regional ischemia followed by 60 min of reperfusion. The infarct size (IS) and creatine kinase MB isoenzyme (CK-MB) and lactate dehydrogenase (LDH) in coronary effluent were measured. Hemodynamic parameters were recorded throughout the experiment. The plasma concentrations of OT and corticosterone were significantly increased by St. Unexpectedly St decreased IR injury compared with the IR alone group. OT administration significantly inhibited myocardial injury, and administration of ATO with St abolished recovery of the rate pressure product, and increased IS and levels of CK-MB and LDH. These findings indicate that activation of cardiac OT receptors by OT released in response to St may participate in cardioprotection and inhibition of myocardial IR injury. PMID:22044052

  3. Effect of Obstructive Sleep Apnea in Acute Coronary Syndrome.

    Leão, Sílvia; Conde, Bebiana; Fontes, Paulo; Calvo, Teresa; Afonso, Abel; Moreira, Ilídio

    2016-04-01

    The effect of obstructive sleep apnea (OSA) on clinical outcomes after acute coronary syndrome (ACS) is incompletely defined. We sought to determine the prevalence of OSA in patients with ACS and evaluate prognostic impact of OSA and continuous positive airway pressure (CPAP) therapy in these patients. This was a prospective longitudinal cohort study of 73 patients admitted on cardiac intensive care unit for ACS. Cardiorespiratory sleep study and/or polysomnography were performed in all patients. CPAP was recommended if Apnea-Hypopnea Index ≥5. The main study outcome was a composite of death for any cause, myocardial infarction, and myocardial revascularization. OSA was diagnosed in 46 patients (63%). Age and cardiovascular risk factors were not significantly different between groups. OSA was classified as mild (m-OSA) in 14 patients (30%) and as moderate-to-severe (s-OSA) in 32 patients (70%). After a median follow-up of 75 months (interquartile range 71 to 79), patients with s-OSA had lower event-free survival rate. After adjustment for gender, patients with s-OSA showed a significantly higher incidence of the composite end point (hazard ratio 3.58, 95% CI 1.09 to 17.73, p = 0.035). Adherence to CPAP occurred in 19 patients (41%), but compliance to CPAP therapy did not reduce the risk of composite end point (hazard ratio 0.87, 95% CI 0.31 to 2.46, p = 0.798). In conclusion, OSA is an underdiagnosed disease with high prevalence in patients with ACS. It is urgent to establish screening protocols because those have high diagnostic yield and allow identifying a group of patients with manifestly unfavorable prognosis. PMID:26857162

  4. Effects of Losartan on acute atrial electrical remodeling

    李悦; 李为民; 薛竟宜; 韩薇; 杨树森; 谷宏越

    2004-01-01

    Background Atrial electrical remodeling (AER) contributes to the maintainance of atrial fibrillation (AF). This study was to compare the effects of Losartan with those of Diltiazem on tachycardia-induced acute AER in rabbits.Methods Twenty-one rabbits paced with maximal atrial capture rate for 3 hours in the right atrium (RA) were randomly divided into saline group, Diltiazem group and Losartan group. After autonomic blockage, we measured atrial effective refractory period (AERP), AERP rate adapting feature, AERP dispersion and RA conduction time at basic cycle lengths (BCLs) of 200 ms and 150 ms at baseline, 0.5 hour, 1 hour, 2 and 3 hours after rapid atrial pacing. Results In the saline group, there was a prompt decrease in AERP as a result of rapid atrial pacing, and AERP200 and AERP150 were shortened sharply within 0.5 hour of pacing (30.2±10.5 ms and 24.1±9.1 ms, respectively). The AERP did not change dramatically in the Diltiazem and Losartan groups. In the saline group, the value of (AERP200-AERP150)/50 ms in high RA was 0.17±0.08 at baseline and became significantly smaller at 0.5 hour (0.08±0.06), 1 hour (0.09±0.06), 2 hours (0.08±0.04) and 3 hours (0.09±0.05) (all P<0.05), suggesting a reduction of rate adaptation of AERP. The value of (AERP200-AERP150)/50 ms in high RA did not change during the 3 hours of pacing in both Diltiazem and Losartan groups. In the saline group, AERP dispersion increased significantly at 2 and 3 hours (P<0.05). However, Diltiazem could not prevent the increase of AERP dispersion at 3 hours (P<0.05). During Losartan infusion, the AERP dispersion was no longer increased after rapid atrial pacing. There was no significant difference in RA conduction time among the three groups.Conclusion Like calcium antagonist Diltiazem, Losartan could prevent AERP shortening and preserve rate adaptation of AERP after rapid atrial pacing. Losartan is more effective than Diltiazem in inhibiting the increase of AERP dispersion.

  5. Acute toxicity and effect of some petroleum hydrocarbon on the metabolic index in Etroplus suratensis

    Ansari, Z.A.; Farshchi, P.

    Acute toxicity (LC sub(50)) and effect of some petroleum hydrocarbons (Toluene, Quinoline, Pyridine and Naphthalene) on the metabolic index (oxygen consumption rate) of an estuarine fish. Etroplus suratensis is reported. The LC sub(50) values were...

  6. Effect of azole antifungal therapy on vincristine toxicity in childhood acute lymphoblastic leukaemia

    Schie, R.M. van; Bruggemann, R.J.M.; Hoogerbrugge, P.M.; Loo, D.M. te

    2011-01-01

    BACKGROUND: Vincristine is one of the cornerstones of the treatment of children with acute lymphoblastic leukaemia (ALL). Constipation, and peripheral and central neurotoxicities are the most common side effects. A comparative study exploring vincristine toxicity in individual patients receiving vin

  7. Preventive effect of Cichorium intybus L. two extracts on cerulein-induced acute pancreatitis in mice

    Mohsen Minaiyan

    2012-01-01

    Conclusions: These data suggest that C. intybus hydroalcoholic extracts were effective to protect against experimental acute pancreatitis and the efficacy was partly dependent to the dose and was more significant after parenteral administration.

  8. Effectiveness of an Early Versus Conservative Invasive Treatment Strategy in Acute Coronary Syndromes

    Hansen, Kim Wadt; Sorensen, Rikke; Madsen, Mette; Madsen, Jan Kyst; Jensen, Jan Skov; von Kappelgaard, Lene Mia; Mortensen, Poul Erik; Lange, Theis; Galatius, Soren

    2015-01-01

    Background: Randomized clinical trials have found that early invasive strategies reduce mortality, myocardial infarction (MI), and rehospitalization compared with a conservative invasive approach in acute coronary syndromes (ACSs), but the effectiveness of such strategies in real-world settings is...

  9. Hypoxyradiotherapy of uterine cervix cancer to decrease of acute side-effects and treatment complications

    The authors have reported on preliminary results of hypoxyradiotherapy in the course of external irradiation in patients with uterine cervix cancer from a view-point of the occurrence of acute reactions and treatment complications. A mixture of nitrogen and oxygen containing 8.0 to 8.5% of O2 was used to provoke acute hypoxia during irradiation. The applied dosis of external irradiation was simultaneously increased by 40%. On the basis of a randomized study with 120 patients, acute hypoxia was found to protect healthy tissues against post-radiation damage. When the dosis of 96 Gy in the paracervical space and that of 75 Gy in the pelvic wall were applied, acute side-effects decreases significantly if compared with a conventional radiotherapeutic procedure (p<0.01). Radiological preconditions for using acute hypoxia in radiotherapy are discussed. (orig.)

  10. Cardioprotective effect of trimetazidine during coronary artery graft surgery.

    Fabiani, J N; Ponzio, O; Emerit, I; Massonet-Castel, S; Paris, M; Chevalier, P; Jebara, V; Carpentier, A

    1992-01-01

    Reperfusion injury remains the most uncontrolled phenomenon during cardiac surgery. Potential myocardial protection by trimetazidine was tested in a double blind placebo controlled study on 19 patients undergoing aorto-coronary bypass surgery. The trimetazidine group was composed of 10 patients and the placebo group of 9 patients. Pretreatment was started three weeks before surgery with 1 tablet (trimetazidine 20 mg) t.i.d. and the same drug was added to the cardioplegic solutions (trimetazidine: 10(-6) M). The cross clamping time was 41.1 +/- 3.8 minutes in the trimetazidine group and 39.8 +/- 2.3 minutes in the placebo group. Metabolic measurements showed that the increase of malondialdehyde measured in the coronary sinus 20 minutes after reperfusion was significantly (p = 0.014) less in the trimetazidine group (from 1.60 +/- 0.11 to 1.79 +/- 0.2 mumol/L-1) than in the placebo group (from 1.17 +/- 0.11 to 2.84 +/- 0.58 mumol/L-1). Myosin was present 4 hours after surgery in all patients in the placebo group and in 5 of the 10 of the trimetazidine group (p = 0.036). Haemodynamic measurements showed that patients pretreated with trimetazidine had a better ventricular function, as assessed by the stroke work index (SWI) significantly (p = 0.01) higher in the trimetazidine group (0.0391 +/- 0.0029 g/min/m2/beta) than in the placebo group (0.0282 +/- 0.0026 g/min/m2/beat), the evolution of SWI during surgery was not significantly different between the two groups. Thus trimetazidine seems to reduce ischaemia-reperfusion damage during cardiac surgery; moreover pretreatment with trimetazidine allows the patient to face the operation with better ventricular function. PMID:1527157

  11. Is there any cardioprotective role of Taurine during cold ischemic period following global myocardial ischemia?

    Gamsizkan Mehmet

    2011-03-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background The aim of the present study was to investigate the cardioprotective effect of Taurine on the donor hearts during cold ischemic period. Methods 32 rats were divided into four groups (sham, taurine, ischemia, treatment group, 8 rats in each. All rats were fed with rat food for three weeks. Taurine and treatment groups were given a 200 mg/kg/day dose of Taurine by oral gavage besides rat feed. Cardiectomy was performed in all rats after three weeks. In ischemia and treatment groups, harvested hearts were kept in 0.9% sodium chloride at +4 degrees C for 5 hours. Tissue samples were taken from left ventricle in all groups. These samples were evaluated by histopathologic and biochemical examination. Results In the present study results of the biochemical and histopathological examination reveals the protective effects of Taurine. As a marker of lipid peroxidation, Malondialdehyde (MDA levels in ischemia group were significantly higher than both Sham and Taurine groups. MDA values were recorded; 3.62 ± 0.197 in the sham group, 2.07 ± 0.751 in the Taurine group, 9.71 ± 1.439 in the ischemia group and 7.68 ± 1.365 in the treatment group. MDA levels decreased in treatment group. (p Conclusion Taurine decreased myocardial damage during cold ischemic period following global myocardial ischemia.

  12. Effect of Oral Ondansetron on Decreasing the Vomiting Associated with Acute Gastroenteritis in Iranian Children

    Haniyeh Mohammadpour; Saman Rezaieian; Hamidreza Badeli; Kioomars Golshekan; Afagh Hassanzadehrad

    2013-01-01

    Objective: The aim of this study was to determine the effect of oral ondansetron in decreasing the vomiting due to acute gastroenteritis in children.Methods: In a single center, randomized, double blind, controlled trial, the effect of oral ondansetron was compared with placebo on 176 patients between 1 and 10 years old with acute gastroenteritis. 30 minutes after drug administration, oral rehydration therapy (ORT) was initiated. Severity of vomiting was evaluated during emergency department ...

  13. Acute effect of aspartame-induced oxidative stress in Wistar albino rat brain

    Ashok, Iyaswamy; Sheeladevi, Rathinasamy; Wankhar, Dapkupar

    2014-01-01

    Abstract The present study was carried out to investigate the acute effect of aspartame on oxidative stress in the Wistar albino rat brain. We sought to investigate whether acute administration of aspartame (75 mg/kg) could release methanol and induce oxidative stress in the rat brain 24 hours after administration. To mimic human methanol metabolism, methotrexate treated rats were used to study aspartame effects. Wistar strain male albino rats were administered with aspartame orally as a sing...

  14. Effects of diclofenac sodium and octreotide on treatment of caerulein-induced acute pancreatitis in mice

    Ozer Cakir, Ozlem; Esen, Hasan; Toker, Aysun; Ataseven, Huseyin; Demir, Ali; Polat, Hakki

    2015-01-01

    Background: Research continues to develop novel therapeutic modalities that particularly focus on the pathogenesis of acute pancreatitis. This study aimed to assess the effects of diclofenac sodium and octreotide, alone or in combination, on pancreatic enzymes, pancreatic myeloperoxidase activity, histopathology and apoptosis of pancreas cells, using a model of experimentally induced acute pancreatitis. Objectives: We aimed to demonstrate effects of diclofenac sodium, octreotide and their com...

  15. Comparison of the effects of acute and chronic psychological stress on metabolic features in rats

    Fatemeh ROSTAMKHANI; Homeira ZARDOOZ; Saleh ZAHEDIASL; Babak FARROKHI

    2012-01-01

    This study was aimed to compare the effects of acute and chronic psychological stress on metabolic factors.Forty-two male Wistar rats were divided into control and stressed groups.Stress was applied by a communication box acutely (1 d) and chronically (15 and 30 d).Blood sampling was carried out by retro-orbital-puncture method.The plasma levels of glucose,cholesterol,triglyceride,insulin,and corticosterone were measured.In addition,feed and water intake,latency to eat and drink,adrenal and body weights were determined.Acute and chronic psychological stress did not significantly change basal plasma corticosterone levels.However,immediately (1 min) after acute exposure to stress,plasma corticosterone level increased compared to that before stress exposure.Acute stress increased plasma insulin levels significantly.Fifteen days of stress exposure resulted in plasma glucose increase.Chronic stress significantly increased feed intake,latency to eat,and adrenal weight compared to acute stress.The body weights of both control and stressed groups increased markedly during the experiment.Homeostasis model assessment of insulin resistance (HOMA-IR) index did not change significantly in the stressed group.In conclusion,application of acute and chronic psychological stress leads to different metabolic and/or behavioral changes but the metabolic changes resulting from acute exposure to stress seem to be more pronounced.

  16. Specific Effects of Acute Moderate Exercise on Cognitive Control

    Davranche, Karen; McMorris, Terry

    2009-01-01

    The main issue of this study was to determine whether cognitive control is affected by acute moderate exercise. Twelve participants [4 females (VO[subscript 2 max]=42 ml/kg/min) and 8 males (VO[subscript 2 max]=48 ml/kg/min)] performed a Simon task while cycling at a carefully controlled workload intensity corresponding to their individual…

  17. Effect of acute postural variation on diabetic macular oedema

    Vinten, Martin; la Cour, Morten; Lund-Andersen, Henrik; Larsen, Michael

    2010-01-01

    This study aimed to study the pathophysiology of diabetic macular oedema (DMO) by analysis of concomitant changes in macular volume (MV), mean arterial blood pressure (MABP), intraocular pressure (IOP), and retinal artery and vein diameters in response to acute postural changes in patients with DMO...

  18. Consensus definitions of 14 severe acute toxic effects for childhood lymphoblastic leukaemia treatment: a Delphi consensus.

    Schmiegelow, Kjeld; Attarbaschi, Andishe; Barzilai, Shlomit; Escherich, Gabriele; Frandsen, Thomas Leth; Halsey, Christina; Hough, Rachael; Jeha, Sima; Kato, Motohiro; Liang, Der-Cherng; Mikkelsen, Torben Stamm; Möricke, Anja; Niinimäki, Riitta; Piette, Caroline; Putti, Maria Caterina; Raetz, Elizabeth; Silverman, Lewis B; Skinner, Roderick; Tuckuviene, Ruta; van der Sluis, Inge; Zapotocka, Ester

    2016-06-01

    Although there are high survival rates for children with acute lymphoblastic leukaemia, their outcome is often counterbalanced by the burden of toxic effects. This is because reported frequencies vary widely across studies, partly because of diverse definitions of toxic effects. Using the Delphi method, 15 international childhood acute lymphoblastic leukaemia study groups assessed acute lymphoblastic leukaemia protocols to address toxic effects that were to be considered by the Ponte di Legno working group. 14 acute toxic effects (hypersensitivity to asparaginase, hyperlipidaemia, osteonecrosis, asparaginase-associated pancreatitis, arterial hypertension, posterior reversible encephalopathy syndrome, seizures, depressed level of consciousness, methotrexate-related stroke-like syndrome, peripheral neuropathy, high-dose methotrexate-related nephrotoxicity, sinusoidal obstructive syndrome, thromboembolism, and Pneumocystis jirovecii pneumonia) that are serious but too rare to be addressed comprehensively within any single group, or are deemed to need consensus definitions for reliable incidence comparisons, were selected for assessment. Our results showed that none of the protocols addressed all 14 toxic effects, that no two protocols shared identical definitions of all toxic effects, and that no toxic effect definition was shared by all protocols. Using the Delphi method over three face-to-face plenary meetings, consensus definitions were obtained for all 14 toxic effects. In the overall assessment of outcome of acute lymphoblastic leukaemia treatment, these expert opinion-based definitions will allow reliable comparisons of frequencies and severities of acute toxic effects across treatment protocols, and facilitate international research on cause, guidelines for treatment adaptation, preventive strategies, and development of consensus algorithms for reporting on acute lymphoblastic leukaemia treatment. PMID:27299279

  19. Acute mucocutaneous and systemic adverse effects of Etretinate

    "Mortazavi H; Shariati B.; Zarrinpour N "

    2003-01-01

    This cross sectional study was carried out between 1993 to 1998 at Razi Skin Hospital, the affiliated Dermatology Department of Tehran University of Medical Sciences. Eight hundred patients receiving etretinate for various skin diseases took part in this study. Among them, 457 patients with first admission to dermatologic clinic who had at least four regular sequential visits and responding to our questionnaire were selected to enter the study for evaluating acute toxicity of etretinate. Chei...

  20. Effect of copaiba oil on acute pancreatitis in mice

    Daniel L Medeiros; Thiago E. V. Lemos; Luiz H. F. Junior; Tarciso B. S. Montenegro; Paula R. S. Camara

    2014-01-01

    Objective: The anti-inflammatory activity of copaiba oil was evaluated using a cerulein-induced acute pancreatitis model in mice. Methods: Mice were pretreated with Copaiba sp oleoresin before induction of pancreatitis. Pancreatitis was induced by intraperitoneal injection (five injections at hourly intervals) of cerulein solution and, 6 h later, pancreatic and lung damage were analyzed macroscopically for the severity of necrosis, and by protein plasma extravasation and plasma amylase ac...

  1. Monophosphoryl lipid A provides biphasic cardioprotection against ischaemia-reperfusion injury in rat hearts

    Yamashita, Nobushige; Hoshida, Shiro; Otsu, Kinya; Taniguchi, Naoyuki; Kuzuya, Tsunehiko; Hori, Masatsugu

    1999-01-01

    We utilized a rat model of myocardial infarction to investigate whether cardioprotection by monophosphoryl lipid A (MLA) is provided in the early and late phases, as well as to determine whether this cardioprotection may be related to the activation of manganese superoxide dismutase (Mn-SOD), an intrinsic radical scavenger.Pretreatment with MLA (0.5 or 1.0 mg kg−1, i.v.) 24 h prior to 20-min left coronary artery (LCA) occlusion and 48-h reperfusion significantly decreased the incidence of ven...

  2. Effect of drugs on the pulmonary changes in experimental acute pancreatitis in the rat.

    Berry, A R; Taylor, T V

    1982-01-01

    Respiratory complications of acute pancreatitis are well recognised and are closely related to a poor prognosis. Using an experimental model in the rat, a decrease in lung compliance and an increase in lung weight were produced in acute pancreatitis. The effects of dexamethasone, heparin, and aspirin on these changes were studied. The mean specific lung compliance was reduced by 16% in the pancreatitis group compared with the control group (p less than 0.05) and this change was abolished by d...

  3. A retrospective observational study of the effectiveness of paliperidone palmitate on acute inpatient hospitalization rates

    Bressington, Daniel; Stock, Jon; Hulbert, Sabina; MacInnes, Douglas

    2015-01-01

    This retrospective mirror-image observational study aimed to establish the effects of the long-acting antipsychotic injection paliperidone palmitate (PP) on acute inpatient hospitalization rates. We utilized routinely collected clinical data to compare the number and length of acute patient admissions 1 year before and 1 year after initiation of PP. A single cohort of 66 patients with a diagnosis of schizophrenia and who had received monthly injections of PP for at least 1 year were included ...

  4. Preventive Effect of Cichorium Intybus L. Two Extracts on Cerulein-induced Acute Pancreatitis in Mice

    Mohsen Minaiyan; Ali-Reza Ghannadi; Parvin Mahzouni; Ali-Reza Abed

    2012-01-01

    Objectives: Acute pancreatitis is an inflammatory condition of pancreas with sudden onset, high mortality rate and multiple organ failure characteristics. It has been shown that oxygen free radicals have an important role in development of pancreatitis and its complications. Antioxidant, anti-inflammatory, anti-hepatotoxicity and gastroprotective properties of Cichorium intybus L. suggest that this plant may have beneficial effects in the management of acute pancreatitis. Methods: Five in...

  5. Effect of Auricular Acupressure on Acute Nausea and Vomiting Induced by Chemotherapy among Breast Cancer Patients

    Mohammad Eghbali; Shokoh Varaei; Seyedeh Fatemeh Jalalinia; Mozhgan Aalam Samimi; Kiarash Sa’atchi; Mir Saeed Yekaninejad

    2015-01-01

      Background & Aim: Approximately 75% of patients with cancer experience acute nausea and vomiting (24 hours after chemotherapy). The aim of this study was to determine the effect of auricular acupressure in relieving acute nausea and vomiting among women with breast cancer receiving chemotherapy .   Methods & Materials: This study was a posttest only randomized clinical trial conducted on 48 women with breast cancer receiving chemotherapy in Imam Khomeini and Hazrat Rasoul Akra...

  6. Immediate effects of anterior to posterior talocrural joint mobilizations following acute lateral ankle sprain

    Cosby, Nicole L.; Koroch, Michael; Grindstaff, Terry L.; Parente, William; Hertel, Jay

    2011-01-01

    Restrictions in ankle dorsiflexion range of motion (ROM) have been associated with decreased posterior talar glide in individuals with an acute lateral ankle sprain. Talocrural joint mobilizations may be used to restore joint arthrokinematics. Our purpose was to examine the effects of a single bout of anterior to posterior (AP) talocrural joint mobilization on self-reported function, dorsiflexion ROM, and posterior talar translation in individuals with an acute lateral ankle sprain. This sing...

  7. Brewing complications: the effect of acute ethanol exposure on wound healing

    Radek, Katherine A.; Ranzer, Matthew J.; DiPietro, Luisa A.

    2009-01-01

    Ethanol consumption is linked to a higher incidence of traumatic wounds and increases the risk for morbidity and mortality following surgical or traumatic injury. One of the most profound effects of acute ethanol exposure on wound healing occurs during the inflammatory response, and altered cytokine production is a primary component. Acute ethanol exposure also impairs the proliferative response during healing, causing delays in epithelial coverage, collagen synthesis, and blood vessel regrow...

  8. The Effect of Intravitreal Bevacizumab in Patients with Acute Central Serous Chorioretinopathy

    Lim, Ji Won; Ryu, Su Jeong; Shin, Min Cheol

    2010-01-01

    Purpose To evaluate the effect of intravitreal bevacizumab injection (IVBI) in acute central serous chorioretinopathy (CSC) patients. Methods Patients with acute CSC received IVBI (1.25 mg/0.05 mL) or observation by randomization. Twelve eyes in each group completed 6 months of regular follow-up and were ultimately included in this study. Each patient was assessed using best corrected visual acuity measurements, fluorescein angiography, and optical coherence tomography at baseline and had reg...

  9. 人参皂苷 Rg1减轻大鼠离体心脏缺血再灌注损伤的作用研究%Cardioprotection effects of Ginsenoside Rg1 on ischemia/reperfusion injury in isolated hearts of rats

    陈海霞; 黄广丽; 周红瀛; 石庆生

    2016-01-01

    Objective To investigate cardioprotection effects of Ginsenoside Rg1 on ischemia/ reperfusion( I/ R) injury in isolated hearts of rats,and to explore its action mechanism. Methods The Langendorff models of myocardial I/ R injury in rats were established. The 18 rats were randomly divided into three groups:control group,I/ R group and Ginsenoside Rg1 group,with 6 rats in each group. The rats’hearts in Ginsenoside Rg1 group were pretreated with Ginsenoside Rg1 100μmol/ L for 10min. The cardiac indexes including maximal rise/ fall of left ventricular pressure( ± dp/ dtmax)and rate pressure product(RPP)were measured,and the activities of creatine kinase(CK)and lactate dehydrogenase(LDH)were detected. The changes of phosphorylation of protein kinase B/ Akt,and its downstream target glycogen synthase kinase 3β(GSK-3β)and extracellular signal-regulated kinase1 / 2(ERK1 / 2)were detected after 10 - minute reperfusion. Results As compared with those in I/ R group,the activities of CK,LDH in Ginsenoside Rg1 group were significantly decreased and cardiac function was obviously improved( P ﹤ 0. 05 ),moreover,the expression levels of p-Akt and p-GSK-3βwere significantly increased( P ﹤ 0. 05). Conclusion Ginsenoside Rg1 can alleviate I/ R injury in isolated hearts of rats,and its action mechanism may be correlated to the activation of PI3K-Akt signaling pathway.%目的:探讨人参皂苷 Rg1对大鼠离体心脏缺血再灌注损伤的减轻作用及机制。方法制备大鼠离体心脏 I/ R 模型,将18只大鼠随机分为正常对照组、I/ R 组、人参皂苷 Rg1组。100μmol/ L 人参皂苷 Rg1进行预处理10 min,观察血流动力学指标左心室内压最大上升/下降速率和心率压力乘积的变化,检测灌流液中肌酸激酶(CK)、乳酸脱氢酶(LDH)活性。Western blotting 检测心肌组织 PI3K 下游激酶 Akt、ERK1/2及其磷酸化水平的变化,磷酸化GSK-3β的蛋白表达。结果与 I/ R

  10. The Study of the Cardioprotective Effect of Sodium Ferulate Postconditioning Against Myocardial Ischemia and Reperfusion Injury in Rat%阿魏酸钠缺血后处理对大鼠心肌缺血再灌注损伤的保护作用的研究

    张帆; 游陆; 袁德敏; 梁克纪; 张学玲; 杨新春

    2012-01-01

    目的 探讨阿魏酸钠(SF) 对大鼠心肌缺血再灌注损伤的保护作用及可能的机制.方法 40 只Sprague–Dawley 大鼠随机分为四组,A 组:假手术组;B 组:缺血/再灌注损伤组;C 组:缺血后处理组;D 组:SF 后处理组.建立缺血后处理模型,实验结束后取出心脏,测定心肌梗死面积,TNF-α,IL -10 的含量及核因子-κB的活性.结果 (1) 心肌梗死面积的测定:与缺血/再灌注损伤组相比,SF 后处理组明显减小了心肌梗死面积(P<0.05).(2) 心肌中TNF-α和IL-10 含量的测定:TNF-α、IL-10 在缺血再灌注组均升高,SF 后处理组同缺血再灌注组比较TNF-α水平明显减低(P<0.05),IL-10 含量则明显增高(P<0.05).(3)NF -κB活性的测定:NF-κB活性在缺血再灌注组显著提高,与缺血再灌注组相比,SF 后处理组显著阻止NF-κB活性的升高(P<0.05).结论 适当剂量SF 后处理可以减弱心肌缺血再灌注损伤,可能与其减轻NF-κB的活性,从而减弱肿瘤坏死因子-α的表达,减低由缺血再灌注损伤引起的炎症反应所致.%Objective: To study the cardioprotective effect of Sodium Ferulate(SF) postconditioning against myocardial ischemia and reperfusion injury in rat. Methods: Forty Sprague-Dawley rats were divided into four groups. Hearts were removed at the termination of experiments, which were preserved in frozen tube and stored at-70oC refrigerator for measurement myocardial infarct size and activities of the NF- κ B and TNF- α and IL-10 assay. Results: (1)Measurement of myocardial infarct size: myocardial infarct size in SF postconditioning group was obviously decreased than Group B (P<0.05). (2)Measurement of TNF-α and IL-10 assay: TNF-α and IL-10 assay increased in Group B. TNF-α assay in SF postconditioning group was obviously decreased than Group B (P<0.05),but IL-10 assay markedly increased (P< 0.05). (3)Measurement activity of theNF-κB : activity of the NF-κB obviously increased in Group B. SF

  11. Effect of the acute postoperative pancreatitis at the postoperative period in the abdominal surgery

    Kotenko К.V.

    2013-12-01

    Full Text Available The study aims the influence of development of the acute postoperative pancreatitis at the early postoperative period; determine its influence at the frequency and spectrum of complications after abdominal surgery. Material and methods. The work is based on the results of the complex examination and surgical treatment of 1934 patients with various disorders of the digestive system (complicated duodenal ulcer and gastric ulcer, gastric cancer, the proximal and distal pancreatic cancer, colon cancer and postgastrectomy syndromes. The dependence of the overall incidence of postoperative complications, the number of complications per patient, and the number of infectious and inflammatory complications per patient, hospital mortality and length of postoperative hospital days for the development of acute postoperative pancreatitis were studied. Results. Acute postoperative pancreatitis is a leading cause of morbidity postoperative intra-abdominal operations. 97,8% of the cases of complicated early postoperative period of the operations on the organs of the abdominal cavity caused by the development of acute postoperative pancreatitis. Specific complications for the acute postoperative pancreatitis (satellite complications were identified. Satellite complication had a clearly defined correlation with the development of the acute postoperative pancreatitis. The negative effect of acute postoperative pancreatitis on the severity of the postoperative period, on the morbidity, on the number of complications per patient, on the number of the infectious and inflammatory complications per patient, hospital mortality and on the duration of the postoperative hospital stay were found.

  12. THE EFFECT OF ACUTE MYOCARDIUM ISCHEMIC ON HEART FUNCTION OF PREGNANCY RAT

    Zheng Xiaopu; Ma Aiqun; Niu Changmin; Dong Anping; Han Ke; Liu Yu; Zhang Wei; Geng Tao

    2006-01-01

    Objective To investigate the effect of acute myocardium ischemic on heart function of pregnancy rat.Methods 13 female SD rats and 6 early pregnancy rats were divided into normal group, unpregnant group with acute myocardial infarction and early pregnant group with acute myocardial infarction. The anterior branch of the left coronary artery was ligated. 3 weeks later, Image 1.31 software was used to measure areas of myocardial infarction,and to evaluate hemodynamics of heart with powerLAB4.12, and cardiac tissues were stained with Massion. Results Compared with unpregnant group with acute myocardial infarction , the early pregnant group with acute myocardial infarction had less myocardial infarction area (28. 86% vs. 36. 8%), and had a higher left ventricle end systolic pressure, ±dp/dt max, and lower left ventricle end diastolic pressure. Massion stain showed the amount of collagen of the lesion was less in the early pregnant group with acute myocardial infarction than that in unpregnant group.Conclusion The early pregnant group with acute myocardial infarction had better heart contractive and diastolic function.

  13. Determination of acute toxicity and the effects of sub-acute concentrations of CuO nanoparticles on blood parameters in Rutilus rutilus

    Abdolreza Jahanbakhshi; Aliakbar Hedayati; Aref Pirbeigi; Mahsa Javadimoosavi

    2015-01-01

    Objective(s):Copper oxidenanoparticles have different industrial applications so it is inevitable that nanoparticulate products finally find their way into aquatic ecosystems. Nevertheless there is little information available about their effects on some of edible fish. The present study aims to determine the acute toxicity and evaluate the effect of two sub-acute concentrations (50 and 70% 96 h LC50) of CuO-NPs on some hematological and biochemical parameters of R. rutilus. Materials and Met...

  14. Ginseng Extract Enhances Anti-cancer Effect of Cytarabine on Human Acute Leukemia Cells

    Yiju Hou

    2015-02-01

    Full Text Available Ginseng as a traditional medicine is well known to exhibit various pharmacological effects. Ginsenoside Rg3 is the active ingredient extracted from ginseng. The pharmacological modulatory effects of Rg3 on multidrug resistant cancer cells are reported in the present study. Cytarabine is a chemotherapeutic agent for the treatment of acute leukemia. However, this compound has serious side effects at high doses, for example hematopoiesis depression. In this study, using hl60 human leukemia cells, we investigated the possible synergistic anti-cancer effects between ginseng extract Rg3 and cytarabine on acute myeloid leukemia cells. Results of this study demonstrate that Rg3 can enhance the anti-proliferation effect of cytarabine on hl60 cells and may decrease the dosage of cytarabine needed for acute myeloid leukemia treatment.

  15. Berberine sensitizes mutliple human cancer cells to the anticancer effects of doxorubicin in vitro

    TONG, NANNAN; Jie ZHANG; CHEN, YOURAN; LI, ZHUBO; LUO, YONGHUANG; Zuo, Hua; Zhao, Xiaoyan

    2012-01-01

    The clinical use of doxorubicin (DOX), a potent antineoplastic agent, is limited by its serious side-effects, which include acute and chronic cumulative dose-related cardiotoxicity. Berberine (BER), a botanical alkaloid, has been reported to possess cardioprotective and antitumor effects. The 3-(4,5-dimethyl-2-thiazolyl)-2,5-diphenyl-2-tetrazolium bromide (MTT) assay was used to detect the cell viability of A549, HeLa and HepG2 cells after each cell line was treated with DOX, BER or a combina...

  16. Cardioprotective Activity of Ethanolic Extract of Citrus grandis (L. Osbeck Peel on Doxorubicin and Cyclophosphamide Induced Cardiotoxicity in Albino Rats

    Samir Baniya

    2015-07-01

    Full Text Available The present study was designed to evaluate the cardioprotective potential of Citrus grandis (L. Osbeck (CGO peel extract in rats. Citrus grandis (L. Osbeck peel extract was evaluated for protection against cyclophosphamide (200 mg/kg body wt., i.p. and doxorubicin (15 mg/kg body wt., i.p. induced cardiotoxicity in male albino rats. Biomarkers like lactate dehydrogenase (LDH, alanine aminotransaminase (ALT, aspartate aminotransaminase (AST, alkaline phosphatase (ALP, total cholesterol (TC, triglyceride (TG and creatinine kinase (CK-MB along with heart weight index and antioxidant enzymes was considered to determine the cardioprotective property. Histopathological study was also carried out on heart of experimental animals. The CGO peel extract was found to contain alkaloids, flavonoids, steroids and triterpenoids, saponins, phenolic compounds and tannin as chemical constituents. Cyclophosphamide (CYP and doxorubicin (DOX treated groups exhibited significant increase in LDH, ALT, AST, ALP, TC, TG and CK-MB level and decrease in catalase (CAT, superoxide dimutase (SOD when compared to control group. Pretreatment with different doses of CGO significantly reduced the serum biomarkers and increased the tissue antioxidant level when compared to DOX and CYP alone treated groups. Moreover, treatment with CGO also improved CYP induced changes in histopathology of heart which may be due to its antioxidant property. The Citrus grandis (L. Osbeck exerted protective effect against CYP and DOX induced cardiotoxicity in rats, which may be due its lipid lowering and antioxidant properties. These findings might be helpful to understand the beneficial effects of CGO extract against myocardial injury although further study is needed to confirm its mechanism.

  17. Effects of COX-2 inhibitor in temporomandibular joint acute inflammation.

    Schütz, T C B; Andersen, M L; Tufik, S

    2007-05-01

    Since it is recognized that cyclo-oxygenase-2 mediates nociception and the sleep-wake cycle as well, and that acute inflammation of the temporomandibular joint (TMJ) results in sleep disturbances, we hypothesized that cyclo-oxygenase-2 inhibitor would restore the sleep pattern in this inflammatory rat model. First, sleep was monitored after the injection of Freund's adjuvant (FA group) or saline (SHAM group) into the rats' temporomandibular joint. Second, etoricoxib was co-administered in these groups. The Freund's adjuvant group showed a reduction in sleep efficiency, in rapid eye movement (REM), and in non-REM sleep, and an increase in sleep and REM sleep latency when compared with the SHAM group, while etoricoxib substantially increased sleep quality in the Freund's adjuvant group. These parameters returned progressively to those found in the SHAM group. Etoricoxib improved the sleep parameters, suggesting the involvement of the cyclo-oxygenase-2 enzyme in acute inflammation of the TMJ, specifically in REM sleep. PMID:17452571

  18. [Adherence to cardioprotective medications in coronary heart disease].

    Scardi, Sabino; Mazzone, Carmine; Di Lenarda, Andrea

    2009-04-01

    Treatment of patients with ischemic heart disease relies on evidence-based medications such as beta-blockers, angiotensin-converting enzyme inhibitors or angiotensin-receptor blockers, aspirin and statins, which are considered cornerstones to control symptoms, improve quality of life, reduce future events, and prolong survival. In spite of the clear benefits of therapy, previous studies have shown differences between the large randomized populations and the "real world" about long-term treatment in terms of efficacy, tolerability, costs, side effects and drug interactions. Moreover, a different awareness of the patient's compliance has been highlighted in relation to the setting (hospital, family doctor, etc.). The analysis and assessment of the prescription and efficacy of therapy for secondary prevention of coronary artery disease represent one of the most important challenges for the healthcare system, because reliable data are necessary to verify usefulness and results of therapy, prescribed at discharge after an acute coronary syndrome and/or coronary artery bypass graft, but above all the actual application of treatments should be pursued in every clinical setting. The Cardiology School of the Trieste University has constituted a working group of cardiology students that during the year 2009 will enroll and follow for 1 year all patients with coronary artery disease discharged from the Cardiovascular Department and Emergency Unit of the University Hospital of Trieste to assess: (1) if evidence-based medicine for secondary prevention of coronary artery disease is applied in the Trieste area; (2) adherence to prescribed treatment; (3) factors that are associated with non-adherence and consequences of non-adherence. PMID:19475879

  19. New Perspectives on Aspirin and the Endogenous Control of Acute Inflammatory Resolution

    Thea Morris; Melanie Stables; Gilroy, Derek W.

    2006-01-01

    Aspirin is unique among the nonsteroidal anti-inflammatory drugs in that it has both anti-inflammatory as well as cardio-protective properties. The cardio-protective properties arise form its judicious inhibition of platelet-derived thromboxane A2 over prostacyclin, while its anti-inflammatory effects of aspirin stem from its well-established inhibition of prostaglandin (PG) synthesis within inflamed tissues. Thus aspirin and the other NSAIDs have popularised the notion of inhibiting PG biosy...

  20. Recognizing acute health effects of substitute fungicides: are first-aid reports effective?

    Teschke, K; Hertzman, C; Wiens, M; Dimich-Ward, H; Hershler, R; Ostry, A; Kelly, S J

    1992-01-01

    Recently, many British Columbia sawmills stopped using traditional chlorophenate anti-sapstain fungicides and substituted 2-(thiocyanomethylthio) benzothiazole (TCMTB) and copper-8-quinolinolate (Copper 8). We conducted a cross-sectional study with two aims: to ascertain which acute health effects, if any, were associated with the use of the substitute fungicides; and to determine the effectiveness of first-aid records as a means of detecting acute health outcomes. Workers in five coastal sawmills were asked to complete a self-administered questionnaire about symptoms considered potentially related and unrelated to fungicide exposure, and about injuries commonly reported in sawmills. In addition, we collected first-aid records from the mills, and asked senior workers to estimate the duration of exposure to fungicides for each job. Symptoms found to be consistently elevated in TCMTB mills included dry skin around the eyes, blood-stained mucus from the nose, nose bleed, peeling skin, burning or itching skin, and skin redness or rash. No symptoms were consistently elevated in the Copper 8 mills. Symptoms related to TCMTB exposure were recorded only 12 times in first-aid logs during the study period (versus 335 questionnaire self-reports). This low symptom-recording frequency may be a function of established patterns of first-aid use in which illness symptoms are reported less frequently than injuries. PMID:1585948

  1. Additive cardioprotection by pharmacological postconditioning with hydrogen sulfide and nitric oxide donors in mouse heart: S-sulfhydration vs. S-nitrosylation.

    Sun, Junhui; Aponte, Angel M; Menazza, Sara; Gucek, Marjan; Steenbergen, Charles; Murphy, Elizabeth

    2016-05-01

    Hydrogen sulfide (H2S), as a gaseous signalling molecule, has been found to play important roles in postconditioning (PostC)-induced cardioprotection. Similar to nitric oxide (NO)-mediated protein S-nitrosylation (SNO), recent studies suggest that H2S could regulate protein function through another redox-based post-translational modification on protein cysteine residue(s), i.e. S-sulfhydration (SSH). In this study, we examined whether there are changes in protein SSH associated with cardioprotection induced by treatment with H2S on reperfusion. In addition, we also examined whether there is cross talk between H2S and NO. Compared with control, treatment on reperfusion with NaHS (H2S donor, 100 µmol/L) significantly reduced post-ischaemic contractile dysfunction and infarct size. A comparable cardioprotective effect could be also achieved by reperfusion treatment with SNAP (NO donor, 10 µmol/L). Interestingly, simultaneous reperfusion with both donors had an additive protective effect. In addition, C-PTIO (NO scavenger, 20 µmol/L) eliminated the protection induced by NaHS and also the additive protection by SNAP + NaHS together. Using a modified biotin switch method, we observed a small increase in SSH following NaHS treatment on reperfusion. We also found that NaHS treatment on reperfusion increases SNO to a level comparable to that with SNAP treatment. In addition, there was an additive increase in SNO but not SSH when SNAP and NaHS were added together at reperfusion. Thus, part of the benefit of NaHS is an increase in SNO, and the magnitude of the protective effect is related to the magnitude of the increase in SNO. PMID:26907390

  2. Modelling the effects of ionizing radiation on survival of animal population: acute versus chronic exposure.

    Kryshev, A I; Sazykina, T G

    2015-03-01

    The objective of the present paper was application of a model, which was originally developed to simulate chronic ionizing radiation effects in a generic isolated population, to the case of acute exposure, and comparison of the dynamic features of radiation effects on the population survival in cases of acute and chronic exposure. Two modes of exposure were considered: acute exposure (2-35 Gy) and chronic lifetime exposure with the same integrated dose. Calculations were made for a generic mice population; however, the model can be applied for other animals with proper selection of parameter values. In case of acute exposure, in the range 2-11 Gy, the population response was in two phases. During a first phase, there was a depletion in population survival; the second phase was a recovery period due to reparation of damage and biosynthesis of new biomass. Model predictions indicate that a generic mice population, living in ideal conditions, has the potential for recovery (within a mouse lifetime period) from acute exposure with dose up to 10-11 Gy, i.e., the population may recover from doses above an LD50 (6.2 Gy). Following acute doses above 14 Gy, however, the mice population went to extinction without recovery. In contrast, under chronic lifetime exposures (500 days), radiation had little effect on population survival up to integrated doses of 14-15 Gy, so the survival of a population subjected to chronic exposure was much better compared with that after an acute exposure with the same dose. Due to the effect of "wasted radiation", the integrated dose of chronic exposure could be about two times higher than acute dose, producing the same effect on survival. It is concluded that the developed generic population model including the repair of radiation damage can be applied both to acute and chronic modes of exposure; results of calculations for generic mice population are in qualitative agreement with published data on radiation effects in mice. PMID

  3. [Effect of shengmaisan on serum lipid peroxidation in acute viral myocarditis].

    Zhao, M H; Rong, Y Z; Lu, B J

    1996-03-01

    The effect of Shengmaisan (SMS) on 62 acute viral myocarditis patients and its peroxidation damage was studied. The results revealed that the activities of superoxide dismutase (SOD) and glutathione peroxidase (GSH-Px) in blood were decreased and the content of malondialdehyde (MDA) in plasma was increased in acute viral myocarditis patients in comparison with the healthy controls (P SMS group and placebo group. After treatment, both SOD and GSH-Px activities were increased and the level of MDA decreased (P SMS group, while those in placebo group were not changed (P < 0.05). The results suggested that the myocardial damage of viral myocarditis is closely related with lipid peroxidation SMS acts as an effective free radical scavenger and anti-lipid peroxidation drug. SMS could prevent the damage of myocardia and might be taken as one of the effective therapeutic methods in treatment of acute viral myocarditis. PMID:9208534

  4. The effect of electrical neurostimulation on collateral perfusion during acute coronary occlusion

    van den Heuvel Ad FM; de Smet Bart JGL; Tan Eng-Shiong; Jessurun Gillian A; DeJongste Mike JL; Anthonio Rutger L; de Vries Jessica; Staal Michiel J; Zijlstra Felix

    2007-01-01

    Abstract Background Electrical neurostimulation can be used to treat patients with refractory angina, it reduces angina and ischemia. Previous data have suggested that electrical neurostimulation may alleviate myocardial ischaemia through increased collateral perfusion. We investigated the effect of electrical neurostimulation on functional collateral perfusion, assessed by distal coronary pressure measurement during acute coronary occlusion. We sought to study the effect of electrical neuros...

  5. Comparison of effects of quinapril versus enalapril on vasoactive substances following acute myocardial infarction.

    Tsikouris, James P; Simoni, Jan; Suarez, Jose A; Sutthiwan, Piraon; Ziska, Martin; Meyerrose, Gary E

    2004-09-01

    The true existence of a class effect in angiotensin-converting enzyme (ACE) inhibitors remains controversial. The present trial explored the effects of 2 ACE inhibitors after acute myocardial infarction and found no difference in endothelin-1 production but a greater increase in the production of total nitric oxide with quinapril than with enalapril. PMID:15342298

  6. The effectiveness and safety of treatments used for acute diarrhea and acute gastroenteritis in children: protocol for a systematic review and network meta-analysis

    Florez, Ivan D.; Al-Khalifah, Reem; Sierra, Javier M.; Granados, Claudia M.; Yepes-Nuñez, Juan J.; Cuello-Garcia, Carlos; Perez-Gaxiola, Giordano; Zea, Adriana M.; Hernandez, Gilma N.; Veroniki, Areti-Angeliki; Guyatt, Gordon H; Thabane, Lehana

    2016-01-01

    Background Acute diarrhea and acute gastroenteritis (AD/AGE) are common among children in low- and middle-income countries (LMIC) and high-income countries (HIC). Supportive therapy including maintaining feeding, prevention of dehydration, and use of oral rehydration solution (ORS), is the mainstay of treatment in all children. Several additional treatments aiming to reduce the episode duration have been compared to placebo, but the differences in effectiveness among them are unknown. Methods...

  7. Acute effects of tibolone on cerebral vascular reactivity in vitro

    Lund, C O; Nilas, Lisbeth; Dalsgaard, T; Pedersen, S H; Ottesen, B

    2003-01-01

    of the hormones on the concentration-response curves with calcium were examined. RESULTS: Tibolone and its metabolites induced a concentration-dependent relaxation comparable to that of 17beta-estradiol (area under the curve (AUC); tibolone vs. 17beta-estradiol: 242 vs. 251; p < 0.05, analysis of...... variance). L-NAME increased the AUC for all substances compared with controls (p < 0.05, Student's t test), except for 17beta-estradiol. Preincubation with TEA induced no changes. The concentration-dependent contraction curves with calcium were shifted rightward by all hormones. CONCLUSIONS: The study...... demonstrates that the acute relaxation induced by tibolone and its metabolites in cerebral arteries in vitro is comparable to that with 17beta-estradiol, and seems to be mediated by inhibition of voltage-gated calcium channels and possibly partly by a nitric oxide-dependent mechanism....

  8. Side effects of treatment in childhood acute leukemia, 2

    We evaluated delayed neurotoxicities in treatment of childhood acute leukemia. Of 28 patients treated over 2 years who were examined on computed tomography of brain scans, 7 patients had abnormal findings. These abnormalities included two cases of leukoencephalopathy, three cases of intracranial calcifications, and two of ventricular dilatation. These patients were under 6 years old at the onset of disease, especially under 3 years old. Also, delayed neurotoxicities developed after relapse of leukemia, especially CNS relapse. It was considered that these were caused by cranial irradiation, intravenous methotrexate injection, intrathecal methotrexate, and sometimes high-dose Ara-C therapy, etc. Most of the cases of leukoencephalopathy were associated with treatment of intermediate-dose or high-dose methotrexate after relapse. These abnormalities must be carefully considered in the treatment of younger children with leukemia and patients with relapse. (author)

  9. The acute effect of vibration applications on jumping performance

    Şener Soylu

    2012-12-01

    Full Text Available Recently, vibration has become very popular as a method of exercise and training and drawn attention of researchers. The aim of this study was to analyses the acute affect of vibration applications as a method of exercise and training on jumping performance. In this study experimental group consists of 25 subjects who are studying at Physical Education and Sports Department of Sakarya University (age 22.2±1.7 years, height 179.2±4.8 cm. body weight 71.5±9.0 kg. This study included a vibration at density of 35 Hz (3x30 sec. frequency  that result from  aerobic exercise that has low density and b just  methods of aerobic exercise (without any vibration that has  low density. Subjects have taken the tests of countermovement and squat jumping after 2 minutes of each application. All applications and tests have been done in nonconsecutive days in a random scheme. In statistical analysis Wilcoxon has been applied in nonparametric scheme. For counter movement jumping; height of jumping,  the difference between before and after  the application of vibration related to the point of peak power and average power has been found significiant (respectively, p<0.05; p<0.05; p<0.01. In addition to this, no statistical difference was found for squat vertical jumping before and after the application of vibration related to the point of peak power and average power (respectively, p>0.05; p>0.05; p>0.05. As a result, it is concluded that vibration that is applied at the range of 35 Hz frequency could increase the performance of acute countermovement jumping. 

  10. Protective effects of dexrazoxane against acute ischaemia/reperfusion injury of rat hearts

    Neckář, Jan; Boudíková, Adéla; Mandíková, Petra; Štěrba, M.; Popelová, O.; Mikšík, Ivan; Dabrowská, L.; Mráz, J.; Geršl, V.; Kolář, František

    2012-01-01

    Roč. 90, č. 9 (2012), s. 1303-1310. ISSN 0008-4212 R&D Projects: GA AV ČR(CZ) IAAX01110901; GA ČR(CZ) GA305/09/0416 Institutional research plan: CEZ:AV0Z50110509 Keywords : heart * dexrazoxane * ischaemia * reperfusion * infarct size * arrhythmias * cardioprotection * reactive oxygen species Subject RIV: FR - Pharmacology ; Medidal Chemistry Impact factor: 1.556, year: 2012

  11. B-type natriuretic peptide expression and cardioprotection is regulated by Akt dependent signaling at early reperfusion.

    Breivik, L; Jensen, A; Guvåg, S; Aarnes, E K; Aspevik, A; Helgeland, E; Hovland, S; Brattelid, T; Jonassen, A K

    2015-04-01

    Exogenously administered B-type natriuretic peptide (BNP) has been shown to offer cardioprotection through activation of particulate guanylyl cyclase (pGC), protein kinase G (PKG) and KATP channel opening. The current study explores if cardioprotection afforded by short intermittent BNP administration involves PI3K/Akt/p70s6k dependent signaling, and whether this signaling pathway may participate in regulation of BNP mRNA expression at early reperfusion. Isolated Langendorff perfused rat hearts were subjected to 30min of regional ischemia and 120min of reperfusion (IR). Applying intermittent 3×30s infusion of BNP peptide in a postconditioning like manner (BNPPost) reduced infarct size by >50% compared to controls (BNPPost 17±2% vs. control 42±4%, p<0.001). Co-treatment with inhibitors of the PI3K/Akt/p70s6k pathway (wortmannin, SH-6 and rapamycin) completely abolished the infarct-limiting effect of BNP postconditioning (BNPPost+Wi 36±5%, BNPPost+SH-6 41±4%, BNPPost+Rap 37±6% vs. BNPPost 17±2%, p<0.001). Inhibition of natriuretic peptide receptors (NPR) by isatin also abrogated BNPPost cardioprotection (BNPPost+isatin 46±2% vs. BNPPost 17±2%, p<0.001). BNPPost also significantly phosphorylated Akt and p70s6k at early reperfusion, and Akt phosphorylation was inhibited by SH-6 and isatin. Myocardial BNP mRNA levels in the area at risk (AA) were significantly elevated at early reperfusion as compared to the non-ischemic area (ANA) (Ctr(AA) 2.7±0.5 vs. Ctr(ANA) 1.2±0.2, p<0.05) and the ischemic control tissue (Ctr(AA) 2.7±0.5 vs. ischemia 1.0±0.1, p<0.05). Additional experiments also revealed a significant higher BNP mRNA level in ischemic postconditioned (IPost) hearts as compared to ischemic controls (IPost 6.7±1.3 vs. ischemia 1.0±0.2, p<0.05), but showed no difference from controls run in parallel (Ctr 5.4±0.8). Akt inhibition by SH-6 completely abrogated this elevation (IPost 6.7±1.3 vs. IPost+SH-6 1.8±0.7, p<0.05) (Ctr 5.4±0.8 vs. SH-6 1.5±0

  12. Acute and Chronic Effects of Cannabinoids on Human Cognition-A Systematic Review.

    Broyd, Samantha J; van Hell, Hendrika H; Beale, Camilla; Yücel, Murat; Solowij, Nadia

    2016-04-01

    Cannabis use has been associated with impaired cognition during acute intoxication as well as in the unintoxicated state in long-term users. However, the evidence has been mixed and contested, and no systematic reviews of the literature on neuropsychological task-based measures of cognition have been conducted in an attempt to synthesize the findings. We systematically review the empirical research published in the past decade (from January 2004 to February 2015) on acute and chronic effects of cannabis and cannabinoids and on persistence or recovery after abstinence. We summarize the findings into the major categories of the cognitive domains investigated, considering sample characteristics and associations with various cannabis use parameters. Verbal learning and memory and attention are most consistently impaired by acute and chronic exposure to cannabis. Psychomotor function is most affected during acute intoxication, with some evidence for persistence in chronic users and after cessation of use. Impaired verbal memory, attention, and some executive functions may persist after prolonged abstinence, but persistence or recovery across all cognitive domains remains underresearched. Associations between poorer performance and a range of cannabis use parameters, including a younger age of onset, are frequently reported. Little further evidence has emerged for the development of tolerance to the acutely impairing effects of cannabis. Evidence for potential protection from harmful effects by cannabidiol continues to increase but is not definitive. In light of increasing trends toward legalization of cannabis, the knowledge gained from this body of research needs to be incorporated into strategies to minimize harm. PMID:26858214

  13. Effect of estrogen on plasma ceruloplasmin level in rats exposed to acute stress

    Ganaraja B

    2004-04-01

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: Plasma ceruloplasmin, a copper containing protein, belongs to a class called acute phase proteins. Reduced level of ceruloplasmin was associated with Wilson′s disease and Menke′s kinky hair disease in man, primarily affecting copper metabolism. Stress was known to increase Ceruloplasmin. Several stress associated changes were commonly observed in women at menopause and also those who underwent overiectomy. Present experiment investigated the effect of estrogen on ceruloplasmin level in acute stress. AIMS: To assess the estradiol induced changes in plasma ceruloplasmin concentration on exposure of the rats to acute stress. SETTINGS AND DESIGN: Acute stress was induced by forcing the rats to swim till exhaustion. The rats were overiectomised bilaterally to remove the primary source of sex hormones. And hormone replacement was done later. MATERIAL AND METHODS: Wistar albino female rats were used. Acute stress was induced before overiectomy, following recovery from surgery, and again after Estradiol Valerate injection (for 10 days in same group of rats. The plasma ceruloplasmin was estimated immediately after stress during each stage - that is preoperative control, stressed control, after overiectomy and then following treatment with Estradiol Valerate. STATISTICAL ANALYSIS USED: Paired sample T test was applied to analyze the findings. Results: We found lowest ceruloplasmin level after stress in overiectomised animals, while on substitution of estradiol the trend appeared to be reversed. CONCLUSION: The result suggested a direct effect of estrogen on hepatic ceruloplasmin production/release and this could account for some of the beneficial effects of hormone replacement therapy.

  14. Effect of Antiepileptic Drugs for Acute and Chronic Seizures in Children with Encephalitis.

    Kuang-Lin Lin

    Full Text Available Encephalitis presents with seizures in the acute phase and increases the risk of late unprovoked seizures and epilepsy. This study aimed to evaluate the effect of antiepileptic drugs in pediatric patients with acute seizures due to encephalitis and epilepsy.Cases of acute pediatric encephalitis between January 2000 and December 2010 were reviewed. Clinical data, including onset at age, seizure type, seizure frequency, effects of antiepileptic drugs, and prognosis were analyzed.During the study period, 1038 patients (450 girls, 588 boys were enrolled. Among them, 44.6% (463 had seizures in the acute phase, 33% had status epilepticus, and 26% (251 developed postencephalitic epilepsy. At one year of follow-up, 205 of the 251 patients with postencephalitic epilepsy were receiving antiepileptic drugs while 18% were seizure free even after discontinuing the antiepileptic drugs. Among those with postencephalitic epilepsy, 67% had favorable outcomes and were using <2 anti-epileptic drugs while 15% had intractable seizures and were using ≥ 2 antiepileptic drugs. After benzodiazepines, intravenous phenobarbital was preferred over phenytoin as treatment of postencephalitic seizures in the acute phase. For refractory status epilepticus, high-dose topiramate combined with intravenous high-dose phenobarbital or high-dose lidocaine had less side effects.Children with encephalitis have a high rate of postencephalitic epilepsy. Phenobarbital and clonazepam are the most common drugs used, alone or in combination, for postencephalitic epilepsy.

  15. ZFP580, a Novel Zinc-Finger Transcription Factor, Is Involved in Cardioprotection of Intermittent High-Altitude Hypoxia against Myocardial Ischemia-Reperfusion Injury

    Meng, Xiang-yan; Yu, Hai-long; Zhang, Wen-Cheng; Wang, Tian-hui; Mai, Xia; Liu, Hong-Tao; Xu, Rui-cheng

    2014-01-01

    Background ZFP580 is a novel C2H2 type zinc-finger transcription factor recently identified by our laboratory. We previously showed that ZFP580 may be involved in cell survival and growth. The aim of this study was to elucidate whether ZFP580 is involved in the cardioprotective effects of intermittent high-altitude (IHA) hypoxia against myocardial ischemia-reperfusion (I/R) injury. Methods and Results After rats were subjected to myocardial ischemia for 30 min followed by reperfusion, ZFP580 ...

  16. The acute effect of kinesio taping on hamstring extensibility in university students

    MERINO-MARBAN R.,; FERNANDEZ-RODRIGUEZ E.,; LOPEZ-FERNANDEZ I,.; Mayorga-Vega, D.

    2011-01-01

    Objectives: The aim and rationale of our study was to determine the acute effect of kinesio taping on theextensibility of the hamstring muscle among university students.Design: An intra-subject experimental design was used to evaluate the possible acute effects of KT using the Xshapedtaping technique in order to affect hamstring muscle extensibility.Method: Forty-three healthy university students (age 21.98 ± 4.68 years, body mass 71.50 ± 13.49 kg, height172.35 ± 8.17 cm) were assessed for ha...

  17. Late cardiac effects of anthracycline containing therapy for childhood acute lymphoblastic leukemia

    Rathe, Mathias; Carlsen, Niels L T; Oxhøj, Henrik

    2007-01-01

    At present about 80% of children with acute lymphoblastic leukemia (ALL) will be cured following treatment with multi-drug chemotherapy. A major concern for this growing number of survivors is the risk of late effects of treatment. The aim of this study was to determine whether signs of cardiomyo......At present about 80% of children with acute lymphoblastic leukemia (ALL) will be cured following treatment with multi-drug chemotherapy. A major concern for this growing number of survivors is the risk of late effects of treatment. The aim of this study was to determine whether signs of...

  18. Effect of somatostatin on the sphincter of Oddi in patients with acute non-biliary pancreatitis

    Lai, K.; Lo, G.; Cheng, J; Fu, M; Wang, E; Chan, H.; Wang, Y.; P. Hsu; Lin, C.

    2001-01-01

    BACKGROUND—Somatostatin has been used to prevent pancreatitis after endoscopic retrograde cholangiopancreatography but its effect on acute non-biliary pancreatitis is still unclear.
AIM—The purpose of this study was to evaluate the function of the sphincter of Oddi (SO) and the effect of somatostatin on patients with non-biliary pancreatitis.
METHODS—Twenty patients (18 males, two females) with acute pancreatitis (alcoholic 18, idiopathic two) received SO manometry within one week after admis...

  19. Cardioprotective activity of urocortin by preventing caspase-independent, non-apoptotic death in cultured neonatal rat cardiomyocytes exposed to ischemia

    Research highlights: → Ischemia induces high level of iPLA2 resulting in caspase-independent myocyte death. → Urocortin causes iPLA2 down-regulation leading to avoidance of non-apoptotic death. → The survival-promoting effect of urocortin is abrogated by CRH receptor antagonist. -- Abstract: Caspase-independent, non-apoptotic cell death in ischemic heart disease is considered to be one of the important therapeutic targets, however, the detailed mechanisms of this cell death process are not clear. In this study, we investigated the mechanisms of non-apoptotic cell death in cultured neonatal rat cardiomyocytes during ischemia, and the cardioprotection by preventing the mechanisms. We found that ischemia caused elevation of the phospholipase A2 (iPLA2) expression in the myocytes, leading to distinctive non-apoptotic nuclear shrinkage, and cell death. Moreover, we investigated whether the potent cardioprotective corticotropin-releasing hormone (CRH), urocortin, which had been less focused on non-apoptotic cell death, inhibits the ischemic myocyte death. Ischemia-augmented nuclear shrinkage of the myocytes was suppressed by the pretreatment of ∼10 nM urocortin before the cells were exposed to ischemia. Urocortin could significantly suppress the expression and activity of iPLA2, resulting in preventing the ischemia-induced cell death. The survival-promoting effect of urocortin was abrogated by the CRH receptor antagonist astressin. These findings provide the first evidence linking the targets of the urocortin-mediated cardioprotection to the suppression of the caspase-independent, non-apoptotic death in cardiac myocytes exposed to ischemia.

  20. The Effects of 830 nm Light-Emitting Diode Therapy on Acute Herpes Zoster Ophthalmicus: A Pilot Study

    Park, Kui Young; Han, Tae Young; Kim, In Su; Yeo, In Kwon; Kim, Beom Joon; Kim, Myeung Nam

    2013-01-01

    Background Skin lesions and pain are the most distinctive features of herpes zoster. Light-emitting diode (LED) therapy is an effective treatment known for its wound-healing effects. Objective To determine whether the LED treatment affects wound healing and acute pain in acute herpes zoster ophthalmicus. Methods We recruited 28 consecutive Korean patients with acute herpes zoster ophthalmicus for the study. In the control group (group A), 14 subjects received oral famcyclovir. In the experime...

  1. Cardiac progenitor-derived exosomes protect ischemic myocardium from acute ischemia/reperfusion injury

    Highlights: ► Cardiac progenitor-derived (CPC) Exosomes protect H9C2 from apoptosis in vitro. ► CPC-exosomes protect cardiomyoyctes from MI/R induced apoptosis in vivo. ► CPC-exosomes were taken up by H9C2 with high efficiency using PKH26 labeling. ► miR-451, one of GATA4-responsive miRNA cluster, is enriched in CPC-exosomes. -- Abstract: Background: Cardiac progenitors (CPC) mediate cardioprotection via paracrine effects. To date, most of studies focused on secreted paracrine proteins. Here we investigated the CPC-derived-exosomes on protecting myocardium from acute ischemia/reperfusion (MI/R) injury. Methods and results: CPC were isolated from mouse heart using two-step protocol. Exosomes were purified from conditional medium, and confirmed by electron micrograph and Western blot using CD63 as a marker. qRT-PCR shows that CPC-exosomes have high level expression of GATA4-responsive-miR-451. Exosomes were ex vivo labeled with PKH26, We observed exosomes can be uptaken by H9C2 cardiomyoblasts with high efficiency after 12 h incubation. CPC-exosomes protect H9C2 from oxidative stress by inhibiting caspase 3/7 activation invitro. In vivo delivery of CPC-exosomes in an acute mouse myocardial ischemia/reperfusion model inhibited cardiomyocyte apoptosis by about 53% in comparison with PBS control (p < 0.05). Conclusion: Our results suggest, for the first time, the CPC-exosomes can be used as a therapeutic vehicle for cardioprotection, and highlights a new perspective for using non-cell exosomes for cardiac disease

  2. Cardiac progenitor-derived exosomes protect ischemic myocardium from acute ischemia/reperfusion injury

    Chen, Lijuan [Department of Cardiology, Zhongda Hospital, Medical School of Southeast University, Nanjing 210009 (China); Cardiovascular Disease, Internal Medicine, University of Cincinnati, 231 Albert Sabin Way, Cincinnati, OH 45267 (United States); Wang, Yingjie [Cardiovascular Disease, Internal Medicine, University of Cincinnati, 231 Albert Sabin Way, Cincinnati, OH 45267 (United States); Internal Medicine of Traditional Chinese Medicine, Shuguang Hospital of Shanghai University of Traditional Chinese Medicine, Shanghai 201203 (China); Pan, Yaohua; Zhang, Lan [Cardiovascular Disease, Internal Medicine, University of Cincinnati, 231 Albert Sabin Way, Cincinnati, OH 45267 (United States); Shen, Chengxing [Department of Cardiology, Xinhua Hospital, Shanghai Jiao Tong University, Shanghai (China); Qin, Gangjian [Feinberg Cardiovascular Research Institute, Northwestern University Feinberg School of Medicine, Chicago, IL 60611 (United States); Ashraf, Muhammad [Pathology and Lab Med, University of Cincinnati, 231 Albert Sabin Way, Cincinnati, OH 45267 (United States); Weintraub, Neal [Cardiovascular Disease, Internal Medicine, University of Cincinnati, 231 Albert Sabin Way, Cincinnati, OH 45267 (United States); Ma, Genshan, E-mail: magenshan@hotmail.com [Department of Cardiology, Zhongda Hospital, Medical School of Southeast University, Nanjing 210009 (China); Tang, Yaoliang, E-mail: tangyg@ucmail.uc.edu [Cardiovascular Disease, Internal Medicine, University of Cincinnati, 231 Albert Sabin Way, Cincinnati, OH 45267 (United States)

    2013-02-15

    Highlights: ► Cardiac progenitor-derived (CPC) Exosomes protect H9C2 from apoptosis in vitro. ► CPC-exosomes protect cardiomyoyctes from MI/R induced apoptosis in vivo. ► CPC-exosomes were taken up by H9C2 with high efficiency using PKH26 labeling. ► miR-451, one of GATA4-responsive miRNA cluster, is enriched in CPC-exosomes. -- Abstract: Background: Cardiac progenitors (CPC) mediate cardioprotection via paracrine effects. To date, most of studies focused on secreted paracrine proteins. Here we investigated the CPC-derived-exosomes on protecting myocardium from acute ischemia/reperfusion (MI/R) injury. Methods and results: CPC were isolated from mouse heart using two-step protocol. Exosomes were purified from conditional medium, and confirmed by electron micrograph and Western blot using CD63 as a marker. qRT-PCR shows that CPC-exosomes have high level expression of GATA4-responsive-miR-451. Exosomes were ex vivo labeled with PKH26, We observed exosomes can be uptaken by H9C2 cardiomyoblasts with high efficiency after 12 h incubation. CPC-exosomes protect H9C2 from oxidative stress by inhibiting caspase 3/7 activation invitro. In vivo delivery of CPC-exosomes in an acute mouse myocardial ischemia/reperfusion model inhibited cardiomyocyte apoptosis by about 53% in comparison with PBS control (p < 0.05). Conclusion: Our results suggest, for the first time, the CPC-exosomes can be used as a therapeutic vehicle for cardioprotection, and highlights a new perspective for using non-cell exosomes for cardiac disease.

  3. Effect of Vagotomy on Acute Pancreatitis in Rats

    2000-01-01

    One hundred and eighty-two SD rats were randomly divided into the normal control group, fast operating group and food-intake operating group. The experimental model of acute pancreatitis (AP) in rats was established by injecting 5 % sodium taurocholate into the pancreatic duct of rat according to Aho's method. The sandostatin was used for positive contrast. The concentrations of serum amylase, calcium, C reaction protein (CRP) and interleukin-6 (IL-6) were assayed respectively at different time points. The pathological sections were observed. Each operating group contained 10 rats. The mortality of the operating groups was observed during the 24 h. The serum amylase level in the AP rats was reduced after receiving vagotomy (VG, P<0.05). Although the serum calcium level in most groups was decreased, the reduction in the group with VG plus sandostatin was not obvious (P>0.05). The increase of CRP and IL-6 was not obvious after VG (P>0.05). The change of mortality was not significant (P>0.05). The pathological sections showed that the AP pathological change was mild after VG. The disease condition of food-intake operating group was more serious than that of fast operating group. It was suggested that VG had some influence on the prognosis of AP in rats.

  4. Cognitive and physiological effects of an acute physical activity intervention in elementary school children

    Katja eJäger

    2014-12-01

    Full Text Available The aim of the present study was to investigate the effects of an acute physical activity intervention including cognitive engagement on executive functions and on cortisol level in young elementary school children. Half of the 104 participating children (6 to 8 years old attended a 20-minute sport sequence, which included cognitively engaging and playful forms of physical activity. The other half was assigned to a resting control condition. Individual differences in children`s updating, inhibition, and shifting performance as well as salivary cortisol were assessed before (pre-test, immediately after (post-test, and 40 minutes after (follow-up the intervention or control condition respectively. Results revealed a significantly stronger improvement in inhibition in the experimental group compared to the control group, while it appeared that acute physical activity had no specific effect on updating and shifting. The intervention effect on inhibition levelled out 40 minutes after physical activity. Salivary cortisol increased significantly more in the experimental compared to the control group between post-test and follow-up and results support partly the assumed inverted U-shaped relationship between cortisol level and cognitive performance. In conclusion, results indicate that acute physical activity including cognitive engagement may have immediate positive effects on inhibition, but not necessarily on updating and shifting in elementary school children. This positive effect may partly be explained trough cortisol elevation after acute physical activity.

  5. Chronic hyperleptinemia induces resistance to acute natriuretic and NO-mimetic effects of leptin.

    Bełtowski, Jerzy; Wójcicka, Grazyna; Jamroz-Wiśniewska, Anna; Wojtak, Andrzej

    2010-01-01

    Apart from controlling energy balance, leptin, secreted by adipose tissue, is also involved in the regulation of cardiovascular function. Previous studies have demonstrated that acutely administered leptin stimulates natriuresis and vascular nitric oxide (NO) production and that these effects are impaired in obese animals. However, the mechanism of resistance to leptin is not clear. Because obesity is associated with chronically elevated leptin, we examined if long-term hyperleptinemia impairs acute effects of leptin on sodium excretion and NO production in the absence of obesity. Hyperleptinemia was induced in lean rats by administration of exogenous leptin at a dose of 0.5mg/kg/day for 7 days, and then acute effect of leptin (1mg/kg i.v.) was studied under general anesthesia. Leptin increased fractional sodium excretion and decreased Na(+),K(+)-ATPase activity in the renal medulla. In addition, leptin increased the level of NO metabolites and cyclic GMP in plasma and aortic wall. These acute effects of leptin were impaired in hyperleptinemic animals. In both control and hyperleptinemic groups the effect of leptin on Na(+) excretion and renal Na(+),K(+)-ATPase was abolished by phosphoinositide 3-kinase (PI3K) inhibitor, wortmannin, but not by protein kinase B/Akt inhibitor, triciribine,. In contrast, acute effect of leptin on NO metabolites and cGMP was abolished by triciribine but not by wortmannin. Leptin stimulated Akt phosphorylation at Ser(473) in aortic tissue but not in the kidney, and this effect was comparable in control and hyperleptinemic groups. These results suggest that hyperleptinemia may mediate "renal" and "vascular" leptin resistance observed in obesity. PMID:19854228

  6. Comparison Between the Acute Pulmonary Vascular Effects of Oxygen with Nitric Oxide and Sildenafil

    Ronald W. Day

    2015-03-01

    Full Text Available Objective. Right heart catheterization is performed in patients with pulmonary arterial hypertension to determine the severity of disease and their pulmonary vascular reactivity. The acute pulmonary vascular effect of inhaled nitric oxide is frequently used to identify patients who will respond favorably to vasodilator therapy. This study sought to determine whether the acute pulmonary vascular effects of oxygen with nitric oxide and intravenous sildenafil are similar. Methods. A retrospective, descriptive study of 13 individuals with pulmonary hypertension who underwent heart catheterization and acute vasodilator testing was performed. The hemodynamic measurements during five phases (21% to 53% oxygen, 100% oxygen, 100% oxygen with 20 ppm nitric oxide, 21% to 51% oxygen, and 21% to 51% oxygen with 0.05 mg/kg to 0.29 mg/kg intravenous sildenafil of the procedures were compared.Results. Mean pulmonary arterial pressure and pulmonary vascular resistance acutely decreased with 100% oxygen with nitric oxide, and 21% to 51% oxygen with sildenafil. Mean pulmonary arterial pressure (mm Hg, mean ± standard error of the mean was 38 ± 4 during 21% to 53% oxygen, 32 ± 3 during 100% oxygen, 29 ± 2 during 100% oxygen with nitric oxide, 37 ± 3 during 21% to 51% oxygen, and 32 ± 2 during 21% to 51% oxygen with sildenafil. There was not a significant correlation between the percent change in pulmonary vascular resistance from baseline with oxygen and nitric oxide, and from baseline with sildenafil (r2 = 0.011, p = 0.738. Conclusions. Oxygen with nitric oxide and sildenafil decreased pulmonary vascular resistance. However, the pulmonary vascular effects of oxygen and nitric oxide cannot be used to predict the acute response to sildenafil. Additional studies are needed to determine whether the acute response to sildenafil can be used to predict the long-term response to treatment with an oral phosphodiesterase V inhibitor.

  7. The effect of acute exercise on collagen turnover in human tendons

    Mørch, Lina Steinrud; Pingel, Jessica; Boesen, Mikael;

    2013-01-01

    Mechanical loading of human tendon stimulates collagen synthesis, but the relationship between acute loading responses and training status of the tendon is not clear. We tested the effect of prolonged load deprivation on the acute loading-induced collagen turnover in human tendons, by applying the...... the contra-lateral leg was used habitually. Following the procedure both Achilles tendons and calf muscles were loaded with the same absolute load during a 1-h treadmill run. Tissue collagen turnover was measured by microdialysis performed post-immobilization but pre-exercise around both Achilles...

  8. THE EFFECT OF ANISODAMINE ON CEREBRAL RESUSCITATION OF RATS IN ACUTE CEREBRAL ISCHEMIA FROM CARDIAC ARREST

    彭新琦; 曹苏谊; 可君

    1995-01-01

    In order to investigate the mechanisms of acute cerebral ischemia,and to look for effective drugs on cerebral resuscitation,we made a model of acute complete global brain ischemia,reperfusion and resuscita-tion on rats according to Garavilla's method.Our results showed that the event of cerebral ischemia and reperfusion injury could result in the in-crease of total brain calcium content,and anisodamine has the same reducing brain calcium contents as dil-tiazem's,while improving neurological outcome and alleviating injury to neurons.

  9. Potential mechanisms for acute health effects and lung retention of inhaled particles of different origin

    Klepczynska Nyström, Anna

    2012-01-01

    Background: Environmental particle exposure is known to have negative health effects. There is limited knowledge about how size and origin of particles influence these effects. There is also little known regarding the fate of ultrafine particles (particles in nanosize;< 100 nanometers in diameter) after being inhaled. Aim: The main objective of this thesis was to study acute health effects in humans and their potential underlying mechanisms, resulting from exposure to particles of different o...

  10. No acute effects of grape juice on appetite, implicit memory, and mood

    Mattes, Richard D.; Hendrickson, Sara J.

    2008-01-01

    Background: Animal experiments document effects of grape juice on cognitive performance and motor skills, and observational studies in humans suggest an inverse association between flavonoid intake and cognitive decline. These effects may be related to the antioxidant properties of polyphenols. Juice consumption and flavonoid intake may also affect appetite. Objective: To study the acute effects of grape juice consumption on appetite, mood and implicit memory during a time of increased lethar...

  11. Ginseng Extract Enhances Anti-cancer Effect of Cytarabine on Human Acute Leukemia Cells

    Yiju Hou; Xiaodong Liu; Zhonghai Yuan; Yan Li

    2015-01-01

    Ginseng as a traditional medicine is well known to exhibit various pharmacological effects. Ginsenoside Rg3 is the active ingredient extracted from ginseng. The pharmacological modulatory effects of Rg3 on multidrug resistant cancer cells are reported in the present study. Cytarabine is a chemotherapeutic agent for the treatment of acute leukemia. However, this compound has serious side effects at high doses, for example hematopoiesis depression. In this study, using hl60 human leukemia cells...

  12. Acute Effects of Competitive Exercise on Risk-Taking in a Sample of Adolescent Male Athletes

    Black, Anne C.; Hochman, Edward; Rosen, Marc I.

    2013-01-01

    Exercise acutely reduces cravings for tobacco and alcohol, but the mechanism accounting for this relationship is not fully understood. To explore exercise's effects on general risk-taking, we compared the performances of 20 adolescent male athletes on the balloon analog risk task (BART) immediately after periods of exercise (playing tennis) and rest. Statistically significant risk-taking effects were observed post-exercise. The established attenuating effect of exercise on desire for substanc...

  13. Acute Effects of Whole Body Vibration on Inhibition in Healthy Children

    Anne E den Heijer; Groen, Yvonne; Anselm B M Fuermaier; van Heuvelen, Marieke J. G.; van der Zee, Eddy A.; Tucha, Lara; Tucha, Oliver

    2015-01-01

    Objectives Whole Body Vibration (WBV) is a passive exercise method known to have beneficial effects on various physical measures. Studies on adults furthermore demonstrated beneficial effects of WBV treatment on cognition (e.g. inhibition). The present study replicated these findings in healthy children and examined acute effects of WBV treatment on inhibition. Methods Fifty-five healthy children (aged 8–13) participated in this within-subject design study. WBV treatment was applied by having...

  14. The effects of acute anticipatory stress on frontal executive functions in healthy females

    Brookmann, Frieda

    2010-01-01

    Objective Results from previous studies show effects of stress hormones (cortisol) on cognitive functions, particularly those mediated by the hippocampus, but little research has examined the effects of cortisol on frontal executive functions, despite a preponderance of cortisol receptors in the frontal lobes. Existing research has focused on traditional measures of executive functions and the findings are inconsistent. The aim of the present study was to examine the effects of acute stres...

  15. Acute psychomotor effects of MDMA and ethanol (co-) administration over time in healthy volunteers

    Dumont, G J H; Schoemaker, R C; Touw, D J; Sweep, F C G J; Buitelaar, J K; van Gerven, J M A; Verkes, R J

    2010-01-01

    In Western societies, a considerable percentage of young people use 3,4-methylenedioxymethamphetamine (MDMA or 'ecstasy'). The use of alcohol (ethanol) in combination with ecstasy is common. The aim of the present study was to assess the acute psychomotor and subjective effects of (co-) administrati

  16. Effect of glutathione S-transferases on the survival of patients with acute myeloid leukaemia

    Autrup, Judith; Hokland, Peter; Pedersen, Lars;

    2002-01-01

    The objective of the study was to investigate the effect of genetic polymorphisms in glutathione S-transferases (GST) on the survival of acute myeloid leukaemia patients receiving adriamycin induction therapy. A total of 89 patients were included in the study. Patients who carried at least one GSTM...

  17. The effect of referral for cardiac rehabilitation on survival following acute myocardial infarction

    Lewinter, Christian; Bland, John M; Crouch, Simon; Doherty, Patrick; Lewin, Robert J; Køber, Lars; Hall, Alistair S; Gale, Christopher P

    2014-01-01

    BACKGROUND: International guidelines recommend referral for cardiac rehabilitation (CR) after acute myocardial infarction (AMI). However, the impact on long-term survival after CR referral has not been adjusted by time-variance. We compared the effects of CR referral after hospitalization for AMI...

  18. Effects of Breaking Sitting by Standing and Acute Exercise on Postprandial Oxidative Stress

    Takahashi; Miyashita; Park; Sakamoto; Suzuki

    2015-01-01

    Background Sedentary behavior, which includes sitting and TV viewing, has been identified as an independent risk factor for type 2 diabetes and cardiovascular disease. Breaking sedentary behavior improves metabolic health such as postprandial glycaemia and insulinemia. However, the mechanisms underlying this effect are unclear. Objectives Here, we examined whether breaking sitting by standing and acute exercise reduces postprandia...

  19. Acute effects of all-trans-retinoic acid in ischemic injury

    All-trans-retinoic acid (ATRA) is a vitamin A derivative that is important in neuronal patterning, survival, and neurite outgrowth. We investigated the relatively acute effects of ATRA (100 nM and 1 µM) on cell swelling in ischemic injury and on key features hypothesized to contribute to cell swelli...

  20. Antinociceptive, antiinflammatory and acute toxicity effects of Salvia leriifolia Benth seed extract in mice and rats.

    Hosseinzadeh, Hossein; Haddadkhodaparast, Mohammad H; Arash, Ali R

    2003-04-01

    The antinociceptive and antiinflammatory effects as well as the acute toxicity of Salvia leriifolia aqueous seed extract were studied in mice and rats. Antinociceptive activity was assessed using the hot-plate and tail flick tests. The effect on acute inflammation was studied using vascular permeability increased by acetic acid and xylene-induced ear oedema in mice. The activity against chronic inflammation was assessed using the cotton pellet test in rats. The LD(50) of the extract was found to be 19.5 g/kg (i.p.) in mice. The aqueous seed extract showed significant and dose-dependent (1.25-10 g/kg) antinociceptive activity over 7 h, and was inhibited by naloxone pretreatment. Significant and dose-dependent (2.5-10 g/kg) activity was observed against acute inflammation induced by acetic acid and in the xylene ear oedema test. In the chronic inflammation test the extract (2.5-5 g/kg) showed significant and dose-dependent antiinflammatory activity. The aqueous seed extract of S. leriifolia may therefore have supraspinal antinociceptive effects which may be mediated by opioid receptors, and showed considerable effects against acute and chronic inflammation. PMID:12722156

  1. Nephroprotective effect of ethanolic extract of abutilon indicum root in gentamicin induced acute renal failure

    Jacob Jesurun RS

    2016-06-01

    Conclusions: The ethanolic extract of abutilon indicum root has nephron protective effect in gentamicin induced acute renal failure. Nephro protective action in this study could be due to the antioxidant and other phytochemical of abutilon indicum root. [Int J Basic Clin Pharmacol 2016; 5(3.000: 841-845

  2. Acute Ozone-Induced Pulmonary and Systemic Metabolic Effects are Diminished in Adrenalectomized Rats#

    Acute ozone exposure increases circulating stress hormones and induces metabolic alterations in animals and humans. We hypothesized that the increase of adrenal-derived stress hormones is necessary for both ozone-induced metabolic effects and lung injury. Male Wistar-Kyoto rats ...

  3. Acute Ozone-Induced Pulmonary and Systemic Metabolic Effects are Diminished in Adrenalectomized Rats

    Acute ozone exposure increases circulating stress hormones and induces peripheral metabolic alterations in animals and humans. We hypothesized that the increase of adrenal-derived stress hormones is necessary for ozone-induced systemic metabolic effects and lung injury. Male Wis...

  4. Protective effects of allicin on acute cerebral ischemia-reperfusion injury in rats

    ZHENGYan-hua; CHENChong-hong

    2004-01-01

    AIM To study the protective effects of allicin on acute focal cerebral ischemia reperfusioninjury. METHODS: The model of cerebral ishemia-3 h/reperfusion - 24h was induced by middle cerebral artery occlusion (MCAO) in SD rats. Allicin (10,20mg·kg-1) was administered once daily in rats: at 0 h of reperfusion. After 24h reperfusion, the content of

  5. Acute effects of high-dose intragastric nicotine on mucosal defense mechanisms

    Lindell, G; Bukhave, Klaus; Lilja, I; Madsen, J. Rask; Graffner, H

    1997-01-01

    Peptic ulcer disease is overrepresented among smokers; they also heal slowly and relapse frequently. Data are accumulating that smoking is detrimental to gastroduodenal mucosal cytoprotection. This study was designed to assess acute effects of high-dose intragastric nicotine, as it has been shown...

  6. Arrhythmogenic Effect of Sympathetic Histamine in Mouse Hearts Subjected to Acute Ischemia

    He, Gonghao; HU, JING; Li, Teng; Ma, Xue; Meng, Jingru; Jia, Min; Lu, Jun; Ohtsu, Hiroshi; Chen, Zhong; Luo, Xiaoxing

    2011-01-01

    The role of histamine as a newly recognized sympathetic neurotransmitter has been presented previously, and its postsynaptic effects greatly depended on the activities of sympathetic nerves. Cardiac sympathetic nerves become overactivated under acute myocardial ischemic conditions and release neurotransmitters in large amounts, inducing ventricular arrhythmia. Therefore, it is proposed that cardiac sympathetic histamine, in addition to norepinephrine, may have a significant arrhythmogenic eff...

  7. Acute Alcohol Effects on Repetition Priming and Word Recognition Memory with Equivalent Memory Cues

    Ray, Suchismita; Bates, Marsha E.

    2006-01-01

    Acute alcohol intoxication effects on memory were examined using a recollection-based word recognition memory task and a repetition priming task of memory for the same information without explicit reference to the study context. Memory cues were equivalent across tasks; encoding was manipulated by varying the frequency of occurrence (FOC) of words…

  8. Acute effects of the ampakine farampator on memory and information processing in healthy elderly volunteers.

    Wezenberg, E.; Verkes, R.J.; Ruigt, G.S.F.; Hulstijn, W.; Sabbe, B.G.C.C.

    2007-01-01

    Ampakines act as positive allosteric modulators of AMPA-type glutamate receptors and facilitate hippocampal long-term potentiation (LTP), a mechanism associated with memory storage and consolidation. The present study investigated the acute effects of farampator, 1-(benzofurazan-5-ylcarbonyl) piperi

  9. The effect of obesity on inflammatory cytokine and leptin production following acute mental stress.

    Caslin, H L; Franco, R L; Crabb, E B; Huang, C J; Bowen, M K; Acevedo, E O

    2016-02-01

    Obesity may contribute to cardiovascular disease (CVD) risk by eliciting chronic systemic inflammation and impairing the immune response to additional stressors. There has been little assessment of the effect of obesity on psychological stress, an independent risk factor for CVD. Therefore, it was of interest to examine interleukin-6, tumor necrosis factor-α, interleukin-1β (IL-1β), interleukin-1 receptor antagonist (IL-1Ra), and leptin following an acute mental stress task in nonobese and obese males. Twenty college-aged males (21.3 ± 0.56 years) volunteered to participate in a 20-min Stroop color-word and mirror-tracing task. Subjects were recruited for obese (body mass index: BMI > 30) and nonobese (BMI < 25) groups, and blood samples were collected for enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay analysis. The acute mental stress task elicited an increase in heart rate, catecholamines, and IL-1β in all subjects. Additionally, acute mental stress increased cortisol concentrations in the nonobese group. There was a significant reduction in leptin in obese subjects 30 min posttask compared with a decrease in nonobese subjects 120 min posttask. Interestingly, the relationship between the percent change in leptin and IL-1Ra at 120 min posttask in response to an acute mental stress task was only observed in nonobese individuals. This is the first study to suggest that adiposity in males may impact leptin and inflammatory signaling mechanisms following acute mental stress. PMID:26511907

  10. Effect of acute exercise and cardiovascular fitness on cognitive function: an event-related cortical desynchronization study.

    Chang, Yu-Kai; Chu, Chien-Heng; Wang, Chun-Chih; Song, Tai-Fen; Wei, Gao-Xia

    2015-03-01

    This study aimed to clarify the effects of acute exercise and cardiovascular fitness on cognitive function using the Stroop test and event-related desynchronization (ERD) in an aged population. Old adults (63.10 ± 2.89 years) were first assigned to either a high-fitness or a low-fitness group, and they were then subjected to an acute exercise treatment and a reading control treatment in a counterbalanced order. Alpha ERD was recorded during the Stroop test, which was administered after both treatments. Acute exercise improved cognitive performance regardless of the level of cognition, and old adults with higher fitness levels received greater benefits from acute exercise. Additionally, acute exercise, rather than overall fitness, elicited greater lower and upper alpha ERDs relative to the control condition. These findings indirectly suggest that the beneficial effects of acute exercise on cognitive performance may result from exercise-induced attentional control observed during frontal neural excitation. PMID:25308605

  11. The effect of an acute increase in central blood volume on the response of cerebral blood flow to acute hypotension.

    Ogoh, Shigehiko; Hirasawa, Ai; Sugawara, Jun; Nakahara, Hidehiro; Ueda, Shinya; Shoemaker, J Kevin; Miyamoto, Tadayoshi

    2015-09-01

    The purpose of the present study was to examine whether the response of cerebral blood flow to an acute change in perfusion pressure is modified by an acute increase in central blood volume. Nine young, healthy subjects voluntarily participated in this study. To measure dynamic cerebral autoregulation during normocapnic and hypercapnic (5%) conditions, the change in middle cerebral artery mean blood flow velocity was analyzed during acute hypotension caused by two methods: 1) thigh-cuff occlusion release (without change in central blood volume); and 2) during the recovery phase immediately following release of lower body negative pressure (LBNP; -50 mmHg) that initiated an acute increase in central blood volume. In the thigh-cuff occlusion release protocol, as expected, hypercapnia decreased the rate of regulation, as an index of dynamic cerebral autoregulation (0.236 ± 0.018 and 0.167 ± 0.025 s(-1), P = 0.024). Compared with the cuff-occlusion release, the acute increase in central blood volume (relative to the LBNP condition) with LBNP release attenuated dynamic cerebral autoregulation (P = 0.009). Therefore, the hypercapnia-induced attenuation of dynamic cerebral autoregulation was not observed in the LBNP release protocol (P = 0.574). These findings suggest that an acute change in systemic blood distribution modifies dynamic cerebral autoregulation during acute hypotension. PMID:26159757

  12. Failure to identify an acute exercise effect on executive function assessed by the Wisconsin Card Sorting Test

    Chun-Chih Wang

    2015-03-01

    Conclusion: Acute aerobic exercise failed to influence executive function as assessed by the WCST, revealing that this classical neuropsychological test tapping executive function may not be sensitive to acute exercise. Our findings suggest that acute exercise does not broadly affect the entire family of executive functions, or its effect on a specific aspect of executive function may be task-dependent, as proposed by Etnier and Chang (2009.

  13. Effects of acute aerobic exercise on motor response inhibition: An ERP study using the stop-signal task

    Chien-Heng Chu; Alderman, Brandon L.; Gao-Xia Wei; Yu-Kai Chang

    2015-01-01

    Purpose: The purpose of this study was to determine the effects of acute exercise on motor response inhibition using both behavioral and electrophysiological approaches. Methods: The P3 and N1 event-related potential (ERP) components were recorded while performing a stop-signal task in 21 college students following a moderately intense acute exercise bout for 30 min and a sedentary control session that involved reading. Results: Acute exercise induced a shorter stop signal response time...

  14. Risk Stratification and Effects of Pharmacotherapy in Patients with Acute Myocardial Infarction (AMI) based on data from Pilot AMI Registry

    Peleška, Jan; Grünfeldová, H.; Monhart, Z.; Faltus, Václav; Tomečková, Marie; Ryšavá, D.; Velimský, T.; Ballek, L.; Hubač, J.; Charalampidi, K.; Jánský, P.

    2007-01-01

    Roč. 30 (2007), s. 367-367. ISSN 1420-4096. [Central European Meeting on Hypertension and Cardiovascular Disease Prevention . 11.10.2007-13.10.2007, Kraków] R&D Projects: GA MŠk(CZ) 1M06014 Institutional research plan: CEZ:AV0Z10300504 Keywords : pilot registry of acute myocardial infarction * risk stratification in acute myocardial infarction * effects of pharmacotherapy in acute myocardial infarction Subject RIV: FA - Cardiovascular Disease s incl. Cardiotharic Surgery

  15. A Rare Side Effect due to TNF-Alpha Blocking Agent: Acute Pleuropericarditis with Adalimumab

    Hakan Ozkan

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Tumor necrosis factor-alpha antagonism is an important treatment strategy in patients with rheumatoid arthritis, psoriatic arthritis, vasculitis, and ankylosing spondylitis. Adalimumab is one of the well-known tumor necrosis factor-alpha blocking agents. There are several side effects reported in patients with adalimumab therapy. Cardiac side effects of adalimumab are rare. Only a few cardiac side effects were reported. A 61-year-old man treated with adalimumab for the last 6 months due to psoriatic arthritis presented with typically acute pleuropericarditis. Chest X-ray and echocardiography demonstrated marked pericardial effusion. Patient was successfully evaluated for the etiology of acute pleuro-pericarditis. Every etiology was excluded except the usage of adalimumab. Adalimumab was discontinued, and patient was treated with 1200 mg of ibuprofen daily. Control chest X-ray and echocardiography after three weeks demonstrated complete resolution of both pleural and pericardial effusions. This case clearly demonstrated the acute onset of pericarditis with adalimumab usage. Acute pericarditis and pericardial effusion should be kept in mind in patients with adalimumab treatment.

  16. Acute radiation syndrome and delayed effects of radiation exposure

    The results of the overall irradiation of the body with large doses are described. Effects of irradiation are presented separately for central nervous, cardiovascular and gastrointestinal systems. Damages of cellular level and late effects in the whole body scale are shown. 7 refs, 2 figs

  17. The effectiveness of heliox in acute respiratory distress syndrome

    Sema Yilmaz

    2013-01-01

    Conclusion: The present study histopathologically indicated the effectiveness of heliox in the decreasing of neutrophil infiltation, interstitial/intraalveolar edema, perivascular and/or intraalveolar hemorrhage and HM formation in ARDS. Besides the known effect of heliox in obstructive lung disease, inhaled heliox therapy could be associated with the improvement of inflamation in ARDS.

  18. The Effects of Acute Exercise and Exercise Training on Plasma Homocysteine: A Meta-Analysis

    Deminice, Rafael; Ribeiro, Diogo Farias; Frajacomo, Fernando Tadeu Trevisan

    2016-01-01

    Background Although studies have demonstrated that physical exercise alters homocysteine levels in the blood, meta-analyses of the effects of acute exercise and exercise training on homocysteine blood concentration have not been performed, especially regarding the duration and intensity of exercise, which could affect homocysteine levels differently. Objective The aim of this meta-analysis was to ascertain the effects of acute exercise and exercise training on homocysteine levels in the blood. Method A review was conducted according to the guidelines of the Preferred Reporting Items for Systematic Reviews and Meta-Analyses using the online databases PubMed, SPORTDiscus, and SciELO to identify relevant studies published through June 2015. Review Manager was used to calculate the effect size of acute exercise and exercise training using the change in Hcy plasmaserum concentration from baseline to post-acute exercise and trained vs. sedentary control groups, respectively. Weighted mean differences were calculated using random effect models. Results Given the abundance of studies, acute exercise trials were divided into two subgroups according to exercise volume and intensity, whereas the effects of exercise training were analyzed together. Overall, 22 studies with a total of 520 participants indicated increased plasma homocysteine concentration after acute exercise (1.18 μmol/L, 95% CI: 0.71 to 1.65, p homocysteine levels in the blood. Increased homocysteine induced by exercise was significantly associated with volume of exercise, but not intensity. By contrast, resistance training reduced plasma homocysteine concentration (-1.53 μmol/L, 95% CI: -2.77 to -0.28, p = .02), though aerobic training did not. The cumulative results of the seven studies with a total of 230 participants in exercise training analysis did not demonstrate a significant impact on homocysteine levels in the blood (-0.56 μmol/L, 95% CI: -1.61 to 0.50, p = .23). Conclusions Current evidence

  19. Hydrosulfide attenuates acute myocardial ischemic injury through the glycogen synthase kinase-3β/β-catenin signaling pathway.

    Ge, Ning; Liu, Chao; Li, Guofeng; Xie, Lijun; Zhang, Qinzeng; Li, Liping; Hao, Na; Zhang, Jianxin

    2016-05-01

    The endogenous signaling gasotransmitter, hydrosulfide (H2S), has been shown to exert cardioprotective effects against acute myocardial infarction (AMI) due to ischemic injury. However, the mechanisms responsible for these effects are not yet fully understood. In this study, we investigated whether sodium hydrogen sulfide (NaHS), an H2S donor, attenuates acute myocardial ischemic injury through glycogen synthase kinase-3β (GSK-3β)/β-catenin signaling. For this purpose, we utilized an in vivo rat model of AMI by occluding the left anterior descending coronary artery. NaHS (0.39, 0.78 or 1.56 mg/kg, intraperitoneally), the GSK-3β inhibitor, SB216763 (0.6 mg/kg, intravenously), or 1% dimethylsulfoxide (2 ml/kg, intravenously) were administered to the rats. The results demonstrated that the administration of medium- and high-dose NaHS and SB216763 significantly improved rat cardiac function, as evidenced by an increase in the mean arterial pressure, left ventricular developed pressure, contraction and relaxation rates, as well as a decrease in left ventricular end-diastolic pressure. In addition, the administration of NaHS and SB216763 attenuated myocardial injury as reflected by a decrease in apoptotic cell death and in the serum lactate dehydrogenase concentrations, and prevented myocardial structural changes. The administration of NaHS and SB216763 increased the concentrations of phosphorylated (p-)GSK-3β, the p-GSK-3β/t-GSK-3β ratio and downstream protein β-catenin. Moreover, western blot and immunohistochemical analyses of apoptotic signaling pathway proteins further established the cardioprotective potential of NaHS, as reflected by the upregulation of Bcl-2 expression, the downregulation of Bax expression, and a decrease in the number of TUNEL-positive stained cells. These findings suggest that hydrosulfide exerts cardioprotective effects against AMI-induced apoptosis through the GSK-3β/β-catenin signaling pathway. PMID:27035393

  20. Effects of copper on the acute cortisol response and associated physiology in rainbow trout.

    Tellis, Margaret S; Alsop, Derek; Wood, Chris M

    2012-03-01

    The aim of this study was to determine the effects of chronic waterborne copper (Cu) exposure on the acute stress-induced cortisol response and associated physiological consequences in rainbow trout (Oncorhynchus mykiss). Trout were exposed to 30 μg Cu/L in moderately hard water (120 mg/L as CaCO(3)) for 40 days, following which time the acute cortisol response was examined with a series of stressors. At 40 days, a 65% increase in Cu was observed in the gill, but no accumulation was observed in the liver, brain or head kidney. Stressors such as air exposure or confinement did not elicit an increase in circulating cortisol levels for Cu-exposed fish, in contrast to controls. However, this inhibitory effect on the acute cortisol response appeared to have few implications on the ability of Cu-exposed fish to maintain ion and carbohydrate homeostasis. For example, plasma Na(+), Ca(2+) and glucose levels as well as hepatic glycogen levels were the same post-stress in control and Cu-exposed fish. Trout were also challenged with exposure to 50% seawater for 48 h, where Cu-exposed trout maintained plasma Na(+), glucose and hepatic glycogen levels. However, Cu-exposed fish experienced decreased plasma K(+) levels throughout the Cu exposure and stress tests. In conclusion, chronic Cu exposure resulted in the abolition of an acute cortisol response post-stress. There was no Cu accumulation in the hypothalamus-pituitary-interrenal axis (HPI axis) suggesting this was not a direct toxic effect of Cu on the cortisol regulatory pathway. However, the lack of an acute cortisol response in Cu-exposed fish did not impair the ability of the fish to maintain ion and carbohydrate homeostasis. This effect on cortisol may be a strategy to reduce costs during the chronic stress of Cu exposure, and not endocrine disruption as a result of toxic injury. PMID:21964321

  1. Chemical toxicity of uranium hexafluoride compared to acute effects of radiation

    The chemical effects from acute exposures to uranium hexafluoride are compared to the nonstochastic effects from acute radiation doses of 25 rems to the whole body and 300 rems to the thyroid. The analysis concludes that an intake of about 10 mg of uranium in soluble form is roughly comparable, in terms of early effects, to an acute whole body dose of 25 rems because both are just below the threshold for significant nonstochastic effects. Similarly, an exposure to hydrogen fluoride at a concentration of 25 mg/m3 for 30 minutes is roughly comparable because there would be no significant nonstochastic effects. For times t other than 30 minutes, the concentration C of hydrogen fluoride considered to have the same effect can be calculated using a quadratic equation: C = 25 mg/m3 (30 min/t). The purpose of these analyses is to provide information for developing design and siting guideline based on chemical toxicity for enrichment plants using uranium hexafluoride. These guidelines are to be similar, in terms of stochastic health effects, to criteria in NRC regulations of nuclear power plants, which are based on radiation doses. 26 refs., 1 fig., 5 tabs

  2. Effect of HIV infection on time to recovery from an acute manic episode

    E Nakimuli-Mpungu

    2010-09-01

    Full Text Available E Nakimuli-Mpungu1,2,3, B Mutamba2,3, S Nshemerirwe2,3, MS Kiwuwa4, S Musisi21Mental Health Department, Johns Hopkins Bloomberg School of Public Health, Baltimore, Maryland, USA; 2Department of Psychiatry, Makerere College of Health Sciences, School of Medicine, Kampala; 3Butabika National Referral Mental Hospital, Ministry of Health, Kampala; 4Clinical Epidemiology Unit, Makerere College of Health Sciences, School of Medicine, Kampala, UgandaIntroduction: Understanding factors affecting the time to recovery from acute mania is critical in the management of manic syndromes. The aim of this study was to determine the effect of HIV infection on time to recovery from acute mania.Methods: We performed a retrospective study in which medical charts of individuals who were treated for acute mania were reviewed. Survival analysis with Cox regression models were used to compare time to recovery from an acute manic episode between human immunodeficiency virus (HIV-positive individuals and HIV-negative individuals.Results: Median survival time was one week for HIV-positive individuals and more than four weeks for HIV-negative individuals (Χ2 = 18.4, P value = 0.000. HIV infection was the only marginally significant independent predictor of survival probability on the acute admission ward (hazards ratio 2.87, P = 0.06.Conclusion: Acute mania in HIV-infected persons responds faster to psychotropic drugs compared with that in HIV-negative persons.Keywords: HIV-related mania, bipolar disorder, HIV infection, Uganda, immunodeficiency virus

  3. The effects of acute exercise on executive functioning, mood and attention

    2015-09-01

    Full Text Available Aims: It is internationally recognised that exercise is beneficial—both physically and mentally. However, only a minority of published research has explored the unique contribution of the exercise task itself. We tested the effect an ‘acute bout of moderate exercise’ had on selective attention, executive function and mood. We hypothesised that acute exercise would improve mood and cognitive performance compared to the controls. Method: 29 females and 11 males aged between 18-50 (M=26.5, SD=8.8 were administered the Stroop Colour-Interference Test, Erikson Flanker Task and Positive and Negative Affect Scale (PANAS.  Participants were randomly assigned to one of two conditions (exercise or relaxation. The experimental group (N=20 performed 20 minutes of exercise on a treadmill. The control group (N=20 relaxed for 20 minutes. Measures were taken before and after the intervention. Results: An independent samples t-test compared the differences between post-test and pre-test for the two groups. Results revealed a significant difference between the exercise group and control group on the measures of mood. The exercise group reported increased positive affect (t(38 = 3.10, p = .004, d = .99 and decreased negative affect (t(38 = -3.24, p = .003, d = 1.0 on the post-test. No significant differences between the exercise and control groups were obtained for the two tasks of cognitive performance. Conclusions: A significant difference in the PANAS ratings following exercise offers strong support to earlier research demonstrating that acute exercise improves mood. Although no significant improvement in performance was observed in the two cognitive tasks following acute exercise, it is possible that fitness levels could be the relevant factor, rather than acute exercise as a task. Our findings did not support the hypothesis that acute exercise improves cognitive performance.

  4. Cardioprotective and nonprotective regimens of chronic hypoxia diversely affect the myocardial antioxidant systems

    Kašparová, D.; Neckář, Jan; Dabrowská, L.; Novotný, J.; Mráz, J.; Kolář, František; Žurmanová, J.

    2015-01-01

    Roč. 47, č. 12 (2015), s. 612-620. ISSN 1094-8341 R&D Projects: GA ČR(CZ) GAP303/12/1162; GA ČR(CZ) GA13-10267S Institutional support: RVO:67985823 Keywords : adaptation to hypoxia * cardioprotection * ischemia -reperfusion injury * oxidative stress * antioxidant defense Subject RIV: FA - Cardiovascular Diseases incl. Cardiotharic Surgery Impact factor: 2.374, year: 2014

  5. Evaluation of Chloroform Extract and Its Fractions of Ocimum gratissimum (Linn.) Leaves for Cardioprotective Activity

    Dobhal Y

    2013-01-01

    The present study has been designed to investigate the efficacy of active extract and its fraction of Ocimum gratissimum (Linn.) leaves on ischaemia and reperfusion-induced myocardial injury using wister albino rats. Petroleum ether, chloroform, acetone and methanolic extracts of Ocimum gratissimum (Linn.) leaves were prepared and screened for their cardioprotective potential. Among all the extracts chloroform extract reduce myocardial injury. The chloroform extract further purified using col...

  6. Involvement of PKC epsilon in Cardioprotection Induced by Adaptation to Chronic Continuous Hypoxia

    Holzerová, K.; Hlaváčková, Markéta; Žurmanová, J.; Borchert, Gudrun H.; Neckář, Jan; Kolář, František; Novák, F.; Nováková, O.

    2015-01-01

    Roč. 64, č. 2 (2015), s. 191-201. ISSN 0862-8408 R&D Projects: GA ČR(CZ) GAP303/12/1162; GA ČR(CZ) GA13-10267S Institutional support: RVO:67985823 Keywords : chronic hypoxia * cardioprotection * ventricular myocytes * protein kinase C * PKC epsilon inhibitory peptide KP-1633 Subject RIV: FA - Cardiovascular Diseases incl. Cardiotharic Surgery Impact factor: 1.293, year: 2014

  7. Role of protein kinases in chronic intermittent hypoxia-induced cardioprotection

    Kolář, František; Novák, F.; Neckář, Jan; Nováková, O.; Ošťádal, Bohuslav; Musters, R.J.P.

    Hauppauge, N.Y : Nova Science, 2009 - (Xi, L.; Serebrovskaya, T.), s. 213-230 ISBN 978-1-60876-127-2 R&D Projects: GA ČR(CZ) GA305/07/0875; GA ČR(CZ) GP305/06/P372 Institutional research plan: CEZ:AV0Z50110509 Keywords : chronic hypoxia * cardioprotection * protein kinases Subject RIV: ED - Physiology

  8. The effects of levan on the acute inflammatory response.

    Sedgwick, A D; Rutman, A.; Sin, Y. M.; Mackay, A. R.; Willoughby, D A

    1984-01-01

    The fructose polymer levan has been shown to affect the accumulation of leucocytes in inflammatory lesions. The present study has investigated the effect of levan on experimental pleurisy induced by carrageenan and calcium pyrophosphate dihydrate (CPPD) crystals. Total pleural polymorphonuclear leucocyte counts and exudate volumes were significantly reduced by levan treatment. We were, however, unable to detect any effect on mononuclear cell numbers. Furthermore, levan treatment significantly...

  9. Corticosterone and dehydroepiandrosterone in songbird plasma and brain: effects of season and acute stress

    Newman, Amy E.M.; Soma, Kiran K.

    2009-01-01

    Prolonged increases in plasma glucocorticoids can exacerbate neurodegeneration. In rats, these neurodegenerative effects can be reduced by dehydroepiandrosterone (DHEA), an androgen precursor with anti-glucocorticoid actions. In song sparrows, season and acute restraint stress affect circulating levels of corticosterone and DHEA, and the effects of stress differ in plasma collected from the brachial and jugular veins. Jugular plasma is an indirect index of the neural steroidal milieu. Here, w...

  10. The Effect of Opium Addiction on Arrhythmia Following Acute Myocardial Infarction

    Mostafa Shokoohi; Hamid Najafipour; Afsaneh Forood; Morvarid Dadras; Fatemeh Mirzaiepour

    2012-01-01

    The effect of opium addiction on the appearance of different types of arrhythmias after acute myocardial infarction (AMI) has been assessed in few studies. This study is aimed to determine the effect of opium on post-MI arrhythmia and also to address the differences in the appearance of different types of arrhythmias after AMI between opium addicted and non-addicted patients. In this comparative study, participants were classified into two groups with opium addiction (n=94) and without opium ...

  11. Acute Dose-Related Differential Effects of Methylphenidate on Murine Cystometric Parameters

    Choi, Sung Ho; Cho, Young Sam; Cho, Sung Tae; Lee, Tack; Kim, Khae Hawn

    2013-01-01

    Purpose Methylphenidate is the most widely used central nervous system stimulant in patients with attention deficit hyperactivity disorder. However, few studies have assessed its effects on voiding. Various doses of methylphenidate were investigated for their effects on cystometric parameters in conscious mice. Methods Ten male C57BL/6 mice, weighing between 20 and 23 g, were used in this study. To compare the acute drug responses before and after the oral medication was administered in the a...

  12. Acute lymphoblastic leukemia cells that survive combination chemotherapy in vivo remain sensitive to allogeneic immune effects

    Jansson, Johan; Hsu, Yu-Chiao; Kuzin, Igor I.; Campbell, Andrew; Mullen, Craig A.

    2010-01-01

    Allogeneic hematopoietic stem cell transplantation is often performed for patients with acute lymphoblastic leukemia (ALL) whose disease has relapsed after chemotherapy treatment. However, graft versus leukemia (GVL) effects in ALL are generally weak and the mechanisms of this weakness are unknown. These studies tested the hypothesis that ALL cells that have survived conventional chemotherapy in vivo acquire relative resistance to the allogeneic GVL effect. C57BL/6 mice were injected with mur...

  13. Effect of trimetazidine on heart rate variability in elderly patients with acute coronary syndrome

    Jing ZHANG; HE, SHENGHU; Wang, Xuefei; WANG, DAXIN

    2016-01-01

    Background and Objective: Trimetazidine has mainly been used in coronary insufficiency, angina and elderly myocardial infarction. However, the effect of trimetazidine on the efficacy, heart rate variability (HRV) and protection of myocardial ischemia in elderly patients with acute coronary syndrome (ACS) remains unclear. This study aimed to investigate the effect of trimetazidine on the efficacy HRV and protection of myocardial ischemia in patients with ACS. Methods: One hundred twenty two el...

  14. The effect of acute exercise on cognitive performance in children with and without ADHD

    Aaron T. Piepmeier; Chia-Hao Shih; Margaret Whedon; Lauren M. Williams; Matthew E. Davis; David A. Henning; SeYun Park; Calkins, Susan D.; Jennifer L. Etnier

    2015-01-01

    Background: Attention deficit hyperactivity disorder (ADHD) is a common childhood disorder that affects approximately 11% of children in the United States. Research supports that a single session of exercise benefits cognitive performance by children, and a limited number of studies have demonstrated that these effects can also be realized by children with ADHD. The purpose of this study was to examine the effect of acute exercise on cognitive performance by children with and without ADHD. ...

  15. Microbiological effects and clinical use of xylitol in preventing acute otitis media

    Tapiainen, T. (Terhi)

    2002-01-01

    Abstract The purpose was to evaluate the microbiological mechanism of action of xylitol and to assess its use in clinical practice for preventing acute otitis media (AOM). To test whether the effect of xylitol on S. pneumoniae is inhibited by fructose, a total of 20 strains of S. pneumoniae were exposed to xylitol in the presence of fructose and other carbon sources. Addition of 5% xylitol to the media resulted in marked growth inhibition, an effect which was totally el...

  16. Effect of acute moderate exercise on cognitive P300 in persons having sedentary lifestyles

    Kumar, Naresh; Singh, Manjeet; Sood, Sushma; Beena,; Sakshi; Roy, Prasanta Saha; Behera, Joshil Kumar

    2012-01-01

    Background: There are conflicting reports regarding the effect of exercise on cognition. We therefore planned to assess the acute effect of moderate exercise on cognition, studied by event-related brain potential P300, in subjects having sedentary lifestyles. Materials and Methods: Sixty adults (40 males and 20 females) in the age-group of 18–30 years having sedentary lifestyles were included in the study. Baseline P300 was first measured and after that the subjects were divided into two equa...

  17. Comparison the effectiveness of aripiprazole and risperidone for the treatment of acute bipolar mania

    Amir Akhavan Rezayat; Paria Hebrani; Fatemeh Behdani; Mohamad Salaran; Majid Nabizadeh Marvast

    2014-01-01

    Background: Second-generation antipsychotics, approved for the treatment of mania, are associated with adverse effects such as weight gain and metabolic disorders. Aripiprazole, a recently introduced second-generation antipsychotic, are thought to account for its low propensity for weight gain, metabolic disturbances and sedation. The purpose of this study was to investigate the effect of risperidone versus aripiprazole in the treatment of acute mania. Materials and Methods: Fifty patients wi...

  18. Effect of Tamoxifen and Lithium on Treatment of Acute Mania Symptoms in Children and Adolescents

    Fallah, Elham; Arman, Sorror; Najafi, Mostafa; Shayegh, Bahar

    2016-01-01

    Objective Many studies have supported the role of protein kinase C (PKC) inhibitors in the physiopathology and treatment of bipolar disorder in adults. Tamoxifen is one of the drugs with the effect of PKC inhibition. This study aimed to determine the effect of tamoxifen on the rate of improvement mania symptoms in the sample of children and adolescents with acute mania. Materials & Methods In this randomized, placebo-controlled clinical trial study, registered in www.irct.ir with the code of ...

  19. The effect of acute tryptophan depletion on emotional distraction and subsequent memory

    Wang, Lihong; Mullette-Gillman, O’Dhaniel A.; Gadde, Kishore M; Kuhn, Cynthia M.; McCarthy, Gregory; Huettel, Scott A.

    2009-01-01

    Serotonin is a key neurotransmitter involved in emotional regulation and memory. A number of studies using acute tryptophan depletion (ATD) in healthy subjects have shown that a temporary serotonin reduction both induces a negative emotional bias and impairs long-term memory. However, little is known about the specific effects of ATD on emotional memory. Using functional magnetic resonance imaging (fMRI), we investigated the effect of ATD on negative memory and executive function in healthy v...

  20. Clinical Effects of Arsenic Trioxide by Slowing-intravenous Infusion on Acute Promyelocyte Leukemia

    Jin Zhou; Ran Meng; Bao-feng Yang

    2005-01-01

    @@ Although As2O3 is effective in the treatment of acute promyelocytic leukemia (APL), some side effects, such as leukocytosis which can increase the incidence of cerebral hemorrhage and early death rate, often occur during the early stage of As2O3 treatment. In this paper, the advantages of continuously slow intravenous As2O3 infusion on relieving leukocytosis and decreasing the incidence of cerebral hemorrhage and early death rate were observed clinically.

  1. A non-cardiomyocyte autonomous mechanism of cardioprotection involving the SLO1 BK channel

    Andrew P. Wojtovich

    2013-03-01

    Full Text Available Opening of BK-type Ca2+ activated K+ channels protects the heart against ischemia-reperfusion (IR injury. However, the location of BK channels responsible for cardioprotection is debated. Herein we confirmed that openers of the SLO1 BK channel, NS1619 and NS11021, were protective in a mouse perfused heart model of IR injury. As anticipated, deletion of the Slo1 gene blocked this protection. However, in an isolated cardiomyocyte model of IR injury, protection by NS1619 and NS11021 was insensitive to Slo1 deletion. These data suggest that protection in intact hearts occurs by a non-cardiomyocyte autonomous, SLO1-dependent, mechanism. In this regard, an in-situ assay of intrinsic cardiac neuronal function (tachycardic response to nicotine revealed that NS1619 preserved cardiac neurons following IR injury. Furthermore, blockade of synaptic transmission by hexamethonium suppressed cardioprotection by NS1619 in intact hearts. These results suggest that opening SLO1 protects the heart during IR injury, via a mechanism that involves intrinsic cardiac neurons. Cardiac neuronal ion channels may be useful therapeutic targets for eliciting cardioprotection.

  2. Acute effects of corticosterone injection on paternal behavior in California mouse (Peromyscus californicus) fathers.

    Harris, Breanna N; Perea-Rodriguez, Juan Pablo; Saltzman, Wendy

    2011-11-01

    Glucocorticoids are thought to mediate the disruption of parental behavior in response to acute and chronic stress. Previous research supports their role in chronic stress; however, no study has experimentally tested the effects of acute glucocorticoid elevation on paternal behavior. We tested the prediction that acute corticosterone (CORT) increases would decrease paternal behavior in California mouse fathers and would lead to longer-term effects on reproductive success, as even short-term increases in CORT have been shown to produce lasting effects on the hypothalamic-pituitary-adrenal axis. First-time fathers were injected with 30 mg/kg CORT, 60 mg/kg CORT or vehicle, or left unmanipulated. Interactions between the male and its pup(s) were recorded 1.5-2h after injection and scored for paternal and non-paternal behavior. Treatment groups were combined into control (unmanipulated + vehicle, n = 15) and CORT (30 mg/kg + 60 mg/kg, n = 16) for analysis based on resulting plasma CORT concentrations. CORT treatment did not alter paternal or non-paternal behaviors or any long-term measures (male body mass or temperature, pup growth rate, pup survival, interbirth interval, number or mass of pups born in the second litter). Fathers showed a significant rise in body mass at day 30 postpartum, followed by a decrease in body mass after the birth of the second litter; however, this pattern did not differ between the CORT and control groups. In summary, acute elevation of plasma CORT did not alter direct paternal behavior, body mass, or reproductive outcomes, suggesting that acute CORT elevation alone does not overtly disrupt paternal care in this biparental mammal. PMID:21939660

  3. New cost-effective treatment strategies for acute emergency situations.

    Chandra, Subani; Chong, David H

    2014-01-01

    In an era of ever-increasing healthcare costs, new treatments must not only improve outcomes and quality of care but also be cost-effective. This is most challenging for emergency and critical care. Bigger and better has been the mantra of Western medical care for decades, leading to costlier but not necessarily better care. Recent advances focused on new implementation processes for evidence-based best practices such as checklists and bundles have transformed medical care. We outline recent advances in medical practice that have positively affected both the quality of care and its cost-effectiveness. Future medical care must be smarter and more effective if we are to meet the increasing demands of an aging patient population in the context of ever more limited resources. PMID:24160941

  4. The effect of food on the acute toxicity of silver nitrate to four freshwater test species and acute-to-chronic ratios.

    Naddy, Rami B; McNerney, Gina R; Gorsuch, Joseph W; Bell, Russell A; Kramer, James R; Wu, Kuen B; Paquin, Paul R

    2011-11-01

    Acute silver toxicity studies were conducted with and without food for four common freshwater test species: Daphnia magna, Ceriodaphnia dubia, Pimephales promelas (fathead minnow-FHM), and Oncorhynchus mykiss (rainbow trout-RBT) in order to generate acute-to-chronic ratios (ACR). The studies were conducted similarly (i.e., static-renewal or flow-through) to chronic/early-life stage studies that were previously performed in this laboratory. The acute toxicity (EC/LC50 values) of silver without food ranged from 0.57 μg dissolved Ag/l for C.dubia to 9.15 μg dissolved Ag/l for RBT. The presence of food resulted in an increase in EC/LC50 values from 1.25× for RBT to 22.4× for C. dubia. Invertebrate food type was also shown to effect acute silver toxicity. Food did not affect EC/LC50s or ACRs as greatly in fish studies as in invertebrate studies. ACRs for both invertebrate species were acute studies without food but were 1.22 and 1.33 when using acute studies with food. ACRs for FHMs ranged from 4.06 to 7.19, while RBT ACRs ranged from 28.6 to 35.8 depending on whether food was present in acute studies. The data generated from this research program should be useful in re-determining a final ACR for silver in freshwater as well as in risk assessments. PMID:21779820

  5. Acute differential effects of milk-derived dietary proteins on postprandial lipaemia in obese non-diabetic subjects

    Holmer-Jensen, J; Hartvigsen, M L; Mortensen, L S; Astrup, A; de Vrese, M; Holst, J J; Thomsen, C; Hermansen, Kjeld

    2012-01-01

    Postprandial lipaemia is an established risk factor for atherosclerosis. To investigate the acute effect of four milk-derived dietary proteins (alpha-lactalbumin, whey isolate, caseinoglycomacropeptide and whey hydrolysate) on postprandial lipaemia, we have conducted a randomized, acute, single-b...

  6. The effect of music on pain and acute confusion in older adults undergoing hip and knee surgery.

    McCaffrey, Ruth; Locsin, Rozzano

    2006-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to examine the effects of music listening in older adults following hip or knee surgery. Acute confusion and pain after surgery can increase length of stay and reduce function. Study results demonstrate a reduction in acute confusion and pain and improved ambulation and higher satisfaction scores in older adults who listened to music. PMID:16974175

  7. Effects of acute aerobic exercise on motor response inhibition: An ERP study using the stop-signal task

    Chien-Heng Chu

    2015-03-01

    Conclusion: Acute exercise has a selective and beneficial effect on cognitive function, specifically affecting the motor response inhibition aspect of executive function. Furthermore, acute exercise predominately impacts later stages of information processing during motor response inhibition, which may lead to an increase in attentional resource allocation and confer the ability to successfully withhold a response to achieve motor response inhibition.

  8. Acute effects of air pollution on asthma hospitalization in Shanghai, China

    Air pollution has been accepted as an important contributor to asthma development and exacerbation. However, the evidence is limited in China. In this study, we investigated the acute effect of air pollution on asthma hospitalization in Shanghai, China. We applied over-dispersed generalized additive model adjusted for weather conditions, day of the week, long-term and seasonal trends. An interquartile range increase in the moving average concentrations of PM10, SO2, NO2 and BC on the concurrent day and previous day corresponded to 1.82%, 6.41%, 8.26% and 6.62% increase of asthmatic hospitalization, respectively. The effects of SO2 and NO2 were robust after adjustment for PM10. The associations appeared to be more evident in the cool season than in the warm season. Our results contribute to the limited data in the scientific literature on acute effects of air pollution on asthma in high exposure settings, which are typical in developing countries. - Highlights: • Few prior studies in China examine the effect of air pollution on asthma. • We found acute effect of air pollution on asthma hospitalization in Shanghai. • Our results contribute to limited data on air pollution and asthma in China. - Ambient air pollution increases the risk of asthma hospitalization in Shanghai, China

  9. Acute analgesic effects of nicotine and tobacco in humans: a meta-analysis.

    Ditre, Joseph W; Heckman, Bryan W; Zale, Emily L; Kosiba, Jesse D; Maisto, Stephen A

    2016-07-01

    Although animal models have consistently demonstrated acute pain inhibitory effects of nicotine and tobacco, human experimental studies have yielded mixed results. The main goal of this meta-analysis was to quantify the effects of nicotine/tobacco administration on human experimental pain threshold and tolerance ratings. A search of PubMed and PsycINFO online databases identified 13 eligible articles, including k = 21 tests of pain tolerance (N = 393) and k = 15 tests of pain threshold (N = 339). Meta-analytic integration for both threshold and tolerance outcomes revealed that nicotine administered through tobacco smoke and other delivery systems (eg, patch, nasal spray) produced acute analgesic effects that may be characterized as small to medium in magnitude (Hedges g = 0.35, 95% confidence interval = 0.21-0.50). Publication bias-corrected estimates remained significant and indicated that these effects may be closer to small. Sex composition was observed to be a significant moderator, such that pain threshold effects were more robust among samples that included more men than women. These results help to clarify a mixed literature and may ultimately help to inform the treatment of both pain and nicotine dependence. Pain and tobacco smoking are both highly prevalent and comorbid conditions. Current smoking has been associated with more severe chronic pain and physical impairment. Acute nicotine-induced analgesia could make smoking more rewarding and harder to give up. Future research should use dynamic measures of experimental pain reactivity and further explore biopsychosocial mechanisms of action. PMID:27023418

  10. CONTRASTING BEHAVIORAL EFFECTS OF ACUTE NICOTINE AND CHRONIC SMOKING IN DETOXIFIED ALCOHOLICS

    Boissoneault, Jeff; Gilbertson, Rebecca; Prather, Robert; Nixon, Sara Jo

    2011-01-01

    Background Current literature suggests that acute nicotine administration provides a compensatory mechanism by which alcoholics might alleviate attentional deficits. In contrast, chronic smoking is increasingly recognized as negatively affecting neurobehavioral integrity. These opposing effects have not been simultaneously examined. Thus, we sought to a) extend previous work by exploring the effects of acute nicotine effects on vigilance components of attention and replicate previous findings suggesting that treatment-seeking alcoholics experience benefit to a greater extent than do other groups; and b) to examine the impact of chronic smoking on these tasks and across subgroups. Methods Substance abusing participants (N=86) were recruited and subgrouped on the basis of dependency criteria as either alcoholics, alcoholics with co-morbid stimulant dependence, or stimulant dependent individuals. Groups of cigarette-smoking (N=17) and non-smoking (N=22) community controls were recruited as comparison groups. Smoking subjects were assigned a placebo, low, or high dose nicotine patch in a double-blind placebo controlled fashion. Non-smoking controls were administered either a placebo or low dose. Testing occurred after dose stabilization. Results General linear models indicated greater sensitivity to acute nicotine administration among alcoholics than other groups when controlling for the effect of intensity of smoking history, as reflected by pack-years. Pack-years correlated negatively with performance measures in alcoholics but not stimulant abusing subgroups or smoking controls. Finally, regression analyses demonstrated that pack-years predicted poorer performance only for the alcoholic subgroup. Conclusions These results support previous work finding a compensatory effect of acute nicotine administration on attentional performance in alcoholics and reinforce the consideration of recent nicotine use as a confound in neurocognitive studies of alcoholics. Of

  11. The effects of levan on the acute inflammatory response.

    Sedgwick, A. D.; Rutman, A.; Sin, Y. M.; Mackay, A. R.; Willoughby, D. A.

    1984-01-01

    The fructose polymer levan has been shown to affect the accumulation of leucocytes in inflammatory lesions. The present study has investigated the effect of levan on experimental pleurisy induced by carrageenan and calcium pyrophosphate dihydrate (CPPD) crystals. Total pleural polymorphonuclear leucocyte counts and exudate volumes were significantly reduced by levan treatment. We were, however, unable to detect any effect on mononuclear cell numbers. Furthermore, levan treatment significantly reduced peripheral leucocyte numbers. The counter-irritant activity of levan was compared with that of a known counter-irritant, dextran. The ability of levan to reduce pleural polymorph numbers and exudate volume could not be accounted for totally by counter-irritation. Studies using an in-vitro leucocyte adhesion assay system indicate that levan affects leucocyte adhesion to vascular endothelium. PMID:6201184

  12. Rays Sting: The Acute Cellular Effects of Ionizing Radiation Exposure.

    Franco, A; Ciccarelli, M; Sorriento, D; Napolitano, L; Fiordelisi, A; Trimarco, B; Durante, M; Iaccarino, G

    2016-05-01

    High-precision radiation therapy is a clinical approach that uses the targeted delivery of ionizing radiation, and the subsequent formation of reactive oxygen species (ROS) in high proliferative, radiation sensitive cancers. In particular, in thoracic cancer ratdiation treatments, can not avoid a certain amount of cardiac toxicity. Given the low proliferative rate of cardiac myocytes, research has looked at the effect of radiation on endothelial cells and consequent coronary heart disease as the mechanism of ratdiation induced cardiotoxicity. In fact, little is known concerning the direct effect of radiation on mitochondria dynamis in cardiomyocyte. The main effect of ionizing radiation is the production of ROS and recent works have uncovered that they directly participates to pivotal cell function like mitochondrial quality control. In particular ROS seems to act as check point within the cell to promote either mitochondrial biogenesis and survival or mitochondrial damage and apoptosis. Thus, it appears evident that the functional state of the cell, as well as the expression patterns of molecules involved in mitochondrial metabolism may differently modulate mitochondrial fate in response to radiation induced ROS responses. Different molecules have been described to localize to mitochondria and regulate ROS production in response to stress, in particular GRK2. In this review we will discuss the evidences on the cardiac toxicity induced by X ray radiation on cardiomyocytes with emphasis on the role played by mitochondria dynamism. PMID:27326395

  13. Effects of acute laboratory stress on executive functions

    Katrin Starcke

    2016-03-01

    Full Text Available Recent research indicates that stress can affect executive functioning. However, previous results are mixed with respect to the direction and size of effects, especially when considering different subcomponents of executive functions. The current study systematically investigates the effects of stress on the five components of executive functions proposed by Smith and Jonides (1999: Attention and inhibition; task management; planning; monitoring; and coding. Healthy participants (N = 40 were either exposed to the computerized version of the Paced Auditory Serial Addition Test as a stressor (N = 20, or to a rest condition (N = 20. Stress reactions were assessed with heart rate and subjective measures. After the experimental manipulation, all participants performed tasks that measure the different executive functions. The manipulation check indicates that stress induction was successful (i.e., the stress group showed a higher heart rate and higher subjective responses than the control group. The main results demonstrate that stressed participants show a poorer performance compared with unstressed participants in all executive subcomponents, with the exception of monitoring. Effect sizes for the tasks that reveal differences between stressed and unstressed participants are high. We conclude that the laboratory stressor used here overall reduced executive functioning.

  14. G-CSF therapy with mobilization of bone marrow stem cells for myocardial recovery after acute myocardial infarction - a relevant treatment?

    Ripa, R.S.; Kastrup, J.

    2008-01-01

    This review of adjunctive therapy with subcutaneous granulocyte-colony stimulating factor (G-CSF) to patients with acute myocardial infarction (AMI) focus on the cardioprotective effects and potential mechanisms of G-CSF and discuss the therapeutic potential of G-CSF. All clinical trials published...... in peer-reviewed journals identified through PubMed are discussed. G-CSF treatment seems to be safe, and initial unblinded trials in patients with AMI were encouraging. However, larger double-blind placebo-controlled trials have not been able to demonstrate improved myocardial recovery after G-CSF...... treatment. Current controversies in interpretation of the results include 1) importance of direct cardiac effect of G-CSF vs indirect through bone marrow stem and progenitor cell mobilization, 2) importance of timing of G-CSF therapy, 3) importance of G-CSF dose, and 4) importance of cell types mobilized...

  15. Early seizures in patients with acute stroke: Frequency, predictive factors, and effect on clinical outcome

    Andrea Alberti

    2008-06-01

    Full Text Available Andrea Alberti, Maurizio Paciaroni, Valeria Caso, Michele Venti, Francesco Palmerini, Giancarlo AgnelliStroke Unit and Division of Internal and Cardiovascular Medicine, University of Perugia, Perugia, ItalyBackground: Early seizure (ES may complicate the clinical course of patients with acute stroke. The aim of this study was to assess the rate of and the predictive factors for ES as well the effects of ES on the clinical outcome at hospital discharge in patients with first-ever stroke.Patients and methods: A total of 638 consecutive patients with first-ever stroke (543 ischemic, 95 hemorrhagic, admitted to our Stroke Unit, were included in this prospective study. ES were defined as seizures occurring within 7 days from acute stroke. Patients with history of epilepsy were excluded.Results: Thirty-one patients (4.8% had ES. Seizures were significantly more common in patients with cortical involvement, severe and large stroke, and in patient with cortical hemorrhagic transformation of ischemic stroke. ES was not associated with an increase in adverse outcome (mortality and disability. After multivariate analysis, hemorrhagic transformation resulted as an independent predictive factor for ES (OR = 6.5; 95% CI: 1.95–22.61; p = 0.003.Conclusion: ES occur in about 5% of patients with acute stroke. In these patients hemorrhagic transformation is a predictive factor for ES. ES does not seem to be associated with an adverse outcome at hospital discharge after acute stroke.Keywords: seizures, stroke, cortical involvement, hemorrhagic transformation

  16. Early seizures in patients with acute stroke: Frequency, predictive factors, and effect on clinical outcome

    Alberti, Andrea; Paciaroni, Maurizio; Caso, Valeria; Venti, Michele; Palmerini, Francesco; Agnelli, Giancarlo

    2008-01-01

    Background Early seizure (ES) may complicate the clinical course of patients with acute stroke. The aim of this study was to assess the rate of and the predictive factors for ES as well the effects of ES on the clinical outcome at hospital discharge in patients with first-ever stroke. Patients and methods A total of 638 consecutive patients with first-ever stroke (543 ischemic, 95 hemorrhagic), admitted to our Stroke Unit, were included in this prospective study. ES were defined as seizures occurring within 7 days from acute stroke. Patients with history of epilepsy were excluded. Results Thirty-one patients (4.8%) had ES. Seizures were significantly more common in patients with cortical involvement, severe and large stroke, and in patient with cortical hemorrhagic transformation of ischemic stroke. ES was not associated with an increase in adverse outcome (mortality and disability). After multivariate analysis, hemorrhagic transformation resulted as an independent predictive factor for ES (OR = 6.5; 95% CI: 1.95–22.61; p = 0.003). Conclusion ES occur in about 5% of patients with acute stroke. In these patients hemorrhagic transformation is a predictive factor for ES. ES does not seem to be associated with an adverse outcome at hospital discharge after acute stroke. PMID:18827922

  17. A Study of Oxidative Stress Biomarkers and Effect of Oral Antioxidant Supplementation in Severe Acute Malnutrition

    Ghone, Rahul A.; Suryakar, Adinath N.; Kulhalli, P. M.; Bhagat, Sonali S.; Padalkar, Ramchandra K.; Karnik, Aarti C.; Hundekar, Prakash S.; Sangle, D. A.

    2013-01-01

    Background: Malnutrition represents one of the most severe health problems in India. Free radicals play an important role in immunological response, which induces the oxidative surplus in severe acute malnutrition. Severe dietary deficiency of nutrients leads to increased oxidative stress in cellular compartments. Aim: The goal of this study was to inspect impact of oxidative stress in the form of serum malondialdehyde as product of lipid peroxidation, vitamin E, zinc and erythrocyte superoxide dismutase in patients with severe acute malnutrition. Material and Methods: Sixty severe acute malnutrition patients were studied before and after supplementation of antioxidants for one month, and their status were compared with those of 60 age and sex matched healthy controls. The level of serum MDA was analyzed by the Kei Satoh method, serum vitamin E concentration was measured by Baker and Frank Method, serum zinc was measured by using Atomic Absorption Spectrophotometer (AAS) and erythrocyte superoxide dismutase was measured by Kajari Das Method. Results: Significantly increased levels of serum malondialdehyde (p0.05) increase in vitamin E levels as compared to those before supplementation results. Conclusion: Harsh deficiency of various nutrients in severe acute malnutrition leads to generation of heavy oxidative stress. These effects may be minimized with supplementation of antioxidants. PMID:24298460

  18. Effect of acute and chronic cholinesterase inhibition on biogenic amines in rat brain.

    Soininen, H; Unni, L; Shillcutt, S

    1990-12-01

    The effects of five cholinesterase inhibitors on forebrain monoamine and their metabolite levels, and on forebrain and plasma cholinesterase (ChE) activity in rat were studied in acute and chronic conditions. Acute tetrahydroaminoacridine (THA) dosing caused lower brain (68%) and higher plasma (90%) ChE inhibition than the other drugs studied and increased levels of brain dihydroxyphenylacetic acid (DOPAC) (236%), homovanillic acid (HVA) (197%) and 5-hydroxyindoleacetic acid (5-HIAA) (130%). Acute physostigmine (PHY) administration caused a 215% increase in brain DOPAC content. Despite high brain ChE inhibition induced by metrifonate (MTF), dichlorvos (DDVP) or naled no changes in brain noradrenaline (NA), dopamine (DA) or serotonin (5-HT) occurred due to treatment with the study drugs in the acute study. In the chronic 10-day study THA or PHY caused no substantial ChE inhibition in brain when measured 18 hours after the last dose, whereas MTF induced 74% ChE inhibition. Long-term treatment with THA or MTF caused no changes in monoamine levels, but PHY treatment resulted in slightly increased 5-HT values. These results suggest that MTF, DDVP and naled seem to act solely by cholinergic mechanisms. However, the central neuropharmacological mechanism of action of THA and PHY may involve changes in cholinergic as well as dopaminergic and serotoninergic systems. PMID:1711162

  19. The Effect of an Intraperitoneal Injection of Melatonin on Serum Amylase Levels in Acute Pancreatitis

    Cavit Çöl

    2009-05-01

    Full Text Available Context Several experimental studies have been carried out to explain the ph ysiopathological mechan isms and to introduce endocrinological, enzymatic, biochemical and histopathol ogical changes in organism s during acute pancreatitis. Objective To evaluate the effect of an intraperitoneal injection of melatonin on serum amylase levels. Design Experimental acut e pancreatitis was experimentally caused through panc reatic duct ligation in 20 Winstar Albino rats . The rats were then divided into two groups: control and melatonin groups. Intervention The serum amylase level was measured on the 7 th day after acute pancreatitis had developed. In the melatonin group, an intraperitoneal injecti on of melatonin (20 mg/kg/day was performed starting from the 2 nd day after pancreatic duct ligation. Main outcome measure The levels of serum amylase were measured with an auto analyzer. Results It was found that the mean (±SD level of serum amylase in th e control group was 947±182 IU/mL wh ile it was 358±177 IU/mL in the experimental group (P<0.001. Conclusions The 20 mg/kg/day intraperitoneal injection of melatonin which was carried out for one week attenuated the serum amylase levels to a statistically si gnificant degree. The researchers believe that intraperitoneal in jections of melatonin decrease the severity of acute pancreatitis.

  20. Effect of acute paraquat poisoning on CYP450 isoforms activity in rats by cocktail method.

    Wang, Shuanghu; Wang, Zhiyi; Chen, Dongxin; Chen, Mengchun; Lin, Yingying; Liu, Zezheng; Zhang, Lijing; Wen, Congcong; Wang, Xianqin; Ma, Jianshe

    2015-01-01

    Paraquat is a highly effective contact herbicide that is marketed worldwide as a fantastical, non-selective compound for broadleaf weed control. As compared to most pesticides, paraquat is extremely toxic to humans and the lack of strategies to manage paraquat poisoning has resulted in high fatality rates. The rats were randomly divided into acute paraquat poisoning group and control group. The paraquat group rats were given 36 mg/kg paraquat by intragastric administration. The influence of acute paraquat poisoning on the activities of CYP450 isoforms CYP2B6, CYP1A2, CYP2C9, CYP2D6, CYP3A4 and CYP2C19 were evaluated by cocktail method, they were responded by the changes of pharmacokinetic parameters of bupropion, phenacetin, tolbutamide, metoprolol, midazolam and omeprazole. The six probe drugs were given to rats through intragastric administration, and the plasma concentrations were determined by UPLC-MS/MS. In the results of paraquat group compared to control group, there was statistical pharmacokinetic difference for bupropion, tolbutamide, metoprolol, midazolam and omeprazole. Acute paraquat poisoning may induce the activities of CYP2C19, and inhibit of CYP2B6, CYP2C9, CYP2D6 and CYP3A4 in rats. This may give advising for reasonable drug use after acute paraquat poisoning. PMID:26770539

  1. Acute antidepressant effects of intramuscular versus intravenous ketamine

    Harihar Chilukuri

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Objective: Conventional antidepressants take two weeks before their therapeutic action begins. Recent studies have reported on the rapid antidepressant effect of ketamine when given as an intravenous (I.V. infusion. Little is known about its intramuscular (I.M. use in depression. Hence this study was conducted to compare the safety, tolerability and efficacy of I.M. versus. I.V. ketamine in Major Depression (ICD-10. Materials and Methods: It was a randomized open label parallel group study in a tertiary care teaching hospital. Study sample consisted of 27 subjects having major depression divided randomly into three groups of nine subjects each. Ketamine administered to each group in the dose of 0.5 mg/kg as an I.V. infusion, as 0.5 mg/kg I.M. or 0.25 mg/kg I.M. respectively. Depression rated on the Hamilton Depression Rating Scale (HAM-D before the injection, two hours later, the next day, and after three days. Data analyzed using the Statistical Package for Social Sciences (SPSS. Results: Mean age of the sample was 36.81 years (SD 11.815. Two hours after the injection, HAM-D fell by 58.86%, 60.29% & 57.36% in each group respectively. The improvement was sustained for next three days. Adverse effects noticed were rare, of mild nature and transient, lasting less than an hour. Conclusions: Intramuscular ketamine in the dose of 0.25 mg/kg is as effective and safe as 0.5 mg/kg given either I.M. or I.V., substantially alleviating depressive symptoms within a few hours and sustained for 3 days.

  2. Cardioprotection Afforded by Norepinephrine-mediated Postconditioning in Isolated Rat Hearts

    Xinhua Huang; Dai Li; Yishuai Zhang; Nianshen Li; Benmei Chen; Jun Peng; Yuanjian Li

    2008-01-01

    Objectives Previous studies have demonstrated that endogenous norepinephrine (NE) plays an important role in the mediation of ischemic preconditioning. The present study is designed to determine whether NE is also involved in medi-ation of the protective effects of postconditioning. Methods The rat hearts were rapidly excised under anesthesia and attached to a Langendorff apparatus via the aorta for retrograde perfusion with Krebs-Henseleit buffer solution. All hearts were subjected to 30 min of left coronary artery occlusion followed by 60 rain of reperfusion, except the control group. Animals were randomly divided into 5 groups as follows: ① control group, the hearts were underwent same procedures without ischemic insult; ② ischemia reperfusion group, the left coronary artery was occluded for 30 min and followed by 60 min of reperfusion;③ ischemic postconditioning (Ipost) group, immediately at the onset of reperfusion, the heart was initiated with 1 min of full coronary flow, followed by 1 min of re-occlusion, repeated for a total of three cycles; ④ Ipost plus prazosin group, the heart was perfused with prazosin for 10 min before ischemia; ⑤ Ipost plus reserpine group, a single dose of reserpine was administered by I.m. Injection, 24 hours before the experiment. Coronary flow was measured by timed collection of coronary effluent and sample of coronary effluent at 5 rain of reperfusion were collected for the measurement of ereatine kinase (CK). Infarct size and risk area were determined at the end of experiments. Results 30 rain of ischemia and followed by 60 min of reperfusion caused a significant decrease in cardiac function and a significant increase in CK release and infarct size. Postconditioning with three cycles of 1-min ischemia and 1-min reperfusion markedly improved cardiac function and reduced CK release and infarct size. However,the cardioprotection afforded by postconditioning was abolished by prazosin (10-6M), a selective α1 adrenergic

  3. Effects of acute and chronic administration of neurosteroid dehydroepiandrosterone sulfate on neuronal excitability in mice

    Svob Strac, Dubravka; Vlainic, Josipa; Samardzic, Janko; Erhardt, Julija; Krsnik, Zeljka

    2016-01-01

    Background Neurosteroid dehydroepiandrosterone sulfate (DHEAS) has been associated with important brain functions, including neuronal survival, memory, and behavior, showing therapeutic potential in various neuropsychiatric and cognitive disorders. However, the antagonistic effects of DHEAS on γ-amino-butyric acidA receptors and its facilitatory action on glutamatergic neurotransmission might lead to enhanced brain excitability and seizures and thus limit DHEAS therapeutic applications. The aim of this study was to investigate possible age and sex differences in the neuronal excitability of the mice following acute and chronic DHEAS administration. Methods DHEAS was administered intraperitoneally in male and female adult and old mice either acutely or repeatedly once daily for 4 weeks in a 10 mg/kg dose. To investigate the potential proconvulsant properties of DHEAS, we studied the effects of acute and chronic DHEAS treatment on picrotoxin-, pentylentetrazole-, and N-methyl-D-aspartate-induced seizures in mice. The effects of acute and chronic DHEAS administration on the locomotor activity, motor coordination, and body weight of the mice were also studied. We also investigated the effects of DHEAS treatment on [3H]flunitrazepam binding to the mouse brain membranes. Results DHEAS did not modify the locomotor activity, motor coordination, body weight, and brain [3H]flunitrazepam binding of male and female mice. The results failed to demonstrate significant effects of single- and long-term DHEAS treatment on the convulsive susceptibility in both adult and aged mice of both sexes. However, small but significant changes regarding sex differences in the susceptibility to seizures were observed following DHEAS administration to mice. Conclusion Although our findings suggest that DHEAS treatment might be safe for various potential therapeutic applications in adult as well as in old age, they also support subtle interaction of DHEAS with male and female hormonal status

  4. Acute effects of ghrelin administration on glucose and lipid metabolism

    Vestergaard, Esben Thyssen; Djurhuus, Christian Born; Gjedsted, Jakob;

    2007-01-01

    CONTEXT: Ghrelin infusion increases plasma glucose and nonesterified fatty acids, but it is uncertain whether this is secondary to the concomitant release of GH. OBJECTIVE: Our objective was to study direct effects of ghrelin on substrate metabolism. DESIGN: This was a randomized, single-blind, p......CONTEXT: Ghrelin infusion increases plasma glucose and nonesterified fatty acids, but it is uncertain whether this is secondary to the concomitant release of GH. OBJECTIVE: Our objective was to study direct effects of ghrelin on substrate metabolism. DESIGN: This was a randomized, single......-blind, placebo-controlled two-period crossover study. SETTING: The study was performed in a university clinical research laboratory. PARTICIPANTS: Eight healthy men aged 27.2 +/- 0.9 yr with a body mass index of 23.4 +/- 0.5 kg/m(2) were included in the study. INTERVENTION: Subjects received infusion of ghrelin...... the final 2 h of each infusion. RESULTS: Basal and insulin-stimulated glucose disposal decreased with ghrelin [basal: 1.9 +/- 0.1 (ghrelin) vs. 2.3 +/- 0.1 mg x kg(-1) x min(-1), P = 0.03; clamp: 3.9 +/- 0.6 (ghrelin) vs. 6.1 +/- 0.5 mg x kg(-1) x min(-1), P = 0.02], whereas endogenous glucose...

  5. Genetic NMDA receptor deficiency disrupts acute and chronic effects of cocaine but not amphetamine.

    Ramsey, Amy J; Laakso, Aki; Cyr, Michel; Sotnikova, Tatyana D; Salahpour, Ali; Medvedev, Ivan O; Dykstra, Linda A; Gainetdinov, Raul R; Caron, Marc G

    2008-10-01

    NMDA receptor-mediated glutamate transmission is required for several forms of neuronal plasticity. Its role in the neuronal responses to addictive drugs is an ongoing subject of investigation. We report here that the acute locomotor-stimulating effect of cocaine is absent in NMDA receptor-deficient mice (NR1-KD). In contrast, their acute responses to amphetamine and to direct dopamine receptor agonists are not significantly altered. The striking attenuation of cocaine's acute effects is not likely explained by alterations in the dopaminergic system of NR1-KD mice, since most parameters of pre- and postsynaptic dopamine function are unchanged. Consistent with the behavioral findings, cocaine induces less c-Fos expression in the striatum of these mice, while amphetamine-induced c-Fos expression is intact. Furthermore, chronic cocaine-induced sensitization and conditioned place preference are attenuated and develop more slowly in mutant animals, but amphetamine's effects are not altered significantly. Our results highlight the importance of NMDA receptor-mediated glutamatergic transmission specifically in cocaine actions, and support a hypothesis that cocaine and amphetamine elicit their effects through differential actions on signaling pathways. PMID:18185498

  6. Countermeasures for Space Radiation Induced Malignancies and Acute Biological Effects

    Kennedy, Ann

    The hypothesis being evaluated in this research program is that control of radiation induced oxidative stress will reduce the risk of radiation induced adverse biological effects occurring as a result of exposure to the types of radiation encountered during space travel. As part of this grant work, we have evaluated the protective effects of several antioxidants and dietary supplements and observed that a mixture of antioxidants (AOX), containing L-selenomethionine, N-acetyl cysteine (NAC), ascorbic acid, vitamin E succinate, and alpha-lipoic acid, is highly effective at reducing space radiation induced oxidative stress in both in vivo and in vitro systems, space radiation induced cytotoxicity and malignant transformation in vitro [1-7]. In studies designed to determine whether the AOX formulation could affect radiation induced mortality [8], it was observed that the AOX dietary supplement increased the 30-day survival of ICR male mice following exposure to a potentially lethal dose (8 Gy) of X-rays when given prior to or after animal irradiation. Pretreatment of animals with antioxidants resulted in significantly higher total white blood cell and neutrophil counts in peripheral blood at 4 and 24 hours following exposure to doses of 1 Gy and 8 Gy. Antioxidant treatment also resulted in increased bone marrow cell counts following irradiation, and prevented peripheral lymphopenia following 1 Gy irradiation. Supplementation with antioxidants in irradiated animals resulted in several gene expression changes: the antioxidant treatment was associated with increased Bcl-2, and decreased Bax, caspase-9 and TGF-β1 mRNA expression in the bone marrow following irradiation. These results suggest that modulation of apoptosis may be mechanistically involved in hematopoietic system radioprotection by antioxidants. Maintenance of the antioxidant diet was associated with improved recovery of the bone marrow following sub-lethal or potentially lethal irradiation. Taken together

  7. Effect of therapy-related acute myeloid leukemia on the outcome of patients with acute myeloid leukemia

    ESPíRITO SANTO, ANA ESPÍRITO; CHACIM, SÉRGIO; FERREIRA, ISABEL; LEITE, LUÍS; MOREIRA, CLAUDIA; PEREIRA, DULCINEIA; DANTAS BRITO, MARGARIDA DANTAS; NUNES, MARTA; DOMINGUES, NELSON; OLIVEIRA, ISABEL; MOREIRA, ILÍDIA; MARTINS, ANGELO; VITERBO, LUÍSA; MARIZ, JOSÉ MÁRIO; MEDEIROS, RUI

    2016-01-01

    Therapy-related acute myeloid leukemia (t-AML) is a rare and almost always fatal late side effect of antineoplastic treatment involving chemotherapy, radiotherapy or the two combined. The present retrospective study intended to characterize t-AML patients that were diagnosed and treated in a single referral to an oncological institution in North Portugal. Over the past 10 years, 231 cases of AML were diagnosed and treated at the Portuguese Institute of Oncology of Porto, of which 38 t-AML cases were identified. Data regarding the patient demographics, primary diagnosis and treatment, age at onset of therapy-related myeloid neoplasm, latency time of the neoplasm, cytogenetic characteristics, AML therapy and outcome were collected from medical records. A previous diagnosis with solid tumors was present in 28 patients, and 10 patients possessed a history of hematological conditions, all a lymphoproliferative disorder. Breast cancer was the most frequent solid tumor identified (39.5% of all solid tumors diagnosed). The mean latency time was 3 years. In the present study, t-AML patients were older (PAML patients. The overall survival time was observed to be significantly poorer among individuals with t-AML (PAML and those with de novo AML (P=0.983). Additionally, patients with promyelocytic leukemia possess a good prognosis, even when AML occurs as a secondary event (P=0.98). To the best of our knowledge, the present study is the first to evaluate t-AML in Portugal and the results are consistent with the data published previously in other populations. The present study concludes that although t-AML demonstrates a poor prognosis, this is not observed among younger patients or promyelocytic leukemia patients.

  8. Peripheral analgesic effects of ketamine in acute inflammatory pain

    Pedersen, J L; Galle, T S; Kehlet, H

    1998-01-01

    BACKGROUND. This study examined the analgesic effect of local ketamine infiltration, compared with placebo and systemic ketamine, in a human model of inflammatory pain. METHODS: Inflammatory pain was induced by a burn (at 47 degrees C for 7 min; wound size, 2.5 x 5 cm) on the calf in 15 volunteers...... on 3 separate days with 7-day intervals. They received either (1) subcutaneous infiltration with ketamine in the burn area (local treatment) and contralateral placebo injections, or (2) subcutaneous ketamine contralateral to the burn (systemic treatment) and placebo in the burn area, or (3) placebo...... significant hyperalgesia. Local ketamine infiltration reduced pain during the burn injury compared with systemic treatment and placebo (P < 0.01). Heat pain thresholds were increased by local ketamine treatment compared with placebo immediately after injection (P < 0.03), and so were the mechanical pain...

  9. Effects of Acute Exposures to Carbon Dioxide Upon Cognitive Functions

    Scully, R. R.; Alexander, D. J.; Ryder, V. E.; Lam, C. W.; Statish, U.; Basner, M.

    2016-01-01

    Large quantities of carbon dioxide (CO2) originate from human metabolism and typically, within spacecraft, remain about 10-fold higher in concentration than at the earth's surface. There have been recurring complaints by crew members of episodes of "mental viscosity" adversely affecting their performance, and there is evidence from the International Space Station (ISS) that associates CO2 levels with reports of headaches by crewmembers. Additionally, there is concern that CO2 may contribute to vision impairment and intracranial pressure that has been observed in some crewmembers. Consequently, flight rules have been employed to control the level of CO2 below 4 mm Hg, which is well below the existing Spacecraft Maximum Allowable Concentration (SMAC) of 10 mm Hg for 24-hour exposures, and 5.3 mm Hg for exposures of 7 to 180 days. However, the flight rule imposed limit, which places additional demands upon resources and current technology, still exceeds the lower bound of the threshold range for reportable headaches (2 - 5 mm Hg). Headaches, while sometime debilitating themselves, are also symptoms that can provide evidence that physiological defense mechanisms have been breached. The causes of the headaches may elicit other subtle adverse effects that occur at CO2 levels well below that for headaches. The concern that CO2 may have effects at levels below the threshold for headaches appears to be substantiated in unexpected findings that CO2 at concentrations below 2 mm Hg substantially reduced some cognitive functions that are associated with the ability to make complex decisions in conditions that are characterized by volatility, uncertainty, complexity, ambiguity, and delayed feedback. These are conditions that could be encountered by crews in off-nominal situations or during the first missions beyond low earth orbit. If findings of the earlier study are confirmed in crew-like subjects, our findings would provide additional evidence that CO2 may need to be

  10. The effects of acute radiation exposure on the serum components

    The blood samples were collected from the experimental animals 24 hrs after irradiation of gamma doses upto 80 Gy. Native PAGE showed a decreasing trend in gamma globulin fraction of serum from the irradiated group compared to control, while SDS PAGE indicated an enhanced tendency in protein of molecular weight 30,000 to 40,000. Serum albumin slightly decreased with radiation doses as a result of decrease in total protein amount. Radiation exposure had little or no effects on such lipid related components as phospholipid, triglyceride, and cholesterol, respectively. Among others, glutamic pyryvic transaminase (GPT) showed a drastic decrease in its amount 24 hrs after radiation exposure, which can be applied to the health care program for radiation workers. (Author)

  11. Acute effects of tibolone on cerebral vascular reactivity in vitro

    Lund, C O; Nilas, Lisbeth; Dalsgaard, T;

    2003-01-01

    alpha-OH-tibolone, 3beta-OH-tibolone, Delta(4) isomer and 17beta-estradiol were obtained before and after addition of the NO blocker N(omega)-nitro-L-arginine methyl ester (L-NAME, 10(-4) mol/l) or the potassium-channel blocker tetraethylammonium chloride (TEA, 10(-2) mol/l). Additionally, the effects...... of the hormones on the concentration-response curves with calcium were examined. RESULTS: Tibolone and its metabolites induced a concentration-dependent relaxation comparable to that of 17beta-estradiol (area under the curve (AUC); tibolone vs. 17beta-estradiol: 242 vs. 251; p < 0.05, analysis of...... variance). L-NAME increased the AUC for all substances compared with controls (p < 0.05, Student's t test), except for 17beta-estradiol. Preincubation with TEA induced no changes. The concentration-dependent contraction curves with calcium were shifted rightward by all hormones. CONCLUSIONS: The study...

  12. Acute hyperinsulinemia decreases plasma osteoprotegerin with diminished effect in type 2 diabetes and obesity

    Jørgensen, Gitte Maria; Vind, Birgitte; Nybo, Mads; Rasmussen, Lars Melholt; Højlund, Kurt

    2009-01-01

    the acute effects of insulin on plasma OPG concentrations in individuals with type 2 diabetes and obese individuals compared with lean controls. DESIGN: The study population consisted of ten type 2 diabetic, ten obese subjects, and ten lean subjects with no family history of diabetes. METHODS: All....... Insulin infusion decreased plasma OPG concentrations in all groups (P<0.01); however, the fall in OPG was 50% less in obese and type 2 diabetic individuals (P=0.007). Baseline OPG correlated with fasting insulin, baseline lactate, and low density lipoprotein cholesterol in the diabetic group, and with...... baseline FFA in the lean group. The relative change of OPG in response to insulin correlated inversely with HbA1c and baseline FFA in the lean group. CONCLUSIONS: Acute hyperinsulinemia decreases plasma OPG, but with diminished effect in individuals with type 2 diabetes and obesity. Increased levels of OPG...

  13. The effect of acute stress on memory depends on word valence.

    Smeets, Tom; Jelicic, Marko; Merckelbach, Harald

    2006-10-01

    The present study investigated the effect of acute stress on working memory and memory for neutral, emotionally negative, and emotionally positive words in healthy undergraduates. Participants (N=60) were exposed to either the Trier Social Stress Test (stress group) or a non-stressful task (control group). Analyses of salivary cortisol samples taken throughout the study showed elevated glucocorticoid levels after the experimental manipulation in the stress group, but not in the control group. Recall performance was impaired in the stress group, but only so for neutral words. No differences between the stress and control group were found on working memory measures. For the stress group, digit span forward and digit span total scores were associated with correct recall of neutral words. All in all, this study lends further support to the notion that the memory effects of exposure to acute stress depend on the valence of the memory material. PMID:16388863

  14. Effect of topical glyceryl trinitrate on the management of acute anal fissure

    To find out the effect of topical glyceryl trinitrate on the symptoms and signs of acute anal fissure. Seventy-five patients were treated with 0.2% topical glyceryl trinitrate twice daily as local application in the anal canal with the help of cotton pledget, which was soaked in the ointment for four weeks and their symptomatology, and healing of anal fissure was assessed weekly. The study was carried out at a surgical unit of Combined Military Hospital Rawalpindi for six months from June 2004 to December 2004. Out of 75 patients, 42 had complete healing of anal fissure while six had partial healing. Thus the healing rate was 64% observed in our study. 0.2% Glyceryl trinitrate ointment is an effective way of treating acute anal fissure. (author)

  15. The Effects of a Multiflavonoid Supplement on Vascular and Hemodynamic Parameters following Acute Exercise

    Rebecca M. Kappus

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available Antioxidants can decrease oxidative stress and combined with acute exercise they may lead to further decreases in blood pressure. The purpose of this study was to investigate the effects of 2 weeks of antioxidant supplementation on vascular distensibility and cardiovascular hemodynamics during postexercise hypotension. Methods. Twenty young subjects were randomized to placebo (=10 or antioxidant supplementation (=10 for two weeks. Antioxidant status, vascular distensibility, and hemodynamics were obtained before, immediately, and 30 minutes after an acute bout of aerobic exercise both before and after supplementation. Results. Two weeks of antioxidant supplementation resulted in a greater systolic blood pressure (SBP decrease during postexercise hypotension (PEH and significant decreases in augmentation index versus placebo (12.5% versus 3.5%, resp.. Also ferric-reducing ability of plasma (FRAP increased significantly (interaction P = 0.024 after supplementation. Conclusion. Supplementation showed an additive effect on PEH associated with increased FRAP values and decreases in systolic blood pressure and augmentation index.

  16. Effects of acute physical exercise on executive functions: a comparison between aerobic and strength exercise.

    Alves, Christiano Rodrigues; Gualano, Bruno; Takao, Pollyana Pereira; Avakian, Paula; Fernandes, Rafael Mistura; Morine, Diego; Takito, Monica Yuri

    2012-08-01

    The aim of this study was to compare the effects of acute aerobic and strength exercises on selected executive functions. A counterbalanced, crossover, randomized trial was performed. Forty-two healthy women were randomly submitted to three different conditions: (1) aerobic exercise, (2) strength exercise, and (3) control condition. Before and after each condition, executive functions were measured by the Stroop Test and the Trail Making Test. Following the aerobic and strength sessions, the time to complete the Stroop "non-color word" and "color word" condition was lower when compared with that of the control session. The performance in the Trail Making Test was unchanged. In conclusion, both acute aerobic and strength exercises improve the executive functions. Nevertheless, this positive effect seems to be task and executive function dependent. PMID:22889693

  17. Protective effects of C-phycocyanin on alcohol-induced acute liver injury in mice

    Xia, Dong; Liu, Bing; Luan, Xiying; Sun, Junyan; Liu, Nana; Qin, Song; Du, Zhenning

    2016-03-01

    Excessive alcohol consumption leads to liver disease. Extensive evidence suggests that C-phycocyanin (C-PC), a chromophore phycocyanobilin derived from Spirulina platensis, exerts protective effects against chemical-induced organ damage. In this study, we investigated whether C-PC could protect against ethanol-induced acute liver injury. Serum alanine aminotransferase (ALT), aspartate aminotransferase (AST), triglyceride (TG), total cholesterol (CHOL), low-density lipoprotein (LDL), liver homogenate malondialdehyde (MDA), superoxide dismutase (SOD) content were measured, and pathological examination of liver sections were examined. C-PC showed obvious inhibitory effects on serum ALT, AST, TG, CHOL, LDL and MDA, and SOD content significantly increased in the liver. The structure of hepatic lobules was clear, liver sinus returned to normal, and liver cell cords were arranged in neat rows. Cloudiness, swelling, inflammatory cell infiltration and spotty necrosis of liver cells were significantly reduced. Therefore, C-PC can significantly protect against ethanol-induced acute liver injury.

  18. The Acute Effects of Grape Polyphenols Supplementation on Endothelial Function in Adults: Meta-Analyses of Controlled Trials

    Shao-Hua Li; Hong-Bo Tian; Hong-Jin Zhao; Liang-Hua Chen; Lian-Qun Cui

    2013-01-01

    BACKGROUND: The acute effects of grape polyphenols on endothelial function in adults are inconsistent. Here, we performed meta-analyses to determine these acute effects as measured by flow-mediated dilation (FMD). METHODS: Trials were searched in PubMed, Embase and the Cochrane Library database. Summary estimates of weighted mean differences (WMDs) and 95% CIs were obtained by using random-effects models. Meta-regression and subgroup analyses were performed to identify the source of heterogen...

  19. Cost effectiveness of community-based therapeutic care for children with severe acute malnutrition in Zambia: decision tree model

    Bachmann Max O

    2009-01-01

    Abstract Background Children aged under five years with severe acute malnutrition (SAM) in Africa and Asia have high mortality rates without effective treatment. Primary care-based treatment of SAM can have good outcomes but its cost effectiveness is largely unknown. Method This study estimated the cost effectiveness of community-based therapeutic care (CTC) for children with severe acute malnutrition in government primary health care centres in Lusaka, Zambia, compared to no care. A decision...

  20. Acute and developmental behavioral effects of flame retardants and related chemicals in zebrafish

    Jarema, Kimberly A; Hunter, Deborah L.; Shaffer, Rachel M.; Behl, Mamta; Padilla, Stephanie

    2015-01-01

    As polybrominated diphenyl ethers are phased out, numerous compounds are emerging as potential replacement flame retardants for use in consumer and electronic products. Little is known, however, about the neurobehavioral toxicity of these replacements. This study evaluated the neurobehavioral effects of acute or developmental exposure to t-butylphenyl diphenyl phosphate (BPDP), 2-ethylhexyl diphenyl phosphate (EHDP), isodecyl diphenyl phosphate (IDDP), isopropylated phenyl phosphate (IPP), tr...

  1. Cross-shift study of acute respiratory effects in cement production workers.

    Omid Aminian; Maryam Aslani; Khosro Sadeghniiat Haghighi

    2014-01-01

    Cement dust exposure is associated with increased respiratory impairment. As the major occupational hazard in the cement production industry is cement particles, our aim was to more thoroughly examine the acute effects of occupational exposure to cement dust on the respiratory system. A cross-shift study was conducted in a cement factory in Iran. 100 high exposed workers from production and packing sections and 100 low exposed from office workers were included. Environmental total dust was me...

  2. Beneficial effects of probucol on endothelial function in patients with acute coronary syndrome

    董红梅

    2006-01-01

    Objective To investigate the effect of antioxidant probucol on endothelial function in patients with acute coronary syndrome (ACS). Methods A total of 49 ACS patients randomly received standard therapy plus probucol (P,n=24) or standard therapy (C,n=25). Plasma oxidized low-density lipoprotein (ox-LDL) , nitric oxide (NO) and circulating endothelial cells (CEC) were measured. The brachial arterial hyperemia-induced flow mediated dilation (FMD) and sublingual nitroglyc-

  3. Effect of acute endotoxemia on analog estimates of mean systemic pressure☆,☆☆

    Lee, Jae Myeong; Ogundele, Olufunmilayo; Pike, Francis; Pinsky, Michael R

    2013-01-01

    Dynamic estimates of mean systemic pressure based on a Guytonian analog model (Pmsa) appear accurate under baseline conditions but may not remain so during septic shock because blood volume distribution and resistances between arterial and venous beds may change. Thus, we examined the effect of acute endotoxemia on the ability of Pmsa, estimated from steady-state cardiac output, right atrial pressure, and mean arterial pressure, to reflect our previously validated instantaneous venous return ...

  4. Effects of nitric oxide-related compounds in the acute ketamine animal model of schizophrenia

    Kandratavicius, Ludmyla; Balista, Priscila Alves; Wolf, Daniele Cristina; Abrao, Joao; Evora, Paulo Roberto; Rodrigues, Alfredo Jose; Chaves, Cristiano; Maia-de-Oliveira, Joao Paulo; Leite, Joao Pereira; Dursun, Serdar Murat; Baker, Glen Bryan; Guimaraes, Francisco Silveira; Hallak, Jaime Eduardo Cecilio

    2015-01-01

    Background Better treatments for schizophrenia are urgently needed. The therapeutic use of the nitric oxide (NO)-donor sodium nitroprusside (SNP) in patients with schizophrenia has shown promising results. The role of NO in schizophrenia is still unclear, and NO modulation is unexplored in ketamine (KET) animal models to date. In the present study, we compared the behavioral effects of pre- and post-treatment with SNP, glyceryl trinitrate (GTN), and methylene blue (MB) in the acute KET animal...

  5. Early seizures in patients with acute stroke: Frequency, predictive factors, and effect on clinical outcome

    Andrea Alberti; Maurizio Paciaroni; Valeria Caso; Michele Venti; Francesco Palmerini; Giancarlo Agnelli

    2008-01-01

    Andrea Alberti, Maurizio Paciaroni, Valeria Caso, Michele Venti, Francesco Palmerini, Giancarlo AgnelliStroke Unit and Division of Internal and Cardiovascular Medicine, University of Perugia, Perugia, ItalyBackground: Early seizure (ES) may complicate the clinical course of patients with acute stroke. The aim of this study was to assess the rate of and the predictive factors for ES as well the effects of ES on the clinical outcome at hospital discharge in patients with first-ever stroke.Patie...

  6. Acute Administration of Dopaminergic Drugs has Differential Effects on Locomotion in Larval Zebrafish

    Irons, T.D.; Kelly, P; Hunter, D.L.; MacPhail, R.C; Padilla, S.

    2012-01-01

    Altered dopaminergic signaling causes behavioral changes in mammals. In general, dopaminergic receptor agonists increase locomotor activity, while antagonists decrease locomotor activity. In order to determine if zebrafish (a model organism becoming popular in pharmacology and toxicology) respond similarly, the acute effects of drugs known to target dopaminergic receptors in mammals were assessed in zebrafish larvae. Larvae were maintained in 96-well microtiter plates (1 larva/well). Non-leth...

  7. The Effects of Acute Dopamine Precursor Depletion on the Reinforcing Value of Exercise in Anorexia Nervosa

    O'Hara, Caitlin Beth; Keyes, Alexandra; Renwick, Bethany Gwen; Leyton, Marco; Campbell, Iain Cameron; Schmidt, Ulrike Hermine

    2016-01-01

    This study investigated whether dopaminergic systems are involved in the motivation to engage in behaviours associated with anorexia nervosa (AN), specifically, the drive to exercise. Women recovered from AN (AN REC, n = 17) and healthy controls (HC, n = 15) were recruited. The acute phenylalanine/tyrosine depletion (APTD) method was used to transiently decrease dopamine synthesis and transmission. The effect of dopamine precursor depletion on drive to exercise was measured using a progressiv...

  8. Ocular effects of acute ingestion of Cola nitida(Linn) on healthy adult volunteers

    S. A. Igwe; D. N. Akunyili; E. U. Ikonne

    2007-01-01

    Cola nitida Linn (Sterculiaceae) is an economic plant widely distributed throughout West Africa and possibly other parts of Africa.Members are malvalves because of their lobular nature. Because of its ubiquity, the plant plays an important role in commerce, and in social activities where it is casually eaten without prescription or restriction. The ethnopharmacological effects of bolus ingestion of 30g of Cola nitida was investigated on visually acute and healthy volunteers in order to determ...

  9. The Unpredictable Effect of Changing Cardiac Output on Hypoxemia after Acute Pulmonary Thromboembolism

    Tsang, John Y.C.; Wayne J E Lamm; Blazej Neradilek; Polissar, Nayak L.; Michael P. Hlastala

    2008-01-01

    Previous studies reported that the degree of hypoxemia following acute pulmonary thromboembolism (APTE) was highly variable and that its mechanism was mainly due to the creation of many high and low ventilation/perfusion (V/Q) units, as a result of the heterogeneous regional blood flow (Q) caused by embolic obstruction. We studied the effect of changing cardiac output (Qt) on gas exchange after APTE in 5 embolized piglets (23 ± 3 Kg), using Dobutamine intermittently at approximately 20 µg/kg/...

  10. The effects of acute citalopram dosing on gastric motor function and nutrient tolerance in healthy volunteers

    Janssen, Pieter; Oudenhove, Lukas Van; Casteels, Cindy; De Vos, Rita; Verbeke, Kristin; Tack, Jan

    2011-01-01

    BACKGROUND: It is unclear whether endogenous serotonin release is involved in the regulation of gastric motility and food intake. AIM: To study the effect of acute administration of the selective serotonin reuptake inhibitor citalopram on gastric motor function in man. METHODS: Nineteen healthy volunteers underwent a gastric barostat, gastric emptying and/or a drinking test after dosing with either placebo or citalopram (20 mg intravenously). In the barostat protocol, a flacc...

  11. Effect of estrogen on plasma ceruloplasmin level in rats exposed to acute stress

    Ganaraja B; Pavithran P; Ghosh S

    2004-01-01

    BACKGROUND: Plasma ceruloplasmin, a copper containing protein, belongs to a class called acute phase proteins. Reduced level of ceruloplasmin was associated with Wilson′s disease and Menke′s kinky hair disease in man, primarily affecting copper metabolism. Stress was known to increase Ceruloplasmin. Several stress associated changes were commonly observed in women at menopause and also those who underwent overiectomy. Present experiment investigated the effect of estrogen on cer...

  12. Potential effects of PKC or protease inhibitors on acute pancreatitis-induced tissue injury in rats.

    Shi, Changbin; Zhao, Xia; Wang, Xiangdong; Zhao, Liming; Andersson, Roland

    2007-01-01

    Background: Acute pancreatitis (AP) is still one of the severe diseases, that cause the development of multiple organ dysfunction with a high mortality. Effective therapies for AP are still limited, mainly due to unclear mechanisms by which A-P initiates both pancreatic and extrapancreatic organ injury. Methods: Protease inhibitors (aprotinin, pefabloc, trypsin inhibitor) and PKC inhibitors (polymyxin B, staurosporine) were administrated 30 min before 'induction of AP in rats. To investig...

  13. THE EFFECT OF ACUTE TREADMILL WALKING ON COGNITIVE CONTROL AND ACADEMIC ACHIEVEMENT IN PREADOLESCENT CHILDREN

    Hillman, Charles H.; Pontifex, Matthew B.; Raine, Lauren B.; Castelli, Darla M.; Hall, Eric E.; Arthur F Kramer

    2009-01-01

    The effect of an acute bout of moderate treadmill walking on behavioral and neuroelectric indices of the cognitive control of attention and applied aspects of cognition involved in school-based academic performance were assessed. A within-subjects design included twenty preadolescent participants (Age = 9.5 ± 0.5 years; 8 female) to assess exercise-induced changes in performance during a modified flanker task and the Wide Range Achievement Test 3. The resting session consisted of cognitive te...

  14. Effects of acute stress on learning and memory processes of malnourished rats

    Lucas Duarte Ferreira Manhas dos Vales; Marisa Tomoe Hebihara Fukuda; Sebastião de Sousa Almeida

    2014-01-01

    The aim of the study was to investigate the effects of acute stress on the processes of learning and memory in malnourished rats tested in the Morris water maze. The animals were divided into eight groups according to nutritional status (malnourished or well nourished) and stress (stressed or unstressed). In Experiment I the animals were subjected to immobilization stress procedure before the learning session and in Experiment II after the learning sessions. The test consisted of two daily se...

  15. Acute and medium term effects of a 10-week running intervention on mood state in apprentices

    Walter, Katrin; von Haaren, Birte; Löffler, Simone; Härtel, Sascha; Jansen, Carl-Philipp; Werner, Christian; Stumpp, Jürgen; Bös, Klaus; Hey, Stefan

    2013-01-01

    Exercise and physical activity have proven benefits for physical and psychological well-being. However, it is not clear if healthy young adults can enhance mood in everyday life through regular exercise. Earlier studies mainly showed positive effects of acute exercise and exercise programs on psychological well-being in children, older people and in clinical populations. Few studies controlled participants' physical activity in daily life, performed besides the exercise program, which can imp...

  16. Effects of acute paroxetine administration on tryptophan metabolism and disposition in the rat.

    Badawy, A. A.; Morgan, C. J.

    1991-01-01

    1 The effects of acute oral administration of paroxetine on tryptophan metabolism and disposition were examined in the rat. 2 Basal liver tryptophan pyrrolase activity was inhibited by paroxetine in vitro and after oral administration. Maximum inhibition was caused by a 1 mg kg-1 dose. 3 Paroxetine administration also inhibited pyrrolase activity that had previously been enhanced by hormonal induction by cortisol or cofactor activation by haematin. The cortisol induction of the enzyme was, ho...

  17. The effects of exercise training and acute exercise duration on plasma folate and vitamin B12

    Kim, Young-Nam; Hwang, Ji Hyeon; Cho, Youn-Ok

    2016-01-01

    BACKGROUND/OBJECTIVES Energy production and the rebuilding and repair of muscle tissue by physical activity require folate and vitamin B12 as a cofactor. Thus, this study investigated the effects of regular moderate exercise training and durations of acute aerobic exercise on plasma folate and vitamin B12 concentrations in moderate exercise trained rats. MATERIALS/METHODS Fifty rats underwent non-exercise training (NT, n = 25) and regular exercise training (ET, n = 25) for 5 weeks. The ET gro...

  18. Evaluation of the Effects of Honey on Acute-Phase Deep Burn Wounds

    Nakajima, Yukari; Mukai, Kanae; Nasruddin; kOMATSU, Emi; Iuchi, Terumi; Kitayama, Yukie; Sugama, Junko; Nakatani, Toshio

    2013-01-01

    This study aimed to clarify the effects of honey on acute-phase deep burn wounds. Two deep burn wounds were created on mice which were divided into four groups: no treatment, silver sulfadiazine, manuka honey, and Japanese acacia honey. Wound sizes were calculated as expanded wound areas and sampled 30 minutes and 1–4 days after wounding for histological observation. The wound sections were subjected to hematoxylin and eosin and immunohistological staining to detect necrotic cells, apoptotic ...

  19. Effect of topically applied Saccharomyces boulardii on the healing of acute porcine wounds: a preliminary study

    Partlow, Jessica; Blikslager, Anthony; Matthews, Charles; Law, Mac; Daniels, Joshua; Baker, Rose; Labens, Raphael

    2016-01-01

    Background Normal wound healing progresses through a series of interdependent physiological events: inflammation, angiogenesis, re-epithelialization, granulation tissue formation and extracellular matrix remodeling. Alterations in this process as well as the bacterial type and load on a wound may alter the wound healing rate. The purpose of this study was to evaluate the effect of topical Saccharomyces boulardii on the healing of acute cutaneous wounds, using a prospective, controlled, experi...

  20. Cognitive and physiological effects of an acute physical activity intervention in elementary school children

    Jäger, Katja; Schmidt, Mirko; Conzelmann, Achim; Roebers, Claudia M.

    2014-01-01

    The aim of the present study was to investigate the effects of an acute physical activity intervention that included cognitive engagement on executive functions and on cortisol level in young elementary school children. Half of the 104 participating children (6–8 years old) attended a 20-min sport sequence, which included cognitively engaging and playful forms of physical activity. The other half was assigned to a resting control condition. Individual differences in children's updating, inhib...

  1. Cognitive and physiological effects of an acute physical activity intervention in elementary school children

    Katja eJäger; Mirko eSchmidt; Achim eConzelmann; Claudia Maria Roebers

    2014-01-01

    The aim of the present study was to investigate the effects of an acute physical activity intervention including cognitive engagement on executive functions and on cortisol level in young elementary school children. Half of the 104 participating children (6 to 8 years old) attended a 20-minute sport sequence, which included cognitively engaging and playful forms of physical activity. The other half was assigned to a resting control condition. Individual differences in children`s updating, inh...

  2. Effect of a Pre-Workout Energy Supplement on Acute Multi-Joint Resistance Exercise

    Gonzalez, Adam M.; Walsh, Allyson L; Ratamess, Nicholas A; Jie Kang; Hoffman, Jay R

    2011-01-01

    The effect of a pre-workout energy supplement on acute multi- joint resistance exercise was examined in eight resistance-trained college-age men. Subjects were randomly provided either a placebo (P) or a supplement (S: containing caffeine, taurine, glucuronolactone, creatine, β-alanine, and the amino acids; leucine, isoleucine, valine, glutamine and arginine) 10 minutes prior to resistance exercise. Subjects performed 4 sets of no more than 10 repetitions of either barbell squat or bench pres...

  3. The effect of game-based exercise on infant acute lymphocytic leukaemia patients

    Édgar Cortés-Reyes; Paola Escobar-Zabala; Laura González-García

    2013-01-01

    Objective. To establish the effect of a game-based exercise programme on Physical Deconditioning Syndrome (PDS) in 5 to 12 year-old children suffering Acute Lymphocytic Leukaemia (ALL). Materials and methods. This was a quasi-experimental study involving seven children being treated for ALL at the National Cancer Institute (NCI) in Bogotá, Colombia. Fitness determinants (aerobic capacity, muscle strength, flexibility, motor skills and proprioception) were initially assessed to establish their...

  4. Acute effect of vigorous aerobic exercise on the inhibitory control in adolescents

    Browne, Rodrigo Alberto Vieira; Costa, Eduardo Caldas; Sales, Marcelo Magalhães; Fonteles, André Igor; Moraes, José Fernando Vila Nova de; Barros, Jônatas de França

    2016-01-01

    Abstract Objective: To assess the acute effect of vigorous aerobic exercise on the inhibitory control in adolescents. Methods: Controlled, randomized study with crossover design. Twenty pubertal individuals underwent two 30-minute sessions: (1) aerobic exercise session performed between 65% and 75% of heart rate reserve, divided into 5 min of warm-up, 20 min at the target intensity and 5 min of cool down; and (2) control session watching a cartoon. Before and after the sessions, the computeri...

  5. Acute effect of cycling intervention on carotid arterial hemodynamics: basketball athletes versus sedentary controls

    Liu, Hai-Bin; Yuan, Wen-Xue; Qin, Kai-Rong; Hou, Jie

    2015-01-01

    Objective To compare the acute effects of a cycling intervention on carotid arterial hemodynamics between basketball athletes and sedentary controls. Methods Ten young long-term trained male basketball athletes (BA) and nine age-matched male sedentary controls (SC) successively underwent four bouts of exercise on a bicycle ergometer at the same workload. Hemodynamic variables at right common carotid artery were determined at rest and immediately following each bout of exercise. An ANCOVA was ...

  6. Effect of Octreotide on Enteric Motor Neurons in Experimental Acute Necrotizing Pancreatitis

    Zhou, Hui; Gao, Jun; Zou, Duowu; Wu, Wenbin; Li, Zhaoshen

    2012-01-01

    Background/Aims Amelioration of intestinal dysmotility and stasis during the early period of acute necrotizing pancreatitis (ANP) appears to be important to reduce the risks of secondary pancreatic infection. We aimed to characterize the association between the neuropathy of the enteric nervous system and gut dysfunction and to examine the effect of octreotide on motor innervation in the early stage of ANP. Methodology/Principal Findings The rats were randomly divided into eight groups: contr...

  7. Effectiveness of an acute pain service inception in a general hospital

    Bardiau, Françoise; Braeckman, M.M.; Seidel, Laurence; Albert, Adelin; Boogaerts, J.G.

    1999-01-01

    STUDY OBJECTIVES: To assess the effects of an Acute Pain Service (APS) inception on postoperative pain management in a general teaching hospital using pain indicators as performance measures. DESIGN: Open, prospective, nonrandomized, observational study. SETTING: Postanesthesia Care Unit, surgical wards of University Hospital Center of Charleroi. PATIENTS: 1304 patients in the pre-APS inception phase and 671 patients after its implemention who have undergone various types of surgery (orthoped...

  8. The Effect of Acute Fluoride Poisoning on Nitric Oxide and Methemoglobin Formation in the Guinea pig

    ŞİRELİ, Meltem

    2004-01-01

    To study the effect of acute fluoride poisoning on nitric oxide and methemoglobin formation, 250 mg/kg bw sodium fluoride was applied alone and verapamil was applied together with fluoride. Blood nitric oxide (Griess reaction) and calcium levels; hemoglobin, methemoglobin and hematocrit values; and erythrocyte counts were determined and compared with those of the controls. After the fluoride application it was found that there was a relative relationship between the increase in nitric oxide a...

  9. ACUTE PRENATAL EXPOSURE TO ETHANOL AND SOCIAL BEHAVIOR: EFFECT OF AGE, SEX, AND TIMING OF EXPOSURE

    Mooney, Sandra M.; Varlinskaya, Elena I.

    2010-01-01

    During development of the central nervous system, neurons pass through critical periods of vulnerability to environmental factors. Exposure to ethanol during gastrulation or during neuronal generation results in a permanent reduction in the number of neurons in trigeminal-associated cranial nerve nuclei. Normal functioning of the trigeminal system is required for social behavior, the present study examined the effects of acute prenatal exposure to ethanol on social interactions across ontogen...

  10. Acute effects of intense interval training on running mechanics.

    Collins, M H; Pearsall, D J; Zavorsky, G S; Bateni, H; Turcotte, R A; Montgomery, D L

    2000-02-01

    The aims of this study were to determine if there are significant kinematic changes in running pattern after intense interval workouts, whether duration of recovery affects running kinematics, and whether changes in running economy are related to changes in running kinematics. Seven highly trained male endurance runners (VO2max = 72.3+/-3.3 ml x kg(-1) x min(-1); mean +/- s) performed three interval running workouts of 10 x 400 m at a speed of 5.94+/-0.19 m x s(-1) (356+/-11.2 m x min(-1)) with a minimum of 4 days recovery between runs. Recovery of 60, 120 or 180 s between each 400 m repetition was assigned at random. Before and after each workout, running economy and several kinematic variables were measured at speeds of 3.33 and 4.47 m x s(-1) (200 and 268 m x min(-1)). Speed was found to have a significant effect on shank angle, knee velocity and stride length (P pre- and post-test for VO2 (ml x kg(-1) x min(-1)) and several kinematic variables were not significant (P > 0.05) at both speeds. In general, duration of recovery was not found to adversely affect running economy or the kinematic variables assessed, possibly because of intra-individual adaptations to fatigue. PMID:10718563

  11. Marijuana's acute effects on cognitive bias for affective and marijuana cues.

    Metrik, Jane; Aston, Elizabeth R; Kahler, Christopher W; Rohsenow, Damaris J; McGeary, John E; Knopik, Valerie S

    2015-10-01

    Marijuana produces acute increases in positive subjective effects and decreased reactivity to negative affective stimuli, though may also acutely induce anxiety. Implicit attentional and evaluative processes may explicate marijuana's ability to acutely increase positive and negative emotions. This within-subjects study examined whether smoked marijuana with 2.7-3.0% delta-9-tetrahydrocannabinol (THC), relative to placebo, acutely changed attentional processing of rewarding and negative affective stimuli as well as marijuana-specific stimuli. On 2 separate days, regular marijuana users (N = 89) smoked placebo or active THC cigarette and completed subjective ratings of mood, intoxication, urge to smoke marijuana, and 2 experimental tasks: pleasantness rating (response latency and perceived pleasantness of affective and marijuana-related stimuli) and emotional Stroop (attentional bias to affective stimuli). On the pleasantness rating task, active marijuana increased response latency to negatively valenced and marijuana-related (vs. neutral) visual stimuli, beyond a general slowing of response. Active marijuana also increased pleasantness ratings of marijuana images, although to a lesser extent than placebo due to reduced marijuana urge after smoking. Overall, active marijuana did not acutely change processing of positive emotional stimuli. There was no evidence of attentional bias to affective word stimuli on the emotional Stroop task with the exception of attentional bias to positive word stimuli in the subgroup of marijuana users with cannabis dependence. Marijuana may increase allocation of attentional resources toward marijuana-specific and negatively valenced visual stimuli without altering processing of positively valenced stimuli. Marijuana-specific cues may be more attractive with higher levels of marijuana craving and less wanted with low craving levels. PMID:26167716

  12. The acute effects of alcohol on auditory thresholds

    El Maaytah Mohammed

    2007-09-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background There is very little knowledge about alcohol-induced hearing loss. Alcohol consumption and tolerance to loud noise is a well observed phenomenon as seen in the Western world where parties get noisier by the hour as the evening matures. This leads to increase in the referrals to the "hearing aid clinic" and the diagnosis of "cocktail party deafness" which may not necessarily be only due to presbyacusis or noise-induced hearing loss. Methods 30 healthy volunteers were recruited for this trial which took place in a controlled acoustic environment. Each of the individuals was required to consume a pre-set amount of alcohol and the hearing was tested (using full pure tone audiogram pre- and post- alcohol consumption over a broad range of 6 frequencies. Volunteers who achieve a minimum breath alcohol threshold level of 30 u/l had to have second audiogram testing. All the volunteers underwent timed psychometric and visuo-spatial skills tests to detect the effect of alcohol on the decision-making and psychomotor co-ordination. Results Our results showed that there was a positive association between increasing breath alcohol concentration and the magnitude of the increase in hearing threshold for most hearing frequencies. This was calculated by using the Pearson Regression Coefficient Ratio which was up to 0.6 for hearing at 1000 Hz. Over 90% of subjects had raised auditory thresholds in three or more frequencies; this was more marked in the lower frequencies. Conclusion Alcohol specifically blunts lower frequencies affecting the mostly 1000 Hz, which is the most crucial frequency for speech discrimination. In conclusion alcohol does appear to affect auditory thresholds with some frequencies being more affected than others.

  13. Investigation of the bystander effect in MRC5 cells after acute and fractionated irradiation in vitro

    Shokouhozaman Soleymanifard

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Radiation-induced bystander effect (RIBE has been defined as radiation responses observed in nonirradiated cells. It has been the focus of investigators worldwide due to the deleterious effects it induces in nonirradiated cells. The present study was performed to investigate whether acute or fractionated irradiation will evoke a differential bystander response in MRC5 cells. A normal human cell line (MRC5, and a human lung tumor cell line (QU-DB were exposed to 0, 1, 2, and 4Gy of single acute or fractionated irradiation of equal fractions with a gap of 6 h. The MRC5 cells were supplemented with the media of irradiated cells and their micronucleus frequency was determined. The micronucleus frequency after single and fractionated irradiation did not vary significantly in the MRC5 cells conditioned with autologous or QU-DB cell-irradiated media, except for 4Gy where the frequency of micronucleated cells was lower in those MRC5 cells cultured in the media of QU-DB-exposed with a single dose of 4Gy. Our study demonstrates that the radiation-induced bystander effect was almost similar after single acute and fractionated exposure in MRC5 cells.

  14. The Study on Acute and Subacute Toxicity and Sarcoma-180 Anti-cancer Effects of Vermilionum

    Ki-Rok Kwon

    2003-12-01

    Full Text Available Background & Methods : In order to measure the acute and subacute toxicity of Vermilionum and it's anti-cancer effects, Sarcoma-180 abdominal cancer cells were injected intravenously. The following results were obtained after measuring the survival rate, toxicity of the NK cells, and IL-2 productivity. Results : 1. It was impossible to measure LD50 value in the acute toxicity test and no toxic effects were witnessed in the clinical observation. 2. No significant differences were shown in the weight changes between the experiment groups and the control group in the acute toxicity test. 3. No peculiar toxic effects were shown in the subacute toxicity test and the weight changes were insignificant between the experiment groups and the control group. 4. In measuring the survival rate after inducing abdominal cancer by Sarcoma-180, the experiment groups showed increased of 9,52% compared to the control group. 5. In measuring the activity of NK cells, no significant changes were shown between the experiment groups and the control group. 6. In measuring the productivity of IL-2, significant reduction was shown in the experiment groups compared to the normal group, but no significance was witnessed compared to the control group.

  15. δ受体在芬太尼后处理和肢体远隔缺血后处理对大鼠心肌缺血/再灌注损伤保护效应中作用的实验研究%Roles of δ-opioid receptor in the cardioprotective effects of fentanyl postconditioning and remote ischemic postconditioning against rat myocardial ischemia/reperfusion injury in vivo

    许亚超; 薛富善; 袁玉静; 王强; 廖旭; 程怡; 李瑞萍; 刘建华; 王天龙

    2012-01-01

    Objective To investigate the roles of δ-opioid receptor in the cardioprotective effects by fentanyl postconditioning and limb remote ischemia postconditioning (RIPOC). Methods Myocardial ischemia/reperfusion injury (IRI)model was established by ligation of the left anterior descending coronary artery (LAD) for 30 min and then reperfusion for 180 min.Seventy-two rats were randomly divided into four groups,which received fentanyl (30 μg/kg),RIPOC,combined fentanyl and RIPOC,or saline only (placebo)at 15 min after LAD ligation.Animals of each group were further divided into the subgroup A which received saline only 5 min before LAD ligation and subgroup B which received the δ-opioid antagonist naltrindole (NTD,5 mg/kg).At the end of reperfusion,level of creatine kinase isoenzyme MB (CK-MB) in plasma and serum activity of cardiac troponin I (cTnI)were measured,and infarct size (IS% value) was determined by 2,3,5 -triphenyltetrazolium chloride staining. Results The IS%values of subgroups C-A,F-A,R-A,F-R-A,C-B,F-B,R-B,and F-R-B were (59.6±3.1),(55.6±2.2),(48.4±1.4),(35.5±1.7),(57.9 ±2.0),(52.2±2.4),(50.3 ± 1.2)% and (46.9 ±2.8)%,respectively.Both fentanyl postconditioning and RIPOC significantly decreased the IS% value,CK-MB and cTnI level induced by IRI,and these effects were enhanced as fentanyl postconditioning plus RIPOC.Effect of fentanyl postconditioning but not RIPOC against IRI,was attenuated by NTD.Also,synergistic effect between the fentanyl postconditioning and RIPOC on infarct size sparing disappeared when pretreated with NTD.Conclusions The δ-opioid receptor was involved in the cardioprotection of fentanyl postconditioning,but not in RIPOC,and it plays an important role in the synergistic effect in combination with the fentanyl PPOC and RIPOC.%目的 探讨δ受体在芬太尼后处理和肢体远隔缺血后处理对大鼠心肌缺血/再灌注损伤(ischemia/reperfusion injury,I/RI)保护作用机制中的地位.方法 通过结

  16. Antiarrhythmic and electrophysiologic effects of flecainide on acutely induced atrial fibrillation in healthy horses

    Haugaard, Maria Mathilde; Pehrson, S.; Carstensen, Helena;

    2015-01-01

    understood. OBJECTIVES: To study the potential of flecainide to terminate acutely induced AF of short duration (≥ 15 minutes), to examine flecainide-induced changes in AF duration and AF vulnerability, and to investigate the in vivo effects of flecainide on right atrial effective refractory period, AF cycle...... length, and ventricular depolarization and repolarization. ANIMALS: Nine Standardbred horses. Eight received flecainide, 3 were used as time-matched controls, 2 of which also received flecainide. METHODS: Prospective study. The antiarrhythmic and electrophysiologic effects of flecainide were based on 5...

  17. Acute effects of vinegar intake on some biochemical risk factors of atherosclerosis in hypercholesterolemic rabbits

    rohani Ali

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Exaggerated postprandial spikes in blood glucose and lipids induce proportional increases in oxidative stress, which acutely trigger impairment endothelial, inflammation and increased risk of future cardiovascular events. In this research, we have investigated acute effects of vinegar intake on some of the biochemical atherosclerosis risk factors in high cholesterol fed rabbits to see if we can find a probable protective value for it. Methods The rabbits were randomly divided into four groups: normal diet, high cholesterol diet (%1cholesterol, %1 cholesterol with 5 ml vinegar (low dose, %1 cholesterol with 10 ml vinegar (high dose. After fasting for 12-15 hours, blood samples were taken to determine baseline values. Three hours after feeding, blood samples were collected again to investigate acute effects of vinegar intake on the measured factors. Results Using high-dose vinegar with cholesterolemic diet caused significant reduce in LDL-cholesterol (LDL-C, oxidized-LDL (ox-LDL, malondialdehyde (MDA, total cholesterol (TC and apolipoprotein B (ApoB in comparison with hypercholesterolemic diet. Consumption low-dose vinegar with cholesterolemic diet induced a significant decrease in fibrinogen and glucose compared to hypercholesterolemic diet. Level of serum nitrite, nitrate, triacylglycerol (TAG, HDL-cholesterol (HDL-C, apolipoprotein A (ApoA, serum glutamic pyruvic transaminase (SGPT, serum glutamic oxaloacetate transaminase (SGOT and C-reactive protein (CRP were not significantly difference in low and high doses vinegar with cholesterolemic diet compared to hypercholesterolemic diet. A significant difference was observed for LDL-C, ApoB100 and TC between low and high doses vinegar. Conclusion This study suggest that vinegar, might have some acute effects on biochemical risk factors of atherosclerosis and a probable protective value can be considered for its postprandial use.

  18. Acute Effect of High-Intensity Eccentric Exercise on Vascular Endothelial Function in Young Men.

    Choi, Youngju; Akazawa, Nobuhiko; Zempo-Miyaki, Asako; Ra, Song-Gyu; Shiraki, Hitoshi; Ajisaka, Ryuichi; Maeda, Seiji

    2016-08-01

    Choi, Y, Akazawa, N, Zempo-Miyaki, A, Ra, S-G, Shiraki, H, Ajisaka, R, and Maeda, S. Acute effect of high-intensity eccentric exercise on vascular endothelial function in young men. J Strength Cond Res 30(8): 2279-2285, 2016-Increased central arterial stiffness is as an independent risk factor for cardiovascular disease. Evidence regarding the effects of high-intensity resistance exercise on vascular endothelial function and central arterial stiffness is conflicting. The purpose of this study was to examine the effects of acute high-intensity eccentric exercise on vascular endothelial function and central arterial stiffness. We evaluated the acute changes in endothelium-dependent flow-mediated dilation (FMD), low-flow-mediated constriction (L-FMC), and arterial stiffness after high-intensity eccentric exercise. Seven healthy, sedentary men (age, 24 ± 1 year) performed maximal eccentric elbow flexor exercise using their nondominant arm. Before and 45 minutes after eccentric exercise, carotid arterial compliance and brachial artery FMD and L-FMC in the nonexercised arm were measured. Carotid arterial compliance was significantly decreased, and β-stiffness index significantly increased after eccentric exercise. Brachial FMD was significantly reduced after eccentric exercise, whereas there was no significant difference in brachial L-FMC before and after eccentric exercise. A positive correlation was detected between change in arterial compliance and change in FMD (r = 0.779; p ≤ 0.05), and a negative correlation was detected between change in β-stiffness index and change in FMD (r = -0.891; p < 0.01) with eccentric exercise. In this study, acute high-intensity eccentric exercise increased central arterial stiffness; this increase was accompanied by a decrease in endothelial function caused by reduced endothelium-dependent vasodilation but not by a change in endothelium-dependent vasoconstriction. PMID:24832967

  19. Effects of an acute bout of moderate-intensity exercise on postprandial lipemia and airway inflammation.

    Johnson, Ariel M; Kurti, Stephanie P; Smith, Joshua R; Rosenkranz, Sara K; Harms, Craig A

    2016-03-01

    A high-fat meal (HFM) induces an increase in blood lipids (postprandial lipemia; PPL), systemic inflammation, and acute airway inflammation. While acute exercise has been shown to have anti-inflammatory and lipid-lowering effects, it is unknown whether exercise prior to an HFM will translate to reduced airway inflammation post-HFM. Our purpose was to determine the effects of an acute bout of exercise on airway inflammation post-HFM and to identify whether any protective effect of exercise on airway inflammation was associated with a reduction in PPL or systemic inflammation. In a randomized cross-over study, 12 healthy, 18- to 29-year-old men (age, 23.0 ± 3.2 years; height, 178.9 ± 5.5 cm; weight, 78.5 ± 11.7 kg) consumed an HFM (1 g fat/1 kg body weight) 12 h following exercise (EX; 60 min at 60% maximal oxygen uptake) or without exercise (CON). Fractional exhaled nitric oxide (FENO; measure of airway inflammation), triglycerides (TG), and inflammatory markers (high-sensitivity C-reactive protein, tumor-necrosis factor-alpha, and interleukin-6) were measured while fasted at 2 h and 4 h post-HFM. FENO increased over time (2 h: CON, p = 0.001; EX, p = 0.002, but not by condition (p = 0.991). TG significantly increased 2 and 4 h post-HFM (p 0.05). There were no relationships between FENO and TG or systemic inflammatory markers for any time point or condition (p > 0.05). In summary, an acute bout of moderate-intensity exercise performed 12 h prior to an HFM did not change postprandial airway inflammation or lipemia in healthy, 18- to 29-year-old men. PMID:26872295

  20. Remote preconditioning, perconditioning, and postconditioning: a comparative study of their cardio-protective properties in rat models

    Shui-Bo Zhu

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available OBJECTIVE: Ischemia reperfusion injury is partly responsible for the high mortality associated with induced myocardial injury and the reduction in the full benefit of myocardial reperfusion. Remote ischemic preconditioning, perconditioning, and postconditioning have all been shown to be cardioprotective. However, it is still unknown which one is the most beneficial. To examine this issue, we used adult male Wistar rat ischemia reperfusion models to compare the cardioprotective effect of these three approaches applied on double-sided hind limbs. METHODS: The rats were randomly distributed to the following five groups: sham, ischemia reperfusion, remote preconditioning, remote perconditioning, and remote post-conditioning. The ischemia/reperfusion model was established by sternotomy followed by a 30-min ligation of the left coronary artery and a subsequent 3-h reperfusion. Remote conditioning was induced with three 5-min ischemia/5-min reperfusion cycles of the double-sided hind limbs using a tourniquet. RESULTS: A lower early reperfusion arrhythmia score (1.50 + 0.97 was found in the rats treated with remote perconditioning compared to those in the ischemia reperfusion group (2.33 + 0.71. Meanwhile, reduced infarct size was also observed (15.27 + 5.19% in remote perconditioning, 14.53 + 3.45% in remote preconditioning, and 19.84+5.85% in remote post-conditioning vs. 34.47 + 7.13% in ischemia reperfusion, p<0.05, as well as higher expression levels of the apoptosis-relevant protein Bcl-2/Bax following global (ischemia/reperfusion injury in in vivo rat heart models (1.255 + 0.053 in remote perconditioning, 1.463 + 0.290 in remote preconditioning, and 1.461 +0.541 in remote post-conditioning vs. 1.003 + 0.159 in ischemia reperfusion, p<0.05. CONCLUSION: Three remote conditioning strategies implemented with episodes of double-sided hind limb ischemia/reperfusion have similar therapeutic potential for cardiac ischemia/reperfusion injury, and remote

  1. Acute toxicological effects on the earthworm Eisenia fetida of 18 common pharmaceuticals in artificial soil.

    Pino, Ma Rosa; Val, Jonatan; Mainar, Ana Ma; Zuriaga, Estefanía; Español, Cecilia; Langa, Elisa

    2015-06-15

    Following soil applications of recycled water and biosolids, pharmaceutical residues can eventually enter the terrestrial environment. In vitro and in vivo assays have largely focused on the acute ecotoxicity of these compounds in aquatic systems. However, studies on the ecotoxicological effects of pharmaceuticals in soil biota are especially scarce. The aim of this study was to investigate the acute toxicity of 18 pharmaceuticals (4 NSAIDs, 5 blood lipid-lowering agents, 6 β-blockers and 3 antibiotics) that are usually found in the environment by using an Eisenia fetida bioassay. In addition, the presence of these pharmaceuticals in artificial soil was verified at the end of the test. Our results indicate that seven of the studied drugs cause acute adverse effects in E. fetida, in particular, the NSAIDs and the blood lipid-lowering agents. Ibuprofen (LC50=64.80 mg/kg) caused the highest acute toxicity for all tested compounds, followed by diclofenac (LC50=90.49 mg/kg) and simvastatin (LC50=92.70 mg/kg). Other tested pharmaceuticals from NSAIDs and blood lipid-lowering families have toxicity effects, from a LC50=140.87 mg/kg for gemfibrozil to 795.07 mg/kg for lovastatin. Atorvastatin, bezafibrate, β-blockers and antibiotics showed no detectable lethality in E. fetida. The four NSAIDs showed evidence of modification of their original chemical structure after 14 days so the detected toxicity may be due to the original product as well as their degradation products. The three blood lipid-lowering agents seem to be more stable in soil. From an environmental perspective, the lethal concentrations of the tested drugs are much greater than those reported in wastewater and biosolids, therefore acute toxic effects may be improbable. However, little is known about the accumulation of these substances in soils after regular applications, so accumulative and chronic effects cannot be excluded. Moreover, more studies are needed to determine the role of the degradation

  2. Protective effect of recombinant human IL-1Ra on CCl4-induced acute liver injury in mice

    Zhu, Run-Zhi; Xiang, Di; Xie, Chao; Li, Jing-Jing; Hu, Jian-Jun; He, Hong-Lin; Yuan, Yun-Sheng; GAO, JIN; HAN, WEI; Yu, Yan

    2010-01-01

    AIM: To evaluate the effects of positive regulation of recombinant human interleukin 1 receptor antagonist (rhIL-1Ra) on hepatic tissue recovery in acute liver injury in mice induced by carbon tetrachloride (CCl4).

  3. Acute and medium term effects of a ten-week running intervention on mood state in apprentices

    KatrinWalter

    2013-07-01

    Future studies should focus on the interaction between acute and medium term effects of exercise training on mood. The decreasing compliance over the course of the study requires the development of strateg

  4. EFFECTS OF IMMUNOSUPPRESSION WITH CYCLOPHOSPHAMIDE ON ACUTE MURINE CYTOMEGALOVIRUS INFECTION AND VIRUS-AUGMENTED NATURAL KILLER CELL ACTIVITY

    The effects of cyclophosphamide (CY) treatment on acute murine cytomegalovirus (MCMV) infection were studied to explore the potential usefulness of MCMV as a means of detecting immune dysfunction and to identify host defense mechanisms important for protection against MCMV.

  5. Effects of preinfarction angina on no-reflow phenomenon after percutaneous coronary intervention in patients with acute myocardial infarction

    王荣英

    2003-01-01

    Effects of preinfarction angina on no-reflow phenomenon after percutaneous coronary intervention in patients with acute myocardial infarction@王荣英$河北医科大学第二医院!石家庄050000 0311-70469016011

  6. Pronounced effects of acute endurance exercise on gene expression in resting and exercising human skeletal muscle.

    Milène Catoire

    Full Text Available Regular physical activity positively influences whole body energy metabolism and substrate handling in exercising muscle. While it is recognized that the effects of exercise extend beyond exercising muscle, it is unclear to what extent exercise impacts non-exercising muscles. Here we investigated the effects of an acute endurance exercise bouts on gene expression in exercising and non-exercising human muscle. To that end, 12 male subjects aged 44-56 performed one hour of one-legged cycling at 50% W(max. Muscle biopsies were taken from the exercising and non-exercising leg before and immediately after exercise and analyzed by microarray. One-legged cycling raised plasma lactate, free fatty acids, cortisol, noradrenalin, and adrenalin levels. Surprisingly, acute endurance exercise not only caused pronounced gene expression changes in exercising muscle but also in non-exercising muscle. In the exercising leg the three most highly induced genes were all part of the NR4A family. Remarkably, many genes induced in non-exercising muscle were PPAR targets or related to PPAR signalling, including PDK4, ANGPTL4 and SLC22A5. Pathway analysis confirmed this finding. In conclusion, our data indicate that acute endurance exercise elicits pronounced changes in gene expression in non-exercising muscle, which are likely mediated by changes in circulating factors such as free fatty acids. The study points to a major influence of exercise beyond the contracting muscle.

  7. Effect of hemoperfusion on internal environment of patients with acute poisoning

    Hua Li; Wen-Qiang Li

    2016-01-01

    Objective:To explore the effect of hemoperfusion on the internal environment of patients with acute poisoning.Methods: A total of 36 patients with the acute poisoning who received the hemoperfusion treatment in Department of Emergency Medicine of this hospital were selected as the research subjects and a retrospective study was performed on them. At the beginning, 30 min and 120 min of hemoperfusion treatment, the blood was taken from the blood-collecting point of artery with cardiopulmonary bypass to detect the blood pH, partial pressure of CO2, partial pressure of oxygen, blood lactic acid, potassium, sodium, free calcium, bicarbonate ion and blood glucose level. The above indicators at the different time point were compared. Results:At the beginning, 30 min and 120 min of hemoperfusion, there was no significant difference in the partial pressure of CO2, pH, blood potassium, blood sodium, bicarbonate ion and free calcium between groups. But at the beginning, 30 min and 120 min of hemoperfusion, there was the significant difference in the partial pressure of oxygen, lactic acid and blood glucose between groups.Conclusion:There is no significant effect on the internal environment of patients with acute poisoning who receive the hemoperfusion treatment.

  8. The acute effects of 3,4-methylenedioxymethamphetamine on oxidative stress in rat brain

    Simić Ivan

    2008-01-01

    Full Text Available Introduction Oxidative stress and oxygen free radicals are thought to play an important role in acute effects of a number of neurotoxic processes. 3,4-Methylenedioxymethamphetamine (MDMA, ecstasy, a ring substituted amphetamine derivate, has attracted a great deal of media attention in recent years due to its widespread abuse as recreational drug by the young generation. The aim of the present study was to evaluate the acute effects of 3,4-methylenedioxymethamphetamine on oxidative stress parameters (index of lipid peroxidation - ILP, superoxide radicals O2-, superoxide dismutase - SOD and glutathione - GSH in frontal cortex, striatum and hippocampus in Wistar rats. Materials and methods The study included 40 male Wistar rats (200-250 g, housed 4 per cage having free access to food and water. MDMA was dissolved in distillated water and administered peroraly at 5, 10, 20 or 40 mg/kg. 8 hours following MDMA, the rats were killed by decapitation, their brains were rapidly removed and the brain structures were dissected out on ice and analyzed biochemically. Results Acute peroral administration of a single dose (5, 10, 20 and 40 mg/kg resulted in increase of ILP, O2-, SOD and decrease of GSH. Conclusion The results obtained in the present study suggest that oxidative stress plays a crucial role in MDMA-induced neurotoxicity and that the mechanism of MDMA neurotoxycity may vary between brain regions.

  9. Hepatoprotective effects of polymethoxyflavones against acute and chronic carbon tetrachloride intoxication.

    Kim, Tae-Won; Lee, Dong-Ryung; Choi, Bong-Keun; Kang, Hwan-Kyu; Jung, Ju-Young; Lim, Seol-Wa; Yang, Seung Hwan; Suh, Joo-Won

    2016-05-01

    In the present study, we explore the protective effects of Citrus aurantium L. extract (CAE) against acute and chronic CCl4-induced hepatotoxicity. The quantitative analysis of CAE was performed using HPLC-UV to determine the nobiletin content was approximately 27%. For the acute model, the male ICR mice were orally treated with water, silymarin (positive control, 200 mg/kg) and CAE (50 and 200 mg/kg) for 3 days prior to CCl4 (1 mL/kg, 50% v/v in olive oil) IP injection. For the chronic model (n = 6/group), the mice were treated with each treatment for 28 consecutive days and CCl4 (1 mL/kg, 20%) was injected twice a week. In both the acute and chronic models, the CCl4 alone treated group showed histopathologic alterations with a significantly increase in serum hepatic enzyme levels together with a disrupted anti-oxidative status. In contrast, the CAE treatments restored pathologic alterations and recovered the oxidative status by enhancing antioxidant enzymes and reducing lipid peroxidation levels. Furthermore, CAE enhanced nuclear factor E2-related factor 2 (Nrf2) and its related cytoprotective signals, including NAD(P)H quinone oxidoreductase 1, UDP-glucuronosyltransferase, and γ-glutamylcysteine synthetase. Taken together, the present study demonstrates that CAE exerts a protective effect against CCl4-induced hepatotoxicity with its anti-oxidant, anti-inflammatory, and anti-apoptotic activity. PMID:26980244

  10. Costs and effectiveness of a brief MRI examination of patients with acute knee injury

    Oei, Edwin H.G. [Erasmus MC, University Medical Center Rotterdam, Department of Radiology, GE Rotterdam (Netherlands)]|[Erasmus MC, University Medical Center Rotterdam, Department of Epidemiology and Biostatistics, GE Rotterdam (Netherlands)]|[Erasmus MC, University Medical Center Rotterdam, Department of Radiology, CE Rotterdam (Netherlands); Nikken, Jeroen J. [Erasmus MC, University Medical Center Rotterdam, Department of Radiology, GE Rotterdam (Netherlands)]|[Erasmus MC, University Medical Center Rotterdam, Department of Epidemiology and Biostatistics, GE Rotterdam (Netherlands)]|[Sint Franciscus Gasthuis, Kleiweg 500, Department of Radiology, PM Rotterdam (Netherlands); Ginai, Abida Z.; Krestin, Gabriel P. [Erasmus MC, University Medical Center Rotterdam, Department of Radiology, GE Rotterdam (Netherlands)]|[Erasmus MC, University Medical Center Rotterdam, Department of Radiology, CE Rotterdam (Netherlands); Verhaar, Jan A.N. [Erasmus MC, University Medical Center Rotterdam, Department of Orthopaedic Surgery, GE Rotterdam (Netherlands)]|[Erasmus MC, University Medical Center Rotterdam, Department of Orthopaedic Surgery, CE Rotterdam (Netherlands); Vugt, Arie B. van [Erasmus MC, University Medical Center Rotterdam, Department of Traumatology, GE Rotterdam (Netherlands)]|[UMC St Radboud, Department of Traumatology, P.O. Box 9101, HB Nijmegen (Netherlands); Hunink, M.G.M. [Erasmus MC, University Medical Center Rotterdam, Department of Radiology, GE Rotterdam (Netherlands)]|[Erasmus MC, University Medical Center Rotterdam, Department of Epidemiology and Biostatistics, GE Rotterdam (Netherlands)

    2009-02-15

    The aim of this study was to assess the costs and effectiveness of selective short magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) in patients with acute knee injury. A model was developed to evaluate the selective use of MRI in patients with acute knee injury and no fracture on radiography based on the results of a trial in which 208 patients were randomized between radiography only and radiography plus MRI. We analyzed medical (diagnostic and therapeutic) costs, quality of life, duration of diagnostic workup, number of additional diagnostic examinations, time absent from work, and time to convalescence during a 6-month follow-up period. Quality of life was lowest (EuroQol at 6 weeks 0.61 (95% CI 0.54-0.67)); duration of diagnostic workup, absence from work, and time to convalescence were longest; and the number of diagnostic examinations was largest with radiography only. These outcomes were more favorable for both MRI strategies (EuroQol at 6 weeks 0.72 (95% CI 0.67-0.77) for both). Mean total costs were 2,593 euros (95% CI 1,815-3,372) with radiography only, 2,116 euros (95% CI 1,488-2,743) with radiography plus MRI, and 1,973 euros (95% CI 1,401-2,543) with selective MRI. The results suggest that selective use of a short MRI examination saves costs and potentially increases effectiveness in patients with acute knee injury without a fracture on radiography. (orig.)

  11. The acute effect of kinesio taping on hamstring extensibility in university students

    MERINO-MARBAN R.,

    2011-06-01

    Full Text Available Objectives: The aim and rationale of our study was to determine the acute effect of kinesio taping on theextensibility of the hamstring muscle among university students.Design: An intra-subject experimental design was used to evaluate the possible acute effects of KT using the Xshapedtaping technique in order to affect hamstring muscle extensibility.Method: Forty-three healthy university students (age 21.98 ± 4.68 years, body mass 71.50 ± 13.49 kg, height172.35 ± 8.17 cm were assessed for hamstring flexibility. All participants had both legs tested under threedifferent randomly ordered conditions (kinesio tape, sham tape and control using the Passive Straight Leg RaiseTest. All measurements were made during the same testing session. Participants performed three sets of tests,each set measured twice, to determine hamstring extensibility in both legs. There was a 12 minute rest periodbetween each set and a one minute break between each repetition.Results: An analysis of variance (ANOVA with repeated measurements showed no statistically significantdifferences either in the right (p=0.503 or the left leg (p=0.948 between the three study conditions.Conclusions: The application of kinesio taping does not seem to acutely increase hip flexion range of motion inhealthy subjects.

  12. Methadone, monoamine oxidase, and depression: opioid distribution and acute effects on enzyme activity

    Kaufmann, C.A.; Kreek, M.J.; Raghunath, J.; Arns, P.

    1983-09-01

    Narcotic withdrawal is often accompanied by an atypical depression which responds to resumption of narcotics. It was hypothesized that methadone might exert its antidepressant effects through monoamine oxidase (MAO) inhibition. The current study examined /sub 3/H-methadone distribution in rat brain and effects on regional MAO activity with acute doses (2.5 mg/kg) which approximate those found during chronic methadone maintenance in man. Limbic areas (amygdala, basomedial hypothalamus, caudate-putamen, hippocampus, preoptic nucleus), as well as pituitary and liver were assayed for MAO activity and methadone concentration. MAO activities did not differ significantly in acute methadone or saline-treated cage-mates at 1 or 24 hr. The concentrations of methadone at 1 hr ranged between 17 and 223 ng/100 mg wet wt tissue in the preoptic nucleus and pituitary, respectively. No significant correlation was found between change in MAO activity (MAO methadone/MAO saline) and methadone concentration in any region at 1 or 24 hr. This study does not support the hypothesis that methadone acts as an antidepressant through MAO inhibition, at least not following acute administration of this exogenous opioid.

  13. Methadone, monoamine oxidase, and depression: opioid distribution and acute effects on enzyme activity

    Narcotic withdrawal is often accompanied by an atypical depression which responds to resumption of narcotics. It was hypothesized that methadone might exert its antidepressant effects through monoamine oxidase (MAO) inhibition. The current study examined 3H-methadone distribution in rat brain and effects on regional MAO activity with acute doses (2.5 mg/kg) which approximate those found during chronic methadone maintenance in man. Limbic areas (amygdala, basomedial hypothalamus, caudate-putamen, hippocampus, preoptic nucleus), as well as pituitary and liver were assayed for MAO activity and methadone concentration. MAO activities did not differ significantly in acute methadone or saline-treated cage-mates at 1 or 24 hr. The concentrations of methadone at 1 hr ranged between 17 and 223 ng/100 mg wet wt tissue in the preoptic nucleus and pituitary, respectively. No significant correlation was found between change in MAO activity (MAO methadone/MAO saline) and methadone concentration in any region at 1 or 24 hr. This study does not support the hypothesis that methadone acts as an antidepressant through MAO inhibition, at least not following acute administration of this exogenous opioid

  14. Acute toxicity, cytotoxicity, genotoxicity and antigenotoxic effects of a cellulosic exopolysaccharide obtained from sugarcane molasses.

    Pinto, Flávia Cristina Morone; De-Oliveira, Ana Cecília A X; De-Carvalho, Rosangela R; Gomes-Carneiro, Maria Regina; Coelho, Deise R; Lima, Salvador Vilar C; Paumgartten, Francisco José R; Aguiar, José Lamartine A

    2016-02-10

    The acute toxicity, cytotoxicity, genotoxicity and antigenotoxic effects of BC were studied. Cytotoxicity of BC was evaluated in cultured C3A hepatoma cells (HepG2/C3A) using a lactate dehydrogenase (LDH) activity assay. Acute toxicity was tested in adults Wistar rats treated with a single dose of BC. The genotoxicity of BC was evaluated in vivo by the micronucleus assay. BC (0.33-170 μg/mL) added to C3A cell culture medium caused no elevation in LDH release over the background level recorded in untreated cell wells. The treatment with the BC in a single oral dose (2000 mg/kg body weight) caused no deaths or signs of toxicity. BC attenuated CP-induced and inhibition the incidence of MNPCE (female: 46.94%; male: 22.7%) and increased the ratio of PCE/NCE (female: 46.10%; male: 35.25%). There was no alteration in the LDH release in the wells where C3A cells were treated with increasing concentrations of BC compared to the wells where the cells received the cell culture medium only (background of approximately 20% cell death), indicated that in the dose range tested BC was not cytotoxic. BC was not cytotoxic, genotoxic or acutely toxic. BC attenuated CP-induced genotoxic and myelotoxic effects. PMID:26686163

  15. The acute effects of different energy beta-emitters on pig and mouse skin

    Acute changes were studied in the skin of mice and pigs following irradiation with Sr90 (Esub(max) 2.27 MeV), Tm170 (Esub(max) 0.97 MeV) and Pm147 (Esub(max) 0.225 MeV). Sr90 irradiation in the pig and Sr90 and Tm170 exposure in the mouse resulted in a distinct field-size effect for sources of 5-22.5 mm diameter; ED50 values for moist desquamation were 22.0-27.5 Gy from the 22.5 mm source and 75-90 Gy for the 5 mm source. Tm170 irradiation in the pig produced no distinct area effect for sources of 5-19 mm diameter (ED50 approx.= 80 Gy). Acute tissue breakdown was only achieved in pig and mouse skin by very high doses (ED50 >= 140 Gy) from sources of 147 produced acute epithelial breakdown, only after high skin-surface doses (ED50 550-725 Gy). Area-and energy-related changes can, in part be explained by an hypothesis based on repopulation of the epithelium in the irradiated area by the migration of either cells from the edge of that area and/or cells surviving at the base of hair follicles. Differences in the results in pig and mouse can be explained on the basis of the distribution of target cells in the epidermis at varying depths. (author)

  16. Effects of Schizolobium parahyba extract on experimental Bothrops venom-induced acute kidney injury.

    Monique Silva Martines

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: Venom-induced acute kidney injury (AKI is a frequent complication of Bothrops snakebite with relevant morbidity and mortality. The aim of this study was to assess the effects of Schizolobium parahyba (SP extract, a natural medicine with presumed anti-Bothrops venom effects, in an experimental model of Bothrops jararaca venom (BV-induced AKI. METHODOLOGY: Groups of 8 to 10 rats received infusions of 0.9% saline (control, C, SP 2 mg/kg, BV 0.25 mg/kg and BV immediately followed by SP (treatment, T in the doses already described. After the respective infusions, animals were assessed for their glomerular filtration rate (GFR, inulin clearance, renal blood flow (RBF, Doppler, blood pressure (BP, intra-arterial transducer, renal vascular resistance (RVR, urinary osmolality (UO, freezing point, urinary neutrophil gelatinase-associated lipocalin (NGAL, enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay [ELISA], lactate dehydrogenase (LDH, kinetic method, hematocrit (Hct, microhematocrit, fibrinogen (Fi, Klauss modified and blinded renal histology (acute tubular necrosis score. PRINCIPAL FINDINGS: BV caused significant decreases in GFR, RBF, UO, HcT and Fi; significant increases in RVR, NGAL and LDH; and acute tubular necrosis. SP did not prevent these changes; instead, it caused a significant decrease in GFR when used alone. CONCLUSION: SP administered simultaneously with BV, in an approximate 10∶1 concentration, did not prevent BV-induced AKI, hemolysis and fibrinogen consumption. SP used alone caused a decrease in GFR.

  17. Curative effect of monosialotetrahexosylganglioside combined with Xingnaojing injection on acute cerebral hemorrhage

    Rui-xing SUN

    2015-07-01

    Full Text Available This paper aims to observe the curative effect of monosialotetrahexosylganglioside combined with Xingnaojing injection on acute cerebral hemorrhage. A total of 120 cases with acute cerebral hemorrhage were treated with Xingnaojing injection monotherapy (control group, N = 60 or monosialotetrahexosylganglioside combined with Xingnaojing injection (combined treatment group, N = 60. Bleeding amount and National Institutes of Health Stroke Scale (NIHSS scores of 2 groups were both significantly reduced on the 21th day after treatment (P = 0.000, for all, but bleeding amount and NIHSS scores in combined treatment group were significantly lower than those in control group (P = 0.000, for all. After 21 d treatment, total effective rate of combined treatment group was 86.67% (52/60, which was significantly higher than that of control group [66.67% (40/60; χ2 = 1.493, P = 0.024]. For patients with acute cerebral hemorrhage, monosialotetrahexosylganglioside combined with Xingnaojing injection can significantly improve the neurological function. DOI: 10.3969/j.issn.1672-6731.2015.07.014

  18. Acute differential effects of dietary protein quality on postprandial lipemia in obese non-diabetic subjects

    Holmer-Jensen, Jens; Mortensen, Lene S; Astrup, Arne;

    2013-01-01

    Non-fasting triglyceridemia is much closer associated to cardiovascular risk compared to fasting triglyceridemia. We hypothesized that there would be acute differential effects of four common dietary proteins (cod protein, whey isolate, gluten, and casein) on postprandial lipemia in obese non......-diabetic subjects. To test the hypothesis we conducted a randomized, acute clinical intervention study with crossover design. We supplemented a fat rich mixed meal with one of four dietary proteins i.e. cod protein, whey protein, gluten or casein. Eleven obese non-diabetic subjects (age: 40-68, body mass index: 30.......3-42.0 kg/m(2)) participated and blood samples were drawn in the 8-h postprandial period. Supplementation of a fat rich mixed meal with whey protein caused lower postprandial lipemia (P = .048) compared to supplementation with cod protein and gluten. This was primarily due to lower triglyceride...

  19. Effect of acute exercise on some haematological parameters and neutrophil functions in active and inactive subjects.

    Benoni, G; Bellavite, P; Adami, A; Chirumbolo, S; Lippi, G; Brocco, G; Cuzzolin, L

    1995-01-01

    In this work we studied the possible effects of acute exercise on some haematological parameters and on some functions of neutrophils in seven active and six inactive subjects. Physical exercise (10 min on a cycle ergometer at a heart rate of 150 beats.min-1) induced a significant increase in total leucocyte, lymphocyte and neutrophil concentrations in active subjects; serum iron and ferritin concentrations were lower in active compared to inactive subjects. Cellular adhesion, bactericidal activity and superoxide anion production did not change after exercise, while we also observed some differences between active and inactive subjects before exercise. In particular, the neutrophils from active subjects showed a significantly higher percentage of adhesion, higher bactericidal activity and lower superoxide anion production. In conclusion, the training induced changes in some neutrophil functions, while acute exercise influenced, overall, leucocyte concentrations. PMID:7768243

  20. Predicting the neurobehavioral side effects of dexamethasone in pediatric acute lymphoblastic leukemia.

    Warris, Lidewij T; van den Akker, Erica L T; Aarsen, Femke K; Bierings, Marc B; van den Bos, Cor; Tissing, Wim J E; Sassen, Sebastiaan D T; Veening, Margreet A; Zwaan, Christian M; Pieters, Rob; van den Heuvel-Eibrink, Marry M

    2016-10-01

    Although dexamethasone is an effective treatment for acute lymphoblastic leukemia (ALL), it can induce a variety of serious neurobehavioral side effects. We hypothesized that these side effects are influenced by glucocorticoid sensitivity at the tissue level. We therefore prospectively studied whether we could predict the occurrence of these side effects using the very low-dose dexamethasone suppression test (DST) or by measuring trough levels of dexamethasone. Fifty pediatric patients (3-16 years of age) with acute lymphoblastic leukemia (ALL) were initially included during the maintenance phase (with dexamethasone) of the Dutch ALL treatment protocol. As a marker of glucocorticoid sensitivity, the salivary very low-dose DST was used. A post-dexamethasone cortisol level predictive values of the DST for psychosocial problems and sleeping problems were 50% and 30%, respectively. Dexamethasone levels were not associated with neurobehavioral side effects. We conclude that neither the very low-dose DST nor measuring dexamethasone trough levels can accurately predict dexamethasone-induced neurobehavioral side effects. However, patients with glucocorticoid hypersensitivity experienced significantly more symptoms associated with dexamethasone-induced depression. Future studies should elucidate further the mechanisms by which neurobehavioral side effects are influenced by glucocorticoid sensitivity. PMID:27448086

  1. Acute and chronic effects of aerobic and resistance exercise on ambulatory blood pressure

    Crivaldo Gomes Cardoso Jr

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available Hypertension is a ubiquitous and serious disease. Regular exercise has been recommended as a strategy for the prevention and treatment of hypertension because of its effects in reducing clinical blood pressure; however, ambulatory blood pressure is a better predictor of target-organ damage than clinical blood pressure, and therefore studying the effects of exercise on ambulatory blood pressure is important as well. Moreover, different kinds of exercise might produce distinct effects that might differ between normotensive and hypertensive subjects. The aim of this study was to review the current literature on the acute and chronic effects of aerobic and resistance exercise on ambulatory blood pressure in normotensive and hypertensive subjects. It has been conclusively shown that a single episode of aerobic exercise reduces ambulatory blood pressure in hypertensive patients. Similarly, regular aerobic training also decreases ambulatory blood pressure in hypertensive individuals. In contrast, data on the effects of resistance exercise is both scarce and controversial. Nevertheless, studies suggest that resistance exercise might acutely decrease ambulatory blood pressure after exercise, and that this effect seems to be greater after low-intensity exercise and in patients receiving anti-hypertensive drugs. On the other hand, only two studies investigating resistance training in hypertensive patients have been conducted, and neither has demonstrated any hypotensive effect. Thus, based on current knowledge, aerobic training should be recommended to decrease ambulatory blood pressure in hypertensive individuals, while resistance exercise could be prescribed as a complementary strategy.

  2. Effects of Single Bouts of Walking Exercise and Yoga on Acute Mood Symptoms in People with Multiple Sclerosis

    Ensari, Ipek; Brian M. Sandroff; Motl, Robert W.

    2016-01-01

    Background: Little is known about the acute or immediate effects of walking exercise and yoga on mood in people with multiple sclerosis (MS). Such an examination is important for identifying an exercise modality for inclusion in exercise-training interventions that yields mood benefits in MS. We examined the effects of single bouts of treadmill walking and yoga compared with a quiet, seated-rest control condition on acute mood symptoms in MS.

  3. Effects of acute administration of selective serotonin reuptake inhibitors on sympathetic nerve activity

    Serotonergic mechanisms have an important function in the central control of circulation. Here, the acute effects of three selective serotonin (5-HT) reuptake inhibitors (SSRIs) on autonomic and cardiorespiratory variables were measured in rats. Although SSRIs require 2-3 weeks to achieve their full antidepressant effects, it has been shown that they cause an immediate inhibition of 5-HT reuptake. Seventy male Wistar rats were anesthetized with urethane and instrumented to record blood pressure, heart rate, renal sympathetic nerve activity (RSNA), and respiratory frequency. At lower doses, the acute cardiovascular effects of fluoxetine, paroxetine and sertraline administered intravenously were insignificant and variable. At middle and higher doses, a general pattern was observed, with significant reductions in sympathetic nerve activity. At 10 min, fluoxetine (3 and 10 mg/kg) reduced RSNA by -33±4.7 and -31±5.4%, respectively, without changes in blood pressure; 3 and 10 mg/kg paroxetine reduced RSNA by -35±5.4 and -31±5.5%, respectively, with an increase in blood pressure +26.3±2.5; 3 mg/kg sertraline reduced RSNA by -59.4±8.6%, without changes in blood pressure. Sympathoinhibition began 5 min after injection and lasted approximately 30 min. For fluoxetine and sertraline, but not paroxetine, there was a reduction in heart rate that was nearly parallel to the sympathoinhibition. The effect of these drugs on the other variables was insignificant. In conclusion, acute peripheral administration of SSRIs caused early autonomic cardiovascular effects, particularly sympathoinhibition, as measured by RSNA. Although a peripheral action cannot be ruled out, such effects are presumably mostly central

  4. Effects of acute administration of selective serotonin reuptake inhibitors on sympathetic nerve activity

    Tiradentes, R.V. [Departamento de Ciências Fisiológicas, Centro de Ciências da Saúde, Universidade Federal do Espírito Santo, Vitória, ES (Brazil); Centro Universitário do Espírito Santo, Colatina, ES (Brazil); Pires, J.G.P. [Centro Universitário do Espírito Santo, Colatina, ES (Brazil); Escola de Medicina da Empresa Brasileira de Ensino, Vitória, ES (Brazil); Silva, N.F. [Departamento de Morfologia, Centro de Ciências da Saúde, Universidade Federal do Espírito Santo, Vitória, ES (Brazil); Ramage, A.G. [Department of Neuroscience, Physiology and Pharmacology, University College London, London (United Kingdom); Santuzzi, C.H. [Departamento de Ciências Fisiológicas, Centro de Ciências da Saúde, Universidade Federal do Espírito Santo, Vitória, ES (Brazil); Centro Universitário do Espírito Santo, Colatina, ES (Brazil); Futuro, H.A. Neto [Escola de Medicina da Empresa Brasileira de Ensino, Vitória, ES (Brazil); Departamento de Morfologia, Centro de Ciências da Saúde, Universidade Federal do Espírito Santo, Vitória, ES (Brazil); Escola Superior de Ciências da Saúde, Santa Casa de Misericórdia de Vitória, Vitória, ES (Brazil)

    2014-05-30

    Serotonergic mechanisms have an important function in the central control of circulation. Here, the acute effects of three selective serotonin (5-HT) reuptake inhibitors (SSRIs) on autonomic and cardiorespiratory variables were measured in rats. Although SSRIs require 2-3 weeks to achieve their full antidepressant effects, it has been shown that they cause an immediate inhibition of 5-HT reuptake. Seventy male Wistar rats were anesthetized with urethane and instrumented to record blood pressure, heart rate, renal sympathetic nerve activity (RSNA), and respiratory frequency. At lower doses, the acute cardiovascular effects of fluoxetine, paroxetine and sertraline administered intravenously were insignificant and variable. At middle and higher doses, a general pattern was observed, with significant reductions in sympathetic nerve activity. At 10 min, fluoxetine (3 and 10 mg/kg) reduced RSNA by -33±4.7 and -31±5.4%, respectively, without changes in blood pressure; 3 and 10 mg/kg paroxetine reduced RSNA by -35±5.4 and -31±5.5%, respectively, with an increase in blood pressure +26.3±2.5; 3 mg/kg sertraline reduced RSNA by -59.4±8.6%, without changes in blood pressure. Sympathoinhibition began 5 min after injection and lasted approximately 30 min. For fluoxetine and sertraline, but not paroxetine, there was a reduction in heart rate that was nearly parallel to the sympathoinhibition. The effect of these drugs on the other variables was insignificant. In conclusion, acute peripheral administration of SSRIs caused early autonomic cardiovascular effects, particularly sympathoinhibition, as measured by RSNA. Although a peripheral action cannot be ruled out, such effects are presumably mostly central.

  5. Effect of harmless acute pancreatitis score, red cell distribution width and neutrophil/lymphocyte ratio on the mortality of patients with nontraumatic acute pancreatitis at the emergency department

    Gülen, Bedia; Sonmez, Ertan; Yaylaci, Serpil; Serinken, Mustafa; Eken, Cenker; Dur, Ali; Turkdogan, Figen Tunali; Söğüt, Özgür

    2015-01-01

    BACKGROUND: Harmless acute pancreatitis score (HAPS), neutrophile/lymphocyte ratio and red blood cell distribution width (RDW) are used to determine the early prognosis of patients diagnosed with nontraumatic acute pancreatitis in the emergency department (ED). METHODS: Patients diagnosed with acute pancreatitis (K 85.9) in the ED according to the ICD10 coding during one year were included in the study. Patients with chronic pancreatitis and those who had missing data in their files were excluded from the study. Patients who did not have computed tomography (CT) in the ED were not included in the study. RESULTS: Ultimately, 322 patients were included in the study. The median age of the patients was 53.1 (IQR=36–64). Of the patients, 68.1% (n=226) had etiological causes of the biliary tract. The mortality rate of these patients within the first 48 hours was 4.3% (n=14). In the logistic regression analysis performed by using Balthazar classification, HAPS score, RDW, neutrophile/lymphocyte ratio, age, diabetes mellitus and systolic blood pressure, the only independent variable in determining mortality was assigned as Balthazar classification (OR: 15; 95% CI: 3.5 to 64.4). CONCLUSIONS: HAPS, neutrophile/lymphocyte ratio and RDW were not effective in determining the mortality of nontraumatic acute pancreatitis cases within the first 48 hours. The only independent variable for determining the mortality was Balthazar classification. PMID:25802563

  6. EFFECTS OF LUDARTIN AND LEUKOMISIN ON THE ACUTE HYPERLIPIDEMIA MODEL INDUCED BY ETHANOL

    A. V. Ratkin

    2015-12-01

    lipoproteins cholesterol to the amount of low density lipoproteins cholesterol significantly increased by 32.7% and 22.1% respectively.Conclusion. Sesquiterpene lactones ludartin and leukomisin posses hypolipidemic effect in acute experi-mental hyperlipidemia caused by the ethanol introduction. Lactones normalize many indices of lipid me-tabolism, which can be caused by different biochemical targets of these molecules. Lactones, as nicotinic acid, in the model of acute hyperlipidemia decrease in blood serum triacylglycerols, total cholesterol, and low density lipoproteins cholesterol content. 

  7. Use of antiemetics in children with acute gastroenteritis: Are they safe and effective?

    Manteuffel Jacob

    2009-01-01

    Full Text Available The use of antiemetics is a controversial topic in treatment of pediatric gastroenteritis. Although not recommended by the American Academy of Pediatrics, antiemetics are commonly prescribed by physicians. A review of the literature shows side effects of promethazine, prochlorperazine, and metoclopramide are common and potentially dangerous. Ondansetron has recently been studied as an adjunct to oral rehydration therapy in treatment of acute gastroenteritis with mild to moderate dehydration. Although studies are limited, early research suggests the medication is safe when used in a single dose and can be effective to prevent vomiting, the need for intravenous fluids, and hospital admission.

  8. The effectiveness of manual hyperinflation during the physiotherapy management of acute atelectasis: a case report

    H. van Aswegen

    2004-02-01

    Full Text Available Atelectasis is common in intubated and ventilated patients. Thereasons for the atelectasis are multifactorial. Atelectasis, if prolonged, may lead to hypoxaemia, pulmonary infection and fibrosis. The effectiveness of manual hyperinflation as an adjunct to standard respiratory physiotherapy management of patients in the ICU to re-inflate collapsed lung regions, to improve gas exchange and respiratory compliance and to assist with the removal of secretions, have been proclaimed by numerous authors. This case report demonstrates the effectiveness of the addition of manual hyperinflation to the physiotherapy management of an intubated patient with acute atelectasis.

  9. Acute and chronic effects of tributyltin on the Chinese rare minnow (Gobiocypris rarus)

    周群芳; 江桂斌; 刘稷燕

    2003-01-01

    The acute (12 h) and chronic (7 or 14 d) effects of tributyltin chloride (TBT) on a new type of test fish, the Chinese rare minnow (Gobiocypris rarus), have been studied. High accumulation of the pollutant in the fish muscle and obvious changes in hepatosomatic index and gonad somatic index were observed after exposure. The ultrastructural findings show a series of pathological changes existing in the exposed gill cells and hepatocytes, which demonstrates the toxicity effects of tributyltin compounds on aquatic organisms. The results clearly show that the Chinese rare minnow is a new sensitive test fish material, whose exposure system is suitable for the extensive organometallic toxicity studies.

  10. The Effect of Exercise Training on Diastolic and Systolic Function After Acute Myocardial Infarction

    Fontes-Carvalho, Ricardo; Azevedo, Ana Isabel; Sampaio, Francisco; Teixeira, Madalena; Bettencourt, Nuno; Campos, Lilibeth; Gonçalves, Francisco Rocha; Ribeiro, Vasco Gama; Azevedo, Ana; Leite-Moreira, Adelino

    2015-01-01

    Abstract After acute myocardial infarction (AMI), diastolic dysfunction is frequent and an important determinant of adverse outcome. However, few interventions have proven to be effective in improving diastolic function. We aimed to determine the effect of exercise training on diastolic and systolic function after AMI. One month after AMI, 188 patients were prospectively randomized (1:1) to an 8-week supervised program of endurance and resistance exercise training (n = 86; 55.9 ± 10.8 years) ...

  11. Effects of acute and chronic gamma irradiation on the shoot apex and general morphology of Lupinus albus L

    Lupinus albus L. plants were grown from seeds and irradiated at various stages of development with acute or chronic gamma rays. All plants were greenhouse grown (pre- and post-irradiation) and allowed to proceed through their normal growth cycle. The purpose of these experiments was to establish a Plactochron Index for Lupinus albus L. and to determine the effects of acute and chronic irradiation on development at the macro and microscopic levels. A Plastochron Index was calculated and used as an indirect time scale to evaluate the effects of gamma rays from a common base line. Acute radiation treatment lasted for a period of a few days, whereas chronic treatment was initiated at the seedling stage and lasted for the entire growth season. Vegetative plants were used to study the effects of acute radiation exposure on apical meristem morphology, Plastochron Index, phyllatoxis and gross morphology

  12. Sample Size in Clinical Cardioprotection Trials Using Myocardial Salvage Index, Infarct Size, or Biochemical Markers as Endpoint

    Engblom, Henrik; Heiberg, Einar; Erlinge, David; Jensen, Svend Eggert; Nordrehaug, Jan Erik; Dubois-Randé, Jean-Luc; Halvorsen, Sigrun; Hoffmann, Pavel; Koul, Sasha; Carlsson, Marcus; Atar, Dan; Arheden, Håkan

    2016-01-01

    biochemical markers in clinical cardioprotection trials and how scan day affect sample size. METHODS AND RESULTS: Controls (n=90) from the recent CHILL-MI and MITOCARE trials were included. MI size, MaR, and MSI were assessed from CMR. High-sensitivity troponin T (hsTnT) and creatine kinase isoenzyme MB (CKMB......) levels were assessed in CHILL-MI patients (n=50). Utilizing distribution of these variables, 100 000 clinical trials were simulated for calculation of sample size required to reach sufficient power. For a treatment effect of 25% decrease in outcome variables, 50 patients were required in each arm using...... MSI compared to 93, 98, 120, 141, and 143 for MI size alone, hsTnT (area under the curve [AUC] and peak), and CKMB (AUC and peak) in order to reach a power of 90%. If average CMR scan day between treatment and control arms differed by 1 day, sample size needs to be increased by 54% (77 vs 50) to avoid...

  13. Acute and long-term in vitro effects of zinc oxide nanoparticles.

    Annangi, Balasubramanyam; Rubio, Laura; Alaraby, Mohamed; Bach, Jordi; Marcos, Ricard; Hernández, Alba

    2016-09-01

    Since most of the toxic studies of zinc oxide nanoparticles (ZnO NPs) focused on acute and high-dose exposure conditions, the aim of the present study was to fill the existing knowledge gap of long-term effects of ZnO NPs at sub-toxic doses. To overcome this point, we have evaluated the toxic, genotoxic, and carcinogenic effects of ZnO NPs under long-term treatments (12 weeks), using a sub-toxic dose (1 µg/mL) according to acute 48-h exposure. Preliminarily, oxidative stress and genotoxic/oxidative DNA damage were determined under acute exposure and high-dose conditions. To determine the role of oxidative DNA damage, a wild-type mouse embryonic fibroblast (MEF Ogg1 (+/+)) and its isogenic 8-oxo-guanine DNA glycosylase 1 (Ogg1) knockout partner (MEF Ogg1 (-/-)) cell lines were used. Although short-term exposure (24-h) experiments demonstrated that ZnO NPs were able to induce ROS, genotoxicity, and oxidative DNA damage in both cell lines, no effects were obtained under long-term exposure scenario. Thus, 1 µg/mL exposure over 12 weeks was unable to induce genotoxicity as well as cellular transformation in both cell types, as indicated by the lack of observed morphological cell changes, variations in the secretion of matrix metalloproteinases, and anchorage-independent cell growth ability, regarded as cancer-like phenotypic hallmarks. Our results indicate that short-term effects of ZnO NP exposure are not replicated under long-term and sub-toxic dose conditions. All together, the lack of genotoxic/carcinogenic effects after chronic treatments seem to indicate a reduced risk associated with ZnO NP exposure. PMID:26449478

  14. Acute exercise improves cognition in the depressed elderly: the effect of dual-tasks

    Paulo Eduardo Vasques

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available OBJECTIVE: The goal of this study was to assess the acute effect of physical exercise on the cognitive function of depressed elderly patients in a dual-task experiment. INTRODUCTION: Physical exercise has a positive effect on the brain and may even act as a treatment for major depressive disorder. However, the effects of acute cardiovascular exercise on cognitive function during and after one session of aerobic training in elderly depressive patients are not known. METHODS: Ten elderly subjects diagnosed with major depressive disorder performed neuropsychological tests during and after a moderate physical exercise session (65-75%HRmax. A Digit Span Test (Forward and Backward and a Stroop Color-Word Test were used to assess cognitive function. The elderly participants walked on an electric treadmill for 30 minutes and underwent the same cognitive testing before, during, immediately after, and 15 minutes after the exercise session. In the control session, the same cognitive testing was conducted, but without exercise training. RESULTS: The results of the Digit Span Test did not change between the control and the exercise sessions. The results of the Stroop Color-Word Test improved after physical exercise, indicating a positive effect of exercise on cognition. CONCLUSIONS: These data suggest that the cognitive functions of depressed elderly persons, especially attention and inhibitory control, are not impaired during and after an acute session of physical exercise. In contrast, the effect of dual-tasks showed beneficial results for these subjects, mainly after exercise. The dual-task may be a safe and useful tool for assessing cognitive function.

  15. Effects of Repetitive Hyperbaric Oxygen Treatment in Patients with Acute Cerebral Infarction: A Pilot Study

    Cheng-Hsin Chen

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available The role of hyperbaric oxygen therapy (HBOT in the treatment of acute ischemic stroke is controversial. This prospective study assessed the efficacy and safety of HBOT as adjuvant treatment on 46 acute ischemic stroke in patients who did not receive thrombolytic therapy. The HBOT group (n=16 received conventional medical treatment with 10 sessions of adjunctive HBOT within 3–5 days after stroke onset, while the control group (n=30 received the same treatment but without HBOT. Early (around two weeks after onset and late (one month after onset outcomes (National Institutes of Health Stroke Scale, NIHSS scores and efficacy (changes of NIHSS scores of HBOT were evaluated. The baseline clinical characteristics were similar in both groups. Both early and late outcomes of the HBOT group showed significant difference (P≤0.001. In the control group, there was only significant difference in early outcome (P=0.004. For early efficacy, there was no difference when comparing changes of NIHSS scores between the two groups (P=0.140 but there was statistically significant difference when comparing changes of NIHSS scores at one month (P≤0.001. The HBOT used in this study may be effective for patients with acute ischemic stroke and is a safe and harmless adjunctive treatment.

  16. A retrospective observational study of the effectiveness of paliperidone palmitate on acute inpatient hospitalization rates.

    Bressington, Daniel; Stock, Jon; Hulbert, Sabina; MacInnes, Douglas

    2015-07-01

    This retrospective mirror-image observational study aimed to establish the effects of the long-acting antipsychotic injection paliperidone palmitate (PP) on acute inpatient hospitalization rates. We utilized routinely collected clinical data to compare the number and length of acute patient admissions 1 year before and 1 year after initiation of PP. A single cohort of 66 patients with a diagnosis of schizophrenia and who had received monthly injections of PP for at least 1 year were included in the analysis. The mean number of acute inpatient admissions fell from 0.86 in the year before PP initiation to 0.23 in the following year (P = 0.001), and there was a numerical but nonsignificant decrease in the number of bed days from 32.48 to 31.22 over the study duration. The median number of bed days in the year before PP initiation was 20, and in the year after initiation it was 0. The median number of admissions also fell from 1 to 0 during the same period. The results of the study should be treated cautiously because of the limitations of the study design but suggest that patients with a diagnosis of schizophrenia who continue treatment with PP over 12 months experience a significant reduction in hospital admissions compared with the previous year. PMID:25882381

  17. THE EFFECT OF FLUOROCARBON ARTIFICIAL BLOOD (FC-34 IN ACUTE VASOGENIC BRAIN EDEMA

    M NEEMATBAKHSH

    2000-03-01

    Full Text Available Background. Oxygen transport to tissue after an acute ischemia is strongly important. Fluorocarbon liquids are able to facilitated the oxygen transport. An animal experiment was designed to study the effect of FC-34 in acute brain ischemia. Methods. The left common carotid arteries were ligated in three groups of anesthetized animals for 30 minutes to obtain acute brain edema. The animals were subjected to received 15 ml/kg saline (group 1, 10% monitol (group 2 or FC-43 (group 3. All animals were recovered, and they monitored for two weeks. The electrolytes, BUN, and creatinine were measured before (all animals and after two weeks (survived animals. Pathological investigation was obtained by light and electron microscope via pathological process. Findings. The group 1 animals were died during first five days, but one and four animals were survived by two weeks in groups 2 & 3 respectively (P < 0.05. The pathological determinations indicate less cellular damages in group 3. No significant differences were detected in potassium, calcium, BUN, and creatinine before and after the experiment. Conclusion. The particle size and oxygen solubility in FC-43 is the major factors for better oxygen transport in ischem

  18. Evaluating effects of normobaric oxygen therapy in acute stroke with MRI-based predictive models

    Wu Ona

    2012-03-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Voxel-based algorithms using acute multiparametric-MRI data have been shown to accurately predict tissue outcome after stroke. We explored the potential of MRI-based predictive algorithms to objectively assess the effects of normobaric oxygen therapy (NBO, an investigational stroke treatment, using data from a pilot study of NBO in acute stroke. Methods The pilot study of NBO enrolled 11 patients randomized to NBO administered for 8 hours, and 8 Control patients who received room-air. Serial MRIs were obtained at admission, during gas therapy, post-therapy, and pre-discharge. Diffusion/perfusion MRI data acquired at admission (pre-therapy was used in generalized linear models to predict the risk of lesion growth at subsequent time points for both treatment scenarios: NBO or Control. Results Lesion volume sizes 'during NBO therapy' predicted by Control-models were significantly larger (P = 0.007 than those predicted by NBO models, suggesting that ischemic lesion growth is attenuated during NBO treatment. No significant difference was found between the predicted lesion volumes at later time-points. NBO-treated patients, despite showing larger lesion volumes on Control-models than NBO-models, tended to have reduced lesion growth. Conclusions This study shows that NBO has therapeutic potential in acute ischemic stroke, and demonstrates the feasibility of using MRI-based algorithms to evaluate novel treatments in early-phase clinical trials.

  19. Therapeutic effects of topical netrin-4 in a corneal acute inflammatory model

    Yun; Han; Yi; Shao; Ting-Ting; Liu; Sang-Ming; Li; Wei; Li; Zu-Guo; Liu

    2015-01-01

    AIM: To evaluate the therapeutic effect of netrin-4 on the early acute phase of inflammation in the alkali-burned eye.METHODS: Eye drops containing netrin-4 or phosphate buffered saline(PBS) were administered to a alkali-burn-induced corneal acute inflammatory model four times daily. The clinical evaluations, including fluorescein staining and inflammatory index, were performed on day 1, 4 and 7 using slit lamp microscopy.Global specimens were collected on day 7 and processed for immunofluorescent staining. The levels of inflammatory mediators in the corneas were determined by real-time polymerase chain reaction(PCR).RESULTS: Exogenous netrin-4 administered on rat ocular surfaces showed more improvements in decreasing fluorescein staining on day 4 and 7, and resolved alkali burn-induced corneal inflammation index on day 7(P <0.01). The levels of IL-1β, IL-6, intercellular cell adhesion molecule-1(ICAM-1), vascular cell adhesion molecule-1(VCAM-1), monocyte chemotactic protein-1(MCP-1) and macrophage inflammatory protein-1(MIP-1) in corneas were decreased in netrin-4-treated groups(P <0.05). In addition, netrin-4 significantly reduced the expression of leukocyte common antigen 45(CD45) in the alkali-burn cornea(P <0.001).CONCLUSION: Topical netrin-4 accelerated wound healing and reduced the inflammation on alkali-burn rat model, suggesting a potential as an anti-inflammatory agent in the clinical to treat the acute inflammation.

  20. The mitochondrial permeability transition pore: Molecular nature and role as a target in cardioprotection

    Bernardi, Paolo; Di Lisa, Fabio

    2015-01-01

    The mitochondrial permeability transition (PT) – an abrupt increase permeability of the inner membrane to solutes – is a causative event in ischemia–reperfusion injury of the heart, and the focus of intense research in cardioprotection. The PT is due to opening of the PT pore (PTP), a high conductance channel that is critically regulated by a variety of pathophysiological effectors. Very recent work indicates that the PTP forms from the F-ATP synthase, which would switch from an energy-conser...