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Sample records for acute brain slices

  1. Extending the viability of acute brain slices.

    Buskila, Yossi; Breen, Paul P; Tapson, Jonathan; van Schaik, André; Barton, Matthew; Morley, John W

    2014-01-01

    The lifespan of an acute brain slice is approximately 6-12 hours, limiting potential experimentation time. We have designed a new recovery incubation system capable of extending their lifespan to more than 36 hours. This system controls the temperature of the incubated artificial cerebral spinal fluid (aCSF) while continuously passing the fluid through a UVC filtration system and simultaneously monitoring temperature and pH. The combination of controlled temperature and UVC filtering maintains bacteria levels in the lag phase and leads to the dramatic extension of the brain slice lifespan. Brain slice viability was validated through electrophysiological recordings as well as live/dead cell assays. This system benefits researchers by monitoring incubation conditions and standardizing this artificial environment. It further provides viable tissue for two experimental days, reducing the time spent preparing brain slices and the number of animals required for research. PMID:24930889

  2. Targeting neurotransmitter receptors with nanoparticles in vivo allows single-molecule tracking in acute brain slices

    Varela, Juan A.; Dupuis, Julien P.; Etchepare, Laetitia; Espana, Agnès; Cognet, Laurent; Groc, Laurent

    2016-03-01

    Single-molecule imaging has changed the way we understand many biological mechanisms, particularly in neurobiology, by shedding light on intricate molecular events down to the nanoscale. However, current single-molecule studies in neuroscience have been limited to cultured neurons or organotypic slices, leaving as an open question the existence of fast receptor diffusion in intact brain tissue. Here, for the first time, we targeted dopamine receptors in vivo with functionalized quantum dots and were able to perform single-molecule tracking in acute rat brain slices. We propose a novel delocalized and non-inflammatory way of delivering nanoparticles (NPs) in vivo to the brain, which allowed us to label and track genetically engineered surface dopamine receptors in neocortical neurons, revealing inherent behaviour and receptor activity regulations. We thus propose a NP-based platform for single-molecule studies in the living brain, opening new avenues of research in physiological and pathological animal models.

  3. The relationship between decorrelation time and sample thickness in acute rat brain tissue slices (Conference Presentation)

    Brake, Joshua; Jang, Mooseok; Yang, Changhuei

    2016-03-01

    The optical opacity of biological tissue has long been a challenge in biomedical optics due to the strong scattering nature of tissue in the optical regime. While most conventional optical techniques attempt to gate out multiply scattered light and use only unscattered light, new approaches in the field of wavefront shaping exploit the time reversible symmetry of optical scattering in order to focus light inside or through scattering media. While these approaches have been demonstrated effectively on static samples, it has proven difficult to apply them to dynamic biological samples since even small changes in the relative positions of the scatterers within will cause the time symmetry that wavefront shaping relies upon to decorrelate. In this paper we investigate the decorrelation curves of acute rat brain slices for thicknesses in the range 1-3 mm (1/e decorrelation time on the order of seconds) using multi-speckle diffusing wave spectroscopy (MSDWS) and compare the results with theoretical predictions. The results of this study demonstrate that the 1/L^2 relationship between decorrelation time and thickness predicted by diffusing wave spectroscopy provides a good rule of thumb for estimating how the decorrelation of a sample will change with increasing thickness. Understanding this relationship will provide insight to guide the future development of biophotonic wavefront shaping tools by giving an estimate of how fast wavefront shaping systems need to operate to overcome the dynamic nature of biological samples.

  4. Two-photon microscope for multisite microphotolysis of caged neurotransmitters in acute brain slices

    Losavio, Bradley E.; Iyer, Vijay; Saggau, Peter

    2009-11-01

    We developed a two-photon microscope optimized for physiologically manipulating single neurons through their postsynaptic receptors. The optical layout fulfills the stringent design criteria required for high-speed, high-resolution imaging in scattering brain tissue with minimal photodamage. We detail the practical compensation of spectral and temporal dispersion inherent in fast laser beam scanning with acousto-optic deflectors, as well as a set of biological protocols for visualizing nearly diffraction-limited structures and delivering physiological synaptic stimuli. The microscope clearly resolves dendritic spines and evokes electrophysiological transients in single neurons that are similar to endogenous responses. This system enables the study of multisynaptic integration and will assist our understanding of single neuron function and dendritic computation.

  5. Analysis of acute brain slices by electron microscopy: a correlative light-electron microscopy workflow based on Tokuyasu cryo-sectioning.

    Loussert Fonta, Celine; Leis, Andrew; Mathisen, Cliff; Bouvier, David S; Blanchard, Willy; Volterra, Andrea; Lich, Ben; Humbel, Bruno M

    2015-01-01

    Acute brain slices are slices of brain tissue that are kept vital in vitro for further recordings and analyses. This tool is of major importance in neurobiology and allows the study of brain cells such as microglia, astrocytes, neurons and their inter/intracellular communications via ion channels or transporters. In combination with light/fluorescence microscopies, acute brain slices enable the ex vivo analysis of specific cells or groups of cells inside the slice, e.g. astrocytes. To bridge ex vivo knowledge of a cell with its ultrastructure, we developed a correlative microscopy approach for acute brain slices. The workflow begins with sampling of the tissue and precise trimming of a region of interest, which contains GFP-tagged astrocytes that can be visualised by fluorescence microscopy of ultrathin sections. The astrocytes and their surroundings are then analysed by high resolution scanning transmission electron microscopy (STEM). An important aspect of this workflow is the modification of a commercial cryo-ultramicrotome to observe the fluorescent GFP signal during the trimming process. It ensured that sections contained at least one GFP astrocyte. After cryo-sectioning, a map of the GFP-expressing astrocytes is established and transferred to correlation software installed on a focused ion beam scanning electron microscope equipped with a STEM detector. Next, the areas displaying fluorescence are selected for high resolution STEM imaging. An overview area (e.g. a whole mesh of the grid) is imaged with an automated tiling and stitching process. In the final stitched image, the local organisation of the brain tissue can be surveyed or areas of interest can be magnified to observe fine details, e.g. vesicles or gold labels on specific proteins. The robustness of this workflow is contingent on the quality of sample preparation, based on Tokuyasu's protocol. This method results in a reasonable compromise between preservation of morphology and maintenance of

  6. Brain perfusion CT for acute stroke using a 256-slice CT: improvement of diagnostic information by large volume coverage

    Dorn, F. [Technical University, Department of Radiology, Klinikum rechts der Isar, Munich (Germany); Institut fuer Radiologie, Klinikum rechts der Isar der Technischen Universitaet Muenchen, Muenchen (Germany); Muenzel, D.; Meier, R.; Rummeny, E.J.; Huber, A. [Technical University, Department of Radiology, Klinikum rechts der Isar, Munich (Germany); Poppert, H. [Technical University, Department of Neurology, Klinikum rechts der Isar, Munich (Germany)

    2011-09-15

    To compare a 256-slice CT with a simulated standard CT for brain CT perfusion (CTP). CTP was obtained in 51 patients using a 256-slice CT (128 detector rows, flying z-focus, 8-cm detector width, 80 kV, 120mAs, 20 measurements, 1 CT image/2.5 s). Signal-to-noise ratios (SNR) were compared in grey and white matter. Perfusion maps were evaluated for cerebral blood flow (CBF), cerebral blood volume (CBV) and mean transit time (MTT) in hypoperfused areas and corresponding contralateral regions. Two reconstructed 10-mm slices for simulation of a standard CT (SDCT) were compared with the complete data sets (large-volume CT, LVCT). Adequate image quality was achieved in 50/51 cases. SNR were significantly different in grey and white matter. A perfusion deficit was present in 27 data sets. Differences between the hypoperfusions and the control regions were significant for MTT and CBF, but not for CBV. Three lesions were missed by SDCT but detected by LVCT; 24 lesions were covered incompletely by SDCT, and 6 by LVCT. 21 lesions were detected completely by LVCT, but none by SDCT. CTP imaging of the brain using an increased detector width can detect additional ischaemic lesions and cover most ischaemic lesions completely. (orig.)

  7. Image reconstruction for brain CT slices

    吴建明; 施鹏飞

    2004-01-01

    Different modalities in biomedical images, like CT, MRI and PET scanners, provide detailed cross-sectional views of human anatomy. This paper introduces three-dimensional brain reconstruction based on CT slices. It contains filtering, fuzzy segmentation, matching method of contours, cell array structure and image animation. Experimental results have shown its validity. The innovation is matching method of contours and fuzzy segmentation algorithm of CT slices.

  8. Long-term brain slice culturing in a microfluidic platform

    Vedarethinam, Indumathi; Avaliani, N.; Tønnesen, J.;

    2011-01-01

    In this work, we present the development of a transparent poly(methyl methacrylate) (PMMA) based microfluidic culture system for handling long-term brain slice cultures independent of an incubator. The different stages of system development have been validated by culturing GFP producing brain...... brain slice culturing for 16 days....

  9. Modification of hippocampal excitability in brain slices pretreated with a low nanomolar concentration of Zn2+.

    Takeda, Atsushi; Shakushi, Yukina; Tamano, Haruna

    2015-11-01

    Synaptic Zn2+ homeostasis may be changed during brain slice preparation. However, much less attention has been paid to Zn2+ in artificial cerebrospinal fluid (ACSF) used for slice experiments than has been paid to Ca2+ . The present study assesses addition of Zn2+ to ACSF, focused on hippocampal excitability after acute brain slice preparation. When the static levels of intracellular Zn2+ and Ca2+ were compared between brain slices prepared with conventional ACSF without Zn2+ and those pretreated with ACSF containing 20 nM ZnCl2 for 1 hr, both levels were almost the same. On the other hand, intracellular Ca2+ levels were significantly increased in the stratum lucidum of the control brain slices after stimulation with high K+, although the increase was significantly suppressed by the pretreatment with ACSF containing Zn2+, suggesting that neuronal excitation is enhanced in brain slices prepared with ACSF without Zn2+. The increase in extracellular Zn2+ level, an index of glutamate release, after stimulation with high K+ was also significantly suppressed by pretreatment with ACSF containing Zn2+. When mossy fiber excitation was assessed in brain slices with FM4-64, an indicator of presynaptic activity, attenuation of FM 4-64 fluorescence based on presynaptic activity was suppressed in the stratum lucidum of brain slices pretreated with ACSF containing Zn2+. The present study indicates that hippocampal excitability is enhanced in brain slices prepared with ACSF without Zn2+. It is likely that a low nanomolar concentration of Zn2+ is necessary for ACSF. PMID:26268632

  10. Localized gene transfer into organotypic hippocampal slice cultures and acute hippocampal slices

    Casaccia-Bonnefil, P; Benedikz, Eirikur; Shen, H;

    1993-01-01

    Viral vectors derived from herpes simplex virus, type-1 (HSV), can transfer and express genes into fully differentiated, post-mitotic neurons. These vectors also transduce cells effectively in organotypic hippocampal slice cultures. Nanoliter quantities of a virus stock of HSVlac, an HSV vector...... effective and rapid. The titer of the HSVlac stocks was determined on NIH3T3 cells. Eighty-three percent of the beta-gal forming units successfully transduced beta-gal after microapplication to slice cultures. beta-Gal expression was detected as rapidly as 4 h after transduction into cultures of fibroblasts...... or hippocampal slices. The rapid expression of beta-gal by HSVlac allowed efficient transduction of acute hippocampal slices. Many genes have been transduced and expressed using HSV vectors; therefore, this microapplication method can be applied to many neurobiological questions....

  11. Classification of CT-brain slices based on local histograms

    Avrunin, Oleg G.; Tymkovych, Maksym Y.; Pavlov, Sergii V.; Timchik, Sergii V.; Kisała, Piotr; Orakbaev, Yerbol

    2015-12-01

    Neurosurgical intervention is a very complicated process. Modern operating procedures based on data such as CT, MRI, etc. Automated analysis of these data is an important task for researchers. Some modern methods of brain-slice segmentation use additional data to process these images. Classification can be used to obtain this information. To classify the CT images of the brain, we suggest using local histogram and features extracted from them. The paper shows the process of feature extraction and classification CT-slices of the brain. The process of feature extraction is specialized for axial cross-section of the brain. The work can be applied to medical neurosurgical systems.

  12. Electrophysiology of hypothalamic magnocellular neurons in vitro: a rhythmic drive in organotypic cultures and acute slices

    Jean-Marc eIsrael

    2016-03-01

    Full Text Available Hypothalamic neurohormones are released in a pulsatile manner. The mechanisms of this pulsatility remain poorly understood and several hypotheses are available, depending upon the neuroendocrine system considered. Among these systems, hypothalamo-neurohypophyseal magnocellular neurons have been early-considered models, as they typically display an electrical activity consisting of bursts of action potentials that is optimal for the release of boluses of the neurohormones oxytocin and vasopressin. The cellular mechanisms underlying this bursting behavior have been studied in vitro, using either acute slices of the adult hypothalamus, or organotypic cultures of neonatal hypothalamic tissue. We have recently proposed, from experiments in organotypic cultures, that specific central pattern generator networks, upstream of magnocellular neurons, determine their bursting activity. Here, we have tested whether a similar hypothesis can be derived from in vitro experiments in acute slices of the adult hypothalamus. To this aim we have screened our electrophysiological recordings of the magnocellular neurons, previously obtained from acute slices, with an analysis of autocorrelation of action potentials to detect a rhythmic drive as we recently did for organotypic cultures. This confirmed that the bursting behavior of magnocellular neurons is governed by central pattern generator networks whose rhythmic drive, and thus probably integrity, is however less satisfactorily preserved in the acute slices from adult brains.

  13. Novel culturing platform for brain slices and neuronal cells

    Svendsen, Winnie Edith; Al Atraktchi, Fatima Al-Zahraa; Bakmand, Tanya;

    2015-01-01

    In this paper we demonstrate a novel culturing system for brain slices and neuronal cells, which can control the concentration of nutrients and the waste removal from the culture by adjusting the fluid flow within the device. The entire system can be placed in an incubator. The system has been te...

  14. Fluidic system for long-term in vitro culturing and monitoring of organotypic brain slices

    Bakmand, Tanya; Troels-Smith, Ane R.; Dimaki, Maria;

    2015-01-01

    Brain slice preparations cultured in vitro have long been used as a simplified model for studying brain development, electrophysiology, neurodegeneration and neuroprotection. In this paper an open fluidic system developed for improved long term culturing of organotypic brain slices is presented...... their structure better than the control slices cultured using the standard interface method....

  15. The energy demand of fast neuronal network oscillations: insights from brain slice preparations

    Oliver eKann

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available Fast neuronal network oscillations in the gamma range (30-100 Hz in the cerebral cortex have been implicated in higher cognitive functions such as sensual perception, working memory, and, perhaps, consciousness. However, little is known about the energy demand of gamma oscillations. This is mainly caused by technical limitations that are associated with simultaneous recordings of neuronal activity and energy metabolism in small neuronal networks and at the level of mitochondria in vivo. Thus recent studies have focused on brain slice preparations to address the energy demand of gamma oscillations in vitro. Here, reports will be summarized and discussed that combined electrophysiological recordings, oxygen sensor microelectrodes and live-cell fluorescence imaging in acutely prepared slices and organotypic slice cultures of the hippocampus from both, mouse and rat. These reports consistently show that gamma oscillations can be reliably induced in hippocampal slice preparations by different pharmacological tools. They suggest that gamma oscillations are associated with high energy demand, requiring both rapid adaptation of oxidative energy metabolism and sufficient supply with oxygen and nutrients. These findings might help to explain the exceptional vulnerability of higher cognitive functions during pathological processes of the brain, such as circulatory disturbances, genetic mitochondrial diseases, and neurodegeneration.

  16. Time-lapse imaging of neuroblast migration in acute slices of the adult mouse forebrain.

    Khlghatyan, Jivan; Saghatelyan, Armen

    2012-01-01

    There is a substantial body of evidence indicating that new functional neurons are constitutively generated from an endogenous pool of neural stem cells in restricted areas of the adult mammalian brain. Newborn neuroblasts from the subventricular zone (SVZ) migrate along the rostral migratory stream (RMS) to their final destination in the olfactory bulb (OB). In the RMS, neuroblasts migrate tangentially in chains ensheathed by astrocytic processes using blood vessels as a structural support and a source of molecular factors required for migration. In the OB, neuroblasts detach from the chains and migrate radially into the different bulbar layers where they differentiate into interneurons and integrate into the existing network. In this manuscript we describe the procedure for monitoring cell migration in acute slices of the rodent brain. The use of acute slices allows the assessment of cell migration in the microenvironment that closely resembling to in vivo conditions and in brain regions that are difficult to access for in vivo imaging. In addition, it avoids long culturing condition as in the case of organotypic and cell cultures that may eventually alter the migration properties of the cells. Neuronal precursors in acute slices can be visualized using DIC optics or fluorescent proteins. Viral labeling of neuronal precursors in the SVZ, grafting neuroblasts from reporter mice into the SVZ of wild-type mice, and using transgenic mice that express fluorescent protein in neuroblasts are all suitable methods for visualizing neuroblasts and following their migration. The later method, however, does not allow individual cells to be tracked for long periods of time because of the high density of labeled cells. We used a wide-field fluorescent upright microscope equipped with a CCD camera to achieve a relatively rapid acquisition interval (one image every 15 or 30 sec) to reliably identify the stationary and migratory phases. A precise identification of the duration of

  17. Whole-cell Patch-clamp Recordings in Brain Slices.

    Segev, Amir; Garcia-Oscos, Francisco; Kourrich, Saïd

    2016-01-01

    Whole-cell patch-clamp recording is an electrophysiological technique that allows the study of the electrical properties of a substantial part of the neuron. In this configuration, the micropipette is in tight contact with the cell membrane, which prevents current leakage and thereby provides more accurate ionic current measurements than the previously used intracellular sharp electrode recording method. Classically, whole-cell recording can be performed on neurons in various types of preparations, including cell culture models, dissociated neurons, neurons in brain slices, and in intact anesthetized or awake animals. In summary, this technique has immensely contributed to the understanding of passive and active biophysical properties of excitable cells. A major advantage of this technique is that it provides information on how specific manipulations (e.g., pharmacological, experimenter-induced plasticity) may alter specific neuronal functions or channels in real-time. Additionally, significant opening of the plasma membrane allows the internal pipette solution to freely diffuse into the cytoplasm, providing means for introducing drugs, e.g., agonists or antagonists of specific intracellular proteins, and manipulating these targets without altering their functions in neighboring cells. This article will focus on whole-cell recording performed on neurons in brain slices, a preparation that has the advantage of recording neurons in relatively well preserved brain circuits, i.e., in a physiologically relevant context. In particular, when combined with appropriate pharmacology, this technique is a powerful tool allowing identification of specific neuroadaptations that occurred following any type of experiences, such as learning, exposure to drugs of abuse, and stress. In summary, whole-cell patch-clamp recordings in brain slices provide means to measure in ex vivo preparation long-lasting changes in neuronal functions that have developed in intact awake animals

  18. Acute brain hemorrhage in dengue

    Somsri Wiwanitkit; Viroj Wiwanitkit

    2014-01-01

    Dengue is a tropical arboviral infection that can have severe hemorrhagic complication.Acute brain hemorrhage in dengue is rare and is a big challenge in neurosurgery.To perform surgery for management of acute brain hemorrhage in dengue is a controversial issue.Here, the authors try to summarize the previous reports on this topic and compare neurosurgery versus conservative management.

  19. Fast whole-brain optical tomography capable of automated slice-collection (Conference Presentation)

    Yuan, Jing; Jiang, Tao; Deng, Lei; Long, Beng; Peng, Jie; Luo, Qingming; Gong, Hui

    2016-03-01

    Acquiring brain-wide composite information of neuroanatomical and molecular phenotyping is crucial to understand brain functions. However, current whole-brain imaging methods based on mechnical sectioning haven't achieved brain-wide acquisition of both neuroanatomical and molecular phenotyping due to the lack of appropriate whole-brain immunostaining of embedded samples. Here, we present a novel strategy of acquiring brain-wide structural and molecular maps in the same brain, combining whole-brain imaging and subsequent immunostaining of automated-collected slices. We developed a whole-brain imaging system capable of automatically imaging and then collecting imaged tissue slices in order. The system contains three parts: structured illumination microscopy for high-throughput optical sectioning, vibratome for high-precision sectioning and slice-collection device for automated collecting of tissue slices. Through our system, we could acquire a whole-brain dataset of agarose-embedded mouse brain at lateral resolution of 0.33 µm with z-interval sampling of 100 µm in 9 h, and automatically collect the imaged slices in sequence. Subsequently, we performed immunohistochemistry of the collected slices in the routine way. We acquired mouse whole-brain imaging datasets of multiple specific types of neurons, proteins and gene expression profiles. We believe our method could accelerate systematic analysis of brain anatomical structure with specific proteins or genes expression information and understanding how the brain processes information and generates behavior.

  20. Slices

    McCrae, James

    2011-01-01

    Minimalist object representations or shape-proxies that spark and inspire human perception of shape remain an incompletely understood, yet powerful aspect of visual communication. We explore the use of planar sections, i.e., the contours of intersection of planes with a 3D object, for creating shape abstractions, motivated by their popularity in art and engineering. We first perform a user study to show that humans do define consistent and similar planar section proxies for common objects. Interestingly, we observe a strong correlation between user-defined planes and geometric features of objects. Further we show that the problem of finding the minimum set of planes that capture a set of 3D geometric shape features is both NP-hard and not always the proxy a user would pick. Guided by the principles inferred from our user study, we present an algorithm that progressively selects planes to maximize feature coverage, which in turn influence the selection of subsequent planes. The algorithmic framework easily incorporates various shape features, while their relative importance values are computed and validated from the user study data. We use our algorithm to compute planar slices for various objects, validate their utility towards object abstraction using a second user study, and conclude showing the potential applications of the extracted planar slice shape proxies. © 2011 ACM.

  1. Effect of slice thickness on brain magnetic resonance image texture analysis

    Heinonen Tomi; Luukkaala Tiina; Harrison Lara CV; Savio Sami J; Dastidar Prasun; Soimakallio Seppo; Eskola Hannu J

    2010-01-01

    Abstract Background The accuracy of texture analysis in clinical evaluation of magnetic resonance images depends considerably on imaging arrangements and various image quality parameters. In this paper, we study the effect of slice thickness on brain tissue texture analysis using a statistical approach and classification of T1-weighted images of clinically confirmed multiple sclerosis patients. Methods We averaged the intensities of three consecutive 1-mm slices to simulate 3-mm slices. Two h...

  2. Biocompatibility of silicon-based arrays of electrodes coupled to organotypic hippocampal brain slice cultures

    Kristensen, Bjarne Winther; Noraberg, J; Thiébaud, P;

    2001-01-01

    In this study we examined the passive biocompatibility of a three-dimensional microelectrode array (MEA), designed to be coupled to organotypic brain slice cultures for multisite recording of electrophysiological signals. Hippocampal (and corticostriatal) brain slices from 1-week-old (and newborn......-methyl-D-aspartate (NMDA) and the neurotoxin trimethyltin (TMT), as demonstrated by the cellular uptake of propidium iodide (PI), which was used as a reproducible and quantifiable marker for neuronal degeneration. We conclude that organotypic brain slice cultures can grow on silicon-based three-dimensional microelectrode...

  3. Diagnosis on multi-slice spiral CT in acute pancreatitis and complications

    Objective: To analyze multi-slice CT features and to assess the diagnostic value of CT in acute pancreatitis. Methods: CT was performed on 21 patients with acute pancreatitis in the unenhanced, arterial (28 seconds after intravenous contrast injection), venous (60 seconds) phases. The morphology and contrast enhancement enhancement patterns were analyzed. Results: Of 21 patients, pancreatic necrosis was found in 9 and acute edematous pancreatitis in 12. Associated findings included bile duct stones or cholecystitis (13), liver abscess (1), systemic lupus erythematosis (1), abdominal trauma (2), and pancreatic divisum (1). Complications included pseudoaneurysm (1), venous thrombosis (1), ascites (7), pleural effusion (4) and right lower lobe lung atelectasis (1). Conclusion: Tri-phasic multi-slice spiral CT can accurately distinguish acute edematous pancreatitis from acute hemorrhagic necrotic pancreatitis. CT allows comprehensive evaluation of the cause and complication of acute pancreatitis. (authors)

  4. Using laser confocal scanning microscope to study ischemia-hypoxia injury in rat brain slice

    2000-01-01

    The level of lipid peroxidation and cellular necrosis in rat living brain slices during brain ischemia-hypoxia injury have been observed using a laser confocal scanning microscope (LCSM) with double labeling of fluorescent probes D-399 (2,7-dichlorofluorescin diacetate) and propidium iodide (PI).The hypoxia and/or reoxygenation injury in rat brain slices is markedly decreased by pretreatment with L-NG-nitro-arginine (L-NNA) and N-acetylcysteine (NAC),showing that the nitric oxide (NO) and other free radicals play an important role in brain ischemia-hypoxia injury.

  5. Abundant GFP expression and LTP in hippocampal acute slices by in vivo injection of sindbis virus.

    D'Apuzzo, M; Mandolesi, G; Reis, G; Schuman, E M

    2001-08-01

    Virus-mediated gene transfer into neurons is a powerful tool for the analysis of neuronal structure and function. Recombinant sindbis virus has been previously used to study protein function in hippocampal neuron cultures as well as in hippocampal organotypic slice cultures. Nevertheless, some concern still exists about the physiological relevance of these cultured preparations. Acute hippocampal slices are a widely used preparation for the study of synaptic transmission, but currently recombinant gene delivery is usually achieved only through time-consuming transgenic techniques. In this study, we show that a subregion of the CA1 area in acute hippocampal slices can be specifically altered to express a gene of interest. A sindbis virus vector carrying an enhanced green fluorescent protein (EGFP) reporter was injected in vivo into the hippocampus of adult rats. After 18 h, rats were killed, and acute hippocampal slices, infected in the CA1 field, were analyzed morphologically and electrophysiologically. Infected slices showed healthy and stable electrophysiological responses as well as long-term potentiation. In addition, infected pyramidal cells were readily recognized in living slices by two-photon imaging. Specifically, the introduction of an EGFP-Actin fusion protein greatly enhanced the detection of fine processes and dendritic spines. We propose this technique as an efficient tool for studying gene function in adult hippocampal neurons. PMID:11495971

  6. Perfused drop microfluidic device for brain slice culture-based drug discovery.

    Liu, Jing; Pan, Liping; Cheng, Xuanhong; Berdichevsky, Yevgeny

    2016-06-01

    Living slices of brain tissue are widely used to model brain processes in vitro. In addition to basic neurophysiology studies, brain slices are also extensively used for pharmacology, toxicology, and drug discovery research. In these experiments, high parallelism and throughput are critical. Capability to conduct long-term electrical recording experiments may also be necessary to address disease processes that require protein synthesis and neural circuit rewiring. We developed a novel perfused drop microfluidic device for use with long term cultures of brain slices (organotypic cultures). Slices of hippocampus were placed into wells cut in polydimethylsiloxane (PDMS) film. Fluid level in the wells was hydrostatically controlled such that a drop was formed around each slice. The drops were continuously perfused with culture medium through microchannels. We found that viable organotypic hippocampal slice cultures could be maintained for at least 9 days in vitro. PDMS microfluidic network could be readily integrated with substrate-printed microelectrodes for parallel electrical recordings of multiple perfused organotypic cultures on a single MEA chip. We expect that this highly scalable perfused drop microfluidic device will facilitate high-throughput drug discovery and toxicology. PMID:27194028

  7. Does brain slices from pentylenetetrazole-kindled mice provide a more predictive screening model for antiepileptic drugs?

    Hansen, Suzanne L.; Sterjev, Zoran; Werngreen, Marie;

    2012-01-01

    reported to lack effect in this model. The neuroplastic changes induced in acute and chronic animal models of epilepsy are known to affect the pharmacological profile of AEDs in vivo. Hence, we investigated whether brain slices from pentylenetetrazole (PTZ)-kindled animals could provide a more predictive...... action in animal models of epilepsy. In our study, the anticonvulsant effect of the AEDs was investigated in vivo using several observational parameters (i.e., incidence and duration of convulsions, latency to clonic convulsions, and severity of convulsions). We found that including the observational...

  8. Simulated ischaemia-reperfusion conditions increase xanthine dehydrogenase and oxidase activities in rat brain slices.

    Battelli, M G; Buonamici, L; Virgili, M; Abbondanza, A; Contestabile, A

    1998-01-01

    Xanthine dehydrogenase and oxidase activities increased by 87% in rat brain slices after 30 min in vitro ischaemia. A further 41% increase was induced by 30 min simulated reperfusion of ischaemic slices. No conversion from the dehydrogenase to the oxidase activity was observed. The increment of enzyme activity was not due to neosynthesis of the enzyme, since it was not affected by the addition of cycloheximide during the ischaemic incubation. The increased oxygen-dependent form of the enzyme could aggravate the ischaemic brain injury by free radicals production, in particular after reperfusion. PMID:9460697

  9. Dibucaine mitigates spreading depolarization in human neocortical slices and prevents acute dendritic injury in the ischemic rodent neocortex.

    W Christopher Risher

    Full Text Available Spreading depolarizations that occur in patients with malignant stroke, subarachnoid/intracranial hemorrhage, and traumatic brain injury are known to facilitate neuronal damage in metabolically compromised brain tissue. The dramatic failure of brain ion homeostasis caused by propagating spreading depolarizations results in neuronal and astroglial swelling. In essence, swelling is the initial response and a sign of the acute neuronal injury that follows if energy deprivation is maintained. Choosing spreading depolarizations as a target for therapeutic intervention, we have used human brain slices and in vivo real-time two-photon laser scanning microscopy in the mouse neocortex to study potentially useful therapeutics against spreading depolarization-induced injury.We have shown that anoxic or terminal depolarization, a spreading depolarization wave ignited in the ischemic core where neurons cannot repolarize, can be evoked in human slices from pediatric brains during simulated ischemia induced by oxygen/glucose deprivation or by exposure to ouabain. Changes in light transmittance (LT tracked terminal depolarization in time and space. Though spreading depolarizations are notoriously difficult to block, terminal depolarization onset was delayed by dibucaine, a local amide anesthetic and sodium channel blocker. Remarkably, the occurrence of ouabain-induced terminal depolarization was delayed at a concentration of 1 µM that preserves synaptic function. Moreover, in vivo two-photon imaging in the penumbra revealed that, though spreading depolarizations did still occur, spreading depolarization-induced dendritic injury was inhibited by dibucaine administered intravenously at 2.5 mg/kg in a mouse stroke model.Dibucaine mitigated the effects of spreading depolarization at a concentration that could be well-tolerated therapeutically. Hence, dibucaine is a promising candidate to protect the brain from ischemic injury with an approach that does not rely on

  10. Modification of a Colliculo-thalamocortical Mouse Brain Slice, Incorporating 3-D printing of Chamber Components and Multi-scale Optical Imaging.

    Slater, Bernard J; Fan, Anthony Y; Stebbings, Kevin A; Saif, M Taher A; Llano, Daniel A

    2015-01-01

    The ability of the brain to process sensory information relies on both ascending and descending sets of projections. Until recently, the only way to study these two systems and how they interact has been with the use of in vivo preparations. Major advances have been made with acute brain slices containing the thalamocortical and cortico-thalamic pathways in the somatosensory, visual, and auditory systems. With key refinements to our recent modification of the auditory thalamocortical slice(1), we are able to more reliably capture the projections between most of the major auditory midbrain and forebrain structures: the inferior colliculus (IC), medial geniculate body (MGB), thalamic reticular nucleus (TRN), and the auditory cortex (AC). With portions of all these connections retained, we are able to answer detailed questions that complement the questions that can be answered with in vivo preparations. The use of flavoprotein autofluorescence imaging enables us to rapidly assess connectivity in any given slice and guide the ensuing experiment. Using this slice in conjunction with recording and imaging techniques, we are now better equipped to understand how information processing occurs at each point in the auditory forebrain as information ascends to the cortex, and the impact of descending cortical modulation. 3-D printing to build slice chamber components permits double-sided perfusion and broad access to networks within the slice and maintains the widespread connections key to fully utilizing this preparation. PMID:26437382

  11. Effects of ketamine, midazolam, thiopental, and propofol on brain ischemia injury in rat cerebral cortical slices

    Qing-shengXUE; Bu-weiYU; Ze-jianWANG; Hong-zhuanCHEN

    2004-01-01

    AIM: To compare the effects of ketamine, midazolam, thiopental, and propofol on brain ischemia by the model of oxygen-glucose deprivation (OGD) in rat cerebral cortical slices. METHODS: Cerebral cortical slices were incu-bated in 2 % 2,3,5-triphenyltetrazolium chloride (TTC) solution after OGD, the damages and effects of ketamine,midazolam, thiopental, and propofol were quantitativlye evaluated by ELISA reader of absorbance (A) at 490 nm,which indicated the red formazan extracted from slices, lactic dehydrogenase (LDH) releases in the incubated supernate were also measured. RESULTS: Progressive prolongation of OGD resulted in decreases of TTC staining.The percentage of tissue injury had a positive correlation with LDH releases, r=0.9609, P<0.01. Two hours of reincubation aggravated the decrease of TTC staining compared with those slices stained immediately after OGD(P<0.01). These four anesthetics had no effects on the TTC staining of slices. Ketamine completely inhibited thedecrease of A value induced by 10 min of OGD injury. High concentrations of midazolam (10 μmol/L) and thiopental (400μmol/L) partly attenuated this decrease. Propofol at high concentration (100 μmol/L) enhanced the decrease of A value induced by 10 min of OGD injury (P<0.01). CONCLUSION; Ketamine, high concentration of midazolam and thiopental have neuroprotective effects against OGD injury in rat cerebral cortical slices, while high concentration of propofol augments OGD injury in rat cerebral cortical slices.

  12. Effect of slice thickness on brain magnetic resonance image texture analysis

    Heinonen Tomi

    2010-10-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background The accuracy of texture analysis in clinical evaluation of magnetic resonance images depends considerably on imaging arrangements and various image quality parameters. In this paper, we study the effect of slice thickness on brain tissue texture analysis using a statistical approach and classification of T1-weighted images of clinically confirmed multiple sclerosis patients. Methods We averaged the intensities of three consecutive 1-mm slices to simulate 3-mm slices. Two hundred sixty-four texture parameters were calculated for both the original and the averaged slices. Wilcoxon's signed ranks test was used to find differences between the regions of interest representing white matter and multiple sclerosis plaques. Linear and nonlinear discriminant analyses were applied with several separate training and test sets to determine the actual classification accuracy. Results Only moderate differences in distributions of the texture parameter value for 1-mm and simulated 3-mm-thick slices were found. Our study also showed that white matter areas are well separable from multiple sclerosis plaques even if the slice thickness differs between training and test sets. Conclusions Three-millimeter-thick magnetic resonance image slices acquired with a 1.5 T clinical magnetic resonance scanner seem to be sufficient for texture analysis of multiple sclerosis plaques and white matter tissue.

  13. Dopaminergic differentiation of human neural stem cells mediated by co-cultured rat striatal brain slices

    Anwar, Mohammad Raffaqat; Andreasen, Christian Maaløv; Lippert, Solvej Kølvraa;

    2008-01-01

    differentiation, we co-cultured cells from a human neural forebrain-derived stem cell line (hNS1) with rat striatal brain slices. In brief, coronal slices of neonatal rat striatum were cultured on semiporous membrane inserts placed in six-well trays overlying monolayers of hNS1 cells. After 12 days of co......-induced areas. The presence of dopamine in the conditioned culture medium was confirmed by HPLC analysis. Interestingly, not all striatal slice cultures induced TH-expression in underlying hNS1 cells. Common to TH-inductive cultures was, however, the presence of degenerating, necrotic areas, suggesting that...... factors released during striatal degeneration were responsible for the dopaminergic induction of the hNS1 cells. Ongoing experiments aim to identify such factors by comparing protein profiles of media conditioned by degenerating (necrotic) versus healthy striatal slice cultures....

  14. 3D Data Mapping and Real-Time Experiment Control and Visualization in Brain Slices.

    Navarro, Marco A; Hibbard, Jaime V K; Miller, Michael E; Nivin, Tyler W; Milescu, Lorin S

    2015-10-20

    Here, we propose two basic concepts that can streamline electrophysiology and imaging experiments in brain slices and enhance data collection and analysis. The first idea is to interface the experiment with a software environment that provides a 3D scene viewer in which the experimental rig, the brain slice, and the recorded data are represented to scale. Within the 3D scene viewer, the user can visualize a live image of the sample and 3D renderings of the recording electrodes with real-time position feedback. Furthermore, the user can control the instruments and visualize their status in real time. The second idea is to integrate multiple types of experimental data into a spatial and temporal map of the brain slice. These data may include low-magnification maps of the entire brain slice, for spatial context, or any other type of high-resolution structural and functional image, together with time-resolved electrical and optical signals. The entire data collection can be visualized within the 3D scene viewer. These concepts can be applied to any other type of experiment in which high-resolution data are recorded within a larger sample at different spatial and temporal coordinates. PMID:26488641

  15. Organotypic hippocampal slice cultures for studies of brain damage, neuroprotection and neurorepair

    Noraberg, Jens; Poulsen, Frantz Rom; Blaabjerg, Morten;

    2005-01-01

    ), Alzheimer's disease (AD) and epilepsia. Studies of non-excitotoxic neurotoxic compounds and the experimental use of slice cultures in studies of HIV neurotoxicity, traumatic brain injury (TBI) and neurogenesis are included. For cerebral ischemia, experimental models with oxygen-glucose deprivation (OGD) and......-line biosensor monitoring, and time-lapse fluorescence microscopy are also presented....

  16. Regulation of dopamine synthesis and release in striatal and prefrontal cortical brain slices

    Wolf, M.E.

    1986-01-01

    Brain slices were used to investigate the role of nerve terminal autoreceptors in modulating dopamine (DA) synthesis and release in striatum and prefrontal cortex. Accumulation of dihydroxyphenylalanine (DOPA) was used as an index of tyrosine hydroxylation in vitro. Nomifensine, a DA uptake blocker, inhibited DOPA synthesis in striatal but not prefrontal slices. This effect was reversed by the DA antagonist sulpiride, suggesting it involved activation of DA receptors by elevated synaptic levels of DA. The autoreceptor-selective agonist EMD-23-448 also inhibited striatal but not prefrontal DOPA synthesis. DOPA synthesis was stimulated in both brain regions by elevated K/sup +/, however only striatal synthesis could be further enhanced by sulpiride. DA release was measured by following the efflux of radioactivity from brain slices prelabeled with (/sup 3/H)-DA. EMD-23-448 and apomorphine inhibited, while sulpiride enhanced, the K/sup +/-evoked overflow of radioactivity from both striatal and prefrontal cortical slices. These findings suggest that striatal DA nerve terminals possess autoreceptors which modulate tyrosine hydroxylation as well as autoreceptors which modulate release. Alternatively, one site may be coupled to both functions through distinct transduction mechanisms. In contrast, autoreceptors on prefrontal cortical terminals appear to regulate DA release but not DA synthesis.

  17. Direct-current Stimulation and Multi-electrode Array Recording of Seizure-like Activity in Mice Brain Slice Preparation.

    Lu, Hsiang-Chin; Chang, Wei-Jen; Chang, Wei-Pang; Shyu, Bai-Chuang

    2016-01-01

    Cathodal transcranial direct-current stimulation (tDCS) induces suppressive effects on drug-resistant seizures. To perform effective actions, the stimulation parameters (e.g., orientation, field strength, and stimulation duration) need to be examined in mice brain slice preparations. Testing and arranging the orientation of the electrode relative to the position of the mice brain slice are feasible. The present method preserves the thalamocingulate pathway to evaluate the effect of DCS on anterior cingulate cortex seizure-like activities. The results of the multichannel array recordings indicated that cathodal DCS significantly decreased the amplitude of the stimulation-evoked responses and duration of 4-aminopyridine and bicuculline-induced seizure-like activity. This study also found that cathodal DCS applications at 15 min caused long-term depression in the thalamocingulate pathway. The present study investigates the effects of DCS on thalamocingulate synaptic plasticity and acute seizure-like activities. The current procedure can test the optimal stimulation parameters including orientation, field strength, and stimulation duration in an in vitro mouse model. Also, the method can evaluate the effects of DCS on cortical seizure-like activities at both the cellular and network levels. PMID:27341682

  18. A Unified Approach to Diffusion Direction Sensitive Slice Registration and 3-D DTI Reconstruction From Moving Fetal Brain Anatomy

    Fogtmann, Mads; Seshamani, Sharmishtaa; Kroenke, Christopher; Cheng, Xi; Chapman, Teresa; Wilm, Jakob; Rousseau, François; Studholme, Colin

    2013-01-01

    This paper presents an approach to 3-D diffusion tensor image (DTI) reconstruction from multi-slice diffusion weighted (DW) magnetic resonance imaging acquisitions of the moving fetal brain. Motion scatters the slice measurements in the spatial and spherical diffusion domain with respect to the underlying anatomy. Previous image registration techniques have been described to estimate the between slice fetal head motion, allowing the reconstruction of 3-D a diffusion estimate on a regular grid...

  19. Excitatory amino acid neurotoxicity and modulation of glutamate receptor expression in organotypic brain slice cultures

    Zimmer, J; Kristensen, Bjarne Winther; Jakobsen, B; Noraberg, J

    2000-01-01

    -induced excitotoxicity and KA-glutamate receptor subunit mRNA expression after long-term exposure to low, non-toxic doses of KA and NBQX. We conclude that organotypic brain slice cultures, combined with standardized procedures for quantitation of cell damage and receptor subunit changes is of great potential use for...... studies of excitotoxic, glutamate receptor-induced neuronal cell death, receptor modulation and related neuroprotection....

  20. Thin slice thickness double-dose contrast-enhanced CT in the detection of brain metastases

    To compare the usefulness of double-dose contrast-enhanced CT (DDCE-CT) and conventional contrast-enhanced CT(CCE-CT) in the detection of metastatic brain lesions. Sixteen patients with brain metastases were evaluated with both CCE-CT and thin-slice DDCE-CT. For CCE-CT, and initial injection of the 100 ml contrast medium was given, and DDCE-CT with both 10-mm and 5-mm thickness was performed after the addition of an extra 100 ml of contrast medium. The numbers of metastatic lesions detected by CCE-CT and by DDCE-CT were compared, as were the findings of contrast-enhanced MRI (CE-MRI) and thin-slice DDCE-CT in seven patients who underwent both these procedures. Fourteen metastatic brain lesions were detected by CCE-CT, 22 by 10-mm-thickness DDCE-CT than by CCE-CT. Metastatic lesions were detected by 10-mm-thickness DDCE-CT and 5-mm-thickness DDCE-CT detected seven and 18 lesions, respectively. Eleven lesions were detected by thin-slice DDCE-CT and 17 by CE-MRI in the seven patients who underwent both CE-MRI and DDCE-CT. The lesions detected only by CE-MRI were less than 5 mm in diameter and were discovered in the cerebellum or inferior temporal lobe. Thin-slice DDCE-CT was superior to CCE-CT in detecting metastatic brain lesions

  1. Intersection-based registration of slice stacks to form 3D images of the human fetal brain

    Kim, Kio; Hansen, Mads Fogtmann; Habas, Piotr; Rousseau, F.; Glen, O. A.; Barkovich, A. J.; Studholme, Colin

    2008-01-01

    Clinical fetal MR imaging of the brain commonly makes use of fast 2D acquisitions of multiple sets of approximately orthogonal 2D slices. We and others have previously proposed an iterative slice-to-volume registration process to recover a geometrically consistent 3D image. However, these...

  2. Brain tumor segmentation in MR slices using improved GrowCut algorithm

    Ji, Chunhong; Yu, Jinhua; Wang, Yuanyuan; Chen, Liang; Shi, Zhifeng; Mao, Ying

    2015-12-01

    The detection of brain tumor from MR images is very significant for medical diagnosis and treatment. However, the existing methods are mostly based on manual or semiautomatic segmentation which are awkward when dealing with a large amount of MR slices. In this paper, a new fully automatic method for the segmentation of brain tumors in MR slices is presented. Based on the hypothesis of the symmetric brain structure, the method improves the interactive GrowCut algorithm by further using the bounding box algorithm in the pre-processing step. More importantly, local reflectional symmetry is used to make up the deficiency of the bounding box method. After segmentation, 3D tumor image is reconstructed. We evaluate the accuracy of the proposed method on MR slices with synthetic tumors and actual clinical MR images. Result of the proposed method is compared with the actual position of simulated 3D tumor qualitatively and quantitatively. In addition, our automatic method produces equivalent performance as manual segmentation and the interactive GrowCut with manual interference while providing fully automatic segmentation.

  3. Coronary ostial involvement in acute aortic dissection: detection with 64-slice cardiac CT.

    Ryan, E Ronan

    2012-02-01

    A 41-year-old man collapsed after lifting weights at a gym. Following admission to the emergency department, a 64-slice cardiac computed tomography (CT) revealed a Stanford Type A aortic dissection arising from a previous coarctation repair. Multiphasic reconstructions demonstrated an unstable, highly mobile aortic dissection flap that extended proximally to involve the right coronary artery ostium. Our case is an example of the application of electrocardiogram-gated cardiac CT in directly visualizing involvement of the coronary ostia in acute aortic dissection, which may influence surgical management.

  4. Intersection-based registration of slice stacks to form 3D images of the human fetal brain

    Kim, Kio; Hansen, Mads Fogtmann; Habas, Piotr;

    2008-01-01

    Clinical fetal MR imaging of the brain commonly makes use of fast 2D acquisitions of multiple sets of approximately orthogonal 2D slices. We and others have previously proposed an iterative slice-to-volume registration process to recover a geometrically consistent 3D image. However, these...... approaches depend on a 3D volume reconstruction step during the slice alignment. This is both computationally expensive and makes the convergence of the registration process poorly defined. In this paper our key contribution is a new approach which considers the collective alignment of all slices directly......, via shared structure in their intersections, rather than to an estimated 3D volume. We derive an analytical expression for the gradient of the collective similarity of the slices along their intersections, with respect to the 3D location and orientation of each 2D slice. We include examples of the...

  5. Value of multi-slice spiral CT MPVR reconstruction in the diagnosis of acute appendicitis

    Objective: To investigate the value of multi-slice spiral CT MPVR reconstruction in the diagnosis of acute appendicitis. Methods: A total of 39 patients with clinically suspected acute appendicitis underwent surgery from February, 2002 to September, 2003. They were prospectively examined before surgery with routine CT scanning and MPVR reconstruction spiral CT. 31 cases of appendicitis were confirmed after appendectomy. CT scans and surgery-pathology reports were evaluated on a five-grade scale from hyperemic-edematous appendix to abscess (normal appendix: 0 grade). Results: The results of spiral CT MPVR reconstruction were compared with the surgical and pathologic findings at appendectomy, yielding an accuracy of 87.2%, sensitivity of 90.3%, specificity of 75%, positive predictive value of 93.3%, and negative predictive value of 66.7%, respectively. Results of routine CT yielded an accuracy of 38.5%, sensitivity of 38.7%, specificity of 37.5%, positive predictive value of 70.6%, and negative predictive value of 13.6%, respectively. MPVR reconstruction signs of 28 patients with acute appendicitis included enlarged appendix ( > 6 mm) (96.4%), appendicoliths (26.7%), caecal apical thickening (36.7%), periappendiceal inflammation (71.4%), and abscess (10.7%). Conclusion: The use of spiral CT MPVR reconstruction in patients with equivocal clinical presentation suspected of having acute appendicitis can lead to a significant improvement in the preoperative diagnosis and maybe a decrease in surgical-pathologic severity of appendiceal disease. (authors)

  6. Coculture System with an Organotypic Brain Slice and 3D Spheroid of Carcinoma Cells

    Chuang, Han-Ning; Lohaus, Raphaela; Hanisch, Uwe-Karsten; Binder, Claudia

    2013-01-01

    Patients with cerebral metastasis of carcinomas have a poor prognosis. However, the process at the metastatic site has barely been investigated, in particular the role of the resident (stromal) cells. Studies in primary carcinomas demonstrate the influence of the microenvironment on metastasis, even on prognosis1,2. Especially the tumor associated macrophages (TAM) support migration, invasion and proliferation3. Interestingly, the major target sites of metastasis possess tissue-specific macrophages, such as Kupffer cells in the liver or microglia in the CNS. Moreover, the metastatic sites also possess other tissue-specific cells, like astrocytes. Recently, astrocytes were demonstrated to foster proliferation and persistence of cancer cells4,5. Therefore, functions of these tissue-specific cell types seem to be very important in the process of brain metastasis6,7. Despite these observations, however, up to now there is no suitable in vivo/in vitro model available to directly visualize glial reactions during cerebral metastasis formation, in particular by bright field microscopy. Recent in vivo live imaging of carcinoma cells demonstrated their cerebral colonization behavior8. However, this method is very laborious, costly and technically complex. In addition, these kinds of animal experiments are restricted to small series and come with a substantial stress for the animals (by implantation of the glass plate, injection of tumor cells, repetitive anaesthesia and long-term fixation). Furthermore, in vivo imaging is thus far limited to the visualization of the carcinoma cells, whereas interactions with resident cells have not yet been illustrated. Finally, investigations of human carcinoma cells within immunocompetent animals are impossible8. For these reasons, we established a coculture system consisting of an organotypic mouse brain slice and epithelial cells embedded in matrigel (3D cell sphere). The 3D carcinoma cell spheres were placed directly next to the brain

  7. Brain slice invasion model reveals genes differentially regulated in glioma invasion

    Invasion of tumor cells into adjacent brain areas is one of the major problems in treatment of glioma patients. To identify genes that might contribute to invasion, fluorescent F98 glioma cells were allowed to invade an organotypic brain slice. Gene expression analysis revealed 5 up-regulated and 14 down-regulated genes in invasive glioma cells as compared to non-invasive glioma cells. Two gene products, ferritin and cyclin B1, were verified in human gliomas by immunohistochemistry. Ferritin exhibited high mRNA levels in migratory F98 cells and also showed higher protein expression in the infiltrating edge of human gliomas. Cyclin B1 with high mRNA expression levels in stationary F98 cells showed marked protein expression in the central portions of gliomas. These findings are compatible with the concept of tumor cells either proliferating or migrating. Our study is the first to apply brain slice cultures for the identification of differentially regulated genes in glioma invasion

  8. Acute hyperammonemia and systemic inflammation is associated with increased extracellular brain adenosine in rats

    Bjerring, Peter Nissen; Dale, Nicholas; Larsen, Fin Stolze

    2015-01-01

    Acute liver failure (ALF) can lead to brain edema, cerebral hyperperfusion and intracranial hypertension. These complications are thought to be mediated by hyperammonemia and inflammation leading to altered brain metabolism. As increased levels of adenosine degradation products have been found in...... cerebral blood flow (CBF). We measured the adenosine concentration with biosensors in rat brain slices exposed to ammonia and in a rat model with hyperammonemia and systemic inflammation. Exposure to ammonia in concentrations from 0.15-10 mM led to increases in the cortical adenosine concentration up to 18...... µM in brain slices. In vivo recordings showed a tendency towards increased adenosine levels in rats with hyperammonemia and systemic inflammation compared to a control group (3.7 ± 0.7 vs. 0.8 ± 0.2 µM, P = 0.06). This was associated with a significant increase in ICP and CBF. Intervention with the...

  9. Investigation of Synaptic Tagging/Capture and Cross-capture using Acute Hippocampal Slices from Rodents.

    Shetty, Mahesh Shivarama; Sharma, Mahima; Hui, Neo Sin; Dasgupta, Ananya; Gopinadhan, Suma; Sajikumar, Sreedharan

    2015-01-01

    Synaptic tagging and capture (STC) and cross-tagging are two important mechanisms at cellular level that explain how synapse-specificity and associativity is achieved in neurons within a specific time frame. These long-term plasticity-related processes are the leading candidate models to study the basis of memory formation and persistence at the cellular level. Both STC and cross-tagging involve two serial processes: (1) setting of the synaptic tag as triggered by a specific pattern of stimulation, and (2) synaptic capture, whereby the synaptic tag interacts with newly synthesized plasticity-related proteins (PRPs). Much of the understanding about the concepts of STC and cross-tagging arises from the studies done in CA1 region of the hippocampus and because of the technical complexity many of the laboratories are still unable to study these processes. Experimental conditions for the preparation of hippocampal slices and the recording of stable late-LTP/LTD are extremely important to study synaptic tagging/cross-tagging. This video article describes the experimental procedures to study long-term plasticity processes such as STC and cross-tagging in the CA1 pyramidal neurons using stable, long-term field-potential recordings from acute hippocampal slices of rats. PMID:26381286

  10. Towards 1H-MRSI of the human brain at 7T with slice-selective adiabatic refocusing pulses

    Scheenen, Tom W. J.; Heerschap, Arend; Dennis W.J. Klomp

    2008-01-01

    Objective To explore the possibilities of proton spectroscopic imaging (1H-MRSI) of the human brain at 7 Tesla with adiabatic refocusing pulses. Materials and methods A combination of conventional slice selective excitation and two pairs of slice selective adiabatic refocusing pulses (semi-LASER) results in the formation of an echo from a localized volume. Depending on the used radio frequency (rf) coil efficiency and available rf power, the duration of the adiabatic full passage pulses (AFPs...

  11. Glucose-stimulated calcium dynamics in islets of Langerhans in acute mouse pancreas tissue slices.

    Andraž Stožer

    Full Text Available In endocrine cells within islets of Langerhans calcium ions couple cell stimulation to hormone secretion. Since the advent of modern fluorimetry, numerous in vitro studies employing primarily isolated mouse islets have investigated the effects of various secretagogues on cytoplasmic calcium, predominantly in insulin-secreting beta cells. Due to technical limitations, insights of these studies are inherently limited to a rather small subpopulation of outermost cells. The results also seem to depend on various factors, like culture conditions and duration, and are not always easily reconcilable with findings in vivo. The main controversies regard the types of calcium oscillations, presence of calcium waves, and the level of synchronized activity. Here, we set out to combine the in situ acute mouse pancreas tissue slice preparation with noninvasive fluorescent calcium labeling and subsequent confocal laser scanning microscopy to shed new light on the existing controversies utilizing an innovative approach enabling the characterization of responses in many cells from all layers of islets. Our experiments reproducibly showed stable fast calcium oscillations on a sustained plateau rather than slow oscillations as the predominant type of response in acute tissue slices, and that calcium waves are the mechanistic substrate for synchronization of oscillations. We also found indirect evidence that even a large amplitude calcium signal was not sufficient and that metabolic activation was necessary to ensure cell synchronization upon stimulation with glucose. Our novel method helped resolve existing controversies and showed the potential to help answer important physiological questions, making it one of the methods of choice for the foreseeable future.

  12. Inhibitory effects of matrine on electrical signals and amino acid neurotransmitters in hippocampal brain slices

    Xuping Wang; Jiping Chen; Guizhi Zhao; Dan Shou; Xuezhi Hong; Jianmin Zhang

    2009-01-01

    BACKGROUND: Studies on electrical signals of hippocampal brain slices in vivo have shown that matrine inhibits benzylpenicillin sodium-induced activation of neuronal signal transduction.OBJECTIVE: To verify the inhibition effect of matrine on activation of electrical signals in rat brain slices and the role matrine plays in hippocampal amino acid transmitter release.DESIGN, TIME AND SETTING: The in vitro, neurophysiological, controlled experiment was performed in the Zhejiang Province Key Laboratory of Cardio-cerebrovascular Disease and Nerve System Drugs Appraisement and Chinese Traditional Medicine Screening and Research between July 2003 and May 2004. The in vivo, neuronal, biochemical experiment was performed in the Zhejiang Province Key Laboratory of Chinese Traditional Medicine Quality Standardization from July 2005 to December 2006.MATERIALS: Forty healthy, Sprague Dawley rats, 7-8 weeks old, and 120 healthy, ICR mice, 5-6weeks old, were included in this study, irrespective of gender. Matrine powder was provided by the National Institute for the Control of Pharmaceutical and Biological Products, China. Matrine injection was purchased from Zhuhai Biochemical Pharmaceutical Factory, China. Penicillin was bought from Shijiazhuang Pharmaceutical Group Co., Ltd., China.METHODS: (1) Rats were randomly assigned to four groups: control, penicillin model, and matrine high-dose and low-dose, with 10 rats in each group. The control group was perfused with artificial cerebrospinal fluid, in the remaining three groups, hippocampal brain slices were perfused with normal artificial cerebrospinal fluid containing 1x106 U/L penicillin for the first 10 minutes. The penicillin model group received artificial cerebrospinal fluid for an additional 30 minutes, while the matrine high-dose and low-dose groups received 0.1 g/L and 0.05 g/L matdne, respectively, for an additional 30 minutes. (2) Mice were randomly assigned to four groups (n=30). The matrine high-,medium-, and low

  13. Ionizing radiation action of transport systems of Na+ and K+ of neutronal membranes. Potassium ions reaccumulation with brain slices

    The biological effect of ionizing radiation (IR) on the Na,K pump of the surviving brain cortex slices was investigated. It was shown that IR leads to marked disturbances in the Na,K pump activity and causes essential phasic changes in potassium ion reaccumulation by brain slices in different time after exposure. The possibility of modelling the radiation effect with the help of phospholipase A2 and decylenic acid was shown. The mechanisms of the functional disturbance of Na-K pump of nerve cells after irradiation are under discussion. (author)

  14. Effect of acute and repeated restraint stress on glucose oxidation to CO2 in hippocampal and cerebral cortex slices

    Torres I.L.S.

    2001-01-01

    Full Text Available It has been suggested that glucocorticoids released during stress might impair neuronal function by decreasing glucose uptake by hippocampal neurons. Previous work has demonstrated that glucose uptake is reduced in hippocampal and cerebral cortex slices 24 h after exposure to acute stress, while no effect was observed after repeated stress. Here, we report the effect of acute and repeated restraint stress on glucose oxidation to CO2 in hippocampal and cerebral cortex slices and on plasma glucose and corticosterone levels. Male adult Wistar rats were exposed to restraint 1 h/day for 50 days in the chronic model. In the acute model there was a single exposure. Immediately or 24 h after stress, the animals were sacrificed and the hippocampus and cerebral cortex were dissected, sliced, and incubated with Krebs buffer, pH 7.4, containing 5 mM glucose and 0.2 µCi D-[U-14C] glucose. CO2 production from glucose was estimated. Trunk blood was also collected, and both corticosterone and glucose were measured. The results showed that corticosterone levels after exposure to acute restraint were increased, but the increase was smaller when the animals were submitted to repeated stress. Blood glucose levels increased after both acute and repeated stress. However, glucose utilization, measured as CO2 production in hippocampal and cerebral cortex slices, was the same in stressed and control groups under conditions of both acute and chronic stress. We conclude that, although stress may induce a decrease in glucose uptake, this effect is not sufficient to affect the energy metabolism of these cells.

  15. Nimodipine enhances neurite outgrowth in dopaminergic brain slice co-cultures.

    Sygnecka, Katja; Heine, Claudia; Scherf, Nico; Fasold, Mario; Binder, Hans; Scheller, Christian; Franke, Heike

    2015-02-01

    Calcium ions (Ca(2+)) play important roles in neuroplasticity and the regeneration of nerves. Intracellular Ca(2+) concentrations are regulated by Ca(2+) channels, among them L-type voltage-gated Ca(2+) channels, which are inhibited by dihydropyridines like nimodipine. The purpose of this study was to investigate the effect of nimodipine on neurite growth during development and regeneration. As an appropriate model to study neurite growth, we chose organotypic brain slice co-cultures of the mesocortical dopaminergic projection system, consisting of the ventral tegmental area/substantia nigra and the prefrontal cortex from neonatal rat brains. Quantification of the density of the newly built neurites in the border region (region between the two cultivated slices) of the co-cultures revealed a growth promoting effect of nimodipine at concentrations of 0.1μM and 1μM that was even more pronounced than the effect of the growth factor NGF. This beneficial effect was absent when 10μM nimodipine were applied. Toxicological tests revealed that the application of nimodipine at this higher concentration slightly induced caspase 3 activation in the cortical part of the co-cultures, but did neither affect the amount of lactate dehydrogenase release or propidium iodide uptake nor the ratio of bax/bcl-2. Furthermore, the expression levels of different genes were quantified after nimodipine treatment. The expression of Ca(2+) binding proteins, immediate early genes, glial fibrillary acidic protein, and myelin components did not change significantly after treatment, indicating that the regulation of their expression is not primarily involved in the observed nimodipine mediated neurite growth. In summary, this study revealed for the first time a neurite growth promoting effect of nimodipine in the mesocortical dopaminergic projection system that is highly dependent on the applied concentrations. PMID:25447789

  16. Effect of hypoosmotic stress and ischemia on astrocyte membrane currents and morphology in brain slices in situ

    Chvátal, Alexandr; Anděrová, Miroslava; Vargová, Lýdia; Hock, Miroslav; Syková, Eva

    San Diego, 2004. s. -. [Society for Neuroscience, Annual Meeting /34./. 23.10.2004-27.10.2004, San Diego] R&D Projects: GA ČR GA305/02/1528; GA ČR GA305/03/1172; GA ČR GA305/04/1293 Keywords : hypoosmotic stress * ischemia * brain slices Subject RIV: FH - Neurology

  17. Culturing of PC12 Cells, Neuronal Cells, Astrocytes Cultures and Brain Slices in an Open Microfluidic System

    Al Atraktchi, Fatima Al-Zahraa; Bakmand, Tanya; Rømer Sørensen, Ane;

    culturing PC12 cells, neuronal cells, astrocytes cultures and brain slices. The microfluidic system provides efficient nutrient delivery, waste removal, access to oxygen, fine control over the neurochemical environment and access to modern microscopy. Additionally, the setup consists of an in vitro...

  18. Preparation of human formalin-fixed brain slices for electron microscopic investigations.

    Krause, Martin; Brüne, Martin; Theiss, Carsten

    2016-07-01

    Ultra-structural analysis of human post-mortem brain tissue is important for investigations into the pathomechanism of neuropsychiatric disorders, especially those lacking alternative models of studying human-specific morphological features. For example, Von Economo Neurons (VENs) mainly located in the anterior cingulate cortex and in the anterior part of the insula, which seem to play a role in a variety of neuropsychiatric conditions, including frontotemporal dementia, autism and schizophrenia, can hardly be studied in nonhuman animals. Accordingly, little is known about the ultra-structural alterations of these neurons, though important research using qualitative stereological methods has revealed that protein expression of the VENs assigns them a role in immune function. Formaldehyde, which is the most common fixative in human pathology, interferes with the immunoreactivity of the tissue, possibly leading to unreliable results. Therefore, a method for ultra-structural investigations independent of antigenic properties of the fixated tissue is needed. Here, we propose an approach using electron microscopy to examine cytoskeletal structures, synapses and mitochondria in these cells. We also show that our methodology is able to keep tissue consumption to a minimum, while still allowing for the specimens to be handled with ease by using agar embedded slices in contrast to blocks for the embedding procedure. Accordingly, a stepwise protocol utilising 60μm thick human post mortem brain sections for electron microscopic ultra-structural investigations is presented. PMID:27136748

  19. Mechanistic studies of antibody mediated clearance of tau aggregates using an ex vivo brain slice model

    Pavan eKrishnamurthy

    2011-10-01

    Full Text Available Recent studies have shown that immunotherapy clears amyloid beta (A plaques and reduces A levels in mouse models of Alzheimer’s disease (AD, as well as in AD patients. Tangle pathology is also relevant for the neurodegeneration in AD, and our studies have shown that active immunization with an AD related phospho-tau peptide reduces aggregated tau within the brain and slows the progression of tauopathy-induced behavioural impairments. Thus, clearance of neurofibrillary tangles and/or their precursors may reduce synaptic and neuronal loss associated with AD and other tauopathies. So far the mechanisms involved in antibody-mediated clearance of tau pathology are yet to be elucidated. In this study we have used a mouse brain slice model to examine the uptake and localization of FITC labeled anti-tau antibodies. Confocal microscopy analysis showed that the FITC labelled anti-tau antibody co-stained with phosphorylated tau, had a perinuclear appearance and co-localised with markers of the endosomal/lysosomal pathway. Additionally, tau and FITC IgG were found together in an enriched lysosome fraction. In summary, antibody-mediated clearance of intracellular tau aggregates appears to occur via the lysosomal pathway.

  20. A Unified Approach to Diffusion Direction Sensitive Slice Registration and 3-D DTI Reconstruction From Moving Fetal Brain Anatomy

    Hansen, Mads Fogtmann; Seshamani, Sharmishtaa; Kroenke, Christopher;

    2014-01-01

    This paper presents an approach to 3-D diffusion tensor image (DTI) reconstruction from multi-slice diffusion weighted (DW) magnetic resonance imaging acquisitions of the moving fetal brain. Motion scatters the slice measurements in the spatial and spherical diffusion domain with respect to the...... improved rendition of cortical anatomy and extraction of white matter tracts. While the experimental work focuses on DTI reconstruction (second-order tensor model), the proposed reconstruction framework can employ any 5-D diffusion volume model that can be represented by the spatial parameterizations of an...

  1. Interleukin-1 and acute brain injury

    Katie N Murray

    2015-02-01

    Full Text Available Inflammation is the key host-defense response to infection and injury, yet also a major contributor to a diverse range of diseases, both peripheral and central in origin. Brain injury as a result of stroke or trauma is a leading cause of death and disability worldwide, yet there are no effective treatments, resulting in enormous social and economic costs. Increasing evidence, both preclinical and clinical, highlights inflammation as an important factor in stroke, both in determining outcome and as a contributor to risk. A number of inflammatory mediators have been proposed as key targets for intervention to reduce the burden of stroke, several reaching clinical trial, but as yet yielding no success. Many factors could explain these failures, including the lack of robust preclinical evidence and poorly designed clinical trials, in addition to the complex nature of the clinical condition. Lack of consideration in preclinical studies of associated co-morbidities prevalent in the clinical stroke population is now seen as an important omission in previous work. These co-morbidities (atherosclerosis, hypertension, diabetes, infection have a strong inflammatory component, supporting the need for greater understanding of how inflammation contributes to acute brain injury. Interleukin (IL-1 is the prototypical pro-inflammatory cytokine, first identified many years ago as the endogenous pyrogen. Research over the last 20 years or so reveals that IL-1 is an important mediator of neuronal injury and blocking the actions of IL-1 is beneficial in a number of experimental models of brain damage. Mechanisms underlying the actions of IL-1 in brain injury remain unclear, though increasing evidence indicates the cerebrovasculature as a key target. Recent literature supporting this and other aspects of how IL-1 and systemic inflammation in general contribute to acute brain injury are discussed in this review.

  2. Electrophysiologic monitoring in acute brain injury.

    Claassen, Jan; Vespa, Paul

    2014-12-01

    To determine the optimal use and indications of electroencephalography (EEG) in critical care management of acute brain injury (ABI). An electronic literature search was conducted for articles in English describing electrophysiological monitoring in ABI from January 1990 to August 2013. A total of 165 studies were included. EEG is a useful monitor for seizure and ischemia detection. There is a well-described role for EEG in convulsive status epilepticus and cardiac arrest (CA). Data suggest EEG should be considered in all patients with ABI and unexplained and persistent altered consciousness and in comatose intensive care unit (ICU) patients without an acute primary brain condition who have an unexplained impairment of mental status. There remain uncertainties about certain technical details, e.g., the minimum duration of EEG studies, the montage, and electrodes. Data obtained from both EEG and EP studies may help estimate prognosis in ABI patients, particularly following CA and traumatic brain injury. Data supporting these recommendations is sparse, and high quality studies are needed. EEG is used to monitor and detect seizures and ischemia in ICU patients and indications for EEG are clear for certain disease states, however, uncertainty remains on other applications. PMID:25208668

  3. MR imaging of acute hemorrhagic brain infarction

    Six patients with acute hemorrhagic brain infarct were imaged using spin-echo (SE) pulse sequences on a 1.5 Tesla MR scanner. Including two patients with repeated MR imaging, a total of eight examinations, all performed within 15 days after stroke, were analyzed retrospectively. Four patients revealed massive hemorrhages in the basal ganglia or cerebellum and three cases demonstrated multiple linear hemorrhages in the cerebral cortex. On T1-weighted images, hemorrhages were either mildly or definitely hyperintense relative to gray matter, while varied from mildly hypointense to hyperintense on T2-weighted images. T1-weighted images were superior to T2-weighted images in detection of hemorrhgage. CT failed to detect hemorrhage in two of five cases: indicative of MR superiority to CT in the diagnosis of acute hemorrhagic infarcts. (author)

  4. MR imaging of acute hemorrhagic brain infarction

    Uchino, Akira; Ohnari, Norihiro; Ohno, Masato (Kyushu Rosai Hospital, Fukuoka (Japan))

    1989-11-01

    Six patients with acute hemorrhagic brain infarct were imaged using spin-echo (SE) pulse sequences on a 1.5 Tesla MR scanner. Including two patients with repeated MR imaging, a total of eight examinations, all performed within 15 days after stroke, were analyzed retrospectively. Four patients revealed massive hemorrhages in the basal ganglia or cerebellum and three cases demonstrated multiple linear hemorrhages in the cerebral cortex. On T1-weighted images, hemorrhages were either mildly or definitely hyperintense relative to gray matter, while varied from mildly hypointense to hyperintense on T2-weighted images. T1-weighted images were superior to T2-weighted images in detection of hemorrhgage. CT failed to detect hemorrhage in two of five cases: indicative of MR superiority to CT in the diagnosis of acute hemorrhagic infarcts. (author).

  5. OBSERVATION OF THE ALTERNATION OF NUCLEIC ACID IN BRAIN SLICE AND NEURONS BY CONFOCAL LASER SCANNING MICROSCOPY

    2000-01-01

    @@Confocal laser scanning microscope is one of the most important biomedicine Altus instru ment〔1〕. It has the characteristics of high sensitivity for detecting the stereo structure, and can scan a few hundreds of micrometer-thick tissue. It may get graphs of intracyte or tissue with uninvading stage scan and is named "cell CT". In this study, the nucleic acid alterations of whole brain slice was investigated with this technique after the formation of LTP.

  6. Dopamine modulates Spike Timing-Dependent Plasticity and action potential properties in CA1 pyramidal neurons of acute rat hippocampal slices

    Elke eEdelmann

    2011-11-01

    Full Text Available Spike Timing-Dependent Plasticity (STDP is a cellular model of hebbian synaptic plasticity which is believed to underlie memory formation. In an attempt to establish a STDP paradigm in CA1 of acute hippocampal slices from juvenile rats (P15-20, we found that changes in excitability resulting from different slice preparation protocols correlate with the success of STDP induction. Slice preparation with sucrose containing ACSF prolonged rise time, reduced frequency adaptation, and decreased latency of action potentials in CA1 pyramidal neurons compared to preparation in conventional ASCF, while other basal electrophysiological parameters remained unaffected. Whereas we observed prominent timing-dependent (t-LTP to 171 ± 10% of controls in conventional ACSF, STDP was absent in sucrose prepared slices. This sucrose-induced STDP deficit could not be rescued by stronger STDP paradigms, applying either more pre- and/or postsynaptic stimuli, or by a higher stimulation frequency. Importantly, slice preparation with sucrose containing ACSF did not eliminate theta-burst stimulation induced LTP in CA1 in field potential recordings in our rat hippocampal slices. Application of dopamine (for 10-20 min to sucrose prepared slices completely rescued t-LTP and recovered action potential properties back to levels observed in ACSF prepared slices. Conversely, acute inhibition of D1 receptor signaling impaired t-LTP in ACSF prepared slices. No similar restoring effect for STDP as seen with dopamine was observed in response to the β-adrenergic agonist isoproterenol. ELISA measurements demonstrated a significant reduction of endogenous dopamine levels (to 61.9 ± 6.9% of ACSF values in sucrose prepared slices. These results lead us to suggest that dopamine dependent regulation of action potential properties correlates with the efficiency to elicit STDP in CA1 pyramidal neurons.

  7. Acute subarachnoid hemorrhage: using 64-slice multidetector CT angiography to ''triage'' patients' treatment

    Agid, R.; Lee, S.K.; Willinsky, R.A.; Farb, R.I.; TerBrugge, K.G. [Toronto Western Hospital, Division of Neuroradiology, Department of Medical Imaging, Toronto, Ontario (Canada)

    2006-11-15

    To evaluate the clinical role of CT angiography (CTA) in patients with acute subarachnoid hemorrhage (SAH) for treatment decision-making. Consecutive patients with acute SAH had CTA using a 64-slice scanner for initial clinical decision-making. Image processing included multiplanar volume reformatted (MPVR) maximum intensity projections (MIP) and 3D volume-rendered reconstructions. CTAs were used for (1) evaluating the cause of SAH, and (2) triaging aneurysm-bearing patients to the more appropriate management, either surgical clipping or endovascular coiling. CTA findings were confirmed by neurosurgical exploration or catheter angiography (digital subtraction angiography, DSA). Successful coiling provided evidence that triaging to endovascular treatment was correct. Included in the study were 73 patients. CTA findings were confirmed by DSA or neurosurgical operation in 65 patients, and of these 65, 47 had aneurysmal SAH, 3 had vasculitis, 1 had arterial dissection and 14 had no underlying arterial abnormality. The cause of SAH was detected with CTA in 62 out of the 65 patients (95.4%, sensitivity 94%, specificity 100%). CTA revealed the aneurysm in 46 of 47 patients (98%, sensitivity 98%, specificity 100%, positive predictive value 100%, negative predictive value 82.3%), 1 of 3 vasculitides and 1 of 1 dissection. Of the 46 patients with aneurysm, 44 (95.7%) were referred for treatment based on CTA. In 2 patients (2 of 46, 4.4%) CTA was not informative enough to choose treatment requiring DSA. Of the 44 patients, 27 (61.4%) were referred to endovascular treatment and successful coiling was achieved in 25 (25 of 27, 92.6%). CTA using a 64-slice scanner is an accurate tool for detecting and characterizing aneurysms in acute SAH. CTA is useful in the decision process whether to coil or clip an aneurysm. (orig.)

  8. Effect of anoxia on choline uptake and release of acetylcholine in brain slices estimated with a bioradiographic technique using [11C] choline

    The uptake of choline for the synthesis and release of acetylcholine and the metabolism of glucose under anoxic conditions was investigated in brain slices by bioradiography using [N-methyl-11C]choline ([11C]choline) and [18F]2-fluoro-2-deoxy-D-glucose ([18F]FDG). [11C]Choline uptake and the release of accumulated 11C radioactivity in brain slices decreased with anoxic treatment, whereas [18F]FDG uptake increased. The decrease of [11C]choline uptake and the 11C radioactivity accumulated in striatal slices were recovered by acetyl-L-carnitine, an acetyl-donor. However, this effect was not seen in cerebral cortex. These results indicate that choline uptake for the synthesis and release of acetylcholine in brain are energy sensitive. The cholinergic dysfunction in ischemic brain might be improved by compensating for energy loss. (author)

  9. Impact of 64-slice coronary CT on the management of patients presenting with acute chest pain: results of a prospective two-centre study

    Our two-centre prospective study evaluates the usefulness of 64-slice coronary computed tomography (CCT) to rule out significant coronary artery stenosis in patients admitted in emergency departments (ED) for acute coronary syndromes (ACS) with low-to-intermediate risk score. Patients (175) admitted for acute chest pain (ACP), unmodified electrocardiogram and first troponin measurement within normal ranges were included. A second troponin measurement and a 64-slice CCT within 24 h were performed. Major adverse cardiac events (MACE) were recorded during follow-up (6 months ± 2). 64-slice CCT was either normal or showed non-significant coronary stenosis in the majority of patients (78%). 64-slice CCT depicted significant stenosis (>50% diameter) in 22% of patient whereas initial clinical and biological evaluation was reassuring. For negative CCTs, elevated troponin at second measurement did not modify the strategy or treatment of patients. No MACEs were noted during follow up. In 12% of patients CCT identified unsuspected non-coronary abnormalities. Our study confirms 64-slice CCT utility to rule out significant coronary artery stenosis in 8/10 patients admitted in ED with ACP or ACS with low-to-intermediate risk score. Early discharge with a negative 64-slice CCT is associated with very low risk of cardiac events at 6 months. (orig.)

  10. Acute stent thrombosis after bifurcation stenting with the crush technique visualized with 64-slice computed tomography

    Kristensen, T.S.; Engstrom, T.; Kofoed, Klaus Fuglsang

    2008-01-01

    Acute stent thrombosis remains a potential complication after stent implantation. With the introduction of electrocardiographic gated multidetector row computed tomography (MDCT), a new nonnvasive imaging modality has become available that may contribute to the detection of complications after co...... complex interventional procedures. We present a case where CT angiography was performed just prior to the clinical presentation of acute stent thrombosis in a 55-year-old male who was treated with the crush technique in a bifurcation lesion Udgivelsesdato: 2008/7...

  11. GABAB receptor modulation of adenylate cyclase activity in rat brain slices.

    Hill, D R

    1985-01-01

    An investigation of the effects of gamma-aminobutyric acid (GABA) and the selective GABAB receptor agonist, baclofen, on basal and stimulated adenosine 3':5'-cyclic monophosphate (cyclic AMP) levels in slices of rat cerebral cortex has been carried out. Neither GABA nor baclofen produced any significant change in basal cyclic AMP levels. By contrast noradrenaline and forskolin both produced dose-dependent increases in cellular cyclic AMP accumulation. GABA (in the presence of nipecotic acid) ...

  12. [3H] glycogen hydrolysis in brain slices: responses to meurotransmitters and modulation of noradrenaline receptors

    Different agents have been investigated for their effects on [3H] glycogen synthesized in mouse cortical slices. Of these noradrenaline, serotonin and histamine induced clear concentration-dependent glycogenesis. [3H] glycogen hydrolysis induced by noradrenaline appears to be mediated by beta-adrenergic receptors because it is completely prevented by timolol, while phentolamine is ineffective. It seems to involve cyclic AMP because it is potentiated in the presence of isobutylmethylxanthine; in addition dibutyryl cyclic AMP (but not dibutyryl cyclic GMP) promotes glycogenolysis. Lower concentrations of noradrenaline were necessary for [3H] glycogen hydrolysis (ECsub(50) 0.5μM) than for stimulation of cyclic AMP accumulation (ECsub(50) = 8μM). After subchronic reserpine treatment the concentration-response curve to noradrenaline was significantly shifted to the left (ECsub(50) = 0.09 +- 0.02 μM as compared with 0.49 +- 0.08μM in saline-pretreated mice) without modifications of either the basal [3H] glycogen level, maximal glycogenolytic effect, or the dibutyryl cAMP-induced glycogenolytic response. In addition to noradrenaline, clear concentration-dependent [3H] glycogen hydrolysis was observed in the presence of histamine or serotonin. In contrast to the partial [3H] glycogen hydrolysis elicited by these biogenic amines, depolarization of the slices by 50 mM K+ provoked a nearly total [3H] glycogen hydrolysis. (author)

  13. A LED-based method for monitoring NAD(P)H and FAD fluorescence in cell cultures and brain slices.

    Rösner, Jörg; Liotta, Agustin; Schmitz, Dietmar; Heinemann, Uwe; Kovács, Richard

    2013-01-30

    Nicotinamide- and flavine-adenine-dinucleotides (NAD(P)H and FADH₂) are electron carriers involved in cellular energy metabolism and in a multitude of enzymatic processes. As reduced NAD(P)H and oxidised FAD molecules are fluorescent, changes in tissue auto-fluorescence provide valuable information on the cellular redox state and energy metabolism. Since fluorescence excitation, by mercury arc lamps (HBO) is inherently coupled to photo-bleaching and photo-toxicity, microfluorimetric monitoring of energy metabolism might benefit from the replacement of HBO lamps by light emitting diodes (LEDs). Here we describe a LED-based custom-built setup for monitoring NAD(P)H and FAD fluorescence at the level of single cells (HEK293) and of brain slices. We compared NAD(P)H bleaching characteristics with two light sources (HBO lamp and LED) as well as sensitivity and signal to noise ratio of three different detector types (multi-pixel photon counter (MPPC), photomultiplier tube (PMT) and photodiode). LED excitation resulted in reduced photo-bleaching at the same fluorescence output in comparison to excitation with the HBO lamp. Transiently increasing LED power resulted in reversible bleaching of NAD(P)H fluorescence. Recovery kinetics were dependent on metabolic substrates indicating coupling of NAD(P)H fluorescence to metabolism. Electrical stimulation of brain slices induced biphasic redox changes, as indicated by NAD(P)H/FAD fluorescence transients. Increasing the gain of PMT and decreasing the LED power resulted in similar sensitivity as obtained with the MPPC and the photodiode, without worsening the signal to noise ratio. In conclusion, replacement of HBO lamp with LED might improve conventional PMT based microfluorimetry of tissue auto-fluorescence. PMID:23142181

  14. Dual activities of the anti-cancer drug candidate PBI-05204 provide neuroprotection in brain slice models for neurodegenerative diseases and stroke

    Van Kanegan, Michael J.; Dunn, Denise E.; Kaltenbach, Linda S.; Bijal Shah; Dong Ning He; Daniel D. McCoy; Peiying Yang; Jiangnan Peng; Li Shen; Lin Du; Cichewicz, Robert H.; Newman, Robert A; Lo, Donald C.

    2016-01-01

    We previously reported neuroprotective activity of the botanical anti-cancer drug candidate PBI-05204, a supercritical CO2 extract of Nerium oleander, in brain slice and in vivo models of ischemic stroke. We showed that one component of this neuroprotective activity is mediated through its principal cardiac glycoside constituent, oleandrin, via induction of the potent neurotrophic factor brain-derived neurotrophic factor (BDNF). However, we also noted that the concentration-relation for PBI-0...

  15. Acute Blast Injury Reduces Brain Abeta in Two Rodent Species

    GregoryAElder

    2012-12-01

    Full Text Available Blast-induced traumatic brain injury (TBI has been a major cause of morbidity and mortality in the conflicts in Iraq and Afghanistan. How the primary blast wave affects the brain is not well understood. In particular, it is unclear whether blast injures the brain through mechanisms similar to those found in non-blast closed impact injuries (nbTBI. The β-amyloid (Aβ peptide associated with the development of Alzheimer’s disease (AD is elevated acutely following TBI in humans as well as in experimental animal models of nbTBI. We examined levels of brain Aβ following experimental blast injury using enzyme-linked immunosorbent assays for Aβ 40 and 42. In both rat and mouse models of blast injury, rather than being increased, endogenous rodent brain Aβ levels were decreased acutely following injury. Levels of the amyloid precursor protein (APP were increased following blast exposure although there was no evidence of axonal pathology based on APP immunohistochemical staining. Unlike the findings in nbTBI animal models, levels of the β-secretase, BACE-1, and the γ-secretase component presenilin-1 were unchanged following blast exposure. These studies have implications for understanding the nature of blast injury to the brain. They also suggest that strategies aimed at lowering Aβ production may not be effective for treating acute blast injury to the brain.

  16. Congener-specific effects of dioxins on neural cell cultures and brain slices

    Tiffany-Castiglioni, E.; Hanneman, W.H.; Legare, M.E.; Hong, S.J.; Barhoumi, R.; Burghardt, R.C.; Safe, S. [Texas A and M Univ., College Station, TX (United States)

    1994-12-31

    Recent attention has focused on the neurotoxicity of polychlorinated biphenyls, dibenzofurans, and quaterphenyls and related compounds. The hippocampus may be an important target for neurotoxic compounds because of its role in short-term memory and learning. The authors report preliminary experiments on the effects of 2,3,7,8-tetrachlorodibenzo-p-dioxin (TCDD) as a model for the neurotoxicity of halogenated aromatic hydrocarbons. Exposure of cultured rat hippocampal neutrons and glia to TCDD invoked a rapid concentration dependent increase in intracellular calcium ion concentration as determined by microscopic image analysis of cells noninvasively labeled with fluo-3. This rapid increase was blocked by the addition of EDTA or nifedipine to the external medium. In contrast, the nontoxic congener 1,2,3,4-TCDD was inactive at concentrations up to 10 {micro}m. Other effects of TCDD on cultured neurons and astroglia were measured, including cell-cell communication via gap junctions, which was down-regulated, and cytosolic glutathione content, which was depressed in astroglia. Astroglial cells serve vital roles in regulating the neuronal environment. The authors have also conducted pilot experiments on TCDD effects on synaptic function in hippocampal slices.

  17. Whole brain CT perfusion in acute anterior circulation ischemia: coverage size matters

    Emmer, B.J. [Erasmus Medical Centre, Department of Radiology, Postbus 2040, Rotterdam (Netherlands); Rijkee, M.; Walderveen, M.A.A. van [Leiden University Medical Centre, Department of Radiology, Leiden (Netherlands); Niesten, J.M.; Velthuis, B.K. [University Medical Centre Utrecht, Department of Radiology, Utrecht (Netherlands); Wermer, M.J.H. [Leiden University Medical Centre, Department of Neurology, Leiden (Netherlands)

    2014-12-15

    Our aim was to compare infarct core volume on whole brain CT perfusion (CTP) with several limited coverage sizes (i.e., 3, 4, 6, and 8 cm), as currently used in routine clinical practice. In total, 40 acute ischemic stroke patients with non-contrast CT (NCCT) and CTP imaging of anterior circulation ischemia were included. Imaging was performed using a 320-multislice CT. Average volumes of infarct core of all simulated partial coverage sizes were calculated. Infarct core volume of each partial brain coverage was compared with infarct core volume of whole brain coverage and expressed using a percentage. To determine the optimal starting position for each simulated CTP coverage, the percentage of infarct coverage was calculated for every possible starting position of the simulated partial coverage in relation to Alberta Stroke Program Early CT Score in Acute Stroke Triage (ASPECTS 1) level. Whole brain CTP coverage further increased the percentage of infarct core volume depicted by 10 % as compared to the 8-cm coverage when the bottom slice was positioned at the ASPECTS 1 level. Optimization of the position of the region of interest (ROI) in 3 cm, 4 cm, and 8 cm improved the percentage of infarct depicted by 4 % for the 8-cm, 7 % for the 4-cm, and 13 % for the 3-cm coverage size. This study shows that whole brain CTP is the optimal coverage for CTP with a substantial improvement in accuracy in quantifying infarct core size. In addition, our results suggest that the optimal position of the ROI in limited coverage depends on the size of the coverage. (orig.)

  18. Whole brain CT perfusion in acute anterior circulation ischemia: coverage size matters

    Our aim was to compare infarct core volume on whole brain CT perfusion (CTP) with several limited coverage sizes (i.e., 3, 4, 6, and 8 cm), as currently used in routine clinical practice. In total, 40 acute ischemic stroke patients with non-contrast CT (NCCT) and CTP imaging of anterior circulation ischemia were included. Imaging was performed using a 320-multislice CT. Average volumes of infarct core of all simulated partial coverage sizes were calculated. Infarct core volume of each partial brain coverage was compared with infarct core volume of whole brain coverage and expressed using a percentage. To determine the optimal starting position for each simulated CTP coverage, the percentage of infarct coverage was calculated for every possible starting position of the simulated partial coverage in relation to Alberta Stroke Program Early CT Score in Acute Stroke Triage (ASPECTS 1) level. Whole brain CTP coverage further increased the percentage of infarct core volume depicted by 10 % as compared to the 8-cm coverage when the bottom slice was positioned at the ASPECTS 1 level. Optimization of the position of the region of interest (ROI) in 3 cm, 4 cm, and 8 cm improved the percentage of infarct depicted by 4 % for the 8-cm, 7 % for the 4-cm, and 13 % for the 3-cm coverage size. This study shows that whole brain CTP is the optimal coverage for CTP with a substantial improvement in accuracy in quantifying infarct core size. In addition, our results suggest that the optimal position of the ROI in limited coverage depends on the size of the coverage. (orig.)

  19. Changes in medium radioactivity and composition accompany high-affinity uptake of glutamate and aspartate by mouse brain slices

    In measurements of high affinity transport in tissue slices, the incubation medium is often treated as an ''infinitely large pool''. External substrate concentrations, even at the micromolar level, are assumed to be constant and metabolic interactions between tissue and medium are neglected. In the present report we describe experiments in which glutamic and aspartic acid uptake by mouse brain slices were studied using techniques that could test these assumptions. Cerebral hemispheres were cut into 0.1 mm sections and about 90 mg of tissue incubated in 10 ml of oxygenated medium. After 45 minutes of equilibration, radioactive substrates were added and the concentrations and specific activities of the amino acids and their metabolites in the medium were determined. During the first 10 min following substrate addition, rapid decreases in glutamic and aspartic acid concentrations in the medium were accompanied by large decreases in specific activity caused by the continuous release of these amino acids from the tissue. In addition, extensive conversion of both substrates to glutamine and the preferential accumulation of this metabolite, in the medium, was found. These results demonstrate that metabolism and release occur simultaneously with uptake during transport experiments in vitro and that these processes can take place in specific tissue compartments. It is therefore necessary to measure the tissue and medium concentration levels of amino acids along with their radioactivity in such experiments, since all three processes (transport, metabolism, and compartmentation) are interrelated in the clearance of amino acids from the incubation medium and probably from the extracellular spaces in vivo as well

  20. Brain protection therapy in acute cerebral infarction.

    Katsura, Ken-ichiro; Suda, Satoshi; Abe, Arata; Kanamaru, Takuya; Toda, Yusuke; Katayama, Yasuo

    2012-01-01

    Many drugs for cerebral infarction that were shown to be effective in animal experiments have shown negative results in human clinical trials. For this reason, a completely new approach is needed to develop brain protection therapies against cerebral infarction. Brain protection therapies can be categorized into 3 types: 1) lengthening the therapeutic time window for thrombolytic therapy, 2) reducing the side effects of thrombolytic therapy, and 3) brain protection drug therapy for patients with contraindications for thrombolytic therapy (including combination therapy). Here, we show our recent results of brain protection therapy. First, combination therapy with 2 effective drugs was tried, and time-lag administration was performed. Combination therapy was effective and lengthened the therapeutic time window. Next, a completely new approach to improve cerebral ischemic damage, namely, H2 gas inhalation therapy, was tried. This therapy was also effective, even in the ischemic core. PMID:22687352

  1. Monitorization of Acute Brain Dysfunction in Critical Illness

    Günseli Orhun; Figen Esen

    2016-01-01

    Acute brain dysfunction is a clinical condition which is commonly observed in intensive care units and exhibits neurological changes ranging from delirium to coma. Typically observed during sepsis in critical patients, this syndrome is also named as “sepsis-associated encephalopathy” and this situation is of significance since it is related to mortality, increase of morbidity and long-term cognitive impairment. Monitorization of brain functions in critically ill patients should be commenced w...

  2. Optimizing sedation in patients with acute brain injury

    Oddo, Mauro; Crippa, Ilaria Alice; Mehta, Sangeeta; Menon, David; Payen, Jean-Francois; Taccone, Fabio Silvio; Citerio, Giuseppe

    2016-01-01

    Daily interruption of sedative therapy and limitation of deep sedation have been shown in several randomized trials to reduce the duration of mechanical ventilation and hospital length of stay, and to improve the outcome of critically ill patients. However, patients with severe acute brain injury (ABI; including subjects with coma after traumatic brain injury, ischaemic/haemorrhagic stroke, cardiac arrest, status epilepticus) were excluded from these studies. Therefore, whether the new paradi...

  3. Simultaneous and long-term measurement of gene expression and neuronal activity from a brain slice

    sprotocols

    2014-01-01

    Authors: Daisuke Ono, Ken-ichi Honma & Sato Honma ### Abstract Photonic bioimaging is a powerful tool for measurement of biological functions in living cells. It enables us to identify when, how, and where a phenomenon of interest takes place such as gene expression and interaction of molecules. To understand the sequential events happening in the brain, it is of special importance to assess more than one parameter simultaneously. In this protocol, we describe detailed methods of ...

  4. Changes in astrocyte morphology and extracellular space volume fraction in brain slices after ischemia

    Anděrová, Miroslava; Hock, Miroslav; Antonova, Tatiana; Chvátal, Alexandr; Syková, Eva

    Lisabon, 2004. s. 495. [Forum of European Neuroscience /4./. 10.07.2004-14.07.2004, Lisabon] R&D Projects: GA ČR GA305/02/1528; GA ČR GA305/03/1172; GA ČR GA305/04/1293; GA MŠk LN00A065 Keywords : extracellular space * brain ischemia Subject RIV: FH - Neurology

  5. Expression of hypoxia-inducible factor 1 alpha and oligodendrocyte lineage gene-1 in cultured brain slices after oxygen-glucose deprivation

    Hong Cui; Weijuan Han; Lijun Yang; Yanzhong Chang

    2013-01-01

    Oligodendrocyte lineage gene-1 expressed in oligodendrocytes may trigger the repair of neuronal myelin impairment, and play a crucial role in myelin repair. Hypoxia-inducible factor 1α, a transcription factor, is of great significance in premature infants with hypoxic-ischemic brain damage. There is little evidence of direct regulatory effects of hypoxia-inducible factor 1α on oligodendrocyte lineage gene-1. In this study, brain slices of Sprague-Dawley rats were cultured and subjected to oxygen-glucose deprivation. Then, slices were transfected with hypoxia-inducible factor 1α or oligodendrocyte lineage gene-1. The expression levels of hypoxia-inducible factor 1α and oligodendrocyte lineage gene-1 were significantly up-regulated in rat brains prior to transfection, as detected by immunohistochemical staining. Eight hours after transfection of slices with hypoxia-inducible factor 1α, oligodendrocyte lineage gene-1 expression was upregulated, and reached a peak 24 hours after transfection. Oligodendrocyte lineage gene-1 transfection induced no significant differences in hypoxia-inducible factor 1α levels in rat brain tissues with oxygen-glucose deprivation. These experimental findings indicate that hypoxia-inducible factor 1α can regulate oligodendrocyte lineage gene-1 expression in hypoxic brain tissue, thus repairing the neural impairment.

  6. Acute Blast Injury Reduces Brain Abeta in Two Rodent Species

    GregoryAElder; MiguelA.Gama Sosa; RitaDe Gasperi; MichaelCShaughness; StevenTDeKosky; SamGandy; MadhusoodanaPNambiar; JohnWSteele

    2012-01-01

    Blast-induced traumatic brain injury (TBI) has been a major cause of morbidity and mortality in the conflicts in Iraq and Afghanistan. How the primary blast wave affects the brain is not well understood. In particular, it is unclear whether blast injures the brain through mechanisms similar to those found in non-blast closed impact injuries (nbTBI). The β-amyloid (Aβ) peptide associated with the development of Alzheimer’s disease (AD) is elevated acutely following TBI in humans as well as in ...

  7. Acute Blast Injury Reduces Brain Abeta in Two Rodent Species

    De Gasperi, Rita; Gama Sosa, Miguel A; Kim, Soong Ho; Steele, John W.; Shaughness, Michael C; Maudlin-Jeronimo, Eric; Hall, Aaron A.; DeKosky, Steven T.; McCarron, Richard M; Nambiar, Madhusoodana P.; Gandy, Sam; Ahlers, Stephen T.; Elder, Gregory A.

    2012-01-01

    Blast-induced traumatic brain injury (TBI) has been a major cause of morbidity and mortality in the conflicts in Iraq and Afghanistan. How the primary blast wave affects the brain is not well understood. In particular, it is unclear whether blast injures the brain through mechanisms similar to those found in non-blast closed impact injuries (nbTBI). The β-amyloid (Aβ) peptide associated with the development of Alzheimer’s disease is elevated acutely following TBI in humans as well as in exper...

  8. Dual activities of the anti-cancer drug candidate PBI-05204 provide neuroprotection in brain slice models for neurodegenerative diseases and stroke.

    Van Kanegan, Michael J; Dunn, Denise E; Kaltenbach, Linda S; Shah, Bijal; He, Dong Ning; McCoy, Daniel D; Yang, Peiying; Peng, Jiangnan; Shen, Li; Du, Lin; Cichewicz, Robert H; Newman, Robert A; Lo, Donald C

    2016-01-01

    We previously reported neuroprotective activity of the botanical anti-cancer drug candidate PBI-05204, a supercritical CO2 extract of Nerium oleander, in brain slice and in vivo models of ischemic stroke. We showed that one component of this neuroprotective activity is mediated through its principal cardiac glycoside constituent, oleandrin, via induction of the potent neurotrophic factor brain-derived neurotrophic factor (BDNF). However, we also noted that the concentration-relation for PBI-05204 in the brain slice oxygen-glucose deprivation (OGD) model is considerably broader than that for oleandrin as a single agent. We thus surmised that PBI-05204 contains an additional neuroprotective component(s), distinct from oleandrin. We report here that neuroprotective activity is also provided by the triterpenoid constituents of PBI-05204, notably oleanolic acid. We demonstrate that a sub-fraction of PBI-05204 (Fraction 0-4) containing oleanolic and other triterpenoids, but without cardiac glycosides, induces the expression of cellular antioxidant gene transcription programs regulated through antioxidant transcriptional response elements (AREs). Finally, we show that Fraction 0-4 provides broad neuroprotection in organotypic brain slice models for neurodegeneration driven by amyloid precursor protein (APP) and tau implicated in Alzheimer's disease and frontotemporal dementias, respectively, in addition to ischemic injury modeled by OGD. PMID:27172999

  9. Reversible acute methotrexate leukoencephalopathy: atypical brain MR imaging features

    Ziereisen, France; Damry, Nash; Christophe, Catherine [Queen Fabiola Children' s University Hospital, Department of Radiology, Brussels (Belgium); Dan, Bernard [Queen Fabiola Children' s University Hospital, Department of Neurology, Brussels (Belgium); Azzi, Nadira; Ferster, Alina [Queen Fabiola Children' s University Hospital, Department of Paediatrics, Brussels (Belgium)

    2006-03-15

    Unusual acute symptomatic and reversible early-delayed leukoencephalopathy has been reported to be induced by methotrexate (MTX). We aimed to identify the occurrence of such atypical MTX neurotoxicity in children and document its MR presentation. We retrospectively reviewed the clinical findings and brain MRI obtained in 90 children treated with MTX for acute lymphoblastic leukaemia or non-B malignant non-Hodgkin lymphoma. All 90 patients had normal brain imaging before treatment. In these patients, brain imaging was performed after treatment completion and/or relapse and/or occurrence of neurological symptoms. Of the 90 patients, 15 (16.7%) showed signs of MTX neurotoxicity on brain MRI, 9 (10%) were asymptomatic, and 6 (6.7%) showed signs of acute leukoencephalopathy. On the routine brain MRI performed at the end of treatment, all asymptomatic patients had classical MR findings of reversible MTX neurotoxicity, such as abnormal high-intensity areas localized in the deep periventricular white matter on T2-weighted images. In contrast, the six symptomatic patients had atypical brain MRI characterized by T2 high-intensity areas in the supratentorial cortex and subcortical white matter (n=6), cerebellar cortex and white matter (n=4), deep periventricular white matter (n=2) and thalamus (n=1). MR normalization occurred later than clinical recovery in these six patients. In addition to mostly asymptomatic classical MTX neurotoxicity, MTX may induce severe but reversible unusual leukoencephalopathy. It is important to recognize this clinicoradiological presentation in the differential diagnosis of acute neurological deterioration in children treated with MTX. (orig.)

  10. Whole-brain CT perfusion and CT angiography assessment of Moyamoya disease before and after surgical revascularization: preliminary study with 256-slice CT.

    Jun Zhang

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND/AIMS: The 256-slice CT enables the entire brain to be scanned in a single examination. We evaluated the application of 256-slice whole-brain CT perfusion (CTP in determining graft patency as well as investigating cerebral hemodynamic changes in Moyamoya disease before and after surgical revascularization. METHODS: Thirty-nine cases of Moyamoya disease were evaluated before and after surgical revascularization with 256-slice CT. Whole-brain perfusion images and dynamic 3D CT angiographic images generated from perfusion source data were obtained in all patients. Cerebral blood flow (CBF, cerebral blood volume (CBV, time to peak (TTP and mean transit time (MTT of one hemisphere in the region of middle cerebral artery (MCA distribution and contralateral mirroring areas were measured. Relative CTP values (rCBF, rCBV, rTTP, rMTT were also obtained. Differences in pre- and post- operation perfusion CT values were assessed with paired t test or matched-pairs signed-ranks test. RESULTS: Preoperative CBF, MTT and TTP of potential surgical side were significantly different from those of contralateral side (P<0.01 for all. All graft patencies were displayed using the 3D-CTA images. Postoperative CBF, rCBF and rCBV values of surgical side in the region of MCA were significantly higher than those before operation (P<0.01 for all. Postoperative MTT, TTP, rMTT and rTTP values of the surgical side in the region of MCA were significantly lower than those before operation (P<0.05 for all. CONCLUSION: The 256-slice whole-brain CTP can be used to evaluate cerebral hemodynamic changes in Moyamoya disease before and after surgery and the 3D-CTA is useful for assessing the abnormalities of intracranial arteries and graft patencies.

  11. N-Acetylaspartate distribution in rat brain striatum during acute brain ischemia

    Sager, T.N.; Laursen, H; Fink-Jensen, A;

    1999-01-01

    Brain N-acetylaspartate (NAA) can be quantified by in vivo proton magnetic resonance spectroscopy (1H-MRS) and is used in clinical settings as a marker of neuronal density. It is, however, uncertain whether the change in brain NAA content in acute stroke is reliably measured by 1H-MRS and how NAA......]e increased linearly to 4 mmol/L after 3 hours and this level was maintained for the next 4 h. From the change in in vivo recovery of the interstitial space volume marker [14C]mannitol, the relative amount of NAA distributed in the interstitial space was calculated to be 0.2% of the total brain NAA during...... normal conditions and only 2 to 6% during ischemia. It was concluded that the majority of brain NAA is intracellularly located during ischemia despite large increases of interstitial [NAA]. Thus, MR quantification of NAA during acute ischemia reflects primarily changes in intracellular levels of NAA...

  12. Comparison of iterative model, hybrid iterative, and filtered back projection reconstruction techniques in low-dose brain CT: impact of thin-slice imaging

    The purpose of this study was to evaluate the utility of iterative model reconstruction (IMR) in brain CT especially with thin-slice images. This prospective study received institutional review board approval, and prior informed consent to participate was obtained from all patients. We enrolled 34 patients who underwent brain CT and reconstructed axial images with filtered back projection (FBP), hybrid iterative reconstruction (HIR) and IMR with 1 and 5 mm slice thicknesses. The CT number, image noise, contrast, and contrast noise ratio (CNR) between the thalamus and internal capsule, and the rate of increase of image noise in 1 and 5 mm thickness images between the reconstruction methods, were assessed. Two independent radiologists assessed image contrast, image noise, image sharpness, and overall image quality on a 4-point scale. The CNRs in 1 and 5 mm slice thickness were significantly higher with IMR (1.2 ± 0.6 and 2.2 ± 0.8, respectively) than with FBP (0.4 ± 0.3 and 1.0 ± 0.4, respectively) and HIR (0.5 ± 0.3 and 1.2 ± 0.4, respectively) (p < 0.01). The mean rate of increasing noise from 5 to 1 mm thickness images was significantly lower with IMR (1.7 ± 0.3) than with FBP (2.3 ± 0.3) and HIR (2.3 ± 0.4) (p < 0.01). There were no significant differences in qualitative analysis of unfamiliar image texture between the reconstruction techniques. IMR offers significant noise reduction and higher contrast and CNR in brain CT, especially for thin-slice images, when compared to FBP and HIR. (orig.)

  13. Comparison of iterative model, hybrid iterative, and filtered back projection reconstruction techniques in low-dose brain CT: impact of thin-slice imaging

    Nakaura, Takeshi; Iyama, Yuji; Kidoh, Masafumi; Yokoyama, Koichi [Amakusa Medical Center, Diagnostic Radiology, Amakusa, Kumamoto (Japan); Kumamoto University, Department of Diagnostic Radiology, Graduate School of Medical Sciences, Kumamoto (Japan); Oda, Seitaro; Yamashita, Yasuyuki [Kumamoto University, Department of Diagnostic Radiology, Graduate School of Medical Sciences, Kumamoto (Japan); Tokuyasu, Shinichi [Philips Electronics, Kumamoto (Japan); Harada, Kazunori [Amakusa Medical Center, Department of Surgery, Kumamoto (Japan)

    2016-03-15

    The purpose of this study was to evaluate the utility of iterative model reconstruction (IMR) in brain CT especially with thin-slice images. This prospective study received institutional review board approval, and prior informed consent to participate was obtained from all patients. We enrolled 34 patients who underwent brain CT and reconstructed axial images with filtered back projection (FBP), hybrid iterative reconstruction (HIR) and IMR with 1 and 5 mm slice thicknesses. The CT number, image noise, contrast, and contrast noise ratio (CNR) between the thalamus and internal capsule, and the rate of increase of image noise in 1 and 5 mm thickness images between the reconstruction methods, were assessed. Two independent radiologists assessed image contrast, image noise, image sharpness, and overall image quality on a 4-point scale. The CNRs in 1 and 5 mm slice thickness were significantly higher with IMR (1.2 ± 0.6 and 2.2 ± 0.8, respectively) than with FBP (0.4 ± 0.3 and 1.0 ± 0.4, respectively) and HIR (0.5 ± 0.3 and 1.2 ± 0.4, respectively) (p < 0.01). The mean rate of increasing noise from 5 to 1 mm thickness images was significantly lower with IMR (1.7 ± 0.3) than with FBP (2.3 ± 0.3) and HIR (2.3 ± 0.4) (p < 0.01). There were no significant differences in qualitative analysis of unfamiliar image texture between the reconstruction techniques. IMR offers significant noise reduction and higher contrast and CNR in brain CT, especially for thin-slice images, when compared to FBP and HIR. (orig.)

  14. NI-643D-PRINTED MRI-BASED CUSTOM BRAIN MOLDS FOR MINIMIZING TISSUE DISTORTION AND PRECISELY SLICING TISSUE FOR CO-REGISTRATION WITH CLINICALLY ACQUIRED MRI IN GLIOMA PATIENTS

    Pellatt, Brian; Mickevicius, Nikolai; Cochran, Elizabeth; LaViolette, Peter

    2014-01-01

    INTRODUCTION: Precise co-registration of brain tissue and medical imaging is critical for validation of novel imaging biomarkers meant to detect infiltrative brain cancer. Brain tissue distortion during fixation, and brain slicing in sub-optimal orientation can complicate co-registration. METHODS: Three high-grade glioma patients undergoing brain only autopsies were included in this analysis. A clinically acquired MRI was used to render 3D computer assisted drafting (CAD) models. To generate ...

  15. Nonlinear Dynamic Theory of Acute Cell Injuries and Brain Ischemia

    Taha, Doaa; Anggraini, Fika; Degracia, Donald; Huang, Zhi-Feng

    2015-03-01

    Cerebral ischemia in the form of stroke and cardiac arrest brain damage affect over 1 million people per year in the USA alone. In spite of close to 200 clinical trials and decades of research, there are no treatments to stop post-ischemic neuron death. We have argued that a major weakness of current brain ischemia research is lack of a deductive theoretical framework of acute cell injury to guide empirical studies. A previously published autonomous model based on the concept of nonlinear dynamic network was shown to capture important facets of cell injury, linking the concept of therapeutic to bistable dynamics. Here we present an improved, non-autonomous formulation of the nonlinear dynamic model of cell injury that allows multiple acute injuries over time, thereby allowing simulations of both therapeutic treatment and preconditioning. Our results are connected to the experimental data of gene expression and proteomics of neuron cells. Importantly, this new model may be construed as a novel approach to pharmacodynamics of acute cell injury. The model makes explicit that any pro-survival therapy is always a form of sub-lethal injury. This insight is expected to widely influence treatment of acute injury conditions that have defied successful treatment to date. This work is supported by NIH NINDS (NS081347) and Wayne State University President's Research Enhancement Award.

  16. Triazolam-induced modulation of muscarinic acetylcholine receptor in living brain slices as revealed by a new positron-based imaging technique

    The effect of triazolam, a potent benzodiazepine (BZ) agonist, on muscarinic acetylcholinergic receptor (mAChR) binding was investigated in living brain slices by use of a novel positron-based imaging technique. Fresh rat brain slices were incubated with [11C]N-methyl-4-piperidylbenzilate ([11C]NMPB), a mAChR antagonist, in oxygenated Krebs-Ringer solution at 37 degree C. During incubation, time-resolved imaging of [11C]NMPB binding in the slices was constructed on the storage phosphor screens. Addition of triazolam (1 μM) plus muscimol (30 μM), a GABAA receptor agonist, to the incubation mixture decreased the specific binding of [11C]NMPB. Ro15-1788, a BZ receptor antagonist, prevented this effect, indicating that the effect was exerted through the GABAA/BZ receptor complex. These results demonstrated that stimulation of the GABAA/BZ receptor lowers the affinity of the mAChR for its ligand, which may underlie the BZ-induced amnesia, a serious clinical side effect of BZ. No such effect in the P2-fraction instead implies that the integrity of the neuronal cells and/or their environment is prerequisite for the modulation of mAChR by GABAA/BZ stimulation. (author)

  17. Acute respiratory distress syndrome assessment after traumatic brain injury

    Shahrooz Kazemi

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Background: Acute respiratory distress syndrome (ARDS is one of the most important complications associated with traumatic brain injury (TBI. ARDS is caused by inflammation of the lungs and hypoxic damage with lung physiology abnormalities associated with acute respiratory distress syndrome. Aim of this study is to determine the epidemiology of ARDS and the prevalence of risk factors. Methods: This prospective study performed on patients with acute traumatic head injury hospitalization in the intensive care unit of the Shohaday-e Haftom-e-Tir Hospital (September 2012 to September 2013 done. About 12 months, the data were evaluated. Information including age, sex, education, employment, drug and alcohol addiction, were collected and analyzed. The inclusion criteria were head traumatic patients and exclusion was the patients with chest trauma. Questionnaire was designed with doctors supervision of neurosurgery. Then the collected data were analysis. Results: In this study, the incidence of ARDS was 23.8% and prevalence of metabolic acidosis was 31.4%. Most injury with metabolic acidosis was Subarachnoid hemorrhage (SAH 48 (60% and Subdural hemorrhage (SDH was Next Level with 39 (48% Correlation between Glasgow Coma Scale (GCS and Respiratory Distress Syndrome (ARDS were significantly decreased (P< 0.0001. The level of consciousness in patients with skull fractures significantly lower than those without fractures (P= 0.009 [(2.3±4.6 vs (4.02±7.07]. Prevalence of metabolic acidosis during hospitalization was 80 patients (31.4%. Conclusion: Acute respiratory distress syndrome is a common complication of traumatic brain injury. Management and treatment is essential to reduce the mortality. In this study it was found the age of patients with ARDS was higher than patients without complications. ARDS risk factor for high blood pressure was higher in men. Most victims were pedestrians. The most common injury associated with ARDS was SDH. Our analysis

  18. MR-visible brain water content in human acute stroke

    Gideon, P; Rosenbaum, S; Sperling, B; Petersen, P

    1999-01-01

    Quantification of metabolite concentrations by proton magnetic resonance spectroscopy (1H-MRS) in the human brain using water as an internal standard is based on the assumption that water content does not change significantly in pathologic brain tissue. To test this, we used 1H-MRS to estimate...... brain water content during the course of cerebral infarction. Measurements were performed serially in the acute, subacute, and chronic phase of infarction. Fourteen patients with acute cerebral infarction were examined as well as 9 healthy controls. To correlate with regional cerebral blood flow (r......CBF) SPECT-scanning using 99mTc-HMPAO as flow tracer was performed in the patients. Mean water content (SD) in the infarct area was 37.7 (5.1); 41.8 (4.8); 35.2 (5.4); and 39.3 (5.1) mol x [kg wet weight](-1) at 0-3; 4-7; 8-21; and >180 days after stroke, respectively. Water content increased between Day 0...

  19. Dynamic changes in glucose metabolism of living rat brain slices induced by hypoxia and neurotoxic chemical-loading revealed by positron autoradiography

    Fresh rat brain slices were incubated with 2-deoxy-2-[18F]-fluoro-D-glucose ([18F]FDG) in oxygenated Krebs-Ringer solution at 36 degree C, and serial two-dimensional time-resolved images of [18F]FDG uptake were obtained from these specimens on imaging plates. The fractional rate constant (= k3*) of [18F]FDG proportional to the cerebral glucose metabolic rate (CMRglc) was evaluated by applying the Gjedde-Patlak graphical method to the image data. With hypoxia loading (oxygen deprivation) or glucose metabolism inhibitors acting on oxidative phosphorylation, the k3* value increased dramatically suggesting enhanced glycolysis. After relieving hypoxia ≤10-min, the k3* value returned to the pre-loading level. In contrast, with ≥20-min hypoxia only partial or no recovery was observed, indicating that irreversible neuronal damage had been induced. However, after loading with tetrodotoxin (TTX), the k3* value also decreased but returned to the pre-loading level even after 70-min TTX-loading, reflecting a transient inhibition of neuronal activity. This technique provides a new means of quantifying dynamic changes in the regional CMRglc in living brain slices in response to various interventions such as hypoxia and neurotoxic chemical-loading as well as determining the viability and prognosis of brain tissues. (author)

  20. Acute moderate exercise enhances compensatory brain activation in older adults.

    Hyodo, Kazuki; Dan, Ippeita; Suwabe, Kazuya; Kyutoku, Yasushi; Yamada, Yuhki; Akahori, Mitsuya; Byun, Kyeongho; Kato, Morimasa; Soya, Hideaki

    2012-11-01

    A growing number of reports state that regular exercise enhances brain function in older adults. Recently a functional near-infrared spectroscopy (fNIRS) study revealed that an acute bout of moderate exercise enhanced activation of the left dorsolateral prefrontal cortex (L-DLPFC) associated with Stroop interference in young adults. Whether this acute effect is also applicable to older adults was examined. Sixteen older adults performed a color-word matching Stroop task before and after 10 minutes of exercise on a cycle ergometer at a moderate intensity. Cortical hemodynamics of the prefrontal area was monitored with a fNIRS during the Stroop task. We analyzed Stroop interference (incongruent-neutral) as Stroop performance. Though activation for Stroop interference was found in the bilateral prefrontal area before the acute bout of exercise, activation of the right frontopolar area (R-FPA) was enhanced after exercise. In the majority of participants, this coincided with improved performance reflected in Stroop interference results. Thus, an acute bout of moderate exercise improved Stroop performance in older adults, and this was associated with contralateral compensatory activation. PMID:22300952

  1. Clinical application of magnetic resonance in acute traumatic brain injury

    Morais, Dionei F.; Gaia, Felipe F.P. [Hospital de Base de Sao Jose do Rio Preto, SP (Brazil). Servico de Neurocirurgia]. E-mail: centro@cerebroecoluna.com.br; Spotti, Antonio R.; Tognola, Waldir A. [Faculdade de Medicina de Sao Jose do Rio Preto (FAMERP), SP (Brazil). Dept. de Ciencias Neurologicas; Andrade, Almir F. [Universidade de Sao Paulo (USP), SP (Brazil). Hospital das Clinicas. Dept. de Neurocirurgia da Emergencia

    2008-07-01

    Purpose: To evaluate the clinical applications of magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) in patients with acute traumatic brain injury (TBI): to identify the type, quantity, severity; and improvement clinical-radiological correlation. Method: Assessment of 55 patients who were imaged using CT and MRI, 34 (61.8%) males and 21 (38.2%) females, with acute (0 to 5 days) and closed TBI. Results: Statistical significant differences (McNemar test): occurred fractures were detected by CT in 29.1% and by MRI in 3.6% of the patients; subdural hematoma by CT in 10.9% and MRI in 36.4 %; diffuse axonal injury (DAI) by CT in 1.8% and MRI in 50.9%; cortical contusions by CT in 9.1% and MRI in 41.8%; subarachnoid hemorrhage by CT in 18.2% and MRI in 41.8%. Conclusion: MRI was superior to the CT in the identification of DAI, subarachnoid hemorrhage, cortical contusions, and acute subdural hematoma; however it was inferior in diagnosing fractures. The detection of DAI was associated with the severity of acute TBI. (author)

  2. Architectural Slicing

    Christensen, Henrik Bærbak; Hansen, Klaus Marius

    2013-01-01

    Architectural prototyping is a widely used practice, con- cerned with taking architectural decisions through experiments with light- weight implementations. However, many architectural decisions are only taken when systems are already (partially) implemented. This is prob- lematic in the context of...... architectural prototyping since experiments with full systems are complex and expensive and thus architectural learn- ing is hindered. In this paper, we propose a novel technique for harvest- ing architectural prototypes from existing systems, \\architectural slic- ing", based on dynamic program slicing. Given a...... system and a slicing criterion, architectural slicing produces an architectural prototype that contain the elements in the architecture that are dependent on the ele- ments in the slicing criterion. Furthermore, we present an initial design and implementation of an architectural slicer for Java....

  3. The value of brain CT findings in acute methanol toxicity

    Taheri, Morteza Sanei [Department of Radiology, Shohada Hospital, Shahid Beheshti University of Medical Sciences, Tehran (Iran, Islamic Republic of); Poison Control Center, Loghman-Hakim Poison Hospital, Shahid Beheshti University of Medical Sciences, Tehran (Iran, Islamic Republic of)], E-mail: saneim@yahoo.com; Moghaddam, Hossein Hassanian [Poison Control Center, Loghman-Hakim Poison Hospital, Shahid Beheshti University of Medical Sciences, Tehran (Iran, Islamic Republic of); Moharamzad, Yashar; Dadgari, Shahrzad [Department of Radiology, Shohada Hospital, Shahid Beheshti University of Medical Sciences, Tehran (Iran, Islamic Republic of); Nahvi, Vahideh [Poison Control Center, Loghman-Hakim Poison Hospital, Shahid Beheshti University of Medical Sciences, Tehran (Iran, Islamic Republic of)

    2010-02-15

    Objective: Due to depressant effects of methanol on the central nervous system, brain computed tomography (CT) scan has been introduced as a diagnostic device in methanol intoxication. The authors aimed to present brain CT findings in patients with acute methanol intoxication and to determine signs associated with death. Materials and methods: This cohort study involved 42 consecutive patients with acute methanol intoxication. Inclusion criteria were consisted of characteristic clinical presentation of methanol poisoning, and metabolic acidosis with increased anion and osmolar gaps. Brain CT scans without contrast medium were obtained. To determine the association between the CT findings and death, the chi-square test or the Fisher's exact test, odds ratio (OR) and its 95% confidence interval (95% CI) were calculated. Results: Twenty-eight patients (66.6%) had a total of 55 abnormal findings on brain CT, in which bilateral putaminal hypodense lesions was the most common manifestation (27 cases, 96.4%). Putaminal hemorrhage with varying degrees was observed in 7 patients (25%). Six patients (21.4%) had low attenuation lesions in the subcortical white matter of the insula. A significant association was observed between putaminal hemorrhage (OR = 8, 95% CI = 1.187-53.93, P = 0.018) and subcortical necrosis of the insula (OR = 11, 95% CI = 1.504-80.426, P = 0.007) with death. Conclusion: In addition to clinical and laboratory findings, presence of putaminal hemorrhage and insular subcortex white matter necrosis are associated with a poor clinical outcome in patients with methanol poisoning.

  4. Sixty-four-slice CT in the assessment of global and regional left ventricular function: Comparison with MRI in a porcine model of acute and subacute myocardial infarction

    The purpose was to assess 64-slice CT in the analysis of global and regional ventricular function, using a model of acute and subacute myocardial infarction in comparison with cine-MRI. Seven pigs underwent standard MSCT and MRI examination a median 1 and 21 days following creation of reperfused myocardial infarction. Endocardial and epicardial contours were manually defined and ventricular volumes calculated according to Simpson's method. Results were compared by Pearson's correlation coefficient and Blant-Altman analysis. Wall motion was assessed on cine-images and evaluated by kappa statistics. MSCT revealed a strong correlation with cine-MRI regarding quantification of end-diastolic volume (EDV; r = 0.97), end-systolic volume (ESV; r = 0.97), stroke volume (SV; r = 0.94), ejection fraction (EF; r = 0.95) or myocardial mass (MM; r =0.94). Minor overestimation was observed for EDV and ESV (bias -1.7 ml; -1.5 ml; P=0.095; 0.025), whilst the mean difference for EF was found to be negligible (bias 0.9%; P = 0.18). Both modalities showed a 96.2% segmental agreement in regional wall motion (weighted-kappa 0.91 for 238 segments). This was true for both acute and subacute infarct phase and MSCT, and thereby enabled accurate intraindividual follow-up of segmental dysfunction. Sixty-four-slice CT allows for reliable analysis of global cardiac function and, moreover, provides accurate evaluation of wall motion in acute and subacute myocardial infarct. (orig.)

  5. Psychiatric Disease and Post-Acute Traumatic Brain Injury.

    Zgaljardic, Dennis J; Seale, Gary S; Schaefer, Lynn A; Temple, Richard O; Foreman, Jack; Elliott, Timothy R

    2015-12-01

    Psychiatric disorders are common following traumatic brain injury (TBI) and can include depression, anxiety, and psychosis, as well as other maladaptive behaviors and personality changes. The epidemiologic data of psychiatric disorders post-TBI vary widely, although the incidence and prevalence rates typically are higher than in the general population. Although the experience of psychiatric symptoms may be temporary and may resolve in the acute period, many patients with TBI can experience psychopathology that is persistent or that develops in the post-acute period. Long-term psychiatric disorder, along with cognitive and physical sequelae and greater risk for substance use disorders, can pose a number of life-long challenges for patients and their caregivers, as they can interfere with participation in rehabilitation as well as limit functional independence in the community. The current review of the literature considers the common psychiatric problems affecting individuals with TBI in the post-acute period, including personality changes, psychosis, executive dysfunction, depression, anxiety, and substance misuse. Although treatment considerations (pharmacological and nonpharmacological) are referred to, an extensive description of such protocols is beyond the scope of the current review. The impact of persistent psychiatric symptoms on perceived caregiver burden and distress is also discussed. PMID:25629222

  6. Diagnostic value of low-field MRI for acute poisoning brain injury

    Objective: To investigate the value of low-field MIR in diagnosis of acute CO poisoning brain injury. Methods: The brain MIR and clinical data of 110 patients with acute CO poisoning brain injury confirmed by clinical examination were retrospectively analyzed. Results: Long T1 and T2 signal intensity was showed on MRI in cerebral hemispheres and globus pallidus symmetrically. There were three basic types of MIR manifestations, white matter of brain type, globus pallidus type and brain mixed type. Conclusions: MRI could be used for confirming the degree and range of acute CO poisoning brain injury. It has important clinical value in the diagnosis, staging and prognosis of patients with acute CO poisoning brain injury. (authors)

  7. Brain perfusion CT in acute stroke: current status

    Dynamic perfusion CT has become a widely accepted imaging modality for the diagnostic workup of acute stroke patients. Although compared with standard spiral CT the use of multislice CT has broadened the range from which perfusion data may be derived in a single scan run. The advent of multidetector row technology has not really overcome the limited 3D capability of this technique. Multidetector CT angiography (CTA) of the cerebral arteries may in part compensate for this by providing additional information about the cerebrovascular status. This article describes the basics of cerebral contrast bolus scanning with a special focus on optimization of contrast/noise in order to ensure high quality perfusion maps. Dedicated scan protocols including low tube voltage (80 kV) as well as the use of highly concentrated contrast media are amongst the requirements to achieve optimum contrast signal from the short bolus passage through the brain. Advanced pre and postprocessing algorithms may help reduce the noise level, which may become critical in unconscious stroke victims. Two theoretical concepts have been described for the calculation of tissue perfusion from contrast bolus studies, both of which can be equally employed for brain perfusion imaging. For each perfusion model there are some profound limitations regarding the validity of perfusion values derived from ischemic brain areas. This makes the use of absolute quantitative cerebral blood flow (CBF) values for the discrimination of the infarct core from periinfarct ischemia questionable. Multiparameter imaging using maps of CBF, cerebral blood volume (CBV), and a time parameter of the local bolus transit enables analyzing of the cerebral perfusion status in detail. Perfusion CT exceeds plain CT in depicting cerebral hypoperfusion at its earliest stage yielding a sensitivity of about 90% for the detection of embolic and hemodynamic lesions within cerebral hemispheres. Qualitative assessment of brain perfusion can be

  8. Brain CT scan in acute carbon monoxide poisoning

    The brain CT findings in 19 patients with acute carbon monoxide poisoning was analysed and the emphasis was placed on the relationship between CT findings and prognosis. Five had a normal manifestation in CT ; eight had the findings of ovoid or patchy low density area in globus pallidus, bilateral or unlateral, during the second day to fifth week after poisoning, and the low density areas were decreasing and blurring in edge in follow up and at last disappeared during 3 - 14 weeks in three cases of them ; nine showed the appearance of diffuse low density of white matter and of globus pallidus in some of them ; two had an appearance of brain atrophy. The pathology of CT findings mentioned above may be brain edema, necrosis, malacia and degeneration in gray matter and globus pallidus. The result suggested the cases with normal CT manifestation, cerebral edema and decreasing and disappearing low density area had a good prognosis, in contrary, the cases with persistant low density in globus pallidus had a poorer prognosis. (author)

  9. MRI findings of acute cerebral swelling and brain edema in the acute stage

    We report two cases, one of acute cerebral swelling and the other with a major stroke, whose MRI has shown very interesting findings. Case 1, a 32-year-old male, was admitted to our service because of a lowering of his consciousness immediately after a head injury. On admission, the patient was semicomatous (E1M2V1, with anisocoria (R > L). His plain skull X-ray was normal. A CT scan, however, demonstrated right isodensity hemispheric swelling associated with a subarachnoid hemorrhage in the right Sylvian fissure. A right carotid angiogram showed no vascular disorders. MR imaging of the spin density demonstrated a hyperintensitive thickening of the gray matter in the whole right hemisphere. Case 2, a 58-year-old female, was admitted because of a sudden onset of loss of consciousness, with right hemiparesis and dysarthria. On admission, her consciousness was semicomatous (E1M3V1), and it deteriorated to a deep coma 1 hour later. A CT scan demonstrated a diffuse left hemispheric low density, with a finding of hemorrhagic infarction in the basal ganglia. MR imaging of the spin density showed a hyperintensitive thickening of the gray matter resembling that of Case 1. The findings of the spin-echo images of our two cases showed a hyperintensitive thickening of the gray matter in both. The hyperintensity and thickening of the gray matter apparently indicated a sort of hyperemia and brain edema. These findings led us to suspect that the hyperemia associated with acute cerebral swelling and ischemic brain edema of our two cases originated in the gray matter, although it has been considered that the pathogenesis of acute cerebral swelling is not known and that brain edema, especially vasogenic edema, will mostly develop in the white matter rather than in the gray matter. (author)

  10. Optimizing sedation in patients with acute brain injury.

    Oddo, Mauro; Crippa, Ilaria Alice; Mehta, Sangeeta; Menon, David; Payen, Jean-Francois; Taccone, Fabio Silvio; Citerio, Giuseppe

    2016-01-01

    Daily interruption of sedative therapy and limitation of deep sedation have been shown in several randomized trials to reduce the duration of mechanical ventilation and hospital length of stay, and to improve the outcome of critically ill patients. However, patients with severe acute brain injury (ABI; including subjects with coma after traumatic brain injury, ischaemic/haemorrhagic stroke, cardiac arrest, status epilepticus) were excluded from these studies. Therefore, whether the new paradigm of minimal sedation can be translated to the neuro-ICU (NICU) is unclear. In patients with ABI, sedation has 'general' indications (control of anxiety, pain, discomfort, agitation, facilitation of mechanical ventilation) and 'neuro-specific' indications (reduction of cerebral metabolic demand, improved brain tolerance to ischaemia). Sedation also is an essential therapeutic component of intracranial pressure therapy, targeted temperature management and seizure control. Given the lack of large trials which have evaluated clinically relevant endpoints, sedative selection depends on the effect of each agent on cerebral and systemic haemodynamics. Titration and withdrawal of sedation in the NICU setting has to be balanced between the risk that interrupting sedation might exacerbate brain injury (e.g. intracranial pressure elevation) and the potential benefits of enhanced neurological function and reduced complications. In this review, we provide a concise summary of cerebral physiologic effects of sedatives and analgesics, the advantages/disadvantages of each agent, the comparative effects of standard sedatives (propofol and midazolam) and the emerging role of alternative drugs (ketamine). We suggest a pragmatic approach for the use of sedation-analgesia in the NICU, focusing on some practical aspects, including optimal titration and management of sedation withdrawal according to ABI severity. PMID:27145814

  11. Brain damage after treatment for acute lymphoblastic leukemia

    In 34 patients treated for acute lymphoblastic leukemia (ALL), central nervous system (CNS) damage was assessed by clinical evaluation and brain magnetic resonance imaging (MRI). Twenty-seven of them had been off therapy from 5 to 109 months (median 64 months) while 7 had not completed the maintenance phase of their treatment. All the patients were disease-free when evaluated. None of the 3 patients who showed clinical CNS damage during the follow-up was symptomatic when submitted to MRI, while periventricular hyperintensity in T2-weighted images, suggestive of leukoencephalopathy, was present in 8 of the 34 patients. These subclinical abnormalities appear to be more frequent, transient in nature and treatment-related in patients evaluated shortly after the induction phase. Similar MRI findings seem, on the contrary, to be consequences of the disease on the CNS when appearing in long-term survivors. (orig.)

  12. 256-slice whole-brain CT perfusion in assessment of graft reperfusion after surgical revascularization and hemodynamic alterations before and after surgery in Moyamoya disease

    Objective: To explore the feasibility of 256-slice whole-brain CT perfusion (CTP) in evaluate graft reperfusion after surgical revascularization and hemodynamic alterations before and after surgery in Moyamoya disease. Methods: Twenty-five cases with Moyamoya disease were scanned on a 256-slice CT. CTP was performed pre- and post- surgical revascularization. The volumetric CT angiographic (CTA) images were generated from volumetric data acquired at the arterial phase of CTP. CBF, CBV, TTP and MTT were measured in functional maps at the operated side within middle cerebral artery perfusion areas and contralateral mirroring areas. Relative CBF(rCBF), relative CBV (rCBV), relative TTP (rTTP), relative MTT (rMTT) were also obtained. Differences in perfusion CT values pre- and post operation were assessed with the paired t test or matched-pairs signed-ranks test. Data with normal distribution was present as x±s, while those with the non-normal distribution were present as M (P25-P75). Results: All the direct graft patencies were displayed on volumetric CTA, No significant differences were found between volumetric CTA and conventional CTA. Postoperative CBF, rCBF and rCBV values of the operated side [72.86 (55.54- 112.19) ml · 100 g-1 · min-1, 1.31 (1.05-1.73), 1.45±0.62] were significantly higher than those before operation [46.72 (28.57-57.67) ml · 100 g-1 · min-1, 0.53 (0.33-0.82), 1.01±0.36] (Z= -2.72, -2.98, t=-2.85, P0.05). Conclusion: 256-slice CT has the potential value for the non-invasive assessment of both the graft patency and cerebral hemodynamics changes in Moyamoya disease after surgery with administration of one contrast medium bolus in a single examination. (authors)

  13. A peptide for targeted, systemic delivery of imaging and therapeutic compounds into acute brain injuries

    Mann, Aman P.; Scodeller, Pablo; Hussain, Sazid; Joo, Jinmyoung; Kwon, Ester; Braun, Gary B.; Mölder, Tarmo; She, Zhi-Gang; Kotamraju, Venkata Ramana; Ranscht, Barbara; Krajewski, Stan; Teesalu, Tambet; Bhatia, Sangeeta; Sailor, Michael J.; Ruoslahti, Erkki

    2016-06-01

    Traumatic brain injury (TBI) is a major health and socio-economic problem, but no pharmacological agent is currently approved for the treatment of acute TBI. Thus, there is a great need for advances in this field. Here, we describe a short peptide (sequence CAQK) identified by in vivo phage display screening in mice with acute brain injury. The CAQK peptide selectively binds to injured mouse and human brain, and systemically injected CAQK specifically homes to sites of brain injury in mouse models. The CAQK target is a proteoglycan complex upregulated in brain injuries. Coupling to CAQK increased injury site accumulation of systemically administered molecules ranging from a drug-sized molecule to nanoparticles. CAQK-coated nanoparticles containing silencing oligonucleotides provided the first evidence of gene silencing in injured brain parenchyma by systemically administered siRNA. These findings present an effective targeting strategy for the delivery of therapeutics in clinical management of acute brain injuries.

  14. Pharmacotherapy in rehabilitation of post-acute traumatic brain injury.

    Bhatnagar, Saurabha; Iaccarino, Mary Alexis; Zafonte, Ross

    2016-06-01

    There are nearly 1.8 million annual emergency room visits and over 289,000 annual hospitalizations related to traumatic brain injury (TBI). The goal of this review article is to highlight pharmacotherapies that we often use in the clinic that have been shown to benefit various sequelae of TBI. We have decided to focus on sequelae that we commonly encounter in our practice in the post-acute phase after a TBI. These symptoms are hyper-arousal, agitation, hypo-arousal, inattention, slow processing speed, memory impairment, sleep disturbance, depression, headaches, spasticity, and paroxysmal sympathetic hyperactivity. In this review article, the current literature for the pharmacological management of these symptoms are mentioned, including medications that have not had success and some ongoing trials. It is clear that the pharmacological management specific to those with TBI is often based on small studies and that often treatment is based on assumptions of how similar conditions are managed when not relating to TBI. As the body of the literature expands and targeted treatments start to emerge for TBI, the function of pharmacological management will need to be further defined. This article is part of a Special Issue entitled SI:Brain injury and recovery. PMID:26801831

  15. Slice Sampling

    Neal, Radford M.

    2000-01-01

    Markov chain sampling methods that automatically adapt to characteristics of the distribution being sampled can be constructed by exploiting the principle that one can sample from a distribution by sampling uniformly from the region under the plot of its density function. A Markov chain that converges to this uniform distribution can be constructed by alternating uniform sampling in the vertical direction with uniform sampling from the horizontal `slice' defined by the current vertical positi...

  16. Comparing culprit lesions in ST-segment elevation and non-ST-segment elevation acute coronary syndrome with 64-slice multidetector computed tomography

    Background: Classifying acute coronary syndrome (ACS) as ST elevation ACS (STE-ACS) or non-ST elevation ACS (NSTE-ACS) is critical for clinical prognosis and therapeutic decision-making. Assessing the differences in composition and configuration of culprit lesions between STE-ACS and NSTE-ACS can clarify their pathophysiologic differences. Objective: This study focused on evaluating the ability of 64-slice multidetector computed tomography (MDCT) to investigate these differences in culprit lesions in patients with STE-ACS and NSTE-ACS. Methods: Of 161 ACS cases admitted, 120 who fit study criteria underwent MDCT and conventional coronary angiography. The following MDCT data were analyzed: calcium volume, Agatston calcium scores, plaque area, plaque burden, remodeling index, and plaque density. Results: The MDCT angiography had a good correlation with conventional coronary angiography regarding the stenotic severity of culprit lesions (r = 0.86, p 1.05) was significantly higher in the STE-ACS group (81.5% vs. 63.6%, p = 0.031). The patients with STE-ACS had significantly lower MDCT density of culprit lesions than patients with NSTE-ACS (25.8 ± 13.9 HU vs. 43.5 ± 19.1 HU, p < 0.001). Conclusions: Sixty-four-slice MDCT can accurately evaluate the stenotic severity and composition of culprit lesions in selected patients with either STE-ACS or NSTE-ACS. Culprit lesions in NSTE-ACS patients had significantly lower luminal area stenosis, plaque burden, remodeling index and higher MDCT density, which possibly reflect differences in the composition of vulnerable culprit plaques and thrombi.

  17. Effort test performance in clinical acute brain injury, community brain injury, and epilepsy populations.

    Hampson, Natalie E; Kemp, Steven; Coughlan, Anthony K; Moulin, Chris J A; Bhakta, Bipin B

    2014-01-01

    Effort tests have become commonplace within medico-legal and forensic contexts and their use is rising within clinical settings. It is recognized that some patients may fail effort tests due to cognitive impairment and not because of poor effort. However, investigation of the base rate of failure among clinical populations other than dementia is limited. Forty-seven clinical participants were recruited and comprised three subgroups: acute brain injury (N = 11), community brain injury (N = 20), and intractable epilepsy (N = 16). Base rates of failure on the Word Memory Test (WMT; Green, 2003 ) and six other less well-validated measures were investigated. A significant minority of patients failed effort tests according to standard cutoff scores, particularly patients with severe traumatic brain injury and marked frontal-executive features. The WMT was able to identify failures associated with significant cognitive impairment through the application of profile analysis and/or lowered cutoff levels. Implications for clinical assessment, effort test interpretation, and future research are discussed. PMID:25084843

  18. Stimulation of brain muscarinic acetylcholine receptors acutely reverses radiogenic hypodipsia

    A sufficiently large dose of ionizing radiation produces changes in water consumption. However, the direction, durations, and physiological substrates of these alterations remain in question. Here we report a 5-d hypodipsia in rats exposed to 600 rads 60Co but a more transient, albeit larger, reduction in drinking after 1000 60Co. Brain cholinergic neurons have been implicated as mediators of thirst. Therefore, we explored the role of hypothalamic muscarinic receptors in the production of radiation-induced hypodipsia. This was accomplished through the intrahypothalamic injection of carbachol (a muscarinic agonist) or atropine (a muscarinic antagonist) in irradiated rats. Intracranial carbachol produced acute reversal of radiogenic hypodipsia while atropine potentiated the hypodipsia. These post-irradiation drug-induced behaviors were similar to those observed after the same drug treatments before irradiation. Since cholinergic neuronal functions persist and are labile (can be pharmacologically stimulated and blocked) after irradiation, this suggests that other neuronal systems and/or neurochemicals may be more prominently involved in radiogenic hypodipsia

  19. Outcome of 2 284 cases with acute traumatic brain injury

    2001-01-01

    Objective: To analyze the prognosis of 2 284 cases with acute traumatic brain injury and discuss possible methods to improve the outcome of head injuries.   Methods: The relationship between trauma cause, trauma severity and management and patients outcome was retrospectively analyzed.   Results: Good recovery was achieved in 60.20%, moderate disability was 13.22%, severe disability 15.24%, vegetative status 0.31% and mortality 11.03%. The mortality was 1.07% in cases with GCS 15-13, 2.47% in cases with GCS 12-9, 13.29% in cases with GCS 8-6, and 57.4% in cases with GCS 5-3.   Conclusions: To prevent hypoxia, remove intracranial hematoma as soon as possible, use standard large traumatic craniotomy and apply mild hypothermia may be useful means for improving the outcome of severely head injured patients.

  20. Structural Findings in the Brain MRI of Patients with Acute Carbon Monoxide Poisoning

    Yasmin Davoudi

    2014-09-01

    Conclusion: The white matter and globus pallidus were the most common affected regions in brain following acute CO poisoning. Signal abnormalities and restricted diffusion in MRI were correlated with duration of exposure to CO but not with the carboxyhemoglobin levels.

  1. Evaluation of Mitochondrial Function in the CNS of Rodent Models of Alzheimer's Disease - High Resolution Respirometry Applied to Acute Hippocampal Slices.

    Dias, Candida; Barbosa, Rui M; Laranjinha, Joao; Ledo, Ana

    2014-10-01

    Alzheimer's disease (AD) is a multifactorial disease characterized by extracellular deposits of amyloid plaques and intracellular neurofibrillary tangles. These hallmark alterations are preceded by synaptic deterioration, changes in neuromolecular plasticity phenomena, mitochondrial dysfunction, increase in oxidative damage to cellular constituents and decreased energy metabolism. The hippocampus is a structure of the temporal medial lobe implicated in specific forms of memory processes. It is also one of the first and most affected regions of the CNS in AD. Here we present a novel approach to the study if mitochondrial function/disfunction in 2 rodent models of AD: an acute rat model obtained by intracerebroventricular injection of the toxin streptozotocin (STZ) and a progressive triple transgenic mouse model (3TgAD) harboring PS1M146V, APPSwe, and tauP301L transgenes. Mitochondrial dysfunction has classically been assessed in such models by isolating mitochondria, synaptossoms or working with cell cultures. Anyone of these approaches destroys the intricate intercellular connectivity and cytoarchitecture of neuronal tissue. We used acute hippocampal slices obtained from the 2 models of AD and evaluated changes in mitochondrial function as a function of disease and/or age. Mitochondrial stress test were performed on the high resolution respirometry (Oroboros 2K Oxymeter). Upon analysis of oxygen consumption rates (OCR) we observed significant decreases in basal OCR, maximal respiratory capacity, ATP turnover and a tendency for decrease in sparing capacity in the STZ rat model compared to shame injected animals. Regarding the 3TgAD model we observed an age-dependent decrease in all parameters evaluated in the mitochondrial stress test, in both 3TgAD and NTg animals. However, although a tendency towards decreased OCR was observed when comparing 3TgAD and age-matched NTg animals, no statistically significant difference was observed. PMID:26461355

  2. Correlation of Computed Tomography findings with Glasgow Coma Scale in patients with acute traumatic brain injury

    SK Sah; ND Subedi; K. Poudel; Mallik, M

    2015-01-01

    OBJECTIVE To correlate Computed Tomography (CT) findings with Glasgow Coma Scale (GCS) in patients with acute traumatic brain injury attending in Chitwan Medical College teaching hospital Chitwan, Nepal. MATERIALS AND METHODS A cross-sectional study was performed among 50 patients of acute (less than24 hours) cases of craniocerebral trauma over a period of four months. The patient’s level of consciousness (GCS) was determined and a brain CT scan without contrast media was performed. A s...

  3. Acute effect of aspartame-induced oxidative stress in Wistar albino rat brain

    Ashok, Iyaswamy; Sheeladevi, Rathinasamy; Wankhar, Dapkupar

    2014-01-01

    Abstract The present study was carried out to investigate the acute effect of aspartame on oxidative stress in the Wistar albino rat brain. We sought to investigate whether acute administration of aspartame (75 mg/kg) could release methanol and induce oxidative stress in the rat brain 24 hours after administration. To mimic human methanol metabolism, methotrexate treated rats were used to study aspartame effects. Wistar strain male albino rats were administered with aspartame orally as a sing...

  4. The inflammatory molecules IL-1β and HMGB1 can rapidly enhance focal seizure generation in a brain slice model of temporal lobe epilepsy

    Giorgio Carmignoto

    2014-06-01

    Full Text Available Epilepsy is a neurological disorder characterized by a hyperexcitable brain tissue and unpredictable seizures, i.e., aberrant firing discharges in large neuronal populations. It is well established that proinflammatory cytokines, in addition to their canonical involvement in the immune response, have a crucial role in the mechanism of seizure generation. The purpose of the present study was to investigate the role of interleukin-1β (IL-1β and high mobility group B1 (HMGB1 in the generation of seizure-like discharges using two models of focal epilepsy in a rat entorhinal cortex slice preparation. Seizure like-discharges were evoked by either slice perfusion with low Mg2+ and picrotoxin or with a double NMDA local stimulation in the presence of the proconvulsant 4-amino-pyridine. The effects of IL-1β or HMGB1 were evaluated by monitoring seizure discharge generation through laser scanning microscope imaging of Ca2+ signals from neurons and astrocytes. In the picrotoxin model, we revealed that both cytokines increased the mean frequency of spontaneous ictal-like discharges, whereas only IL-1β reduced the latency and prolonged the duration of the first ictal-like event. In the second model, a single NMDA pulse, per se ineffective, became successful when it was performed after IL-β or HMGB1 local applications. These findings demonstrate that both IL-1β and HMGB1 can rapidly lower focal ictal event threshold and strengthen the possibility that targeting these inflammatory pathways may represent an effective therapeutic strategy to prevent seizures.

  5. Acute Psychosis Associated with Subcortical Stroke: Comparison between Basal Ganglia and Mid-Brain Lesions

    Aaron McMurtray; Ben Tseng; Natalie Diaz; Julia Chung; Bijal Mehta; Erin Saito

    2014-01-01

    Acute onset of psychosis in an older or elderly individual without history of previous psychiatric disorders should prompt a thorough workup for neurologic causes of psychiatric symptoms. This report compares and contrasts clinical features of new onset of psychotic symptoms between two patients, one with an acute basal ganglia hemorrhagic stroke and another with an acute mid-brain ischemic stroke. Delusions and hallucinations due to basal ganglia lesions are theorized to develop as a result ...

  6. Brain expression of the water channels Aquaporin-1 and -4 in mice with acute liver injury, hyperammonemia and brain edema

    Eefsen, Martin; Jelnes, Peter; Schmidt, Lars E;

    2010-01-01

    Cerebral edema is a feared complication to acute liver failure (ALF), but the pathogenesis is still poorly understood. The water channels Aquaporin-1 (Aqp1) and -4 (Aqp4) has been associated with brain edema formation in several neuropathological conditions, indicating a possible role of Aqp1 and....../or Aqp4 in ALF mediated brain edema. We induced acute liver injury and hyperammonemia in mice, to evaluate brain edema formation and the parallel expression of Aqp1 and Aqp4 in ALF. Liver injury and hyperammonemia were induced by +D-galactosamine (GLN) plus lipopolysaccharide (LPS) intraperitoneally and......(6266) (p <0.05), and stationary levels for Aqp1. Aqp1 and Aqp4 mRNA were stationary. This study indicates that Aqp4, but not Aqp1, may be of importance in the pathogenesis of cortical brain edema in mice with ALF....

  7. Comparing culprit lesions in ST-segment elevation and non-ST-segment elevation acute coronary syndrome with 64-slice multidetector computed tomography

    Huang, W.-C. [School of Medicine, National Yang-Ming University, Taipei, Taiwan (China); Cardiovascular Medical Center, Kaohsiung Veterans General Hospital, No. 386, Dar-Chung First Road, Kaohsiung, Taiwan (China)], E-mail: w.c.huang@yahoo.com.tw; Liu, C.-P. [School of Medicine, National Yang-Ming University, Taipei, Taiwan (China); Cardiovascular Medical Center, Kaohsiung Veterans General Hospital, No. 386, Dar-Chung First Road, Kaohsiung, Taiwan (China)], E-mail: cpliu@isca.vghks.gov.tw; Wu, M.-T. [School of Medicine, National Yang-Ming University, Taipei, Taiwan (China); Department of Radiology, Kaohsiung Veterans General Hospital, No. 386, Dar-Chung First Road, Kaohsiung, Taiwan (China)], E-mail: wu.mingting@gmail.com; Mar, G.-Y. [Cardiovascular Medical Center, Kaohsiung Veterans General Hospital, No. 386, Dar-Chung First Road, Kaohsiung, Taiwan (China)], E-mail: gymar@isca.vghks.gov.tw; Lin, S.-K. [Cardiovascular Medical Center, Kaohsiung Veterans General Hospital, No. 386, Dar-Chung First Road, Kaohsiung, Taiwan (China)], E-mail: skyii89@yahoo.com.tw; Hsiao, S.-H. [Cardiovascular Medical Center, Kaohsiung Veterans General Hospital, No. 386, Dar-Chung First Road, Kaohsiung, Taiwan (China)], E-mail: a841120@ms3.hinet.net; Lin, S.-L. [School of Medicine, National Yang-Ming University, Taipei, Taiwan (China); Cardiovascular Medical Center, Kaohsiung Veterans General Hospital, No. 386, Dar-Chung First Road, Kaohsiung, Taiwan (China)], E-mail: sllin@isca.vghks.gov.tw; Chiou, K.-R. [School of Medicine, National Yang-Ming University, Taipei, Taiwan (China); Cardiovascular Medical Center, Kaohsiung Veterans General Hospital, No. 386, Dar-Chung First Road, Kaohsiung, Taiwan (China)], E-mail: krchiou@isca.vghks.gov.tw

    2010-01-15

    Background: Classifying acute coronary syndrome (ACS) as ST elevation ACS (STE-ACS) or non-ST elevation ACS (NSTE-ACS) is critical for clinical prognosis and therapeutic decision-making. Assessing the differences in composition and configuration of culprit lesions between STE-ACS and NSTE-ACS can clarify their pathophysiologic differences. Objective: This study focused on evaluating the ability of 64-slice multidetector computed tomography (MDCT) to investigate these differences in culprit lesions in patients with STE-ACS and NSTE-ACS. Methods: Of 161 ACS cases admitted, 120 who fit study criteria underwent MDCT and conventional coronary angiography. The following MDCT data were analyzed: calcium volume, Agatston calcium scores, plaque area, plaque burden, remodeling index, and plaque density. Results: The MDCT angiography had a good correlation with conventional coronary angiography regarding the stenotic severity of culprit lesions (r = 0.86, p < 0.001). The STE-ACS culprit lesions (n = 54) had significantly higher luminal area stenosis (78.6 {+-} 21.2% vs. 66.7 {+-} 23.9%, p = 0.006), larger plaque burden (0.91 {+-} 0.10 vs. 0.84 {+-} 0.12, p = 0.007) and remodeling index (1.28 {+-} 0.34 vs. 1.16 {+-} 0.22, p = 0.021) than those with NSTE-ACS (n = 66). The percentage of expanding remodeling index (remodeling index >1.05) was significantly higher in the STE-ACS group (81.5% vs. 63.6%, p = 0.031). The patients with STE-ACS had significantly lower MDCT density of culprit lesions than patients with NSTE-ACS (25.8 {+-} 13.9 HU vs. 43.5 {+-} 19.1 HU, p < 0.001). Conclusions: Sixty-four-slice MDCT can accurately evaluate the stenotic severity and composition of culprit lesions in selected patients with either STE-ACS or NSTE-ACS. Culprit lesions in NSTE-ACS patients had significantly lower luminal area stenosis, plaque burden, remodeling index and higher MDCT density, which possibly reflect differences in the composition of vulnerable culprit plaques and thrombi.

  8. Protection of the blood-brain barrier by hypercapnia during acute hypertension

    The purpose of this study was to examine effects of hypercapnia on susceptibility of the blood-brain barrier to disruption during acute hypertension. Two methods were used to test the hypothesis that cerebral vasodilation during hypercapnia increases disruption of the blood-brain barrier. First, permeability of the blood-brain barrier was measured in anesthetized cats with 125I-labeled serum albumin. Severe hypertension markedly increased permeability of the blood-brain barrier during normocapnia, but not during hypercapnia. The protective effect of hypercapnia was not dependent on sympathetic nerves. Second, in anesthetized rats, permeability of the barrier was quantitated by clearance of fluorescent dextran. Disruption of the blood-brain barrier during hypertension was decreased by hypercapnia. Because disruption of the blood-brain barrier occurred primarily in pial venules, the authors also measured pial venular diameter and pressure. Acute hypertension increased pial venular pressure and diameter in normocapnic rats. Hypercapnia alone increased pial venular pressure and pial venular diameter, and acute hypertension during hypercapnia further increased venular pressure. The magnitude of increase in pial venular pressure during acute hypertension was significantly less in hypercapnic than in normocapnic rats. They conclude that hypercapnia protects the blood-brain barrier. Possible mechanisms of this effect include attenuation of the incremental increase in pial venular pressure by hypercapnia or a direct effect on the blood-brain barrier not related to venous pressure

  9. Contrasting Acute and Slow-Growing Lesions: A New Door to Brain Plasticity

    Desmurget, Michel; Bonnetblanc, FranCois; Duffau, Hugues

    2007-01-01

    The concept of plasticity describes the mechanisms that rearrange cerebral organization following a brain injury. During the last century, plasticity has been mainly investigated in humans with acute strokes. It was then shown: (i) that the brain is organized into highly specialized functional areas, often designated "eloquent" areas and (ii) that…

  10. Quantitative evaluation of benign meningioma and hemangiopericytoma with peritumoral brain edema by 64-slice CT perfusion imaging

    REN Guang; CHEN Shuang; WANG Yin; ZHU Rui-jiang; GENG Dao-ying; FENG Xiao-yuan

    2010-01-01

    Background Hemangiopericytomas (HPCs) have a relentless tendency for local recurrence and metastases,differentiating between benign meningiomas and HPCs before surgery is important for both treatment planning and the prognosis appraisal.The purpose of this study was to evaluate the correlations between CT perfusion parameters and microvessel density (MVD) in extra-axial tumors and the possible role of CT perfusion imaging in preoperatively differentiating benign meningiomas and HPCs.Methods Seventeen patients with benign meningiomas and peritumoral edema, 12 patients with HPCs and peritumoral edema underwent 64-slice CT perfusion imaging pre-operation.Perfusion was calculated using the Patlak method.The quantitative parameters, include cerebral blood volume (CBV), permeability surface (PS) of parenchyma, peritumoral edema among benign meningiomas and HPCs were compared respectively.CBV and PS in parenchyma, peritumoral edema of benign meningiomas and HPCs were also compared to that of the contrallateral normal white matter respectively.The correlations between CBV, PS of tumoral parenchyma and MVD were examined.Results The value of CBV and PS in parenchyma of HPCs were significantly higher than that of benign meningiomas (P<0.05), while the values of CBV and PS in peritumoral edema of benign meningiomas and HPCs were not significantly different (P >0.05).MVD in parenchyma of HPCs were significantly higher than that of benign meningiomas (P<0.05).There were positive correlations between CBV and MVD (r=0.648, P<0.05), PS and MVD (r=0.541, P<0.05) respectively.Furthermore, the value of CBV and PS in parenchyma of benign meningiomas and HPCs were significantly higher than that of contrallateral normal white matter (P<0.05), the value of CBV in peritumoral edema of benign meningiomas and HPCs were significantly lower than that of contrallateral normal white matter (P<0.05), while the value of PS in peritumoral edema of benign meningiomas and HPCs were not

  11. Acute Brain Metabolic Effects of Cocaine in Rhesus Monkeys with a History of Cocaine Use

    Henry, Porche’Kirkland; Murnane, Kevin; Votaw, John R.; Howell, Leonard L.

    2010-01-01

    Cocaine addiction involves an escalation in drug intake which alters many brain functions. The present study documented cocaine-induced changes in brain metabolic activity as a function of cocaine self-administration history. Experimentally naive rhesus monkeys (N=6) were given increasing access to cocaine under a fixed-ratio schedule of i.v. drug self-administration. PET imaging with F-18 labeled fluorodeoxyglucose (FDG) was used to measure acute i.m. cocaine-induced changes in brain metabol...

  12. Subtle BBB alterations in brain edema associated with acute liver failure

    Nguyen, Justin H

    2010-01-01

    Vasogenic mechanism of brain edema in acute liver failure (ALF) remains poorly understood. Recent work demonstrates that matrix metalloproteinase-9 (MMP-9) contributes to the development of brain edema in experimental ALF (J Hepatol 44:1105, 2006). Importantly, MMP-9 blockage with specific monoclonal antibodies and/or synthetic inhibitor, the edema is attenuated. Specifically, utrastructural evaluations demonstrate intact blood-brain barrier and its tight junction. These results suggest that ...

  13. Acute supramaximal exercise increases the brain oxygenation in relation to cognitive workload

    Cem Seref Bediz; Adile eOniz; Cagdas eGuducu; Enise eUral Demirci; Hilmi eOgut; Erkan eGunay; Caner eCetinkaya; Murat eOzgoren

    2016-01-01

    Single bout of exercise can improve the performance on cognitive tasks. However, cognitive responses may be controversial due to different type, intensity, and duration of exercise. In addition, the mechanism of the effect of acute exercise on brain is still unclear. This study was aimed to investigate the effects of supramaximal exercise on cognitive tasks by means of brain oxygenation monitoring. The brain oxygenation of Prefrontal cortex (PFC) was measured on 35 healthy male volunteers via...

  14. Acute Supramaximal Exercise Increases the Brain Oxygenation in Relation to Cognitive Workload

    Bediz, Cem Seref; Oniz, Adile; Guducu, Cagdas; Ural Demirci, Enise; Ogut, Hilmi; Gunay, Erkan; Cetinkaya, Caner; Ozgoren, Murat

    2016-01-01

    Single bout of exercise can improve the performance on cognitive tasks. However, cognitive responses may be controversial due to different type, intensity, and duration of exercise. In addition, the mechanism of the effect of acute exercise on brain is still unclear. This study was aimed to investigate the effects of supramaximal exercise on cognitive tasks by means of brain oxygenation monitoring. The brain oxygenation of Prefrontal cortex (PFC) was measured on 35 healthy male volunteers via...

  15. Evaluation of 2D multiband EPI imaging for high-resolution, whole-brain, task-based fMRI studies at 3T: Sensitivity and slice leakage artifacts

    Todd, Nick; Moeller, Steen; Auerbach, Edward J.; Yacoub, Essa; Flandin, Guillaume; Weiskopf, Nikolaus

    2016-01-01

    Functional magnetic resonance imaging (fMRI) studies that require high-resolution whole-brain coverage have long scan times that are primarily driven by the large number of thin slices acquired. Two-dimensional multiband echo-planar imaging (EPI) sequences accelerate the data acquisition along the slice direction and therefore represent an attractive approach to such studies by improving the temporal resolution without sacrificing spatial resolution. In this work, a 2D multiband EPI sequence was optimized for 1.5 mm isotropic whole-brain acquisitions at 3 T with 10 healthy volunteers imaged while performing simultaneous visual and motor tasks. The performance of the sequence was evaluated in terms of BOLD sensitivity and false-positive activation at multiband (MB) factors of 1, 2, 4, and 6, combined with in-plane GRAPPA acceleration of 2 × (GRAPPA 2), and the two reconstruction approaches of Slice-GRAPPA and Split Slice-GRAPPA. Sensitivity results demonstrate significant gains in temporal signal-to-noise ratio (tSNR) and t-score statistics for MB 2, 4, and 6 compared to MB 1. The MB factor for optimal sensitivity varied depending on anatomical location and reconstruction method. When using Slice-GRAPPA reconstruction, evidence of false-positive activation due to signal leakage between simultaneously excited slices was seen in one instance, 35 instances, and 70 instances over the ten volunteers for the respective accelerations of MB 2 × GRAPPA 2, MB 4 × GRAPPA 2, and MB 6 × GRAPPA 2. The use of Split Slice-GRAPPA reconstruction suppressed the prevalence of false positives significantly, to 1 instance, 5 instances, and 5 instances for the same respective acceleration factors. Imaging protocols using an acceleration factor of MB 2 × GRAPPA 2 can be confidently used for high-resolution whole-brain imaging to improve BOLD sensitivity with very low probability for false-positive activation due to slice leakage. Imaging protocols using higher acceleration

  16. Acute Psychosis Associated with Subcortical Stroke: Comparison between Basal Ganglia and Mid-Brain Lesions

    Aaron McMurtray

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Acute onset of psychosis in an older or elderly individual without history of previous psychiatric disorders should prompt a thorough workup for neurologic causes of psychiatric symptoms. This report compares and contrasts clinical features of new onset of psychotic symptoms between two patients, one with an acute basal ganglia hemorrhagic stroke and another with an acute mid-brain ischemic stroke. Delusions and hallucinations due to basal ganglia lesions are theorized to develop as a result of frontal lobe dysfunction causing impairment of reality checking pathways in the brain, while visual hallucinations due to mid-brain lesions are theorized to develop due to dysregulation of inhibitory control of the ponto-geniculate-occipital system. Psychotic symptoms occurring due to stroke demonstrate varied clinical characteristics that depend on the location of the stroke within the brain. Treatment with antipsychotic medications may provide symptomatic relief.

  17. Acute Modulation of Sugar Transport in Brain Capillary Endothelial Cell Cultures during Activation of the Metabolic Stress Pathway*

    Cura, Anthony J.; Carruthers, Anthony

    2010-01-01

    GLUT1-catalyzed equilibrative sugar transport across the mammalian blood-brain barrier is stimulated during acute and chronic metabolic stress; however, the mechanism of acute transport regulation is unknown. We have examined acute sugar transport regulation in the murine brain microvasculature endothelial cell line bEnd.3. Acute cellular metabolic stress was induced by glucose depletion, by potassium cyanide, or by carbonyl cyanide p-trifluoromethoxyphenylhydrazone, which reduce or deplete i...

  18. Imaging findings of the brain abnormalities in acute lymphoblastic leukemia of children during and after treatment

    We evaluated the imaging abnormalities of the brain observed during and after treatment of acute childhood lymphoblastic leukemia. The study group consisted of 30 patients (male : female=19 : 11 ; mean age, 64 months) with acute childhood lymphoblastic leukemia during the previous ten-year period who had undergone prophylaxis of the central nervous system. Irrespective of the CNS symptoms, base-line study of the brain involving CT and follow-up CT or MRI was undertaken more than once. We retrospectively evaluated the imaging findings, methods of treatment, associated CNS symptoms, and the interval between diagnosis and the time at which brain abnormalities were revealed by imaging studies. In 15 (50% ; male : female=9 : 6 ; mean age, 77 months) of 30 patients, brain abnormalities that included brain atrophy (n=9), cerebral infarctions (n=4), intracranial hemorrhage (n=1), mineralizing microangiopathy (n=2), and periventricular leukomalacia (n=3) were seen on follow-up CT or MR images. In four of nine patients with brain atrophy, imaging abnormalities such as periventricular leukomalacia (n=2), infarction (n=1) and microangiopathy (n=1) were demonstrated. Fourteen of the 15 patients underwent similar treatment ; the one excluded had leukemic cells in the CSF. Six patients had CNS symptoms. In the 15 patients with abnormal brain imaging findings, the interval between diagnosis and the demonstration of brain abnormalities was between one month and four years. After the cessation of treatment, imaging abnormalities remained in all patients except one with brain atrophy. Various imaging abnormalities of the brain may be seen during and after the treatment of acute childhood lymphoblastic leukemia and persist for a long time. In children with this condition, the assessment of brain abnormalities requires follow-up study of the brain

  19. Imaging findings of the brain abnormalities in acute lymphoblastic leukemia of children during and after treatment

    Lee, Kyung Joo; Lee, Seung Rho; Park, Dong Woo; Joo, Kyung Bin; Kim, Jang Wook; Hahm, Chang Kok; Kim, Ki Joong; Lee, Hahng [College of Medicine, Hanyang Univ., Seoul (Korea, Republic of)

    2001-09-01

    We evaluated the imaging abnormalities of the brain observed during and after treatment of acute childhood lymphoblastic leukemia. The study group consisted of 30 patients (male : female=19 : 11 ; mean age, 64 months) with acute childhood lymphoblastic leukemia during the previous ten-year period who had undergone prophylaxis of the central nervous system. Irrespective of the CNS symptoms, base-line study of the brain involving CT and follow-up CT or MRI was undertaken more than once. We retrospectively evaluated the imaging findings, methods of treatment, associated CNS symptoms, and the interval between diagnosis and the time at which brain abnormalities were revealed by imaging studies. In 15 (50% ; male : female=9 : 6 ; mean age, 77 months) of 30 patients, brain abnormalities that included brain atrophy (n=9), cerebral infarctions (n=4), intracranial hemorrhage (n=1), mineralizing microangiopathy (n=2), and periventricular leukomalacia (n=3) were seen on follow-up CT or MR images. In four of nine patients with brain atrophy, imaging abnormalities such as periventricular leukomalacia (n=2), infarction (n=1) and microangiopathy (n=1) were demonstrated. Fourteen of the 15 patients underwent similar treatment ; the one excluded had leukemic cells in the CSF. Six patients had CNS symptoms. In the 15 patients with abnormal brain imaging findings, the interval between diagnosis and the demonstration of brain abnormalities was between one month and four years. After the cessation of treatment, imaging abnormalities remained in all patients except one with brain atrophy. Various imaging abnormalities of the brain may be seen during and after the treatment of acute childhood lymphoblastic leukemia and persist for a long time. In children with this condition, the assessment of brain abnormalities requires follow-up study of the brain.

  20. Utility of EEG measures of brain function in patients with acute stroke.

    Wu, Jennifer; Srinivasan, Ramesh; Burke Quinlan, Erin; Solodkin, Ana; Small, Steven L; Cramer, Steven C

    2016-06-01

    EEG has been used to study acute stroke for decades; however, because of several limitations EEG-based measures rarely inform clinical decision-making in this setting. Recent advances in EEG hardware, recording electrodes, and EEG software could overcome these limitations. The present study examined how well dense-array (256 electrodes) EEG, acquired with a saline-lead net and analyzed with whole brain partial least squares (PLS) modeling, captured extent of acute stroke behavioral deficits and varied in relation to acute brain injury. In 24 patients admitted for acute ischemic stroke, 3 min of resting-state EEG was acquired at bedside, including in the ER and ICU. Traditional quantitative EEG measures (power in a specific lead, in any frequency band) showed a modest association with behavioral deficits [NIH Stroke Scale (NIHSS) score] in bivariate models. However, PLS models of delta or beta power across whole brain correlated strongly with NIHSS score (R(2) = 0.85-0.90) and remained robust when further analyzed with cross-validation models (R(2) = 0.72-0.73). Larger infarct volume was associated with higher delta power, bilaterally; the contralesional findings were not attributable to mass effect, indicating that EEG captures significant information about acute stroke effects not available from MRI. We conclude that 1) dense-array EEG data are feasible as a bedside measure of brain function in patients with acute stroke; 2) high-dimension EEG data are strongly correlated with acute stroke behavioral deficits and are superior to traditional single-lead metrics in this regard; and 3) EEG captures significant information about acute stroke injury not available from structural brain imaging. PMID:26936984

  1. Effect of acute and chronic cholinesterase inhibition on biogenic amines in rat brain.

    Soininen, H; Unni, L; Shillcutt, S

    1990-12-01

    The effects of five cholinesterase inhibitors on forebrain monoamine and their metabolite levels, and on forebrain and plasma cholinesterase (ChE) activity in rat were studied in acute and chronic conditions. Acute tetrahydroaminoacridine (THA) dosing caused lower brain (68%) and higher plasma (90%) ChE inhibition than the other drugs studied and increased levels of brain dihydroxyphenylacetic acid (DOPAC) (236%), homovanillic acid (HVA) (197%) and 5-hydroxyindoleacetic acid (5-HIAA) (130%). Acute physostigmine (PHY) administration caused a 215% increase in brain DOPAC content. Despite high brain ChE inhibition induced by metrifonate (MTF), dichlorvos (DDVP) or naled no changes in brain noradrenaline (NA), dopamine (DA) or serotonin (5-HT) occurred due to treatment with the study drugs in the acute study. In the chronic 10-day study THA or PHY caused no substantial ChE inhibition in brain when measured 18 hours after the last dose, whereas MTF induced 74% ChE inhibition. Long-term treatment with THA or MTF caused no changes in monoamine levels, but PHY treatment resulted in slightly increased 5-HT values. These results suggest that MTF, DDVP and naled seem to act solely by cholinergic mechanisms. However, the central neuropharmacological mechanism of action of THA and PHY may involve changes in cholinergic as well as dopaminergic and serotoninergic systems. PMID:1711162

  2. What role does the blood brain barrier play in acute mountain sickness?

    Baneke, Alex

    2010-07-01

    As high altitude travel increases, acute mountain sickness (AMS) and life threatening high altitude cerebral oedema (HACE) are becoming more prevalent. Acute mountain sickness occurs in 45% of lowlanders above 4250 m. Predisposing factors are still unknown and its development is more complex than the original "tight fit" hypothesis. This review examines evidence relating to a possible role of the blood brain barrier in AMS as suggested by MRI studies. Underlying mechanisms may involve vascular endothelial growth factor and free radicals in addition to increases in hydrostatic pressure. An increased understanding is important in advising patients planning high altitude adventures. Current studies have linked increased blood brain barrier permeability to high altitude cerebral oedema, but the role of the blood brain barrier in acute mountain sickness is less clear; varied symptoms include headache. MRI shows vasogenic oedema occurs in high altitude cerebral oedema, suggesting blood brain barrier permeability increases, and acute mountain sickness typically precedes high altitude cerebral oedema. Hypoxia leads to increased hydrostatic pressure, and blood brain barrier permeability has been shown to increase in stroke patients. Vascular endothelial growth factor is upregulated in hypoxia, and may increase blood brain barrier permeability. PMID:20952272

  3. Acute promyelocytic leukemia after whole brain irradiation of primary brain lymphomainan HIV-infected patient

    Boban A

    2009-01-01

    Full Text Available Abstract The occurrence of acute promyelocytic leukemia (APL in HIV-infected patients has been reported in only five cases. Due to a very small number of reported HIV/APL patients who have been treated with different therapies with the variable outcome, the prognosis of APL in the setting of the HIV-infection is unclear. Here, we report a case of an HIV-patient who developed APL and upon treatment entered a complete remission. A 25-years old male patient was diagnosed with HIV-infection in 1996, but remained untreated. In 2004, the patient was diagnosed with primary central nervous system lymphoma. We treated the patient with antiretroviral therapy and whole-brain irradiation, resulting in complete remission of the lymphoma. In 2006, prompted by a sudden neutropenia, we carried out a set of diagnostic procedures, revealing APL. Induction therapy consisted of standard treatment with all-trans-retinoic-acid (ATRA and idarubicin. Subsequent cytological and molecular analysis of bone marrow demonstrated complete hematological and molecular remission. Due to the poor general condition, consolidation treatment with ATRA was given in March and April 2007. The last follow-up 14 months later, showed sustained molecular APL remission. In conclusion, we demonstrated that a complete molecular APL remission in an HIV-patient was achieved by using reduced-intensity treatment.

  4. Progress in research of long-term potentiation on brain slice%在脑片水平上突触可塑性长时程增强的研究进展

    郑小波; 田心; 宋毅军

    2008-01-01

    长时程增强(LTP)是突触效能的重要表现形式,是研究学习与记忆突触机制的客观指标.近年来随着脑片技术的发展,很多关于LTP的实验研究都在脑片水平上进行.介绍了海马脑片CA1区LTP的调节表达机制的研究,海马脑片上诱导产生的LTP的特征和脑片条件的关系,多巴胺转运蛋白阻断剂通过活化D3多巴胺受体增强海马脑片CA1区LTP,以及激活大鼠海马脑片CA1区突触β-肾上腺素能受体增强联合LTP的研究,综述了在脑片水平上研究LTP的诱导表达维持及调节等方面的研究动态和进展.%Long-term potentiation(LTP)is an important form of synaptic plasticity and an objective indicator to investigate learing and memory synaptic mechanisms.With the development of brain slice technology,more and more experiments associated with LTP are carried out on brain slices,which aim to investigate the mechanism in biology and the change in physiology or biochemistry are carried out on the brain slice.This paper gives an overview of recent advances in research of LTP with technology of brain sliceby suchexamples as follows:The regulated expression mechanisms of long-term potentiation at CA1 synapses,the characteristics of LTP induced in hippcampal slices and its relation with the slice-recovery conditions,the enhancement of the magnitude of early longterm potentiation at CA1 hippocampal synapse by the activation of dopamine receptor,and the enhancement of associative long-term potentiation by the activation of β-adrenergic receptors at CA1 synapses in rat hippocampol slices.

  5. Phospholipase A2 changes and its significance on brain tissue of rat in severe acute pancreatitis

    Yao Xuan; Chen Xi; Ji Zongzheng

    2007-01-01

    Objective To survey changes and the significance of phospholipase A2(PLA2) on brain tissue of SD rat in acute pancreatitis. Methods With retrograde injection of 3% taurocholate sodium into pancreatic and biliary duct, rat model of severe acute pancreatitis (SAP) was made,and it included four groups: the control group, the sham-operation group, the SAP group and the PLA2 inhibitor-treated group of SAP. Serum amylases, PLA2 and PLA2 in brain tissue were measured and the brain tissue changes were observed. Results There were no significant difference in serum amylases, PLA2 and PLA2 in brain tissue between the sham-operation and the control groups; the levels of serum amylases, PLA2 and PLA2 in brain tissue in the SAP group were higher than those in the control. In the SAP group expansion and hemorrhage of meninges, intracephalic arteriolar hyperemia, in meninges and cephalic-parenchyma infiltration of inflammatory cells and interval broaden were observed, significant differences were found between two groups.Compared with the SAP group, the level of serum amylase, PLA2 and PLA2 in brain tissue were reduced significantly in the treatment group of SAP. Pathological damages in the treatment group were significantly reduced when compared with the SAP group. Conclusion PLA2 might play an important role in brain tissue damages in severe acute pancreatitis.

  6. Brain reward deficits accompany withdrawal (hangover) from acute ethanol in rats

    Schulteis, Gery; Liu, Jian

    2006-01-01

    Withdrawal from an acute bolus injection of ethanol produces affective or emotional signs that include anxiogenic-like behavior (Gauvin et al., 1992) and conditioned place aversion (Morse et al., 2000). The current study assessed whether brain reward deficits that accompany withdrawal from chronic ethanol dependence (Schulteis et al., 1995) are also observed upon withdrawal from acute intoxication. Rats were implanted with stimulating electrodes aimed at the medial forebrain bundle in the lat...

  7. Prevention and management of brain edema in patients with acute liver failure

    Wendon, J.; Larsen, Finn Stolze

    2008-01-01

    1. Intracranial pressure is the pressure exerted by the cranial contents on the dural envelope and consists of the partial pressures of the brain, blood, and cerebrospinal fluid. 2. Severe cases of acute liver failure are frequently complicated by brain edema (due to cytotoxic edema) and an...... increase in cerebral blood flow while the cerebrospinal fluid volume remains constant. 3. The development of intracranial hypertension in patients with acute liver failure may be controlled by manipulation of the position, body temperature, plasma tonicity, arterial carbon dioxide tension, and arterial...

  8. Systems biomarkers as acute diagnostics and chronic monitoring tools for traumatic brain injury

    Wang, Kevin K. W.; Moghieb, Ahmed; Yang, Zhihui; Zhang, Zhiqun

    2013-05-01

    Traumatic brain injury (TBI) is a significant biomedical problem among military personnel and civilians. There exists an urgent need to develop and refine biological measures of acute brain injury and chronic recovery after brain injury. Such measures "biomarkers" can assist clinicians in helping to define and refine the recovery process and developing treatment paradigms for the acutely injured to reduce secondary injury processes. Recent biomarker studies in the acute phase of TBI have highlighted the importance and feasibilities of identifying clinically useful biomarkers. However, much less is known about the subacute and chronic phases of TBI. We propose here that for a complex biological problem such as TBI, multiple biomarker types might be needed to harness the wide range of pathological and systemic perturbations following injuries, including acute neuronal death, neuroinflammation, neurodegeneration and neuroregeneration to systemic responses. In terms of biomarker types, they range from brain-specific proteins, microRNA, genetic polymorphism, inflammatory cytokines and autoimmune markers and neuro-endocrine hormones. Furthermore, systems biology-driven biomarkers integration can help present a holistic approach to understanding scenarios and complexity pathways involved in brain injury.

  9. Matrix Metalloproteinases and Blood-Brain Barrier Disruption in Acute Ischemic Stroke

    Lakhan, Shaheen E.; Kirchgessner, Annette; Tepper, Deborah; Leonard, Aidan

    2013-01-01

    Ischemic stroke continues to be one of the most challenging diseases in translational neurology. Tissue plasminogen activator (tPA) remains the only approved treatment for acute ischemic stroke, but its use is limited to the first hours after stroke onset due to an increased risk of hemorrhagic transformation over time resulting in enhanced brain injury. In this review we discuss the role of matrix metalloproteinases (MMPs) in blood-brain barrier (BBB) disruption as a consequence of ischemic ...

  10. Brain estrogen signaling and acute modulation of acoustic communication behaviors: a working hypothesis

    Remage-Healey, Luke

    2012-01-01

    Although estrogens are widely considered circulating ‘sex steroid hormones’ typically associated with female reproduction, recent evidence suggests that estrogens can act as local modulators of brain circuits in both males and females. Functional implications of this newly-characterized estrogen signaling system have begun to emerge. This essay summarizes evidence in support of the hypothesis that the rapid production of estrogens in brain circuits can drive acute changes in both the producti...

  11. The effects of acute alcohol administration on the human brain: Insights from neuroimaging

    Bjork, James M.; Gilman, Jodi M

    2013-01-01

    Over the last quarter century, researchers have peered into the living human brain to develop and refine mechanistic accounts of alcohol-induced behavior, as well as neurobiological mechanisms for development and maintenance of addiction. These in vivo neuroimaging studies generally show that acute alcohol administration affects brain structures implicated in motivation and behavior control, and that chronic intoxication is correlated with structural and functional abnormalities in these same...

  12. Sulfonylurea Receptor 1 Contributes to the Astrocyte Swelling and Brain Edema in Acute Liver Failure

    Jayakumar, A.R.; Valdes, V.; Tong, X. Y.; Shamaladevi, N.; W Gonzalez; Norenberg, M.D.

    2014-01-01

    Astrocyte swelling (cytotoxic brain edema) is the major neurological complication of acute liver failure (ALF), a condition in which ammonia has been strongly implicated in its etiology. Ion channels and transporters are known to be involved in cell volume regulation and a disturbance in these systems may result in cell swelling. One ion channel known to contribute to astrocyte swelling/brain edema in other neurological disorders is the ATP-dependent, non-selective cation channel (NCCa-ATP ch...

  13. An algorithm of neuroroentgenological examination of patients with acute brain injury

    Disadvantages in organization of neurotraumatologic aid to the population of St.Petersburg city are considered. Necessity of maximum optimization of the algorithm of neuroroentgenological examination of the patients with acute brain injury is marked. Experience in examination of the patients with brain injury at the Department of Radiation Diagnosis of St.Petersburg Medical Academy of Postgraduate. Training is described. Examination included the computerized tomography with the use of ultravist-300 (Shering, Germany), routine craniography was used as an additional technique

  14. Does acute caffeine ingestion alter brain metabolism in young adults?

    Xu, Feng; Liu, Peiying; Pekar, James J; Lu, Hanzhang

    2015-04-15

    Caffeine, as the most commonly used stimulant drug, improves vigilance and, in some cases, cognition. However, the exact effect of caffeine on brain activity has not been fully elucidated. Because caffeine has a pronounced vascular effect which is independent of any neural effects, many hemodynamics-based methods such as fMRI cannot be readily applied without a proper calibration. The scope of the present work is two-fold. In Study 1, we used a recently developed MRI technique to examine the time-dependent changes in whole-brain cerebral metabolic rate of oxygen (CMRO2) following the ingestion of 200mg caffeine. It was found that, despite a pronounced decrease in CBF (pextraction fraction (OEF) was significantly elevated (p=0.002) to fully compensate for the reduced blood supply. Using the whole-brain finding as a reference, we aim to investigate whether there are any regional differences in the brain's response to caffeine. Therefore, in Study 2, we examined regional heterogeneities in CBF changes following the same amount of caffeine ingestion. We found that posterior brain regions such as posterior cingulate cortex and superior temporal regions manifested a slower CBF reduction, whereas anterior brain regions including dorsolateral prefrontal cortex and medial frontal cortex showed a faster rate of decline. These findings have a few possible explanations. One is that caffeine may result in a region-dependent increase or decrease in brain activity, resulting in an unaltered average brain metabolic rate. The other is that caffeine's effect on vasculature may be region-specific. Plausibility of these explanations is discussed in the context of spatial distribution of the adenosine receptors. PMID:25644657

  15. Traditional reactive carbonyl scavengers do not prevent the carbonylation of brain proteins induced by acute glutathione depletion

    Zheng, J; Bizzozero, O. A.

    2010-01-01

    This study investigated the effect of reactive carbonyl species (RCS)-trapping agents on the formation of protein carbonyls during depletion of brain glutathione (GSH). To this end, rat brain slices were incubated with the GSH-depletor diethyl maleate in the absence or presence of chemically different RCS scavengers (hydralazine, methoxylamine, aminoguanidine, pyridoxamine, carnosine, taurine and z-histidine hydrazide). Despite their strong reactivity towards the most common RCS, none of the ...

  16. Abnormal brain MRI in a case of acute ataxia as the only sign of abdominal neuroblastoma

    Ataxia is a movement disorder that may manifest an acute, intermittent, non progressive or chronic progressive course. Ataxia alone is rare as a para neoplastic sign, especially if it is due to neuroblastoma (abdominal or chest). We report an abdominal neuroblastoma in a two-year-old girl presenting with only acute ataxia and abnormal neuroimaging. Brain MRI showed abnormal signal finding in the medulla, pons, cortico spinal tract and the periventricular space. In the abdominal CT, a mass was detected in the right adrenal gland with calcification and the histopathologic examination re-vealed neuroblastoma. We suggest in children with acute ataxia, with or without opalescence-myoclonus, neuroblastoma should be considered.

  17. Brain perfusion-CT in acute stroke patients

    Since 1979 when Grodfrey Hounsfield and Allan Corman introduced the computed tomography new generations of CT were developed that improved the special resolution and time of acquisition. The role of neuro-imaging in the evaluation of acute stroke has changed dramatically in the past decade. Previously, neuro-imaging was used in this set-ting to provide anatomic imaging that indicated the presence or absence of acute cerebral ischemia and excluded lesions that produce symptoms or signs mimicking those of stroke, such as hemorrhage and neoplasms. More recently, the introduction of thrombolysis has changed the goals of neuro-imaging from providing solely anatomic information to providing physiologic information that could help to determine which patients might benefit from therapy. In particular, significant emphasis has been placed on the delineation of the ischemic penumbra, also called tissue at risk. Modem CT survey, consisting of three indissociable elements; noncontrast CT (NCT) of course, perfusion-CT (PCT) and CT-angiography (CTA), fulfill all the requirements for hyperacute stroke imaging. CTA can define the occlusion site, depict arterial dissection, grade collateral blood flow, and characterize atherosclerotic disease, whereas PCT accurately defines the infarct core and the ischemic penumbra. CT offers a number of practical advantages over other cerebral perfusion imaging methods, including its wide availability. Using PCT and CTA to define new individualized strategies for acute reperfusion will allow more acute stroke patients to benefit from thrombolytic therapy. Key words: Stroke. Penumbra. Computed Tomography. Perfusion-CT. CT Angiography. Outcome

  18. Patients' and relatives' experience of difficulties following severe traumatic brain injury: the sub-acute stage

    Holm, Sara; Schönberger, Michael; Poulsen, Ingrid;

    2008-01-01

    The present study aimed to (1) identify the difficulties most frequently reported by individuals with severe traumatic brain injury (TBI) at the time of discharge from a sub-acute rehabilitation brain injury unit as well as difficulties reported by their relatives, (2) compare patients' and...... relatives' reports of patient difficulties, and (3) explore the role of injury severity, disability and other factors on subjective experience of difficulties. The primary measure was the European Brain Injury Questionnaire (EBIQ) administered to patients and to one of their close relatives at discharge...

  19. MR-visible brain water content in human acute stroke

    Gideon, P; Rosenbaum, S; Sperling, B;

    1999-01-01

    Quantification of metabolite concentrations by proton magnetic resonance spectroscopy (1H-MRS) in the human brain using water as an internal standard is based on the assumption that water content does not change significantly in pathologic brain tissue. To test this, we used 1H-MRS to estimate......CBF from Day 0-3 to Day 4-7 (p = 0.050) and from Day 0-3 to Day 8-21 (p = 0.028). No correlation between rCBF and water content was found. Water content in ischemic brain tissue increased significantly between Day 4-7 after stroke. This should be considered when performing quantitative 1H-MRS using water...

  20. Acute iron overload and oxidative stress in brain

    An in vivo model in rat was developed by intraperitoneally administration of Fe-dextran to study oxidative stress triggered by Fe-overload in rat brain. Total Fe levels, as well as the labile iron pool (LIP) concentration, in brain from rats subjected to Fe-overload were markedly increased over control values, 6 h after Fe administration. In this in vivo Fe overload model, the ascorbyl (A·)/ascorbate (AH−) ratio, taken as oxidative stress index, was assessed. The A·/AH− ratio in brain was significantly higher in Fe-dextran group, in relation to values in control rats. Brain lipid peroxidation indexes, thiobarbituric acid reactive substances (TBARS) generation rate and lipid radical (LR·) content detected by Electron Paramagnetic Resonance (EPR), in Fe-dextran supplemented rats were similar to control values. However, values of nuclear factor-kappaB deoxyribonucleic acid (NFκB DNA) binding activity were significantly increased (30%) after 8 h of Fe administration, and catalase (CAT) activity was significantly enhanced (62%) 21 h after Fe administration. Significant enhancements in Fe content in cortex (2.4 fold), hippocampus (1.6 fold) and striatum (2.9 fold), were found at 6 h after Fe administration. CAT activity was significantly increased after 8 h of Fe administration in cortex, hippocampus and striatum (1.4 fold, 86, and 47%, respectively). Fe response in the whole brain seems to lead to enhanced NF-κB DNA binding activity, which may contribute to limit oxygen reactive species-dependent damage by effects on the antioxidant enzyme CAT activity. Moreover, data shown here clearly indicate that even though Fe increased in several isolated brain areas, this parameter was more drastically enhanced in striatum than in cortex and hippocampus. However, comparison among the net increase in LR· generation rate, in different brain areas, showed enhancements in cortex lipid peroxidation, without changes in striatum and hippocampus LR· generation rate after 6 h

  1. Acute iron overload and oxidative stress in brain.

    Piloni, Natacha E; Fermandez, Virginia; Videla, Luis A; Puntarulo, Susana

    2013-12-01

    An in vivo model in rat was developed by intraperitoneally administration of Fe-dextran to study oxidative stress triggered by Fe-overload in rat brain. Total Fe levels, as well as the labile iron pool (LIP) concentration, in brain from rats subjected to Fe-overload were markedly increased over control values, 6h after Fe administration. In this in vivo Fe overload model, the ascorbyl (A)/ascorbate (AH(-)) ratio, taken as oxidative stress index, was assessed. The A/AH(-) ratio in brain was significantly higher in Fe-dextran group, in relation to values in control rats. Brain lipid peroxidation indexes, thiobarbituric acid reactive substances (TBARS) generation rate and lipid radical (LR) content detected by Electron Paramagnetic Resonance (EPR), in Fe-dextran supplemented rats were similar to control values. However, values of nuclear factor-kappaB deoxyribonucleic acid (NFκB DNA) binding activity were significantly increased (30%) after 8h of Fe administration, and catalase (CAT) activity was significantly enhanced (62%) 21h after Fe administration. Significant enhancements in Fe content in cortex (2.4 fold), hippocampus (1.6 fold) and striatum (2.9 fold), were found at 6h after Fe administration. CAT activity was significantly increased after 8h of Fe administration in cortex, hippocampus and striatum (1.4 fold, 86, and 47%, respectively). Fe response in the whole brain seems to lead to enhanced NF-κB DNA binding activity, which may contribute to limit oxygen reactive species-dependent damage by effects on the antioxidant enzyme CAT activity. Moreover, data shown here clearly indicate that even though Fe increased in several isolated brain areas, this parameter was more drastically enhanced in striatum than in cortex and hippocampus. However, comparison among the net increase in LR generation rate, in different brain areas, showed enhancements in cortex lipid peroxidation, without changes in striatum and hippocampus LR generation rate after 6h of Fe overload

  2. Traumatic brain injury in children: acute care management.

    Geyer, Kristen; Meller, Karen; Kulpan, Carol; Mowery, Bernice D

    2013-01-01

    The care of the pediatric patient with a severe traumatic brain injury (TBI) is an all-encompassing nursing challenge. Nursing vigilance is required to maintain a physiological balance that protects the injured brain. From the time a child and family first enter the hospital, they are met with the risk of potential death and an uncertain future. The family is subjected to an influx of complex medical and nursing terminology and interventions. Nurses need to understand the complexities of TBI and the modalities of treatment, as well as provide patients and families with support throughout all phases of care. PMID:24640314

  3. Brain and spinal cord MR imaging in a case of acute disseminated encephalomyelitis

    We describe a case of acute disseminated encephalomyelitis following varicella infection presenting as transverse myelitis. Magnetic resonance imaging revealed diffuse cord swelling and signal increase without gadolinium enhancement and several silent brain lesions, all of which completely resolved at follow-up. (orig.). With 1 fig

  4. Brain and spinal cord MR imaging in a case of acute disseminated encephalomyelitis

    Feydy, A. [Service d`Imagerie Medicale, Hopital Raymond Poincare, Garches (France); Carlier, R. [Service d`Imagerie Medicale, Hopital Raymond Poincare, Garches (France); Mompoint, D. [Service d`Imagerie Medicale, Hopital Raymond Poincare, Garches (France); Clair, B. [Service de Reanimation Neurologique, Hopital Raymond Poincare, Garches (France); Chillet, P. [Service de Reanimation Neurologique, Hopital Raymond Poincare, Garches (France); Vallee, C. [Service d`Imagerie Medicale, Hopital Raymond Poincare, Garches (France)

    1997-04-01

    We describe a case of acute disseminated encephalomyelitis following varicella infection presenting as transverse myelitis. Magnetic resonance imaging revealed diffuse cord swelling and signal increase without gadolinium enhancement and several silent brain lesions, all of which completely resolved at follow-up. (orig.). With 1 fig.

  5. Thick Slice and Thin Slice Teaching Evaluations

    Tom, Gail; Tong, Stephanie Tom; Hesse, Charles

    2010-01-01

    Student-based teaching evaluations are an integral component to institutions of higher education. Previous work on student-based teaching evaluations suggest that evaluations of instructors based upon "thin slice" 30-s video clips of them in the classroom correlate strongly with their end of the term "thick slice" student evaluations. This study's…

  6. INFLUENCE OF ACUPUNCTURE ON BRAIN-TAXIS OF TETRAMETHYLPYRAZINE IN ACUTE CEREBRAL INFARCTION RATS

    崔荣秀; 陈以国; 谷雨

    2003-01-01

    Purpose: To observe the effect of acupuncture on the brain-taxis of tetrarmethylpyrazine (TMP) and toexplore into the underlying mechanisms of combined action of acupuncture and medicine in the treatment of acute cere-bral ischemia. Methods: 37 male Wistar rats were randomly divided into normal control group (n= 10), sham-operationgroup (n= 10), acute cerebral ischemia (ACI) + drug group (model group, n=8)and ACl+drug+acupuncture group(acupuncture group, n=9). Rat ACl model was established by using photochemical method. "Neiguan"(PC 6) and"Shuigou"(GV 26) were punctured and stimulated with both hand manipulation and electroacupuncture, 30 min and16hrs after ACI. TMP was given to the rats of the later 2 groups using gastric perfusion method. High pressure chro-matography (HPLC) was used to detect the target absorption level of TMP in the brain. Results: The content of TMP inthe brain in acupuncture group was significantly higher than that in model group (P<0.01), suggesting that acupunc-ture can strengthen the brain-taxis of TMP in ACl rats, and combined administration of acupuncture and Chinese drugmaybe work better for treatment of acute cerebral infarction. Conclusion: Acupuncture can strengthen the chano-taxisof TMP to the brain in ACl rats.

  7. High-resolution multi-slice PET

    This report evaluates the progress to test the feasibility and to initiate the design of a high resolution multi-slice PET system. The following specific areas were evaluated: detector development and testing; electronics configuration and design; mechanical design; and system simulation. The design and construction of a multiple-slice, high-resolution positron tomograph will provide substantial improvements in the accuracy and reproducibility of measurements of the distribution of activity concentrations in the brain. The range of functional brain research and our understanding of local brain function will be greatly extended when the development of this instrumentation is completed

  8. Uncoupling of the autonomic and cardiovascular systems in acute brain injury.

    Goldstein, B; Toweill, D; Lai, S; Sonnenthal, K; Kimberly, B

    1998-10-01

    We hypothesized that acute brain injury results in decreased heart rate (HR) variability and baroreflex sensitivity indicative of uncoupling of the autonomic and cardiovascular systems and that the degree of uncoupling should be proportional to the degree of neurological injury. We used HR and blood pressure (BP) power spectral analysis to measure neuroautonomic regulation of HR and BP and the transfer function magnitude (TF) between BP and HR as a measure of baroreflex modulation of HR. In 24 brain-injured patients [anoxic/ischemic injury (n = 7), multiple trauma (n = 6), head trauma (n = 5), central nervous system infection (n = 4), and intracranial hemorrhage (n = 2)], neurological injury and survival was associated with low-frequency (0.01-0.15 Hz) HR and BP power and TF. Brain-dead patients showed decreased low-frequency HR power [0. 51 +/- 0.36 (SE) vs. 2.54 +/- 0.14 beats/min2, P = 0.03] and TF [0. 61 +/- 0.16 (SE) vs. 1.29 +/- 0.07 beats . min-1 . mmHg-1, P = 0.05] compared with non-brain-dead patients. We conclude that 1) severity of neurological injury and outcome are inversely associated with HR and BP variability and 2) there is direct evidence for cardiovascular and autonomic uncoupling in acute brain injury with complete uncoupling during brain death. PMID:9756562

  9. MRI findings of acute cerebral swelling and brain edema in the acute stage. A report of two cases

    Oki, Hideo; Ueda, Shin; Matsumoto, Keizo; Kashihara, Michiharu; Furuichi, Masashi.

    1988-08-01

    We report two cases, one of acute cerebral swelling and the other with a major stroke, whose MRI has shown very interesting findings. Case 1, a 32-year-old male, was admitted to our service because of a lowering of his consciousness immediately after a head injury. On admission, the patient was semicomatous (E/sub 1/M/sub 2/V/sub 1/, with anisocoria (R > L). His plain skull X-ray was normal. A CT scan, however, demonstrated right isodensity hemispheric swelling associated with a subarachnoid hemorrhage in the right Sylvian fissure. A right carotid angiogram showed no vascular disorders. MR imaging of the spin density demonstrated a hyperintensitive thickening of the gray matter in the whole right hemisphere. Case 2, a 58-year-old female, was admitted because of a sudden onset of loss of consciousness, with right hemiparesis and dysarthria. On admission, her consciousness was semicomatous (E/sub 1/M/sub 3/V/sub 1/), and it deteriorated to a deep coma 1 hour later. A CT scan demonstrated a diffuse left hemispheric low density, with a finding of hemorrhagic infarction in the basal ganglia. MR imaging of the spin density showed a hyperintensitive thickening of the gray matter resembling that of Case 1. The findings of the spin-echo images of our two cases showed a hyperintensitive thickening of the gray matter in both. The hyperintensity and thickening of the gray matter apparently indicated a sort of hyperemia and brain edema. These findings led us to suspect that the hyperemia associated with acute cerebral swelling and ischemic brain edema of our two cases originated in the gray matter, although it has been considered that the pathogenesis of acute cerebral swelling is not known and that brain edema, especially vasogenic edema, will mostly develop in the white matter rather than in the gray matter.

  10. The clinical usefulness of Tc-99m ECD brain SPECT in acute measles encephalitis

    Lim, Seok Tae; Sohn, Myung Hee [School of Medicine, Chonbuk National Univ., Chonju (Korea, Republic of)

    2003-08-01

    Since the prognosis of measles encephalitis is poor, early diagnosis and proper management are very important to improve clinical outcomes. We compared Tc-99m ECD brain SPECT (SPECT) with MR imaging (MRI) for the detection of acute measles encephalitis. Eleven patients (M : F=4 : 7, age range 18 months-14 yrs) with acute measles encephalitis were enrolled in this studies. All of them underwent both MRI and SPECT. The results of SPECT were scored from 0 (normal) to 3 (most severe defect) according to perfusion state. We compared two image modalities for the detection of brain abnormality in acute measles encephalitis. Seven of 11 patients (63.6%) revealed high signal intensity in the white matter on T2WI of MRI, on the other hand all patients (100%) showed hypoperfusion on SPECT. Severe perfusion deficits above score 2 were located with decreasing frequencies in the frontal lobe (81.8%), temporal lobe (72.7%), occipital lobe (27.3%), basal ganglia (27.3%), and parietal lobe (9.1%). We conclude that SPECT is more useful than MRI for the detection of brain involvement in patients with acute measles encephalitis.

  11. CT of the brain in acute carbon monoxide poisoning

    Cerebral computed tomographic (CT) findings of acute carbon monoxide (Co) poisoning were analized in thirty-six cases treated with hyperbraric oxygen therapy and their relationship with prognosis was evaluated. The cases were classified into there groups, early stage, interval form, and non-interval form groups. In all groups, the initial abnormality was low density areas presumably due to edema, demyelination and/or softening. It was seen in the globus pallidus and/or white matter. Following these initial changes, cerebral hemorrhage, ventricular dilatation, and cerebral atrophy developed in a few cases. The frequency of abnormal CT findings was higher in the interval form group (85 %) or non-interval group (83 %) than the early stage group (41 %). The prognosis was good in most cases with normal CT findings. The possibility of recovery diminished in the patients with abnormal CT findings. The prognosis was particularly poor in cases showing abnormality both in globus pallidus and white matter. We conclude that CT is useful not only for detecting the pathologic change but also for predicting the prognosis of the patient with acute Co poisoning. (author)

  12. Value of applying 16-slice CTA to the diagnosis of acute cerebral aneurysm%16层螺旋CTA在急诊脑动脉瘤中的应用价值

    张荣恒; 高江晖; 马洪宇; 郭文伟

    2014-01-01

    目的:探讨16层螺旋CT血管造影( CT angiography , CTA)对颅内动脉瘤的诊断价值。方法:对56例急诊蛛网膜下腔出血( subarachnoid hemorrhage ,SAh)患者行头部16层螺旋CTA检查,对照数字减影血管造影( Digital Subtraction Angiography , DSA)结果,评估16层螺旋CTA诊断动脉瘤的准确性。结果:56例中DSA检查发现59个动脉瘤,16层螺旋CTA检查发现56个动脉瘤,CTA诊断颅内动脉瘤的敏感性为94.6%,特异性为100%,准确性95%。结论:16层螺旋CTA可获得与DSA相近的检查结果,具有较高的敏感性和特异性,快捷,无创,可代替DSA进行筛查及术前评估颅内动脉瘤。%Objective:To determine the clinical value of applying 16-slice CTA to the diagnosis of acute cerebral aneurysms .Meth-ods:56 patients with acute subarachnoid hemorrhage were diagnosed by using 16-slice CTA , Compare the result of the DSA , Evaluate the accuracy of the 16-slice CTA in the diagnosis of aneurysms .Results:59 aneurysms were detected by DSA , 56 aneurysms were detec-ted by CTA, the sensitivity, specificity and accuracy were 94.6%, 100%, 95 respectively.Conclusion:16-slice CTA and DSA can be obtained similar results, it has higher sensitivity and specificity , fast, non-invasive, it can replace DSA screening and preoperative eval-uation of intracranial aneurysms .

  13. Neuron-specific enolase in cerebrospinal fluid and plasma of patients with acute ischemic brain disease

    Selaković Vesna M.

    2003-01-01

    Full Text Available The objective of this research was to determine the dynamics of change of neuron-specific enolase concentration in patients with acute ischemic brain disease in cerebrospinal fluid and plasma. The study included 103 patients, their mean age 58-66 years. The control group consisted of 16 patients, of matching age and sex, with radicular lesions of discal origin, subjected to diagnostic radiculography. Concentration of neuron-specific enolase was measured by a flouroimmunometric method. The results showed that the concentration of neuron-specific enolase in cerebrospinal fluid and plasma of patients with brain ischemic disease within first seven days significantly increased compared to the control. The highest increase of concentration was established in brain infarction, somewhat lower in reversible ischemic attack, and the lowest in transient ischemic attack. Maximal concentration was established on the 3rd-4th day upon the brain infarction. Neuron-specific enolase concentration in cerebrospinal fluid and plasma may be an indicator of pathophysiological processes in the acute phase of brain ischemia and is significant in early diagnostics and therapy of the disease.

  14. Altered spontaneous brain activity in patients with acute spinal cord injury revealed by resting-state functional MRI.

    Ling Zhu

    Full Text Available Previous neuroimaging studies have provided evidence of structural and functional reorganization of brain in patients with chronic spinal cord injury (SCI. However, it remains unknown whether the spontaneous brain activity changes in acute SCI. In this study, we investigated intrinsic brain activity in acute SCI patients using a regional homogeneity (ReHo analysis based on resting-state functional magnetic resonance imaging.A total of 15 patients with acute SCI and 16 healthy controls participated in the study. The ReHo value was used to evaluate spontaneous brain activity, and voxel-wise comparisons of ReHo were performed to identify brain regions with altered spontaneous brain activity between groups. We also assessed the associations between ReHo and the clinical scores in brain regions showing changed spontaneous brain activity.Compared with the controls, the acute SCI patients showed decreased ReHo in the bilateral primary motor cortex/primary somatosensory cortex, bilateral supplementary motor area/dorsal lateral prefrontal cortex, right inferior frontal gyrus, bilateral dorsal anterior cingulate cortex and bilateral caudate; and increased ReHo in bilateral precuneus, the left inferior parietal lobe, the left brainstem/hippocampus, the left cingulate motor area, bilateral insula, bilateral thalamus and bilateral cerebellum. The average ReHo values of the left thalamus and right insula were negatively correlated with the international standards for the neurological classification of spinal cord injury motor scores.Our findings indicate that acute distant neuronal damage has an immediate impact on spontaneous brain activity. In acute SCI patients, the ReHo was prominently altered in brain regions involved in motor execution and cognitive control, default mode network, and which are associated with sensorimotor compensatory reorganization. Abnormal ReHo values in the left thalamus and right insula could serve as potential biomarkers for

  15. The economics of treating stroke as an acute brain attack.

    Bogousslavsky, Julien; Paciaroni, Maurizio

    2009-01-01

    Currently, treatments for ischemic stroke focus on restoring or improving perfusion to the ischemic area using thrombolytics. The increased hospitalization costs related to thrombolysis are offset by a decrease in rehabilitation costs, for a net cost savings to the healthcare system. However, early treatment is essential. The benefit of thrombolysis is time-dependent but only a very small proportion of patients, 2%, are presently being treated with tPA. In the United States, if the proportion of all ischemic stroke patients that receive tPA were increased to 4, 6, 8, 10, 15, or 20%, the realized cost saving would be approximately $ 15, 22, 30, 37, 55, and 74 million, respectively. Being so, efforts should be made to educate the public and paramedics regarding early stroke signs. Furthermore, additional acute stroke therapy training programs need to be established for emergency departments. Finally, hospital systems need to be re-engineered to treat patients as quickly as possible in order to optimize thrombolytic benefit as well as maximize cost-effectiveness. PMID:19775424

  16. Chronic and acute alcohol administration induced neurochemical changes in the brain: Comparison of distinct zebrafish populations

    Chatterjee, Diptendu; Shams, Soaleha; Gerlai, Robert

    2014-01-01

    The zebrafish is increasingly utilized in the analysis of the effects of ethanol (alcohol) on brain function and behaviour. We have shown significant population dependent alcohol induced changes in zebrafish behaviour and have started to analyze alterations in dopaminergic and serotoninergic responses. Here, we analyze the effects of alcohol on levels of selected neurochemicals using a 2×3 (chronic x acute) between subject alcohol exposure paradigm randomized for two zebrafish populations, AB...

  17. The Acute Inflammatory Response in Trauma / Hemorrhage and Traumatic Brain Injury: Current State and Emerging Prospects

    R, Namas; A, Ghuma; L, Hermus; R, Zamora; DO Okonkwo; TR, Billiar; Y, Vodovotz

    2009-01-01

    Traumatic injury/hemorrhagic shock (T/HS) elicits an acute inflammatory response that may result in death. Inflammation describes a coordinated series of molecular, cellular, tissue, organ, and systemic responses that drive the pathology of various diseases including T/HS and traumatic brain injury (TBI). Inflammation is a finely tuned, dynamic, highly-regulated process that is not inherently detrimental, but rather required for immune surveillance, optimal post-injury tissue repair, and rege...

  18. Alteration of Plasma Brain Natriuretic Peptide Level After Acute Moderate Exercise in Professional Athletes

    Homa Sheikhani; Mohammad Ali Babaee Beygi; Farhad Daryanoosh; Bijan Jafari

    2011-01-01

    Background: Cardiac fatigue or myocardial damage following exercise until complete exhaustion can increase blood levels of brain natriuretic peptide (BNP) in athletes. Objectives: The aim of the present study was to investigate the effect of resistance and acute moderate aerobic exercise on alterations in BNP levels in professional athletes. Materials and Methods: Forty professional athletes who had at least 3 years of a championship background in track and field (aerobic group) or bo...

  19. Acute Stress Differentially Affects Aromatase Activity in Specific Brain Nuclei of Adult Male and Female Quail

    Dickens, Molly J; Cornil, Charlotte; Balthazart, Jacques

    2011-01-01

    The rapid and temporary suppression of reproductive behavior is often assumed to be an important feature of the adaptive acute stress response. However, how this suppression operates at the mechanistic level is poorly understood. The enzyme aromatase converts testosterone to estradiol in the brain to activate reproductive behavior in male Japanese quail (Coturnix japonica). The discovery of rapid and reversible modification of aromatase activity (AA) provides a potential mechanism for fast, s...

  20. Neurosensory Symptom Complexes after Acute Mild Traumatic Brain Injury.

    Hoffer, Michael E; Szczupak, Mikhaylo; Kiderman, Alexander; Crawford, James; Murphy, Sara; Marshall, Kathryn; Pelusso, Constanza; Balaban, Carey

    2016-01-01

    Mild Traumatic Brain Injury (mTBI) is a prominent public health issue. To date, subjective symptom complaints primarily dictate diagnostic and treatment approaches. As such, the description and qualification of these symptoms in the mTBI patient population is of great value. This manuscript describes the symptoms of mTBI patients as compared to controls in a larger study designed to examine the use of vestibular testing to diagnose mTBI. Five symptom clusters were identified: Post-Traumatic Headache/Migraine, Nausea, Emotional/Affective, Fatigue/Malaise, and Dizziness/Mild Cognitive Impairment. Our analysis indicates that individuals with mTBI have headache, dizziness, and cognitive dysfunction far out of proportion to those without mTBI. In addition, sleep disorders and emotional issues were significantly more common amongst mTBI patients than non-injured individuals. A simple set of questions inquiring about dizziness, headache, and cognitive issues may provide diagnostic accuracy. The consideration of other symptoms may be critical for providing prognostic value and treatment for best short-term outcomes or prevention of long-term complications. PMID:26727256

  1. Neurosensory Symptom Complexes after Acute Mild Traumatic Brain Injury.

    Michael E Hoffer

    Full Text Available Mild Traumatic Brain Injury (mTBI is a prominent public health issue. To date, subjective symptom complaints primarily dictate diagnostic and treatment approaches. As such, the description and qualification of these symptoms in the mTBI patient population is of great value. This manuscript describes the symptoms of mTBI patients as compared to controls in a larger study designed to examine the use of vestibular testing to diagnose mTBI. Five symptom clusters were identified: Post-Traumatic Headache/Migraine, Nausea, Emotional/Affective, Fatigue/Malaise, and Dizziness/Mild Cognitive Impairment. Our analysis indicates that individuals with mTBI have headache, dizziness, and cognitive dysfunction far out of proportion to those without mTBI. In addition, sleep disorders and emotional issues were significantly more common amongst mTBI patients than non-injured individuals. A simple set of questions inquiring about dizziness, headache, and cognitive issues may provide diagnostic accuracy. The consideration of other symptoms may be critical for providing prognostic value and treatment for best short-term outcomes or prevention of long-term complications.

  2. The acute effects of 3,4-methylenedioxymethamphetamine on oxidative stress in rat brain

    Simić Ivan

    2008-01-01

    Full Text Available Introduction Oxidative stress and oxygen free radicals are thought to play an important role in acute effects of a number of neurotoxic processes. 3,4-Methylenedioxymethamphetamine (MDMA, ecstasy, a ring substituted amphetamine derivate, has attracted a great deal of media attention in recent years due to its widespread abuse as recreational drug by the young generation. The aim of the present study was to evaluate the acute effects of 3,4-methylenedioxymethamphetamine on oxidative stress parameters (index of lipid peroxidation - ILP, superoxide radicals O2-, superoxide dismutase - SOD and glutathione - GSH in frontal cortex, striatum and hippocampus in Wistar rats. Materials and methods The study included 40 male Wistar rats (200-250 g, housed 4 per cage having free access to food and water. MDMA was dissolved in distillated water and administered peroraly at 5, 10, 20 or 40 mg/kg. 8 hours following MDMA, the rats were killed by decapitation, their brains were rapidly removed and the brain structures were dissected out on ice and analyzed biochemically. Results Acute peroral administration of a single dose (5, 10, 20 and 40 mg/kg resulted in increase of ILP, O2-, SOD and decrease of GSH. Conclusion The results obtained in the present study suggest that oxidative stress plays a crucial role in MDMA-induced neurotoxicity and that the mechanism of MDMA neurotoxycity may vary between brain regions.

  3. Chronic and acute alcohol administration induced neurochemical changes in the brain: comparison of distinct zebrafish populations.

    Chatterjee, Diptendu; Shams, Soaleha; Gerlai, Robert

    2014-04-01

    The zebrafish is increasingly utilized in the analysis of the effects of ethanol (alcohol) on brain function and behavior. We have shown significant population-dependent alcohol-induced changes in zebrafish behavior and have started to analyze alterations in dopaminergic and serotoninergic responses. Here, we analyze the effects of alcohol on levels of selected neurochemicals using a 2 × 3 (chronic × acute) between-subject alcohol exposure paradigm randomized for two zebrafish populations, AB and SF. Each fish first received the particular chronic treatment (0 or 0.5 vol/vol% alcohol) and subsequently the acute exposure (0, 0.5 or 1.0% alcohol). We report changes in levels of dopamine, DOPAC, serotonin, 5HIAA, glutamate, GABA, aspartate, glycine and taurine as quantified from whole brain extracts using HPLC. We also analyze monoamine oxidase and tyrosine hydroxylase enzymatic activity. The results demonstrate that compared to SF, AB is more responsive to both acute alcohol exposure and acute alcohol withdrawal at the level of neurochemistry, a finding that correlates well with prior behavioral observations and one which suggests the involvement of genes in the observed alcohol effects. We discuss correlations between the current results and prior behavioral findings, and stress the importance of characterization of zebrafish strains for future behavior genetic and psychopharmacology studies. PMID:24381007

  4. Increased blood-brain transfer in a rabbit model of acute liver failure

    The blood-to-brain transfer of [14C]alpha-aminoisobutyric acid was investigated by quantitative autoradiography in normal rabbits and rabbits with acute liver failure induced by the selective hepatotoxin galactosamine. The blood-to-brain transfer of alpha-aminoisobutyric acid was similar in control animals and animals 2 and 7 h after galactosamine injections, but was increased five- to tenfold in certain gray-matter areas of the brain in animals 11 and 18 h after galactosamine treatment. No detectable differences in white-matter uptake of [14C]alpha-aminoisobutyric acid were found between the control and treated groups. The increase in alpha-aminoisobutyric acid transfer within the gray-matter areas suggested that a general or nonspecific increase in brain capillary permeability occurred in these areas. No clinical signs of early hepatic encephalopathy were observed in the treated rabbits, except for 1 animal from the 18-h postgalactosamine group. Thus, enhanced blood-brain transfer of alpha-aminoisobutyric acid preceded the development of overt hepatic encephalopathy. The distribution of radioactivity after the intravenous administration of [14C]galactosamine showed that virtually none of the hepatotoxin localized in the brain, suggesting that the drug itself does not have a direct effect upon the blood-brain barrier or the brain. The increased uptake of alpha-aminoisobutyric acid at 11 and 18 h implies that the transfer of other solutes would also be enhanced, that central nervous system homeostasis would be compromised, and that the resulting changes in brain fluid composition could contribute to or cause hepatic encephalopathy

  5. Neuroprotection by gonadal steroid hormones in acute brain damage requires cooperation with astroglia and microglia.

    Johann, Sonja; Beyer, Cordian

    2013-09-01

    The neuroactive steroids 17β-estradiol and progesterone control a broad spectrum of neural functions. Besides their roles in the regulation of classical neuroendocrine loops, they strongly influence motor and cognitive systems, behavior, and modulate brain performance at almost every level. Such a statement is underpinned by the widespread and lifelong expression pattern of all types of classical and non-classical estrogen and progesterone receptors in the CNS. The life-sustaining power of neurosteroids for tattered or seriously damaged neurons aroused interest in the scientific community in the past years to study their ability for therapeutic use under neuropathological challenges. Documented by excellent studies either performed in vitro or in adequate animal models mimicking acute toxic or chronic neurodegenerative brain disorders, both hormones revealed a high potency to protect neurons from damage and saved neural systems from collapse. Unfortunately, neurons, astroglia, microglia, and oligodendrocytes are comparably target cells for both steroid hormones. This hampers the precise assignment and understanding of neuroprotective cellular mechanisms activated by both steroids. In this article, we strive for a better comprehension of the mutual reaction between these steroid hormones and the two major glial cell types involved in the maintenance of brain homeostasis, astroglia and microglia, during acute traumatic brain injuries such as stroke and hypoxia. In particular, we attempt to summarize steroid-activated cellular signaling pathways and molecular responses in these cells and their contribution to dampening neuroinflammation and neural destruction. This article is part of a Special Issue entitled 'CSR 2013'. PMID:23196064

  6. Slices and Ellipse Geometry

    Dattoli, G.; Sabia, E.; Del Franco, M.; Petralia, A.

    2011-01-01

    We discuss the new problems emerging in charged beam transport for SASE FEL dynamics. The optimization of the magnetic transport system for future devices requires new concepts associated with the slice emittance and the slice phase space distribution. We study the problem of electron beam slice matching and guiding in transport devices for SASE FEL emission discussing matching criteria and how the associated design of the electron transport line may affect the FEL output performances. We ana...

  7. Development of brain tumor at six years after the onset of acute lymphoblastic leukemia

    Kumazaki, Hisami; Hanada, Ryoji; Kikuti, Akira; Ichikawa, Masataka; Yamamoto, Keiko; Aihara, Toshinori; Ogawa, Yoshihiro [Saitama Children`s Medical Center, Iwatsuki (Japan)

    1996-06-01

    In October 1994, a 16-year-old boy was diagnosed as having a brain tumor in the left fronto-temporal region 5 years after completing treatment for acute lymphoblastic leukemia (ALL). The patient had been treated for ALL starting in 1988 when he was 10-year-old. He had received systemic chemotherapy and central nervous system prophylaxis, consisting of cranial irradiation (24 Gy) and intrathecal methotrexate. When the brain tumor was detected he was still in complete remission. The patient received only supportive therapy mainly for relief of increased intracranial pressure because the tumor was too large to resect in addition to being inappropriate for surgical treatment. He died in December 1994. On autopsy, pathological diagnosis of the brain tumor was anaplastic astrocytoma, which is a rare secondary malignancy though glioma is common. (author)

  8. Acute low-intensity microwave exposure increases DNA single-strand breaks in rat brain cells

    Lai, H.; Singh, N.P. [Univ. of Washington, Seattle, WA (United States)

    1995-08-01

    Levels of DNA single-strand break were assayed in brain cells from rats acutely exposed to low-intensity 2,450 MHz microwaves using an alkaline microgel electrophoresis method. Immediately after 2 h of exposure to pulsed (2 {mu}s width, 500 pulses/s) microwaves, no significant effect was observed, whereas a dose rate-dependent [0.6 and 1.2 W/kg whole body specific absorption rate (SAR)] increase in DNA single-strand breaks was found in brain cells of rats at 4 h postexposure. Furthermore, in rats exposed for 2 h to continuous-wave 2,450 MHz microwaves (SAR 1.2 W/kg), increases in brain cell DNA single-strand breaks were observed immediately as well as at 4 h postexposure.

  9. Development of brain tumor at six years after the onset of acute lymphoblastic leukemia

    In October 1994, a 16-year-old boy was diagnosed as having a brain tumor in the left fronto-temporal region 5 years after completing treatment for acute lymphoblastic leukemia (ALL). The patient had been treated for ALL starting in 1988 when he was 10-year-old. He had received systemic chemotherapy and central nervous system prophylaxis, consisting of cranial irradiation (24 Gy) and intrathecal methotrexate. When the brain tumor was detected he was still in complete remission. The patient received only supportive therapy mainly for relief of increased intracranial pressure because the tumor was too large to resect in addition to being inappropriate for surgical treatment. He died in December 1994. On autopsy, pathological diagnosis of the brain tumor was anaplastic astrocytoma, which is a rare secondary malignancy though glioma is common. (author)

  10. Expression of Bcl-2 and NF-κB in brain tissue after acute renal ischemia-reperfusion in rats

    Na Zhang; Gen-Yang Cheng; Xian-Zhi Liu; Feng-Jiang Zhang

    2014-01-01

    Objective:To investigate the effect of acute renal ischemia reperfusion on brain tissue. Methods:Fourty eight rats were randomly divided into four groups(n=12): sham operation group,30 min ischemia60 min reperfusion group,60 min ischemia60 min reperfusion group, and 120 min ischemia60 min reperfusion group.The brain tissues were taken after the experiment. TUNEL assay was used to detect the brain cell apoptosis, and western blot was used to detect the expression of apoptosis-related proteins and inflammatory factors.Results:Renal ischemia-reperfusion induced apoptosis of brain tissues, and the apoptosis increased with prolongation of ischemia time.The detection at the molecular level showed decreasedBcl-2 expression, increasedBax expression, upregulated expression ofNF-κB and its downstream factor COX-2/PGE2.Conclusions:Acute renal ischemia-reperfusion can cause brain tissue damage, manifested as induced brain tissues apoptosis and inflammation activation.

  11. Significance of serum neuron-specific enolase in patients with acute traumatic brain injury

    官卫; 杨伊林; 夏为民; 李璐; 龚德生

    2003-01-01

    Objective: To study the association between serum neuron-specific enolase (NSE) and the extent of brain damage and the outcome after acute traumatic brain injury (TBI). Methods: The release patterns of serum NSE in 78 patients after acute TBI were analyzed by using the enzyme linked immunosobent assay. The levels of NSE were compared with Glasgow coma scale, the category of brain injury and the outcome after 6 months of injury. Results: There were different NSE values in patients with minor (12.96 μg/L±2.39 μg/L), moderate (23.44 μg/L±5.33 μg/L) and severe brain injury (42.68 μg/L±4.57 μg/L). After severe TBI, the concentration of NSE in patients with epidural hematomas was 13.38 μg/L±4.01 μg/L, 24.03 μg/L±2.85 μg/L in brain contusion without surgical intervention group, 55.20 μg/L±6.35 μg/L in brain contusion with surgical intervention group, and 83.85 μg/L±15.82 μg/L in diffuse brain swelling group. There were close correlations between NSE values and Glasgow coma scale (r=-0.608, P<0.01) and the extent of brain injury (r=0.75, P<0.01). Patients with poor outcome had significantly higher initial and peak NSE values than those with good outcome (66.40 μg/L±9.46 μg/L, 94.24 μg/L±13.75 μg/L vs 32.16 μg/L±4.21 μg/L, 34.08 μg/L±4.40 μg/L, P<0.01, respectively). Initial NSE values were negatively related to the outcome (r=-0.501, P<0.01). Most patients with poor outcomes had persisting or secondary elevated NSE values. Conclusions: Serum NSE is one of the valuable neurobiochemical markers for assessment of the severity of brain injury and outcome prediction.

  12. Diffusion-weighted MR imaging in animal modil with acute ischemic brain infarction : evaluation of reversible brain injury

    To determine whether the analysis of abnormally high signal intensities in ischemic tissue, as revealed by diffusion-weighted MR imaging (DWI) can be used to evaluate reversible brain lesions in a cat model of acute ischemia. Ten cats were divided into two groups of five (Group I and Group II), and in all animals the middle cerebral artery was temporarily occluded. Group I underwent T2-DWI 30 minutes after occlusion, and Group II 120 minutes after occlusion. In both groups, DWI was performed one hour and 24 hours after reperfusion (at one hour, non-T2-weighted; at 24 hours, T2-weighted). Both occlusion and reperfusion were monitored by 99mTC-ECD brain perfusion SPECT. All animals were sacrificed 24 hours later and their brain tissue was stained with TTC. Signal intensity ratios (SIR, signifying average signal intensity within the region of interest divided by that in the contralateral, nonischemic, homologous region) of the two groups, as seen on DWI were compared. The percentage of hemispheric lesions occurring in the two groups was also compared. SIR after occlusion of the middle cerebral artery was 1.29 in Group I and 1.59 in Group II. Twenty-four hours after reperfusion, SIR in Group I was higher than in Group II (p<0.01). After occlusion and reperfusion, the percentage of hemispheric lesions in Group I was less than in Group II. For the latter, the percentage of these lesions revealed by TTC staining and T2-weighted imaging was 48% and 59%, respectively, findings distinctly different from those for Group I. In addition, in group I, infarction was revealed by neither TTC staining nor T2-weighted imaging (p<0.01). The use of DWI to evaluate signal intensity ratios can help determine whether or not brain injury after temporary cerebral ischemia is reversible

  13. Abnormal EEG Complexity and Functional Connectivity of Brain in Patients with Acute Thalamic Ischemic Stroke

    Liu, Shuang; Guo, Jie; Meng, Jiayuan; Wang, Zhijun; Yao, Yang; Yang, Jiajia; Qi, Hongzhi; Ming, Dong

    2016-01-01

    Ischemic thalamus stroke has become a serious cardiovascular and cerebral disease in recent years. To date the existing researches mostly concentrated on the power spectral density (PSD) in several frequency bands. In this paper, we investigated the nonlinear features of EEG and brain functional connectivity in patients with acute thalamic ischemic stroke and healthy subjects. Electroencephalography (EEG) in resting condition with eyes closed was recorded for 12 stroke patients and 11 healthy subjects as control group. Lempel-Ziv complexity (LZC), Sample Entropy (SampEn), and brain network using partial directed coherence (PDC) were calculated for feature extraction. Results showed that patients had increased mean LZC and SampEn than the controls, which implied the stroke group has higher EEG complexity. For the brain network, the stroke group displayed a trend of weaker cortical connectivity, which suggests a functional impairment of information transmission in cortical connections in stroke patients. These findings suggest that nonlinear analysis and brain network could provide essential information for better understanding the brain dysfunction in the stroke and assisting monitoring or prognostication of stroke evolution.

  14. Quantitative multivoxel 1H MR spectroscopy of the brain in children with acute liver failure

    Acute liver failure (ALF)-related encephalopathy was previously characterized by MR spectroscopy of single voxels containing both grey and white matter brain tissue. Quantitative multivoxel MRS was used here to compare grey and white matter brain tissue concentrations of glutamate/glutamine (Glx) and lactate in ALF and associate the results with other liver function parameters. Five pediatric patients with ALF-related encephalopathy and five controls, examined after successful liver transplantation, were examined by brain MRI/MRS. ALF patients had higher Glx and lactate concentrations in brain white matter than controls (Glx + 125%: P < 0.01; lactate + 33%, P < 0.05) and higher Glx in grey matter (Glx + 125%: P < 0.01). Within the group of ALF patients positive correlations were found between grey or white matter lactate concentration and serum ammonia (P < 0.05), and negative correlations between grey or white matter Glx and venous pH (P < 0.001). This is the first study presenting evidence of high Glx levels in both white and grey matter brain tissue in ALF-related encephalopathy. The elevations in CNS Glx and lactate concentrations appear to relate to hepatic detoxification (ammonia, venous pH), rather than to liver parenchymal integrity (aspartate aminotransferase, alanine aminotransferase) or biliary cholestasis (bilirubin, γ-glutamyl transpeptidase, alkaline phosphatase). (orig.)

  15. Quantitative multivoxel {sup 1}H MR spectroscopy of the brain in children with acute liver failure

    Sijens, Paul E.; Alkefaji, Heyder; Meiners, Linda C.; Oudkerk, Matthijs [University Medical Center Groningen and University of Groningen, Department of Radiology, Beatrix Children' s Hospital, Groningen (Netherlands); Lunsing, Roelineke J. [University Medical Center Groningen and University of Groningen, Department of Child Neurology, Beatrix Children' s Hospital, Groningen (Netherlands); Spronsen, Francjan J. van; Verkade, Henkjan J. [University Medical Center Groningen and University of Groningen, Department of Pediatrics, Beatrix Children' s Hospital, Groningen (Netherlands)

    2008-11-15

    Acute liver failure (ALF)-related encephalopathy was previously characterized by MR spectroscopy of single voxels containing both grey and white matter brain tissue. Quantitative multivoxel MRS was used here to compare grey and white matter brain tissue concentrations of glutamate/glutamine (Glx) and lactate in ALF and associate the results with other liver function parameters. Five pediatric patients with ALF-related encephalopathy and five controls, examined after successful liver transplantation, were examined by brain MRI/MRS. ALF patients had higher Glx and lactate concentrations in brain white matter than controls (Glx + 125%: P < 0.01; lactate + 33%, P < 0.05) and higher Glx in grey matter (Glx + 125%: P < 0.01). Within the group of ALF patients positive correlations were found between grey or white matter lactate concentration and serum ammonia (P < 0.05), and negative correlations between grey or white matter Glx and venous pH (P < 0.001). This is the first study presenting evidence of high Glx levels in both white and grey matter brain tissue in ALF-related encephalopathy. The elevations in CNS Glx and lactate concentrations appear to relate to hepatic detoxification (ammonia, venous pH), rather than to liver parenchymal integrity (aspartate aminotransferase, alanine aminotransferase) or biliary cholestasis (bilirubin, {gamma}-glutamyl transpeptidase, alkaline phosphatase). (orig.)

  16. THE EFFECT OF FLUOROCARBON ARTIFICIAL BLOOD (FC-34 IN ACUTE VASOGENIC BRAIN EDEMA

    M NEEMATBAKHSH

    2000-03-01

    Full Text Available Background. Oxygen transport to tissue after an acute ischemia is strongly important. Fluorocarbon liquids are able to facilitated the oxygen transport. An animal experiment was designed to study the effect of FC-34 in acute brain ischemia. Methods. The left common carotid arteries were ligated in three groups of anesthetized animals for 30 minutes to obtain acute brain edema. The animals were subjected to received 15 ml/kg saline (group 1, 10% monitol (group 2 or FC-43 (group 3. All animals were recovered, and they monitored for two weeks. The electrolytes, BUN, and creatinine were measured before (all animals and after two weeks (survived animals. Pathological investigation was obtained by light and electron microscope via pathological process. Findings. The group 1 animals were died during first five days, but one and four animals were survived by two weeks in groups 2 & 3 respectively (P < 0.05. The pathological determinations indicate less cellular damages in group 3. No significant differences were detected in potassium, calcium, BUN, and creatinine before and after the experiment. Conclusion. The particle size and oxygen solubility in FC-43 is the major factors for better oxygen transport in ischem

  17. New role of MR imaging in the acute stage of brain infarction

    Okumura, Ayumi; Nakagawa, Masanori; Furuichi, Masahiro; Nishimura, Yasuaki; Sakai, Noboru [Gifu Univ. (Japan). School of Medicine; Araki, Yuzo

    2000-12-01

    The purpose of this study was to evaluate the clinical utility of 3D-Contrast MR Angiography (MRA) with an automated bolus-detection algorithm (SmartPrep) in combination with diffusion-weighted imaging (DWI) and perfusion imaging (PI) of acute cerebral infarctions. Thirty-nine patients with brain attack were imaged with 3D-Contrast MRA, DWI and PI in the acute stage. For 3D-Contrast MRA, tracker volume was placed in the upper aorta. After bolus injection of gadolinium, an increase in signal that corresponded to the arrival of gadolinium was used to trigger centric reordered spoiled gradient echo arterial selective MRA. This technique provided images of craniocervical arteries from the aortic arch to the circle of Willis, similar to those obtained with conventional angiography. Furthermore, with this technique, it was possible to evaluate briefly the collateral pathway in a large field of view. This technique, in combination with DWI and PI, was useful in evaluating hemodynamics of acute cerebral infarction and in classifying the subtype of brain attack in relation to the treatment. (author)

  18. The brain is a target organ after acute exposure to depleted uranium

    The health effects of depleted uranium (DU) are mainly caused by its chemical toxicity. Although the kidneys are the main target organs for uranium toxicity, uranium can also reach the brain. In this paper, the central effects of acute exposure to DU were studied in relation to health parameters and the sleep-wake cycle of adult rats. Animals were injected intraperitoneally with 144 ± 10 μg DU kg-1 as nitrate. Three days after injection, the amounts of uranium in the kidneys represented 2.6 μg of DU g-1 of tissue, considered as a sub-nephrotoxic dosage. The central effect of uranium could be seen through a decrease in food intake as early as the first day after exposure and shorter paradoxical sleep 3 days after acute DU exposure (-18% of controls). With a lower dosage of DU (70 ± 8 μg DU kg-1), no significant effect was observed on the sleep-wake cycle. The present study intends to illustrate the fact that the brain is a target organ, as are the kidneys, after acute exposure to a moderate dosage of DU. The mechanisms by which uranium causes these early neurophysiological perturbations shall be discussed

  19. Ultrafast multi-slice spatiotemporally encoded MRI with slice-selective dimension segmented.

    Zhang, Ting; Chen, Lin; Huang, Jianpan; Li, Jing; Cai, Shuhui; Cai, Congbo; Chen, Zhong

    2016-08-01

    As a recently emerging method, spatiotemporally encoded (SPEN) magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) has a high robustness to field inhomogeneity and chemical shift effect. It has been broadened from single-slice scanning to multi-slice scanning. In this paper, a novel multi-slice SPEN MRI method was proposed. In this method, the slice-selective dimension was segmented to lower the specific absorption rate (SAR) and improve the image quality. This segmented method, dubbed SeSPEN method, was theoretically analyzed and demonstrated with phantom, lemon and in vivo rat brain experiments. The experimental results were compared with the results obtained from the spin-echo EPI, spin-echo SPEN method and multi-slice global SPEN method proposed by Frydman and coauthors (abbr. GlSPEN method). All the SPEN images were super-resolved reconstructed using deconvolution method. The results indicate that the SeSPEN method retains the advantage of SPEN MRI with respect to resistance to field inhomogeneity and can provide better signal-to-noise ratio than multi-slice GlSPEN MRI technique. The SeSPEN method has comparable SAR to the GlSPEN method while the T1 signal attenuation effect is alleviated. The proposed method will facilitate the multi-slice SPEN MRI to scan more slices within one scan with better image quality. PMID:27301072

  20. Ultrafast multi-slice spatiotemporally encoded MRI with slice-selective dimension segmented

    Zhang, Ting; Chen, Lin; Huang, Jianpan; Li, Jing; Cai, Shuhui; Cai, Congbo; Chen, Zhong

    2016-08-01

    As a recently emerging method, spatiotemporally encoded (SPEN) magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) has a high robustness to field inhomogeneity and chemical shift effect. It has been broadened from single-slice scanning to multi-slice scanning. In this paper, a novel multi-slice SPEN MRI method was proposed. In this method, the slice-selective dimension was segmented to lower the specific absorption rate (SAR) and improve the image quality. This segmented method, dubbed SeSPEN method, was theoretically analyzed and demonstrated with phantom, lemon and in vivo rat brain experiments. The experimental results were compared with the results obtained from the spin-echo EPI, spin-echo SPEN method and multi-slice global SPEN method proposed by Frydman and coauthors (abbr. GlSPEN method). All the SPEN images were super-resolved reconstructed using deconvolution method. The results indicate that the SeSPEN method retains the advantage of SPEN MRI with respect to resistance to field inhomogeneity and can provide better signal-to-noise ratio than multi-slice GlSPEN MRI technique. The SeSPEN method has comparable SAR to the GlSPEN method while the T1 signal attenuation effect is alleviated. The proposed method will facilitate the multi-slice SPEN MRI to scan more slices within one scan with better image quality.

  1. Intraoperative Targeted Temperature Management in Acute Brain and Spinal Cord Injury.

    Kraft, Jacqueline; Karpenko, Anna; Rincon, Fred

    2016-02-01

    Acute brain and spinal cord injuries affect hundreds of thousands of people worldwide. Though advances in pre-hospital and emergency and neurocritical care have improved the survival of some to these devastating diseases, very few clinical trials of potential neuro-protective strategies have produced promising results. Medical therapies such as targeted temperature management (TTM) have been trialed in traumatic brain injury (TBI), spinal cord injury (SCI), acute ischemic stroke (AIS), subarachnoid hemorrhage (SAH), and intracranial hemorrhage (ICH), but in no study has a meaningful effect on outcome been demonstrated. To this end, patient selection for potential neuro-protective therapies such as TTM may be the most important factor to effectively demonstrate efficacy in clinical trials. The use of TTM as a strategy to treat and prevent secondary neuronal damage in the intraoperative setting is an area of ongoing investigation. In this review we will discuss recent and ongoing studies that address the role of TTM in combination with surgical approaches for different types of brain injury. PMID:26759319

  2. Acute effect of aspartame-induced oxidative stress in Wistar albino rat brain.

    Ashok, Iyaswamy; Sheeladevi, Rathinasamy; Wankhar, Dapkupar

    2015-09-01

    The present study was carried out to investigate the acute effect of aspartame on oxidative stress in the Wistar albino rat brain. We sought to investigate whether acute administration of aspartame (75 mg/kg) could release methanol and induce oxidative stress in the rat brain 24 hours after administration. To mimic human methanol metabolism, methotrexate treated rats were used to study aspartame effects. Wistar strain male albino rats were administered with aspartame orally as a single dose and studied along with controls and methotrexate treated controls. Blood methanol and formate level were estimated after 24 hours and rats were sacrificed and free radical changes were observed in discrete regions by assessing the scavenging enzymes, reduce dglutathione (GSH), lipid peroxidation and protein thiol levels. There was a significant increase in lipid peroxidation levels, superoxide dismutase activity (SOD), glutathione peroxidase levels (GPx), and catalase activity (CAT) with a significant decrease in GSH and protein thiol. Aspartame exposure resulted in detectable methanol even after 24 hours. Methanol and its metabolites may be responsible for the generation of oxidative stress in brain regions. The observed alteration in aspartame fed animals may be due to its metabolite methanol and elevated formate. The elevated free radicals due to methanol induced oxidative stress. PMID:26445572

  3. Effect of acute and recurrent hypoglycemia on changes in brain glycogen concentration.

    Herzog, Raimund I; Chan, Owen; Yu, Sunkyung; Dziura, James; McNay, Ewan C; Sherwin, Robert S

    2008-04-01

    Our objective was to evaluate whether excessive brain glycogen deposition might follow episodes of acute hypoglycemia (AH) and thus play a role in the hypoglycemia-associated autonomic failure seen in diabetic patients receiving intensive insulin treatment. We determined brain glucose and glycogen recovery kinetics after AH and recurrent hypoglycemia (RH), an established animal model of counterregulatory failure. A single bout of insulin-induced AH or RH for 3 consecutive days was used to deplete brain glucose and glycogen stores in rats. After microwave fixation and glycogen extraction, regional recovery kinetics in the brain was determined using a biochemical assay. Both AH and RH treatments reduced glycogen levels in the cerebellum, cortex, and hypothalamus from control levels of 7.78 +/- 0.55, 5.4 +/- 0.38, and 4.45 +/- 0.37 micromol/g, respectively, to approximately 50% corresponding to a net glycogen utilization rate between 0.6 and 1.2 micromol/g.h. After hypoglycemia, glycogen levels returned to baseline within 6 h in both the AH and the RH group. However, recovery of brain glycogen tended to be faster in rats exposed to RH. This effect followed more rapid recovery of brain glucose levels in the RH group, despite similar blood glucose levels in both groups. There was no statistically significant increase above baseline glycogen levels in either group. In particular, brain glycogen was not increased 24 h after the last of recurrent episodes of hypoglycemia, when a significant counterregulatory defect could be documented during a hyperinsulinemic hypoglycemic clamp study. We conclude that glycogen supercompensation is not a major contributory factor to the pathogenesis of hypoglycemia-associated autonomic failure. PMID:18187548

  4. Acute decrease in alkaline phosphatase after brain injury: A potential mechanism for tauopathy.

    Arun, Peethambaran; Oguntayo, Samuel; Albert, Stephen Van; Gist, Irene; Wang, Ying; Nambiar, Madhusoodana P; Long, Joseph B

    2015-11-16

    Dephosphorylation of phosphorylated Tau (pTau) protein, which is essential for the preservation of neuronal microtubule assemblies and for protection against trauma-induced tauopathy and chronic traumatic encephalopathy (CTE), is primarily achieved in brain by tissue non-specific alkaline phosphatase (TNAP). Paired helical filaments (PHFs) and Tau isolated from Alzheimer's disease (AD) patients' brains have been shown to form microtubule assemblies with tubulin only after treatment with TNAP or protein phosphatase-2A, 2B and -1, suggesting that Tau protein in the PHFs of neurons in AD brain is hyperphosphorylated, which prevents microtubule assembly. Using blast or weight drop models of traumatic brain injury (TBI) in rats, we observed pTau accumulation in the brain as early as 6h post-injury and further accumulation which varied regionally by 24h post-injury. The pTau accumulation was accompanied by reduced TNAP expression and activity in these brain regions and a significantly decreased plasma total alkaline phosphatase activity after the weight drop. These results reveal that both blast- and impact acceleration-induced head injuries cause an acute decrease in the level/activity of TNAP in the brain, which potentially contributes to trauma-induced accumulation of pTau and the resultant tauopathy. The regional changes in the level/activity of TNAP or accumulation of pTau after these injuries did not correlate with the accumulation of amyloid precursor protein, suggesting that the basic mechanism underlying tauopathy in TBI might be distinct from that associated with AD. PMID:26483321

  5. Effects of ketamine,midazolam,thiopental,and propofol on brain ischemia injury in rat cerebral cortical slices%氯胺酮,咪唑安定,硫喷妥钠和异丙酚对大鼠皮层脑片缺血性损伤的作用

    薛庆生; 于布为; 王泽剑; 陈红专

    2004-01-01

    AIM: To compare the effects of ketamine, midazolam, thiopental, and propofol on brain ischemia by the model of oxygen-glucose deprivation (OGD) in rat cerebral cortical slices. METHODS: Cerebral cortical slices were incubated in 2 % 2,3,5-triphenyltetrazolium chloride (TTC) solution after OGD, the damages and effects of ketamine,midazolam, thiopental, and propofol were quantitativlye evaluated by ELISA reader of absorbance (A) at 490 nm,which indicated the red formazan extracted from slices, lactic dehydrogenase (LDH) releases in the incubated supernate were also measured. RESULTS: Progressive prolongation of OGD resulted in decreases of TTC staining.The percentage of tissue injury had a positive correlation with LDH releases, r=0.9609, P<0.01. Two hours of reincubation aggravated the decrease of TTC staining compared with those slices stained immediately after OGD (P<0.01). These four anesthetics had no effects on the TTC staining of slices. Ketamine completely inhibited the decrease of A value induced by 10 min of OGD injury. High concentrations of midazolam (10 μmol/L) and thiopental (400 μmol/L)partly attenuated this decrease. Propofol at high concentration (100 μmol/L) enhanced the decrease of A value induced by 10 min of OGD injury (P<0.01). CONCLUSION: Ketamine, high concentration of midazolam and thiopental have neuroprotective effects against OGD injury in rat cerebral cortical slices, while high concentration of propofol augments OGD injury in rat cerebral cortical slices.

  6. Effect of (+)-amphetamine on the retention of 3H-catecholamines in slices of normal and reserpinized rat brain and heart

    The effect of reserpine on the inhibition by (+)-amphetamine and cocaine of the accumulation of 3H-dopamine (DA) in striatal slices and 3H-noradrenaline (NA) in slices of cerebral occipital cortex and heart atrium of rats and the release of the 3H-amines from these tissues were examined. Reserpine (5 mg/kg intraperitoneally) was injected 18 hours before the experiments. It was found that reserpine markedly enhanced the in vitro potency of amphetamine in the striatum and heart but only slightly in the cortex. After administration in vivo (+)-amphetamine was about 10 times more potent in reducing the amine accumulation in the cortex as in the striatum. Reserpine enhanced the effect in both regions. The inhibitory potency of cocaine in vitro was unchanged by reserpine in the striatum but was reduced in the cortex and heart. Reserpine did not change the inhibitory potency of desipramine in the cortex and heart. The release of the 3H-amines by (+)-amphetamine was enhanced by reserpine in the striatum and heart but the small release produced in the cortex was not increased. The release produced by cocaine was similarly enhanced by reserpine but cocaine was much less active than (+)-amphetamine. The results indicate that (+)-amphetamine and cocaine inhibit the amine accumulation by different mechanisms. (author)

  7. The effect of head size/shape, miscentering, and bowtie filter on peak patient tissue doses from modern brain perfusion 256-slice CT: How can we minimize the risk for deterministic effects?

    Perisinakis, Kostas; Seimenis, Ioannis; Tzedakis, Antonis; Papadakis, Antonios E.; Damilakis, John [Department of Medical Physics, Faculty of Medicine, University of Crete, P.O. Box 2208, Heraklion 71003, Crete (Greece); Medical Diagnostic Center ' Ayios Therissos,' P.O. Box 28405, Nicosia 2033, Cyprus and Department of Medical Physics, Medical School, Democritus University of Thrace, Panepistimioupolis, Dragana 68100, Alexandroupolis (Greece); Department of Medical Physics, University Hospital of Heraklion, P.O. Box 1352, Heraklion 71110, Crete (Greece); Department of Medical Physics, Faculty of Medicine, University of Crete, P.O. Box 2208, Heraklion 71003, Crete (Greece)

    2013-01-15

    Purpose: To determine patient-specific absorbed peak doses to skin, eye lens, brain parenchyma, and cranial red bone marrow (RBM) of adult individuals subjected to low-dose brain perfusion CT studies on a 256-slice CT scanner, and investigate the effect of patient head size/shape, head position during the examination and bowtie filter used on peak tissue doses. Methods: The peak doses to eye lens, skin, brain, and RBM were measured in 106 individual-specific adult head phantoms subjected to the standard low-dose brain perfusion CT on a 256-slice CT scanner using a novel Monte Carlo simulation software dedicated for patient CT dosimetry. Peak tissue doses were compared to corresponding thresholds for induction of cataract, erythema, cerebrovascular disease, and depression of hematopoiesis, respectively. The effects of patient head size/shape, head position during acquisition and bowtie filter used on resulting peak patient tissue doses were investigated. The effect of eye-lens position in the scanned head region was also investigated. The effect of miscentering and use of narrow bowtie filter on image quality was assessed. Results: The mean peak doses to eye lens, skin, brain, and RBM were found to be 124, 120, 95, and 163 mGy, respectively. The effect of patient head size and shape on peak tissue doses was found to be minimal since maximum differences were less than 7%. Patient head miscentering and bowtie filter selection were found to have a considerable effect on peak tissue doses. The peak eye-lens dose saving achieved by elevating head by 4 cm with respect to isocenter and using a narrow wedge filter was found to approach 50%. When the eye lies outside of the primarily irradiated head region, the dose to eye lens was found to drop to less than 20% of the corresponding dose measured when the eye lens was located in the middle of the x-ray beam. Positioning head phantom off-isocenter by 4 cm and employing a narrow wedge filter results in a moderate reduction of

  8. The effect of head size/shape, miscentering, and bowtie filter on peak patient tissue doses from modern brain perfusion 256-slice CT: How can we minimize the risk for deterministic effects?

    Purpose: To determine patient-specific absorbed peak doses to skin, eye lens, brain parenchyma, and cranial red bone marrow (RBM) of adult individuals subjected to low-dose brain perfusion CT studies on a 256-slice CT scanner, and investigate the effect of patient head size/shape, head position during the examination and bowtie filter used on peak tissue doses. Methods: The peak doses to eye lens, skin, brain, and RBM were measured in 106 individual-specific adult head phantoms subjected to the standard low-dose brain perfusion CT on a 256-slice CT scanner using a novel Monte Carlo simulation software dedicated for patient CT dosimetry. Peak tissue doses were compared to corresponding thresholds for induction of cataract, erythema, cerebrovascular disease, and depression of hematopoiesis, respectively. The effects of patient head size/shape, head position during acquisition and bowtie filter used on resulting peak patient tissue doses were investigated. The effect of eye-lens position in the scanned head region was also investigated. The effect of miscentering and use of narrow bowtie filter on image quality was assessed. Results: The mean peak doses to eye lens, skin, brain, and RBM were found to be 124, 120, 95, and 163 mGy, respectively. The effect of patient head size and shape on peak tissue doses was found to be minimal since maximum differences were less than 7%. Patient head miscentering and bowtie filter selection were found to have a considerable effect on peak tissue doses. The peak eye-lens dose saving achieved by elevating head by 4 cm with respect to isocenter and using a narrow wedge filter was found to approach 50%. When the eye lies outside of the primarily irradiated head region, the dose to eye lens was found to drop to less than 20% of the corresponding dose measured when the eye lens was located in the middle of the x-ray beam. Positioning head phantom off-isocenter by 4 cm and employing a narrow wedge filter results in a moderate reduction of

  9. 急性阑尾炎超声与64排螺旋 CT 检查对比分析%The comparative analysis between ultrasound and 64-slice spiral CT examination in acute appendicitis

    王振芳; 岳学旺; 毕言刚; 李飞; 张仕状

    2014-01-01

    目的:探讨超声与64排螺旋 CT 平扫检查在诊断急性阑尾炎中的应用价值。方法收集经手术、病理证实或经保守治疗好转确诊急性阑尾炎的患者65例,术前或治疗前均做了 B 超和 CT 检查,对急性阑尾炎病理改变的显示情况及诊断符合率进行对比分析。结果65例阑尾炎病变,在 CT 图像上正确诊断58例,诊断符合率为89.23%,超声图像正确诊断48例,诊断符合率为73.85%,2种检查方法诊断符合率具有统计学差异(χ2=5.11,P =0.024)。结论多排螺旋 CT 与超声相比在诊断急性阑尾炎方面有较高的诊断符合率。%Objective To investigate the application of ultrasound and 64-slice spiral CT in the diagnosis of acute appendicitis. Methods Sixty-five patients with pathologically or clinally confirmed acute appendicitis were underwent ultrasound and CT examina-tion before operation or conservative treatment.Compared with pathology,the accuracy of CT and B-ultrasound imaging were ana-lyzed.Results Fifty-eight cases were correctly diagnosed by CT and 48 cases were correctly diagnosed by ultrasound,the accuracy was 89.23% (58/65)and 73.85% (48/65),respectively.There was a statistically significant difference between two groups (χ2 =5.1 1,P =0.024).Conclusion The accuracy of multi-slice spiral CT is higher than ultrasound in the diagnosis of acute appendicitis.

  10. In-111-labeled leukocyte brain SPECT imaging in acute ischemic stroke in man

    This study was performed to investigate the role of leukocyte accumulation in human cerebral infarction and its association with neurological functional outcome. A total of 42 patients diagnosed as acute ischemic stroke (22 embolism, 17 thrombosis, 3 TIA) were examined. Leukocyte accumulation was studied using indium-111-labeled leukocyte brain SPECT. Volume of brain infarction was evaluated by CT and/or MRI. The data were compared with the cerebral blood flow (CBF) imaging. Immediately after CBF study by SPECT using either Tc-99m-HMPAO or Tc-99m-ECD, In-111-labeled autologous leukocytes were injected intravenously. Brain scan for leukocytes was performed after 48 hours. The European Stroke Scale was used for neurological assessment. Thirteen patients with cerebral embolism and three patients with cerebral thrombosis showed intensive accumulation of leukocytes in the region of low flow Leukocyte's accumulation was not seen in patients with TIA. The accumulation of leukocytes was more noticeable in the central zone of the ischemia. Patients who showed negative leukocyte accumulation revealed clinically mild functional outcome and the size of infarction on CT and/or MRI was small. The regional accumulation of leukocytes was seen in all the patients with hemorrhagic infarction, but the degree of hemorrhage on CT did not have significant influence on the amount of leukocyte accumulation. Abnormal accumulation of leukocytes was associated with reduced CBF during the acute embolic stroke. The present clinical study revealed that leukocyte accumulation correlated with the poor neurological functional outcome in patients with acute embolic stroke. (K.H.)

  11. In-111-labeled leukocyte brain SPECT imaging in acute ischemic stroke in man

    Fujinuma, Kunihiko; Sakai, Fumihiko; Iizuka, Takahiro; Kitai, Norio [Kitasato Univ., Sagamihara, Kanagawa (Japan). School of Medicine

    1997-01-01

    This study was performed to investigate the role of leukocyte accumulation in human cerebral infarction and its association with neurological functional outcome. A total of 42 patients diagnosed as acute ischemic stroke (22 embolism, 17 thrombosis, 3 TIA) were examined. Leukocyte accumulation was studied using indium-111-labeled leukocyte brain SPECT. Volume of brain infarction was evaluated by CT and/or MRI. The data were compared with the cerebral blood flow (CBF) imaging. Immediately after CBF study by SPECT using either Tc-99m-HMPAO or Tc-99m-ECD, In-111-labeled autologous leukocytes were injected intravenously. Brain scan for leukocytes was performed after 48 hours. The European Stroke Scale was used for neurological assessment. Thirteen patients with cerebral embolism and three patients with cerebral thrombosis showed intensive accumulation of leukocytes in the region of low flow Leukocyte`s accumulation was not seen in patients with TIA. The accumulation of leukocytes was more noticeable in the central zone of the ischemia. Patients who showed negative leukocyte accumulation revealed clinically mild functional outcome and the size of infarction on CT and/or MRI was small. The regional accumulation of leukocytes was seen in all the patients with hemorrhagic infarction, but the degree of hemorrhage on CT did not have significant influence on the amount of leukocyte accumulation. Abnormal accumulation of leukocytes was associated with reduced CBF during the acute embolic stroke. The present clinical study revealed that leukocyte accumulation correlated with the poor neurological functional outcome in patients with acute embolic stroke. (K.H.)

  12. 钾通道阻断剂4-氨基吡啶诱导海马CA1锥体神经元钙瞬变%Calcium transient of CA1 pyramidal neurons induced by potassium blocker 4-aminopyridine in acute hippocampal slices

    苏涛; 丛文东; 廖卫平

    2011-01-01

    Objective To investigate the calcium transient of CA1 pyramidal neurons induced by potassium blocker 4-aminopyridine (4-AP) in acute hippocampal slices to explore the relation between potassium channel function and calcium transient, and their mechanism. Methods Fluorescent probe was employed to mark the hippocampai neurons in acute brain slices of rats; confocal microscopy was used to perform calcium imaging to observe the influences of different concentrations of 4-AP and perfusate with/without calcium on calcium transient of CA1 pyramidal neurons. Results The response of [Ca2+]I to lower concentration of 4-AP (<15 mmol/L) was in a dose-dependent manner (r2=0.910, P=0.000); the higher the concentration of 4-AP (20-80 mmol/L), the lower the peak level of calcium transient. The latency and amplitude of calcium transient induced by 4-AP were obviously reduced when the extracellular condition was switched to an absence of calcium, which was significantly different as compared with that with calcium (P<0.05). Conclusion Blockade of potassium channels with 4-AP can increase [Ca2+]I in the hippocampal pyramidal neurons of acute slices. The increase of [Ca2+]1 to 4-AP could be ascribe to calcium release from intracellular stores and calcium influx from extracellular matrix.%目的 研究4-氨基吡啶(4-AP)诱导的急性脑片海马CA1锥体神经元钙瞬变现象,探讨钾通道功能与钙瞬变的关系及可能机制.方法 荧光探针标记正常大鼠急性脑片海马神经元.共聚焦显微镜技术进行钙成像,观察不同浓度4-AP及细胞灌流液条件对神经元钙瞬变的影响.结果 低浓度(<15 mmol/L)4-AP诱导的钙瞬变峰值与剂量呈线性相关(r2=0.910,P=0.000),高浓度(20~80 mmol/L)4-AP诱导的钙瞬变峰值随浓度增高而下降.在无钙灌流液条件下,4-AP诱导的钙瞬变峰值水平下降,达峰时间延长,与含钙灌流液比较差异有统计学意义(P<0.05).结论 4-AP可诱导急性脑片海马CA1锥体神经

  13. Edaravone attenuates brain damage in rats after acute CO poisoning through inhibiting apoptosis and oxidative stress.

    Li, Qin; Bi, Ming Jun; Bi, Wei Kang; Kang, Hai; Yan, Le Jing; Guo, Yun-Liang

    2016-03-01

    Acute carbon monoxide (CO) poisoning is the most common cause of death from poisoning all over the world and may result in neuropathologic and neurophysiologic changes. Acute brain damage and delayed encephalopathy are the most serious complication, yet their pathogenesis is poorly understood. The present study aimed to evaluate the neuroprotective effects of Edaravone against apoptosis and oxidative stress after acute CO poisoning. The rat model of CO poisoning was established in a hyperbaric oxygen chamber by exposed to CO. Ultrastructure changes were observed by transmission electron microscopy (TEM). TUNEL stain was used to assess apoptosis. Immunohistochemistry and immunofluorescence double stain were used to evaluate the expression levels of heme oxygenase-1 (HO-1) and nuclear factor erythroid 2-related factor 2 (Nrf-2) protein and their relationship. By dynamically monitored the carboxyhemoglobin (HbCO) level in blood, we successfully established rat model of severe CO poisoning. Ultrastructure changes, including chromatin condensation, cytoplasm dissolution, vacuoles formation, nucleus membrane and cell organelles decomposition, could be observed after CO poisoning. Edaravone could improve the ultrastructure damage. CO poisoning could induce apoptosis. Apoptotic cells were widely distributed in cortex, striatum and hippocampus. Edaravone treatment attenuated neuronal apoptosis as compared with the poisoning group (P < 0.01). Basal expressions of HO-1 and Nrf-2 proteins were found in normal brain tissue. CO poisoning could activate HO-1/Nrf-2 pathway, start oxidative stress response. After the administration of Edaravone, the expression of HO-1 and Nrf-2 significantly increased (P < 0.01). These findings suggest that Edaravone may inhibit apoptosis, activate the Keapl-Nrf/ARE pathway, and thus improve the ultrastructure damage and neurophysiologic changes following acute CO poisoning. © 2014 Wiley Periodicals, Inc. Environ Toxicol 31: 372-379, 2016

  14. Accelerated recovery from acute brain injuries: clinical efficacy of neurotrophic treatment in stroke and traumatic brain injuries.

    Bornstein, N; Poon, W S

    2012-04-01

    Stroke is one of the most devastating vascular diseases in the world as it is responsible for almost five million deaths per year. Almost 90% of all strokes are ischemic and mainly due to atherosclerosis, cardiac embolism and small-vessel disease. Intracerebral or subarachnoid hemorrhage can lead to hemorrhagic stroke, which usually has the poorest prognosis. Cerebrolysin is a peptide preparation which mimics the action of a neurotrophic factor, protecting stroke-injured neurons and promoting neuroplasticity and neurogenesis. Cerebrolysin has been widely studied as a therapeutic tool for both ischemic and hemorrhagic stroke, as well as traumatic brain injury. In ischemic stroke, Cerebrolysin given as an adjuvant therapy to antiplatelet and rheologically active medication resulted in accelerated improvement in global, neurological and motor functions, cognitive performance and activities of daily living. Cerebrolysin was also safe and well tolerated when administered in patients suffering from hemorrhagic stroke. Traumatic brain injury leads to transient or chronic impairments in physical, cognitive, emotional and behavioral functions. This is associated with deficits in the recognition of basic emotions, the capacity to interpret the mental states of others, and executive functioning. Pilot clinical studies with adjuvant Cerebrolysin in the acute and postacute phases of the injury have shown faster recovery, which translates into an earlier onset of rehabilitation and shortened hospitalization time. PMID:22514794

  15. Evaluating acute effects of Electro Convulsive Therapy (ECT) on brain perfusion with Tc-99m HMPAO brain SPECT

    Regional cerebral blood flow (rCBF) was measured by Tc-99m HMPAO brain perfusion SPECT in 10 schizophrenes (8 male, 2 female) undergoing electro convulsive therapy (ECT) and the results were compared to those of baseline studies performed 3 days prior to the ECT application to evaluate its acute effect on brain perfusion. ECT caused a redistribution in the tracers uptake. There was a global increase in the rCBF and the uptake became more pronounced in the basal ganglia (left: 44.4+-1.9%, right: 43.1+-19%) and to a degree in the parietal (left: 26.5+-4.1%, right: 25+-3.4%) and temporal (left: 22.9+-4.3%, right: 22.3+-3.6%) cortices. When evaluating the effects of ECT on rCBF, factors like the used perfusion agent, the injection and rCBF measurement times, clinical status of the patient, duration of the illness, used therapeutic agents and variations in the ECT application should be taken into consideration because the obtained data may reflect either the ictal or post-ictal changes on rCBF and is specific to the group of patients undergoing the study

  16. The association of the kynurenine pathway of tryptophan metabolism with acute brain dysfunction during critical illness*

    Adams Wilson, Jessica R.; Morandi, Alessandro; Girard, Timothy D.; Thompson, Jennifer L.; Boomershine, Chad S.; Shintani, Ayumi K.; Ely, E. Wesley; Pandharipande, Pratik P.

    2013-01-01

    Objectives Plasma tryptophan levels are associated with delirium in critically ill patients. Although tryptophan has been linked to the pathogenesis of other neurocognitive diseases through metabolism to neurotoxins via the kynurenine pathway, a role for kynurenine pathway activity in intensive care unit brain dysfunction (delirium and coma) remains unknown. This study examined the association between kynurenine pathway activity as determined by plasma kynurenine concentrations and kynurenine/tryptophan ratios and presence or absence of acute brain dysfunction (defined as delirium/coma-free days) in intensive care unit patients. Design, Setting, and Patients This was a prospective cohort study that utilized patient data and blood samples from the Maximizing Efficacy of Targeted Sedation and Reducing Neurologic Dysfunction trial, which compared sedation with dexmedetomidine vs. lorazepam in mechanically ventilated patients. Measurements and Main Results Baseline plasma kynurenine and tryptophan concentrations were measured using high-performance liquid chromatography with or without tandem mass spectrometry. Delirium was assessed daily using the Confusion Assessment Method for the Intensive Care Unit. Linear regression examined associations between kynurenine pathway activity and delirium/coma-free days after adjusting for sedative exposure, age, and severity of illness. Among 84 patients studied, median age was 60 yrs and Acute Physiology and Chronic Health Evaluation II score was 28.5. Elevated plasma kynurenine and kynurenine/tryptophan ratio were both independently associated with significantly fewer delirium/coma-free days (i.e., fewer days without acute brain dysfunction). Specifically, patients with plasma kynurenine or kynurenine/tryptophan ratios at the 75th percentile of our population had an average of 1.8 (95% confidence interval 0.6–3.1) and 2.1 (95% confidence interval 1.0–3.2) fewer delirium/coma-free days than those patients with values at the 25

  17. Ultrastructural effects of acute tetraethyllead poisoning on nerve cells of the rabbit brain

    Niklowitz, W.J.

    1974-08-01

    A study of the ultrastructural alterations of nerve cell components in specific areas of the brain of the rabbit after acute poisoning with tetraethyllead (TEL). A single dose of 100 mg/kg of TEL caused neurological disorders such as convulsions after a latency of 12 to 18 h. An electron microscopic study revealed that the nerve cells of the areas investigated contained different stages of degenerative changes not demonstrated by light microscopy. These appear to be dependent on location and antedate the neurological disorders. The cytopathogenesis is discussed in the light of these findings and available biochemical data. (CIS Abstract Vol. 2)

  18. Changes of plasma levels of NPY, Hcy and S100β in patients with acute brain injury

    Objective: To study the clinical significance of changes of several relevant plasma markers (NPY, Hcy, S100β) in patients with acute brain injury. Methods: Plasma NPY (with RIA), Hcy (with CLIA) and S100β (with ELISA) levels were determined in 28 patients with mild acute brain injury (Glascow score 9∼15), 12 patients with severe acute brain injury (Glascow score 3∼8) and controls. Results: As a whole, the plasma levels of Hcy and S100β in the patients with acute brain injury were significantly higher than those in the controls (P0.05), but the plasma levels in patients with severe injury were significantly higher than those in patients with mild injury as well as in controls (both P<0.05). The plasma levels of Hcy, NPY and S100β were significantly negatively correlated with the Glascow scores of the patients (r=-0.685, r=-0.583, r=-0.603, P<0.01, P<0.05, P<0.01). Conclusion: Monitoring the changes of plasma NPY, Hcy and S100β levels in patients with acute brain injury would be helpful to assess the patients condition and predict prognosis. (authors)

  19. In-111-labeled leukocyte brain SPECT imaging. Clinical significance in evaluating acute ischemic stroke

    Many experimental studies have demonstrated that leukocyte infiltration plays an important role in the progression of ischemic cellular damage or post perfusion brain injury. However, only a few clinical studies have been reported. The purpose of this study is to evaluate the clinical significance of leukocyte accumulation in the ischemic brain tissue. Seventy six patients (49 men, 27 women; mean age: 65.5±13.9 years) with acute ischemic stroke were studied by leukocyte brain SPECT imaging. A diagnosis included cardioembolism (n=46), atherothrombotic infarction (n=24), TIA (n=3) and lacuna (n=3). Immediately after the CBF study using Tc-99m-ECD (600 MBq), indium-111-labeled autologous leukocytes were injected. A brain scan for leukocytes was performed 48 hours later. The leukocyte-SPECT study was made 11.1±7.7 days after the onset of stroke. Regional accumulation of leukocytes in the ischemic tissue was evaluated both by visual assessment and by measuring the hemispheric asymmetry index for leukocyte (AI-leuko), and was evaluated by comparison with variable factors including age, gender, infarction size, hemorrhagic transformation, timing of study after the onset, type of stroke and functional outcome. Of the 61 patients with acute ischemic stroke within 2 weeks of onset, 28 patients showed the accumulation of leukocytes in the central zone of ischemia. Six of 7 patients with repeated studies showed a reduction in leukocyte accumulation with time after the onset. Factors significantly associated with the higher accumulation of leukocyte included cardioembolic stroke, larger size of infarct, presence of hemorrhagic transformation and significant reduction in flow. In the 61 patients within 2 weeks of onset, the functional outcome was significantly correlated with the accumulation of leukocyte (p<0.001). The accumulation of leukocytes was seen more in patients with embolic stroke, larger infarction, and hemorrhagic transformation. The higher accumulation correlated

  20. In-111-labeled leukocyte brain SPECT imaging. Clinical significance in evaluating acute ischemic stroke

    Fujinuma, Kunihiko [Kitasato Univ., Sagamihara, Kanagawa (Japan). School of Medicine

    2002-02-01

    Many experimental studies have demonstrated that leukocyte infiltration plays an important role in the progression of ischemic cellular damage or post perfusion brain injury. However, only a few clinical studies have been reported. The purpose of this study is to evaluate the clinical significance of leukocyte accumulation in the ischemic brain tissue. Seventy six patients (49 men, 27 women; mean age: 65.5{+-}13.9 years) with acute ischemic stroke were studied by leukocyte brain SPECT imaging. A diagnosis included cardioembolism (n=46), atherothrombotic infarction (n=24), TIA (n=3) and lacuna (n=3). Immediately after the CBF study using Tc-99m-ECD (600 MBq), indium-111-labeled autologous leukocytes were injected. A brain scan for leukocytes was performed 48 hours later. The leukocyte-SPECT study was made 11.1{+-}7.7 days after the onset of stroke. Regional accumulation of leukocytes in the ischemic tissue was evaluated both by visual assessment and by measuring the hemispheric asymmetry index for leukocyte (AI-leuko), and was evaluated by comparison with variable factors including age, gender, infarction size, hemorrhagic transformation, timing of study after the onset, type of stroke and functional outcome. Of the 61 patients with acute ischemic stroke within 2 weeks of onset, 28 patients showed the accumulation of leukocytes in the central zone of ischemia. Six of 7 patients with repeated studies showed a reduction in leukocyte accumulation with time after the onset. Factors significantly associated with the higher accumulation of leukocyte included cardioembolic stroke, larger size of infarct, presence of hemorrhagic transformation and significant reduction in flow. In the 61 patients within 2 weeks of onset, the functional outcome was significantly correlated with the accumulation of leukocyte (p<0.001). The accumulation of leukocytes was seen more in patients with embolic stroke, larger infarction, and hemorrhagic transformation. The higher accumulation

  1. Effect of MgSO4 on NMDA receptor in brain tissue and serum NSE in rats with radiation-induced acute brain injury

    Objective: To explore the protection of magnesium sulfate (MgSO4) on radiation-induced acute brain injury. Methods Thirty six mature Sprague-Dawley rats were randomly divided into 3 groups: the blank control group, experimental control group and experimental therapy group. The whole brain of SD rats in the experimental control group and experimental therapy group were irradiated with a dose of 20 Gy using 6 MeV electron beam. Magnesium sulfate was injected intraperitoneally into the rats in the experimental therapy group before and after irradiation for seven times. The blood and the brain tissue were taken on the 1st, 3rd and 14th day after irradiation. ELISA was used to measure the level of serum NSE. Western blot technique was used to detect the expression of NR1 and NR2B subunit protein in brain tissue. Results: Compared with the blank control group, the level of serum NSE in the experimental control group increased significantly (P4 used in early stage can inhibit the level of serum NSE and the expression of NR1 and NR2B after radiation-induced acute brain injury. It shows a protective effect on radiation-induced acute brain injury. (authors)

  2. Brain injury due to acute organophosphate poisoning Magnetic resonance imaging manifestation and pathological characteristics

    2007-01-01

    BACKGROUND: Acute organophosphate poisoning can cause injuries of multiple visceras; especially,central nervous system injury can increase risk factors of patients with severe acute organophosphate poisoning. An application of modem image may increase diagnostic rate of brain injury in an earlier period and provide evidences for clinical treatment.OBJECTIVE: To reveal imaging manifestations, pathological characteristics and multi-ways injured mechanism of brain injury due to acute organophosphate poisoning.DESIGN: Contrast observational study.SETTING: Department of Medical Image, the Second Hospital of Hebei Medical University.MATERIALS: The experiment was carried out in the Department of Nerve Molecule Imaging Medicine and Laboratory of Neurology, the Second Hospital of Hebei Medical University from August 2003 to February 2004. A total of 30 healthy cats weighing 2.8 - 3.5 g and of both genders were selected from Animal Experimental Center of Hebei Medical University.METHODS: Thirty healthy cats were randomly divided into control group (n =5) and intoxication group (n=25). Cats in the control group were subcutaneously injected with 0.3 mL/kg saline at four points; while, cats in the intoxication group were subcutaneously injected with 400 g/L 0.3 mL/kg O,O-dimethyl-S-(methoxycarbonylmethyl) thiophosphate at four points. Two minutes after intoxication, cats received muscular injection with 0.5 mg/kg atropine sulfate, and then, brain tissues were collected from parietal lobe, basal ganglia, hippocampus, cerebellum and brain stem were observed at 3, 6, 24 hours, 3 and 7 days after intoxication respectively under optic microscope and electron microscope and expressions of acetylcholinesterase (AChE), choline acetyltransferase (ChAT), glial fibrillary acidic protein (GFAP),glutamic acid (Glu) and γ-amino butyric acid after immunohistochemical staining.MAIN OUTCOME MEASURES: Results of MRI examinations; histological changes under optic microscope and electron

  3. Glutamate Release by Primary Brain Tumors Induces Epileptic Activity

    Buckingham, Susan C.; Campbell, Susan L.; Haas, Brian R.; Montana, Vedrana; Robel, Stefanie; Ogunrinu, Toyin; Sontheimer, Harald

    2011-01-01

    Epileptic seizures are a common and poorly understood co-morbidity for individuals with primary brain tumors. To investigate peritumoral seizure etiology, we implanted patient-derived glioma cells into scid mice. Within 14–18 days, glioma-bearing animals developed spontaneous, recurring abnormal EEG events consistent with epileptic activity that progressed over time. Acute brain slices from these animals showed significant glutamate release from the tumor mediated by the system xc − cystine/g...

  4. Slicing black hole spacetimes

    Bini, Donato; Geralico, Andrea; Jantzen, Robert T

    2015-01-01

    A general framework is developed to investigate the properties of useful choices of stationary spacelike slicings of stationary spacetimes whose congruences of timelike orthogonal trajectories are interpreted as the world lines of an associated family of observers, the kinematical properties of which in turn may be used to geometrically characterize the original slicings. On the other hand properties of the slicings themselves can directly characterize their utility motivated instead by other considerations like the initial value and evolution problems in the 3-plus-1 approach to general relativity. An attempt is made to categorize the various slicing conditions or "time gauges" used in the literature for the most familiar stationary spacetimes: black holes and their flat spacetime limit.

  5. Slicing black hole spacetimes

    Bini, Donato; Bittencourt, Eduardo; Geralico, Andrea; Jantzen, Robert T.

    2015-04-01

    A general framework is developed to investigate the properties of useful choices of stationary spacelike slicings of stationary spacetimes whose congruences of timelike orthogonal trajectories are interpreted as the world lines of an associated family of observers, the kinematical properties of which in turn may be used to geometrically characterize the original slicings. On the other hand, properties of the slicings themselves can directly characterize their utility motivated instead by other considerations like the initial value and evolution problems in the 3-plus-1 approach to general relativity. An attempt is made to categorize the various slicing conditions or "time gauges" used in the literature for the most familiar stationary spacetimes: black holes and their flat spacetime limit.

  6. Connectomic and Surface-Based Morphometric Correlates of Acute Mild Traumatic Brain Injury.

    Dall'Acqua, Patrizia; Johannes, Sönke; Mica, Ladislav; Simmen, Hans-Peter; Glaab, Richard; Fandino, Javier; Schwendinger, Markus; Meier, Christoph; Ulbrich, Erika J; Müller, Andreas; Jäncke, Lutz; Hänggi, Jürgen

    2016-01-01

    Reduced integrity of white matter (WM) pathways and subtle anomalies in gray matter (GM) morphology have been hypothesized as mechanisms in mild traumatic brain injury (mTBI). However, findings on structural brain changes in early stages after mTBI are inconsistent and findings related to early symptoms severity are rare. Fifty-one patients were assessed with multimodal neuroimaging and clinical methods exclusively within 7 days following mTBI and compared to 53 controls. Whole-brain connectivity based on diffusion tensor imaging was subjected to network-based statistics, whereas cortical surface area, thickness, and volume based on T1-weighted MRI scans were investigated using surface-based morphometric analysis. Reduced connectivity strength within a subnetwork of 59 edges located predominantly in bilateral frontal lobes was significantly associated with higher levels of self-reported symptoms. In addition, cortical surface area decreases were associated with stronger complaints in five clusters located in bilateral frontal and postcentral cortices, and in the right inferior temporal region. Alterations in WM and GM were localized in similar brain regions and moderately-to-strongly related to each other. Furthermore, the reduction of cortical surface area in the frontal regions was correlated with poorer attentive-executive performance in the mTBI group. Finally, group differences were detected in both the WM and GM, especially when focusing on a subgroup of patients with greater complaints, indicating the importance of classifying mTBI patients according to severity of symptoms. This study provides evidence that mTBI affects not only the integrity of WM networks by means of axonal damage but also the morphology of the cortex during the initial post-injury period. These anomalies might be greater in the acute period than previously believed and the involvement of frontal brain regions was consistently pronounced in both findings. The dysconnected subnetwork

  7. Connectomic and Surface-Based Morphometric Correlates of Acute Mild Traumatic Brain Injury

    Dall'Acqua, Patrizia; Johannes, Sönke; Mica, Ladislav; Simmen, Hans-Peter; Glaab, Richard; Fandino, Javier; Schwendinger, Markus; Meier, Christoph; Ulbrich, Erika J.; Müller, Andreas; Jäncke, Lutz; Hänggi, Jürgen

    2016-01-01

    Reduced integrity of white matter (WM) pathways and subtle anomalies in gray matter (GM) morphology have been hypothesized as mechanisms in mild traumatic brain injury (mTBI). However, findings on structural brain changes in early stages after mTBI are inconsistent and findings related to early symptoms severity are rare. Fifty-one patients were assessed with multimodal neuroimaging and clinical methods exclusively within 7 days following mTBI and compared to 53 controls. Whole-brain connectivity based on diffusion tensor imaging was subjected to network-based statistics, whereas cortical surface area, thickness, and volume based on T1-weighted MRI scans were investigated using surface-based morphometric analysis. Reduced connectivity strength within a subnetwork of 59 edges located predominantly in bilateral frontal lobes was significantly associated with higher levels of self-reported symptoms. In addition, cortical surface area decreases were associated with stronger complaints in five clusters located in bilateral frontal and postcentral cortices, and in the right inferior temporal region. Alterations in WM and GM were localized in similar brain regions and moderately-to-strongly related to each other. Furthermore, the reduction of cortical surface area in the frontal regions was correlated with poorer attentive-executive performance in the mTBI group. Finally, group differences were detected in both the WM and GM, especially when focusing on a subgroup of patients with greater complaints, indicating the importance of classifying mTBI patients according to severity of symptoms. This study provides evidence that mTBI affects not only the integrity of WM networks by means of axonal damage but also the morphology of the cortex during the initial post-injury period. These anomalies might be greater in the acute period than previously believed and the involvement of frontal brain regions was consistently pronounced in both findings. The dysconnected subnetwork

  8. Association of acute adverse effects with high local SAR induced in the brain from prolonged RF head and neck hyperthermia

    To provide an adequate level of protection for humans from exposure to radio-frequency (RF) electromagnetic fields (EMF) and to assure that any adverse health effects are avoided. The basic restrictions in terms of the specific energy absorption rate (SAR) were prescribed by IEEE and ICNIRP. An example of a therapeutic application of non-ionizing EMF is hyperthermia (HT), in which intense RF energy is focused at a target region. Deep HT in the head and neck (H and N) region involves inducing energy at 434 MHz for 60 min on target. Still, stray exposure of the brain is considerable, but to date only very limited side-effects were observed. The objective of this study is to investigate the stringency of the current basic restrictions by relating the induced EM dose in the brain of patients treated with deep head and neck (H and N) HT to the scored acute health effects. We performed a simulation study to calculate the induced peak 10 g spatial-averaged SAR (psSAR10g) in the brains of 16 selected H and N patients who received the highest SAR exposure in the brain, i.e. who had the minimum brain-target distance and received high forwarded power during treatment. The results show that the maximum induced SAR in the brain of the patients can exceed the current basic restrictions (IEEE and ICNIRP) on psSAR10g for occupational environments by 14 times. Even considering the high local SAR in the brain, evaluation of acute effects by the common toxicity criteria (CTC) scores revealed no indication of a serious acute neurological effect. In addition, this study provides pioneering quantitative human data on the association between maximum brain SAR level and acute adverse effects when brains are exposed to prolonged RF EMF. (paper)

  9. Association of acute adverse effects with high local SAR induced in the brain from prolonged RF head and neck hyperthermia

    Adibzadeh, F.; Verhaart, R. F.; Verduijn, G. M.; Fortunati, V.; Rijnen, Z.; Franckena, M.; van Rhoon, G. C.; Paulides, M. M.

    2015-02-01

    To provide an adequate level of protection for humans from exposure to radio-frequency (RF) electromagnetic fields (EMF) and to assure that any adverse health effects are avoided. The basic restrictions in terms of the specific energy absorption rate (SAR) were prescribed by IEEE and ICNIRP. An example of a therapeutic application of non-ionizing EMF is hyperthermia (HT), in which intense RF energy is focused at a target region. Deep HT in the head and neck (H&N) region involves inducing energy at 434 MHz for 60 min on target. Still, stray exposure of the brain is considerable, but to date only very limited side-effects were observed. The objective of this study is to investigate the stringency of the current basic restrictions by relating the induced EM dose in the brain of patients treated with deep head and neck (H&N) HT to the scored acute health effects. We performed a simulation study to calculate the induced peak 10 g spatial-averaged SAR (psSAR10g) in the brains of 16 selected H&N patients who received the highest SAR exposure in the brain, i.e. who had the minimum brain-target distance and received high forwarded power during treatment. The results show that the maximum induced SAR in the brain of the patients can exceed the current basic restrictions (IEEE and ICNIRP) on psSAR10g for occupational environments by 14 times. Even considering the high local SAR in the brain, evaluation of acute effects by the common toxicity criteria (CTC) scores revealed no indication of a serious acute neurological effect. In addition, this study provides pioneering quantitative human data on the association between maximum brain SAR level and acute adverse effects when brains are exposed to prolonged RF EMF.

  10. Clinical application of MR imaging in the acute stage of brain infarction

    The purpose of this study was to assess the clinical usefulness of diffusion weighted image (DWI) and perfusion image (PI) using echo planar imaging in the acute stage of cerebral infarction. Eighteen patients with cerebral infarction were imaged with magnetic resonance angiography, fast fluid attenuated inversion recovery (FLAIR), DWI, and PI. With PI, time-Δ R2 curve can calculate hemodynamics of relative regional cerebral blood volume (rCBV) and mean transit time (MTT). All regions of acute stage of brain infarction in 18 patients were demonstrated with DWI clearly. The lesion, in one case, was visible only 1.5 hour after the onset. The infarct lesions, which included lacunas, infarct, cortical infarct, and cardioembolic infarct, were distinguished from old infarct or leukoariosis. Time intensity curves, regional CBV maps, and relative MTT maps of perfusion study revealed low cerebral perfusion in the area of the infarct. The rMTT map demonstrated a perfusion abnormality much larger than the rCBV map abnormality. According to PI studies, one case had collateral flow in ischemic area, while five other cases had cardioembolic infarctions and received thrombolytic therapy. In conclusion, diffusion weighted image was useful for diagnosis of cytotoxic edema in cerebral infarction during the hyperacute stage. Perfusion image was useful as a simple modality of cerebral hemodynamics in cerebral infarction. These neuroimaging of magnetic resonance can help in deciding thrombolytic and neuroprotective therapies for brain ischemia. (author)

  11. PROGNOSTIC VALUE OF BRAIN AND ACUTE LEUKEMIA CYTOPLASMIC GENE EXPRESSION IN EGYPTIAN CHILDREN WITH ACUTE MYELOID LEUKEMIA

    adel abd elhaleim hagag

    2015-04-01

    Full Text Available Abstract      Background: Acute myeloid leukemia (AML accounts for 25%-35% of the acute leukemia in children. BAALC (Brain and Acute Leukemia, Cytoplasmic gene is a recently identified gene on chromosome 8q22.3 that has prognostic significance in AML.  The aim of this work was to study the impact of BAALC gene expression on prognosis of AML in Egyptian children. Patients and methods: This study was conducted on 40 patients of newly diagnosed AML who were subjected to the following: Full history taking, clinical examination, laboratory investigations including: complete blood count, LDH, bone marrow aspiration, cytochemistry and immunophenotyping, assessment of BAALC Gene by real time PCR in bone marrow aspirate mononuclear cells before the start of chemotherapy. Results: BAALC gene expression showed positive expression in 24 cases (60% and negative expression in 16 cases (40%. Patients who showed positive BAALC gene expression included 10 patients achieved complete remission, 8 patients died and 6 relapsed patients, while patients who showed negative expression include 12 patients achieved complete remission, 1 relapsed patient and 3 patients died. There was significant association between BAALC gene expression and FAB classification of patients of AML patientsas positive BAALC expression is predominantly seen in FAB subtypes M1 and M2 compared with negative BAALC gene expression that was found more in M3 and M4 (8 cases with M1, 12 cases with M2, 1 case with M3 and 3 cases with M4 in positive BAALC expression versus 2 cases with M1, 3 cases with M2, 4 cases with M3 and 7 cases with M4 in BAALC gene negative expression group with significant difference regarding FAB subtypes. As regard age, sex, splenomegaly, lymphadenopathy, pallor, purpura, platelets count, WBCs count, and percentage of blast cells in BM, the present study showed no significant association with BAALC. Conclusion: BAALC expression is an important prognostic factor in AML

  12. Frequency and pathogenesis of silent subcortical brain infarction in acute first-ever ischemic stroke

    We have often observed silent subcortical brain lesions on CT or MRI in first-ever ischemic stroke, but there is little published information on the relationship of these lesions to stroke subtypes. Here, we describe the incidence of MRI-detected silent subcortical brain lesions, including infarctions and white matter lesions, in a series of patients with first-ever ischemic stroke classified according to stroke subtypes. We also discuss the pathogenesis of these silent subcortical lesions. We evaluated 171 patients with acute first-ever ischemic stroke. The subjects were divided into three groups: lacunar, atherothrombotic and cardioembolic infarction groups. We evaluated silent subcortical brain infarction (SSBI), enlargement of perivascular space (EPS), and other white-matter lesions using MRI. Hypertension was observed in 67.6% of lacunar infarction, 57.1% of atherosclerotic infarction, and 54.1% of cardioembolic infarction. SSBI was more frequently observed in lacunar infarction than the others (lacunar vs. atherothrombotic vs. cardiogenic infarction, 81.5% vs. 44.4% vs. 42.1%, p=0.006). High-grade EPS (grade 2 or higher) was also observed more frequently in lacunar infarction than in the others (lacunar vs. atherothrombotic vs. cardiogenic infarction, 63.3% vs. 24.2% vs. 0%, p<0.001). Scheltens' score of silent subcortical lesions was significantly higher in lacunar infarction than in the others. The frequency of silent subcortical ischemic brain lesions was significantly higher in lacunar infarction than in atherosclerotic or cardioembolic infarction. We suggest that the pathogenesis of silent subcortical ischemic brain lesions is common to that of lacunar infarction, that is, small-vessel vasculopathy. (author)

  13. Early CT signs of progressive hemorrhagic injury following acute traumatic brain injury

    Tong, Wu-song; Zheng, Ping; Xu, Jun-fa; Guo, Yi-jun; Zeng, Jing-song; Yang, Wen-jin; Li, Gao-yi; He, Bin; Yu, Hui [Pudong New Area People' s Hospital, Department of Neurosurgery, Shanghai (China)

    2011-05-15

    Since progressive hemorrhagic injury (PHI) was introduced in neurosurgical literatures, several studies have been performed, the results of which have influenced doctors but do not define guidelines for the best treatment of PHI. PHI may be confirmed by a serial computerized tomography (CT) scan, and it has been shown to be associated with a fivefold increase in the risk of clinical worsening and is a significant cause of morbidity and mortality as well. So, early detection of PHI is practically important in a clinical situation. To analyze the early CT signs of progressive hemorrhagic injury following acute traumatic brain injury (TBI) and explore their clinical significances, PHI was confirmed by comparing the first and repeated CT scans. Data were analyzed and compared including times from injury to the first CT and signs of the early CT scan. Logistic regression analysis was used to show the risk factors related to PHI. A cohort of 630 TBI patients was evaluated, and there were 189 (30%) patients who suffered from PHI. For patients with their first CT scan obtained as early as 2 h post-injury, there were 116 (77.25%) cases who suffered from PHI. The differences between PHIs and non-PHIs were significant in the initial CT scans showing fracture, subarachnoid hemorrhage (SAH), brain contusion, epidural hematoma (EDH), subdural hematoma (SDH), and multiple hematoma as well as the times from injury to the first CT scan (P < 0.01). Logistic regression analysis showed that early CT scans (EDH, SDH, SAH, fracture, and brain contusion) were predictors of PHI (P < 0.01). For patients with the first CT scan obtained as early as 2 h post-injury, a follow-up CT scan should be performed promptly. If the initial CT scan shows SAH, brain contusion, and primary hematoma with brain swelling, an earlier and dynamic CT scan should be performed for detection of PHI as early as possible and the medical intervention would be enforced in time. (orig.)

  14. Early CT signs of progressive hemorrhagic injury following acute traumatic brain injury

    Since progressive hemorrhagic injury (PHI) was introduced in neurosurgical literatures, several studies have been performed, the results of which have influenced doctors but do not define guidelines for the best treatment of PHI. PHI may be confirmed by a serial computerized tomography (CT) scan, and it has been shown to be associated with a fivefold increase in the risk of clinical worsening and is a significant cause of morbidity and mortality as well. So, early detection of PHI is practically important in a clinical situation. To analyze the early CT signs of progressive hemorrhagic injury following acute traumatic brain injury (TBI) and explore their clinical significances, PHI was confirmed by comparing the first and repeated CT scans. Data were analyzed and compared including times from injury to the first CT and signs of the early CT scan. Logistic regression analysis was used to show the risk factors related to PHI. A cohort of 630 TBI patients was evaluated, and there were 189 (30%) patients who suffered from PHI. For patients with their first CT scan obtained as early as 2 h post-injury, there were 116 (77.25%) cases who suffered from PHI. The differences between PHIs and non-PHIs were significant in the initial CT scans showing fracture, subarachnoid hemorrhage (SAH), brain contusion, epidural hematoma (EDH), subdural hematoma (SDH), and multiple hematoma as well as the times from injury to the first CT scan (P < 0.01). Logistic regression analysis showed that early CT scans (EDH, SDH, SAH, fracture, and brain contusion) were predictors of PHI (P < 0.01). For patients with the first CT scan obtained as early as 2 h post-injury, a follow-up CT scan should be performed promptly. If the initial CT scan shows SAH, brain contusion, and primary hematoma with brain swelling, an earlier and dynamic CT scan should be performed for detection of PHI as early as possible and the medical intervention would be enforced in time. (orig.)

  15. Acute care in stroke: the importance of early intervention to achieve better brain protection.

    Díez-Tejedor, E; Fuentes, B

    2004-01-01

    It is known that 'time is brain', and only early therapies in acute stroke have been effective, like thrombolysis within the first 3 h, and useful neuroprotective drugs are searched for that probably would be effective only with their very early administration. General care (respiratory and cardiac care, fluid and metabolic management, especially blood glucose and blood pressure control, early treatment of hyperthermia, and prevention and treatment of neurological and systemic complications) in acute stroke patients is essential and must already start in the prehospital setting and continue at the patient's arrival to hospital in the emergency room and in the stroke unit. A review of published studies analyzing the influence of general care on stroke outcome and the personal experience from observational studies was performed. Glucose levels >8 mmol/l have been found to be predictive of a poor prognosis after correcting for age, stroke severity, and stroke subtype. Although a clinical trial of glucose-insulin-potassium infusions is ongoing, increased plasma glucose levels should be treated. Moreover, insulin therapy in critically ill patients, including stroke patients, is safe and determines lower mortality and complication rates. Both high and low blood pressure levels have been related to a poor prognosis in acute stroke, although the target levels have not been defined yet in clinical trials. The body temperature has been shown to have a negative effect on stroke outcome, and its control and early treatment of hyperthermia are important. Hypoxemia also worsens the stroke prognosis, and oxygen therapy in case of prehospital level from the very beginning. This could help to save more brain tissue to get the best conditions for further specific stroke therapies such as the use of neuroprotective or thrombolytic drugs in the hospital. PMID:14694290

  16. Neuroprotective effects of bloodletting atJing points combined with mild induced hypothermia in acute severe traumatic brain injury

    Yue Tu; Xiao-mei Miao; Tai-long Yi; Xu-yi Chen; Hong-tao Sun; Shi-xiang Cheng; Sai Zhang

    2016-01-01

    Bloodletting atJing points has been used to treat coma in traditional Chinese medicine. Mild induced hypothermia has also been shown to have neuroprotective effects. However, the therapeutic effects of bloodletting atJing points and mild induced hypothermia alone are limited. Therefore, we investigated whether combined treatment might have clinical effectiveness for the treatment of acute severe trau-matic brain injury. Using a rat model of traumatic brain injury, combined treatment substantially alleviated cerebral edema and blood-brain barrier dysfunction. Furthermore, neurological function was ameliorated, and cellular necrosis and the inlfammatory response were lessened. These ifndings suggest that the combined effects of bloodletting atJing points (20 µL, twice a day, for 2 days) and mild induced hypothermia (6 hours) are better than their individual effects alone. Their combined application may have marked neuroprotective effects in the clinical treatment of acute severe traumatic brain injury.

  17. Neuroprotective effects of bloodletting at Jing points combined with mild induced hypothermia in acute severe traumatic brain injury

    Tu, Yue; Miao, Xiao-mei; Yi, Tai-long; Chen, Xu-yi; Sun, Hong-tao; Cheng, Shi-xiang; Zhang, Sai

    2016-01-01

    Bloodletting at Jing points has been used to treat coma in traditional Chinese medicine. Mild induced hypothermia has also been shown to have neuroprotective effects. However, the therapeutic effects of bloodletting at Jing points and mild induced hypothermia alone are limited. Therefore, we investigated whether combined treatment might have clinical effectiveness for the treatment of acute severe traumatic brain injury. Using a rat model of traumatic brain injury, combined treatment substantially alleviated cerebral edema and blood-brain barrier dysfunction. Furthermore, neurological function was ameliorated, and cellular necrosis and the inflammatory response were lessened. These findings suggest that the combined effects of bloodletting at Jing points (20 μL, twice a day, for 2 days) and mild induced hypothermia (6 hours) are better than their individual effects alone. Their combined application may have marked neuroprotective effects in the clinical treatment of acute severe traumatic brain injury.

  18. Whole brain magnetization transfer histogram analysis of pediatric acute lymphoblastic leukemia patients receiving intrathecal methotrexate therapy

    Yamamoto, Akira [Department of Diagnostic Imaging and Nuclear Medicine, Graduate School of Medicine, Kyoto University, 54 Kawahara-cho, Shogoin, Sakyo-ku, Kyoto-shi Kyoto 606-8507 (Japan)]. E-mail: yakira@kuhp.kyoto-u.ac.jp; Miki, Yukio [Department of Diagnostic Imaging and Nuclear Medicine, Graduate School of Medicine, Kyoto University, 54 Kawahara-cho, Shogoin, Sakyo-ku, Kyoto-shi Kyoto 606-8507 (Japan)]. E-mail: mikiy@kuhp.kyoto-u.ac.jp; Adachi, Souichi [Department of Pediatrics, Graduate School of Medicine, Kyoto University, 54 Kawahara-cho, Shogoin, Sakyo-ku, Kyoto-shi Kyoto 606-8507 (Japan)]. E-mail: sadachi@kuhp.kyoto-u.ac.jp (and others)

    2006-03-15

    Background and purpose: The purpose of this prospective study was to evaluate the hypothesis that magnetization transfer ratio (MTR) histogram analysis of the whole brain could detect early and subtle brain changes nonapparent on conventional magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) in children with acute lymphoblastic leukemia (ALL) receiving methotrexate (MTX) therapy. Materials and methods: Subjects in this prospective study comprised 10 children with ALL (mean age, 6 years; range, 0-16 years). In addition to conventional MRI, magnetization transfer images were obtained before and after intrathecal and intravenous MTX therapy. MTR values were calculated and plotted as a histogram, and peak height and location were calculated. Differences in peak height and location between pre- and post-MTX therapy scans were statistically analyzed. Conventional MRI was evaluated for abnormal signal area in white matter. Results: MTR peak height was significantly lower on post-MTX therapy scans than on pre-MTX therapy scans (p = 0.002). No significant differences in peak location were identified between pre- and post-chemotherapy imaging. No abnormal signals were noted in white matter on either pre- or post-MTX therapy conventional MRI. Conclusions: This study demonstrates that MTR histogram analysis allows better detection of early and subtle brain changes in ALL patients who receive MTX therapy than conventional MRI.

  19. Mouse models of human PIK3CA-related brain overgrowth have acutely treatable epilepsy

    Roy, Achira; Skibo, Jonathan; Kalume, Franck; Ni, Jing; Rankin, Sherri; Lu, Yiling; Dobyns, William B; Mills, Gordon B; Zhao, Jean J; Baker, Suzanne J; Millen, Kathleen J

    2015-01-01

    Mutations in the catalytic subunit of phosphoinositide 3-kinase (PIK3CA) and other PI3K-AKT pathway components have been associated with cancer and a wide spectrum of brain and body overgrowth. In the brain, the phenotypic spectrum of PIK3CA-related segmental overgrowth includes bilateral dysplastic megalencephaly, hemimegalencephaly and focal cortical dysplasia, the most common cause of intractable pediatric epilepsy. We generated mouse models expressing the most common activating Pik3ca mutations (H1047R and E545K) in developing neural progenitors. These accurately recapitulate all the key human pathological features including brain enlargement, cortical malformation, hydrocephalus and epilepsy, with phenotypic severity dependent on the mutant allele and its time of activation. Underlying mechanisms include increased proliferation, cell size and altered white matter. Notably, we demonstrate that acute 1 hr-suppression of PI3K signaling despite the ongoing presence of dysplasia has dramatic anti-epileptic benefit. Thus PI3K inhibitors offer a promising new avenue for effective anti-epileptic therapy for intractable pediatric epilepsy patients. DOI: http://dx.doi.org/10.7554/eLife.12703.001 PMID:26633882

  20. The Appetite-Inducing Peptide, Ghrelin, Induces Intracellular Store-Mediated Rises in Calcium in Addiction and Arousal-Related Laterodorsal Tegmental Neurons in Mouse Brain Slices

    Hauberg, Katrine; Kohlmeier, Kristi Anne

    2015-01-01

    Ghrelin, a gut and brain peptide, has recently been shown to be involved in motivated behavior and regulation of the sleep and wakefulness cycle. The laterodorsal tegmental nucleus (LDT) is involved in appetitive behavior and control of the arousal state of an organism, and accordingly, behaviora...

  1. Changes in brain oxidative metabolism induced by inhibitory avoidance learning and acute administration of amitriptyline.

    González-Pardo, Héctor; Conejo, Nélida M; Arias, Jorge L; Monleón, Santiago; Vinader-Caerols, Concepción; Parra, Andrés

    2008-05-01

    The effects of antidepressant drugs on memory have been somewhat ignored, having been considered a mere side effect of these compounds. However, the memory impairment caused by several antidepressants could be considered to form part of their therapeutic effects. Amitriptyline is currently one of the most prescribed tricyclic antidepressants, and exerts marked anticholinergic and antihistaminergic effects. In this study, we evaluated the effects of inhibitory avoidance (IA) learning and acute administration of amitriptyline on brain oxidative metabolism. Brain oxidative metabolism was measured in several limbic regions using cytochrome oxidase (CO) quantitative histochemistry. Amitriptyline produced a clear impairment in the IA task. In animals exposed only to the apparatus, amitriptyline decreased CO activity in nine brain regions, without affecting the remaining regions. In animals that underwent the IA training phase, amitriptyline reduced CO activity in only three of these nine regions. In animals treated with saline, IA acquisition increased CO activity in the medial prefrontal cortex, the prelimbic cortex, and the medial mammillary body, and diminished it in the medial septum and the nucleus basalis of Meynert with respect to animals exposed only to the IA apparatus. In animals treated with amitriptyline, IA acquisition did not modify CO activity in any of these regions, but increased it in the anteromedial nucleus of the thalamus, the diagonal band of Broca, and the dentate gyrus. The results reveal a pattern of changes in brain oxidative metabolism induced by IA training in saline-treated animals that was clearly absent in animals submitted to the same behavioural training but treated with amitriptyline. PMID:18313125

  2. Effect of β-carotene oil and bee pollen under the radiation and chemical influence upon ion transport in rat brain slices

    The effect of natural antioxidants (β-carotene oil and bee pollen) on the K+ ion transport in brain cells of rats exposed to X chronic fractionated irradiation at 0.25 Gy dose and cadmium chloride and atrazine effects is studied. It is stated that the β-carotene oil and bee pollen firstly repair radiation-induced disorders in the processes of energy-dependent transmembrane ion transport in nerve cells and slightly effect on the diffusion ion transport

  3. Quantitative analysis of brain metabolites concentrations using MR spectroscopy in acute hypoxia ischemic encephalopathy

    Objective: To evaluate the absolute quantification of brain metabolites concentrations using external standard MRS in acute hypoxia ischemia encephalopathy (HIE) piglet model. Method: Eight 7-day-old healthy piglets were subjected to insult of hypoxia ischemia (HI). The animals and an external standard phantom containing detectable metabolites of known concentrations were studied on a 1.5 T GE Signa scanner. The single-voxel proton magnetic resonance spectroscopy (1H-MRS) data were processed using LCModel software, and the quantification of N-acetylaspartate (NAA), creatine (Cr) and lactate (Lac) were accomplished. Multivariate analysis of variance was performed to compare the NAA, Cr, Lac concentration differences in the brains of piglets pre- and post-HI (0h). In addition, the dynamic changes of brain metabolites concentrations of 2 HIE piglets were observed at the time points of 0 h and 2 h. Results: One piglet was excluded because it was over anesthetized to death. Seven piglets' data were analyzed. The concentrations of NAA pre- and post-HI were (6.86±0.49) mmol/kg and (5.73±0.88) mmol/kg respectively, they were (4.65±0.73) mmol/kg and (4.40±0.80) mmol/kg for Cr; and were 0.00 mmol/kg and (0.43±0.39) mmol/kg for Lac. After HI, decreased NAA concentration immediately was observed, and it was of statistical significance (F=8.608, P=0.013). The concentration of Cr was insignificantly decreased (F=0.379, P=0.550). The concentration of Lac was increased, and the difference was of statistical significance (F=8.600, P=0.013). Dynamic observation showed a Lac peak immediately after HI and it decreased after 2 h post-HI. Conclusions: External standard MRS using LCModel has great value in the quantitative analysis of brain metabolites. The changes of NAA and Lac concentrations are sensitive to reflect the early metabolic change of acute HIE. (authors)

  4. Acute Supramaximal Exercise Increases the Brain Oxygenation in Relation to Cognitive Workload.

    Bediz, Cem Seref; Oniz, Adile; Guducu, Cagdas; Ural Demirci, Enise; Ogut, Hilmi; Gunay, Erkan; Cetinkaya, Caner; Ozgoren, Murat

    2016-01-01

    Single bout of exercise can improve the performance on cognitive tasks. However, cognitive responses may be controversial due to different type, intensity, and duration of exercise. In addition, the mechanism of the effect of acute exercise on brain is still unclear. This study was aimed to investigate the effects of supramaximal exercise on cognitive tasks by means of brain oxygenation monitoring. The brain oxygenation of Prefrontal cortex (PFC) was measured on 35 healthy male volunteers via functional near infrared spectroscopy (fNIRS) system. Subjects performed 2-Back test before and after the supramaximal exercise wingate anerobic test (WAnT) lasting 30-s on cycle ergometer. The PFC oxygenation change evaluation revealed that PFC oxygenation rise during post-exercise 2-Back task was considerably higher than those in pre-exercise 2-Back task. In order to describe the relationship between oxygenation change and exercise performance, subjects were divided into two groups as high performers (HP) and low performers (LP) according to their peak power values (PP) obtained from the supramaximal test. The oxy-hemoglobin (oxy-Hb) values were compared between pre- and post-exercise conditions within subjects and also between subjects according to peak power. When performers were compared, in the HP group, the oxy-Hb values in post-exercise 2-Back test were significantly higher than those in pre-exercise 2-Back test. HP had significantly higher post-exercise oxy-Hb change (Δ) than those of LP. In addition, PP of the total group were significantly correlated with Δoxy-Hb.The key findings of the present study revealed that acute supramaximal exercise has an impact on the brain oxygenation during a cognitive task. Also, the higher the anerobic PP describes the larger the oxy-Hb response in post-exercise cognitive task. The current study also demonstrated a significant correlation between peak power (exercise load) and post-exercise hemodynamic responses (oxy-, deoxy- and

  5. Acute supramaximal exercise increases the brain oxygenation in relation to cognitive workload

    Cem Seref Bediz

    2016-04-01

    Full Text Available Single bout of exercise can improve the performance on cognitive tasks. However, cognitive responses may be controversial due to different type, intensity, and duration of exercise. In addition, the mechanism of the effect of acute exercise on brain is still unclear. This study was aimed to investigate the effects of supramaximal exercise on cognitive tasks by means of brain oxygenation monitoring. The brain oxygenation of Prefrontal cortex (PFC was measured on 35 healthy male volunteers via functional Near Infrared Spectroscopy (fNIRS system. Subjects performed 2-Back test before and after the supramaximal exercise (Wingate Anaerobic Test lasting 30-s on cycle ergometer. The PFC oxygenation change evaluation revealed that PFC oxygenation rise during post-exercise 2-Back task was considerably higher than those in pre-exercise 2-Back task. In order to describe the relationship between oxygenation change and exercise performance, subjects were divided into two groups as high performers (HP and low performers (LP according to their peak power values (PP obtained from the supramaximal test. The oxy-hemoglobin (oxy-Hb values were compared between pre- and post-exercise conditions within subjects and also between subjects according to peak power. When performers were compared, in the HP group, the oxy-Hb values in post-exercise 2-Back test were significantly higher than those in pre-exercise 2-Back test. HP had significantly higher post-exercise oxy-Hb change (Δ than those of LP. In addition, peak power values of the total group were significantly correlated with Δoxy-Hb. The key findings of the present study revealed that acute supramaximal exercise has an impact on the brain oxygenation during a cognitive task. Also, the higher the anaerobic PP describes the larger the oxy-Hb response in post-exercise cognitive task. The current study also demonstrated a significant correlation between peak power (exercise load and post-exercise hemodynamic

  6. Effects of acute versus post-acute systemic delivery of neural progenitor cells on neurological recovery and brain remodeling after focal cerebral ischemia in mice.

    Doeppner, T R; Kaltwasser, B; Teli, M K; Bretschneider, E; Bähr, M; Hermann, D M

    2014-01-01

    Intravenous transplantation of neural progenitor cells (NPCs) induces functional recovery after stroke, albeit grafted cells are not integrated into residing neural networks. However, a systematic analysis of intravenous NPC delivery at acute and post-acute time points and their long-term consequences does not exist. Male C57BL6 mice were exposed to cerebral ischemia, and NPCs were intravenously grafted on day 0, on day 1 or on day 28. Animals were allowed to survive for up to 84 days. Mice and tissues were used for immunohistochemical analysis, flow cytometry, ELISA and behavioral tests. Density of grafted NPCs within the ischemic hemisphere was increased when cells were transplanted on day 28 as compared with transplantation on days 0 or 1. Likewise, transplantation on day 28 yielded enhanced neuronal differentiation rates of grafted cells. Post-ischemic brain injury, however, was only reduced when NPCs were grafted at acute time points. On the contrary, reduced post-ischemic functional deficits due to NPC delivery were independent of transplantation paradigms. NPC-induced neuroprotection after acute cell delivery was due to stabilization of the blood-brain barrier (BBB), reduction in microglial activation and modulation of both peripheral and central immune responses. On the other hand, post-acute NPC transplantation stimulated post-ischemic regeneration via enhanced angioneurogenesis and increased axonal plasticity. Acute NPC delivery yields long-term neuroprotection via enhanced BBB integrity and modulation of post-ischemic immune responses, whereas post-acute NPC delivery increases post-ischemic angioneurogenesis and axonal plasticity. Post-ischemic functional recovery, however, is independent of NPC delivery timing, which offers a broad therapeutic time window for stroke treatment. PMID:25144721

  7. Acute exposure to a 60 Hz magnetic field increases DNA strand breaks in rat brain cells

    Lai, H.; Singh, N.P. [Univ. of Washington, Seattle, WA (United States)

    1997-05-01

    Acute exposure of rats to a 60 Hz magnetic field caused a dose-dependent increase in DNA strand breaks in brain cells of the animals (assayed by a microgel electrophoresis method at 4 h postexposure). An increase in single-strand DNA breaks was observed after exposure to magnetic fields of 0.1, 0.25, and 0.5 mT, whereas an increase in double-strand DNA breaks was observed at 0.25 and 0.5 mT. Because DNA strand breaks may affect cellular functions, lead to carcinogenesis and cell death, and be related to onset of neurodegenerative diseases, the data may have important implications for the possible health effects of exposure to 60 Hz magnetic fields.

  8. Low plasma levels of brain natriuretic peptide in severe acute heart failure: merely a case?

    Brentana, Loretta; Temporelli, Pier Luigi; Corrà, Ugo; Gattone, Marinella; Pistono, Massimo; Imparato, Alessandro; Gnemmi, Marco; Giannuzzi, Pantaleo

    2007-11-30

    Brain natriuretic peptide (BNP) is commonly used for diagnosis and prognosis of patients with congestive heart failure (HF). High levels of BNP are associated with high probability of cardiogenic dyspnea and higher risk of subsequent cardiovascular events. We describe a case of acute HF (worsening chronic HF) in a 74-year-old male with low plasma BNP levels on admission, in whom a rapid and consistent increase in the marker's concentration occurred after administration of diuretics and vasodilators, despite a prompt clinical and hemodynamic improvement. Reports of cardiogenic dyspnea with moderate increase or normal plasma levels of BNP have been recently published: does this signify a pitfall for BNP as a useful diagnostic and prognostic tool? Clinical implications of our observation are discussed, and we conclude that neurohumoral biomarkers do not obviate the need for a careful physical and instrumental examination of patient. PMID:17382416

  9. The Acute Inflammatory Response in Trauma/Hemorrhage and Traumatic Brain Injury : Current State and Emerging Prospects

    Namas, R.; Ghuma, A.; Hermus, L.; Zamora, R.; Okonkwo, D. O.; Billiar, T. R.; Vodovotz, Y.

    2009-01-01

    Traumatic injury/hemorrhagic shock (T/HS) elicits an acute inflammatory response that may result in death. Inflammation describes a coordinated series of molecular, cellular, tissue, organ, and systemic responses that drive the pathology of various diseases including T/HS and traumatic brain injury

  10. Decreased Regional Homogeneity in Patients With Acute Mild Traumatic Brain Injury: A Resting-State fMRI Study.

    Zhan, Jie; Gao, Lei; Zhou, Fuqing; Kuang, Hongmei; Zhao, Jing; Wang, Siyong; He, Laichang; Zeng, Xianjun; Gong, Honghan

    2015-10-01

    Mild traumatic brain injury (mTBI) is characterized by structural disconnection and large-scale neural network dysfunction in the resting state. However, little is known concerning the intrinsic changes in local spontaneous brain activity in patients with mTBI. The aim of the current study was to assess regional synchronization in acute mTBI patients. Fifteen acute mTBI patients and 15 sex-, age-, and education-matched healthy controls (HCs) were studied. We used the regional homogeneity (ReHo) method to map local connectivity across the whole brain and performed a two-sample t-test between the two groups. Compared with HCs, patients with acute mTBI showed significantly decreased ReHo in the left insula, left precentral/postcentral gyrus, and left supramarginal gyrus (p Mental State Examination (MMSE) scores across all acute mTBI patients (p < 0.05, uncorrected). The ReHo method may provide an objective biomarker for evaluating the functional abnormity of mTBI in the acute setting. PMID:26348589